WorldWideScience

Sample records for alternifolia tea tree

  1. In vitro activity of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil against dermatophytes and other filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, K A; Carson, C F; Riley, T V

    2002-08-01

    The in vitro activity of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil against dermatophytes (n = 106) and filamentous fungi (n = 78) was determined. Tea tree oil MICs for all fungi ranged from 0.004% to 0.25% and minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFCs) ranged from tea tree oil of germinated and non-germinated Aspergillus niger conidia showed germinated conidia to be more susceptible than non-germinated conidia. These data demonstrate that tea tree oil has both inhibitory and fungicidal activity.

  2. Activity of tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) essential oil against L3 larvae of Anisakis simplex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Rincón, Carlota; Langa, Elisa; Murillo, Paula; Valero, Marta Sofía; Berzosa, César; López, Víctor

    2014-01-01

    Nematicidal activity of Melaleuca alternifolia essential oil, commonly known as tea tree oil (TTO), was assayed in vitro against L3 larvae of Anisakis simplex. The results showed a mortality of 100% for concentrations between 7 and 10 μL/mL after 48 h of incubation, obtaining an LD50 value of 4.53 μL/mL after 24 hours and 4.27 μL/mL after 48 hours. Concentration-dependent inhibition of acetylcholinesterase was observed for tea tree essential oil showing inhibition values of 100% at 100 μL/mL. This fact suggests that TTO may act as an AChE inhibitor. Terpinen-4-ol was discarded as main larvicide compound as it did not show larvicidal or anticholinesterase activity. The data obtained suggest that the essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia may have a great therapeutic potential for the treatment of human anisakiasis.

  3. The effect of tea tree oil (Melaleuca alternifolia) on wound healing using a dressing model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Karen B; Cordell, Barbara

    2013-12-01

    Numerous studies have shown the promising antibacterial effects of Melaleuca alternifolia, or tea tree essential oil. The study detailed here replicates in humans a 2004 in vitro study that used a dressing model over Petri dishes to determine the antimicrobial effects of the fumes of tea tree essential oil. The current study used the same dressing model with patients who had wounds infected with Staphylococcus aureus. Ten participants volunteered for the quasi-experimental study, and four of the 10 were used as matched participants to compare wound healing times between conventional treatment alone and conventional treatment plus fumes of tea tree essential oil. The results demonstrated decreased healing time in all but one of the participants treated with tea tree oil. The differences between the matched participants were striking. The results of this small investigational study indicate that additional study is warranted.

  4. Activity of Tea Tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) Essential Oil against L3 Larvae of Anisakis simplex

    OpenAIRE

    Carlota Gómez-Rincón; Elisa Langa; Paula Murillo; Marta Sofía Valero; César Berzosa; Víctor López

    2014-01-01

    Nematicidal activity of Melaleuca alternifolia essential oil, commonly known as tea tree oil (TTO), was assayed in vitro against L3 larvae of Anisakis simplex. The results showed a mortality of 100% for concentrations between 7 and 10  μ L/mL after 48 h of incubation, obtaining an LD50 value of 4.53  μ L/mL after 24 hours and 4.27  μ L/mL after 48 hours. Concentration-dependent inhibition of acetylcholinesterase was observed for tea tree essential oil showing inhibition values of 100% at 100 ...

  5. [Antimicrobial effects of tea tree oil (Melaleuca alternifolia) on oral microorganisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulik, E; Lenkeit, K; Meyer, J

    2000-01-01

    The essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree oil) exhibits antimicrobial activity against a wide range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, yeasts and fungi. In this study the bacteriostatic and bacteriocidal/fungicidal activity of a tea tree oil solution, of a new tea tree oil (Tebodont) and the respective placebo-gel, of a chlorhexidindigluconate-solution and of PlakOut was tested in vitro against ten different oral microorganisms. Minimum inhibitory concentrations were in the range from 0.0293% to 1.25% for the tea tree oil solution and from 0.0082% to 1.25% for the tea tree oil gel. The values for minimum bacteriocidal/fungicidal concentrations were in the range from 0.0521% to 2.5% for the tea tree oil solution and from tea tree oil gel. The most susceptible microorganisms were Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Fusobacterium nucleatum, and Porphyromonas gingivalis, whereas Streptococcus mutans and Prevotella intermedia were the least susceptible ones. Both for the chlorhexidindigluconate solution and for PlakOut the values for the minimal inhibitory concentration and for the minimal cidal concentration were between <0.0002% and 0.0125%.

  6. Successful topical treatment of hand warts in a paediatric patient with tea tree oil (Melaleuca alternifolia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, B Cherie; Moore, John E

    2008-11-01

    Tea tree oil (TTO) (Melaleuca alternifolia) has been used recently as an effective topical application for the treatment of skin infections due to a variety of aetiological microbial agents, including mainly bacterial infections. We detail the first report in the peer-reviewed literature of the successful treatment with TTO of a paediatric patient with warts on her right middle finger. TTO was applied topically once daily to the lesions for 12 days, with a successful outcome, including complete re-epithelization of the infected areas. The case highlights the potential use of TTO in the treatment of common warts due to human papilloma virus.

  7. The mode of antimicrobial action of the essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree oil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, S D; Mann, C M; Markham, J L; Bell, H C; Gustafson, J E; Warmington, J R; Wyllie, S G

    2000-01-01

    The essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) exhibits broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. Its mode of action against the Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli AG100, the Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus NCTC 8325, and the yeast Candida albicans has been investigated using a range of methods. We report that exposing these organisms to minimum inhibitory and minimum bactericidal/fungicidal concentrations of tea tree oil inhibited respiration and increased the permeability of bacterial cytoplasmic and yeast plasma membranes as indicated by uptake of propidium iodide. In the case of E. coli and Staph. aureus, tea tree oil also caused potassium ion leakage. Differences in the susceptibility of the test organisms to tea tree oil were also observed and these are interpreted in terms of variations in the rate of monoterpene penetration through cell wall and cell membrane structures. The ability of tea tree oil to disrupt the permeability barrier of cell membrane structures and the accompanying loss of chemiosmotic control is the most likely source of its lethal action at minimum inhibitory levels.

  8. Effect of habituation to tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) oil on the subsequent susceptibility of Staphylococcus spp. to antimicrobials, triclosan, tea tree oil, terpinen-4-ol and carvacrol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomsen, Natalie A.; Hammer, Katherine A.; Riley, Thomas V.; Van Belkum, Alex; Carson, Christine F.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to seek additional data on the antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus spp. after habituation to low levels of the topical antimicrobial agent tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) oil. Meticillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), meticillin-resistant S. aureus (

  9. Activity of Tea Tree (Melaleuca alternifolia Essential Oil against L3 Larvae of Anisakis simplex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlota Gómez-Rincón

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nematicidal activity of Melaleuca alternifolia essential oil, commonly known as tea tree oil (TTO, was assayed in vitro against L3 larvae of Anisakis simplex. The results showed a mortality of 100% for concentrations between 7 and 10 μL/mL after 48 h of incubation, obtaining an LD50 value of 4.53 μL/mL after 24 hours and 4.27 μL/mL after 48 hours. Concentration-dependent inhibition of acetylcholinesterase was observed for tea tree essential oil showing inhibition values of 100% at 100 μL/mL. This fact suggests that TTO may act as an AChE inhibitor. Terpinen-4-ol was discarded as main larvicide compound as it did not show larvicidal or anticholinesterase activity. The data obtained suggest that the essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia may have a great therapeutic potential for the treatment of human anisakiasis.

  10. 1998 William J. Stickel Bronze Award. Antifungal activity of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea-tree) oil against various pathogenic organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concha, J M; Moore, L S; Holloway, W J

    1998-10-01

    Tea-tree oil (oil of Melaleuca alternifolia) has recently received much attention as a natural remedy for bacterial and fungal infections of the skin and mucosa. As with most naturally occurring agents, claims of effectiveness have been only anecdotal; however, several published studies have recently demonstrated tea-tree oil's antibacterial activity. This study was conducted to determine the activity of tea-tree oil against 58 clinical isolates: Candida albicans (n = 10), Trichophyton rubrum (n = 8), Trichophyton mentagrophytes (n = 9), Trichophyton tonsurans (n = 10), Aspergillus niger (n = 9), Penicillium species (n = 9), Epidermophyton floccosum (n = 2), and Microsporum gypsum (n = 1). Tea-tree oil showed inhibitory activity against all isolates tested except one strain of E floccosum. These in vitro results suggest that tea-tree oil may be useful in the treatment of yeast and fungal mucosal and skin infections.

  11. Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE of Monoterpenes from the Leaves of Melaleuca alternifolia (Tea Tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deidre Tronson

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The technique of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE was applied to various sample matrices under a range of supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2 densities and chamber temperatures. The purpose was to develop an effective extraction condition for the removal of eight target monoterpenes from Australian tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia Cheel leaves. The optimum conditions for extraction were found to be 0.25 g/mL scCO2 density at a chamber temperature of 110oC. These condition were most effective when applied to whole fresh and rehydrated whole dried leaves, where it yielded maximum recovery of target analytes with minimum change in oil composition for the extractor system employed. This study demonstrates the importance of the type of sample matrix used in SFE work, and that a different extraction protocol would need to be developed for each matrix.

  12. Influence of tea tree oil (Melaleuca alternifolia) on the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazinato, Rafael; Klauck, Vanderlei; Volpato, Andreia; Tonin, Alexandre A; Santos, Roberto C; de Souza, Márcia E; Vaucher, Rodrigo A; Raffin, Renata; Gomes, Patrícia; Felippi, Candice C; Stefani, Lenita M; Da Silva, Aleksandro S

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the influence of tea tree oil (TTO) (Melaleuca alternifolia) tested in its pure and nanostructured (TTO nanoparticles) forms on the reproduction of female Rhipicephalus microplus. For our purpose, female ticks were collected from naturally infected animals and treated in vitro with TTO (1, 5, and 10 %) and TTO nanoparticles (0.075, 0.375, and 0.75 %). In order to validate the tests, they were performed in triplicate using positive (amitraz) and negative (untreated) controls. It was possible to observe that pure TTO (5 and 10 %) and TTO nanoparticles (0.375 and 0.75 %) showed 100 % reproductive inhibition on female ticks. Additionally, pure TTO (1 %) also showed an acaricide effect (70 %), similarly to the positive control (78.3 %). This is the first study demonstrating the activity of pure TTO and TTO nanoparticles on female ticks. Therefore, based on these results, we were able to show that both forms and all concentrations of M. alternifolia affected tick reproduction by inhibiting egg laying and hatching. We were also able to show that TTO nanoparticles potentiated the inhibitor effect of pure TTO on the reproduction of R. microplus.

  13. Dipping and jetting with tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) oil formulations control lice (Bovicola ovis) on sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, P J; Callander, J T

    2012-10-26

    The in vivo pediculicidal effectiveness of 1% and 2% formulations of tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) oil (TTO) against sheep chewing lice (Bovicola ovis) was tested in two pen studies. Immersion dipping of sheep shorn two weeks before treatment in both 1% and 2% formulations reduced lice to non detectable levels. No lice were found on any of the treated sheep despite careful inspection of at least 40 fleece partings per animal at 2, 6, 12 and 20 weeks after treatment. In the untreated sheep louse numbers increased from a mean (± SE) of 2.4 (± 0.7) per 10 cm fleece part at 2 weeks to 12.3 (± 4.2) per part at 20 weeks. Treatment of sheep with 6 months wool by jetting (high pressure spraying into the fleece) reduced louse numbers by 94% in comparison to controls at two weeks after treatment with both 1% and 2% TTO formulations. At 6 and 12 weeks after treatment reductions were 94% and 91% respectively with the 1% formulation and 78% and 84% respectively with the 2% formulation. TTO treatment also appeared to reduce wool damage in infested sheep. Laboratory studies indicated that tea tree oil 'stripped' from solution with a progressive reduction in concentration as well as volume as more wool was dipped, indicating that reinforcement of active ingredient would be required to maintain effectiveness when large numbers of sheep are treated. The results of these studies suggest significant potential for the development of ovine lousicides incorporating TTO.

  14. Influence of organic matter, cations and surfactants on the antimicrobial activity of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, K A; Carson, C F; Riley, T V

    1999-03-01

    The effect of some potentially interfering substances and conditions on the antimicrobial activity of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil was investigated. Agar and broth dilution methods were used to determine minimum inhibitory and cidal concentrations of tea tree oil in the presence and absence of each potentially interfering substance. Activity was determined against Gram-positive and -negative bacteria, and Candida albicans. Minimum inhibitory or cidal concentrations differed from controls by two or more dilutions, for one or more organisms, where Tween-20, Tween-80, skim-milk powder and bovine serum albumin were assessed. These differences were not seen when assays were performed in anaerobic conditions, or in the presence of calcium and magnesium ions. The effect of organic matter on the antimicrobial activity of tea tree oil was also investigated by an organic soil neutralization test. Organisms were exposed to lethal concentrations of tea tree oil ranging from 1-10% (v/v), in the presence of 1-30% (w/v) dry bakers' yeast. After 10 min contact time, viability was determined. At > or = 1%, organic matter compromised the activity of each concentration of tea tree oil against Staphylococcus aureus and C. albicans. At 10% or more, organic matter compromised the activity of each tea tree oil concentration against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Organic matter affected 1 and 2% tea tree oil, but not 4 and 8%, against Escherichia coli. In conclusion, organic matter and surfactants compromise the antimicrobial activity of tea tree oil, although these effects vary between organisms.

  15. Effects of Melaleuca alternifolia (Tea Tree) Essential Oil and the Major Monoterpene Component Terpinen-4-ol on the Development of Single- and Multistep Antibiotic Resistance and Antimicrobial Susceptibility

    OpenAIRE

    Hammer, Katherine A.; Carson, Christine F.; Riley, Thomas V

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effect of subinhibitory Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) essential oil on the development of antibiotic resistance in Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Frequencies of single-step antibiotic-resistant mutants were determined by inoculating bacteria cultured with or without subinhibitory tea tree oil onto agar containing 2 to 8 times the MIC of each antibiotic and with or without tea tree oil. Whereas most differences in resistance frequencies were relatively ...

  16. In-vitro activity of essential oils, in particular Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil and tea tree oil products, against Candida spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, K A; Carson, C F; Riley, T V

    1998-11-01

    The in-vitro activity of a range of essential oils, including tea tree oil, against the yeast candida was examined. Of the 24 essential oils tested by the agar dilution method against Candida albicans ATCC 10231, three did not inhibit C. albicans at the highest concentration tested, which was 2.0% (v/v) oil. Sandalwood oil had the lowest MIC, inhibiting C. albicans at 0.06%. Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil was investigated for activity against 81 C. albicans isolates and 33 non-albicans Candida isolates. By the broth microdilution method, the minimum concentration of oil inhibiting 90% of isolates for both C. albicans and non-albicans Candida species was 0.25% (v/v). The minimum concentration of oil killing 90% of isolates was 0.25% for C. albicans and 0.5% for non-albicans Candida species. Fifty-seven Candida isolates were tested for sensitivity to tea tree oil by the agar dilution method; the minimum concentration of oil inhibiting 90% of isolates was 0.5%. Tests on three intra-vaginal tea tree oil products showed these products to have MICs and minimum fungicidal concentrations comparable to those of non-formulated tea tree oil, indicating that the tea tree oil contained in these products has retained its anticandidal activity. These data indicate that some essential oils are active against Candida spp., suggesting that they may be useful in the topical treatment of superficial candida infections.

  17. A review of the toxicity of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, K A; Carson, C F; Riley, T V; Nielsen, J B

    2006-05-01

    The essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia, also known as tea tree or melaleuca oil, is widely available and has been investigated as an alternative antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer agent. While these properties are increasingly well characterised, relatively limited data are available on the safety and toxicity of the oil. Anecdotal evidence from almost 80 years of use suggests that the topical use of the oil is relatively safe, and that adverse events are minor, self-limiting and occasional. Published data indicate that TTO is toxic if ingested in higher doses and can also cause skin irritation at higher concentrations. Allergic reactions to TTO occur in predisposed individuals and may be due to the various oxidation products that are formed by exposure of the oil to light and/or air. Adverse reactions may be minimised by avoiding ingestion, applying only diluted oil topically and using oil that has been stored correctly. Data from individual components suggest that TTO has the potential to be developmentally toxic if ingested at higher doses, however, TTO and its components are not genotoxic. The limited ecotoxicity data available indicate that TTO is toxic to some insect species but more studies are required.

  18. Bioactivity of tea tree oil from Melaleuca alternifolia against sheep lice (Bovicola ovis Schrank) in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, P J; Callander, J T

    2012-07-06

    Tea tree oil (TTO) from the Australian native plant Melaleuca alternifolia has wide ranging bio-active properties, including insecticidal and repellent activity against arthropods. Furthermore, composition of commercially available Australian TTO is specified under an International Organization for Standardization standard (ISO 4730), reducing the potential for variable effects often noted with botanical pesticides. The effect of TTO, meeting the ISO standard for terpinen-4-ol chemotype, was tested against sheep lice (Bovicola ovis Schrank) in a series of laboratory studies. Immersion of wool for 60s in formulations containing concentrations of 1% TTO and above caused 100% mortality of adult lice and eggs. Exposure to vapours from TTO, delivered as droplets in fumigation chambers and when applied to wool also caused high mortality in both lice and eggs. The main active component of TTO in the fumigant tests was terpinen-4-ol. Treated surface assays and tests with wool where the formulation was allowed to dry before exposure of lice indicated low persistence. These studies demonstrate that TTO is highly toxic to sheep lice and active at concentrations that suggest potential for the development of TTO-based ovine lousicides.

  19. Insecticidal and repellent effects of tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) oil against Lucilia cuprina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callander, J T; James, P J

    2012-03-23

    Laboratory studies were conducted to assess the effect of tea tree oil (TTO) from Melaleuca alternifolia (terpinen-4-ol chemotype) against different stages of the Australian sheep blowfly Lucilia cuprina. When applied to wool, 3% TTO formulation repelled gravid female L. cuprina and prevented oviposition for six weeks. Formulations containing 1% TTO caused 100% mortality of L. cuprina eggs and 1st instar larvae and 2.5% TTO caused mortality of most second and third instar larvae in agar feeding assays. In experiments where third instar larvae were dipped in TTO formulations for 60s, concentrations of up to 50% TTO gave less than 50% kill. TTO at concentrations of 0.5%, 2% and 5% was strongly repellent to third instar larvae and caused them to evacuate treated areas. Inclusion of TTO in formulations with diazinon, ivermectin and boric acid reduced mortality in comparison with the larvicides used alone, at least partially because of avoidance behaviour stimulated by the TTO. Addition of TTO to wound treatments may aid in wound protection and myiasis resolution by preventing oviposition by L. cuprina adults, insecticidal action against L. cuprina eggs and larvae, stimulating larvae to leave the wound and through antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties that aid in wound healing.

  20. Antifungal activity of the essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree oil) against pathogenic fungi in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nenoff, P; Haustein, U F; Brandt, W

    1996-01-01

    The in vitro antifungal activity of tea oil, the essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia, has been evaluated against 26 strains of various dermatophyte species, 54 yeasts, among them 32 strains of Candida albicans and other Candida sp. as well as 22 different Malassezia furfur strains. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of tea tree oil were measured by agar dilution technique. Tea tree oil was found to be able to inhibit growth of all clinical fungal isolates. For the investigated dermatophytes MIC values from 1,112.5 to 4,450.0 micrograms/ml with a geometric mean of 1,431.5 micrograms/ml were demonstrated. Both C. albicans strains and the other strains belonging to the genus Candida and Trichosporon appeared to be slightly less susceptible to tea tree oil in vitro. However, their MIC values, which varied from 2,225.0 to 4,450.0 micrograms/ml (geometric mean 4,080 micrograms/ml), indicated moderate susceptibility to the essential oil of M. alternifolia. The lipophilic yeast M. furfur seemed to be most susceptible to tea tree oil. MIC values between 556.2 and 4,450.0 micrograms/ml (geometric mean 1,261.5 micrograms/ml) were found against the tested M. furfur strains. However, when calculated as percentage tea tree oil of the agar, the above-mentioned concentrations correspond to 0.5-0.44% tea tree oil content. These values are far below the usual relatively high therapeutic concentrations of the agent; approximately 5-10% solution or even the concentrated essential oil are used for external treatment. In comparison with tea tree oil, in vitro susceptibility against miconazole, an established topical antifungal, was tested. As expected, very low MIC values for miconazole were found for dermatophytes (geometric mean 0.2 microgram/ml), yeasts (geometric mean 1.0 microgram/ml), and M. furfur (geometric mean 2.34 micrograms/ml). It is suggested that the in vivo effect of tea tree oil ointment in the therapy of fungal infections of the skin and mucous membranes as

  1. Effect of habituation to tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) oil on the subsequent susceptibility of Staphylococcus spp. to antimicrobials, triclosan, tea tree oil, terpinen-4-ol and carvacrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Natalie A; Hammer, Katherine A; Riley, Thomas V; Van Belkum, Alex; Carson, Christine F

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to seek additional data on the antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus spp. after habituation to low levels of the topical antimicrobial agent tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) oil. Meticillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), meticillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) were habituated to 0.075% tea tree oil for 3 days. Subsequently, the susceptibility of five isolates each of MSSA, MRSA and CoNS to fusidic acid, mupirocin, chloramphenicol, linezolid and vancomycin was determined by Etest, and susceptibility to tea tree oil, terpinen-4-ol, carvacrol and triclosan was determined by agar dilution. Following habituation to 0.075% tea tree oil, antimicrobial MICs differed between control and habituated isolates on 33 occasions (out of a possible 150), with MICs being higher in habituated isolates on 22 occasions. Using clinical breakpoint criteria, one MSSA isolate changed susceptibility category from vancomycin-susceptible (MIC=2 μg/mL) to intermediate susceptibility (MIC=3 μg/mL) after habituation in one of two replicates. For the non-antibiotic antimicrobial agents, MICs of habituated and control isolates differed on 12 occasions (out of a possible 120); 10 occasions in MRSA and 2 occasions in MSSA. MICs were higher for habituated isolates on five occasions. However, all the differences were one serial dilution only and were not regarded as significant. Habituation to sublethal concentrations of tea tree oil led to minor changes in MICs of antimicrobial agents, only one of which may have been clinically relevant. There is no evidence to suggest that tea tree oil induces resistance to antimicrobial agents.

  2. Mechanism of Action of Melaleuca alternifolia (Tea Tree) Oil on Staphylococcus aureus Determined by Time-Kill, Lysis, Leakage, and Salt Tolerance Assays and Electron Microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Carson, Christine F.; Mee, Brian J.; Riley, Thomas V

    2002-01-01

    The essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) has broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. The mechanisms of action of tea tree oil and three of its components, 1,8-cineole, terpinen-4-ol, and α-terpineol, against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 9144 were investigated. Treatment with these agents at their MICs and two times their MICs, particularly treatment with terpinen-4-ol and α-terpineol, reduced the viability of S. aureus. None of the agents caused lysis, as determined by measurement ...

  3. Melaleuca alternifolia (Tea Tree) Oil: a Review of Antimicrobial and Other Medicinal Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Carson, C. F.; Hammer, K. A.; Riley, T V

    2006-01-01

    Complementary and alternative medicines such as tea tree (melaleuca) oil have become increasingly popular in recent decades. This essential oil has been used for almost 100 years in Australia but is now available worldwide both as neat oil and as an active component in an array of products. The primary uses of tea tree oil have historically capitalized on the antiseptic and anti-inflammatory actions of the oil. This review summarizes recent developments in our understanding of the antimicrobi...

  4. GC-MS method validation and levels of methyl eugenol in a diverse range of tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Carolyn A; Davies, Noel W; Larkman, Tony

    2017-03-01

    Tea tree oil distilled from Melaleuca alternifolia has widespread use in the cosmetic industry as an antimicrobial as well as for other functions in topical products. Concerns were first raised by the European Commission's Scientific Committee on Consumer Products in 2004 about the level of the potentially carcinogenic phenylpropanoid compound methyl eugenol in tea tree oil. Limits on oil content in different types of cosmetic products were set based on a reported upper level of 0.9% methyl eugenol in the oil. A previous publication indicated that these levels were based on oil from a Melaleuca species not used in the commercial production of oil. Even the highest recorded levels in Melaleuca alternifolia, the overwhelmingly most common species used, were ∼15 times less than this, meaning that more oil could be safely used in the products. The current study, including details on methodology and reproducibility, extends that work across a suite of 57 plantation-sourced oils from a range of geographical locations and production years, as well as many Australian and international commercial oils. Lower levels of methyl eugenol in oils of known provenance were confirmed, with a recorded range of 160-552 ppm and a mean of 337 ppm. Analysis of variance showed methyl eugenol levels in Australian plantation oils to be correlated to the geographical region but not to the year of production. Average methyl eugenol levels in commercial oils were significantly lower, and these samples were divided into an authentic group and a group that were suspected of being adulterated based on an independent test. Authentic commercial oils had similar levels of methyl eugenol to Australian provenance material, whilst the oils classed as suspect had significantly lower levels.

  5. Effect of tea tree oil (Melaleuca alternifolia) on the longevity and immune response of rats infected by Trypanosoma evansi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldissera, Matheus D; Da Silva, Aleksandro S; Oliveira, Camila B; Vaucher, Rodrigo A; Santos, Roberto C V; Duarte, Thiago; Duarte, Marta M M F; França, Raqueli T; Lopes, Sonia T A; Raffin, Renata P; Boligon, Aline A; Athayde, Margareth L; Stefani, Lenita M; Monteiro, Silvia G

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of tea tree oil (TTO - Melaleuca alternifolia) on hepatic and renal functions, and the immune response of rats infected by Trypanosoma evansi. A pilot study has shown that rats treated with TTO orally (1 ml kg(-1)) had increased survival rate without curative effect. In order to verify if increased longevity was related to a better immune response against T. evansi when using tea tree oil, a second experiment was conducted. Thus, twenty-four rats were divided into four groups. The groups A and B were composed of uninfected animals, and the groups C and D had rats experimentally infected by T. evansi. Animals from the groups B and D were treated orally with TTO (1 ml kg(-1)) for three days. Blood samples were collected to verify humoral response analysis for immunoglobulins (IgA, IgM, IgE, and IgG) and cytokines (TNF-α, INF-γ, IL-1, IL-6, IL-4, and IL-10) at days 0, 3, 5 and 15 post-infection (PI). TTO treatment caused changes in the immunoglobulins and cytokines profile, as well as the course of T. evansi infection in rats. It was found that the TTO was not toxic, i.e., hepatic and renal functions were not affected. Therefore, it is possible to conclude that TTO influences the levels of inflammatory mediators and has trypanocidal effect, increasing life expectancy of rats infected by T. evansi.

  6. Comparison of microdilution and disc diffusion methods in assessing the in vitro activity of fluconazole and Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil against vaginal Candida isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergin, A; Arikan, S

    2002-10-01

    The in vitro activity of fluconazole and Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil was evaluated against 99 vaginal Candida strains by the broth microdilution and disc diffusion methods. The microdilution method was performed in accordance with NCCLS-M27A guidelines. An investigational method was used for the disc diffusion test. Fluconazole and tea tree oil minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) obtained at 48 h tended to increase 1- to 2-fold or remain the same compared to 24 h readings for most of the isolates tested. C. krusei and C. norvegensis had significantly higher MICs and smaller inhibition zones for fluconazole compared to other species. Tea tree oil MICs were found to be similar, in general, for all Candida spp. tested. The geometric mean MIC of tea tree oil for all isolates was 2.2% (range, 0.25-4%) at 24 h and 3.0% (range, 1-8%) at 48 h. Tea tree oil mean inhibition zone diameter was 24 mm (range, 14-42 mm) at 24 h and 15.8 mm (range, 10-35 mm) at 48 h. In vitro activity of tea tree oil against fluconazole-resistant Candida strains was of particular interest. The isolates had similar tea tree oil MICs and inhibition zone diameters regardless of their fluconazole susceptibility profile. Tea tree oil MIC ranges (inhibition zone diameter ranges) were 2-4% (12-21 mm) and 2% (35 mm) at 48 h for C. krusei and C. norvegensis, respectively. These results suggest that tea tree oil MICs of the fluconazole-resistant isolates are comparable to those of fluconazole-susceptible isolates. This in vitro finding is promising for potential use of topical tea tree oil formulations in the treatment of candidiasis due to fluconazole-resistant strains.

  7. In vitro repellent effect of tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) and andiroba (Carapa guianensis) oils on Haemotobia irritans and Chrysomya megacephala flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klauck, V; Pazinato, R; Radavelli, W M; Volpato, A; Stefani, L M; Santos, R C V; Vaucher, R A; Boligon, A A; Athayde, M L; Da Silva, A S

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the repellent effect of tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) and andiroba (Carapa guianensis) essential oils on two species of flies (Haemotobia irritans and Chrysomya megacephala). For the in vitro studies, free-living adult flies were captured and reared in the laboratory. To verify the repellency effect, an apparatus was constructed where H. irritans and C. megacephala were exposed to andiroba and tea tree oils (5.0%), as well as to a known repellent (citronella, 5.0%) to validate the test. The study demonstrated that all three oils used showed in vitro repellent effect against both species of flies. It is possible to conclude that the essential oils (tea tree and andiroba) have repellent effect on these species of flies used in this study.

  8. Antibacterial efficacy of Melaleuca alternifolia (Tea tree oil, Curcuma longa (Turmeric, 2% chlorhexidine, and 5% sodium hypochlorite against Enterococcus faecalis: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dakshita Joy Sinha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate and compare the antibacterial efficacy of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree oil, Curcumalonga (turmeric, 2% chlorhexidine (CHX, and 5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl against Enterococcus faecalis. Materials and Methods: Agar plates were prepared using tryptone soya agar. Cultures of E. faecalis were grown in tryptone soya broth. Agar well diffusion method was performed and the plates were incubated at 37΀C for 24 h. The zones of inhibition were recorded. The readings were subjected to statistical analysis using analysis of variance (ANOVA and Tukey′s post hoc test. P-value was considered significant at P < 0.05. Results: Maximum antibacterial efficacy was exhibited by 2% CHX, followed by 5% NaOCl and C. longa with no statistically significant difference between them. It was followed by M. alternifolia (Tea tree oil. Ethanol and saline showed the least antibacterial action. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, C. longa and M. alternifolia can be used as an alternative root canal irrigant, although long-term in vivo studies are warranted.

  9. Evaluation of in vitro leishmanicidal activity of tea tree oil (Melaleuca alternifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moradali Fouladvand

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Leishmania is a trypanosomatid protozoan which is transmitted by the female Phlebotomus sand fly. Leishmaniasis is prevalent in four continents and is considered to be endemic in 88 countries, 72 of which are developing countries. It is estimated that it’s global prevalence and incidence is 12 millions and 500 thousands respectively. The recommended drugs used for the treatment of this disease are mainly ineffective, toxic and exhibit many side effects. Based on some studies,tea tree oil that is a yellow color liquid with spicy odor exhibit antibacterial and antifungal activity, so, we evaluated it’s anti-leishmanial effect. Materials and Methods: Tea tree oil was purchased from Dr Jahangiri pharmaceutical company and it’s various concentrations (mg/ml800, mg/ml400, mg/ml200, mg/ml100 were prepared in 1ml volume of TSB solvent in 15ml test tubes, then 9 ml of RPMI-1640 medium and 1×106 promastigotes was added to each tube, as a final volume of 10 ml. These tubes were incubated at 23o c for 72 hours and number of parasites in the first 6 hours once every hour and after that every 24 hours were counted by hemocytometer. Results: Lethal dose of tea tree oil for 50% of promastigotes ( IC50 is 337 mg/ml, while the 800 mg/ml of this extract can killed 95% of the parasites after 24 hours of incubation, and it’s lower concentrations of this extract showed dose-dependent leishmanicidal activity. Glucantime as positive control drug at concentration of 300 mg/ml killed all the promastigotes, while the number of promastigotes in negative control tubes was increase during the incubation period. Conclusion: Anti-Leishmanial activity of tea tree oil with IC50 of 337 mg/ml and 95% lethality of 800 mg/ml is promising and further study for analyse the active ingredients of this oil and evaluation of it’s anti-leishmanial effect, particularly in laboratory animal is recommended.

  10. Effects of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) essential oil and the major monoterpene component terpinen-4-ol on the development of single- and multistep antibiotic resistance and antimicrobial susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Katherine A; Carson, Christine F; Riley, Thomas V

    2012-02-01

    This study examined the effect of subinhibitory Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) essential oil on the development of antibiotic resistance in Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Frequencies of single-step antibiotic-resistant mutants were determined by inoculating bacteria cultured with or without subinhibitory tea tree oil onto agar containing 2 to 8 times the MIC of each antibiotic and with or without tea tree oil. Whereas most differences in resistance frequencies were relatively minor, the combination of kanamycin and tea tree oil yielded approximately 10-fold fewer resistant E. coli mutants than kanamycin alone. The development of multistep antibiotic resistance in the presence of tea tree oil or terpinen-4-ol was examined by culturing S. aureus and E. coli isolates daily with antibiotic alone, antibiotic with tea tree oil, and antibiotic with terpinen-4-ol for 6 days. Median MICs for each antibiotic alone increased 4- to 16-fold by day 6. Subinhibitory tea tree oil or terpinen-4-ol did not greatly alter results, with day 6 median MICs being either the same as or one concentration different from those for antibiotic alone. For tea tree oil and terpinen-4-ol alone, day 6 median MICs had increased 4-fold for S. aureus (n = 18) and 2-fold for E. coli (n = 18) from baseline values. Lastly, few significant changes in antimicrobial susceptibility were seen for S. aureus and S. epidermidis isolates that had been serially subcultured 14 to 22 times with subinhibitory terpinen-4-ol. Overall, these data indicate that tea tree oil and terpinen-4-ol have little impact on the development of antimicrobial resistance and susceptibility.

  11. Activity of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil on Influenza virus A/PR/8: study on the mechanism of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garozzo, A; Timpanaro, R; Stivala, A; Bisignano, G; Castro, A

    2011-01-01

    Our previous study demonstrated that Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil (TTO) had an interesting antiviral activity against Influenza A in MDCK cells. In fact, when we tested TTO and some of its components, we found that TTO had an inhibitory effect on influenza virus replication at doses below the cytotoxic dose; terpinen-4-ol, terpinolene, and alfa-terpineol were the main active components. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism of action of TTO and its active components against Influenza A/PR/8 virus subtype H1N1 in MDCK cells. None of the test compounds showed virucidal activity nor any protective action for the MDCK cells. Thus, the effect of TTO and its active components on different steps of the replicative cycle of influenza virus was studied by adding the test compounds at various times after infection. These experiments revealed that viral replication was significantly inhibited if TTO was added within 2h of infection, indicating an interference with an early step of the viral replicative cycle of influenza virus. The influence of the compound on the virus adsorption step, studied by the infective center assay, indicated that TTO did not interfere with cellular attachment of the virus. TTO did not inhibit influenza virus neuraminidase activity, as shown by the experiment measuring the amount of 4-methylumbelliferone, cleaved by the influenza virus neuraminidase from the fluorogenic substrate 2'-O-(4-methylumbelliferyl)-N-acetylneuraminic acid. The effect of TTO on acidification of cellular lysosomes was studied by vital staining with acridine orange using bafilomycin A1 as positive control. The treatment of cells with 0.01% (v/v) of TTO at 37°C for 4h before staining inhibited the acridine orange accumulation in acid cytoplasmic vesicles, indicating that TTO could inhibit viral uncoating by an interference with acidification of intralysosomal compartment.

  12. Effect of tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) oil as a natural antimicrobial agent in lipophilic formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantil, Elisabeth; Daly, Grace; Avis, Tyler J

    2015-01-01

    There has been increased interest surrounding the use of tea tree oil (TTO) as a natural antimicrobial. In this study, the antimicrobial activity of TTO and its components were investigated in vitro and in a predominantly lipid-based personal care formulation. In vitro, TTO showed minimal inhibitory concentrations of 0.2% (for Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pythium sulcatum), 0.4% (for Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, and Rhizopus stolonifer), and 0.8% (for Botrytis cinerea). TTO at 0.08%-0.8% was often as efficient as parabens. Comparison of the antimicrobial activities of TTO components showed that terpinen-4-ol and γ-terpinene were generally most effective in inhibiting microbial growth. TTO activity in a personal care product was evaluated through air and water exposure, artificial inoculation, and shelf life studies. While TTO did not increase shelf life of unopened products, it decreased microbial load in products exposed to water and air. Results from this study support that antimicrobial activity of TTO can be attributed to varying levels of its components and that low levels of TTO were effective in reducing microbial growth during the use of the product. This study showed that TTO can act as a suitable preservative system within an oil-based formulation.

  13. Effects of tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) oil on Staphylococcus aureus in biofilms and stationary growth phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwieciński, Jakub; Eick, Sigrun; Wójcik, Kinga

    2009-04-01

    Tea tree oil (TTO) is known for its antimicrobial activity. In this study, we determined whether TTO is effective against Staphylococcus aureus in biofilms and how TTO activity is affected by the S. aureus growth phase. All clinical strains tested were killed by TTO both as planktonic cells and as biofilms. The minimum biofilm eradication concentration was usually two times higher than the minimum bactericidal concentration, yet it was never higher than 1% v/v. The fastest killing of biofilm occurred during the first 15min of contact with TTO and was not influenced by increasing TTO concentration above 1% v/v. Planktonic stationary phase cells exhibited decreased susceptibility to TTO compared with exponential phase cells. The killing rate for stationary phase cells was also less affected by increasing TTO concentration than that for exponential phase cells. These data show that TTO efficiently kills S. aureus in the stationary growth phase and within biofilms and is therefore a promising tool for S. aureus eradication.

  14. Antifungal activity of tea tree oil from Melaleuca alternifolia against Trichophyton equinum: an in vivo assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisseri, F; Bertoli, A; Nardoni, S; Pinto, L; Pistelli, L; Guidi, G; Mancianti, F

    2009-11-01

    Dermatophytes are a group of keratinophilic and keratinolytic molds, some of which are responsible for ringworm. Among them Trichophyton equinum, which mostly infects equids, can cause extensive outbreaks in stud farms. The conventional treatment of equine trichophytosis is topic, based upon medicated shampoos to reduce the spread of infection among the animals. Nevertheless the popularity of phytotherapy is at an all-time peak, and the interest for natural alternatives or complements to conventional drug therapy is challenging both in human and veterinary field. Among herbal remedia Tea Tree Oil (TTO) shows a wide range of antimicrobial activities. A randomized open clinical trial was carried out on 60 thoroughbred breeding horses affected by equine ringworm. The animals were randomly divided into 2 groups of 30 subjects. Diagnostic criteria were the presence of clinical signs and positive T. equinum culture. Specificity control using TTO mixture in 5 not dermatophyte affected animals was achieved also. The antimycotic activity against T. equinum of a mixture containing 25% TTO in sweet almond oil, was evaluated in vivo treating 30 subjects, the others were administered enilconazole 2% solution. The animals of both groups were topically treated twice a day for 15 days with a 25% mixture of TTO diluted in sweet almond oil and every 3 days, four times with enilconazole rinses, respectively. The clinical and mycological outcome were evaluated at day 30 from the start of the treatments. Data analysis was performed by chi square test. All the treated animals showed complete clinical and aetiological healing. Part of control subjects also, showed an improvement and none of them exacerbate the lesions. This therapeutic protocol appears to be effective and versatile, being applicable immediately after physical examination, prior to have the laboratory response. It could be an alternative for practitioners interested in herbal medicines, contributing to fulfill the gap

  15. Trypanocidal action of tea tree oil (Melaleuca alternifolia) against Trypanosoma evansi in vitro and in vivo used mice as experimental model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldissera, Matheus D; Da Silva, Aleksandro S; Oliveira, Camila B; Santos, Roberto C V; Vaucher, Rodrigo A; Raffin, Renata P; Gomes, Patrícia; Dambros, Maria G C; Miletti, Luiz C; Boligon, Aline A; Athayde, Margareth L; Monteiro, Silvia G

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the Trypanosoma evansi susceptibility to tea tree oil (TTO - Melaleuca alternifolia) and tea tree oil nanocapsules (TTO nanocapsules) in vitro and in vivo tests. In vitro, we observed a mortality curve of trypomastigotes proportional to dose, i.e., the TTO and TTO nanocapsules have trypanocidal effect. Treatment with TTO in vivo was assessed in experiments (I and II). For Experiment I, T. evansi infected mice were treated with TTO and/or combinations of essential oil with chemotherapy (diminazene aceturate - D.A.). Treatment with TTO at a dose of 1mLkg(-1) was able to extend animal longevity, but had no curative efficacy. However, when TTO was combined with D.A. a disease curative efficacy of 100% for disease was observed, a much better result than the D.A. treatment (33.3%). In Experiment II, T. evansi infected mice were treated with TTO nanocapsules with doses of 0.3, 0.6 and 0.9mLkg(-1). Animals treated with 0.9mLkg(-1) showed higher longevity however without curative effect. Active compounds present in natural products, such as M. alternifolia, may potentiate the treatment of trypanosomosis when associated with other trypanocidal drugs.

  16. Mechanism of action of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil on Staphylococcus aureus determined by time-kill, lysis, leakage, and salt tolerance assays and electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Christine F; Mee, Brian J; Riley, Thomas V

    2002-06-01

    The essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) has broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. The mechanisms of action of tea tree oil and three of its components, 1,8-cineole, terpinen-4-ol, and alpha-terpineol, against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 9144 were investigated. Treatment with these agents at their MICs and two times their MICs, particularly treatment with terpinen-4-ol and alpha-terpineol, reduced the viability of S. aureus. None of the agents caused lysis, as determined by measurement of the optical density at 620 nm, although cells became disproportionately sensitive to subsequent autolysis. Loss of 260-nm-absorbing material occurred after treatment with concentrations equivalent to the MIC, particularly after treatment with 1,8-cineole and alpha-terpineol. S. aureus organisms treated with tea tree oil or its components at the MIC or two times the MIC showed a significant loss of tolerance to NaCl. When the agents were tested at one-half the MIC, only 1,8-cineole significantly reduced the tolerance of S. aureus to NaCl. Electron microscopy of terpinen-4-ol-treated cells showed the formation of mesosomes and the loss of cytoplasmic contents. The predisposition to lysis, the loss of 260-nm-absorbing material, the loss of tolerance to NaCl, and the altered morphology seen by electron microscopy all suggest that tea tree oil and its components compromise the cytoplasmic membrane.

  17. Susceptibility to Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil of yeasts isolated from the mouths of patients with advanced cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagg, Jeremy; Jackson, Margaret S; Petrina Sweeney, M; Ramage, Gordon; Davies, Andrew N

    2006-05-01

    Yeasts that are resistant to azole antifungal drugs are increasingly isolated from the mouths of cancer patients suffering from oral fungal infections. Tea tree oil is an agent possessing antimicrobial properties that may prove useful in the prevention and management of infections caused by these organisms. In this study, 301 yeasts isolated from the mouths of 199 patients suffering from advanced cancer were examined by an in vitro agar dilution assay for susceptibility to tea tree oil. All of the isolates tested were susceptible, including 41 that were known to be resistant to both fluconazole and itraconazole. Clinical studies of tea tree oil as an agent for the prevention and treatment of oral fungal infections in immunocompromised patients merit consideration.

  18. The Insecticidal Activity of Tea Tree Oil (Melaleuca Alternifolia Against the Common Pest in Mummies (Dermestes Maculatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomaa ABDEL-MAKSOUD

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Egyptian mummies show different signs of deterioration caused by insects, such as missing parts, gaps and accumulated dust. Dermestes maculatus is one of the serious pests that cause damage to Egyptian mummies. To assess the insecticidal activity of tea tree oil against the larvae of the museum insect pest Dermestes maculatus (isolated from Egyptian mummies we tested it under different concentration and treatment times by the bioassay methods. Our results showed that tea tree oil diluted in ethanol was highly toxic to Dermestes maculatus larvae. Insecticidal activity depended on both concentration and exposure time. By increasing the concentration level and the exposure time we obtained a higher mortality rate.

  19. Pharmacological and antimicrobial studies on different tea-tree oils (Melaleuca alternifolia, Leptospermum scoparium or Manuka and Kunzea ericoides or Kanuka), originating in Australia and New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lis-Balchin, M; Hart, S L; Deans, S G

    2000-12-01

    Three different species of Myrtaceae growing in Australia and New Zealand are known as 'Tea-tree': the Australian Tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia), the New Zealand Manuka (Leptospermum scoparium) and Kanuka (Kunzea ericoides). All three essential oils are used by aromatherapists, although only Melaleuca has been tested for toxicity, and its antimicrobial effects studied. The pharmacology and antimicrobial activity of the three 'tea-tree' oils was determined using guinea-pig ileum, skeletal muscle (chick biventer muscle and the rat phrenic nerve diaphragm) and also rat uterus in vitro. Differences were shown between the three essential oils in their action on smooth muscle: Manuka had a spasmolytic action, while Kanuka and Melaleuca had an initial spasmogenic action. Using the diaphragm, Manuka and Melaleuca decreased the tension and caused a delayed contracture; Kanuka had no activity at the same concentration. The action on chick biventer muscle was, however, similar for all three oils, as was the action on the uterus, where they caused a decrease in the force of the spontaneous contractions. The latter action suggests caution in the use of these essential oils during childbirth, as cessation of contractions could put the baby, and mother, at risk. The comparative antimicrobial activity showed greater differences between different samples of Manuka and Kanuka than Melaleuca samples. The antifungal activity of Kanuka was inversely proportional to its strong antibacterial activity, whilst Manuka displayed a stronger antifungal effect, though not as potent as Melaleuca. The antioxidant activity of Manuka samples was more consistent than that of Kanuka, while Melaleuca showed no activity. The variability in the Manuka and Kanuka essential oils suggests caution in their usage, as does the fact that the oils have not been tested for toxicity.

  20. Frequencies of resistance to Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil and rifampicin in Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Enterococcus faecalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Katherine A; Carson, Christine F; Riley, Thomas V

    2008-08-01

    This study was conducted to determine the frequencies at which single-step mutants resistant to tea tree oil and rifampicin occurred amongst the Gram-positive organisms Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Enterococcus faecalis. For tea tree oil, resistance frequencies were very low at tea tree oil were undetectable at two times the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for S. aureus RN4220 and derivative mutator strains or at 3 x MIC for the remaining S. aureus strains, including a clinical meticillin-resistant S. aureus isolate. Similarly, no mutants were recovered at 2x MIC for S. epidermidis or at 1x MIC for E. faecalis. Resistance frequencies determined in vitro for rifampicin (8 x MIC) ranged from 10(-7) to 10(-8) for all isolates, with the exception of the S. aureus mutator strains, which had slightly higher frequencies. These data suggest that Gram-positive organisms such as Staphylococcus and Enterococcus spp. have very low frequencies of resistance to tea tree oil.

  1. In Vitro Activity of Melaleuca alternifolia (Tea Tree) in Its Free Oil and Nanoemulsion Formulations Against Pythium insidiosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Silveira Valente, Júlia; de Oliveira da Silva Fonseca, Anelise; Brasil, Carolina Litchina; Sagave, Lauren; Flores, Fernanda Cramer; de Bona da Silva, Cristiane; Sangioni, Luís Antônio; Pötter, Luciana; Santurio, Janio Morais; de Avila Botton, Sônia; Pereira, Daniela Isabel Brayer

    2016-12-01

    Pythium insidiosum is an important aquatic oomycete which can cause pythiosis in both animals and humans. This microorganism shows low susceptibility to antifungal drugs available. This study analyzed the in vitro antimicrobial activity of Melaleuca alternifolia in its free oil (FO) and nanoemulsion (NE) formulations against Brazilian P. insidiosum isolates. The antimicrobial activity evaluation was performed by the broth microdilution method according to CSLI M38-A2 document adapted to phytopharmaceuticals. Twenty-six P. insidiosum isolates were evaluated, and the minimum inhibitory concentration was determined at 100 % growth inhibition. Melaleuca alternifolia essential oil or FO was obtained commercially. The NE containing 1 % M. alternifolia essential oil was prepared by the spontaneous emulsification method. All P. insidiosum isolates evaluated showed minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) ranging from 531.5 to 2125 μg/mL for the FO formulation; MIC50 and MIC90 showed values between 1062.5 and 2125 μg/mL, respectively. When the NE formulation was evaluated, MIC values ranged from 132.7 to 2125 μg/mL and both MIC50 and MIC90 corresponded to 1062.5 μg/mL. FO and NE formulations of M. alternifolia showed antimicrobial activity against P. insidiosum. This study demonstrated that M. alternifolia oil can be an additional therapy in pythiosis treatment; however, further studies are needed to evaluate the applicability of the plant essential oils in the treatment of clinical pythiosis.

  2. The essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree oil) and its main component, terpinen-4-ol protect mice from experimental oral candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninomiya, Kentaro; Maruyama, Naho; Inoue, Shigeharu; Ishibashi, Hiroko; Takizawa, Toshio; Oshima, Haruyuki; Abe, Shigeru

    2012-01-01

    The therapeutic efficacy of tea tree oil (TTO), Melaleuca alternifolia, and its main component, terpinen-4-ol, were evaluated in a murine oral candidiasis model. Prednisolone -pretreated mice were orally infected with a fluconazole-susceptible (TIMM 2640) or a resistant (TIMM 3163) strain of Candida albicans to induce oral candidiasis. TTO or terpinen-4-ol was administrated with a cotton swab 3 h and 24 h after candida infection. These treatments clearly showed a decrease in the symptom score of tongues and in the viable candida cell number in the oral cavity at 2 d after azole-susceptible C. albicans infection, although the degree of the efficacy was less than that of fluconazole. Even against oral candidiasis caused by azole-resistant C. albicans, TTO and terpinen-4-ol were similarly effective, while fluconazole appeared ineffective. These results suggest that TTO and terpinen-4-ol may have the potential of therapeutic ability for mucosal candidiasis which may also be applicable to C. albicans oral candidiasis induced by the azole-resistant strain.

  3. In vivo activity of terpinen-4-ol, the main bioactive component of Melaleuca alternifolia Cheel (tea tree oil against azole-susceptible and -resistant human pathogenic Candida species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassone Antonio

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent investigations on the antifungal properties of essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia Cheel (Tea Tree Oil, TTO have been performed with reference to the treatment of vaginal candidiasis. However, there is a lack of in vivo data supporting in vitro results, especially regarding the antifungal properties of TTO constituents. Thus, the aim of our study was to investigate the in vitro and the in vivo anti-Candida activity of two critical bioactive constituents of TTO, terpinen-4-ol and 1,8-cineole. Methods Oophorectomized, pseudoestrus rats under estrogen treatment were used for experimental vaginal infection with azole (fluconazole, itraconazole -susceptible or -resistant strains of C. albicans. All these strains were preliminarily tested for in vitro susceptibility to TTO, terpinen-4-ol and 1,8-cineole for their antifungal properties, using a modification of the CLSI (formerly NCCLS reference M27-A2 broth micro-dilution method. Results In vitro minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC90 values were 0.06% (volume/volume for terpinen-4-ol and 4% (volume/volume for 1,8-cineole, regardless of susceptibility or resistance of the strains to fluconazole and itraconazole. Fungicidal concentrations of terpinen-4-ol were equivalent to the candidastatic activity. In the rat vaginal infection model, terpinen-4-ol was as active as TTO in accelerating clearance from the vagina of all Candida strains examined. Conclusion Our data suggest that terpinen-4-ol is a likely mediator of the in vitro and in vivo activity of TTO. This is the first in vivo demonstration that terpinen-4-ol could control C. albicans vaginal infections. The purified compound holds promise for the treatment of vaginal candidiasis, and particularly the azole-resistant forms.

  4. In vitro activity of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil against bacterial and Candida spp. isolates from clinical specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banes-Marshall, L; Cawley, P; Phillips, C A

    2001-01-01

    This study investigates the in vitro activity of tea tree oil (TTO) against a range of wild strains of microorganisms isolated from clinical specimens of leg ulcers and pressure sores. The antimicrobial effectiveness of TTO is determined in terms of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) or minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC). The isolates include methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), S. aureus, faecal streptococci, beta-haemolytic streptococci, coagulase-negative staphylococci, Pseudomonas spp. and coliform bacilli. Eleven Candida spp. isolates from skin and vaginal swabs also are tested. Using an agar dilution assay, the MICs of TTO in 88 out of 90 isolates was 0.5-1.0% (v/v), whilst with P. aeruginosa it was >2% (v/v). A broth microdilution method was used to determine MIC and minimum cidal concentration (MCC) of 80 isolates. In 64 isolates, TTO produced an inhibitory and cidal effect at 3% and 4% (v/v), respectively. S. aureus and Candida spp. were the most susceptible to TTO, with MICs and MBCs of 0.5% and 1%, respectively. P. aeruginosa and the faecal streptococci isolates, with MICs and MBCs of >8%, were resistant to TTO.

  5. Synergism and postantibiotic effect of tobramycin and Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Arrigo, Manuela; Ginestra, Giovanna; Mandalari, Giuseppina; Furneri, P M; Bisignano, G

    2010-04-01

    The application of antimicrobial combinations may address the rising resistance to established classes of both systemic and topical agents and their clinical relevance is related to the presence of a significant postantibiotic effect (PAE). We investigated the effectiveness in vitro of the association between tobramycin and tea tree oil (TTO) against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The minimal inhibitory concentrations, the bacterial killing and the PAE of tobramycin and TTO were determined both singly and in combination against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213. A synergistic interaction was observed against both strains tested: the mean PAEs were 1.3 and 1.7h for tobramycin against E. coli and S. aureus respectively, 10.8h for tobramycin and TTO (0.05%) against E. coli, 10.4h and 17.4h against S. aureus for tobramycin and TTO (0.25 and 0.50%, respectively). Longer PASMEs were observed with S. aureus after TTO/tobramycin exposure. In vitro interactions can improve the antimicrobial effectiveness of the antibiotic and may contribute for the development of novel topical agents for the treatment of skin lesions including conjunctiva and respiratory infections by inhalation.

  6. The Influence of Tea Tree Oil (Melaleuca alternifolia on Fluconazole Activity against Fluconazole-Resistant Candida albicans Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Mertas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the activity of fluconazole against 32 clinical strains of fluconazole-resistant Candida albicans, and C. albicans ATCC 10231 reference strain, after their exposure to sublethal concentrations of tea tree oil (TTO or its main bioactive component terpinen-4-ol. For all tested fluconazole-resistant C. albicans strains TTO and terpinen-4-ol minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs were low, ranging from 0.06% to 0.5%. The 24-hour exposure of fluconazole-resistant C. albicans strains to fluconazole with sublethal dose of TTO enhanced fluconazole activity against these strains. Overall, 62.5% of isolates were classified as susceptible, 25.0% exhibited intermediate susceptibility, and 12.5% were resistant. For all of the tested clinical strains the fluconazole MIC decreased from an average of 244.0 μg/mL to an average of 38.46 μg/mL, and the fluconazole minimal fungicidal concentrations (MFC decreased from an average of 254.67 μg/mL to an average of 66.62 μg/mL. Terpinen-4-ol was found to be more active than TTO, and strongly enhanced fluconazole activity against fluconazole-resistant C. albicans strains. The results of this study demonstrate that combining natural substances such as TTO and conventional drug such as fluconazole, may help treat difficult yeast infections.

  7. Adaptation to NaCl Reduces the Susceptibility of Enterococcus faecalis to Melaleuca alternifolia (Tea Tree) Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Ee Lin; Hammer, Katherine Ann

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the hypothesis that the salt adaptation response of Enterococcus faecalis alters susceptibility to tea tree oil (TTO). Six E. faecalis isolates were adapted to 6.5 % NaCl, and then exposed to TTO in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). One isolate was also exposed to TTO in Brain Heart Infusion Broth (BHIB). The viability of salt-adapted and non-adapted control cells was determined at 0, 45 and 90 min and compared. MICs for several antibiotics and TTO were also determined by E test and broth microdilution, respectively. Results showed that susceptibility to TTO in PBS was significantly reduced after salt adaptation for five isolates (83 %) (P < 0.05). Mean differences between salt-adapted and non-adapted cell counts were 2.51 log at 45 min and 2.13 log at 90 min. However, when E. faecalis ATCC 19433 was exposed to TTO in BHIB, no significant differences were seen. In conclusion, salt adaptation resulted in reduced susceptibility to TTO in PBS for the majority of isolates, indicating that cross protection had occurred. This effect was absent in BHIB, suggesting that the uptake of compatible solutes from the growth medium protected non-adapted cells from TTO. Whether this has implications for the clinical effectiveness of TTO remains to be determined.

  8. The influence of tea tree oil (Melaleuca alternifolia) on fluconazole activity against fluconazole-resistant Candida albicans strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertas, Anna; Garbusińska, Aleksandra; Szliszka, Ewelina; Jureczko, Andrzej; Kowalska, Magdalena; Król, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the activity of fluconazole against 32 clinical strains of fluconazole-resistant Candida albicans, and C. albicans ATCC 10231 reference strain, after their exposure to sublethal concentrations of tea tree oil (TTO) or its main bioactive component terpinen-4-ol. For all tested fluconazole-resistant C. albicans strains TTO and terpinen-4-ol minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were low, ranging from 0.06% to 0.5%. The 24-hour exposure of fluconazole-resistant C. albicans strains to fluconazole with sublethal dose of TTO enhanced fluconazole activity against these strains. Overall, 62.5% of isolates were classified as susceptible, 25.0% exhibited intermediate susceptibility, and 12.5% were resistant. For all of the tested clinical strains the fluconazole MIC decreased from an average of 244.0 μg/mL to an average of 38.46 μg/mL, and the fluconazole minimal fungicidal concentrations (MFC) decreased from an average of 254.67 μg/mL to an average of 66.62 μg/mL. Terpinen-4-ol was found to be more active than TTO, and strongly enhanced fluconazole activity against fluconazole-resistant C. albicans strains. The results of this study demonstrate that combining natural substances such as TTO and conventional drug such as fluconazole, may help treat difficult yeast infections.

  9. In vitro activity of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil on filamentous fungi and toxicity to human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homeyer, Diane C; Sanchez, Carlos J; Mende, Katrin; Beckius, Miriam L; Murray, Clinton K; Wenke, Joseph C; Akers, Kevin S

    2015-04-01

    Invasive fungal wound infections (IFIs) are increasingly reported in trauma patients and cause considerable morbidity and mortality despite standard of care treatment in trauma centers by experienced medical personnel. Topical agents such as oil of melaleuca, also known as tea tree oil (TTO), have been proposed for adjunctive treatment of IFIs. We evaluated the activity of TTO against filamentous fungi associated with IFIs by testing 13 clinical isolates representing nine species via time-kill assay with seven concentrations of TTO (100%, 75%, 50%, 25%, 10%, 5%, and 1%). To ascertain the safety of topical application to wounds, cell viability assays were performed in vitro using human fibroblasts, keratinocytes, osteoblasts, and umbilical vein endothelial cells with 10 concentrations of TTO (75%, 50%, 25%, 10%, 5%, and 10-fold serial dilutions from 1 to 0.0001%) at five time points (5, 15, 30, 60, and 180 min). Compatibility of TTO with explanted porcine tissues was also assessed with eight concentrations of TTO (100%, 75%, 50%, 25%, 10%, 5%, 1%, and 0.1%) at the time points used for cellular assays and at 24 h. The time-kill studies showed that fungicidal activity was variable between isolates. The effect of TTO on cell viability was primarily concentration dependent with significant cytotoxicity at concentrations of ≥ 10% and ≥ 50% for cells lines and whole tissue, respectively. Our findings demonstrate that TTO possesses antifungal activity against filamentous fungi associated with IFIs; furthermore that negligible effects on whole tissues, in contrast to individual cells, were observed following exposure to TTO. Collectively, these findings indicate a potential use of TTO as topical treatment of IFIs.

  10. Uncontrolled, open-label, pilot study of tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) oil solution in the decolonisation of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus positive wounds and its influence on wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmondson, Margaret; Newall, Nelly; Carville, Keryln; Smith, Joanna; Riley, Thomas V; Carson, Christine F

    2011-08-01

    Many complementary and alternative products are used to treat wounds. The essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia, tea tree oil, has proven antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties, may be useful in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) decolonisation regimens and is reputed to have 'wound-healing' properties, but more data are required to support these indications. The primary aim of this uncontrolled case series was to assess whether a tea tree oil solution used in a wound cleansing procedure could decolonise MRSA from acute and chronic wounds of mixed aetiology. The secondary aim was to determine if the tea tree oil solution influenced wound healing outcomes. Nineteen participants with wounds suspected of being colonised with MRSA were enrolled in a pilot study. Seven were subsequently shown not to have MRSA and were withdrawn from the study. As many as 11 of the remaining 12 participants were treated with a water-miscible tea tree oil (3·3%) solution applied as part of the wound cleansing regimen at each dressing change. Dressing changes were three times per week or daily as deemed necessary by the study nurse following assessment. One participant withdrew from the study before treatment. No participants were MRSA negative after treatment. After treatment had been implemented, 8 of the 11 treated wounds had begun to heal and reduced in size as measured by computer planimetry. Although this formulation and mode of delivery did not achieve the primary aim of the study, tea tree oil did not appear to inhibit healing and the majority of wounds reduced in size after treatment.

  11. 引种互叶白千层茶树油的化学成分及抑菌活性%Chemical Components and Antimicrobial Activity of Tea Tree Oil from Introduced Melaleuca alternifolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟振声; 樊丽妃; 黄继兵

    2011-01-01

    采用气相色谱-质谱联用仪(GC/MS)对从澳大利亚引种的广西玉林市互叶白千层茶树油进行化学成分分析;测试了该种茶树油的理化常数,并将结果与ISO国际标准进行了比较;以大肠杆菌和金黄色葡萄球菌为供试菌种,对该种茶树油的抑菌活性进行了研究,并用混合药剂法测得了该种茶树油对供试菌种的最小抑菌浓度;最后考察了培养基pH值、食盐和蔗糖对该种茶树油抑菌活性的影响.发现:非特征成分桉叶素的相对含量高达72.49%,而特征成分4-松油醇只有0.78%;该种茶树油的大多数理化常数均不在ISO国际标准规定的范围之内;该种茶树油对供试菌种的最小抑菌浓度均为4.00mL/L,显示其有很强的抑菌活性;在pH=5~10范围内,该种茶树油对供试菌种都有较强的抑制作用;一定用量的食盐及蔗糖与该种茶树油之间存在明显的协同抑菌作用.这些结果表明,该互叶白千层茶树极有可能发生了变种,但其抑菌活性得到了保持.%In this paper, first, the chemical components of the tea tree oil extracted from Melaleuca alternifolia introduced from Australia and planted in Yulin, Guangxi, China, were analyzed by means of GC/MS. Next, the physical and chemical parameters of the tea tree oil were measured and were compared with the data set by ISO international standard. Then, by using Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus as the indicator bacteria, the antimicrobial activity of the tea tree oil was investigated, and the corresponding minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were investigated by means of mixed medicament method. Finally, the effects of pH value, salt dosage and sucrose dosage on the antimicrobial activity were analyzed. The results show that ( 1 ) in the tea tree oil, the dosage of non-characteristic composition, namely 1,8-cineole, is up to 72. 49%, while that of the characteristic composition, namely terpinen-4-ol, is only 0. 78%; (2) most

  12. [Allergic contact eczema due to 'tea tree' oil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Valk, P G; de Groot, A C; Bruynzeel, D P; Coenraads, P J; Weijland, J W

    1994-04-16

    In four patients, three women aged 45, 29 and 52 years and a man aged 45 years, allergic contact dermatitis due to 'tea tree' oil was diagnosed. The case of the man was published before. 'Tea tree' oils are essential oils distilled from the leaves of myrtaceous trees and shrubs occurring in Australia and South-East Asia. The 'tea tree' oil available in the Netherlands is distilled from the Melaleuca alternifolia and mainly contains eucalyptol. Eucalyptol is probably the most important allergen.

  13. A Comparative Evaluation of the Physical and Chemical Characteristics of Composted Tea Tree (Melaleuca alternifolia L. with Pine Bark Growing Media in Tobacco (Nicotiana tabucum L. Seedling Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Masaka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The search for suitable organic growing media substitutes for pine bark based media combinations has been prompted by concerns over high costs and lack of availability to smallholder farmers coupled with increasing demand for soilless media in Zimbabwe. A trial was conducted for 12 weeks to investigate the suitability of tea tree compost-based substrates for tobacco seedling production as a substitute of the traditional pine bark growing media. The use of composted tea tree growing media in float trays significantly (p<0.05 increases the bulk density of the media by 23–59% when compared with pine bark media. The cation exchange capacity of the native pine bark growing media was 14 to 95% lower than that for the composted tea tree media. The use of the composted tea as media for tobacco seedling nursery reduced seed germination by 10–37%, seedling stem height by 4–34%, and seedling stem girth by 6–175%. While the nutrient holding and supplying potential of the growing media in seedling production is important for normal seedling growth, its effect on seedling growth vigor is less important than that exerted by the presence of suitable physical conditions in the media.

  14. Detection and identification of 1-methylethyl and methyl radicals generated by irradiating tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) oil with visible light (436 nm) in the presence of flavin mononucleotide and ferrous ion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, H-M; Iwahashi, H

    2013-08-01

    Here, we determined the electron spin resonance (ESR) spectra of standard reaction mixtures (I) containing 25 μM flavin mononucleotide (FMN), 0.018% tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) oil, 1.9 M acetonitrile, 20 mM phosphate buffer (pH 7.4), 0.1 M α-(4-pyridyl-1-oxide)-N-tert-butylnitrone (4-POBN), and 1.0 mM FeSO₄(NH₄)₂SO₄ irradiated with 436 nm visible light (7.8 J/cm²). Prominent ESR signals (αN = 1.58 mT and αHβ = 0.26 mT) were detected, suggesting that free radicals form in the standard reaction. In order to know whether singlet oxygen (¹O₂) is involved in the radical formation or not, ESR measurement was performed for the standard D₂O reaction mixture (I) which contained 25 μM FMN, 0.0036% tea tree oil, 1.9 M acetonitrile-d3, 20 mM phosphate buffer (pH 7.4), 0.1 M 4-POBN and 1.0 mM FeSO₄ in D₂O. The ESR peak height of the standard D₂O reaction increased to 169 ± 24% of the control. Thus, ¹O₂ seems to be involved in the formation of the radicals because D₂O increases the lifetime of singlet oxygen. High-performance liquid chromatography-ESR-mass spectrometry analyses detected 1-methylethyl and methyl radicals in the standard reaction. The radicals appear to form through the reaction of ferrous ion with α-terpinene endoperoxide (ascaridole), which generated from the reaction of α-terpinene with ¹O₂. The 1-methylethyl and methyl radicals may exert a pro-oxidant effect under these conditions.

