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Sample records for alternifolia tea tree

  1. Activity of tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) essential oil against L3 larvae of Anisakis simplex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Rincón, Carlota; Langa, Elisa; Murillo, Paula; Valero, Marta Sofía; Berzosa, César; López, Víctor

    2014-01-01

    Nematicidal activity of Melaleuca alternifolia essential oil, commonly known as tea tree oil (TTO), was assayed in vitro against L3 larvae of Anisakis simplex. The results showed a mortality of 100% for concentrations between 7 and 10 μL/mL after 48 h of incubation, obtaining an LD50 value of 4.53 μL/mL after 24 hours and 4.27 μL/mL after 48 hours. Concentration-dependent inhibition of acetylcholinesterase was observed for tea tree essential oil showing inhibition values of 100% at 100 μL/mL. This fact suggests that TTO may act as an AChE inhibitor. Terpinen-4-ol was discarded as main larvicide compound as it did not show larvicidal or anticholinesterase activity. The data obtained suggest that the essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia may have a great therapeutic potential for the treatment of human anisakiasis.

  2. Activity of Tea Tree (Melaleuca alternifolia Essential Oil against L3 Larvae of Anisakis simplex

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    Carlota Gómez-Rincón

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nematicidal activity of Melaleuca alternifolia essential oil, commonly known as tea tree oil (TTO, was assayed in vitro against L3 larvae of Anisakis simplex. The results showed a mortality of 100% for concentrations between 7 and 10 μL/mL after 48 h of incubation, obtaining an LD50 value of 4.53 μL/mL after 24 hours and 4.27 μL/mL after 48 hours. Concentration-dependent inhibition of acetylcholinesterase was observed for tea tree essential oil showing inhibition values of 100% at 100 μL/mL. This fact suggests that TTO may act as an AChE inhibitor. Terpinen-4-ol was discarded as main larvicide compound as it did not show larvicidal or anticholinesterase activity. The data obtained suggest that the essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia may have a great therapeutic potential for the treatment of human anisakiasis.

  3. Mechanism of Action of Melaleuca alternifolia (Tea Tree) Oil on Staphylococcus aureus Determined by Time-Kill, Lysis, Leakage, and Salt Tolerance Assays and Electron Microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Carson, Christine F.; Mee, Brian J.; Riley, Thomas V.

    2002-01-01

    The essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) has broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. The mechanisms of action of tea tree oil and three of its components, 1,8-cineole, terpinen-4-ol, and α-terpineol, against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 9144 were investigated. Treatment with these agents at their MICs and two times their MICs, particularly treatment with terpinen-4-ol and α-terpineol, reduced the viability of S. aureus. None of the agents caused lysis, as determined by measurement ...

  4. In vitro repellent effect of tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) and andiroba (Carapa guianensis) oils on Haemotobia irritans and Chrysomya megacephala flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klauck, V; Pazinato, R; Radavelli, W M; Volpato, A; Stefani, L M; Santos, R C V; Vaucher, R A; Boligon, A A; Athayde, M L; Da Silva, A S

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the repellent effect of tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) and andiroba (Carapa guianensis) essential oils on two species of flies (Haemotobia irritans and Chrysomya megacephala). For the in vitro studies, free-living adult flies were captured and reared in the laboratory. To verify the repellency effect, an apparatus was constructed where H. irritans and C. megacephala were exposed to andiroba and tea tree oils (5.0%), as well as to a known repellent (citronella, 5.0%) to validate the test. The study demonstrated that all three oils used showed in vitro repellent effect against both species of flies. It is possible to conclude that the essential oils (tea tree and andiroba) have repellent effect on these species of flies used in this study. PMID:25801266

  5. The Insecticidal Activity of Tea Tree Oil (Melaleuca Alternifolia Against the Common Pest in Mummies (Dermestes Maculatus

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    Gomaa ABDEL-MAKSOUD

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Egyptian mummies show different signs of deterioration caused by insects, such as missing parts, gaps and accumulated dust. Dermestes maculatus is one of the serious pests that cause damage to Egyptian mummies. To assess the insecticidal activity of tea tree oil against the larvae of the museum insect pest Dermestes maculatus (isolated from Egyptian mummies we tested it under different concentration and treatment times by the bioassay methods. Our results showed that tea tree oil diluted in ethanol was highly toxic to Dermestes maculatus larvae. Insecticidal activity depended on both concentration and exposure time. By increasing the concentration level and the exposure time we obtained a higher mortality rate.

  6. The essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree oil) and its main component, terpinen-4-ol protect mice from experimental oral candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninomiya, Kentaro; Maruyama, Naho; Inoue, Shigeharu; Ishibashi, Hiroko; Takizawa, Toshio; Oshima, Haruyuki; Abe, Shigeru

    2012-01-01

    The therapeutic efficacy of tea tree oil (TTO), Melaleuca alternifolia, and its main component, terpinen-4-ol, were evaluated in a murine oral candidiasis model. Prednisolone -pretreated mice were orally infected with a fluconazole-susceptible (TIMM 2640) or a resistant (TIMM 3163) strain of Candida albicans to induce oral candidiasis. TTO or terpinen-4-ol was administrated with a cotton swab 3 h and 24 h after candida infection. These treatments clearly showed a decrease in the symptom score of tongues and in the viable candida cell number in the oral cavity at 2 d after azole-susceptible C. albicans infection, although the degree of the efficacy was less than that of fluconazole. Even against oral candidiasis caused by azole-resistant C. albicans, TTO and terpinen-4-ol were similarly effective, while fluconazole appeared ineffective. These results suggest that TTO and terpinen-4-ol may have the potential of therapeutic ability for mucosal candidiasis which may also be applicable to C. albicans oral candidiasis induced by the azole-resistant strain.

  7. Effect of local application of tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) oil gel on long pentraxin level used as an adjunctive treatment of chronic periodontitis: A randomized controlled clinical study

    OpenAIRE

    Elgendy, Enas Ahmed; Ali, Shereen Abdel-Moula; Zineldeen, Doaa Hussien

    2013-01-01

    Background: Conventional non-surgical periodontal therapy has been proven to be an effective treatment for patients with chronic periodontitis. Tea tree oil (TTO) can be used as adjunct to conventional periodontal therapy in patient with chronic periodontitis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of adjunctive treatment of TTO on the clinical parameters and the level of pentraxin-3 (PTX3) in chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 patients with moderate ...

  8. Repellent effects of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil against cattle tick larvae (Rhipicephalus australis) when formulated as emulsions and in β-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Wei Tsun; Bhandari, Bhesh; Jackson, Louise; James, Peter

    2016-07-30

    Rhipicephalus australis (formerly Boophilus microplus) is a one host tick responsible for major economic loss in tropical and subtropical cattle production enterprises. Control is largely dependent on the application of acaricides but resistance has developed to most currently registered chemical groups. Repellent compounds that prevent initial attachment of tick larvae offer a potential alternative to control with chemical toxicants. The repellent effects of Melaleuca alternifolia oil (TTO) emulsions and two β-cyclodextrin complex formulations, a slow release form (SR) and a modified faster release form (FR), were examined in a series of laboratory studies. Emulsions containing 4% and 5% TTO applied to cattle hair in laboratory studies completely repelled ascending tick larvae for 24h whereas 2% and 3% formulations provided 80% protection. At 48h, 5% TTO provided 78% repellency but lower concentrations repelled less than 60% of larvae. In a study conducted over 15 days, 3% TTO emulsion applied to cattle hair provided close to 100% repellency for 2 days, but then protection fell to 23% by day 15. The FR formulation gave significantly greater repellency than the emulsion and the SR formulation from day 3 until the end of the study (P<0.05), providing almost complete repellency at day 3 (99.5%), then decreasing over the period of the study to 49% repellency at day 15. Proof of concept is established for the use of appropriately designed controlled-release formulations to extend the period of repellency provided by TTO against R. australis larvae. PMID:27369582

  9. Determining the Antimicrobial Actions of Tea Tree Oil

    OpenAIRE

    S. Grant Wyllie; John R. Warmington; Gustafson, John E.; Markham, Julie L.; Cindy M. Mann; Sean D. Cox

    2001-01-01

    Research into the mode of action of the essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia (Tea tree oil) is briefly reviewed. Its mode of action is interpreted in terms of the membrane-toxicity of its monoterpenoid components and different approaches for determining cell membrane damage are discussed.

  10. Substratos, concentrações de ácido indolbutírico e tipos de miniestacas no enraizamento de melaleuca (Melaleuca alternifolia Cheel Substrates, indolebutyric acid levels and types of minicuttings on the rooting of tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia Cheel

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    Y. Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Melaleuca alternifolia tem como produto principal o óleo essencial extraído das folhas devido às propriedades antifúngicas e antibacterianas. Pouco se tem relatado sobre a propagação desta espécie, sendo a miniestaquia uma alternativa para a propagação vegetativa de clones superiores visando à implantação de campo de produção. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito de diferentes substratos, concentrações de AIB, e tipo de miniestaca, no enraizamento de Melaleuca alternifolia. No primeiro experimento foram testados os substratos, areia de granulometria média, Plantmax HT®, Golden-Mix® e vermiculita. No segundo experimento foram avaliadas diferentes concentrações de AIB (0, 500, 1000 e 2000 mg L-1, em dois tipos de miniestacas (apical e mediana. As miniestacas foram confeccionadas com 5 cm de comprimento, mantidas em casa de vegetação com nebulização intermitente, e, após 45 dias do plantio, foram avaliadas as porcentagens de miniestacas enraizadas, com calos e não responsivas, o número de raízes formadas por miniestaca e o comprimento das três maiores raízes (cm. O substrato Golden-Mix® e as miniestacas coletadas da porção apical do ramo submetidas ao tratamento com 500 mg L-1 de AIB apresentaram maior porcentagem de enraizamento e melhor qualidade do sistema radicial.Melaleuca alternifolia has as major product the essential oil extracted from its leaves due to its antifungal and antibacterial properties. There are scarce reports about the propagation of this species, and minicutting is an alternative for vegetative propagation of superior clones in order to establish a production field. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of different substrates, IBA levels and types of minicuttings on the rooting of Melaleuca alternifolia. In the first experiment, the following substrates were tested: medium sand, Plantmax HT®, Golden-Mix® and vermiculite. In the second experiment, different IBA levels (0, 500

  11. Tea Tree Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    96262 ... https://nccih.nih.gov/health/tea/treeoil.htm ... us ... 96262 ... https://nccih.nih.gov/health/tea/treeoil.htm ... Herbal Medicine ... Herbal Medicine/Specifics ... us ... 96262 ... https:// ...

  12. Microemulsion Based Transdermal Drug Delivery of Tea Tree Oil

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    Khokhra Sonia

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Psoriasis is an inflammatory and proliferate disease of skin that results in rapid turnover of skin cells. Tea tree oil (TTO is the essential oil steam-distilled from Melaleuca alternifolia, known for its antimicrobial, antifungal and anti-inflammatory properties. This oil is a mix of many terpenes and among them terpinen-4-ol is the main active component. The study aimed at formulating a microemulsion based transdermal drug delivery system for psoriasis. Microemulsions were formulated using 5% Tea tree oil, different concentrations of Polysorbate 80 as surfactant and Isopropyl Myristate and Isopropyl alcohol as cosurfactants. The formulations were characterized for pH, Droplet size, PDI, Viscosity and Surface morphology. The mean droplet size of the microemulsion was found in the range of 84-115 nm with a PDI of 0.764 indicating uniformity in the microemulsion. Rheological data was assessed for viscosity and microemulsions were found to be low viscosity system. The maximum terpinen-4-ol content observed was 1.68 µg/mg of microemulsion. The TEM images of the microemulsion depicted spherical shape and even boundary of the oil particles. The skin diffusion studies clearly depicted the enhanced ability of microemulsion to deliver the drugs through transdermal application. About 14.5% Tepinen-4-ol penetration was observed from the microemulsion. Skin irritation confirmed that levels up to 5% tea tree oil could be safely applied to the skin. The studies showed that microemulsion system of tea tree oil might be promising vehicles for the transdermal delivery for psoriasis.

  13. Antifungal effect of Australian tea tree oil on Malassezia pachydermatis isolated from canines suffering from cutaneous skin disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weseler, A; Geiss, H K; Saller, R; Reichling, J

    2002-05-01

    The lipophilic yeast Malassezia pachydermatis is part of the normal skin flora of most warm-blooded organisms. In a number of surveys it could be demonstrated that this yeast species might be involved in different skin diseases like seborrhoeic dermatitis, especially in dogs and cats. In order to look for an alternative therapeutic agent to the commonly used antimycotic and antiseptic synthetic substances the in vitro activity of Australian tea tree oil, the essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia, against several strains of Malassezia pachydermatis was examined. All tested strains showed remarkably high susceptibility to tea tree oil. With these results the excellent antibacterial activity of tea tree oil is extended to a new group of fungal pathogens colonizing mainly mammals' skin. During the last ten years there was an increasing popularity of tea tree oil containing human health care products. The presented data open up new horizons for this essential oil as a promising alternative agent for topical use in veterinary medicine as well. PMID:12070905

  14. Insecticidal and repellent effects of tea tree and andiroba oils on flies associated with livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klauck, V; Pazinato, R; Stefani, L M; Santos, R C; Vaucher, R A; Baldissera, M D; Raffin, R; Boligon, A; Athayde, M; Baretta, D; Machado, G; DA Silva, A S

    2014-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the insecticidal and repellent effects of tea tree, Melaleuca alternifolia (Myrtales: Myrtaceae), and andiroba, Carapa guianensis (Sapindales: Meliaceae), essential oils on two species of fly. For in vitro studies, free-living adult flies were captured and reared in the laboratory. To evaluate the insecticidal effects of the oils, adult flies of Haematobia irritans (L.) and Musca domestica L. (both: Diptera: Muscidae) were separated by species in test cages (n = 10 per group), and subsequently tested with oils at concentrations of 1.0% and 5.0% using a negative control to validate the test. Both oils showed insecticidal activity. Tea tree oil at a concentration of 5.0% was able to kill M. domestica with 100.0% efficacy after 12 h of exposure. However, the effectiveness of andiroba oil at a concentration of 5.0% was only 67.0%. The insecticidal efficacy (100.0%) of both oils against H. irritans was observed at both concentrations for up to 4 h. The repellency effects of the oils at concentrations of 5.0% were tested in vivo on Holstein cows naturally infested by H. irritans. Both oils demonstrated repellency at 24 h, when the numbers of flies on cows treated with tea tree and andiroba oil were 61.6% and 57.7%, respectively, lower than the number of flies on control animals. It is possible to conclude that these essential oils have insecticidal and repellent effects against the species of fly used in this study. PMID:25171605

  15. Is ascaridol het contact-allergeen in tea tree oil?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuttelaar, M.L.A.; Christoffers, W.A.; Blömeke, B.; Coenraads, P.J.

    2013-01-01

    Tea tree oil is used as a natural remedy, but is also a popular ingredient in household and cosmetic products. Oxidation of tea tree oil may result in degradation products, such as ascaridole, which may cause allergic contact dermatitis. We investigated the prevalence of sensitization to ascaridole,

  16. Melaleuca alternifolia Essential Oil against the Lesser Mealworm (Alphitobius diaperinus and Its Possible Effect on the Soil Fauna

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    A Volpato

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro bioactivity of tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia essential oil against larvae and adult forms of lesser mealworms (Alphitobius diaperinus and its influence on the soil fauna. Tests were performed in triplicate using pure tea tree oil (TTO; 1, 5, 10, 25, 50, and 100%, TTO nanoparticles (1, 3, and 7.5%, or terpinen-4-ol, the main compound of the tea tree oil, at the same concentrations of TTO. Larvae and adult mortality occurred at concentrations up to 10 and 50% of TTO, respectively. No larvicidal or insecticidal effect of TTO nanoparticles was observed. Terpinen-4-ol showed insecticidal and larvicidal effect at concentrations higher than 25%. The evaluation of TTO effect on soil organisms was performed by standard ecotoxicological tests (ISO with the springtail species Folsomia candida. Only TTO was used for ecotoxicological tests in doses of 1, 5, 10, 25, 50, and 100 mg kg-1 of soil. TTO had no negative effects on F. candida survival or reproduction. Therefore, it was concluded that M. alternifolia oil may be a new alternative for control of the lesser mealworm.

  17. Is ascaridole a sensitizing degradation product in tea tree oil?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christoffers, Wietske Andrea; Blömeke, Brunhilde; Coenraads, Pieter Jan; Schuttelaar, Marielouise

    2014-01-01

    Background: Tea tree oil is a natural oil, which contains a-terpinene. Degradation of a-terpinene results in the endoperoxide ascaridole, which may cause allergic contact dermatitis. Objectives: To study the prevalence of sensitizations to ascaridole, the optimal patch test concentration, concomitan

  18. In Chemico Evaluation of Tea Tree Essential Oils as Skin Sensitizers: Impact of the Chemical Composition on Aging and Generation of Reactive Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avonto, Cristina; Chittiboyina, Amar G; Wang, Mei; Vasquez, Yelkaira; Rua, Diego; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2016-07-18

    Tea tree oil (TTO) is an essential oil obtained from the leaves of Melaleuca alternifolia, M. linariifolia, or M. dissitiflora. Because of the commercial importance of TTO, substitution or adulteration with other tea tree species (such as cajeput, niaouli, manuka, or kanuka oils) is common and may pose significant risks along with perceived health benefits. The distinctive nature, qualitative and quantitative compositional variation of these oils, is responsible for the various pharmacological as well as adverse effects. Authentic TTOs (especially aged ones) have been identified as potential skin sensitizers, while reports of adverse allergic reactions to the other tea trees essential oils are less frequent. Chemical sensitizers are usually electrophilic compounds, and in chemico methods have been developed to identify skin allergens in terms of their ability to bind to biological nucleophiles. However, little information is available on the assessment of sensitization potential of mixtures, such as essential oils, due to their complexity. In the present study, 10 "tea tree" oils and six major TTO constituents have been investigated for their sensitization potential using a fluorescence in chemico method. The reactivity of authentic TTOs was found to correlate with the age of the oils, while the majority of nonauthentic TTOs were less reactive, even after aging. Further thio-trapping experiments with DCYA and characterization by UHPLC-DAD-MS led to the identification of several possible DCYA-adducts which can be used to deduce the structure of the candidate reactive species. The major TTO components, terpinolene, α-terpinene, and terpinene-4-ol, were unstable under accelerated aging conditions, which led to the formation of several DCYA-adducts. PMID:27286037

  19. Use RAPD Analysis to Classify Tea Trees in Yunnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAO Wan-fang; PANG Rui-hua; DUAN Hong-xing; WANG Ping-sheng; XU Mei; ZHANG Ya-ping; LI Jia-hua

    2003-01-01

    RAPD assessment on genetic variations of 45 tea trees in Yunnan was carried out. Eight primers selected from 40 random primers were used to amplify 45 tea samples, and a total of 95 DNA bands were amplified, of which 90 (94.7 %) were polymorphism. The average number of DNA bands amplified by each primer was 11.5. Based on the results of UPGMA cluster analysis of 95 DNA bands amplified by 8 primers,all the tested materials could be classified into 7 groups including 5 complex groups and 2 simple groups, which was basically identical with morphological classification. In addition, there were some speciations in 2 simple groups.

  20. Rooting of Melaleuca alternifolia cuttings with different plant regulators
    Enraizamento de estacas de Melaleuca alternifolia submetidas a diferentes reguladores vegetais

    OpenAIRE

    Tereza Cristina de Carvalho; Luís Fernando Roveda; Marina Costacurta Antunes; Rosemeire Carvalho da Silva; Luiz Antonio Biasi

    2012-01-01

    The Melaleuca alternifolia is a Myrtaceae tree of great medicinal importance. Its essential oil is widely used both in human and in veterinary medicine, having great antiseptic power. It is a difficult plant in the process of rooting cuttings. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of different concentrations of NAA and IBA on the rooting of M. alternifolia. Melaleuca cuttings with 10 cm in length were submitted to treatments with two regulators, NAA and IBA, in the following concentration...

  1. Emprego do óleo de Melaleuca alternifolia Cheel (Myrtaceae) na odontologia: perspectivas quanto à utilização como antimicrobiano alternativo às doenças infecciosas de origem bucal Use of Melaleuca alternifolia Cheel (Myrtaceae) oil in dentistry: perspectives on its use as alternative antimicrobial to infectious diseases of oral origin

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, A. C. M.; Fontana, A.; T.C. Negrini; M.N.M. Nogueira; T.B.L. Bedran; C.R. Andrade; Spolidorio, L. C.; D.M.P. Spolidorio

    2011-01-01

    O interesse por medicamentos alternativos, principalmente daqueles provenientes de extratos naturais, tem aumentado nas últimas décadas. A Melaleuca alternifolia é um arbusto pertencente ao gênero Melaleuca, popularmente conhecida como "árvore de chá", cujo principal produto é o óleo essencial (TTO - tea tree oil), de grande importância medicinal por possuir comprovada ação bactericida e antifúngica contra diversos patógenos humanos. Em virtude da atividade terapêutica em diversas especialida...

  2. The optimal patch test concentration for ascaridole as a sensitizing component of tea tree oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christoffers, Wietske Andrea; Bloemeke, Brunhilde; Coenraads, Pieter-Jan; Schuttelaar, Marie-Louise Anna

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tea tree oil is used as a natural remedy, but is also a popular ingredient in household and cosmetic products. Oxidation of tea tree oil results in degradation products, such as ascaridole, which may cause allergic contact dermatitis. OBJECTIVES: To identify the optimal patch test concen

  3. Evaluation of fast enantioselective multidimensional gas chromatography methods for monoterpenic compounds: Authenticity control of Australian tea tree oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Yong Foo; West, Rachel N; Chin, Sung-Tong; Marriott, Philip J

    2015-08-01

    This work demonstrates the potential of fast multiple heart-cut enantioselective multidimensional gas chromatography (GC-eGC) and enantioselective comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (eGC×GC), to perform the stereoisomeric analysis of three key chiral monoterpenes (limonene, terpinen-4-ol and α-terpineol) present in tea tree oil (TTO). In GC-eGC, separation was conducted using a combination of mid-polar first dimension ((1)D) column and a chiral second dimension ((2)D) column, providing interference-free enantioresolution of the individual antipodes of each optically active component. A combination of (1)D chiral column and (2)D polar columns (ionic liquid and wax phases) were tested for the eGC×GC study. Quantification was proposed based on summation of two major modulated peaks for each antipode, displaying comparable results with those derived from GC-eGC. Fast chiral separations were achieved within 25min for GC-eGC andauthentic TTOs was proposed by analysing a representative number of pure TTOs sourced directly from plantations of known provenance in Australia. Consistent enantiomeric fractions of 61.6±1.5% (+):38.4±1.5% (-) for limonene, 61.7±1.6% (+):38.3±1.6% (-) for terpinen-4-ol and 79.6±1.4% (+):20.4±1.4% (-) for α-terpineol were obtained for the 57 authentic Australian TTOs. The results were compared (using principle component analysis) with commercial TTOs (declared as derived from Melaleuca alternifolia) obtained from different continents. Assessing these data to determine adulteration, or additives that affect the enantiomeric ratios, in commercially sourced TTOs is discussed. The proposed method offers distinct advantages over eGC, especially in terms of analysis times and selectivity which can serve as a reliable platform for authenticity control of TTO.

  4. Evaluation of fast enantioselective multidimensional gas chromatography methods for monoterpenic compounds: Authenticity control of Australian tea tree oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Yong Foo; West, Rachel N; Chin, Sung-Tong; Marriott, Philip J

    2015-08-01

    This work demonstrates the potential of fast multiple heart-cut enantioselective multidimensional gas chromatography (GC-eGC) and enantioselective comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (eGC×GC), to perform the stereoisomeric analysis of three key chiral monoterpenes (limonene, terpinen-4-ol and α-terpineol) present in tea tree oil (TTO). In GC-eGC, separation was conducted using a combination of mid-polar first dimension ((1)D) column and a chiral second dimension ((2)D) column, providing interference-free enantioresolution of the individual antipodes of each optically active component. A combination of (1)D chiral column and (2)D polar columns (ionic liquid and wax phases) were tested for the eGC×GC study. Quantification was proposed based on summation of two major modulated peaks for each antipode, displaying comparable results with those derived from GC-eGC. Fast chiral separations were achieved within 25min for GC-eGC andprovenance in Australia. Consistent enantiomeric fractions of 61.6±1.5% (+):38.4±1.5% (-) for limonene, 61.7±1.6% (+):38.3±1.6% (-) for terpinen-4-ol and 79.6±1.4% (+):20.4±1.4% (-) for α-terpineol were obtained for the 57 authentic Australian TTOs. The results were compared (using principle component analysis) with commercial TTOs (declared as derived from Melaleuca alternifolia) obtained from different continents. Assessing these data to determine adulteration, or additives that affect the enantiomeric ratios, in commercially sourced TTOs is discussed. The proposed method offers distinct advantages over eGC, especially in terms of analysis times and selectivity which can serve as a reliable platform for authenticity control of TTO. PMID:26138602

  5. [Historical consideration of tea trees and tea flowers, especially regarding the use of tea flowers as food].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harima, Shoichi; Yoshikawa, Masayuki; Tokuoka, Kiyoshi

    2008-01-01

    Not only tea leaves, but also many kinds of plants have been used as tea, even those plants not belonging to Camellia sinensis, and they should be called "tea out of tea" in the Lucidophyllous forest zone. Generally, the tea leaf is drank after being decocted (almost boiled). The growth distribution of tea ranges in a belt-like zone of 30-40 degrees north latitude. Therefore, tea might have grown wild as "YAMACHA (mountain tea)" from ancient times in Japan as well as China. The first recored of tea drinking in Japan is the ceremony of "GYOUCHA" at the Imperial Court of the Emperor SHOUMU in 729. On the other hand, the oldest book about tea in China (CHAKYOU) was written in 770. Therefore, it seems that tea drinking started at nearly the same time in both countries. Tea was dispensed as medical supplies by Chinese medicinal prescription (SENKYUCHACHOUSAN) in Japan, but in China, tea was used as powdered medicine for drinking (SEICHA). However, the leaf of a certain plant used as "tea out of tea," was applied as a galenical preparation for traditional Chinese medicinal constitution. However, it is not possible to judge whether or not there was adaptability in Chinese medicine theory. In Japan, when tea was first consumed as a food, other than a few exceptions tea leaves were used as a coarse tea (BANCHA) until the latter half of the Meiji period. Mixing in air by stirring a tea solution, and at the same time, letting tea match with hot water. It was wisdom to improve the taste. As a result, in order to make bubble well, both of the condition and technique were devised. One of the approaches was to add the dried plant of Leguminosae (saponin) or tea flower (saponin), when "BANCHA" was decorted. And also tools such as a bamboo tea whisk (CHASEN) as well as bowl (GOROHACHI-CHAWAN), were conceived. "FURICHA" was served as a medicine by KUUYASHOUNIN in Japan in 951. Afterwards, the prayer ceremonies at shrines and temples used CHARAZU," showing the custom to serve tea in

  6. Tea tree oil: contact allergy and chemical composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Anton C; Schmidt, Erich

    2016-09-01

    In this article, contact allergy to, and the chemical composition of, tea tree oil (TTO) are reviewed. This essential oil is a popular remedy for many skin diseases, and may be used as neat oil or be present in cosmetics, topical pharmaceuticals and household products. Of all essential oils, TTO has caused most (published) allergic reactions since the first cases were reported in 1991. In routine testing, prevalences of positive patch test reactions have ranged from 0.1% to 3.5%. Nearly 100 allergic patients have been described in case reports and case series. The major constituents of commercial TTO are terpinen-4-ol, γ-terpinene, 1,8-cineole, α-terpinene, α-terpineol, p-cymene, and α-pinene. Fresh TTO is a weak to moderate sensitizer, but oxidation increases its allergenic potency. The major sensitizers appear to be ascaridole, terpinolene, α-terpinene, 1,2,4-trihydroxymenthane, α-phellandrene, and limonene. The clinical picture of allergic contact dermatitis caused by TTO depends on the products used. Most reactions are caused by the application of pure oil; cosmetics are the culprits in a minority of cases. Patch testing may be performed with 5% oxidized TTO. Co-reactivity to turpentine oil is frequent, and there is an overrepresentation of reactions to fragrance mix I, Myroxylon pereirae, colophonium, and other essential oils. PMID:27173437

  7. 不同遮荫树种对茶园土壤和茶叶品质的影响%Effects of different single shaded trees on soil and tea quality of different tree-tea intercrop gardens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽娟; 朱兴正; 毛加梅; 汪云刚; 刘德和; 高丽洪; 唐建维

    2011-01-01

    通过对杉木+茶、樟树+茶、山苍子+茶三种间作茶园的土壤状况(养分、水分、容重)和茶叶主要生化成分(氨基酸、茶多酚、儿茶素、水浸出物、咖啡碱)与纯茶园的比较分析,结果表明:樟+茶间作茶园和山苍子+茶间作茶园可有效提高表土层(0~20 cm)有机质和全氮含量,并可改善土壤水分和容重,而杉木+茶的土壤养分(全钾除外)和水分含量偏低;三种间作茶园中茶叶的咖啡碱含量都高于纯茶园,而茶多酚、儿茶素含量及酚氨比均低于纯茶园,其中杉木+茶间作茶园的茶多酚和儿茶素含量和樟+茶间作茶园的酚氨比显著低于纯茶园(ANOVA,p<0.05).茶叶质量以樟+茶间作茶园中的茶叶品质最优.在三种间作茶园中,樟+茶间作茶园和山苍子+茶间作茶园较杉木+茶间作茶园更适宜在气候条件相似的茶区推广种植.%Comparisons between tea garden soil conditions (nutrient, water, bulk density) and main biochemical components of tea tree(amino acid, tea poolyphenol, catechin, water extraction, theine) in the three gardens(China fir-tea, Camphor tree-tea,Litsea pungent-tea,)and those in the monoculture tea garden were carried out in Menghai county,Xishuangbanna, Yunaa The sample plots are with a size of 20 m × 25 m, and soil samples at five different soil layers (0~20 cm, 20~40 cm, 40~60 cm, 60~80 cm, 80~100 cm) in March and tea samples in May, 2010 were taken in each plots. The results show that Camphor tree-tea and Litsea pungens-tez intercrop gardens could improve the moisture content and organic matter and total nitrogen contents of the topsoil (0~20 cm), as well as reduced soil bulk density compared with monoculture tea gardens, but the soil nutrient (except for total potassium) and moisture contents were the lowest in China fir-tea garden among three intercrop tree-tea gardens. Concerning the tea quality, theine contents of tea were higher, and tea polyhenols and catechin content

  8. Suppression of inflammatory reactions by terpinen-4-ol, a main constituent of tea tree oil, in a murine model of oral candidiasis and its suppressive activity to cytokine production of macrophages in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninomiya, Kentaro; Hayama, Kazumi; Ishijima, Sanae A; Maruyama, Naho; Irie, Hiroshi; Kurihara, Junichi; Abe, Shigeru

    2013-01-01

    The onset of oral candidiasis is accompanied by inflammatory symptoms such as pain in the tongue, edema or tissue damage and lowers the quality of life (QOL) of the patient. In a murine oral candidiasis model, the effects were studied of terpinen-4-ol (T-4-ol), one of the main constituents of tea tree oil, Melaleuca alternifolia, on inflammatory reactions. When immunosuppressed mice were orally infected with Candida albicans, their tongues showed inflammatory symptoms within 24 h after the infection, which was monitored by an increase of myeloperoxidase activity and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 in their tongue homogenates. Oral treatment with 50 µL of 40 mg/mL terpinen-4-ol 3h after the Candida infection clearly suppressed the increase of these inflammatory parameters. In vitro analysis of the effects of terpinen-4-ol on cytokine secretion of macrophages indicated that 800 µg/mL of this substance significantly inhibited the cytokine production of the macrophages cultured in the presence of heat-killed C. albicans cells. Based on these findings, the role of the anti-inflammatory action of T-4-ol in its therapeutic activity against oral candidiasis was discussed.

  9. The Isolation of Staphylococcus aureus Tea Tree Oil-Reduced Susceptibility Mutants

    OpenAIRE

    Cuaron, Jesus A.; Dulal, Santosh; Cooke, Peter H.; Torres, Nathaniel; Gustafson, John E.

    2014-01-01

    Tea tree oil-reduced susceptibility (TTORS) mutants of two Staphylococcus aureus laboratory strains were isolated utilizing TTO gradient plates. Attempts to isolate TTORS mutants employing agar plates containing single TTO concentrations failed. All TTORS mutants demonstrated a small colony variant (SCV) phenotype and produced cells with a smaller diameter, as determined by scanning electron microscopy. The addition of SCV auxotrophic supplements to media did not lead to an increase in TTORS ...

  10. A randomized controlled trial of topical tea tree preparation for MRSA colonized wounds

    OpenAIRE

    Rainbow L.P. Lee; Polly H.M. Leung; Wong, Thomas K. S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of MRSA (Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) colonized wounds in home care residents is expected to grow continuously as a result of the substantial proportion of older people requiring institutionalized care due to chronic disease and declining functional status, which contribute to more frequent skin breakdown and wound formation. Tea tree oil has been claimed to have anti-bacterial, analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects that have been suggested in many...

  11. Effects of Terpene Chemotypes of Melaleuca alternifolia on Two Specialist Leaf Beetles and Susceptibility to Myrtle Rust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustos-Segura, Carlos; Külheim, Carsten; Foley, William

    2015-10-01

    Plant chemical polymorphisms, or plant chemotypes, are characterized by intraspecific discrete differences of plant secondary metabolites in the same plant tissue. Chemotypes that differ in foliar terpene composition are found commonly in Myrtaceae. In this study, we focused on terpene chemotypes of medicinal tea tree, Melalecua alternifolia, to explore whether this variation affects two specialist herbivores Paropsisterna tigrina and Faex sp. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), and if this could explain the maintenance of this variation. We tested whether insect performance, oviposition preference, and plant damage were associated with different chemotypes. We found that larval growth rate of Faex sp. was higher in chemotypes with high concentrations of 1,8-cineole, and that oviposition preference depended on the chemotype of the larval diet. Although performance traits and preference for oviposition of P. tigrina did not vary among chemotypes, adults inflicted less damage on plants with a high concentration of terpinolene. Additionally, we tested whether different chemotypes showed different levels of susceptibility by myrtle rust (Puccinia psidii). We found that plants with a high concentration of 1,8-cineole were more likely to be infected under controlled conditions. Although there is evidence that terpene chemotypes are a mediator of the interaction with natural enemies, the most detrimental pest of this plant, P. tigrina, does not seem to be affected by variation in plant terpenes.

  12. Emprego do óleo de Melaleuca alternifolia Cheel (Myrtaceae na odontologia: perspectivas quanto à utilização como antimicrobiano alternativo às doenças infecciosas de origem bucal Use of Melaleuca alternifolia Cheel (Myrtaceae oil in dentistry: perspectives on its use as alternative antimicrobial to infectious diseases of oral origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C.M. Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O interesse por medicamentos alternativos, principalmente daqueles provenientes de extratos naturais, tem aumentado nas últimas décadas. A Melaleuca alternifolia é um arbusto pertencente ao gênero Melaleuca, popularmente conhecida como "árvore de chá", cujo principal produto é o óleo essencial (TTO - tea tree oil, de grande importância medicinal por possuir comprovada ação bactericida e antifúngica contra diversos patógenos humanos. Em virtude da atividade terapêutica em diversas especialidades médicas, o TTO passou a ser empregado na área odontológica. Esta revisão de literatura foi realizada com o objetivo de discutir os ensaios já realizados com o TTO contra microrganismos relacionados à doença cárie, doença periodontal e problemas pulpares. O óleo de Melaleuca tem demonstrado boa ação antibacteriana in vitro contra microrganismos bucais, porém, pesquisas envolvendo o estudo do mecanismo de ação sobre as células microbianas ou estudos in vivo ainda são escassos e precisam ser realizados, já que esse produto pode ser útil na odontologia, seja na manutenção química da higiene ou prevenção de doenças bucais.The interest in alternative medicines, especially those from natural extracts, has increased in recent decades. Melaleuca alternifolia is a shrub belonging to the genus Melaleuca, popularly known as "tea tree", the main product of which is its essential oil (TTO - tea tree oil, of great medicinal importance for its proven bactericidal and antifungal activity against several human pathogens. By virtue of its therapeutic activity in various medical specialties, TTO is now used in dentistry. This literature review was conducted in order to discuss the tests already carried out with TTO against microorganisms related to dental caries, periodontal disease and pulpal problems. Melaleuca oil has shown good in vitro antibacterial activity against oral microorganisms; however, research involving the study of its

  13. Population Genetic Analyses of the Fungal Pathogen Colletotrichum fructicola on Tea-Oil Trees in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, He; Zhou, Guo-Ying; Liu, Jun-Ang; Xu, Jianping

    2016-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Colletotrichum fructicola is found in all five continents and is capable of causing severe diseases in a number of economically important plants such as avocado, fig, cocoa, pear, and tea-oil trees. However, almost nothing is known about its patterns of genetic variation and epidemiology on any of its host plant species. Here we analyzed 167 isolates of C. fructicola obtained from the leaves of tea-oil tree Camellia oleifera at 15 plantations in seven Chinese provinces. Multilocus sequence typing was conducted for all isolates based on DNA sequences at fragments of four genes: the internal transcribed spacers of the nuclear ribosomal RNA gene cluster (539 bp), calmodulin (633 bp), glutamine synthetase (711 bp), and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (190 bp), yielding 3.52%, 0.63%, 8.44%, and 7.89% of single nucleotide polymorphic sites and resulting in 15, 5, 12 and 11 alleles respectively at the four gene fragments in the total sample. The combined allelic information from all four loci identified 53 multilocus genotypes with the most frequent represented by 21 isolates distributed in eight tea-oil plantations in three provinces, consistent with long-distance clonal dispersal. However, despite evidence for clonal dispersal, statistically significant genetic differentiation among geographic populations was detected. In addition, while no evidence of recombination was found within any of the four gene fragments, signatures of recombination were found among the four gene fragments in most geographic populations, consistent with sexual mating of this species in nature. Our study provides the first insights into the population genetics and epidemiology of the important plant fungal pathogen C. fructicola. PMID:27299731

  14. Population Genetic Analyses of the Fungal Pathogen Colletotrichum fructicola on Tea-Oil Trees in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, He; Zhou, Guo-Ying; Liu, Jun-Ang; Xu, Jianping

    2016-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Colletotrichum fructicola is found in all five continents and is capable of causing severe diseases in a number of economically important plants such as avocado, fig, cocoa, pear, and tea-oil trees. However, almost nothing is known about its patterns of genetic variation and epidemiology on any of its host plant species. Here we analyzed 167 isolates of C. fructicola obtained from the leaves of tea-oil tree Camellia oleifera at 15 plantations in seven Chinese provinces. Multilocus sequence typing was conducted for all isolates based on DNA sequences at fragments of four genes: the internal transcribed spacers of the nuclear ribosomal RNA gene cluster (539 bp), calmodulin (633 bp), glutamine synthetase (711 bp), and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (190 bp), yielding 3.52%, 0.63%, 8.44%, and 7.89% of single nucleotide polymorphic sites and resulting in 15, 5, 12 and 11 alleles respectively at the four gene fragments in the total sample. The combined allelic information from all four loci identified 53 multilocus genotypes with the most frequent represented by 21 isolates distributed in eight tea-oil plantations in three provinces, consistent with long-distance clonal dispersal. However, despite evidence for clonal dispersal, statistically significant genetic differentiation among geographic populations was detected. In addition, while no evidence of recombination was found within any of the four gene fragments, signatures of recombination were found among the four gene fragments in most geographic populations, consistent with sexual mating of this species in nature. Our study provides the first insights into the population genetics and epidemiology of the important plant fungal pathogen C. fructicola. PMID:27299731

  15. Population Genetic Analyses of the Fungal Pathogen Colletotrichum fructicola on Tea-Oil Trees in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Li

    Full Text Available The filamentous fungus Colletotrichum fructicola is found in all five continents and is capable of causing severe diseases in a number of economically important plants such as avocado, fig, cocoa, pear, and tea-oil trees. However, almost nothing is known about its patterns of genetic variation and epidemiology on any of its host plant species. Here we analyzed 167 isolates of C. fructicola obtained from the leaves of tea-oil tree Camellia oleifera at 15 plantations in seven Chinese provinces. Multilocus sequence typing was conducted for all isolates based on DNA sequences at fragments of four genes: the internal transcribed spacers of the nuclear ribosomal RNA gene cluster (539 bp, calmodulin (633 bp, glutamine synthetase (711 bp, and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (190 bp, yielding 3.52%, 0.63%, 8.44%, and 7.89% of single nucleotide polymorphic sites and resulting in 15, 5, 12 and 11 alleles respectively at the four gene fragments in the total sample. The combined allelic information from all four loci identified 53 multilocus genotypes with the most frequent represented by 21 isolates distributed in eight tea-oil plantations in three provinces, consistent with long-distance clonal dispersal. However, despite evidence for clonal dispersal, statistically significant genetic differentiation among geographic populations was detected. In addition, while no evidence of recombination was found within any of the four gene fragments, signatures of recombination were found among the four gene fragments in most geographic populations, consistent with sexual mating of this species in nature. Our study provides the first insights into the population genetics and epidemiology of the important plant fungal pathogen C. fructicola.

  16. Comparative study on growth performance of two shade trees in tea agroforestry system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalita, Rinku Moni; Das, Ashesh Kumar; Nath, Arun Jyoti

    2014-07-01

    An attempt was made to study the stem growth of two native dominant shade tree species in terms of annual girth increment in three dominant girth size categories for two years in tea agroforestry system of Barak Valley, Assam. Fifty two sampling plots of 0.1 ha size were established and all trees exceeding 10 cm girth over bark at breast height (1.37 m) were uniquely identified, tagged, and annually measured for girth increment, using metal tape during December 2010-12. Albizia lebbeck and A. odoratissima were dominant shade tree species registering 82% of appearance of the individuals studied. The girth class was categorized into six different categories where 30-50 cm, 50-70 cm and 70-90 cm were dominating girth classes and selected for increment study. Mean annual girth increment ranged from 1.41 cm in Albizia odoratissima (50-70 cm girth class) to 2.97 cm in Albizia lebbeck (70-90 cm girth class) for the first year and 1.70 cm in Albizia odoratissima (50-70 cm girth class) to 3.09 cm in Albizia lebbeck (70-90 cm girth class) for the second year. Albizia lebbeck exhibited better growth in all prominent girth classes as compared to Albizia odoratissima during the observation period. The two shade tree species showed similar trend of growth in both the years of observation and significant difference in girth increment.

  17. In vitro susceptibility of Madurella mycetomatis, prime agent of Madura foot, to tea tree oil and artemisinin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.W.J. van de Sande (Wendy); A.H. Fahal (Ahmed); T.V. Riley (Thomas); H.A. Verbrugh (Henri); A.F. van Belkum (Alex)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractObjectives: Eumycetoma caused by Madurella mycetomatis is treated with surgery and high doses of itraconazole and ketoconazole. These agents are toxic, and new therapies are required. Methods: MICs were determined for artemisinin and tea tree oil, two natural herbal compounds. Results: A

  18. Determination of Enantiomeric Distribution of Terpenes for Quality Assessment of Australian Tea Tree Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Noel W; Larkman, Tony; Marriott, Philip J; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2016-06-15

    A number of papers have appeared in recent years proposing the use of enantiomeric ratios of key monoterpenes in Australian tea tree oil (TTO) for detection of adulterated oils. There are however a range of reported values, even from exactly the same suite of authentic oils, and we address here probable reasons for these differences and stress the importance of establishing reference ratios within each laboratory based on oils of known provenance. Any biological variation in the ratio for the key terpene terpinen-4-ol has been demonstrated to be effectively unmeasurable, because the standard deviation on multiple measurements of the same oil is of the same order as that of multiple authentic oils.

  19. Identification and expression of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase genes and their relations to oil content in developing seeds of tea oil tree (Camellia oleifera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tea oil tree (Camellia oleifera, Co) provides a fine edible oil source in China. Tea oil from the seeds is very beneficial to human health. Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (FBA) hydrolyzes fructose-1,6-bisphosphate into dihydroxyacetone phosphate and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, two critical metab...

  20. STIGMA RECEPTIVITY AND POLLEN VIABILITY OF Melaleuca alternifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Baskorowati

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Stigma  receptivity based on seed set and pollen  tubes growth  following controlled pollination of flowers  of different  ages was examined  in Melaleuca alternifolia. The stigma secretion during 10 days after anthesis and pollen viability under three different temperatures and five storage times were also observed. These series of research were undertaken because successful controlled pollination of M. alternifolia depends on the application of viable pollen to the receptive compatible  stigma. The objective of this research was therefore to determine the stigma receptivity and pollen viability of M. alternifolia. Results showed that the stigma receptivity began to develop  on day  one and finished  on day  seven after anthesis,  peak receptivity occurred from day three to day six. The stigma receptivity also coincides with the appearance of secretion in the stigma, occurring  from day three to day seven after anthesis. Therefore,  the time for pollination of M. alternifolia appeared to extend for  approximately 7 days after anthesis. Data for M. alternifolia showed that regardless of storage temperature, pollen  was still  viable  after 26 weeks  of storage;  results also demonstrated  that the lowest temperature  (-18oC was the best regime for long term storage.

  1. Formulation of cosmetic products for the treatment of acne containing tea tree oil and salicyclic acid / Susanna Jacoba Swanepoel

    OpenAIRE

    Swanepoel, Susanna Jacoba

    2005-01-01

    Acne is a skin disease that affects most adolescents and young adults. There are four abnormalities in acne namely, sebum production, inflammation, hyperkeratosis and the presence of Propionobacterium acnes. To treat acne effectively it has been proved that combinational therapy is essential to be able to eliminate all four abnormalities. Both salicylic acid and tea tree oil have the properties to eliminate the four abnormalities of acne. These active ingredients were therefore...

  2. Tea Philosophy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bai Shi

    2013-01-01

    A healthy lifestyle and intangible cultural heritage Every spring, Chinese indulge in drinking copious amounts of fresh green tea picked and processed in the country's southern mountain areas. In particular, several days before and after the Tomb Sweeping Day (April 4), tea trees blessed with

  3. Tea tree oil nanoemulsions for inhalation therapies of bacterial and fungal pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Miao; Zhu, Lifei; Liu, Boming; Du, Lina; Jia, Xiaodong; Han, Li; Jin, Yiguang

    2016-05-01

    Tea tree oil (TTO) is a natural essential oil with strong antimicrobial efficacy and little drug resistance. However, the biomedical applications of TTO are limited due to its hydrophobicity and formulation problems. Here, we prepared an inhalable TTO nanoemulsion (nanoTTO) for local therapies of bacterial and fungal pneumonia. The optimal formulation of nanoTTOs consisted of TTO/Cremophor EL/water with a mean size of 12.5nm. The nanoTTOs showed strong in vitro antimicrobial activities on Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. After inhalation to the lung, the nanoTTOs had higher anti-fungal effect than fluconazole on the fungal pneumonia rat models with reduced lung injury, highly microbial clearance, blocking of leukocyte recruitment, and decrease of pro-inflammatory mediators. In the case of rat bacterial pneumonia, the nanoTTOs showed slightly lower therapeutic efficacy than penicillin though at a much lower dose. Taken together, our results show that the inhalable nanoTTOs are promising nanomedicines for local therapies of fungal and bacterial pneumonia with no obvious adverse events. PMID:26895502

  4. The influence of the essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia on the healing of infected dental alveoli: a histological study in rats Influência do óleo essencial de Melaleuca alternifolia na cicatrização de alveolite dental infectada: um estudo histológico em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Regina Orofino Kreuger

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The plant Melaleuca alternifolia is native to Australia. The distillation of its leaves produces an essential oil, commonly known as oil of Melaleuca, or Tea tree oil, which present antimicrobial activity. This study investigates the action of this oil on the repair process of infected dental alveoli. 48 rats were used (Rattus novergicus albinus, Wistar. After tooth extraction and posterior infection of the dental alveoli with Staphylococcus aureus, the animals were separated into three groups: Group I: curettage and irrigation with physiologic saline solution; Group II: curettage and irrigation with physiologic saline solution and topical application of rifamycin diethylamide B 25 mg; and Group III: curettage and irrigation with physiologic saline solution and topical application of oil of Melaleuca 20%. The animals were sacrificed 24 hours, 7, 14 and 21 days after the treatment with powder and the repair process of the dental alveoli was analyzed using an optical microscope. The results were submitted to qualitative and quantitative analysis and it was concluded that tea tree oil at 20% caused a delay in the repair process of infected dental alveoli in rats, as demonstrated by the presence of more necrosis area and less osteogenesis.A planta Melaleuca alternifolia é nativa da Austrália e a destilação de suas folhas produz um óleo essencial conhecido por óleo de Melaleuca, ou Tea tree oil, usado como antimicrobiano. Nesse estudo, foi verificado a atividade deste óleo no processo de reparo de alvéolos dentais infectados. 48 ratos foram utilizados (Rattus novergicus albinus, Wistar e após a extração do dente e posterior infecção do alvéolo com Staphylococcus aureus, os animais foram separados em três grupos: Grupo I: curetagem e irrigação do alvéolo com soro fisiológico; Grupo II: curetagem e irrigação com soro fisiológico e tratamento com Rifocina 25 mg; e Grupo III: curetagem e irrigação com soro fisiológico e aplica

  5. 茶树油清除豇豆农药残留的效果%Effects of tea tree oils on removing pesticide residue in cowpea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林丽静; 程盛华; 李积华; 黄茂芳; 唐永富; 朱德明

    2013-01-01

    Pesticides are widely used as an insurance policy against devastating crop losses from pests and diseases. Excessive usage of pesticides may lead to contamination of the crop and the environment, eventually posing a risk of pesticide-related illnesses to humans. Previous literature has shown that water washing is only partially effective in removing pesticides, and in the case of liposoluble pesticides, a cosolvent must be used as an adjuvant. Recently, naturally occurring adjuvants are gaining prominence over synthetic chemical compounds. Tea tree oil (TTO, the oil of Melaleuca alternifolia), a natural, volatile essential oil, is mainly extracted by steam distillation from the fresh leaves and terminal branchlets of the plant. It has attracted significant interest due to its antifungal, antiviral, and antibacterial bioactivities. However, to the best of our knowledge, there are fewer experimental data evaluating its efficacy in the removal of pesticide residues. In this study, the effects of TTO on removing pesticide residue were carried out in the cowpea. Volume:volume (v:v) concentrations of 0.05%, 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.4% and 0.8% of TTO and water soluble tea tree oil (WTTO) in water were used to remove a standardized pesticide mixture (organophosphorus, pyrethroid, and carbamate compounds) from cowpeas. Sample pretreatment (pesticide application to cowpeas) was performed according to agricultural industry standards. The objective pesticide residues in cowpeas were assayed by gas chromatography (GC) and chromatography-mass spectrometry detection (GC-MS), and then the clearance rate was calculated. The results showed that TTO was able to remove the three kinds of pesticides from cowpeas. Moreover, the removal efficiency increased with increasing concentration of TTO. The effect of clearing organophosphate was much more obvious than that of either pyrethroid or carbamate. It was suggested that small liposoluble molecules of TTO rapidly infiltrate the cowpea surface to

  6. Evaluation of tea tree oil for controlling Rhipicephalus microplus in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazinatto Boito, Jhonatan; Santos, Roberto C; Vaucher, Rodrigo A; Raffin, Renata; Machado, Gustavo; Tonin, Alexandre A; Da Silva, Aleksandro S

    2016-07-30

    Our research aimed to test the effects of Melaleuca alternifolia oil (pure and in nanocapsules) in the control of Rhipicephalus microplus in dairy cattle. For this purpose, the in vivo studies used 15 cows distributed in three different groups with the same number of animals. Five cows remained untreated (Group A), representing the control group; other five cows were sprayed with TTO (at 5%) in its pure form (Group B); and five cows were sprayed with nanocapsules of TTO (at 0.75%) (Group C). On days 1 and 4 post-treatments (PT), all cows had their ticks counted. On day 1 PT, two ticks from each cow were collected to evaluate the effect of the treatment on ticḱs reproduction (in vitro assays). The pure form of TTO caused a significant reduction (P0.05). Treatment with TTO in nanocapsules (Group C) interfered with R. microplus reproduction, leading to lower oviposition by female ticks and hatchability (34.5% of efficacy). On the other hand, TTO oil (Group B) did not interfere on ticḱs reproduction, i.e. showed higher hatchability than the control group. Therefore, it is possible to conclude that pure TTO has an acaricidal effect in dairy cows, in addition to an effect on ticḱs reproduction when used its nanocapsulated form. PMID:27369577

  7. Effects of foliar application with compost tea and filtrate biogas slurry liquid on yield and fruit quality of washington navel orange (Citrus sinenesis Osbeck) trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Alaa El-din K; Belal, Elsayed B; El-Abd, Abd El-Naiem A

    2012-07-01

    Sixteen-year-old navel orange trees at a private orchard located in Kafer El-Sheikh Governorate, Egypt, were used in this study. Compost tea (CT) and filtrate biogas slurry liquid (FLB) were applied at two different concentrations (50% and 100%); control trees were sprayed with water Trees treated with CT at 100% were the highest in yield, fruit weight, and vitamin C, whereas the highest percentage of fruit set, fruit number and soluble solid content (SSC), lowest fruit drop, and highest reducing and total sugars were in trees treated with 100% FLB. Concentrations at 50% for both foliar application (CT and FLB) improved yield and fruit characteristics than control treatment. Generally, using a foliar application of compost tea and filtrate biogas slurry liquid at (100%) treatments as food nutrients could be recommended to improve the yield and fruit quality of navel orange fruits under the current study conditions.

  8. Study on Native Tea Tree of Duyun Maojian%都匀毛尖茶本地品种茶树研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王亚维; 谢维斌; 顾静生

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective ] The purpose was to investigate resources of the native tea tree in Duyun, cultivate dominant varieties of native tea tree with different phonological characters, and draw up standard of tea tree planting and management. [ Method ] Through resources investigation,cutting experiment, and referring to interrelated standards. [ Result] In the same place with same climate condition, the budding dates of axillary buds of different clones were different, The flushes number showed extremely significantly positive correlation with flushes weight, there was extremely significant difference among the flushes branch numbers of different clones of native tea trees of Duyun Maojian tea. [ Conclusion] Distribution of the native tea tree was determination in Duyun, and resources of genes were plentiful, six native high-yield and goodquality tea strains were selected out, and standard of tea tree planting and management was draw up.%[目的]调查都匀毛尖茶本地品种茶树资源,培育本地优势茶树品种,制定无公害种植管理规范.[方法]通过资源普查、田间品比试验并参考有关标准得出都匀毛尖茶本地品种茶树的资源状况.[结果]都匀毛尖茶本地品种茶树地理分布广泛、基因资源丰富.在同一立地和相同气候条件下,不同无性系的腋芽萌动期不同,芽叶数与芽叶重呈极显著正相关,不同无性系的芽叶分枝数差异极显著.[结论]确定了都匀毛尖茶本地品种茶树在当地的分布特点,筛选出6个高产优质原生茶树品系,制定了茶树无公害种植管理规范.