  15. Determining the Antimicrobial Actions of Tea Tree Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Grant Wyllie

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Research into the mode of action of the essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia (Tea tree oil is briefly reviewed. Its mode of action is interpreted in terms of the membrane-toxicity of its monoterpenoid components and different approaches for determining cell membrane damage are discussed.

  16. Determining the Antimicrobial Actions of Tea Tree Oil

    OpenAIRE

    S. Grant Wyllie; Warmington, John R.; Gustafson, John E.; Markham, Julie L.; Mann, Cindy M.; Cox, Sean D.

    2001-01-01

    Research into the mode of action of the essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia (Tea tree oil) is briefly reviewed. Its mode of action is interpreted in terms of the membrane-toxicity of its monoterpenoid components and different approaches for determining cell membrane damage are discussed.

  17. Repellent effects of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil against cattle tick larvae (Rhipicephalus australis) when formulated as emulsions and in β-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Wei Tsun; Bhandari, Bhesh; Jackson, Louise; James, Peter

    2016-07-30

    Rhipicephalus australis (formerly Boophilus microplus) is a one host tick responsible for major economic loss in tropical and subtropical cattle production enterprises. Control is largely dependent on the application of acaricides but resistance has developed to most currently registered chemical groups. Repellent compounds that prevent initial attachment of tick larvae offer a potential alternative to control with chemical toxicants. The repellent effects of Melaleuca alternifolia oil (TTO) emulsions and two β-cyclodextrin complex formulations, a slow release form (SR) and a modified faster release form (FR), were examined in a series of laboratory studies. Emulsions containing 4% and 5% TTO applied to cattle hair in laboratory studies completely repelled ascending tick larvae for 24h whereas 2% and 3% formulations provided 80% protection. At 48h, 5% TTO provided 78% repellency but lower concentrations repelled less than 60% of larvae. In a study conducted over 15 days, 3% TTO emulsion applied to cattle hair provided close to 100% repellency for 2 days, but then protection fell to 23% by day 15. The FR formulation gave significantly greater repellency than the emulsion and the SR formulation from day 3 until the end of the study (P<0.05), providing almost complete repellency at day 3 (99.5%), then decreasing over the period of the study to 49% repellency at day 15. Proof of concept is established for the use of appropriately designed controlled-release formulations to extend the period of repellency provided by TTO against R. australis larvae.

  18. Tea tree oil might combat melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozzuto, Giuseppina; Colone, Marisa; Toccacieli, Laura; Stringaro, Annarita; Molinari, Agnese

    2011-01-01

    In this study we present new data from experiments focused on the antitumor activity of tea tree oil (TTO), an essential oil distilled from Melaleuca alternifolia. TTO proved to be capable of inhibiting the growth of melanoma cells and of overcoming multidrug resistance (MDR), as we reported in our previous study. Moreover, the survival role of the MDR-marker P-glycoprotein appears to be involved in the mechanism of invasion of melanoma cells. The results reported herein indicate that TTO and its main active component, terpinen-4-ol, can also interfere with the migration and invasion processes of drug-sensitive and drug-resistant melanoma cells.

  19. Tea tree oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, David; Jacob, Sharon E

    2012-01-01

    Tea tree oil is an increasingly popular ingredient in a variety of household and cosmetic products, including shampoos, massage oils, skin and nail creams, and laundry detergents. Known for its potential antiseptic properties, it has been shown to be active against a variety of bacteria, fungi, viruses, and mites. The oil is extracted from the leaves of the tea tree via steam distillation. This essential oil possesses a sharp camphoraceous odor followed by a menthol-like cooling sensation. Most commonly an ingredient in topical products, it is used at a concentration of 5% to 10%. Even at this concentration, it has been reported to induce contact sensitization and allergic contact dermatitis reactions. In 1999, tea tree oil was added to the North American Contact Dermatitis Group screening panel. The latest prevalence rates suggest that 1.4% of patients referred for patch testing had a positive reaction to tea tree oil.

  20. Tea Tree Oil-Induced Transcriptional Alterations in Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Cuaron, Jesus A.; Dulal, Santosh; Song, Yang; Singh, Atul K; Montelongo, Cesar E.; Yu, Wanqin; Nagarajan, Vijayaraj; Jayaswal, Radheshyam K.; Wilkinson, Brian J; Gustafson, John E.

    2012-01-01

    Tea tree oil (TTO) is a steam distillate of Melaleuca alternifolia that demonstrates broad-spectrum antibacterial activity. This study was designed to document how TTO challenge influences the Staphylococcus aureus transcriptome. Overall, bioinformatic analyses (S. aureus microarray meta-database) revealed that both ethanol and TTO induce related transcriptional alterations. TTO challenge led to the down-regulation of genes involved with energy-intensive transcription and translation, and alt...

  1. Tea tree oil in the treatment of tinea pedis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, M M; Altman, P M; Barnetson, R S

    1992-01-01

    Tea tree oil (an essential oil derived primarily from the Australian native Melaleuca alternifolia) has been used as a topical antiseptic agent since the early part of this century for a wide variety of skin infections; however, to date, the evidence for its efficacy in fungal infections is still largely anecdotal. One hundred and four patients completed a randomized, double-blind trial to evaluate the efficacy of 10% w/w tea tree oil cream compared with 1% tolnaftate and placebo creams in the treatment of tinea pedis. Significantly more tolnaftate-treated patients (85%) than tea tree oil (30%) and placebo-treated patients (21%) showed conversion to negative culture at the end of therapy (p tea tree oil and placebo groups. All three groups demonstrated improvement in clinical condition based on the four clinical parameters of scaling, inflammation, itching and burning. The tea tree oil group (24/37) and the tolnaftate group (19/33) showed significant improvement in clinical condition when compared to the placebo group (14/34; p = 0.022 and p = 0.018 respectively). Tea tree oil cream (10% w/w) appears to reduce the symptomatology of tinea pedis as effectively as tolnaftate 1% but is no more effective than placebo in achieving a mycological cure. This may be the basis for the popular use of tea tree oil in the treatment of tinea pedis.

  2. Tea Tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) Oil induced Phenotypic and Functional Maturation of Murine Bone Marrow-derived Dendritic Cells%茶树油调控树突状细胞的表型和功能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐永富; 李积华; 陈家翠; 林丽静; 韩志萍; 曹玉坡

    2012-01-01

    The effect of tea tree oil on the phenotypic and functional maturation of dendritic cell was investigated in vitro. Dendritic cells treated with tea tree oil (0.005 μL/mL), were enlarged, suspended, and displayed typical stellate and aggregates like cells treated with LPS (positive controls). The levels of surface marker expression were monitored throughout the culture by flow cytometry using CD1 1c-PEcy7, I-Ab-FITC, CD86-FITC, and H-2Db-PE. Dendritic cells treated with tea bee oil expressed higher level of H-2Db (48.20%), costimulatory molecule I-Ab (6.60%) and CD86 (41.00%) with the cells gated by CD11c, being of 1.28,3.40 and 1.28-fold higher for H-2Db, I-Ab and CD86, respectiely compared with untreated cells. It was also found that tea tree oil could enhance the dendritic cell to induce proliferation of T lymphocyte. And it was reduced the endocytic activity of dendritic cell by tea tree oil. These results showed that tea tree oil had significant immunoenhancing activity by inducing the phenotypic and functional maturation of dendritic cells.%本文主要探讨了茶树油对树突状细胞表型和功能的影响.采用茶树油(0.005μL/mL)干预未成熟的树突状细胞48h后,流式细胞仪检测细胞表型,MTT法检测刺激淋巴细胞增殖能力.结果发现经茶树油干预后,以CD11c设门,树突状细胞高表达H-2Db(48.20%),I-Ab(6.60%)和CD86 (41.00%),和空白对照组比较分别达到1.28倍,3.40倍和1.28倍的增长.混合淋巴培养实验发现茶树油能够增强DC刺激淋巴细胞增殖的能力,降低树突状细胞的吞噬功能.初步表明茶树油可以促进树突状细胞的表型和功能成熟.

  3. In chemico evaluation of tea tree essential oils as skin sensitizers. Impact of the chemical composition on aging and generation of reactive species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tea tree oil (TTO) is a popular skin remedy obtained from the leaves of Melaleuca alternifolia, M. linariifolia or M dissitiflora. Due to the commercial importance ofTTO, substitution or adulteration with other tea tree species (such as cajeput, niaouli, manuka and kanuka oils) is common and may p...

  4. Tea tree oil as a novel antipsoriasis weapon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazyar, Nader; Yaghoobi, Reza

    2012-01-01

    Psoriasis is a clinical skin disease that is characterized by erythematous scaling plaques and involves the extensor site of the extremities, the scalp and other surfaces of the skin. Tea tree oil (TTO) is considered an essential oil, obtained by steam distillation of the leaves and terminal branchlets of Melaleuca alternifolia. Notably,terpinen-4-ol, the major TTO constituent, has been found to have potent anti-inflammatory properties. It is suggested that terpinen-4-ol may be a novel potential agent against psoriasis. This article draws attention to the antipsoriatic effect of TTO and provides a theoretical molecular approach.

  5. Treatment of acne with tea tree oil (melaleuca) products: a review of efficacy, tolerability and potential modes of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, K A

    2015-02-01

    Over-the-counter acne treatments containing tea tree oil from the plant Melaleuca alternifolia are widely available, and evidence indicates that they are a common choice amongst those self-treating their acne. The aims of this review were to collate and evaluate the clinical evidence on the use of tea tree oil products for treating acne, to review safety and tolerability and to discuss the underlying modes of therapeutic action.

  6. Insect Repellent Properties of Melaleuca alternifolia

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamad Adib Bin Edris; Awang Soh Yusuff Mamat; Muhammad Shahzad Aslam; Muhammad Syarhabil Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the use of plant-based insect repellents that are environment friendly with the use of insect repellents based on chemical substances which can be harmful to the environment and human health. The plant studied here is "tea tree"; its scientific name is Melaleuca alternifolia. Essential oil from this plant is extracted by steam distillation method. Based on the previous research, tea tree oil has antimicrobial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, and insect repel...

  7. A review of applications of tea tree oil in dermatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazyar, Nader; Yaghoobi, Reza; Bagherani, Nooshin; Kazerouni, Afshin

    2013-07-01

    Tea tree oil (TTO) is an essential oil, steam-distilled from the Australian native plant, Melaleuca alternifolia. It has a minimum content of terpinen-4-ol and a maximum content of 1, 8-cineole. Terpinen-4-ol is a major TTO component which exhibits strong antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties. Tea tree oil exerts antioxidant activity and has been reported to have broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against bacterial, viral, fungal, and protozoal infections affecting skin and mucosa. Several studies have suggested the uses of TTO for the treatment of acne vulgaris, seborrheic dermatitis, and chronic gingivitis. It also accelerates the wound healing process and exhibits anti-skin cancer activity. This review opens up new horizons for dermatologists in the use of this herbal agent.

  8. Inhibition effect on LPS-induced TNF-α release by homegrown and Australian Melaleuca alternifolia (Tea Tree) oil%不同来源茶树油抑制LPS诱导TNF-α释放的体外实验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王懿; 王振维

    2007-01-01

    目的 比较国产和进口茶树油(tea tree oil,TTO)对脂多糖(lipopolysaccharide, LPS)诱导炎症的抑制作用.方法 四唑盐(MTT)比色实验筛选无细胞毒性作用的TTO溶液浓度;各浓度TTO水溶液按量效和时效关系预处理细胞后,测定LPS激活RAW264.7细胞分泌肿瘤坏死因子-α(tumor necrotic factor-alpha, TNF-α)的浓度,以观察国产和进口TTO水溶液对LPS诱导炎症的抑制效果.结果 浓度低于0.001%的国产和进口TTO溶液对细胞无毒性作用;0.000 125%~0.001%进口TTO和0.000 25%~0.001%国产TTO各浓度组均能非常显著地抑制LPS诱导细胞释放TNF-α;0.000 25%进口和国产TTO分别在3 h和6 h内对细胞有显著的保护作用.结论 国产和进口TTO对LPS诱导的炎症均有显著抑制效果.

  9. Tea Tree Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    96262 ... https://nccih.nih.gov/health/tea/treeoil.htm ... us ... 96262 ... https://nccih.nih.gov/health/tea/treeoil.htm ... Herbal Medicine ... Herbal Medicine/Specifics ... us ... 96262 ... https:// ...

  10. Allergic contact dermatitis to tea tree oil with erythema multiforme-like id reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, M; Qasem, K; Sasseville, D

    2000-12-01

    The commercial production of tea tree oil, extracted from Melaleuca alternifolia Cheel, has considerably increased over the past 15 years in response to a strong demand for natural remedies and aromatic substances. The number of case reports that describe allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) to this essential oil is also on the rise. We report an additional case of ACD to tea tree oil that presented with an extensive erythema multiforme-like reaction. A skin biopsy was performed from a targetlike lesion distant from the site of the initial dermatitis. The patient was treated with systemic and topical corticosteroids. Five months later, he was patch tested to the North American standard series, to his own tea tree oil, to a fresh batch of tea tree oil, and to some related allergens. The skin biopsy showed a spongiotic dermatitis without histological features of erythema multiforme. Patch testing elicited a 3+ reaction to old, oxidized tea tree oil, a 2+ reaction to fresh tea tree oil, a 2+ reaction to colophony, a 1+ reaction to abitol, and a 1+ reaction to balsam of Peru. We believe this is the first report of erythema multiforme-like reaction secondary to ACD from tea tree oil. Other interesting features are the stronger reaction to oxidized than to fresh tea tree oil, and concomitant reactivity to colophony, abitol, and balsam of Peru.

  11. Formulation study of tea tree oil patches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minghetti, Paola; Casiraghi, Antonella; Cilurzo, Francesco; Gambaro, Veniero; Montanari, Luisa

    2009-01-01

    The antimicrobial, antifungal and anti-inflammatory properties of tea tree oil (TTO), the essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia are well documented. In order to optimize its therapeutic activity, TTO patches were designed. The aim of this work was the formulation of monolayer patches containing TTO. Moreover, the performance of oleic acid (OA) as a skin penetration enhancer in patches was evaluated. Terpinen-4-ol (T4OL), the main component of TTO, was the marker used to evaluate TTO skin permeability. The permeation study was performed through human epidermis by using Franz diffusion cells. Patches were prepared by using methacrylic copolymers, Eudragit E100 (EuE100) or Eudragit NE (EuNE), and a silicone resin, BioPSA7-4602 (Bio-PSA). TTO and OA contents were fixed at 10% w/w and 3% w/w, respectively. The patches were prepared by a casting method and characterised in terms of T4OL content and skin permeability. All the selected polymers were suitable as the main component of the patch matrix. Since the main critical issue in the use of TTO is related to its toxicity after absorption, the local administration of TTO can take advantage of the use of patches based on EuE100 because of the high retained amount and the low permeation of T4OL. In this matrix, OA slightly increased the T4OL retained amount, improving the efficacy and safety of TTO patches.

  12. Substratos, concentrações de ácido indolbutírico e tipos de miniestacas no enraizamento de melaleuca (Melaleuca alternifolia Cheel Substrates, indolebutyric acid levels and types of minicuttings on the rooting of tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia Cheel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Melaleuca alternifolia tem como produto principal o óleo essencial extraído das folhas devido às propriedades antifúngicas e antibacterianas. Pouco se tem relatado sobre a propagação desta espécie, sendo a miniestaquia uma alternativa para a propagação vegetativa de clones superiores visando à implantação de campo de produção. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito de diferentes substratos, concentrações de AIB, e tipo de miniestaca, no enraizamento de Melaleuca alternifolia. No primeiro experimento foram testados os substratos, areia de granulometria média, Plantmax HT®, Golden-Mix® e vermiculita. No segundo experimento foram avaliadas diferentes concentrações de AIB (0, 500, 1000 e 2000 mg L-1, em dois tipos de miniestacas (apical e mediana. As miniestacas foram confeccionadas com 5 cm de comprimento, mantidas em casa de vegetação com nebulização intermitente, e, após 45 dias do plantio, foram avaliadas as porcentagens de miniestacas enraizadas, com calos e não responsivas, o número de raízes formadas por miniestaca e o comprimento das três maiores raízes (cm. O substrato Golden-Mix® e as miniestacas coletadas da porção apical do ramo submetidas ao tratamento com 500 mg L-1 de AIB apresentaram maior porcentagem de enraizamento e melhor qualidade do sistema radicial.Melaleuca alternifolia has as major product the essential oil extracted from its leaves due to its antifungal and antibacterial properties. There are scarce reports about the propagation of this species, and minicutting is an alternative for vegetative propagation of superior clones in order to establish a production field. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of different substrates, IBA levels and types of minicuttings on the rooting of Melaleuca alternifolia. In the first experiment, the following substrates were tested: medium sand, Plantmax HT®, Golden-Mix® and vermiculite. In the second experiment, different IBA levels (0, 500

  13. Insect Repellent Properties of Melaleuca alternifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Adib Bin Edris

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to compare the use of plant-based insect repellents that are environment friendly with the use of insect repellents based on chemical substances which can be harmful to the environment and human health. The plant studied here is "tea tree"; its scientific name is Melaleuca alternifolia. Essential oil from this plant is extracted by steam distillation method. Based on the previous research, tea tree oil has antimicrobial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, and insect repellent properties. Some experiments were done on tea tree oil to determine its insect repellent properties and the suitable concentration that can be used to make sure its repelling effect is optimum. The purpose of this determination is to avoid its harmful effect on humans because it can be toxic if it is used at high concentration. The results showed that tea tree oil repelled Tribolium castaneum. Furthermore, the toxicity assays also gave positive result where the tea tree oil has toxic properties against Solenopsis invicta. The lethal dose (LD of tea tree oil to kill 50% of a group of S. invicta is 23.52 µL/mL. This LD50 is determined by using the arithmetic method of Karber. Broadly, the results showed that M. alternifolia has insect repellent properties and shows toxicity against certain insects.

  14. Microemulsion Based Transdermal Drug Delivery of Tea Tree Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khokhra Sonia

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Psoriasis is an inflammatory and proliferate disease of skin that results in rapid turnover of skin cells. Tea tree oil (TTO is the essential oil steam-distilled from Melaleuca alternifolia, known for its antimicrobial, antifungal and anti-inflammatory properties. This oil is a mix of many terpenes and among them terpinen-4-ol is the main active component. The study aimed at formulating a microemulsion based transdermal drug delivery system for psoriasis. Microemulsions were formulated using 5% Tea tree oil, different concentrations of Polysorbate 80 as surfactant and Isopropyl Myristate and Isopropyl alcohol as cosurfactants. The formulations were characterized for pH, Droplet size, PDI, Viscosity and Surface morphology. The mean droplet size of the microemulsion was found in the range of 84-115 nm with a PDI of 0.764 indicating uniformity in the microemulsion. Rheological data was assessed for viscosity and microemulsions were found to be low viscosity system. The maximum terpinen-4-ol content observed was 1.68 µg/mg of microemulsion. The TEM images of the microemulsion depicted spherical shape and even boundary of the oil particles. The skin diffusion studies clearly depicted the enhanced ability of microemulsion to deliver the drugs through transdermal application. About 14.5% Tepinen-4-ol penetration was observed from the microemulsion. Skin irritation confirmed that levels up to 5% tea tree oil could be safely applied to the skin. The studies showed that microemulsion system of tea tree oil might be promising vehicles for the transdermal delivery for psoriasis.

  15. Staphylococcus aureus and wounds: a review of tea tree oil as a promising antimicrobial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halcón, Linda; Milkus, Kelly

    2004-11-01

    Antibiotic-resistant bacteria continue to be a major health concern worldwide. In particular, Staphylococcus aureus, both methicillin-resistant and -sensitive, are of concern in their ability to cause difficult skin and underlying tissue infections. Melaleuca alternifolia oil (tea tree oil), an essential oil, has demonstrated promising efficacy in treating these infections. Tea tree oil has been used for centuries as a botanical medicine, and has only in recent decades surfaced in the scientific literature as a promising adjunctive wound treatment. Tea tree oil is antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and has demonstrated ability to activate monocytes. There are few apparent side effects to using tea tree oil topically in low concentrations, with contact dermatitis being the most common. Tea tree oil has been effective as an adjunctive therapy in treating osteomyelitis and infected chronic wounds in case studies and small clinical trials. There is a need for larger clinical trials to further examine efficacy of tea tree oil as an adjunctive wound therapy, as well as improved guidelines for developing plant-based medicines.

  16. A comparative study of tea-tree oil versus benzoylperoxide in the treatment of acne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, I B; Pannowitz, D L; Barnetson, R S

    1990-10-15

    Tea-tree oil (an essential oil of the Australian native tree Melaleuca alternifolia) has long been regarded as a useful topical antiseptic agent in Australia and has been shown to have a variety of antimicrobial activities; however, only anecdotal evidence exists for its efficacy in the treatment of various skin conditions. We have performed a single-blind, randomised clinical trial on 124 patients to evaluate the efficacy and skin tolerance of 5% tea-tree oil gel in the treatment of mild to moderate acne when compared with 5% benzoyl peroxide lotion. The results of this study showed that both 5% tea-tree oil and 5% benzoyl peroxide had a significant effect in ameliorating the patients' acne by reducing the number of inflamed and non-inflamed lesions (open and closed comedones), although the onset of action in the case of tea-tree oil was slower. Encouragingly, fewer side effects were experienced by patients treated with tea-tree oil.

  17. Antifungal activity of nanocapsule suspensions containing tea tree oil on the growth of Trichophyton rubrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, F C; de Lima, J A; Ribeiro, R F; Alves, S H; Rolim, C M B; Beck, R C R; da Silva, Cristiane Bona

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate, for the first time, the antifungal efficacy of nanocapsules and nanoemulsions containing Melaleuca alternifolia essential oil (tea tree oil) in an onychomycosis model. The antifungal activity of nanostructured formulations was evaluated against Trichophyton rubrum in two different in vitro models of dermatophyte nail infection. First, nail powder was infected with T. rubrum in a 96-well plate and then treated with the formulations. After 7 and 14 days, cell viability was verified. The plate counts for the samples were 2.37, 1.45 and 1.0 log CFU mL(-1) (emulsion, nanoemulsion containing tea tree oil and nanocapsules containing tea tree oil, respectively). A second model employed nails fragments which were infected with the microorganism and treated with the formulations. The diameter of fungal colony was measured. The areas obtained were 2.88 ± 2.08 mm(2), 14.59 ± 2.01 mm(2), 40.98 ± 2.76 mm(2) and 38.72 ± 1.22 mm(2) for the nanocapsules containing tea tree oil, nanoemulsion containing tea tree oil, emulsion and untreated nail, respectively. Nail infection models demonstrated the ability of the formulations to reduce T. rubrum growth, with the inclusion of oil in nanocapsules being most efficient.

  18. Interaction of tea tree oil with model and cellular membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordani, Cristiano; Molinari, Agnese; Toccacieli, Laura; Calcabrini, Annarica; Stringaro, Annarita; Chistolini, Pietro; Arancia, Giuseppe; Diociaiuti, Marco

    2006-07-27

    Tea tree oil (TTO) is the essential oil steam-distilled from Melaleuca alternifolia, a species of northern New South Wales, Australia. It exhibits a broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity and an antifungal activity. Only recently has TTO been shown to inhibit the in vitro growth of multidrug resistant (MDR) human melanoma cells. It has been suggested that the effect of TTO on tumor cells could be mediated by its interaction with the plasma membrane, most likely by inducing a reorganization of lipid architecture. In this paper we report biophysical and structural results obtained using simplified planar model membranes (Langmuir films) mimicking lipid "rafts". We also used flow cytometry analysis (FCA) and freeze-fracturing transmission electron microscopy to investigate the effects of TTO on actual MDR melanoma cell membranes. Thermodynamic (compression isotherms and adsorption kinetics) and structural (Brewster angle microscopy) investigation of the lipid monolayers clearly indicates that TTO interacts preferentially with the less ordered DPPC "sea" and that it does not alter the more ordered lipid "rafts". Structural observations, performed by freeze fracturing, confirm that TTO interacts with the MDR melanoma cell plasma membrane. Moreover, experiments performed by FCA demonstrate that TTO does not interfere with the function of the MDR drug transporter P-gp. We therefore propose that the effect exerted on MDR melanoma cells is mediated by the interaction with the fluid DPPC phase, rather than with the more organized "rafts" and that this interaction preferentially influences the ATP-independent antiapoptotic activity of P-gp likely localized outside "rafts".

  19. Tea tree oil-induced transcriptional alterations in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuaron, Jesus A; Dulal, Santosh; Song, Yang; Singh, Atul K; Montelongo, Cesar E; Yu, Wanqin; Nagarajan, Vijayaraj; Jayaswal, Radheshyam K; Wilkinson, Brian J; Gustafson, John E

    2013-03-01

    Tea tree oil (TTO) is a steam distillate of Melaleuca alternifolia that demonstrates broad-spectrum antibacterial activity. This study was designed to document how TTO challenge influences the Staphylococcus aureus transcriptome. Overall, bioinformatic analyses (S. aureus microarray meta-database) revealed that both ethanol and TTO induce related transcriptional alterations. TTO challenge led to the down-regulation of genes involved with energy-intensive transcription and translation, and altered the regulation of genes involved with heat shock (e.g. clpC, clpL, ctsR, dnaK, groES, groEL, grpE and hrcA) and cell wall metabolism (e.g. cwrA, isaA, sle1, vraSR and vraX). Inactivation of the heat shock gene dnaK or vraSR which encodes a two-component regulatory system that responds to peptidoglycan biosynthesis inhibition led to an increase in TTO susceptibility which demonstrates a protective role for these genes in the S. aureus TTO response. A gene (mmpL) encoding a putative resistance, nodulation and cell division efflux pump was also highly induced by TTO. The principal antimicrobial TTO terpene, terpinen-4-ol, altered ten genes in a transcriptional direction analogous to TTO. Collectively, this study provides additional insight into the response of a bacterial pathogen to the antimicrobial terpene mixture TTO.

  20. Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase by Tea Tree oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Clive; Cleary, Brian J; Gilmer, John F; Walsh, John J

    2004-03-01

    Pediculosis is a widespread condition reported in schoolchildren. Treatment most commonly involves the physical removal of nits using fine-toothcombs and the chemical treatment of adult lice and eggs with topical preparations. The active constituents of these preparations frequently exert their effects through inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE, EC 3.1.1.7). Increasing resistance to many preparations has led to the search for more effective treatments. Tea Tree oil, otherwise known as Melaleuca oil, has been added to several preparations as an alternative treatment of head lice infestations. In this study two major constituents of Tea Tree oil, 1,8-cineole and terpinen-4-ol, were shown to inhibit acetylcholinesterase at IC50 values (inhibitor concentrations required to give 50% inhibition) of 0.04 and 10.30 mM, respectively. Four samples of Tea Tree oil tested (Tisserand, Body Treats, Main Camp and Irish Health Culture Association Pure Undiluted) showed anticholinesterase activity at IC50 values of 0.05, 0.10, 0.08 and 0.11 microL mL(-1), respectively. The results supported the hypothesis that the insecticidal activity of Tea Tree oil was attributable, in part, to the anticholinesterase activity of Tea Tree oil.

  1. In vitro activity of tea tree oil against Candida albicans mycelial conversion and other pathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Auria, F D; Laino, L; Strippoli, V; Tecca, M; Salvatore, G; Battinelli, L; Mazzanti, G

    2001-08-01

    The antifungal activity of Melaleuca alternifolia Maiden (Myrtaceae) essential oil against yeasts (Candida spp., Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Debaryomyces hansenii) and dermatophytes (Microsporum spp. and Tricophyton spp.) is reported. We focused on the ability of tea tree oil to inhibit Candida albicans conversion from the yeast to the pathogenic mycelial form. Moreover we carried out broth microdilution test and contact tests to evaluate the killing time. M. alternifolia essential oil inhibited the conversion of C. albicans from yeast to the mycelial form at a concentration of 0.16% (v/v). The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranged from 0.12% to 0.50% (v/v) for yeasts and 0.12% to 1% (v/v) for dermatophytes; the cytocidal activity was generally expressed at the same concentration. These results, if considered along with the lipophilic nature of the oil which enables it to penetrate the skin, suggest it may be suitable for topical therapeutic use in the treatment of fungal mucosal and cutaneous infections.

  2. Melaleuca alternifolia Essential Oil against the Lesser Mealworm (Alphitobius diaperinus) and Its Possible Effect on the Soil Fauna

    OpenAIRE

    Volpato, A.; WR Lorenzetti; T Zortea; LCDD Giombelli; Baretta,D.; RCV Santos; RA Vaucher; RP Raffin; ME Souza; LM Stefani; AA Boligon; ML Athayde; AS da Silva

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro bioactivity of tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) essential oil against larvae and adult forms of lesser mealworms (Alphitobius diaperinus) and its influence on the soil fauna. Tests were performed in triplicate using pure tea tree oil (TTO; 1, 5, 10, 25, 50, and 100%), TTO nanoparticles (1, 3, and 7.5%), or terpinen-4-ol, the main compound of the tea tree oil, at the same concentrations of TTO. Larvae and adult mortality occurred at ...

  3. Formulation and evaluation of an effective pH balanced topical antimicrobial product containing tea tree oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biju, S S; Ahuja, A; Khar, R K; Chaudhry, R

    2005-03-01

    The effect of pH on the antimicrobial activity of Melaleuca alternifolia essential oil formulations was studied. Microemulsions, liposomal dispersions, multiple emulsions and a colloidal bed of sterile clay were formulated using 5% w/w of tea tree oil. A number of formulations were prepared at various pH values (5.0, 5.5, 6.0, 6.5, and 7.0). Thermal stability studies showed that the formulations were stable for more than eight months. Agar dilution tests showed MICs of 1.0% v/v S. aureus and S. epidermidis. In the broth dilution test, MBC of the oil for P. acnes was 0.5% v/v. MIC and MBC values were comparable to those of non-formulated tea tree oil, indicating that tea tree oil retained its activity in the above-mentioned formulations. The microbiological evaluation showed that the formulations containing 5% w/w tea tree oil had a maximum effect at pH 5.5.

  4. Antifungal effect of Australian tea tree oil on Malassezia pachydermatis isolated from canines suffering from cutaneous skin disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weseler, A; Geiss, H K; Saller, R; Reichling, J

    2002-05-01

    The lipophilic yeast Malassezia pachydermatis is part of the normal skin flora of most warm-blooded organisms. In a number of surveys it could be demonstrated that this yeast species might be involved in different skin diseases like seborrhoeic dermatitis, especially in dogs and cats. In order to look for an alternative therapeutic agent to the commonly used antimycotic and antiseptic synthetic substances the in vitro activity of Australian tea tree oil, the essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia, against several strains of Malassezia pachydermatis was examined. All tested strains showed remarkably high susceptibility to tea tree oil. With these results the excellent antibacterial activity of tea tree oil is extended to a new group of fungal pathogens colonizing mainly mammals' skin. During the last ten years there was an increasing popularity of tea tree oil containing human health care products. The presented data open up new horizons for this essential oil as a promising alternative agent for topical use in veterinary medicine as well.

  5. Comparative evaluation of co-enzyme Q10 and Melaleuca alternifolia as antioxidant gels in treatment of chronic periodontitis: A clinical study

    OpenAIRE

    Chetan Purushottam Raut; Kunal S Sethi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Conventional nonsurgical periodontal therapy has been proven to be an effective treatment for patients with chronic periodontitis. Coenzyme Q10 and tea tree oil (TTO) are known to have potential therapeutic benefits in chronic periodontitis. Aims: The aim of the study is to compare the efficacy of Coenzyme Q10 (Perio Q® ) and tea tree oil (Melaleuca alternifolia) gel as an adjunct to scaling and root planing in the treatment of chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods: Patient...

  6. TEA TREE OIL: AS A PROMISING ANTIMICROBIAL AGENT (UMUT VAAT EDEN BİR ANTİMİKROBİYAL: TEA TREE OIL (ÇAY AĞACI YAĞI))

    OpenAIRE

    TEZGÜL ÇAKIR, Nalan; KALEAĞASI, Sakine; KÖKDİL, Gamze

    2005-01-01

    Tea tree oil (TTO, Çay ağacı yağı), Avusturalya’da doğal olarak yetişen Melaleuca alternifolia(Myrtaceae)’nın yapraklarından buhar distilasyonu ile elde edilen bir uçucu yağdır ve Avusturalya’da 80 yılıaşkın süredir topikal antiseptik olarak kullanılmaktadır. Yapılan araştırmalar yağın yüksek terpinen-4-oliçeriğine atfedilen geniş spektrumlu antimikrobiyal aktiviteye sahip olduğunu doğrulamaktadır. Son yıllardayapılmış klinik denemeler ümit vericidir. Son onbeş yılda tea tre oil, doğal kaynak...

  7. Tea tree oil attenuates experimental contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallengren, Joanna

    2011-07-01

    Herbs and minerals have been used in clinical dermatology for hundreds of years and herbal ingredients are becoming increasingly popular with the public in treatment of various dermatological conditions characterised by inflammation and pruritus. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of traditional topical therapeutic agents with a moderate potency topical glucocorticoid on experimental contact dermatitis and contact urticaria. The effects of ichthammol 10% pet, zinc oxide 20% pet, camphor 20% pet, levomenthol 10% pet, tea tree oil 20 or 50% and clobetason butyrate 0.05% ointment were studied in the following experimental models: elicitation of allergic contact dermatitis to nickel, irritant contact dermatitis to benzalkonium chloride, and in immediate reactions to histamine and benzoic acid (non-immunological contact utricaria) respectively. Delayed reactions were evaluated using a clinical scoring system and immediate reactions were estimated by planimetry. Histamine-induced pruritus was evaluated using VAS. Tea tree oil reduced allergic contact dermatitis by 40.5% (p = 0.003), zinc oxide by 17.4% (p = 0.04) and clobetason butyrate by 23.5% (p = 0.01). Zinc oxide reduced histamine induced flare by 18.5% (p = 0.01), ichthammol by 19.2% (p = 0.02) and clobetason butyrate by 44.1% (p = 0.02). Irritant contact dermatitis and non-immunological contact urticaria were not influenced by the pre-treatments. Pruritus induced by histamine also remained unchanged. In conclusion, tea tree oil seems to be a more effective anti-eczematic agent than zinc oxide and clobetasone butyrate, while clobetasone butyrate is superior to both ichthammol and zinc oxide in topical treatment of urticarial reactions.

  8. Insecticidal and repellent effects of tea tree and andiroba oils on flies associated with livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klauck, V; Pazinato, R; Stefani, L M; Santos, R C; Vaucher, R A; Baldissera, M D; Raffin, R; Boligon, A; Athayde, M; Baretta, D; Machado, G; DA Silva, A S

    2014-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the insecticidal and repellent effects of tea tree, Melaleuca alternifolia (Myrtales: Myrtaceae), and andiroba, Carapa guianensis (Sapindales: Meliaceae), essential oils on two species of fly. For in vitro studies, free-living adult flies were captured and reared in the laboratory. To evaluate the insecticidal effects of the oils, adult flies of Haematobia irritans (L.) and Musca domestica L. (both: Diptera: Muscidae) were separated by species in test cages (n = 10 per group), and subsequently tested with oils at concentrations of 1.0% and 5.0% using a negative control to validate the test. Both oils showed insecticidal activity. Tea tree oil at a concentration of 5.0% was able to kill M. domestica with 100.0% efficacy after 12 h of exposure. However, the effectiveness of andiroba oil at a concentration of 5.0% was only 67.0%. The insecticidal efficacy (100.0%) of both oils against H. irritans was observed at both concentrations for up to 4 h. The repellency effects of the oils at concentrations of 5.0% were tested in vivo on Holstein cows naturally infested by H. irritans. Both oils demonstrated repellency at 24 h, when the numbers of flies on cows treated with tea tree and andiroba oil were 61.6% and 57.7%, respectively, lower than the number of flies on control animals. It is possible to conclude that these essential oils have insecticidal and repellent effects against the species of fly used in this study.

  9. Is ascaridol het contact-allergeen in tea tree oil?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuttelaar, M.L.A.; Christoffers, W.A.; Blömeke, B.; Coenraads, P.J.

    2013-01-01

    Tea tree oil is used as a natural remedy, but is also a popular ingredient in household and cosmetic products. Oxidation of tea tree oil may result in degradation products, such as ascaridole, which may cause allergic contact dermatitis. We investigated the prevalence of sensitization to ascaridole,

  10. The yield of essential oils in Melaleuca alternifolia (Myrtaceae is regulated through transcript abundance of genes in the MEP pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamish Webb

    Full Text Available Medicinal tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia leaves contain large amounts of an essential oil, dominated by monoterpenes. Several enzymes of the chloroplastic methylerythritol phosphate (MEP pathway are hypothesised to act as bottlenecks to the production of monoterpenes. We investigated, whether transcript abundance of genes encoding for enzymes of the MEP pathway were correlated with foliar terpenes in M. alternifolia using a population of 48 individuals that ranged in their oil concentration from 39 -122 mg x g DM(-1. Our study shows that most genes in the MEP pathway are co-regulated and that the expression of multiple genes within the MEP pathway is correlated with oil yield. Using multiple regression analysis, variation in expression of MEP pathway genes explained 87% of variation in foliar monoterpene concentrations. The data also suggest that sesquiterpenes in M. alternifolia are synthesised, at least in part, from isopentenyl pyrophosphate originating from the plastid via the MEP pathway.

  11. Effect of Australian tea tree oil on Gyrodactylus spp. infection of the three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steverding, Dietmar; Morgan, Edward; Tkaczynski, Patrick; Walder, Foster; Tinsley, Richard

    2005-08-09

    Gyrodactylus spp. infections of commercially farmed fishes are responsible for significant economic losses. Existing treatments have proved uneconomic, stressful to the fishes, and ecologically damaging. Essential oils are naturally occurring compounds that exhibit a wide range of anti-microbial and anti-fungal activities. This study explored the possibility of using Australian tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) oil (TTO) to treat Gyrodactylus spp. infection on the three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus. In the presence of 0.01 % Tween 80 as an emulsifier, TTO treatments at concentrations between 3 and 30 ppmv (parts per million by volume) lowered the prevalence and significantly reduced the parasite burden of sticklebacks naturally infected with Gyrodactylus spp. In addition, Tween 80 alone exhibited parasiticidal activity against Gyrodactylus spp. These findings show the potential of TTO in combination with Tween 80 as an effective treatment of Gyrodactylus spp. infection of fishes.

  12. Activity of tea tree oil and nerolidol alone or in combination against Pediculus capitis (head lice) and its eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Campli, Emanuela; Di Bartolomeo, Soraya; Delli Pizzi, Patricia; Di Giulio, Mara; Grande, Rossella; Nostro, Antonia; Cellini, Luigina

    2012-11-01

    Head lice infestation is an emerging social problem in undeveloped and developed countries. Because of louse resistance increasing, several long-used insecticidal compounds have lost their efficacy, and alternatives, such as essential oils, have been proposed to treat this parasitic infestation. The present study investigated the efficacy of two natural substances: tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) oil and nerolidol (3,7,11-trimethyl-1,6,10-dodecatrien-3-ol) against lice and its eggs. Products were used alone and in combination (ratio 1:1 and 1:2) from 8 % dilution. The in vitro effect of natural substances at different concentrations were evaluated against 69 head lice (adults and nymphs) and 187 louse eggs collected from school children in Chieti-Pescara (Central Italy) over a 6-month period. The lice mortality was evaluated for 24 h by a stereo light microscope. The ovicidal activity was monitored by microscopic inspections for 15 days. Tea tree oil was more effective than nerolidol against head lice with 100 % mortality at 30 min and 1 % concentration. On the contrary, nerolidol expressed a more pronounced ovicidal activity inducing the failure of 50 % of the eggs to hatch at 1 % concentration after 4 days; the same effect was achieved by using a twice concentration of tea tree oil. The association of the two substances both in ratios 1:1 and 1:2 combined efficaciously their insecticidal and ovicidal effect; in particular, the ratio 1:2 (tea tree oil 0.5 % plus nerolidol 1 %) acted producing both the death of all head lice at 30 min and the abortive effect of louse eggs after 5 days. These results offer new potential application of natural compounds and display a promising scenario in the treatment of pediculosis resistant cases. The development of novel pediculicides containing essential oils could be, in fact, an important tool to control the parasitic infestation.

  13. An evaluation of tea tree oil as an alternative microbicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willcox, Mick

    Tea tree oil is a popular ingredient in complementary medicines and beauty products. This literature review reveals some evidence of efficacy as an antiseptic, antibacterial and antifungal in topical application but also highlights dermatitis as a potential side-effect.

  14. Prepubertal gynecomastia linked to lavender and tea tree oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henley, Derek V; Lipson, Natasha; Korach, Kenneth S; Bloch, Clifford A

    2007-02-01

    Most cases of male prepubertal gynecomastia are classified as idiopathic. We investigated possible causes of gynecomastia in three prepubertal boys who were otherwise healthy and had normal serum concentrations of endogenous steroids. In all three boys, gynecomastia coincided with the topical application of products that contained lavender and tea tree oils. Gynecomastia resolved in each patient shortly after the use of products containing these oils was discontinued. Furthermore, studies in human cell lines indicated that the two oils had estrogenic and antiandrogenic activities. We conclude that repeated topical exposure to lavender and tea tree oils probably caused prepubertal gynecomastia in these boys.

  15. The influence of the essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia on the healing of infected dental alveoli: a histological study in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Kreuger,Maria Regina Orofino; Ternes,Carlos Eduardo; Mello,Leonardo Lamim; Cruz,Alexandre Bella; Leite,Silvana Nair; Tames,David Rivero

    2007-01-01

    The plant Melaleuca alternifolia is native to Australia. The distillation of its leaves produces an essential oil, commonly known as oil of Melaleuca, or Tea tree oil, which present antimicrobial activity. This study investigates the action of this oil on the repair process of infected dental alveoli. 48 rats were used (Rattus novergicus albinus, Wistar). After tooth extraction and posterior infection of the dental alveoli with Staphylococcus aureus, the animals were separated into three grou...

  16. Evaluation of in vitro leishmanicidal activity of tea tree oil (Melaleuca alternifolia)

    OpenAIRE

    Moradali Fouladvand; Soliman khorami; Behrooz Naeimi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Leishmania is a trypanosomatid protozoan which is transmitted by the female Phlebotomus sand fly. Leishmaniasis is prevalent in four continents and is considered to be endemic in 88 countries, 72 of which are developing countries. It is estimated that it’s global prevalence and incidence is 12 millions and 500 thousands respectively. The recommended drugs used for the treatment of this disease are mainly ineffective, toxic and exhibit many side effects. Based on some studies...

  17. Pharmaceutical and medicinal aspects of Australian tea tree oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sailer, R; Berger, T; Reichling, J; Harkenthal, M

    1998-12-01

    The essential tea tree oil has been widely used in modern medicine and cosmetics in recent years. Although there are clinical data to show the benefical effects (e.g. antiseptic, antimicrobial, antioxidative) of this oil, dose-response studies are lacking. This paper reviews the clinical use of this essential oil, especially as a topical application.

  18. Is ascaridole a sensitizing degradation product in tea tree oil?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christoffers, Wietske Andrea; Blömeke, Brunhilde; Coenraads, Pieter Jan; Schuttelaar, Marielouise

    2014-01-01

    Background: Tea tree oil is a natural oil, which contains a-terpinene. Degradation of a-terpinene results in the endoperoxide ascaridole, which may cause allergic contact dermatitis. Objectives: To study the prevalence of sensitizations to ascaridole, the optimal patch test concentration, concomitan

  19. The influence of the essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia on the healing of infected dental alveoli: a histological study in rats Influência do óleo essencial de Melaleuca alternifolia na cicatrização de alveolite dental infectada: um estudo histológico em ratos

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Regina Orofino Kreuger; Carlos Eduardo Ternes; Leonardo Lamim Mello; Alexandre Bella Cruz; Silvana Nair Leite; David Rivero Tames

    2007-01-01

    The plant Melaleuca alternifolia is native to Australia. The distillation of its leaves produces an essential oil, commonly known as oil of Melaleuca, or Tea tree oil, which present antimicrobial activity. This study investigates the action of this oil on the repair process of infected dental alveoli. 48 rats were used (Rattus novergicus albinus, Wistar). After tooth extraction and posterior infection of the dental alveoli with Staphylococcus aureus, the animals were separated into three grou...

  20. The dynamics and mechanism of the antimicrobial activity of tea tree oil against bacteria and fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-Ru; Li, Hai-Ling; Shi, Qing-Shan; Sun, Ting-Li; Xie, Xiao-Bao; Song, Bin; Huang, Xiao-Mo

    2016-10-01

    Tea tree oil (TTO) is a yellow liquid extracted from Melaleuca alternifolia. Although the antimicrobial activity of TTO has been known for a long time, its specific antimicrobial effects and mechanism underlying these remain poorly characterized. The present study investigated the chemical composition of TTO and the dynamics and mechanism of its antimicrobial activities in two bacterial and two fungal strains. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis identified alkenes and alcohols as the main constituents of TTO. Terpinen-4-ol was the most abundant individual component, accounting for approximately 23 % of the TTO. Poisoned food technique assessment showed that the minimum inhibitory concentrations of TTO for bacterial strains (Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus) and fungal strains (Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger) were 1.08 and 2.17 mg/mL, respectively. Antimicrobial dynamic curves showed that with increasing concentrations of TTO, the rate of cell killing and the duration of growth lag phase increased correspondingly. These data indicated that TTO produced concentration and time-dependent antimicrobial effects. The minimum bactericidal and fungicidal concentrations of TTO were 2.17, 4.34, and 4.34 against E. coli, S. aureus, and C. albicans, respectively. However, A. niger conidia were not completely eradicated, even after 3 days in the presence of 17.34 mg/mL TTO. Transmission electron microscopy images indicated that TTO penetrated the cell wall and cytoplasmic membrane of all the tested bacterial and fungal strains. TTO may also penetrate fungal organelle membrane. These findings indicated that TTO maybe exerts its antimicrobial effects by compromising the cell membrane, resulting in loss of the cytoplasm and organelle damage, which ultimate leads to cell death.

  1. In Chemico Evaluation of Tea Tree Essential Oils as Skin Sensitizers: Impact of the Chemical Composition on Aging and Generation of Reactive Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avonto, Cristina; Chittiboyina, Amar G; Wang, Mei; Vasquez, Yelkaira; Rua, Diego; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2016-07-18

    Tea tree oil (TTO) is an essential oil obtained from the leaves of Melaleuca alternifolia, M. linariifolia, or M. dissitiflora. Because of the commercial importance of TTO, substitution or adulteration with other tea tree species (such as cajeput, niaouli, manuka, or kanuka oils) is common and may pose significant risks along with perceived health benefits. The distinctive nature, qualitative and quantitative compositional variation of these oils, is responsible for the various pharmacological as well as adverse effects. Authentic TTOs (especially aged ones) have been identified as potential skin sensitizers, while reports of adverse allergic reactions to the other tea trees essential oils are less frequent. Chemical sensitizers are usually electrophilic compounds, and in chemico methods have been developed to identify skin allergens in terms of their ability to bind to biological nucleophiles. However, little information is available on the assessment of sensitization potential of mixtures, such as essential oils, due to their complexity. In the present study, 10 "tea tree" oils and six major TTO constituents have been investigated for their sensitization potential using a fluorescence in chemico method. The reactivity of authentic TTOs was found to correlate with the age of the oils, while the majority of nonauthentic TTOs were less reactive, even after aging. Further thio-trapping experiments with DCYA and characterization by UHPLC-DAD-MS led to the identification of several possible DCYA-adducts which can be used to deduce the structure of the candidate reactive species. The major TTO components, terpinolene, α-terpinene, and terpinene-4-ol, were unstable under accelerated aging conditions, which led to the formation of several DCYA-adducts.

  2. Therapeutic Potential of Tea Tree Oil for Scabies

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Jackson; Carson, Christine F.; Peterson, Greg M; Walton, Shelley F; Hammer, Kate A.; Naunton, Mark; Davey, Rachel C; Spelman, Tim; Dettwiller, Pascale; Kyle, Greg; Cooper, Gabrielle M.; Baby, Kavya E.

    2016-01-01

    Globally, scabies affects more than 130 million people at any time. In the developed world, outbreaks in health institutions and vulnerable communities result in a significant economic burden. A review of the literature demonstrates the emergence of resistance toward classical scabicidal treatments and the lack of effectiveness of currently available scabicides in reducing the inflammatory skin reactions and pyodermal progression that occurs in predisposed patient cohorts. Tea tree oil (TTO) ...

  3. Melaleuca alternifolia Essential Oil against the Lesser Mealworm (Alphitobius diaperinus and Its Possible Effect on the Soil Fauna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Volpato

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro bioactivity of tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia essential oil against larvae and adult forms of lesser mealworms (Alphitobius diaperinus and its influence on the soil fauna. Tests were performed in triplicate using pure tea tree oil (TTO; 1, 5, 10, 25, 50, and 100%, TTO nanoparticles (1, 3, and 7.5%, or terpinen-4-ol, the main compound of the tea tree oil, at the same concentrations of TTO. Larvae and adult mortality occurred at concentrations up to 10 and 50% of TTO, respectively. No larvicidal or insecticidal effect of TTO nanoparticles was observed. Terpinen-4-ol showed insecticidal and larvicidal effect at concentrations higher than 25%. The evaluation of TTO effect on soil organisms was performed by standard ecotoxicological tests (ISO with the springtail species Folsomia candida. Only TTO was used for ecotoxicological tests in doses of 1, 5, 10, 25, 50, and 100 mg kg-1 of soil. TTO had no negative effects on F. candida survival or reproduction. Therefore, it was concluded that M. alternifolia oil may be a new alternative for control of the lesser mealworm.

  4. Tea tree oil as an alternative topical decolonization agent for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caelli, M; Porteous, J; Carson, C F; Heller, R; Riley, T V

    2000-11-01

    The combination of a 4% tea tree oil nasal ointment and 5% tea tree oil body wash was compared with a standard 2% mupirocin nasal ointment and triclosan body wash for the eradication of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus carriage. The tea tree oil combination appeared to perform better than the standard combination, although the difference was not statistically significant due to the small number of patients.

  5. The optimal patch test concentration for ascaridole as a sensitizing component of tea tree oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christoffers, Wietske Andrea; Bloemeke, Brunhilde; Coenraads, Pieter-Jan; Schuttelaar, Marie-Louise Anna

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tea tree oil is used as a natural remedy, but is also a popular ingredient in household and cosmetic products. Oxidation of tea tree oil results in degradation products, such as ascaridole, which may cause allergic contact dermatitis. OBJECTIVES: To identify the optimal patch test concen

  6. In vitro susceptibility of Madurella mycetomatis, prime agent of Madura foot, to tea tree oil and artemisinin

    OpenAIRE

    Sande, Wendy; Fahal, Ahmed; Riley, Thomas; Verbrugh, Henri; Van Belkum, Alex

    2007-01-01

    textabstractObjectives: Eumycetoma caused by Madurella mycetomatis is treated with surgery and high doses of itraconazole and ketoconazole. These agents are toxic, and new therapies are required. Methods: MICs were determined for artemisinin and tea tree oil, two natural herbal compounds. Results: Artemisinin was not active against M. mycetomatis, but tea tree oil did inhibit its growth. Since tea tree oil's prime component easily penetrates the skin, tea tree oil could be a useful agent in t...

  7. A randomized, controlled trial of tea tree topical preparations versus a standard topical regimen for the clearance of MRSA colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryden, M S; Dailly, S; Crouch, M

    2004-04-01

    Two topical MRSA eradication regimes were compared in hospital patients: a standard treatment included mupirocin 2% nasal ointment, chlorhexidine gluconate 4% soap, silver sulfadiazine 1% cream versus a tea tree oil regimen, which included tea tree 10% cream, tea tree 5% body wash, both given for five days. One hundred and fourteen patients received standard treatment and 56 (49%) were cleared of MRSA carriage. One hundred and ten received tea tree oil regimen and 46 (41%) were cleared. There was no significant difference between treatment regimens (Fisher's exact test; P = 0.0286). Mupirocin was significantly more effective at clearing nasal carriage (78%) than tea tree cream (47%; P = 0.0001) but tea tree treatment was more effective than chlorhexidine or silver sulfadiazine at clearing superficial skin sites and skin lesions. The tea tree preparations were effective, safe and well tolerated and could be considered in regimens for eradication of MRSA carriage.

  8. Ingestion of tea tree oil (Melaleuca oil) by a 4-year-old boy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Marilyn C; Donoghue, Aaron; Markowitz, Jennifer A; Osterhoudt, Kevin C

    2003-06-01

    A 4-year-old boy ingested a small quantity of tea tree oil. Within 30 minutes, he became ataxic and shortly thereafter progressed to unresponsiveness; he was endotracheally intubated by paramedics. His neurologic status improved gradually over 10 hours, and he remains well on follow-up. Tea tree oil is an increasingly popular topical antiseptic that is available in a wide variety of products, often without warning labels. Healthcare providers should be aware of the common uses of tea tree oil, as well as its potential toxicity.

  9. Use of Melaleuca alternifolia Cheel (Myrtaceae) oil in dentistry: perspectives on its use as alternative antimicrobial to infectious diseases of oral origin

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, A.C.M.; Fontana, A; Negrini, T.C.; Nogueira, M.N.M. [UNESP; Bedran, T.B.L.; de Andrade, C R; Spolidorio, L.C. [UNESP; Spolidorio, D.M.P.

    2011-01-01

    O interesse por medicamentos alternativos, principalmente daqueles provenientes de extratos naturais, tem aumentado nas últimas décadas. A Melaleuca alternifolia é um arbusto pertencente ao gênero Melaleuca, popularmente conhecida como "árvore de chá", cujo principal produto é o óleo essencial (TTO - tea tree oil), de grande importância medicinal por possuir comprovada ação bactericida e antifúngica contra diversos patógenos humanos. Em virtude da atividade terapêutica em diversas especialida...

  10. Allergy to tea tree oil: retrospective review of 41 cases with positive patch tests over 4.5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Tim; Nixon, Rosemary; Tam, Mei; Tate, Bruce

    2007-05-01

    Tea tree oil use is increasing, with considerable interest in it being a 'natural' antimicrobial. It is found in many commercially available skin and hair care products in Australia. We retrospectively reviewed our patch test data at the Skin and Cancer Foundation Victoria over a 4.5-year period and identified 41 cases of positive reactions to oxidized tea tree oil of 2320 people patch-tested, giving a prevalence of 1.8%. The tea tree oil reaction was deemed relevant to the presenting dermatitis in 17 of 41 (41%) patients. Of those with positive reactions, 27 of 41 (66%) recalled prior use of tea tree oil and eight of 41 (20%) specified prior application of neat (100%) tea tree oil. Tea tree oil allergic contact dermatitis is under-reported in the literature but is sufficiently common in Australia to warrant inclusion of tea tree oil, at a concentration of 10% in petrolatum, in standard patch-test series. Given tea tree oil from freshly opened tea tree oil products elicits no or weak reactions, oxidized tea tree oil should be used for patch testing.

  11. Population Genetic Analyses of the Fungal Pathogen Colletotrichum fructicola on Tea-Oil Trees in China

    OpenAIRE

    He Li; Guo-Ying Zhou; Jun-Ang Liu; Jianping Xu

    2016-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Colletotrichum fructicola is found in all five continents and is capable of causing severe diseases in a number of economically important plants such as avocado, fig, cocoa, pear, and tea-oil trees. However, almost nothing is known about its patterns of genetic variation and epidemiology on any of its host plant species. Here we analyzed 167 isolates of C. fructicola obtained from the leaves of tea-oil tree Camellia oleifera at 15 plantations in seven Chinese provinces....

  12. Pediatric tea tree oil aspiration treated with surfactant in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, David B; Wang, George S; Buchanan, Jennie A

    2015-04-01

    Tea tree oil is an essential oil containing a mixture of aromatic hydrocarbons. We describe an 18-month-old male patient who ingested tea tree oil, developed central nervous system depression, respiratory distress, and received early emergency department treatment with surfactant. Early treatment of hydrocarbon pneumonitis with surfactant has not been previously described. Early administration of surfactant should be further evaluated for treatment of hydrocarbon aspiration.

  13. Melaleuca alternifolia anthelmintic activity in gerbils experimentally infected by Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grando, Thirssa H; Baldissera, Matheus D; Gressler, Lucas T; de Sá, Mariângela Facco; Bortoluzzi, Bruna N; Schafer, Andressa S; Ebling, Rafael C; Raffin, Renata P; Santos, Roberto C V; Stefani, Lenita M; Vaucher, Rodrigo; Leal, Marta L R; Monteiro, Silvia G

    2016-11-01

    Gastrointestinal parasites are one of the biggest health problems faced in sheep, mainly due to their pathogenicity and resistance to drugs used to control these parasites. Thus, the following study aimed to assess the anthelmintic efficacy of Melaleuca alternifolia against Haemonchus contortus in gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) experimentally infected. Three treatments were tested: M. alternifolia essential oil, popularly known as tea tree oil (TTO), a solid lipid nanocarrier made with essential oil of Melaleuca (nanoTTO), and terpinen-4-ol (terp-4-ol). In vivo studies were performed by determining the mean worm burden of H. contortus in gerbils TTO (0.75 mL/kg); nanoTTO (0.5 mL/kg) and terp-4-ol (0.5 mL l/kg) were able to reduce 46.36%; 48.64%, and 43.18% worm burden, respectively. H. contortus increased alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels, as demonstrated by liver injury. It was found that the TTO, nanoTTO, and terp-4-ol were not toxic to liver and kidneys since hepatic and renal functions were not affected. Moreover, terp-4-ol was able to prevent increased levels of seric AST and ALT in infected animals, indicating a hepatoprotective effect. Thus, our results indicate that TTO, nanoTTO, and terp-4-ol are safe and efficient against H. contortus infection in gerbils, and possibly the terp-4-ol may be considered the compound present in the Melaleuca alternifolia responsible for parasitic action against H. contortus.

  14. Therapeutic Potential of Tea Tree Oil for Scabies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jackson; Carson, Christine F; Peterson, Greg M; Walton, Shelley F; Hammer, Kate A; Naunton, Mark; Davey, Rachel C; Spelman, Tim; Dettwiller, Pascale; Kyle, Greg; Cooper, Gabrielle M; Baby, Kavya E

    2016-02-01

    Globally, scabies affects more than 130 million people at any time. In the developed world, outbreaks in health institutions and vulnerable communities result in a significant economic burden. A review of the literature demonstrates the emergence of resistance toward classical scabicidal treatments and the lack of effectiveness of currently available scabicides in reducing the inflammatory skin reactions and pyodermal progression that occurs in predisposed patient cohorts. Tea tree oil (TTO) has demonstrated promising acaricidal effects against scabies mites in vitro and has also been successfully used as an adjuvant topical medication for the treatment of crusted scabies, including cases that did not respond to standard treatments. Emerging acaricide resistance threatens the future usefulness of currently used gold standard treatments (oral ivermectin and topical permethrin) for scabies. The imminent development of new chemical entities is doubtful. The cumulative acaricidal, antibacterial, antipruritic, anti-inflammatory, and wound healing effects of TTO may have the potential to successfully reduce the burden of scabies infection and the associated bacterial complications. This review summarizes current knowledge on the use of TTO for the treatment of scabies. On the strength of existing data for TTO, larger scale, randomized controlled clinical trials are warranted.

  15. Tea tree oil: contact allergy and chemical composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Anton C; Schmidt, Erich

    2016-09-01

    In this article, contact allergy to, and the chemical composition of, tea tree oil (TTO) are reviewed. This essential oil is a popular remedy for many skin diseases, and may be used as neat oil or be present in cosmetics, topical pharmaceuticals and household products. Of all essential oils, TTO has caused most (published) allergic reactions since the first cases were reported in 1991. In routine testing, prevalences of positive patch test reactions have ranged from 0.1% to 3.5%. Nearly 100 allergic patients have been described in case reports and case series. The major constituents of commercial TTO are terpinen-4-ol, γ-terpinene, 1,8-cineole, α-terpinene, α-terpineol, p-cymene, and α-pinene. Fresh TTO is a weak to moderate sensitizer, but oxidation increases its allergenic potency. The major sensitizers appear to be ascaridole, terpinolene, α-terpinene, 1,2,4-trihydroxymenthane, α-phellandrene, and limonene. The clinical picture of allergic contact dermatitis caused by TTO depends on the products used. Most reactions are caused by the application of pure oil; cosmetics are the culprits in a minority of cases. Patch testing may be performed with 5% oxidized TTO. Co-reactivity to turpentine oil is frequent, and there is an overrepresentation of reactions to fragrance mix I, Myroxylon pereirae, colophonium, and other essential oils.

  16. Time-kill studies of tea tree oils on clinical isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, J; Chan, C H; King, A; Williams, L; French, G L

    2000-05-01

    Tea tree oil has recently emerged as an effective topical antimicrobial agent active against a wide range of organisms. Tea tree oil may have a clinical application in both the hospital and community, especially for clearance of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) carriage or as a hand disinfectant to prevent cross-infection with Gram-positive and Gramnegative epidemic organisms. Our study, based on the time-kill approach, determined the kill rate of tea tree oil against several multidrug-resistant organisms, including MRSA, glycopeptide-resistant enterococci, aminoglycoside-resistant klebsiellae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, and also against sensitive microorganisms. The study was performed with two chemically different tea tree oils. One was a standard oil and the other was Clone 88 extracted from a specially bred tree, which has been selected and bred for increased activity and decreased skin irritation. Our results confirm that the cloned oil had increased antimicrobial activity when compared with the standard oil. Most results indicated that the susceptibility pattern and Gram reaction of the organism did not influence the kill rate. A rapid killing time (less than 60 min) was achieved with both tea tree oils with most isolates, but MRSA was killed more slowly than other organisms.

  17. Immediate systemic hypersensitivity reaction associated with topical application of Australian tea tree oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozelsio, Nancy B; Harris, Kathleen E; McGrath, Kris G; Grammer, Leslie C

    2003-01-01

    Australian tea tree oil has been used as a veterinary antiseptic for many years and, more recently, has been extended into human use. There have been many reports of allergic contact dermatitis and toxicity reactions, but it has never been implicated in immediate systemic hypersensitivity reactions. A 38-year-old man experienced immediate flushing, pruritus, throat constriction, and lightheadedness after topical application of tea tree oil. Our purpose was to determine whether this represented an immunoglobulin E (IgE)--mediated reaction. Skin-prick and intradermal testing was performed, as well as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for specific IgG and IgE against tea tree oil. The patient had a positive wheal and flare reaction on intradermal testing with tea tree oil. All five patient controls were negative on skin testing. No specific IgG or IgE was detected. We present the first reported case of an immediate systemic hypersensitivity reaction occurring after topical application of Australian tea tree oil, confirmed by positive wheal and flare reaction on skin testing.

  18. [Absorption of Uranium with Tea Oil Tree Sawdust Modified by Succinic Acid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-feng; Chen, Di-yun; Peng, Yan; Liu, Yong-sheng; Xiong, Xue-ying

    2015-05-01

    In order to explore how the modification of succinic acid improves the adsorption of tea oil tree sawdust for uranium, the tea oil tree sawdust was modified by succinic acid, after the pretreatments of crushing, screening, alkalization and acidification. Infrared analysis indicated carboxylic acid groups and ester groups were added to the sawdust after modification, and scanning electron microscope demonstrated after modification the appearance of tea oil tree sawdust was transferred from the structure like compact and straight stripped into the structure like loose and wrinkled leaves, which meant modification increased its inner pores. By the static experiments, effects of reaction time between adsorbent and solvent, dosage of adsorbent, temperature, pH value and initial concentration of uranium were investigated. The results showed that after the modification by succinic acid, the absorption rate of tea oil tree sawdust for uranium increased significantly by about 20% in 12.5 mg · L(-1) initial concentration uranium solution. Adsorption equilibrium was achieved within 180 min, and the kinetic data can be well described by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The experimental adsorption isotherm followed the Langmuir and Freundlich models. In addition, the maximum adsorption amounts of tea oil tree sawdust after modification calculated from Langmuir equation raised from 21.413 3 to 31.545 7 mg · g(-1) at 35°C and pH 4.0.

  19. Emprego do óleo de Melaleuca alternifolia Cheel (Myrtaceae) na odontologia: perspectivas quanto à utilização como antimicrobiano alternativo às doenças infecciosas de origem bucal

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, A.C.M.; Fontana, A; Negrini, T.C.; Nogueira, M.N.M. [UNESP; Bedran, T.B.L.; de Andrade, C R; Spolidorio, L.C. [UNESP; Spolidorio, D.M.P.

    2011-01-01

    O interesse por medicamentos alternativos, principalmente daqueles provenientes de extratos naturais, tem aumentado nas últimas décadas. A Melaleuca alternifolia é um arbusto pertencente ao gênero Melaleuca, popularmente conhecida como "árvore de chá", cujo principal produto é o óleo essencial (TTO - tea tree oil), de grande importância medicinal por possuir comprovada ação bactericida e antifúngica contra diversos patógenos humanos. Em virtude da atividade terapêutica em diversas especialida...

  20. Quality evaluation of Terpinen-4-ol type Australian Tea Tree oils and commercial products: An integrated approach using conventional and chiral GC/MS combined with chemometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conventional GC/MS, chiral GC/MS and chemometric techniques were used to evaluate a large set of tea tree oils (TTO) and commercial products purported to contain tea tree oils. Fifty-seven known provenance pure Australian tea tree oils and forty-seven commercial TTO products were investigated. Twent...

  1. Evaluation of fast enantioselective multidimensional gas chromatography methods for monoterpenic compounds: Authenticity control of Australian tea tree oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Yong Foo; West, Rachel N; Chin, Sung-Tong; Marriott, Philip J

    2015-08-07

    This work demonstrates the potential of fast multiple heart-cut enantioselective multidimensional gas chromatography (GC-eGC) and enantioselective comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (eGC×GC), to perform the stereoisomeric analysis of three key chiral monoterpenes (limonene, terpinen-4-ol and α-terpineol) present in tea tree oil (TTO). In GC-eGC, separation was conducted using a combination of mid-polar first dimension ((1)D) column and a chiral second dimension ((2)D) column, providing interference-free enantioresolution of the individual antipodes of each optically active component. A combination of (1)D chiral column and (2)D polar columns (ionic liquid and wax phases) were tested for the eGC×GC study. Quantification was proposed based on summation of two major modulated peaks for each antipode, displaying comparable results with those derived from GC-eGC. Fast chiral separations were achieved within 25min for GC-eGC and<20min for eGC×GC, while ensuring adequate interference-free enantiomer separation. The suitability of using these two enantioselective multidimensional approaches for the routine assessment of chiral monoterpenes in TTO was evaluated and discussed. Exact enantiomeric composition of chiral markers for authentic TTOs was proposed by analysing a representative number of pure TTOs sourced directly from plantations of known provenance in Australia. Consistent enantiomeric fractions of 61.6±1.5% (+):38.4±1.5% (-) for limonene, 61.7±1.6% (+):38.3±1.6% (-) for terpinen-4-ol and 79.6±1.4% (+):20.4±1.4% (-) for α-terpineol were obtained for the 57 authentic Australian TTOs. The results were compared (using principle component analysis) with commercial TTOs (declared as derived from Melaleuca alternifolia) obtained from different continents. Assessing these data to determine adulteration, or additives that affect the enantiomeric ratios, in commercially sourced TTOs is discussed. The proposed method offers distinct advantages over e

  2. Is tea tree oil effective at eradicating MRSA colonization? A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaxman, Deborah; Griffiths, Peter

    2005-03-01

    In vitro studies show that tea tree oil is capable of killing methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in a laboratory setting. This review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was undertaken to find out whether it is effective at eradicating MRSA colonization compared to standard mupirocin-based regimens in colonized patients. A wide range of databases and internet sources were searched to identify published and unpublished studies. Two RCTs were found that researched the effectiveness of tea tree oil preparations against MRSA. One small RCT (n = 30) showed a large but non-significant improvement at eradicating MRSA compared to traditional treatment, whereas a larger study (n = 224) demonstrated little difference in rates of eradication overall (41% for tea tree and 49% for mupirocin, p = 0.286). However, the larger study found that those with nasal colonization receiving a tea tree regimen were more likely to remain colonized with MRSA in the nose (absolute risk increase 31%, ptea tree oil in clinical practice for eradication of MRSA colonization.

  3. Evaluation of the effectiveness of tea tree oil in treatment of Acanthamoeba infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadaś, Edward; Derda, Monika; Cholewiński, Marcin

    2017-03-01

    Eye diseases caused by amoebae from the genus Acanthamoeba are usually chronic and severe, and their treatment is prolonged and not very effective. The difficulties associated with therapy have led to attempts at finding alternative treatment methods. Particularly popular is searching for cures among drugs made of plants. However, no substances with total efficacy in treating Acanthamoeba keratitis have been identified.Results of our semi in vivo studies of tea tree oil simulating eyeball infection demonstrated 100% effectiveness in the case of both trophozoites and cysts of amoebae from the genus Acanthamoeba. The action of tea tree oil indicates that this is the first substance with a potential ability to quickly and effectively remove the amoebae from the eye. Tea tree oil has the ability to penetrate tissues, which allows it to destroy amoebae in both the shallow and deep layers of the cornea. The present research into the use of tea tree oil in the therapy of Acanthamoeba infection is the first study of this type in parasitology. It offers tremendous potential for effective treatment of Acanthamoeba keratitis and other diseases caused by these protozoa.

  4. Exposure to tea tree oil enhances the mating success of male Mediterranean fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aroma of various plant essential oils has been shown to enhance the mating competitiveness of males of the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). Laboratory observations revealed that male medflies show strong short-range attraction to tea tree oil (TTO hereafter) deri...

  5. Tea tree oil concentration in follicular casts after topical delivery: determination by high-performance thin layer chromatography using a perfused bovine udder model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biju, S S; Ahuja, Alka; Khar, Roop K

    2005-02-01

    Tea tree oil, a popular antimicrobial agent is recommended for the treatment of acne vulgaris, a disease of the pilosebaceous unit. Tea tree oil formulations (colloidal bed, microemulsion, multiple emulsion, and liposomal dispersion containing 5% w/w tea tree oil) were applied to bovine udder skin. The follicular uptake of tea tree oil upon application was determined by a cyanoacrylate method. Tea tree oil was determined by quantifying terpinen-4-ol content using high-performance thin layer chromatography. The accumulation of tea tree oil in the follicular casts was 0.43 +/- 0.01, 0.41 +/- 0.009, 0.21 +/- 0.006, and 0.16 +/- 0.005 percentage by weight (milligram oil/gram of sebum plug) for microemulsion, liposomal dispersion, multiple emulsion, and colloidal bed, respectively. This is the first study of its kind to quantify tea tree oil concentration in the follicles.

  6. 不同遮荫树种对茶园土壤和茶叶品质的影响%Effects of different single shaded trees on soil and tea quality of different tree-tea intercrop gardens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽娟; 朱兴正; 毛加梅; 汪云刚; 刘德和; 高丽洪; 唐建维

    2011-01-01

    通过对杉木+茶、樟树+茶、山苍子+茶三种间作茶园的土壤状况(养分、水分、容重)和茶叶主要生化成分(氨基酸、茶多酚、儿茶素、水浸出物、咖啡碱)与纯茶园的比较分析,结果表明:樟+茶间作茶园和山苍子+茶间作茶园可有效提高表土层(0~20 cm)有机质和全氮含量,并可改善土壤水分和容重,而杉木+茶的土壤养分(全钾除外)和水分含量偏低;三种间作茶园中茶叶的咖啡碱含量都高于纯茶园,而茶多酚、儿茶素含量及酚氨比均低于纯茶园,其中杉木+茶间作茶园的茶多酚和儿茶素含量和樟+茶间作茶园的酚氨比显著低于纯茶园(ANOVA,p<0.05).茶叶质量以樟+茶间作茶园中的茶叶品质最优.在三种间作茶园中,樟+茶间作茶园和山苍子+茶间作茶园较杉木+茶间作茶园更适宜在气候条件相似的茶区推广种植.%Comparisons between tea garden soil conditions (nutrient, water, bulk density) and main biochemical components of tea tree(amino acid, tea poolyphenol, catechin, water extraction, theine) in the three gardens(China fir-tea, Camphor tree-tea,Litsea pungent-tea,)and those in the monoculture tea garden were carried out in Menghai county,Xishuangbanna, Yunaa The sample plots are with a size of 20 m × 25 m, and soil samples at five different soil layers (0~20 cm, 20~40 cm, 40~60 cm, 60~80 cm, 80~100 cm) in March and tea samples in May, 2010 were taken in each plots. The results show that Camphor tree-tea and Litsea pungens-tez intercrop gardens could improve the moisture content and organic matter and total nitrogen contents of the topsoil (0~20 cm), as well as reduced soil bulk density compared with monoculture tea gardens, but the soil nutrient (except for total potassium) and moisture contents were the lowest in China fir-tea garden among three intercrop tree-tea gardens. Concerning the tea quality, theine contents of tea were higher, and tea polyhenols and catechin content

  7. Nutrition and safety assessments of Pleurotus ostreatus cultured with tea tree residues%澳洲茶树树渣栽培平菇的营养与安全性评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李挺; 宋斌; 林敏; 黄浩; 郑永发

    2015-01-01

    The nutritional components and the safety of Pleurotus ostreatus (oyster mushroom) cultured with tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) residues were evaluated.The results showed that the content of crude protein,crude fiber,crude fat and ash of the oyster mushroom was 37.0%,10.5%,1.2% and 6.1%,respectively.The content of total amino acids was higher than those in the control groups from the references.The evaluation of nutritional value of protein showed that amino acids of the oyster mushrooms cultured with tea tree could meet the basic human needs.The trace elements ratios of zinc to copper and zinc to iron were in the appropriate range respectively.The contents of mercury,lead,arsenic and cadmium were conformed to the green food standards-edible mushrooms (NY/T 749-2012).The acute oral toxicity test indicated that the oyster mushroom cultured with tea tree residues was non-toxic food.The results showed that the tea tree residues were the excellent materials to cultivate oyster mushroom.They are worthy of popularization and application.%对澳洲茶树(互叶白千层)树渣栽培的平菇子实体进行营养和安全性评价.结果显示,澳洲茶树平菇的粗蛋白、粗纤维、粗脂肪和灰分含量分别为37.0%、10.5%、1.2%和6.1%,氨基酸总量高于文献对照组.蛋白质营养评价表明,澳洲茶树平菇的氨基酸能满足人体基本需要;微量元素中铜、铁与锌的比值较为合理;重金属汞、铅、砷、镉的含量均符合绿色食品——食用菌(NY/T 749-2012)的卫生指标要求;急性经口毒性试验证明,澳洲茶树平菇为无毒级食品.

  8. Antimicrobial efficacy of silver ions in combination with tea tree oil against ; and

    OpenAIRE

    Low, W.L.; Martin, C.; Hill, D J; Kenward, M A

    2011-01-01

    International audience; Tea tree oil (TTO) and silver ions (Ag), either alone or in combination with other antimicrobial compounds, have been used in the treatment of topical infections. However, there appears to be little data on the efficacy of TTO combined with silver in the absence of any other agents. TTO and Ag were added, alone and in combination, to suspension cultures of , and . Treatment of these cultures with TTO and Ag at sub-minimal lethal concentrations resulted in an enhanced l...

  9. A randomized controlled trial of topical tea tree preparation for MRSA colonized wounds

    OpenAIRE

    Rainbow L.P. Lee; Polly H.M. Leung; Wong, Thomas K S

    2014-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of MRSA (Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) colonized wounds in home care residents is expected to grow continuously as a result of the substantial proportion of older people requiring institutionalized care due to chronic disease and declining functional status, which contribute to more frequent skin breakdown and wound formation. Tea tree oil has been claimed to have anti-bacterial, analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects that have been suggested in many...

  10. EVALUATION OF THE TEA TREE OIL ACTIVITY TO ANAEROBIC BACTERIA--IN VITRO STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziółkowska-Klinkosz, Marta; Kedzia, Anna; Meissner, Hhenry O; Kedzia, Andrzej W

    2016-01-01

    The study of the sensitivity to tea tree oil (Australian Company TTD International Pty. Ltd. Sydney) was carried out on 193 strains of anaerobic bacteria isolated from patients with various infections within the oral cavity and respiratory tracts. The susceptibility (MIC) of anaerobes was determined by means of plate dilution technique in Brucella agar supplemented with 5% defibrinated sheep blood, menadione and hemin. Inoculum contained 10(5) CFU per spot was cultured with Steers replicator upon the surface of agar with various tea tree oil concentrations or without oil (anaerobes growth control). Incubation the plates was performed in anaerobic jars under anaerobic conditions at 37 degrees C for 48 h. MIC was defined as the lowest concentrations of the essential oil completely inhibiting growth of anaerobic bacteria. Test results indicate, that among Gram-negative bacteria the most sensitive to essential oil were strains of Veillonella and Porphyromonas species. Essential oil in low concentrations (MIC in the range of = 0.12 - 0.5 mg/mL) inhibited growth of accordingly 80% and 68% strains. The least sensitive were strains of the genus Tannerella, Parabacteroides and Dialister (MIC 1.0 - 2.0 mg/mL). In the case of Gram-positive anaerobic bacteria the tea tree oil was the most active to strains of cocci of the genus Anaerococcus and Ruminococcus (MIC in range = 0.12 - 0.5 mg/mL) or strains of rods of the genus Eubacterium and Eggerthella (MIC = 0.25 mg/mL). Among Gram-positive rods the least sensitive were the strains of the genus Bifidobacterium ( MIC = 2.0 mg/mL). The tea tree oil was more active to Gram-positive than to Gram-negative anaerobic bacteria.

  11. Lavender, tea tree and lemon oils as antimicrobials in washing liquids and soft body balms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunicka-Styczyńska, A; Sikora, M; Kalemba, D

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of commercial essential oils: lavender, tea tree and lemon, antimicrobials in washing liquid and O/W soft body balm. The inhibition efficacy of essential oils in washing liquid (1% alone or in mixtures), in soft body balm (0.5% alone), as well as combined with the synthetic preservative DMDM hydantoin and 3-iodo-2-propynyl butyl carbamate mixture (0.1 and 0.3%), was tested against S. aureus ATCC 6538, P. aeruginosa ATCC 9027, Candida sp. ŁOCK 0008 and A. niger ATCC 16404 in compliance with the European Pharmacopoeia standards. The components of the system preserving soft body balm were supplemented with a solubilizer. Washing liquids containing only essential oils met Criterion A E.P. only for S. aureus, Candida sp. and A. niger. In soft body balm formulations, oils at a concentration of 0.5% did not reveal any preserving activity. The introduction of a solubilizer to a system containing 0.5% tea tree oil led to a substantial increase in the bacteriostatic activity of the formulation, but did not significantly affect its fungistatic properties. A combination of 0.5% tea tree oil, 5% solubilizer and 0.3% synthetic preservative ensured the microbiological stability of soft body balm in accordance with Criterion A E.P.

  12. Does tea tree oil have a place in the topical treatment of burns?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faoagali, J; George, N; Leditschke, J F

    1997-06-01

    Burnaid is a sorbalene-based cream containing 40 mg/g of tea tree oil and 1 mg/g of triclosan. This investigation was carried out to determine the effect of Burnaid, a commercial tea tree oil preparation, against Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC29212), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC29213), Escherichia coli (ATCC25922), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC27853), with the activity of the base product in the commercial preparation. The organisms were suspended in sterile saline (0.5 McFarland Standard) and inoculated onto horse blood agar (E. faecalis and S. aureus) or Mueller-Hinton agar (E. coli and P. aeruginosa). One hundred microliters of Burnaid unsterilized, Burnaid sterilized and the base product (Tinasolve) were placed in duplicate in wells cut into the agar plates. Sterility and inactivation cultures were also performed on the samples. None of the samples were found to be contaminated with bacteria prior to testing. Only S. aureus and E. coli showed zones of growth inhibition around the Burnaid and Tinasolve. Zones of growth inhibition (22 mm) were similar for the active product (Burnaid) and the base (Tinasolve). There was no activity against E. faecalis or P. aeruginosa. In view of our findings and literature indicating the cytotoxicity of tea tree oil against human fibroblasts and epithelial cells, it is recommended that this product should not be used on burn wounds.

  13. Suppression of inflammatory reactions by terpinen-4-ol, a main constituent of tea tree oil, in a murine model of oral candidiasis and its suppressive activity to cytokine production of macrophages in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninomiya, Kentaro; Hayama, Kazumi; Ishijima, Sanae A; Maruyama, Naho; Irie, Hiroshi; Kurihara, Junichi; Abe, Shigeru

    2013-01-01

    The onset of oral candidiasis is accompanied by inflammatory symptoms such as pain in the tongue, edema or tissue damage and lowers the quality of life (QOL) of the patient. In a murine oral candidiasis model, the effects were studied of terpinen-4-ol (T-4-ol), one of the main constituents of tea tree oil, Melaleuca alternifolia, on inflammatory reactions. When immunosuppressed mice were orally infected with Candida albicans, their tongues showed inflammatory symptoms within 24 h after the infection, which was monitored by an increase of myeloperoxidase activity and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 in their tongue homogenates. Oral treatment with 50 µL of 40 mg/mL terpinen-4-ol 3h after the Candida infection clearly suppressed the increase of these inflammatory parameters. In vitro analysis of the effects of terpinen-4-ol on cytokine secretion of macrophages indicated that 800 µg/mL of this substance significantly inhibited the cytokine production of the macrophages cultured in the presence of heat-killed C. albicans cells. Based on these findings, the role of the anti-inflammatory action of T-4-ol in its therapeutic activity against oral candidiasis was discussed.

  14. In vitro activity of lysostaphin, mupirocin, and tea tree oil against clinical methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPlante, Kerry L

    2007-04-01

    Colonization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) commonly leads to infection by the same strain. We examined the activity of lysostaphin, mupirocin, and tea tree oil against clinical MRSA (n = 98) isolates. MIC(50) (range) were as follows: lysostaphin, 0.125 mg/L (0.125-0.25); mupirocin, 0.5 mg/L (0.19-1024); tea tree oil, 1024 mg/L (512-2048). High- and low-level mupirocin resistance was noted in 9.2% of our MRSA isolates. Time kill results indicate MRSA activity at 24 h was lysostaphin = gentamicin = vancomycin (P mupirocin > tea tree oil (P >or= .05). Checkerboard testing indicated a synergistic relationship between lysostaphin and mupirocin in combination with gentamicin. Antagonism was observed with the combination of vancomycin and tea tree oil; time kill studies confirmed this result. Decolonization options are limited and resistance to mupirocin exists. Lysostaphin and tea tree oil may offer additional therapeutic options for the decolonization of MRSA where current treatment alternatives are limited.

  15. The effect of thyme and tea tree oils on morphology and metabolism of Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkowska, Katarzyna; Kunicka-Styczyńska, Alina; Maroszyńska, Marta; Dąbrowska, Mariola

    2014-01-01

    Members of Candida species cause significant problems in medicine and in many industrial branches also. In order to prevent from Candida sp. development, essential oils are more and more frequently applied as natural, non-toxic, non-pollutive and biodegradable agents with a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity. The aim of the research was to determine changes in morphology and metabolic properties of Candida albicans in the presence of thyme and tea tree oils. Changes of enzymatic activity of isolates were observed in the presence of both tested essential oils, and they were primarily associated with loss or decrease of activity of all enzymes detected for control. Furthermore, only for 3 out of 11 isolates additional activity of N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase, α-mannosidase, α-fucosidase and trypsin was detected. Vivid changes in biochemical profiles were found after treatment with tea tree oil and they were related to loss of ability to assimilate D-xylose, D-sorbitol and D-trehalose. The main differences in morphology of isolates compared to the control strain concerned formation of pseudohyphae structures. Both examined essential oils caused changes in cell and colony morphology, as well as in the metabolism of Candida albicans. However, the extent of differences depends on the type and concentration of an essential oil. The most important finding is the broad spectrum of changes in yeast enzymatic profiles induced by thyme and tea tree oils. It can be supposed that these changes, together with loss of ability to assimilate saccharides could significantly impact Candida albicans pathogenicity.

  16. Comparative evaluation of co-enzyme Q10 and Melaleuca alternifolia as antioxidant gels in treatment of chronic periodontitis: A clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chetan Purushottam Raut

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Conventional nonsurgical periodontal therapy has been proven to be an effective treatment for patients with chronic periodontitis. Coenzyme Q10 and tea tree oil (TTO are known to have potential therapeutic benefits in chronic periodontitis. Aims: The aim of the study is to compare the efficacy of Coenzyme Q10 (Perio Q® and tea tree oil (Melaleuca alternifolia gel as an adjunct to scaling and root planing in the treatment of chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods: Patients were divided equally into three groups: Group I (Control group: those receiving placebo gel + SRP, Group II (Test group I: those receiving Perio Q TM gel + SRP, and Group III (Test group II: those receiving tea tree oil gel + SRP. A total of 15 patients with 45 sites were enrolled in the study. Clinical parameters evaluated were plaque index (PI, gingival bleeding index (GI, probing pocket depth (PPD, and clinical attachment level (CAL. Statistical Analysis Used: Paired t-test was applied using SPSS software. Results: Mean PPD reduction for Group I, Group II, and Group III was 0.50 ± 0.2, 2.95 ± 0.20, and 2.09 ± 0.15, respectively. Mean CAL reduction for Group I, Group II, and Group III was 0.45 ± 0.22, 2.33 ± 0.04, and 2.28 ± 0.09, respectively. Changes in mean PI scores for Group I, Group II, and Group III were 0.67 ± 017, 1.00 ± 0.11, and 1.08 ± 0.05 and GBI scores were 0.92 ± 0.29, 1.08 ± 0.13, and 0.88 ± 0.28, respectively. Conclusions: Coenzyme Q10 and tea tree oil gel proved to be effective in the treatment of chronic periodontitis.

  17. Gas gangrene and osteomyelitis of the foot in a diabetic patient treated with tea tree oil

    OpenAIRE

    Cooney, Derek R; Cooney, Norma L.

    2011-01-01

    Diabetic foot wounds represent a class of chronic non-healing wounds that can lead to the development of soft tissue infections and osteomyelitis. We reviewed the case of a 44-year-old female with a diabetic foot wound who developed gas gangrene while treating her wound with tea tree oil, a naturally derived antibiotic agent. This case report includes images that represent clinical examination and x-ray findings of a patient who required broad-spectrum antibiotics and emergent surgical consul...

  18. In vitro and ex vivo activity of Melaleuca alternifolia against protoscoleces of Echinococcus ortleppi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Danieli Urach; Azevedo, Maria Isabel; Weiblen, Carla; DE Avila Botton, Sônia; Funk, Nadine Lysyk; DE Bona DA Silva, Cristiane; Zanette, Régis Adriel; Schwanz, Thiago Guilherme; DE LA Rue, Mário Luiz

    2017-02-01

    Cystic echinococcosis is a zoonotic disease of difficult diagnosis and treatment. The use of protoscolicidal agents in procedures is of utmost importance for treatment success. This study was aimed at analysing the in vitro and ex vivo activity of Melaleuca alternifolia oil (tea tree oil - TTO), its nanoemulsion formulation (NE-TTO) and its major component (terpinen-4-ol) against Echinococcus ortleppi protoscoleces obtained from cattle. Concentrations of 2·5, 5 and 10 mg mL-1 of TTO, 10 mg mL-1 of NE-TTO and 1, 1·5 and 2 mg mL-1 of terpinen-4-ol were evaluated in vitro against protoscoleces at 5, 10, 15 and 30 min. TTO was also injected directly into hydatid cysts (ex vivo analysis, n = 20) and the viability of protoscoleces was evaluated at 5, 15 and 30 min. The results indicated protoscolicidal effect at all tested formulations and concentrations. Terpinen-4-ol (2 mg mL-1) activity was superior when compared with the highest concentration of TTO. NE-TTO reached a gradual protoscolicidal effect. TTO at 20 mg mL-1 showed 90% protoscolicidal action in hydatid cysts at 5 min. The results showed that TTO affects the viability of E. ortleppi protoscoleces, suggesting a new protoscolicidal option to the treatment of cystic equinococcosis.

  19. Melaleuca alternifolia Concentrate Inhibits in Vitro Entry of Influenza Virus into Host Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lifang Jiang

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Influenza virus causes high morbidity among the infected population annually and occasionally the spread of pandemics. Melaleuca alternifolia Concentrate (MAC is an essential oil derived from a native Australian tea tree. Our aim was to investigate whether MAC has any in vitro inhibitory effect on influenza virus infection and what mechanism does the MAC use to fight the virus infection. In this study, the antiviral activity of MAC was examined by its inhibition of cytopathic effects. In silico prediction was performed to evaluate the interaction between MAC and the viral haemagglutinin. We found that when the influenza virus was incubated with 0.010% MAC for one hour, no cytopathic effect on MDCK cells was found after the virus infection and no immunofluorescence signal was detected in the host cells. Electron microscopy showed that the virus treated with MAC retained its structural integrity. By computational simulations, we found that terpinen-4-ol, which is the major bioactive component of MAC, could combine with the membrane fusion site of haemagglutinin. Thus, we proved that MAC could prevent influenza virus from entering the host cells by disturbing the normal viral membrane fusion procedure.

  20. Population Genetic Analyses of the Fungal Pathogen Colletotrichum fructicola on Tea-Oil Trees in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Li

    Full Text Available The filamentous fungus Colletotrichum fructicola is found in all five continents and is capable of causing severe diseases in a number of economically important plants such as avocado, fig, cocoa, pear, and tea-oil trees. However, almost nothing is known about its patterns of genetic variation and epidemiology on any of its host plant species. Here we analyzed 167 isolates of C. fructicola obtained from the leaves of tea-oil tree Camellia oleifera at 15 plantations in seven Chinese provinces. Multilocus sequence typing was conducted for all isolates based on DNA sequences at fragments of four genes: the internal transcribed spacers of the nuclear ribosomal RNA gene cluster (539 bp, calmodulin (633 bp, glutamine synthetase (711 bp, and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (190 bp, yielding 3.52%, 0.63%, 8.44%, and 7.89% of single nucleotide polymorphic sites and resulting in 15, 5, 12 and 11 alleles respectively at the four gene fragments in the total sample. The combined allelic information from all four loci identified 53 multilocus genotypes with the most frequent represented by 21 isolates distributed in eight tea-oil plantations in three provinces, consistent with long-distance clonal dispersal. However, despite evidence for clonal dispersal, statistically significant genetic differentiation among geographic populations was detected. In addition, while no evidence of recombination was found within any of the four gene fragments, signatures of recombination were found among the four gene fragments in most geographic populations, consistent with sexual mating of this species in nature. Our study provides the first insights into the population genetics and epidemiology of the important plant fungal pathogen C. fructicola.

  1. Population Genetic Analyses of the Fungal Pathogen Colletotrichum fructicola on Tea-Oil Trees in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, He; Zhou, Guo-Ying; Liu, Jun-Ang; Xu, Jianping

    2016-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Colletotrichum fructicola is found in all five continents and is capable of causing severe diseases in a number of economically important plants such as avocado, fig, cocoa, pear, and tea-oil trees. However, almost nothing is known about its patterns of genetic variation and epidemiology on any of its host plant species. Here we analyzed 167 isolates of C. fructicola obtained from the leaves of tea-oil tree Camellia oleifera at 15 plantations in seven Chinese provinces. Multilocus sequence typing was conducted for all isolates based on DNA sequences at fragments of four genes: the internal transcribed spacers of the nuclear ribosomal RNA gene cluster (539 bp), calmodulin (633 bp), glutamine synthetase (711 bp), and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (190 bp), yielding 3.52%, 0.63%, 8.44%, and 7.89% of single nucleotide polymorphic sites and resulting in 15, 5, 12 and 11 alleles respectively at the four gene fragments in the total sample. The combined allelic information from all four loci identified 53 multilocus genotypes with the most frequent represented by 21 isolates distributed in eight tea-oil plantations in three provinces, consistent with long-distance clonal dispersal. However, despite evidence for clonal dispersal, statistically significant genetic differentiation among geographic populations was detected. In addition, while no evidence of recombination was found within any of the four gene fragments, signatures of recombination were found among the four gene fragments in most geographic populations, consistent with sexual mating of this species in nature. Our study provides the first insights into the population genetics and epidemiology of the important plant fungal pathogen C. fructicola.

  2. Population Genetic Analyses of the Fungal Pathogen Colletotrichum fructicola on Tea-Oil Trees in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, He; Zhou, Guo-Ying; Liu, Jun-Ang; Xu, Jianping

    2016-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Colletotrichum fructicola is found in all five continents and is capable of causing severe diseases in a number of economically important plants such as avocado, fig, cocoa, pear, and tea-oil trees. However, almost nothing is known about its patterns of genetic variation and epidemiology on any of its host plant species. Here we analyzed 167 isolates of C. fructicola obtained from the leaves of tea-oil tree Camellia oleifera at 15 plantations in seven Chinese provinces. Multilocus sequence typing was conducted for all isolates based on DNA sequences at fragments of four genes: the internal transcribed spacers of the nuclear ribosomal RNA gene cluster (539 bp), calmodulin (633 bp), glutamine synthetase (711 bp), and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (190 bp), yielding 3.52%, 0.63%, 8.44%, and 7.89% of single nucleotide polymorphic sites and resulting in 15, 5, 12 and 11 alleles respectively at the four gene fragments in the total sample. The combined allelic information from all four loci identified 53 multilocus genotypes with the most frequent represented by 21 isolates distributed in eight tea-oil plantations in three provinces, consistent with long-distance clonal dispersal. However, despite evidence for clonal dispersal, statistically significant genetic differentiation among geographic populations was detected. In addition, while no evidence of recombination was found within any of the four gene fragments, signatures of recombination were found among the four gene fragments in most geographic populations, consistent with sexual mating of this species in nature. Our study provides the first insights into the population genetics and epidemiology of the important plant fungal pathogen C. fructicola. PMID:27299731

  3. Comparative study on growth performance of two shade trees in tea agroforestry system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalita, Rinku Moni; Das, Ashesh Kumar; Nath, Arun Jyoti

    2014-07-01

    An attempt was made to study the stem growth of two native dominant shade tree species in terms of annual girth increment in three dominant girth size categories for two years in tea agroforestry system of Barak Valley, Assam. Fifty two sampling plots of 0.1 ha size were established and all trees exceeding 10 cm girth over bark at breast height (1.37 m) were uniquely identified, tagged, and annually measured for girth increment, using metal tape during December 2010-12. Albizia lebbeck and A. odoratissima were dominant shade tree species registering 82% of appearance of the individuals studied. The girth class was categorized into six different categories where 30-50 cm, 50-70 cm and 70-90 cm were dominating girth classes and selected for increment study. Mean annual girth increment ranged from 1.41 cm in Albizia odoratissima (50-70 cm girth class) to 2.97 cm in Albizia lebbeck (70-90 cm girth class) for the first year and 1.70 cm in Albizia odoratissima (50-70 cm girth class) to 3.09 cm in Albizia lebbeck (70-90 cm girth class) for the second year. Albizia lebbeck exhibited better growth in all prominent girth classes as compared to Albizia odoratissima during the observation period. The two shade tree species showed similar trend of growth in both the years of observation and significant difference in girth increment.

  4. In vitro susceptibility of Madurella mycetomatis, prime agent of Madura foot, to tea tree oil and artemisinin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.W.J. van de Sande (Wendy); A.H. Fahal (Ahmed); T.V. Riley (Thomas); H.A. Verbrugh (Henri); A.F. van Belkum (Alex)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractObjectives: Eumycetoma caused by Madurella mycetomatis is treated with surgery and high doses of itraconazole and ketoconazole. These agents are toxic, and new therapies are required. Methods: MICs were determined for artemisinin and tea tree oil, two natural herbal compounds. Results: A

  5. Phytotherapy of chronic dermatitis and pruritus of dogs with a topical preparation containing tea tree oil (Bogaskin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzi, J; Fürst-Jucker, J; Wegener, T; Saller, R; Reichling, J

    2002-05-01

    Localised dermatitis, for example unspecific eczema or skinfold pyoderma, is a very common diagnosis in dogs. Typical and impressive complaints are pruritus, erythema, erosion and oozing surface. With respect to the underlying disease dermatological treatment is indicated, usually based on antimicrobial and antipruriginous active substances, it can include transient glucocorticoids. An effective and safe alternative might be a phytotherapeutic topical preparation containing tea tree oil. Tea tree oil exerts both antimicrobial and antipruriginous effects. In an open multicenter study efficacy and safety of a standardized 10% tea tree oil cream applied thinly and twice daily for 4 weeks was tested in 53 dogs with chronic dermatitis, particularly non-specific eczema, allergic dermatitis, interdigital pyoderma, acral lick dermatitis and skinfold pyoderma. Analysis of efficacy assessed by investigating veterinarians showed a good or very good response to treatment for 82% of the dogs, significant at a 5% level (p = 0.05). At the end of the study a strong and significant reduction (p = 0.001) as well as disappearance of major symptoms were observed. Only two adverse events (local reactions) possibly related to tea tree oil occurred during therapy. Consequently the tested study medication (Bogaskin) can be considered an alternative for uncomplicated and localised dermatitis in dogs. Bogaskin might allow reduction of other pharmaceutical products, perhaps even replace standard therapy.

  6. Determination of Enantiomeric Distribution of Terpenes for Quality Assessment of Australian Tea Tree Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Noel W; Larkman, Tony; Marriott, Philip J; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2016-06-15

    A number of papers have appeared in recent years proposing the use of enantiomeric ratios of key monoterpenes in Australian tea tree oil (TTO) for detection of adulterated oils. There are however a range of reported values, even from exactly the same suite of authentic oils, and we address here probable reasons for these differences and stress the importance of establishing reference ratios within each laboratory based on oils of known provenance. Any biological variation in the ratio for the key terpene terpinen-4-ol has been demonstrated to be effectively unmeasurable, because the standard deviation on multiple measurements of the same oil is of the same order as that of multiple authentic oils.

  7. The efficacy of 5% topical tea tree oil gel in mild to moderate acne vulgaris: A randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled study

    OpenAIRE

    Enshaieh Shahla; Jooya Abolfazl; Siadat Amir; Iraji Fariba

    2007-01-01

    Background: Finding an effective treatment for acne that is well tolerated by the patients is a challenge. One study has suggested the efficacy of tea tree oil in treatment of the acne vulgaris. Aim: To determine the efficacy of tea tree oil in mild to moderate acne vulgaris. Methods: This was a randomized double-blind clinical trial performed in 60 patients with mild to moderate acne vulgaris. They were randomly divided into two groups and were treated with tea tree oil gel (n=30) or pl...

  8. Ocular surface discomfort and Demodex: effect of tea tree oil eyelid scrub in Demodex blepharitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Hyun; Kim, Tae Hyung; Kim, Kyoung Woo; Wee, Sung Wook; Chun, Yeoun Sook; Kim, Jae Chan

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relation between ocular discomfort and ocular Demodex infestation, and therapeutic effects of tea tree oil (TTO) in Demodex blepharitis patients. Three hundred and thirty-five patients with ocular discomfort were evaluated for ocular Demodex infestation and subjective symptoms with ocular surface discomfort index (OSDI) score. Among them, Demodex-infested patients were randomized to receive either eyelid scrubbing with TTO (TTO group,106 patients) or without TTO (Control group, 54 patients) for 1 month. Demodex were found in 84% of patients with ocular discomfort. The number of Demodex was significantly correlated with age (P = 0.04) and OSDI score (P = 0.024). After eyelid scrub treatment, Demodex count was reduced from 4.0 ± 2.5 to 3.2 ± 2.3 in the TTO group (P = 0.004) and from 4.3 ± 2.7 to 4.2 ± 2.5 in the control group (P = 0.27). Also, OSDI score was reduced from 34.5 ± 10.7 to 24.1 ± 11.9 in the TTO group (P = 0.001) and from 35.3 ± 11.6 to 27.5 ± 12.8 in the control group (P = 0.04). In conclusion, Demodex number showed a significant positive correlation with age and subjective ocular discomfort. The tea tree oil eyelid scrub treatment is effective for eliminating ocular Demodex and improving subjective ocular symptoms.

  9. Identification and expression of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase genes and their relations to oil content in developing seeds of tea oil tree (Camellia oleifera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tea oil tree (Camellia oleifera, Co) provides a fine edible oil source in China. Tea oil from the seeds is very beneficial to human health. Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (FBA) hydrolyzes fructose-1,6-bisphosphate into dihydroxyacetone phosphate and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, two critical metab...

  10. Evaluation of antimicrobial efficacy of garlic, tea tree oil, cetylpyridinium chloride, chlorhexidine, and ultraviolet sanitizing device in the decontamination of toothbrush

    OpenAIRE

    Chandrdas, Dithi; Jayakumar, H L; Chandra, Mahesh; Katodia, Lavleen; Sreedevi, Athira

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess and compare the efficacy of 3% garlic extract, 0.2% tea tree oil, 0.2% chlorhexidine, 0.05% cetylpyridinium chloride, and ultravoilet (UV) toothbrush sanitizing device as toothbrush disinfectants against Streptococcus mutans. Materials and Methods: A double blind randomized controlled parallel study was done on 210 dental students. The subjects were divided into one control group using distilled water and five study groups representing 0.2% tea tree oil, 3% garlic extract...

  11. Emprego do óleo de Melaleuca alternifolia Cheel (Myrtaceae na odontologia: perspectivas quanto à utilização como antimicrobiano alternativo às doenças infecciosas de origem bucal Use of Melaleuca alternifolia Cheel (Myrtaceae oil in dentistry: perspectives on its use as alternative antimicrobial to infectious diseases of oral origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C.M. Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O interesse por medicamentos alternativos, principalmente daqueles provenientes de extratos naturais, tem aumentado nas últimas décadas. A Melaleuca alternifolia é um arbusto pertencente ao gênero Melaleuca, popularmente conhecida como "árvore de chá", cujo principal produto é o óleo essencial (TTO - tea tree oil, de grande importância medicinal por possuir comprovada ação bactericida e antifúngica contra diversos patógenos humanos. Em virtude da atividade terapêutica em diversas especialidades médicas, o TTO passou a ser empregado na área odontológica. Esta revisão de literatura foi realizada com o objetivo de discutir os ensaios já realizados com o TTO contra microrganismos relacionados à doença cárie, doença periodontal e problemas pulpares. O óleo de Melaleuca tem demonstrado boa ação antibacteriana in vitro contra microrganismos bucais, porém, pesquisas envolvendo o estudo do mecanismo de ação sobre as células microbianas ou estudos in vivo ainda são escassos e precisam ser realizados, já que esse produto pode ser útil na odontologia, seja na manutenção química da higiene ou prevenção de doenças bucais.The interest in alternative medicines, especially those from natural extracts, has increased in recent decades. Melaleuca alternifolia is a shrub belonging to the genus Melaleuca, popularly known as "tea tree", the main product of which is its essential oil (TTO - tea tree oil, of great medicinal importance for its proven bactericidal and antifungal activity against several human pathogens. By virtue of its therapeutic activity in various medical specialties, TTO is now used in dentistry. This literature review was conducted in order to discuss the tests already carried out with TTO against microorganisms related to dental caries, periodontal disease and pulpal problems. Melaleuca oil has shown good in vitro antibacterial activity against oral microorganisms; however, research involving the study of its

  12. Topical tea tree oil effective in canine localised pruritic dermatitis--a multi-centre randomised double-blind controlled clinical trial in the veterinary practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichling, J; Fitzi, J; Hellmann, K; Wegener, T; Bucher, S; Saller, R

    2004-10-01

    Tea tree oil, a volatile oil, is well known for its broad antibacterial and antifungal activity. A standardised and stabilised 10% tea tree oil cream was tested against a commercial skin care cream (control cream) in the management of canine localised acute and chronic dermatitis. Fifty-seven dogs with clinical manifestations of mostly pruritic skin lesions or alterations, skin fold pyodermas and other forms of dermatitis, corroborated by predominantly positive fungal and bacterial skin isolates, were enrolled by seven practising veterinarians and randomly allocated to two study groups (28:29) and were treated twice daily with a blinded topical preparation. After 10 days of treatment, success rates of 71% for the tea tree oil cream and 41% for the control cream (over-all efficacy documented by the veterinary investigator) differed significantly (p = 0.04), favouring tea tree oil cream treatment. Accordingly on day 10, the tea tree oil cream caused significantly faster relief than the control cream (p = 0.04) for two common clinical dermatitis signs, pruritus (occurring in 84 % of dogs) and alopecia. Only one adverse event was reported in the tea tree oil group (suspected not to be causally related to the study drug) and none in the control cream group. The tested herbal cream appears to be a fast-acting safe alternative to conventional therapy for symptomatic treatment of canine localised dermatitis with pruritus.

  13. The efficacy of 5% topical tea tree oil gel in mild to moderate acne vulgaris: A randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enshaieh Shahla

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Finding an effective treatment for acne that is well tolerated by the patients is a challenge. One study has suggested the efficacy of tea tree oil in treatment of the acne vulgaris. Aim: To determine the efficacy of tea tree oil in mild to moderate acne vulgaris. Methods: This was a randomized double-blind clinical trial performed in 60 patients with mild to moderate acne vulgaris. They were randomly divided into two groups and were treated with tea tree oil gel (n=30 or placebo (n=30. They were followed every 15 days for a period of 45 days. Response to treatment was evaluated by the total acne lesions counting (TLC and acne severity index (ASI. The data was analyzed statistically using t-test and by SPSS program. Results: There were no significant differences regarding demographic characteristics between the two groups. There was a significant difference between tea tree oil gel and placebo in the improvement of the TLC and also regarding improvement of the ASI. In terms of TLC and ASI, tea tree oil gel was 3.55 times and 5.75 times more effective than placebo respectively. Side-effects with both groups were relatively similar and tolerable. Conclusion: Topical 5% tea tree oil is an effective treatment for mild to moderate acne vulgaris.

  14. α-Terpinene, an antioxidant in tea tree oil, autoxidizes rapidly to skin allergens on air exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudbäck, Johanna; Bergström, Moa Andresen; Börje, Anna; Nilsson, Ulrika; Karlberg, Ann-Therese

    2012-03-19

    The monoterpene α-terpinene is used as a fragrance compound and is present in different essential oils. It is one of the components responsible for the antioxidant activity of tea tree oil. α-Terpinene is structurally similar to other monoterpenes, e.g., limonene, known to autoxidize on air exposure and form allergenic compounds. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible autoxidation of α-terpinene at room temperature. To investigate the sensitization potency of air-exposed α-terpinene and the oxidation products formed, the murine local lymph node assay was used. Chemical analysis showed that α-terpinene degrades rapidly, forming allylic epoxides and p-cymene as the major oxidation products and also hydrogen peroxide. Thus, the oxidation pathway differs compared to that of, e.g., limonene, which forms highly allergenic hydroperoxides as the primary oxidation products on autoxidation. The sensitization potency of α-terpinene was increased after air-exposure. The allylic epoxides and a fraction, in which only an α,β-unsaturated aldehyde could be identified, were shown to be strong sensitizers in the local lymph node assay. Thus, we consider them to be the major contributors to the increased sensitization potency of the autoxidized mixture. We also investigated the presence of α-terpinene and its oxidation products in four different tea tree oil samples of various ages. α-Terpinene and its oxidation products were identified in all of the tea tree oil samples. Thus, from a technical perspective, α-terpinene is a true antioxidant since it autoxidizes rapidly compared with many other compounds, preventing these from degradation. However, as it easily autoxidizes to form allergens, its suitability can be questioned when used in products for topical applications, e.g., in tea tree oil but also in cosmetics and skin care products.

  15. Hydrogels Containing Nanocapsules and Nanoemulsions of Tea Tree Oil Provide Antiedematogenic Effect and Improved Skin Wound Healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Fernanda C; De Lima, Julia A; Da Silva, Cássia R; Benvegnú, Dalila; Ferreira, Juliano; Burger, Marilise E; Beck, Ruy C R; Rolim, Clarice M B; Rocha, Maria Isabel U M; Da Veiga, Marcelo L; Da Silva, Cristiane de B

    2015-01-01

    In previous works, we developed nanocapsules and nanoemulsions containing the tea tree oil. The aim of this work was to prepare and characterize hydrogels containing these nanocarriers, and to evaluate their in vivo efficacy in protecting skin damage induced by UVB and cutaneous wound healing. Hydrogels were prepared using Carbopol Ultrez and their physicochemical characteristics were evaluated: macroscopic analysis, pH, spreadability and rheological properties. The in vivo antiedematogenic effect was evaluated by ear thickness measurement after UVB-irradiation. In order to evaluate healing action of hydrogels, we investigated the regression of the cutaneous lesion in rats. Hydrogels showed homogeneous aspect and pH values between 5.6-5.8 and a non-Newtonian behavior. The presence of nanocapsules and nanoemulsions in hydrogels did not change their spreadability profile. The inclusion of tea tree oil in the nanocapsules and nanoemulsions allowed reducing the edema induced by UVB exposure. Hydrogel containing nanocapsules presented a higher reduction of the wound area compared to the hydrogel containing nanoemulsions and hydrogel containing allantoin. This study shows the feasibility of obtained dermatological formulations containing the tea tree oil associated in nanostructured systems. These formulations represent a promising approach to topical treatment of inflammatory disorders and wound healing.

  16. Tea Philosophy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bai Shi

    2013-01-01

    A healthy lifestyle and intangible cultural heritage Every spring, Chinese indulge in drinking copious amounts of fresh green tea picked and processed in the country's southern mountain areas. In particular, several days before and after the Tomb Sweeping Day (April 4), tea trees blessed with

  17. Tea tree oil nanoemulsions for inhalation therapies of bacterial and fungal pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Miao; Zhu, Lifei; Liu, Boming; Du, Lina; Jia, Xiaodong; Han, Li; Jin, Yiguang

    2016-05-01

    Tea tree oil (TTO) is a natural essential oil with strong antimicrobial efficacy and little drug resistance. However, the biomedical applications of TTO are limited due to its hydrophobicity and formulation problems. Here, we prepared an inhalable TTO nanoemulsion (nanoTTO) for local therapies of bacterial and fungal pneumonia. The optimal formulation of nanoTTOs consisted of TTO/Cremophor EL/water with a mean size of 12.5nm. The nanoTTOs showed strong in vitro antimicrobial activities on Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. After inhalation to the lung, the nanoTTOs had higher anti-fungal effect than fluconazole on the fungal pneumonia rat models with reduced lung injury, highly microbial clearance, blocking of leukocyte recruitment, and decrease of pro-inflammatory mediators. In the case of rat bacterial pneumonia, the nanoTTOs showed slightly lower therapeutic efficacy than penicillin though at a much lower dose. Taken together, our results show that the inhalable nanoTTOs are promising nanomedicines for local therapies of fungal and bacterial pneumonia with no obvious adverse events.

  18. Mechanisms involved in the anti-inflammatory action of inhaled tea tree oil in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golab, Mateusz; Skwarlo-Sonta, Krystyna

    2007-03-01

    Tea tree oil (TTO) is well known as an antimicrobial and immunomodulatory agent. In the present study we confirmed the anti-inflammatory properties of TTO and investigated the involvement of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in the immunomodulatory action of TTO administered by inhalation. Sexually mature, 6-8-week-old, C(57)BI(10) x CBA/H (F(1)) male mice were used. One group of animals was injected intra-peritoneally (ip) with Zymosan to elicit peritoneal inflammation and was then submitted to four sessions of TTO inhalation (15 mins each). Some of the mice were simultaneously injected ip with Antalarmin, a CRH-1 receptor antagonist, to block HPA axis functions. Twenty-four hours after the injections the mice were killed by CO(2) asphyxia, and peritoneal leukocytes (PTLs) were isolated and counted. Levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cyclooxygenase (COX) activity in PTLs were assessed by fluorimetric and colorimetric assays, respectively. The results obtained show that sessions of TTO inhalation exert a strong anti-inflammatory influence on the immune system stimulated by Zymosan injection, while having no influence on PTL number, ROS level, and COX activity in mice without inflammation. The HPA axis was shown to mediate the anti-inflammatory effect of TTO; Antalarmin abolished the influence of inhaled TTO on PTL number and their ROS production in mice with experimental peritonitis, but it had no effect on these parameters in mice without inflammation.

  19. Encapsulation of tea tree oil by amorphous beta-cyclodextrin powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Meena; Ho, Thao M; Bhandari, Bhesh R

    2017-04-15

    An innovative method to encapsulate tea tree oil (TTO) by direct complexation with solid amorphous beta-cyclodextrin (β-CD) was investigated. A β-CD to TTO ratio of 90.5:9.5 (104.9mg TTO/g β-CD) was used in all complexation methods. The encapsulation was performed by direct mixing, and direct mixing was followed by the addition of water (13-17% moisture content, MC) or absolute ethanol (1:1, 1:2, 1:3 and 1:4 TTO:ethanol). The direct mixing method complexed the lowest amount of TTO (60.77mg TTO/g β-CD). Powder recrystallized using 17% MC included 99.63mg of TTO/g β-CD. The addition of ethanol at 1:2 and 1:3 TTO:ethanol ratios resulted in the inclusion of 94.3 and 98.45mg of TTO/g β-CD respectively, which was similar to that of TTO encapsulated in the conventional paste method (95.56mg TTO/g β-CD), suggesting an effective solid encapsulation method. The XRD and DSC results indicated that the amorphous TTO-β-CD complex was crystallized by the addition of water and ethanol.

  20. The isolation of Staphylococcus aureus tea tree oil-reduced susceptibility mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuaron, Jesus A; Dulal, Santosh; Cooke, Peter H; Torres, Nathanial J; Gustafson, John E

    2014-08-01

    Tea tree oil (TTO)-reduced susceptibility (TTORS) mutants of two Staphylococcus aureus laboratory strains were isolated utilizing TTO gradient plates. Attempts to isolate TTORS mutants employing agar plates containing single TTO concentrations failed. All TTORS mutants demonstrated a small colony variant (SCV) phenotype and produced cells with a smaller diameter, as determined by scanning electron microscopy. The addition of SCV auxotrophic supplements to media did not lead to an increase in TTORS mutant colony size. Revertants were also isolated from the TTORS mutants following growth in drug-free media, and all revertant strains demonstrated phenotypes similar to their respective parent strains. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that an SH1000 TTORS mutant demonstrated a thinner cell wall and novel septal invaginations compared with parent strain SH1000. In addition, comparative genomic sequencing did not reveal any mutations in an SH1000 TTORS mutant previously linked to well-characterized SCV genotypes. This study demonstrates that TTO can select for a unique SCV phenotype.

  1. Development of tea tree oil-loaded liposomal formulation using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Yan; Ge, Mingqiao

    2015-03-23

    The aim of this study is to prepare tea tree oil liposome (TTOL) and optimize the preparation condition by single factor experiment and statistical design. TTOL was prepared using a thin-film hydration with the combination of sonication method and the preparation conditions of TTOL were optimized with response surface methodology (RSM). The optimal preparation conditions for TTOL by response surface methodology were as follows: the mass ratio of PC and Cho 5.51, TTO concentration 1.21% (v/v) and Tween 80 concentration 0.79% (v/v). The response surface analysis showed that the significant (p  0.05) lack of fit for the reduced models. Furthermore, the interaction of the mass ratio of PC/Cho and TTO concentration had a significant effect. The amounts of Tween 80 required were also reduced with RSM. Under these conditions, the experimental encapsulation efficiency of TTOL was 97.81 ± 0.33%, which was close with the predicted value. Therefore, the optimized preparation condition was very reliable. The increased entrapment efficiency would significantly improve the TTO stability and bioavailability.

  2. In Vitro Activity of Tea Tree Oil Vaginal Suppositories against Candida spp. and Probiotic Vaginal Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Vito, Maura; Mattarelli, Paola; Modesto, Monica; Girolamo, Antonietta; Ballardini, Milva; Tamburro, Annunziata; Meledandri, Marcello; Mondello, Francesca

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this work is to evaluate the in vitro microbicidal activity of vaginal suppositories (VS) containing tea tree oil (TTO-VS) towards Candida spp. and vaginal probiotics. A total of 20 Candida spp. strains, taken from patients with vaginitis and from an established type collection, including reference strains, were analysed by using the CLSI microdilution method. To study the action of VS towards the beneficial vaginal microbiota, the sensitivity of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (DSM 10140) and Lactobacillus spp. (Lactobacillus casei R-215 and Lactobacillus acidophilus R-52) was tested. Both TTO-VS and TTO showed fungicidal activity against all strains of Candida spp. whereas placebo-VS or the Aloe gel used as controls were ineffective. The study of fractional fungicidal concentrations (FFC) showed synergistic interaction with the association between Amphotericin B and TTO (0.25 to 0.08 µg/ml, respectively) against Candida albicans. Instead, the probiotics were only affected by TTO concentration ≥ 4% v/v, while, at concentrations < 2% v/v, they remained viable. TTO-VS exhibits, in vitro, a selective fungicidal action, slightly affecting only the Bifidobacteriun animalis strain growth belonging to the vaginal microbiota. In vivo studies are needed to confirm the efficacy to prevent acute or recurrent vaginal candidiasis.

  3. High Yield Cultivation Technology of Tea-oil Tree%油茶高产种植技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈丽文; 张广波; 李文杨; 范阳阳

    2012-01-01

    Combined with the characteristics of Xinyang hilly,the author visited Xinyang in the famous tea plantation enterprises on the basis of summing up a set of suitable for Xinyang City tea-oil tree planting technology.Tea cultivation should choose sunny,do overall planning,zonal soil preparation,fertilization,proper management,timely recovery and in the recovery when the attention of not damaging the tea oil camellia.%结合信阳市浅山丘陵的特点,笔者在走访信阳市知名油茶种植企业的基础上,总结出一整套适合信阳市的油茶种植技术。种植油茶应选择阳坡地建园、做好园地整体规划、进行带状整地、科学合理施肥、加强抚育管理、及时采收并在采收时注意不伤及茶树上的油茶花。

  4. Topical use of tea tree oil reduces the dermal absorption of benzoic acid and methiocarb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Jesper Bo; Nielsen, Flemming

    2006-03-01

    Tea tree oil (TTO) is a complex mixture of terpene hydrocarbons. Intensive topical use of TTO in different cosmetics and investigations into its potential as an antimicrobial or anti-inflammatory agent has accentuated the need for studies on the toxicity of TTO. We have applied an experimental in vitro model using static diffusion cells with human skin to study penetration characteristics of terpinen-4-ol and the way TTO affects the barrier integrity of the skin and the percutaneous penetration of two chemicals covering a range of solubilities from 0.03 g/l (methiocarb) to 3.0 g/l (benzoic acid). Through GC-MS analysis we identified the major constituents of TTO. In our experimental set-up with full-thickness skin, only the least lipophilic ingredients of TTO penetrated the skin. Barrier integrity was evaluated through measurement of percutaneous penetration of tritiated water. Data indicate that 1% TTO does not affect barrier conditions. The Kp value for tritiated water was increased significantly at 5% TTO, which demonstrate that the barrier integrity is affected at this relatively low concentration of TTO. The barrier integrity is, however, not seriously damaged, but our data indicate an initiated and concentration-dependent effect on the barrier integrity. TTO changed the penetration characteristics for benzoic acid as well as for methiocarb. The general effect was that TTO reduced the maximal flux. For methiocarb, the lag-time was also prolonged by increasing the TTO concentration in the donor phase to 5%. Thus, TTO reduced the overall amount of benzoic acid as well as methiocarb entering the receptor chamber.

  5. Comparative Studies on Antioxidant Activities of Green Tea and Four Tree-type Non-Camellia Teas%绿茶与4种乔木型别样茶抗氧化活性比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王婉莹; 肖伟; 许利嘉; 彭勇; 何春年; 肖培根

    2013-01-01

    目的:比较绿茶与4种乔木型别样茶的抗氧化活性。方法:通过清除二苯代苦味酰基(DPPH)法、铁离子还原测定(FRAP)法、亚铁离子螯合(FIC)法、β胡萝卜素-亚油酸4种体外抗氧化活性测定方法,综合考察绿茶和老鹰茶、大叶苦丁茶、石崖茶、青钱柳茶4种乔木型别样茶水提物的抗氧化活性,同时用Folin-Ciocalteus法测定4种别样茶的总多酚含量。结果:石崖茶具有卓越的抗氧化能力,其螯合亚铁离子能力和还原铁离子能力均优于绿茶;老鹰茶、大叶苦丁茶具有良好的抗氧化活性,大叶苦丁茶还原铁离子能力优于绿茶,老鹰茶和大叶苦丁茶清除自由基(DPPH)能力比绿茶稍低,但高于人工合成抗氧化剂二丁基羟基甲苯(BHT);青钱柳茶抗氧化活性最低。结论:石崖茶、老鹰茶、大叶苦丁茶均具有较高的开发利用价值,值得深入研究和大力推广。%This article was aimed to compare the antioxidant activities of Green tea and four tree-type non-Camellia teas. The antioxidant activities of the water extract of Green tea, Eagle tea, Large-leaved Kuding tea, Shiya tea and Qingqianliu tea were evaluated with four different in vitro assays including 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH), ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), ferrous ion-chelating (FIC) and β-carotene-linoleate bleaching assay. In addition, the polyphenol contents of different teas were estimated by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay. The results showed that Shiya tea had strong antioxidant activity; its FIC and FRAP abilities are better compared with Green tea. The Eagle tea and Large-leaved Kuding tea have better antioxidant activity. The FRAP activity of Large-leaved Kuding tea was better than green tea. The DPPH of Eagle tea and Large-leaved Kuding tea were slightly lower than Green tea, but higher than the butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). The antioxidant ability of Qingqianliu tea

  6. 茶树油清除豇豆农药残留的效果%Effects of tea tree oils on removing pesticide residue in cowpea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林丽静; 程盛华; 李积华; 黄茂芳; 唐永富; 朱德明

    2013-01-01

    Pesticides are widely used as an insurance policy against devastating crop losses from pests and diseases. Excessive usage of pesticides may lead to contamination of the crop and the environment, eventually posing a risk of pesticide-related illnesses to humans. Previous literature has shown that water washing is only partially effective in removing pesticides, and in the case of liposoluble pesticides, a cosolvent must be used as an adjuvant. Recently, naturally occurring adjuvants are gaining prominence over synthetic chemical compounds. Tea tree oil (TTO, the oil of Melaleuca alternifolia), a natural, volatile essential oil, is mainly extracted by steam distillation from the fresh leaves and terminal branchlets of the plant. It has attracted significant interest due to its antifungal, antiviral, and antibacterial bioactivities. However, to the best of our knowledge, there are fewer experimental data evaluating its efficacy in the removal of pesticide residues. In this study, the effects of TTO on removing pesticide residue were carried out in the cowpea. Volume:volume (v:v) concentrations of 0.05%, 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.4% and 0.8% of TTO and water soluble tea tree oil (WTTO) in water were used to remove a standardized pesticide mixture (organophosphorus, pyrethroid, and carbamate compounds) from cowpeas. Sample pretreatment (pesticide application to cowpeas) was performed according to agricultural industry standards. The objective pesticide residues in cowpeas were assayed by gas chromatography (GC) and chromatography-mass spectrometry detection (GC-MS), and then the clearance rate was calculated. The results showed that TTO was able to remove the three kinds of pesticides from cowpeas. Moreover, the removal efficiency increased with increasing concentration of TTO. The effect of clearing organophosphate was much more obvious than that of either pyrethroid or carbamate. It was suggested that small liposoluble molecules of TTO rapidly infiltrate the cowpea surface to

  7. Guizhou Tree Tea Catechin and Its Quality Analysis%贵州大树茶儿茶素组分及其品质分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段学艺; 胡华健; 朱强; 王家伦; 陈正武; 何萍; 高秀兵

    2013-01-01

    为研究贵州大树茶(Camellia thea L.)儿茶素组分含量、品质及酯型儿茶素比例等问题,以安顺、六盘水、兴义、黔西南大树茶资源和‘福鼎大白茶’为试验材料,采用平均数差异性分析对各资源的6项儿茶素组分进行了研究.结果表明,安顺、六盘水、兴义、黔西南大树茶资源及‘福鼎大白茶’的酯型儿茶素比例(EGCG、ECG、GCG)依次为81.55%、41.10%、83.13%、77.03%、82.85%,儿茶素品质指数依次为5.39、19.79、7.84、5.25、6.65.当欧式距离阀值为0.9~3.2时,兴义大树茶资源与‘福鼎大白茶’较为相似,安顺与黔西南的大树茶资源较为相似.%In view the catechin components determination, quality and ester catching proportion of the Sect. Thea tea trees in southwestern Guizhou Province, we used Sect. Thea tea trees natural resources in Anshun City, Liupanshui City, Xingyi City, Qianxinan State of Guizhou Province and 'Fudingdabaicha' tea trees as the test material and took the average differences analytic methods to analysis the 6 catechin components determination (EGC, DL-EC, EGCG, GCG, ECG). The results showed that the esterncatechines of Sect. Thea tea trees in Anshun City, Liupanshui City, Xingyi City, Qianxinan state were 81.55%, 41.10%, 83.13%, 77.03%, 82.85%, and the quality index were 5.39, 19.79, 7.84, 5.25, 6.65, respectively. Cluster analysis results showed that Sect. Thea tea tree in Xingyi City was similar to 'Fudingdabaicha' tea trees, while Sect. Thea tea tree in Anshun City was similar to Sect. Thea tea trees in Qianxinan state when the threshold value of Euclid distance were 0.9 to 3.2.

  8. A comparative study of the in vitro antimicrobial activity of tea tree oils s.l. with special reference to the activity of beta-triketones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoph, F; Kaulfers, P M; Stahl-Biskup, E

    2000-08-01

    The in vitro antibacterial and antifungal activities of Australian tea tree oil, cajuput oil, niaouli oil, kanuka oil and manuka oil as well as of a beta-triketone complex isolated from manuka oil were investigated in a constituent-oriented study. The compositions of the oils were analysed by capillary GLC and GLC-MS. The MICs for sixteen different microorganisms were determined applying the broth dilution method. Australian tea tree oil showed the best overall antimicrobial effect. The best inhibitory effects on Gram-positive bacteria and dermatophytes were achieved with manuka oil due to its beta-triketone content.

  9. Evaluation of tea tree oil for controlling Rhipicephalus microplus in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazinatto Boito, Jhonatan; Santos, Roberto C; Vaucher, Rodrigo A; Raffin, Renata; Machado, Gustavo; Tonin, Alexandre A; Da Silva, Aleksandro S

    2016-07-30

    Our research aimed to test the effects of Melaleuca alternifolia oil (pure and in nanocapsules) in the control of Rhipicephalus microplus in dairy cattle. For this purpose, the in vivo studies used 15 cows distributed in three different groups with the same number of animals. Five cows remained untreated (Group A), representing the control group; other five cows were sprayed with TTO (at 5%) in its pure form (Group B); and five cows were sprayed with nanocapsules of TTO (at 0.75%) (Group C). On days 1 and 4 post-treatments (PT), all cows had their ticks counted. On day 1 PT, two ticks from each cow were collected to evaluate the effect of the treatment on ticḱs reproduction (in vitro assays). The pure form of TTO caused a significant reduction (P0.05). Treatment with TTO in nanocapsules (Group C) interfered with R. microplus reproduction, leading to lower oviposition by female ticks and hatchability (34.5% of efficacy). On the other hand, TTO oil (Group B) did not interfere on ticḱs reproduction, i.e. showed higher hatchability than the control group. Therefore, it is possible to conclude that pure TTO has an acaricidal effect in dairy cows, in addition to an effect on ticḱs reproduction when used its nanocapsulated form.

  10. Effects of foliar application with compost tea and filtrate biogas slurry liquid on yield and fruit quality of washington navel orange (Citrus sinenesis Osbeck) trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Alaa El-din K; Belal, Elsayed B; El-Abd, Abd El-Naiem A

    2012-07-01

    Sixteen-year-old navel orange trees at a private orchard located in Kafer El-Sheikh Governorate, Egypt, were used in this study. Compost tea (CT) and filtrate biogas slurry liquid (FLB) were applied at two different concentrations (50% and 100%); control trees were sprayed with water Trees treated with CT at 100% were the highest in yield, fruit weight, and vitamin C, whereas the highest percentage of fruit set, fruit number and soluble solid content (SSC), lowest fruit drop, and highest reducing and total sugars were in trees treated with 100% FLB. Concentrations at 50% for both foliar application (CT and FLB) improved yield and fruit characteristics than control treatment. Generally, using a foliar application of compost tea and filtrate biogas slurry liquid at (100%) treatments as food nutrients could be recommended to improve the yield and fruit quality of navel orange fruits under the current study conditions.

  11. RNA-seq-mediated transcriptome analysis of actively growing and winter dormant shoots identifies non-deciduous habit of evergreen tree tea during winters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Asosii; Jha, Ashwani; Bhardwaj, Shruti; Singh, Sewa; Shankar, Ravi; Kumar, Sanjay

    2014-08-04

    Tea [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze] is a perennial tree which undergoes winter dormancy and unlike deciduous trees, the species does not shed its leaves during winters. The present work dissected the molecular processes operating in the leaves during the period of active growth and winter dormancy through transcriptome analysis to understand a long-standing question: why should tea be a non-deciduous species? Analyses of 24,700 unigenes obtained from 57,767 primarily assembled transcripts showed (i) operation of mechanisms of winter tolerance, (ii) down-regulation of genes involved in growth, development, protein synthesis and cell division, and (iii) inhibition of leaf abscission due to modulation of senescence related processes during winter dormancy in tea. These senescence related processes exhibited modulation to favour leaf abscission (i) in deciduous Populus tremula during winters, and (ii) also in tea but under osmotic stress during which leaves also abscise. These results validated the relevance of the identified senescence related processes for leaf abscission and suggested their operation when in need in tea.

  12. 茶树油处理割线对天然橡胶产量及胶乳生理的影响%Rubber latex yield and physiology of rubber tree with tea tree oil treatments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱德明; 王进; 孔令学; 佘风华; 安锋; 林位夫

    2012-01-01

    比较了不同体积分数茶树油处理橡胶树Hevea brasiliensis割线对橡胶产量和产排胶生理特性的影响,并与体积分数为0.5%乙烯利处理作了比较结果表明:与对照比较,用体积分数为80%和100%茶树油涂抹割线可增加胶乳产量并使橡胶树的产排胶生理特性发生较大变化,其中镁离子和无机磷极显著增加(P<0.01),硫醇降低体积分数为100%茶树油与体积分数为0.5%乙烯利处理的增产效果相当,但前者的干胶和蔗糖极显著高于后者(P<0.01),而硫醇则显著低于后者 茶树油刺激增产的机制可能有别于乙烯利刺激增产理论.%To examine the effects of tea tree oil on rubber latex yield and the resulting latex physiological parameters oi rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis ) .clean water and 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100% of tea tree oil were applied on the tapping cut of rubber trees. The data were analyzed by Duncan test and its results showed that when compared lo clean water (ek) ,80% and 100% of tea tree oil stimulation significantly promoted rubber latex yield (P<0.05). In addition, the latex physiological parameters changed with the sucrose content (P<0.01),magnesium ion content (P<0.01) and inorganic phosphorus content (P<0.01) of latex significantly increasing and thiol content significantly deceasing (P<0.01). The effect of tea tree oil treatments on rubber yield was similar to the impact of 0.5% elhrel stimulation. However, compared to ethrel stimulation, 100% tea tree oil treatment significantly increased dry rubber and sucrose contents (P<0.01= and decreased ihiol content (P<0.01). Thus, tea tree oil treatment involved different latex yield promotion mechanisms than that of ethrel stimulation. [Ch, 3 tab. 13 ref.