  9. Extraction and refining of essential oil from Australian tea tree, Melaleuca alterfornia, and the antimicrobial activity in cosmetic products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tea tree oil (TTO) comes from the leaves of Melaleuca alternifornia that belongs to the myrtle family (Myrtaceae). It is one of the most powerful immune system stimulants and sorts out most viral, bacterial and fungal infections in a snap, while it is great to heal wounds and acnes. In Vietnam, Melaleuca trees can grow on acid land that stretches in a large portion of lands in the Mekong Delta region. So, there are some Melaleuca plantations developed under the Vietnamese government plans of increasing plantation forests now. However, TTO contains various amounts of 1,8-cineole that causes skin irritant. So TTO purification is very necessary. In this study, the purification of TTO that meet International Standard ISO 4730 was carried out via two steps. The first step is steam distillation to obtain crude TTO (terpinen-4-ol 35% v/v) and the average productivity is among 2.37% (v/wet-wt) or 1.23% (v/dry-wt). In the second step, the cleaned TTO is collected by vacuum distillation column and extraction yield of the whole process is about 0.3% (w/w). Besides, high concentration essential oil was applied in the cosmetic products to increase its commercial value.

  10. 茶树油对2种农业致病菌的抑菌效果%Tea Tree Oil's Antibacterial Effect to 2 Agricultural Pathongenic Bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽; 李霆格; 杨文汉; 曾媛; 李婧; 梅晶晶; 赵安瑾; 王健

    2016-01-01

    Tea tree oil has good prospects in dev elopment and application of natural fresh-keeping preservatives in fruits, vegetables for its ability of anti-microbial effect. In this research in vitro inhibition effect of tea tree oil on Colletotrichum musae and C. gloeosporioides under different concentrations were studied with filter paper dispersion method. The results showed that the tea tree oil had significant inhibition on mycelial growth of the two fungi. As the concentration increased, the antimicrobial activity increased accordingly. The results of experiment revealed the EC50 of tea tree oil on C. gloeosporioides and C. musae were respectively 339.13μL/L and 143.10μL/L.%茶树油具有良好的抑菌能力,在果蔬天然保鲜杀菌剂的开发中具有良好的应用前景。采用滤纸扩散法测定不同浓度的茶树油对香蕉炭疽菌和芒果炭疽菌的离体抑制效果。结果显示,茶树油对这2种菌都具有良好的抑菌效果,且浓度增加,抑菌作用逐渐增强,对芒果炭疽菌和香蕉炭疽菌的 EC50分别为339.13和143.10μL/L。

  11. Carbon storage of different tree-tea agroforestry systems in Xishuangbanna, Yunnan Province of Southwest China%西双版纳不同林茶复合生态系统碳储量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    萧自位; 王丽娟; 毛加梅; 朱兴正; 王小李; 郑丽; 唐建维

    2012-01-01

    为了探明上层遮荫树种对茶园碳储量的影响,根据所建立的茶园上层树种及茶树的生物量模型估算了不同林茶复合生态系统的生物量,结合植物、土壤样品碳含量的实测值,对西双版纳州勐海县4种茶园组合模式及纯茶园的碳储量进行了分析.结果表明:樟树+茶、樟-杉+茶2种组合模式的碳储量分别比纯茶园碳储量(223.442 t·hm-2)高22.701、3.871 t·hm-2,而4种遮荫树种+茶、6种遮荫树种+茶2种组合模式的碳储量则分别比纯茶园低10.828、5.717 t·hm-2.各茶园总碳储量以土壤的碳储量所占比例最大,达91.8%~ 96.0%,随上层树种数量的增加而降低,并在4种遮荫树种+茶组合模式达到最低;而植物体的碳储量仅占总碳储量的4.0% ~8.2%,呈现随上层树种数量增加而先增加后降低的趋势.表明西双版纳的人工茶园复合态系统具有很强的碳储存能力.%In order to understand the effects of shade tree species on the carbon storage of different tree-tea agroforestry systems, three plots with a size of 20 m x 25 m were established in each of five different tea gardens, i. e. , a monoculture tea garden and four tea gardens with one, two, four, and six shade tree species, respectively in Menghai County, Xishuangbanna. Biomass regression models were constructed by using the DBH of shade trees and the BD (basal diameter) of tea shrubs, soil samples were taken from five layers (0-20, 20-40, 40-60, 60-80, and 80-100 cm) in each plot, and the carbon storage was then estimated, based on the carbon contents in different organs of trees and tea shrubs and in soils. The total carbon storage of monoculture tea garden (223.442 t · hm-2) was 22. 701 and 3. 871 t· hm-2 lower than that of the Cin-namomum pathenoxylum-tea and Cinnamomum pathenoxylum+Cunninghamia lanceolata-tea gardens, but 10. 828 and 5.717 t · hm-2 higher than that of the tea gardens with four and six shade tree species

  12. 樟茶间作对土壤养分及重金属含量的影响研究%Effect of Tea and Camphor Tree Intercropping on Soil Nutrients and Heavy Metals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡丽; 夏丽飞; 陈枚; 杨盛美; 李晓霞; 冉隆珣; 李友勇; 孙云南

    2013-01-01

      为了揭示樟茶间作模式对土壤养分及土壤重金属元素含量的影响,以香樟间作茶园土壤为材料,以单作茶园土壤为对照,分析了土壤及茶叶样品营养元素和重金属元素含量。结果表明:与单作茶园相比,樟茶间作茶园土壤有机质含量增高,但土壤有效态养分含量降低;间作茶园土壤重金属元素含量明显降低,但茶叶新稍中重金属元素含量增加。樟茶间作模式推广中应特别重视茶园土壤重金属元素背景值,保障茶叶的绿色安全生产。%In order to reveal the effects of tea and camphor tree intercropping on soil nutrients and heavy metals, the levels of nutrients and heavy metals in the samples taken from tea and camphor tree intercropping garden contrast to simplex tea garden were analyzed. The results showed that in tea and camphor tree intercropping garden, contrast to simplex tea garden, the contents of soil organic matter increased but its available nutrients decreased. Meanwhile, the levels of heavy metals in soil decreased, but which in the shoots increased. The background values of soil heavy metals should be paid attention to in the extension of tea and camphor tree intercropping mode to ensure the quality safety in tea production.

  13. 茶树中过氧化氢酶活力变化规律%Regulation of catalase activity variation of tea tree (Camellia sinensis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨节; 龚淑英; 唐德松

    2014-01-01

    用紫外分光光度法测定茶树鲜叶的过氧化氢酶( catalase ,CAT )活力,研究茶树 CAT 活力变化规律。结果表明:相同地点种植的不同茶树品种在生长旺盛的春季,其新梢的酶活力虽然会有一定的差异,但总体上差异不明显,到了夏季各品种间的差异较大,秋季酶活力普遍较高,但差异减小;不同季节、同一品种的茶树 CAT 活力变化明显,总体表现为秋季>夏季>春季;生长在主干的鲜叶 CAT 活力高于新生枝条上的鲜叶,而在同一枝条上,位于枝条中间的鲜叶 CAT 活力高于位于枝条两端的鲜叶;刚采下来的茶树鲜叶在摊放2 h 后酶活力上升30%,而随着摊放时间的进一步延长,CAT 活力持续下降,到12 h 后酶活力基本稳定在100 U /g 左右。可见,茶树 CAT活力变化对茶树正常生长发育起着极为重要的作用,是茶树逆境生理的关键酶。%Summary Catalase (CAT) is a protective enzyme responsible for the degradation of hydrogen peroxide before it damages the cellular components . All aerobic organisms and many anaerobic organisms possess it in virtually . The catalatic reaction takes place in two steps : The first hydrogen peroxide molecule oxidizes the heme to an oxyferryl species in which one oxidation equivalent is removed from the iron and one from the porphyrin ring to generate a porphyrin cation radical ; the second hydrogen peroxide is then used as a reductant of compound 1 to regenerate the resting state enzyme , water , and oxygen . But so far the reports about the CAT in tea tree ( Camellia sinensis ) are not seen so often . In this research , the regulation of CAT activity variation of tea tree was studied . The CAT was extracted from fresh tea leaves with 0 .2 mol/L phosphate buffer ( pH 7 .4) and 15% polyvinylpolypyrrolidone ( PVPP) . The CAT activity was measured spectrophotometrically at 240 nm . One unit of CAT activity was defined as the activity required to destroy 1

  14. 茶树无菌播种建立植株再生体系%Establishment of Plant Regeneration System of Tea Trees by Asepsis Sowing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄燕芬; 吴曦; 周国兰; 赵华富

    2013-01-01

    为提高茶树的繁殖速率,用近成熟的茶树种子以无菌播种方式获得试管苗,再以其茎段为外植体,建立了茶树高效植株再生体系.结果表明,剥除内外种皮的茶树种子发芽率为90%,较保留种皮的完全种子增加了13个百分点;茶树种子胚龄与发芽势、发芽率呈正相关,与萌发时间呈负相关;诱导茶树种子萌发适宜培养基为MS+6-BA 3.0 mg/L+IBA 2.0 mg/L+YE 200 mg/L或改良ER+6-BA 2.5 mg/L+NAA 0.2 mg/L;在改良ER+6-BA 1.5 mg/L+NAA 0.2 mg/L继代增殖培养基中培养,带芽组织切块的适宜增殖周期为39 d,增殖倍数5.4;壮苗、诱导根形成的适宜培养基为1/2改良ER+IBA 0.10 mg/L,发根率达80%.%To improve the reproduction rate of tea trees,using the stem of plantlet as explant,which was obtained by asepsis sowing with the nearly mature tea seeds,the optimum regeneration system of tea trees was established.The experimental results showed that the germination rate of tea seeds whose endotesta and exopleura were stripped out was 90%,increased by 13 percentage points compared with the whole seeds.The embryo age of tea seeds had positive correlation with germination energy and germination percentage,but was negatively related to the germination time.To induce tea seed germination,the optimum medium was composed of MS+6-BA 3.0 mg/L+IBA 2.0 mg/L+YE 200 mg/L or ER+6-BA 2.5 mg/L+NAA 0.2 mg/L.The tissue slicing of bud indicated that the suitable proliferation cycle was 39 days with proliferation multiple of 5.4 in the modified subculture medium (ER+6-BA 1.5 mg/L+NAA 0.2 mg/L).In addition,the optimum medium for making seedling strong and inducing root formation was modified 1/2 ER+IBA 0.10 mg/L,leading to 80 % rooting rate.

  15. 陕西安康油茶产业发展现状与对策%Industry development status and countermeasures of tea-oil tree in Ankang Shanxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹佳瑛

    2013-01-01

    The industry development status and advantages of tea-oil tree in Ankang were analyzed systematicly. The countermeasures of creating high quality tea base in northern were proposed in 5 aspects including raising awareness and seizing the opportunity, adhering to combine introducing and breeding, promoting the use of early maturing high-yielding varieties of tea, accelerating the research and promotion of key technologies of tea cultivation to achieve standardized production, cultivating leading enterprises to create famous tea brand, strengthening leadership to promote the healthy development of tea industry.%通过对安康油茶产业发展现状和优势的系统分析,从提高认识,抢抓机遇;坚持良种引进与选育相结合,推广应用早熟高产油茶良种;加快油茶栽培关键技术的研究与推广,实现标准化生产;培育龙头企业,打造知名油茶品牌;加强领导,推动油茶产业健康发展等5方面提出打造北方优质油茶基地的对策措施。

  16. The Application of Tea Dyeing to Silk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金成嬉

    2001-01-01

    Vegetable dyes are eco-friendly throughout the full production process. A study is conducted with the purpose of assessing the properties of dye extracted from green tea, black tea and the tea tree cultivated and used in Jiang Nan area of China. The extracted dyes are applied with and without mordants on silk fabric and the dyeing properties are evaluated.

  17. Pb胁迫下接种丛枝菌根真菌对茶树解毒能力的影响%Effects of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi(AMF) Inoculation on Detoxification Capacity of Tea Tree under Pb Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈卫莉; 赵晓改; 王浩; 袁祖丽

    2014-01-01

    Potted tea trees were inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi(Glomus intraradices) under Pb stress to investigate the effects of inoculation on detoxification apacity of tea tree. Methods including acetate ink staining,Coomassie brilliant blue,inductively coupled plasma(ICP-MS) and UV spectrophotometry method respectively were used to determine tea tree root colonization rate of mycelium,content of Glomalin-related soil protein(GRSP),Pb content in tea tree roots,leaves,soil and GRSP,and antioxidant enzyme activity of leaves. The results showed that AMF inoculation rate in tea tree roots was 60.13%,tea tree biomass and 100-bud weight increased significantly. The total GRSP content also increased remarkably after inoculation with AFM. For GRSP chelated Pb in soil,the bioavailability of Pb in soils reduced greatly. For the total contents of Pb in roots and leaves decreased,and more Pb deposited in roots after inoculation,the Pb contents in leaves decreased significantly, and the antioxidant enzyme activity correspondingly reduced.%采用盆栽试验研究了接种丛枝菌根真菌(Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi,AMF)对铅(Pb)胁迫下茶树解除Pb毒性能力的影响,分别用醋酸墨水染色法、考马斯亮蓝法、电感耦合等离子体(ICP-MS)、紫外分光光度法等方法研究了接种AMF后茶树根系菌丝的侵染率,土壤中球囊霉素(Glomalin-related soil protein,GRSP)含量,茶树根系、叶片、土壤中及GRSP中Pb含量及叶片的抗氧化酶活性.结果表明,接种AMF后,茶树根系菌丝侵染率为60.13%,茶树的生物量、百芽重和显著增加,并极显著地提高土壤中总GRSP含量,由于GRSP对Pb的大量螯合作用,使得土壤中Pb的生物有效性大大降低,加之茶树根系、叶片中对Pb的总吸收量减少,且根系Pb含量增加,因此,叶片中Pb含量显著下降,抗氧化酶活性也相应地下降.

  18. Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khaja, Nawal

    2007-01-01

    This is a thematic lesson plan for young learners about palm trees and the importance of taking care of them. The two part lesson teaches listening, reading and speaking skills. The lesson includes parts of a tree; the modal auxiliary, can; dialogues and a role play activity.

  19. A comparative study of antiplaque and antigingivitis effects of herbal mouthrinse containing tea tree oil, clove, and basil with commercially available essential oil mouthrinse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaila V. Kothiwale

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The relatively safe nature and cost-effectiveness of herbal extracts have led to a resurgent interest in their utility as therapeutic agents. Therefore, this prospective, double-blind, randomly controlled clinical trial was designed to compare the antiplaque and antigingivitis effects of newly formulated mouthrinse containing tea tree oil (TTO, clove, and basil with those of commercially available essential oil (EO mouthrinse. Materials and Methods: Forty patients were selected for a 21-day study period and randomly divided into two groups. The test group patients were given newly formulated herbal mouthrinse and the control group patients were given commercially available EO mouthrinse. The Plaque Index (PI, Gingival Index (GI, and Papillary Marginal Attachment (PMA Index were recorded at baseline, 14 days, and 21 days. The microbial colony forming units (CFU were assessed at baseline and 21 days. Results: Test group patients using herbal mouthrinse showed significant improvement in GI (0.16, PI (0.57, and PMA (0.02 scores. These improvements were comparable to those achieved with commercially available EO mouthrinse. However, the aerobic and anaerobic CFU of microbiota were reduced with the herbal mouthrinse (P = 0.0000. Conclusion: The newly formulated herbal mouthrinse and commercially available mouthrinse were beneficial clinically as antiplaque and antigingivitis agents. Newly formulated mouthrinses showed significant reduction in microbial CFU at 21 days. So, our findings support the regular use of herbal mouthrinse as an antiplaque, antigingivitis, and antimicrobial rinse for better efficacy.

  20. Effect of the shell-forming polymer ratio on the encapsulation of tea tree oil by complex coacervation as a natural biocide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Limiñana, María Ángeles; Payá-Nohales, Federico J; Arán-Ais, Francisca; Orgilés-Barceló, César

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop footwear materials with antimicrobial properties using microencapsulated Tea Tree oil (TTO) as a natural biocide. For that purpose, gelatine-carboxymethylcellulose based microcapsules containing TTO were synthesised by a complex coacervation process. Furthermore, the influence of the gelatine (G)/sodium carboxymethylmethyl cellulose (CMC) ratio (G/C) on the microcapsule properties, as well as in the microencapsulation oil efficiency, was evaluated. The microcapsules were characterised by different experimental techniques and applied to footwear materials (leather and textile) to evaluate their performance. The microcapsule durability under different conditions, such as rubbing and ironing, was analysed in order to simulate shoe manufacturing and shoe wearing. The properties of the microcapsules obtained by complex coacervation, using gelatine and sodium carboxymethylcellulose as shell-forming polymers, are determined by the ratio between those two polymers (G/C). The results obtained showed a notable effect of G/C ratio on the formation of the coacervate during the synthesis process and also on the encapsulation efficiency of the antimicrobial oil, with the optimal value for the G/C ratio being around 10. PMID:23937208

  1. An ex vivo, assessor blind, randomised, parallel group, comparative efficacy trial of the ovicidal activity of three pediculicides after a single application - melaleuca oil and lavender oil, eucalyptus oil and lemon tea tree oil, and a "suffocation" pediculicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altman Phillip M

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are two components to the clinical efficacy of pediculicides: (i efficacy against the crawling-stages (lousicidal efficacy; and (ii efficacy against the eggs (ovicidal efficacy. Lousicidal efficacy and ovicidal efficacy are confounded in clinical trials. Here we report on a trial that was specially designed to rank the clinical ovicidal efficacy of pediculicides. Eggs were collected, pre-treatment and post-treatment, from subjects with different types of hair, different coloured hair and hair of different length. Method Subjects with at least 20 live eggs of Pediculus capitis (head lice were randomised to one of three treatment-groups: a melaleuca oil (commonly called tea tree oil and lavender oil pediculicide (TTO/LO; a eucalyptus oil and lemon tea tree oil pediculicide (EO/LTTO; or a "suffocation" pediculicide. Pre-treatment: 10 to 22 live eggs were taken from the head by cutting the single hair with the live egg attached, before the treatment (total of 1,062 eggs. Treatment: The subjects then received a single treatment of one of the three pediculicides, according to the manufacturers' instructions. Post-treatment: 10 to 41 treated live eggs were taken from the head by cutting the single hair with the egg attached (total of 1,183 eggs. Eggs were incubated for 14 days. The proportion of eggs that had hatched after 14 days in the pre-treatment group was compared with the proportion of eggs that hatched in the post-treatment group. The primary outcome measure was % ovicidal efficacy for each of the three pediculicides. Results 722 subjects were examined for the presence of eggs of head lice. 92 of these subjects were recruited and randomly assigned to: the "suffocation" pediculicide (n = 31; the melaleuca oil and lavender oil pediculicide (n = 31; and the eucalyptus oil and lemon tea tree oil pediculicide (n = 30 subjects. The group treated with eucalyptus oil and lemon tea tree oil had an ovicidal efficacy of 3.3% (SD

  2. Black tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... product containing black tea extract plus green tea extract, asparagus, guarana, kidney bean, and mate along with a combination of kidney bean pods, garcinia, and chromium yeast for 12 weeks does not reduce body weight ...

  3. Effect of Essential Oils of Syzygium aromaticum and Melaleuca alternifolia on Isolates of Aspergillus sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lima

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Essential  oils  have  antimicrobial  substances,  lower  cost  and  the  lower  resistance  of microorganism. This study aimed to evaluate the inhibition of mycelial growth of Aspergillus flavus and  A.  niger  with  essential  oils  of  Syzygium  aromaticum  and  Melaleuca  alternifolia.  For  this, aliquots  (0.5,  5,  10  and  15μL  of  essential  oils  from  S.  aromaticum  and  M.  alternifolia   were distributed on the surface of the culture medium Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA with Drigaslsky. In the control treatment were used only plates containing PDA plus chloramphenicol (1%. After 2 hours, a disc (8mm diameter of the isolated mycelium, with 10 days of age on PDA, was peaked to the center of the plates, these plates were sealed and incubated at 282°C, in the dark. The essential  oil  of  S.  aromaticum  inhibited  the  mycelial  growth  of  A.  flavus  and  A.  niger,  in  all aliquots. When using the essential oil of M. alternifolia decreased the mycelial growth of A. flavus in all aliquots, however, showed a low efficiency in control of A. niger. It was concluded that the essential  oil  S.  aromaticum  is  effective  against  A.  flavus  and  A.  niger,  which  can  be  used  in control against these microorganisms, and M. alternifolia not show satisfactory results in relation to reducing the growth of pathogens evaluated.

  4. Trees

    CERN Document Server

    Epstein, Henri

    2016-01-01

    An algebraic formalism, developped with V.~Glaser and R.~Stora for the study of the generalized retarded functions of quantum field theory, is used to prove a factorization theorem which provides a complete description of the generalized retarded functions associated with any tree graph. Integrating over the variables associated to internal vertices to obtain the perturbative generalized retarded functions for interacting fields arising from such graphs is shown to be possible for a large category of space-times.

  5. Some Biogeochemical Characteristics of Tea Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGXIAOJU; HUXUEFENG; 等

    1997-01-01

    Characteristics of the element abundance,material cycling,element budment budgent in tea soils were disucssed base on investigations of six tea plantations and the adjacent wast lnads in the Three Gorges region .The plantations have different soil-forming Parent materials,but similar landfomrs,and the same tea variety and colse ages.The rsults showed that tea growing could incereased the contents of organic matter,total and available N,P,Al and Mn;the elements enriched by tea trees were in the follwoing descending sequence: P>Ca>K>Mn>Mg>Zn>Al>Fe;elements returned throuhg litter of tea were in the sequence of Ca>Mn>P>Zn>Mg>K>Al>Fe;in the nutrient budget of the soil-tea system ,P and K were in deficit, whereas Al,Fe and Mn in surplus.

  6. Comparison of hand hygiene antimicrobial efficacy: Melaleuca alternifolia essential oil versus triclosan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Rizzo Gnatta

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: this study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of hand hygiene performed with two different soap formulations: 0.3% Melaleuca alternifolia essential oil versus 0.5% triclosan, and to compare them with two reference hygiene procedures: the official methodology procedure (soft soap versus the draft version of the procedure (soft soap + propan-2-ol. METHOD: using the European EN 1499 method, logarithmic reduction factors were determined for the number of colony forming units of Escherichia coli K12 before and after hand hygiene of 15 volunteer subjects, and compared using the one-tailed Wilcoxon test. RESULTS: referring to the soft soap, there was no difference between the performance of soap with 0.3% M. alternifolia and soap containing 0.5% triclosan. The soft soap + propan-2-ol proved to be more effective than the other hand hygiene procedures. CONCLUSION: studies to verify the therapeutic efficacy of essential oil in hand hygiene can improve adherence to this practice.

  7. Backyard Teas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Darrell D.

    1996-01-01

    Describes plants commonly found in residential areas that can be used for making tea: chicory, chickweed, red clover, goldenrod, gill-over-the-ground, pineapple weed, plantain, self-heal, sheep sorrel, and wild strawberry. Includes proper plant name, areas where the plant grows, identifying plant features, what part is used in making tea, and tea…

  8. A Preliminary Trial Report on Introduction of Tea Tree(Melaleuca altemifolia L.)from Australia%四个澳大利亚互叶白千层新品系的引种试栽试验初报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张孝洪; 白懋嘉

    2011-01-01

    引种栽培试验初步显示,从澳大利亚引进的287-04-02、42-04两个互叶白千层新品系在广东境内北回归线附近种植后第一年均表现出较好的适应性和丰产性,所提原油中的主要功能指标组分松油烯4-醇含量超过目前国际商业化产品的工业和化妆品级别质量标准.%The results of the experiments on introduction and cultivation of tea tree showed better adaptability and oil yields during the first year trial with two strains of tea tree (Melaleuca altemifolia L. ) introduced from Australia to China. The trials were conducted in the vicinity of tropic of cancer in Guangdong province. The content of terpinene-4-ol, as the major functional ingredient extracted from the crude oil, exceeded the international standards both commercially and cosmetically.

  9. GREEN TEA FESTIVAL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ What is the green tea? The green tea belongs to the type of non-fermenting tea, with a quality feature of "clear tea infusion with green leaves"; this type of tea has the biggest output in China, and the basic processing procedure of the green tea is divided into three steps: heating, rubbing and drying. According to the different processing technologies, the green tea is divided into fried green tea, baked green tea, steamed green tea and dried green tea. The steamed green tea is to heat the tea by steaming; to heat the tea by pan-frying can be divided into frying, baking and drying, which is called heating by frying, heating by baking and heating by drying. West LakeLongjing, Xinyang Maojian, Bi Luochun, and Sanbeixiang belong to fried green tea; Mount Huang Maofeng, Youjiyuluo, and Luhai pekoe belong to baked green tea;Enshiyulu belongs to steamed green tea.

  10. Black tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... heartburn, dizziness, ringing in the ears, convulsions, and confusion. Also, people who drink black tea or other ... glimepiride (Amaryl), glyburide (DiaBeta, Glynase PresTab, Micronase), insulin, pioglitazone (Actos), rosiglitazone (Avandia), chlorpropamide (Diabinese), glipizide (Glucotrol), tolbutamide ( ...

  11. Prospect of indegenous plant extracts in tea pest management

    OpenAIRE

    Mamun, M.S.A.

    2011-01-01

    Tea is a popular beverage made from the leaves of evergreen shrub or tree Camellia sinensis, under the family Theaceae. Tea plant is subjected to the attack of insects, mites, nematodes and some plant pathogenic diseases. Tea production is greatly hindered due to thesemaladies. About 10-15% crop loss occurred by these pests per annum. In severe cases, it would be 100%. To combat these problems different groups of pesticides have been used in the tea fields since 1960. As tea is a consumable c...

  12. Inhibitory Effects of Tea Tree Oil, Eugenol and Citral on Aspergillus niger in Litchi%茶树油、丁香酚和柠檬醛志荔枝黑曲霉的抑制作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟业俊; 徐欣源; 刘成梅; 孙健; 吴建永; 刘桃英

    2012-01-01

    研究茶树油、丁香酚和柠檬醛的挥发性香氛对荔枝致腐真菌黑曲霉的抑制作用,采用复配方法探究3种香料对黑曲霉的协同抑菌性。结果表明:丁香酚和柠檬醛的挥发性香氛对黑曲霉有较强的抑制作用,最低抑菌浓度分别为0.3μL/cm^3和0.4μL/cm^3;茶树油挥发性香氛抑制黑曲霉的作用稍差,但与丁香酚和柠檬醛复配后协同抑菌作用增强。%The inhibitory and synergistic inhibitory effects of volatile aromatic components from tea tree oil, eugenol and citral on rot-causing fungi such as AspergiUus niger in litchi were studied. The results showed that the volatile aromatic components from eugenol and citral had strong inhibitory effect on Aspergillus niger with minimum inhibition concentrations of 0.3 μL/cm^3 (air volume) and 0.4 μL/cm^3 (air volume), respectively. The anti-fungal effect of tea tree oil was weak, while its inhibitory effect could be enhanced in the attendance of eugenol and citral.

  13. Atividade de nanoformulações de Melaleuca alternifolia e terpinen-4-ol em isolados de Rhodococcus equi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Sagave

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Rhodococcus equi é o agente etiológico da rodococose equina, importante doença respiratória de potros. Especialmente na última década, a emergência de cepas resistentes aos antimicrobianos empregados no tratamento da rodococose tem sido relatada. Nesse sentido, há a necessidade de estudos envolvendo terapias alternativas e novas tecnologias, incluindo o uso de plantas medicinais e nanotecnologia. Neste trabalho utilizou-se Melaleuca alternifolia nas seguintes formulações: óleo livre, nanocápsula, nanoemulsão e a combinação de óleo livre com nanocápsula e com nanoemulsão, além do seu composto majoritário, terpinen-4-ol, a fim de verificar a atividade antimicrobiana frente a isolados de R. equi de diferentes origens. Utilizou-se o método de microdiluição em caldo na determinação das concentrações inibitória mínima (CIM e bactericida mínima (CBM das diferentes formulações frente aos isolados (n=24. Verificou-se baixo potencial para atividade antibacteriana de M. alternifolia na formulação de óleo livre. Todavia, essa atividade foi potencializada quando se incorporou o óleo essencial às nanoformulações. O composto terpinen-4-ol demonstrou potencial atividade antibacteriana quando incorporado ao óleo essencial e quando utilizado isoladamente. Verificou-se que tanto M. alternifolia quanto terpinen-4-ol testados possuem atividade antimicrobiana contra isolados de R. equi, sugerindo seu emprego em estudos avaliando seu potencial para o tratamento da rodococose.

  14. Chinese Tea Tradition:From Tea Service to Tea Drinking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiangFeng

    2003-01-01

    Tea was first discovered and drunk in China several thousand years ago and over the sweep of Chinese history drinking tea has developed to be part of Chinese culture and a reversible habit of Chinese people.With the spread of Chinese civilization,Chinese tea has been introduced to many countries across

  15. In Vitro Susceptibility of Pythium insidiosum to Melaleuca alternifolia, Mentha piperita and Origanum vulgare Essential Oils Combinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Silveira Valente, Júlia; de Oliveira da Silva Fonseca, Anelise; Denardi, Laura Bedin; Dal Ben, Vanessa Silveira; de Souza Maia Filho, Fernando; Baptista, Cristiane Telles; Braga, Caroline Quintana; Zambrano, Cristina Gomes; Alves, Sydney Hartz; de Avila Botton, Sônia; Pereira, Daniela Isabel Brayer

    2016-08-01

    Pythium insidiosum is the etiologic agent of pythiosis, a severe and emerging disease that affects mammals. Failure of conventional antifungal therapies is partially justified by the absence of ergosterol in the plasma membrane of this oomycete. Despite research advancement, the treatment of pythiosis has not been not fully established. The present study investigated the in vitro susceptibility profile of Brazilian isolates of P. insidiosum (n = 20) against Melaleuca alternifolia, Mentha piperita and Origanum vulgare essential oils, and their combinations. Susceptibility tests were performed according to CLSI M38-A2 protocol, and combinations were evaluated by the microdilution cherkerboard method. All tested essential oils showed antimicrobial activity against P. insidiosum, and the greatest activity of O. vulgare was highlighted. Synergistic and/or indifferent effect was observed for all combinations evaluated, especially the M. piperita and O. vulgare combination, which showed 65 % synergism. This is the first study to report in vitro combinations of essential oils against P. insidiosum indicating the susceptibility of this oomycete to M. alternifolia, M. piperita and O. vulgare essential oils, as well as their combinations. PMID:27209011

  16. Bioavailability of Tea Polyphenols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Tea is a pleasant, popular and safe beverage. Tea provides a dietary source of bioactive components to help humans reduce a wide variety of cancer risks and chronic diseases. The antioxidative activity of green tea-derived polypbenols known as catchins has been extensively studied. The reducfive effect is a synergistic action between EGCG,EGC, ECG, EC, pheophytins a and b, and other components in tealeaves, which are more bioavailable for human body.Green tea has a higher content of catechins than black tea. Green tea extract with hot water has high potential and more efficiencytoreducecancerriskthananyotherteaproductsorpureEGCG. Protein, iron, andotherfoodcomponentsmay interfere with the bioavailability of tea polyphenols. Drinkinggreentea (orpolyphenol-rich tea extract ) also enhances the cancer-preventive activity of some cancer-fighting medication such as Sulindac and Tamoxifen. Further studies are required to determine the bioavailability of green tea and cancer-preventive functionality.

  17. 淹水解除后互叶白千层幼苗光合特性的恢复%Recovery of Photosynthetic Characteristics of Melaleuca alternifolia Seedlings after Submersion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    靖元孝; 刘瑞仙; 肖林; 李国梁; 杨丹菁

    2011-01-01

    Periodic flooding of trees in tropical floodplains and reservoirs where water levels fluctuate is a common phenomenon. The alternating terrestrial and aquatic periods with advancing and receding floods poses a variety of constraints to the plants growing in this habitat. If flooding is recurrent before the plants recover from previous flooding, injuries will accumulate and serious damage may occur. Therefore, when assessing plant resistance to flooding, it is important to consider the ability of plants to recover from transient waterlogging. The success of tree planting on floodplain and reservoir depends not only on the tree's tolerance to submersion, but also on their subsequent recovery. Previous studies on physiological and growth responses of tree species to flooding have mostly focused on the responses to continuous flooding, but little is known about the responses to subsequent recovery after the removal of the flooding stress. Recovery effects of gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence and membrane permeability of Melaleuca alternifolia seedlings, a tall shrub species used in floodplain and reservoir forest restoration in southern China, were studied after submersion. Throughout a 30-day submersion and another 70-day recovery period, the survival rates of M. alternifolia seedlings were 100%. After 30-day submersion, pronounced decrease of chlorophyll content, net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance(Gs), transpiration rate(Tr), the maximum quantum efficiency of the photosystem II (Fv/Fm), photochemical quenching coefficient (qP), and increase of non-photochemical quenching (NPQ), membrane permeability in the period after submersion, gradual increase of chlorophyll content, Pn, Gs, Tr, Fv/Fm, qP, and decrease of NPQ, membrane permeability in the recovered seedlings were found, and the above parameters in the recovered seedlings reached the levels similar to the control after 60-day recovery. Our study demonstrated that M. alternifolia seedlings is

  18. Tea aroma formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Tang Ho

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Besides water, tea is one of the most popular beverages around the world. The chemical ingredients and biological activities of tea have been summarized recently. The current review summarizes tea aroma compounds and their formation in green, black, and oolong tea. The flavor of tea can be divided into two categories: taste (non-volatile compounds and aroma (volatile compounds. All of these aroma molecules are generated from carotenoids, lipids, glycosides, etc. precursors, and also from Maillard reaction. In the current review, we focus on the formation mechanism of main aromas during the tea manufacturing process.

  19. Effect of Different Culture Conditions on Browning Rate of Explants in Tissue Culture of Tea Trees%降低茶树组织培养中外植体褐化程度的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄燕芬; 周国兰; 赵华富

    2009-01-01

    为降低茶树组培过程中外植体褐化程度,从外植体表面消毒时间、切割方式、转瓶间隔时间、培养基类型、激素配比、抗褐化剂和吸附剂的使用方面进行了综合试验.结果表明:表面消毒最适时间为7~8 min;接种外植体带腋芽叶片保留2/5,3 d转瓶1次降低褐化的效果较好; 经此处理的外植体培养在1/2MS +BA 2 mg/L+NAA 0.1 mg/L+Vc 1.0 g/L+AC 1.0 g/L的培养基中,生长良好,褐化率由86 %下降为41 %.%The sterilized time and cutting pattern of explants, interval time for transferring another bottle, medium types, different hormone combination, anti-browning agents and absorption agents were studied to reduce the browning rate of explants in tissue culture of tea tree. The results showed that the browning rate could reduce from 86 % to 41 % when the explants with 2/5 leaf and a axillary bud were sterilized by 0.1 % mercury solution for 7-8 min, the explants were transferred into another bottle every 3d and the treated explants were cultured on 1/2MS +BA 2 mg/L+NAA 0.1 mg/L+Vc 1.0 g/L+AC 1.0 g/L.

  20. Drifting Fragrant Tea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    ORIGINATING in China, tea drinking as well as tea culture has a long standing history of three to four thousand years. The formal tea ceremony had been in gradual decline since the Ming (1368-1644) and Qing (1644-1911) dynasties but gradually began to re-develop in the 1980s owing to the demands of people from all walks of life. The prosperity of the local tea culture is witnessed by the

  1. An Invitation to Tea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    TEA-drinking is very popular in southwest China’s Sichuan Province, especially in the provincial capital Chengdu. Some people estimate that the number of tea houses in Chengdu is greater than that of restaurants in Beijing. I, too, have developed the habit of having a cup of tea in the morning. On holidays, when I am free in the morning, I get up early to rush to a tea house,

  2. Wirkung einer Mundspülung mit Teebaumöl auf Plaque und Entzündung

    OpenAIRE

    Saxer, U P; Stäuble, A; Szabo, S H; Menghini, G

    2003-01-01

    English: The tea tree oil (melaleuca alternifolia) has antiseptic, fungicide and bactericide effects. The efficiency against oral bacteria was also evident. Xylitol is known for counterattacking the cariogenic effect caused by the streptococcus mutans. Less plaque was developed during the time of the study. Deutsch: Teebaumöl (Melaleuca alternifolia)verfügt über antiseptische, fungizide und bakterizide Wirkungen, welche auch gegen orale Keime nachgewiesen wurden. Xylitol ist bekannt als Z...

  3. An overview on Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchi Verma

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses on types of tea, its processing methods, bioactive compounds which are present in it, health benefits, toxic effects, interaction with drugs and herbs, formulations involving tea polyphenols. Tea has been found to possess various bioactive leads and need of the hour is to characterize these leads for better product development.

  4. Comment on Chinese tea culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王俊人

    2015-01-01

    Drinking tea has become a part of people's daily life. Tea culture as the crystallization of Chinese tradition has a long history. China is the homeland of tea. Tea as one of important exports has made a great contribution to economic develop-ment of Ancient China. Tasting tea is a unique culture of China. The tea quality, teahouse’s atmosphere and tea wares are all considered to be very important when tasting. With a long time of the habit of drinking tea, Chinese people have given tea the special spirit:clearness, respect, joy and truthfulness.

  5. Imidacloprid in processed tea and tea liquor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SANYAL N.; HAZRA D.; PAL R.; SOMCHAUDHURY A.K.; CHOWDHURY A.

    2006-01-01

    Imidacloprid is a newly introduced broad-spectrum chloronicotinyl insecticide and will find its way in agricultural production, particularly in Asia. However, information on the fate of imidacloprid in crop plants is lacking. The degradation of imidacloprid in processed CTC tea and tea liquor was investigated in the present study in which imidacloprid was applied at recommended application rate (30.0 g a.i./ha) and twice the recommended application rate (60.0 g a.i./ha) for three consecutive seasons. Imidacloprid was rapidly dissipated in processed tea following first order reaction kinetics at all application rates and had half-lives of 0.91~1.16 d with the residue in tea liquor found to be below detectable limit on 3rd day samples. The study revealed that imidacloprid is safe for human consumption and will not pose any residual toxicity problem.

  6. The Choice of China Tea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YuLiejiang; LiuHuadong

    2004-01-01

    THERE are three broad categories of China tea: green,black and oolong.Green tea is unfermented, and grows best in Zhejiang. According to Traditional Chinese Medicine it relieves internal heat. Black tea is

  7. Imperial Tea Connoisseurs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    HAVING ruled for 60 years, in 1795 Qing emperor Qianlong decided it was time to abdicate in favor of his son. His ministers tried to dissuade him, saying: "A country cannot manage for a single day without its monarch." The emperor promptly retorted, raising his cup of tea, "A monarch cannot function for a single day without tea." Qianlong had several reasons for abdicating and mentioned tea only as a red her-

  8. Determination of trace elements in tea by wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Measuring trace elements in tea can determine its nutritional value, verify the authenticity and place of origin, and detect the poisonous and harmful elements remaining in tea due to the application of chemical fertilizers and pesticides. Purpose: In order to reduce the time for sample preparation and the costs of equipment maintenance, wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF) spectroscopy was used to determine the trace elements in tea which is rapid, non-destructive and accurate. The contents of more than 20 elements can be measured simultaneously. Methods: Sample pieces were made by the sample preparation method of boric acid rebasing. To avoid the exogenous environmental pollution subjected in the growth of tea, we removed the residual dust of the tea by cleaning it. According to the principle that the standard samples should be similar types with the samples to be analyzed to select standard samples. The curves were built by SuperQ, which contained compiling the measurement conditions, establishing the measurement conditions, checking the angles, determining the measurement times, checking PHD and adding the contents and the names of sample pieces. The accuracy of the method can be obtained by comparing the measured values with the trace element contents of standard samples. The contents of trace elements in tea determined by WDXRF can be used to classify the tea attribution and the tea species through cluster analysis of SPSS software. Results: (1) The results show that the biggest relative standard deviation is 0.43% of Pb, and the precision is very good. (2) Five kinds of tea are taken separately in Fujian and Yunnan, measured three times with the established working curves. And tree diagram of cluster analysis can be obtained with SPSS software to analyze the measured average values with cluster analysis, coupling method between groups and Minkowski distance measurement techniques. It can be seen that in the tree diagram, when the

  9. Análise econômica do cultivo e extração do óleo essencial de Melaleuca alternifolia Cheel Economic analysis of the cultivation and extraction of the essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia Cheel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciro de Castro

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho estudou a viabilidade econômica do cultivo e extração do óleo essencial de um plantio de Melaleuca alternifolia Cheel. Foi realizado um levantamento dos rendimentos e custos da cultura das atividades de produção de mudas, implantação, manutenção, colheita, transporte e extração do óleo essencial, bem como as receitas. A análise econômica foi realizada utilizando-se os seguintes indicadores econômicos: Valor Presente Líquido, Razão Benefício/Custo, Taxa Interna de Retorno, Valor Anual Equivalente e Custo Médio de Produção. Posteriormente foi feita uma análise de sensibilidade, utilizando-se a técnica de simulação de Monte Carlo, por meio do software @Risk. Uma vez reunidos e analisados os dados, fixaram-se parâmetros mínimos, médios e máximos para as distribuições de probabilidade triangular dos custos de implantação, manutenção, colheita, destilação e da receita, oriundos do projeto de produção do óleo essencial, permitindo uma melhor avaliação dos indicadores econômicos perante a análise de riscos. Como resultado, obteve-se um rendimento de 81,82 L de óleo essencial por ha por ano, conseqüentemente um lucro anual de R$497,18 por hectare, enquanto a análise de sensibilidade apresentou uma baixa probabilidade de a atividade tornar-se inviável economicamente.This paper describes the study of the economic viability of cultivation and essential oil extraction of Melaleuca alternifolia Cheel. An assessment was made of profits and costs for activities of seedling production, implantation, maintenance, harvesting, transport and essential oil extraction, as well as revenues. The economic analysis was accomplished using the following economic indicators: Net Present Value, Benefit/Cost Ratio, Internal Return Rate, Equivalent Annual Value and Average Cost of Production. Then a sensibility analysis was performed using the simulation technique of Monte Carlo _ software @Risk. Once data were

  10. Tea Culture in Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DINGLinghui; PUNCOGZholma

    2004-01-01

    The air in Tibet does not contain sufficient oxygen, and people living in that part of the world love food that is "dry", such as meat ancl roasted qingke barley flour called zanba. This kind of life calls for tea. And Tibetans have been drinking tea for eons.

  11. Tea with Riddles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zingher, Gary

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the use of tea parties to stimulate children to use their creativity to plan, organize, and think about the materials they would need. Considers the use of riddles and gives examples of tea parties from literature, including fantasy books. (LRW)

  12. Tea-Producer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    CHEN Shuiyue is a tea producer in Shengzhou, Zhejiang Province, the biggest tea production and export base in China. One day last September, accompanied by two staff members from the local women’s federation, I visited Chen Shuiyue’s holne. Traveling along a bumpy road, we arrived at Yingguiyan Village, in Chongren County,

  13. Population Structure and Distribution Pattern of Dominant Tree Species in Ancient Tea Tree Community in Ailao Mountains of Yunnan Province, China%云南哀牢山古茶树群落优势树种的种群结构与分布格局

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴勇; 朱华; 孟广涛; 施济普; 杨国平

    2011-01-01

    The size structure, survival curve, dispersion coefficient, index of nearest neighbor and Ripley' s K function were used to analyze the population structure and distribution pattern of dominant tree species in the ancient tea tree community in Ailao Mountains of Yunnan Province. The results showed that there were 2 894 free-standing individuals with DBH≥1. 0 cm recorded in the 1.2 hm2 plot, belonging to 48 species, 38 genera and 22 families. Camellia sinensis var.assamica was ranked the first in terms of importance value with the highest abundance and Lithocarpus xylocarpus was ranked the second, although it had the largest relative dominancy. Then the community should be defined as mid-montane humid evergreen broad-leaved forest with Camellia sinensis var. assamica, L. xylocarpus, etc. being the dominant tree species. Now it is in the climax of succession series. Among 10 dominant tree species, L. xylocarpus, Manglietia insignis,Castanopsis wattii were of declining populations since their seedlings and saplings were scarce and the big trees were numerous. These three species tended to be in random distribution at most of scales, but clump intensity increased as population grew. Camellia sinensis var. assamica, Lithocarpus hancei and Myrsine semiserrata were of stable populations since theirs saplings, middle-sized trees were numerous and the big trees were scarce. Litsea honghoensis, Actinodaphne forrestii,Neolitsea polycarpa and Camellia pitardii were of growing populations since their seedlings and saplings were numerous and the big trees were scarce. These seven species tended to be in clumped distribution at most of scales, but clump intensity decreased as population grew. The spatiotemporal variations of population structure and distribution pattern reflected the competition between these species and the trends of succession of community.%用种群结构、存活曲线、扩散系数、最近邻体指数及Ripley's K函数等分析了云南哀牢山野生

  14. Tea Effects and Landscape Design of Tea Garden

    OpenAIRE

    Yue Liu; Bingqing Yang

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzes tea effects via the study of the influence of tea polyphenol on rats. Having summarized and generalized the landscape design of tea culture garden, the study ends up with explicit significance of tea garden. During the research, the paper finds that lacking facilities, garden zones are not fully fictionalized with common and ordinary landscapes and not obviously characterized by local cultures. To solve mentioned problems, it is proposed that tea gardens should break throu...

  15. Imidacloprid in processed tea and tea liquor*

    OpenAIRE

    Sanyal, N.; Hazra, D.; Pal, R; Somchaudhury, A.K.; Chowdhury, A.

    2006-01-01

    Imidacloprid is a newly introduced broad-spectrum chloronicotinyl insecticide and will find its way in agricultural production, particularly in Asia. However, information on the fate of imidacloprid in crop plants is lacking. The degradation of imidacloprid in processed CTC tea and tea liquor was investigated in the present study in which imidacloprid was applied at recommended application rate (30.0 g a.i./ha) and twice the recommended application rate (60.0 g a.i./ha) for three consecutive ...

  16. Rheology study of supercritically extracted tea-oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张党权; 陈胜铭; 彭万喜; 刘其梅; 谷振军; 樊绍刚; 邓顺阳

    2008-01-01

    The rheological analysis on dynamic shear rate-viscosity relationship of tea-oil extracted from tea-oil tree seeds by supercritical extraction method was carried out at gradient temperatures and constant shear rate,respectively.The results show that at 20,40,60 and 80 ℃,once the shear rate increases gradually,the torque enlarges correspondingly,while the viscosity shows little difference.However,at the constant shear rate,the rising temperature results in a steady downtrend on tea-oil viscosity.This results reveal that tea-oil viscosity is not closely correlated with shear rate at constant temperature,yet negatively correlated with temperature at constant shear rate.

  17. 豫南大别山区不同海拔高度茶树主要品质成分变化%Variation of Quality Components of Tea Tree at Different Altitude in Dabie Mountain Area of Southern Henan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟; 张艺成; 武文文

    2014-01-01

    The compositions of tea tree are analyzed by biochemical analysis and HPLC at different altitude in Dabie Mountain area of southern Henan province .The results show as follows :water extract 44 .52% ~46 .99% ,tea polyphenol 25 .49% ~30 .03% ,catechin 208 .49~234 .18 mg · g -1 ,amino acid 3 .86% ~4 .81% ,soluble sugar 4 .61% ~5 .22% ,chlorophyll 11 .26~1 .98 mg · g -1 ,caffeine 3 .11% ~3 .72% .The tea quality increases with alti-tude increments ,and the best quality is at 700 m altitude .%采用生化分析和高效液相色谱法,分析了豫南大别山区不同海拔高度茶树的主要成分。结果表明,其主要品质成分的含量为:水浸出物44.52%~46.99%(质量分数,以下同),茶多酚25.49%~30.03%,儿茶素208.49~234.18mg·g -1,氨基酸3.86%~4.81%,可溶性糖4.61%~5.22%,叶绿素1.26~1.98mg·g -1,咖啡碱3.11%~3.72%。综合分析,随海拔高度的升高,茶叶品质逐渐提升,海拔700 m处的茶叶品质最佳。

  18. Discrimination of Wild Tea Germplasm Resources (Camellia sp.) Using RAPD Markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Liang; WANG Ping-sheng; Yamaguchi Satoshi

    2002-01-01

    Discrimination of 24 wild tea germplasm resources ( Camellia sp. ) using RAPD markers was conducted. The result showed that RAPD markers were very effective tool and method in wild tea germplasm discrimination. There were 3 independent ways to discriminate tea germplasms, a) unique RAPD markers, b)specific band patterns and c) a combination of the band patterns or DNA fingerprinting provided by different primers. The presence of 16 unique RAPD markers and the absence of 3 unique markers obtained from 12 primers made it possible to discriminate 14 germplasms. Using the unique band patterns of primer OPO-13 could discriminate 10 tea germplasms. It was of much importance using minimum primers to obtain maximum discrimination capacity. All the 24 wild tea germplasms could be discriminated easily and entirely by the band patterns combination or DNA fingerprinting obtained from OPO-13, OPO-18, OPG-12 and OPA-13, including two wild tea trees of very similar morphological characteristics and chemical components.

  19. [Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in tea and tea infusions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciemniak, Artur; Mocek, Kamila

    2010-01-01

    Tea is the one of most widely consumed beverage in the world. It is generally believed that tea consumption might have health promoting properties. But residues of certain chemical compounds might impose a health threat on tea drinkers. The main contaminants are heavy metals, fluoride, pesticides and even dioxins. Tea lives which possess a high surface area can be contaminated with atmospheric PAHs. The manufacturing processes may also introduce PAHs into tea lives. The aim of his study was to determine the contamination of black, green, red and white teas by PAHs. In this investigation, content of 23 PAH, i.e 16 EPA PAH and 15 EU PAH were determined in 18 brands of tea and its infusions. The analytical procedure was based on ultrasonic extraction for dried tea and liquid-liquid extraction for infusions. All samples were cleaned up by florisil cartridge. The total content of 23 PAH varied between 22.9 microg/kg to 2945.5 microg/kg and 2.7 microg/kg to 63,1 microg/kg microg/kg for BaP. The analysed tea samples showed an increasing presence of PAH in the following order (mean value): black tea < red tea < green tea < white tea. However the highest content of PAH was found in the one brand of black tea bag both in sum of PAH and BaP content. During tea infusion 1.6% of total PAHs contained in tea was released into the beverage. The dominant PAHs in tea infusion were 2, 3 and 4 rings PAH, while the most toxic compounds were found at trace amounts. The concentrations of total 23 PAHs and BaP in tea infusions ranged from 332.5 ng/dm3 to 2245.9 ng/dm3 and 0.35 ng/dm3 to 18.7 ng/dm3 respectively. PMID:21365858

  20. Tea Tells All

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roever, Carol

    2007-01-01

    A beverage, as well as the way it is served, can be a window into the soul of a culture. For the author and her husband, Turkish tea helped them understand and enjoy the culture of Turkey. They learned that the broad nuances of culture can be as instructive as a classroom experience. The tea story begins in Chicago in the spring of 2005 when the…

  1. Fluoride and aluminum in teas and tea-based beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayacibara Mitsue Fujimaki

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate fluoride and aluminum concentration in herbal, black, ready-to-drink, and imported teas available in Brazil considering the risks fluoride and aluminum pose to oral and general health, respectively. METHODS: One-hundred and seventy-seven samples of herbal and black tea, 11 types of imported tea and 21 samples of ready-to-drink tea were divided into four groups: I-herbal tea; II-Brazilian black tea (Camellia sinensis; III-imported tea (Camellia sinensis; IV-ready-to-drink tea-based beverages. Fluoride and aluminum were analyzed using ion-selective electrode and atomic absorption, respectively. RESULTS: Fluoride and aluminum levels in herbal teas were very low, but high amounts were found in black and ready-to-drink teas. Aluminum found in all samples analyzed can be considered safe to general health. However, considering 0.07 mg F/kg/day as the upper limit of fluoride intake with regard to undesirable dental fluorosis, some teas exceed the daily intake limit for children. CONCLUSIONS: Brazilian and imported teas made from Camellia sinensis as well as some tea-based beverages are sources of significant amounts of fluoride, and their intake may increase the risk of developing dental fluorosis.

  2. Recent advances on tea polyphenols

    OpenAIRE

    Kanwar, Jyoti; Taskeen, Mujtaba; Mohammad, Imthiyaz; HUO, CONGDE; CHAN, TAK HANG; Dou, Qing Ping

    2012-01-01

    Over the past decade many scientific and medical studies have focused on green tea for its long-purported health benefits. There is convincing evidence that tea is a cup of life. It has multiple preventive and therapeutic effects. This review thus focuses on the recent advances of tea polyphenols and their applications in the prevention and treatment of human cancers. Of the various polyphenols in tea, (−)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is the most abundant, and active compound studied in ...

  3. Green Tea and Bone metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Chwan-Li; Yeh, James K.; Cao, Jay; Wang, Jia-Sheng

    2009-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a major health problem in both elderly women and men. Epidemiological evidence has shown an association between tea consumption and the prevention of age-related bone loss in elderly women and men. Ingestion of green tea and green tea bioactive compounds may be beneficial in mitigating bone loss of this population and decreasing their risk of osteoporotic fractures. This review describes the effect of green tea or its bioactive components on bone health, with an emphasis on: (...

  4. Prospect of indegenous plant extracts in tea pest management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S.A. Mamun

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Tea is a popular beverage made from the leaves of evergreen shrub or tree Camellia sinensis, under the family Theaceae. Tea plant is subjected to the attack of insects, mites, nematodes and some plant pathogenic diseases. Tea production is greatly hindered due to thesemaladies. About 10-15% crop loss occurred by these pests per annum. In severe cases, it would be 100%. To combat these problems different groups of pesticides have been used in the tea fields since 1960. As tea is a consumable commodity, the effect of residue of pesticides in made tea is harmful to human health. In this context, biopesticides are being considered as environmentally safe, selective, biodegradable, economical and renewable alternatives for use in IPM programmes. Biopesticides are natural plant products and may be grown by the planters with minimum cost and extracted by indigenous methods.Biopesticides are secondary metabolites, which include alkaloids, terpenoids, phenolics, and minor secondary chemicals. It is estimated that as many as 2121 plant species have been reported to posses’ pest control properties. Botanicals like neem, ghora-neem, mahogoni,karanja, adathoda, sweet flag, tobacco, derris, annona, smart weed, bar weed, datura, calotropis, bidens, lantana, chrysanthemum, artemisia, marigold, clerodendrum, wild sunflower and many others may be grown by planters with minimum expense and extracted by indigenous methods. These botanical materials can be used as an alternative to chemical pesticides. These botanical extracts will help in controlling major pests of tea such as Helopeltis, red spider mite, aphids, thrips, jassid, flushworm, termites, nematodes etc. Thepresent note reviews the information of most widely available indigenous plants that may be used for the control of insect pests of tea as a component of IPM.

  5. Tree sets

    OpenAIRE

    Diestel, Reinhard

    2015-01-01

    We study an abstract notion of tree structure which generalizes tree-decompositions of graphs and matroids. Unlike tree-decompositions, which are too closely linked to graph-theoretical trees, these `tree sets' can provide a suitable formalization of tree structure also for infinite graphs, matroids, or set partitions, as well as for other discrete structures, such as order trees. In this first of two papers we introduce tree sets, establish their relation to graph and order trees, and show h...