  13. Extraction and refining of essential oil from Australian tea tree, Melaleuca alterfornia, and the antimicrobial activity in cosmetic products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Q.; Phan, T. D.; Thieu, V. Q. Q.; Tran, S. T.; Do, S. H.

    2012-03-01

    Tea tree oil (TTO) comes from the leaves of Melaleuca alternifornia that belongs to the myrtle family (Myrtaceae). It is one of the most powerful immune system stimulants and sorts out most viral, bacterial and fungal infections in a snap, while it is great to heal wounds and acnes. In Vietnam, Melaleuca trees can grow on acid land that stretches in a large portion of lands in the Mekong Delta region. So, there are some Melaleuca plantations developed under the Vietnamese government plans of increasing plantation forests now. However, TTO contains various amounts of 1,8-cineole that causes skin irritant. So TTO purification is very necessary. In this study, the purification of TTO that meet International Standard ISO 4730 was carried out via two steps. The first step is steam distillation to obtain crude TTO (terpinen-4-ol 35% v/v) and the average productivity is among 2.37% (v/wet-wt) or 1.23% (v/dry-wt). In the second step, the cleaned TTO is collected by vacuum distillation column and extraction yield of the whole process is about 0.3% (w/w). Besides, high concentration essential oil was applied in the cosmetic products to increase its commercial value.

  14. Identification and expression of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase genes and their relations to oil content in developing seeds of tea oil tree (Camellia oleifera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanling Zeng

    Full Text Available Tea oil tree (Camellia oleifera, Co provides a fine edible oil source in China. Tea oil from the seeds is very beneficial to human health. Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (FBA hydrolyzes fructose-1,6-bisphosphate into dihydroxyacetone phosphate and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, two critical metabolites for oil biosynthesis. The objectives of this study were to identify FBA genes and investigate the relationship between FBA gene expression and oil content in developing seeds of tea oil tree. In this paper, four developmentally up-regulated CoFBA genes were identified in Camellia oleifera seeds based on the transcriptome from two seed developmental stages corresponding to the initiation and peak stages of lipid biosynthesis. The expression of CoFBA genes, along with three key oil biosynthesis genes CoACP, CoFAD2 and CoSAD were analyzed in seeds from eight developmental stages by real-time quantitative PCR. The oil content and fatty acid composition were also analyzed. The results showed that CoFBA and CoSAD mRNA levels were well-correlated with oil content whereas CoFAD2 gene expression levels were correlated with fatty acid composition in Camellia seeds. We propose that CoFBA and CoSAD are two important factors for determining tea oil yield because CoFBA gene controls the flux of key intermediates for oil biosynthesis and CoSAD gene controls the synthesis of oleic acid, which accounts for 80% of fatty acids in tea oil. These findings suggest that tea oil yield could be improved by enhanced expression of CoFBA and CoSAD genes in transgenic plants.

  15. Identification and expression of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase genes and their relations to oil content in developing seeds of tea oil tree (Camellia oleifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yanling; Tan, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Lin; Jiang, Nan; Cao, Heping

    2014-01-01

    Tea oil tree (Camellia oleifera, Co) provides a fine edible oil source in China. Tea oil from the seeds is very beneficial to human health. Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (FBA) hydrolyzes fructose-1,6-bisphosphate into dihydroxyacetone phosphate and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, two critical metabolites for oil biosynthesis. The objectives of this study were to identify FBA genes and investigate the relationship between FBA gene expression and oil content in developing seeds of tea oil tree. In this paper, four developmentally up-regulated CoFBA genes were identified in Camellia oleifera seeds based on the transcriptome from two seed developmental stages corresponding to the initiation and peak stages of lipid biosynthesis. The expression of CoFBA genes, along with three key oil biosynthesis genes CoACP, CoFAD2 and CoSAD were analyzed in seeds from eight developmental stages by real-time quantitative PCR. The oil content and fatty acid composition were also analyzed. The results showed that CoFBA and CoSAD mRNA levels were well-correlated with oil content whereas CoFAD2 gene expression levels were correlated with fatty acid composition in Camellia seeds. We propose that CoFBA and CoSAD are two important factors for determining tea oil yield because CoFBA gene controls the flux of key intermediates for oil biosynthesis and CoSAD gene controls the synthesis of oleic acid, which accounts for 80% of fatty acids in tea oil. These findings suggest that tea oil yield could be improved by enhanced expression of CoFBA and CoSAD genes in transgenic plants.

  16. Analysis of Problems in the Development of Tea-oil Tree Industry in Xiajiang County%峡江县油茶产业发展问题分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建平; 吴群辉; 余北京; 彭小忠; 罗洪

    2014-01-01

    分析峡江县油茶产业发展优势,针对存在的主要问题及产生原因,提出了油茶产业的发展必须加大培训力度,提高科技兴茶水平,科学选择造林地,促进油茶高产稳产;落实优惠政策,创新机制推到油茶产业发展;加大资金扶持力度,培植龙头企业,建设名牌产品,提高市场竞争力等对策措施,促进峡江县油茶产业快速发展。%Analysis of the development advantage of tea-oil tree industry in Xiajiang county, aim at the causes of the main problems, propose the development of tea-oil tree industry to increase training, improve the level of science and technology of tea-oil tree, the scientific select plantation, promote tea-oil tree high and stable yield;implement preferential policies, innovative mechanisms to push the development of tea-oil tree industry;increase financial support, cultivate leading enterprises, construct famous brand products, improve market competitiveness, promote the rapid development of tea-oil tree industry in Xiajiang county.

  17. Rooting of Melaleuca alternifolia cuttings with different plant regulatorsEnraizamento de estacas de Melaleuca alternifolia submetidas a diferentes reguladores vegetais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereza Cristina Carvalho

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The Melaleuca alternifolia is a Myrtaceae tree of great medicinal importance. Its essential oil is widely used both in human and in veterinary medicine, having great antiseptic power. It is a difficult plant in the process of rooting cuttings. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of different concentrations of NAA and IBA on the rooting of M. alternifolia. Melaleuca cuttings with 10 cm in length were submitted to treatments with two regulators, NAA and IBA, in the following concentrations: 0 (control, 1000, 2000 and 4000 mg L-1. Evaluation occurred at 97 days throughout the live and dead cuttings rooted, medium length, volume and mass of roots. The growth regulator NAA at a concentration of 4000 mg L-1 showed to be phytotoxic to the cuttings of melaleuca; the use of IBA in comparable with NAA at concentration of 4000 mg L-1 provided a higher percentage of rooting and root length increases.A Melaleuca alternifolia é uma árvore da família Myrtaceae, de grande importância medicinal. Seu óleo essencial é muito utilizado tanto na medicina humana quanto na medicina veterinária, tendo grande poder antiséptico. É uma planta de difícil enraizamento no processo de estaquia. Assim, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a eficiência de diferentes concentrações de ANA e AIB, no enraizamento de estacas de M. alternifolia. Foram utilizadas estacas com 10 cm de comprimento, submetidas ao tratamento para enraizamento com dois reguladores vegetais ANA e AIB, nas seguintes concentrações: 0 (testemunha; 1000; 2000 e 4000 mg L-1. Aos 97 dias foram avaliados a porcentagem de estacas enraizadas, vivas e mortas, o comprimento, o volume e a massa seca de raízes. O regulador vegetal ANA na concentração de 4000 mg L-1 demonstrou ser fitotóxico para as estacas de melaleuca e o uso de AIB em relação ao ANA, na concentração de 4000 mg L-1, proporcionou maior porcentagem de estacas enraizadas e maior comprimento radicial.

  18. Antifungal, Cytotoxic, and Immunomodulatory Properties of Tea Tree Oil and Its Derivative Components: Potential Role in Management of Oral Candidosis in Cancer Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Ramage, Gordon; Milligan, Steven; Lappin, David F; Sherry, Leighann; Sweeney, Petrina; Williams, Craig; Bagg, Jeremy; Culshaw, Shauna

    2012-01-01

    Candida albicans forms oral biofilms that cause disease and are difficult to treat with conventional antifungal agents. Tea tree oil (TTO) is a natural compound with reported antimicrobial and immunomodulatory activities. The aims of the study were to evaluate the antifungal efficacy of TTO and key derivatives against C. albicans biofilms, to assess the toxicological effects of TTO on a clinically relevant oral cell line, and to investigate its impact on inflammation. TTO and its derivatives ...

  19. Antifungal, cytotoxic and immunomodulatory properties of tea tree oil and its derivative components: potential role in management of oral candidosis in cancer patients

    OpenAIRE

    Gordon eRamage; Steven eMilligan; Lappin, David F; Leighann eSherry; Petrina eSweeney; Craig eWilliams; Jeremy eBagg; Shauna eCulshaw

    2012-01-01

    Candida albicans forms oral biofilms that cause disease and are difficult to treat with conventional antifungal agents. Tea tree oil (TTO) is a natural compound with reported antimicrobial and immunomodulatory activities. The aims of the study were to evaluate the antifungal efficacy of TTO and key derivatives against C. albicans biofilms, to assess the toxicological effects of TTO on a clinically relevant oral cell line, and to investigate its impact on inflammation. TTO and its derivatives ...

  20. 茶树油对2种农业致病菌的抑菌效果%Tea Tree Oil's Antibacterial Effect to 2 Agricultural Pathongenic Bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽; 李霆格; 杨文汉; 曾媛; 李婧; 梅晶晶; 赵安瑾; 王健

    2016-01-01

    Tea tree oil has good prospects in dev elopment and application of natural fresh-keeping preservatives in fruits, vegetables for its ability of anti-microbial effect. In this research in vitro inhibition effect of tea tree oil on Colletotrichum musae and C. gloeosporioides under different concentrations were studied with filter paper dispersion method. The results showed that the tea tree oil had significant inhibition on mycelial growth of the two fungi. As the concentration increased, the antimicrobial activity increased accordingly. The results of experiment revealed the EC50 of tea tree oil on C. gloeosporioides and C. musae were respectively 339.13μL/L and 143.10μL/L.%茶树油具有良好的抑菌能力,在果蔬天然保鲜杀菌剂的开发中具有良好的应用前景。采用滤纸扩散法测定不同浓度的茶树油对香蕉炭疽菌和芒果炭疽菌的离体抑制效果。结果显示,茶树油对这2种菌都具有良好的抑菌效果,且浓度增加,抑菌作用逐渐增强,对芒果炭疽菌和香蕉炭疽菌的 EC50分别为339.13和143.10μL/L。

  1. The influence of the essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia on the healing of infected dental alveoli: a histological study in rats Influência do óleo essencial de Melaleuca alternifolia na cicatrização de alveolite dental infectada: um estudo histológico em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Regina Orofino Kreuger

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The plant Melaleuca alternifolia is native to Australia. The distillation of its leaves produces an essential oil, commonly known as oil of Melaleuca, or Tea tree oil, which present antimicrobial activity. This study investigates the action of this oil on the repair process of infected dental alveoli. 48 rats were used (Rattus novergicus albinus, Wistar. After tooth extraction and posterior infection of the dental alveoli with Staphylococcus aureus, the animals were separated into three groups: Group I: curettage and irrigation with physiologic saline solution; Group II: curettage and irrigation with physiologic saline solution and topical application of rifamycin diethylamide B 25 mg; and Group III: curettage and irrigation with physiologic saline solution and topical application of oil of Melaleuca 20%. The animals were sacrificed 24 hours, 7, 14 and 21 days after the treatment with powder and the repair process of the dental alveoli was analyzed using an optical microscope. The results were submitted to qualitative and quantitative analysis and it was concluded that tea tree oil at 20% caused a delay in the repair process of infected dental alveoli in rats, as demonstrated by the presence of more necrosis area and less osteogenesis.A planta Melaleuca alternifolia é nativa da Austrália e a destilação de suas folhas produz um óleo essencial conhecido por óleo de Melaleuca, ou Tea tree oil, usado como antimicrobiano. Nesse estudo, foi verificado a atividade deste óleo no processo de reparo de alvéolos dentais infectados. 48 ratos foram utilizados (Rattus novergicus albinus, Wistar e após a extração do dente e posterior infecção do alvéolo com Staphylococcus aureus, os animais foram separados em três grupos: Grupo I: curetagem e irrigação do alvéolo com soro fisiológico; Grupo II: curetagem e irrigação com soro fisiológico e tratamento com Rifocina 25 mg; e Grupo III: curetagem e irrigação com soro fisiológico e aplica

  2. Cytochrome P450-catalysed arene-epoxidation of the bioactive tea tree oil ingredient p-cymene: indication for the formation of a reactive allergenic intermediate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meesters, R J W; Duisken, M; Hollender, J

    2009-09-01

    1. The cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism of the tea tree oil ingredient p-cymene (p-isopropyltoluene) was studied by the application of in vitro enzymatic assays using different recombinant human cytochrome P450 enzymes. 2. In total, four enzymatic products were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The enzymatic products identified were: thymol (2-isopropyl-5-methylphenol), p-isopropylbenzyl alcohol, p,alpha,alpha-trimethylbenzyl alcohol, and p-isopropylbenzaldehyde. 3. The enzymatic products of p-cymene resulted from catalysed enzymatic arene-epoxidation and hydroxylation reactions by the studied cytochrome P450 enzymes. 4. An in vivo study could only confirm the formation of one enzymatic product, namely thymol. Thymol was identified after enzymatic hydrolysis of glucuronide and sulphate conjugates in collected blood and urine samples. 5. The obtained results may help to increase the understanding of cases where skin sensitization and irritation by tea tree oil-containing products that are involved with allergic reactions of users of these products. The results also indicate that skin sensitization and irritation reactions not only can be explained by the frequently in literature reported auto-oxidation of tea tree resulting in bioactive oxidized products, but also now by the formation of epoxide intermediates resulting from catalysed arene-epoxidation reactions by selected human cytochrome P450 enzymes which are also located in different organs in humans.

  3. Insecticidal Activity of Melaleuca alternifolia Essential Oil and RNA-Seq Analysis of Sitophilus zeamais Transcriptome in Response to Oil Fumigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Min; Xiao, Jin-Jing; Zhou, Li-Jun; Liu, Yang; Wu, Xiang-Wei; Hua, Ri-Mao; Wang, Gui-Rong; Cao, Hai-Qun

    2016-01-01

    Background The cereal weevil, Sitophilus zeamais is one of the most destructive pests of stored cereals worldwide. Frequent use of fumigants for managing stored-product insects has led to the development of resistance in insects. Essential oils from aromatic plants including the tea oil plant, Melaleuca alternifolia may provide environmentally friendly alternatives to currently used pest control agents. However, little is known about molecular events involved in stored-product insects in response to plant essential oil fumigation. Results M. alternifolia essential oil was shown to possess the fumigant toxicity against S. zeamais. The constituent, terpinen-4-ol was the most effective compound for fumigant toxicity. M. alternifolia essential oil significantly inhibited the activity of three enzymes in S. zeamais, including two detoxifying enzymes, glutathione S-transferase (GST), and carboxylesterase (CarE), as well as a nerve conduction enzyme, acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Comparative transcriptome analysis of S. zeamais through RNA-Seq identified a total of 3,562 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), of which 2,836 and 726 were up-regulated and down-regulated in response to M. alternifolia essential oil fumigation, respectively. Based on gene ontology (GO) analysis, the majority of DEGs were involved in insecticide detoxification and mitochondrial function. Furthermore, an abundance of DEGs mapped into the metabolism pathway in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway database were associated with respiration and metabolism of xenobiotics, including cytochrome P450s, CarEs, GSTs, and ATP-binding cassette transporters (ABC transporters). Some DEGs mapped into the proteasome and phagosome pathway were found to be significantly enriched. These results led us to propose a model of insecticide action that M. alternifolia essential oil likely directly affects the hydrogen carrier to block the electron flow and interfere energy synthesis in

  4. In vitro and in vivo activity of tea tree oil against azole-susceptible and -resistant human pathogenic yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondello, Francesca; De Bernardis, Flavia; Girolamo, Antonietta; Salvatore, Giuseppe; Cassone, Antonio

    2003-05-01

    A tea tree oil (TTO) preparation of defined chemical composition was studied, using a microbroth method, for its in vitro activity against 115 isolates of Candida albicans, other Candida species and Cryptococcus neoformans. The fungal strains were from HIV-seropositive subjects, or from an established type collection, including reference and quality control strains. Fourteen strains of C. albicans resistant to fluconazole and/or itraconazole were also assessed. The same preparation was also tested in an experimental vaginal infection using fluconazole-itraconazole-susceptible or -resistant strains of C. albicans. TTO was shown to be active in vitro against all tested strains, with MICs ranging from 0.03% (for C. neoformans) to 0.25% (for some strains of C. albicans and other Candida species). Fluconazole- and/or itraconazole-resistant C. albicans isolates had TTO MIC50s and MIC90s of 0.25% and 0.5%, respectively. TTO was highly efficacious in accelerating C. albicans clearance from experimentally infected rat vagina. Three post-challenge doses of TTO (5%) brought about resolution of infection regardless of whether the infecting C. albicans strain was susceptible or resistant to fluconazole. Overall, the use of a reliable animal model of infection has confirmed and extended our data on the therapeutic effectiveness of TTO against fungi, in particular against C. albicans.

  5. Spray-by-spray in situ cross-linking alginate hydrogels delivering a tea tree oil microemulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catanzano, O; Straccia, M C; Miro, A; Ungaro, F; Romano, I; Mazzarella, G; Santagata, G; Quaglia, F; Laurienzo, P; Malinconico, M

    2015-01-23

    In this paper we propose an in situ forming ionically cross-linked alginate (Alg) hydrogel delivering a Tea Tree Oil microemulsion (MeTTO) and potentially useful as an advanced dressing for infected wounds. Alg hydrogels were prepared by a spray-by-spray deposition method with the aim to minimize the discomforts during application. From pseudoternary phase diagrams, it was found that proper combination of TTO, water, polysorbate 80 and ethanol gave stable spherical MeTTO with good antimicrobial activity. On this basis, MeTTO at 20% TTO was selected for further inclusion in an Alg hydrogel prepared by alternating sprays of Alg/MeTTO and calcium chloride solutions. Homogeneous dispersion of MeTTO inside cross-linked Alg was assessed by different macroscopic and microscopic methods demonstrating the superior propensity of MeTTO to be integrated in the water-based hydrogel as compared to TTO. Antimicrobial effect of Alg/MeTTO hydrogels on Escherichia Coli strains was remarkable, highlighting the potential of the system as bioactive wound dressing.

  6. Antimicrobial efficacy of silver ions in combination with tea tree oil against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, W L; Martin, C; Hill, D J; Kenward, M A

    2011-02-01

    Tea tree oil (TTO) and silver ions (Ag(+)), either alone or in combination with other antimicrobial compounds, have been used in the treatment of topical infections. However, there appears to be little data on the efficacy of TTO combined with silver in the absence of any other agents. TTO and Ag(+) were added, alone and in combination, to suspension cultures of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. Treatment of these cultures with TTO and Ag(+) at sub-minimal lethal concentrations resulted in an enhanced loss of viability compared with treatment with individual agents. The order of sensitivity to the combined agents was P. aeruginosa>S. aureus>C. albicans. The fractional lethal concentration index (FLCI) showed that these combinations of TTO and Ag(+) exerted a synergistic effect against P. aeruginosa (FLCI=0.263) and an indifferent effect against S. aureus and C. albicans (FLCI=0.663 and 1.197, respectively). The results indicate that combining these antimicrobial agents may be useful in decreasing the concentration of antimicrobial agents required to achieve an effective reduction in opportunistic pathogenic microorganisms that typically infect wounds.

  7. In vitro studies on release and human skin permeation of Australian tea tree oil (TTO) from topical formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichling, Jürgen; Landvatter, Uwe; Wagner, Heike; Kostka, Karl-Heinz; Schaefer, Ulrich F

    2006-10-01

    Essential oils are widely used in pharmaceutical and cosmetic preparations e.g. as fragrance, active ingredient or penetration enhancer. However, reports on skin absorption are rare. Therefore, the aim of our study was to investigate the capability of terpinen-4-ol, the main compound of Australian tea tree oil (TTO), to permeate human skin. In static Franz diffusion cells permeation experiments with heat separated human epidermis were carried out using infinite dosing conditions and compared to liberation experiments. The flux values of three different semisolid preparations with 5% TTO showed the rank order semisolid O/W emulsion (0.067 microl/cm2 h) > white petrolatum (0.051 microl/cm2 h) > ambiphilic cream (0.022 microl/cm2 h). In comparison to the flux value obtained with the native TTO (0.26 microl/cm2 h), the flux values are remarkably reduced due to the lower amount of terpinen-4-ol. P(app) values for cream (2.74+/-0.06 x 10(-7) cm/s) and native TTO (1.62+/-0.12 x 10(-7) cm/s) are comparable whereas white petrolatum (6.36+/-0.21 x 10(-7) cm/s) and semisolid O/W emulsion (8.41+/-0.15 x 10(-7) cm/s) demonstrated higher values indicating a penetration enhancement. No relationship between permeation and liberation was found.

  8. Inhibition effect of tea tree oil on Listeria monocytogenes growth and exotoxin proteins listeriolysin O and p60 secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z; Meng, R; Zhao, X; Shi, C; Zhang, X; Zhang, Y; Guo, N

    2016-12-01

    Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes) is a Gram-positive bacterium that causes infections in humans. In this study, the effects of tea tree oil (TTO) at subinhibitory concentrations on L. monocytogenes growth and two important exotoxin proteins secreted by L. monocytogenes were researched. Treatment with half of minimal inhibitory concentration of TTO demonstrated very little or no reduction in numbers of viable ATCC 19115 cells. Listeriolysin O (LLO) and p60, were investigated. A listeriolysin assay was used to investigate the hemolytic activities of L. monocytogenes exposed to TTO, and the secretion of LLO and p60 was detected by immunoblot analysis. Additionally, real-time RT-PCR was used to analyse the influence of TTO on the transcription of LLO and p60 encoded genes hly and iap respectively. According to our experimental results, we propose that TTO could be used as a promising natural compound against L. monocytogenes and its virulence factors.

  9. Development of 15 genic-ssr markers in oil-tea tree (Camellia oleifera based on transcriptome sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Baoguang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oil-tea tree is one of the most important woody edible oil plants; however, lack of useful molecular markers hinders current genetic research. We performed transcriptome sequencing of developing seeds and characterized microsatellites from transcriptome sequences to identify valuable markers for C. oleifera molecular genetics research. A total of 69,798 unigenes were identified, in which 6,949 putative SSR motifs from 6,042 SSR-containing unique putative transcripts were discovered. Twenty-nine primer pairs corresponding to 29 unigene loci were designed, of which 15 polymorphic genic-SSR markers were developed in 18 varieties and characterized by capillary electrophoresis. The number of alleles per locus (Na ranged from 2 to 14, the expected heterozygosity (He ranged from 0.374 to 0.876, and the polymorphism information content (PIC values ranged from 0.498 to 0.887, respectively. Cross-species amplification was also conducted in 15 varieties of C. japonica. All 15 markers successfully amplified PCR products with expected size in C. japonica and exhibited polymorphisms. The 15 polymorphic genic- SSR markers will have potential for applications in genetic diversity evaluation, molecular fingerprinting identification, comparative genome analysis, and genetic mapping in the C. oleifera and C. japonica.

  10. Comparative antiplaque and antigingivitis effectiveness of tea tree oil mouthwash and a cetylpyridinium chloride mouthwash: A randomized controlled crossover study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betul Rahman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the antiplaque and antigingivitis effects of a mouthwash containing tea tree oil (TTO with a cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC mouthwash. Materials and Methods: This was a randomized 4 × 4, controlled, cross-over, involving 20 healthy volunteers in a 5-day plaque re-growth model. Test mouthwashes were TTO (Tebodont® and a mouthwash containing CPC 0.05% (Aquafresh® . A 0.12% chlorhexidine (CHX mouthwash (Oro-Clense® was used as positive and colored water (placebo [PLB] as negative controls. Gingival bleeding index (GBI and plaque index (PI scores were recorded before and after each test period. Test periods were separated with 2 weeks washout period. Results: All four mouthwashes significantly (P < 0.001 reduced the GBI scores when compared to the baseline GBI scores. There was no significant difference between PLB and active mouthwashes in the GBI scores. CHX and CPC mouthwashes were found more effective in reducing the PI scores than TTO and PLB mouthwashes. There was no significant difference in PI scores of CHX and CPC mouthwashes. Conclusion: 0.05% CPC mouthwash can be an alternative to CHX mouthwash since it is alcohol free and found as efficient as CHX in dental plaque reduction with lesser side effects. More studies are needed to test antigingivitis effects of the mouthwashes used in this study, preferably without initial scaling and polishing.

  11. Essential oils and metal ions as alternative antimicrobial agents: a focus on tea tree oil and silver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Wan-Li; Kenward, Ken; Britland, Stephen T; Amin, Mohd Cim; Martin, Claire

    2017-04-01

    The increasing occurrence of hospital-acquired infections and the emerging problems posed by antibiotic-resistant microbial strains have both contributed to the escalating cost of treatment. The presence of infection at the wound site can potentially stall the healing process at the inflammatory stage, leading to the development of a chronic wound. Traditional wound treatment regimes can no longer cope with the complications posed by antibiotic-resistant strains; hence, there is a need to explore the use of alternative antimicrobial agents. Pre-antibiotic compounds, including heavy metal ions and essential oils, have been re-investigated for their potential use as effective antimicrobial agents. Essential oils have potent antimicrobial, antifungal, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and other beneficial therapeutic properties. Similarly, heavy metal ions have also been used as disinfecting agents because of their broad spectrum activities. Both of these alternative antimicrobials interact with many different intracellular components, thereby resulting in the disruption of vital cell functions and eventually cell death. This review will discuss the application of essential oils and heavy metal ions, particularly tea tree oil and silver ions, as alternative antimicrobial agents for the treatment of chronic, infected wounds.

  12. Effects and possible mechanism of tea tree oil against Botrytis cinerea and Penicillium expansum in vitro and in vivo test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yonghua; Shao, Xingfeng; Xu, Jiayu; Wei, Yingying; Xu, Feng; Wang, Hongfei

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the antifungal activities and possible mechanisms of tea tree oil (TTO) against Botrytis cinerea and Penicillium expansum in vitro and in vivo. The results show that TTO exhibits dose-dependent antifungal activity against both pathogens, but P. expansum is less sensitive than B. cinerea to TTO not only in the in vitro test but also in artificially inoculated cherry fruits. TTO vapor treatment reduced the decay caused by these pathogens in inoculated cherry fruits, but the effect on P. expansum was less than that on B. cinerea. While the total lipid and ergosterol contents of the cell membrane are greater in P. expansum than in B. cinerea, TTO treatment lowers the total lipid content in the membranes of both species by well over 50%, and ergosterol content is reduced to a greater extent in B. cinerea than in P. expansum. In both pathogens, TTO alters mycelial morphology and cellular ultrastructure. Oxygen consumption measurements show that TTO inhibits respiratory metabolism via the tricarboxylic acid cycle pathway in both pathogens, though more severely in B. cinerea than in P. expansum. The relatively decreased sensitivity of P. expansum to TTO may be due to the fact that TTO causes less disruption of the cell membrane in this organism, and higher inhibition the respiratory metabolism to the extent observed in B. cinerea.

  13. In vivo bactericidal effect of Melaleuca alternifolia essential oil against Aeromonas hydrophila: Silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) as an experimental model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    F Souza, Carine; Baldissera, Matheus D; A Vaucher, Rodrigo; Lopes, Leonardo Q S; Vizzotto, Bruno S; Raffin, Renata P; Santos, Roberto C V; L da Veiga, Marcelo; U M da Rocha, Maria Izabel; Stefani, Lenita M; Baldisserotto, Bernardo

    2016-09-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila is one of the main causative agent of high mortality and significative economic losses in aquaculture and has become increasingly resistant to conventional antibiotics. One feasible alternative to control and treat it is the use of essential oils. This study aimed to evaluate A. hydrophila susceptibility to tea tree oil (TTO-Melaleuca alternifolia) in vivo, and the effect of this treatment. In vivo tests were performed using silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) as the experimental model. Silver catfish were treated with TTO at 25 and 50 μL/L for seven days before infection. After seven days, the fish were inoculated with A. hydrophila via intramuscularly. Treatment with TTO at 50 μL/L was able to extend longevity of infected fish, and showed 88% of therapeutic success, even though it did not show curative efficacy. TTO treatment was not toxic under these tested concentrations, since biomarkers of hepatic and renal functions were not affected, and the concentration of 50 μL/L was able to prevent increased levels of aspartate aminotransferase. There was no significative differences regarding hematological parameters (p < 0.05). Treatment with TTO 50 μL/L was able to reduce histopathological alterations usually caused by this type of bacteria in the gills, but it was unable to reduce hepatic histopathological alterations. Our results showed, for the first time, that TTO has high activity against A. hydrophila and proved to be a natural alternative to prevent and control this pathogen.

  14. STIGMA RECEPTIVITY AND POLLEN VIABILITY OF Melaleuca alternifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Baskorowati

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Stigma  receptivity based on seed set and pollen  tubes growth  following controlled pollination of flowers  of different  ages was examined  in Melaleuca alternifolia. The stigma secretion during 10 days after anthesis and pollen viability under three different temperatures and five storage times were also observed. These series of research were undertaken because successful controlled pollination of M. alternifolia depends on the application of viable pollen to the receptive compatible  stigma. The objective of this research was therefore to determine the stigma receptivity and pollen viability of M. alternifolia. Results showed that the stigma receptivity began to develop  on day  one and finished  on day  seven after anthesis,  peak receptivity occurred from day three to day six. The stigma receptivity also coincides with the appearance of secretion in the stigma, occurring  from day three to day seven after anthesis. Therefore,  the time for pollination of M. alternifolia appeared to extend for  approximately 7 days after anthesis. Data for M. alternifolia showed that regardless of storage temperature, pollen  was still  viable  after 26 weeks  of storage;  results also demonstrated  that the lowest temperature  (-18oC was the best regime for long term storage.

  15. 茶枯对烟草小地老虎的防效%Control Effect of the Dregs of Tea-oil Tree Fruit on Tobacco Black Cutworm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨通隆; 杨秀春; 杨天沛; 孔德懋

    2012-01-01

    To seek new drug source for organic tobacco production, and take full advantage of the dregs of tea-oil tree fruit, the control effect of the dregs of tea-oil tree fruit on tobacco black cutworm was studied by randomized block design in Tianzhu tobacco-growing area. The results showed that the control effect increased with increasing application amount of the dregs of tea-oil tree fruit. And could be up to 83. 78%when the application amount was 825 kg/hm2, which was close to that of 1 000 times of 2. 5% alphamethrin. Hole fertilization had higher control efficiency than drill fertilization, which was 78. 34% when the application amount was 675 kg/hm2.%为探索生产有机烟叶的新型杀虫药源,同时充分利用茶枯资源,采用随机区组设计方法,在天柱烟区进行了茶枯对烟草小地老虎防效试验.结果表明:随着茶枯施用量的增加其防效增加,用量达825kg/hm2时,其防效与施用2.5%高效氯氰聚酯1 000倍液的防效接近,达83.78%;窝施的防效优于条施,窝施用量达675 kg/hm2时,其防效达78.34%.

  16. Effect of a tea tree oil and organic acid footbath solution on digital dermatitis in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A C; Wood, C L; McQuerry, K J; Bewley, J M

    2014-01-01

    Copper sulfate is the industry gold standard footbath ingredient for controlling dairy cow digital dermatitis. However, when used footbath solutions are deposited on soil, high levels of copper in the soil may result, which can have toxic and negative effects on plant growth. An alternative to copper sulfate is Provita Hoofsure Endurance (Provita Eurotech Ltd., Omagh, UK), which is a biodegradable solution containing organic acids, tea tree oil, and wetting agents. The objective of this study was to quantify changes in digital dermatitis frequency when using Provita Hoofsure Endurance and copper sulfate in a split footbath in 3 commercial dairy herds. This study was conducted from January 5, 2012, to March 19, 2012, in 3 commercial Kentucky dairies with 120, 170, and 200 milking Holstein cows. None of the herds was using a footbath for digital dermatitis control before the study. Footbath solutions were delivered using a split footbath. During the study, a 3% Hoofsure Endurance solution for the left hooves and a 5% copper sulfate solution for the right hooves was used. Digital dermatitis was scored every 3wk using the M0 to M4 system, where M0=a claw free of signs of digital dermatitis; M1=a lesion 2cm, and painful to the touch; M3=the healing stage and covered by a scab; and M4=the chronic stage and characterized by dyskeratosis or proliferation of the surface that is generally not painful. McNemar's test statistic suggested that a statistically significant difference existed in the proportions of M1 and M2 lesions between the beginning and end of the study for both treatments. This indicates that each solution was effective in decreasing the proportion of M1 or M2 lesions from baseline to the last time point. A chi-square test calculated using PROC FREQUENCY of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC) indicated that no statistically significant relationship existed between the treatments among changes in digital dermatitis frequency from the baseline to the end of the

  17. 茶树油抗菌活性的实验研究%An Experimental Study of the Antimicrobial Activity of the Essential Oil of Tea Tree(Melaleuca Alternifolia)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王懿; 王振维

    2004-01-01

    目的:观察茶树油对白色念珠菌、耐药金黄色葡萄球菌、枯草芽胞杆菌及芽胞、大肠埃希菌、铜绿假单胞菌和痢疾志贺菌的抗菌活性.方法:将试验中的微生物分别与不同浓度茶树油混合后进行两次培养,观察培养结果.用纸片琼脂扩散法观察不同浓度茶树油纸片对各种微生物产生的抑菌圈.结果:茶树油浓度≥10 mL·L-1时对铜绿假单胞菌有很好的抗菌活性,浓度≥5 mL·L-1时对白色念珠菌和其他各种细菌都显示出很好的抗菌活性,浓度为2.5 mL·L-1时对痢疾志贺菌仍有明显的抗菌活性,浓度为1.25 mL·L-1时对枯草芽胞杆菌及芽胞仍有明显的抗菌活性.各浓度茶树油纸片只对枯草芽胞杆菌产生抑菌圈.结论:茶树油对试验中的真菌、细菌及芽胞有明显的杀菌作用和持久的抑菌作用.

  18. Study on Transdermal Diffusion Action of Tea Tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) Oil Liposomes Gel%茶树油脂质体凝胶剂的体外透皮扩散研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴亚妮; 徐云龙; 王伟; 姚雷

    2007-01-01

    本文采用Franz扩散池、离体鼠皮对茶树油(TTO)凝胶剂与TTO脂质体凝胶剂进行体外透皮扩散研究,分别考察不同时间点的体外透皮量、皮肤层滞留量,并对两种制剂的体外透皮规律进行拟合,得出规律方程.研究结果表明,TTO脂质体凝胶剂的体外透皮扩散的皮肤滞留量显着增加,是TTO凝胶的2.54倍,说明以脂质体为载体可对茶树油的经皮吸收起到很好的缓释作用,能有效提高其在局部炎症皮层组织中的药物浓度及停留时间,有望成为茶树油应用的新剂型.

  19. Áhrif Tea tree-ilmkjarnaolíu á húðnetjubólgu fótleggjar: Forrannsókn

    OpenAIRE

    Berglind Guðrún Chu 1975

    2011-01-01

    Húðnetjubólga (e. cellulitis), sem er oft af völdum Staphylococcus aureus, getur verið saklaus sýking án fylgikvilla. Sé hún ekki meðhöndluð getur hún valdið blóðeitrun og leitt til dauða. Sýklalyfjagjöf er aðalmeðferðin en vegna vaxandi ónæmis baktería og aukaverkana lyfjanna er þörf á að skoða önnur úrræði. Tea tree-ilmkjarnaolía hefur góða virkni gegn S. aureus in vitro en fáar klínískar rannsóknir liggja því til stuðnings. Tilgangur þessarar rannsóknar var að kanna áhrif Tea tree-ilmkjarn...

  20. Human skin penetration of the major components of Australian tea tree oil applied in its pure form and as a 20% solution in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Sheree E; Russell, Michael; Southwell, Ian; Roberts, Michael S

    2008-05-01

    The safety of topical application of Australian tea tree Oil (TTO) is confounded by a lack of transdermal penetration data, which adequately informs opinions and recommendations. In this study we applied TTO in its pure form and as a 20% solution in ethanol in vitro to human epidermal membranes from three different donors, mounted in horizontal Franz-type diffusion cells, using normal 'in use' dosing conditions (10 mg/cm2). In addition, we examined the effect of partially occluding the application site on the penetration of TTO components. Our data showed that only a small quantity of TTO components, 1.1-1.9% and 2-4% of the applied amount following application of a 20% TTO solution and pure TTO, respectively, penetrated into or through human epidermis. The largest TTO component penetrating the skin was terpinen-4-ol. Following partial occlusion of the application site, the penetration of terpinen-4-ol increased to approximately 7% of the applied TTO. Measurement of the rate of evaporation of tea tree oil from filter paper (7.4 mg/cm2) showed that 98% of the oil evaporated in 4 hours. Overall, it is apparent that the penetration of TTO components through human skin is limited.

  1. 茶树中过氧化氢酶活力变化规律%Regulation of catalase activity variation of tea tree (Camellia sinensis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨节; 龚淑英; 唐德松

    2014-01-01

    用紫外分光光度法测定茶树鲜叶的过氧化氢酶( catalase ,CAT )活力,研究茶树 CAT 活力变化规律。结果表明:相同地点种植的不同茶树品种在生长旺盛的春季,其新梢的酶活力虽然会有一定的差异,但总体上差异不明显,到了夏季各品种间的差异较大,秋季酶活力普遍较高,但差异减小;不同季节、同一品种的茶树 CAT 活力变化明显,总体表现为秋季>夏季>春季;生长在主干的鲜叶 CAT 活力高于新生枝条上的鲜叶,而在同一枝条上,位于枝条中间的鲜叶 CAT 活力高于位于枝条两端的鲜叶;刚采下来的茶树鲜叶在摊放2 h 后酶活力上升30%,而随着摊放时间的进一步延长,CAT 活力持续下降,到12 h 后酶活力基本稳定在100 U /g 左右。可见,茶树 CAT活力变化对茶树正常生长发育起着极为重要的作用,是茶树逆境生理的关键酶。%Summary Catalase (CAT) is a protective enzyme responsible for the degradation of hydrogen peroxide before it damages the cellular components . All aerobic organisms and many anaerobic organisms possess it in virtually . The catalatic reaction takes place in two steps : The first hydrogen peroxide molecule oxidizes the heme to an oxyferryl species in which one oxidation equivalent is removed from the iron and one from the porphyrin ring to generate a porphyrin cation radical ; the second hydrogen peroxide is then used as a reductant of compound 1 to regenerate the resting state enzyme , water , and oxygen . But so far the reports about the CAT in tea tree ( Camellia sinensis ) are not seen so often . In this research , the regulation of CAT activity variation of tea tree was studied . The CAT was extracted from fresh tea leaves with 0 .2 mol/L phosphate buffer ( pH 7 .4) and 15% polyvinylpolypyrrolidone ( PVPP) . The CAT activity was measured spectrophotometrically at 240 nm . One unit of CAT activity was defined as the activity required to destroy 1

  2. Chemical constituents from Melaleuca alternifolia (Myrtaceae); Constituintes quimicos de Melaleuca alternifolia (Myrtaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Tatiana R.; Barbosa, Luiz C.A.; Maltha, Celia R.A. [Vicosa Univ., MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: lcab@ufv.br; Paula, Vanderlucia F. [Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia, Jequie, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica e Exatas; Nascimento, Evandro A. [Uberlandia Univ., MG (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2004-08-01

    The first chemical study of non-volatile constituents from the bark and stem of Melaleuca alternifolia (Myrtaceae) led to the isolation and identification of 3,3'-O-dimethylellagic acid (1) and five pentacyclic triterpenes: 2{alpha},3{beta},23-trihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid (arjunolic acid, 2), 3{beta}-hydroxylup-20(29)-en-27,28-dioic acid (melaleucic acid, 3), betulinic acid (4), betuline (5), 3{beta}-O-acetylurs-12-en-28-oic acid (6), a mixture of fatty acids and esters, and several hydrocarbons. For 2{alpha},3{beta},23-trihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid (2) and 3{beta}-O-acetylurs-12-en-28-oic acid (6) a first detailed assignment of {sup 1}H NMR is presented. (author)

  3. Constituintes químicos de Melaleuca alternifolia (Myrtaceae Chemical constituents from Melaleuca alternifolia (Myrtaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana R. Vieira

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available The first chemical study of non-volatile constituents from the bark and stem of Melaleuca alternifolia (Myrtaceae led to the isolation and identification of 3,3'-O-dimethylellagic acid (1 and five pentacyclic triterpenes: 2alpha,3beta,23-trihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid (arjunolic acid, 2, 3beta-hydroxylup-20(29-en-27,28-dioic acid (melaleucic acid, 3, betulinic acid (4, betuline (5, 3beta-O-acetylurs-12-en-28-oic acid (6, a mixture of fatty acids and esters, and several hydrocarbons. For 2alpha,3beta,23-trihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid (2 and 3beta-O-acetylurs-12-en-28-oic acid (6 a first detailed assignment of ¹H NMR is presented.

  4. 茶树无菌播种建立植株再生体系%Establishment of Plant Regeneration System of Tea Trees by Asepsis Sowing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄燕芬; 吴曦; 周国兰; 赵华富

    2013-01-01

    为提高茶树的繁殖速率,用近成熟的茶树种子以无菌播种方式获得试管苗,再以其茎段为外植体,建立了茶树高效植株再生体系.结果表明,剥除内外种皮的茶树种子发芽率为90%,较保留种皮的完全种子增加了13个百分点;茶树种子胚龄与发芽势、发芽率呈正相关,与萌发时间呈负相关;诱导茶树种子萌发适宜培养基为MS+6-BA 3.0 mg/L+IBA 2.0 mg/L+YE 200 mg/L或改良ER+6-BA 2.5 mg/L+NAA 0.2 mg/L;在改良ER+6-BA 1.5 mg/L+NAA 0.2 mg/L继代增殖培养基中培养,带芽组织切块的适宜增殖周期为39 d,增殖倍数5.4;壮苗、诱导根形成的适宜培养基为1/2改良ER+IBA 0.10 mg/L,发根率达80%.%To improve the reproduction rate of tea trees,using the stem of plantlet as explant,which was obtained by asepsis sowing with the nearly mature tea seeds,the optimum regeneration system of tea trees was established.The experimental results showed that the germination rate of tea seeds whose endotesta and exopleura were stripped out was 90%,increased by 13 percentage points compared with the whole seeds.The embryo age of tea seeds had positive correlation with germination energy and germination percentage,but was negatively related to the germination time.To induce tea seed germination,the optimum medium was composed of MS+6-BA 3.0 mg/L+IBA 2.0 mg/L+YE 200 mg/L or ER+6-BA 2.5 mg/L+NAA 0.2 mg/L.The tissue slicing of bud indicated that the suitable proliferation cycle was 39 days with proliferation multiple of 5.4 in the modified subculture medium (ER+6-BA 1.5 mg/L+NAA 0.2 mg/L).In addition,the optimum medium for making seedling strong and inducing root formation was modified 1/2 ER+IBA 0.10 mg/L,leading to 80 % rooting rate.

  5. The effects of excipients for topical preparations on the human skin permeability of terpinen-4-ol contained in Tea tree oil: infrared spectroscopic investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casiraghi, Antonella; Minghetti, Paola; Cilurzo, Francesco; Selmin, Francesca; Gambaro, Veniero; Montanari, Luisa

    2010-01-01

    This work aimed to evaluate the effect induced by excipients conventionally used for topical dosage forms, namely isopropyl myristate (IPM) or oleic acid (OA) or polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG400) or Transcutol (TR), on the human skin permeability of terpinen-4-ol (T4OL) contained in the pure Tea tree oil. The effect of such excipients was determined by evaluating the absorption of T4OL using human epidermis and the perturbation of the organization of stratum corneum by ATR-FTIR. Among the tested excipients OA enhanced the absorption of T4OL by perturbing the stratum corneum lipid barrier. Other excipients caused a weak enhancement effect and their use should be carefully monitored.

  6. 陕西安康油茶产业发展现状与对策%Industry development status and countermeasures of tea-oil tree in Ankang Shanxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹佳瑛

    2013-01-01

    The industry development status and advantages of tea-oil tree in Ankang were analyzed systematicly. The countermeasures of creating high quality tea base in northern were proposed in 5 aspects including raising awareness and seizing the opportunity, adhering to combine introducing and breeding, promoting the use of early maturing high-yielding varieties of tea, accelerating the research and promotion of key technologies of tea cultivation to achieve standardized production, cultivating leading enterprises to create famous tea brand, strengthening leadership to promote the healthy development of tea industry.%通过对安康油茶产业发展现状和优势的系统分析,从提高认识,抢抓机遇;坚持良种引进与选育相结合,推广应用早熟高产油茶良种;加快油茶栽培关键技术的研究与推广,实现标准化生产;培育龙头企业,打造知名油茶品牌;加强领导,推动油茶产业健康发展等5方面提出打造北方优质油茶基地的对策措施。

  7. The Application of Tea Dyeing to Silk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金成嬉

    2001-01-01

    Vegetable dyes are eco-friendly throughout the full production process. A study is conducted with the purpose of assessing the properties of dye extracted from green tea, black tea and the tea tree cultivated and used in Jiang Nan area of China. The extracted dyes are applied with and without mordants on silk fabric and the dyeing properties are evaluated.

  8. 引种互叶白千层茶树油有效抑菌成分辨析%Studies on the Antibacterial Composition Diversity of Introduced Melaleuca Alternifolia Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟振声; 袁裕泉; 樊丽妃

    2012-01-01

    采用广西、江西和广东三地从澳大利亚引种互叶白千层茶树所提炼出来的茶树油做研究对象,先用精密分馏分离为若干组分,然后用气质联用仪(GC/MS)定量分析,确定每一组分的主要化学成分.同时用大肠杆菌和金黄色葡萄球菌作供试菌,分别检测茶树油各段馏分对两种菌的抑菌活性,对比研究各馏分化学成分与抑菌效果之间的关系.结果发现:三种茶树油的化学成分存在巨大差异,特征成分4-松油醇的质量分数从0.78% ~43.59%不等,而1,8-桉叶素的质量分数则从2.14% ~ 72.49%.三种茶树油的化学成分虽然显著不同,但是对大肠杆菌和金黄色葡萄球菌都有较强的抑菌活性,而且三种茶树油的有效抑菌物质都是1,8-桉叶素.而主要成分4-松油醇、γ-松油烯、α-松油烯和伞花烯等物质的含量与抑菌作用没有显著关联.%Three melaleuca alternifolia tea tree oil from Guangxi, Jiangxi and Guangdong province, they are introduced from Australia, were separately into different components by fractional distillation , then make sure the main chemical composition by GC/MS. By means of antibiotic experiment with colibacillus and staphylococcus aureus, through contrast research the antimicrobial activity of the different fraction. Results indicated that the chemical components of the three kinds of tea tree oil were in great diversity. The characteristic composition terpinen-4--ol accounted from0. 78% -43. 59% , while the noncharacteris-tic composition 1, 8-cineole accounted from 2. 14% -72. 49%. The three kinds of tea tree oil were in great diversity, but they all have strong antimicrobial activity to the Staphylococcus aureus and the colibacillus, the active constituent of the three kinds of tea tree oil were 1, 8-cineole. While the main component content, such as terpinen-4-ol, γ-Terpinen, α-Terpinen, p - Cymene. et, have no significant correlation with antibiotic activity.

  9. Problems and Suggestions on the Development of Tea-oil Tree Industry in Ji'an City%吉安市油茶产业发展存在的问题与建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎志强

    2014-01-01

    发展油茶产业对于促进全市社会主义新农村建设、构建资源节约型和环境友好型社会、建设生态文明具有十分重要的意义。就油茶产业发展存在的问题进行分析,并提出解决办法及发展建议。%Developing the tea-oil tree industry has very important significance for Ji'an city to building new socialist countryside, building a resource conserving and environment friendly society, building the ecological civilization. This article analyzes the existing problems of the development of tea-oil tree industry in Ji'an city, then puts forward the solutions and development suggestions.

  10. 二次扦插繁殖对茶树油影响的研究%Quality of Tea Tree Oil during the Course of Cultivation from the Second Cutting seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁忠云; 常新民; 李桂珍; 陈海燕; 彩琳

    2015-01-01

    用挥发油提取器提取挥发油,利用气相色谱分析各化学成分含量,测定白千层二次扦插苗在移栽过程中精油的得油率和茶树油质量的变化,并对比两次扦插的枝叶有效生物量和精油产量。结果表明,二次扦插繁殖后种植的白千层提取的精油基本保持初选优株的品质,各项指标达到ISO 4730:2004标准,但枝叶有效生物量和精油产量有所降低,这需要在白千层生长过程中加强管护。%During the course of cultivation from the second cutting seedlings, tea tree oil was extracted by Volatile oil extractor and its relative contents of chemical compositions were analyzed by GC. Effective biomass of superior individual and tea tree oil weight was measured after cutting seedlings.The results showed the tea tree oil maintained the primary quality and the index was to ISO4730: 2004 standard, but effective biomass of superior individual and tea tree oil weight was lower than the first cutting seedlings. It is necessary to strengthen management in the course of Myrlaceaca growth.

  11. Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khaja, Nawal

    2007-01-01

    This is a thematic lesson plan for young learners about palm trees and the importance of taking care of them. The two part lesson teaches listening, reading and speaking skills. The lesson includes parts of a tree; the modal auxiliary, can; dialogues and a role play activity.

  12. An ex vivo, assessor blind, randomised, parallel group, comparative efficacy trial of the ovicidal activity of three pediculicides after a single application - melaleuca oil and lavender oil, eucalyptus oil and lemon tea tree oil, and a "suffocation" pediculicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altman Phillip M

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are two components to the clinical efficacy of pediculicides: (i efficacy against the crawling-stages (lousicidal efficacy; and (ii efficacy against the eggs (ovicidal efficacy. Lousicidal efficacy and ovicidal efficacy are confounded in clinical trials. Here we report on a trial that was specially designed to rank the clinical ovicidal efficacy of pediculicides. Eggs were collected, pre-treatment and post-treatment, from subjects with different types of hair, different coloured hair and hair of different length. Method Subjects with at least 20 live eggs of Pediculus capitis (head lice were randomised to one of three treatment-groups: a melaleuca oil (commonly called tea tree oil and lavender oil pediculicide (TTO/LO; a eucalyptus oil and lemon tea tree oil pediculicide (EO/LTTO; or a "suffocation" pediculicide. Pre-treatment: 10 to 22 live eggs were taken from the head by cutting the single hair with the live egg attached, before the treatment (total of 1,062 eggs. Treatment: The subjects then received a single treatment of one of the three pediculicides, according to the manufacturers' instructions. Post-treatment: 10 to 41 treated live eggs were taken from the head by cutting the single hair with the egg attached (total of 1,183 eggs. Eggs were incubated for 14 days. The proportion of eggs that had hatched after 14 days in the pre-treatment group was compared with the proportion of eggs that hatched in the post-treatment group. The primary outcome measure was % ovicidal efficacy for each of the three pediculicides. Results 722 subjects were examined for the presence of eggs of head lice. 92 of these subjects were recruited and randomly assigned to: the "suffocation" pediculicide (n = 31; the melaleuca oil and lavender oil pediculicide (n = 31; and the eucalyptus oil and lemon tea tree oil pediculicide (n = 30 subjects. The group treated with eucalyptus oil and lemon tea tree oil had an ovicidal efficacy of 3.3% (SD

  13. Effects of tea tree oil fumigation on disease and quality of postharvest strawberry fruits%茶树油熏蒸对草莓采后病害和品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程赛; 邵兴锋; 郭安南; 宋钰兴

    2011-01-01

    In order to investigate the effects of tea tree oil on the preservation of strawberry fruits, strawberries inoculated with Botrytis cinerea or Rhizopus stolonifer spores were fumigated by tea tree oil with different concentration and time, and then stored at 20℃ to observe the decay development.In vitro experiment, it was investigated on the inhibition of spore germination and mycelia growth of both pathogens by fumigation treatment, and also the effects of tea tree oil treatment on the change of quality during storage.The results showed that tea tree oil fumigation treatment reduced the decay incidence and lesion diameter of gray mold or mildew root, inhibited the spores germination and hyphae growth of pathogens.It also reduced the weight loss and maintained higher hardness, soluble solid and titratable acid content of strawberry fruits.Therefore, tea tree oil fumigation treatment for fresh strawberries is feasible, and the treatment at 2 000 mg/L with 3 h treatment time can prolong the shelf life of fresh fruits.%为了研究茶树油对草莓保鲜的作用效果,对人工接种灰葡萄孢霉(Botrytis cinerea)和根霉(Rhizopus stolonifer)的草莓果实进行不同质量浓度、不同时间的茶树油熏蒸处理,测定20℃贮藏下的病害发生情况,并运用体外试验研究该熏蒸处理对病原菌孢子萌发和菌丝生长的影响.同时,还分析了接受该处理的果实在贮藏期间的品质变化趋势.研究发现:茶树油熏蒸处理可降低草莓果实灰霉病和根霉病的发病率和病斑直径,抑制其孢子萌发和菌丝生长,减缓草莓果实在贮藏期间失重率的上升,维持较高的硬度、可溶性固形物和可滴定酸含量.结果表明茶树油熏蒸用于草莓保鲜是可行的,质量浓度为2 000mg/L,熏蒸3 h可明显延长草莓货架期.

  14. O/W型茶树精油壳聚糖乳化膜材料的制备%Preparation of O/W chitosan-based tea tree essential oil emulsive film material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛彦; 葛明桥

    2014-01-01

    以壳聚糖为基材,利用表面活性剂吐温80包覆茶树精油形成乳液,采用铸膜法制备 O/W 型茶树精油壳聚糖乳化膜,运用扫描电镜、红外光谱仪等对膜的结构特征和性能进行表征.结果表明,茶树精油被吐温80包覆,在壳聚糖溶液中形成稳定的 O/W乳液型铸膜液,成膜后茶树精油微粒呈球形,直径约为1μm.性能测试结果表明,茶树精油的添加大大提高了壳聚糖膜的抑菌效果,该膜具有较好的舒适性、吸水性、透气性和抑菌性,有望将来成为一种新型的医用材料.%Tea tree essential oil was coated with Tween 80 as surfactant to form an emulsion.Chitosan was used for the substrate and O/W chitosan-based tea tree essential oil emulsive film was prepared with cast method. Scanning electron microscopy,infrared spectroscopy,etc.were used to characterize the film’s structural feature and performance.The results showed that tea tree essential oil in chitosan solution was coated by Tween 80 to form a stable O/W emulsion casting solution.The particles of tea tree essential oil were in spherical form with a diameter of about 1μm in the film.The results of performance test indicated that the addition of tea tree es-sential oil greatly enhanced antibacterial effect of chitosan film.Film had good conformability,water absorp-tion,permeability and antibacterial property so that it was expected to be a new type of medical material in the future.

  15. A comparative study of antiplaque and antigingivitis effects of herbal mouthrinse containing tea tree oil, clove, and basil with commercially available essential oil mouthrinse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothiwale, Shaila V.; Patwardhan, Vivek; Gandhi, Megha; Sohoni, Rahul; Kumar, Ajay

    2014-01-01

    Background: The relatively safe nature and cost-effectiveness of herbal extracts have led to a resurgent interest in their utility as therapeutic agents. Therefore, this prospective, double-blind, randomly controlled clinical trial was designed to compare the antiplaque and antigingivitis effects of newly formulated mouthrinse containing tea tree oil (TTO), clove, and basil with those of commercially available essential oil (EO) mouthrinse. Materials and Methods: Forty patients were selected for a 21-day study period and randomly divided into two groups. The test group patients were given newly formulated herbal mouthrinse and the control group patients were given commercially available EO mouthrinse. The Plaque Index (PI), Gingival Index (GI), and Papillary Marginal Attachment (PMA) Index were recorded at baseline, 14 days, and 21 days. The microbial colony forming units (CFU) were assessed at baseline and 21 days. Results: Test group patients using herbal mouthrinse showed significant improvement in GI (0.16), PI (0.57), and PMA (0.02) scores. These improvements were comparable to those achieved with commercially available EO mouthrinse. However, the aerobic and anaerobic CFU of microbiota were reduced with the herbal mouthrinse (P = 0.0000). Conclusion: The newly formulated herbal mouthrinse and commercially available mouthrinse were beneficial clinically as antiplaque and antigingivitis agents. Newly formulated mouthrinses showed significant reduction in microbial CFU at 21 days. So, our findings support the regular use of herbal mouthrinse as an antiplaque, antigingivitis, and antimicrobial rinse for better efficacy. PMID:25024544

  16. Synthesis of eucalyptus/tea tree oil absorbed biphasic calcium phosphate-PVDF polymer nanocomposite films: a surface active antimicrobial system for biomedical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagchi, Biswajoy; Banerjee, Somtirtha; Kool, Arpan; Thakur, Pradip; Bhandary, Suman; Hoque, Nur Amin; Das, Sukhen

    2016-06-22

    A biocompatible poly(vinylidene) difluoride (PVDF) based film has been prepared by in situ precipitation of calcium phosphate precursors. Such films were surface absorbed with two essential oils namely eucalyptus and tea tree oil. Physico-chemical characterization of the composite film revealed excellent stability of the film with 10% loading of oils in the PVDF matrix. XRD, FTIR and FESEM measurements confirmed the presence of hydroxyapatite and octacalcium phosphate in the PVDF matrix which showed predominantly β phase. Strong bactericidal activity was observed with very low minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values on both E. coli and S. aureus. The composite films also resisted biofilm formation as observed by FESEM. The release of essential oils from the film showed an initial burst followed by a very slow release over a period of 24 hours. Antibacterial action of the film was found to be primarily due to the action of essential oils which resulted in leakage of vital fluids from the microorganisms. Both necrotic and apoptotic morphologies were observed in bacterial cells. Biocompatibility studies with the composite films showed negligible cytotoxicity to mouse mesenchymal and myoblast cells at MBC concentration.

  17. Effect of the shell-forming polymer ratio on the encapsulation of tea tree oil by complex coacervation as a natural biocide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Limiñana, María Ángeles; Payá-Nohales, Federico J; Arán-Ais, Francisca; Orgilés-Barceló, César

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop footwear materials with antimicrobial properties using microencapsulated Tea Tree oil (TTO) as a natural biocide. For that purpose, gelatine-carboxymethylcellulose based microcapsules containing TTO were synthesised by a complex coacervation process. Furthermore, the influence of the gelatine (G)/sodium carboxymethylmethyl cellulose (CMC) ratio (G/C) on the microcapsule properties, as well as in the microencapsulation oil efficiency, was evaluated. The microcapsules were characterised by different experimental techniques and applied to footwear materials (leather and textile) to evaluate their performance. The microcapsule durability under different conditions, such as rubbing and ironing, was analysed in order to simulate shoe manufacturing and shoe wearing. The properties of the microcapsules obtained by complex coacervation, using gelatine and sodium carboxymethylcellulose as shell-forming polymers, are determined by the ratio between those two polymers (G/C). The results obtained showed a notable effect of G/C ratio on the formation of the coacervate during the synthesis process and also on the encapsulation efficiency of the antimicrobial oil, with the optimal value for the G/C ratio being around 10.

  18. Quality evaluation of terpinen-4-ol-type Australian tea tree oils and commercial products: an integrated approach using conventional and chiral GC/MS combined with chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mei; Zhao, Jianping; Avula, Bharathi; Wang, Yan-Hong; Chittiboyina, Amar G; Parcher, Jon F; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2015-03-18

    GC/MS, chiral GC/MS, and chemometric techniques were used to evaluate a large set (n=104) of tea tree oils (TTO) and commercial products purported to contain TTO. Twenty terpenoids were determined in each sample and compared with the standards specified by ISO-4730-2004. Several of the oil samples that were ISO compliant when distilled did not meet the ISO standards in this study primarily due to the presence of excessive p-cymene and/or depletion of terpinenes. Forty-nine percent of the commercial products did not meet the ISO specifications. Four terpenes, viz., α-pinene, limonene, terpinen-4-ol, and α-terpineol, present in TTOs with the (+)-isomer predominant were measured by chiral GC/MS. The results clearly indicated that 28 commercial products contained excessive (+)-isomer or contained the (+)-isomer in concentrations below the norm. Of the 28 outliers, 7 met the ISO standards. There was a substantial subset of commercial products that met ISO standards but displayed unusual enantiomeric+/-ratios. A class predictive model based on the oils that met ISO standards was constructed. The outliers identified by the class predictive model coincided with the samples that displayed an abnormal chiral ratio. Thus, chiral and chemometric analyses could be used to confirm the identification of abnormal commercial products including those that met all of the ISO standards.

  19. A comparative study of antiplaque and antigingivitis effects of herbal mouthrinse containing tea tree oil, clove, and basil with commercially available essential oil mouthrinse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaila V. Kothiwale

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The relatively safe nature and cost-effectiveness of herbal extracts have led to a resurgent interest in their utility as therapeutic agents. Therefore, this prospective, double-blind, randomly controlled clinical trial was designed to compare the antiplaque and antigingivitis effects of newly formulated mouthrinse containing tea tree oil (TTO, clove, and basil with those of commercially available essential oil (EO mouthrinse. Materials and Methods: Forty patients were selected for a 21-day study period and randomly divided into two groups. The test group patients were given newly formulated herbal mouthrinse and the control group patients were given commercially available EO mouthrinse. The Plaque Index (PI, Gingival Index (GI, and Papillary Marginal Attachment (PMA Index were recorded at baseline, 14 days, and 21 days. The microbial colony forming units (CFU were assessed at baseline and 21 days. Results: Test group patients using herbal mouthrinse showed significant improvement in GI (0.16, PI (0.57, and PMA (0.02 scores. These improvements were comparable to those achieved with commercially available EO mouthrinse. However, the aerobic and anaerobic CFU of microbiota were reduced with the herbal mouthrinse (P = 0.0000. Conclusion: The newly formulated herbal mouthrinse and commercially available mouthrinse were beneficial clinically as antiplaque and antigingivitis agents. Newly formulated mouthrinses showed significant reduction in microbial CFU at 21 days. So, our findings support the regular use of herbal mouthrinse as an antiplaque, antigingivitis, and antimicrobial rinse for better efficacy.

  20. 茶树精油对铜绿假单胞杆菌生物膜的抑制作用%Restraining effects of tea tree oil to the Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄晓敏; 李海妙; 罗宝正; 管文华; 林少芸; 王明明

    2012-01-01

    目的 观察茶树精油对铜绿假单胞杆菌生物膜(BF)的抑制作用.方法 采用二倍稀释法测定茶树精油对铜绿假单胞杆菌的最小抑菌浓度(MIC),以一次性输液管和微孔滤膜作为生物膜吸附载体,用改良后的Brown平板连续培养法制备铜绿假单胞杆菌生物膜体外模型,采用光学高倍显微镜连续观察生物膜的形成,采用扫描电子显微镜进行生物膜结构观察和鉴定,以琼脂平板菌落计数法测定茶树精油对受试菌生物膜的抑制效果.结果 茶树精油对铜绿假单胞杆菌的MIC(孟乙烯4-ol浓度含量)为9.6μg/ml; 0.5倍MIC (4.8 μg/ml)、1倍MIC(9.6 μg/ml)虽能使成熟铜绿假单胞杆菌生物膜菌落数呈梯度性减少,但不能完全清除生物膜细菌,而2倍MIC(19.2 μg/ml)对细菌生物膜作用20 h后可完全清除生物膜细菌,3倍MIC(28.8μg/ml)则可在4h内完全清除生物膜.结论 茶树精油对铜绿假单胞菌生物膜有清除效应,可抑制生物膜形成,但需进一步研究验证.%OBJECTIVE To find out and study the restraining effect of tea tree oil to Pseudomonas aeruginos biofilm. METHODS PVC biomedical material and millipore was used as adsorption carrier of biofilm and double-dilution method was used to detect the MIC of tea tree oil on Pseudomonas aeruginos, the in vitro model of Pseudomonas aeruginos biofilm was built by continuous development method on Brown' s plate, and scanning with electron microcopy (SEM) was used to evaluate the formation of biofilm. The viable bacterial colony was counted on the plate of agar so as to evaluate the restraining effect of tea tree oil for the tested bacterial biofilm. RESULTS The MIC of tea tree oil on Pseudomonas aeruginos (the concentration of Terpinen 4-ol) was 9.6 (μg/ml. The concentration of tea tree oil of half of MIC (4.8 μg/ml), and one of MIC (9.6 μg/ml) can lower the number of the viable bacterial of the formed Pseudomonas aeruginos biofilm. For example, the

  1. Influence of Melaleuca alternifolia oil nanoparticles on aspects of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comin, Vanessa M; Lopes, Leonardo Q S; Quatrin, Priscilla M; de Souza, Márcia E; Bonez, Pauline C; Pintos, Francieli G; Raffin, Renata P; Vaucher, Rodrigo de A; Martinez, Diego S T; Santos, Roberto C V

    2016-04-01

    The Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a gram-negative bacillus and frequent cause of infection. This microorganism is resistant intrinsically to various drugs. The P. aeruginosa is associated with the biofilm formation, which causes worsen the prognosis and difficulty the treatment. The influence of Melaleuca alternifolia oil or "tree of tee" oil (TTO) and TTO nanoparticles on adhesion of P. aeruginosa in buccal epithelial cells was investigated. Also was determined the antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity against this microorganism. The TTO nanoparticles were produced by deposition of preformed polymer and the physic-chemical properties of nanoparticles were measured by electrophoresis and dynamic light scattering. The characterization of nanoparticle showed acceptable values for diameter and zeta potential. The evaluation of antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity against P. aeruginosa PAO1 was performed by microdilution indicating the minimal inhibitory concentration, and the potential antibiofilm. It was verified the action on virulence factors such the motility, besides the influence on adhesion in buccal epithelial cells. Both oil and nanoparticles showed a decrease in adhesion of microorganisms to buccal cells, decrease of biofilm and interfering on P. aeruginosa PAO1 motility. The nanostructuration of TTO, shows be a viable alternative against formed biofilm microorganisms.

  2. Preservation Effect of Tea Tree Oil on Banana Fruit%茶树油对香蕉果实的保鲜效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    静玮; 苏子鹏; 程盛华; 韩志萍; 张鲁斌; 朱德明

    2012-01-01

    研究茶树油(TTO)处理对香蕉果实采后病害控制和贮藏期果实品质的影响.结果表明:利用1.25 g/L TTO熏蒸处理能够有效控制香蕉果实的发病,推迟了果实果皮的褪绿变黄,延缓了果肉硬度和淀粉含量的下降,维持了较高的可溶性糖含量,有利于保持果实的外观和品质;同时随着果皮表面残留TTO的迅速挥发,果实保持了自身较好的风味.TTO作为一种天然的防腐剂,在果蔬采后防腐保鲜方面具有应用前景.%The effect of TTO (Tea tree oil) treatment on postharvest decay and quality in banana at 25 癈 were studied. Results showed that 1.25 g/L TTO fumigation treatment significantly delayed fruit decay and peel yellowing. Pulp softening and starch decomposition within TTO-treated fruit were retarded at 25 %. Compared with the untreated fruit, TTO-treated fruit had higher content of soluble sugar. TTO treatment generally retained appearance and texture of banana fruit. In addition, TTO did not affect fruit's own favor after gradual volatilization of the residual essential oil. TTO is promising as a natural preservative on postharvest fresh-keeping of fruits.

  3. Trees

    OpenAIRE

    Henri Epstein

    2016-01-01

    An algebraic formalism, developed with V. Glaser and R. Stora for the study of the generalized retarded functions of quantum field theory, is used to prove a factorization theorem which provides a complete description of the generalized retarded functions associated with any tree graph. Integrating over the variables associated to internal vertices to obtain the perturbative generalized retarded functions for interacting fields arising from such graphs is shown to be possible for a large cate...

  4. Trees

    OpenAIRE

    Epstein, Henri

    2016-01-01

    An algebraic formalism, developped with V. Glaser and R. Stora for the study of the generalized retarded functions of quantum field theory, is used to prove a factorization theorem which provides a complete description of the generalized retarded functions associated with any tree graph. Integrating over the variables associated to internal vertices to obtain the perturbative generalized retarded functions for interacting fields arising from such graphs is shown to be possible for a large cat...

  5. Trees

    CERN Document Server

    Epstein, Henri

    2016-01-01

    An algebraic formalism, developped with V.~Glaser and R.~Stora for the study of the generalized retarded functions of quantum field theory, is used to prove a factorization theorem which provides a complete description of the generalized retarded functions associated with any tree graph. Integrating over the variables associated to internal vertices to obtain the perturbative generalized retarded functions for interacting fields arising from such graphs is shown to be possible for a large category of space-times.

  6. Some Biogeochemical Characteristics of Tea Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGXIAOJU; HUXUEFENG; 等

    1997-01-01

    Characteristics of the element abundance,material cycling,element budment budgent in tea soils were disucssed base on investigations of six tea plantations and the adjacent wast lnads in the Three Gorges region .The plantations have different soil-forming Parent materials,but similar landfomrs,and the same tea variety and colse ages.The rsults showed that tea growing could incereased the contents of organic matter,total and available N,P,Al and Mn;the elements enriched by tea trees were in the follwoing descending sequence: P>Ca>K>Mn>Mg>Zn>Al>Fe;elements returned throuhg litter of tea were in the sequence of Ca>Mn>P>Zn>Mg>K>Al>Fe;in the nutrient budget of the soil-tea system ,P and K were in deficit, whereas Al,Fe and Mn in surplus.

  7. 茶树油对3种痤疮致病菌的抑制作用研究%Antimicrobial Activity of Tea Tree Oil Against Acne Bacterias

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡忆雪; 姚雷; 黄健; 吴亚妮

    2011-01-01

    探讨茶树油在缓解痤疮方面的功效,为茶树油在抑菌方面的推广应用提供依据.采用茶树油对3种痤疮致病菌(痤疮丙酸杆菌S21016菌株、金黄色葡萄球菌、表皮葡萄球菌)进行定性、定量的抗菌性研究.定性试验中,采用贴片法测定茶树油对3种痤疮致病菌的抑菌圈大小;定量试验中,采用试管培养法测定茶树油对3种菌的最低抑菌浓度(MIC).试验结果表明:茶树油对3种痤疮致病菌均具有良好的抑菌作用,对痤疮丙酸杆菌S21016菌株的MIC值为0.20μL·mL-1,对金黄色葡萄球菌的MIC值为0.15μL·mL-1,对表皮葡萄球菌的MIC值为0.15μL·mL-1.%To investigate the efficiency of tea tree oil on acne, both qualitative and quantitative antimicrobial activity of tea tree oil against three kinds of acne bacterias (Propionibacterium acnes S21016, Staphyloccus aureus, Staphyloccus epidermidis) were evaluated.The tea tree oil had antimicrobial activity for all of the three kinds of acne bacterias.The MIC values of tea tree oil towards Propionibacterium acnes S21016,Staphyloccus aureus and Staphyloccus epidermidis were 0.20,0.15 and 0.20μL · mL-1 respectively.

  8. Variation of the Chemical Constituents of Tea Tree Oil during the Course of Conservation%茶树油保存过程中化学成分的变化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦荣秀; 梁忠云; 李桂珍; 陈海燕

    2014-01-01

    采用气相色谱法,对茶树油的化学组分进行分析,考察不同贮存条件和贮存时间对茶树油主要成分的影响。结果表明,茶树油在保存过程中,主要成分4-松油醇相对比较稳定,含量变化不大。大部分单萜烯的含量呈减少趋势,减少量最大的组分是α-松油烯。而对伞花烃异于其他单萜烯,随着存放时间的延长含量增加,是增加量最大的组分。在保存过程中,茶树油单萜烯向对伞花烃、单萜醇以及单萜烯氧化产物等物质转化。因此,茶树油只能短时间保存在玻璃瓶中。%The chemical constituents of tee tree oil were identified by GC. Study on the influence of chemical constituents of tee tree oil in the different preservation condition and preservation time. The results showed that tea tree oil during the course of conservation, the content of the main constituent of 4-terpineol was keep stabilization. Most of the content of monoterpenes were gradually decreased. Maximum reduction component was α -Terpinen. But p-cymene was different from the other monoterpenes, with the storage time extension the content increase, was the biggest increase component. In the storage process, the monoterpenes of tea tree oil to p-cymene, monoterpene alcohols and monoterpene oxidation products transformation. Therefore, tea tree oil stored in glass bottles only for short time.

  9. Antifungal, cytotoxic and immunomodulatory properties of tea tree oil and its derivative components: potential role in management of oral candidosis in cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon eRamage

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans forms oral biofilms that cause disease and are difficult to treat with conventional antifungal agents. Tea tree oil (TTO is a natural compound with reported antimicrobial and immunomodulatory activities. The aims of the study were to evaluate the antifungal efficacy of TTO and key derivatives against C. albicans biofilms, to assess the toxicological effects of TTO on a clinically relevant oral cell line, and to investigate its impact on inflammation. TTO and its derivatives were examined against 100 clinical strains of C. albicans. Planktonic minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs were determined using the CLSI M-27A broth microdilution method. Sessile MICs were determined using an XTT reduction assay. Inhibition, time-kill and mode of action studies were performed. OKF6-TERT2 epithelial cells were used for cytotoxicity and cytokine expression assays. Planktonic C. albicans isolates were susceptible to TTO, terpinen-4-ol (T-4-ol and α-terpineol, with an MIC50 of 0.5, 0.25 and 0.25%, respectively. These three compounds also displayed potent activity against the 69 biofilm-forming strains, of which T-4-ol and α-terpineol displayed rapid kill kinetics. For all three compounds, 1 × MIC50 effectively inhibited biofilm growth when C. albicans were treated at 0, 1 and 2 h post adhesion. By SEM analysis and PI uptake, TTO and derivative components were cell membrane active. TTO and T-4-ol were cytotoxic at 1 × MIC50, whereas at 0.5 × MIC50 T-4-ol displayed no significant toxicity. Transcript and protein analysis showed a reduction of IL-8 when treated with TTO and T-4-ol. These data provide further in vitro evidence that TTO and its derivative components, specifically T-4-ol, exhibit strong antimicrobial properties against fungal biofilms. T-4-ol has safety advantages over the complete essential oil and may be suitable for prophylaxis and treatment of established oropharyngeal candidosis. A clinical trial of T-4-ol is worthy of

  10. Antifungal, cytotoxic, and immunomodulatory properties of tea tree oil and its derivative components: potential role in management of oral candidosis in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramage, Gordon; Milligan, Steven; Lappin, David F; Sherry, Leighann; Sweeney, Petrina; Williams, Craig; Bagg, Jeremy; Culshaw, Shauna

    2012-01-01

    Candida albicans forms oral biofilms that cause disease and are difficult to treat with conventional antifungal agents. Tea tree oil (TTO) is a natural compound with reported antimicrobial and immunomodulatory activities. The aims of the study were to evaluate the antifungal efficacy of TTO and key derivatives against C. albicans biofilms, to assess the toxicological effects of TTO on a clinically relevant oral cell line, and to investigate its impact on inflammation. TTO and its derivatives were examined against 100 clinical strains of C. albicans. Planktonic minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined using the CLSI M-27A broth microdilution method. Sessile MICs were determined using an XTT reduction assay. Inhibition, time-kill, and mode of action studies were performed. OKF6-TERT2 epithelial cells were used for cytotoxicity and cytokine expression assays. Planktonic C. albicans isolates were susceptible to TTO, terpinen-4-ol (T-4-ol), and α-terpineol, with an MIC(50) of 0.5, 0.25, and 0.25%, respectively. These three compounds also displayed potent activity against the 69 biofilm-forming strains, of which T-4-ol and α-terpineol displayed rapid kill kinetics. For all three compounds, 1 × MIC(50) effectively inhibited biofilm growth when C. albicans were treated at 0, 1, and 2 h post adhesion. By scanning electron microscopy analysis and PI uptake, TTO and derivative components were shown to be cell membrane active. TTO and T-4-ol were cytotoxic at 1 × MIC(50), whereas at 0.5 × MIC(50) T-4-ol displayed no significant toxicity. Transcript and protein analysis showed a reduction of IL-8 when treated with TTO and T-4-ol. These data provide further in vitro evidence that TTO and its derivative components, specifically T-4-ol, exhibit strong antimicrobial properties against fungal biofilms. T-4-ol has safety advantages over the complete essential oil and may be suitable for prophylaxis and treatment of established oropharyngeal

  11. A Preliminary Trial Report on Introduction of Tea Tree(Melaleuca altemifolia L.)from Australia%四个澳大利亚互叶白千层新品系的引种试栽试验初报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张孝洪; 白懋嘉

    2011-01-01

    引种栽培试验初步显示,从澳大利亚引进的287-04-02、42-04两个互叶白千层新品系在广东境内北回归线附近种植后第一年均表现出较好的适应性和丰产性,所提原油中的主要功能指标组分松油烯4-醇含量超过目前国际商业化产品的工业和化妆品级别质量标准.%The results of the experiments on introduction and cultivation of tea tree showed better adaptability and oil yields during the first year trial with two strains of tea tree (Melaleuca altemifolia L. ) introduced from Australia to China. The trials were conducted in the vicinity of tropic of cancer in Guangdong province. The content of terpinene-4-ol, as the major functional ingredient extracted from the crude oil, exceeded the international standards both commercially and cosmetically.

  12. Absorption of Uranium with Tea Oil Tree Sawdust Modified by Succinic Acid%丁二酸改性茶油树木屑吸附铀的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓峰; 陈迪云; 彭燕; 刘永胜; 熊雪莹

    2015-01-01

    In order to explore how the modification of succinic acid improves the adsorption of tea oil tree sawdust for uranium, the tea oil tree sawdust was modified by succinic acid, after the pretreatments of crushing, screening, alkalization and acidification. Infrared analysis indicated carboxylic acid groups and ester groups were added to the sawdust after modification, and scanning electron microscope demonstrated after modification the appearance of tea oil tree sawdust was transferred from the structure like compact and straight stripped into the structure like loose and wrinkled leaves, which meant modification increased its inner pores. By the static experiments, effects of reaction time between adsorbent and solvent, dosage of adsorbent, temperature, pH value and initial concentration of uranium were investigated. The results showed that after the modification by succinic acid, the absorption rate of tea oil tree sawdust for uranium increased significantly by about 20% in 12. 5 mg•L - 1 initial concentration uranium solution. Adsorption equilibrium was achieved within 180 min, and the kinetic data can be well described by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The experimental adsorption isotherm followed the Langmuir and Freundlich models. In addition, the maximum adsorption amounts of tea oil tree sawdust after modification calculated from Langmuir equation raised from 21. 413 3 to 31. 545 7 mg•g - 1 at 35℃ and pH 4. 0.%为了探究丁二酸改性对茶油树木屑吸附铀的促进作用,将茶油树木屑经过粉碎、筛分、碱化和酸化等前处理后,再利用丁二酸对茶油树木屑作改性处理.红外分析表明改性后木屑内部的化学基团中增加了羧基、酯基;扫描电镜可知,改性后的茶油树木屑由致密平直的条状结构变为疏松褶皱的叶片状结构,说明改性作用增加木屑内部的空隙.通过静态吸附实验,考察了吸附反应时间、木屑用量、 pH 值、温度、以及

  13. GREEN TEA FESTIVAL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ What is the green tea? The green tea belongs to the type of non-fermenting tea, with a quality feature of "clear tea infusion with green leaves"; this type of tea has the biggest output in China, and the basic processing procedure of the green tea is divided into three steps: heating, rubbing and drying. According to the different processing technologies, the green tea is divided into fried green tea, baked green tea, steamed green tea and dried green tea. The steamed green tea is to heat the tea by steaming; to heat the tea by pan-frying can be divided into frying, baking and drying, which is called heating by frying, heating by baking and heating by drying. West LakeLongjing, Xinyang Maojian, Bi Luochun, and Sanbeixiang belong to fried green tea; Mount Huang Maofeng, Youjiyuluo, and Luhai pekoe belong to baked green tea;Enshiyulu belongs to steamed green tea.

  14. Oolong tea made from tea plants from different locations in Yunnan and Fujian, China showed similar aroma but different taste characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chen; Lv, Shidong; Wu, Yuanshuang; Gao, Xuemei; Li, Jiangbing; Zhang, Wenrui; Meng, Qingxiong

    2016-01-01

    Consistent aroma characteristics are important for tea products. However, understanding the formation of tea aroma flavor and correspondingly proposing applicable protocols to control tea quality and consistency remain major challenges. Oolong tea is one of the most popular teas with a distinct flavor. Generally, oolong tea is processed with the leaves of tea trees belonging to different subspecies and grown in significantly different regions. In this study, Yunnan and Fujian oolong teas, green tea, black tea, and Pu-erh tea were collected from major tea estates across China. Their sensory evaluation, main water-soluble and volatile compounds were identified and measured. The sensory evaluation, total polysaccharide, caffeine, and catechin content of Yunnan oolong tea was found to be different from that of Fujian oolong tea, a result suggesting that the kinds of tea leaves used in Yunnan and Fujian oolong teas were naturally different. However, according to their aroma compounds, principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA) of the volatile compounds showed that the two types of oolong teas were similar and cannot be clearly distinguished from each other; they are also different from green, black, and Pu-erh teas, a result indicating that the same oolong tea processing technology applied to different tea leaves results in consistent aroma characteristics. The PCA analysis results also indicated that benzylalcohol, indole, safranal, linalool oxides, β-ionone, and hexadecanoic acid methyl ester highly contributed to the distinct aroma of oolong tea compared with the other three types of teas. This study proved that the use of the same processing technology on two kinds of tea leaves resulted in a highly consistent tea aroma.

  15. Black tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... combination.Talk with your health provider.Birth control pills (Contraceptive drugs)Black tea contains caffeine. The body breaks down caffeine to get rid of it. Birth control pills can decrease how quickly the body breaks down ...

  16. Effects of Organic Acids and Tea Tree Oil on Physiological Indexes of Germinating Brown Rice%有机酸和茶树油对发芽糙米生理指标的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟业俊; 刘成梅; 刘伟; 吴建永; 徐欣源; 谢有发; 万婕

    2011-01-01

    以"赣晚籼923"籼米为材料,在发芽过程中添加茶树油和(或)有机酸如抗坏血酸、柠檬酸、乳酸钙进行浸泡,比较茶树油和(或)有机酸对发芽过程中糙米表面菌落总数、γ-氨基丁酸(GABA)含量,以及糙米呼吸强度、还原糖含量的影响。结果表明:由4.0g/L抗坏血酸、2.0g/L柠檬酸、3.0g/L乳酸钙组成的有机酸溶液能促进糙米呼吸和GABA积累,加速淀粉降解转化为还原糖;茶树油(4.5g/L)则对糙米呼吸、淀粉降解和GABA富集有一定的抑制作用;此外,茶树油和有机酸溶液对抑制糙米发芽过程中细菌的滋生具有协同增效作用。%The present study was carried out to determine total microbial count andγ-aminobutyric acid(GABA) content on the surface,respiration intensity and reducing sugar content during the germination of brown rice from late Indica rice cultivar Ganxian 923 in the presence of either tea tree oil alone,organic acids such as ascorbic acid,citric acid and calcium lactate together,all of them or none of them.The results indicated that 4.0 g/L ascorbic acid/2.0 g/L citric acid/3.0 g/L calcium lactate solution could enhance respiratory intensity,promote the accumulation of GABA and accelerate the degradation of starch to reducing sugars.On the contrary,tea tree oil(4.5 g/L) had obvious inhibitory effect on respiration intensity,starch degradation and GABA accumulation.Moreover,tea tree oil and organic acid solution revealed a synergistic effect on the inhibition of bacterial growth in germinating brown rice.

  17. Efficacy and tolerability of hyaluronic acid, tea tree oil and methyl-sulfonyl-methane in a new gel medical device for treatment of haemorrhoids in a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joksimovic, N; Spasovski, G; Joksimovic, V; Andreevski, V; Zuccari, C; Omini, C F

    2012-09-01

    Topical formulations are widely used in anti-haemorrhoidal treatment, but often lacking controlled clinical trials. Here, we report the results from a controlled clinical trial performed with a new gel medical device (Proctoial) containing hyaluronic acid with tea tree oil and methyl-sulfonyl-methane as major components. The total number of 36 haemorrhoidal patients (grade 1-3) was enrolled in a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial and divided into 2 equal parallel groups. The anal pain, pain during defecation, visible bleeding, pruritus and irritation/inflammation were recorded before and after 14-day treatment using a visual analogue scale both by the investigators and by the patients. Safety and tolerability of the treatments were also recorded. The new gel medical device statistically significantly reduced all the symptoms after the treatment compared to placebo. The results indicated also a very good tolerability and safety of the treatments.

  18. Inhibitory Effects of Tea Tree Oil, Eugenol and Citral on Aspergillus niger in Litchi%茶树油、丁香酚和柠檬醛志荔枝黑曲霉的抑制作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟业俊; 徐欣源; 刘成梅; 孙健; 吴建永; 刘桃英

    2012-01-01

    研究茶树油、丁香酚和柠檬醛的挥发性香氛对荔枝致腐真菌黑曲霉的抑制作用,采用复配方法探究3种香料对黑曲霉的协同抑菌性。结果表明:丁香酚和柠檬醛的挥发性香氛对黑曲霉有较强的抑制作用,最低抑菌浓度分别为0.3μL/cm^3和0.4μL/cm^3;茶树油挥发性香氛抑制黑曲霉的作用稍差,但与丁香酚和柠檬醛复配后协同抑菌作用增强。%The inhibitory and synergistic inhibitory effects of volatile aromatic components from tea tree oil, eugenol and citral on rot-causing fungi such as AspergiUus niger in litchi were studied. The results showed that the volatile aromatic components from eugenol and citral had strong inhibitory effect on Aspergillus niger with minimum inhibition concentrations of 0.3 μL/cm^3 (air volume) and 0.4 μL/cm^3 (air volume), respectively. The anti-fungal effect of tea tree oil was weak, while its inhibitory effect could be enhanced in the attendance of eugenol and citral.

  19. Preliminary Report of GLS Ganzhou Tea-oil Series's Soil Testing and Fertilizer Rechmmendation of Young Tea-oil Tree%GLS赣州油系列油茶幼林测土配方施肥试验初报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋祥兰; 马学忠; 王兰英; 邝先松; 刘建昌; 李小青

    2012-01-01

    We go on nutrient component test according to the collected soil sample of GLS Ganzhou Tea-soil series's young tree in 24 sample fields of 8 demonstration bases,aiming at soil's nutrient's shortage situation,carrying out formula fertilizer test,using mathematical statistics and liner regression to analysis the result of the test and get the conclusion.%对GLS赣州油系列油茶8个示范基地24个幼林样地采集土壤样品,进行营养成分化验测定,根据测定结果,针对土壤养分丰缺情况,开展配方施肥试验。运用数理统计及一元线性回归方法,对试验效果进行分析,得出结论。

  20. Effect of Salicylic Acid on Photosynthesis and Cold Resistant in Tea Tree During Dormancy%水杨酸对休眠期茶树光合作用和抗冻性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨恕玲; 单守明; 巩传银; 李朝阳; 平吉成; 张亚红; 王振平

    2009-01-01

    为了探讨水杨酸对冬季茶树抗寒性的调控机制,以"龙井43号"茶树为试材,研究休眠期叶面喷施水杨酸对茶树叶片光合作用、叶片中碳水化合物含量和活性氧代谢的影响,结果表明,叶面喷施水杨酸30天后即能明显提高茶树叶片净光合速率,处理60天后,2 mmol/L的水杨酸处理显著提高了叶片中可溶性总糖和淀粉含量、使丙二醛、活性氧含量显著下降,同时,叶片中脯氨酸含量、超氧化物歧化酶、过氧化氢酶和过氧化物酶活性显著升高,其它水杨酸处理虽然也能提高这些酶活性,但是效果不如2mmol/L的水杨酸处理显著.因此,在休眠期,叶面喷施适当浓度的水杨酸可显著提高茶树叶片的Pn和保护酶活性,从而提高茶树的抗寒性,这也有利于提高次年茶叶的产量与品质.%This paper aims to find out the regulator metabolism of salicylic acid on cold resistance in dormancy of tea tree. Effects of difference concentration of salicylic acid on photosynthesis, carbohydrate content and me-tabolism of reactive oxygen species in Longjing43 were studies. Results showed that net photosynthesis rates were obviously increased in 30th day after sprayed salicylic acid to tea foliar in dormancy. 2 mmol/L salicylic acid significantly increased total soluble sugar, starch contents, and significantly decreased foliar reactive oxy-gen species and MDA contents in 60th day after treatment. At the same time, the proline content, SOD, CAT and POD activities were significantly increased. Others concentration of salicylic acid also improved photosyn-thesis and protective enzymes activities, but the results were not as better as 2 mmol/L salicylic acid. It is con-cluded that foliar sprayed of suitable concentration of salicylic acid in tea tree's dormancy can improve photo-synthesis and protective enzymes activities, and increase the cold resistant, in the end, the tea yield and quality in the next year could improve.

  1. Chinese Tea Tradition:From Tea Service to Tea Drinking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiangFeng

    2003-01-01

    Tea was first discovered and drunk in China several thousand years ago and over the sweep of Chinese history drinking tea has developed to be part of Chinese culture and a reversible habit of Chinese people.With the spread of Chinese civilization,Chinese tea has been introduced to many countries across

  2. Effect of Tea tree oil, Eugenol and Citral on keeping quality of litchi%茶树油、丁香酚、柠檬醛在荔枝保鲜中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟业俊; 徐欣源; 刘成梅; 刘伟

    2011-01-01

    本文研究了茶树油、丁香酚和柠檬醛的挥发性香氛对荔枝的保鲜作用。采用复配方法探究三种香料对荔枝的协同保鲜效果。结果表明:在冷藏(4±1℃)过程中,茶树油和丁香酚、柠檬醛的挥发性香氛可抑制荔枝果实腐败,延缓果皮衰老和果肉维生素C含量的降低,对保持荔枝果实的感官品质也具有积极作用;且三者复配后效果更佳,贮藏至18天,复配组荔枝的腐败率、果皮相对渗透率、维生素含量分别为对照组的56.0%、72.8%、124.8%,果皮颜色、果实滋味、果实气味和整体评价分别比对照组高2.4、3.3、2.6和3.4分。%The preservation effect of volatile fragrance of tea tree oil, eugenol and citral "to litchi decay and the synergistic inhibition (of these three combined) were studied. The results showed that with the refrigeration storage condition (4±1℃), volatile fragrance of tea tree oil, eugenot and citral had a inhibition and retard effect on the rise in the rot rate of litchi and the decrease of Vitamin C content in pulp, meanwhile, they also showed a positive anti-aging and preservation quality for keeping fresh of litchi. All of these positive abilities enhanced after these three spices mixed. After 18 days storage, the rot rate, pericarp relative leakage and Vitamin C content in litchi treated with composite solution are 56.0%, 72.8%, 124.8% of the values of the control group, and the evaluation scores on skin color, fruit taste, smell and overall were 2.4, 3.3, 2.6 and 3.4 points respectively higher than the control group.

  3. Tea aroma formation

    OpenAIRE

    Chi-Tang Ho; Xin Zheng; Shiming Li

    2015-01-01

    Besides water, tea is one of the most popular beverages around the world. The chemical ingredients and biological activities of tea have been summarized recently. The current review summarizes tea aroma compounds and their formation in green, black, and oolong tea. The flavor of tea can be divided into two categories: taste (non-volatile compounds) and aroma (volatile compounds). All of these aroma molecules are generated from carotenoids, lipids, glycosides, etc. precursors, and also from Ma...

  4. 茶树精油熏蒸处理保鲜草莓的工艺优化%Optimization of tea tree oil fumigation for keeping quality of harvested strawberry fruit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵兴锋; 程赛; 王鸿飞; 曹保英

    2012-01-01

    In order to determine the optimum condition of tee tree oil fumigation for control disease of postharvest strawberry fruit inoculated with Botrytis cinerea, effects of three independent variables, fumigation time, fumigation concentration and fumigation temperature were investigated by means of response surface methodology (RSM) combined with Box-Behnken experimental design based on the single factor experiments. Results showed that the optimal fumigation conditions were as follows: the fumigation time was 3.1 h, fumigation concentration was 0.66 mL/L and fumigation temperature 33.3 ℃. Verification test showed that the decay index of inoculated strawberry fruit is 7.5%, and the relative error of the measured values with the predicted value is 4.1%. Under these conditions, natural strawberries were fumigated and stored to observe the disease and quality change. The results show that tea tree oil treatment can significantly reduce the natural decay development, meanwhile reduce weight loss and maintain higher hardness, soluble solid, titratable acid and anthocyanin content. This research can provide a reference for commercial application of tea tree oil on strawberry preservation.%为了获得茶树精油熏蒸处理进行草莓防腐保鲜的较佳工艺条件,采用单因素试验方法研究不同熏蒸体积分数、温度和时间对人工接种灰葡萄孢霉的草莓果实腐烂发生的影响.通过Box-Behnken设计及响应面分析获得熏蒸防腐保鲜的最佳工艺条件为:茶树精油熏蒸体积分数0.66 mL/L、熏蒸温度33.3℃、熏蒸时间3.1 h.按此优化条件进行验证发现接种草莓果实的腐烂指数为7.5%,实测值与模型预测值的相对误差在4.1%;将此优化条件应用于未接种的新鲜草莓果实,结果发现该处理能显著抑制果实的自然病害发生,还能减缓草莓果实失重率的上升和果实硬度、可溶性固形物、可滴定酸和花青素含量的下降.研究结果为茶树精

  5. 油茶树体对氮磷钾元素年吸收和积累规律的研究%Research on Annual Changes of Nitrogen, Phosphorous, Potassium Absorption and Accumulation in Oil-tea Camellia Tree

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹永庆; 任华东; 林萍; 王开良; 姚小华; 龙伟; 汪开兴

    2012-01-01

    以5年生油茶为试材,研究了树体对大量矿质元素氮、磷、钾元素的年吸收和积累规律.结果表明:油茶年发育周期中对氮、磷、钾元素的吸收量分别为44.05、5.50、23.31 g·株-1.,吸收比例约为8:1:4.抽梢期(4月)至果实发育期(7月)是油茶吸收氮、钾元素的活跃时期,该段时期内的积累量超过了年积累量的50.00%,其中的氮、钾元素分别有43.64%和26.97%被根系所利用;植株对磷元素的积累量在4月至10月没有明显的起伏,从果实发育期(7月)至成熟期(10月)这段时间内,植株磷元素的积累量达到2.63 g,其中35.36%保留在根系中.油茶叶片、枝干和根系中氮、磷、钾元素含量高低顺序为氮>钾>磷,成熟果实中为钾>氮>磷;在新梢期(4月),根系中的磷、钾元素向叶片和新梢进行了部分转运,而在果实膨大、成熟期,钾元素从枝干和叶片转运至果实中.%Abstract; Five-year-old oil-tea camellia trees were selected to study the annual changes of nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium absorption and accumulation. The results showed that the annual accumulation of nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium achieved 44.05, 5. 50 and 23.31 g per tree, respectively. And the ratio was approximately 8:1:4. The active absorption and accumulation period of nitrogen and potassium was from shooting in April to fruit development in July during which over 50. 00% nitrogen and potassium of annual uptake was accumulated, in which 43.64% nitrogen and 26. 97% potassium were used by the roots. The accumulation of phosphorous was stable from April to October and achieved 2. 63 g per tree in which 35.36% was used by the roots during fruit ripening period. The content of major mineral elements in leaves, stems and roots of oil-tea camellia was N > K > P and K > N > P in ripening fruits. The phosphorous and potassium in roots partly transferred to leaves and new shoot during shooting period in April and the

  6. Bioavailability of Tea Polyphenols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Tea is a pleasant, popular and safe beverage. Tea provides a dietary source of bioactive components to help humans reduce a wide variety of cancer risks and chronic diseases. The antioxidative activity of green tea-derived polypbenols known as catchins has been extensively studied. The reducfive effect is a synergistic action between EGCG,EGC, ECG, EC, pheophytins a and b, and other components in tealeaves, which are more bioavailable for human body.Green tea has a higher content of catechins than black tea. Green tea extract with hot water has high potential and more efficiencytoreducecancerriskthananyotherteaproductsorpureEGCG. Protein, iron, andotherfoodcomponentsmay interfere with the bioavailability of tea polyphenols. Drinkinggreentea (orpolyphenol-rich tea extract ) also enhances the cancer-preventive activity of some cancer-fighting medication such as Sulindac and Tamoxifen. Further studies are required to determine the bioavailability of green tea and cancer-preventive functionality.

  7. The mycoflora of tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Halweg

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus niger was most often isolated from 3 various black lea species dust obtained from packer factory. 10 species of black tea packaged in Poland and 28 various species of black tea and one species of green tea packed abroad. Other fungi were seen lees frequently. It seems that A. niger spores alone or with tea dust may induce various respiratory disorders in tea packers. Serum antibodies to antigens of A. niger and tea extracts imply that both may be important etiological factors.

  8. Tea aroma formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Tang Ho

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Besides water, tea is one of the most popular beverages around the world. The chemical ingredients and biological activities of tea have been summarized recently. The current review summarizes tea aroma compounds and their formation in green, black, and oolong tea. The flavor of tea can be divided into two categories: taste (non-volatile compounds and aroma (volatile compounds. All of these aroma molecules are generated from carotenoids, lipids, glycosides, etc. precursors, and also from Maillard reaction. In the current review, we focus on the formation mechanism of main aromas during the tea manufacturing process.

  9. Identification and Characterization of Plant Growth-promoting Rhizobacteria Isolated from Rhizosphere soils of Tea Trees%茶树根际促生菌的筛选与促生特性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩丽珍; 邓兆辉; 朱春艳; 梁彩娇; 韦德萍

    2016-01-01

    从贵州地区的茶树根际土壤中分离筛选出6株根际促生菌,经16S rRNA基因分子鉴定,它们分属于假单胞菌属(Pseudomonas sp.)、芽孢杆菌属(Bacillus sp.)、束村氏菌属(Tsukamurella sp.)、伯克霍尔德氏菌属(Burk ̄holderia sp.)和根瘤菌属(Rhizobium sp.)中。促生特性的研究结果显示,溶磷解钾性能最优的菌株为GD-3菌株,固氮效能最高的KKS-6-N1菌株,此外6个菌株具有溶磷解钾固氮、产IAA、产NH3、产HCN能力、可分泌嗜铁素及具有ACC脱氨酶活性等多种促生性能,可作为研制微生物肥料的优良菌株资源。%Based on sequence conservation of 16S rRNA, six strains of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria ( PGPR) , which isolated from rhizosphere soils of Guizhou tea trees, were identified as Pseudomonas sp., Bacillus sp., Tsukamurel ̄la sp., Burkholderia sp. and Rhizobium sp. GD-3 showed the most efficiency in phosphatesolubilization and potassium de﹣composition, and KKS-6-N1 had the most efficiency in nitrogen fixing. In addition, other growth-promoting characteris﹣tics, e.g. nitrogen fixation,IAA, NH3, HCNproduction,siderophore secretion and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid ( ACC) deaminase activity, were also investigated in these six strains, justifying their potentials for development of﹣biological fertilizer as microbial resources in the future.

  10. 茶树和桉树精油杀虫剂对扶桑绵粉蚧的毒力测定磁%Toxicity of tea tree oils and eucalyptus oils to Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张美翠; 赵瑞英; 阮永明

    2016-01-01

    为减少化学农药的使用,寻找防治刺吸式害虫的高效、低毒的植物源杀虫剂,采用微量点滴法测定了不同的茶树、桉树精油复配的杀虫剂对扶桑绵粉蚧( Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley)若虫和成虫的毒力.结果表明:2种不同的茶树、桉树精油复配杀虫剂对扶桑绵粉蚧3龄若虫的致死中量LD50分别为2.860×10-4和3.015×10-4μL,毒杀效果较好;但不同复配杀虫剂对扶桑绵粉蚧成虫的毒杀效果均不明显.%In order to reduce the pesticide use, to develop botanical insecticides with high efficiency and low toxicity was important.The effects of 3 mixtures of tea tree oils and eucalyptus oil on cotton mealybug were evaluated by topical application method.The results showed that the toxicity of the 2 different botanical insec-ticides were different.The values of LD50 were 2.860 ×10 -4μL, 3.015 ×10 -4μL, respectively.Three kinds of compound insecticides on the adult cotton mealybug had a little control effect.

  11. A randomized controlled trial of tea tree oil (5% body wash versus standard body wash to prevent colonization with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA in critically ill adults: research protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavery Gavin G

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the past ten years MRSA has become endemic in hospitals and is associated with increased healthcare costs. Critically ill patients are most at risk, in part because of the number of invasive therapies that they require in the intensive care unit (ICU. Washing with 5% tea tree oil (TTO has been shown to be effective in removing MRSA on the skin. However, to date, no trials have evaluated the potential of TTO body wash to prevent MRSA colonization or infection. In addition, detecting MRSA by usual culture methods is slow. A faster method using a PCR assay has been developed in the laboratory, but requires evaluation in a large number of patients. Methods/Design This study protocol describes the design of a multicentre, phase II/III prospective open-label randomized controlled clinical trial to evaluate whether a concentration of 5% TTO is effective in preventing MRSA colonization in comparison with a standard body wash (Johnsons Baby Softwash in the ICU. In addition we will evaluate the cost-effectiveness of TTO body wash and assess the effectiveness of the PCR assay in detecting MRSA in critically ill patients. On admission to intensive care, swabs from the nose and groin will be taken to screen for MRSA as per current practice. Patients will be randomly assigned to be washed with the standard body wash or TTO body wash. On discharge from the unit, swabs will be taken again to identify whether there is a difference in MRSA colonization between the two groups. Discussion If TTO body wash is found to be effective, widespread implementation of such a simple colonization prevention tool has the potential to impact on patient outcomes, healthcare resource use and patient confidence both nationally and internationally. Trial Registration [ISRCTN65190967

  12. Effect of Essential Oils of Syzygium aromaticum and Melaleuca alternifolia on Isolates of Aspergillus sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lima

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Essential  oils  have  antimicrobial  substances,  lower  cost  and  the  lower  resistance  of microorganism. This study aimed to evaluate the inhibition of mycelial growth of Aspergillus flavus and  A.  niger  with  essential  oils  of  Syzygium  aromaticum  and  Melaleuca  alternifolia.  For  this, aliquots  (0.5,  5,  10  and  15μL  of  essential  oils  from  S.  aromaticum  and  M.  alternifolia   were distributed on the surface of the culture medium Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA with Drigaslsky. In the control treatment were used only plates containing PDA plus chloramphenicol (1%. After 2 hours, a disc (8mm diameter of the isolated mycelium, with 10 days of age on PDA, was peaked to the center of the plates, these plates were sealed and incubated at 282°C, in the dark. The essential  oil  of  S.  aromaticum  inhibited  the  mycelial  growth  of  A.  flavus  and  A.  niger,  in  all aliquots. When using the essential oil of M. alternifolia decreased the mycelial growth of A. flavus in all aliquots, however, showed a low efficiency in control of A. niger. It was concluded that the essential  oil  S.  aromaticum  is  effective  against  A.  flavus  and  A.  niger,  which  can  be  used  in control against these microorganisms, and M. alternifolia not show satisfactory results in relation to reducing the growth of pathogens evaluated.

  13. Linear Spectral Mixture Analysis of SPOT-7 for Tea Yield Estimation in Pagilaran Estate, Batang Central Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauziana, F.; Danoedoro, P.; Heru Murti, S.

    2016-11-01

    Remote sensing has been utilized especially for agriculture yield estimation. Tea yield is effected by biology characteristic including crown density. The challenge of tea yield estimation uses multispectral remote sensing data is the presence of object beside tea. This mixed pixel problem can disturb spectrally to recognize tea tree, so it is necessary to use pixel approach. The aims of this research are (1) to determine fraction of tea and non-tea; (2) to estimate crown density percentage based on tea Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI); (3) to estimate tea yield based on crown density. SPOT-7 was utilized for this application. Linear Spectral Mixture Analysis (LSMA) has applied to determination fraction percentage each pixel. Each pure endmember was read the NDVI value. NDVI of tea tree has sensitivity with crown density. Counting tea NDVI was applied for NDVI mixed pixel. Linear regression analysis has applied for estimating crown density and tea yield. The results of this research are SPOT -7 which can recognize tea, tree shade, impervious and soil each pixel with accuracy 99,84%. Although it produced high accuracy, it has overestimate at certain tea estate because of the attendance of impervious. Regression analysis of crown density and NDVI showed coeffisien determination 52%. This model result 4-100% crown density percentage, where crown density 4-55% were located beside tea tree or pruned-tea block. Regression analysis of crown density and tea yield relation showed coeffisien determination 45%. This model produced 161,34-1296,8 kg/ha. Each this model resulted Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) 14,27% and 551,52 kg/ha.

  14. Drifting Fragrant Tea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    ORIGINATING in China, tea drinking as well as tea culture has a long standing history of three to four thousand years. The formal tea ceremony had been in gradual decline since the Ming (1368-1644) and Qing (1644-1911) dynasties but gradually began to re-develop in the 1980s owing to the demands of people from all walks of life. The prosperity of the local tea culture is witnessed by the

  15. An Invitation to Tea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    TEA-drinking is very popular in southwest China’s Sichuan Province, especially in the provincial capital Chengdu. Some people estimate that the number of tea houses in Chengdu is greater than that of restaurants in Beijing. I, too, have developed the habit of having a cup of tea in the morning. On holidays, when I am free in the morning, I get up early to rush to a tea house,

  16. 一种野生茶树的新嘌呤碱模式%New Discovery of Pattern of Purine Alkaloids in Wild Tea Trees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶创兴; HIROSHIAshihara; 等

    2003-01-01

    通过单株定性和定量的分析,发现中国特有的变种苦茶Camellia assamica var. kucha Chang et Wang其芽叶嘌呤碱依含量高低分别由1,3,7,9-四甲基尿酸、咖啡碱、可可碱组成,其中1,3,7,9-四甲基尿酸的含量占芽叶干质量的1.3%~3.4%,其次是咖啡碱,其质量分数为0.26%~2.8%,再其次是可可碱,质量分数为0.1%~2.1%.苦茶嘌呤碱各组成成份在植株间存在差别,但多数植株1,3,7,9-四甲基尿酸始终表现为优势嘌呤碱;少数植株咖啡碱表现为优势嘌呤碱,而1,3,7,9-四甲基尿酸是第二位的嘌呤碱.在调查植株间嘌呤碱时还发现有的植株时而表现为1,3,7,9-四甲基尿酸是优势嘌呤碱,时而表现为咖啡碱是优势嘌呤碱.这些现象产生的真正原因仍然有待于研究,但苦茶嘌呤碱的组成模式是有花植物中尚未发现的.%The composition of purine alkaloids in kucha (Camellia assamica var. kucha Chang et Wang) were investigated from its one buds and two leaves including cultivated and wild samples in detail by qualitative TLC and quantitative HPLC, the results indicate that major purine alkaloids were 1,3,7,9-tetramethyluric acid (theacrine) and caffeine. Theacrine in most of individuals inner variety was the major purine alkaloid and its content was from 1.3% to 3.4% dried weight. And theacrine in kucha was always companied with caffeine and theobromine. The concentration of theacrine was highest in apex buds, and then were rapidly decreased from young, mature to aged leaves. The theacrine content were changed together with seasons but its characterization of theacrine as major purine alkaloid were not changed in identified individual trees with major theacrine. In some individual trees, the theacrine content was changeable, sometime major purine was theacrine and otherwise was caffeine. Containing predominant theacrine in kucha is a new record not only in taxa of genus Camellia Section Thea(L.)Dyer but also is a new record

  17. An overview on Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchi Verma

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses on types of tea, its processing methods, bioactive compounds which are present in it, health benefits, toxic effects, interaction with drugs and herbs, formulations involving tea polyphenols. Tea has been found to possess various bioactive leads and need of the hour is to characterize these leads for better product development.

  18. In vitro effects of Melaleuca alternifolia essential oil on growth and production of volatile sulphur compounds by oral bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talita Signoreti GRAZIANO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective Halitosis can be caused by microorganisms that produce volatile sulphur compounds (VSCs, which colonize the surface of the tongue and subgingival sites. Studies have reported that the use of natural products can reduce the bacterial load and, consequently, the development of halitosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia on the growth and volatile sulphur compound (VSC production of oral bacteria compared with chlorhexidine. Material and Methods The effects of these substances were evaluated by the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC in planktonic cultures of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Porphyromonas endodontalis. In addition, gas chromatography analyses were performed to measure the concentration of VSCs from bacterial cultures and to characterize M. alternifolia oil components. Results The MIC and MBC values were as follows: M. alternifolia - P. gingivalis (MIC and MBC=0.007%, P. endodontalis (MIC and MBC=0.007%=0.5%; chlorhexidine - P. gingivalis and P. endodontalis (MIC and MBC=1.5 mg/mL. M. alternifolia significantly reduced the growth and production of hydrogen sulfide (H2S by P. gingivalis (p<0.05, ANOVA-Dunnet and the H2S and methyl mercaptan (CH3SH levels of P. endodontalis (p<0.05, ANOVA-Dunnet. Chlorhexidine reduced the growth of both microorganisms without altering the production of VSC in P. endodontalis. For P. gingivalis, the production of H2S and CH3SH decreased (p<0.05, ANOVA-Dunnet. Conclusion M. alternifolia can reduce bacterial growth and VSCs production and could be used as an alternative to chlorhexidine.

  19. Comparison of hand hygiene antimicrobial efficacy: Melaleuca alternifolia essential oil versus triclosan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Rizzo Gnatta

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: this study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of hand hygiene performed with two different soap formulations: 0.3% Melaleuca alternifolia essential oil versus 0.5% triclosan, and to compare them with two reference hygiene procedures: the official methodology procedure (soft soap versus the draft version of the procedure (soft soap + propan-2-ol. METHOD: using the European EN 1499 method, logarithmic reduction factors were determined for the number of colony forming units of Escherichia coli K12 before and after hand hygiene of 15 volunteer subjects, and compared using the one-tailed Wilcoxon test. RESULTS: referring to the soft soap, there was no difference between the performance of soap with 0.3% M. alternifolia and soap containing 0.5% triclosan. The soft soap + propan-2-ol proved to be more effective than the other hand hygiene procedures. CONCLUSION: studies to verify the therapeutic efficacy of essential oil in hand hygiene can improve adherence to this practice.

  20. Comment on Chinese tea culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王俊人

    2015-01-01

    Drinking tea has become a part of people's daily life. Tea culture as the crystallization of Chinese tradition has a long history. China is the homeland of tea. Tea as one of important exports has made a great contribution to economic develop-ment of Ancient China. Tasting tea is a unique culture of China. The tea quality, teahouse’s atmosphere and tea wares are all considered to be very important when tasting. With a long time of the habit of drinking tea, Chinese people have given tea the special spirit:clearness, respect, joy and truthfulness.

  1. Evaluation of Tea Tree Oil to Control Postharvest Banana Disease of Colletotrichum musae%茶树油控制香蕉采后炭疽病害的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    静玮; 张鲁斌; 朱德明; 韩志萍

    2011-01-01

    The potential of using TTO (Tea tree oil) instead of synthetic fungicides to control disease of Colletotrichum musae on banana was evaluated.The antifungal activity of TTO against colony growth of Colletotrichum musae in vitro and its efficiency in vivo on the disease incidence were determined.Results showed that TTO with 20~40 μL could significantly inhibit Colletotrichum musae growth in vitro, and the higher of the dosage of TTO, the higher of antifungal activity.TTO treatment significantly reduced the lesion diameter of inoculated banana.In addition,TTO could remain peel color and fruit firmness at ambient temperature for 10 days.Preliminary study suggested that TTO was feasible on fresh-keeping of postharvest banana fruit.%为了探讨植物提取物对香蕉采后病害的防治效果,以香蕉果实为材料,采用菌丝生长速率方法测定不同剂量的茶树油(TTO)对香蕉炭疽病菌的离体抗菌活性,并用TTO熏蒸处理接种炭疽病菌的香蕉果实,测定果实的发病情况.结果显示,20~40μL TTO能够显著抑制离体炭疽病菌的菌丝生长,浓度越高,抑制效果越明显;接种炭疽病菌的果实经TTO处理后,病斑直径显著小于未处理果实.另外,TTO处理的果实在常温贮藏10 d后果实果皮颜色和硬度也显著优于未处理果实.初步研究表明TTO在控制香蕉果实采后腐烂和保鲜上具有应用可行性.

  2. Dormência e germinação de sementes de Melaleuca alternifolia Cheel Dormancy and germination of Melaleuca alternifolia Cheel. seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.I Anselmini

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A Melaleuca alternifolia Cheel. é uma espécie aromática de expressivo interesse econômico, em função da presença de óleo essencial armazenado no tecido foliar. As sementes, entretanto, apresentam baixo poder germinativo, o que tem dificultado a obtenção de novos materiais genéticos e o avanço tecnológico para produção no Brasil. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo determinar uma metodologia adequada para avaliar o poder germinativo de sementes de melaleuca. Para tanto, foram realizados dois experimentos, um em condições de laboratório e outro em casa-de-vegetação, avaliando-se diferentes tratamentos para promover a germinação da semente. O delineamento experimental empregado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições, sendo nove tratamentos em laboratório e sete em casa de vegetação; a comparação de médias foi realizada pelo teste Tukey, a 5% de probabilidade. Diante dos resultados obtidos, concluiu-se que a pré-embebição das sementes por 18h, em água, é o procedimento mais adequado, dentre os testados, para avaliar o poder germinativo da semente de melaleuca, sendo que em condições de casa de vegetação, o referido tratamento pode ser usado com os substratos areia ou Plantmax.Melaleuca alternifolia Cheel. is an aromatic species of high economic interest due to the presence of essential oil in its leaf tissue. However, its seeds have low germinative potential, which has made difficult the obtaining of new genetic materials and the technological advance for production in Brazil. The present work aimed to determine a suitable methodology to evaluate the germinative potential of Narrow-leaved Paperbark seeds. Thus, two experiments were carried out, one under lab conditions and other in greenhouse, in order to evaluate different treatments to stimulate seed germination. Experimental design was completely randomized, with four replicates; nine treatments were used in the lab and other seven in

  3. Green tea in dermatology--myths and facts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zink, Alexander; Traidl-Hoffmann, Claudia

    2015-08-01

    Green tea consumption has a long tradition in Asian countries--especially China. The epidemiologically and experimentally observed anticarcinogenic and antiinflammatory effects of green tea have led to the implementation of green tea extracts in multiple therapeutic applications - both in dermatological and cosmeceutical preparations. The most abundant evidence exists for the anticarcinogenic and chemopreventive effect of green tea or its major constituent epigallocatechin-3-gallate. Almost equally evident is the effect in infectious diseases such as cutaneous viral infections. For external genital warts, a topical ointment with green tea extracts was licensed in the USA in 2010, and recently also in Europe. Experimental evidence pinpointing the block of central signal transduction factors in inflammatory mechanisms has led to the evaluation of catechins in inflammatory disorders such as atopic dermatitis. The belief of green tea as a "wonder weapon" against diseases dates back thousands of years. According to a Chinese legend, ancient Emperor Shen Nung noted a delightful aroma after some leaves of a nearby tree had fallen into boiling water. He immediately proclaimed the new "drink" as "heaven-sent", starting the belief - persisting until today - of green tea as a medication from nature against many different diseases. This review summarizes biological effects and clinical implications of green tea.

  4. The Choice of China Tea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YuLiejiang; LiuHuadong

    2004-01-01

    THERE are three broad categories of China tea: green,black and oolong.Green tea is unfermented, and grows best in Zhejiang. According to Traditional Chinese Medicine it relieves internal heat. Black tea is

  5. Imidacloprid in processed tea and tea liquor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SANYAL N.; HAZRA D.; PAL R.; SOMCHAUDHURY A.K.; CHOWDHURY A.

    2006-01-01

    Imidacloprid is a newly introduced broad-spectrum chloronicotinyl insecticide and will find its way in agricultural production, particularly in Asia. However, information on the fate of imidacloprid in crop plants is lacking. The degradation of imidacloprid in processed CTC tea and tea liquor was investigated in the present study in which imidacloprid was applied at recommended application rate (30.0 g a.i./ha) and twice the recommended application rate (60.0 g a.i./ha) for three consecutive seasons. Imidacloprid was rapidly dissipated in processed tea following first order reaction kinetics at all application rates and had half-lives of 0.91~1.16 d with the residue in tea liquor found to be below detectable limit on 3rd day samples. The study revealed that imidacloprid is safe for human consumption and will not pose any residual toxicity problem.

  6. The Construction of Jasmine Tea Flavor Index and Decision Tree Model in Identificating Scenting Quality%利用茉莉花茶香气指数鉴定其窨制品质及构建决策树模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐夏妮; 夏益民; 雷永宏; 王校常; 林杰

    2016-01-01

    The ‘jasmine tea flavor’ (JIF) index of well-scented, poor-scented and not-scented jasmine teas was determined by analysis of the volatile components of 32 samples combined with relative references. Results showed that the JTF index was highly correlated with the total volatiles. Principal component analysis (PCA) were performed on 29 volatile compounds in 32 jasmine tea samples. It can be found that the JTF index and 29 volatile compounds were very helpful for identification of fake jasmine teas. In addition, the Quality Determination Model for jasmine tea was constructed with two decision nodes (JTF index=0.915, less than 4 components were missed in the twenty-nine volatile compounds). It was confirmed that the criteria was feasible for the quality identification of jasmine tea. Moreover, the construction of a decision tree model will provide a promising method for quality control and technology development of jasmine tea, especially for the admixture (such as synthetic fragrance oil).%在检测分析32个茉莉花茶样挥发性成分的基础上,结合文献引证分析了茉莉花茶、茉莉花、茉莉花干和茶坯的茉莉花茶香气指数(Jasmine tea flavor index,JTF index)。结果表明,JTF值与茉莉鲜花的芳香物质整体挥发水平存在相关性;针对29种特征挥发物对32个茉莉花茶茶样进行主成分分析(Principal component analysis,PCA),得到不同窨制品质的显著聚类特征,推断 JTF指数与29种特征挥发物的缺失可作为茉莉花茶窨制品质判定指标。进一步构建这32个茉莉花茶茶样窨制品质的决策树鉴定模型(判别准确率为93.8%),确定特征挥发物的缺失峰数(节点为<4)和 JTF 值(节点为0.915)为判定节点,证实了 JTF 值与29种特征挥发物的缺失可应用于茉莉花茶窨制品质鉴定与掺假判别,并且建立决策树模型,能够快速、准确检测出不同窨制品质的茉莉花茶,尤其为掺假

  7. 澳洲茶油树栽培管理技术%Introduction and Artificial Planting Technique of Melaleuca alternifolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈永锦

    2010-01-01

    澳洲茶油树(Melaleuca alternifolia)是经济价值很高的油用树种,也可用于园林造景.文章通过栽培实践,总结了其形态特征与生态习性、引种、栽培,为推广营造人工林提供科学依据.

  8. Tea Culture in Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DINGLinghui; PUNCOGZholma

    2004-01-01

    The air in Tibet does not contain sufficient oxygen, and people living in that part of the world love food that is "dry", such as meat ancl roasted qingke barley flour called zanba. This kind of life calls for tea. And Tibetans have been drinking tea for eons.

  9. Tea-Producer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    CHEN Shuiyue is a tea producer in Shengzhou, Zhejiang Province, the biggest tea production and export base in China. One day last September, accompanied by two staff members from the local women’s federation, I visited Chen Shuiyue’s holne. Traveling along a bumpy road, we arrived at Yingguiyan Village, in Chongren County,

  10. 茶树油熏蒸处理对香蕉采后炭疽病害的影响%Effects of tea tree oil fumigation on banana postharvest disease Colletotrichum musae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    静玮; 苏子鹏; 朱德明; 韩志萍

    2011-01-01

    The effects of natural plants extracts against banana postharvest disease Colletotrichum musae was evaluated.The antifimgal activity of 0~40μL TTO(tea tree oil) and its main components (Terpinenol-4, a-Terpineol, γ-Terpinene and 1,8-Cineole) against colony growth of C.musae in vitro and their effects on disease intensity and defense-related enzymes of banana fruits inoculated with C.musae were determined at 25℃ and 75% relative humidity.Results showed that fumigation of TTO, Terpinenol-4 and a-Terpineol could significantly inhibit C.musae growth in vitro.In addition,the antifungal activity of TTO and its main components could be greatly enhanced with higher levels.Compared with non-treated fruits, 1.25 g/L TTO fumigation reduced lesion diameter of inoculated banana fruits, but less than 0.32 g/L Terpinenol-4 or a-Terpineol.Moreover.1.25 g/L TTO fumigation induced significant increase in peroxidase(POD), and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase(PAL), but decreased polyphenoloxidase(PPO) activity.The preliminary study suggests that TTO fumigation is feasible on fresh-keeping and increasing of disease resistance in postharvest banana fruits,meanwhile, Terpinenol-4 and a-Terpineol are primary antifungal activities of TTO.%为了探讨植物提取物对香蕉采后病害的防治效果,以香蕉果实为材料,采用菌丝生长速率方法测定不同剂量(0~40 μL)的茶树油(TTO)及其主要成分(4-松油烯醇、α-松油醇、γ-松油烯和1,8-桉叶油素)对香蕉炭疽病菌的离体抗菌活性,并用TTO及其主要成分熏蒸处理接种炭疽病菌的香蕉果实,测定果实常温贮藏(25℃,相对湿度75%)的发病情况和TTO处理对接种果实防御酶活性的影响.结果表明,TTO、4-松油烯醇和α-松油醇均能显著抑制离体炭疽病菌的菌丝生长,质量浓度越高,抑制效果越明显:1.25 g/L TTO处理降低了接种炭疽病菌果实的发病程度,0.32 g/L 4-松油烯醇和α-松油醇处理对接种果实病斑直径的

  11. Bioactivity of tea tree oil and application in the prawn preservation%茶树精油的生物活性及其在对虾保鲜中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵兴锋; 曹保英; 王鸿飞; 程塞

    2013-01-01

    利用气质联用仪(GC-MS)分析了茶树精油(TTO)的成分,采用体外试验对其抗氧化和抗癌等生理功能进行了评价;用不同浓度(2 ml/L、5 ml/L、15 ml/L)的TTO对南美白对虾进行保鲜处理,评价不同处理对冷藏对虾品质的影响.结果表明:TTO的主要成分为萜品烯-4-醇、γ-萜品烯、α-萜品烯、1,8-桉叶素、萜品油烯、p-伞花烃、α-萜品醇;该精油具有很好的清除O2-和·OH的能力;在1.0 μl/ml浓度下即可表现出较高的抑制肝癌细胞(HepG2)增殖的能力;用2 ml/L、5ml/L TTO浸泡处理能明显抑制对虾冷藏期间pH值、挥发性盐基氮(TVB-N)和细菌总数(TBC)的上升和感官质量的下降;但是过高的浓度(如15 ml/L),反而会对对虾保鲜产生不利影响.%In order to investigate the bioactivity of tea tree oil (TTO) , the main components of TTO was measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) , and the antioxidant and anticancer abilities of TTO were evaluated in vitro. The quality of prawn treated with different concentrations (2 ml/L, 5 ml/L and 15 ml/L) of TTO were also assessed during cold storage at 4℃ for 5 d. The major components of TTO is Terpinen-4-ol, γ-Terpinene, α-Terpinene, 1,8-Cine-ole, Terpinolene, p-Cymene and α-Terpineol. TTO exhibited stronger capacity in clearing O2- and ·OH in comparison with propyl gallate, and showed significant anticancer ability against the proliferation of hepatoma cell ( HepG2 ) even at 1 μl/ml concentration (2 ml/L or 5 ml/L). TTO could inhibit the increases of pH, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) and total bacterial count (TBC) and maintain better sensory characteristics in prawn at the end of cold storage. However, higher concentration (15 ml/L) might lead to adverse effects.

  12. Rheology study of supercritically extracted tea-oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张党权; 陈胜铭; 彭万喜; 刘其梅; 谷振军; 樊绍刚; 邓顺阳

    2008-01-01

    The rheological analysis on dynamic shear rate-viscosity relationship of tea-oil extracted from tea-oil tree seeds by supercritical extraction method was carried out at gradient temperatures and constant shear rate,respectively.The results show that at 20,40,60 and 80 ℃,once the shear rate increases gradually,the torque enlarges correspondingly,while the viscosity shows little difference.However,at the constant shear rate,the rising temperature results in a steady downtrend on tea-oil viscosity.This results reveal that tea-oil viscosity is not closely correlated with shear rate at constant temperature,yet negatively correlated with temperature at constant shear rate.

  13. 豫南大别山区不同海拔高度茶树主要品质成分变化%Variation of Quality Components of Tea Tree at Different Altitude in Dabie Mountain Area of Southern Henan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟; 张艺成; 武文文

    2014-01-01

    The compositions of tea tree are analyzed by biochemical analysis and HPLC at different altitude in Dabie Mountain area of southern Henan province .The results show as follows :water extract 44 .52% ~46 .99% ,tea polyphenol 25 .49% ~30 .03% ,catechin 208 .49~234 .18 mg · g -1 ,amino acid 3 .86% ~4 .81% ,soluble sugar 4 .61% ~5 .22% ,chlorophyll 11 .26~1 .98 mg · g -1 ,caffeine 3 .11% ~3 .72% .The tea quality increases with alti-tude increments ,and the best quality is at 700 m altitude .%采用生化分析和高效液相色谱法,分析了豫南大别山区不同海拔高度茶树的主要成分。结果表明,其主要品质成分的含量为:水浸出物44.52%~46.99%(质量分数,以下同),茶多酚25.49%~30.03%,儿茶素208.49~234.18mg·g -1,氨基酸3.86%~4.81%,可溶性糖4.61%~5.22%,叶绿素1.26~1.98mg·g -1,咖啡碱3.11%~3.72%。综合分析,随海拔高度的升高,茶叶品质逐渐提升,海拔700 m处的茶叶品质最佳。

  14. All the Tea in China...

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    TEA, coffee and cocoa com-prise three major beveragesin the world.Altogether 56countries grow tea and about 2 bil-lion people drink it.Although differ-ent countries have cultivated differ-ent tea cultures,including Japan’s teaceremony,Russia’s milk tea art andBritain’s afternoon tea service,theyare all closely linked to China’s longhistory and culture.

  15. Discrimination of Wild Tea Germplasm Resources (Camellia sp.) Using RAPD Markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Liang; WANG Ping-sheng; Yamaguchi Satoshi

    2002-01-01

    Discrimination of 24 wild tea germplasm resources ( Camellia sp. ) using RAPD markers was conducted. The result showed that RAPD markers were very effective tool and method in wild tea germplasm discrimination. There were 3 independent ways to discriminate tea germplasms, a) unique RAPD markers, b)specific band patterns and c) a combination of the band patterns or DNA fingerprinting provided by different primers. The presence of 16 unique RAPD markers and the absence of 3 unique markers obtained from 12 primers made it possible to discriminate 14 germplasms. Using the unique band patterns of primer OPO-13 could discriminate 10 tea germplasms. It was of much importance using minimum primers to obtain maximum discrimination capacity. All the 24 wild tea germplasms could be discriminated easily and entirely by the band patterns combination or DNA fingerprinting obtained from OPO-13, OPO-18, OPG-12 and OPA-13, including two wild tea trees of very similar morphological characteristics and chemical components.

  16. 广东地区互叶白千层栽培技术规程%Cultivation Techniques ofMelaleuca alternifolia in Guangdong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦曼华; 吴伟能; 汪迎利; 周丽华; 蔡燕灵

    2016-01-01

    互叶白千层Melaleuca alternifolia是一种生产周期短、收益快的药用和香料树种。文中总结广东地区互叶白千层的栽培技术规程,包括种苗繁育、种植方法、田间管理、采收等,为提高互叶白千层品质、保障精油质量提供标准化技术指导。%Melaleuca alternifolia was one of medicinal and perfume plants with short production cycle and quick gains. The cultivation techniques ofM. alternifolia in Guangdong were summarized including seedling propagation, plantation, field management and harvesting, which could promote the development of the standard planting and quality control ofM. alternifolia.

  17. Eating and Savoring Tea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JANE SHAW

    1996-01-01

    TEA originated in China and spread to the rest of the world long ago. It is more than a popular beverage—it is a delicacy which can be both eaten and drunk, and around which many customs and rituals have been formed. Historical records show that tea leaves were first eaten, starting from the Spring and Autumn Period (770-476 B.C.). They were not steeped as a beverage until the early Western Han Dynasty (206 B.C.-23 A.D.). More formal tea-drinking rituals

  18. [Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in tea and tea infusions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciemniak, Artur; Mocek, Kamila

    2010-01-01

    Tea is the one of most widely consumed beverage in the world. It is generally believed that tea consumption might have health promoting properties. But residues of certain chemical compounds might impose a health threat on tea drinkers. The main contaminants are heavy metals, fluoride, pesticides and even dioxins. Tea lives which possess a high surface area can be contaminated with atmospheric PAHs. The manufacturing processes may also introduce PAHs into tea lives. The aim of his study was to determine the contamination of black, green, red and white teas by PAHs. In this investigation, content of 23 PAH, i.e 16 EPA PAH and 15 EU PAH were determined in 18 brands of tea and its infusions. The analytical procedure was based on ultrasonic extraction for dried tea and liquid-liquid extraction for infusions. All samples were cleaned up by florisil cartridge. The total content of 23 PAH varied between 22.9 microg/kg to 2945.5 microg/kg and 2.7 microg/kg to 63,1 microg/kg microg/kg for BaP. The analysed tea samples showed an increasing presence of PAH in the following order (mean value): black tea tea green tea tea. However the highest content of PAH was found in the one brand of black tea bag both in sum of PAH and BaP content. During tea infusion 1.6% of total PAHs contained in tea was released into the beverage. The dominant PAHs in tea infusion were 2, 3 and 4 rings PAH, while the most toxic compounds were found at trace amounts. The concentrations of total 23 PAHs and BaP in tea infusions ranged from 332.5 ng/dm3 to 2245.9 ng/dm3 and 0.35 ng/dm3 to 18.7 ng/dm3 respectively.

  19. A teahouse in a tea garden

    OpenAIRE

    Macfarlane, Alan

    2004-01-01

    The Japanese place tea at the centre of their social and ceremonial life. In this beautiful tea garden in Kyoto, the tea mistress makes tea and offers it to Alan Macfarlane, who talks a little about its role in history.

  20. Polyamines in tea processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palavan-Unsal, Narcin; Arisan, Elif Damla; Terzioglu, Salih

    2007-06-01

    The distribution of dietary polyamines, putrescine, spermidine and spermine, was determined during processing of Camellia sinensis. Black tea manufacture is carried by a series of processes on fresh tea leaves involving withering, rolling, fermentation, drying and sieving. The aim of this research was to determine the effect of tea processing on the polyamine content in relation with antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase, lipid peroxidase and glutathione peroxidase. Before processing, the spermine content was much higher than the putrescine and spermidine content in green tea leaves. Spermine was significantly decreased during processing while the putrescine and spermine contents increased during withered and rolling and decreased in the following stages. The superoxide dismutase activity increased at the withering stage and declined during processing. The transcript level of the polyamine biosynthesis-responsible enzyme ornithine decarboxylase was reduced during each processing step. This study reveals the importance of protection of nutritional compounds that are essential for health during the manufacturing process.