  6. Tea Varrak / Ruth Alas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alas, Ruth, 1960-

    2007-01-01

    Rahandusministeeriumi kantsler Tea Varrak iseloomustab ennast juhina, alluvate motiveerimine, ülevaade tavalisest tööpäevast, plaanid lähitulevikuks. Eluloolised andmed, haridus, täienduskoolitus, töökogemus. Kommenteerivad justiitsministeeriumi kantsler Jüri Pihl ja rahandusministeeriumi arendusjuht Alar Kolk

  7. Green tea and bone metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chwan-Li; Yeh, James K; Cao, Jay J; Wang, Jia-Sheng

    2009-07-01

    Osteoporosis is a major health problem in both elderly women and men. Epidemiological evidence has shown an association between tea consumption and the prevention of age-related bone loss in elderly women and men. Ingestion of green tea and green tea bioactive compounds may be beneficial in mitigating bone loss of this population and decreasing their risk of osteoporotic fractures. This review describes the effect of green tea or its bioactive components on bone health, with an emphasis on (i) the prevalence and etiology of osteoporosis; (ii) the role of oxidative stress and antioxidants in osteoporosis; (iii) green tea composition and bioavailability; (iv) the effects of green tea and its active components on osteogenesis, osteoblastogenesis, and osteoclastogenesis from human epidemiological, animal, as well as cell culture studies; (v) possible mechanisms explaining the osteoprotective effects of green tea bioactive compounds; (vi) other bioactive components in tea that benefit bone health; and (vii) a summary and future direction of green tea and bone health research and the translational aspects. In general, tea and its bioactive components might decrease the risk of fracture by improving bone mineral density and supporting osteoblastic activities while suppressing osteoclastic activities.

  8. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in tea (Japanese tea)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sr-90 and Cs-137 in Japanese tea were determined using radiochemical analysis. Five hundred grams of manufactured green tea was collected from six sampling locations in June 1984, carbonized and ashed in a stainless steel pan or a porcelain dish. The maximum value of Sr-90 was 88+-3.7 pCi/kg in tea collected from Kyoto; the maximum value of Cs-137 was 99.0+-3.60 pCi/kg collected from Kagoshima. (Namekawa, K.)

  9. Extractability of radiocesium from processed green tea leaves with hot water. The first emergent tea leaves harvested after the TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In some tea tree planting areas within 300 km from the TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP), it was found that newly emerged tea plant leaves for green tea contained two radiocesium species (cesium-134 and cesium-137). In this study, using processed green tea leaves for drinking, extraction ratios of radiocesium under several brew conditions were observed. When 90 deg C water was used, 50-70% of radiocesium was extracted into the water, while 54-60% of radiocesium was extracted with 60 deg C water. A part of radiocesium would be removed from leaves if the leaves were washed with 20 and 60 deg C water before brewing, and the efficiencies were 11 and 32%, respectively. Newly emerged camellia leaves were used to simulate the radiocesium removal ratio from raw tea leaves by washing and boiling; radioactivity concentration was decreased to 60% of the original concentration with washing and 10 min boiling. From these results, it was found that almost half of the radiocesium would not be removed from raw or processed tea leaves. The values obtained in the present study could be used for internal radiation dose estimation from tea leaves. (author)

  10. Black tea: chemical analysis and stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shiming; Lo, Chih-Yu; Pan, Min-Hsiung; Lai, Ching-Shu; Ho, Chi-Tang

    2013-01-01

    Tea is the most popular flavored and functional drink worldwide. The nutritional value of tea is mostly from the tea polyphenols that are reported to possess a broad spectrum of biological activities, including anti-oxidant properties, reduction of various cancers, inhibition of inflammation, and protective effects against diabetes, hyperlipidemia and obesity. Tea polyphenols include catechins and gallic acid in green and white teas, and theaflavins and thearubigins as well as other catechin polymers in black and oolong teas. Accurate analysis of black tea polyphenols plays a significant role in the identification of black tea contents, quality control of commercial tea beverages and extracts, differentiation of various contents of theaflavins and catechins and correlations of black tea identity and quality with biological activity, and most importantly, the establishment of the relationship between quantitative tea polyphenol content and its efficacy in animal or human studies. Global research in tea polyphenols has generated much in vitro and in vivo data rationally correlating tea polyphenols with their preventive and therapeutic properties in human diseases such as cancer, and metabolic and cardiovascular diseases etc. Based on these scientific findings, numerous tea products have been developed including flavored tea drinks, tea-based functional drinks, tea extracts and concentrates, and dietary supplements and food ingredients, demonstrating the broad applications of tea and its extracts, particularly in the field of functional food.

  11. Analysis of Various Tea Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchi Verma

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available As adulteration is becoming common today and tea is the most widely consumed beverage all over the world so our objective was to determine various adulterants in tea, coffee samples from udupi district, Karnataka, India as well as estimation of tannin and polyphenols from black tea samples. Specified standard procedures and tests were followed to perform the study. Amount of tannin and polyphenol content was determined.in samples and some adulterants were found to be present in the tea samples which are a matter of concern.

  12. Delivery of tea polyphenols to the oral cavity by green tea leaves and black tea extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mao-Jung; Lambert, Joshua D; Prabhu, Saileta; Meng, Xiaofeng; Lu, Hong; Maliakal, Pius; Ho, Chi-Tang; Yang, Chung S

    2004-01-01

    Catechins and theaflavins, polyphenolic compounds derived from tea (Camellia sinensis, fam. Theaceae), have been reported to have a wide range of biological activities including prevention of tooth decay and oral cancer. The present study was undertaken to determine the usefulness of green tea leaves and black tea extract for the delivery of catechins and theaflavins to the oral cavity. After holding either green tea leaves (2 g) or brewed black tea (2 g of black tea leaves in 100 ml) in the mouth for 2-5 min and thoroughly rinsing the mouth, high concentrations of catechins (C(max) = 131.0-2.2 micro M) and theaflavins (C(max) = 1.8-0.6 micro M) were observed in saliva in the 1st hour. Whereas there was significant interindividual variation in the peak levels of catechins and theaflavins, the overall kinetic profile was similar, with t(1/2) = 25-44 min and 49-76 min for catechins and theaflavins, respectively (average coefficient of variation in t(1/2) was 23.4%). In addition to the parent catechin and theaflavin peaks, five unidentified peaks were also observed in saliva after black tea treatment. Hydrolysis of theaflavin gallates, apparently by salivary esterases, was observed in vitro and in vivo. These results indicate that tea leaves can be used as a convenient, slow-release source of catechins and theaflavins and provide information for the possible use of tea in the prevention of oral cancer and dental caries. PMID:14744744

  13. Tea and human health: biomedical functions of tea active components and current issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zong-mao; Lin, Zhi

    2015-02-01

    Originating in China, tea and tea planting have spread throughout the world since the middle of the Tang dynasty. Now people from 160 countries in the world are accustomed to tea drinking. A brief history of tea's medicinal role in China and its spread to the world are introduced. The effectiveness of tea active components and tea drinking on major human diseases, including cancer, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, and neurodegenerative diseases, is discussed. Also presented are some related issues, such as the bioavailability of tea active components, the new formulations of tea polyphenols, and the safety for consumers of dietary supplements containing tea polyphenols. PMID:25644464

  14. Survey and Analysis on Undergraduate Tea Consumption and Attitude towards Tea Consumption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiahua; LI; Xiaohui; LU; Mengyao; JIANG; Wanfang; SHAO; Jianyun; ZHOU

    2013-01-01

    Based on the sample survey of undergraduates from Tsinghua University, Northwest Sci-Tech University of Agriculture and Forestry, Yunnan University and Yunnan Agricultural University, this paper analyzes their tea consumption and attitude towards tea consumption. Results show that more than 50% undergraduates like drinking tea, especially green tea. They would like to accept lower price tea, prefer quality to brand, and have higher degree of approval of new methods of tea drinking and tea products. However, most undergraduates lack relevant knowledge about identifying tea quality. Finally, it presents recommendations for expanding tea consumption market among undergraduates.

  15. Antibacterial activity and Chemical Composition of Essential Oils of Ten Aromatic Plants against selected Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Bharti

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The antibacterial activity of essential oils from ten aromatic plants Thymus vulgaris, Melaleuca alternifolia, Zanthoxylum rhetsa, Coriandrum sativum, Nardostachys jatamansi, Eucalyptus globules, Cyperus scariosus, Cinnamomum cecidodaphne, Olea europea, Foeniculum vulgare have been determined against nine selected bacteria. Essential oils from Thymus vulgaris, Melaleuca alternifolia and Eucalyptus globulus were found to possess maximum antibacterial activity. The GC-MS analyses of these oils showed that α-Terpine, Thymol and β -Cymene were the main compounds responsible for the inhibitory effects of thyme oil. α- Pinene and Cymene were the major compounds in the Tea tree oil. The major compound in the Eucalyptus oil was found to be Eucalyptol.

  16. Molecular Mechanisms of Green Tea Polyphenols

    OpenAIRE

    Dou, Q. Ping

    2009-01-01

    Tea, next to water, is the most popular beverage in the world. It has been suggested that tea consumption has the cancer-preventive effects. Epidemiological studies have indicated decreased cancer occurrence in people who regularly drink green tea. Research has also discovered numerous mechanisms of action to explain the biological effects of tea. The most abundant and popular compound studied in tea research is (−)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate or (−)-EGCG, which is a powerful antioxidant and c...

  17. THE COMAPARATIVE DATA BETWEEN VARIOUS BRANDS OF TEA POWDERS AND GREEN TEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Kranthi Kumar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Tea is composed of many compounds. These components have various Effects depending upon the amount of tea ingested and the quality of the tea .apart from that green tea having various useful properties which are helpful for human body .The present Communication Describes about the about the “THE COMAPARATIVE DATA BETWEEN VARIOUS BRANDS OF TEA POWDERS AND GREEN TEA by using U.V Spectrophotometer and TLC Procedure for the estimation of caffeine content in commercial available tea samples and Comparative data of caffeine content along with analysis of different brands of tea samples by Comparing with the green tea powder. The present methods shows a detailed description about the Difference between commercial brands of tea powders and Green tea. A possible explanation to Account for the variability in Green Tea and analysis of different samples is offered.

  18. Planting Trees

    OpenAIRE

    Relf, Diane

    2009-01-01

    The key aspects in planning a tree planting are determining the function of the tree, the site conditions, that the tree is suited to site conditions and space, and if you are better served by a container-grown. After the tree is planted according to the prescribed steps, you must irrigate as needed and mulch the root zone area.

  19. PAH in tea and coffee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Navarantem, Marin; Adamska, Joanna;

    For food regulation in the European Union maximum limits on other foods than tea and coffee includes benzo[a]pyrene and the sum of PAH4 (sum of benzo[a]pyrene, chrysene, benz[a]anthracene and benzo[b]fluoranthene). This study includes analysis of the above mentioned PAH in both, tea leaves, coffee...... for accumulation of PAH in tea leaves. Different varieties of tea leaves were analyzed and highest concentrations were found in leaves from mate and black tea with maximum concentrations of 32 μg/kg for benzo[a]pyrene and 115 μg/kg for the sum of PAH4. Also, coffee beans are roasted during processing. However......, both benzo[a]pyrene and PAH4 concentrations were more than ten times lower for coffee beans than for tea leaves. Highest levels were found for PAH4 of solid instant coffee (5.1 μg/kg). Data were used to calculate the exposure of benzo[a]pyrene (15%) and sum of PAH4 (10%) from tea and coffee...

  20. Response pattern of amino compounds in phloem and xylem of trees to soil drought depends on drought intensity and root symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X-P; Gong, C-M; Fan, Y-Y; Eiblmeier, M; Zhao, Z; Han, G; Rennenberg, H

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to identify drought-mediated differences in amino nitrogen (N) composition and content of xylem and phloem in trees having different symbiotic N(2)-fixing bacteria. Under controlled water availability, 1-year-old seedlings of Robinia pseudoacacia (nodules with Rhizobium), Hippophae rhamnoides (symbiosis with Frankia) and Buddleja alternifolia (no such root symbiosis) were exposed to control, medium drought and severe drought, corresponding soil water content of 70-75%, 45-50% and 30-35% of field capacity, respectively. Composition and content of amino compounds in xylem sap and phloem exudates were analysed as a measure of N nutrition. Drought strongly reduced biomass accumulation in all species, but amino N content in xylem and phloem remained unaffected only in R. pseudoacacia. In H. rhamnoides and B. alternifolia, amino N in phloem remained constant, but increased in xylem of both species in response to drought. There were differences in composition of amino compounds in xylem and phloem of the three species in response to drought. Proline concentrations in long-distance transport pathways of all three species were very low, below the limit of detection in phloem of H. rhamnoides and in phloem and xylem of B. alternifolia. Apparently, drought-mediated changes in N composition were much more connected with species-specific changes in C:N ratios. Irrespective of soil water content, the two species with root symbioses did not show similar features for the different types of symbiosis, neither in N composition nor in N content. There was no immediate correlation between symbiotic N fixation and drought-mediated changes in amino N in the transport pathways.

  1. Comparative characterisation of green tea and black tea cream: physicochemical and phytochemical nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiaorong; Chen, Zhongzheng; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Luo, Wei; Tang, Hao; Deng, Baibiao; Deng, Jian; Li, Bin

    2015-04-15

    Tea cream is prevalent in various types of tea, yet a comparison of the mechanism of creaming in different teas remains uncertain. Here, we compared physicochemical characteristics, phytochemical composition, and simulated digestive profiles of green tea and black tea cream, looking to exploit their concentration and structure based mechanisms and in vitro bioaccessibility. Green tea cream particles were roughly one order of magnitude larger than those of black tea in size. Moreover, creaming concentrations of catechins, proteins and methylxanthines of green tea were dramatically higher than black tea. As major creaming components, gallated catechins, theaflavins, thearubigins, theabrownines, proteins and methylxanthines also exhibited high creaming affinities. Green tea cream particles, which were completely destroyed by simulated digestion, had few impacts on digestive recoveries of catechins and methylxanthines. In comparison, black tea cream particles were more stable under mimicking digestion, and clarification remarkably decreased the in vitro bioaccessibility of catechins and methylxanthines.

  2. Green Tea and Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Anna H.; Butler, Lesley M.

    2011-01-01

    The identification of modifiable lifestyle factors that could reduce the risk of breast cancer is a research priority. Despite the enormous chemo preventive potential of green tea and compelling evidence from animal studies, its role in breast cancer development in humans is still unclear. Part of the uncertainty is related to the relatively small number of epidemiological studies on green tea and breast cancer and that the overall results from case-control studies and prospective cohort stud...

  3. In vitro activity of essential oils of free and nanostructured Melaleuca alternifolia and of terpinen-4-ol on eggs and larvae of Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grando, T H; de Sá, M F; Baldissera, M D; Oliveira, C B; de Souza, M E; Raffin, R P; Santos, R C V; Domingues, R; Minho, A P; Leal, M L R; Monteiro, S G

    2016-05-01

    Haemonchus contortus is one of the major gastrointestinal nematodes responsible for significant economic and production losses of sheep. Diseases caused by this species lack effective anthelmintic products, and the search for new compounds to replace synthetic anthelmintics has been extensive. The present investigation assesses the in vitro activity of the essential oil of melaleuca (Melaleuca alternifolia), both free (TTO) and nanostructured (nanoTTO), and terpinen-4-ol (terp-4-ol) on eggs and larvae of H. contortus. Tests of egg hatching (EHT) and inhibition of larval migration (LMIT) were used to assess the in vitro efficacy of TTO, nanoTTO and terp-4-ol. Using EHT, at a concentration of 3.5 mg/ml, 100% inhibition occurred using TTO and terp-4-ol, with LC50 values of 0.43 and 0.63 mg/ml, and LC90 values of 1.75 mg/ml and 3.12 mg/ml, respectively. NanoTTO had lower activity, with 82.6% inhibition at the same concentration. Using LMIT, TTO and nanoTTO had a similar activity with 88.0% and 84.8% inhibition, respectively, at a concentration of 56 mg/ml. Terp-4-ol had a greater effect on larvae, with 85.7% inhibition at a concentration of 56 mg/ml and 82.4% at 3.5 mg/ml, demonstrating high activity at the lowest concentration tested. Therefore, the results indicate that all substances tested showed ovicidal and larvicidal activity against H. contortus. TTO, terp-4-ol and, mainly, nanoTTO may be targeted in in vivo studies, besides being a promising line of research into the control and treatment of veterinary important helminths. PMID:26096177

  4. Tanzania’s Tea Sector : Constraints and Challenges’

    OpenAIRE

    Baffes, John

    2004-01-01

    In 1968, the government initiated a smallholder tea development program in which all aspects of smallholder tea marketing and trade were turned over to the Tanzania Tea Authority which assumed a wide array of responsibilities. The Authority promoted smallholder tea production. Most of the smallholder tea leaf went to the eight Tea Authority-owned factories for processing, and the rest t...

  5. Autoencoder Trees

    OpenAIRE

    İrsoy, Ozan; Alpaydın, Ethem

    2014-01-01

    We discuss an autoencoder model in which the encoding and decoding functions are implemented by decision trees. We use the soft decision tree where internal nodes realize soft multivariate splits given by a gating function and the overall output is the average of all leaves weighted by the gating values on their path. The encoder tree takes the input and generates a lower dimensional representation in the leaves and the decoder tree takes this and reconstructs the original input. Exploiting t...

  6. Preparation of partially decaffeinated instant green tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jian-Hui; Liang, Yue-Rong; Jin, Jing; Liang, Hue-Ling; Du, Ying-Ying; Lu, Jian-Liang; Ye, Qian; Lin, Chen

    2007-05-01

    The caffeine level of instant tea extracted from decaffeinated leaf tea with 4.0 mg g-1 caffeine is commonly above 10.0 mg g-1, the maximum limit of caffeine for decaffeinated instant tea. Further removal of caffeine by active carbon (AC) from the green tea extract was investigated. It showed that the removal of caffeine from the tea extract solutions depended on the treatment time and tea extract concentration while the ethanol concentration and pH had little effect on the removal of caffeine. According to the removal of caffeine and the ratio of total catechins to caffeine in the tested samples, the optimum decaffeination conditions were determined to be as follows: tea extract concentration 15-30 g L-1 for common tea extract but higher for partially decaffeinated tea leaf extract; ratio of tea solution to AC, 100 mL:4 g; treatment time, 4 h; and natural tea extract pH. Instant tea powder extracted from partially decaffeinated leaf tea with a caffeine level of 4.03 mg g-1 and further decaffeinated by AC had a caffeine level of 7.81 mg g-1, which was 31% lower than that without AC treatment.

  7. The cytogenetic effects of black tea and green tea on cultured human lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil Erhan Eroğlu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the cytogenetic effects of black tea and green tea were determined in cultured peripheral blood lymphocytes. Results showed that black tea and green tea induced the mitotic and replication indexes and decreased micronuclei. But these data were not statistically significant for green tea. The effects of black tea on the micronucleus formation and mitotic index were statistically significant. The decrease in micronucleus counts indicated that black tea and green tea had considerable anticlastogenic and antigenotoxic effects as observed in vitro in human lymphocytes. Thus, it could be concluded that tea polyphenols protected the normal cells from genotoxic or carcinogenic agents, which indicated the therapeutic and antioxidative role of catechins, flavonoids or other tea compounds.

  8. Tree compression with top trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Landau, Gad M.;

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a new compression scheme for labeled trees based on top trees [3]. Our compression scheme is the first to simultaneously take advantage of internal repeats in the tree (as opposed to the classical DAG compression that only exploits rooted subtree repeats) while also supporting fast...

  9. Tree compression with top trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Landau, Gad M.;

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a new compression scheme for labeled trees based on top trees. Our compression scheme is the first to simultaneously take advantage of internal repeats in the tree (as opposed to the classical DAG compression that only exploits rooted subtree repeats) while also supporting fast...

  10. Evaluation of Aluminum in Iranian Consumed Tea

    OpenAIRE

    Alireza Asgari; Mahdi Ahmadi Moghaddam; Amirhossein Mahvi; Masoud Yonesian

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Black tea leaf is one of the most important sources of Aluminum in dietary. Therefore this research was conducted to assess the amount of Aluminum in Iranian tea infusion. Methods: To assess Aluminum in Iranian consumed tea, 27 tea samples were analyzed for Al concentration for 10 and 60 min infusion, aluminum concentration was measured with atomic absorption and the results were analyzed by SPSS.13 version. Results: The results showed that minimum and maximum concentration of A...

  11. Economics of Tea Production in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Bushra Rehman; Nadeem Akmal; Muhammad Azeem Khan; Saima Rani

    2012-01-01

    Tea is one of the most important non-alcoholic beverage drinks worldwide and has been gaining further popularity as an important „health drink‟ in view of its purported medicinal value. Pakistan has the potential of producing quality tea. National Tea Research Institute NTRI plays a very important role in the production and promotion of tea cultivation in Pakistan. The study was conducted to identify the opportunities and constraints in Shinkiari Mansehra. Primary data was collected from NTRI...

  12. Tea and Health: Studies in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Naghma; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2013-01-01

    Tea, next to water is the cheapest beverage humans consume. Drinking the beverage tea has been considered a health-promoting habit since ancient times. The modern medicinal research is providing a scientific basis for this belief. The evidence supporting the health benefits of tea drinking grows stronger with each new study that is published in the scientific literature. Tea plant Camellia sinensis has been cultivated for thousands of years and its leaves have been used for medicinal purposes...

  13. Prospect of Tea Cultivation & Processing in Pakistan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    HistoryIn 1958, a farmer brought some tea seeds and plants from Bangladesh (then east Pakistan), and successfully cultivated them in district Mansehra. At that time, Pakistan was self-sufficient in tea that was produced in East Pakistan. After the separation (in 1971) of East Pakistan, Pakistan diverted attention to initial work on tea production. The Pakistan Agricultural Research Council (PARC) took over the charge of tea cultivation in 1976-77 and launched a project in 1980.

  14. Tea - a Chineseway of life and culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正> Tea, along with porcelain and silk, has long been one of China’s most significant exports.ln the 6th century, a Buddhist monk introduced tea to Japan and a Portuguese missionary to Europe in the 16th century. In this way, tea became an international beverage. From ancient times to today, tea has been a necessity of the ordinary life of anyone Chinese.

  15. THOR Turbulence Electron Analyser: TEA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazakerley, Andrew; Moore, Tom; Owen, Chris; Pollock, Craig; Wicks, Rob; Samara, Marilia; Rae, Jonny; Hancock, Barry; Kataria, Dhiren; Rust, Duncan

    2016-04-01

    Turbulence Heating ObserveR (THOR) is the first mission ever flown in space dedicated to plasma turbulence. The Turbulence Electron Analyser (TEA) will measure the plasma electron populations in the mission's Regions of Interest. It will collect a 3D electron velocity distribution with cadences as short as 5 ms. The instrument will be capable of measuring energies up to 30 keV. TEA consists of multiple electrostatic analyser heads arranged so as to measure electrons arriving from look directions covering the full sky, i.e. 4 pi solid angle. The baseline concept is similar to the successful FPI-DES instrument currently operating on the MMS mission. TEA is intended to have a similar angular resolution, but a larger geometric factor. In comparison to earlier missions, TEA improves on the measurement cadence. For example, MMS FPI-DES routinely operates at 30 ms cadence. The objective of measuring distributions at rates as fast as 5 ms is driven by the mission's scientific requirements to resolve electron gyroscale size structures, where plasma heating and fluctuation dissipation is predicted to occur. TEA will therefore be capable of making measurements of the evolution of distribution functions across thin (a few km) current sheets travelling past the spacecraft at up to 600 km/s, of the Power Spectral Density of fluctuations of electron moments and of distributions fast enough to match frequencies with waves expected to be dissipating turbulence (e.g. with 100 Hz whistler waves).

  16. Control of fluidized bed tea drying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temple, S.J.

    2000-01-01

    Tea is a product made from the leaf of the tea bush by several processes, including drying. The drying stage is the most energy intensive, and has tight performance criteria. This project investigated the options for the control of a fluidized bed tea dryer. The work included establishing some of th

  17. Green tea and the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Stephen

    2005-06-01

    Plant extracts have been widely used as topical applications for wound-healing, anti-aging, and disease treatments. Examples of these include ginkgo biloba, echinacea, ginseng, grape seed, green tea, lemon, lavender, rosemary, thuja, sarsaparilla, soy, prickly pear, sagebrush, jojoba, aloe vera, allantoin, feverwort, bloodroot, apache plume, and papaya. These plants share a common character: they all produce flavonoid compounds with phenolic structures. These phytochemicals are highly reactive with other compounds, such as reactive oxygen species and biologic macromolecules, to neutralize free radicals or initiate biological effects. A short list of phenolic phytochemicals with promising properties to benefit human health includes a group of polyphenol compounds, called catechins, found in green tea. This article summarizes the findings of studies using green tea polyphenols as chemopreventive, natural healing, and anti-aging agents for human skin, and discusses possible mechanisms of action.

  18. Polyphenol composition of a functional fermented tea obtained by tea-rolling processing of green tea and loquat leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shii, Takuya; Tanaka, Takashi; Watarumi, Sayaka; Matsuo, Yosuke; Miyata, Yuji; Tamaya, Kei; Tamaru, Shizuka; Tanaka, Kazunari; Matsui, Toshiro; Kouno, Isao

    2011-07-13

    Phenolic constituents of a new functional fermented tea produced by tea-rolling processing of a mixture (9:1) of tea leaves and loquat leaves were examined in detail. The similarity of the phenolic composition to that of black tea was indicated by high-performance liquid chromatography comparison with other tea products. Twenty-five compounds, including three new catechin oxidation products, were isolated, and the structures of the new compounds were determined to be (2R)-2-hydroxy-3-(2,4,6-trihydroxyphenyl)-1-(3,4,5-trihydroxyphenyl)-1-propanone 2-O-gallate, dehydrotheasinensin H, and acetonyl theacitrin A by spectroscopic methods. In addition, theacitrinin A and theasinensin H were obtained for the first time from commercial tea products. Isolation of these new and known compounds confirms that reactions previously demonstrated by in vitro model experiments actually occur when fresh tea leaves are mechanically distorted and bruised during the production process.

  19. Sharing a bowl of tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, S

    1993-06-01

    Soshitsu Sen's keynote speech before a symposium on population and the environment is summarized unofficially by the editorial staff. The instability of human thinking is given as the cause for the present destruction of the environment. In a visit to the His Majesty King of Sweden, Sen remarked that stabilizing human minds can be achieved within the tea ceremony through "serving tea heartily, receiving it with gratitude, and offering it to another." In this way, the spirit of concern for others can be practiced in everyday life and tranquility of mind reached. News broadcasts of starving parents and children as victims of civil war are disheartening. The Japanese people are not suffering such hunger, even though the economy has not been as robust as desired. The analogy is provided in the story by Chuang Chou about King Hun Dun and King Xiu and man's good intentions, which nonetheless destroy the earth. Japan has experienced forest and environmental destruction on the road to economic prosperity and satisfaction of self-interests. The advice on living in accord with nature is to appreciate each season for its own changes. For example, when it is the winter season, the complaint is about the cold and the desire is for spring; but when spring comes, the desire is for the cooler weather of fall. the ordinary way is to appreciate all seasons and is the best way of sustaining a healthy environment. In the garden of the tea hut, humans enter without their worldly title, position, and means; at the water basin, hands and mouth are cleansed, and entrance is made through a small hole into the hut much the same as emerging from the womb. Worldly matters are dispensed with and purity of thought is shared in the sharing of the bowl of green tea, saying "after you" to one another. Christianity and the Way of Tea share the same symbols of purification. The black tea bowl is in harmony with the green tea. Fatigue is relieved when gazing upon the color green; examples are given

  20. Sharing a bowl of tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, S

    1993-06-01

    Soshitsu Sen's keynote speech before a symposium on population and the environment is summarized unofficially by the editorial staff. The instability of human thinking is given as the cause for the present destruction of the environment. In a visit to the His Majesty King of Sweden, Sen remarked that stabilizing human minds can be achieved within the tea ceremony through "serving tea heartily, receiving it with gratitude, and offering it to another." In this way, the spirit of concern for others can be practiced in everyday life and tranquility of mind reached. News broadcasts of starving parents and children as victims of civil war are disheartening. The Japanese people are not suffering such hunger, even though the economy has not been as robust as desired. The analogy is provided in the story by Chuang Chou about King Hun Dun and King Xiu and man's good intentions, which nonetheless destroy the earth. Japan has experienced forest and environmental destruction on the road to economic prosperity and satisfaction of self-interests. The advice on living in accord with nature is to appreciate each season for its own changes. For example, when it is the winter season, the complaint is about the cold and the desire is for spring; but when spring comes, the desire is for the cooler weather of fall. the ordinary way is to appreciate all seasons and is the best way of sustaining a healthy environment. In the garden of the tea hut, humans enter without their worldly title, position, and means; at the water basin, hands and mouth are cleansed, and entrance is made through a small hole into the hut much the same as emerging from the womb. Worldly matters are dispensed with and purity of thought is shared in the sharing of the bowl of green tea, saying "after you" to one another. Christianity and the Way of Tea share the same symbols of purification. The black tea bowl is in harmony with the green tea. Fatigue is relieved when gazing upon the color green; examples are given

  1. Teahouses and the Tea Art: A Study on the Current Trend of Tea Culture in China and the Changes in Tea Drinking Tradition

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jie

    2015-01-01

    he subject of this thesis is tradition and the current trend of tea culture in China. In order to answer the following three questions whether the current tea culture phenomena can be called tradition or not; what are the changes in tea cultural tradition and what are the new features of the current trend of tea culture; what are the endogenous and exogenous factors which influenced the change in the tea drinking tradition , I did literature research from ancient tea classics and historic...

  2. Mosquitocidal essential oils: are they safe against non-target aquatic organisms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Barbara; Flamini, Guido; Cioni, Pier Luigi; Ceccarini, Lucia; Macchia, Mario; Benelli, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    In latest years, the importance of the Melaleuca alternifolia essential oil (EO) has been greatly empathised due to its anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory effects, as well as to its toxic properties towards many arthropods of great medical and veterinary importance. In this research, the EO extracted from aerial parts of M. alternifolia was evaluated for its toxicity against larvae of the most invasive mosquito worldwide, Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae), and towards adults of the water flea, Daphnia magna (Cladocera: Crustacea), a non-target aquatic organism that share the same ecological niche of A. albopictus. The chemical composition of M. alternifolia EO was investigated by GC-MS analysis. Tea tree EO was mainly composed by oxygenated monoterpenes, with 1,8-cineole as the major constituent. M. alternifolia EO exerted toxic activity against A. albopictus larvae, with a LC50 = 267.130 ppm. However, this EO had a remarkable acute toxicity also towards adults of the non-target arthropod D. magna, with a LC50 = 80.636 ppm. This research provide useful information for the development of newer and safer mosquito control tools, highlighting that the non-target effects against aquatic organisms that share the same ecological niche of A. albopictus larvae are crucial in the development of ecofriendly mosquito control strategies. Further research is needed to investigate the chronic and/or reproductive toxicity of M. alternifolia EO both towards target and non-target aquatic arthropods.

  3. Analysis of Naturally Occurring Fluoride in Commercial Teas and Estimation of Its Daily Intake through Tea Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chuan-yi; Cai, Hui-mei; Zhu, Xiao-hui; Li, Da-xiang; Yang, Yun-qiu; Hou, Ru-yan; Wan, Xiao-chun

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the levels of fluoride in commercial teas and to estimate the contribution of tea consumption to the fluoride recommended daily allowance. A total of 558 tea products in 6 categories, green tea, black tea, oolong tea, pu'er tea, white tea, and reprocessed tea, were collected in the period from 2010 to 2013. The levels of fluoride in infusions of these teas were determined by a fluoride-ion selective electrode. The mean fluoride level in all of the tea samples was 85.16 mg/kg. For each category of tea, the mean fluoride levels were 63.04, 99.74, 52.19, 101.67, 159.78, and 110.54 mg/kg for green tea, black tea, white tea, pu'er tea, oolong tea, and reprocessed tea, respectively. The fluoride content of tea from 4 tea zones in descending order were Southern tea zone (111.39 mg/kg) > Southwest tea zone (78.78 mg/kg) > Jiangnan tea zone (71.73 mg/kg) > Jiangbei tea zone (64.63 mg/kg). These areas produced teas with lower fluoride levels than available foreign-produced tea (161.11 mg/kg). The mean chronic daily intake (CDI) was 0.02 mg/(kg•day) or 1.27 mg/kg. Generally, consuming tea from these 6 categories does not result in the intake of excessive amounts of fluoride for the general population.

  4. Talking Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolman, Marvin

    2005-01-01

    Students love outdoor activities and will love them even more when they build confidence in their tree identification and measurement skills. Through these activities, students will learn to identify the major characteristics of trees and discover how the pace--a nonstandard measuring unit--can be used to estimate not only distances but also the…

  5. Antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic activity of tea polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Y; Hara, Y

    1999-01-01

    Tea is the most popular beverage, consumed by over two thirds of the world's population. Tea is processed differently in different parts of the world to give green (20%), black (78%) or oolong tea (2%). Green tea is consumed mostly in Japan and China. The antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic activities of green tea are extensively examined. The chemical components of green and black tea are polyphenols, which include EC, ECG, EGC, EGCG and TFs. This article reviews the epidemiological and experimental studies on the antimutagenicity and anticarcinogenicity of tea extracts and tea polyphenols. In Japan, an epidemiological study showed an inverse relationship between habitual green tea drinking and the standardized mortality rates for cancer. Some cohort studies on Chanoyu (Japanese tea ceremony) women teachers also showed that their mortality ratio including deaths caused by malignant neoplasms were surprisingly low. The antimutagenic activity against various mutagens of tea extracts and polyphenols including ECG and EGCG has been demonstrated in microbial systems (Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli), mammalian cell systems and in vivo animal tests. The anticarcinogenic activity of tea phenols has been shown in experimental animals such as rats and mice, in transplantable tumors, carcinogen-induced tumors in digestive organs, mammary glands, hepatocarcinomas, lung cancers, skin tumors, leukemia, tumor promotion and metastasis. The mechanisms of antimutagenesis and anticarcinogenesis of tea polyphenols suggest that the inhibition of tumors may be due to both extracellular and intracellular mechanisms including the modulation of metabolism, blocking or suppression, modulation of DNA replication and repair effects, promotion, inhibition of invasion and metastasis, and induction of novel mechanisms. PMID:9878691

  6. Antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic activity of tea polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Y; Hara, Y

    1999-01-01

    Tea is the most popular beverage, consumed by over two thirds of the world's population. Tea is processed differently in different parts of the world to give green (20%), black (78%) or oolong tea (2%). Green tea is consumed mostly in Japan and China. The antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic activities of green tea are extensively examined. The chemical components of green and black tea are polyphenols, which include EC, ECG, EGC, EGCG and TFs. This article reviews the epidemiological and experimental studies on the antimutagenicity and anticarcinogenicity of tea extracts and tea polyphenols. In Japan, an epidemiological study showed an inverse relationship between habitual green tea drinking and the standardized mortality rates for cancer. Some cohort studies on Chanoyu (Japanese tea ceremony) women teachers also showed that their mortality ratio including deaths caused by malignant neoplasms were surprisingly low. The antimutagenic activity against various mutagens of tea extracts and polyphenols including ECG and EGCG has been demonstrated in microbial systems (Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli), mammalian cell systems and in vivo animal tests. The anticarcinogenic activity of tea phenols has been shown in experimental animals such as rats and mice, in transplantable tumors, carcinogen-induced tumors in digestive organs, mammary glands, hepatocarcinomas, lung cancers, skin tumors, leukemia, tumor promotion and metastasis. The mechanisms of antimutagenesis and anticarcinogenesis of tea polyphenols suggest that the inhibition of tumors may be due to both extracellular and intracellular mechanisms including the modulation of metabolism, blocking or suppression, modulation of DNA replication and repair effects, promotion, inhibition of invasion and metastasis, and induction of novel mechanisms.

  7. Bioconversion of wastewater from sweet potato starch production to Paenibacillus polymyxa biofertilizer for tea plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shengjun; Bai, Zhihui; Jin, Bo; Xiao, Runlin; Zhuang, Guoqiang

    2014-01-01

    Wastewater from the sweet potato starch industry is a large source of nutrient-rich substrates. We assessed whether this wastewater could be used to produce Paenibacillus polymyxa biofertilizer for foliar application to tea trees. Using the central composite design methods we experientially determined that the optimal culture conditions for P. polymyxa were pH, 6.5; temperature, 29.0 °C; and incubation time, 16 h. Under these conditions, a maximum biomass of 9.7 × 10(9) cfu/mL was achieved. We then conducted a yearlong field investigation to determine the effect of P. polymyxa biofertilizer on the growth of tea plants (Camellia sinensis). Tea yield, quantity of water extract, and tea polyphenol levels were significantly higher after foliar application of the biofertilizer compared to that in the controls by an average of 16.7%, 6.3%, and 10.4%, respectively. This approach appears to be technically feasible for organic tea production, and is an environmentally friendly way to utilize wastewater.

  8. Holy Trees

    OpenAIRE

    Elosua, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    Puxi's streets are lined with plane trees, especially in the former French Concession (and particularly in the Luwan and Xuhui districts). There are a few different varieties of plane tree, but the one found in Shanghai, is the hybrid platane hispanica. In China they are called French Plane trees (faguo wutong - 法国梧桐), for they were first planted along the Avenue Joffre (now Huai Hai lu - 淮海路) in 1902 by the French. Their life span is long, over a thousand years, and they may grow as high as ...

  9. Study on the Characteristics of Competition in Sichuan Tea Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guoxian; YANG; Xiumin; WU; Junzan; WU

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, there is huge potential in the domestic sales and export of tea in China. However, the tea leaf products are less competitive in the international market because of the lack of brand. Sichuan Province as a province with large amount of tea leaves, characteristics of tea leaf industry in Sichuan Province were analyzed from three aspects, namely fundamental industrial characteristics, the competition strategy of a company and main competition measures. The tea industry in Sichuan Province was featured by its large amount of companies and low industrial concentration. The competition among tea companies often uses the strategy of different brands and low cost. The major way to compete was to build tea brand and to publicize the tea culture. Organic green tea was the main issue. Electronic business platform was applied. Study on the competition characteristics of tea industry in Sichuan can improve the regional competitiveness of tea industry and can make contribution to the entire tea industry in China.

  10. The Design of Automatic Stirring Ripe Tea Fermenter for Puer Tea

    OpenAIRE

    Wu Xiaoqiang

    2015-01-01

    Traditional ripe tea fermentation is directly stacking puer tea material on the ground of fermentation workshop relying on natural environment to ferment. The way of fermentation, which has poor degree of sanitation, makes fermentation process influenced by environmental change and difficult to ensure product quality and stability. To solve this problem, we design a ripe tea fermenter for puer tea. There is a certain distance between fermenter and the ground and the spindle of fermenter is de...

  11. Determination of flavonol glycosides in green tea, oolong tea and black tea by UHPLC compared to HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Heyuan; Engelhardt, Ulrich H; Thräne, Claudia; Maiwald, Beate; Stark, Janina

    2015-09-15

    An UHPLC method for the determination of flavonol glycosides (FOG) from green and oolong tea vs. black tea has been developed for the first time. Sample clean-up method by means of polyamide column chromatography was optimized with multiple-step elution. Using UHPLC and HPLC with gradient elution and photodiode array detection, eighteen FOG compounds were determined with the aid of electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. These FOG compounds were qualified on both UHPLC and HPLC, and this UHPLC method successfully separated rutin (quercetin-3-O-rutinoside) and K-grg (kaempferol-3-O-glucorhamnoglucoside) while conventional HPLC method did not. The total amounts of FOG compounds in the tea samples were 2.32-5.67g/kg dry weight (calculated as aglycones), and there is no significant difference for the total FOG content among green tea, oolong tea and black tea. However, kaempferol glycosides are more abundant in green teas, while oolong tea has more quercetin and myricetin glycosides. In black tea quercetin glycosides were most abundant.

  12. A traditional method of Cinnamomum carolinense preparation eliminates safrole from a therapeutic Pohnpean tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynertson, Kurt A; Balick, Michael J; Lee, Roberta; Raynor, William; Pelep, Yosio; Kennelly, Edward J

    2005-11-14

    Cinnamomum carolinense, locally known as madeu, is a tree endemic to the volcanic mountains of the Island of Pohnpei in the Eastern Carolines of the South Pacific. The bark is harvested from trees and brewed to make a medicinal tea and hot beverage that is regularly consumed. Many species of Cinnamomum contain the known hepatocarcinogen safrole, sparking concern regarding habitual consumption of this beverage. HPLC-PDA analysis confirmed the presence of the carcinogen in alcoholic extracts of Cinnamomum carolinense bark shavings (0.435%, w/w), but safrole was not detected in the tea. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation of safrole were determined to be 1.25 and 3.75 microg/mL, respectively. The traditional preparation method, which boils the bark shavings, degrades the safrole.

  13. Discussion on the Sustainable Development of Pu'er Tea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAO Wan-fang; JIANG Xin-feng

    2011-01-01

    The current situation of Pu'er tea in Yunnan was analyzed. The analysis result showed that the production output of Yunnan tea and the tea plantation area increased greatly when compared with the whole country, but the increase of Pu'er tea inclined to be stable. The restraining factors of Pu'er tea development were explored, and the corresponding countermeasures were put forward. It provided the basis for the sustainable development of Yunnan Pu'er tea.

  14. Electron Tree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelt, Ane L; Rønde, Heidi S

    2013-01-01

    The photo shows a close-up of a Lichtenberg figure – popularly called an “electron tree” – produced in a cylinder of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). Electron trees are created by irradiating a suitable insulating material, in this case PMMA, with an intense high energy electron beam. Upon discharge......, during dielectric breakdown in the material, the electrons generate branching chains of fractures on leaving the PMMA, producing the tree pattern seen. To be able to create electron trees with a clinical linear accelerator, one needs to access the primary electron beam used for photon treatments. We...... appropriated a linac that was being decommissioned in our department and dismantled the head to circumvent the target and ion chambers. This is one of 24 electron trees produced before we had to stop the fun and allow the rest of the accelerator to be disassembled....

  15. Tea-Grown Soils and Tea Quality in Sichuan and Chongqing, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Made teas and typical tea-grown soils in Sichuan and Chongqing were collected to investigate soil nutri-ents, related soil properties and tea quality. The tea-grown soils in Sichuan and Chongqing are distributed mainly in mountainous areas. The high annual precipitation (over 1 100 mm), precipitous soil slopes, low cohesion among soil particles and high soil porosity suggested that intensive erosion and leaching might occur in these soils. Moreover, they were very acidic and poor in mineral nutrients such as N, P, K, Ca and Mgexcept S. The average content of total S was 20.40 g kg-1, much higher than that of organic matter in thesesoils, revealing that S in the tea-grown soils existed mainly in inorganic forms and very little in organic forms.Water-extractable S accounted for only a small amount of total S, which showed that most parts of sulfur in these soils were insoluble in water. K and S varied greatly in made teas. The concentrations of N and P,however, varied little in these teas even though they differentiated significantly in the tea-grown soils. Thehigh concentration of nitrogen in made teas could result in the high free amino acids and low polyphenolof teas. Significantly positive correlation was established between potassium and polyphenol in made teas.Teas with high ratio of phenol to free amino acids were usually good in taste and appearance.

  16. Game tree algorithms and solution trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.H.L.M. Pijls (Wim); A. de Bruin (Arie)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper, a theory of game tree algorithms is presented, entirely based upon the concept of solution tree. Two types of solution trees are distinguished: max and min trees. Every game tree algorithm tries to prune nodes as many as possible from the game tree. A cut-off criterion in

  17. Xerophilic mycopopulations of teas in bulk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Škrinjar Marija M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available d.o.o., Novi Sad AU Krunić Vesna J. AF EKOLd.o.o., Novi Sad KW teas % mould contamination % thermal treatment KR nema Other the water, tea is the most popular beverage in the world today. They are used for ages, in the beginning as refreshing drinks, and later more for their healing properties. Teas have been demonstrated to show antioxidative, anti-carcinogenic, and anti-microbial properties. Considering that the teas, during the production, are not treated with any temperature, there is high risk for contamination with different type of microorganisms, especially with moulds. Moulds are ubiquitously distributed in nature and their spores can be found in the atmosphere even at high altitudes and under favorable conditions of temperature and humidity, moulds grow on many commodities including cereals, oil seeds, nuts, herbs and spices. Most of them are potential producers of mycotoxins which present a real hazard to human health. The aim of this work was to investigate total mould count and to identify moulds isolated from teas in bulk, than from teas treated with hot, sterile, distilled water and from the tea filtrates. Tested teas were peppermint, sage, yarrow, black tea, bearberry, lemon balm, mixture of teas from Zlatibor. In teas in balk was observed high contamination with different kinds of moulds (1.84-4.55 cfu/g, such as Aspergillus awamori, A. lovaniensis, A niger, A. phoenicus, A. repens, A. restrictus, A. sydowii, A. versicolor, Eurotium amstelodami, E. chevalieri, E. herbariorum, Penicillium chrysogenum, and Scopulariopsis brevicaulis. The most frequent were species from Aspergillus and Eurotium genera. Thermal treatment with hot, sterile, distilled water reduced the number of fungal colonies. Aspergillus awamori was the most resistant and appeared in six samples of filtrates of tea, Aspergillus niger in one sample and Penicillium chrysogenum in one sample.

  18. Does Drinking Tea Protect Against Cardiovascular Disease?

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Natasha

    2003-01-01

    Recent evidence supports the hypothesis that tea does, in fact protect against cardiovascular disease. Some of the latest data by Hodgson et al, suggests that dietary flavonoids in tea significantly improves endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent flow-mediated vasodilation (2.3%; P=.008 & 4.2%; P=.03 respectively). Similar results were obtained in a study by Duffy et al, where it was found that short- and long-term tea consumption significantly improved endothelium dependent flow-m...

  19. The Treatment Effectiveness Assessment (TEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling W

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Walter Ling,1 David Farabee,1 Dagmar Liepa,2 Li-Tzy Wu3 1Integrated Substance Abuse Programs, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, 2Valley Care Medical Center, Panorama City, CA, 3Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, School of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA We have been surprised and gratified by the readers’ responses to our article, The Treatment Effectiveness Assessment (TEA: an efficient, patient-centered instrument for evaluating progress in recovery from addiction, which was published in December 2012.1 In the six months since that time, we have received numerous questions and observations about the article, and about the TEA instrument. Respondents were clinicians: physicians, counselors, therapists, nurses; as well as administrators and policy makers.  View original paper by Ling W, Farabee D, Liepa D, Wu LT. 

  20. Bewitched - The Tea Party Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashbee, Edward

    2011-01-01

    This article considers the development of the Tea Party movement, the character of its thinking and the nature of the interests and constituencies to which it is tied. The article suggests that despite the importance of ideas and interests, and the process of interaction between them, the movement...... has also been shaped and energised by institutional arrangements. In particular, it argues that there are significant numbers of independent or ‘detached’ conservatives and that the institutional architecture draws them towards political engagement but at the same time imposes constraints....... The political friction that this creates has contributed to the anger that has characterised the movement. While the Tea Party movement may, as such, have only an ephemeral existence, independent conservatives are likely to remain a significant and potent constituency and will, within the institutional...

  1. Risk Analysis for Tea Processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ Itis lbviors that after all the disasters with dilxins, BSE, pathogcns,Footand Mouth disease a. o. and now shortly because of the possibillties of bioterrorism, thatFoodSafetyisalmostatthetopoftheagendaoftheEUfor theyearstocome The implementaion of certainhy gicneprinci plessuchas HA C C P and a transparent hygiene policy applicable to all food and all food operators, from the farm to the table, togetherwith effoctiveinstruments to manage Food Safety will form fsubstantialpart on this agenda. As an example external quality factors such as certain pathogens in tea will. be discussed. Since risk analysis of e. g. my cotoxing have already a quite long histoy and development in sereral international bodies and tea might bear unwanted (or deliberately added by terroristic action)contaminants, the need to monitor teamuch more regularly than is being done today, seems to be a"conditio sine qua non ". Recentoy developed Immuno Flow tests may one day help the consumer perhaps to find out if he gets poisoned.

  2. Economics of Tea Production in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bushra Rehman

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Tea is one of the most important non-alcoholic beverage drinks worldwide and has been gaining further popularity as an important „health drink‟ in view of its purported medicinal value. Pakistan has the potential of producing quality tea. National Tea Research Institute NTRI plays a very important role in the production and promotion of tea cultivation in Pakistan. The study was conducted to identify the opportunities and constraints in Shinkiari Mansehra. Primary data was collected from NTRI and different farmers of Shinkiari and evaluate the farmer‟s perceptions production processing and marketing of tea. Results revealed that NTRI processing unit was working at below its full capacity and 226.59 Rs/Kg extra costs bearing due to below capacity. Tea is a high value crop of gross margin of 21340 Rs/ Acre and annually earned gross margin from other Crops wheat and maize was 6675Rs/Acre and Tea Cultivation Advantage was 14665 Rs/Acre but farmers was not interested to cultivate due to its high initial investment. Internal Rate of Return (IRR and Net Present Value (NPV were calculated for investment appraisal of the tea. Hence, there is need to promote tea cultivation on grass land area which will increase their income and livelihood and create more employment opportunities for local people.

  3. The Japanese Tea Ceremony and stress management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, J

    1996-01-01

    When people attend a Japanese Tea Ceremony, they often remark that it had a calming effect on them. The Tea Ceremony can be much more than that, however. Serious practitioners of tea develop a mind set and body control that enables them to transform tension-producing details of everyday life into moments of beauty, meaningfulness and tranquility. This effect comes from ritualizing ordinary chores and giving them an esthetic dimension and a noble motivation. Such discipline of mind and body also enables tea people to concentrate solely on the present moment, thereby shutting out worries about the past and anxieties about the future. PMID:8550688

  4. The Japanese Tea Ceremony and stress management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, J

    1996-01-01

    When people attend a Japanese Tea Ceremony, they often remark that it had a calming effect on them. The Tea Ceremony can be much more than that, however. Serious practitioners of tea develop a mind set and body control that enables them to transform tension-producing details of everyday life into moments of beauty, meaningfulness and tranquility. This effect comes from ritualizing ordinary chores and giving them an esthetic dimension and a noble motivation. Such discipline of mind and body also enables tea people to concentrate solely on the present moment, thereby shutting out worries about the past and anxieties about the future.

  5. Evaluation of Aluminum in Iranian Consumed Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Asgari

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Black tea leaf is one of the most important sources of Aluminum in dietary. Therefore this research was conducted to assess the amount of Aluminum in Iranian tea infusion. Methods: To assess Aluminum in Iranian consumed tea, 27 tea samples were analyzed for Al concentration for 10 and 60 min infusion, aluminum concentration was measured with atomic absorption and the results were analyzed by SPSS.13 version. Results: The results showed that minimum and maximum concentration of Al in tea infusion for 10 min infusion was 1.59 and 18.60 mg.L-1 respectively in this regard Baroti and Bamdad tea show the highest and lowest concentration respectively in term of Al, Also Statistical analysis with pair T-test showed that infusion time doesn,t significantly effects on aluminum leaching into infusion (P>0.05. Calculation of percentage "available" Al to the human system showed that 1 L of tea can provide 17.68 % of the daily dietary intake of Al, the percentage "available" for absorption in the intestine is only 8.49 % for overall mean Al concentration. Conclusion: Therefore based on our results, tea consumption in medium values cannot cause toxic effects on human. Although it is necessary to note that tea consumption might be toxic because of effects on people with absorption or secretion problems

  6. Yunnan Tea Drinking & Making in Ancient Times%云南古代的饮茶与制茶

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方铁

    2012-01-01

    The situation of planting tea trees, making tea and drinking tea in Yunnan differed greatly in different ancient periods. There were quite a lot records on planting tea trees and drinking tea in Yunnan from Qin -Han to Song dynasty. Yunnan economy developed greatly, but few documents mentioned about tea culture in Yuan dynasty. The records increased in Ming dynasty but it was not as many as that in other provinces. By the time of Qin dynasty, the planting, making and selling of Pu Er tea developed on a large sale, which is related to historic opportunity, time background and social custom at that time.%云南地区种茶、饮茶和制茶的情形,古代的不同时期有明显变化。秦汉至宋代云南有种茶和饮茶的若干记载。元代云南经济有较大发展,但提及云南饮茶、制茶的记载甚少。明代记载云南地区饮茶、制茶的文字虽然增多,仍未能与产茶大省比肩。清代滇南的普洱茶如异军突起,种植、加工和销售均扩至相当的规模。普洱茶在清代的繁荣,与历史机遇、时代背景与社会习尚等有关。

  7. The Impact of Tea Crop Insurance in the Development of Tea Industry (Case study: Otagvar, Langrood)

    OpenAIRE

    Hojat Sharifi; Shiva Parvaei Haredasht; Mohsen Mehrara; Maysam Musai

    2013-01-01

    The Agricultural Insurance Fund has covered tea crop since (2003). Due to undisputable effect of tea industry in the livelihood and the economy of Northern cities and people of the region, the Fund’s performance gains its importance. So in this paper, we investigate the impact of tea crop insurance in development of tea industry and factors effective on this impact. Our main question to be answered is that whether, in the present situation, tea crop insurance has been able to wield its role i...

  8. Tea seed upgrading facilities and economic assessment of biodiesel production from tea seed oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green tea seed (Camellia sinensisL. Kuntze) oil was used in this work. The tea seed oil contains more than 84% unsaturated fatty acid, such as oleic acid (62.5% by weight), linoleic acid (18.1% by weight) and linolenic acid. The biodiesel from tea seed oil in itself is not significantly different from biodiesel produced from vegetable oils. However, tea seed oil has lower pour point and lower viscosity as different common vegetable oils. Crude tea seed oil is one of the cheapest vegetable oil feedstocks with average price, 514 (US$/ton).

  9. Tea seed upgrading facilities and economic assessment of biodiesel production from tea seed oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demirbas, Ayhan [Sirnak University, Engineering Faculty, Sirnak (Turkey); Sila Science, Trabzon (Turkey)

    2010-12-15

    Green tea seed (Camellia sinensis L. Kuntze) oil was used in this work. The tea seed oil contains more than 84% unsaturated fatty acid, such as oleic acid (62.5% by weight), linoleic acid (18.1% by weight) and linolenic acid. The biodiesel from tea seed oil in itself is not significantly different from biodiesel produced from vegetable oils. However, tea seed oil has lower pour point and lower viscosity as different common vegetable oils. Crude tea seed oil is one of the cheapest vegetable oil feedstocks with average price, 514 (US$/ton). (author)

  10. Interpreting Tree Ensembles with inTrees

    OpenAIRE

    Deng, Houtao

    2014-01-01

    Tree ensembles such as random forests and boosted trees are accurate but difficult to understand, debug and deploy. In this work, we provide the inTrees (interpretable trees) framework that extracts, measures, prunes and selects rules from a tree ensemble, and calculates frequent variable interactions. An rule-based learner, referred to as the simplified tree ensemble learner (STEL), can also be formed and used for future prediction. The inTrees framework can applied to both classification an...