  1. Tea Tells All

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roever, Carol

    2007-01-01

    A beverage, as well as the way it is served, can be a window into the soul of a culture. For the author and her husband, Turkish tea helped them understand and enjoy the culture of Turkey. They learned that the broad nuances of culture can be as instructive as a classroom experience. The tea story begins in Chicago in the spring of 2005 when the…

  2. Fluoride and aluminum in teas and tea-based beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayacibara Mitsue Fujimaki

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate fluoride and aluminum concentration in herbal, black, ready-to-drink, and imported teas available in Brazil considering the risks fluoride and aluminum pose to oral and general health, respectively. METHODS: One-hundred and seventy-seven samples of herbal and black tea, 11 types of imported tea and 21 samples of ready-to-drink tea were divided into four groups: I-herbal tea; II-Brazilian black tea (Camellia sinensis; III-imported tea (Camellia sinensis; IV-ready-to-drink tea-based beverages. Fluoride and aluminum were analyzed using ion-selective electrode and atomic absorption, respectively. RESULTS: Fluoride and aluminum levels in herbal teas were very low, but high amounts were found in black and ready-to-drink teas. Aluminum found in all samples analyzed can be considered safe to general health. However, considering 0.07 mg F/kg/day as the upper limit of fluoride intake with regard to undesirable dental fluorosis, some teas exceed the daily intake limit for children. CONCLUSIONS: Brazilian and imported teas made from Camellia sinensis as well as some tea-based beverages are sources of significant amounts of fluoride, and their intake may increase the risk of developing dental fluorosis.

  3. Melaleuca alternifolia essential oil possesses potent anti-staphylococcal activity extended to strains resistant to antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrini, A M; Mannoni, V; Aureli, P; Salvatore, G; Piccirilli, E; Ceddia, T; Pontieri, E; Sessa, R; Oliva, B

    2006-01-01

    Melaleuca alternifolia Cheel essential oil (TTO) and its major component terpinen-4-ol were examined against a large number of clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus to establish their anti-staphylococcal activities. Classic and established procedures were used to study M.I.C., time-kill curves, synergism and mutational frequency. The anti-staphylococcal activity of terpinen-4-ol and TTO were superior to those of antibiotics belonging to the major families (all the tested drugs are for topical use or included in ointments, eye drops or used during surgery); terpinen 4-ol and TTO were active against strains resistant to mupirocin, fusidic acid, vancomycin, methicillin and linezolid. TTO and terpinen-4-ol were bactericidal as revealed by time-kill curves; the frequency of mutational frequency to TTO was < 2.9 x 10 9. The study demonstrates good anti-staphylococcal activity of TTO and terpinen-4-ol against a large number of S.aureus isolates and suggests the possible application of these agents for topical treatment of staphylococcal infections. This is the first extensive study on the anti-staphylococcal activity of TTO. The results suggest that this compound may have application as a topical agent for the control of superficial staphylococcal infections, including activity against organisms resistant to antibiotics which can be used, or are specific, for topical use.

  4. Atividade de nanoformulações de Melaleuca alternifolia e terpinen-4-ol em isolados de Rhodococcus equi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Sagave

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Rhodococcus equi é o agente etiológico da rodococose equina, importante doença respiratória de potros. Especialmente na última década, a emergência de cepas resistentes aos antimicrobianos empregados no tratamento da rodococose tem sido relatada. Nesse sentido, há a necessidade de estudos envolvendo terapias alternativas e novas tecnologias, incluindo o uso de plantas medicinais e nanotecnologia. Neste trabalho utilizou-se Melaleuca alternifolia nas seguintes formulações: óleo livre, nanocápsula, nanoemulsão e a combinação de óleo livre com nanocápsula e com nanoemulsão, além do seu composto majoritário, terpinen-4-ol, a fim de verificar a atividade antimicrobiana frente a isolados de R. equi de diferentes origens. Utilizou-se o método de microdiluição em caldo na determinação das concentrações inibitória mínima (CIM e bactericida mínima (CBM das diferentes formulações frente aos isolados (n=24. Verificou-se baixo potencial para atividade antibacteriana de M. alternifolia na formulação de óleo livre. Todavia, essa atividade foi potencializada quando se incorporou o óleo essencial às nanoformulações. O composto terpinen-4-ol demonstrou potencial atividade antibacteriana quando incorporado ao óleo essencial e quando utilizado isoladamente. Verificou-se que tanto M. alternifolia quanto terpinen-4-ol testados possuem atividade antimicrobiana contra isolados de R. equi, sugerindo seu emprego em estudos avaliando seu potencial para o tratamento da rodococose.

  5. Prospect of indegenous plant extracts in tea pest management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S.A. Mamun

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Tea is a popular beverage made from the leaves of evergreen shrub or tree Camellia sinensis, under the family Theaceae. Tea plant is subjected to the attack of insects, mites, nematodes and some plant pathogenic diseases. Tea production is greatly hindered due to thesemaladies. About 10-15% crop loss occurred by these pests per annum. In severe cases, it would be 100%. To combat these problems different groups of pesticides have been used in the tea fields since 1960. As tea is a consumable commodity, the effect of residue of pesticides in made tea is harmful to human health. In this context, biopesticides are being considered as environmentally safe, selective, biodegradable, economical and renewable alternatives for use in IPM programmes. Biopesticides are natural plant products and may be grown by the planters with minimum cost and extracted by indigenous methods.Biopesticides are secondary metabolites, which include alkaloids, terpenoids, phenolics, and minor secondary chemicals. It is estimated that as many as 2121 plant species have been reported to posses’ pest control properties. Botanicals like neem, ghora-neem, mahogoni,karanja, adathoda, sweet flag, tobacco, derris, annona, smart weed, bar weed, datura, calotropis, bidens, lantana, chrysanthemum, artemisia, marigold, clerodendrum, wild sunflower and many others may be grown by planters with minimum expense and extracted by indigenous methods. These botanical materials can be used as an alternative to chemical pesticides. These botanical extracts will help in controlling major pests of tea such as Helopeltis, red spider mite, aphids, thrips, jassid, flushworm, termites, nematodes etc. Thepresent note reviews the information of most widely available indigenous plants that may be used for the control of insect pests of tea as a component of IPM.

  6. Green tea and bone health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osteoporosis is a major health problem in the elderly, particularly women. Epidemiological evidence has shown an association between tea consumption and the prevention of age-related bone loss in elderly women and men. Ingestion of green tea and green tea bioactive compounds may be beneficial in mit...

  7. Recent Advances in Volatiles of Teas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Qiang Zheng

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Volatile compounds are important components of tea aroma, a key attribute of sensory quality. The present review examines the formation of aromatic volatiles of various kinds of teas and factors influencing the formation of tea volatiles, including tea cultivar, growing environment and agronomic practices, processing method and storage of tea. The determination of tea volatiles and the relationship of active-aroma volatiles with the sensory qualities of tea are also discussed in the present paper.

  8. 淹水解除后互叶白千层幼苗光合特性的恢复%Recovery of Photosynthetic Characteristics of Melaleuca alternifolia Seedlings after Submersion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    靖元孝; 刘瑞仙; 肖林; 李国梁; 杨丹菁

    2011-01-01

    Periodic flooding of trees in tropical floodplains and reservoirs where water levels fluctuate is a common phenomenon. The alternating terrestrial and aquatic periods with advancing and receding floods poses a variety of constraints to the plants growing in this habitat. If flooding is recurrent before the plants recover from previous flooding, injuries will accumulate and serious damage may occur. Therefore, when assessing plant resistance to flooding, it is important to consider the ability of plants to recover from transient waterlogging. The success of tree planting on floodplain and reservoir depends not only on the tree's tolerance to submersion, but also on their subsequent recovery. Previous studies on physiological and growth responses of tree species to flooding have mostly focused on the responses to continuous flooding, but little is known about the responses to subsequent recovery after the removal of the flooding stress. Recovery effects of gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence and membrane permeability of Melaleuca alternifolia seedlings, a tall shrub species used in floodplain and reservoir forest restoration in southern China, were studied after submersion. Throughout a 30-day submersion and another 70-day recovery period, the survival rates of M. alternifolia seedlings were 100%. After 30-day submersion, pronounced decrease of chlorophyll content, net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance(Gs), transpiration rate(Tr), the maximum quantum efficiency of the photosystem II (Fv/Fm), photochemical quenching coefficient (qP), and increase of non-photochemical quenching (NPQ), membrane permeability in the period after submersion, gradual increase of chlorophyll content, Pn, Gs, Tr, Fv/Fm, qP, and decrease of NPQ, membrane permeability in the recovered seedlings were found, and the above parameters in the recovered seedlings reached the levels similar to the control after 60-day recovery. Our study demonstrated that M. alternifolia seedlings is

  9. Green tea and cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chung S; Wang, Xin

    2010-01-01

    Extracts of green tea and green tea polyphenols have exhibited inhibitory effects against the formation and development of tumors at different organ sites in animals. These include animal models for skin, lung, oral cavity, esophagus, stomach, intestine, colon, liver, pancreas, bladder, mammary gland, and prostate cancers. In addition to suppressing cell proliferation, promoting apoptosis, and modulating signaling transduction, green tea polyphenols, especially (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate, also inhibit cell invasion, angiogenesis, and metastasis. This article reviews data on the cancer preventive activities of green tea polyphenols, possible mechanisms involved, and the relationship between green tea consumption and human cancer risk.

  10. Óleo de melaleuca (Melaleuca alternifolia Maiden & Betche, Cheel no controle de cercosporiose em beterraba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.D. SOUZA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO O óleo volátil da melaleuca (Melaleuca alternifolia Maiden & Betche, Cheel possui atividade antimicrobiana podendo causar efeitos sobre as plantas. Avaliou-se a inibição do óleo em Cercospora beticolaSacc., e seu efeito no aumento da produção e qualidade de raízes de beterraba. As doses foram de 0,13; 0,67; 0,80 e 1,00% do óleo, além das testemunhas composta pelo meio de cultura Batata Dextrose Ágar (BDA no experimento in vitro, e água no experimento in vivo. As plantas foram pulverizadas duas vezes por semana. O delineamento foi inteiramente casualizado, com 4 repetições, e as médias foram comparadas pelo teste Tukey a 5% de probabilidade. O índice de infecção das folhas foi determinado por escala diagramática além do peso e diâmetro das raízes. Os resultados de inibição do crescimento micelial para as doses do óleo foram 0; 56; 87; 83 e 99%, e os índices de infecção: 77,08; 35,62; 21,04; 19,37 e 20,00%, respectivamente, para a testemunha e as doses 0,13; 0,67; 0,80 e 1,00% do óleo. Somente na concentração de 0,80% o óleo proporcionou relação positiva entre o ganho de peso e o diâmetro das raízes. O óleo de Melaleuca foi eficaz no controle de C. beticola e, como consequência, houve produção de raízes de beterraba com melhor desenvolvimento.

  11. Tea Varrak / Ruth Alas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alas, Ruth, 1960-

    2007-01-01

    Rahandusministeeriumi kantsler Tea Varrak iseloomustab ennast juhina, alluvate motiveerimine, ülevaade tavalisest tööpäevast, plaanid lähitulevikuks. Eluloolised andmed, haridus, täienduskoolitus, töökogemus. Kommenteerivad justiitsministeeriumi kantsler Jüri Pihl ja rahandusministeeriumi arendusjuht Alar Kolk

  12. Green tea and bone metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chwan-Li; Yeh, James K; Cao, Jay J; Wang, Jia-Sheng

    2009-07-01

    Osteoporosis is a major health problem in both elderly women and men. Epidemiological evidence has shown an association between tea consumption and the prevention of age-related bone loss in elderly women and men. Ingestion of green tea and green tea bioactive compounds may be beneficial in mitigating bone loss of this population and decreasing their risk of osteoporotic fractures. This review describes the effect of green tea or its bioactive components on bone health, with an emphasis on (i) the prevalence and etiology of osteoporosis; (ii) the role of oxidative stress and antioxidants in osteoporosis; (iii) green tea composition and bioavailability; (iv) the effects of green tea and its active components on osteogenesis, osteoblastogenesis, and osteoclastogenesis from human epidemiological, animal, as well as cell culture studies; (v) possible mechanisms explaining the osteoprotective effects of green tea bioactive compounds; (vi) other bioactive components in tea that benefit bone health; and (vii) a summary and future direction of green tea and bone health research and the translational aspects. In general, tea and its bioactive components might decrease the risk of fracture by improving bone mineral density and supporting osteoblastic activities while suppressing osteoclastic activities.

  13. Inhibition of carcinogenesis by tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chung S; Maliakal, Pius; Meng, Xiaofeng

    2002-01-01

    Tea has received a great deal of attention because tea polyphenols are strong antioxidants, and tea preparations have inhibitory activity against tumorigenesis. The bioavailability and biotransformation of tea polyphenols, however, are key factors limiting these activities in vivo. The inhibition of tumorigenesis by green or black tea preparations has been demonstrated in animal models on different organ sites such as skin, lung, oral cavity, esophagus, forestomach, stomach, small intestine, colon, pancreas, and mammary gland. Epidemiological studies, however, have not yielded clear conclusions concerning the protective effects of tea consumption against cancer formation in humans. The discrepancy between the results from humans and animal models could be due to 1) the much higher doses of tea used in animals in comparison to human consumption, 2) the differences in causative factors between the cancers in humans and animals, and 3) confounding factors limiting the power of epidemiological studies to detect an effect. It is possible that tea may be only effective against specific types of cancer caused by certain etiological factors. Many mechanisms have been proposed for the inhibition of carcinogenesis by tea, including the modulation of signal transduction pathways that leads to the inhibition of cell proliferation and transformation, induction of apoptosis of preneoplastic and neoplastic cells, as well as inhibition of tumor invasion and angiogenesis. These mechanisms need to be evaluated and verified in animal models or humans in order to gain more understanding on the effect of tea consumption on human cancer.

  14. Black tea: chemical analysis and stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shiming; Lo, Chih-Yu; Pan, Min-Hsiung; Lai, Ching-Shu; Ho, Chi-Tang

    2013-01-01

    Tea is the most popular flavored and functional drink worldwide. The nutritional value of tea is mostly from the tea polyphenols that are reported to possess a broad spectrum of biological activities, including anti-oxidant properties, reduction of various cancers, inhibition of inflammation, and protective effects against diabetes, hyperlipidemia and obesity. Tea polyphenols include catechins and gallic acid in green and white teas, and theaflavins and thearubigins as well as other catechin polymers in black and oolong teas. Accurate analysis of black tea polyphenols plays a significant role in the identification of black tea contents, quality control of commercial tea beverages and extracts, differentiation of various contents of theaflavins and catechins and correlations of black tea identity and quality with biological activity, and most importantly, the establishment of the relationship between quantitative tea polyphenol content and its efficacy in animal or human studies. Global research in tea polyphenols has generated much in vitro and in vivo data rationally correlating tea polyphenols with their preventive and therapeutic properties in human diseases such as cancer, and metabolic and cardiovascular diseases etc. Based on these scientific findings, numerous tea products have been developed including flavored tea drinks, tea-based functional drinks, tea extracts and concentrates, and dietary supplements and food ingredients, demonstrating the broad applications of tea and its extracts, particularly in the field of functional food.

  15. Analysis of Various Tea Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchi Verma

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available As adulteration is becoming common today and tea is the most widely consumed beverage all over the world so our objective was to determine various adulterants in tea, coffee samples from udupi district, Karnataka, India as well as estimation of tannin and polyphenols from black tea samples. Specified standard procedures and tests were followed to perform the study. Amount of tannin and polyphenol content was determined.in samples and some adulterants were found to be present in the tea samples which are a matter of concern.

  16. Tea Time In Hangzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Brandon Taylor

    2012-01-01

    There's a saying in China:Above is heaven,below is Hangzhou.Having visited this city in east central China,I'm willing to vouch for this ancient adage,one that suggests heaven's beauty has somehow trickled down to Earth.But I would suggest a slight amendment:Above is heaven,below is Hangzhou and people,and people,and people.The lakes,hills and pagodas make Hangzhou China's most visited tourist destination-around 20 million foreign and domestic tourists visit each year.Hangzhou is known for tea,some of the best and most expensive in China.The hills and valleys to the west of Hangzhou that I saw were littered with villages and tea plantations.That's where I needed to be.

  17. In vito Culture of Melaleuca alternifolia%互叶白千层离体繁殖技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴幼媚; 王以红; 蔡玲; 黄金使; 梁炳增

    2001-01-01

    用1年生互叶白千层(Melaleuca alternifolia)实生苗的茎段芽作外植体,以0.1%HgCl2消毒10min,未污染率达80%以上,芽萌动快;芽在含BA 1.0 mg/L、NAA 0.5 mg/L的培养基上生长健壮,增殖率300%,有效芽100%;ABT 2.0 mg/L,IBA 0.4 mg/L的培养基有利生根,其生根率达93.3%.

  18. Survey and Analysis on Undergraduate Tea Consumption and Attitude towards Tea Consumption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiahua; LI; Xiaohui; LU; Mengyao; JIANG; Wanfang; SHAO; Jianyun; ZHOU

    2013-01-01

    Based on the sample survey of undergraduates from Tsinghua University, Northwest Sci-Tech University of Agriculture and Forestry, Yunnan University and Yunnan Agricultural University, this paper analyzes their tea consumption and attitude towards tea consumption. Results show that more than 50% undergraduates like drinking tea, especially green tea. They would like to accept lower price tea, prefer quality to brand, and have higher degree of approval of new methods of tea drinking and tea products. However, most undergraduates lack relevant knowledge about identifying tea quality. Finally, it presents recommendations for expanding tea consumption market among undergraduates.

  19. Tea and human health: biomedical functions of tea active components and current issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zong-mao; Lin, Zhi

    2015-02-01

    Originating in China, tea and tea planting have spread throughout the world since the middle of the Tang dynasty. Now people from 160 countries in the world are accustomed to tea drinking. A brief history of tea's medicinal role in China and its spread to the world are introduced. The effectiveness of tea active components and tea drinking on major human diseases, including cancer, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, and neurodegenerative diseases, is discussed. Also presented are some related issues, such as the bioavailability of tea active components, the new formulations of tea polyphenols, and the safety for consumers of dietary supplements containing tea polyphenols.

  20. Green Tea and Bone Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osteoporosis is a major health problem in elderly men and women. Epidemiological evidence has shown association between tea consumption and age-related bone loss in elderly men and women. The aim of this review is to provide a systemic review of green tea and bone health to cover the following topi...

  1. Green tea and tea polyphenols in cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Di; Daniel, Kenyon G; Kuhn, Deborah J; Kazi, Aslamuzzaman; Bhuiyan, Mohammad; Li, Lianhai; Wang, Zhigang; Wan, Sheng Biao; Lam, Wai Har; Chan, Tak Hang; Dou, Q Ping

    2004-09-01

    The cancer-preventive effects of green tea and its main constituent (-)-epigallocatechin gallate [(-)-EGCG] are widely supported by results from epidemiological, cell culture, animal and clinical studies in the recent decade. In vitro cell culture studies show that tea polyphenols potently induce apoptotic cell death and cell cycle arrest in tumor cells but not in their normal cell counterparts. Green tea polyphenols affect several signal transduction pathways, including growth factor-mediated, the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-dependent, and ubiquitin/proteasome degradation pathways. Epidemiological studies have suggested that the consumption of green tea lowers the risk of cancer. Various animal studies have revealed that treatment by green tea inhibits tumor incidence and multiplicity in different organ sites such as skin, lung, liver, stomach, mammary gland and colon. Phase I and II clinical trials were carried out recently to explore the anticancer effects of green tea in patients with cancer. At this time, more mechanistic research, animal studies, and clinical trials are necessary to further evaluate the role of green tea in cancer prevention.

  2. THE COMAPARATIVE DATA BETWEEN VARIOUS BRANDS OF TEA POWDERS AND GREEN TEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Kranthi Kumar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Tea is composed of many compounds. These components have various Effects depending upon the amount of tea ingested and the quality of the tea .apart from that green tea having various useful properties which are helpful for human body .The present Communication Describes about the about the “THE COMAPARATIVE DATA BETWEEN VARIOUS BRANDS OF TEA POWDERS AND GREEN TEA by using U.V Spectrophotometer and TLC Procedure for the estimation of caffeine content in commercial available tea samples and Comparative data of caffeine content along with analysis of different brands of tea samples by Comparing with the green tea powder. The present methods shows a detailed description about the Difference between commercial brands of tea powders and Green tea. A possible explanation to Account for the variability in Green Tea and analysis of different samples is offered.

  3. [Studies on tea and health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chi

    2011-11-01

    Many studies, both national and international, have shown that tea has protective effects on many chronic diseases and their risk factors. In cancer prevention, our studies indicated that tea drinking could inhibit the carcinogenicity of various chemical carcinogens, including oral tumors induced by 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) in Golden hamsters, esophageal tumors in rats by blocking in vivo synthesis of N-Nitroso-methylbenzylamine (NMBzA), esophageal cancer induced by NMBzA in rats, precancerous liver lesions (r-GT and GST-P) induced by diethylnitrosamine (DENA) in rats, intestinal preneoplastic lesion (ACF) and intestinal tumors induced by 1,2-dimethyl-hydrazine (DMH) in rats, lung carcinoma induced by nitrosamine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone(NNK) in A/J mice. Our studies have also shown that the protective effects of tea against cancer is a combined effects of various tea ingredients, among which the major ones are polyphenols and tea pigments. Based on animal studies, antioxidant properties, protection against DNA damage and modulation of immune functions were found to be the main mechanisms of anticancer effects of tea. In human trials, tea drinking showed protective effects against oxidative damage and DNA damage caused by cigarette smoking. Mixed tea drinking significantly blocked lesion progress in patients with oral mucosa leukoplakia, therefore, demonstrated its protective effects on oral cancer. Our studies have also shown effects of tea on prevention of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). For example, tea pigments was found to significantly inhibit LDL oxidation induced by Cu2+, Fe2+ in in vitro studies. In vivo studies showed that tea could prevent blood coagulation, facilitate fibrinogen dissolution, inhibit platelet aggregation, lower endothelin levels, enhance GSH-Px activities, protect against oxidated LDL-induced damage in endothelium cells, and prevent atherosclerosis of coronary arteries. The mechanisms of these protective

  4. PAH in tea and coffee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Navarantem, Marin; Adamska, Joanna;

    For food regulation in the European Union maximum limits on other foods than tea and coffee includes benzo[a]pyrene and the sum of PAH4 (sum of benzo[a]pyrene, chrysene, benz[a]anthracene and benzo[b]fluoranthene). This study includes analysis of the above mentioned PAH in both, tea leaves, coffee...... beans and ready-to-drink preparations. Compared to other food matrices (e.g. fish), the analytical methods were challenged by the hot water extracts. Preparation of tea includes roasting and drying of the tea leaves using combustion gases from burning wood, oil, or coal. These are responsible...... for accumulation of PAH in tea leaves. Different varieties of tea leaves were analyzed and highest concentrations were found in leaves from mate and black tea with maximum concentrations of 32 μg/kg for benzo[a]pyrene and 115 μg/kg for the sum of PAH4. Also, coffee beans are roasted during processing. However...

  5. PAH in tea and coffee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Navarantem, Marin; Adamska, Joanna

    For food regulation in the European Union maximum limits on other foods than tea and coffee includes benzo[a]pyrene and the sum of PAH4 (sum of benzo[a]pyrene, chrysene, benz[a]anthracene and benzo[b]fluoranthene). This study includes analysis of the above mentioned PAH in both, tea leaves, coffee...... for accumulation of PAH in tea leaves. Different varieties of tea leaves were analyzed and highest concentrations were found in leaves from mate and black tea with maximum concentrations of 32 μg/kg for benzo[a]pyrene and 115 μg/kg for the sum of PAH4. Also, coffee beans are roasted during processing. However......, both benzo[a]pyrene and PAH4 concentrations were more than ten times lower for coffee beans than for tea leaves. Highest levels were found for PAH4 of solid instant coffee (5.1 μg/kg). Data were used to calculate the exposure of benzo[a]pyrene (15%) and sum of PAH4 (10%) from tea and coffee...

  6. Comparative characterisation of green tea and black tea cream: physicochemical and phytochemical nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiaorong; Chen, Zhongzheng; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Luo, Wei; Tang, Hao; Deng, Baibiao; Deng, Jian; Li, Bin

    2015-04-15

    Tea cream is prevalent in various types of tea, yet a comparison of the mechanism of creaming in different teas remains uncertain. Here, we compared physicochemical characteristics, phytochemical composition, and simulated digestive profiles of green tea and black tea cream, looking to exploit their concentration and structure based mechanisms and in vitro bioaccessibility. Green tea cream particles were roughly one order of magnitude larger than those of black tea in size. Moreover, creaming concentrations of catechins, proteins and methylxanthines of green tea were dramatically higher than black tea. As major creaming components, gallated catechins, theaflavins, thearubigins, theabrownines, proteins and methylxanthines also exhibited high creaming affinities. Green tea cream particles, which were completely destroyed by simulated digestion, had few impacts on digestive recoveries of catechins and methylxanthines. In comparison, black tea cream particles were more stable under mimicking digestion, and clarification remarkably decreased the in vitro bioaccessibility of catechins and methylxanthines.

  7. Enumerating Trees

    CERN Document Server

    Kucharczyk, Robert A

    2012-01-01

    In this note we discuss trees similar to the Calkin-Wilf tree, a binary tree that enumerates all positive rational numbers in a simple way. The original construction of Calkin and Wilf is reformulated in a more algebraic language, and an elementary application of methods from analytic number theory gives restrictions on possible analogues.

  8. The Profound and Extensive Chinese Tea Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘航

    2014-01-01

    Anyone who knows a little bit about Chinese culture usualy knows about Chinese tea culture.Chinese tea culture has a history of more than 4,000 years and stil emerges fresh and vigorous from the test of history. Chinese tea culture has played an important and indispensable role in Chinese culture. The extensiveness and profoundness of Chinese tea culture is unpaneled. Its importance to Chinese people is noticeable. Tea has surprising functions: it can not only refresh the body but also the mind. Tea is prevalent in and out of China and is loved by people throughout the world.

  9. Coffee, tea and melanoma risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caini, Saverio; Masala, Giovanna; Saieva, Calogero

    2017-01-01

    In vitro and animal studies suggest that bioactive constituents of coffee and tea may have anticarcinogenic effects against cutaneous melanoma; however, epidemiological evidence is limited to date. We examined the relationships between coffee (total, caffeinated or decaffeinated) and tea consumpt......In vitro and animal studies suggest that bioactive constituents of coffee and tea may have anticarcinogenic effects against cutaneous melanoma; however, epidemiological evidence is limited to date. We examined the relationships between coffee (total, caffeinated or decaffeinated) and tea...... consumption and risk of melanoma in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). EPIC is a multicentre prospective study that enrolled over 500,000 participants aged 25-70 years from ten European countries in 1992-2000. Information on coffee and tea drinking was collected...... at baseline using validated country-specific dietary questionnaires. We used adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression models to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for the associations between coffee and tea consumption and melanoma risk. Overall, 2,712 melanoma cases were...

  10. Preparation of partially decaffeinated instant green tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jian-Hui; Liang, Yue-Rong; Jin, Jing; Liang, Hue-Ling; Du, Ying-Ying; Lu, Jian-Liang; Ye, Qian; Lin, Chen

    2007-05-01

    The caffeine level of instant tea extracted from decaffeinated leaf tea with 4.0 mg g-1 caffeine is commonly above 10.0 mg g-1, the maximum limit of caffeine for decaffeinated instant tea. Further removal of caffeine by active carbon (AC) from the green tea extract was investigated. It showed that the removal of caffeine from the tea extract solutions depended on the treatment time and tea extract concentration while the ethanol concentration and pH had little effect on the removal of caffeine. According to the removal of caffeine and the ratio of total catechins to caffeine in the tested samples, the optimum decaffeination conditions were determined to be as follows: tea extract concentration 15-30 g L-1 for common tea extract but higher for partially decaffeinated tea leaf extract; ratio of tea solution to AC, 100 mL:4 g; treatment time, 4 h; and natural tea extract pH. Instant tea powder extracted from partially decaffeinated leaf tea with a caffeine level of 4.03 mg g-1 and further decaffeinated by AC had a caffeine level of 7.81 mg g-1, which was 31% lower than that without AC treatment.

  11. Tree compression with top trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Landau, Gad M.;

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a new compression scheme for labeled trees based on top trees. Our compression scheme is the first to simultaneously take advantage of internal repeats in the tree (as opposed to the classical DAG compression that only exploits rooted subtree repeats) while also supporting fast...

  12. Tree compression with top trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Landau, Gad M.

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a new compression scheme for labeled trees based on top trees [3]. Our compression scheme is the first to simultaneously take advantage of internal repeats in the tree (as opposed to the classical DAG compression that only exploits rooted subtree repeats) while also supporting fast n...

  13. Tree compression with top trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Landau, Gad M.

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a new compression scheme for labeled trees based on top trees. Our compression scheme is the first to simultaneously take advantage of internal repeats in the tree (as opposed to the classical DAG compression that only exploits rooted subtree repeats) while also supporting fast navig...

  14. The cytogenetic effects of black tea and green tea on cultured human lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil Erhan Eroğlu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the cytogenetic effects of black tea and green tea were determined in cultured peripheral blood lymphocytes. Results showed that black tea and green tea induced the mitotic and replication indexes and decreased micronuclei. But these data were not statistically significant for green tea. The effects of black tea on the micronucleus formation and mitotic index were statistically significant. The decrease in micronucleus counts indicated that black tea and green tea had considerable anticlastogenic and antigenotoxic effects as observed in vitro in human lymphocytes. Thus, it could be concluded that tea polyphenols protected the normal cells from genotoxic or carcinogenic agents, which indicated the therapeutic and antioxidative role of catechins, flavonoids or other tea compounds.

  15. Influence of Tea Catechins on Lipid Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Ikeda, Ikuo

    2006-01-01

    Tea catechins reduce serum cholesterol concentration and suppress postprandial hypertriacylglycerolemia in experimental animals and humans. These effects are mainly ascribed to gallate esters of catechins, (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECG) and (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). During heat treatment for pasteurization, tea catechins are epimerized to so-called heat-treated tea catechins such as (-)-catechin gallate (CG) and (-)-gallocatechin gallate (GCG). We showed that both tea catechins and ...

  16. Prospect of Tea Cultivation & Processing in Pakistan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    HistoryIn 1958, a farmer brought some tea seeds and plants from Bangladesh (then east Pakistan), and successfully cultivated them in district Mansehra. At that time, Pakistan was self-sufficient in tea that was produced in East Pakistan. After the separation (in 1971) of East Pakistan, Pakistan diverted attention to initial work on tea production. The Pakistan Agricultural Research Council (PARC) took over the charge of tea cultivation in 1976-77 and launched a project in 1980.

  17. Tea - a Chineseway of life and culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正> Tea, along with porcelain and silk, has long been one of China’s most significant exports.ln the 6th century, a Buddhist monk introduced tea to Japan and a Portuguese missionary to Europe in the 16th century. In this way, tea became an international beverage. From ancient times to today, tea has been a necessity of the ordinary life of anyone Chinese.

  18. Green Tea and Its Antioxidant Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Yeh, Jason

    1999-01-01

    Green tea contains antioxidants which have been implicated to contribute to reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. This may be explained in part by the green tea's antioxidant properties. Green tea is a rich source of flavonoids with high antioxidant activity both in vitro and in vivo. This includes the ability of green tea to lower the oxidizability of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) in vitro. In vivo lipid oxidation as measure by plasma lipid peroxides and LDL oxidizability are significantly...

  19. Chocolate as a source of tea flavonoids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, I.C.W.; Hollman, P.C.H.; Kromhout, D.

    1999-01-01

    The antioxidant catechin content of chocolate is four times that of tea. Chocolate contributed 20% of the catechin intake in a representative sample of the Dutch population, and tea contributes 55%. Epidemiological assessments of health effects of tea should include other foods that are sources of c

  20. Control of fluidized bed tea drying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temple, S.J.

    2000-01-01

    Tea is a product made from the leaf of the tea bush by several processes, including drying. The drying stage is the most energy intensive, and has tight performance criteria. This project investigated the options for the control of a fluidized bed tea dryer. The work included establishing some of th

  1. THOR Turbulence Electron Analyser: TEA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazakerley, Andrew; Moore, Tom; Owen, Chris; Pollock, Craig; Wicks, Rob; Samara, Marilia; Rae, Jonny; Hancock, Barry; Kataria, Dhiren; Rust, Duncan

    2016-04-01

    Turbulence Heating ObserveR (THOR) is the first mission ever flown in space dedicated to plasma turbulence. The Turbulence Electron Analyser (TEA) will measure the plasma electron populations in the mission's Regions of Interest. It will collect a 3D electron velocity distribution with cadences as short as 5 ms. The instrument will be capable of measuring energies up to 30 keV. TEA consists of multiple electrostatic analyser heads arranged so as to measure electrons arriving from look directions covering the full sky, i.e. 4 pi solid angle. The baseline concept is similar to the successful FPI-DES instrument currently operating on the MMS mission. TEA is intended to have a similar angular resolution, but a larger geometric factor. In comparison to earlier missions, TEA improves on the measurement cadence. For example, MMS FPI-DES routinely operates at 30 ms cadence. The objective of measuring distributions at rates as fast as 5 ms is driven by the mission's scientific requirements to resolve electron gyroscale size structures, where plasma heating and fluctuation dissipation is predicted to occur. TEA will therefore be capable of making measurements of the evolution of distribution functions across thin (a few km) current sheets travelling past the spacecraft at up to 600 km/s, of the Power Spectral Density of fluctuations of electron moments and of distributions fast enough to match frequencies with waves expected to be dissipating turbulence (e.g. with 100 Hz whistler waves).

  2. Análise econômica do cultivo e extração do óleo essencial de Melaleuca alternifolia Cheel Economic analysis of the cultivation and extraction of the essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia Cheel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciro de Castro

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho estudou a viabilidade econômica do cultivo e extração do óleo essencial de um plantio de Melaleuca alternifolia Cheel. Foi realizado um levantamento dos rendimentos e custos da cultura das atividades de produção de mudas, implantação, manutenção, colheita, transporte e extração do óleo essencial, bem como as receitas. A análise econômica foi realizada utilizando-se os seguintes indicadores econômicos: Valor Presente Líquido, Razão Benefício/Custo, Taxa Interna de Retorno, Valor Anual Equivalente e Custo Médio de Produção. Posteriormente foi feita uma análise de sensibilidade, utilizando-se a técnica de simulação de Monte Carlo, por meio do software @Risk. Uma vez reunidos e analisados os dados, fixaram-se parâmetros mínimos, médios e máximos para as distribuições de probabilidade triangular dos custos de implantação, manutenção, colheita, destilação e da receita, oriundos do projeto de produção do óleo essencial, permitindo uma melhor avaliação dos indicadores econômicos perante a análise de riscos. Como resultado, obteve-se um rendimento de 81,82 L de óleo essencial por ha por ano, conseqüentemente um lucro anual de R$497,18 por hectare, enquanto a análise de sensibilidade apresentou uma baixa probabilidade de a atividade tornar-se inviável economicamente.This paper describes the study of the economic viability of cultivation and essential oil extraction of Melaleuca alternifolia Cheel. An assessment was made of profits and costs for activities of seedling production, implantation, maintenance, harvesting, transport and essential oil extraction, as well as revenues. The economic analysis was accomplished using the following economic indicators: Net Present Value, Benefit/Cost Ratio, Internal Return Rate, Equivalent Annual Value and Average Cost of Production. Then a sensibility analysis was performed using the simulation technique of Monte Carlo _ software @Risk. Once data were

  3. Context trees

    OpenAIRE

    Ganzinger, Harald; Nieuwenhuis, Robert; Nivela, Pilar

    2001-01-01

    Indexing data structures are well-known to be crucial for the efficiency of the current state-of-the-art theorem provers. Examples are \\emph{discrimination trees}, which are like tries where terms are seen as strings and common prefixes are shared, and \\emph{substitution trees}, where terms keep their tree structure and all common \\emph{contexts} can be shared. Here we describe a new indexing data structure, \\emph{context trees}, where, by means of a limited kind of conte...

  4. Two Trees

    OpenAIRE

    Cochrane, John. H.; Longstaff, Francis A.; Santa-Clara, Pedro

    2004-01-01

    We solve a model with two “Lucas trees.†Each tree has i.i.d. dividend growth. The investor has log utility and consumes the sum of the two trees’ dividends. This model produces interesting asset-pricing dynamics, despite its simple ingredients. Investors want to rebalance their portfolios after any change in value. Since the size of the trees is fixed, however, prices must adjust to offset this desire. As a result, expected returns, excess returns, and return volatility all vary throug...

  5. Pharmacokinetic and Chemoprevention Studies on Tea in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Chow, H-H Sherry; Hakim, Iman A

    2011-01-01

    Green tea and its major polyphenols constituents, tea catechins, have been shown to have many health benefits including cancer prevention. Tea catechins and tea catechin metabolites/catabolites are bioavailable in the systemic circulation after oral intake of green tea or green tea catechins. The metabolites/catabolites identified in humans include glucuronide/sulfate conjugates, methylated tea catechin conjugates, and microflora-mediated ring fission products and phenolic acid catabolites. P...

  6. Production, Composition, and Health Effects of Oolong Tea

    OpenAIRE

    İlkay Koca; Şeyda Bostancı

    2014-01-01

    Tea, one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world, is produced from the leaves of the plant Camellia sinensis L.. Tea has important physiological properties and potential health benefits due to the presence of compounds such as polyphenols, amino acids, vitamins, carbohydrates, caffeine, and purine alkaloids. Tea is produced in three types as green tea (unfermented), oolong tea (partially fermented), and black tea (fully fermented). Black tea is consumed worldwide, whereas green and...

  7. Response pattern of amino compounds in phloem and xylem of trees to soil drought depends on drought intensity and root symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X-P; Gong, C-M; Fan, Y-Y; Eiblmeier, M; Zhao, Z; Han, G; Rennenberg, H

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to identify drought-mediated differences in amino nitrogen (N) composition and content of xylem and phloem in trees having different symbiotic N(2)-fixing bacteria. Under controlled water availability, 1-year-old seedlings of Robinia pseudoacacia (nodules with Rhizobium), Hippophae rhamnoides (symbiosis with Frankia) and Buddleja alternifolia (no such root symbiosis) were exposed to control, medium drought and severe drought, corresponding soil water content of 70-75%, 45-50% and 30-35% of field capacity, respectively. Composition and content of amino compounds in xylem sap and phloem exudates were analysed as a measure of N nutrition. Drought strongly reduced biomass accumulation in all species, but amino N content in xylem and phloem remained unaffected only in R. pseudoacacia. In H. rhamnoides and B. alternifolia, amino N in phloem remained constant, but increased in xylem of both species in response to drought. There were differences in composition of amino compounds in xylem and phloem of the three species in response to drought. Proline concentrations in long-distance transport pathways of all three species were very low, below the limit of detection in phloem of H. rhamnoides and in phloem and xylem of B. alternifolia. Apparently, drought-mediated changes in N composition were much more connected with species-specific changes in C:N ratios. Irrespective of soil water content, the two species with root symbioses did not show similar features for the different types of symbiosis, neither in N composition nor in N content. There was no immediate correlation between symbiotic N fixation and drought-mediated changes in amino N in the transport pathways.

  8. Green tea and the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Stephen

    2005-06-01

    Plant extracts have been widely used as topical applications for wound-healing, anti-aging, and disease treatments. Examples of these include ginkgo biloba, echinacea, ginseng, grape seed, green tea, lemon, lavender, rosemary, thuja, sarsaparilla, soy, prickly pear, sagebrush, jojoba, aloe vera, allantoin, feverwort, bloodroot, apache plume, and papaya. These plants share a common character: they all produce flavonoid compounds with phenolic structures. These phytochemicals are highly reactive with other compounds, such as reactive oxygen species and biologic macromolecules, to neutralize free radicals or initiate biological effects. A short list of phenolic phytochemicals with promising properties to benefit human health includes a group of polyphenol compounds, called catechins, found in green tea. This article summarizes the findings of studies using green tea polyphenols as chemopreventive, natural healing, and anti-aging agents for human skin, and discusses possible mechanisms of action.

  9. Polyphenol composition of a functional fermented tea obtained by tea-rolling processing of green tea and loquat leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shii, Takuya; Tanaka, Takashi; Watarumi, Sayaka; Matsuo, Yosuke; Miyata, Yuji; Tamaya, Kei; Tamaru, Shizuka; Tanaka, Kazunari; Matsui, Toshiro; Kouno, Isao

    2011-07-13

    Phenolic constituents of a new functional fermented tea produced by tea-rolling processing of a mixture (9:1) of tea leaves and loquat leaves were examined in detail. The similarity of the phenolic composition to that of black tea was indicated by high-performance liquid chromatography comparison with other tea products. Twenty-five compounds, including three new catechin oxidation products, were isolated, and the structures of the new compounds were determined to be (2R)-2-hydroxy-3-(2,4,6-trihydroxyphenyl)-1-(3,4,5-trihydroxyphenyl)-1-propanone 2-O-gallate, dehydrotheasinensin H, and acetonyl theacitrin A by spectroscopic methods. In addition, theacitrinin A and theasinensin H were obtained for the first time from commercial tea products. Isolation of these new and known compounds confirms that reactions previously demonstrated by in vitro model experiments actually occur when fresh tea leaves are mechanically distorted and bruised during the production process.

  10. Identification of Traditional She Medicine Shi-Liang Tea Species and Closely Related Species Using the ITS2 Barcode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuangjiao Ma

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Traditional She medicine is part of China’s cultural heritage and has become remarkably popular worldwide. The Shi-Liang tea is made from the processed leaves of Chimonanthus salicifolius S. Y. Hu and Chimonanthus zhejiangensis M. C. Liu. To ensure the safety and efficacy of Shi-Liang tea, we used DNA barcoding based on the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2 of nuclear ribosomal DNA to distinguish the original plant sources of Shi-Liang tea from closely related species. All 71 ITS2 sequences were aligned by Clustal-W, and genetic distances were computed using MEGA 6.0 according to the Kimura 2-parameter model. The results indicated that the sequence lengths of ITS2 regions of the original plants of Shi-Liang tea and closely related species ranged from 256 bp to 260 bp. Interspecific genetic distances ranged from 0 to 0.078. The neighbor-joining (NJ tree showed that the original plants of Shi-Liang tea species can be easily differentiated from closely related species. Distinct molecular differences were found between the secondary structures of ITS2 sequences from Shi-Liang tea and closely related species. The results in the present investigation suggested that the ITS2 could be an effective DNA marker to identify the original plants of Shi-Liang tea and their closely related species. These DNA barcodes can greatly benefit the supervision of the commercial circulation of She medicine.

  11. Sharing a bowl of tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, S

    1993-06-01

    Soshitsu Sen's keynote speech before a symposium on population and the environment is summarized unofficially by the editorial staff. The instability of human thinking is given as the cause for the present destruction of the environment. In a visit to the His Majesty King of Sweden, Sen remarked that stabilizing human minds can be achieved within the tea ceremony through "serving tea heartily, receiving it with gratitude, and offering it to another." In this way, the spirit of concern for others can be practiced in everyday life and tranquility of mind reached. News broadcasts of starving parents and children as victims of civil war are disheartening. The Japanese people are not suffering such hunger, even though the economy has not been as robust as desired. The analogy is provided in the story by Chuang Chou about King Hun Dun and King Xiu and man's good intentions, which nonetheless destroy the earth. Japan has experienced forest and environmental destruction on the road to economic prosperity and satisfaction of self-interests. The advice on living in accord with nature is to appreciate each season for its own changes. For example, when it is the winter season, the complaint is about the cold and the desire is for spring; but when spring comes, the desire is for the cooler weather of fall. the ordinary way is to appreciate all seasons and is the best way of sustaining a healthy environment. In the garden of the tea hut, humans enter without their worldly title, position, and means; at the water basin, hands and mouth are cleansed, and entrance is made through a small hole into the hut much the same as emerging from the womb. Worldly matters are dispensed with and purity of thought is shared in the sharing of the bowl of green tea, saying "after you" to one another. Christianity and the Way of Tea share the same symbols of purification. The black tea bowl is in harmony with the green tea. Fatigue is relieved when gazing upon the color green; examples are given

  12. Green Tea and Other Tea Polyphenols: Effects on Sebum Production and Acne Vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Saric

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenols are antioxidant molecules found in many foods including nuts, fruits, vegetables, chocolate, wine, and tea. Polyphenols have antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antineoplastic properties. Recent studies suggest that tea polyphenols may be used for reducing sebum production in the skin and for treatment of acne vulgaris. This review examines the evidence for use of topically and orally ingested tea polyphenols against sebum production and for acne treatment and prevention. The PubMed database was searched for studies on tea polyphenols, sebum secretion, and acne vulgaris. Of the 59 studies found, eight met the inclusion criteria. Two studies evaluated tea polyphenol effects on sebum production; six studies examined tea polyphenol effects on acne vulgaris. Seven studies evaluated topical tea polyphenols; one study examined systemic tea polyphenols. None of the studies evaluated both topical and systemic tea polyphenols. Tea polyphenol sources included green tea (six studies and tea, type not specified (two studies. Overall, there is some evidence that tea polyphenols in topical formulation may be beneficial in reducing sebum secretion and in treatment of acne. Research studies of high quality and with large sample sizes are needed to assess the efficacy of tea polyphenols in topical and oral prevention of acne vulgaris and lipid synthesis by the sebaceous glands.

  13. Green Tea and Other Tea Polyphenols: Effects on Sebum Production and Acne Vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saric, Suzana; Notay, Manisha; Sivamani, Raja K

    2016-12-29

    Polyphenols are antioxidant molecules found in many foods including nuts, fruits, vegetables, chocolate, wine, and tea. Polyphenols have antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antineoplastic properties. Recent studies suggest that tea polyphenols may be used for reducing sebum production in the skin and for treatment of acne vulgaris. This review examines the evidence for use of topically and orally ingested tea polyphenols against sebum production and for acne treatment and prevention. The PubMed database was searched for studies on tea polyphenols, sebum secretion, and acne vulgaris. Of the 59 studies found, eight met the inclusion criteria. Two studies evaluated tea polyphenol effects on sebum production; six studies examined tea polyphenol effects on acne vulgaris. Seven studies evaluated topical tea polyphenols; one study examined systemic tea polyphenols. None of the studies evaluated both topical and systemic tea polyphenols. Tea polyphenol sources included green tea (six studies) and tea, type not specified (two studies). Overall, there is some evidence that tea polyphenols in topical formulation may be beneficial in reducing sebum secretion and in treatment of acne. Research studies of high quality and with large sample sizes are needed to assess the efficacy of tea polyphenols in topical and oral prevention of acne vulgaris and lipid synthesis by the sebaceous glands.

  14. Talking Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolman, Marvin

    2005-01-01

    Students love outdoor activities and will love them even more when they build confidence in their tree identification and measurement skills. Through these activities, students will learn to identify the major characteristics of trees and discover how the pace--a nonstandard measuring unit--can be used to estimate not only distances but also the…

  15. 互叶白千层幼苗光合日进程%Diurnal Change of Photosynthesis in Melaleuca alternifolia Seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫昭展; 梁海清

    2009-01-01

    [目的] 为改进互叶白千层栽培技术,提高其产量和质量提供理论依据.[方法] 随机选取5株互叶白千层扦插苗上的健康功能叶片作为测定对象,用TPS-1便携式光合测定系统同步测定其净光合速率等指标.[结果] 10:00左右,互叶白千层的净光合速率出现第1个峰值44.00 μmol/(m2 ·s),初步确定其光饱和点为1 900.00 μmol/(m2 ·s)左右.14:00,光合有效辐射达最高值2 000.00 μmol/(m2 ·s).16:00左右,互叶白千层的净光合速率出现第2个峰值4.05 μmol/(m2 ·s).16:00,空气CO2浓度降至最低值.11:00,叶片气孔导度达峰值800.00 mmol/(m2 ·s).12:00,蒸腾速率达峰值.8:00,水分利用率最高.[结论] 互叶白千层的光合日变化呈双峰型,其净光合速率日变化与空气CO2浓度呈显著负相关,与光合有效辐射呈极显著正相关,与胞间CO2浓度呈显著负相关.%[Objective] The research aimed to provide theoretical basis for improving the cultivation technology of Melaleuca alternifolia and enhancing its yield and quality. [Method] The healthy functional leaves on the 5 cutting seedlings of M. Alternifolia were randomly selected as measuring objects and their indexes such as net photosynthetic rate were measured synchronously by TPS-1 portable photosynthesis measurement system. [Result] At about 10:00, the net photosynthetic rate of M. Alternifolia showed its first peak value of 44.00 μmol/(m2 ·s), its light saturation point was ascertained to be about 1 900.00 μmol/(m2 ·s) preliminarily. At 14:00, the photosynthetically active radiation reached its maximum of 2 000.00 μmol/(m2 ·s). At about 16:00, the net photosynthetic rate of M. Alternifolia showed its second peak value of 4.05 μmol/(m2 ·s). At 16:00, the carbon dioxide concn. In air decreased to its lowest value. At 11:00, the leaf stomatal conductance reached its peak value of 800.00 mmol/(m2 ·s). At 12:00, the transpiration rate reached its peak value. At 8:00, the water

  16. Analysis of Naturally Occurring Fluoride in Commercial Teas and Estimation of Its Daily Intake through Tea Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chuan-yi; Cai, Hui-mei; Zhu, Xiao-hui; Li, Da-xiang; Yang, Yun-qiu; Hou, Ru-yan; Wan, Xiao-chun

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the levels of fluoride in commercial teas and to estimate the contribution of tea consumption to the fluoride recommended daily allowance. A total of 558 tea products in 6 categories, green tea, black tea, oolong tea, pu'er tea, white tea, and reprocessed tea, were collected in the period from 2010 to 2013. The levels of fluoride in infusions of these teas were determined by a fluoride-ion selective electrode. The mean fluoride level in all of the tea samples was 85.16 mg/kg. For each category of tea, the mean fluoride levels were 63.04, 99.74, 52.19, 101.67, 159.78, and 110.54 mg/kg for green tea, black tea, white tea, pu'er tea, oolong tea, and reprocessed tea, respectively. The fluoride content of tea from 4 tea zones in descending order were Southern tea zone (111.39 mg/kg) > Southwest tea zone (78.78 mg/kg) > Jiangnan tea zone (71.73 mg/kg) > Jiangbei tea zone (64.63 mg/kg). These areas produced teas with lower fluoride levels than available foreign-produced tea (161.11 mg/kg). The mean chronic daily intake (CDI) was 0.02 mg/(kg•day) or 1.27 mg/kg. Generally, consuming tea from these 6 categories does not result in the intake of excessive amounts of fluoride for the general population.

  17. Production, Composition, and Health Effects of Oolong Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlkay Koca

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Tea, one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world, is produced from the leaves of the plant Camellia sinensis L.. Tea has important physiological properties and potential health benefits due to the presence of compounds such as polyphenols, amino acids, vitamins, carbohydrates, caffeine, and purine alkaloids. Tea is produced in three types as green tea (unfermented, oolong tea (partially fermented, and black tea (fully fermented. Black tea is consumed worldwide, whereas green and oolong teas are consumed mainly in Asia and North Africa. The total tea production in the world consists of about 78% black tea, 20% green tea and <2% oolong tea. In the production of green tea, the fresh leaves are steamed or roasted to avoid enzymatic oxidation. Black tea is fully oxidized during fermentation. Oolong tea is partially fermented to permit a moderate level of enzymatic oxidation during processing. The degree of fermentation of oolong tea leaves ranges from 20 to 60%, depending upon consumer demand. Oolong tea has a taste and color somewhere between green and black tea. Green tea contains 30-42% catechins in dry mass, while black tea contains 3-10% and oolong 8-20%. Oolong tea has a higher antioxidant activity and lipoxygenase inhibitory activity as compared to black tea. Oolong tea exhibits a stronger antimutagenic activity than green or black tea. Oolong tea is reported to have anticancer, antiobesity, antidiabetes, antiallergic effects, and prevent atherosclerosis and heart disease. In this review, the production, composition and health effects of oolong tea have been discussed.

  18. Phylogenetic trees

    OpenAIRE

    Baños, Hector; Bushek, Nathaniel; Davidson, Ruth; Gross, Elizabeth; Harris, Pamela E.; Krone, Robert; Long, Colby; Stewart, Allen; WALKER, Robert

    2016-01-01

    We introduce the package PhylogeneticTrees for Macaulay2 which allows users to compute phylogenetic invariants for group-based tree models. We provide some background information on phylogenetic algebraic geometry and show how the package PhylogeneticTrees can be used to calculate a generating set for a phylogenetic ideal as well as a lower bound for its dimension. Finally, we show how methods within the package can be used to compute a generating set for the join of any two ideals.

  19. Bioconversion of wastewater from sweet potato starch production to Paenibacillus polymyxa biofertilizer for tea plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shengjun; Bai, Zhihui; Jin, Bo; Xiao, Runlin; Zhuang, Guoqiang

    2014-01-01

    Wastewater from the sweet potato starch industry is a large source of nutrient-rich substrates. We assessed whether this wastewater could be used to produce Paenibacillus polymyxa biofertilizer for foliar application to tea trees. Using the central composite design methods we experientially determined that the optimal culture conditions for P. polymyxa were pH, 6.5; temperature, 29.0 °C; and incubation time, 16 h. Under these conditions, a maximum biomass of 9.7 × 10(9) cfu/mL was achieved. We then conducted a yearlong field investigation to determine the effect of P. polymyxa biofertilizer on the growth of tea plants (Camellia sinensis). Tea yield, quantity of water extract, and tea polyphenol levels were significantly higher after foliar application of the biofertilizer compared to that in the controls by an average of 16.7%, 6.3%, and 10.4%, respectively. This approach appears to be technically feasible for organic tea production, and is an environmentally friendly way to utilize wastewater.

  20. Tea and cancer prevention: epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jian-Min; Sun, Canlan; Butler, Lesley M

    2011-08-01

    Experimental studies have consistently shown the inhibitory activities of tea extracts on tumorigenesis in multiple model systems. Epidemiological studies, however, have produced inconclusive results in humans. A comprehensive review was conducted to assess the current knowledge on tea consumption and risk of cancers in humans. In general, consumption of black tea was not associated with lower risk of cancer. High intake of green tea was consistently associated with reduced risk of upper gastrointestinal tract cancers after sufficient control for confounders. Limited data support a protective effect of green tea on lung and hepatocellular carcinogenesis. Although observational studies do not support a beneficial role of tea intake on prostate cancer risk, phase II clinical trials have demonstrated an inhibitory effect of green tea extract against the progression of prostate pre-malignant lesions. Green tea may exert beneficial effects against mammary carcinogenesis in premenopausal women and recurrence of breast cancer. There is no sufficient evidence that supports a protective role of tea intake on the development of cancers of the colorectum, pancreas, urinary tract, glioma, lymphoma, and leukemia. Future prospective observational studies with biomarkers of exposure and phase III clinical trials are required to provide definitive evidence for the hypothesized beneficial effect of tea consumption on cancer formation in humans.

  1. Game tree algorithms and solution trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.H.L.M. Pijls (Wim); A. de Bruin (Arie)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper, a theory of game tree algorithms is presented, entirely based upon the concept of solution tree. Two types of solution trees are distinguished: max and min trees. Every game tree algorithm tries to prune nodes as many as possible from the game tree. A cut-off criterion in

  2. Electron Tree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelt, Ane L; Rønde, Heidi S

    2013-01-01

    The photo shows a close-up of a Lichtenberg figure – popularly called an “electron tree” – produced in a cylinder of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). Electron trees are created by irradiating a suitable insulating material, in this case PMMA, with an intense high energy electron beam. Upon discharge......, during dielectric breakdown in the material, the electrons generate branching chains of fractures on leaving the PMMA, producing the tree pattern seen. To be able to create electron trees with a clinical linear accelerator, one needs to access the primary electron beam used for photon treatments. We...... appropriated a linac that was being decommissioned in our department and dismantled the head to circumvent the target and ion chambers. This is one of 24 electron trees produced before we had to stop the fun and allow the rest of the accelerator to be disassembled....

  3. A traditional method of Cinnamomum carolinense preparation eliminates safrole from a therapeutic Pohnpean tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynertson, Kurt A; Balick, Michael J; Lee, Roberta; Raynor, William; Pelep, Yosio; Kennelly, Edward J

    2005-11-14

    Cinnamomum carolinense, locally known as madeu, is a tree endemic to the volcanic mountains of the Island of Pohnpei in the Eastern Carolines of the South Pacific. The bark is harvested from trees and brewed to make a medicinal tea and hot beverage that is regularly consumed. Many species of Cinnamomum contain the known hepatocarcinogen safrole, sparking concern regarding habitual consumption of this beverage. HPLC-PDA analysis confirmed the presence of the carcinogen in alcoholic extracts of Cinnamomum carolinense bark shavings (0.435%, w/w), but safrole was not detected in the tea. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation of safrole were determined to be 1.25 and 3.75 microg/mL, respectively. The traditional preparation method, which boils the bark shavings, degrades the safrole.

  4. Study on the Characteristics of Competition in Sichuan Tea Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guoxian; YANG; Xiumin; WU; Junzan; WU

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, there is huge potential in the domestic sales and export of tea in China. However, the tea leaf products are less competitive in the international market because of the lack of brand. Sichuan Province as a province with large amount of tea leaves, characteristics of tea leaf industry in Sichuan Province were analyzed from three aspects, namely fundamental industrial characteristics, the competition strategy of a company and main competition measures. The tea industry in Sichuan Province was featured by its large amount of companies and low industrial concentration. The competition among tea companies often uses the strategy of different brands and low cost. The major way to compete was to build tea brand and to publicize the tea culture. Organic green tea was the main issue. Electronic business platform was applied. Study on the competition characteristics of tea industry in Sichuan can improve the regional competitiveness of tea industry and can make contribution to the entire tea industry in China.

  5. Determination of Phenolic and Antioxidant Properties in Tea and Spent Tea Under Various Extraction Method and Determination of Catechins, Caffeine and Gallic Acid by HPLC

    OpenAIRE

    Nurul Nadiah binti Ismail; Uthumporn Utra @ Sapina Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) contain high phenolic compounds and antioxidant elements, while spent teas originating as the main byproduct of beverage tea manufacturestill contain some level of antioxidant elements. The purpose of the present study is to compare the effect of different extraction condition and to determine the chemical compound present in black tea (BT), oolong tea (OT), green tea (GT), spent black tea (SBT), spent oolong tea (SOT) and spent green tea (SGT). Theextraction experi...

  6. Determination of flavonol glycosides in green tea, oolong tea and black tea by UHPLC compared to HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Heyuan; Engelhardt, Ulrich H; Thräne, Claudia; Maiwald, Beate; Stark, Janina

    2015-09-15

    An UHPLC method for the determination of flavonol glycosides (FOG) from green and oolong tea vs. black tea has been developed for the first time. Sample clean-up method by means of polyamide column chromatography was optimized with multiple-step elution. Using UHPLC and HPLC with gradient elution and photodiode array detection, eighteen FOG compounds were determined with the aid of electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. These FOG compounds were qualified on both UHPLC and HPLC, and this UHPLC method successfully separated rutin (quercetin-3-O-rutinoside) and K-grg (kaempferol-3-O-glucorhamnoglucoside) while conventional HPLC method did not. The total amounts of FOG compounds in the tea samples were 2.32-5.67g/kg dry weight (calculated as aglycones), and there is no significant difference for the total FOG content among green tea, oolong tea and black tea. However, kaempferol glycosides are more abundant in green teas, while oolong tea has more quercetin and myricetin glycosides. In black tea quercetin glycosides were most abundant.

  7. Discussion on the Sustainable Development of Pu'er Tea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAO Wan-fang; JIANG Xin-feng

    2011-01-01

    The current situation of Pu'er tea in Yunnan was analyzed. The analysis result showed that the production output of Yunnan tea and the tea plantation area increased greatly when compared with the whole country, but the increase of Pu'er tea inclined to be stable. The restraining factors of Pu'er tea development were explored, and the corresponding countermeasures were put forward. It provided the basis for the sustainable development of Yunnan Pu'er tea.

  8. Oligomerization and hydroxylation of green tea catechins by oxidative enzymes

    OpenAIRE

    Verloop, J.W.

    2016-01-01

    Black teas are known for their characteristic brown colour, bitter taste and astringent mouth feel. These sensory characteristics are mainly influenced by the phenolic oxidation products present in black tea. The oxidation of phenolics from green tea leaves during black tea manufacturing is an uncontrolled process. With the objective to make tea oxidation a more controlled process, the aim of this thesis was to understand the enzymatic oxidation reactions occurring during tea oxidation, and t...

  9. Economics of Tea Production in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bushra Rehman

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Tea is one of the most important non-alcoholic beverage drinks worldwide and has been gaining further popularity as an important „health drink‟ in view of its purported medicinal value. Pakistan has the potential of producing quality tea. National Tea Research Institute NTRI plays a very important role in the production and promotion of tea cultivation in Pakistan. The study was conducted to identify the opportunities and constraints in Shinkiari Mansehra. Primary data was collected from NTRI and different farmers of Shinkiari and evaluate the farmer‟s perceptions production processing and marketing of tea. Results revealed that NTRI processing unit was working at below its full capacity and 226.59 Rs/Kg extra costs bearing due to below capacity. Tea is a high value crop of gross margin of 21340 Rs/ Acre and annually earned gross margin from other Crops wheat and maize was 6675Rs/Acre and Tea Cultivation Advantage was 14665 Rs/Acre but farmers was not interested to cultivate due to its high initial investment. Internal Rate of Return (IRR and Net Present Value (NPV were calculated for investment appraisal of the tea. Hence, there is need to promote tea cultivation on grass land area which will increase their income and livelihood and create more employment opportunities for local people.

  10. Evaluation of Aluminum in Iranian Consumed Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Asgari

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Black tea leaf is one of the most important sources of Aluminum in dietary. Therefore this research was conducted to assess the amount of Aluminum in Iranian tea infusion. Methods: To assess Aluminum in Iranian consumed tea, 27 tea samples were analyzed for Al concentration for 10 and 60 min infusion, aluminum concentration was measured with atomic absorption and the results were analyzed by SPSS.13 version. Results: The results showed that minimum and maximum concentration of Al in tea infusion for 10 min infusion was 1.59 and 18.60 mg.L-1 respectively in this regard Baroti and Bamdad tea show the highest and lowest concentration respectively in term of Al, Also Statistical analysis with pair T-test showed that infusion time doesn,t significantly effects on aluminum leaching into infusion (P>0.05. Calculation of percentage "available" Al to the human system showed that 1 L of tea can provide 17.68 % of the daily dietary intake of Al, the percentage "available" for absorption in the intestine is only 8.49 % for overall mean Al concentration. Conclusion: Therefore based on our results, tea consumption in medium values cannot cause toxic effects on human. Although it is necessary to note that tea consumption might be toxic because of effects on people with absorption or secretion problems

  11. The Treatment Effectiveness Assessment (TEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling W

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Walter Ling,1 David Farabee,1 Dagmar Liepa,2 Li-Tzy Wu3 1Integrated Substance Abuse Programs, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, 2Valley Care Medical Center, Panorama City, CA, 3Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, School of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA We have been surprised and gratified by the readers’ responses to our article, The Treatment Effectiveness Assessment (TEA: an efficient, patient-centered instrument for evaluating progress in recovery from addiction, which was published in December 2012.1 In the six months since that time, we have received numerous questions and observations about the article, and about the TEA instrument. Respondents were clinicians: physicians, counselors, therapists, nurses; as well as administrators and policy makers.  View original paper by Ling W, Farabee D, Liepa D, Wu LT. 

  12. Risk Analysis for Tea Processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ Itis lbviors that after all the disasters with dilxins, BSE, pathogcns,Footand Mouth disease a. o. and now shortly because of the possibillties of bioterrorism, thatFoodSafetyisalmostatthetopoftheagendaoftheEUfor theyearstocome The implementaion of certainhy gicneprinci plessuchas HA C C P and a transparent hygiene policy applicable to all food and all food operators, from the farm to the table, togetherwith effoctiveinstruments to manage Food Safety will form fsubstantialpart on this agenda. As an example external quality factors such as certain pathogens in tea will. be discussed. Since risk analysis of e. g. my cotoxing have already a quite long histoy and development in sereral international bodies and tea might bear unwanted (or deliberately added by terroristic action)contaminants, the need to monitor teamuch more regularly than is being done today, seems to be a"conditio sine qua non ". Recentoy developed Immuno Flow tests may one day help the consumer perhaps to find out if he gets poisoned.

  13. Bewitched - The Tea Party Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashbee, Edward

    2011-01-01

    This article considers the development of the Tea Party movement, the character of its thinking and the nature of the interests and constituencies to which it is tied. The article suggests that despite the importance of ideas and interests, and the process of interaction between them, the movement...... has also been shaped and energised by institutional arrangements. In particular, it argues that there are significant numbers of independent or ‘detached’ conservatives and that the institutional architecture draws them towards political engagement but at the same time imposes constraints....... The political friction that this creates has contributed to the anger that has characterised the movement. While the Tea Party movement may, as such, have only an ephemeral existence, independent conservatives are likely to remain a significant and potent constituency and will, within the institutional...

  14. Interpreting Tree Ensembles with inTrees

    OpenAIRE

    Deng, Houtao

    2014-01-01

    Tree ensembles such as random forests and boosted trees are accurate but difficult to understand, debug and deploy. In this work, we provide the inTrees (interpretable trees) framework that extracts, measures, prunes and selects rules from a tree ensemble, and calculates frequent variable interactions. An rule-based learner, referred to as the simplified tree ensemble learner (STEL), can also be formed and used for future prediction. The inTrees framework can applied to both classification an...