  11. Evaluation of free radical scavenging activity of tea infusion of commercial tea products available in uae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study, twenty four commercial tea samples were assayed to determine their free radical scavenging activity and polyphenolic contents based on the brewing/infusing period. Tea samples were infused/brewed in 200 mL boiled water at 120 degree C for 1, 2 and 5 min, respectively. The radical scavenging activities of tea infusion/brewing were measured using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) assay method. The results were ranged from 67.81-90.51% for black tea bags, 90.37-94.51% for green tea bags, 24.66-92.25% for black tea powder, 16.08-93.06% for green tea powder and 32.90- 45.54% for Camomile herbal infusion. The results showed that 1 or 2 min black tea bags infusion exhibited highest radical scavenging activity than 5 min infusion. Antioxidant activities of tea powders were variable with the amount of tea powder. It was observed that antioxidant activity increased with increasing boiling time for smaller amount of sample. In contrary, shorter boiling time was better for larger amount of sample. The polyphenol contents of tea infusion were determined and the results were expressed as milligram quercetin equivalent/200 mL of tea infusion. The polyphenol content was increased with increased brewing period. In contrary, brewing for longer time rendered extract less antiradical activity. This study suggests that infusing tea bag for 1 or 2 min is sufficient for getting infusion with maximum radical scavenging activity and in case of tea powder, shorter boiling time is better for larger amount of powder or small amount of powder should be boiled for minimum 5 min for rendering extract with maximum radical scavenging activity. (author)

  12. The Chinese Puzzle of Low Profit Tea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUOYUANJUN

    2004-01-01

    There are too many tea varieties, factories, and styles of packaging and too few registered trademarks and known domestic and international brands. No brand name means no market, let alone reputation or consumer loyalty. Beneath the superficially prosperous Chinese tea industry there lurks a nagging insecurity over its dearth of brand names.

  13. Evaluation of the attractive effect of coloured sticky traps for Aleurocanthus spiniferus (Quaintance and its monitoring method in tea garden in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aleurocanthus spiniferus (Quaintance, namely tea spiny whitefly (TSW, belongs to the family Aleyrodidae in the order Homoptera, widespread in tea trees and fruit trees in many countries or regions. In this study, the preference of TSW for different colours was evaluated in tea gardens. Yellow was the colour most preferred by TSW, followed by pink, red, white and other colours. The controlling technologies about the number of sticky traps in a certain area of tea garden and the height of sticky traps above tea canopy were also evaluated, the results indicated that the attractive effect of 20 traps/667 m2 of trials area and the height of 10 cm above tea canopy were significantly higher than others treatments. In addition, more TSW was caught at 11:00-15:00, followed by 7:00-11:00, and 15:00-19:00 in a daytime; higher activity level of male adults was at 7:00-11:00 and 11:00-15:00 in day time (95.13% and 94.97% of caught TSW, indicating a higher activity level for male adult.

  14. Correlation between Tea Quality and Geological Environment in Guizhou%贵州茶叶品质与地质环境的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任明强; 赵宾; 赵国宣; 杨胜元; 陈旭晖

    2011-01-01

    The correlation between tea quality and different geological environment was studied to provide the scientific basis for tea planting planning and production in Guizhou. The results showed that the integrated fertility of the soil developed from clasolite rocks was higher than that of the soil developed from carbonatite, the tea quality of tea trees planted on the soil developed from clasolite rocks was better than that of tea trees planted on the soil developed from carbonatite and the soil developed from carbonatite was beneficial to production of black tea.%为贵州省茶叶种植规划和茶叶生产提供科学依据,进行了不同地质环境下茶叶品质的研究.结果表明,碎屑岩背景地质环境区土壤综合肥力高于碳酸岩背景地质环境区,更有利于优质茶叶的生长和品质的提高;碎屑岩背景地质环境区绿茶茶叶品质优于碳酸岩为背景地质环境区,而碳酸岩背景地质环境区更有利于红茶的生产.

  15. Evaluation of gamma irradiation of teas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerolis, Luanai G.L.; Lameiras, Fernando S.; Menezes, Maria A.B.C.; Leal, Alexandre S., E-mail: luanaigraz@yahoo.com.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Krambrock, Klaus, E-mail: klaus@fisica.ufmg.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica. Lab. de Ressonancia Paramagnetica Eletronica

    2013-07-01

    There is a growing interest in the determination of non-essential traces elements in agroindustrial products. The continuous ingestion and accumulation in the organism of such elements, that may be toxic, can cause hazards to the human health in the long term. Reliable analytical techniques are necessary to monitor such products, including teas. In this work, the neutron activation technique is being employed to determine the trace elements in teas, due to its high sensibility and the possibility to perform a multi-elementary analysis. The gamma irradiation of teas is also being studied, because the shelf life can be extended and no chemical product is added to the teas. There is a concern related to the formation of free radicals in the teas, which is being accessed with electronic paramagnetic resonance. The results of the gamma irradiation up to 20 kGy of Camelia sinensis, Ilex paraguariensis, and Matricaria recutita are presented. (author)

  16. Oligomerization and hydroxylation of green tea catechins by oxidative enzymes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verloop, J.W.

    2016-01-01

    Black teas are known for their characteristic brown colour, bitter taste and astringent mouth feel. These sensory characteristics are mainly influenced by the phenolic oxidation products present in black tea. The oxidation of phenolics from green tea leaves during black tea manufacturing is an uncon

  17. Aspen Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canfield, Elaine

    2002-01-01

    Describes a fifth-grade art activity that offers a new approach to creating pictures of Aspen trees. Explains that the students learned about art concepts, such as line and balance, in this lesson. Discusses the process in detail for creating the pictures. (CMK)

  18. Determination of phthalate esters in teas and tea infusions by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Liping; Ma, Lijuan; Qiao, Yang; Lu, Yan; Xiao, Dongguang

    2016-04-15

    Phthalate esters (PAEs), a group of environmental pollutants which are carcinogenic to human body, have been detected in teas. In this work, five PAEs in teas and tea infusions were quantitatively determined by a modified simultaneous distillation extraction (SDE) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. After the optimization of SDE, the proposed method afforded a wide range of linearity and high linear regression coefficients with the limits of detection range of 0.24-3.72 μg/kg. The average recoveries were 79.83-116.67% for tea samples and 78.22-101.64% for tea infusions with all the relative standard deviations below 20%. The total content of five PAEs in teas was 1.135-3.734 mg/kg and the total dissolving ratio of five PAEs from tea to infusion was 19.05-28.07% for the selected tea samples. The risk assessment result of all the selected tea samples demonstrated that the population with the habit of drinking tea won't cause risk to human health.

  19. Volatile compounds and sensory characteristics of various instant teas produced from black tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraujalytė, Vilma; Pelvan, Ebru; Alasalvar, Cesarettin

    2016-03-01

    Various instant teas produced differently from black tea [freeze-dried instant tea (FDIT), spray-dried instant tea (SDIT), and decaffeinated instant tea (DCIT)], were compared for their differences in volatile compounds as well as descriptive sensory analysis (DSA). A total of 63 volatile compounds in all tea samples (eight aldehydes, ten alcohols, nine ketones, five esters, eight acids, ten terpenes/terpenoids, ten furans/furanones, two pyrroles, and one miscellaneous compound) were tentatively identified. Black tea, FDIT, SDIT, and DCIT contained 60, 55, 47, and 40 volatile compounds, respectively. Ten flavour attributes such as after taste, astringency, bitter, caramel-like, floral/sweet, green/grassy, hay-like, malty, roasty, and seaweed were identified. Intensities for a number of flavour attributes (except for caramel-like in SDIT and bitter and after taste in DCIT) were not significantly different (p>0.05) among tea samples. The present study suggests that instant teas can also be used as good alternative to black tea.

  20. Extraction Efficiency of Elements in Chinese Tea Infusions

    OpenAIRE

    Minami, Takeshi; KURUMANO, Kosuke; KAMEYAMA, Shuhei; YOSHIDA, Mai

    2012-01-01

    [Abstract] The concentrations of elements in Chinese tea infusions after both one-minute and overnight extractions were measured and the contents were compared with those of tea leaves. Leaves from 13 Chinese tea plants in ten provinces in China were collected; seven were green tea, four were oolong tea, and two were black tea. When seven major elements, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, P, S, and Zn, were measured, the contents in tea leaves did not differ, except for Zn. Ca content in one-minute infusion of g...

  1. Study on the Characteristics of Competition in Sichuan Tea Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Guoxian; Wu, Xiumin; Wu, Junzan

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, there is huge potential in the domestic sales and export of tea in China. However, the tea leaf products are less competitive in the international market because of the lack of brand. As a province with large amount of tea leaves, characteristics of tea leaf industry in Sichuan Province were analyzed from three aspects, namely fundamental industrial characteristics, the competition strategy of a company and main competition measures. The tea industry in Sichuan Province was featured...

  2. Developing Situation of Tea Harvesting Machines in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, C. C.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years rapid social change and industrial and commercial development in Taiwan has lead to migration of rural labor, population ageing, high wages and labor shortages, which resulted in significant problems for the tea industry. Thus, mechanization in the tea industry emerges as the direction for the future. According to a survey, tea harvesting and tea manufacturing use 87% and 5% of available labor, so the mechanization of tea harvesting is a priority. The application and developme...

  3. Green Tea (Camellia Sinensis): Chemistry and Oral Health

    OpenAIRE

    Khurshid, Zohaib; Zafar, Muhammad S.; Zohaib, Sana; Najeeb, Shariq; Naseem, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Green tea is a widely consumed beverage worldwide. Numerous studies have suggested about the beneficial effects of green tea on oral conditions such as dental caries, periodontal diseases and halitosis. However, to date there have not been many review articles published that focus on beneficial effects of green tea on oral disease. The aim of this publication is to summarize the research conducted on the effects of green tea on oral cavity. Green tea might help reduce the bacterial activity i...

  4. Tea extracts antioxidative potential in emulsified lipid systems

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Gramza-Michałowska; Marzenna Hęś; Józef Korczak

    2008-01-01

    Tea leaves (Camelia sinensis L.) extracts are source of polyphenols, i.e. antioxidant components. Research showed possible tea extracts use in food technology, influencing contained lipids stability improvement. The aim of the research was comparison of different teas extracts activity in emulsified lipid system. The present research examined different teas: white, green, yellow, oolong and black aqueous and ethanol extracts. To evaluate the most potent addition level different tea extracts c...

  5. Unimodular trees versus Einstein trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, Enrique; González-Martín, Sergio; Martín, Carmelo P.

    2016-10-01

    The maximally helicity violating tree-level scattering amplitudes involving three, four or five gravitons are worked out in Unimodular Gravity. They are found to coincide with the corresponding amplitudes in General Relativity. This a remarkable result, insofar as both the propagators and the vertices are quite different in the two theories.

  6. Brewing and volatiles analysis of three tea beers indicate a potential interaction between tea components and lager yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Lei; Peng, Li-Juan; Ho, Chi-Tang; Yan, Shou-He; Meurens, Marc; Zhang, Zheng-Zhu; Li, Da-Xiang; Wan, Xiao-Chun; Bao, Guan-Hu; Gao, Xue-Ling; Ling, Tie-Jun

    2016-04-15

    Green tea, oolong tea and black tea were separately introduced to brew three kinds of tea beers. A model was designed to investigate the tea beer flavour character. Comparison of the volatiles between the sample of tea beer plus water mixture (TBW) and the sample of combination of tea infusion and normal beer (CTB) was accomplished by triangular sensory test and HS-SPME GC-MS analysis. The PCA of GC-MS data not only showed a significant difference between volatile features of each TBW and CTB group, but also suggested some key compounds to distinguish TBW from CTB. The results of GC-MS showed that the relative concentrations of many typical tea volatiles were significantly changed after the brewing process. More interestingly, the behaviour of yeast fermentation was influenced by tea components. A potential interaction between tea components and lager yeast could be suggested.

  7. The antimicrobial possibilities of green tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanda C Reygaert

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Green tea is a popular drink, especially in Asian countries, although its popularity continues to spread across the globe. The health benefits of green tea, derived from the leaves of the Camellia sinensis plant, have been studied for many years. Fairly recently, researchers have begun to look at the possibility of using green tea in antimicrobial therapy, and the potential prevention of infections. The particular properties of catechins found in the tea have shown promise for having antimicrobial effects. There are four main catechins (polyphenols found in green tea: (--epicatechin (EC, (--epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG, (--epigallocatechin (EGC, and (--epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG. Three of these, ECG, EGC, and EGCG have been shown to have antimicrobial effects against a variety of organisms. These catechins have exhibited a variety of antimicrobial mechanisms. The results of studies on the antimicrobial effects of green tea have shown that the potential for preventive and therapeutic purposes is present. Further data collection on studies performed with human consumption during the course of infections, and studies on the occurrence of infections in populations that consume regular amounts of green tea will be necessary to complete the picture of its antimicrobial possibilities.

  8. TEA: A Code Calculating Thermochemical Equilibrium Abundances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blecic, Jasmina; Harrington, Joseph; Bowman, M. Oliver

    2016-07-01

    We present an open-source Thermochemical Equilibrium Abundances (TEA) code that calculates the abundances of gaseous molecular species. The code is based on the methodology of White et al. and Eriksson. It applies Gibbs free-energy minimization using an iterative, Lagrangian optimization scheme. Given elemental abundances, TEA calculates molecular abundances for a particular temperature and pressure or a list of temperature-pressure pairs. We tested the code against the method of Burrows & Sharp, the free thermochemical equilibrium code Chemical Equilibrium with Applications (CEA), and the example given by Burrows & Sharp. Using their thermodynamic data, TEA reproduces their final abundances, but with higher precision. We also applied the TEA abundance calculations to models of several hot-Jupiter exoplanets, producing expected results. TEA is written in Python in a modular format. There is a start guide, a user manual, and a code document in addition to this theory paper. TEA is available under a reproducible-research, open-source license via https://github.com/dzesmin/TEA.

  9. TEA: A Code Calculating Thermochemical Equilibrium Abundances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blecic, Jasmina; Harrington, Joseph; Bowman, M. Oliver

    2016-07-01

    We present an open-source Thermochemical Equilibrium Abundances (TEA) code that calculates the abundances of gaseous molecular species. The code is based on the methodology of White et al. and Eriksson. It applies Gibbs free-energy minimization using an iterative, Lagrangian optimization scheme. Given elemental abundances, TEA calculates molecular abundances for a particular temperature and pressure or a list of temperature–pressure pairs. We tested the code against the method of Burrows & Sharp, the free thermochemical equilibrium code Chemical Equilibrium with Applications (CEA), and the example given by Burrows & Sharp. Using their thermodynamic data, TEA reproduces their final abundances, but with higher precision. We also applied the TEA abundance calculations to models of several hot-Jupiter exoplanets, producing expected results. TEA is written in Python in a modular format. There is a start guide, a user manual, and a code document in addition to this theory paper. TEA is available under a reproducible-research, open-source license via https://github.com/dzesmin/TEA.

  10. 不同类型茶园节肢动物群落结构研究%Research on Structure of Arthropod Community in Different Tea Gardens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    玉香甩; 冉隆繤; 刘关所; 浦恩达; 李慧; 孙雪梅; 刘本英; 陈剑锋

    2016-01-01

    A three -year investigation on the structure of arthropod community was carried out in three different tea gardens,i.e.pure tea garden,camphor tree -tea and mango tree -tea intercropping gardens. The analysis was conducted from aspects of richness,evenness,dominance index,stability coefficient (Ss /Si ) and variation coefficient (ds /dm ).The results indicated that the diversity indexes of arthropod communities in tea gardens intercropped with camphor and mango tree were higher,and they possessed better richness,diver-sity and evenness.It showed that the restrictive interactions among different species in arthropod communities in intercropping tea gardens were stronger than those in pure tea garden,and the structures were better.%连续三年分别对樟-茶间作茶园、芒果-茶间作茶园和纯茶园中节肢动物群落结构进行系统调查,并从丰富度、均匀度、优势度指数、稳定性系数值 Ss /Si 和变异系数 ds /dm 等方面进行了分析。结果表明:樟-茶间作茶园和芒果-茶间作茶园中节肢动物群落的多样性指数较高,具有更大的丰富度、更丰富的多样性和更高的均匀性,表明樟与茶间作、芒果与茶间作后茶园节肢动物群落内各物种间制约关系强于纯茶园,结构更趋合理。

  11. Spectroscopic fingerprint of tea varieties by surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyukgoz, Guluzar Gorkem; Soforoglu, Mehmet; Basaran Akgul, Nese; Boyaci, Ismail Hakki

    2016-03-01

    The fingerprinting method is generally performed to determine specific molecules or the behavior of specific molecular bonds in the desired sample content. A novel, robust and simple method based on surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) was developed to obtain the full spectrum of tea varieties for detection of the purity of the samples based on the type of processing and cultivation. For this purpose, the fingerprint of seven different varieties of tea samples (herbal tea (rose hip, chamomile, linden, green and sage tea), black tea and earl grey tea) combined with silver colloids was obtained by SERS in the range of 200-2000 cm(-1) with an analysis time of 20 s. Each of the thirty-nine tea samples tested showed its own specific SERS spectra. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was also applied to separate of each tea variety and different models developed for tea samples including three different models for the herbal teas and two different models for black and earl grey tea samples. Herbal tea samples were separated using mean centering, smoothing and median centering pre-processing steps while baselining and derivatisation pre-processing steps were applied to SERS data of black and earl grey tea. The novel spectroscopic fingerprinting technique combined with PCA is an accurate, rapid and simple methodology for the assessment of tea types based on the type of processing and cultivation differences. This method is proposed as an alternative tool in order to determine the characteristics of tea varieties. PMID:27570296

  12. The Design of Automatic Stirring Ripe Tea Fermenter for Puer Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Xiaoqiang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Traditional ripe tea fermentation is directly stacking puer tea material on the ground of fermentation workshop relying on natural environment to ferment. The way of fermentation, which has poor degree of sanitation, makes fermentation process influenced by environmental change and difficult to ensure product quality and stability. To solve this problem, we design a ripe tea fermenter for puer tea. There is a certain distance between fermenter and the ground and the spindle of fermenter is designed, so as to achieve automatically agitation instead of manually turning process. It can monitor and control temperature and humidity of tea in the fermenter, so that in the fermentation process puer tea will be in a stable environment, improving fermentation process and the quality of temperature fermentation.

  13. Role of biofertilizers in increasing tea productivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P Nepolean; R Jayanthi; R Vidhya Pallavi; A Balamurugan; T Kuberan; T Beulah; R Premkumar

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To increase the tea productivity using biofertilizers like VAM fungi, phosphobacteria, Azosprillium. Methods: Nitrogen fixing Azospirillum, phosphate solubilising bacteria and VAM fungi were isolated from tea soils of southern India and region specific potential strains were selected based on laboratory, greenhouse, as well as field experiments. A technology for their mass multiplication has been developed. Results: Biofertilizers were showed higher yield at the rate of 5g/seedling and VAM fungi with 15 g of formulation/bush. Conclusions: Multifunctional biofertilizers were used to reduce the chemical fertilizers, diseases and to increase soil fertility in tea.

  14. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in tea (Japanese tea) (from Jun. 1985)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sr-90 and Cs-137 in Japanese tea were determined using radiochemical analysis. Five hundred grams of manufactured green tea was collected from six sampling locations in June 1985, carbonized and ashed in a stainless steel pan or a porcelain dish. The maximum value of Sr-90 was 53 +- 3.0 pCi/kg in tea collected from Shuzenji-machi, Shizuoka; and that of Cs-137 was 36 +- 2.3 pCi/kg in tea collected from Kaya-machi, Kyoto. (Namekawa, K.)

  15. 论历史名茶--“石亭绿”的发展对策%Development Countermeasures of Shiting Green Tea Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈育才

    2013-01-01

    Shiting green tea was a famous historic tea in Nan'an city. In this article aiming at a series of problems about Shiting green tea industry such as decreasing production and sales, lagging mode of production and management, higher labor cost, low selling price, the stale appearance of packaging, insufficient promotion, single sales channel and so on, the future development countermeasures of Shiting green tea industry were put forward as follows: to rejuvenate degraded tea trees and construct ecological tea gardens, and formulate the corresponding standards to improve the quality of fresh leaves, to improve the technology about cultivation management, tea making and tea storage, packaging and marketing, these should be carried out to continue the unique quality and characteristics and improve the economic benefit of Shiting green tea.%  本文针对“石亭绿”茶目前存在的产销量下降,生产经营管理模式落后,劳动力成本较高,市场销售价格偏低,包装外观不新颖,宣传力度不足,销售渠道单一等问题提出石亭绿茶产业未来的发展对策:进行老茶树复壮及生态茶园建设;对茶叶产品的品种要求、栽培管理、加工工艺、鲜叶原料的质量等环节制定相应的标准及提高技术水平;改进产品储存包装和营销策略等,以延续“石亭绿”这一中国历史名茶独特的品质和特色,提高其经济效益。

  16. Progress in CTEQ-TEA PDF analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Nadolsky, Pavel; Guzzi, Marco; Huston, Joey; Lai, Hung-Liang; Li, Zhao; Pumplin, Jon; Stump, Dan; Yuan, C -P

    2012-01-01

    Recent developments in the CTEQ-TEA global QCD analysis are presented. The parton distribution functions CT10-NNLO are described, constructed by comparing data from many experiments to NNLO approximations of QCD.

  17. Drinking Tea May Lower Bad Cholesterol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christopher; Doering; 郑凤听

    2003-01-01

    喝茶,有益于健康。本文所说的是“红茶”(black tea),而非“绿茶”(green tea)。在美国喝茶者简直与时俱增:…total sales of tea in 2002 were$5.03 billion,up from$1.84 billion in 1990!本文用深入浅出的语言对喝茶的益处作了说明,同时,其文字表达也不乏可以品味处,如下句中的动词saw:Those who bad regular tea saw their LDL levels drop about 11 percent comparedwith the caffeine placebo.

  18. Finite Sholander Trees, Trees, and their Betweenness

    CERN Document Server

    Chvátal, Vašek; Schäfer, Philipp Matthias

    2011-01-01

    We provide a proof of Sholander's claim (Trees, lattices, order, and betweenness, Proc. Amer. Math. Soc. 3, 369-381 (1952)) concerning the representability of collections of so-called segments by trees, which yields a characterization of the interval function of a tree. Furthermore, we streamline Burigana's characterization (Tree representations of betweenness relations defined by intersection and inclusion, Mathematics and Social Sciences 185, 5-36 (2009)) of tree betweenness and provide a relatively short proof.

  19. Establishing a tea shop successfully in Varkaus

    OpenAIRE

    ZHENG, XUEFENG; WANG, Juan

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to clarify the tea drinking situation in Varkaus and to analyze the feasibility of the tea shop business plan by the surveys and statistics. We identified preferences and buying inclination of our target customer and also determining and pricing our products. In addition to developing marketing strategies based on the market analysis, also expanding market share in the real operation was considered. The data and related information of this study are main...

  20. Trade Bridge Covered with Chinese Tea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    China National Native Produce & Animal By-products Guangxi Tea Imp. & Exp. Co. is a subsidiary company of China National Native Produce & Animal By-products Import & Export Corporation. The company has a history of more than 40 years in doing foreign trade business and has established stable and favorable relationship with about 100 companies from more than 30 countries and regions. The main business scope of the company includes: all kinds of tea, native produce products, forest chemical products, esse...

  1. Antioxidant screening of medicinal herbal teas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speisky, Hernán; Rocco, Claudia; Carrasco, Catalina; Lissi, Eduardo A; López-Alarcón, Camilo

    2006-06-01

    Herbal tea consumption is deeply and widely rooted amongst South-American populations. In view of the involvement of oxygen- and nitrogen-reactive species in the ethiogenesis of several diseases, the antioxidant properties of some of the herbal teas most commonly consumed in the southern regions was assessed in vitro. Around one-third of the 13 examined herbs, displayed a substantially higher ability to scavenge ABTS(+.) radicals (TEAC assay), and to quench the pro-oxidant species, hypochlorite (HClO) and peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)). Amongst the tested herbs, teas prepared from Haplopappus baylahuen, Rosa moschata and Peumus boldus showed the highest TEAC and HClO-quenching activities. These herbs were around 5- to 7-fold more potent than the least active herbs. Based on the TEAC assay, 150 mL of tea prepared from H. baylahuen, R. moschata and P. boldus would be equivalent to around 200 mg of Trolox). Teas from H. baylahuen and P. boldus were also found to be particularly potent in quenching HClO. In the ONOO(-) assay, H. baylahuen and Buddleia globosa showed the highest activities. The results obtained suggest that the regular consumption of teas prepared from some of these herbs may be useful potentially to provide the organism with molecules capable of protecting the gastrointestinal tract against certain pathologically relevant oxidant species. PMID:16619353

  2. Fluoride content in caffeinated, decaffeinated and herbal teas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, J T; Koh, S H

    1996-01-01

    The fluoride contents of infusions prepared from 44 different brands and types of teas were measured. Fluoride concentrations ranged from 0.34 to 3.71 ppm (mean = 1.50 ppm) in caffeinated tea infusions, 0.02-0.14 ppm (mean = 0.05 ppm) in herbal tea infusions, and 1.01-5.20 ppm (mean = 3.19) in decaffeinated tea infusions. This is the first report of the fluoride content of decaffeinated teas. The mean fluoride content of decaffeinated tea infusions is significantly (p decaffeination is the most likely explanation of the above observation.

  3. Efficacy of Black Tea as a Negative Oral Contrast Agent for MR Cholangiopancreatography (MRCP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hossein Jalali

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objective: Evaluation of the use of black tea as negative oral contrast agent in MR cholangiopancreatography (MRCP."nPatients and Methods: Thirty-five patients (mean age, 50.3±19.2 years, who were referred for MRCP, entered in this study. MRCP was performed before, after 5 minutes and after 15 minutes following consumption of 300 ml of black tea. Depiction of the gall bladder, cystic duct, proximal and distal parts of the common bile duct (CBD, intra hepatic ducts, ampula of Vater, main pancreatic duct (MPD and signal loss of the stomach and three different segments of the duodenum were investigated according to VAS and Lickert scores."nResults: Regarding visibility of seven different anatomical parts of the pancreatobiliary tree (gall bladder, cystic duct, CBD, common hepatic duct, intrahepatic duct, ampula of Vater and MPD, the post procedure images were better visualized only in the distal part of CBD, ampula of vater and MPD both in Lickert and VAS scoring (all Ps≤0.001."nThere was no significant difference between the images 5 and 15 minutes after tea consumption. Regarding the obliteration of high signal in the stomach and three different parts of the duodenum, all post tea images of the mentioned parts showed significant disappearance of high signal in Lickert and VAS scoring systems (all Ps≤0.001. "nConclusion: Black tea is an affordable, cheap, available, safe, and efficient oral negative contrast agent for MRCP which reduces the signal intensity of fluids in the gastrointestinal tract and is also efficient for better depiction of MPD, distal part of CBD and ampula.

  4. Stability of Green Tea Catechins in Commercial Tea Leaves during Storage for 6 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    To help meet the needs of consumers, producers of dietary tea products, and researchers for information on health-promoting tea ingredients, we determined by HPLC seven catechins [(–)-epigallocatechin (EGC), (–)-catechin (C), (+)-epicatechin (EC), (–)-epigallocatechin 3-gallate (EGCG), (–)-gallocate...

  5. Protective effects of Mengshan green tea and hawk tea against UV-ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A group of cultured normal human skin-derived fibroblasts was used as the cell model to investigate protective and repair effects of aqueous extracts of Mengshan green tea and Hawk tea against 320-400 nm UV-ray irradiation, with the methods of MTT colorimetry and LDH release. It was found that the aqueous extracts had strong protective effect on fibroblasts against the UV-rays with dose dependence. There were no significant differences between the two kinds of tea aqueous extracts in a higher concentration of 5 mg/mL, whereas at lower concentrations of 2.5 and 1.25 mg/mL the, green tea aqueous extract was less effective than the hawk-tea aqueous extract in protecting fibroblasts from the UV-ray damage. Meanwhile, it was discovered that the green tea and hawk-tea aqueous extract could repair damages induced by the UV irradiation with dose dependence. But there were no statistically significant differences between the two kinds of aqueous extract. The effects may be related to antioxidant effect of tea polyphenol. (authors)

  6. Aroma changes of black tea prepared from methyl jasmonate treated tea plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jiang; Wang, Li; Ma, Cheng-ying; Lv, Hai-peng; Chen, Zong-mao; Lin, Zhi

    2014-04-01

    Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) was widely applied in promoting food quality. Aroma is one of the key indicators in judging the quality of tea. This study examined the effect of exogenous MeJA treatment on tea aroma. The aroma components in black tea prepared from MeJA-treated fresh tea leaves were extracted using headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and GC-olfactometry (GC-O). Forty-five volatile compounds were identified. The results revealed that the MeJA-treated black tea had higher levels of terpene alcohols and hexenyl esters than the untreated tea. Moreover, several newly components, including copaene, cubenol, and indole, were induced by the MeJA treatment. The activities of polyphenol oxidase and β-glucosidase in fresh tea leaves changed after the MeJA treatment. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis indicated that the gene expression levels of polyphenol oxidase and β-primeverosidase were upregulated by two and three folds, respectively, by the MeJA treatment (Pblack tea was clearly improved.

  7. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in smoked and non-smoked black teas and tea infusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pincemaille, Justine; Schummer, Claude; Heinen, Eric; Moris, Gilbert

    2014-02-15

    This study describes the occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in smoked tea and tea infusions, via the monitoring of benzo(a)anthracene, chrysene, benzo(b)fluoranthene and benzo(a)pyrene (PAH4) that have been chosen as indicators for the occurrence of PAHs in food by the European Food Safety Agency. The concentrations ranged from 1.2 μg/kg for benzo(b)fluoranthene to 125.0 μg/kg for benzo(a)anthracene in smoked tea leaves, and from 0.6 μg/L for benzo(a)anthracene to 1.2 μg/L for benzo(b)fluoranthene in smoked tea infusions. Benzo(a)pyrene was never detected in infusions. The concentrations in non-smoked tea leaves ranged from 0.6 μg/kg for benzo(a)anthracene to 10.8 μg/kg for benzo(b)fluoranthene. It was shown that the concentrations of benzo(a)anthracene and chrysene were higher in smoked tea than in non-smoked tea while no difference was observed for benzo(b)fluoranthene and benzo(a)pyrene. The concentrations of PAHs in tea infusions are low compared to other foodstuffs, but the migration rates from leaves into water are high (82-123%).

  8. Monitoring Chlorfenapyr in Green Tea during the Manufacturing Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Atsushi; Kishi, Yasuhiro; Ogawa, Hideyuki; Nakajima, Kenta

    In order to clarify the change in the leaves of agricultural chemicals during the green tea manufacturing process, we analyzed chlorfenapyr in tea leaves obtained at each processing stage by using an immunoassay. Chlorfenapyr is a novel broad-spectrum insecticide-miticide registered in many countries for the control of various insects and mite pests. Chlorfenapyr is stable and persistent in the environment. Furthermore, it is widely applied for tea cultivation in Japan. Therefore, we selected chlorfenapyr for analysis in this study. In the unrefined tea (Aracha) manufacturing process, the highest level of chlorfenapyr was 16.5 ppm, which was obtained in tea powder separated from leaves at the secondary drying stage. However, the level at the other processing stages in tea leaves was approximately 9 ppm, and no significant difference in the chlorfenapyr level was detected between the processing stages. After Aracha processing, tea leaves are classified on the basis of their size, shape and color; this is the refined tea (Shiagecha) manufacturing process. After this process, although a high level of chlorfenapyr was detected in bud tea (8.1 ppm) and honcha (on-grade tea; 6.2 ppm), the level in the other classified teas was approximately 4.0 ppm. Thus, this paper shows the difference in the chlorfenapyr level in tea leaves obtained at each processing stage. This indicated that there are significant differences in the agricultural chemical levels between the green tea processing stages.

  9. Modular Tree Automata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Tree automata are traditionally used to study properties of tree languages and tree transformations. In this paper, we consider tree automata as the basis for modular and extensible recursion schemes. We show, using well-known techniques, how to derive from standard tree automata highly modular r...

  10. Summary of Introduction of Clonal Tea Varieties and Industrial Development%无性系茶树良种引进及产业化开发技术总结

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施巨盛; 吴昌旺; 刘恒旭

    2011-01-01

    Old tea trees account for a large proportion of the tea garden in Wencheng,it has few varieties,emphasizing the "early market" while ignoring the improvement of internal quality,neglecting the tea of summer and autumn to focus only on the development of spring tea,and other issues,the introduction of breeding to promote Anji white tea,Wuniuzao,Longjing 43,Longjingchangye,Yingshuang clones tea tree cream,etc.,and for industrial development.Through the promotion of optimal varieties,optimization of cultivation,green prevention,summer tea development,mechanical recovery mechanism,product marketing,six integrated supporting industrial development of technology to enhance the tea industry production levels,expansion of the tea industry scale,and achieved significant economic,social and ecological benefits.%针对浙江省文成县老茶园所占比例过大、茶树品种单一、强调"上市早"而忽视内在品质的提升、只注重春茶而忽视夏秋茶的开发等问题,引进繁育推广安吉白茶、乌牛早、龙井43、龙井长叶、迎霜等无性系茶树良种,并进行产业化开发。通过推广优化品种、优化栽培、绿色防治、夏秋茶开发、机采机制、产品营销等6项集成配套产业化开发技术,提升茶叶产业生产水平,扩大茶叶产业规模,取得显著的经济、社会和生态效益。

  11. 澜沧江中下游古茶树资源、价值及农业文化遗产特征%Resources, Value and Agricultural Heritage Characteristics of the Ancient Tea Plant in the Middle and Lower Reaches of the Lancang River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何露; 闵庆文; 袁正

    2011-01-01

    Yunnan province has the biggest ancient tea tree garden in the world, which is widely distributed in Puer, Lincang, Xishuangbanna, and Baoshan in the middle and lower reaches of the Lancang River.These places have a long history of tea plantation and are rich in ancient tea plant resources.There are the largest ancient tea garden in the world of the longest history and a lot of ancient wild tea trees, including wild type, cultural type, and transitive type tea plant.The ancient tea plant has not only ecological value but also economic and cultural value.The ancient tea garden ecosystem is a typical example for integration of conservation and utilization of natural resources.It is of biodiversity and conducive to tea germplasm resources conservation.There is no fertilizer and pesticide input during the plantation.Ancient tea trees and the wild colony are the source of tea.The main biochemical components consisting of tea polyphenols, catechin, amino acids, and caffeine in ancient tea tree fresh leaves are generally higher than those of tableland tea fresh leaf,which means that the ancient tea has better quality and is organic.This results in a higher price for the ancient tea.The famous ancient tea trees and ancient tea gardens combined with local tremendous tea culture are excellent resources for the development of ecological tourism.All those can promote local sustainable economic development and increase local farmers' income.The ancient wild tea trees, transitive type tea trees, and cultivate tea trees demonstrate that Yunnan is the origin place for tea and tea cultivation.Different minorities in the middle and lower reaches of the Lancang River have developed different tea cultures, including the way that tea is made and consumed, the way that people interact with tea, and the aesthetics surrounding tea drinking.It is noted that over the past fifty years, the area of the ancient tea plant has been decreasing due to population growth, irrational picking, and

  12. Microbial fermented tea - a potential source of natural food preservatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mo, H.Z.; Yang Zhu, Yang; Chen, Z.M.

    2008-01-01

    Antimicrobial activities of microbial fermented tea are much less known than its health beneficial properties. These antimicrobial activities are generated in natural microbial fermentation process with tea leaves as substrates. The antimicrobial components produced during the fermentation process h

  13. Efficient extraction strategies of tea (Camellia sinensis) biomolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Satarupa; Chatterjee, Jyotirmoy

    2015-06-01

    Tea is a popular daily beverage worldwide. Modulation and modifications of its basic components like catechins, alkaloids, proteins and carbohydrate during fermentation or extraction process changes organoleptic, gustatory and medicinal properties of tea. Through these processes increase or decrease in yield of desired components are evident. Considering the varied impacts of parameters in tea production, storage and processes that affect the yield, extraction of tea biomolecules at optimized condition is thought to be challenging. Implementation of technological advancements in green chemistry approaches can minimize the deviation retaining maximum qualitative properties in environment friendly way. Existed extraction processes with optimization parameters of tea have been discussed in this paper including its prospects and limitations. This exhaustive review of various extraction parameters, decaffeination process of tea and large scale cost effective isolation of tea components with aid of modern technology can assist people to choose extraction condition of tea according to necessity.

  14. Dissipation behavior of octachlorodipropyl ether residues during tea planting and brewing process

    OpenAIRE

    Liao, Min; Shi, Yanhong; Cao, Haiqun; Hua, Rimao; Tang, Feng; Wu, Xiangwei; Tang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    The dissipation behavior of octachlorodipropyl ether (OCDPE) residues in fresh tea shoots and in tea prepared under field conditions was investigated, and the transfer of residues from brewed tea to tea infusion was determined. OCDPE levels in tea shoots, prepared tea, tea infusion, and spent tea leaves were determined using a sensitive and simple method. The dissipation of OCDPE is fairly slow in tea shoots and prepared tea, with half-life values of 5.10 and 5.46 days, respectively. The degr...

  15. Bronchi, Bronchial Tree, & Lungs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... specific Modules Resources Archived Modules Updates Bronchi, Bronchial Tree, & Lungs Bronchi and Bronchial Tree In the mediastinum , at the level of the ... trachea. As the branching continues through the bronchial tree, the amount of hyaline cartilage in the walls ...

  16. Green Tea and Bone Health: Evidence from Laboratory Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Chwan-Li; Yeh, James K.; Cao, Jay J; Chyu, Ming-Chien; Wang, Jia-Sheng

    2011-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a major health problem in the elderly. Epidemiological evidence has shown an association between tea consumption and the prevention of bone loss in the elderly population. Ingestion of green tea and green tea bioactive compounds may be beneficial in mitigating bone loss of this population and decreasing their risk of osteoporotic fractures. This review describes the effect of green tea with its bioactive components on bone health with an emphasis on the following: (i) the etio...

  17. Beneficial effects of green tea: A literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Kuttan Ramadasan; Thambi Priya T; Chacko Sabu M; Nishigaki Ikuo

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The health benefits of green tea for a wide variety of ailments, including different types of cancer, heart disease, and liver disease, were reported. Many of these beneficial effects of green tea are related to its catechin, particularly (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate, content. There is evidence from in vitro and animal studies on the underlying mechanisms of green tea catechins and their biological actions. There are also human studies on using green tea catechins to treat metaboli...

  18. The effects of green tea derived catechins upon adipocyte metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Mehra, Anisha

    2010-01-01

    Tea, from the plant Camellia Sinensis, is after water, the most consumed drink in the world. Green tea, produced by steaming freshly harvested leaves to prevent fermentation, is high in polyphenols known as catechins or flavanols. The major flavanols found in green tea include (-) epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and (-) epicatechin. Literature reports suggest that green tea flavanols have the potential to exert anti-obesity effects by modulating weight gain and other factors such as lipogen...

  19. Attention to tea industry brand image design and application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戚亚希

    2015-01-01

    tea, coffee, cola is three main beverages in the world today, with the improvement of people's health care consciousness, the tea with its green and healthy image and health care efficacy is more and more popular with the masses, tea beverage market promising prospects in the future. Tea is the traditional agricultural products in our country, has a long history of planting, processing and export, is also one of the main agricultural products export of our country.

  20. Role of green tea in reduction of cardiovascular risk factors

    OpenAIRE

    Vlachopoulos, Charalambos; Alexopoulos, Nikolaos; Stefanadis, C.

    2010-01-01

    Nikolaos Alexopoulos, Charalambos Vlachopoulos, Christodoulos Stefanadis1st Cardiology Department, Athens Medical School, Hippokration Hospital, Athens, GreeceAbstract: Tea is widely consumed worldwide. There is accumulating evidence that tea ­consumption may be associated with reduced cardiovascular risk, an association that could be attributed to its flavonoid content. Green tea, the most common type of tea consumed in Asia, contains a large amount of nonoxidized flavonoids, named c...

  1. 安溪茶园水土流失综合治理措施%The Comprehensive Measures to Prevent Soil Erosion of Anxi Tea Plantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈进火

    2013-01-01

    The paper analyzes the reason and types of soil erosion of Anxi tea plantation. Meanwhile, comprehensive measures to prevent soil erosion were presented, such as returning tea to forest, planting trees, remaking the ditch, cultivating green manure, taking refined management and so on.%  分析安溪茶园水土流失的原因及类型,提出退茶还林、种植生态树、改造前梗后沟、种植绿肥、精细化管理等综合治理技术措施。

  2. Tea May Benefit Blood Vessels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华剑铭

    2000-01-01

    读到有关饮茶有益健康的消息,我总是充满了自豪感:茶的故乡毕竟在中国。饮茶对人的心脏有益,这已经不是新闻,但是到底如何起到此类保健作用,多年来一直是一个谜。本文揭开了此谜底: Drinking a cup of tea makes blood vessels work better within 2 hours, dilating(扩张)the arteries(动脉)and improving blood flow. 文章令我感动之处在于那些科研人员的敬业精神。比如茶中含有caffeine(咖啡因),饮茶对心脏有利,此“利”是否源于caffeine呢?试验人员为了弄清这 一点,便让另一组受试人员服用等量的caffeine,结果证实:Caffeine had no response on the blood vessel function.】

  3. Productivity and resource use in ageing tea plantations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamau, D.M.

    2008-01-01

    Keywords: Kenya, Camellia sinensis L., clones, seedlings, tea industry, management, N-P-K, biomass, made tea yields. The tea industry in Kenya is rural-based and provides livelihood to over three million people along the value chain. The industry which started in the first quarter of the 20th cent

  4. How to Develop the Tea Industry in Leiyang City?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fengtao; WANG; Xiaoping; ZENG; Xiaolan; WU; Yubin; LIANG

    2015-01-01

    Based on the current development situation of tea industry in Leiyang City,this paper analyzes the existing problems such as small scale of high quality tea plantation,insufficient brand awareness,inadequate funding input,extensive tea plantation management,rising labor costs and outdated mechanical equipment. Finally this paper expounds the development goal and sets forth the corresponding recommendations.

  5. An Old Town on the Ancient Tea-Horse Trail

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGHONG

    2005-01-01

    FOR centuries, Southwest China's Yunnan Province has been known as home of black tea. It was in the Tang Dynasty(618 - 907) that caravans began to transport bricks of tea from Xishuangbanna and Simao to India, passing through Yunnan's Dali and Lijiang and Tibet. The route became known as the Ancient Tea-Horse Trail.

  6. Antioxidants of the beverage tea in promotion of human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Imtiaz A; Afaq, Farrukh; Adhami, Vaqar M; Ahmad, Nihal; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2004-06-01

    Tea that contains many antioxidants is a pleasant and safe drink that is enjoyed by people across the globe. Tea leaves are manufactured as black, green, or oolong. Black tea represents approximately 78% of total consumed tea in the world, whereas green tea accounts for approximately 20% of tea consumed. The concept of "use of tea for promotion of human health and prevention and cure of diseases" has become a subject of intense research in the last decade. Diseases for which tea drinkers appear to have lower risk are simple infections, like bacterial and viral, to chronic debilitating diseases, including cancer, coronary heart disease, stroke, and osteoporosis. Initial work on green tea suggested that it possesses human health-promoting effects. In recent years, the research efforts have been expanded to black tea as well. Research conducted in recent years reveals that both black and green tea have very similar beneficial attributes in lowering the risk of many human diseases, including several types of cancer and heart diseases. For cancer prevention, evidence is so overwhelming that the Chemoprevention Branch of the National Cancer Institute has initiated a plan for developing tea compounds as cancer-chemopreventive agents in human trials. Thus, modern medical research is confirming the ancient wisdom that therapy of many diseases may reside in an inexpensive beverage in a "teapot."

  7. Changes in flavor volatile composition of oolong tea after panning during tea processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheibani, Ershad; Duncan, Susan E; Kuhn, David D; Dietrich, Andrea M; Newkirk, Jordan J; O'Keefe, Sean F

    2016-05-01

    Panning is a processing step used in manufacturing of some varieties of oolong tea. There is limited information available on effects of panning on oolong tea flavors. The goal of this study was to determine effects of panning on flavor volatile compositions of oolong using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) and Gas Chromatography-Olfactometry (GC-O). SDE and SPME techniques were applied for extraction of volatiles in panned and unpanned teas. A total of 190 volatiles were identified from SDE and SPME extractions using GC-MS and GC-O. There were no significant differences (P > 0.05) in aldehyde or terpene contents of unpanned and panned tea. However, alcohols, ketones, acids and esters contents were significantly reduced by panning. Among 12 major volatiles previously used for identification and quality assessment of oolong tea, trans nerolidol, 2- hexenal, benzaldehyde, indole, gernaiol, and benzenacetaldehyde contents were significantly decreased (P compounds with sweet descriptions and decrease of aroma active compounds with fruity and smoky descriptions after panning. Panning significantly changes the volatile compositions of the tea and created new aroma active compounds. Results from this study can be used in quality assessment of panned oolong tea. PMID:27247775

  8. Pyrrolizidine and tropane alkaloids in teas and the herbal teas peppermint, rooibos and chamomile in the Israeli market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimshoni, Jakob Avi; Duebecke, Arne; Mulder, Patrick P J; Cuneah, Olga; Barel, Shimon

    2015-01-01

    Dehydro pyrrolizidine alkaloids (dehydro PAs) are carcinogenic phytotoxins prevalent in the Boraginaceae, Asteraceae and Fabaceae families. Dehydro PAs enter the food and feed chain by co-harvesting of crops intended for human and animal consumption as well as by carry-over into animal-based products such as milk, eggs and honey. Recently the occurrence of dehydro PAs in teas and herbal teas has gained increasing attention from the EU, due to the high levels of dehydro PAs found in commercially available teas and herbal teas in Germany and Switzerland. Furthermore, several tropane alkaloids (TAs, e.g. scopolamine and hyoscyamine) intoxications due to the consumption of contaminated herbal teas were reported in the literature. The aim of the present study was to determine the dehydro PAs and TAs levels in 70 pre-packed teabags of herbal and non-herbal tea types sold in supermarkets in Israel. Chamomile, peppermint and rooibos teas contained high dehydro PAs levels in almost all samples analysed. Lower amounts were detected in black and green teas, while no dehydro PAs were found in fennel and melissa herbal teas. Total dehydro PAs concentrations in chamomile, peppermint and rooibos teas ranged from 20 to 1729 μg/kg. Except for black tea containing only mono-ester retrorsine-type dehydro PAs, all other teas and herbal teas showed mixed patterns of dehydro PA ester types, indicating a contamination by various weed species during harvesting and/or production. The TA levels per teabag were below the recommended acute reference dose; however, the positive findings of TAs in all peppermint tea samples warrant a more extensive survey. The partially high levels of dehydro PAs found in teas and herbal teas present an urgent warning letter to the regulatory authorities to perform routine quality control analysis and implement maximum residual levels for dehydro PAs. PMID:26365752

  9. A comparative study between wild ancient tea and tea garden tea%野生古茶树茶与茶园茶的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍晓华; 董玄; 潘思轶

    2012-01-01

    The appearance, liquor color, taste and aroma of wild ancient tea and tea garden tea were evaluated and determined by sensory evaluation and chemical analysis method. Both of the appearances were stripy. The color of ,dried wild ancient tea was red-yellow and liquor color is yellow-red, while the dried tea garden tea was green-black and liquor color was green-yellow. The wild ancient tea tasted soft, sweet, and a little bitter, while the tea garden tea was much bitter and slightly sweet at the beginning. The contents of tea polyphenols and flavonoid compounds of both were the same, which were about 28. 9% and 7%. The five kinds of catechins which were determined in wild ancient tea were two times more of that in tea garden tea. The tea garden tea's caffeine content was nearly two times more than wild ancient tea. The content of free amino acids ( Aas) in wild ancient tea was higher, while the tea garden tea had a higher content (4. 60% ) than wild ancient tea (3. 82% ) in soluble sugar. Fifty-eight kinds of aroma compounds were measured in wild ancient tea and 74 kinds of aroma compounds in tea garden tea, and there were 12 common components in both. In all, the wild ancient tea was far superior to the tea garden tea, but the effects of catechins and aroma compounds on the human body needed to be further studied.%采用感官审评和化学分析手段,对野生古茶树茶和茶园茶的外形、颜色、滋味、香气等进行审评、测定和比较.两者都为条索,在颜色方面,野生古茶树茶的干品偏向红黄,汤色黄红,茶园茶的干品呈绿黑,茶汤绿黄色;滋味方面,野生古茶树茶苦涩味较淡,醇和,回甘,茶园茶苦涩味比之更盛,味微短,入口略甜.茶多酚、黄酮类化合物两者基本一样,分别是28.9%左右和7%左右,测定的5种儿茶素,茶园茶是野生古茶树茶的两倍多,咖啡碱茶园茶是野生古茶树茶的约两倍,游离氨基酸野生古茶树茶比茶园茶高,

  10. Adsorption Dynamics of Calyx Aroma onto Basic Tea in Scenting Process of Calyx-scented Tea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Changhui CHEN

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The paper was to study adsorption dynamics of calyx aroma onto basic tea in scenting process of calyx-scented tea, so as to increase aroma and quality of products. [Method] Adsorption experiment was carried out in a hermetic container, and the effect of calyx amount, contact time, moisture content of basic tea and temperature on the scenting process was studied. [Result] The optimal moisture and temperature for scenting process was 4% and 10 ℃, respectively. [Conclusion] The scenting process accorded pseudo-first-order kinetic model, and the adsorption dynamic data of total process could better fit pseudo-second-order kinetic model.

  11. Antioxidant and functional properties of tea protein as affected by the different tea processing methods

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yu; Chen, Haixia; Ning ZHANG; Ma, Lishuai

    2013-01-01

    The Box-Behnken design combined with response surface methodology was used to optimize alkali extraction of protein from tea. Three independent extraction variables (extraction time: X1; extraction temperature: X2; alkali concentration: X3) were evaluated. The antioxidant and functional properties of tea protein as affected by different tea processing were compared. The optimum conditions were: extraction time of 85 min, extraction temperature of 80 °C, and alkali concentration of 0.15 M. Und...

  12. [Genetic diversity of ancient tea gardens and tableland tea gardens from Yunnan Province as revealed by AFLP marker].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Peng-Zhang; Jiang, Hui-Bing; Huang, Xing-Qi; Zhang, Jun; Liang, Min-Zhi; Wang, Ping-Sheng

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the genetic diversity within and among the plants of four ancient tea gardens and two tableland tea gardens form Yunnan Province, China by AFLP technique. The percentage of polymorphic loci (P) of the plants from six tea gardens was 92.31%. The genetic diversity within the six gardens demonstrated by Nei cents genetic diversity (He) was estimated to be 0.1366, while Shannon indices (Ho) were 0.2323. The percentage of polymorphic loci of the four ancient tea populations was 45.55% on average, with a range of 36.44% (Mengsong) to 59.11% (Mengla). But the percentages of polymorphic loci of the plants from two tableland gardens were 13.77% (Yunkang 10) and 24.2% (Menghai Daye), respectively. There was a great genetic difference between ancient tea gardens and tableland tea gardens. The genetic diversity among the plants of the ancient tea garden was higher than those of the sexual tableland tea garden and the clone tableland tea garden based on P valve. The four ancient tea gardens and two tableland gardens could be differentiated with AFLP markers. The results show that AFLP marker is an effective tool in the discrimination of tea germplasm, as well as sundried green tea.

  13. Green tea and black tea consumption and prostate cancer risk: an exploratory meta-analysis of observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jusheng; Yang, Bin; Huang, Tao; Yu, Yinghua; Yang, Jing; Li, Duo

    2011-01-01

    Observational studies on tea consumption and prostate cancer (PCa) risk are still inconsistent. The authors conducted a meta-analysis to investigate the association between green tea and black tea consumption with PCa risk. Thirteen studies providing data on green tea or black tea consumption were identified by searching PubMed and ISI Web of Science databases and secondary referencing qualified for inclusion. A random-effects model was used to calculate the summary odds ratios (OR) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). For green tea, the summary OR of PCa indicated a borderline significant association in Asian populations for highest green tea consumption vs. non/lowest (OR = 0.62; 95% CI: 0.38-1.01); and the pooled estimate reached statistically significant level for case-control studies (OR = 0.43; 95% CI: 0.25-0.73), but not for prospective cohort studies (OR = 1.00; 95% CI: 0.66-1.53). For black tea, no statistically significant association was observed for the highest vs. non/lowest black tea consumption (OR = 0.99; 95% CI: 0.82-1.20). In conclusion, this meta-analysis supported that green tea but not black tea may have a protective effect on PCa, especially in Asian populations. Further research regarding green tea consumption across different regions apart from Asia is needed.

  14. Reducing of radiation hazard by green tea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green tea extract with its high content of polyphenols, a class of bioflavonoids, makes it one of the most powerful natural antioxidant known. The present study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidant and protective roles of drinking green tea one week before the exposure of adult male albino rats to whole body gamma irradiation (6.0 Gy). The results revealed a significant decrease in final body weight, serum albumin, A/G ratio due to radiation exposure. On the other hand, mortality percentage, serum globulin, urea, cholesterol, triglycerides, alkaline phosphatase, alanine transferase (ALT) and aspartate transferase (AST) were significantly increased. The same effect of y irradiation appeared on liver and kidney under histologically investigation. Drinking of green tea before irradiation exerted noticeable amelioration of radiation damage

  15. Research on the Geographical Indication and Cultural Heritage of China's Yellow Tea

    OpenAIRE

    Tian, Min; Sun, Zhiguo; Liu, Zhiyang; Ding, Guangping

    2014-01-01

    The yellow tea falls within one of the six basic categories of tea, and it is a type of unique and ancient tea in China. Junshan Yinzhen is one of China's Top Ten Teas, and Yueyang City in Hunan Province is the hometown of yellow tea. The yellow tea now has 2 national geographical indication products, 4 national geographical indication trademarks, 1 national geographical indication of agricultural products, and 3 items of provincial intangible cultural heritage. The famous brand of yellow tea...

  16. Electronic Nose for Black Tea Quality Evaluation Using Kernel Based Clustering Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Ashis Tripathy; Mohanty, A.K.(Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, India); Mihir Narayan Mohanty

    2012-01-01

    Black Tea is conventionally tested by human sensory panel called “Tea Tasters”, who assign quality scores to different teas. In this paper electronic nose based evaluation of black tea samples have been described. One of the principal problems encountered in the above studies is collection of tea samples. These tea industries in India are spread over dispersed locations and quality of tea varies considerably on agroclimatic condition, type of plantation, season of flush and method of manufact...