  15. Determination of catechins and flavonol glycosides in Chinese tea varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chunyan; Xu, Hairong; Héritier, Julien; Andlauer, Wilfried

    2012-05-01

    A standardised profiling method based on high performance liquid chromatography combined with ultraviolet (UV) and mass spectrometric detection (MS) was established to analyse the phenolic compounds of selected tea varieties used for manufacturing of green, black and oolong teas. The composition and content of 24 tea constituents were analysed, including catechins, flavonol and flavones glycosides, phenolic acids and purine alkaloids. Each tea variety had a unique chemical profile. The compositions of catechins were lower in the tea varieties for green tea manufacturing, while the content of myricetin glycosides was the lowest in the tea variety for oolong tea manufacturing. The content of individual phenolic compounds in the selected tea varieties is highly variable. However, the content of total catechins is proposed to be helpful to classify tea according to the future application as non fermented green and fermented oolong or black tea.

  16. Antimicrobial effect against different bacterial strains and bacterial adaptation to essential oils used as feed additives

    OpenAIRE

    Melo, Antonio Diego Brandão; Amaral, Amanda Figueiredo; Schaefer, Gustavo; Luciano, Fernando Bittencourt; Andrade,Carla de; Costa, Leandro Batista; Rostagno, Marcos Horácio

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity and determine the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the essential oils derived from Origanum vulgare (oregano), Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree), Cinnamomum cassia (cassia), and Thymus vulgaris (white thyme) against Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis. The study also investigated the ability of these different bacterial strains to develop ad...

  17. Evaluation of the attractive effect of coloured sticky traps for Aleurocanthus spiniferus (Quaintance and its monitoring method in tea garden in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aleurocanthus spiniferus (Quaintance, namely tea spiny whitefly (TSW, belongs to the family Aleyrodidae in the order Homoptera, widespread in tea trees and fruit trees in many countries or regions. In this study, the preference of TSW for different colours was evaluated in tea gardens. Yellow was the colour most preferred by TSW, followed by pink, red, white and other colours. The controlling technologies about the number of sticky traps in a certain area of tea garden and the height of sticky traps above tea canopy were also evaluated, the results indicated that the attractive effect of 20 traps/667 m2 of trials area and the height of 10 cm above tea canopy were significantly higher than others treatments. In addition, more TSW was caught at 11:00-15:00, followed by 7:00-11:00, and 15:00-19:00 in a daytime; higher activity level of male adults was at 7:00-11:00 and 11:00-15:00 in day time (95.13% and 94.97% of caught TSW, indicating a higher activity level for male adult.

  18. Aspen Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canfield, Elaine

    2002-01-01

    Describes a fifth-grade art activity that offers a new approach to creating pictures of Aspen trees. Explains that the students learned about art concepts, such as line and balance, in this lesson. Discusses the process in detail for creating the pictures. (CMK)

  19. Extraction and isolation of catechins from tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuong, Quan V; Golding, John B; Nguyen, Minh; Roach, Paul D

    2010-11-01

    Tea is a major source of catechins, which have become well known for their antioxidant potential. Numerous human, animal, and in vitro studies have linked tea catechins with prevention of certain types of cancers, reduction of the risks for obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, and improvement of the immune system. Tea catechins are widely used in various neutraceuticals, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics for either enhancing product shelf-life or for enhancing human health. Thus, the demand for catechins has increased considerably. Catechins have been extracted and isolated from tea leaves by numerous methods through several steps including: treatment of the tea leaves, extraction of catechins from teas into solvents, isolation of catechins from other extracted components, and drying the preparations to obtain catechin extracts in a powder form. This paper outlines the physical and chemical properties of the tea catechins and reviews the extraction steps of the various extraction methods, as a basis to improve and further develop the extraction and isolation of the tea catechins.

  20. Green tea and type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Hyung Park

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Green tea and coffee consumption have been widely popular worldwide. These beverages contain caffeine to activate the central nervous system by adenosine receptor blockade, and due to the caffeine, addiction or tolerance may occur. In addition to this caffeine effect, green tea and coffee consumption have always been at the center of discussions about human health, disease, and longevity. In particular, green tea catechins are involved in many biological activities such as antioxidation and modulation of various cellular lipid and proteins. Thus, they are beneficial against degenerative diseases, including obesity, cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and various inflammatory diseases. Some reports also suggest that daily consumption of tea catechins may help in controlling type 2 diabetes. However, other studies have reported that chronic consumption of green tea may result in hepatic failure, neuronal damage, and exacerbation of diabetes, suggesting that interindividual variations in the green tea effect are large. This review will focus on the effect of green tea catechins extracted from the Camellia sinensis plant on type 2 diabetes and obesity, and the possible mechanistic explanation for the experimental results mainly from our laboratory. It is hoped that green tea can be consumed in a suitable manner as a supplement to prevent the development of type 2 diabetes and obesity.

  1. Foreign Friends Join Spring Tea Picking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong; You

    2013-01-01

    <正>Foreign Friends Picking Spring Tea, one of the activities of the Fourth China Tea Festival, was held in Pujiang County, Sichuan Province on March 17. Pang Te Cheng, Singaporean Consul General in Chengdu, Komate Kamalanavin, Thai Consul General in Chengdu, and Claudia Spahl, German

  2. The Chinese Puzzle of Low Profit Tea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUOYUANJUN

    2004-01-01

    There are too many tea varieties, factories, and styles of packaging and too few registered trademarks and known domestic and international brands. No brand name means no market, let alone reputation or consumer loyalty. Beneath the superficially prosperous Chinese tea industry there lurks a nagging insecurity over its dearth of brand names.

  3. Chemoprevention of lung cancer by tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Julie; You, Ming

    2006-02-01

    Tea is the second only to water as the most consumed beverage in the world. Both green and black teas have been studied for their health benefits for a variety of diseases, particularly cancer. Lung cancer is the predominant cause of cancer mortality in developed countries. Smokers' risk of lung cancer is 20 times that of persons who have never smoked. Epidemiological studies on the cancer-preventive effects of tea produce inconsistent results, which could in part be attributed to the lack of a universal standard for tea preparations. However, most animal studies indicate that tea has strong chemopreventive effects against lung tumorigenesis. The reported mechanisms for chemopreventive activity of green tea are antioxidation, induction of phase II enzymes, inhibition of TNFalpha expression and release, inhibition of cell proliferation, and induction of apoptosis. Cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induced by green tea are probably the two most significant factors. Future studies are needed to determine how green tea affects the genes associated with cell cycle regulation and apoptosis during the mouse lung carcinogenesis process.

  4. Mosquitocidal essential oils: are they safe against non-target aquatic organisms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Barbara; Flamini, Guido; Cioni, Pier Luigi; Ceccarini, Lucia; Macchia, Mario; Benelli, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    In latest years, the importance of the Melaleuca alternifolia essential oil (EO) has been greatly empathised due to its anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory effects, as well as to its toxic properties towards many arthropods of great medical and veterinary importance. In this research, the EO extracted from aerial parts of M. alternifolia was evaluated for its toxicity against larvae of the most invasive mosquito worldwide, Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae), and towards adults of the water flea, Daphnia magna (Cladocera: Crustacea), a non-target aquatic organism that share the same ecological niche of A. albopictus. The chemical composition of M. alternifolia EO was investigated by GC-MS analysis. Tea tree EO was mainly composed by oxygenated monoterpenes, with 1,8-cineole as the major constituent. M. alternifolia EO exerted toxic activity against A. albopictus larvae, with a LC50 = 267.130 ppm. However, this EO had a remarkable acute toxicity also towards adults of the non-target arthropod D. magna, with a LC50 = 80.636 ppm. This research provide useful information for the development of newer and safer mosquito control tools, highlighting that the non-target effects against aquatic organisms that share the same ecological niche of A. albopictus larvae are crucial in the development of ecofriendly mosquito control strategies. Further research is needed to investigate the chronic and/or reproductive toxicity of M. alternifolia EO both towards target and non-target aquatic arthropods.

  5. Oligomerization and hydroxylation of green tea catechins by oxidative enzymes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verloop, J.W.

    2016-01-01

    Black teas are known for their characteristic brown colour, bitter taste and astringent mouth feel. These sensory characteristics are mainly influenced by the phenolic oxidation products present in black tea. The oxidation of phenolics from green tea leaves during black tea manufacturing is an uncon

  6. Health potential for functional green teas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, Niels

    2008-12-01

    Obesity is a major health problem in the developed and developing world. Many "functional" foods and ingredients are advocated for their effects on body composition but few have consistent scientific support for their efficacy. However, an increasing amount of mechanistic and clinical evidence is building for green tea. The tea plant is naturally rich in a group of antioxidants known as catechins. Unlike black tea, green tea production involves little processing and fermentation and therefore, green tea brews are rich in catechins. Green tea has been suggested to have a number of potential health benefits in areas such as cardiovascular disease, cancer prevention, glucose homeostasis and dental health. Although there is some promising evidence in all of these areas, more data from human intervention trials are needed. A lot of attention has lately been focused on the beneficial effects of green tea on body composition and particularly visceral fat, which has been shown to have a strong link with different components of the metabolic syndrome such as cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Most, but not all, of the positive results come from a number Asian studies, in which overweight subjects (men and women) consumed green tea for approximately 12 weeks. Finally, green tea may also have measurable acute effects on energy metabolism and fat oxidation and in particular during physical activity, as evidenced by other studies specifically looking at these endpoints. Small cumulative effects on energy metabolism could also be responsible for the longer-tem effects of green tea on body composition, and these long-term effects may also be most apparent in the context of moderate physical activity. However, more research is needed to further clarify the exact mechanisms of action and to extrapolate these findings to non-Asian populations.

  7. Inhibition of lung tumorigenesis by tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chung S; Liao, Jie; Yang, Guang-yu; Lu, Gary

    2005-01-01

    Tea and tea constituents have been shown by different investigators to inhibit lung tumorigenesis in different animal model systems. This includes lung tumorigenesis in A/J mice induced by 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), N-nitrosodiethylamine, benzo[a]pyrene, N-nitrosomethylurea, or cisplatin. Inhibition of lung tumorigenesis has also been demonstrated in C3H mice treated with N-nitrosodiethylamine. In most of these experiments, reduction in tumor number and tumor size has been observed in the tea-treated group, and in some experiments, decreased tumor incidence has also been observed. The green tea constituent, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), and the black tea constituent, theaflavins, have also been shown to be effective. Black tea preparations have been shown to reduce the incidence and number of spontaneously generated lung adenocarcinomas and rhabdomyosarcoma in A/J mice, as well as inhibit the progression of lung adenoma to adenocarcinoma. The mechanisms for the inhibitory action have not been well elucidated. It may be related to the antiproliferative, proapoptotic, and antiangiogenic activities of tea constituents that have been demonstrated in some experiments. These activities may be a result of the inhibition of key protein kinases involved in signal transduction and cell cycle regulation. Tea catechins, such as EGCG, have been suggested to be the effective components. However, a study suggests that caffeine is the key effective constituent for the inhibitory activity of lung tumorigenesis in Fisher 344 rats by black tea. In many of the experiments, tea consumption resulted in the reduction of body fat and body weight; these factors may also contribute to the inhibition of tumorigenesis.

  8. Unimodular trees versus Einstein trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, Enrique; González-Martín, Sergio; Martín, Carmelo P.

    2016-10-01

    The maximally helicity violating tree-level scattering amplitudes involving three, four or five gravitons are worked out in Unimodular Gravity. They are found to coincide with the corresponding amplitudes in General Relativity. This a remarkable result, insofar as both the propagators and the vertices are quite different in the two theories.

  9. Unimodular Trees versus Einstein Trees

    CERN Document Server

    Alvarez, Enrique; Martin, Carmelo P

    2016-01-01

    The maximally helicity violating (MHV) tree level scattering amplitudes involving three, four or five gravitons are worked out in Unimodular Gravity. They are found to coincide with the corresponding amplitudes in General Relativity. This a remarkable result, insofar as both the propagators and the vertices are quite different in both theories.

  10. Unimodular trees versus Einstein trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, Enrique; Gonzalez-Martin, Sergio [Universidad Autonoma, Instituto de Fisica Teorica, IFT-UAM/CSIC, Madrid (Spain); Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Madrid (Spain); Martin, Carmelo P. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM), Departamento de Fisica Teorica I Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas, Madrid (Spain)

    2016-10-15

    The maximally helicity violating tree-level scattering amplitudes involving three, four or five gravitons are worked out in Unimodular Gravity. They are found to coincide with the corresponding amplitudes in General Relativity. This a remarkable result, insofar as both the propagators and the vertices are quite different in the two theories. (orig.)

  11. Green tea, black tea consumption and risk of lung cancer: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Naping; Wu, Yuemin; Zhou, Bo; Wang, Bin; Yu, Rongbin

    2009-09-01

    Studies investigating the association of green tea and black tea consumption with lung cancer risk have reported inconsistent findings. To provide a quantitative assessment of this association, we conducted a meta-analysis on the topic. Studies were identified by a literature search in PubMed from 1966 to November 2008 and by searching the reference lists of relevant studies. Summary relative risk (RR) estimates and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated based on random-effects model. Our meta-analysis included 22 studies provided data on consumption of green tea or black tea, or both related to lung cancer risk. For green tea, the summary RR indicated a borderline significant association between highest green tea consumption and reduced risk of lung cancer (RR=0.78, 95% CI=0.61-1.00). Furthermore, an increase in green tea consumption of two cups/day was associated with an 18% decreased risk of developing lung cancer (RR=0.82, 95% CI=0.71-0.96). For black tea, no statistically significant association was observe through the meta-analysis (highest versus non/lowest, RR=0.86, 95% CI=0.70-1.05; an increment of two cups/day, RR=0.82, 95% CI=0.65-1.03). In conclusion, our data suggest that high or an increase in consumption of green tea but not black tea may be related to the reduction of lung cancer risk.

  12. Determination of phthalate esters in teas and tea infusions by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Liping; Ma, Lijuan; Qiao, Yang; Lu, Yan; Xiao, Dongguang

    2016-04-15

    Phthalate esters (PAEs), a group of environmental pollutants which are carcinogenic to human body, have been detected in teas. In this work, five PAEs in teas and tea infusions were quantitatively determined by a modified simultaneous distillation extraction (SDE) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. After the optimization of SDE, the proposed method afforded a wide range of linearity and high linear regression coefficients with the limits of detection range of 0.24-3.72 μg/kg. The average recoveries were 79.83-116.67% for tea samples and 78.22-101.64% for tea infusions with all the relative standard deviations below 20%. The total content of five PAEs in teas was 1.135-3.734 mg/kg and the total dissolving ratio of five PAEs from tea to infusion was 19.05-28.07% for the selected tea samples. The risk assessment result of all the selected tea samples demonstrated that the population with the habit of drinking tea won't cause risk to human health.

  13. Volatile compounds and sensory characteristics of various instant teas produced from black tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraujalytė, Vilma; Pelvan, Ebru; Alasalvar, Cesarettin

    2016-03-01

    Various instant teas produced differently from black tea [freeze-dried instant tea (FDIT), spray-dried instant tea (SDIT), and decaffeinated instant tea (DCIT)], were compared for their differences in volatile compounds as well as descriptive sensory analysis (DSA). A total of 63 volatile compounds in all tea samples (eight aldehydes, ten alcohols, nine ketones, five esters, eight acids, ten terpenes/terpenoids, ten furans/furanones, two pyrroles, and one miscellaneous compound) were tentatively identified. Black tea, FDIT, SDIT, and DCIT contained 60, 55, 47, and 40 volatile compounds, respectively. Ten flavour attributes such as after taste, astringency, bitter, caramel-like, floral/sweet, green/grassy, hay-like, malty, roasty, and seaweed were identified. Intensities for a number of flavour attributes (except for caramel-like in SDIT and bitter and after taste in DCIT) were not significantly different (p>0.05) among tea samples. The present study suggests that instant teas can also be used as good alternative to black tea.

  14. 不同类型茶园节肢动物群落结构研究%Research on Structure of Arthropod Community in Different Tea Gardens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    玉香甩; 冉隆繤; 刘关所; 浦恩达; 李慧; 孙雪梅; 刘本英; 陈剑锋

    2016-01-01

    A three -year investigation on the structure of arthropod community was carried out in three different tea gardens,i.e.pure tea garden,camphor tree -tea and mango tree -tea intercropping gardens. The analysis was conducted from aspects of richness,evenness,dominance index,stability coefficient (Ss /Si ) and variation coefficient (ds /dm ).The results indicated that the diversity indexes of arthropod communities in tea gardens intercropped with camphor and mango tree were higher,and they possessed better richness,diver-sity and evenness.It showed that the restrictive interactions among different species in arthropod communities in intercropping tea gardens were stronger than those in pure tea garden,and the structures were better.%连续三年分别对樟-茶间作茶园、芒果-茶间作茶园和纯茶园中节肢动物群落结构进行系统调查,并从丰富度、均匀度、优势度指数、稳定性系数值 Ss /Si 和变异系数 ds /dm 等方面进行了分析。结果表明:樟-茶间作茶园和芒果-茶间作茶园中节肢动物群落的多样性指数较高,具有更大的丰富度、更丰富的多样性和更高的均匀性,表明樟与茶间作、芒果与茶间作后茶园节肢动物群落内各物种间制约关系强于纯茶园,结构更趋合理。

  15. Brewing and volatiles analysis of three tea beers indicate a potential interaction between tea components and lager yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Lei; Peng, Li-Juan; Ho, Chi-Tang; Yan, Shou-He; Meurens, Marc; Zhang, Zheng-Zhu; Li, Da-Xiang; Wan, Xiao-Chun; Bao, Guan-Hu; Gao, Xue-Ling; Ling, Tie-Jun

    2016-04-15

    Green tea, oolong tea and black tea were separately introduced to brew three kinds of tea beers. A model was designed to investigate the tea beer flavour character. Comparison of the volatiles between the sample of tea beer plus water mixture (TBW) and the sample of combination of tea infusion and normal beer (CTB) was accomplished by triangular sensory test and HS-SPME GC-MS analysis. The PCA of GC-MS data not only showed a significant difference between volatile features of each TBW and CTB group, but also suggested some key compounds to distinguish TBW from CTB. The results of GC-MS showed that the relative concentrations of many typical tea volatiles were significantly changed after the brewing process. More interestingly, the behaviour of yeast fermentation was influenced by tea components. A potential interaction between tea components and lager yeast could be suggested.

  16. The antimicrobial possibilities of green tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanda C Reygaert

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Green tea is a popular drink, especially in Asian countries, although its popularity continues to spread across the globe. The health benefits of green tea, derived from the leaves of the Camellia sinensis plant, have been studied for many years. Fairly recently, researchers have begun to look at the possibility of using green tea in antimicrobial therapy, and the potential prevention of infections. The particular properties of catechins found in the tea have shown promise for having antimicrobial effects. There are four main catechins (polyphenols found in green tea: (--epicatechin (EC, (--epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG, (--epigallocatechin (EGC, and (--epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG. Three of these, ECG, EGC, and EGCG have been shown to have antimicrobial effects against a variety of organisms. These catechins have exhibited a variety of antimicrobial mechanisms. The results of studies on the antimicrobial effects of green tea have shown that the potential for preventive and therapeutic purposes is present. Further data collection on studies performed with human consumption during the course of infections, and studies on the occurrence of infections in populations that consume regular amounts of green tea will be necessary to complete the picture of its antimicrobial possibilities.

  17. Targeting DNA methylation with green tea catechins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiannakopoulou, Eugenia C

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant epigenetic alterations in the genome such as DNA methylation play a significant role in cancer development. Green tea catechins have been reported to modulate epigenetic processes. This review aims to synthesize evidence on the modulation of DNA methylation by green tea catechins. Green tea catechins have been reported to reverse DNA methylation of tumor suppressor genes and increase transcription of these genes. Green tea catechins and especially epigallocatechin gallate modulate DNA methylation by attenuating the effect of DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1). However, the exact mechanism of DNMT1 inhibition is not delineated. Suggested mechanisms include direct enzymatic inhibition, indirect enzymatic inhibition, reduced DNMT1 expression and translation. The possible effect of green tea catechins on other pathways of DNA methylation, i.e. methyl-CpG binding domain proteins, has not been investigated. Furthermore, the link between redox properties and epigenetic modulation by green tea catechins has not been defined either. Since green tea catechins are natural compounds with a rather acceptable safety profile, further research on their action as inhibitors of DNA methylation seems worthwhile.

  18. Cancer Preventive Activities of Tea Catechins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung S. Yang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Catechins are widely occurring in our diet and beverages. The cancer-preventive activities of catechins have been extensively studied. Of these, (−-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG, the principal catechin in green tea, has received the most attention. The inhibitory activities of tea catechins against carcinogenesis and cancer cell growth have been demonstrated in a large number of laboratory studies. Many mechanisms for modulating cancer signaling and metabolic pathways have been proposed based on numerous studies in cell lines with EGCG, the most active tea catechin. Nevertheless, it is not known whether many of these mechanisms indeed contribute to the anti-cancer activities in animals and in humans. Human studies have provided some results for the cancer preventive activities of tea catechins; however, the activities are not strong. This article reviews the cancer preventive activities and mechanisms of action of tea catechins involving their redox activities, biochemical properties and binding to key enzymes or signal transduction proteins. These mechanisms lead to suppression of cell proliferation, increased apoptosis and inhibition of angiogenesis. The relevance of the proposed mechanisms for cancer prevention are assessed in the light of the situation in vivo. The potential and possible problems in the application of tea and tea-derived products for cancer prevention are discussed.

  19. TEA: A Code Calculating Thermochemical Equilibrium Abundances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blecic, Jasmina; Harrington, Joseph; Bowman, M. Oliver

    2016-07-01

    We present an open-source Thermochemical Equilibrium Abundances (TEA) code that calculates the abundances of gaseous molecular species. The code is based on the methodology of White et al. and Eriksson. It applies Gibbs free-energy minimization using an iterative, Lagrangian optimization scheme. Given elemental abundances, TEA calculates molecular abundances for a particular temperature and pressure or a list of temperature-pressure pairs. We tested the code against the method of Burrows & Sharp, the free thermochemical equilibrium code Chemical Equilibrium with Applications (CEA), and the example given by Burrows & Sharp. Using their thermodynamic data, TEA reproduces their final abundances, but with higher precision. We also applied the TEA abundance calculations to models of several hot-Jupiter exoplanets, producing expected results. TEA is written in Python in a modular format. There is a start guide, a user manual, and a code document in addition to this theory paper. TEA is available under a reproducible-research, open-source license via https://github.com/dzesmin/TEA.

  20. Role of biofertilizers in increasing tea productivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P Nepolean; R Jayanthi; R Vidhya Pallavi; A Balamurugan; T Kuberan; T Beulah; R Premkumar

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To increase the tea productivity using biofertilizers like VAM fungi, phosphobacteria, Azosprillium. Methods: Nitrogen fixing Azospirillum, phosphate solubilising bacteria and VAM fungi were isolated from tea soils of southern India and region specific potential strains were selected based on laboratory, greenhouse, as well as field experiments. A technology for their mass multiplication has been developed. Results: Biofertilizers were showed higher yield at the rate of 5g/seedling and VAM fungi with 15 g of formulation/bush. Conclusions: Multifunctional biofertilizers were used to reduce the chemical fertilizers, diseases and to increase soil fertility in tea.

  1. Cancer prevention by tocopherols and tea polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chung S; Li, Guangxun; Yang, Zhihong; Guan, Fei; Chen, Amber; Ju, Jihyeung

    2013-06-28

    Tocopherols (vitamin E) and tea polyphenols have been reported to have cancer preventive activities. Large-scale human trials with high doses of alpha-tocopherol, however, have produced disappointing results. This review presents data showing that - and -tocopherols inhibit colon, lung, mammary and prostate carcinogenesis in animal models, whereas -tocopherol is ineffective in animal and human studies. Possible mechanisms of action are discussed. A broad cancer preventive activity of green tea polyphenols has been demonstrated in animal models, and many mechanisms have been proposed. The cancer preventive activity of green tea in humans, however, has not been conclusively demonstrated and remains to be further investigated.

  2. Finite Sholander Trees, Trees, and their Betweenness

    CERN Document Server

    Chvátal, Vašek; Schäfer, Philipp Matthias

    2011-01-01

    We provide a proof of Sholander's claim (Trees, lattices, order, and betweenness, Proc. Amer. Math. Soc. 3, 369-381 (1952)) concerning the representability of collections of so-called segments by trees, which yields a characterization of the interval function of a tree. Furthermore, we streamline Burigana's characterization (Tree representations of betweenness relations defined by intersection and inclusion, Mathematics and Social Sciences 185, 5-36 (2009)) of tree betweenness and provide a relatively short proof.

  3. Avifaunal diversity and bird community responses to man-made habitats in St. Coombs Tea Estate, Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Dananjaya Kottawa-Arachchi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A survey on birds was conducted at St. Coombs Tea Estate, Talawakelle, Sri Lanka with the objective of assessing the avifaunal diversity of a given tea plantation ecosystem. Bird populations were sampled in man-made habitats such as home garden, wetland, tea plantation, Eucalyptus plantation and small scale reservoir. Hundred-and-twenty counts were made for each habitat and in addition, activities of birds, feeding habits and food recourses were also observed. A total of 87 species, including 11 endemic and 11 migrant species of birds, was recorded, which included one globally threatened species, Kashmir Flycatcher Ficedula subrubra and 16 nationally threatened species. A majority of the bird species were observed in home gardens (75%, followed by reservoirs (57%, wetlands (48%, tea plantations (43% and in Eucalyptus plantations (23%. Home gardens support bird diversity while the species richness of endemic bird species increases thereby enabling these findings to be used as guidelines in long term conservational practices. Several conservation measures such as increasing plant diversity, introduction of shade trees and prevention of fire are recommended to conserve and enhance avifaunal diversity in tea plantations.

  4. 云南古茶园和现代茶园土壤养分与茶叶品质成分关系的研究%Analysis of the Relationship between Soil Nutrientsand Tea Main Quality Components of Ancient Tea Arboretum and Modern Tea Garden in Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨广容; 王秀青; 谢瑾; 吕才有; 李永梅

    2015-01-01

    Soilis the basic survival conditionof the teaplant,soitwas very closelyrelated to thegrowth and development oftea plantand tea quality.The representativeancient tea arboretum and modern tea gardenwere selected in Jingmai, Bulangand Nannuoancient tea mountain of YunnanProvince.Thep Hvalue, cation exchange capacity (CEC), soilorganic matter (SOM),and nutrientscontent of nitrogen,phosphorus and potassium (NPK)in tea garden soils (0-20cm)and theteamain qualitycomponent ofsundried green teas which were manufactured bya budand two leaves(water extraction, tea polyphenols, amino acid, caffeine and polyphenols monomer content)were determinedfromthe soil and teasamples and those from themoderntea garden(or young tea tree/forest)were used ascontrol.The resultsshowed that the soil moisture content increased by15.23%~46.82%inancient teagarden underforestsshadein comparing with that from modern tea garden.The soil pH valuein theancient tea gardenwas higher thanthat ofmodern tea garden(or young tea tree/forest)in Bulangmountains and Nannuo mountain.Thesoil CEC, SOM, total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP) and availablephosphorus (Olsen-P) contents ofancient tea gardenweresignificantly higher thanthose ofmodern teagarden(or young tea tree/forest).Allthoughthe contents oftea water extract, amino acid, tea polyphenol and polyphenols monomer substanceinalltea gardenswerenot consistent,however,the ratioof polyphenoltoamino acid of ancient tea plants planted under forests range was 6.75 to 12.28 significantly lower than those of the modern teagarden(from9.98to15.25).Thechangesof five kinds of catechins contentwerein the order:Epicatechin gallate(ECG) >Epigallocatechin gallate(EGCG) >Epicatechin (EC) >Epigallocatechin(EGC)>Catechin(C),and the ECG and EGC Gcontentswere not significantd iffered between ancient tea garden and moderntea garden(or young tea tree/forest).Moreover,tea gallic acid (GA)was detected only in the ancient teaplants.Thecultivation patterninancient tea

  5. Drinking Tea May Lower Bad Cholesterol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christopher; Doering; 郑凤听

    2003-01-01

    喝茶,有益于健康。本文所说的是“红茶”(black tea),而非“绿茶”(green tea)。在美国喝茶者简直与时俱增:…total sales of tea in 2002 were$5.03 billion,up from$1.84 billion in 1990!本文用深入浅出的语言对喝茶的益处作了说明,同时,其文字表达也不乏可以品味处,如下句中的动词saw:Those who bad regular tea saw their LDL levels drop about 11 percent comparedwith the caffeine placebo.

  6. Progress in CTEQ-TEA PDF analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Nadolsky, Pavel; Guzzi, Marco; Huston, Joey; Lai, Hung-Liang; Li, Zhao; Pumplin, Jon; Stump, Dan; Yuan, C -P

    2012-01-01

    Recent developments in the CTEQ-TEA global QCD analysis are presented. The parton distribution functions CT10-NNLO are described, constructed by comparing data from many experiments to NNLO approximations of QCD.

  7. Green tea extract for periodontal health

    OpenAIRE

    Venkateswara, Babu; Sirisha, K; Chava, Vijay K.

    2011-01-01

    Tea, the commonly consumed beverage, is gaining increased attention in promoting overall health. In specific, green tea is considered a healthful beverage due to the biological activity of its polyphenols namely catechins. Among the polyphenols Epigallo catechin 3 gallate and Epicatechin 3 Gallate are the most predominant catechins. The antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticollagenase, antimutagenic, and c hemopreventive properties of these catechins proved to be helpful in the treatment of chroni...

  8. Trade Bridge Covered with Chinese Tea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    China National Native Produce & Animal By-products Guangxi Tea Imp. & Exp. Co. is a subsidiary company of China National Native Produce & Animal By-products Import & Export Corporation. The company has a history of more than 40 years in doing foreign trade business and has established stable and favorable relationship with about 100 companies from more than 30 countries and regions. The main business scope of the company includes: all kinds of tea, native produce products, forest chemical products, esse...

  9. Efficacy of Black Tea as a Negative Oral Contrast Agent for MR Cholangiopancreatography (MRCP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hossein Jalali

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objective: Evaluation of the use of black tea as negative oral contrast agent in MR cholangiopancreatography (MRCP."nPatients and Methods: Thirty-five patients (mean age, 50.3±19.2 years, who were referred for MRCP, entered in this study. MRCP was performed before, after 5 minutes and after 15 minutes following consumption of 300 ml of black tea. Depiction of the gall bladder, cystic duct, proximal and distal parts of the common bile duct (CBD, intra hepatic ducts, ampula of Vater, main pancreatic duct (MPD and signal loss of the stomach and three different segments of the duodenum were investigated according to VAS and Lickert scores."nResults: Regarding visibility of seven different anatomical parts of the pancreatobiliary tree (gall bladder, cystic duct, CBD, common hepatic duct, intrahepatic duct, ampula of Vater and MPD, the post procedure images were better visualized only in the distal part of CBD, ampula of vater and MPD both in Lickert and VAS scoring (all Ps≤0.001."nThere was no significant difference between the images 5 and 15 minutes after tea consumption. Regarding the obliteration of high signal in the stomach and three different parts of the duodenum, all post tea images of the mentioned parts showed significant disappearance of high signal in Lickert and VAS scoring systems (all Ps≤0.001. "nConclusion: Black tea is an affordable, cheap, available, safe, and efficient oral negative contrast agent for MRCP which reduces the signal intensity of fluids in the gastrointestinal tract and is also efficient for better depiction of MPD, distal part of CBD and ampula.

  10. Suppressive Effects of Tea Catechins on Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Li-Ping; Wang, Ao; Ye, Jian-Hui; Zheng, Xin-Qiang; Polito, Curt Anthony; Lu, Jian-Liang; Li, Qing-Sheng; Liang, Yue-Rong

    2016-07-28

    Tea leaf (Camellia sinensis) is rich in catechins, which endow tea with various health benefits. There are more than ten catechin compounds in tea, among which epigallocatechingallate (EGCG) is the most abundant. Epidemiological studies on the association between tea consumption and the risk of breast cancer were summarized, and the inhibitory effects of tea catechins on breast cancer, with EGCG as a representative compound, were reviewed in the present paper. The controversial results regarding the role of tea in breast cancer and areas for further study were discussed.

  11. Fluoride content in caffeinated, decaffeinated and herbal teas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, J T; Koh, S H

    1996-01-01

    The fluoride contents of infusions prepared from 44 different brands and types of teas were measured. Fluoride concentrations ranged from 0.34 to 3.71 ppm (mean = 1.50 ppm) in caffeinated tea infusions, 0.02-0.14 ppm (mean = 0.05 ppm) in herbal tea infusions, and 1.01-5.20 ppm (mean = 3.19) in decaffeinated tea infusions. This is the first report of the fluoride content of decaffeinated teas. The mean fluoride content of decaffeinated tea infusions is significantly (p decaffeination is the most likely explanation of the above observation.

  12. Modular tree automata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Tree automata are traditionally used to study properties of tree languages and tree transformations. In this paper, we consider tree automata as the basis for modular and extensible recursion schemes. We show, using well-known techniques, how to derive from standard tree automata highly modular...

  13. Modular Tree Automata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Tree automata are traditionally used to study properties of tree languages and tree transformations. In this paper, we consider tree automata as the basis for modular and extensible recursion schemes. We show, using well-known techniques, how to derive from standard tree automata highly modular r...

  14. Antioxidant screening of medicinal herbal teas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speisky, Hernán; Rocco, Claudia; Carrasco, Catalina; Lissi, Eduardo A; López-Alarcón, Camilo

    2006-06-01

    Herbal tea consumption is deeply and widely rooted amongst South-American populations. In view of the involvement of oxygen- and nitrogen-reactive species in the ethiogenesis of several diseases, the antioxidant properties of some of the herbal teas most commonly consumed in the southern regions was assessed in vitro. Around one-third of the 13 examined herbs, displayed a substantially higher ability to scavenge ABTS(+.) radicals (TEAC assay), and to quench the pro-oxidant species, hypochlorite (HClO) and peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)). Amongst the tested herbs, teas prepared from Haplopappus baylahuen, Rosa moschata and Peumus boldus showed the highest TEAC and HClO-quenching activities. These herbs were around 5- to 7-fold more potent than the least active herbs. Based on the TEAC assay, 150 mL of tea prepared from H. baylahuen, R. moschata and P. boldus would be equivalent to around 200 mg of Trolox). Teas from H. baylahuen and P. boldus were also found to be particularly potent in quenching HClO. In the ONOO(-) assay, H. baylahuen and Buddleia globosa showed the highest activities. The results obtained suggest that the regular consumption of teas prepared from some of these herbs may be useful potentially to provide the organism with molecules capable of protecting the gastrointestinal tract against certain pathologically relevant oxidant species.

  15. Genotoxicity studies on green tea catechin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogura, R; Ikeda, N; Yuki, K; Morita, O; Saigo, K; Blackstock, C; Nishiyama, N; Kasamatsu, T

    2008-06-01

    The beneficial effects of tea catechins are well documented. We evaluated the genotoxic potential of a green tea catechin preparation using established genotoxicity assays, including a bacterial reverse mutation assay (Ames test), a chromosomal aberration assay in cultured Chinese hamster lung cells (CHL/IU), a mouse lymphoma L5178Y/tk assay, and a bone marrow micronucleus (MN) assay in ICR CD mice and SD rats. No significant increases in the number of revertant colonies were observed in the Ames test, but positive responses were observed in two in vitro assays: the chromosomal aberration assay and mouse lymphoma L5178/tk assay. However, the in vivo study demonstrated no significant increase in micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPCE) in the bone marrow of both ICR CD mice and SD rats administered a high dose of the green tea catechin preparation up to 2000mg/kg. Combined with favorable epidemiological information suggesting a chemopreventive effect of tea catechins on carcinogenesis, we conclude that green tea catechin presents no significant genotoxic concern under the anticipated conditions of use. These results are consistent with other genotoxicity studies of tea catechins, which show minimal, if any, genotoxic potential.

  16. Stability of Green Tea Catechins in Commercial Tea Leaves during Storage for 6 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    To help meet the needs of consumers, producers of dietary tea products, and researchers for information on health-promoting tea ingredients, we determined by HPLC seven catechins [(–)-epigallocatechin (EGC), (–)-catechin (C), (+)-epicatechin (EC), (–)-epigallocatechin 3-gallate (EGCG), (–)-gallocate...

  17. Aroma changes of black tea prepared from methyl jasmonate treated tea plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jiang; Wang, Li; Ma, Cheng-ying; Lv, Hai-peng; Chen, Zong-mao; Lin, Zhi

    2014-04-01

    Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) was widely applied in promoting food quality. Aroma is one of the key indicators in judging the quality of tea. This study examined the effect of exogenous MeJA treatment on tea aroma. The aroma components in black tea prepared from MeJA-treated fresh tea leaves were extracted using headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and GC-olfactometry (GC-O). Forty-five volatile compounds were identified. The results revealed that the MeJA-treated black tea had higher levels of terpene alcohols and hexenyl esters than the untreated tea. Moreover, several newly components, including copaene, cubenol, and indole, were induced by the MeJA treatment. The activities of polyphenol oxidase and β-glucosidase in fresh tea leaves changed after the MeJA treatment. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis indicated that the gene expression levels of polyphenol oxidase and β-primeverosidase were upregulated by two and three folds, respectively, by the MeJA treatment (Pblack tea was clearly improved.

  18. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in smoked and non-smoked black teas and tea infusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pincemaille, Justine; Schummer, Claude; Heinen, Eric; Moris, Gilbert

    2014-02-15

    This study describes the occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in smoked tea and tea infusions, via the monitoring of benzo(a)anthracene, chrysene, benzo(b)fluoranthene and benzo(a)pyrene (PAH4) that have been chosen as indicators for the occurrence of PAHs in food by the European Food Safety Agency. The concentrations ranged from 1.2 μg/kg for benzo(b)fluoranthene to 125.0 μg/kg for benzo(a)anthracene in smoked tea leaves, and from 0.6 μg/L for benzo(a)anthracene to 1.2 μg/L for benzo(b)fluoranthene in smoked tea infusions. Benzo(a)pyrene was never detected in infusions. The concentrations in non-smoked tea leaves ranged from 0.6 μg/kg for benzo(a)anthracene to 10.8 μg/kg for benzo(b)fluoranthene. It was shown that the concentrations of benzo(a)anthracene and chrysene were higher in smoked tea than in non-smoked tea while no difference was observed for benzo(b)fluoranthene and benzo(a)pyrene. The concentrations of PAHs in tea infusions are low compared to other foodstuffs, but the migration rates from leaves into water are high (82-123%).

  19. 澜沧江中下游古茶树资源、价值及农业文化遗产特征%Resources, Value and Agricultural Heritage Characteristics of the Ancient Tea Plant in the Middle and Lower Reaches of the Lancang River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何露; 闵庆文; 袁正

    2011-01-01

    Yunnan province has the biggest ancient tea tree garden in the world, which is widely distributed in Puer, Lincang, Xishuangbanna, and Baoshan in the middle and lower reaches of the Lancang River.These places have a long history of tea plantation and are rich in ancient tea plant resources.There are the largest ancient tea garden in the world of the longest history and a lot of ancient wild tea trees, including wild type, cultural type, and transitive type tea plant.The ancient tea plant has not only ecological value but also economic and cultural value.The ancient tea garden ecosystem is a typical example for integration of conservation and utilization of natural resources.It is of biodiversity and conducive to tea germplasm resources conservation.There is no fertilizer and pesticide input during the plantation.Ancient tea trees and the wild colony are the source of tea.The main biochemical components consisting of tea polyphenols, catechin, amino acids, and caffeine in ancient tea tree fresh leaves are generally higher than those of tableland tea fresh leaf,which means that the ancient tea has better quality and is organic.This results in a higher price for the ancient tea.The famous ancient tea trees and ancient tea gardens combined with local tremendous tea culture are excellent resources for the development of ecological tourism.All those can promote local sustainable economic development and increase local farmers' income.The ancient wild tea trees, transitive type tea trees, and cultivate tea trees demonstrate that Yunnan is the origin place for tea and tea cultivation.Different minorities in the middle and lower reaches of the Lancang River have developed different tea cultures, including the way that tea is made and consumed, the way that people interact with tea, and the aesthetics surrounding tea drinking.It is noted that over the past fifty years, the area of the ancient tea plant has been decreasing due to population growth, irrational picking, and

  20. Monitoring Chlorfenapyr in Green Tea during the Manufacturing Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Atsushi; Kishi, Yasuhiro; Ogawa, Hideyuki; Nakajima, Kenta

    In order to clarify the change in the leaves of agricultural chemicals during the green tea manufacturing process, we analyzed chlorfenapyr in tea leaves obtained at each processing stage by using an immunoassay. Chlorfenapyr is a novel broad-spectrum insecticide-miticide registered in many countries for the control of various insects and mite pests. Chlorfenapyr is stable and persistent in the environment. Furthermore, it is widely applied for tea cultivation in Japan. Therefore, we selected chlorfenapyr for analysis in this study. In the unrefined tea (Aracha) manufacturing process, the highest level of chlorfenapyr was 16.5 ppm, which was obtained in tea powder separated from leaves at the secondary drying stage. However, the level at the other processing stages in tea leaves was approximately 9 ppm, and no significant difference in the chlorfenapyr level was detected between the processing stages. After Aracha processing, tea leaves are classified on the basis of their size, shape and color; this is the refined tea (Shiagecha) manufacturing process. After this process, although a high level of chlorfenapyr was detected in bud tea (8.1 ppm) and honcha (on-grade tea; 6.2 ppm), the level in the other classified teas was approximately 4.0 ppm. Thus, this paper shows the difference in the chlorfenapyr level in tea leaves obtained at each processing stage. This indicated that there are significant differences in the agricultural chemical levels between the green tea processing stages.

  1. Swelling kinetics of tea in hot water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Bhushan S; Farakte, Raosaheb A; Yadav, Geeta U; Patwardhan, Ashwin W; Singh, Gurmeet

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the swelling kinetics of individual tea particles as well as bed of tea granules were investigated for different types of teas. The swelling experiments involved image analysis and volume measurements of tea particles. Each individual particle shows different swelling characteristics. Separating funnels and cylindrical columns of varying sizes were used to study the changes in volume of tea bed. Swelling in separating funnel was observed to be more than that in column. The effect of temperature, particle size, bed height and vessel diameter were investigated. The extent as well as the rate of swelling is found to increase with rise in temperature (60 to 80 °C) and reduction in particle size. A decrease in swelling is observed with increase in bed height as well as decrease in vessel diameter and vice a versa. About 70 to 75 % swelling occurs in the first 40 to 45 s. Two empirical models viz. Weibull and Peleg were used to fit the experimental data. The rate parameters obtained for a sample T5 at different temperatures were in the range of 0.012 to 0.016. The volume changes of all the teas were compared with their elution behavior, by measuring the absorbance of a diluted sample of brew at 272 nm. The activation energies for the process of tea swelling calculated for T1 (1.2 mm), T5 (2.2 mm) and T5 (0.72 mm) were 14.156, 8.37 and 13.42 kJ/mol respectively.

  2. Green tea: nature's defense against malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Masood Sadiq; Sultan, Muhammad Tauseef

    2009-05-01

    The current practice of introducing phytochemicals to support the immune system or fight against diseases is based on centuries old traditions. Nutritional support is a recent advancement in the domain of diet-based therapies; green tea and its constituents are one of the important components of these strategies to prevent and cure various malignancies. The anti-carcinogenic and anti-mutagenic activities of green tea were highlighted some years ago suggesting that it could reduce the prevalence of cancer and even provide protection. The pharmacological actions of green tea are mainly attributed to polyphenols that includes epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), epicatechin, epicatechin-3-gallate, epigallocatechin. Green tea and its components effectively mitigate cellular damage arising due to oxidative stress. Green tea is supposed to enhance humoral and cell-mediated immunity, decreasing the risk of certain cancers, and may have certain advantage in treating inflammatory disorders. Much of the cancer chemopreventive properties of green tea are mediated by EGCG that induces apoptosis and promotes cell growth arrest, by altering the expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins, activating killer caspases, and suppressing nuclear factor kappa-B activation. Besides, it regulates and promotes IL-23 dependent DNA repair and stimulates cytotoxic T cells activities in a tumor microenvironment. It also blocks carcinogenesis by modulating the signal transduction pathways involved in cell proliferation, transformation, inflammation and metastasis. The review is intended to highlight the chemistry of green tea, its antioxidant potential, its immunopotentiating properties and mode of action against various cancer cell lines that showed its potential as a chemopreventive agent against colon, skin, lung, prostate, and breast cancer.

  3. Microbial fermented tea - a potential source of natural food preservatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mo, H.Z.; Yang Zhu, Yang; Chen, Z.M.

    2008-01-01

    Antimicrobial activities of microbial fermented tea are much less known than its health beneficial properties. These antimicrobial activities are generated in natural microbial fermentation process with tea leaves as substrates. The antimicrobial components produced during the fermentation process h

  4. Efficient extraction strategies of tea (Camellia sinensis) biomolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Satarupa; Chatterjee, Jyotirmoy

    2015-06-01

    Tea is a popular daily beverage worldwide. Modulation and modifications of its basic components like catechins, alkaloids, proteins and carbohydrate during fermentation or extraction process changes organoleptic, gustatory and medicinal properties of tea. Through these processes increase or decrease in yield of desired components are evident. Considering the varied impacts of parameters in tea production, storage and processes that affect the yield, extraction of tea biomolecules at optimized condition is thought to be challenging. Implementation of technological advancements in green chemistry approaches can minimize the deviation retaining maximum qualitative properties in environment friendly way. Existed extraction processes with optimization parameters of tea have been discussed in this paper including its prospects and limitations. This exhaustive review of various extraction parameters, decaffeination process of tea and large scale cost effective isolation of tea components with aid of modern technology can assist people to choose extraction condition of tea according to necessity.

  5. Determination of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in tea, herbal drugs and honey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodi, Dorina; Ronczka, Stefan; Gottschalk, Christoph; Behr, Nastassja; Skibba, Anne; Wagner, Matthias; Lahrssen-Wiederholt, Monika; Preiss-Weigert, Angelika; These, Anja

    2014-01-01

    Honey was previously considered to be one of the main food sources of human pyrrolizidine alkaloid (PA) exposure in Europe. However, comprehensive analyses of honey and tea sampled in the Berlin retail market revealed unexpected high PA amounts in teas. This study comprised the analysis of 87 honey as well as 274 tea samples including black, green, rooibos, melissa, peppermint, chamomile, fennel, nettle, and mixed herbal tea or fruit tea. Total PA concentrations in tea ranged from < LOD to 5647 µg kg(-1), while a mean value of about 10 µg kg(-1) was found in honey samples. Additionally, herbal drugs were investigated to identify the source of PA in teas. Results suggest that PA in tea samples are most likely a contamination caused by co-harvesting of PA-producing plants. In some cases such as fennel, anise or caraway, it cannot be excluded that these plants are able to produce PA themselves.

  6. Dissipation behavior of octachlorodipropyl ether residues during tea planting and brewing process

    OpenAIRE

    Liao, Min; Shi, Yanhong; Cao, Haiqun; Hua, Rimao; Tang, Feng; Wu, Xiangwei; Tang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    The dissipation behavior of octachlorodipropyl ether (OCDPE) residues in fresh tea shoots and in tea prepared under field conditions was investigated, and the transfer of residues from brewed tea to tea infusion was determined. OCDPE levels in tea shoots, prepared tea, tea infusion, and spent tea leaves were determined using a sensitive and simple method. The dissipation of OCDPE is fairly slow in tea shoots and prepared tea, with half-life values of 5.10 and 5.46 days, respectively. The degr...

  7. 安溪茶园水土流失综合治理措施%The Comprehensive Measures to Prevent Soil Erosion of Anxi Tea Plantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈进火

    2013-01-01

    The paper analyzes the reason and types of soil erosion of Anxi tea plantation. Meanwhile, comprehensive measures to prevent soil erosion were presented, such as returning tea to forest, planting trees, remaking the ditch, cultivating green manure, taking refined management and so on.%  分析安溪茶园水土流失的原因及类型,提出退茶还林、种植生态树、改造前梗后沟、种植绿肥、精细化管理等综合治理技术措施。

  8. Attention to tea industry brand image design and application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戚亚希

    2015-01-01

    tea, coffee, cola is three main beverages in the world today, with the improvement of people's health care consciousness, the tea with its green and healthy image and health care efficacy is more and more popular with the masses, tea beverage market promising prospects in the future. Tea is the traditional agricultural products in our country, has a long history of planting, processing and export, is also one of the main agricultural products export of our country.

  9. Green Tea Modulation of Obesity and Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    second leading cause of cancer death.1 Obesity is a known risk factor for breast cancer in postmenopausal women.2 Green tea consumption has been...by which green tea may decrease breast cancer risk. This study evaluates the effects of green tea consumption with high EGCG concentrations on...Obesity 2009; 17(2):310-317. 5. Phung OJ, Baker WL, Matthews LJ, Lanosa M, Thorne A, Coleman CI. Effect of green tea catechins with or without caffeine

  10. Role of green tea in reduction of cardiovascular risk factors

    OpenAIRE

    Vlachopoulos, Charalambos; Alexopoulos, Nikolaos; Stefanadis, C.

    2010-01-01

    Nikolaos Alexopoulos, Charalambos Vlachopoulos, Christodoulos Stefanadis1st Cardiology Department, Athens Medical School, Hippokration Hospital, Athens, GreeceAbstract: Tea is widely consumed worldwide. There is accumulating evidence that tea ­consumption may be associated with reduced cardiovascular risk, an association that could be attributed to its flavonoid content. Green tea, the most common type of tea consumed in Asia, contains a large amount of nonoxidized flavonoids, named c...

  11. Cancer prevention by green tea: evidence from epidemiologic studies1234

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Jian-Min

    2013-01-01

    In contrast to the consistent results of an inhibitory effect of green tea extracts and tea polyphenols on the development and growth of carcinogen-induced tumors in experimental animal models, results from human studies are mixed. Both observational and intervention studies have provided evidence in support of a protective role of green tea intake in the development of oral–digestive tract cancer or an inhibitory role of oral supplementation of green tea extract on a precancerous lesion of o...

  12. Association between green tea consumption and lung cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Andy H; Liang, Wenbin; Hirayama, Fumi; Binns, Colin W

    2010-07-01

    Green tea is a popular beverage and its health benefits are well known. However, inconsistent results have been reported in observational studies concerning the association between green tea consumption and the lung cancer risk. In this commentary, several methodological issues underlying the measurement of tea exposure are highlighted. The recommendations should be useful for designing and planning prospective cohort studies to ascertain the protective effect of green tea against lung cancer.

  13. Green tea and prevention of esophageal and lung cancers

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Jian-Min

    2011-01-01

    Green tea contains high concentrations of tea polyphenols that have shown inhibitory effects against the development, progress, and growth of carcinogen-induced tumors in animal models at different organ sites, including the esophagus and lung. Green tea polyphenols also have shown to suppress cell proliferation and induce apoptosis. Besides antioxidative property, green tea polyphenols have pro-oxidative activities under certain conditions and modulate phase II metabolic enzymes that can enh...

  14. Chapter 8. Tea and Cancer Prevention: Epidemiological Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Jian-Min; Sun, Canlan; Butler, Lesley M

    2011-01-01

    Experimental studies have consistently shown the inhibitory activities of tea extracts on tumorigenesis in multiple model systems. Epidemiologic studies, however, have produced inconclusive results in humans. A comprehensive review was conducted to assess the current knowledge on tea consumption and risk of cancers in humans. In general, consumption of black tea was not associated with lower risk of cancer. High intake of green tea was consistently associated with reduced risk of upper gastro...

  15. Culture Medium and Conditions for Laccase-producing Endophytic Fungal Strain CSN-4 from Tea Tree(Camellia sinensis)%茶树内生真菌 CSN-4产漆酶培养基及培养条件研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    巫婷玉; 张婉蓉; 杨民和

    2015-01-01

    从茶树内生真菌筛选产漆酶的菌株,分析不同营养因素和培养条件对菌株漆酶酶活力的影响。采用6种显色底物的平板初筛和酶活测定的复筛方法,从15株茶树内生真菌菌株中筛选获得1株产漆酶酶活较高的菌株 CSN-4。单因素分析结果显示,液态发酵条件下菌株 CSN-4适宜的主要培养基成分是麸皮和蛋白胨;菌株 CSN-4分别在麸皮30 g / L、蛋白胨2.5 g / L、CuSO4·5H2 O 0.015 g / L 和茶水6 g / L 时发酵产漆酶酶活最高。发酵条件试验结果表明,菌株 CSN-4分别在接种量为6个菌饼(直径6 mm)、装液量60 mL /250 mL、pH 4.8、摇床转速120 r / min,培养温度为28℃时产漆酶酶活较高。在培养基中添加麸皮和茶水对菌株 CSN-4产漆酶有明显的促进作用。经过培养基成分及培养条件优化后,菌株 CSN-4产漆酶酶活显著升高,达到2417 U / L。%A laccase-producing fungal strain CSN-4 was screened from 15 endophytic fungi isolated from healthy tea (Camellia sinensis)leaves with PDA medium plate amended with six coloration substrates for initial screening and re-screening by checking their laccase activity,and the effects of different nutritional factors and cultural condition on laccase activity of the strain were analyzed. The results of single factor analysis showed that the main medium compo-nents under liquid fermentation suitable for strain were wheat bran and peptone;laccase activity of strain CSN-4 reached the peak when fermented with 30 g/ L of wheat bran,2. 5 g/ L of peptone,0. 015 g/ L of CuSO4 ·5H2 O and 6 g/ L of tea infusion,respectively. The results of the experiments on fermentation conditions showed that when the fermentation was inoculated with six strain agar plugs(6 mm in diameter),liquid filling amount at 60 mL/ 250 mL, pH 4. 8,shaking at 120 r/ min,and culture temperature at 28 ℃,the laccase activity produced by the strain reached a fairly high. The addition of wheat

  16. Determination of tea components with antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Carmen; Giménez, Rafael; López, M Carmen

    2003-07-16

    Levels of essential elements with antioxidant activity, as well as catechins, gallic acid, and caffeine levels, in a total of 45 samples of different teas commercialized in Spain have been evaluated. Chromium, manganese, selenium, and zinc were determined in the samples mineralized with HNO(3) and V(2)O(5), using ETAAS as the analytical technique. The reliability of the procedure was checked by analysis of a certified reference material. Large variations in the trace element composition of teas were observed. The levels ranged from 50.6 to 371.4 ng/g for Cr, from 76.1 to 987.6 microg/g for Mn, from 48.5 to 114.6 ng/g for Se, and from 56.3 to 78.6 ng/g for Zn. The four major catechins [(-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC), (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECG), and (-)-epicatechin (EC)], gallic acid (GA), and caffeine were simultaneously determined by a simple and fast HPLC method using a photodiode array detector. In all analyzed samples, EGCG ranged from 1.4 to 103.5 mg/g, EGC from 3.9 to 45.3 mg/g, ECG from 0.2 to 45.6 mg/g, and EC ranged from 0.6 to 21.2 mg/g. These results indicated that green tea has a higher content of catechins than both oolong and fermented teas (red and black teas); the fermentation process during tea manufacturing reduces the levels of catechins significantly. Gallic acid content ranged from 0.039 to 6.7 mg/g; the fermentation process also elevated remarkably gallic acid levels in black teas (mean level of 3.9 +/- 1.5 mg/g). The amount of caffeine in the analyzed samples ranged from 7.5 to 86.6 mg/g, and the lower values were detected in green and oolong teas. This study will be useful for the appraisal of trace elements and antioxidant components in various teas, and it will also be of interest for people who like drinking this beverage.

  17. How to Develop the Tea Industry in Leiyang City?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fengtao; WANG; Xiaoping; ZENG; Xiaolan; WU; Yubin; LIANG

    2015-01-01

    Based on the current development situation of tea industry in Leiyang City,this paper analyzes the existing problems such as small scale of high quality tea plantation,insufficient brand awareness,inadequate funding input,extensive tea plantation management,rising labor costs and outdated mechanical equipment. Finally this paper expounds the development goal and sets forth the corresponding recommendations.

  18. Productivity and resource use in ageing tea plantations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamau, D.M.

    2008-01-01

    Keywords: Kenya, Camellia sinensis L., clones, seedlings, tea industry, management, N-P-K, biomass, made tea yields. The tea industry in Kenya is rural-based and provides livelihood to over three million people along the value chain. The industry which started in the first quarter of the 20th cent

  19. Antioxidants of the beverage tea in promotion of human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Imtiaz A; Afaq, Farrukh; Adhami, Vaqar M; Ahmad, Nihal; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2004-06-01

    Tea that contains many antioxidants is a pleasant and safe drink that is enjoyed by people across the globe. Tea leaves are manufactured as black, green, or oolong. Black tea represents approximately 78% of total consumed tea in the world, whereas green tea accounts for approximately 20% of tea consumed. The concept of "use of tea for promotion of human health and prevention and cure of diseases" has become a subject of intense research in the last decade. Diseases for which tea drinkers appear to have lower risk are simple infections, like bacterial and viral, to chronic debilitating diseases, including cancer, coronary heart disease, stroke, and osteoporosis. Initial work on green tea suggested that it possesses human health-promoting effects. In recent years, the research efforts have been expanded to black tea as well. Research conducted in recent years reveals that both black and green tea have very similar beneficial attributes in lowering the risk of many human diseases, including several types of cancer and heart diseases. For cancer prevention, evidence is so overwhelming that the Chemoprevention Branch of the National Cancer Institute has initiated a plan for developing tea compounds as cancer-chemopreventive agents in human trials. Thus, modern medical research is confirming the ancient wisdom that therapy of many diseases may reside in an inexpensive beverage in a "teapot."

  20. Cancer prevention by green tea: evidence from epidemiologic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jian-Min

    2013-12-01

    In contrast to the consistent results of an inhibitory effect of green tea extracts and tea polyphenols on the development and growth of carcinogen-induced tumors in experimental animal models, results from human studies are mixed. Both observational and intervention studies have provided evidence in support of a protective role of green tea intake in the development of oral-digestive tract cancer or an inhibitory role of oral supplementation of green tea extract on a precancerous lesion of oral cavity. Evidence in support of green tea intake against the development of liver cancer risk is limited and inconsistent. An inverse association between green tea intake and lung cancer risk has been observed among never smokers but not among smokers. Although observational studies do not support a beneficial role of tea intake against the development of prostate cancer, several phase 2 clinical trials have shown an inhibitory effect of green tea extract against the progression of prostate premalignant lesions to malignant tumors. Prospective epidemiologic studies so far have not provided evidence for a protective effect of green tea consumption on breast cancer development. Current data neither confirm nor refute a definitive cancer-preventive role of green tea intake. Large randomized intervention trials on the efficacy of green tea polyphenols or extracts are required before a recommendation for green tea consumption for cancer prevention should be made.

  1. An Old Town on the Ancient Tea-Horse Trail

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGHONG

    2005-01-01

    FOR centuries, Southwest China's Yunnan Province has been known as home of black tea. It was in the Tang Dynasty(618 - 907) that caravans began to transport bricks of tea from Xishuangbanna and Simao to India, passing through Yunnan's Dali and Lijiang and Tibet. The route became known as the Ancient Tea-Horse Trail.

  2. Tea-induced calmness: Sugar-sweetened tea calms consumers exposed to acute stressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samant, Shilpa. S.; Wilkes, Katherine; Odek, Zephania; Seo, Han-Seok

    2016-01-01

    The food and beverage industry has been increasingly replacing sugar with non-nutritive sweeteners in their sweetened products to control or reduce total calories. Research comparing the effect of nutritive and non-nutritive sweeteners on emotional state of participants exposed to acute stressors is still limited. This study aimed to determine the effect of drinking tea sweetened with either a nutritive sweetener (sugar) or a non-nutritive sweetener (sucralose or stevia) on emotional state, in terms of calmness and pleasantness, of participants exposed to an acute stressor. Effects of acute stress on sweetness intensity and overall liking of tea beverages were also determined. Results showed that the possibility of tea-induced calmness, calculated as the difference between calmness ratings after and before drinking a tea sample, was established on stress session in the sugar-sweetened tea. Overall liking, but not the sweetness intensity, of the sugar-sweetened tea was affected by acute stress. In conclusion, this study provides empirical evidence that the consumption of tea sweetened with nutritive sweetener, but not with non-nutritive sweetener, has calming effect on consumers with acute stress, suggesting that this effect may not be due to the sweet taste of sugar, but due to the caloric nature of the sweetener. PMID:27848976

  3. Tea May Benefit Blood Vessels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华剑铭

    2000-01-01

    读到有关饮茶有益健康的消息,我总是充满了自豪感:茶的故乡毕竟在中国。饮茶对人的心脏有益,这已经不是新闻,但是到底如何起到此类保健作用,多年来一直是一个谜。本文揭开了此谜底: Drinking a cup of tea makes blood vessels work better within 2 hours, dilating(扩张)the arteries(动脉)and improving blood flow. 文章令我感动之处在于那些科研人员的敬业精神。比如茶中含有caffeine(咖啡因),饮茶对心脏有利,此“利”是否源于caffeine呢?试验人员为了弄清这 一点,便让另一组受试人员服用等量的caffeine,结果证实:Caffeine had no response on the blood vessel function.】

  4. Pyrrolizidine and tropane alkaloids in teas and the herbal teas peppermint, rooibos and chamomile in the Israeli market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimshoni, Jakob Avi; Duebecke, Arne; Mulder, Patrick P J; Cuneah, Olga; Barel, Shimon

    2015-01-01

    Dehydro pyrrolizidine alkaloids (dehydro PAs) are carcinogenic phytotoxins prevalent in the Boraginaceae, Asteraceae and Fabaceae families. Dehydro PAs enter the food and feed chain by co-harvesting of crops intended for human and animal consumption as well as by carry-over into animal-based products such as milk, eggs and honey. Recently the occurrence of dehydro PAs in teas and herbal teas has gained increasing attention from the EU, due to the high levels of dehydro PAs found in commercially available teas and herbal teas in Germany and Switzerland. Furthermore, several tropane alkaloids (TAs, e.g. scopolamine and hyoscyamine) intoxications due to the consumption of contaminated herbal teas were reported in the literature. The aim of the present study was to determine the dehydro PAs and TAs levels in 70 pre-packed teabags of herbal and non-herbal tea types sold in supermarkets in Israel. Chamomile, peppermint and rooibos teas contained high dehydro PAs levels in almost all samples analysed. Lower amounts were detected in black and green teas, while no dehydro PAs were found in fennel and melissa herbal teas. Total dehydro PAs concentrations in chamomile, peppermint and rooibos teas ranged from 20 to 1729 μg/kg. Except for black tea containing only mono-ester retrorsine-type dehydro PAs, all other teas and herbal teas showed mixed patterns of dehydro PA ester types, indicating a contamination by various weed species during harvesting and/or production. The TA levels per teabag were below the recommended acute reference dose; however, the positive findings of TAs in all peppermint tea samples warrant a more extensive survey. The partially high levels of dehydro PAs found in teas and herbal teas present an urgent warning letter to the regulatory authorities to perform routine quality control analysis and implement maximum residual levels for dehydro PAs.

  5. Consumption of Green Tea, but Not Black Tea or Coffee, Is Associated with Reduced Risk of Cognitive Decline

    OpenAIRE

    Moeko Noguchi-Shinohara; Sohshi Yuki; Chiaki Dohmoto; Yoshihisa Ikeda; Miharu Samuraki; Kazuo Iwasa; Masami Yokogawa; Kimiko Asai; Kiyonobu Komai; Hiroyuki Nakamura; Masahito Yamada

    2014-01-01

    Our objective was to determine whether the consumption of green tea, coffee, or black tea influences the incidence of dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in older people. We conducted a population-based prospective study with Japanese residents aged >60 years from Nakajima, Japan (the Nakajima Project). Participants received an evaluation of cognitive function and blood tests. The consumption of green tea, coffee, and black tea was also evaluated at baseline. Of 723 participants with...

  6. A comparative study between wild ancient tea and tea garden tea%野生古茶树茶与茶园茶的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍晓华; 董玄; 潘思轶

    2012-01-01

    The appearance, liquor color, taste and aroma of wild ancient tea and tea garden tea were evaluated and determined by sensory evaluation and chemical analysis method. Both of the appearances were stripy. The color of ,dried wild ancient tea was red-yellow and liquor color is yellow-red, while the dried tea garden tea was green-black and liquor color was green-yellow. The wild ancient tea tasted soft, sweet, and a little bitter, while the tea garden tea was much bitter and slightly sweet at the beginning. The contents of tea polyphenols and flavonoid compounds of both were the same, which were about 28. 9% and 7%. The five kinds of catechins which were determined in wild ancient tea were two times more of that in tea garden tea. The tea garden tea's caffeine content was nearly two times more than wild ancient tea. The content of free amino acids ( Aas) in wild ancient tea was higher, while the tea garden tea had a higher content (4. 60% ) than wild ancient tea (3. 82% ) in soluble sugar. Fifty-eight kinds of aroma compounds were measured in wild ancient tea and 74 kinds of aroma compounds in tea garden tea, and there were 12 common components in both. In all, the wild ancient tea was far superior to the tea garden tea, but the effects of catechins and aroma compounds on the human body needed to be further studied.%采用感官审评和化学分析手段,对野生古茶树茶和茶园茶的外形、颜色、滋味、香气等进行审评、测定和比较.两者都为条索,在颜色方面,野生古茶树茶的干品偏向红黄,汤色黄红,茶园茶的干品呈绿黑,茶汤绿黄色;滋味方面,野生古茶树茶苦涩味较淡,醇和,回甘,茶园茶苦涩味比之更盛,味微短,入口略甜.茶多酚、黄酮类化合物两者基本一样,分别是28.9%左右和7%左右,测定的5种儿茶素,茶园茶是野生古茶树茶的两倍多,咖啡碱茶园茶是野生古茶树茶的约两倍,游离氨基酸野生古茶树茶比茶园茶高,

  7. [Genetic diversity of ancient tea gardens and tableland tea gardens from Yunnan Province as revealed by AFLP marker].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Peng-Zhang; Jiang, Hui-Bing; Huang, Xing-Qi; Zhang, Jun; Liang, Min-Zhi; Wang, Ping-Sheng

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the genetic diversity within and among the plants of four ancient tea gardens and two tableland tea gardens form Yunnan Province, China by AFLP technique. The percentage of polymorphic loci (P) of the plants from six tea gardens was 92.31%. The genetic diversity within the six gardens demonstrated by Nei cents genetic diversity (He) was estimated to be 0.1366, while Shannon indices (Ho) were 0.2323. The percentage of polymorphic loci of the four ancient tea populations was 45.55% on average, with a range of 36.44% (Mengsong) to 59.11% (Mengla). But the percentages of polymorphic loci of the plants from two tableland gardens were 13.77% (Yunkang 10) and 24.2% (Menghai Daye), respectively. There was a great genetic difference between ancient tea gardens and tableland tea gardens. The genetic diversity among the plants of the ancient tea garden was higher than those of the sexual tableland tea garden and the clone tableland tea garden based on P valve. The four ancient tea gardens and two tableland gardens could be differentiated with AFLP markers. The results show that AFLP marker is an effective tool in the discrimination of tea germplasm, as well as sundried green tea.