  17. Tree Tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Peter R.

    2004-09-01

    Nature often replicates her processes at different scales of space and time in differing media. Here a tree-trunk cross section I am preparing for a dendrochronological display at the Battle Creek Cypress Swamp Nature Sanctuary (Calvert County, Maryland) dried and cracked in a way that replicates practically all the planform features found along the Mid-Oceanic Ridge (see Figure 1). The left-lateral offset of saw marks, contrasting with the right-lateral ``rift'' offset, even illustrates the distinction between transcurrent (strike-slip) and transform faults, the latter only recognized as a geologic feature, by J. Tuzo Wilson, in 1965. However, wood cracking is but one of many examples of natural processes that replicate one or several elements of lithospheric plate tectonics. Many of these examples occur in everyday venues and thus make great teaching aids, ``teachable'' from primary school to university levels. Plate tectonics, the dominant process of Earth geology, also occurs in miniature on the surface of some lava lakes, and as ``ice plate tectonics'' on our frozen seas and lakes. Ice tectonics also happens at larger spatial and temporal scales on the Jovian moons Europa and perhaps Ganymede. Tabletop plate tectonics, in which a molten-paraffin ``asthenosphere'' is surfaced by a skin of congealing wax ``plates,'' first replicated Mid-Oceanic Ridge type seafloor spreading more than three decades ago. A seismologist (J. Brune, personal communication, 2004) discovered wax plate tectonics by casually and serendipitously pulling a stick across a container of molten wax his wife and daughters had used in making candles. Brune and his student D. Oldenburg followed up and mirabile dictu published the results in Science (178, 301-304).

  18. Biological Control of Tortricidae in Tea Fields in Japan Using Insect Viruses and Parasitoids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Madoka Nakai

    2009-01-01

    Tea is a perennial and evergreen plant. Cultivated tea trees provide a habitat for insect pests and their natural enemies. In Japan, granuloviruses (GVs) have successfully controlled two of the most important pests of tea, Adoxophyes honmai and Homona magnanima (Tortricidae: Lepidoptera). The GVs are produced in vivo and a single application sustains pesticidal efficacy throughout a year, which encompasses 4 to 5 discrete generations of both species. A. honmai and H. magnanima also have various natural enemies, especially hymenopteran parasitoids. Such resident natural enemies also play a role in reducing the pest density in virus-controlled fields, but the effect of virus infection on parasitoids sharing the same host larva has not been well studied. Survival of one of the major parasitoids ofA. honmai, Ascogaster reticulata (Braconidae: Hymenoptera), is reduced by virus infection of the host. Viruses, including GV and entomopoxvirus (EPV), and certain koinobiont endoparasitoids, including A. reticulata, are both known to regulate host endocrinology. However, the GV and EPV have distinct host regulation mechanisms, and consequently have different impacts on the survival of A. retuculata, when A. reticulata parasitizes a host that is infected with either GV or EPV. These additional effects on host regulation displayed by both viruses and parasitoids affect the outcome of virus-parasitoid interactions.

  19. Green tea extract for external anogenital warts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Catephen (Kora Corporation Ltd) is a herbal medicinal product consisting predominantly of catechins (sinecatechins) extracted from Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze folium (green tea leaf) formulated as a topical preparation for the treatment of external genital and perianal warts (condylomata acuminata).(1) Marketing authorisation for an ointment containing 0.1g of green tea extract per gram (10%) was granted by the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) under the mutual recognition procedure in February 2015.(2) Here, we consider the evidence for Catephen ointment in the management of external genital and perianal warts and its place within current management strategies. PMID:26471269

  20. Development of a Vermi Tea Brewing Machine

    OpenAIRE

    Donnalyn C. Cabaces; Maria Anna C. Medrano; Aileen P. Mauro; Joemel A. Landicho

    2015-01-01

    Vermicompost, a product of the composting system that utilizes earthworms for the decomposition of the biosolids and/or solid wastes is now considered in organic farming. But since it is applied in solid form, it is difficult for some plants to take up the nutrient contents. The liquid form is the vermi tea which facilitates the plants for fast absorption of the nutrients. The main objective of this study is to develop a vermi tea brewing machine taking into consideration system components an...

  1. Aflatoxins in black tea in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouretedal, Zohreh; Mazaheri, Mansooreh

    2013-01-01

    Aflatoxins (AFs) are highly toxic, and carcinogenic secondary fungal metabolites and have been detected in various food commodities. In this regard, 40 black tea samples including domestic and imported black tea were analysed for aflatoxin contamination by high-performance liquid chromatography using a post-column derivatisation procedure (Kobra cell) with fluorescence detection. Samples were randomly collected in 2010 from Tehran markets. The results revealed that 30 among 40 samples were contaminated with aflatoxins (27.5% of the total). Mean AFB1 content was 10.0 ng/g and mean of aflatoxin total was 12.07 ng/g for the 11 contaminated samples.

  2. Healthy,Happy trees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Healthy trees are important to us all. Trees provide shade, beauty, and homes for wildlife. Trees give us products like paper and wood. Trees can give us all this only if they are healthy.They must be well cared for to remain healthy.

  3. Molecular characterization of tea mosquito bug from tea growing regions of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suganthi, M; Chandrashekara, K N; Arvinth, S; Raj Kumar, R

    2016-09-01

    The tea mosquito bug, Helopeltis (Hemiptera: Miridae), is an insidious pest that poses a significant economical threat to tea plantations. As a basic first step to control this pest is authentic identification, but the inability to determine morphological characters of Helopeltis species makes this process very difficult. DNA barcoding is a reliable alternative to traditional morphological identification of this pest. Since tea is cultivated in different parts of the country, an attempt was made to molecular characterization of Helopeltis. This is the first report on molecular identification and diversity characterization of Helopeltis collected from tea growing regions of southern and north India, using cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene of mitochondrial (mt) DNA. Beginning with the molecular identification of this pest is essential to start an effective pest management strategy, and will provide basic information for diffusion pattern, population dynamics and chemical application. PMID:26186305

  4. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in tea (green tea); from May 1978 to July 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five hundred grams of manufactured green tea was collected, carbonized and ashed in a stainless steel pan or a porcelain dish. The results obtained from May 1978 to July 1978 were shown in a table. (J.P.N.)

  5. Inhibition of wheat starch retrogradation by tea derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haihua; Sun, Binghua; Zhang, Shikang; Zhu, Yuejin; Tian, Yaoqi

    2015-12-10

    The effect of four industrial tea derivatives (tea polyphenols [TPS], tea water-soluble extracts [TSE], tea polysaccharides [TSS], and green tea powder [GTP]), on the retrogradation of wheat starch was investigated using texture profile analysis (TPA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), rapid viscosity analysis (RVA), and the α-amylase-iodine method. The addition of the four tea derivatives resulted in decreased hardness and increased cohesiveness of the starch gel as shown by the TPA test. The DSC data demonstrated an increase in the enthalpy change of starch gelatinization and a decrease in the enthalpy change of starch recrystallite dissociation. The RVA results indicated that the peak viscosity, representing the intermolecular forces of wheat starch, was reduced after addition of TPS, TSE, and TSS, respectively, but was increased by GTP. Furthermore, the half crystallization time in the Avrami equation almost doubled after the separate addition of the tea derivatives.

  6. Green Tea (Camellia Sinensis): Chemistry and Oral Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurshid, Zohaib; Zafar, Muhammad S; Zohaib, Sana; Najeeb, Shariq; Naseem, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Green tea is a widely consumed beverage worldwide. Numerous studies have suggested about the beneficial effects of green tea on oral conditions such as dental caries, periodontal diseases and halitosis. However, to date there have not been many review articles published that focus on beneficial effects of green tea on oral disease. The aim of this publication is to summarize the research conducted on the effects of green tea on oral cavity. Green tea might help reduce the bacterial activity in the oral cavity that in turn, can reduce the aforementioned oral afflictions. Furthermore, the antioxidant effect of the tea may reduce the chances of oral cancer. However, more clinical data is required to ascertain the possible benefits of green tea consumption on oral health.

  7. Green Tea (Camellia Sinensis): Chemistry and Oral Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurshid, Zohaib; Zafar, Muhammad S.; Zohaib, Sana; Najeeb, Shariq; Naseem, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Green tea is a widely consumed beverage worldwide. Numerous studies have suggested about the beneficial effects of green tea on oral conditions such as dental caries, periodontal diseases and halitosis. However, to date there have not been many review articles published that focus on beneficial effects of green tea on oral disease. The aim of this publication is to summarize the research conducted on the effects of green tea on oral cavity. Green tea might help reduce the bacterial activity in the oral cavity that in turn, can reduce the aforementioned oral afflictions. Furthermore, the antioxidant effect of the tea may reduce the chances of oral cancer. However, more clinical data is required to ascertain the possible benefits of green tea consumption on oral health. PMID:27386001

  8. Inhibition of wheat starch retrogradation by tea derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haihua; Sun, Binghua; Zhang, Shikang; Zhu, Yuejin; Tian, Yaoqi

    2015-12-10

    The effect of four industrial tea derivatives (tea polyphenols [TPS], tea water-soluble extracts [TSE], tea polysaccharides [TSS], and green tea powder [GTP]), on the retrogradation of wheat starch was investigated using texture profile analysis (TPA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), rapid viscosity analysis (RVA), and the α-amylase-iodine method. The addition of the four tea derivatives resulted in decreased hardness and increased cohesiveness of the starch gel as shown by the TPA test. The DSC data demonstrated an increase in the enthalpy change of starch gelatinization and a decrease in the enthalpy change of starch recrystallite dissociation. The RVA results indicated that the peak viscosity, representing the intermolecular forces of wheat starch, was reduced after addition of TPS, TSE, and TSS, respectively, but was increased by GTP. Furthermore, the half crystallization time in the Avrami equation almost doubled after the separate addition of the tea derivatives. PMID:26428142

  9. Green Tea (Camellia Sinensis): Chemistry and Oral Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurshid, Zohaib; Zafar, Muhammad S; Zohaib, Sana; Najeeb, Shariq; Naseem, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Green tea is a widely consumed beverage worldwide. Numerous studies have suggested about the beneficial effects of green tea on oral conditions such as dental caries, periodontal diseases and halitosis. However, to date there have not been many review articles published that focus on beneficial effects of green tea on oral disease. The aim of this publication is to summarize the research conducted on the effects of green tea on oral cavity. Green tea might help reduce the bacterial activity in the oral cavity that in turn, can reduce the aforementioned oral afflictions. Furthermore, the antioxidant effect of the tea may reduce the chances of oral cancer. However, more clinical data is required to ascertain the possible benefits of green tea consumption on oral health. PMID:27386001

  10. Developing Situation of Tea Harvesting Machines in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. C. Wu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years rapid social change and industrial and commercial development in Taiwan has lead to migration of rural labor, population ageing, high wages and labor shortages, which resulted in significant problems for the tea industry. Thus, mechanization in the tea industry emerges as the direction for the future. According to a survey, tea harvesting and tea manufacturing use 87% and 5% of available labor, so the mechanization of tea harvesting is a priority. The application and development of tea harvesting machines worldwide and especially in Taiwan in recent years is investigated in this paper. Recommendations are made for the implementation of tea harvesting machinery in Taiwan in the future. This report may also used as a reference for the use of mechanical harvesting.

  11. Tea extracts antioxidative potential in emulsified lipid systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Gramza-Michałowska

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Tea leaves (Camelia sinensis L. extracts are source of polyphenols, i.e. antioxidant components. Research showed possible tea extracts use in food technology, influencing contained lipids stability improvement. The aim of the research was comparison of different teas extracts activity in emulsified lipid system. The present research examined different teas: white, green, yellow, oolong and black aqueous and ethanol extracts. To evaluate the most potent addition level different tea extracts concentrations were chosen. Linoleic acid oxidative stability was measured by linoleic acid conjugated dienes produc-tion monitoring. Emulsions with additives were incubated 19 hours at 37°C in darkness. Results showed different tea extracts antioxidant activity, dependent on its concentration in examined system. Highest antioxidant activity, comparable to BHT and rosemary ex-tract was found in lipid sample with addition of yellow tea ethanol extract.

  12. X-tree

    OpenAIRE

    Keim, Daniel A.; Bustos Cárdenas, Benjamin Eugenio; Berchtold, Stefan; Kriegel, Hans-Peter

    2008-01-01

    The X-tree (eXtended node tree) [1] is a spatial access method [2] that supports efficient query processing for high-dimensional data. It supports not only point data but also extended spatial data. The X-tree provides overlap-free split whenever it is possible without allowing the tree to degenerate; otherwise, the X-tree uses extended variable size directory nodes, so-called supernodes. The X-tree may be seen as a hybrid of a linear array-like and a hierarchical R-tree-like directory.

  13. 勐海晒青茶品质化学研究%Studying on the Quality of Menghai' s Sunny Dried Tea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏丽飞; 陈剑峰; 浦绍柳; 蒋晓应; 刘军; 梁名志; 王丽; 陈玫; 杨盛美; 蔡丽; 孙云南; 李友勇; 王平盛

    2012-01-01

    To look into the quality of sunny dried tea and it' s inner excellent chemical composition of Menghai, by the method of combining with the sensory evaluation and quality components testing analysis, taking sunny dried tea (old tea tree, ecological tea) in 10 villages and towns of Menghai as experimental material, this study revealed that the Menghai sunny dried tea was tight knot cord, showed hair color embellish, thick taste and unforgettable after taste. Taste coordination and strong alcohol after taste of old tea trees were superior to ecological teas. The chemical composition was very abundant in general, the mean value content was water invasion things out 52.34%, amino acids 2.62%, caffeine 3.94%, tea polyhenols 40%, catechines contents 18.28%. Polyphenols monnmer content was Epicatechin gallate (ECG) > Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG)> Catechin (C)> Epicatechin (EC)> Gallic acid (GA)> Epigallocatechin (EGC), which was superior to general Pu' er raw tea, especially tea polvhenols, catechines content, GA. The elements of content variation coefficient more than 15% were EGC, C, EC, amino acids. In old tee trees, the content of amino acids was inferior to ecological tea, the content variation of amino acids, EGC, ECG was superior to ecological, which showed that the content of most chemical composition in old tea trees was not only abundant, but also the change of content variation was small.%为深入了解云南勐海县晒青茶品质及内在的优异化学成分,以县内10个乡镇晒青茶(古茶园和生态茶园)为试验材料,采用感官审评与品质成分检测分析结合研究.结果表明,勐海晒青茶条索紧结、显毫色润,滋味较浓,醇厚回甘;古树茶在滋味协调性、浓醇回甘上优于生态茶.总体上化学成分比较丰富,均值含量分别为水浸出物52.34%,氨基酸2.62%,咖啡碱3.94%,茶多酚40%,儿茶素总量18.28%,多酚类单体含量多少依次为:表儿茶素没食子酸酯(ECG)>表没食

  14. Green tea for the prevention of cancer: evidence of field epidemiology

    OpenAIRE

    Min Zhang; Lin Li, Ping Liu; Holman, C. D’Arcy J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Tea is derived from the leaf of Camellia sinensis, a natural beverage widely consumed around the world. Geological and botanical evidence suggests that the tea plant originated from China. Varying methods of processing tea leaves lead to green tea, black tea, or Oolong tea, which differ in their concentrations of polyphenols. Green tea polyphenols appear to have anti-tumorigenic properties, and form 30-40% of the dry weight of green tea compared with only 3-10% of black tea. Num...

  15. Simultaneous Separation and Purification of Tea Bioactives from summer Green Tea by Column Chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study, feasibility of producing high quality of tea polyphenols, the anine and caffeine from the extract of summer green tea by column chromatography was investigated. Crude extract of summer green tea obtained by hot water extraction was passed through columns of polyamide and NKA-II macroporous resin respectively, resulting in tea polyphenols-enriched fraction (96.27 +- 1.78%), the anine-enriched fraction (99.02 +- 0.43%) and caffeine-enriched fraction (99.25 +- 0.36%). The recovery rates for tea polyphenols, the anine and caffeine were 72.42 +- 1.41%, 66.12 +- 1.66% and 62.07 +- 2.17%, respectively. The separation procedure allowed the production of such products by decreasing impurities and avoiding the use of poisonous organic solvent. The results suggested that it was possible to produce high-quality products of rich-in tea polyphenols, the anine and caffeine by a simple way. From industrial point of view, this novel method has many merits such as high efficiency of separation, low consumption of energy and environment-friendly procedure. (author)

  16. The Impact of Tea Crop Insurance in the Development of Tea Industry (Case study: Otagvar, Langrood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hojat Sharifi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The Agricultural Insurance Fund has covered tea crop since (2003. Due to undisputable effect of tea industry in the livelihood and the economy of Northern cities and people of the region, the Fund’s performance gains its importance. So in this paper, we investigate the impact of tea crop insurance in development of tea industry and factors effective on this impact. Our main question to be answered is that whether, in the present situation, tea crop insurance has been able to wield its role in the development of tea industry. To provide an answer to the question above, we employed variety of qualitative and quantitative methods of research. Quantitative method has been done as survey and our instrument was a questionnaire the questions of which were answered by 200 farmers in Otagvar, Langrood. To achieve a better sample population, we have used the random and cluster methods of sampling. Qualitative method has used the discussion groups with insurance agents in Amlash and Kumleh and interview with experts of Organization for Rural Cooperation and Agricultural Insurance Fund.

  17. Research Progress of Main Chemical Components of Tea Affected by Aluminum%铝对茶叶主要化学品质影响的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑功宇; 陈寿松; 苏培凌; 李丹

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the content, distribution, uptake and transport of aluminum in tea tree were reviewed. Then the main chemical compositions of tea quality which were affected by aluminum, containing tea polyphenols, catechins, caffeine, amino acids, vitamin C, flavonoids, total soluble sugar, aroma components, chlorophyll and so on were reviewed. Moreover some suggestions about tolerance to aluminum in tea tree, aluminum in tea tree followed, microscopic reproduction of main chemical content, aluminum accumulated in different kinds of tea, proper assessment on human safety of aluminum in tea were proposed.%本文介绍了茶树中铝的含量和分布、茶树对铝的吸收和运输,重点综述了国内外学者在铝对茶叶中茶多酚、儿茶素类物质、咖啡碱、氨基酸、维生素C、黄酮类化合物、可溶性总糖、香气和叶绿素等主要化学品质成分影响的研究进展,并提出以下建议:应在茶树耐铝、抗铝机制方面开展深入研究;对铝在茶树体内的跟踪研究;对主要化学品质成分构成的微观再现研究;对不同茶类引起铝作用差异的研究;茶叶中铝对人体影响恰当的安全性评估研究。

  18. Tea Plantations and Socio-Cultural Transformation: The Case of Assam (India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Kala Magar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The tea plantations of Assam, which constitute the country’s 53.97 per cent tea area, 49 per cent tea worker population, and 52.04 per cent tea production, occupy an important place in the economy, culture and polity of the state. The onset of tea plantations during British colonial rule has not only changed the landscape of the upper Brahmaputra valley through green tea bushes being nourished by tea tribes from east-central India, but also evolved a distinct tea culture. Although formation of small tea growers has added a new dimension to the growth of tea industry of Assam in recent times, the culture that emerged due to the long continued interaction of British planters, tea worker tribes and indigenous Assamese is well reflected in the language, way of life, work culture, food habits and many other socio-cultural practices in most of the large tea estates in the state. In fact, the impact of tea culture is so penetrative that it has been able to bring about development in the form of tea festival, tea tourism, tea folk songs and dances, etc. in the state. An attempt is made in this paper to explore the role of tea plantation and the people associated with it to the socio-cultural transformation of Assam based on both secondary data and primary data through field study. The primary data have been collected from selected tea estates, tea garden worker colonies, tea-tribe villages and urban dwellers.

  19. MANNERS ANALYSIS AND THE TEACHING METHOD BASED ON DIGITAL ARCHIVING OF SCHOOLS OF JAPANESE TEA CEREMONY

    OpenAIRE

    小林, 大真

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, due to a decrease of the tea ceremony of the population we lose the culture of the tea ceremony. I analyze the movement of the tea ceremony by motion capture. Also I save the movement of the tea ceremony by motion capture. I fabricating a 3D animation integrated with CG was acquired data. And I spread the tea ceremony.

  20. Extraction of radioactive cesium from tea leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive contamination of foodstuffs attributed to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster has become a social problem. This study investigated the extraction of radioactive cesium from the contaminated leaves to the tea. The green tea was brewed twice reusing the same leaves to study the difference in extraction of cesium between the first and second brew. Moreover, the extraction of cesium was studied in correlation to brewing time. The concentration of radioactive cesium was determined with gamma spectrometry, and the concentration of caffeine was determined with absorption spectrometry. About 40% of cesium was extracted from leaves in the first brew, and about 80% was extracted in the second brew. The extraction of cesium increased over time, and it reached about 80% after 10 minutes brew. The ratio of radioactive cesium to caffeine decreased linearly over time. This study revealed that the extraction of cesium was higher for the second brew, and a rapid increase in extraction was seen as the tea was brewed for 6 minutes and more. Therefore, the first brew of green tea, which was brewed within 5 minutes, contained the least extraction of radioactive cesium from the contaminated leaves. (author)

  1. Dramatizing History With A Victorian Tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, Pauline Ucci

    1986-01-01

    Describes how a role-playing approach may be used to capture the style, flavor, and conversation of nineteenth-century British life through the staging of a Victorian tea. Examines the economic, social, and cultural questions addressed through the technique. Also discusses evaluation and student impact and recommends the activity for any…

  2. Analysis on Cultural Connotation of Tea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG; Zirui

    2015-01-01

    Recently, a large number of Chinese borrowed words emerge in English.However, cultural connotation of these Chinese borrowed words may fail to penetrate into the minds of foreign people.This study aims to demonstrate the cultural connotation of tea and hopes to raise readers’ cultural awareness, which is beneficial to cross-cultural communication.

  3. Can hibiscus tea lower blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibiscus sabdariffa is a common ingredient found in blended herbal teas, and beverages made from the dried calyces of this plant are popular worldwide. In vitro studies have shown that H. sabdariffa has antioxidant properties and, in animal models of hypertension, extracts of this plant lower blood ...

  4. Research progress in white tea and Anji white tea%白茶与安吉白茶的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓静; 王远兴; 丁建

    2013-01-01

    在中国六大茶(绿茶、红茶、乌龙茶、白茶、黄茶和黑茶)中,安吉白荼属于绿茶,由于名称与白茶相似,且具有类似的药理功效,常易被混淆本文从白茶和安吉白茶的发展历史、药理学研究和产品开发三个方面对白茶和安吉白荼进行综述,并对两者的发展前景进行展望.%White tea is one of China's six major teas (green tea,black tea,oolong tea,white tea,yellow tea and dark tea);Anji white tea,which has similar name and pharmacological effects with white tea,actually belongs to green tea. In this article,history of white tea and Anji white tea was briefly introduced,pharmacological effects and product development of white tea and Anji white tea were reviewed,and future prospects of research on white tea and Anji white tea were also proposed.

  5. Development of a Vermi Tea Brewing Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donnalyn C. Cabaces

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Vermicompost, a product of the composting system that utilizes earthworms for the decomposition of the biosolids and/or solid wastes is now considered in organic farming. But since it is applied in solid form, it is difficult for some plants to take up the nutrient contents. The liquid form is the vermi tea which facilitates the plants for fast absorption of the nutrients. The main objective of this study is to develop a vermi tea brewing machine taking into consideration system components and material specifications. Specifically, it aimed to establish the operating time of the machine and to evaluate its performance in terms of brewing efficiency and percent yield. The properties of the produced vermi tea were also evaluated. This is a developmental type of study which consists of development stage, preliminary testing stage and the performance testing stage. The vermi tea brewing machine comprised mainly of the cylindrical container, copper tubings, air pump, vermicompost container and support frame. During preliminary testing, the established machine’s operating time was 24 hours. Performance testing of the machine resulted to 99.58% yield and the brewing efficiency was acceptable in terms of the dissolved oxygen after the process. Properties of the produced vermi tea were tested by accredited laboratories and resulted to ph of 4.23, total NPK of 0.033%, dissolved oxygen of 5.62 mg/L, total coliform of 4,500,000 CFU/ml, mold of 3,000 CFU/ml and yeast of 3,000 CFU/ml. These are acceptable values which indicated that it can be used to improve farming activities.

  6. Clinical application of therapeutic erythrocytapheresis (TEA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valbonesi, M; Bruni, R

    2000-06-01

    Therapeutic erythrocytapheresis (TEA) has been used in different diseases such as polycythemia vera (PV), secondary erythrocytosis or hemochromatosis as a process of the less cumbersome but more expensive phlebotomy. TEA is preferred in emergency conditions such as thrombocytosis or in conditions such as porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT) or erythropoietic porphyria when plasma exchange (PEX) is often combined with TEA to reduce extracellular levels of uroporphyrin which contribute to plasma hyperviscosity. TEA is often combined with drug therapy that varies from etoposide in PV to EPO and desferoxamine which are used to mobilize and reduce iron stores in hemochromatosis. Benefits from this combination may be more long lasting than expected. Nonetheless for TEA, there is no standard protocol and, clinical experience with this therapy remains highly anecdotal. Therapeutic red cell-exchange (TREX) has been used with much interest over the years, starting with the management of hemolytic disease of the newborn and later used to correct severe anemia in thalassemia patients thereby preventing iron overload. It has also been used for the management of complications of sickle cell disease such as priapism, chest syndrome, stroke, retinal, bone, splenic and hepatic infarction or in preparation for surgery by reducing HbS to less than 30%. Automated apheresis has also favored the use of TREX in conditions such as paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria and aniline poisoning, arsenic poisoning, Na chlorate intoxications and CO intoxications, hemoglobinopathies, autoimmune hemolytic anemia, reactions due to ABO incompatibility, in preparation for ABO incompatible bone marrow transplantation or for preventing anti-D immunization after the transfusion of D(+) cells to D(-) recipients. Another field of application has been in the emergency management of intraerythrocytic parasite infections such as malaria and babesiosis. Application of TREX may be wide but its real use remains limited

  7. Black tea polyphenols: a mechanistic treatise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, M S; Imran, A; Sharif, M K; Ahmad, Rabia Shabir; Xiao, Hang; Imran, M; Rsool, H A

    2014-01-01

    Dietary interventions are among the emerging trends to curtail physiological malfunctioning like cancer, diabetes, cardiac complications, etc. The essence of phytonutrients has developed the concept of nutraceuticals at the junction of diet health linkages. In this context, theaflavin & thearubigins are the oxidized derivatives of black tea catechins during fermentation having nutraceutical potential owing to esterification of hydroxyl ring with digallate esters. Theaflavin may influence activation of transcription factors such as NFnB or AP-1 that ultimately hinder the formation of nitric oxide expression gene. Likewise, black tea contains a unique amino acid theanine acts as neurotransmitter owing to its ability to cross the blood-brain barrier. Moreover, it boasts immunity by enhancing the disease-fighting ability of gamma delta T cells. Theaflavin & thearubigins act as safeguard against oxidative stress thereby effective in the cardiac functioning. The mechanistic approach of these antioxidants is likely to be associated with inhibition of redox sensitive transcription factors & pro-oxidant enzymes such as xanthine oxidase or nitric oxide synthase. However, their involvement in antioxidative enzyme induction as in glutathione-S-transferases is also well documented. They act as curative agent against numerous pathological disorders by disrupting the electron chain thus inhibiting the progression of certain ailments. Black tea polyphenols established themselves as strong antioxidants due to their standard one-electron potential, and their vitality is dependent on the concentration of polyphenols and pH for their inclusive execution. Present review is an attempt to enrich the readers regarding the health promoting aspects of black tea polyphenols. Concomitantly, it needs core attention of researchers for the exploitations of black tea flavanols as an important dietary constituent for the vulnerable segment.

  8. Fault tree handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This handbook describes a methodology for reliability analysis of complex systems such as those which comprise the engineered safety features of nuclear power generating stations. After an initial overview of the available system analysis approaches, the handbook focuses on a description of the deductive method known as fault tree analysis. The following aspects of fault tree analysis are covered: basic concepts for fault tree analysis; basic elements of a fault tree; fault tree construction; probability, statistics, and Boolean algebra for the fault tree analyst; qualitative and quantitative fault tree evaluation techniques; and computer codes for fault tree evaluation. Also discussed are several example problems illustrating the basic concepts of fault tree construction and evaluation

  9. Stability of tea catechins in the breadmaking process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rong; Zhou, Weibiao

    2004-12-29

    A green tea extract (GTE) was incorporated into bread as a source of tea catechins. The stability of tea catechins in the breadmaking process including unfrozen and frozen dough was studied. A method was developed for the separation and quantification of tea catechins in GTE, dough, and bread samples using a RP-HPLC system. The separation system consisted of a C18 reversed-phase column, a gradient elution system of water/methanol and formic acid, and a photodiode array UV detector. Tea catechins were detected at 275 nm. GTEs at 50, 100, and 150 mg per 100 g of flour were formulated. The results obtained showed that green tea catechins were relatively stable in dough during freezing and frozen storage at -20 degrees C for up to 9 weeks. There were no further detectable losses of tea catechins in bread during a storage of 4 days at room temperature. It was also revealed that (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC) were more susceptible to degradation than (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECG) and (-)-epicatechin (EC). (-)-EGCG and (-)-ECG were normally selected as the quality indices of green tea catechins, and their retention levels in freshly baked bread were ca. 83 and 91%, respectively. One piece of bread (53 g) containing 150 mg of GTE/100 g of flour will provide 28 mg of tea catechins, which is approximately 35% of those infused from one green tea bag (2 g). PMID:15612821

  10. Isolation of Cronobacter sakazakii from different herbal teas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Marija M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacground/Aim. Cronobacter sakazakii (C. sakazakii is an emerging food-borne pathogen that has increasingly raised interest among the whole public community and food industry, especially in the production of powder infant formula. It has been isolated from water, sediment and soil. The question is whether this pathogen can be present in herbal teas. Herbal teas are widely used for great number of health problems, as an additional or sometimes only “medicine” given. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of C. sakazakii in herbal teas which are traditionally used for all restricted populations, including newborns and immunocompromised infant and adults. Methods. In this study 150 samples of dried herbal teas were tested: Children (Baby tea (11, Althaea officinalis (7, Sennae folium (4, Mentha piperita (8, Hypericum perforatum (3, Thymus serpyllum (5, Matricaria recutita (6, Fruit tea (18, Black, Green and Rooibos tea (11, Salvia officinalis (9, Arctostaphylos uva ursi (5, Urtica dioica (3, Achillea millefolium (2, Melissa officinalis (4, Cynosbati fructus (3, Flower Herbal tea (3 and 17 different mixtures of tea (48 samples. The presence of C. sakazakii was also investigated in previously positive samples of prepared teas (48 samples after 2 h, 12 h and 24 h. C. sakazakii was isolated by the use of the official method ISO TS 22964 : 2006 and confirmed with the biochemical test API 20E (Biomerieux-France. Results. The obtained results showed that C. sakazakii was isolated from 48 (32% samples dried herbal teas. C. sakazakii was not isolated only from 2 (4% of the 48 tested samples of prepared tea and in 46 (96% of the samples C. sakazakii remained viable after 2 h, 12 h and 24 h. Conclusion. Herbal teas should be carefully used, especially for infants and immunocompromited people with severe chronic diseases because of the possibility of infection by C. sakazakii. Better control and improve testing as well as new facts about

  11. Evaluation of significant pigmets in green teas of different origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Ošťádalová

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This work monitors flavonoid pigments (theaflavins and thearubigins, and chlorophyll in green teas from different growing regions (India, China, Russia, Vietnam. These pigments affect the quality of the finished tea infusion and their quantity is affected by the way of tea processing (fermentation. 15 samples of green loose teas were selected for the analysis. The content of these pigments was determined using UV-Vis spectrophotometry, the concentration of flavonoid pigments was measured at a wavelength of 665 nm (theaflavins and 825 nm (thearubigins. Concentration of flavonoid pigments was determined using the standard conversion coefficients, which are 38.7 for TRs and 1.4 for TFs. Chlorophyll concentration was measured at 642.5 and 660 nm. Chlorophyll concentration was determined by the conversion using international standard conversion coefficients and calculation of linear regressions. The results were statistically processed and evaluated in the program of UNISTAT version 5.6. The total amount of chlorophyll ranged from 0.20 to 1.33 mg/L of tea. Concentrations of theaflavin ranged from 0.15 to 0.66 g/100 g of tea and TRs from 2.00 to 11.15 g/100 g of tea. The results showed that the amount of theaflavins, thearubigins and chlorophyll in green teas varied (P <0,05, especially in teas from lowlands in Vietnam and Krasnodar (Russia. Statistically demonstrable difference (P <0,05 in the content of pigments was also recorded in a group of Indian teas (from lowlands and, from a group of Chinese teas, a statistical difference (P <0,05 was demonstrated in the content of pigments in the mountain teas. On the basis of the results it can be concluded that the quality of green tea is mainly influenced by the processing method depending on the processing area (the factory, than by their country of origin.

  12. Sensory characteristics and consumer acceptability of decaffeinated green teas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S M; Lee, H-S; Kim, K-H; Kim, K-O

    2009-04-01

    Green tea has been widely consumed for its mild flavors and its health benefits, yet caffeine in green tea has been a limitation for those who want to avoid it. The limitation brought increase in need for decaffeinated products in the green tea market. Most of the conventional decaffeination techniques applied in food use organic solvents. However, supercritical carbon dioxide fluid extraction (SC-CO2) method is gaining its intension as one of the future decaffeination methods that overcomes the problems of conventional methods. The purpose of this study was to identify sensory characteristics of decaffeinated green teas applied with SC-CO2 method and to observe the relationship with consumer acceptability to elucidate the potentiality of applying SC-CO2 technique in decaffeinated green tea market. Descriptive analysis was performed on 8 samples: green teas containing 4 caffeine levels (10%, 35%, 60%, and 100%) infused at 2 infusing periods (1 or 2 min). It was found that the SC-CO2 process not only reduced caffeine but also decreased some important features of original tea flavors. Two groups were recruited for consumer acceptability test: one (GP I, N = 52), consuming all types of green teas including hot/cold canned teas; and the other (GP II, N = 40), only consuming the loose type. While GP II liked original green tea the most, GP I liked highly decaffeinated green teas. Although the SC-CO2 method had limitations of losing complex flavors of green teas, it appeared to have future potential in the decaffeinated green tea market within or without the addition of desirable flavors.

  13. Pu-erh tea, green tea, and black tea suppresses hyperlipidemia, hyperleptinemia and fatty acid synthase through activating AMPK in rats fed a high-fructose diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hsiu-Chen; Lin, Jen-Kun

    2012-02-01

    Although green tea extract has been reported to suppress hyperlipidemia, it is unclear how tea extracts prepared from green, oolong, black and pu-erh teas modulate fatty acid synthase expression in rats fed on a high-fructose diet. In this animal study, we evaluated the hypolipidemic and hypoleptinemia effect of these four different tea leaves fed to male Wistar rats for 12 weeks. The results showed that a fructose-rich diet significantly elevated serum triacylglycerols, cholesterol, insulin, and leptin concentrations, as compared with those in the control group. Interestingly, consuming tea leaves for 12 weeks almost normalized the serum triacylglycerols concentrations. Again, rats fed with fructose/green tea and fructose/pu-erh tea showed the greatest reduction in serum TG, cholesterol, insulin and leptin levels. In contrast, serum cholesterol and insulin concentrations of the fructose/oolong tea-fed rats did not normalize. The relative epididymal adipose tissue weight was lower in all rats supplemented with tea leaves than those fed with fructose alone. There was molecular evidence of improved lipid homeostasis according to fatty acid synthase (FAS) protein expression. Furthermore, supplementation of green, black, and pu-erh tea leaves significantly decreased hepatic FAS mRNA and protein levels, and increased AMPK phosphorylation, compared with those of rats fed with fructose only. These findings suggest that the intake of green, black, and pu-erh tea leaves ameliorated the fructose-induced hyperlipidemia and hyperleptinemia state in part through the suppression of FAS protein levels and increased AMPK phosphorylation.

  14. Covering tree with stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumbach, Jan; Guo, Jiong; Ibragimov, Rashid

    2015-01-01

    We study the tree edit distance problem with edge deletions and edge insertions as edit operations. We reformulate a special case of this problem as Covering Tree with Stars (CTS): given a tree T and a set of stars, can we connect the stars in by adding edges between them such that the resulting...... tree is isomorphic to T? We prove that in the general setting, CST is NP-complete, which implies that the tree edit distance considered here is also NP-hard, even when both input trees having diameters bounded by 10. We also show that, when the number of distinct stars is bounded by a constant k, CTS...

  15. Covering tree with stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumbach, Jan; Guo, Jian-Ying; Ibragimov, Rashid

    2013-01-01

    We study the tree edit distance problem with edge deletions and edge insertions as edit operations. We reformulate a special case of this problem as Covering Tree with Stars (CTS): given a tree T and a set of stars, can we connect the stars in by adding edges between them such that the resulting...... tree is isomorphic to T? We prove that in the general setting, CST is NP-complete, which implies that the tree edit distance considered here is also NP-hard, even when both input trees having diameters bounded by 10. We also show that, when the number of distinct stars is bounded by a constant k, CTS...

  16. Fault-Tree Compiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Ricky W.; Boerschlein, David P.

    1993-01-01

    Fault-Tree Compiler (FTC) program, is software tool used to calculate probability of top event in fault tree. Gates of five different types allowed in fault tree: AND, OR, EXCLUSIVE OR, INVERT, and M OF N. High-level input language easy to understand and use. In addition, program supports hierarchical fault-tree definition feature, which simplifies tree-description process and reduces execution time. Set of programs created forming basis for reliability-analysis workstation: SURE, ASSIST, PAWS/STEM, and FTC fault-tree tool (LAR-14586). Written in PASCAL, ANSI-compliant C language, and FORTRAN 77. Other versions available upon request.

  17. Green tea and risk of breast cancer in Asian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Anna H; Yu, Mimi C; Tseng, Chiu-Chen; Hankin, Jean; Pike, Malcolm C

    2003-09-10

    There is substantial in vitro and in vivo evidence implicating tea polyphenols as chemopreventive agents against various cancers. However, epidemiologic data obtained from mainly Western populations are not supportive of a protective role of tea, mainly black tea, in the etiology of breast cancer. Much less is known about the relationship between green tea and breast cancer risk. During 1995-1998, we conducted a population-based, case-control study of breast cancer among Chinese, Japanese and Filipino women in Los Angeles County and successfully interviewed 501 breast cancer patients and 594 control subjects. Detailed information on menstrual and reproductive factors; dietary habits, including intake of black and green tea; and other lifestyle factors was collected. Risk of breast cancer was not related to black tea consumption. In contrast, green tea drinkers showed a significantly reduced risk of breast cancer, and this was maintained after adjusting for age, specific Asian ethnicity, birthplace, age at menarche, parity, menopausal status, use of menopausal hormones, body size and intake of total calories and black tea. Compared to women who did not drink green tea regularly (i.e., less than once a month), there was a significant trend of decreasing risk with increasing amount of green tea intake, adjusted odds ratios being 1.00, 0.71 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.51-0.99) and 0.53 (95% CI 0.35-0.78), respectively, in association with no, 0-85.7 and >85.7 ml of green tea per day. The significant inverse association between risk of breast cancer and green tea intake remained after further adjustment for other potential confounders, including smoking; alcohol, coffee and black tea intake; family history of breast cancer; physical activity; and intake of soy and dark green vegetables. While both green tea and soy intake had significant, independent protective effects on breast cancer risk, the benefit of green tea was primarily observed among subjects who were low

  18. Polyphenolic chemistry of tea and coffee: a century of progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Ho, Chi-Tang

    2009-09-23

    Tea and coffee, the most popular beverages in the world, have been consumed for thousands of years for their alluring flavors and health benefits. Polyphenols, particularly flavonoids and phenolic acids, are of great abundance in tea and coffee and contribute a lot to their flavor and health properties. This paper reviews the polyphenol chemistry of tea and coffee, specifically their stability, and scavenging ability of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive carbonyl species (RCS). During the manufacturing and brewing process, green tea and black tea polyphenols undergo epimerization and oxidation, respectively. Meanwhile, the lactonization and the polymerization of chlorogenic acid are the major causes for the degradation of polyphenols in coffee. Tea catechins, besides having antioxidant properties, have the novel characteristic of trapping reactive carbonyl species. The A ring of the catechins is the binding site for RCS trapping, whereas the B ring is the preferred site for antioxidation.

  19. PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF GREEN TEA FROM PAF-INDUCED NEUROTOXITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Enji; Hah Xuefei; Joseph Rajiv

    2000-01-01

    Objective The protective effect of chinese green tea from PAF-induced neurotoxity was investigated Method LaN1 ( neuroblastoma cell line) was used as neuron. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) -release was an indicator of cell death. Cytoplasmic calcium was measured with Aequouin-loaded method. Results When applied to LaN1 cells, green tea in concentration 2mg/ml or stronger obviously damaged cells. If lower concentration (0. 5mg/ml and l.Omg/ml) of green tea were applied, green tea inhibited the elevation of intracellular calcium and reduced the cytotoxity induced by PAF in neurons. Conclusion PAF plays an important role in brain injury and stroke, the protective effect of green tea could be a basis to explore weather green tea or its derivative may have preventive and therapeutic potential for neuronal injury.

  20. Effects of Water Solutions on Extracting Green Tea Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Ying Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effects of water solutions on the antioxidant content of green tea leaf extracts. Green teas prepared with tap water and distilled water were compared with respect to four antioxidant assays: total phenol content, reducing power, DMPD assay, and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assay. The results indicate that green tea prepared with distilled water exhibits higher antioxidant activity than that made with tap water. The high performance liquid chromatography showed that major constituents of green tea were found in higher concentrations in tea made with distilled water than in that made with tap water. This could be due to less calcium fixation in leaves and small water clusters. Water solutions composed of less mineralisation are more effective in promoting the quality of green tea leaf extracts.

  1. TEA: A Code for Calculating Thermochemical Equilibrium Abundances

    CERN Document Server

    Blecic, Jasmina; Bowman, M Oliver

    2015-01-01

    We present an open-source Thermochemical Equilibrium Abundances (TEA) code that calculates the abundances of gaseous molecular species. The code is based on the methodology of White et al. (1958) and Eriksson (1971). It applies Gibbs free-energy minimization using an iterative, Lagrangian optimization scheme. Given elemental abundances, TEA calculates molecular abundances for a particular temperature and pressure or a list of temperature-pressure pairs. We tested the code against the method of Burrows & Sharp (1999), the free thermochemical equilibrium code CEA (Chemical Equilibrium with Applications), and the example given by White et al. (1958). Using their thermodynamic data, TEA reproduces their final abundances, but with higher precision. We also applied the TEA abundance calculations to models of several hot-Jupiter exoplanets, producing expected results. TEA is written in Python in a modular format. There is a start guide, a user manual, and a code document in addition to this theory paper. TEA is ...

  2. Prevention of coronary heart disease and cancer by tea, a review

    OpenAIRE

    Weisburger, John H

    2003-01-01

    Biomedical research has uncovered the mechanisms whereby tea promotes good health and lowers the risk of major chronic diseases, such as heart disease and many types of cancer. The active components in tea are polyphenols, epigallocatechin gallate in green tea, theaflavins and thearubigins in black tea. Green and black tea and the polyphenols have similar beneficial effects. The mechanisms are categorized into 5 groups. 1) Tea polyphenols are powerful antioxidants. They decrease the oxidation...

  3. Aged leaves effect on essential components in green and oolong tea

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, M.M.

    2013-01-01

    Tea leaf encompasses essential components like caffeine, polyphenol, lipid etc. The study was conducted to find out the essential constituents in green and oolong tea from aged tea leaves during the year of 2012. Tea leaves with different plucked aged were collected from Lackatoorah Tea Estate at sylhet district in Bangladesh. Collected leaves were processesed to make desirable samples for biochemical analysis in the laboratory of Department of Food Enginnering and Tea Technology, SUST. Resul...

  4. Uniform random spanning trees

    OpenAIRE

    Pemantle, Robin

    2004-01-01

    There are several good reasons you might want to read about uniform spanning trees, one being that spanning trees are useful combinatorial objects. Not only are they fundamental in algebraic graph theory and combinatorial geometry, but they predate both of these subjects, having been used by Kirchoff in the study of resistor networks. This article addresses the question about spanning trees most natural to anyone in probability theory, namely what does a typical spanning tree look like?

  5. Coded Splitting Tree Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Hemming; Stefanovic, Cedomir; Popovski, Petar

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to multiple access control called coded splitting tree protocol. The approach builds on the known tree splitting protocols, code structure and successive interference cancellation (SIC). Several instances of the tree splitting protocol are initiated, each...... as possible. Evaluations show that the proposed protocol provides considerable gains over the standard tree splitting protocol applying SIC. The improvement comes at the expense of an increased feedback and receiver complexity....

  6. Reengineering Model of Supply Chain of Tea Industry in Yunnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Yunnan University of finance and Trade recording to t he statistics of chain's output of tea, Yunnan province has entered the ranks of the larger ones of the production in China. Yunnan's tea industry has the natur al resources and the economic effects envied, on the orther hand, Yunnan's tea m arket has gradually become less and the economic effects have been poor. Through our comprehensive investigation and study, we consider that because the supply chain has seriously been disjointed among production...

  7. The emission spectra of Ar, Kr and Xe + TEA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Masayo; Strock, Pierre; Sauli, Fabio; Charpak, Georges

    1987-03-01

    The emission spectra of Ar, Kr and Xe + 6% TEA gas mixtures are measured by using a single wire proportional counter as the emission source. Asymmetric emission bands are observed in the range of 270 to 350 nm, which can be attributed to the radiative deexcitation of excited TEA molecules. For the practical application of optical readout of avalanche chambers, the Ar + 2.0% TEA + 20% isobutane gas mixture is also examined, and nearly the same emission band is observed.

  8. Perceived Quality and Attitude Toward Tea & Coffee by Consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Islam Md. Monirul; Jang Hui Han, PhD.

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to determine the consumers’ perception and attitude toward Tea and Coffee. Total 100 South Korean consumers participated as respondents in this study. Fishbien’s Multi-attribute attitude model and t-test were used to measure hypothesis and compare attitude toward Tea and Coffee. Findings indicate that consumer attitudes toward Coffee and Tea differed significantly among consumers in Korea. Consumers had an overall more positive attitude towards Coffee compare...

  9. Effects of an Intensive Resistant Training Sessions and Green Tea

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Esmaeil Afzalpour; Elham Ghasemi; Asghar ZarbanP

    2014-01-01

    Background: Intensive and acute exercise trainings may induce oxidative stress, but antioxidant supplements may attenuate its degenerative consequences. The aim of this research was to examine the effect of green tea supplementation on the oxidative stress indices after an intensive resistance training session. Materials and Methods: 40 non-athletes (without regular physical activity) women were randomly divided into 4 equal (n=10) groups including green tea supplementation, green tea supp...

  10. Antioxidative and anti-carcinogenic activities of tea polyphenols

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Chung S; Lambert, Joshua D.; Sang, Shengmin

    2008-01-01

    Tea (Camellia sinensis, Theaceace), a popular beverage consumed world-wide, has been studied for its preventive effects against cancer as well as cardiovascular, neurodegenerative, and other diseases. Most of the proposed beneficial effects have been attributed to the polyphenolic compounds in tea, but the nature of these activities and the molecular mechanisms of their actions remain unclear. Tea polyphenols are known to be strong antioxidants. Prevention of oxidative stress, modulation of c...

  11. Effec of green Tea Toward Sensitivity of Diabetic Melitus Patients

    OpenAIRE

    hamrun, nurlindah

    2007-01-01

    Advantages of green tea as a medicine ascribed from plant had been known and used by community. In dental medicine, several researchers had reported that the advantages of green tea for dental health. The research aims to examine effect of green tea toward sensitivity tooth of diabetic mellitus patients. / Khasiat teh hijau sebagai obat yg berasal dari tumbuhan telah diketahui dan digunakan oleh masyarakat. Dalam bidang kedokteran gigi, beberapa peneliti telah melaporkan khasiat teh hijau

  12. Microbiological Quality of Various Medicinal Herbal Teas and Coffee Substitutes

    OpenAIRE

    V.H. Tournas; E.J. Katsoudas

    2008-01-01

    Various herbal teas including German chamomile, Chrysanthemum Vascuflow herb tea, hop, jasmine and orange flowers, sweet marjoram, spearmint and thyme leaves, and papaya-mint tea as well as coffee substitutes (Bambu instant Swiss, Teeccino chocolate-mint, and Teeccino Mediterranean Espresso) were analyzed for fungal contamination and the presence of aerobic mesophilic bacteria (APC). The results of this investigation showed that fungal counts reached levels as high as 5.8 × 105 colony forming...

  13. Winter Birch Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Debra; Rounds, Judy

    2011-01-01

    Trees are great inspiration for artists. Many art teachers find themselves inspired and maybe somewhat obsessed with the natural beauty and elegance of the lofty tree, and how it changes through the seasons. One such tree that grows in several regions and always looks magnificent, regardless of the time of year, is the birch. In this article, the…

  14. Total well dominated trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finbow, Arthur; Frendrup, Allan; Vestergaard, Preben D.

    cardinality then G is a total well dominated graph. In this paper we study composition and decomposition of total well dominated trees. By a reversible process we prove that any total well dominated tree can both be reduced to and constructed from a family of three small trees....

  15. The Wish Tree Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Sarah DeWitt

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the author's experience in implementing a Wish Tree project in her school in an effort to bring the school community together with a positive art-making experience during a potentially stressful time. The concept of a wish tree is simple: plant a tree; provide tags and pencils for writing wishes; and encourage everyone to…

  16. THE EFFECTS OF TEA WASTES ON SOIL ENZYME ACTIVITY AND NITRIFICATION

    OpenAIRE

    ARCAK, Sevinç; A. Cihat KÜTÜK; Koray HAKTANIR; Gökhan ÇAYCI

    1997-01-01

    The research was carried out on tea wastes supplied from factories of General Directorate of Tea Enterprises. The aim of this study is to determine the effects of composted, enriched composted tea wastes along with coarse and fine tea wastes released by tea factories processing raw tea leaves into black tea, on soil enzyme activity and nitrification. Tea wastes were applied to pots of 200 g-soil capacity, at the rate of 0 %, 2.5 % and 5.0 % of the pot capacity in addition, 200 µg/g N, in the...

  17. Sonme Factors that Affect the Free Radical-scavenging Activity of Tea Extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Some factors that affect the free radical-scavenging activety of two tea extracts were studied in vitro. It was found that concentration of tea extract or heating tea extract or treating with activated carbon and diatomite all had obvious effect on the scavenging activety of green tea extract ,but heating or treating with diaomite had less effect on the scavenging activity of black tea extract. Ascorbic acid, for having synergic effect with tea extracts, could enhance the scavenging activity of tea extracts markedly, and the contrary was cupric ion. Reducing sugars such as fructose and glucose also had some syncrgic effect to tea extracts.

  18. Antioxidant effects of green tea polyphenols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The unprecedented interest in the antioxidant activity of green tea polyphenols (GTP) is due to the apparent health benefits of tea drinking and the experimental results with the polyphenols. The results suggest that the galloylated catechins show stronger antioxidant effect than that of nongalloylated catechins and the double bond in C ring also plays an important role in this effect. There are synergic effects between different catechins and the antioxidant effectof (+)-epimers is stronger than that of (-)-epimers. The active site to scavenge free radicals mainly locates in p-hydroxyl of phenol in gallic acid and hydroxyl of phenol in the pyrane also shows activity. The large π bond in chromane and benzene ring of catechin is the structure base for their antioxidant effects. The prevent effect of GTP against diseases and their redox regulation in cell signal pathway are very important to be studied in the future.

  19. Effects of an Intensive Resistant Training Sessions and Green Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Esmaeil Afzalpour

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intensive and acute exercise trainings may induce oxidative stress, but antioxidant supplements may attenuate its degenerative consequences. The aim of this research was to examine the effect of green tea supplementation on the oxidative stress indices after an intensive resistance training session. Materials and Methods: 40 non-athletes (without regular physical activity women were randomly divided into 4 equal (n=10 groups including green tea supplementation, green tea supplementation plus resistance training, resistance training, and control groups. After supplementation period (600 mg/day, 14 days, resistance training and green tea supplementation plus resistance training groups performed an intensive resistance training session at 75-85 % of one repetition maximum. The malondialdehyde and total thiol were measured as oxidative stress indices. Data were analyzed by using of repeated measure ANOVA and LSD tests at p<0.056T. Results: Results showed that after 14 days of green tea consumption, malondialdehyde significantly decreased in green tea supplementation (p=0.03 and green tea supplementation plus resistance training (p=0.01 groups, while total thiol increased significantly (p=0.01 in two green tea supplementation groups. However, an intensive resistance training session increased malondialdehyde (p=0.01 without any significantly changes in total thiol (p=0.426T. Conclusion: It seems that green tea supplementation can inhibit exercise-induced protein and lipid oxidation in non-athletes women via enhancement of antioxidant defense system of the body6T.6T

  20. Survey on Fertility of Tea Garden Soil in Meizhou Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhiping; PENG; Jichuan; HUANG; Junhong; YU; Zhidui; PENG; Zhijun; LIN; Linxiang; YANG; Xuena; WU

    2013-01-01

    Survey on fertility of tea garden soil in Meizhou region indicates that tea garden soil has strong acidity; organic matter content remains at medium level; there is a severe lack of available content of nitrogen(N),phosphorus(P) and potassium(K); available calcium(Ca) and magnesium(Mg) content is also insufficient; available sulfur(S) is abundant. In the management of tea cultivation,it is recommended to supplement organic fertilizer,balance the application of NPK fertilizer,and adequately alleviate shortage of Ca and Mg element,to guarantee high and stable yield of tea.

  1. Green tea and bone health: Evidence from laboratory studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chwan-Li; Yeh, James K; Cao, Jay J; Chyu, Ming-Chien; Wang, Jia-Sheng

    2011-08-01

    Osteoporosis is a major health problem in the elderly. Epidemiological evidence has shown an association between tea consumption and the prevention of bone loss in the elderly population. Ingestion of green tea and green tea bioactive compounds may be beneficial in mitigating bone loss of this population and decreasing their risk of osteoporotic fractures. This review describes the effect of green tea with its bioactive components on bone health with an emphasis on the following: (i) the etiology of osteoporosis, (ii) evidence of osteo-protective impacts of green tea on bone mass and microarchitecture in various bone loss models in which induced by aging, sex hormone deficiency, and chronic inflammation, (iii) discussion of impacts of green tea on bone mass in two obesity models, (iv) observation of short-term green tea supplementation given to postmenopausal women with low bone mass, (v) possible mechanisms for the osteo-protective effects of green tea bioactive compounds, and (vi) a summary and future research direction of green tea and bone health.

  2. Tea consumption and risk of head and neck cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Chih Huang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The current study evaluated the association between tea consumption and head and neck cancer (HNC in Taiwan, where tea is a major agricultural product and a popular beverage. METHODS: Interviews regarding tea consumption (frequency, duration, and types were conducted with 396 HNC cases and 413 controls. Unconditional logistic regression was performed to estimate the odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence interval (CI of HNC risk associated with tea drinking, adjusted for sex, age, education, cigarette smoking, betel quid chewing, and alcohol drinking. RESULTS: A reduced HNC risk associated with tea drinking (OR for every cup per day = 0.96, 95% CI: 0.93-0.99; OR for ≧5 cups per day = 0.60, 95% CI: 0.39-0.94 was observed. The association was especially significant for pharyngeal cancer (OR for every cup per day = 0.93, 95% CI: 0.88-0.98; OR for ≧5 cups per day = 0.32, 95% CI: 0.16-0.66. A significant inverse association between HNC and tea consumption was observed particularly for green tea. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that tea drinking may reduce the risk of HNC. The anticancer property of tea, if proven, may offer a natural chemopreventive measure to reduce the occurrence of HNC.

  3. Effect of different brewing times on soluble oxalate content of loose-packed black teas and tea bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdavi, Reza; Lotfi Yagin, Neda; Liebman, Michael; Nikniaz, Zeinab

    2013-02-01

    Because of the postulated role of increased dietary oxalate intake in calcium oxalate stone formation, the effect of different brewing times on soluble oxalate contents of loose-packed black tea and tea bags was studied. The oxalate content of 25 different samples of loose-packed black teas after brewing at 5, 10, 15, 30, and 60 min and of ten brands of tea bags after infusion for 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 min was measured by enzymatic assay. The oxalate concentration resulting from different brewing times ranged from 4.3 to 6.2 mg/240 ml for loose-packed black teas and from 2.7 to 4.8 mg/240 ml for tea bags. There was a stepwise increase in oxalate concentration associated with increased brewing times.

  4. Ancient Road For Tea Horse Trade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    For many, manypeople in theworld,a roadexclusively devot-ed to the tea-horse tradewould be considered some-thing of a tall tale.However,such a road did exist,fromthe Tang Dynasty(618-907)to the opening of the Yun-nan-Tibet and Sichuan-TibetHighways in the 196Os.Insome areas,sections of theroad are still used for trans-port purposes.

  5. Esophageal Thermal Injury by Hot Adlay Tea

    OpenAIRE

    Go, Hoon; Yang, Hyeon Woong; Jung, Sung Hee; Park, Young A; Lee, Jung Yun; Kim, Sae Hee; Lim, Sin Hyung

    2007-01-01

    Reversible thermal injury to the esophagus as the result of drinking hot liquids has been reported to generate alternating white and red linear mucosal bands, somewhat reminiscent of a candy cane. This phenomenon is associated with chest pain, dysphagia, odynophagia, and epigastric pain. Here, we report a case of thermal injury to the esophageal and oral cavity due to the drinking of hot tea, including odynophagia and dysphagia. A 69-year-old man was referred due to a difficulty in swallowing...

  6. Tea and Recurrent Clostridium difficile Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oman Evans Ii, Martin; Starley, Brad; Galagan, Jack Carl; Yabes, Joseph Michael; Evans, Sara; Salama, Joseph John

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims. Studies have shown effects of diet on gut microbiota. We aimed to identify foods associated with recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). Methods. In this cross-sectional survey, consecutive patients diagnosed with CDI were identified by electronic medical records. Colitis symptoms and positive Clostridium difficile assay were confirmed. Health-care onset-health-care facility associated CDI was excluded. Food surveys were mailed to 411 patients. Survey responses served as the primary outcome measure. Spearman's rank correlation identified risk factors for CDI recurrence. Results. Surveys were returned by 68 patients. Nineteen patients experienced CDI recurrence. Compared to patients without CDI recurrence, patients with CDI recurrence had more antibiotics prescribed preceding their infection (p = 0.003). Greater numbers of the latter also listed tea (p = 0.002), coffee (p = 0.013), and eggs (p = 0.013), on their 24-hour food recall. Logistic regression identified tea as the only food risk factor for CDI recurrence (adjusted OR: 5.71; 95% CI: 1.26-25.89). Conclusion. The present results indicate a possible association between tea and CDI recurrence. Additional studies are needed to characterize and confirm this association.

  7. Ribonucleic acids in different tea fungus beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malbaša Radomir V.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In human nutrition, nucleic acids have to be balanced and limited up to 2 g/day because purines are degraded to urate, and excessive production of urate is a cause of gout which primarily affects adult males. Tea fungus beverage is a well known drink with high nutritional value and certain curative effects. Its benefits have been proved in a number of studies but it is still necessary to examine some potential harmful effects of this beverage. The aim of this paper was to investigate content of ribonucleic acids (RNA produced during tea fungus fermentation on a usual substrate sweetened black tea, and on Jerusalem artichoke tubers (J.A.T extract using method by Munro and Fleck (1966. pH, ribonucleic acids and also the production of proteins that affect purity of nucleic acids preparations were monitored. A higher value of RNA has been noticed in J.A.T. beverage (0.57 mg/ml and with observation of usual daily dose of the beverage it is completely safe and useful one.

  8. Guaianolides and volatile compounds in chamomile tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschiggerl, Christine; Bucar, Franz

    2012-06-01

    Chamomile (German Chamomile, Matricaria recutita L., Asteraceae) is one of the most popular medicinal plants in use as an herbal tea for food purposes and in folk medicine. Qualitative and semi-quantitative analyses of the volatile fraction of chamomile herbal tea were performed. Volatile constituents of the infusion were isolated by two different methods, namely hydrodistillation and solid phase extraction (SPE), and analysed by GC-MS. The relative proportions of particular chemical classes, present in the essential oil and volatile fractions of the infusion showed remarkable differences. The proportion of mono- and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons in the infusion, as compared to the essential oil, was significantly lower. Strikingly, the dichloromethane extract of the infusion contained a lower amount of bisabolol oxides and chamazulene, but higher amounts of spiroethers, sesquiterpene lactones and coumarins, as compared to the hydrodistillates of the herbal drug and the infusion. In addition to the previously known guaianolides matricarin and achillin, acetoxyachillin and leucodin (= desacetoxymatricarin), corresponding C-11 stereoisomers with various biological activities typically occurring in Achillea species, were identified in the dichloromethane extract of chamomile tea for the first time. PMID:22410959

  9. Distributed Contour Trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morozov, Dmitriy; Weber, Gunther H.

    2014-03-31

    Topological techniques provide robust tools for data analysis. They are used, for example, for feature extraction, for data de-noising, and for comparison of data sets. This chapter concerns contour trees, a topological descriptor that records the connectivity of the isosurfaces of scalar functions. These trees are fundamental to analysis and visualization of physical phenomena modeled by real-valued measurements. We study the parallel analysis of contour trees. After describing a particular representation of a contour tree, called local{global representation, we illustrate how di erent problems that rely on contour trees can be solved in parallel with minimal communication.

  10. Trees in Lhasa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Degyi

    2008-01-01

    Trees are flourishing in Lhasa wherever the history exists. There is such a man. He has already been through cus-toms after his annual trek to Lhasa, which he has been doing for over twenty years in succession to visit his tree.Although he has been making this journey for so long,it is neither to visit friends or family,nor is it his hometown.It is a tree that is tied so profoundly to his heart.When the wind blows fiercely on the bare tree and winter snow falls,he stands be-fore the tree with tears of jo...

  11. [Effects of different tillage methods on tea garden soil physical characteristics and tea yield].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, You-jian; Wang, Ye-jun; Zhang, Yong-li; Ding, Yong; Luo, Yi; Song, Li; Liao, Wan-you

    2015-12-01

    The effects of three tillage methods, i.e., no tillage, rotary tillage, deep tillage, on tea garden soil compaction, soil moisture, soil bulk density, yield component factors and tea yield were studied through field experiments in Langxi Country of Anhui Province. The results indicated that the effects of three tillage methods on soil bulk density and soil compaction were in order of deep tillage>rotary tillage>no tillage. Deep tillage and rotary tillage could effectively break the argillic horizon layer and decrease the soil compaction. Compared with no tillage, soil compaction and soil bulk density (0-30 cm) under deep tillage decreased 16.4% and 13.4%-27.5%, respectively. Deep tillage could significantly increase soil water storage space and enhance the water holding capacity of the soil. Compared with no tillage, the soil moisture of 15-30 cm soil layer was increased by 7.7% under deep tillage. The different tillage methods had little effect on soil porosity. Rotary tillage and deep tillage could increase soil specific surface area and the ratios of soil gas and soil liquid. The diurnal changes of photosynthetic rate and transpiration rate of tea both exhibited double-peak pattern. There was a significant midday depression caused principally by stomatal factors. Under deep tillage, the tea leaf transpiration rate decreased, shoot density increased, 100-bud dry mass and water use efficiency increased significantly, and the tea yield increased by 17.6% and 6.8% compared with no tillage and rotary tillage, respectively. Deep tillage was the most appropriate tillage practice in tea garden of east Anhui Province. PMID:27112011

  12. [Effects of different tillage methods on tea garden soil physical characteristics and tea yield].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, You-jian; Wang, Ye-jun; Zhang, Yong-li; Ding, Yong; Luo, Yi; Song, Li; Liao, Wan-you

    2015-12-01

    The effects of three tillage methods, i.e., no tillage, rotary tillage, deep tillage, on tea garden soil compaction, soil moisture, soil bulk density, yield component factors and tea yield were studied through field experiments in Langxi Country of Anhui Province. The results indicated that the effects of three tillage methods on soil bulk density and soil compaction were in order of deep tillage>rotary tillage>no tillage. Deep tillage and rotary tillage could effectively break the argillic horizon layer and decrease the soil compaction. Compared with no tillage, soil compaction and soil bulk density (0-30 cm) under deep tillage decreased 16.4% and 13.4%-27.5%, respectively. Deep tillage could significantly increase soil water storage space and enhance the water holding capacity of the soil. Compared with no tillage, the soil moisture of 15-30 cm soil layer was increased by 7.7% under deep tillage. The different tillage methods had little effect on soil porosity. Rotary tillage and deep tillage could increase soil specific surface area and the ratios of soil gas and soil liquid. The diurnal changes of photosynthetic rate and transpiration rate of tea both exhibited double-peak pattern. There was a significant midday depression caused principally by stomatal factors. Under deep tillage, the tea leaf transpiration rate decreased, shoot density increased, 100-bud dry mass and water use efficiency increased significantly, and the tea yield increased by 17.6% and 6.8% compared with no tillage and rotary tillage, respectively. Deep tillage was the most appropriate tillage practice in tea garden of east Anhui Province.

  13. Transformation of tea catechins and flavonoid glycosides by treatment with Japanese post-fermented tea acetone powder

    OpenAIRE

    Tanaka, Takashi; Umeki, Hirotaka; NAGAI, SACHI; Shii, Takuya; Matsuo, Yosuke; Kouno, Isao

    2012-01-01

    Japanese post-fermented teas are produced by a combination of aerobic and anaerobic microbial fermentation of the leaves of tea plant. Recently, it was revealed that tea products contain characteristic polyphenols identical to the tea catechin metabolites produced by mammalian intestinal bacteria, such as (2S)-1-(3′,4′,5′-trihydroxyphenyl)-3-(2″,4″,6″-trihydroxyphenyl)-propan-2-ol (EGC-M1). In the present study, degradation of epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCg) and epigallocatechin (EGC) wit...

  14. Comparison of the Level of Boron Concentrations in Black Teas with Fruit Teas Available on the Polish Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anetta Zioła-Frankowska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The determination of boron by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry has been carried in water-soluble and acid soluble (total content fractions of 36 samples of traditional black tea and fruit brew. The estimation of the impact of the type of tea on the concentration of boron in water-soluble and acid extracts and potential human health risk from the daily intake of boron was carried out in this study. The levels of boron differed significantly in black and fruit tea types. The mean total content of boron ranged from 8.31 to 18.40 mg/kg in black teas, from 12.85 to 15.13 mg/kg in black tea with fruit flavor, and from 12.09 to 22.77 mg/kg in fruit brews. The degree of extraction of boron in black tea ranged from 8% to 27% and for fruit tea from 17% to 69%. In addition, the values below 25% were of black teas with fruit flavors. The daily intake of B from tea infusions (three cups/day is still within the average daily intake except for some of the fruit brews which exceed acceptable regulations of the daily intake of total boron by humans. Hence, it may not produce any health risks for human consumption, if other sources of metal contaminated food are not taken at the same time.

  15. Growth of a Pine Tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollinson, Susan Wells

    2012-01-01

    The growth of a pine tree is examined by preparing "tree cookies" (cross-sectional disks) between whorls of branches. The use of Christmas trees allows the tree cookies to be obtained with inexpensive, commonly available tools. Students use the tree cookies to investigate the annual growth of the tree and how it corresponds to the number of whorls…

  16. In vitro activity of 23 tea extractions and epigallocatechin gallate against Candida species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Ming; Zhai, Lin; Arendrup, Maiken Cavling

    2015-01-01

    .0-0.005 mg/ml) to 23 different teas and tea catechins including epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) isolated from green tea. All teas exhibited potent in vitro antifungal activity against C. glabrata. Six out of nine green teas and three of eight black teas had an MIC of 0.078 mg/ml, one white tea had an MIC......In this study, we investigate the susceptibility of Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida krusei, Candida parapsilosis, Candida tropicalis, and Aspergillus fumigatus using the EUCAST microdilution minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) method (final tea supernatant concentration range 5...... of 0.156 mg/ml, and finally three of five oolong teas had an MIC of 0.156 mg/ml. Three teas exhibited activity against C. albicans (MIC 1.25 mg/ml), one green tea was active against C. parapsilosis (MIC 1.25 mg/ml), but none were effective against C. krusei, C. tropicalis or A. fumigatus...

  17. Tea drinking and risk of pancreatic cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Junbao; Chen Long; Zhu Xiaodong

    2014-01-01

    Background Epidemiologic studies have reported inconsistent results regarding tea consumption and the risk of pancreatic cancer.This study aimed to investigate whether tea consumption is related to the risk of pancreatic cancer.Methods We searched Medline,EMBASE,ISI Web of Science,and the Cochrane library for studies published up to November 2013.We used a meta-analytic approach to estimate overall odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for the highest versus the lowest tea consumption categories.Results The summary OR for high versus no/almost never tea drinkers was 1.04 (95% CI:0.91-1.20),with no significant heterogeneity across studies (P=0.751;I2=0.0%).The OR was 0.99 (95% CI:0.77-1.28) in males and 1.01 (95% CI:0.79-1.29) in females.The OR was 1.07 (95% CI:0.85-1.34) in Asian studies,1.05 (95% CI:0.84-1.31) in European studies,and 0.98 (95% CI:0.72-1.34) in the US studies.The OR was 0.87 (95% CI:0.69-1.10) without adjustment for a history of diabetes and 1.16 (95% CI:0.97-0.39) after adjustment for a history of diabetes.The OR was 0.90 (95% CI:0.72-1.12) without adjustment for alcohol drinking and 1.16 (95% CI:0.96-1.39) after adjustment for alcohol drinking.The OR was 0.97 (95% CI:0.76-1.25) without adjustment for BMI and 1.07 (95% CI:0.87-1.31) after adjustment for BMI.Conclusion This systematic meta-analysis of cohort studies dose not provide quantitative evidence that tea consumption is appreciably related to the risk of pancreatic cancer,even at high doses.

  18. From gene trees to species trees II: Species tree inference in the deep coalescence model

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Louxin

    2010-01-01

    When gene copies are sampled from various species, the resulting gene tree might disagree with the containing species tree. The primary causes of gene tree and species tree discord include lineage sorting, horizontal gene transfer, and gene duplication and loss. Each of these events yields a different parsimony criterion for inferring the (containing) species tree from gene trees. With lineage sorting, species tree inference is to find the tree minimizing extra gene lineages that had to coexi...

  19. Selected tea and tea pomace extracts inhibit intestinal α-glucosidase activity in vitro and postprandial hyperglycemia in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jungbae; Jo, Sung-Hoon; Kim, Justin S; Ha, Kyoung-Soo; Lee, Jung-Yun; Choi, Hwang-Yong; Yu, Seok-Yeong; Kwon, Young-In; Kim, Young-Cheul

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a metabolic disorder characterized by postprandial hyperglycemia, which is an early defect of T2DM and thus a primary target for anti-diabetic drugs. A therapeutic approach is to inhibit intestinal α-glucosidase, the key enzyme for dietary carbohydrate digestion, resulting in delayed rate of glucose absorption. Although tea extracts have been reported to have anti-diabetic effects, the potential bioactivity of tea pomace, the main bio waste of tea beverage processing, is largely unknown. We evaluated the anti-diabetic effects of three selected tea water extracts (TWE) and tea pomace extracts (TPE) by determining the relative potency of extracts on rat intestinal α-glucosidase activity in vitro as well as hypoglycemic effects in vivo. Green, oolong, and black tea bags were extracted in hot water and the remaining tea pomace were dried and further extracted in 70% ethanol. The extracts were determined for intestinal rat α-glucosidases activity, radical scavenging activity, and total phenolic content. The postprandial glucose-lowering effects of TWE and TPE of green and black tea were assessed in male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats and compared to acarbose, a known pharmacological α-glucosidase inhibitor. The IC50 values of all three tea extracts against mammalian α-glucosidase were lower or similar in TPE groups than those of TWE groups. TWE and TPE of green tea exhibited the highest inhibitory effects against α-glucosidase activity with the IC50 of 2.04 ± 0.31 and 1.95 ± 0.37 mg/mL respectively. Among the specific enzymes tested, the IC50 values for TWE (0.16 ± 0.01 mg/mL) and TPE (0.13 ± 0.01 mg/mL) of green tea against sucrase activity were the lowest compared to those on maltase and glucoamylase activities. In the animal study, the blood glucose level at 30 min after oral intake (0.5 g/kg body wt) of TPE and TWE of both green and black tea was significantly reduced compared to the control in sucrose-loaded SD rats. The TPE

  20. Selected Tea and Tea Pomace Extracts Inhibit Intestinal α-Glucosidase Activity in Vitro and Postprandial Hyperglycemia in Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungbae Oh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is a metabolic disorder characterized by postprandial hyperglycemia, which is an early defect of T2DM and thus a primary target for anti-diabetic drugs. A therapeutic approach is to inhibit intestinal α-glucosidase, the key enzyme for dietary carbohydrate digestion, resulting in delayed rate of glucose absorption. Although tea extracts have been reported to have anti-diabetic effects, the potential bioactivity of tea pomace, the main bio waste of tea beverage processing, is largely unknown. We evaluated the anti-diabetic effects of three selected tea water extracts (TWE and tea pomace extracts (TPE by determining the relative potency of extracts on rat intestinal α-glucosidase activity in vitro as well as hypoglycemic effects in vivo. Green, oolong, and black tea bags were extracted in hot water and the remaining tea pomace were dried and further extracted in 70% ethanol. The extracts were determined for intestinal rat α-glucosidases activity, radical scavenging activity, and total phenolic content. The postprandial glucose-lowering effects of TWE and TPE of green and black tea were assessed in male Sprague-Dawley (SD rats and compared to acarbose, a known pharmacological α-glucosidase inhibitor. The IC50 values of all three tea extracts against mammalian α-glucosidase were lower or similar in TPE groups than those of TWE groups. TWE and TPE of green tea exhibited the highest inhibitory effects against α-glucosidase activity with the IC50 of 2.04 ± 0.31 and 1.95 ± 0.37 mg/mL respectively. Among the specific enzymes tested, the IC50 values for TWE (0.16 ± 0.01 mg/mL and TPE (0.13 ± 0.01 mg/mL of green tea against sucrase activity were the lowest compared to those on maltase and glucoamylase activities. In the animal study, the blood glucose level at 30 min after oral intake (0.5 g/kg body wt of TPE and TWE of both green and black tea was significantly reduced compared to the control in sucrose-loaded SD

  1. Consumption of green tea, but not black tea or coffee, is associated with reduced risk of cognitive decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi-Shinohara, Moeko; Yuki, Sohshi; Dohmoto, Chiaki; Ikeda, Yoshihisa; Samuraki, Miharu; Iwasa, Kazuo; Yokogawa, Masami; Asai, Kimiko; Komai, Kiyonobu; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Yamada, Masahito

    2014-01-01

    Our objective was to determine whether the consumption of green tea, coffee, or black tea influences the incidence of dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in older people. We conducted a population-based prospective study with Japanese residents aged >60 years from Nakajima, Japan (the Nakajima Project). Participants received an evaluation of cognitive function and blood tests. The consumption of green tea, coffee, and black tea was also evaluated at baseline. Of 723 participants with normal cognitive function at a baseline survey (2007-2008), 490 completed the follow up survey in 2011-2013. The incidence of dementia during the follow-up period (mean ± SD: 4.9 ± 0.9 years) was 5.3%, and that of MCI was 13.1%. The multiple-adjusted odds ratio for the incidence of overall cognitive decline (dementia or MCI) was 0.32 (95% CI: 0.16-0.64) among individuals who consumed green tea every day and 0.47 (95% CI: 0.25-0.86) among those who consumed green tea 1-6 days per week compared with individuals who did not consume green tea at all. The multiple-adjusted odds ratio for the incidence of dementia was 0.26 (95% CI: 0.06-1.06) among individuals who consumed green tea every day compared with those who did not consume green tea at all. No association was found between coffee or black tea consumption and the incidence of dementia or MCI. Our results indicate that green tea consumption is significantly associated with reduced risk of cognitive decline, even after adjustment for possible confounding factors.

  2. Consumption of green tea, but not black tea or coffee, is associated with reduced risk of cognitive decline.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moeko Noguchi-Shinohara

    Full Text Available Our objective was to determine whether the consumption of green tea, coffee, or black tea influences the incidence of dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI in older people. We conducted a population-based prospective study with Japanese residents aged >60 years from Nakajima, Japan (the Nakajima Project. Participants received an evaluation of cognitive function and blood tests. The consumption of green tea, coffee, and black tea was also evaluated at baseline. Of 723 participants with normal cognitive function at a baseline survey (2007-2008, 490 completed the follow up survey in 2011-2013. The incidence of dementia during the follow-up period (mean ± SD: 4.9 ± 0.9 years was 5.3%, and that of MCI was 13.1%. The multiple-adjusted odds ratio for the incidence of overall cognitive decline (dementia or MCI was 0.32 (95% CI: 0.16-0.64 among individuals who consumed green tea every day and 0.47 (95% CI: 0.25-0.86 among those who consumed green tea 1-6 days per week compared with individuals who did not consume green tea at all. The multiple-adjusted odds ratio for the incidence of dementia was 0.26 (95% CI: 0.06-1.06 among individuals who consumed green tea every day compared with those who did not consume green tea at all. No association was found between coffee or black tea consumption and the incidence of dementia or MCI. Our results indicate that green tea consumption is significantly associated with reduced risk of cognitive decline, even after adjustment for possible confounding factors.

  3. Selected parameters of quality and safety of herbal tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alica Bobková

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to assess the heavy metal presence and possible microbiological contamination in herbal teas. Evaluation of selected tea products was performed from Nitra locality during years 2009 - 2013. Microscopic filamentous fungi detection, bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. were compared to requirements given in the Codex Alimentarius of Slovakia. The highest permissible limit for microscopic filamentous fungi was not exceeded (in 32 observed herbal tea samples. For incidence of Escherichia coli, 93 samples were investigated and for Salmonella spp., 91 herbal tea samples. No sample showed the presence of Salmonella spp., and at E. coli maximum permitted presence was detected below limit. Among chemical parameters, cadmium, lead and mercury content were monitored. The highest amount of lead and mercury was found in year 2012. In 2009, the highest cadmium content was found. The average content of lead in all 100 inspected herbal tea samples was 0.784 mg.kg-1 so all the samples met requirements defined in the legislation. The mean content of mercury (98 investigated herbal tea samples was 0.0161 mg.kg-1 so all samples met the requirements as well. Average cadmium content was 0.1702 mg.kg-1 while the highest permitted limit for cadmium is 1.0 mg.kg-1. All herbal tea samples were in accordance with the legislation except one (white willow bark tea with a very high content of cadmium (4.36 mg.kg-1.

  4. Characterization of Black and Green Tea from Local Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Ancuta Socaci

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The leaves from Camellia sinensis are used from ancient times for preparation of tea but also as raw material for different extracts which are used in food industry as well as in pharmaceutical or cosmetic products. Due to the increasing interest in tea health benefits, the aim of the present study was to characterize several brands of green and black tea found on local market, regarding their content in total phenolic compounds, flavonoids and antioxidant capacity. Total phenolics and flavonoids were determined spectrophotometrically using a modified Folin-Ciocalteu method, respectively a chromogenic system of NaNO2–Al(NO33–NaOH based method. The antioxidant capacity of each tea sample was assessed through the evaluation of free radical scavenging effect on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl. The results obtained for the green and black tea samples varied widely, depending on the tea variety. The antioxidant capacity of the analyzed teas ranged between 12.10 and 40.03%RSA, while the total phenolic content was within 2090 and 6080 mg GA/ 100g. The concentrantion in flavonoids was between 9.04 and 15.34 g/100g of tea.

  5. Global Expansion Strategy of Chinese Herbal Tea Beverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Liu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to provide insights into the potential future of Chinese herbal tea beverage industry, we analyze serious challenge on how the herbal tea beverage will develop global expansion strategy in china, as well as a series of recommendations as to how the sector might collaborate and respond. This study discusses the key challenges and opportunities factors that Chinese traditional tea industry face, from across the global value chain, representing both producer and consumer countries and including topics ranging from climate change to finance and markets. For these ever-growing problems, factors as diverse as the use of precision farming, biodiversity, production instability and consumer demand for personalization of products were identified. To support the development of Chinese traditional tea industry, increase investment, vigorously promote to transfer Chinese traditional tea into fast, convenient, standardized and normalized tea beverage products for global expansion strategy of Chinese herbal tea beverage, so as to promote the development of Chinese traditional tea industry and make the regional contribution to the realization of Chinese dream.

  6. DETERMINATION OF HEAVY METALS IN IRANIAN AND IMPORTED BLACK TEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ansari

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Tea is the most popular beverage in the world and contains several essential nutrients, which are beneficial for human health. The contamination of tea leaves by heavy metals may pose a serious threat to human, because they are not biodegradable and remain in environment and pass to food chain. In this study, the concentration of heavy metals of Cd, Pb, Ni, and Al and macro-elements of Fe, Zn, Cu, and Mn were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry on 30 samples of black tea cultivated in Iran and compared with the results for 30 samples of imported black tea in 2006. The results of analysis showed that the mean level of Al was 699.2±172.7mg/kg for Iranian and 388.3±98.3mg/kg for imported black tea. However, the values for Cd, Pb, and Ni were non-detectable. The most abundant nutritive metal was manganese with 155.2-214.2mg/kg and 96.7-332.9mg/kg in Iranian and imported black tea, respectively. The average contents of detectable heavy metals were significantly (p<0.05 higher in Iranian black tea. According to the results of this study, it is justifiable to set maximum residue level for heavy metals in tea, such as Al which appears to be very high in concentration.

  7. Einstein's Tea Leaves and Pressure Systems in the Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, Amit; Marshall, John

    2010-01-01

    Tea leaves gather in the center of the cup when the tea is stirred. In 1926 Einstein explained the phenomenon in terms of a secondary, rim-to-center circulation caused by the fluid rubbing against the bottom of the cup. This explanation can be connected to air movement in atmospheric pressure systems to explore, for example, why low-pressure…

  8. Tea flavonoids for bone health: from animals to humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chwan-Li; Chyu, Ming-Chien

    2016-10-01

    Osteoporosis is a skeletal disease characterized by a deterioration of bone mass and bone quality that predisposes an individual to a higher risk of fragility fractures. Emerging evidence has shown that the risk for low bone mass and osteoporosis-related fractures can be reduced by nutritional approaches aiming to improve bone microstructure, bone mineral density, and strength. Tea and its flavonoids, especially those of black tea and green tea, have been suggested to protect against bone loss and to reduce risk of fracture, due to tea's antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Based on the results of animal studies, moderate intake of tea has shown to benefit bone health as shown by mitigation of bone loss and microstructural deterioration as well as improvement of bone strength and quality. Epidemiological studies have reported positive, insignificant, and negative impacts on bone mineral density at multiple skeletal sites and risk of fracture in humans with habitual tea consumption. There are limited human clinical trials that objectively and quantitatively assessed tea consumption and bone efficacy using validated outcome measures in a population at high risk for osteoporosis, along with safety monitoring approach. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge of laboratory animal research, epidemiological observational studies, and clinical trials assessing the skeletal effects of tea and its active flavonoids, along with discussion of relevant future directions in translational research.

  9. The Analysis of English Translation of Chinese Tea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张竹莉

    2007-01-01

    By the use of various categories of translating methods:音译(Transliteration),意译(Free Translation),音意兼顾(Transliteration combined by flee translation),Culture-oriented translating approach and others,the author analyses theEnglish translation of tea names and interprets tea knowledge as well.

  10. Tea and health: Preventive and therapeutic usefulness in the elderly?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of the review is to update the growing literature suggesting that tea and its constituent flavonoids are inversely related to the risk of chronic diseases common among the elderly. Results are provided from recent observational studies and clinical trials on the relationship of tea and t...

  11. Supreme matters: tea parties and the activism of restraint

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Kurzbauer

    2010-01-01

    An essay on the impact of Tea Parties on the appointment of Supreme Court Justices. According to recently released statistics, one-fifth of all US citizens are Tea Party Supporters: predominately white conservatives convinced of the 'evils' of the Obama administration. Taking their cue from the defi

  12. Overview of Antibacterial, Antitoxin, Antiviral, and Antifungal Activities of Tea Flavonoids and Teas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tea leaves produce secondary metabolites, organic compounds that are involved in the defense of the plants against invading pathogens including insects, bacteria, fungi, and viruses. These metabolites include polyphenolic compounds, the six so-called catechins, and the methyl-xanthine alkaloids caf...

  13. Influence of black tea concentrate on kombucha fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malbaša Radomir V.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Kombucha is cultivated on substrates prepared with different concentrations of black tea and substrate obtained by diluting a substrate with highest concentration of black tea with cold tap water. Qualify of produced beverages is compared with the beverage obtained in traditional fermentation of 1.5 g/L of black tea, sweetened with 70 g/L of sucrose. Inoculation was performed with 10% (v/v of fermentation liquid from previous process, and the fermentation was carried out at 28°C under aerobic conditions, for ten days. Process of fermentation was monitored by following pH, total acids. D-gluconic acid and caffeine content. Beverages obtained in fermentation with diluted black tea concentrate had similar amounts of investigated metabolites compared with traditional one. Use of diluted black tea concentrate as a substrate needs the shorter time for the substrate preparation, which significantly saves energy.

  14. The valuative tree

    CERN Document Server

    Favre, Charles

    2004-01-01

    This volume is devoted to a beautiful object, called the valuative tree and designed as a powerful tool for the study of singularities in two complex dimensions. Its intricate yet manageable structure can be analyzed by both algebraic and geometric means. Many types of singularities, including those of curves, ideals, and plurisubharmonic functions, can be encoded in terms of positive measures on the valuative tree. The construction of these measures uses a natural tree Laplace operator of independent interest.

  15. Trees in renorming theory

    OpenAIRE

    Haydon, Richard

    1995-01-01

    Trees are very agreeable objects to work with, offering a diversity of behaviour within a structure that is sufficiently simple to admit precise analysis. Thus we are able to offer fairly satisfactory necessary and sufficient conditions on a tree $\\Upsilon $ for the existence of equivalent LUR or strictly convex norms on $\\C_0(\\Upsilon )$ and for norms with the Kadec Property. In particular, we show that for a {\\sl finitely branching} tree $\\Upsilon $ the space $\\C_0(\\Upsilon )$ admits a Kade...

  16. Generalized Binomial Trees

    OpenAIRE

    Jackwerth, Jens Carsten

    1996-01-01

    We consider the problem of consistently pricing new options given the prices of related options on the same stock. The Black-Scholes formula and standard binomial trees can only accommodate one related European option which then effectively specifies the volatility parameter. Implied binomial trees can accommodate only related European options with the same time-to-expiration.The generalized binomial trees introduced here can accommodate any kind of related options (European, American, or exo...

  17. Molecular and Clinical Effects of Green Tea and Fermented Papaya Preparation on Diabetes and Cardiovascular Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-14

    Assess the Effect of Green Tea on Diabetes; Assess the Effect of Fermented Papaya Pretration on Diabetes; Effects of Green Tea and FPP on C-reactive Proteins; Effects of Green Tea and FPP of Lipid Profiles in Diabetes; Effect of Green Tea and FPP on Atheroma Formation

  18. Altering the phenolics profile of a green tea leaves extract using exogenous oxidases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verloop, A.J.W.; Gruppen, H.; Bisschop, Robbin; Vincken, Jean Paul

    2016-01-01

    Transformation from green tea leaves into black tea involves oxidation of catechins into theaflavins and other complex phenolics by endogenous enzymes in tea leaves. By employing tyrosinase and laccase, both from Agaricus bisporus, on green tea catechins, the oxidation process was directed toward

  19. Mechanistic findings of green tea as cancer preventive for humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiki, H; Suganuma, M; Okabe, S; Sueoka, E; Suga, K; Imai, K; Nakachi, K; Kimura, S

    1999-04-01

    Based on our initial work with green tea, in which repeated topical applications of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), the main green tea polyphenol, inhibited tumor promotion in a two-stage carcinogenesis experiment on mouse skin (Phytother Res 1, 44-47, 1987), numerous scientists have since provided so much additional evidence of the benefits of drinking green tea that it is now an acknowledged cancer preventive in Japan, and will possibly soon be recognized as such in other countries. Our work has so far produced several important results with EGCG and green tea: a wide range of target organs in animal experiments for cancer prevention, wide bioavailability of 3H-EGCG in various organs of mice, delayed cancer onset of patients with a history of consuming over 10 cups of green tea per day, and absence of any severe adverse effects among volunteers who took 15 green tea tablets per day (2.25 g green tea extracts, 337.5 mg EGCG, and 135 mg caffeine) for 6 months. This paper introduces three new findings: 1) EGCG interacted with the phospholipid bilayer membrane resulting in confirmation of the sealing effect of EGCG; 2) EGCG inhibited TNF-alpha gene expression in the cells and TNF-alpha release from the cells; 3) high consumption of green tea was closely associated with decreased numbers of axillary lymph node metastases among premenopausal Stage I and II breast cancer patients, and with increased expression of progesterone and estrogen receptors among postmenopausal ones. These results provide new insights into our understanding of the mechanisms of action of tea polyphenols and green tea extract as a cancer preventive.

  20. ALUMINUM CONTENT OF TEA LEAVES AND FACTORS AFFECTING THE UPTAKE OF ALUMINUM FROM SOIL INTO TEA LEAVES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Numerous studies indicated that aluminum, the most abundant metallic element within the lithosphere, was considered to be related to some human diseases especially the Alzheimer's disease. Tea, economically an important beverage in the world, has been found to contain higher concentration of aluminum than many other drinks and foods. Therefore, tea would be a potentially important source of dietary aluminum. In order to understand the sources of aluminum in tea leaves and factors related with aluminum content of tea leaves, an experiment was designed to investigate the relationships of aluminum in tea leaves with leaf age, soil properties and forms of aluminum in soils. The results showed that there were great distinctions in the concentration of aluminum in tea leaves with different leaf age (Alold leaf> Almature leaf> Alyoung leaf). Moreover, soil pH was the major factor controlling the uptake of aluminum from soil into tea leaves. Furthermore, the content of aluminum in tea leaves was better predicated by the soluble aluminum extracted by 0. 02mol/L CaCl2.

  1. Inhibition of gastrointestinal lipolysis by green tea, coffee, and gomchui (Ligularia fischeri) tea polyphenols during simulated digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Kwang Hyun; Song, Dae-Geun; Kim, Sang Min; Pan, Cheol-Ho

    2012-07-25

    Green tea, coffee, and gomchui (Ligularia fischeri) tea, which are rich in polyphenols, may exhibit antiobesity effects by inhibiting pancreatic lipase. However, the bioavailability of some polyphenols is poor due to either degradation or absorption difficulties in the gastrointestinal tract, thus making their beneficial effects doubtful. This study was conducted to evaluate the inhibitory effect of three beverages on lipolysis and the contribution of their major polyphenols during simulated digestion. During simulated digestion, gomchui tea was the most potent at inhibiting gastrointestinal lipolysis, whereas green tea was the least potent. The strongest lipase inhibitor among purified major polyphenols was a green tea polyphenol, (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG, IC(50) = 1.8 ± 0.57 μM), followed by di-O-caffeoylquinic acid isomers (DCQA, IC(50) from 12.7 ± 4.5 to 40.4 ± 2.3 μM), which are gomchui tea polyphenols. However, the stability of DCQA was greater than that of EGCG when subjected to simulated digestion. Taken together, gomchui tea, which has DCQA as the major polyphenol, showed stronger lipolysis inhibitory activity during simulated digestion compared to both green tea and coffee.

  2. Antimutagenic activity of green tea and black tea extracts studied in a dynamic in vitro gastrointestinal model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krul, C.A.M.; Luiten-Schuite, A.; Tenfelde, A.; Ommen, B. van; Verhagen, H.; Havenaar, R.

    2001-01-01

    An in vitro gastrointestinal model, which simulates the conditions in the human digestive tract, was used to determine potential antimutagenic activity of extracts of black tea and green tea. In this paper, results are presented on the availability for absorption of potential antimutagenic compounds

  3. D2-tree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Sioutas, Spyros; Pantazos, Kostas;

    2015-01-01

    We present a new overlay, called the Deterministic Decentralized tree (D2-tree). The D2-tree compares favorably to other overlays for the following reasons: (a) it provides matching and better complexities, which are deterministic for the supported operations; (b) the management of nodes (peers......-balancing scheme of elements into nodes is deterministic and general enough to be applied to other hierarchical tree-based overlays. This load-balancing mechanism is based on an innovative lazy weight-balancing mechanism, which is interesting in its own right....

  4. The tree BVOC index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, J.R., E-mail: jrsimpson@ucdavis.edu [U.S. Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, Urban Ecosystems and Processes, 1731 Research Park Drive, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); McPherson, E.G. [U.S. Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, Urban Ecosystems and Processes, 1731 Research Park Drive, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2011-08-15

    Urban trees can produce a number of benefits, among them improved air quality. Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) emitted by some species are ozone precursors. Modifying future tree planting to favor lower-emitting species can reduce these emissions and aid air management districts in meeting federally mandated emissions reductions for these compounds. Changes in BVOC emissions are calculated as the result of transitioning to a lower-emitting species mix in future planting. A simplified method for calculating the emissions reduction and a Tree BVOC index based on the calculated reduction is described. An example illustrates the use of the index as a tool for implementation and monitoring of a tree program designed to reduce BVOC emissions as a control measure being developed as part of the State Implementation Plan (SIP) for the Sacramento Federal Nonattainment Area. - Highlights: > A Tree BVOC index based on reduced emissions from low emitting trees is described. > An example illustrates use of the index as an implementation and monitoring tool. > This index could be useful for including urban trees in air quality mitigation plans. - A tree BVOC index is presented that calculates reduced BVOC emissions from planting lower-emitting urban tree species that has potential application for SIP compliance.

  5. Symmetric M-tree

    CERN Document Server

    Sexton, Alan P

    2010-01-01

    The M-tree is a paged, dynamically balanced metric access method that responds gracefully to the insertion of new objects. To date, no algorithm has been published for the corresponding Delete operation. We believe this to be non-trivial because of the design of the M-tree's Insert algorithm. We propose a modification to Insert that overcomes this problem and give the corresponding Delete algorithm. The performance of the tree is comparable to the M-tree and offers additional benefits in terms of supported operations, which we briefly discuss.

  6. A theory of game trees, based on solution trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.H.L.M. Pijls (Wim); A. de Bruin (Arie); A. Plaat (Aske)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper a complete theory of game tree algorithms is presented, entirely based upon the notion of a solution tree. Two types of solution trees are distinguished: max and min solution trees respectively. We show that most game tree algorithms construct a superposition of a max and a

  7. Research on the Geographical Indication and Cultural Heritage of China’s Yellow Tea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min; TIAN; Zhiguo; SUN; Zhiyang; LIU; Guangping; DING

    2014-01-01

    The yellow tea falls within one of the six basic categories of tea,and it is a type of unique and ancient tea in China. Junshan Yinzhen is one of China’s Top Ten Teas,and Yueyang City in Hunan Province is the hometown of yellow tea. The yellow tea now has 2 national geographical indication products,4 national geographical indication trademarks,1 national geographical indication of agricultural products,and 3 items of provincial intangible cultural heritage. The famous brand of yellow tea is just the brand cultural heritage. This article expounds the current situation of geographical indication and cultural heritage protection,and put forth the corresponding recommendations.

  8. (17)O NMR and Raman Spectroscopies of Green Tea Infusion with Nanomaterial to Investigate Their Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Changyan; Zhang, Huiping; Yan, Ying; Zhang, Xinya

    2016-09-01

    (17)O NMR and Raman spectrograms of green tea infusions with nanomaterial were investigated. Different green tea infusions were prepared by steeping tea powder with different concentrations of nanomaterial aqueous solution. The tea infusions were tested with (17)O NMR and Raman spectroscopies. The (17)O NMR results showed that line width increased to 90 in the tea infusions after nanomaterial was added as a result of the effects of the self-association of Ca(2+) and tea polyphenol. The results of Raman spectroscopy showed that, in tea infusions, the enhancement of C─C and C─O stretching vibrations suggest an increase in the number of effective components in water.

  9. Possibility of irradiation degradation of Fenpropathrin and Deltamethrin in green tea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of 60Co γ irradiation and green tea manufacturing processing on degradation of Fenpropathrin and Deltamethrin in green tea during its manufacturing processing were studied. The two pesticides were sprayed onto the tea bushes and fresh tea leaves were picked at the same day, respectively. Half of the fresh leaves were processed into green tea. The fresh tea leaves and green tea were irradiated at 5 kGy and the Fenpropathrin in fresh tea degraded 7.3% after irradiation, while Deltamethrin degraded 14.7%. In green tea, Fenpropathrin and Deltamethrin degraded 2.2% and 12.1% respectively after irradiation. Green tea manufacturing processes could reduce 16.4% of Fenpropathrin, and 4.4% of Deltamethrin. (authors)

  10. Water management and smallholder Fairtrade tea producers in South Western Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Flowers, Cara

    2007-01-01

    Kayonza growers’ tea factory is a remote tea factory in south western Uganda which consists of two core estates and 4072 smallholder tea farmers currently producing tea over a total area of 1604 hectares. There is a perception that yields of smallholder tea vary significantly throughout the year and between years. The data confirms this, with yields in the lowest producing months of February, July and August as little as 6% of annual yield production. Soil type also has an infl...

  11. Determinants of Agricultural Information Access by Small Holder Tea Farmers in Bureti District, Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    R.C. Koskei; J.K. Langat; E.C. Koskei; M.A. Oyugi

    2013-01-01

    The study aims at determining factors affecting the access to agricultural information by smallholder tea farmers. Tea sub-sector is Kenya's second largest foreign exchange earner after horticulture. The small holder farmers own about 80% of the land under tea but produce about 60% of made tea thus realizing less yield per unit area as compared to their large scale counterparts. Tea Research Foundation of Kenya in conjunction with the Ministry of Agriculture has developed several technologies...

  12. ESTIMATING BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF TEA (CAMELLIA SINENSIS (L.)) USING HYPERSPECTRAL TECHNIQUES

    OpenAIRE

    Bian, M.; Skidmore, A.K.; Schlerf, M.; Liu, Y; Wang, T.

    2012-01-01

    Tea (Camellia Sinensis (L.)) is an important economic crop and the market price of tea depends largely on its quality. This research aims to explore the potential of hyperspectral remote sensing on predicting the concentration of biochemical components, namely total tea polyphenols, as indicators of tea quality at canopy scale. Experiments were carried out for tea plants growing in the field and greenhouse. Partial least squares regression (PLSR), which has proven to be the one of th...

  13. Determination of lead, cadmium and arsenic in infusion tea cultivated in north of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Shekoohiyan Sakine; Ghoochani Mahboobeh; Mohagheghian Azita; Mahvi Amir Hossein; Yunesian Masoud; Nazmara Shahrokh

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Tea is one of the most common drinks in all over the world. Rapid urbanization and industrialization in recent decades has increased heavy metals in tea and other foods. In this research, heavy metal contents such as lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As) were determined in 105 black tea samples cultivated in Guilan and Mazandaran Provinces in north of Iran and their tea infusions. The amount of heavy metals in black tea infusions were analyzed using Inductively Coupled Plasma Atom...

  14. Tea and flavonoids: where we are, where to go next12345

    OpenAIRE

    Dwyer, Johanna T; PETERSON, Julia

    2013-01-01

    There is a need to evaluate the evidence about the health effects of tea flavonoids and to provide valid, specific, and actionable tea consumption information to consumers. Emerging evidence suggests that the flavonoids in tea may be associated with beneficial health outcomes, whereas the benefits and risks of tea extracts and supplements are less well known. The next steps in developing tea science should include a focus on the most promising leads, such as reducing the risk of cardiovascula...

  15. Spatial Analysis of Pollution-free Land for Tea Plantation and Comprehensive Evaluation of Soil Suitability

    OpenAIRE

    Wen, Ximei; Lu, Yang; Lan, Anjun; Tan, Hong

    2013-01-01

    To survey the tea resource advantages in Guizhou's mountainous areas and complete rational layout of pollution-free tea planting areas, we take the case of Guiding County in Guizhou Province to establish the comprehensive evaluation indicator system of pollution-free land for tea plantation and comprehensive evaluation model of soil suitability of land for tea plantation according to the Environmental Conditions Standard for Pollution-free Food-Tea Producing Areas by the Ministry of Agricultu...

  16. Current Situations and Development Ideas of Buckwheat Tea Industry in Liangshan Prefecture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fayong; GONG; Shiming; XIAO; Jing; LI

    2013-01-01

    This paper firstly introduces current situations of buckwheat tea industry in Liangshan Prefecture,current situations of intellectual property right of buckwheat tea in whole China,and total flavonoid content in buckwheat tea. On the basis of these current situations,it analyzes drawbacks of buckwheat tea sold in the market. Finally,it presents development ideas of buckwheat tea industry in Liangshan Prefecture.

  17. Mineral Analysis the Infusion of Black Tea Samples by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Lahiji N.; Tadayon F.; Tamiji F.; Lahiji A. H.

    2013-01-01

    Tea infusion is one of the most popular drinks around the world. Since tea infusion is known to contain several essential nutrients, it is considered a healthy beverage. In this study eight different Iranian brands of tea infusion and eleven brands imported tea infusion samples from another country for Cu, Zn, Mn and Al were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry after wet digestion. The results of analysis showed that the extraction rates of minerals from dry black tea to infusio...

  18. Searching informed game trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.H.L.M. Pijls (Wim); A. de Bruin (Arie)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractWell-known algorithms for the evaluation of the minimax function in game trees are alpha-beta and SSS*. An improved version of SSS* is SSS-2. All these algorithms don't use any heuristic information on the game tree. In this paper the use of heuristic information is introduced into the a

  19. Structural Equation Model Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandmaier, Andreas M.; von Oertzen, Timo; McArdle, John J.; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2013-01-01

    In the behavioral and social sciences, structural equation models (SEMs) have become widely accepted as a modeling tool for the relation between latent and observed variables. SEMs can be seen as a unification of several multivariate analysis techniques. SEM Trees combine the strengths of SEMs and the decision tree paradigm by building tree…

  20. Matching Subsequences in Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li

    2009-01-01

    Given two rooted, labeled trees P and T the tree path subsequence problem is to determine which paths in P are subsequences of which paths in T. Here a path begins at the root and ends at a leaf. In this paper we propose this problem as a useful query primitive for XML data, and provide new...

  1. Pruning peach trees

    OpenAIRE

    Sagers, Larry A.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the importance of annual pruning to produce high yield and quality of peaches. Advises that the successful pruner should understand how the trees grow, and how the trees respond to pruning. Also cautions that improper pruning will lower yield and quality of fruit.

  2. Tree nut oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    The major tree nuts include almonds, Brazil nuts, cashew nuts, hazelnuts, macadamia nuts, pecans, pine nuts, pistachio nuts, and walnuts. Tree nut oils are appreciated in food applications because of their flavors and are generally more expensive than other gourmet oils. Research during the last de...

  3. Adsorption of penicillin by decaffeinated tea waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gharbani Parvin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Removal of penicillin has been investigated using decaffeinated tea waste (DCTW. Decaffeination of tea waste was investigated using different methods. Results indicate that ozonation was the most effective process for removal of penicillin. Batch adsorption experiments were completed at various temperatures (20, 30, and 40°C, DCTW dosages (2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 g per 250 mL, penicillin concentrations (4, 10, and 14 mg/L, and pH (3, 7, and 10 conditions. Studies showed that adsorption reaches equilibrium within 40 min. The main factor affecting adsorption of penicillin was the solution pH, with maximum adsorption occurring at pH 3. Higher adsorbent dosages and lower penicillin concentrations also resulted in higher percentages of penicillin removal. Results show that data obeyed the pseudo-first-order kinetic and Freundlich isotherm models. This process proves that low-cost DCTW could be used as a high performance adsorbent for removing penicillin from aqueous solutions.

  4. Primary structure and configuration of tea polysaccharide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    The monosaccharide composition of a tea polysaccharide(TGC)was determined by GC-MS method.Furthermore,the primary structure of tea polysaccharide and its configuration in the aqueous solution were investigated utilizing a combination of classical chemical methods and modern instrumental techniques including GC-MS,Proton NMR,UV and CD.The results indicate that TGC consists of 6 monosaccharides: Rha,Ara,Xyl,Glu,Man and Gal.The configuration of TGC in water solution is proposed to be an ordered helix.The possible primary structure of TGC was outlined as below: the basic structure of the main chain consists of Rha,Glu and Gal units.All three monosaccharides can potentially be connected to branch chains consisting of mainly Ara,and the linkages could be in β1 →2,β1 →3,β2→3 forms.When branch chain is absent in the basic structure of the main chain the linkage consists of only β1→3; Xyl exists at the terminal end of either the main chain or the branch chain with β1 → linkage.

  5. Race, ideology, and the tea party: a longitudinal study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric D Knowles

    Full Text Available The Tea Party movement, which rose to prominence in the United States after the election of President Barack Obama, provides an ideal context in which to examine the roles of racial concerns and ideology in politics. A three-wave longitudinal study tracked changes in White Americans' self-identification with the Tea Party, racial concerns (prejudice and racial identification, and ideologies (libertarianism and social conservatism over nine months. Latent Growth Modeling (LGM was used to evaluate potential causal relationships between Tea Party identification and these factors. Across time points, racial prejudice was indirectly associated with movement identification through Whites' assertions of national decline. Although initial levels of White identity did not predict change in Tea Party identification, initial levels of Tea Party identification predicted increases in White identity over the study period. Across the three assessments, support for the Tea Party fell among libertarians, but rose among social conservatives. Results are discussed in terms of legitimation theories of prejudice, the "racializing" power of political judgments, and the ideological dynamics of the Tea Party.

  6. Tea beverage in chemoprevention and chemotherapy of prostate cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Imtiaz A SIDDIQUI; Mohammad SALEEM; Vaqar M ADHAMI; Mohammad ASIM; Hasan MUKHTAR

    2007-01-01

    Prostate cancer (Pca) is the most frequently diagnosed malignancy and the sec-ond leading cause of cancer-related deaths in American males with similar trends in many western countries. The existing treatment approaches and surgical inter-vention have not been able to effectively cope with this dreaded disease. For these reasons, it is necessary to intensify our efforts for a better understanding of the disease process and for the development of novel approaches for its preven-tion and treatment. Based on considerable evidence from in vivo and in vitro data and epidemiological studies, in recent years the beverage tea has gained consid-erable attention for reducing the risk of several cancers. Much of the cancerpreventive effects of tea, especially green tea appear to be mediated by the polyphe-nols present therein. Geographical evidence suggests that the incidence and occurrence of Pca is lower in populations that consume tea regularly. This evi-dence suggests that tea polyphenols could be extrapolated to optimize their chemopreventive properties against Pca. Pca represents an excellent candidate disease for chemoprevention because it is typically diagnosed in men over 50 years of age and therefore, even a modest delay in neoplastic development achieved through pharmacological or nutritional intervention could result in a substantial reduction in the incidence of clinically detectable disease. In this review we address the issue of possible use of tea, especially green tea, for the prevention aswell as treatment of Pca.

  7. Green tea and anticancer perspectives: updates from last decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Masood Sadiq; Ahmad, Rabia Shabir; Sultan, M Tauseef; Qayyum, Mir M Nasir; Naz, Ambreen

    2015-01-01

    Green tea is the most widely consumed beverage besides water and has attained significant attention owing to health benefits against array of maladies, e.g., obesity, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disorders, and cancer insurgence. The major bioactive molecules are epigallocatechin-3-gallate, epicatechin, epicatechin-3-gallate, epigallocatechin, etc. The anticarcinogenic and antimutagenic activities of green tea were highlighted some years ago. Several cohort studies and controlled randomized trials suggested the inverse association of green tea consumption and cancer prevalence. Cell culture and animal studies depicted the mechanisms of green tea to control cancer insurgence, i.e., induction of apoptosis to control cell growth arrest, altered expression of cell-cycle regulatory proteins, activation of killer caspases, and suppression of nuclear factor kappa-B activation. It acts as carcinoma blocker by modulating the signal transduction pathways involved in cell proliferation, transformation, inflammation, and metastasis. However, results generated from some research interventions conducted in different groups like smokers and nonsmokers, etc. contradicted with aforementioned anticancer perspectives. In this review paper, anticancer perspectives of green tea and its components have been described. Recent findings and literature have been surfed and arguments are presented to clarify the ambiguities regarding anticancer perspectives of green tea and its component especially against colon, skin, lung, prostate, and breast cancer. The heading of discussion and future trends is limelight of the manuscript. The compiled manuscript provides new avenues for researchers to be explored in relation to green tea and its bioactive components.

  8. Tea and bone health: steps forward in translational nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chwan-Li; Chyu, Ming-Chien; Wang, Jia-Sheng

    2013-12-01

    Osteoporosis is a major health problem in the aging population worldwide. Cross-sectional and retrospective evidence indicates that tea consumption may be a promising approach in mitigating bone loss and in reducing risk of osteoporotic fractures among older adults. Tea polyphenols enhance osteoblastogenesis and suppress osteoclastogenesis in vitro. Animal studies reveal that intake of tea polyphenols have pronounced positive effects on bone as shown by higher bone mass and trabecular bone volume, number, and thickness and lower trabecular separation via increasing bone formation and inhibition of bone resorption, resulting in greater bone strength. These osteoprotective effects appear to be mediated through antioxidant or antiinflammatory pathways along with their downstream signaling mechanisms. A short-term clinical trial of green tea polyphenols has translated the findings from ovariectomized animals to postmenopausal osteopenic women through evaluation of bioavailability, safety, bone turnover markers, muscle strength, and quality of life. For future studies, preclinical animal studies to optimize the dose of tea polyphenols for maximum osteoprotective efficacy and a follow-up short-term dose-response trial in postmenopausal osteopenic women are necessary to inform the design of randomized controlled studies in at-risk populations. Advanced imaging technology should also contribute to determining the effective dose of tea polyphenols in achieving better bone mass, microarchitecture integrity, and bone strength, which are critical steps for translating the putative benefit of tea consumption in osteoporosis management into clinical practice and dietary guidelines.

  9. Antimicrobial effect against different bacterial strains and bacterial adaptation to essential oils used as feed additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Antonio Diego Brandão; Amaral, Amanda Figueiredo; Schaefer, Gustavo; Luciano, Fernando Bittencourt; de Andrade, Carla; Costa, Leandro Batista; Rostagno, Marcos Horácio

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity and determine the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the essential oils derived from Origanum vulgare (oregano), Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree), Cinnamomum cassia (cassia), and Thymus vulgaris (white thyme) against Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis. The study also investigated the ability of these different bacterial strains to develop adaptation after repetitive exposure to sub-lethal concentrations of these essential oils. The MBC of the essential oils studied was determined by disc diffusion and broth dilution methods. All essential oils showed antimicrobial effect against all bacterial strains. In general, the development of adaptation varied according to the bacterial strain and the essential oil (tea tree > white thyme > oregano). Therefore, it is important to use essential oils at efficient bactericidal doses in animal feed, food, and sanitizers, since bacteria can rapidly develop adaptation when exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of these oils. PMID:26424908

  10. Changes in radiocesium activities with new shoots growth of tea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the accident of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Station, radioactive cesium was released in large quantities into atmosphere. The impact on tea is large, so there are a number of study cases. In 2011, this study measured the radioactive cesium concentration and total nitrogen amount of crude tea leaves. It also examined the relationship between of the plucking time of the sprouts, which are raw materials for crude tea, and the radioactive cesium concentration. As for the relationship with plucking time, when the plucking is delayed by one day, radioactive cesium is reduced by 3-4%. However, since the plucking timing is limited to a few days due to the quality of tea leaves, it is difficult to decrease cesium to a large extent. The reduction factor of radioactive cesium concentration is considered as follows: Since the amount of moisture in sprouts decreases as time passes, radioactive cesium concentration per weight also decreases. The ratio of 134Cs to 137Cs in the sprouts is smaller than that in soil. The reason is considered as follows: Since 137Cs has longer half-life, its effects remained due to the nuclear tests and Chernobyl nuclear accident prior to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident. While the first-picking tea had a positive correlation between radioactive cesium concentration and total nitrogen content, the second-picking tea did not show the correlation. It is considered as the reason that the radioactive cesium was mainly translocated from tea leaves or the like in the first-picking tea, and there was little absorption from the roots (including the case of second-picking tea). (A.O.)

  11. Taoism and Tea%道教与茶

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹江铖

    2015-01-01

    茶在道教中得到了广泛的应用. 究其原因,除了茶自身的植物、药物学优点和功效,人们理解茶时所具有的的解释学背景——先秦祭祀礼仪、道教教义亦起了重要的作用. 从一定程度上来讲,是历史将"效果历史"意义上的茶推上了神台. 茶在道教中有着广泛的用途,然而道教教义、道教追求仙道境界的生存美学对神化茶的功用,深化茶的内涵,赋予茶美学意义,提升茶的品格有着决定性的意义. 从一定程度上来讲,道教文化推动了饮茶文化的传播.%Tea has been widely used in Taoism not only becasue of its plant and pharmacology efficacy but also the hermeneutic background when people tried to understand tea, which means the pre-qin sacrifice ceremonies, the Taoist doctrine also played an important role. To a certain extent, it is history that pushed the effective-historical tea onto the altar. Although tea has been widely used in the Taoism, the Taoist doctrine, the existence aesthetics in pursuing immortality in Taoism played a decisive role in deifying the function of tea, deepening the connotation of tea, reinvesting the aesthetic meaning of tea and ascending the character of tea. To a certain extent, it is the Taoist culture that promoted the spread of tea culture.

  12. Identification of the varietal origin of loose leaf tea based on analysis of a single leaf by SNP nanofluidic array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tea [Camellia sinensis (L.) O Kuntze] is an economically important crop cultivated in more than 50 countries. Production and marketing of premium specialty tea products provides opportunities for tea growers, the tea industry and consumers. Rapid market segmentation in the tea industry has resulted ...

  13. PaisleyTrees: A Size-Invariant Tree Visualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katayoon Etemad

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Squeezing large tree structures into suitable visualizations has been a perennial problem. In response to this challenge, we present PaisleyTrees, a size-invariant tree visualization. PaisleyTrees integrate node-of-interest focus with tree-cut presentations to support rapid tree navigation without resorting to zooming and panning. This visualization offers the ability to work with trees of arbitrary depth and breadth, and maintains legibility for displayed elements. These advantages are achieved by using a hybrid layout, inspired by traditional Paisley patterns, that combines node-link, nested and djacency-based tree layout techniques, and offers both depth and breadth elision.

  14. Use of plant extracts for tea pest management in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Somnath; Handique, Gautam; Muraleedharan, Narayanannair; Dashora, Kavya; Roy, Sudipta Mukhopadhyay; Mukhopadhyay, Ananda; Babu, Azariah

    2016-06-01

    India is the second largest producer of black tea in the world. The biggest challenge for tea growers of India nowadays is to combat pests and diseases. Tea crop in India is infested by not less than 720 insect and mite species. At least four sucking pests and six chewing pests have well established themselves as regular pests causing substantial damage to this foliage crop. Various synthetic pesticides are widely used for the management of tea pests in India. Applications of such large quantity of pesticides could cause various problems such as development of resistance, deleterious effects on non-target organisms such as insect predators and parasitoids, upsetting the ecological balance, and accumulation of pesticide residues on tea leaves. There is a growing demand for organic tea or at least pesticide residue free tea in the international market which affects the export price. There is also a higher emphasis of implementation of new regulations on internationally traded foods and implementation of Plant Protection Code (PPC) for tea by the Government of India. This necessitates a relook into the usage pattern of synthetic pesticides on this crop. There are various non-chemical interventions which are being worked out for their sustainability, compatibility, and eco-friendly properties which can gradually replace the use of toxic chemicals. The application of plant extracts with insecticidal properties provides an alternative to the synthetic pesticides. Botanical products, especially neem-based products, have made a relatively moderate impact in tea pest control. Research has also demonstrated the potential of 67 plant species as botanical insecticides against tea pests. The majority of plant products used in pest management of tea in India are in the form of crude extracts prepared locally in tea garden itself, and commercial standardized formulations are not available for most of the plants due to lack of scientific research in the area. Apart from systematic

  15. Analysis of Key Odorants in Roasted Green Tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizukami, Yuzo; Sawai, Yusuke; Yamaguchi, Yuichi

    This research aims to identify key odorants in roasted green tea. The aroma extract dilution analysis revealed 25 odor-active peaks with the flavor dilution factors of ≥ 16. We identified 2-ethyl-3,5-dimethylpyrazine as the most important odorant in roasted green tea with the highest flavor dilution factor of 4096. In addition, tetramethylpyrazine, 2,3-diethyl-5- methylpyrazine were also detected as potent odorants with the high flavor dilution factors. These three alkylpyrazines would be key contributors to aroma of roasted green tea.

  16. Extraction of Catechins from Green Tea Using Ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koiwai, Hitoshi; Masuzawa, Nobuyoshi

    2007-07-01

    Recently, hazardous properties of synthetic substances contained in foods and medicines have been observed. Therefore, the pharmacological actions of natural substances became the focus of attention. Catechins, which are polyphenols, are abundant in green tea. To extract green tea catechins, there are two types of method: extraction using hot water and organic solvents. In the extraction using hot water, green tea quality deteriorates and catechins are destroyed due to the heat applied. Accordingly, the extraction of catechins at low temperatures is appropriate, although the efficiency is low. Therefore, we attempted to increase the amount of catechins extracted with ultrasonic irradiation.

  17. Camellia sinensis (Tea: Implications and role in preventing dental decay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puneet Goenka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tea is one of the most commonly consumed beverages with bioactive compounds like polyphenols-flavonoids-catechins, which are thought to be responsible for the health benefits that have traditionally been attributed to the tea. These compounds have multi-dimensional effects such as antibacterial action, inhibitory action on the bacterial and salivary amylase and inhibition of acid production. This article outlines the possible role of these compounds coupled with the presence of high fluoride content in tea to exhibit an anticariogenic effect.

  18. Camellia sinensis (Tea): Implications and role in preventing dental decay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goenka, Puneet; Sarawgi, Aditi; Karun, Vinayak; Nigam, Anant G; Dutta, Samir; Marwah, Nikhil

    2013-07-01

    Tea is one of the most commonly consumed beverages with bioactive compounds like polyphenols-flavonoids-catechins, which are thought to be responsible for the health benefits that have traditionally been attributed to the tea. These compounds have multi-dimensional effects such as antibacterial action, inhibitory action on the bacterial and salivary amylase and inhibition of acid production. This article outlines the possible role of these compounds coupled with the presence of high fluoride content in tea to exhibit an anticariogenic effect. PMID:24347923

  19. Mortality among female practitioners of Chanoyu (Japanese "tea-ceremony").

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadakata, S; Fukao, A; Hisamichi, S

    1992-04-01

    A cohort study aimed to evaluate the effect of drinking green tea on longevity was performed. Three thousand three hundred and eighty female practitioners of chanoyu (Japanese tea-ceremony), living in Tokyo, were followed from 1980 to 1988, and 280 were dead during this period. Standardized mortality ratios were estimated 0.55 when all Japanese women was used as standard population and 0.57 when women living in Tokyo was used, indicating the possibility that green tea is a protective factor for several fatal diseases. PMID:1502694

  20. Mortality among female practitioners of Chanoyu (Japanese "tea-ceremony").

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadakata, S; Fukao, A; Hisamichi, S

    1992-04-01

    A cohort study aimed to evaluate the effect of drinking green tea on longevity was performed. Three thousand three hundred and eighty female practitioners of chanoyu (Japanese tea-ceremony), living in Tokyo, were followed from 1980 to 1988, and 280 were dead during this period. Standardized mortality ratios were estimated 0.55 when all Japanese women was used as standard population and 0.57 when women living in Tokyo was used, indicating the possibility that green tea is a protective factor for several fatal diseases.

  1. Compositional, nutritional, and functional characteristics of instant teas produced from low- and high-quality black teas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alasalvar, Cesarettin; Pelvan, Ebru; Ozdemir, Kübra Sultan; Kocadağlı, Tolgahan; Mogol, Burçe Ataç; Paslı, Ayça Ayfer; Ozcan, Nihat; Ozçelik, Beraat; Gökmen, Vural

    2013-08-01

    Two types of instant teas produced from low- and high-quality black teas were examined for their proximate composition, dietary fiber, minerals, water-soluble vitamins, total phenolic content, various antioxidant assays, phenolics (flavanols, condensed phenolics, and phenolic acids), alkaloids, and carotenoids as well as taste-active compounds (sugars, organic acids, and free amino acids). Some variations, albeit to different extents, were observed (p fiber and fat were also present in both instant teas. Thirteen minerals, four water-soluble vitamins, six flavanols, two alkaloids, three condensed phenolics, one phenolic acid, and one carotenoid were identified. Total phenolic content varied between 17.35 and 17.82 g of gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100 g instant tea. With regard to antioxidant activities, three different assays such as oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), and cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) were measured. No significant differences (p > 0.05) in total phenolic, ORAC, TEAC, and CUPRAC contents between low- and high-quality instant teas were observed. With regard to taste-active compounds, 3 sugars, 5 organic acids, and 18 free amino acids were positively identified, of which fructose, tannic acid, and theanine predominated, respectively. The present work suggests that despite some differences, instant teas produced from low- and high-quality black teas should not be distinguished on the basis of their compositional, nutritional, and functional characteristics as well as taste-active compounds. PMID:23837397

  2. Why Uganda needs a Comprehensive Tea Policy and a Tea Authority

    OpenAIRE

    Corti Paul, Lakuma; Ezra, Munyambonera; Madina, Guloba

    2014-01-01

    Investments on Ugandan smallholders and estates to improve output, productivity and quality depends on an environment that favours a broad range of interlinked policy measures. These policy measures include land reforms, tea research and extension services, marketing and promotion, and resource mobilization and utilization. The ability of Uganda to address the above enumerated policy measures is impeded by inconsistencies. The inconsistencies arise because of existence of multiple initiatives...

  3. A Brief History of Tea: The Rise and Fall of the Tea Importation Act

    OpenAIRE

    DeWitt, Patricia J.

    2000-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to provide a general history of the Tea Importation Act of 1897. It focuses on the Act's legislative scheme, the Act's antecedents and amendments, and its legislative history. Special attention is paid to a twenty-year period of litigation early in the Act's history, from 1898 to 1918, challenging the Act and its enforcement under the Constitution. However, enforcement practices of the various agencies charged with the Act's administration are not addressed by the pa...

  4. Skewed Binary Search Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Moruz, Gabriel

    2006-01-01

    It is well-known that to minimize the number of comparisons a binary search tree should be perfectly balanced. Previous work has shown that a dominating factor over the running time for a search is the number of cache faults performed, and that an appropriate memory layout of a binary search tree...... can reduce the number of cache faults by several hundred percent. Motivated by the fact that during a search branching to the left or right at a node does not necessarily have the same cost, e.g. because of branch prediction schemes, we in this paper study the class of skewed binary search trees....... For all nodes in a skewed binary search tree the ratio between the size of the left subtree and the size of the tree is a fixed constant (a ratio of 1/2 gives perfect balanced trees). In this paper we present an experimental study of various memory layouts of static skewed binary search trees, where each...

  5. Phylogenetic trees in bioinformatics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burr, Tom L [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Genetic data is often used to infer evolutionary relationships among a collection of viruses, bacteria, animal or plant species, or other operational taxonomic units (OTU). A phylogenetic tree depicts such relationships and provides a visual representation of the estimated branching order of the OTUs. Tree estimation is unique for several reasons, including: the types of data used to represent each OTU; the use ofprobabilistic nucleotide substitution models; the inference goals involving both tree topology and branch length, and the huge number of possible trees for a given sample of a very modest number of OTUs, which implies that fmding the best tree(s) to describe the genetic data for each OTU is computationally demanding. Bioinformatics is too large a field to review here. We focus on that aspect of bioinformatics that includes study of similarities in genetic data from multiple OTUs. Although research questions are diverse, a common underlying challenge is to estimate the evolutionary history of the OTUs. Therefore, this paper reviews the role of phylogenetic tree estimation in bioinformatics, available methods and software, and identifies areas for additional research and development.

  6. Fluorescent Staining of Tea Pathogenic Fungi in Tea Leaves Using Fluorescein-labeled Lectin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Kengo; Yoshida, Katsuyuki; Sonoda, Ryoichi

    Fluorochrome-labeled lectin, fluorescein conjugated wheat germ agglutinin (F-WGA) was applied to stain tea pathogenic fungi in tea leaf tissue. Infected leaves were fixed and decolorized with a mixture of ethanol and acetic acid, and cleared with 10% KOH for whole mount before staining with F-WGA. Hyphae of Pestalotiopsis longiseta, Pseudocercospora ocellata, Botrytis cinerea and Colletotrichum theae-sinensis fluoresced brightly in whole mount and sectioned samples of infected leaf tissue. In browned tissue, hyphae did not fluoresce frequently in whole mount sample. Autofluorescence of leaf tissue was strong in browned tissue of sections, it was removed by 10% KOH treatment before staining. Penetration hyphae of C. theae-sinensis in cell wall of trichome and hyphae in basal part of trichome did not fluoresced frequently. In whole mount samples of tea leaf infected with Exobasidium vexans and E. reticulatum, hymenia appeared on leaf surface fluoresced, but hyphae in leaf tissue did not fluoresce. In sectioned samples, hyphae fluoresced brightly when sections were treated with 10% KOH before staining.

  7. Aspergillus acidus from Puerh tea and black tea does not produce ochratoxin A and fumonisin B-2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Jesper Mølgaard; Varga, J.; Thrane, Ulf;

    2009-01-01

    the mycotoxins ochratoxin A, fumonisins B-2 and B-4. With this in mind, we performed a preliminary study to determine if production of these mycotoxins by black Aspergilli isolated from Puerh and black tea can occur. An examination of 47 isolates from Puerh tea and black tea showed that none of these was A....... niger. A part of the calmodulin gene in 17 isolates were sequenced, and these 17 isolates were all identified as Aspergillus acidus (=A. foetidus var. acidus). The rest of the 47 isolates were also identified as A. acidus from their metabolite profile. Neither production of ochratoxin A nor fumonisins B...

  8. The association of 137Cs with various components of tea leaves fermented from Chernobyl contaminated green tea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution of137Cs among various components of fermented tea leaves harvested after the Chernobyl accident was investigated by applying a sequential extraction procedure. An association of the radioisotope with the phenolic moiety of a phenylglucoside was detected in black tea infusate using permeation chromatography as well as UV and NMR spectroscopy. The chemical structure of a 137Cs containing compound also isolated from an artificially 137Cs labelled aqueous extract of green leaves was compared to that of fermented tea leaves. The implications of the findings on the chemical forms of the radionuclide are discussed

  9. Compatible spanning trees

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia Olaverri, Alfredo Martin; Huemer, Clemens; Hurtado Díaz, Fernando Alfredo; Tejel Altarriba, Francisco Javier

    2014-01-01

    Two plane geometric graphs are said to be compatible when their union is a plane geometric graph. Let S be a set of n points in the Euclidean plane in general position and let T be any given plane geometric spanning tree of S. In this work, we study the problem of finding a second plane geometric tree T' spanning S, such that is compatible with T and shares the minimum number of edges with T. We prove that there is always a compatible plane geometric tree T' having at most #n - 3#/4 edges in ...

  10. LIMSUP DEVIATIONS ON TREES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan Aihua

    2004-01-01

    The vertices of an infinite locally finite tree T are labelled by a collection of i.i.d. real random variables {Xσ}σ∈T which defines a tree indexed walk Sσ = ∑θ<r≤σXr. We introduce and study the oscillations of the walk:Exact Hausdorff dimension of the set of such ξ 's is calculated. An application is given to study the local variation of Brownian motion. A general limsup deviation problem on trees is also studied.

  11. The gravity apple tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa Aldama, Mariana

    2015-04-01

    The gravity apple tree is a genealogical tree of the gravitation theories developed during the past century. The graphic representation is full of information such as guides in heuristic principles, names of main proponents, dates and references for original articles (See under Supplementary Data for the graphic representation). This visual presentation and its particular classification allows a quick synthetic view for a plurality of theories, many of them well validated in the Solar System domain. Its diachronic structure organizes information in a shape of a tree following similarities through a formal concept analysis. It can be used for educational purposes or as a tool for philosophical discussion.

  12. Geographical Indication Characteristics and Agricultural Intellectual Property Protection of the Tea in Enshi Prefecture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guangzhong; DAI

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural intellectual property rights can protect the innovation of agricultural science and technology. Enshi Prefecture is China’s important tea-producing area. Its tea industry has become a pillar industry. The prefecture enjoys a reputation of " world selenium capital",and is the best birthplace of natural selenium-enriched tea. The national geographical indication protection has been implemented for Enshi Yulu Tea,Enshi selenium-enriched tea,Wujiatai Tribute Tea,Hefeng Tea,Mapo Tea,etc. This paper introduces the geographical indication characteristics and agricultural intellectual property protection of the tea in this world selenium capital,analyses the countermeasures for agricultural intellectual property protection,and puts forward some constructive suggestions.

  13. Altering the phenolics profile of a green tea leaves extract using exogenous oxidases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verloop, Annewieke J W; Gruppen, Harry; Bisschop, Robbin; Vincken, Jean-Paul

    2016-04-01

    Transformation from green tea leaves into black tea involves oxidation of catechins into theaflavins and other complex phenolics by endogenous enzymes in tea leaves. By employing tyrosinase and laccase, both from Agaricus bisporus, on green tea catechins, the oxidation process was directed towards a higher theaflavins content, which is considered an important quality parameter in tea. The main tea catechins were incubated with tyrosinase and laccase, and product formation was monitored by RP-UHPLC-PDA-ESI-MS. The kind of catechin, their substitution with a galloyl group, and the type of oxidase used were important factors determining theaflavin concentrations. In particular, incubation of epicatechin with epigallocatechin with tyrosinase gave a high, stable theaflavin content. In a green tea extract, tyrosinase increased the proportion of theaflavins by twofold compared to black tea. Laccase mainly formed insoluble complexes. Our results indicate that the phenolic profile of tea can be modulated by using commercially available exogenous oxidases. PMID:26593607

  14. Altering the phenolics profile of a green tea leaves extract using exogenous oxidases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verloop, Annewieke J W; Gruppen, Harry; Bisschop, Robbin; Vincken, Jean-Paul

    2016-04-01

    Transformation from green tea leaves into black tea involves oxidation of catechins into theaflavins and other complex phenolics by endogenous enzymes in tea leaves. By employing tyrosinase and laccase, both from Agaricus bisporus, on green tea catechins, the oxidation process was directed towards a higher theaflavins content, which is considered an important quality parameter in tea. The main tea catechins were incubated with tyrosinase and laccase, and product formation was monitored by RP-UHPLC-PDA-ESI-MS. The kind of catechin, their substitution with a galloyl group, and the type of oxidase used were important factors determining theaflavin concentrations. In particular, incubation of epicatechin with epigallocatechin with tyrosinase gave a high, stable theaflavin content. In a green tea extract, tyrosinase increased the proportion of theaflavins by twofold compared to black tea. Laccase mainly formed insoluble complexes. Our results indicate that the phenolic profile of tea can be modulated by using commercially available exogenous oxidases.

  15. The Benefits and Risks of Consuming Brewed Tea: Beware of Toxic Element Contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerry Schwalfenberg

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Increasing concern is evident about contamination of foodstuffs and natural health products. Methods. Common off-the-shelf varieties of black, green, white, and oolong teas sold in tea bags were used for analysis in this study. Toxic element testing was performed on 30 different teas by analyzing (i tea leaves, (ii tea steeped for 3-4 minutes, and (iii tea steeped for 15–17 minutes. Results were compared to existing preferred endpoints. Results. All brewed teas contained lead with 73% of teas brewed for 3 minutes and 83% brewed for 15 minutes having lead levels considered unsafe for consumption during pregnancy and lactation. Aluminum levels were above recommended guidelines in 20% of brewed teas. No mercury was found at detectable levels in any brewed tea samples. Teas contained several beneficial elements such as magnesium, calcium, potassium, and phosphorus. Of trace minerals, only manganese levels were found to be excessive in some black teas. Conclusions. Toxic contamination by heavy metals was found in most of the teas sampled. Some tea samples are considered unsafe. There are no existing guidelines for routine testing or reporting of toxicant levels in “naturally” occurring products. Public health warnings or industry regulation might be indicated to protect consumer safety.

  16. Safety and anti-hyperglycemic efficacy of various tea types in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Manman; Zhao, Guangshan; Wang, Yijun; Wang, Dongxu; Sun, Feng; Ning, Jingming; Wan, Xiachun; Zhang, Jinsong

    2016-01-01

    Tea, a beverage consumed worldwide, has proven anti-hyperglycemic effects in animal models. Better efficacies of tea beverages are frequently associated with high-dose levels, whose safety attracts considerable attention. Based on the inherent nature of tea catechin oxidation, fresh tea leaves are manufactured into diverse tea types by modulating the oxidation degree of catechins. The present study aimed to assess various tea types for their safety properties and anti-hyperglycemic effects. Mice were allowed free access to tea infusion (1:30, w/v) for one week, and the rare smoked tea caused salient adverse reactions, including hepatic and gastrointestinal toxicities; meanwhile, the widely-consumed green and black teas, unlike the rare yellow tea, suppressed growth in fast-growing healthy mice. When mice were fed a high-fat diet and allowed free access to tea infusion (1:30, w/v) for 25 days, only yellow tea significantly reduced blood glucose. Therefore, various teas showed different safety profiles as well as anti-hyperglycemic efficacy strengths. To achieve an effective and safe anti-hyperglycemic outcome, yellow tea, which effectively suppressed high-fat diet-induced early elevation of hepatic thioredoxin-interacting protein, is an optimal choice. PMID:27531374

  17. Exploring the nutraceutical potential of polyphenols from black, green and white tea infusions - an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenore, Gian C; Daglia, Maria; Ciampaglia, Roberto; Novellino, Ettore

    2015-01-01

    Black, green, and white teas are the main commercial teas obtained from buds and leaves of Camellia sinensis (L.). The postharvest processing treatments, together with genotype and growing techniques, may strongly affect the chemical composition of the tea infusion and, thereby, its potential effects on health. Catechins constituted up to 30% of tea leaves dry weight. During fermentation, polyphenols undergo enzymatic oxidation, leading to the formation of condensed polymeric compounds regarded as responsible for the typical organoleptic properties of black tea leaves and related infusions. Scientific studies has been recently focusing on the possibility that tea polyphenols, particularly those of black and green tea, may lead to healthy properties in individuals affected by diseases correlated to metabolic syndrome. In vivo experiments reveal that green and black tea polyphenols may be able to reduce hyperglycemia and insulin resistance. Other works suggest that black tea polymeric products may be effective in decreasing blood cholesterol levels and hypertriacylglycerolemia. To this regard, very few data about white tea, being the rarest and the least handled tea, are available so far. It has been reported that white tea could show higher antioxidative capacity than green tea and to exert in vitro lipolytic activity. Considering the increasing interest towards healthy potential through diet and natural medicaments, the aim of the present review was to overview the nutraceutical potential of polyphenols from tea after various degrees of fermentation.

  18. [Suppression of glucose absorption by various health teas in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Toshiki; Yoshikawa, Yukako; Masui, Hironori; Sano, Mitsuaki

    2004-04-01

    The inhibitory effects on the intestinal digestion and absorption of sugar of health teas that claim beneficial dietary and diabetes-controlling effects were compared in rats using portal cannulae. The measured durations were the times during which the elevation of portal glucose levels resulting from continuous intragastric infusion of sucrose or maltose was suppressed by concentrated teas. The teas investigated included salacia oblonga, mulberry, guava, gymunema, taheebo, yacon, and banaba. The duration of the inhibitory effect on the sucrose load of salacia oblonga, mulberry, and guava were 110 min, 20 min, and 10 min, respectively. In contrast, gymunema, taheebo, yacon, and banaba had no significant effect on the continuous infusion of sucrose. These results suggest that there is considerable difference in the efficacy of commercial health teas in influencing glucose absorption. PMID:15067185

  19. Interactions between milk fat globules and green tea catechins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidinejad, Ali; Birch, E John; Everett, David W

    2016-05-15

    The determination of putative chemical interactions between the milk fat globule membrane and green tea catechins provided useful information about the role of milk fat globules (MFGs) in high-fat dairy systems, such as cheese, and containing bioactive compounds, such as tea catechins. Catechins from green tea (125-1,000 ppm), including (+)-catechin, (-)-epigallocatechin gallate, and green tea extract were added to washed MFGs to examine possible interactions. The addition of catechins gave a significant change in the size and ζ-potential of MFGs. The recovery of different catechins from the milk fat globule suspensions was found to vary, suggesting selective association with the milk fat globule membranes. The interactions were further investigated using transmission electron microscopy and Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy. It is suggested that catechins are localised in association with milk fat globule membrane domains as they contain both hydrophobic and hydrophilic moieties with potential points of molecular interaction.

  20. Evaluation of γ-radiation on green tea odor volatiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanaro, G. B.; Duarte, R. C.; Araújo, M. M.; Purgatto, E.; Villavicencio, A. L. C. H.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the gamma radiation effects on green tea odor volatiles in green tea at doses of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 kGy. The volatile organic compounds were extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC/MS. The green tea had a large influence on radiation effects, increasing the identified volatiles in relation to control samples. The dose of 10 kGy was responsible to form the majority of new odor compounds following by 5 and 20 kGy. However, the dose of 5 kGy was the dose that degraded the majority of volatiles in non-irradiated samples, following by 20 kGy. The dose of 15 kGy showed has no effect on odor volatiles. The gamma radiation, at dose up to 20 kGy, showed statistically no difference between irradiated and non irradiated green tea on odors compounds.

  1. Evaluation of γ-radiation on green tea odor volatiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the gamma radiation effects on green tea odor volatiles in green tea at doses of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 kGy. The volatile organic compounds were extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC/MS. The green tea had a large influence on radiation effects, increasing the identified volatiles in relation to control samples. The dose of 10 kGy was responsible to form the majority of new odor compounds following by 5 and 20 kGy. However, the dose of 5 kGy was the dose that degraded the majority of volatiles in non-irradiated samples, following by 20 kGy. The dose of 15 kGy showed has no effect on odor volatiles. The gamma radiation, at dose up to 20 kGy, showed statistically no difference between irradiated and non irradiated green tea on odors compounds.

  2. Green tea may protect brain cells against Parkinson's

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Does the consumption of green tea, widely touted to have beneficial effects on health, also protect brain cells? As reported in the 15 December, 2007 issue of Biological Psychiatry, studies by CAS researchers indicate this may be the case.

  3. Antimicrobial activity of kombucha made from Rtanj tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetković Dragoljub D.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Kombucha is a beverage with special therapeutic properties produced by the metabolic activity of yeasts and acetic acid bacteria in sweetened black tea (traditional cultivation medium. The antimicrobial activity of kombucha (for consumption made from black tea and Rtanj tea, as well as particular control samples, was examined by the modified disc diffusion method. Salmonella enteritidis, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus sp., Sarcina lutea, Penicillium aurantiogriseum, Aspergilus niger, Aspergilus flavus, Rhodotorula sp. Candida pseudotropi-calis and Saccharomyces cerevisae have been used as test organisms. Acetic acid and kombucha samples show significant antimicrobial activity against all bacteria except Sarcina lutea. The other control samples (neutralized kombucha, tea and a "model sistem" show less bacteriostatic activity. Kombucha and acetic acid solution show borderline inhibitory activity against some moulds, while was no activity against yeasts.

  4. Evaluation of {gamma}-radiation on green tea odor volatiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fanaro, G.B., E-mail: gbfanaro@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN)-Centro de Tecnologia das Radiacoes, Av. Professor Lineu Prestes, 2242, 05508-000 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Duarte, R.C., E-mail: renatocduarte@yahoo.com.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN)-Centro de Tecnologia das Radiacoes, Av. Professor Lineu Prestes, 2242, 05508-000 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Araujo, M.M., E-mail: mmozeika@yahoo.co [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN)-Centro de Tecnologia das Radiacoes, Av. Professor Lineu Prestes, 2242, 05508-000 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Purgatto, E., E-mail: epurgatt@usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo-Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas, FCF/USP, Departamento de Alimentos e Nutricao Experimental, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 580 Bloco 14, 05508-900, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Villavicencio, A.L.C.H., E-mail: villavic@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN)-Centro de Tecnologia das Radiacoes, Av. Professor Lineu Prestes, 2242, 05508-000 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-01-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the gamma radiation effects on green tea odor volatiles in green tea at doses of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 kGy. The volatile organic compounds were extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC/MS. The green tea had a large influence on radiation effects, increasing the identified volatiles in relation to control samples. The dose of 10 kGy was responsible to form the majority of new odor compounds following by 5 and 20 kGy. However, the dose of 5 kGy was the dose that degraded the majority of volatiles in non-irradiated samples, following by 20 kGy. The dose of 15 kGy showed has no effect on odor volatiles. The gamma radiation, at dose up to 20 kGy, showed statistically no difference between irradiated and non irradiated green tea on odors compounds.

  5. Green tea as a source of food antioxidants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Jie

    as Safe” (GRAS-status). In this PhD project, green tea rich in polyphenol compounds catechins was selected as the natural source of antioxidants. The aim of the project was to investigate green tea as a source of natural antioxidants for use in processed foods. First of all, the antioxidant effects......Fe(IV)=O. However, combinations of tea catechins were not observed to have a synergistic effect to reduce the MbFe(IV)=O, but merely an additive effect or even antagonism was observed. Thirdly, green tea catechins including EC and EGCG were found to efficiently inhibit the formation of intermediary radicals formed......In modern food industry a major challenge is to maintain the quality and extend the shelf-life of processed foods. Multiple types of chemical reactions have been found to cause quality loss of processed foods. Oxidation and browning reactions have been identified as the two well-known types...

  6. Improving the sweet aftertaste of green tea infusion with tannase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying-Na; Yin, Jun-Feng; Chen, Jian-Xin; Wang, Fang; Du, Qi-Zhen; Jiang, Yong-Wen; Xu, Yong-Quan

    2016-02-01

    The present study aims to improve the sweet aftertaste and overall acceptability of green tea infusion by hydrolyzing (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECG) with tannase. The results showed that the intensity of the sweet aftertaste and the score of overall acceptability of the green tea infusion significantly increased with the extension of the hydrolyzing treatment. (-)-Epigallocatechin (EGC) and (-)-epicatechin (EC) were found to be the main contributors for the sweet aftertaste, based on a trial compatibility with EGCG, ECG, EGC, and EC monomers, and a synergistic action between EGC and EC to sweet aftertaste was observed. A 2.5:1 (EGC/EC) ratio with a total concentration of 3.5 mmol/L gave the most satisfying sweet aftertaste, and the astringency significantly inhibited the development of the sweet aftertaste. These results can help us to produce a tea beverage with excellent sweet aftertaste by hydrolyzing the green tea infusion with tannase.

  7. Preparation and properties of waste tea leaves particleboard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi Jin-shu; Li Jian-zhang; Fan Yong-ming; Ma Hong-xia

    2006-01-01

    Urea-formaldehyde (UF) adhesive is the main source of formaldehyde emission from UF-bonded boards. The components in waste tea leaves can react with formaldehyde to serve as a raw material in the production of low formaldehyde emission boards. In our study, waste tea leaves and UF adhesive were employed in the preparation of waste tea leaves particleboard (WTLB). An orthogonal experimental method was applied to investigate the effects of process parameters on formaldehyde emission and mechanical properties of WTLB. The results indicated that: 1) waste tea leaves had the ability to abate formaldehyde emission from boards; and 2) density of the WTLB was a significant factor affecting its modulus of rupture (MOR), modulus of elasticity (MOE) and internal bonding (IB).

  8. [Determination of azoxystrobin in tea by HPLC].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chonan, T

    2001-08-01

    A determination method has been developed for azoxystrobin in tea by HPLC. Azoxystrobin was extracted from a sample with acetone, and the extract was passed through an alumina column to remove tannin. The eluate was concentrated to ca. 25 mL and passed through a Sep-Pak Vac tC18 to remove pigments. The eluate was cleaned-up by using liquid-liquid partition, and Florisil and silica-gel columns. The HPLC analysis for azoxystrobin was carried out on a C18 column with acetonitrile-water (9:11) as the mobile phase, with ultraviolet detection at 260 nm. The recovery of azoxystrobin fortified at the level of 0.4 microgram/g was 90.2% and the limit of determination was 0.2 microgram/g.

  9. Production Efficiency Audit on Tea Beverage Agroindustry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendra Adiyatna, . Marimin

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to investigate and to apply economic efficiency performance measurement methods for tea beverage agroindustry. These measurements were based on twelve technique and economic efficiency criteria, which illustrate the condition of the processes. This illustration was able to explain the material and the energy utilization, variance of the processes and product, handling of the waste and acceptance in the market. The methodology was divided into three steps: (1 defining the technique and the economic criteria, appropriate to the circumstance of the processes, (2 state efficiency the level status, (3 evaluation and structure prioritizing of the processes improvement alternatives. The results of this work indicates that there are seven appropriate criteria. The status of the efficiency is in the medium level. The improvement priorities recommended include optimization of material and energy usage and minimization of breaktime of the critical processes

  10. Tree-growth analyses to estimate tree species' drought tolerance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eilmann, B.; Rigling, A.

    2012-01-01

    Climate change is challenging forestry management and practices. Among other things, tree species with the ability to cope with more extreme climate conditions have to be identified. However, while environmental factors may severely limit tree growth or even cause tree death, assessing a tree specie

  11. A Characterization of the average tree solution for tree games

    OpenAIRE

    Debasis Mishra; Dolf Talman

    2009-01-01

    For the class of tree games, a new solution called the average tree solution has been proposed recently. We provide a characterization of this solution. This characterization underlines an important difference, in terms of symmetric treatment of the agents, between the average tree solution and the Myerson value for the class of tree games.

  12. ControlTree: Navigating and Selecting in a Large Tree

    OpenAIRE

    Appert, Caroline; Fekete, Jean-Daniel

    2006-01-01

    International audience We introduce ControlTree, a novel interface using crossing interaction to navigate and select nodes in a large tree. ControlTree combines an optimized dynamic layout with interaction features to quickly reach a node in a node-link tree representation.

  13. [Fast Detection of Camellia Sinensis Growth Process and Tea Quality Informations with Spectral Technology: A Review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Ji-yu; Song, Xing-lin; Liu, Fei; Bao, Yi-dan; He, Yong

    2016-03-01

    The research achievements and trends of spectral technology in fast detection of Camellia sinensis growth process information and tea quality information were being reviewed. Spectral technology is a kind of fast, nondestructive, efficient detection technology, which mainly contains infrared spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and mass spectroscopy. The rapid detection of Camellia sinensis growth process information and tea quality is helpful to realize the informatization and automation of tea production and ensure the tea quality and safety. This paper provides a review on its applications containing the detection of tea (Camellia sinensis) growing status(nitrogen, chlorophyll, diseases and insect pest), the discrimination of tea varieties, the grade discrimination of tea, the detection of tea internal quality (catechins, total polyphenols, caffeine, amino acid, pesticide residual and so on), the quality evaluation of tea beverage and tea by-product, the machinery of tea quality determination and discrimination. This paper briefly introduces the trends of the technology of the determination of tea growth process information, sensor and industrial application. In conclusion, spectral technology showed high potential to detect Camellia sinensis growth process information, to predict tea internal quality and to classify tea varieties and grades. Suitable chemometrics and preprocessing methods is helpful to improve the performance of the model and get rid of redundancy, which provides the possibility to develop the portable machinery. Future work is to develop the portable machinery and on-line detection system is recommended to improve the further application. The application and research achievement of spectral technology concerning about tea were outlined in this paper for the first time, which contained Camellia sinensis growth, tea production, the quality and safety of tea and by-produce and so on, as well as some problems to be solved

  14. Critical factors determining fluoride concentration in tea leaves produced from Anhui province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Huimei; Zhu, Xiaohui; Peng, Chuanyi; Xu, Wei; Li, Daxiang; Wang, Yijun; Fang, Shihui; Li, Yeyun; Hu, Shaode; Wan, Xiaochun

    2016-09-01

    This study investigated the fluoride present in tea plants (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) and its relationship to soils, varieties, seasons and tea leaf maturity. The study also explored how different manufacturing processes affect the leaching of fluoride into tea beverages. The fluoride concentration in the tea leaves was significantly correlate to the concentration of water-soluble fluoride in the soil. Different tea varieties accumulated different levels of fluoride, with varieties, Anji baicha having the highest and Nongkang zao having the lowest fluoride concentration. In eight different varieties of tea plant harvested over three tea seasons, fluoride concentration were highest in the summer and lowest in the spring in china. The fluoride concentration in tea leaves was directly related to the maturity of the tea leaves at harvest. Importantly, the tea manufacturing process did not introduced fluoride contamination. The leaching of fluoride was 6.8% and 14.1% higher in black and white tea, respectively, than in fresh tea leaves. The manufacturing step most affecting the leaching of fluoride into tea beverage was withering used in white, black and oolong tea rather than rolling or fermentation. The exposure and associated health risks for fluoride concentration in infusions of 115 commercially available teas from Chinese tea markets was determined. The fluoride concentration ranged from 5.0 to 306.0mgkg(-1), with an average of 81.7mgkg(-1). The hazard quotient (HQ) of these teas indicated that there was no risk of fluorosis from drinking tea, based on statistical analysis by Monte Carlo simulation. PMID:27162130

  15. The Efficacy of Green Tea Chewing Gum on Gingival Inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Parichehr Behfarnia; Ahmad Aslani; Foroogh Jamshidian; Soheil Noohi

    2016-01-01

    Statement of the Problem: According to previous studies, the components of green tea extracts can inhibit the growth of a wide range of gram-pos-itive and -negative bacterial species and might be useful in controlling oral infections. Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of green tea chewing gum on the rate of plaque and gingival inflammation in subjects with gingivitis. Materials and Method: In this double-blind randomize controlled clinical trial, 45 patients wit...

  16. TEA: A Code for Calculating Thermochemical Equilibrium Abundances

    OpenAIRE

    Blecic, Jasmina; Harrington, Joseph; Bowman, M. Oliver

    2015-01-01

    We present an open-source Thermochemical Equilibrium Abundances (TEA) code that calculates the abundances of gaseous molecular species. The code is based on the methodology of White et al. (1958) and Eriksson (1971). It applies Gibbs free-energy minimization using an iterative, Lagrangian optimization scheme. Given elemental abundances, TEA calculates molecular abundances for a particular temperature and pressure or a list of temperature-pressure pairs. We tested the code against the method o...

  17. Effect of tea polyphenols on alcoholic liver disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-rongHE; Guan-huaDU

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the scavenging effects of tea polyphenols on aldehyde in vitro and searching for the preliminary mechanism of tea polyphenols (TP) on alcoholic liver disease.METHODS: The effect of aldehyde absorption is tested at gaseous and liquid phases. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, HPll00Series) and UV-visible Detector(Wavelength: 235 nm) are used to analyze the components of the outcome of solution reaction. RESULTS: In vitro study showed

  18. GREEN TEA: A MAGICAL HERB WITH MIRACULOUS OUTCOMES

    OpenAIRE

    Anand Jigisha; Rai Nishant; Kumar Navin; Gautam Pankaj

    2012-01-01

    Green tea in its purest and most unadulterated form has always influenced human health from generations and day by day scientific evidences throughout the world are making people aware of health benefits associated with this herbal drink. Though Green Tea is not officially recognized as a medical agent, it is one of the most researched plant-based remedies whose possible benefits include promotion of cardio-vascular health, cancer prevention, skin protection, and antioxidant activity, to figh...

  19. Isolation of Cronobacter sakazakii from different herbal teas

    OpenAIRE

    Stojanović Marija M.; Katić Vera; Kuzmanović Jelena

    2011-01-01

    Bacground/Aim. Cronobacter sakazakii (C. sakazakii) is an emerging food-borne pathogen that has increasingly raised interest among the whole public community and food industry, especially in the production of powder infant formula. It has been isolated from water, sediment and soil. The question is whether this pathogen can be present in herbal teas. Herbal teas are widely used for great number of health problems, as an additional or sometimes only “medicine” given. The aim of this stud...

  20. Coffee, tea, and melanoma risk among postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haotian; Reeves, Katherine W; Qian, Jing; Sturgeon, Susan R

    2015-07-01

    Laboratory research suggests that components in coffee and tea may have anticarcinogenic effects. Some epidemiologic studies have reported that women who consume coffee and tea have a lower risk for melanoma. We assessed coffee, tea, and melanoma risk prospectively in the Women's Health Initiative - Observational Study cohort of 66,484 postmenopausal women, followed for an average of 7.7 years. Coffee and tea intakes were measured through self-administered questionnaires at baseline and at year 3 of follow-up. Self-reported incident melanomas were adjudicated using medical records. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate risk, adjusting for covariates, with person-time accumulation until melanoma diagnosis (n=398), death, loss to follow-up, or through 2005. Daily coffee [hazard ratio (HR)=0.87, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.68-1.12] and tea (HR=1.03, 95% CI 0.81-1.31) intakes were not significantly associated with melanoma risk compared with nondaily intake of each beverage. No significant trends were observed between melanoma risk and increasing intakes of coffee (P for trend=0.38) or tea (P for trend=0.22). Women who reported daily coffee intake at both baseline and year 3 had a significantly decreased risk compared with women who reported nondaily intake at both time points (HR=0.68, 95% CI 0.48-0.97). Consistent daily tea intake was not associated with decreased melanoma risk. Overall, there is no strong evidence that increasing coffee or tea consumption can lead to a lower melanoma risk. We observed a decrease in melanoma risk among long-term coffee drinkers, but the lack of consistency in the results by dose and type cautioned against overinterpretation of the results.

  1. Studies on Rheological Properties of Konjac-tea Drink

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PANG Jie; XU Qiu-lan; SUN Yu-jing; ZHANG Fu-sheng; TIAN Shi-ping

    2003-01-01

    Konjac black tea(sugar-free) and konjac glucomannan(KGM) solution were studied by using rheometer,refractometer etc.The relationship between their rheological properties and temperature or concentration was discussed in detail.The results showed that viscosity was significantly affected by temperature and concentration;and pH stability of Konjac-tea was related to the molecular property of KGM.

  2. Tree-like tableaux

    CERN Document Server

    Aval, Jean-Christophe; Nadeau, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    In this work we introduce and study tree-like tableaux, which are certain fillings of Ferrers diagrams in simple bijection with permutation tableaux and alternative tableaux. We exhibit an elementary insertion procedure on our tableaux which gives a clear proof that tableaux of size n are counted by n!, and which moreover respects most of the well-known statistics studied originally on alternative and permutation tableaux. Our insertion procedure allows to define in particular two simple new bijections between tree-like tableaux and permutations: the first one is conceived specifically to respect the generalized pattern 2-31, while the second one respects the underlying tree of a tree-like tableau.

  3. The tree BVOC index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, J R; McPherson, E G

    2011-01-01

    Urban trees can produce a number of benefits, among them improved air quality. Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) emitted by some species are ozone precursors. Modifying future tree planting to favor lower-emitting species can reduce these emissions and aid air management districts in meeting federally mandated emissions reductions for these compounds. Changes in BVOC emissions are calculated as the result of transitioning to a lower-emitting species mix in future planting. A simplified method for calculating the emissions reduction and a Tree BVOC index based on the calculated reduction is described. An example illustrates the use of the index as a tool for implementation and monitoring of a tree program designed to reduce BVOC emissions as a control measure being developed as part of the State Implementation Plan (SIP) for the Sacramento Federal Nonattainment Area. PMID:21435760

  4. Loops and trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron-Huot, S.

    2011-05-01

    We investigate relations between loop and tree amplitudes in quantum field theory that involve putting on-shell some loop propagators. This generalizes the so-called Feynman tree theorem which is satisfied at 1-loop. Exploiting retarded boundary conditions, we give a generalization to ℓ-loop expressing the loops as integrals over the on-shell phase space of exactly ℓ particles. We argue that the corresponding integrand for ℓ > 2 does not involve the forward limit of any physical tree amplitude, except in planar gauge theories. In that case we explicitly construct the relevant physical amplitude. Beyond the planar limit, abandoning direct integral representations, we propose that loops continue to be determined implicitly by the forward limit of physical connected trees, and we formulate a precise conjecture along this line. Finally, we set up technology to compute forward amplitudes in supersymmetric theories, in which specific simplifications occur.

  5. A parallel buffer tree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sitchinava, Nodar; Zeh, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    We present the parallel buffer tree, a parallel external memory (PEM) data structure for batched search problems. This data structure is a non-trivial extension of Arge's sequential buffer tree to a private-cache multiprocessor environment and reduces the number of I/O operations by the number...... of available processor cores compared to its sequential counterpart, thereby taking full advantage of multicore parallelism. The parallel buffer tree is a search tree data structure that supports the batched parallel processing of a sequence of N insertions, deletions, membership queries, and range queries...... in the optimal OhOf(psortN + K/PB) parallel I/O complexity, where K is the size of the output reported in the process and psortN is the parallel I/O complexity of sorting N elements using P processors....

  6. NLCD 2001 - Tree Canopy

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — The National Land Cover Database 2001 tree canopy layer for Minnesota (mapping zones 39-42, 50-51) was produced through a cooperative project conducted by the...

  7. Robustness of a routing tree for the Push Tree Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Havet, Frédéric

    2002-01-01

    The Push Tree problem contains elements from both the Steiner Tree and Shortest Path problem. It deals with the trade-offs between the push and pull mechanism used in information distribution and retrieval. In , a two step approach for the Push Tree Problem was proposed. In the first step, a «good» spanning tree (called routing tree) is constructed and then the problem is solved in this particular tree. Finding a routing tree is NP-hard but the second step may be performed easily, thus the id...

  8. Type extension trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaeger, Manfred

    2006-01-01

    We introduce type extension trees as a formal representation language for complex combinatorial features of relational data. Based on a very simple syntax this language provides a unified framework for expressing features as diverse as embedded subgraphs on the one hand, and marginal counts...... of attribute values on the other. We show by various examples how many existing relational data mining techniques can be expressed as the problem of constructing a type extension tree and a discriminant function....

  9. Information flow on trees

    OpenAIRE

    Mossel, Elchanan; Peres, Yuval

    2003-01-01

    Consider a tree network $T$, where each edge acts as an independent copy of a given channel $M$, and information is propagated from the root. For which $T$ and $M$ does the configuration obtained at level $n$ of $T$ typically contain significant information on the root variable? This problem arose independently in biology, information theory and statistical physics. ¶ For all $b$, we construct a channel for which the variable at the root of the break $b$-ary tree is...

  10. Urban tree mortality

    OpenAIRE

    Roman, Lara Angelica

    2013-01-01

    Urban forests have aesthetic, environmental, human health, and economic benefits that motivate tree planting programs. Realizing these benefits depends on tree survival. Cost-benefit analyses for urban forest ecosystem services are sensitive to mortality rate assumptions and associated population projections. However, long-term mortality data is needed to assess the accuracy of these assumptions. Analytical tools from demography, such as life tables, mortality curves, and survival analysis, c...

  11. Tree Improvement Glossary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lars Holger

    Forest tree improvement encompasses a number of scientific and technical areas like floral-, reproductive- and micro-biology, genetics breeding methods and strategies, propagation, gene conservation, data analysis and statistics, each area with a comprehensive terminology. The terms selected...... for definition here are those most frequently used in tree improvement literature. Clonal propagation is included in the view of the great expansion of that field as a means of mass multiplication of improved material....

  12. Accumulation and distribution of arsenic and cadmium by tea plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan-zhi SHI; Jian-yun RUAN; Lifeng MA; Wen-yan HAN; Fang WANG

    2008-01-01

    It is important to research the rules about accumulation and distribution of arsenic and cadmium by tea plants, which will give us some scientific ideas about how to control the contents of arsenic and cadmium in tea. In this study, by field inves- tigation and pot trial, we found that mobility of arsenic and cadmium in tea plants was low. Most arsenic and cadmium absorbed were fixed in feeding roots and only small amount was transported to the above-ground parts. Distribution of arsenic and cadmium, based on their concentrations of unit dry matter, in tea plants grown on un-contaminated soil was in the order: feeding roots>stems≈main roots>old leaves>young leaves. When tea plants were grown on polluted soils simulated by adding salts of these two metals, feeding roots possibly acted as a buffer and defense, and arsenic and cadmium were transported less to the above- ground parts. The concentration of cadmium in soil significantly and negatively correlated with chlorophyll content, photosyn- thetic rate, transpiration rate and biomass production of tea plants.

  13. Effect of Cinnamon Tea on Postprandial Glucose Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alexandra Bernardo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Glycaemic control, in particular at postprandial period, has a key role in prevention of different diseases, including diabetes and cardiovascular events. Previous studies suggest that postprandial high blood glucose levels (BGL can lead to an oxidative stress status, which is associated with metabolic alterations. Cinnamon powder has demonstrated a beneficial effect on postprandial glucose homeostasis in animals and human models. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of cinnamon tea (C. burmannii on postprandial capillary blood glucose level on nondiabetic adults. Participants were given oral glucose tolerance test either with or without cinnamon tea in a randomized clinical trial. The data revealed that cinnamon tea administration slightly decreased postprandial BGL. Cinnamon tea ingestion also results in a significantly lower postprandial maximum glucose concentration and variation of maximum glucose concentration (p < 0.05. Chemical analysis showed that cinnamon tea has a high antioxidant capacity, which may be due to its polyphenol content. The present study provides evidence that cinnamon tea, obtained from C. burmannii, could be beneficial for controlling glucose metabolism in nondiabetic adults during postprandial period.

  14. GREEN TEA: A MAGICAL HERB WITH MIRACULOUS OUTCOMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Jigisha

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Green tea in its purest and most unadulterated form has always influenced human health from generations and day by day scientific evidences throughout the world are making people aware of health benefits associated with this herbal drink. Though Green Tea is not officially recognized as a medical agent, it is one of the most researched plant-based remedies whose possible benefits include promotion of cardio-vascular health, cancer prevention, skin protection, and antioxidant activity, to fight high cholesterol levels, infection, impaired immune function, diarrhoea, fatigue and many more. Laboratory findings have revealed that notable health benefit of green tea is its powerful antioxidants potential which at the molecular level, helps prevent cellular damage from certain oxidation reactions in the body. The credit for their useful antioxidant property lies with their huge collection of chemical substances called polyphenols and catechins make the major contribution of them. Though catechins have been found in other plants derivatives such as grapes, pomegranates, those found in tea have proven to be the most effective antioxidants known. The catechins epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG is found in the greatest concentration and most studied for its health benefits. There is an urgent need to check the efficacy, safety and translational guidelines for a green tea to be used as safe, effective drug. The main objective of this review is to enlighten some recent facts with relevance to the current status and advance in green tea benefits.

  15. Tree felling 2014

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    With a view to creating new landscapes and making its population of trees safer and healthier, this winter CERN will complete the tree-felling campaign started in 2010.   Tree felling will take place between 15 and 22 November on the Swiss part of the Meyrin site. This work is being carried out above all for safety reasons. The trees to be cut down are at risk of falling as they are too old and too tall to withstand the wind. In addition, the roots of poplar trees are very powerful and spread widely, potentially damaging underground networks, pavements and roadways. Compensatory tree planting campaigns will take place in the future, subject to the availability of funding, with the aim of creating coherent landscapes while also respecting the functional constraints of the site. These matters are being considered in close collaboration with the Geneva nature and countryside directorate (Direction générale de la nature et du paysage, DGNP). GS-SE Group

  16. Geometric Decision Tree

    CERN Document Server

    Manwani, Naresh

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present a new algorithm for learning oblique decision trees. Most of the current decision tree algorithms rely on impurity measures to assess the goodness of hyperplanes at each node while learning a decision tree in a top-down fashion. These impurity measures do not properly capture the geometric structures in the data. Motivated by this, our algorithm uses a strategy to assess the hyperplanes in such a way that the geometric structure in the data is taken into account. At each node of the decision tree, we find the clustering hyperplanes for both the classes and use their angle bisectors as the split rule at that node. We show through empirical studies that this idea leads to small decision trees and better performance. We also present some analysis to show that the angle bisectors of clustering hyperplanes that we use as the split rules at each node, are solutions of an interesting optimization problem and hence argue that this is a principled method of learning a decision tree.

  17. Supply Chain Factors Influencing Small Scale Farmers’ Tea Production in Abothuguchi West Division in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Mbaabu Karanga; Henry M. Bwisa

    2014-01-01

    Low yields on the small scale tea farmers in Kenya led to this study. The purpose of this study was to establish the supply chain factors influencing small scale tea production in Abothuguchi West Division in Kenya. A survey of 70 small scale tea farmers of AWD was carried out with a target population of 5000 farmers registered to supply tea to the Kenya Tea Development Agency managed by Githongo Tea Factory. A questionnaire and interview guide was used to collect the data. A response rate of...

  18. Oxidative deamination of benzylamine and lysine residue in bovine serum albumin by green tea, black tea, and coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akagawa, Mitsugu; Shigemitsu, Tomoko; Suyama, Kyozo

    2005-10-01

    Oxidative deamination by various polyphenolic compounds is presumed to be due to the oxidative conversion of polyphenols to the corresponding quinones through autoxidation. Here we examined the oxidative deamination by the polyphenol-rich beverages green tea, black tea, and coffee at a physiological pH and temperature. Green tea, black tea, and coffee extracts oxidatively deaminated benzylamine and the lysine residues of bovine serum albumin to benzaldehyde and alpha-aminoadipic delta-semialdehyde residues, respectively, in sodium phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) at 37 degrees C in both the presence and absence of Cu2+, indicating the occurrence of an amine (lysyl) oxidase-like reaction. We also examined the effects of pH and metal ions on the reaction. The possible biological effects of drinking polyphenol-rich beverages on human are also discussed.

  19. Safety Assessment of Heavy Metal in Tea Garden Soil: A Case Study of Specialized Tea Towns in Guangdong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiushuang; WANG; Caijin; LING; Shumei; LIU; Junxi; CAO; Jinsong; ZHANG; Chaoyi; ZHAO

    2013-01-01

    More than 20 soil samples were collected from tea gardens of specialized tea towns in Guangdong,including Fenglang Town and Fengshun Town in Meizhou City,Changshan Town in Lianjiang City,Fenghuang Town in Chaozhou City.Content of 6 types of heavy metal (Cr,Cu,Pb,As,Cd,Hg) in tea garden soil was measured.On the basis of these,the safety was assessed.Results show that the comprehensive pollution index of these 6 types of heavy metal is lower than 0.7.According to Soil Pollution Grading Standard formulated by China Green Food Development Center,the soil is not polluted by heavy metal and remains at safety level.It proves that overall soil condition of specialized tea gardens in Guangdong Province is not polluted by heavy metal.

  20. Effect of Black Tea and Black Tea Pomace Polyphenols on α-Glucosidase and α-Amylase Inhibition, Relevant to Type 2 Diabetes Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Striegel, Lisa; Kang, Bouhee; Pilkenton, Sarah J; Rychlik, Michael; Apostolidis, Emmanouil

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates the potential mechanism of action and bioactivity of black tea and black tea pomace for type 2 diabetes prevention via inhibition of carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes. Black tea leaves were extracted in hot water and black tea pomace was extracted in 70% acetone. The phenolic content of the water extract (WBT) and pomace acetone extracts (AOBT) were 5.77 and 8.9 mg/mL, respectively, both based on the same concentration of solid tea in the extract. The water extract was sub...

  1. [Effects of ground surface mulching in tea garden on soil water and nutrient dynamics and tea plant growth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li-tao; Wang, Yu; Ding, Zhao-tang

    2011-09-01

    Taking a 2-year-old tea garden in Qingdao of Shandong Province as test object, this paper studied the effects of different mulching modes on the soil water and nutrient dynamics and tea plant growth. Four treatments were installed, i.e., no mulching (CK), straw mulching (T1), plastic film mulching (T2), and straw plus plastic film mulching (T3). Comparing with CK, mulching could keep the soil water content at a higher level, and enhance the water use efficiency. In treatments T1 and T3, the tea growth water use efficiency and yield water use efficiency increased by 43%-48% and 7%-13%, respectively, compared with CK. Also in treatments T1 and T3, the contents of soil organic matter, available-N, nitrate-N, and ammonium-N increased significantly, with the soil fertility improved, and the leaf nitrate-N content and nitrate reductase activity increased, which promoted the tea growth and yield (12%-13% higher than CK) and made the peak period of bud growth appeared earlier. Considering the tea growth and yield, water and nutrient use efficiency, environment safety and economic benefit, straw mulching could be an effective ground surface mulching mode for young tea garden. PMID:22126038

  2. Using UV-Vis spectroscopy for simultaneous geographical and varietal classification of tea infusions simulating a home-made tea cup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Paulo Henrique Gonçalves Dias; Barbosa, Mayara Ferreira; de Melo Milanez, Karla Danielle Tavares; Pistonesi, Marcelo Fabián; de Araújo, Mário César Ugulino

    2016-02-01

    In this work we proposed a method to verify the differentiating characteristics of simple tea infusions prepared in boiling water alone (simulating a home-made tea cup), which represents the final product as ingested by the consumers. For this purpose we used UV-Vis spectroscopy and variable selection through the Successive Projections Algorithm associated with Linear Discriminant Analysis (SPA-LDA) for simultaneous classification of the teas according to their variety and geographic origin. For comparison, KNN, CART, SIMCA, PLS-DA and PCA-LDA were also used. SPA-LDA and PCA-LDA provided significantly better results for tea classification of the five studied classes (Argentinean green tea; Brazilian green tea; Argentinean black tea; Brazilian black tea; and Sri Lankan black tea). The proposed methodology provides a simpler, faster and more affordable classification of simple tea infusions, and can be used as an alternative approach to traditional tea quality evaluation as made by skilful tasters, which is evidently partial and cannot assess geographic origins.

  3. Assessment of bio-energy potential in tea industries of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonu Kumar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Tea production is an energy intensive agro-processing trade. Since high demand of energy and increased in fuel prices, tea waste can be utilized to supplement part of energy required in tea processing. This study was conducted in tea estates of Assam (North Lakhimpur, Sonitpur, and Silchar, India. The total energy consumption in tea manufacturing was found to be 4.2-8.5 kWh/kg of made tea. Thus, total energy consumption (5 kWh/kg of tea for manufacturing of 1197 million kg of tea from 564 thousand hectare tea plantation in India (during 2014-2015 was 5.985×109 kWh. The total obtainable energy from tea waste was estimated and the conversion efficiency of calorific value to electrical energy was assumed to be 10%, which is the least value of conversion efficiency. Energy potential in processing and garden waste was found to be 11.999×107 kWh and 3.492×1010kWh, respectively, and corresponding electrical energy was estimated to be 1.1999×107 kWh and 3.492×109 kWh, respectively. Thus, comparing the energy that could be generated from wastes in tea estate and that required in tea manufacturing, it can be concluded that the huge amount of energy could be saved with the utilization of tea waste.

  4. Tea Production and Consumption in Korea%韩国茶叶生产与消费

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朴龙求

    2000-01-01

    Mr. Taeryum, an envoy of Shilla Dynasty brought tea seeds from China during Tang Dynastyand the seeds were planted at Jiri Mt. by the order of King Heungduk at AD 828. During Koryo Dynasty (918-1392), Buddhism spread rapidly all over the country and the tea culture reached its highest stage of prosperity. At the Chosun Dynasty. However, the ceremonial drinking of tea vanished almost completely due to the flourishing Confucian tradition, a kind of substitution of Buddhism. But a few people have supported the traditional tea culture by themselves. Since the independence of Korea soon after the World War II(1945), the cultivation area of tea plants has been increased and the cultural tradition of tea drinking has become popular again.At present, the cultivation area has been continued to increase and tea production has also been lifted up year byyear. In spite of continuous increased tea cultivation area, there still is a severe problem of shortage of tea in thecountry. Tea farmers and the Korean government should take several actions to solve to remedy the situation.In this paper the prospect for shortage of tea demand is discussed after 2003 when the high special customs du-ties for tea products is lowered from 536% to 30 or 40% in Korea and the trade situation of tea products oncountries around Korea are also discussed.

  5. Differences in quality parameters between types of commercial tea from Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Eugenia Thea

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false ES X-NONE X-NONE To determine differences in quality parameters between different types of tea elaborated in Argentina, water extract, crude fibre, caffeine, total polyphenol content, antioxidant activity, sorption isotherms and colour parameters (L, a, b were determined. Fifty-one industrial samples of commercially available teas including green tea, semifermented tea, black tea and black tea sub-product (BTSP were used for this study.Water extract contents were significantly higher in black tea and green tea (40.3% and 40.7% w/w, respectively, while semifermented tea and BTSP showed higher levels of crude fibre (22.3% and 20.4% w/w, respectively. Caffeine contents of black teas (2.7% w/w were significantly higher than in the other types of tea. Green teas revealed the highest concentrations of phenolic compounds and the major antioxidant activities (14.9 g GAE/100g dm and 30.0 g AAE/100g dm, respectively. The results also highlighted significant differences (p<0.05 in colour values between the different types of tea.

  6. Covering R-trees

    CERN Document Server

    Berestovskii, V N

    2007-01-01

    We show that every inner metric space X is the metric quotient of a complete R-tree via a free isometric action, which we call the covering R-tree of X. The quotient mapping is a weak submetry (hence, open) and light. In the case of compact 1-dimensional geodesic space X, the free isometric action is via a subgroup of the fundamental group of X. In particular, the Sierpin'ski gasket and carpet, and the Menger sponge all have the same covering R-tree, which is complete and has at each point valency equal to the continuum. This latter R-tree is of particular interest because it is "universal" in at least two senses: First, every R-tree of valency at most the continuum can be isometrically embedded in it. Second, every Peano continuum is the image of it via an open light mapping. We provide a sketch of our previous construction of the uniform universal cover in the special case of inner metric spaces, the properties of which are used in the proof.

  7. Steiner trees in industry

    CERN Document Server

    Du, Ding-Zhu

    2001-01-01

    This book is a collection of articles studying various Steiner tree prob­ lems with applications in industries, such as the design of electronic cir­ cuits, computer networking, telecommunication, and perfect phylogeny. The Steiner tree problem was initiated in the Euclidean plane. Given a set of points in the Euclidean plane, the shortest network interconnect­ ing the points in the set is called the Steiner minimum tree. The Steiner minimum tree may contain some vertices which are not the given points. Those vertices are called Steiner points while the given points are called terminals. The shortest network for three terminals was first studied by Fermat (1601-1665). Fermat proposed the problem of finding a point to minimize the total distance from it to three terminals in the Euclidean plane. The direct generalization is to find a point to minimize the total distance from it to n terminals, which is still called the Fermat problem today. The Steiner minimum tree problem is an indirect generalization. Sch...

  8. The inference of gene trees with species trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szöllősi, Gergely J; Tannier, Eric; Daubin, Vincent; Boussau, Bastien

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the various models that have been used to describe the relationships between gene trees and species trees. Molecular phylogeny has focused mainly on improving models for the reconstruction of gene trees based on sequence alignments. Yet, most phylogeneticists seek to reveal the history of species. Although the histories of genes and species are tightly linked, they are seldom identical, because genes duplicate, are lost or horizontally transferred, and because alleles can coexist in populations for periods that may span several speciation events. Building models describing the relationship between gene and species trees can thus improve the reconstruction of gene trees when a species tree is known, and vice versa. Several approaches have been proposed to solve the problem in one direction or the other, but in general neither gene trees nor species trees are known. Only a few studies have attempted to jointly infer gene trees and species trees. These models account for gene duplication and loss, transfer or incomplete lineage sorting. Some of them consider several types of events together, but none exists currently that considers the full repertoire of processes that generate gene trees along the species tree. Simulations as well as empirical studies on genomic data show that combining gene tree-species tree models with models of sequence evolution improves gene tree reconstruction. In turn, these better gene trees provide a more reliable basis for studying genome evolution or reconstructing ancestral chromosomes and ancestral gene sequences. We predict that gene tree-species tree methods that can deal with genomic data sets will be instrumental to advancing our understanding of genomic evolution.

  9. The Making of Transparent Soap from Green Tea Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuty Anggraini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determined the effect of green tea extract on the characteristics of transparent soap and antioxidant activity as well as to determine the best concentration of the addition of green tea extract. This study used a completely randomized design (CRD consisting of 5 treatments and 3 repetitions. Data were analyzed statistically using ANOVA followed by Duncan's test New Multiple Range Test (DNMRT at 5%. Treatment in this research were the addition of green tea extract  0%; 0.5%; 1%; 1.5%; and 2%. The analysis on the transparent soap product were sensory evaluation test, irritation test,  antimicrobial test, antioxidant activity, and chemical properties that include water content, pH, the amount of fatty acid, the saponified fraction, alkali-free / free fatty acids, and insoluble part in alcohol . The results showed that the difference in the concentration of green tea extract in a transparent soap significantly affect insoluble part in alcohol, antioxidant activity, and antimicrobial, but did not significantly affect to moisture content, the level of fatty acid ,  unsaponified fraction, free fatty acids, pH, hardness , and degree of foam. Effect of green tea extracts in the manufacture of transparent soap in treatment E (Addition of green tea extract 2% is the best product, the value for color was 25%, aroma was 50%, 20% transparency, hardness 35%, and degree of foam was 70while the hardness was 2,90 N / cm2; degree of foam 48.95%; the water content of 35.35%; 29.78% the amount of fatty acids; unsaponified fraction was 12.87%; free fatty acids 0,23%; pH was  9.78; Insoluble parts in alcohol 2.08%; irritation value 0; antioxidant activity of 15.21% and a diameter anti-microbial of 42 mm. A transparent soap with the addition of green tea extract deserves to be developed.

  10. Tea and herbal infusions: Their antioxidant activity and phenolic profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tea and herbal infusions have been studied for their polyphenolic content, antioxidant activity and phenolic profile. The total phenolics recovered by ethyl acetate from the water extract, were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu procedure and ranged from 88.1 ± 0.42 (Greek mountain tea) to 1216 ± 32.0 mg (Chinese green tea) GAE (Gallic acid equivalents)/cup. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by two methods, DPPH and chemiluminescence assays, using Trolox and quercetin as standards. The EC50 of herbal extracts ranged from 0.151 ± 0.002 mg extract/mg DPPH (0.38 quercetin equivalents and 0.57 Trolox equivalents), for Chinese green tea, to 0.77 ± 0.012 mg extract/mg DPPH (0.08 quercetin equivalents and 0.13 Trolox equivalents), for Greek mountain tea. Chemiluminescence assay results showed that the IC50 ranged from 0.17 ± 3.4 x 103 lg extract/ml of the final solution in the measuring cell (1.89 quercetin and 5.89 Trolox equivalents) for Chinese green tea, to 1.10 ± 1.86 x 102 g extract/ml of the final solution in the measuring cell (0.29 quercetin and 0.90 Trolox equivalents) for Greek mountain tea. The phenolic profile in the herbal infusions was investigated by LC-DAD-MS in the positive electrospray ionization (ESI) mode. About 60 different flavo- noids, phenolic acids and their derivatives have been identified. (author)

  11. Effects of {gamma}-radiation on white tea volatiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fanaro, Gustavo B.; Silveira, Ana Paula M.; Nunes, Thaise C.F.; Costa, Helbert S.F.; Villavicencio, Anna L.C.H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: gbfanaro@ipen.br; Purgatto, Eduardo [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas. Dept. de Alimentos e Nutricao Experimental

    2009-07-01

    Tea is the second most widely consumed beverages in the world and is processed from two and a bud of Camellia sinensis (L.). Depending on the processing may give rise to four mainly teas (green, black, oolong and white tea). The white tea is the one that has recently awakened interest in scientific community due the fact that this tea has more antioxidant property and activity than green tea. A further industrialization and commercialization of these plants become a problem of public health. The presence of potentially toxigenic fungi can be found in these products, indicating a great potential for the presence of mycotoxins that can cause acute and chronic effects in different organs and systems of the human body. Ionizing radiation is one of the most effective means disinfecting dry food ingredients. This treatment can inhibit cellular life division, like microorganisms, promoting a molecular structural modification. The aim of this study was evaluate the effects of radiation on volatile formation in white tea. Samples were irradiated in room temperature at {sup 60}Co source Gammacell 220 (A.E.C. Ltda) at doses of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20-kGy. The volatiles organic compound was extracted by hydrodistillation and the extract was separated and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. The results show that the quantities of volatiles formations are directly proportional to the increase of radiation dose. About 37.86% of the compounds were stable at all radiation doses and 47.53% of new compounds were identified after irradiation. (author)

  12. Effects of γ-radiation on white tea volatiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tea is the second most widely consumed beverages in the world and is processed from two and a bud of Camellia sinensis (L.). Depending on the processing may give rise to four mainly teas (green, black, oolong and white tea). The white tea is the one that has recently awakened interest in scientific community due the fact that this tea has more antioxidant property and activity than green tea. A further industrialization and commercialization of these plants become a problem of public health. The presence of potentially toxigenic fungi can be found in these products, indicating a great potential for the presence of mycotoxins that can cause acute and chronic effects in different organs and systems of the human body. Ionizing radiation is one of the most effective means disinfecting dry food ingredients. This treatment can inhibit cellular life division, like microorganisms, promoting a molecular structural modification. The aim of this study was evaluate the effects of radiation on volatile formation in white tea. Samples were irradiated in room temperature at 60Co source Gammacell 220 (A.E.C. Ltda) at doses of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20-kGy. The volatiles organic compound was extracted by hydrodistillation and the extract was separated and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. The results show that the quantities of volatiles formations are directly proportional to the increase of radiation dose. About 37.86% of the compounds were stable at all radiation doses and 47.53% of new compounds were identified after irradiation. (author)

  13. Use of Stachys Species (Mountain Tea) as Herbal Tea and Food

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmet C Gören

    2013-01-01

    Stachys genus is one of the largest genera of the Labiatae (Lamiaceae) family and is widely distributed across Europe and East Asia, as well as in America. In this study the essential oil composition and consumption pattern of Stachys species as food are discussed. A survey of the literature found that the genus was consumed primarily as teas and that this was due to their essential oil and phenolics contents. Some species of the genus are also consumed in Europe and China as a carbohydrate s...

  14. Inverse association of tea and flavonoid intakes with incident myocardial infarction: the Rotterdam Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Geleijnse (Marianne); L.J. Launer (Lenore); D.A. van der Kuip (Deirdre); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); A. Hofman (Albert)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Dietary flavonoids may protect against cardiovascular disease, but evidence is still conflicting. Tea is the major source of flavonoids in Western populations. OBJECTIVE: The association of tea and flavonoid intake with incident myocardial infarction was exa

  15. Determination of catechins in matcha green tea by micellar electrokinetic chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, David J; Anderton, Christopher R

    2003-09-01

    Catechins in green tea are known to have many beneficial health properties. Recently, it has been suggested that matcha has greater potential health benefits than other green teas. Matcha is a special powdered green tea used in the Japanese tea ceremony. However, there has been no investigation to quantitate the catechin intake from matcha compared to common green teas. We have developed a rapid method of analysis of five catechins and caffeine in matcha using micellar electrokinetic chromatography. Results are presented for water and methanol extractions of matcha compared with water extraction of a popular green tea. Using a mg catechin/g of dry leaf comparison, results indicate that the concentration of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) available from drinking matcha is 137 times greater than the amount of EGCG available from China Green Tips green tea, and at least three times higher than the largest literature value for other green teas. PMID:14518774

  16. Safety and efficacy of herbal tea for patients with diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Syarihan Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: GC Tea has benefits in reducing risk of diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and obesity. GC Tea also has antioxidant properties that help reduce risk of cancer. Only mild adverse effects were reported when consuming these herbs in recommended dose.

  17. Major flavonoid constituents and short-term effects of Chun Mee tea in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunsheng Wang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Chun Mee tea is a kind of green tea produced in China mainly for export purposes. Foam quantity is usually used as an index for evaluating the quality of Chun Mee tea. In the current study, we compared the concentrations of total saponin and flavonoids between foamy and low-foam Chun Mee tea. Our research confirmed that the total saponin and O-glycosylated flavonoid concentrations were related to the foam quantity of Chun Mee teas. We also studied the short-term safety effects of extract supplementation with foamy and low-foam Chun Mee tea in rats by routine blood tests and analysis of liver and kidney function, and blood lipids. Our results showed that both types of tea extract supplementations did not cause any observable adverse effects or impair either liver or kidney function. Additionally, this study confirmed the beneficial effects of Chun Mee tea extract supplementation on the decrease of total plasma cholesterol.

  18. An essential role of endothelium-derived nitric oxide in vasorelaxations induced by black tea polyphenols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Yu

    2008-01-01

    Green tea has received much attention as protective agent against cardiovascular disease and cancer, the two primary targets of preventive medicine. Since our first demonstration in 1999 of the involvement of endothelium-derived nitric oxide in the acute vasodilator effect of green tea polyphenols, several new vascular protective effects of green tea catechins have been identified. Theaflavins are another class of polyphenol pigments found in black tea, however, little is known about their bioactivity in the vascular system. We have recently demonstrated that black tea and its theaflavins cause relaxations of rat aortas via endothelial nitric oxide-dependent mechanisms and the tea polyphenols are very effective in protecting endothelial function agonist oxidative stress. The present results support the vascular benefit of consumption of black tea, which is equal to that of drinking green tea in terms of their endothelial cell protection and antioxidant capacity.

  19. Preliminary Study on Relationship Between Soil Parent Materials and tea Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGXIAOJU; HUXUEFENG; 等

    1997-01-01

    Six tea plantations with different soil-forming parent naterials,the same tea variety and tea age and similar landforms and management were selected to conduct a systematic study on the realtionship between soil properties and tea quality.The results showed that the quality of tea grown on the soil derived from dolomites,Quaternary red clays,were inferior.Further study showed that sandy soils were beneficial to improving amino acid content of tea ,and clayey soils made it decrease;high content of bases might decrease the contents of tea polypenols,caffeine,water extracts,but promote the content of amino acds;available phosphorous was significantly positively correlated with water extracts ,but significantly negatively correlated with caffeine;slowly avaiable potassium was positively correlated with amino acid content .Soil parent materials should be regarded as an important factor in eveluating the adatability of tea to soils.

  20. Research progress on isolation and cloning of functional genes in tea plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Chunlei; CHEN Liang

    2007-01-01

    Tea,which has many sanitarian functions,is one of the most popular non-alcoholic soft and healthy beverages in the world.In many countries,as well as in China,tea (Camellia sinensis) is an important cash crop.It has great value as a source of secondary metabolic products.Molecular biology of tea plants has been one of the most active and kinetic research fields of tea science for the last decade.Isolation and cloning of important functional genes of tea plants have a critical significance on elucidating the molecular mechanism of high quality,yield and resistance,as well as genetic manipulating via biotechnological approaches for tea plants.In this paper,we introduced the research progress on the isolation and cloning of functional genes in tea plants.In addition,the brief prospect on the research of functional genes of tea plants in the near future is also given out.

  1. Determination of catechins in matcha green tea by micellar electrokinetic chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, David J; Anderton, Christopher R

    2003-09-01

    Catechins in green tea are known to have many beneficial health properties. Recently, it has been suggested that matcha has greater potential health benefits than other green teas. Matcha is a special powdered green tea used in the Japanese tea ceremony. However, there has been no investigation to quantitate the catechin intake from matcha compared to common green teas. We have developed a rapid method of analysis of five catechins and caffeine in matcha using micellar electrokinetic chromatography. Results are presented for water and methanol extractions of matcha compared with water extraction of a popular green tea. Using a mg catechin/g of dry leaf comparison, results indicate that the concentration of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) available from drinking matcha is 137 times greater than the amount of EGCG available from China Green Tips green tea, and at least three times higher than the largest literature value for other green teas.

  2. Anti-cancer properties of green Tea Probed viaquantum mechanics calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azin Chitsazan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available 10.13005/ojc/310147Tea, from the plant camellia sinensis, is consumed in different parts of the world as green, black or oolong tea. Among all of these, however, the most significant effects on human health have been observed with the consumption of green tea. Green tea contains polyphenols, which include flavanols, flavandiols, flavonoids, and phenolic acids. Most of the green tea polyphenols (GTPs are flavonols, commonly known as catechins. There are four kinds of catechins mainly find in green tea: epicatechin, epigallocatechin, epicatechin-3-gallate, and EGCG. Green tea catechins have demonstrated significant antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, thermogenic, probiotic, and antimicrobial properties in numerous human, animal, and in vitro studies. In the present study, four type catechins of green tea were studied. For each catechin ab initio method was employed for calculations and related parameters were computed.

  3. Generic Ising trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durhuus, Bergfinnur Jøgvan; Napolitano, George Maria

    2012-01-01

    The Ising model on a class of infinite random trees is defined as a thermodynamiclimit of finite systems. A detailed description of the corresponding distribution of infinite spin configurations is given. As an application, we study the magnetization properties of such systems and prove that they......The Ising model on a class of infinite random trees is defined as a thermodynamiclimit of finite systems. A detailed description of the corresponding distribution of infinite spin configurations is given. As an application, we study the magnetization properties of such systems and prove...... that they exhibit no spontaneous magnetization. Furthermore, the values of the Hausdorff and spectral dimensions of the underlying trees are calculated and found to be, respectively,¯dh =2 and¯ds = 4/3....

  4. Active flows on trees

    CERN Document Server

    Forrow, Aden; Dunkel, Jörn

    2016-01-01

    Coherent, large scale dynamics in many nonequilibrium physical, biological, or information transport networks are driven by small-scale local energy input. We introduce and explore a generic model for compressible active flows on tree networks. In contrast to thermally-driven systems, active friction selects discrete states with only a small number of oscillation modes activated at distinct fixed amplitudes. This state selection interacts with graph topology to produce different localized dynamical time scales in separate regions of large networks. Using perturbation theory, we systematically predict the stationary states of noisy networks and find good agreement with a Bayesian state estimation based on a hidden Markov model applied to simulated time series data on binary trees. While the number of stable states per tree scales exponentially with the number of edges, the mean number of activated modes in each state averages $\\sim 1/4$ the number of edges. More broadly, these results suggest that the macrosco...

  5. Agricultural knowledge and information system on tea farming in Vietnam : implications for strengthening the extension service

    OpenAIRE

    Kieu Thi Thu, Huong

    2014-01-01

    Tea plays an important role in improving income and generating employment in the northern uplands of Vietnam. However, the tea sector is reportedly performing below its potential: low yields and productivity, and low product quality. Among the major problems affecting tea production is the limited access of tea producers to information both in production and marketing; low level of connections between actors in agricultural extension, researchers and the farmers themselves. This research t...

  6. Extraction Kinetics of phytochemicals and antioxidant activity during black tea (Camellia sinensis L.) brewing

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando, Chamira Dilanka; Soysa, Preethi

    2015-01-01

    Background Tea is the most consumed beverage in the world which is second only to water. Tea contains a broad spectrum of active ingredients which are responsible for its health benefits. The composition of constituents extracted to the tea brew depends on the method of preparation for its consumption. The objective of this study was to investigate the extraction kinetics of phenolic compounds, gallic acid, caffeine and catechins and the variation of antioxidant activity with time after tea b...

  7. Factors Influencing Diversification and Intensification of Horticultural Production by Smallholder Tea Farmers in Gatanga District, Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Mwangi J. Kanyua; Gicuru K. Ithinji; Augustus S. Muluvi; Obedy E. Gido; Sibiko K. Waluse

    2013-01-01

    The contribution of traditional cash crops in the Kenyan economy is slowly being surpassed by horticulture saves for tea which continues to lead in terms of contribution to GDP and foreign exchange earnings. Smallholder tea farmers, who produce 62% of tea in Kenya, have however, also shown an increasing interest in production of horticultural crops for income and livelihoods. This shift is only possible if the tea income is insufficient to meet their needs or if there is a strong incentive to...

  8. TMDB: A literature-curated database for small molecular compounds found from tea

    OpenAIRE

    Yue, Yi; Chu, Gang-Xiu; Liu, Xue-Shi; Tang, Xing; Wang, Wei; Liu, Guang-Jin; Yang, Tao; Ling, Tie-Jun; Wang, Xiao-Gang; Zhang, Zheng-Zhu; Xia, Tao; Wan, Xiao-Chun; Bao, Guan-Hu

    2014-01-01

    Background Tea is one of the most consumed beverages worldwide. The healthy effects of tea are attributed to a wealthy of different chemical components from tea. Thousands of studies on the chemical constituents of tea had been reported. However, data from these individual reports have not been collected into a single database. The lack of a curated database of related information limits research in this field, and thus a cohesive database system should necessarily be constructed for data dep...

  9. Green Tea as an Agricultural Based Health Promoting Food: The Past Five to Ten Years

    OpenAIRE

    Qin-Yin Shi; Vicki Schlegel

    2012-01-01

    The consumption of tea originated in ancient China over 4000 years ago and is currently the second most popular beverage in the world after water. Tea is an aromatic beverage prepared by pouring hot water over cured leaves of the Camellia sinensis plant. The link between tea intake, most notably green tea, and health has resulted in intense research on the components responsible for preventing the onset of several chronic diseases, including atherosclerosis, cancer, obesity and diabetes. In p...

  10. Switching lanes: Exploring the strategic repositioning of the Kenyan tea industry.

    OpenAIRE

    Gatuguta, Susan Mwende

    2006-01-01

    Research into the performance of primary commodities has shown a number of factors present in the global arena act as impediments to market stability. The tea industry is no exception to the rule as the global tea industry is facing a number of challenges which threaten the livelihood of tea producers. Tea producers have primarily focused on traditional primary commodities but this is not sustainable in future due to accelerated global competition. This paper seeks to look at the challenges a...

  11. Effect of black tea on enteral feeding tolerance in ICU patients

    OpenAIRE

    Mojdeh, Soheila; Shahin, Samire; Khalili, Gholamreza

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tea consumption has been known mostly as a well-drink after water in the world. Tea drink can affect balance of fluids and renal function. In addition, it can cause loss of many viruses in the stomach and can increase or decrease gastrointestinal movements. This research was done to determine the effect of tea on increasing enteral feeding tolerance in ICU patients in Alzahra Hospital. METHODS: In this clinical trial study, 45 patients were enrolled in two groups, tea consumption ...

  12. A Possible Effect of Concentrated Oolong Tea Causing Transient Ischemic Attack-Like Symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Layher, John W.; Poling, Jon S.; Ishihara, Mayumi; Azadi, Parastoo; Alvarez-Manilla, Gerardo; Puett, David

    2013-01-01

    Aims Tea (green, oolong, and black) is the second most widely consumed beverage worldwide, second only to water. Aside from a few reported adverse effects, tea, particularly green tea, appears to be beneficial for human health. In the case described herein, a male experienced several transient ischemic attack-like symptoms immediately following the consumption of a cup of high quality oolong tea. A thorough medical evaluation uncovered no evidence of such an attack and leads to the suggestion...

  13. A Possible Effect of Concentrated Oolong Tea Causing Transient Ischemic Attack-Like Symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Layher Jr., John W.; Poling, Jon S.; Ishihara, Mayumi; Azadi, Parastoo; Alvarez-Manilla, Gerardo; Puett, David

    2013-01-01

    Aims: Tea (green, oolong, and black) is the second most widely consumed beverage worldwide, second only to water. Aside from a few reported adverse effects, tea, particularly green tea, appears to be beneficial for human health. In the case described herein, a male experienced several transient ischemic attack-like symptoms immediately following the consumption of a cup of high quality oolong tea. A thorough medical evaluation uncovered no evidence of such an attack and leads to the suggestio...

  14. Intake of green tea inhibited increase of salivary chromogranin A after mental task stress loads

    OpenAIRE

    Yoto, Ai; Murao, Sato; Nakamura, Yoriyuki; Yokogoshi, Hidehiko

    2014-01-01

    Background Green tea has become renowned for its health benefits. In this study, we investigated the anti-stress effect of two kinds of green tea against a mental stress task load. Methods Warm water, ordinary green tea (Sagara), and shaded white tea, which contains more amino acid components than Sagara, were used as test samples in a randomized cross-over design study. Eighteen students (nine male and nine female) participated in three experimental trials on different days at intervals of s...

  15. Determination of Ca, Mg, and Mn in Tea Samples with Microwave Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Akbıyık, Dilek; Özbek, Nil; Akman, Süleyman

    2014-01-01

    Tea is one of the oldest and the most common beverages and its elements are quite rich. Studies show that tea and infusion herbal tea samples may have lots of contamination. It is determined that these contaminations may result from the production phase, the soil it grows, fertilizeds used, and from gases emitted to the atmosphere [1]. Depending on the concentrations, these kinds of contaminations may affect human health.  In this study, more than 30 tea samples were solubilized with microwav...

  16. Effects of Honey Addition on Antioxidative Properties of Different Herbal Teas

    OpenAIRE

    Toydemir Gamze; Capanoglu Esra; Kamiloglu Senem; Firatligil-Durmus Ebru; Sunay Asli E.; Samanci Taylan; Boyacioglu Dilek

    2015-01-01

    Tea and herbal infusions are among the major contributors of phenolic compounds, specifically flavonoids, in our daily diet. Honey is another antioxidant-rich food that is widely used as a natural sweetener. In this work, the effects of honey addition on antioxidant properties of different herbal teas were investigated. For this purpose, 2 different types of honey (flower and pine honey) were added into 9 different herbal teas (melissa, green tea, rosehip, sage, echinacea, fennel, linden, dai...

  17. MORINGA TEA BLOCKS ACUTE LUNG INFLAMMATION INDUCED BY SWINE CONFINEMENT DUST THROUGH A MECHANISM INVOLVING TNF-α EXPRESSION, C-JUN N-TERMINAL KINASE ACTIVATION AND NEUTROPHIL REGULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykea Mcknight

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant based products represent a promising alternative to conventional treatments for inflammation. Moringa oleifera Lam is a tree rich in proteins, vitamins, minerals and a variety of phytochemcals with health benefits. Among the reported health benefits are antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether tea brewed from dried Moringa leaves would abrogate inflammation in a mouse model of acute lung inflammation induced by LPS or extracts prepared from dust collected from a swine confinement facility (DE. Mice were offered water or Moringa tea for seven days. Tea consumption was significantly greater than that of water consumption on days 1 and 6, but there were no significant differences in weight gain or food consumption. On day seven, mice from both groups were forced to inhale, via intranasal challenge, either Phosphate Buffered Saline (PBS, Lipopolysaccharide (LPS [10 µg mL-1] or DE [10%]. Compared to mice that drank water, mice that drank Moringa tea had significantly less protein (p<0.05 and cellular influx (p<0.0001 into the lung after inhalation of 10% DE. No difference in neutrophil migration into the lungs of water and M. tea groups after LPS or DE challenge was detected. But mice that drank tea had significantly (p<0.05 more neutrophils with apoptotic morphology after DE challenge. TNF-α expression 24 h after inhalation of 10% DE, was significantly higher (p<0.05 in lungs of M. tea mouse group as compared to water group. This increase in TNF-α was accompanied by higher levels of pro and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Finally, activation of c-Jun N-terminal Kinase (JNK in lungs of M. tea+DE group 24 h post inhalation was decreased. Taken together these results suggest that Moringa oleifera leaf tea exerts anti-inflammatory properties on acute lung inflammation induced by swine confinement dust through a mechanism involving neutrophil regulation and JNK

  18. The gene tree delusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Mark S; Gatesy, John

    2016-01-01

    Higher-level relationships among placental mammals are mostly resolved, but several polytomies remain contentious. Song et al. (2012) claimed to have resolved three of these using shortcut coalescence methods (MP-EST, STAR) and further concluded that these methods, which assume no within-locus recombination, are required to unravel deep-level phylogenetic problems that have stymied concatenation. Here, we reanalyze Song et al.'s (2012) data and leverage these re-analyses to explore key issues in systematics including the recombination ratchet, gene tree stoichiometry, the proportion of gene tree incongruence that results from deep coalescence versus other factors, and simulations that compare the performance of coalescence and concatenation methods in species tree estimation. Song et al. (2012) reported an average locus length of 3.1 kb for the 447 protein-coding genes in their phylogenomic dataset, but the true mean length of these loci (start codon to stop codon) is 139.6 kb. Empirical estimates of recombination breakpoints in primates, coupled with consideration of the recombination ratchet, suggest that individual coalescence genes (c-genes) approach ∼12 bp or less for Song et al.'s (2012) dataset, three to four orders of magnitude shorter than the c-genes reported by these authors. This result has general implications for the application of coalescence methods in species tree estimation. We contend that it is illogical to apply coalescence methods to complete protein-coding sequences. Such analyses amalgamate c-genes with different evolutionary histories (i.e., exons separated by >100,000 bp), distort true gene tree stoichiometry that is required for accurate species tree inference, and contradict the central rationale for applying coalescence methods to difficult phylogenetic problems. In addition, Song et al.'s (2012) dataset of 447 genes includes 21 loci with switched taxonomic names, eight duplicated loci, 26 loci with non-homologous sequences that are

  19. The gene tree delusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Mark S; Gatesy, John

    2016-01-01

    Higher-level relationships among placental mammals are mostly resolved, but several polytomies remain contentious. Song et al. (2012) claimed to have resolved three of these using shortcut coalescence methods (MP-EST, STAR) and further concluded that these methods, which assume no within-locus recombination, are required to unravel deep-level phylogenetic problems that have stymied concatenation. Here, we reanalyze Song et al.'s (2012) data and leverage these re-analyses to explore key issues in systematics including the recombination ratchet, gene tree stoichiometry, the proportion of gene tree incongruence that results from deep coalescence versus other factors, and simulations that compare the performance of coalescence and concatenation methods in species tree estimation. Song et al. (2012) reported an average locus length of 3.1 kb for the 447 protein-coding genes in their phylogenomic dataset, but the true mean length of these loci (start codon to stop codon) is 139.6 kb. Empirical estimates of recombination breakpoints in primates, coupled with consideration of the recombination ratchet, suggest that individual coalescence genes (c-genes) approach ∼12 bp or less for Song et al.'s (2012) dataset, three to four orders of magnitude shorter than the c-genes reported by these authors. This result has general implications for the application of coalescence methods in species tree estimation. We contend that it is illogical to apply coalescence methods to complete protein-coding sequences. Such analyses amalgamate c-genes with different evolutionary histories (i.e., exons separated by >100,000 bp), distort true gene tree stoichiometry that is required for accurate species tree inference, and contradict the central rationale for applying coalescence methods to difficult phylogenetic problems. In addition, Song et al.'s (2012) dataset of 447 genes includes 21 loci with switched taxonomic names, eight duplicated loci, 26 loci with non-homologous sequences that are

  20. Green Tea Antioxidative Potential in Irradiated Pregnant Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green tea (Gt) derived from the leaves of Camellia sinensis contains polyphenolic compounds, also known as epicatechins, which are antioxidants in nature. This study aims to evaluate the possible anti oxidative potential of 2 concentrations of green tea extract in pregnant rats exposed to fractionated 3 Gy gamma irradiation of 1Gy installments at the 7 th, 11 th and 15 th days of gestation. Total and absolute white blood cells count, red blood cells count, hematocrit value, hemoglobin content and blood indices as well as glutathione were significantly decreased by irradiation at the end of the gestation period. Lipid peroxidation, serum lipid profile (total lipids, triglycerides and cholesterol cone.) were elevated. Serum Na+ decreased and K+ ions elevated. Results revealed significant protection by both green tea cone, to counts of RBCs, WBCs, Hg, Ht, as well as lymphocytes and monocytes. Glutathione decreased with both green tea cone, and dropped further with both treatments. Lipid peroxidation and lipid profile were depressed. Moreover, Na+ and K+ levels were significantly ameliorated by both green tea cone., which suggests its applicability as an effective radioprotector. The steadily increasing use of nuclear and radiation technology extended to different fields, which has been paralleled by increasing potential risk for radiation exposure (Kajioka et al, 2000). The low-level radioactivity by environmental, medical and occupational settings has been found to cause several kinds of health damage including premature births, congenital defects, infant mortality, mental retardation, heart ailments, allergies/asthma, cancer, genetic damage and chronic fatigue syndrome (Sternglass, 1986)

  1. Perceived Quality and Attitude Toward Tea & Coffee by Consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islam Md. Monirul

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to determine the consumers’ perception and attitude towardTea and Coffee. Total 100 South Korean consumers participated as respondents in this study.Fishbien’s Multi-attribute attitude model and t-test were used to measure hypothesis and compareattitude toward Tea and Coffee. Findings indicate that consumer attitudes toward Coffee and Teadiffered significantly among consumers in Korea. Consumers had an overall more positiveattitude towards Coffee compared with Tea with regards to availability, different flavor, andenvironment of shop attributes. In contrast, mean value and t-value indicate that there were nosignificant differences in aspects of freshness, habitual facts, and status, but correlation valueindicate that there were some differences with regards to freshness and status. Findings of thisstudy are only related to the consumers from South Korea, study period was September 2010 toJanuary 2012, and maybe it is not generalized to other nationalities or countries. The researchhints that the Tea Company should give attention to its marketing strategy on enhancing theattributes of “different flavor”, “availability” and "good environment of shop". This study fills a gapin the literature on coffee and tea in business research.

  2. Green tea catechins: defensive role in cardiovascular disorders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pooja Bhardwaj; Deepa Khanna

    2013-01-01

    Green tea,Camellia sinensis (Theaeeae),a major source of flavonoids such as catechins,has recently shown multiple cardiovascular health benefits through various experimental and clinical studies.These studies suggest that green tea catechins prevent the incidence of detrimental cardiovascular events,and also lower the cardiovascular mortality rate.Catechins present in green tea have the ability to prevent atherosclerosis,hypertension,endothelial dysfunction,ischemic heart diseases,cardiomyopathy,cardiac hypertrophy and congestive heart failure by decreasing oxidative stress,preventing inflammatory events,reducing platelet aggregation and halting the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells.Catechins afford an anti-oxidant effect by inducing anti-oxidant enzymes,inhibiting pro-oxidant enzymes and scavenging free radicals.Catechins present anti-inflammatory activity through the inhibition of transcriptional factor NF-κB-mediated production of cytokines and adhesion molecules.Green tea catechins interfere with vascular growth factors and thus inhibit vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation,and also inhibit thrombogenesis by suppressing platelet adhesion.Additionally,catechins could protect vascular endothelial cells and enhance vascular integrity and regulate blood pressure.In this review various experimental and clinical studies suggesting the role of green tea catechins against the markers of cardiovascular disorders and the underlying mechanisms for these actions are discussed.

  3. Microbiological Quality of Various Medicinal Herbal Teas and Coffee Substitutes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.H. Tournas

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Various herbal teas including German chamomile, Chrysanthemum Vascuflow herb tea, hop, jasmine and orange flowers, sweet marjoram, spearmint and thyme leaves, and papaya-mint tea as well as coffee substitutes (Bambu instant Swiss, Teeccino chocolate-mint, and Teeccino Mediterranean Espresso were analyzed for fungal contamination and the presence of aerobic mesophilic bacteria (APC. The results of this investigation showed that fungal counts reached levels as high as 5.8 × 105 colony forming units (cfu per gram. German chamomile harbored the highest fungal contamination. The most common fungi found in herbal teas were Aspergillus niger, Penicillium spp., Eurotium rubrum, E. chevalieri, A. flavus, Fusarium spp., Alternaria alternata, and yeasts. Among the coffee substitutes, only the chocolate-mint coffee was contaminated with low numbers (<1.0 × 103 cfu g−1 of E. rubrum, Ulocladium spp. and Phoma spp., and with yeasts (<100–6.8 × 103 cfu g−1. Aerobic mesophilic bacteria were recovered from 100% of the herbal tea, chocolate-mint and Mediterranean Espresso, and from 50% of the Bambu instant Swiss coffee samples. The highest APC counts of 1.2 × 107 cfu g−1 were observed in spearmint leaves.

  4. Green tea time绿茶时间

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    伊丽莎白·雅顿公司新开发出一款香水,名为Green Tea Summer(绿茶夏天)。该香水的头香来自橘子柠檬和香柠檬的香味与黑醋粟混合,继而由绿茶外包覆樱草属植物,水百合和野玫瑰以及西番莲和水柠檬混合的味道形成了新款香水的核心香气,香水的基础香型则由纯麝香、白琥珀和水晶苔藓的气味混合而成。新款香水的包装采用一种绿色的玻璃瓶,瓶身带有明亮的绿叶装饰,瓶盖带有西瓜的粉色.整个香水的设计均反映出夏季柔嫩的特点。

  5. Influence of fungal fermentation on the development of volatile compounds in the Puer tea manufacturing process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, X.; Yan, M.; Yang Zhu, Yang

    2005-01-01

    Puer tea is a unique Chinese fermented tea with natural flora manufactured in Yunnan Province of China. Very complex changes take place to form special quality and flavor characteristics in Puer tea due to the coordination of microbial metabolic action and natural oxidation. This paper investigates

  6. Productivity and nitrogen use of tea plantations in relation to age and genotype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamau, D.M.; Spiertz, J.H.J.; Oenema, O.; Owuor, P.O.

    2008-01-01

    Lack of science-based knowledge on responses of tea bushes to nitrogen (N) in ageing tea plantations hampers the development of ecologically sound and economically profitable N-management strategies. It is hypothesized that ageing of tea plantations lowers productivity and weakens the yield response

  7. Prevalence of Brick Tea-Type Fluorosis in the Tibet Autonomous Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zhipeng; Gao, Yanhui; Wang, Wei; Gong, Hongqiang; Guo, Min; Zhao, Shengcheng; Liu, Xuehui; Yu, Bing; Sun, Dianjun

    2016-01-01

    Background The prevalence of brick tea-type fluorosis is high in Tibet because of the habit of drinking brick tea in this region. Brick tea-type fluorosis has become an urgent public health problem in China. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted to investigate prevalence of brick tea-type fluorosis in all districts of Tibet using a stratified cluster sampling method. Dental fluorosis in children aged 8–12 years and clinical skeletal fluorosis in adults were diagnosed according to the national criteria. A total of 423 children and 1320 adults participated in the study. Samples of drinking water, brick tea, brick tea infusion (or buttered tea), and urine were collected and measured for fluoride concentrations by the fluoride ion selective electrode method. Results The fluoride level in all but one of the brick tea samples was above the national standard. The average daily fluoride intake from drinking brick tea in all seven districts in Tibet was much higher than the national standard. The prevalence of dental fluorosis was 33.57%, and the prevalence of clinical skeletal fluorosis was 46.06%. The average daily fluoride intake from drinking brick tea (r = 0.292, P fluorosis. Herdsmen had the highest fluoride exposure and the most severe skeletal fluorosis. Conclusions Brick tea-type fluorosis in Tibet is more serious than in other parts of China. The altitude and occupational factors are important risk factors for brick tea-type fluorosis. PMID:26499132

  8. Integrated Emergy and Economic Evaluation of Tea Production Chains in Anxi, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emergy and economic methods were used to evaluate and compare tea production systems in Anxi, China. Tea production was classified into three phases, i.e., the nursery, the plantation and tea processing, and each phase was evaluated. The results showed that the nursery subsystems...

  9. Addition of milk does not affect the absorption of flavonols from tea in man

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollman, P.C.H.; Hof, van het K.H.; Tijburg, L.B.M.; Katan, M.B.

    2001-01-01

    Tea is a major source of flavonols, a subclass of antioxidant flavonoids present in plant foods which potentially are beneficial to human health. Milk added to tea, a frequent habit in the United Kingdom, could inhibit absorption of tea flavonoids, because proteins can bind flavonoids effectively. E

  10. Comparison of the mineral composition of leaves and infusions of traditional and herbal teas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac T. Rampedi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Most research on teas has focused on organic composition and less attention has been given to the mineral composition. The aim of this study was to examine and compare the mineral compositions (Na, Mg, K, Ca, P, S, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu and Al of eight commonly consumed teas. The teas included three traditional black or green teas (from Africa, China and Sri Lanka and five herbal teas – two from South America (maté and coca and three from South Africa (rooibos, honeybush and Athrixia phylicoides. Analyses were conducted on five samples of dry tea leaves of each of the teas and their infusions (steeping time: 6 min using identical techniques in inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES. It was found that each tea has a unique mineral profile. Dry tea leaves and their respective infusions also exhibited different mineral profiles. The tea infusions that contained relatively higher concentrations of beneficial minerals were maté, coca and Athrixia. High levels of aluminium were found in the traditional black and green teas whilst rooibos was high in sodium. Although teas are not rich sources of nutrients, the consumption of maté could contribute significantly to dietary manganese requirements.

  11. Analysis on Climate Adaptability of White Tea Planting in Liyang%溧阳白茶种植的气候适应性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜润; 钱半吨; 狄百花; 王富强

    2013-01-01

    利用常州溧阳市多年气候资料,通过与白茶原产地的气候条件对比,分析了白茶在当地种植的适应性.结果表明,溧阳地区光温水条件符合白茶的生长要求,为白茶种植适宜区.在白茶的关键生长期春季,当地气候能满足白茶对温度变化的敏感要求并保证白化期的完成,由于气候变暖大背景,当地白茶萌动期考虑在3月下旬之前并有提早趋势;当地春季降水略欠缺,需要注意水分变化并及时人工补充喷灌.茶园的科学管理需要考虑南北山系的不同气候特点,通过合理密植创造适宜茶树生长的小气候条件,重点防范春季茶树出芽后出现的霜冻和暴雨灾害,重视肥培管理和病虫害防治,根据天气变化合理安排采摘.%With years of climate data of Liyang,Changzhou,white tea planting adaptive in the local was analyzed by contrasting to the climatic conditions in white tea origin.The results showed that the light,temperature and moisture conditions in Liyang areas met the growth requirements of white tea so that Liyang was white tea planting suitable areas.In the critical growing season-spring,local climate met sensitive requirements of white tea to temperature changes to ensure the completion of the whitened period.Due to the background of climate warming,local white tea germination period was considered before the end of March and had early trends.Local spring precipitation slightly lacked so that there need to pay attention to moisture changes and increase artificial irrigation in time.The scientific management of tea plantations needs to consider climatic differences in north and south mountain ranges,to create micro-climatic conditions suitable for tea growing through rational close planting,to focus on prevention of frost and storm disasters when tea tree sprouted in spring,to place emphasis on fertilizer management and pest control,and to make reasonable arrangements for tea picking according to the

  12. Tree-string duality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the termination of perturbative QCD tree evolution, colourless clusters are formed. Similarly, after the first generation cuts in the (classical) Artru-Mennessier string model, disconnected lengths of string result. The mass spectra of clusters and first generation strings are similar, and the similarity extends to the rapidity distributions as a function of mass. (author)

  13. Christmas Tree Category Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, James S.; Turmel, Jon P.

    This manual provides information needed to meet the standards for pesticide applicator certification. Pests and diseases of christmas tree plantations are identified and discussed. Section one deals with weeds and woody plants and the application, formulation and effects of herbicides in controlling them. Section two discusses specific diseases…

  14. A Universal Phylogenetic Tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offner, Susan

    2001-01-01

    Presents a universal phylogenetic tree suitable for use in high school and college-level biology classrooms. Illustrates the antiquity of life and that all life is related, even if it dates back 3.5 billion years. Reflects important evolutionary relationships and provides an exciting way to learn about the history of life. (SAH)

  15. The Sacred Tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lethbridge Univ. (Alberta).

    Designed as a text for high school students and adults, this illustrated book presents ethical concepts and teachings of Native societies throughout North America concerning the nature and possibilities of human existence. The final component of a course in self-discovery and development, the book begins with the legend of the "Sacred Tree"…

  16. Multiscale singularity trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Somchaipeng, Kerawit; Sporring, Jon; Johansen, Peter;

    2007-01-01

    We propose MultiScale Singularity Trees (MSSTs) as a structure to represent images, and we propose an algorithm for image comparison based on comparing MSSTs. The algorithm is tested on 3 public image databases and compared to 2 state-of-theart methods. We conclude that the computational complexi...

  17. Behavioral responses for evaluating the attractiveness of specific tea shoot volatiles to the tea green leafhopper,Empoaca vitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dan Mu; Lin Cui; Jian Ge; Meng-Xin Wang; Li-Fang Liu; Xiao-Ping Yu; Qing-He Zhanga; Bao-Yu Han

    2012-01-01

    The tea green leafhopper,Empoasca vitis G(o)the,is one of the most serious insect pests of tea plantations in mainland China.Over the past decades,this pest has been controlled mainly by spraying pesticides.Insecticide applications not only have become less effective in controlling damage,but even more seriously,have caused high levels of toxic residues in teas,which ultimately threatens human health.Therefore,we should seek a safer biological control approach.In the present study,key components of tea shoot volatiles were identified and behaviorally tested as potential leathopper attractants.The following 13 volatile compounds were identified from aeration samples of tea shoots using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS):(E)-2-hexenal,(Z)-3-hexen-1-ol,(Z)-3-hexenyl acetate,2-ethyl-1-hexanol,(E)-ocimene,linalool,nonanol,(Z)-butanoic acid,3-hexenyl ester,decanal,tetradecane,β-caryophyllene,geraniol and hexadecane.In Y-tube olfactometer tests,the following individual compounds were identified:(E)-2-hexenal,(E)-ocimene,(Z)-3-hexenyl acetate and linalool,as well as two synthetic mixtures (called blend 1 and blend 2) elicited significant taxis,with blend 2 being the most attractive.Blend 1 included linalool,(Z)-3-hexen-l-ol and (E)-2-hexenal at a 1:1:1 ratio,whereas blend 2 was a mixture of eight compounds at the same loading ratio:(E)-2-hexenal,(Z)-3-hexen-1-ol,(Z)-3-hexenyl acetate,2-penten-1-ol,(E)-2-pentenal,pentanol,hexanol and l-penten-3-ol.In tea fields,the bud-green sticky board traps baited with blend 2,(E)-2-hexenal or hexane captured adults and nymphs of the leafhoppers,with blend 2 being the most attractive,followed by (E)-2-hexenal and hexane.Placing sticky traps baited with blend 2 or (E)-2-hexenal in the tea fields significantly reduced leafhopper populations.Our results indicate that the bud-green sticky traps baited with tea shoot volatiles can provide a new tool for monitoring and managing the tea leafhopper.

  18. Distribution of Aluminum and Fluoride in Tea Plant and Soil of Tea Garden in Central and Southwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The distribution of Al and F contents and the relationship between Al and F in tea plants and soils of 12 tea gardens in Central and Southwest China were investigated from October 31 to November 14, 2006. The results show that there were differences in pH, CEC, the contents of organic matter (OM), Al and F in the different soils of the tea gardens. The Al content ranged from 1196 to 7976mg/kg for old leaf, 370 to 2681mg/kg for young leaf and 285 to 525mg/kg for stem, whereas the content of F ranged from 221 to 1504mg/kg for old leaf, 49 to 602mg/kg for young leaf and 13.5 to 77.5mg/kg for stem. The concentrations of labile Al varied obviously in the different soils, but the distribution law of labile Al content for the same garden was Alexchangeable≈AlFe-Mn oxide>Alorganic>Alwater-soluble. The contents of different labile F fractions varied slightly in the different soils and the different soil layers, though the exchangeable F content was lowest among the labile F in the soils. The concentrations of Al and F in tea plants increased with increasing amount of water-soluble Al or F, especially the amount of water-soluble fractions in the soil layer of 0-20cm.The correlation between Al content and F content in the tea leaf was more significant than that in the tea stem. Furthermore, the correlation between Al content and F content in whole tea plant was strongly significant (r=0.8763,p<0.01, n=36). There were evident tendency that Al concentration increased with the increase of F concentration in different soil layers. The correlation of water-soluble Al with water-soluble F in all soils was also strongly significant (r=0.7029, p<0.01, n=34). The results may provide a proof that Al and F are jointly taken up by tea plants to some extent in natural tea gardens.

  19. A Suffix Tree Or Not a Suffix Tree?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starikovskaya, Tatiana; Vildhøj, Hjalte Wedel

    2015-01-01

    , in particular we do not require that S ends with a unique symbol. This corresponds to considering the more general definition of implicit or extended suffix trees. Such general suffix trees have many applications and are for example needed to allow efficient updates when suffix trees are built online. We prove...

  20. Separation of Caffeine and Tea Poly-phenols from Instant (Soluble Tea Waste Liquor by Macro-porous Resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueling Gao

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Instant tea is presently manufactured by spraying and freeze drying the concentrated brew of processed tea leaves and dust. The purpose of this study was to develop a technique using macro-porous resins for separating Caffeine (Caf and Tea Poly-phenols (TP from the waste liquor generated by manufacturing instant tea. Optimum adsorption conditions were obtained using an initial concentration of Caf solution of 80 mg/L and a flow rate of 1.5 mL/min at 60°C; The optimal desorption conditions were determined using a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min, 80% aqueous ethanol of, eluent volume of 4 times of Bed Volume (BV. After column separation, the purity of Caf was enhanced from 6 to 23%, TP from 38 to 61% and with the final yield of 16.9% following the separation by D101 resin. This study demonstrated macro-porous resin can effectively separated Caf and TP from instant tea waste liquor.