  8. Green tea and black tea consumption and prostate cancer risk: an exploratory meta-analysis of observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jusheng; Yang, Bin; Huang, Tao; Yu, Yinghua; Yang, Jing; Li, Duo

    2011-01-01

    Observational studies on tea consumption and prostate cancer (PCa) risk are still inconsistent. The authors conducted a meta-analysis to investigate the association between green tea and black tea consumption with PCa risk. Thirteen studies providing data on green tea or black tea consumption were identified by searching PubMed and ISI Web of Science databases and secondary referencing qualified for inclusion. A random-effects model was used to calculate the summary odds ratios (OR) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). For green tea, the summary OR of PCa indicated a borderline significant association in Asian populations for highest green tea consumption vs. non/lowest (OR = 0.62; 95% CI: 0.38-1.01); and the pooled estimate reached statistically significant level for case-control studies (OR = 0.43; 95% CI: 0.25-0.73), but not for prospective cohort studies (OR = 1.00; 95% CI: 0.66-1.53). For black tea, no statistically significant association was observed for the highest vs. non/lowest black tea consumption (OR = 0.99; 95% CI: 0.82-1.20). In conclusion, this meta-analysis supported that green tea but not black tea may have a protective effect on PCa, especially in Asian populations. Further research regarding green tea consumption across different regions apart from Asia is needed.

  9. Healthy,Happy trees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Healthy trees are important to us all. Trees provide shade, beauty, and homes for wildlife. Trees give us products like paper and wood. Trees can give us all this only if they are healthy.They must be well cared for to remain healthy.

  10. Adsorption Dynamics of Calyx Aroma onto Basic Tea in Scenting Process of Calyx-scented Tea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Changhui CHEN

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The paper was to study adsorption dynamics of calyx aroma onto basic tea in scenting process of calyx-scented tea, so as to increase aroma and quality of products. [Method] Adsorption experiment was carried out in a hermetic container, and the effect of calyx amount, contact time, moisture content of basic tea and temperature on the scenting process was studied. [Result] The optimal moisture and temperature for scenting process was 4% and 10 ℃, respectively. [Conclusion] The scenting process accorded pseudo-first-order kinetic model, and the adsorption dynamic data of total process could better fit pseudo-second-order kinetic model.

  11. Biological Control of Tortricidae in Tea Fields in Japan Using Insect Viruses and Parasitoids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Madoka Nakai

    2009-01-01

    Tea is a perennial and evergreen plant. Cultivated tea trees provide a habitat for insect pests and their natural enemies. In Japan, granuloviruses (GVs) have successfully controlled two of the most important pests of tea, Adoxophyes honmai and Homona magnanima (Tortricidae: Lepidoptera). The GVs are produced in vivo and a single application sustains pesticidal efficacy throughout a year, which encompasses 4 to 5 discrete generations of both species. A. honmai and H. magnanima also have various natural enemies, especially hymenopteran parasitoids. Such resident natural enemies also play a role in reducing the pest density in virus-controlled fields, but the effect of virus infection on parasitoids sharing the same host larva has not been well studied. Survival of one of the major parasitoids ofA. honmai, Ascogaster reticulata (Braconidae: Hymenoptera), is reduced by virus infection of the host. Viruses, including GV and entomopoxvirus (EPV), and certain koinobiont endoparasitoids, including A. reticulata, are both known to regulate host endocrinology. However, the GV and EPV have distinct host regulation mechanisms, and consequently have different impacts on the survival of A. retuculata, when A. reticulata parasitizes a host that is infected with either GV or EPV. These additional effects on host regulation displayed by both viruses and parasitoids affect the outcome of virus-parasitoid interactions.

  12. Classification and regression trees

    CERN Document Server

    Breiman, Leo; Olshen, Richard A; Stone, Charles J

    1984-01-01

    The methodology used to construct tree structured rules is the focus of this monograph. Unlike many other statistical procedures, which moved from pencil and paper to calculators, this text's use of trees was unthinkable before computers. Both the practical and theoretical sides have been developed in the authors' study of tree methods. Classification and Regression Trees reflects these two sides, covering the use of trees as a data analysis method, and in a more mathematical framework, proving some of their fundamental properties.

  13. Aflatoxins in black tea in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouretedal, Zohreh; Mazaheri, Mansooreh

    2013-01-01

    Aflatoxins (AFs) are highly toxic, and carcinogenic secondary fungal metabolites and have been detected in various food commodities. In this regard, 40 black tea samples including domestic and imported black tea were analysed for aflatoxin contamination by high-performance liquid chromatography using a post-column derivatisation procedure (Kobra cell) with fluorescence detection. Samples were randomly collected in 2010 from Tehran markets. The results revealed that 30 among 40 samples were contaminated with aflatoxins (27.5% of the total). Mean AFB1 content was 10.0 ng/g and mean of aflatoxin total was 12.07 ng/g for the 11 contaminated samples.

  14. In vitro activity of essential oils of free and nanostructured Melaleuca alternifolia and of terpinen-4-ol on eggs and larvae of Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grando, T H; de Sá, M F; Baldissera, M D; Oliveira, C B; de Souza, M E; Raffin, R P; Santos, R C V; Domingues, R; Minho, A P; Leal, M L R; Monteiro, S G

    2016-05-01

    Haemonchus contortus is one of the major gastrointestinal nematodes responsible for significant economic and production losses of sheep. Diseases caused by this species lack effective anthelmintic products, and the search for new compounds to replace synthetic anthelmintics has been extensive. The present investigation assesses the in vitro activity of the essential oil of melaleuca (Melaleuca alternifolia), both free (TTO) and nanostructured (nanoTTO), and terpinen-4-ol (terp-4-ol) on eggs and larvae of H. contortus. Tests of egg hatching (EHT) and inhibition of larval migration (LMIT) were used to assess the in vitro efficacy of TTO, nanoTTO and terp-4-ol. Using EHT, at a concentration of 3.5 mg/ml, 100% inhibition occurred using TTO and terp-4-ol, with LC50 values of 0.43 and 0.63 mg/ml, and LC90 values of 1.75 mg/ml and 3.12 mg/ml, respectively. NanoTTO had lower activity, with 82.6% inhibition at the same concentration. Using LMIT, TTO and nanoTTO had a similar activity with 88.0% and 84.8% inhibition, respectively, at a concentration of 56 mg/ml. Terp-4-ol had a greater effect on larvae, with 85.7% inhibition at a concentration of 56 mg/ml and 82.4% at 3.5 mg/ml, demonstrating high activity at the lowest concentration tested. Therefore, the results indicate that all substances tested showed ovicidal and larvicidal activity against H. contortus. TTO, terp-4-ol and, mainly, nanoTTO may be targeted in in vivo studies, besides being a promising line of research into the control and treatment of veterinary important helminths.

  15. [Cancer prevention with green tea: reality and wishful thinking].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertram, Barbara; Bartsch, H

    2002-01-01

    Different processing of the leaves of the tea plant Camellia sinensis yields green or black tea, the subject of numerous investigations on the preventive effects on chronic degenerative diseases. The tea polyphenols, in particular (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) were found to account for most of the protective effects. Since the concentration of EGCG is 5 times higher in green than in black tea, it is assumed that green tea possesses a greater preventive potential. Protection against cancer and cardiovascular diseases are the most important biomedical effects. In experimental models the preventive activity of tea is well documented for tumors at many organ sites. In humans, tea was reported to be protective against tumors of the lung, the gastrointestinal tract and the liver. Tea polyphenols, especially EGCG, were shown to exert cancer-protective activity by the following mechanisms: they inhibit the metabolic activation of carcinogens and induce at the same time detoxifying enzymes. They inhibit signaling pathways controlling cell proliferation and tumor growth such as protein kinase C and the release of tumor necrose factor-alpha from cells. Tea polyphenols reactivate processes which are impaired in tumor cells, such as the programmed cell death and the tumorsuppressor gene p53. Finally, tea polyphenols can also block angiogenesis leading to a starvation of the tumor. By inactivation of proteolytic enzymes they inhibit the development of metastases. This short review summarizes relevant recent findings on the protective effects of green tea constituents.

  16. Tea and cancer prevention: an evaluation of the epidemiologic literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlmeier, L; Weterings, K G; Steck, S; Kok, F J

    1997-01-01

    Animal and in vitro studies provide evidence of an anticarcinogenic potential of active ingredients in teas. This review encompasses epidemiologic studies of stomach, colon, and lung cancer as well as the evidence of a relationship between tea drinking and cancer at large in humans. Cohort studies do not suggest a protective role for tea drinking in the total risk of cancer. Site-specific studies reveal a more complex picture. The epidemiologic studies on tea drinking and stomach cancer do not justify claims of a cancer-protective effect. A protective effect of green tea on the development of colon cancer is suggested. The evidence regarding black tea is less clear, with some indication of a risk of colon or rectal cancer associated with regular use of black tea. The studies on tea and lung cancer also suggest an increased risk with increased tea consumption. The range and crude categorization of tea consumption, choice of control groups, and inadequate control for confounding might have obscured possible relationships. From the limited studies that suggest a favorable effect from tea, it is likely that benefits are restricted to high intakes in high-risk populations.

  17. Inhibition of wheat starch retrogradation by tea derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haihua; Sun, Binghua; Zhang, Shikang; Zhu, Yuejin; Tian, Yaoqi

    2015-12-10

    The effect of four industrial tea derivatives (tea polyphenols [TPS], tea water-soluble extracts [TSE], tea polysaccharides [TSS], and green tea powder [GTP]), on the retrogradation of wheat starch was investigated using texture profile analysis (TPA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), rapid viscosity analysis (RVA), and the α-amylase-iodine method. The addition of the four tea derivatives resulted in decreased hardness and increased cohesiveness of the starch gel as shown by the TPA test. The DSC data demonstrated an increase in the enthalpy change of starch gelatinization and a decrease in the enthalpy change of starch recrystallite dissociation. The RVA results indicated that the peak viscosity, representing the intermolecular forces of wheat starch, was reduced after addition of TPS, TSE, and TSS, respectively, but was increased by GTP. Furthermore, the half crystallization time in the Avrami equation almost doubled after the separate addition of the tea derivatives.

  18. Green Tea (Camellia Sinensis): Chemistry and Oral Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurshid, Zohaib; Zafar, Muhammad S.; Zohaib, Sana; Najeeb, Shariq; Naseem, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Green tea is a widely consumed beverage worldwide. Numerous studies have suggested about the beneficial effects of green tea on oral conditions such as dental caries, periodontal diseases and halitosis. However, to date there have not been many review articles published that focus on beneficial effects of green tea on oral disease. The aim of this publication is to summarize the research conducted on the effects of green tea on oral cavity. Green tea might help reduce the bacterial activity in the oral cavity that in turn, can reduce the aforementioned oral afflictions. Furthermore, the antioxidant effect of the tea may reduce the chances of oral cancer. However, more clinical data is required to ascertain the possible benefits of green tea consumption on oral health. PMID:27386001

  19. Green Tea (Camellia Sinensis): Chemistry and Oral Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurshid, Zohaib; Zafar, Muhammad S; Zohaib, Sana; Najeeb, Shariq; Naseem, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Green tea is a widely consumed beverage worldwide. Numerous studies have suggested about the beneficial effects of green tea on oral conditions such as dental caries, periodontal diseases and halitosis. However, to date there have not been many review articles published that focus on beneficial effects of green tea on oral disease. The aim of this publication is to summarize the research conducted on the effects of green tea on oral cavity. Green tea might help reduce the bacterial activity in the oral cavity that in turn, can reduce the aforementioned oral afflictions. Furthermore, the antioxidant effect of the tea may reduce the chances of oral cancer. However, more clinical data is required to ascertain the possible benefits of green tea consumption on oral health.

  20. Tea extracts antioxidative potential in emulsified lipid systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Gramza-Michałowska

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Tea leaves (Camelia sinensis L. extracts are source of polyphenols, i.e. antioxidant components. Research showed possible tea extracts use in food technology, influencing contained lipids stability improvement. The aim of the research was comparison of different teas extracts activity in emulsified lipid system. The present research examined different teas: white, green, yellow, oolong and black aqueous and ethanol extracts. To evaluate the most potent addition level different tea extracts concentrations were chosen. Linoleic acid oxidative stability was measured by linoleic acid conjugated dienes produc-tion monitoring. Emulsions with additives were incubated 19 hours at 37°C in darkness. Results showed different tea extracts antioxidant activity, dependent on its concentration in examined system. Highest antioxidant activity, comparable to BHT and rosemary ex-tract was found in lipid sample with addition of yellow tea ethanol extract.

  1. Developing Situation of Tea Harvesting Machines in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. C. Wu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years rapid social change and industrial and commercial development in Taiwan has lead to migration of rural labor, population ageing, high wages and labor shortages, which resulted in significant problems for the tea industry. Thus, mechanization in the tea industry emerges as the direction for the future. According to a survey, tea harvesting and tea manufacturing use 87% and 5% of available labor, so the mechanization of tea harvesting is a priority. The application and development of tea harvesting machines worldwide and especially in Taiwan in recent years is investigated in this paper. Recommendations are made for the implementation of tea harvesting machinery in Taiwan in the future. This report may also used as a reference for the use of mechanical harvesting.

  2. Antimicrobial activity of tea as affected by the degree of fermentation and manufacturing season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, C C; Lin, L L; Chung, K T

    1999-05-01

    Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Salmonella sp. and Staphylococcus aureus were used to test the antimicrobial activity of tea flush extract and extracts of various tea products. Among the six test organisms, P. fluorescens was the most sensitive to the extracts, while B. subtilis was the least sensitive. In general, antimicrobial activity decreased when the extents of tea fermentation increased. The antimicrobial activities of tea flush extract and extracts of tea products with different extents of fermentation varied with test organisms. Tea flush and Green tea, the unfermented tea, exerted the strongest antimicrobial activity followed by the partially fermented tea products such as Longjing, Tieh-Kuan-Ying, Paochung, and Oolong teas. On the other hand, Black tea, the completely fermented tea, showed the least antimicrobial activity. It was also noted that extracts of Oolong tea prepared in summer exhibited the strongest antimicrobial activity, followed by those prepared in spring, winter and fall.

  3. Comparison of Two Adsorbent Based de-Bittering Procedures for Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) Tea- Effect on Polyphenols, Anti-Oxidant Capacity, Color and Volatile Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Abhinandya; Grün, Ingolf U; Kwasniewski, Misha T; Fernando, Lakdas N

    2017-03-01

    Bitterness reduction, especially of foods and beverages containing phytonutrients, is one of the biggest challenges in the food industry because bitterness has a deleterious effect on the taste profile of foods and beverages. Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) is a medicinal tree, indigenous to the Indian-subcontinent, whose medicinal properties have led to it being heralded as the tree which is the "panacea for all diseases". However, neem leaf is extremely bitter, in large part due to its limonoid content, making it unpalatable. The objective of this study was to apply two adsorbent based strategies, namely solid phase extraction (SPE) and Amberlite XAD-16 (AMB) resin, to achieve de-bittering of neem tea and to determine the effects of the de-bittering on the bio-active, color and volatile properties. The solid SPE treatment completely removed the flavonol, quercetin, from neem tea while in Amberlite XAD-16 treated tea (AMB) it was only insignificantly (p > 0.05) reduced. We also observed decreases in total phenolic content and consequently anti-oxidant activities after de-bittering. A 62% mean reduction of limonoid aglycones indicated diminished levels of bitterness. The loss of phenolics lead to a visually appreciable color changes in the treated teas. The de-bittering also leads to a loss of sesquiterpenes, ketones and acids from neem tea. In conclusion, we found that while SPE cartridges were more efficient in removing bitterness, they caused a greater reduction in bio-active compounds than AMB XAD-16 resins, which may ultimately affect the health properties of neem tea.

  4. Tea Plantations and Socio-Cultural Transformation: The Case of Assam (India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Kala Magar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The tea plantations of Assam, which constitute the country’s 53.97 per cent tea area, 49 per cent tea worker population, and 52.04 per cent tea production, occupy an important place in the economy, culture and polity of the state. The onset of tea plantations during British colonial rule has not only changed the landscape of the upper Brahmaputra valley through green tea bushes being nourished by tea tribes from east-central India, but also evolved a distinct tea culture. Although formation of small tea growers has added a new dimension to the growth of tea industry of Assam in recent times, the culture that emerged due to the long continued interaction of British planters, tea worker tribes and indigenous Assamese is well reflected in the language, way of life, work culture, food habits and many other socio-cultural practices in most of the large tea estates in the state. In fact, the impact of tea culture is so penetrative that it has been able to bring about development in the form of tea festival, tea tourism, tea folk songs and dances, etc. in the state. An attempt is made in this paper to explore the role of tea plantation and the people associated with it to the socio-cultural transformation of Assam based on both secondary data and primary data through field study. The primary data have been collected from selected tea estates, tea garden worker colonies, tea-tribe villages and urban dwellers.

  5. Tea polyphenols dominate the short-term tea (Camellia sinensis) leaf litter decomposition*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Dong-mei; Fan, Kai; Yu, Cui-ping; Lu, Ya-ting; Wang, Xiao-chang

    2017-01-01

    Polyphenols are one of the most important secondary metabolites, and affect the decomposition of litter and soil organic matter. This study aims to monitor the mass loss rate of tea leaf litter and nutrient release pattern, and investigate the role of tea polyphenols played in this process. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and classical litter bag method were used to simulate the decomposition process of tea leaf litter and track the changes occurring in major polyphenols over eight months. The release patterns of nitrogen, potassium, calcium, and magnesium were also determined. The decomposition pattern of tea leaf litter could be described by a two-phase decomposition model, and the polyphenol/N ratio effectively regulated the degradation process. Most of the catechins decreased dramatically within two months; gallic acid (GA), catechin gallate (CG), and gallocatechin (GC) were faintly detected, while others were outside the detection limits by the end of the experiment. These results demonstrated that tea polyphenols transformed quickly and catechins had an effect on the individual conversion rate. The nutrient release pattern was different from other plants which might be due to the existence of tea polyphenols. PMID:28124839

  6. The Impact of Tea Crop Insurance in the Development of Tea Industry (Case study: Otagvar, Langrood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hojat Sharifi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The Agricultural Insurance Fund has covered tea crop since (2003. Due to undisputable effect of tea industry in the livelihood and the economy of Northern cities and people of the region, the Fund’s performance gains its importance. So in this paper, we investigate the impact of tea crop insurance in development of tea industry and factors effective on this impact. Our main question to be answered is that whether, in the present situation, tea crop insurance has been able to wield its role in the development of tea industry. To provide an answer to the question above, we employed variety of qualitative and quantitative methods of research. Quantitative method has been done as survey and our instrument was a questionnaire the questions of which were answered by 200 farmers in Otagvar, Langrood. To achieve a better sample population, we have used the random and cluster methods of sampling. Qualitative method has used the discussion groups with insurance agents in Amlash and Kumleh and interview with experts of Organization for Rural Cooperation and Agricultural Insurance Fund.

  7. Identification and quantitation of alkaloids in coca tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Amanda J.; Llosa, Teobaldo; Montoya, Ivan

    2008-01-01

    The consumption of coca tea is a common occurrence in many South American countries. The tea is often packaged in individual servings as tea bags which contain approximately 1 g of plant material. The consumption of coca tea leads to ingestion of cocaine and other alkaloids: however, there is little information available regarding the pharmacological or toxicological effects that result from consumption of coca tea. We performed a series of studies with coca tea bags from two South American countries, Peru and Bolivia. The alkaloidal content of the ‘coca leaf’ in coca tea bags was determined by two different extraction methods: Soxhlet extraction with methanol (exhaustive extraction), and mechanical agitation with methanol. Extracts were purified by solid-phase extraction (SPE) followed by analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Coca tea prepared from Peruvian and Bolivian coca tea bags was also analyzed by SPE-GC/MS assay. In addition, urine specimens were analyzed from an individual who consumed one cup of Peruvian coca tea and one cup of Bolivian coca tea on separate occasions. Urine samples were analyzed by immunoassay (TDxR) and SPE-GC/MS. Analysis of coca tea bags and coca tea indicated that cocaine, benzoylecgonine, ecgonine methyl ester and trans-cinnamoylcocaine were present in varying quantities. With exhaustive extraction, an average of 5.11 mg, and 4.86 mg of cocaine per tea bag were found in coca leaf from Peru and Bolivia, respectively. The average amounts of benzoylecgonine and ecgonine methyl ester in Peruvian coca leaf were 0.11 and 1.15 mg, and in Bolivian coca leaf were 0.12 and 2.93 mg per tea bag, respectively. trans-Cinnamoylcocaine was found in trace amounts in Peruvian tea bags and 0.16 mg/tea bag of Bolivian tea. When tea was prepared, an average of 4.14 mg of cocaine was present in a cup of Peruvian coca tea and 4.29 mg of cocaine was present in Bolivian tea. Following the consumption of a cup of Peruvian tea by one

  8. Automatic endpoint determination for batch tea dryers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temple, S.J.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.

    2001-01-01

    A laboratory batch fluid-bed dryer was developed for handling small samples of tea for experimental batch manufacture, and this dryer required a means of stopping drying when the process was complete. A control system was devised which requires only the initial weight of the sample to be entered int

  9. Automatic Endpoint Determination for Batch Tea Dryers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temple, S.J.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.

    2000-01-01

    Agricultural Engineering and Physics, Wageningen University, Bomenweg 4, Wageningen, 6703 HD, The Netherlands Abstract: A laboratory batch fluid-bed dryer was developed for handling small samples of tea for experimental batch manufacture, and this dryer required a means of stopping drying when the p

  10. Analysis on Cultural Connotation of Tea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG; Zirui

    2015-01-01

    Recently, a large number of Chinese borrowed words emerge in English.However, cultural connotation of these Chinese borrowed words may fail to penetrate into the minds of foreign people.This study aims to demonstrate the cultural connotation of tea and hopes to raise readers’ cultural awareness, which is beneficial to cross-cultural communication.

  11. Dramatizing History With A Victorian Tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, Pauline Ucci

    1986-01-01

    Describes how a role-playing approach may be used to capture the style, flavor, and conversation of nineteenth-century British life through the staging of a Victorian tea. Examines the economic, social, and cultural questions addressed through the technique. Also discusses evaluation and student impact and recommends the activity for any…

  12. Fault-Tree Compiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Ricky W.; Boerschlein, David P.

    1993-01-01

    Fault-Tree Compiler (FTC) program, is software tool used to calculate probability of top event in fault tree. Gates of five different types allowed in fault tree: AND, OR, EXCLUSIVE OR, INVERT, and M OF N. High-level input language easy to understand and use. In addition, program supports hierarchical fault-tree definition feature, which simplifies tree-description process and reduces execution time. Set of programs created forming basis for reliability-analysis workstation: SURE, ASSIST, PAWS/STEM, and FTC fault-tree tool (LAR-14586). Written in PASCAL, ANSI-compliant C language, and FORTRAN 77. Other versions available upon request.

  13. Research progress in white tea and Anji white tea%白茶与安吉白茶的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓静; 王远兴; 丁建

    2013-01-01

    在中国六大茶(绿茶、红茶、乌龙茶、白茶、黄茶和黑茶)中,安吉白荼属于绿茶,由于名称与白茶相似,且具有类似的药理功效,常易被混淆本文从白茶和安吉白茶的发展历史、药理学研究和产品开发三个方面对白茶和安吉白荼进行综述,并对两者的发展前景进行展望.%White tea is one of China's six major teas (green tea,black tea,oolong tea,white tea,yellow tea and dark tea);Anji white tea,which has similar name and pharmacological effects with white tea,actually belongs to green tea. In this article,history of white tea and Anji white tea was briefly introduced,pharmacological effects and product development of white tea and Anji white tea were reviewed,and future prospects of research on white tea and Anji white tea were also proposed.

  14. Study on the Quality Standard of Essential Oil of 1,8-cineole Rich Melaleuca alterni f olia%1,8-桉叶素型互叶白千层精油的质量标准研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨辉; 刘布鸣; 韦刚; 林霄; 柴玲; 莫建光; 白懋嘉

    2011-01-01

    The essential oil of 1, 8-cineole rich Melaleuca alternifolia was extracted from Melaleuca alternifolia leaves by steam distillation. The TLC method was adopted to analyze and identify the oil and GC-FID was used to determine the relative content of main components in the oil. Comparing with the standard of tea tree oil, we gave the quality standard proposal of the oil of 1,8-cineole rich Melaleuca alternifolia , which provided references for the development and research of the oil of 1,8-cineole rich Melaleuca alternifolia .%用水蒸气蒸馏法提取1,8-桉叶素型互叶白干层精油,通过薄层色谱法对其进行定性鉴别,并采用气相色谱测定不同产地精油中的主要成分.结合茶树油标准,提出1.8-桉叶素型互叶白干层精油的质量标准的建议,为1,8-桉叶素型互叶白千层精油的开发、研究提供参考依据.

  15. Clinical application of therapeutic erythrocytapheresis (TEA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valbonesi, M; Bruni, R

    2000-06-01

    Therapeutic erythrocytapheresis (TEA) has been used in different diseases such as polycythemia vera (PV), secondary erythrocytosis or hemochromatosis as a process of the less cumbersome but more expensive phlebotomy. TEA is preferred in emergency conditions such as thrombocytosis or in conditions such as porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT) or erythropoietic porphyria when plasma exchange (PEX) is often combined with TEA to reduce extracellular levels of uroporphyrin which contribute to plasma hyperviscosity. TEA is often combined with drug therapy that varies from etoposide in PV to EPO and desferoxamine which are used to mobilize and reduce iron stores in hemochromatosis. Benefits from this combination may be more long lasting than expected. Nonetheless for TEA, there is no standard protocol and, clinical experience with this therapy remains highly anecdotal. Therapeutic red cell-exchange (TREX) has been used with much interest over the years, starting with the management of hemolytic disease of the newborn and later used to correct severe anemia in thalassemia patients thereby preventing iron overload. It has also been used for the management of complications of sickle cell disease such as priapism, chest syndrome, stroke, retinal, bone, splenic and hepatic infarction or in preparation for surgery by reducing HbS to less than 30%. Automated apheresis has also favored the use of TREX in conditions such as paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria and aniline poisoning, arsenic poisoning, Na chlorate intoxications and CO intoxications, hemoglobinopathies, autoimmune hemolytic anemia, reactions due to ABO incompatibility, in preparation for ABO incompatible bone marrow transplantation or for preventing anti-D immunization after the transfusion of D(+) cells to D(-) recipients. Another field of application has been in the emergency management of intraerythrocytic parasite infections such as malaria and babesiosis. Application of TREX may be wide but its real use remains limited

  16. Development of a Vermi Tea Brewing Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donnalyn C. Cabaces

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Vermicompost, a product of the composting system that utilizes earthworms for the decomposition of the biosolids and/or solid wastes is now considered in organic farming. But since it is applied in solid form, it is difficult for some plants to take up the nutrient contents. The liquid form is the vermi tea which facilitates the plants for fast absorption of the nutrients. The main objective of this study is to develop a vermi tea brewing machine taking into consideration system components and material specifications. Specifically, it aimed to establish the operating time of the machine and to evaluate its performance in terms of brewing efficiency and percent yield. The properties of the produced vermi tea were also evaluated. This is a developmental type of study which consists of development stage, preliminary testing stage and the performance testing stage. The vermi tea brewing machine comprised mainly of the cylindrical container, copper tubings, air pump, vermicompost container and support frame. During preliminary testing, the established machine’s operating time was 24 hours. Performance testing of the machine resulted to 99.58% yield and the brewing efficiency was acceptable in terms of the dissolved oxygen after the process. Properties of the produced vermi tea were tested by accredited laboratories and resulted to ph of 4.23, total NPK of 0.033%, dissolved oxygen of 5.62 mg/L, total coliform of 4,500,000 CFU/ml, mold of 3,000 CFU/ml and yeast of 3,000 CFU/ml. These are acceptable values which indicated that it can be used to improve farming activities.

  17. Black tea polyphenols: a mechanistic treatise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, M S; Imran, A; Sharif, M K; Ahmad, Rabia Shabir; Xiao, Hang; Imran, M; Rsool, H A

    2014-01-01

    Dietary interventions are among the emerging trends to curtail physiological malfunctioning like cancer, diabetes, cardiac complications, etc. The essence of phytonutrients has developed the concept of nutraceuticals at the junction of diet health linkages. In this context, theaflavin & thearubigins are the oxidized derivatives of black tea catechins during fermentation having nutraceutical potential owing to esterification of hydroxyl ring with digallate esters. Theaflavin may influence activation of transcription factors such as NFnB or AP-1 that ultimately hinder the formation of nitric oxide expression gene. Likewise, black tea contains a unique amino acid theanine acts as neurotransmitter owing to its ability to cross the blood-brain barrier. Moreover, it boasts immunity by enhancing the disease-fighting ability of gamma delta T cells. Theaflavin & thearubigins act as safeguard against oxidative stress thereby effective in the cardiac functioning. The mechanistic approach of these antioxidants is likely to be associated with inhibition of redox sensitive transcription factors & pro-oxidant enzymes such as xanthine oxidase or nitric oxide synthase. However, their involvement in antioxidative enzyme induction as in glutathione-S-transferases is also well documented. They act as curative agent against numerous pathological disorders by disrupting the electron chain thus inhibiting the progression of certain ailments. Black tea polyphenols established themselves as strong antioxidants due to their standard one-electron potential, and their vitality is dependent on the concentration of polyphenols and pH for their inclusive execution. Present review is an attempt to enrich the readers regarding the health promoting aspects of black tea polyphenols. Concomitantly, it needs core attention of researchers for the exploitations of black tea flavanols as an important dietary constituent for the vulnerable segment.

  18. Green tea and prevention of esophageal and lung cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jian-Min

    2011-06-01

    Green tea contains high concentrations of tea polyphenols that have shown inhibitory effects against the development, progress, and growth of carcinogen-induced tumors in animal models at different organ sites, including the esophagus and lung. Green tea polyphenols also have shown to suppress cell proliferation and induce apoptosis. Besides antioxidative property, green tea polyphenols have pro-oxidative activities under certain conditions and modulate phase II metabolic enzymes that can enhance the detoxification pathway of environmental toxicants and carcinogens. Although epidemiological studies have provided inconclusive results on the effect of green tea consumption against the development of esophageal and lung cancers in humans overall, the inverse association between green tea intake and risk of esophageal cancer risk is more consistently observed in studies with adequate control for potential confounders. Epidemiological studies also have demonstrated an inverse, albeit moderate, association between green tea consumption and lung cancer, especially in non-smokers. This article reviews data on the cancer-preventive activities of green tea extract and green tea polyphenols and possible mechanisms against the esophageal and lung carcinogenesis in experimental animals, and summarizes the current knowledge from epidemiological studies on the relationship between green tea consumption and esophageal and lung cancer risk in humans.

  19. Evaluation of significant pigmets in green teas of different origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Ošťádalová

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This work monitors flavonoid pigments (theaflavins and thearubigins, and chlorophyll in green teas from different growing regions (India, China, Russia, Vietnam. These pigments affect the quality of the finished tea infusion and their quantity is affected by the way of tea processing (fermentation. 15 samples of green loose teas were selected for the analysis. The content of these pigments was determined using UV-Vis spectrophotometry, the concentration of flavonoid pigments was measured at a wavelength of 665 nm (theaflavins and 825 nm (thearubigins. Concentration of flavonoid pigments was determined using the standard conversion coefficients, which are 38.7 for TRs and 1.4 for TFs. Chlorophyll concentration was measured at 642.5 and 660 nm. Chlorophyll concentration was determined by the conversion using international standard conversion coefficients and calculation of linear regressions. The results were statistically processed and evaluated in the program of UNISTAT version 5.6. The total amount of chlorophyll ranged from 0.20 to 1.33 mg/L of tea. Concentrations of theaflavin ranged from 0.15 to 0.66 g/100 g of tea and TRs from 2.00 to 11.15 g/100 g of tea. The results showed that the amount of theaflavins, thearubigins and chlorophyll in green teas varied (P <0,05, especially in teas from lowlands in Vietnam and Krasnodar (Russia. Statistically demonstrable difference (P <0,05 in the content of pigments was also recorded in a group of Indian teas (from lowlands and, from a group of Chinese teas, a statistical difference (P <0,05 was demonstrated in the content of pigments in the mountain teas. On the basis of the results it can be concluded that the quality of green tea is mainly influenced by the processing method depending on the processing area (the factory, than by their country of origin.

  20. Sensory characteristics and consumer acceptability of decaffeinated green teas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S M; Lee, H-S; Kim, K-H; Kim, K-O

    2009-04-01

    Green tea has been widely consumed for its mild flavors and its health benefits, yet caffeine in green tea has been a limitation for those who want to avoid it. The limitation brought increase in need for decaffeinated products in the green tea market. Most of the conventional decaffeination techniques applied in food use organic solvents. However, supercritical carbon dioxide fluid extraction (SC-CO2) method is gaining its intension as one of the future decaffeination methods that overcomes the problems of conventional methods. The purpose of this study was to identify sensory characteristics of decaffeinated green teas applied with SC-CO2 method and to observe the relationship with consumer acceptability to elucidate the potentiality of applying SC-CO2 technique in decaffeinated green tea market. Descriptive analysis was performed on 8 samples: green teas containing 4 caffeine levels (10%, 35%, 60%, and 100%) infused at 2 infusing periods (1 or 2 min). It was found that the SC-CO2 process not only reduced caffeine but also decreased some important features of original tea flavors. Two groups were recruited for consumer acceptability test: one (GP I, N = 52), consuming all types of green teas including hot/cold canned teas; and the other (GP II, N = 40), only consuming the loose type. While GP II liked original green tea the most, GP I liked highly decaffeinated green teas. Although the SC-CO2 method had limitations of losing complex flavors of green teas, it appeared to have future potential in the decaffeinated green tea market within or without the addition of desirable flavors.

  1. Isolation of Cronobacter sakazakii from different herbal teas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Marija M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacground/Aim. Cronobacter sakazakii (C. sakazakii is an emerging food-borne pathogen that has increasingly raised interest among the whole public community and food industry, especially in the production of powder infant formula. It has been isolated from water, sediment and soil. The question is whether this pathogen can be present in herbal teas. Herbal teas are widely used for great number of health problems, as an additional or sometimes only “medicine” given. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of C. sakazakii in herbal teas which are traditionally used for all restricted populations, including newborns and immunocompromised infant and adults. Methods. In this study 150 samples of dried herbal teas were tested: Children (Baby tea (11, Althaea officinalis (7, Sennae folium (4, Mentha piperita (8, Hypericum perforatum (3, Thymus serpyllum (5, Matricaria recutita (6, Fruit tea (18, Black, Green and Rooibos tea (11, Salvia officinalis (9, Arctostaphylos uva ursi (5, Urtica dioica (3, Achillea millefolium (2, Melissa officinalis (4, Cynosbati fructus (3, Flower Herbal tea (3 and 17 different mixtures of tea (48 samples. The presence of C. sakazakii was also investigated in previously positive samples of prepared teas (48 samples after 2 h, 12 h and 24 h. C. sakazakii was isolated by the use of the official method ISO TS 22964 : 2006 and confirmed with the biochemical test API 20E (Biomerieux-France. Results. The obtained results showed that C. sakazakii was isolated from 48 (32% samples dried herbal teas. C. sakazakii was not isolated only from 2 (4% of the 48 tested samples of prepared tea and in 46 (96% of the samples C. sakazakii remained viable after 2 h, 12 h and 24 h. Conclusion. Herbal teas should be carefully used, especially for infants and immunocompromited people with severe chronic diseases because of the possibility of infection by C. sakazakii. Better control and improve testing as well as new facts about

  2. Pu-erh tea, green tea, and black tea suppresses hyperlipidemia, hyperleptinemia and fatty acid synthase through activating AMPK in rats fed a high-fructose diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hsiu-Chen; Lin, Jen-Kun

    2012-02-01

    Although green tea extract has been reported to suppress hyperlipidemia, it is unclear how tea extracts prepared from green, oolong, black and pu-erh teas modulate fatty acid synthase expression in rats fed on a high-fructose diet. In this animal study, we evaluated the hypolipidemic and hypoleptinemia effect of these four different tea leaves fed to male Wistar rats for 12 weeks. The results showed that a fructose-rich diet significantly elevated serum triacylglycerols, cholesterol, insulin, and leptin concentrations, as compared with those in the control group. Interestingly, consuming tea leaves for 12 weeks almost normalized the serum triacylglycerols concentrations. Again, rats fed with fructose/green tea and fructose/pu-erh tea showed the greatest reduction in serum TG, cholesterol, insulin and leptin levels. In contrast, serum cholesterol and insulin concentrations of the fructose/oolong tea-fed rats did not normalize. The relative epididymal adipose tissue weight was lower in all rats supplemented with tea leaves than those fed with fructose alone. There was molecular evidence of improved lipid homeostasis according to fatty acid synthase (FAS) protein expression. Furthermore, supplementation of green, black, and pu-erh tea leaves significantly decreased hepatic FAS mRNA and protein levels, and increased AMPK phosphorylation, compared with those of rats fed with fructose only. These findings suggest that the intake of green, black, and pu-erh tea leaves ameliorated the fructose-induced hyperlipidemia and hyperleptinemia state in part through the suppression of FAS protein levels and increased AMPK phosphorylation.

  3. Embeddings of Iteration Trees

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, William

    1992-01-01

    This paper, dating from May 1991, contains preliminary (and unpublishable) notes on investigations about iteration trees. They will be of interest only to the specialist. In the first two sections I define notions of support and embeddings for tree iterations, proving for example that every tree iteration is a direct limit of finite tree iterations. This is a generalization to models with extenders of basic ideas of iterated ultrapowers using only ultrapowers. In the final section (which is m...

  4. Making Tree Ensembles Interpretable

    OpenAIRE

    Hara, Satoshi; Hayashi, Kohei

    2016-01-01

    Tree ensembles, such as random forest and boosted trees, are renowned for their high prediction performance, whereas their interpretability is critically limited. In this paper, we propose a post processing method that improves the model interpretability of tree ensembles. After learning a complex tree ensembles in a standard way, we approximate it by a simpler model that is interpretable for human. To obtain the simpler model, we derive the EM algorithm minimizing the KL divergence from the ...

  5. Covering tree with stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumbach, Jan; Guo, Jian-Ying; Ibragimov, Rashid

    2013-01-01

    We study the tree edit distance problem with edge deletions and edge insertions as edit operations. We reformulate a special case of this problem as Covering Tree with Stars (CTS): given a tree T and a set of stars, can we connect the stars in by adding edges between them such that the resulting ...

  6. Covering tree with stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumbach, Jan; Guo, Jiong; Ibragimov, Rashid

    2015-01-01

    We study the tree edit distance problem with edge deletions and edge insertions as edit operations. We reformulate a special case of this problem as Covering Tree with Stars (CTS): given a tree T and a set of stars, can we connect the stars in by adding edges between them such that the resulting ...

  7. The Wish Tree Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Sarah DeWitt

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the author's experience in implementing a Wish Tree project in her school in an effort to bring the school community together with a positive art-making experience during a potentially stressful time. The concept of a wish tree is simple: plant a tree; provide tags and pencils for writing wishes; and encourage everyone to…

  8. Winter Birch Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Debra; Rounds, Judy

    2011-01-01

    Trees are great inspiration for artists. Many art teachers find themselves inspired and maybe somewhat obsessed with the natural beauty and elegance of the lofty tree, and how it changes through the seasons. One such tree that grows in several regions and always looks magnificent, regardless of the time of year, is the birch. In this article, the…

  9. Total well dominated trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finbow, Arthur; Frendrup, Allan; Vestergaard, Preben D.

    cardinality then G is a total well dominated graph. In this paper we study composition and decomposition of total well dominated trees. By a reversible process we prove that any total well dominated tree can both be reduced to and constructed from a family of three small trees....

  10. Macro tree transducers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelfriet, Joost; Vogler, Heiko

    1985-01-01

    Macro tree transducers are a combination of top-down tree transducers and macro grammars. They serve as a model for syntax-directed semantics in which context information can be handled. In this paper the formal model of macro tree transducers is studied by investigating typical automata theoretical

  11. PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF GREEN TEA FROM PAF-INDUCED NEUROTOXITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Enji; Hah Xuefei; Joseph Rajiv

    2000-01-01

    Objective The protective effect of chinese green tea from PAF-induced neurotoxity was investigated Method LaN1 ( neuroblastoma cell line) was used as neuron. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) -release was an indicator of cell death. Cytoplasmic calcium was measured with Aequouin-loaded method. Results When applied to LaN1 cells, green tea in concentration 2mg/ml or stronger obviously damaged cells. If lower concentration (0. 5mg/ml and l.Omg/ml) of green tea were applied, green tea inhibited the elevation of intracellular calcium and reduced the cytotoxity induced by PAF in neurons. Conclusion PAF plays an important role in brain injury and stroke, the protective effect of green tea could be a basis to explore weather green tea or its derivative may have preventive and therapeutic potential for neuronal injury.

  12. Effects of Water Solutions on Extracting Green Tea Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Ying Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effects of water solutions on the antioxidant content of green tea leaf extracts. Green teas prepared with tap water and distilled water were compared with respect to four antioxidant assays: total phenol content, reducing power, DMPD assay, and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assay. The results indicate that green tea prepared with distilled water exhibits higher antioxidant activity than that made with tap water. The high performance liquid chromatography showed that major constituents of green tea were found in higher concentrations in tea made with distilled water than in that made with tap water. This could be due to less calcium fixation in leaves and small water clusters. Water solutions composed of less mineralisation are more effective in promoting the quality of green tea leaf extracts.

  13. Study on preparation of β-cyclodextrin encapsulation tea extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidong, Liang; Fang, Yu; Zhihong, Tong; Changle, Ren

    2011-11-01

    Microencapsulation of ethanol extract of tea was performed in this study. In order to microencapsulate, β-cyclodextrin was used as wall material. Ethanol extract of tea was used as the core material. Microcapsules in the solid form were obtained by drying the emulsions. RSM showed that optimal processing parameters were as followings: core material/wall material 1/4, β-cyclodextrin content 16%, stirring time 30 min and stirring temperature 200°C. Pharmacological activities of β-cyclodextrin encapsulation tea extract were determined. It was found that β-cyclodextrin encapsulation tea extract could enhance BMD, BMC and bone Ca, Zn and Cu contents. In addition, β-cyclodextrin encapsulation tea extract could still reduce blood Ca contents. These results indicated that β-cyclodextrin encapsulation tea extract was useful for improving bone quality in aged animals.

  14. TEA: A Code for Calculating Thermochemical Equilibrium Abundances

    CERN Document Server

    Blecic, Jasmina; Bowman, M Oliver

    2015-01-01

    We present an open-source Thermochemical Equilibrium Abundances (TEA) code that calculates the abundances of gaseous molecular species. The code is based on the methodology of White et al. (1958) and Eriksson (1971). It applies Gibbs free-energy minimization using an iterative, Lagrangian optimization scheme. Given elemental abundances, TEA calculates molecular abundances for a particular temperature and pressure or a list of temperature-pressure pairs. We tested the code against the method of Burrows & Sharp (1999), the free thermochemical equilibrium code CEA (Chemical Equilibrium with Applications), and the example given by White et al. (1958). Using their thermodynamic data, TEA reproduces their final abundances, but with higher precision. We also applied the TEA abundance calculations to models of several hot-Jupiter exoplanets, producing expected results. TEA is written in Python in a modular format. There is a start guide, a user manual, and a code document in addition to this theory paper. TEA is ...

  15. Tea and cancer prevention: studies in animals and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Fung-Lung; Schwartz, Joel; Herzog, Christopher R; Yang, Yang-Ming

    2003-10-01

    The role of tea in protection against cancer has been supported by ample evidence from studies in cell culture and animal models. However, epidemiological studies have generated inconsistent results, some of which associated tea with reduced risk of cancer, whereas others found that tea lacks protective activity against certain human cancers. These results raise questions about the actual role of tea in human cancer that needs to be addressed. This article is intended to provide a better perspective on this controversy by summarizing the laboratory studies in animals and humans with emphasis on animal tumor bioassays on skin, lung, mammary glands and colon, and the molecular and cellular mechanisms affected by tea. Finally, a recent small pilot intervention study with green tea in smokers is presented.

  16. Acute effects of tea consumption on attention and mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einöther, Suzanne J; Martens, Vanessa E

    2013-12-01

    Tea has historically been associated with mood and performance benefits, such as relaxation and concentration. This review summarizes the research on the acute effects of tea, and its ingredients theanine and caffeine, on attention and mood. Consistent with abundant research on the benefits of caffeine, the performance benefits of tea were identified in a number of studies, with particularly consistent evidence for improved attention. Tea consumption also consistently improved self-reported alertness and arousal, whereas effects on pleasure or relaxation were less consistent. In addition to the research on caffeine in real-life performance, 2 recent studies have provided a broader perspective on tea's effects on psychological function in that they showed beneficial effects in related areas such as work performance and creativity. These studies showed the validity of laboratory findings by supporting the idea that tea consumption has acute benefits on both mood and performance in real-life situations.

  17. Polyphenolic chemistry of tea and coffee: a century of progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Ho, Chi-Tang

    2009-09-23

    Tea and coffee, the most popular beverages in the world, have been consumed for thousands of years for their alluring flavors and health benefits. Polyphenols, particularly flavonoids and phenolic acids, are of great abundance in tea and coffee and contribute a lot to their flavor and health properties. This paper reviews the polyphenol chemistry of tea and coffee, specifically their stability, and scavenging ability of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive carbonyl species (RCS). During the manufacturing and brewing process, green tea and black tea polyphenols undergo epimerization and oxidation, respectively. Meanwhile, the lactonization and the polymerization of chlorogenic acid are the major causes for the degradation of polyphenols in coffee. Tea catechins, besides having antioxidant properties, have the novel characteristic of trapping reactive carbonyl species. The A ring of the catechins is the binding site for RCS trapping, whereas the B ring is the preferred site for antioxidation.

  18. Cannabis tea revisited: a systematic evaluation of the cannabinoid composition of cannabis tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazekamp, Arno; Bastola, Krishna; Rashidi, Hassan; Bender, Johan; Verpoorte, Rob

    2007-08-15

    Cannabis is one of the oldest known medicinal plants, and a large variety of biological activities have been described. The main constituents, the cannabinoids, are thought to be most important for these activities. Although smoking of cannabis is by far the most common way of consumption, a significant part of medicinal users consume it in the form of a tea. However, not much is known about the composition of cannabis tea, or the effect of different parameters during preparation, handling or storage. In this study we used the high-grade cannabis available in Dutch pharmacies to study the cannabinoid composition of tea under standardized and quantitative conditions. Experimental conditions were systematically varied in order to mimic the possible variations made by medicinal users. During analysis there was a specific focus on the cannabinoid tetrahydrocannabinol and its acidic precursor, tetrahydrocannabinolic acid. Also the role of non-psychoactive cannabinoids as components of cannabis tea are discussed. The results obtained in this study provide a clear quantitative insight in the phytochemistry of cannabis tea preparation and can contribute to a better appreciation of this mode of cannabis administration.

  19. Induction of Callus and Regeneration in Melaleuca alternifolia%互叶白千层愈伤组织诱导及植株再生

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王小敏; 莫昭展; 吴敏

    2014-01-01

    本文报导了互叶白千层从无菌种子苗叶片诱导愈伤组织到植株再生的研究结果.实验表明:以继代代数不同的无菌苗叶片为诱导材料,在MS基本培养基中添加TDZ0.4mg/L+2,4-D0.4mg/L的第五代继代苗诱导效果较好,愈伤组织诱导率达100%.在互叶白千层愈伤组织分化阶段,在MS基本培养基中,激素组合筛选中以添加6-BA2.0mg/L+IAA2.5mg/L的分化效果较好,分化率高达94.53%.在分化苗伸长生根阶段,以MS+6-BA2.0mg/L+NAA0.8mg/L +AC 0.1%的效果较为显著,苗平均高度9.4cm,苗最壮,根粗且壮.%In this study, the callus induction of aseptic seedlings and the plantlet regeneration of Melaleuca alternifolia were reported. The results showed that the optimization callus induction media was MS medium add TDZ0.4 mg/L+2,4-D0.4mg/L used the fifth generation aseptic seedling and the induction rate achieved 100%. In the stage of callus differentiation, the best differential medium was MS medium supplied with 6-BA2.0mg/L+IAA2.5mg/L and differentiation rate of callus reached 94.53%. The best medium for regenerated plantlets rooting was MS + 6-BA2.0mg/L+NAA0.8mg/L +AC 0.1% and the average of seedling height reached 9.4cm. The seedlings and roots were strongest than those in the other medium.

  20. Trees in Lhasa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Degyi

    2008-01-01

    Trees are flourishing in Lhasa wherever the history exists. There is such a man. He has already been through cus-toms after his annual trek to Lhasa, which he has been doing for over twenty years in succession to visit his tree.Although he has been making this journey for so long,it is neither to visit friends or family,nor is it his hometown.It is a tree that is tied so profoundly to his heart.When the wind blows fiercely on the bare tree and winter snow falls,he stands be-fore the tree with tears of jo...

  1. Distributed Contour Trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morozov, Dmitriy; Weber, Gunther H.

    2014-03-31

    Topological techniques provide robust tools for data analysis. They are used, for example, for feature extraction, for data de-noising, and for comparison of data sets. This chapter concerns contour trees, a topological descriptor that records the connectivity of the isosurfaces of scalar functions. These trees are fundamental to analysis and visualization of physical phenomena modeled by real-valued measurements. We study the parallel analysis of contour trees. After describing a particular representation of a contour tree, called local{global representation, we illustrate how di erent problems that rely on contour trees can be solved in parallel with minimal communication.

  2. Reengineering Model of Supply Chain of Tea Industry in Yunnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Yunnan University of finance and Trade recording to t he statistics of chain's output of tea, Yunnan province has entered the ranks of the larger ones of the production in China. Yunnan's tea industry has the natur al resources and the economic effects envied, on the orther hand, Yunnan's tea m arket has gradually become less and the economic effects have been poor. Through our comprehensive investigation and study, we consider that because the supply chain has seriously been disjointed among production...

  3. The emission spectra of Ar, Kr and Xe + TEA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Masayo; Strock, Pierre; Sauli, Fabio; Charpak, Georges

    1987-03-01

    The emission spectra of Ar, Kr and Xe + 6% TEA gas mixtures are measured by using a single wire proportional counter as the emission source. Asymmetric emission bands are observed in the range of 270 to 350 nm, which can be attributed to the radiative deexcitation of excited TEA molecules. For the practical application of optical readout of avalanche chambers, the Ar + 2.0% TEA + 20% isobutane gas mixture is also examined, and nearly the same emission band is observed.

  4. Tea and bone health: steps forward in translational nutrition12345

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a major health problem in the aging population worldwide. Cross-sectional and retrospective evidence indicates that tea consumption may be a promising approach in mitigating bone loss and in reducing risk of osteoporotic fractures among older adults. Tea polyphenols enhance osteoblastogenesis and suppress osteoclastogenesis in vitro. Animal studies reveal that intake of tea polyphenols have pronounced positive effects on bone as shown by higher bone mass and trabecular bone vo...

  5. Sonme Factors that Affect the Free Radical-scavenging Activity of Tea Extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Some factors that affect the free radical-scavenging activety of two tea extracts were studied in vitro. It was found that concentration of tea extract or heating tea extract or treating with activated carbon and diatomite all had obvious effect on the scavenging activety of green tea extract ,but heating or treating with diaomite had less effect on the scavenging activity of black tea extract. Ascorbic acid, for having synergic effect with tea extracts, could enhance the scavenging activity of tea extracts markedly, and the contrary was cupric ion. Reducing sugars such as fructose and glucose also had some syncrgic effect to tea extracts.

  6. Growth of a Pine Tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollinson, Susan Wells

    2012-01-01

    The growth of a pine tree is examined by preparing "tree cookies" (cross-sectional disks) between whorls of branches. The use of Christmas trees allows the tree cookies to be obtained with inexpensive, commonly available tools. Students use the tree cookies to investigate the annual growth of the tree and how it corresponds to the number of whorls…

  7. Resources Status and Conservation Strategy of Ancient Tea Plant in Xishuangbanna%西双版纳古茶树资源调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗向前; 李思颖; 王家金; 陈啸云; 梁名志; 周玉忠; 蒋会兵

    2013-01-01

    采用线路调查和样地调查相结合的方法,对西双版纳州境内的古茶树进行逐片、逐株全面系统的调查研究,分析了古茶树资源种类、树龄、数量、分布情况和生长状况.结果表明,西双版纳州现存古茶树资源总面积5494.1 hm2,分布于全州18个乡,59个村;古茶树分属3个茶系、7个种和变种;古茶树树龄在1000 a以上的有2株,500~1000 a的有7株,300~499 8的有13株,其余树龄多为100 ~299 a;92.55%的古茶树长势表现健壮,7.45%的古茶树长势较差和濒死.根据调查结果,初步建立了古茶树资源档案,讨论了西双版纳地区古茶树资源面临的生存危机和濒危原因,并对古茶树资源的保护与管理提出了一些建议.%The ancient tea plants were investigated in Xishuangbanna area by routine survey and sampling survey, the species, tree-age, quantity, distribution and growing of ancient tea plants were analyzed, and the archives were built. The results showed that ancient tea plants distributed at 18 townships, 59 villages, and existing areas of 5494.1 hm2 , and it belonged to 3 sevens, 7 species and varieties. There were 2 individuals of ancient tea plants with tree age more than 1000 a, the individual number with tree age of 500 - 1000a, 300 -499a was 7 and 13, respectively, the others in 100 -299 years old. Among these ancient tea plants, 92.55 % are growing well or generally, 7.45 % are growing poorly and dying. According to these investigation results, the survival crisis and endangered reasons of ancient tea plants were discussed in Xishuangbanna area, and some suggestions about management and conservation of ancient tea plants were put forward.

  8. Programming macro tree transducers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick; Day, Laurence E.

    2013-01-01

    A tree transducer is a set of mutually recursive functions transforming an input tree into an output tree. Macro tree transducers extend this recursion scheme by allowing each function to be defined in terms of an arbitrary number of accumulation parameters. In this paper, we show how macro tree...... transducers can be concisely represented in Haskell, and demonstrate the benefits of utilising such an approach with a number of examples. In particular, tree transducers afford a modular programming style as they can be easily composed and manipulated. Our Haskell representation generalises the original...... definition of (macro) tree transducers, abolishing a restriction on finite state spaces. However, as we demonstrate, this generalisation does not affect compositionality....

  9. Effect of different brewing times on soluble oxalate content of loose-packed black teas and tea bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdavi, Reza; Lotfi Yagin, Neda; Liebman, Michael; Nikniaz, Zeinab

    2013-02-01

    Because of the postulated role of increased dietary oxalate intake in calcium oxalate stone formation, the effect of different brewing times on soluble oxalate contents of loose-packed black tea and tea bags was studied. The oxalate content of 25 different samples of loose-packed black teas after brewing at 5, 10, 15, 30, and 60 min and of ten brands of tea bags after infusion for 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 min was measured by enzymatic assay. The oxalate concentration resulting from different brewing times ranged from 4.3 to 6.2 mg/240 ml for loose-packed black teas and from 2.7 to 4.8 mg/240 ml for tea bags. There was a stepwise increase in oxalate concentration associated with increased brewing times.

  10. Cardiovascular effects of green tea catechins: progress and promise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mohammed A

    2012-08-01

    Recently, there is a growing interest in the cardiovascular beneficial effects of green tea. Epidemiological and clinical studies have suggested that consumption of green tea is inversely associated with the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases. Catechins, the major flavonoid constituents of green tea, exert cardioprotective effects through diverse mechanisms that include reversal of endothelial dysfunctions, decreasing inflammatory biomarkers, and providing antioxidant, antiplatelet and antiproliferative effects. Moreover, dietary consumption of green tea catechins has beneficial effects on blood pressure and lipid parameters. This review will focus on discussing the latest research on the cardioprotective effects of green tea catechins and their underlying molecular mechanisms. Several recent patents pertinent to green tea and cardiovascular health will also be discussed. It is noteworthy that clinical studies involving green tea are fraught with multiple complexity and confounding factors. Therefore, a rigorous assessment of the effects of green tea catechins in well-controlled human trials will be required for better understanding of the effects of green tea in cardiovascular health.

  11. Survey on Fertility of Tea Garden Soil in Meizhou Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhiping; PENG; Jichuan; HUANG; Junhong; YU; Zhidui; PENG; Zhijun; LIN; Linxiang; YANG; Xuena; WU

    2013-01-01

    Survey on fertility of tea garden soil in Meizhou region indicates that tea garden soil has strong acidity; organic matter content remains at medium level; there is a severe lack of available content of nitrogen(N),phosphorus(P) and potassium(K); available calcium(Ca) and magnesium(Mg) content is also insufficient; available sulfur(S) is abundant. In the management of tea cultivation,it is recommended to supplement organic fertilizer,balance the application of NPK fertilizer,and adequately alleviate shortage of Ca and Mg element,to guarantee high and stable yield of tea.

  12. Effects of an Intensive Resistant Training Sessions and Green Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Esmaeil Afzalpour

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intensive and acute exercise trainings may induce oxidative stress, but antioxidant supplements may attenuate its degenerative consequences. The aim of this research was to examine the effect of green tea supplementation on the oxidative stress indices after an intensive resistance training session. Materials and Methods: 40 non-athletes (without regular physical activity women were randomly divided into 4 equal (n=10 groups including green tea supplementation, green tea supplementation plus resistance training, resistance training, and control groups. After supplementation period (600 mg/day, 14 days, resistance training and green tea supplementation plus resistance training groups performed an intensive resistance training session at 75-85 % of one repetition maximum. The malondialdehyde and total thiol were measured as oxidative stress indices. Data were analyzed by using of repeated measure ANOVA and LSD tests at p<0.056T. Results: Results showed that after 14 days of green tea consumption, malondialdehyde significantly decreased in green tea supplementation (p=0.03 and green tea supplementation plus resistance training (p=0.01 groups, while total thiol increased significantly (p=0.01 in two green tea supplementation groups. However, an intensive resistance training session increased malondialdehyde (p=0.01 without any significantly changes in total thiol (p=0.426T. Conclusion: It seems that green tea supplementation can inhibit exercise-induced protein and lipid oxidation in non-athletes women via enhancement of antioxidant defense system of the body6T.6T

  13. Green tea and bone health: Evidence from laboratory studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chwan-Li; Yeh, James K; Cao, Jay J; Chyu, Ming-Chien; Wang, Jia-Sheng

    2011-08-01

    Osteoporosis is a major health problem in the elderly. Epidemiological evidence has shown an association between tea consumption and the prevention of bone loss in the elderly population. Ingestion of green tea and green tea bioactive compounds may be beneficial in mitigating bone loss of this population and decreasing their risk of osteoporotic fractures. This review describes the effect of green tea with its bioactive components on bone health with an emphasis on the following: (i) the etiology of osteoporosis, (ii) evidence of osteo-protective impacts of green tea on bone mass and microarchitecture in various bone loss models in which induced by aging, sex hormone deficiency, and chronic inflammation, (iii) discussion of impacts of green tea on bone mass in two obesity models, (iv) observation of short-term green tea supplementation given to postmenopausal women with low bone mass, (v) possible mechanisms for the osteo-protective effects of green tea bioactive compounds, and (vi) a summary and future research direction of green tea and bone health.

  14. Tea consumption and risk of head and neck cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Chih Huang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The current study evaluated the association between tea consumption and head and neck cancer (HNC in Taiwan, where tea is a major agricultural product and a popular beverage. METHODS: Interviews regarding tea consumption (frequency, duration, and types were conducted with 396 HNC cases and 413 controls. Unconditional logistic regression was performed to estimate the odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence interval (CI of HNC risk associated with tea drinking, adjusted for sex, age, education, cigarette smoking, betel quid chewing, and alcohol drinking. RESULTS: A reduced HNC risk associated with tea drinking (OR for every cup per day = 0.96, 95% CI: 0.93-0.99; OR for ≧5 cups per day = 0.60, 95% CI: 0.39-0.94 was observed. The association was especially significant for pharyngeal cancer (OR for every cup per day = 0.93, 95% CI: 0.88-0.98; OR for ≧5 cups per day = 0.32, 95% CI: 0.16-0.66. A significant inverse association between HNC and tea consumption was observed particularly for green tea. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that tea drinking may reduce the risk of HNC. The anticancer property of tea, if proven, may offer a natural chemopreventive measure to reduce the occurrence of HNC.

  15. Antioxidant effects of green tea polyphenols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The unprecedented interest in the antioxidant activity of green tea polyphenols (GTP) is due to the apparent health benefits of tea drinking and the experimental results with the polyphenols. The results suggest that the galloylated catechins show stronger antioxidant effect than that of nongalloylated catechins and the double bond in C ring also plays an important role in this effect. There are synergic effects between different catechins and the antioxidant effectof (+)-epimers is stronger than that of (-)-epimers. The active site to scavenge free radicals mainly locates in p-hydroxyl of phenol in gallic acid and hydroxyl of phenol in the pyrane also shows activity. The large π bond in chromane and benzene ring of catechin is the structure base for their antioxidant effects. The prevent effect of GTP against diseases and their redox regulation in cell signal pathway are very important to be studied in the future.

  16. Assessment of culturable tea rhizobacteria isolated from tea estates of Assam, India for growth promotion in commercial tea cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jintu eDutta

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, 217 rhizobacterial isolates were obtained from six different tea estates of Assam, India and subjected to preliminary in vitro plant growth promotion (PGP screening for indole acetic acid (IAA production, phosphate solubilization, siderophore production and ammonia production. 50 isolates showed all the PGP traits and 5 isolates did not exhibit any PGP traits. These 50 potential isolates were further analyzed for quantitative estimation of the PGP traits along with the aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC deaminase, protease and cellulose production. After several rounds of screening, four rhizobacteria were selected based on their maximum ability to produce in vitro PGP traits and their partial 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that they belong to Enterobacter lignolyticus strain TG1, Burkholderia sp. stain TT6, Bacillus pseudomycoides strain SN29 and Psedumonas aeruginosa strain KH45. To evaluate the efficacy of these four rhizobacteria as plant growth promoters, three different commercially important tea clones TV1, TV19 and TV20 plants were inoculated with these rhizobacteria in greenhouse condition and compared to the uninoculated control plants. Though, all the rhizobacterial treatments showed an increase in plant growth compared to control but the multivariate PCA analysis confirmed more growth promotion by TG1 and SN29 strains than the other treatments in all three clones. To validate this result, the fold change analysis was performed and it revealed that the tea clone TV19 plants inoculated with the E. lignolyticus strain TG1 showed maximum root biomass production with an increase in 4.3 fold, shoot biomass with increase in 3.1 fold, root length by 2.2 fold and shoot length by 1.6 fold. Moreover, two way ANOVA analysis also revealed that rhizobacterial treatment in different tea clones showed the significant increase (p<0.05 in growth promotion compared to the control. Thus, this study indicates that the

  17. Ancient Road For Tea Horse Trade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    For many, manypeople in theworld,a roadexclusively devot-ed to the tea-horse tradewould be considered some-thing of a tall tale.However,such a road did exist,fromthe Tang Dynasty(618-907)to the opening of the Yun-nan-Tibet and Sichuan-TibetHighways in the 196Os.Insome areas,sections of theroad are still used for trans-port purposes.

  18. Ribonucleic acids in different tea fungus beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malbaša Radomir V.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In human nutrition, nucleic acids have to be balanced and limited up to 2 g/day because purines are degraded to urate, and excessive production of urate is a cause of gout which primarily affects adult males. Tea fungus beverage is a well known drink with high nutritional value and certain curative effects. Its benefits have been proved in a number of studies but it is still necessary to examine some potential harmful effects of this beverage. The aim of this paper was to investigate content of ribonucleic acids (RNA produced during tea fungus fermentation on a usual substrate sweetened black tea, and on Jerusalem artichoke tubers (J.A.T extract using method by Munro and Fleck (1966. pH, ribonucleic acids and also the production of proteins that affect purity of nucleic acids preparations were monitored. A higher value of RNA has been noticed in J.A.T. beverage (0.57 mg/ml and with observation of usual daily dose of the beverage it is completely safe and useful one.

  19. Tea and Recurrent Clostridium difficile Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oman Evans Ii, Martin; Starley, Brad; Galagan, Jack Carl; Yabes, Joseph Michael; Evans, Sara; Salama, Joseph John

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims. Studies have shown effects of diet on gut microbiota. We aimed to identify foods associated with recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). Methods. In this cross-sectional survey, consecutive patients diagnosed with CDI were identified by electronic medical records. Colitis symptoms and positive Clostridium difficile assay were confirmed. Health-care onset-health-care facility associated CDI was excluded. Food surveys were mailed to 411 patients. Survey responses served as the primary outcome measure. Spearman's rank correlation identified risk factors for CDI recurrence. Results. Surveys were returned by 68 patients. Nineteen patients experienced CDI recurrence. Compared to patients without CDI recurrence, patients with CDI recurrence had more antibiotics prescribed preceding their infection (p = 0.003). Greater numbers of the latter also listed tea (p = 0.002), coffee (p = 0.013), and eggs (p = 0.013), on their 24-hour food recall. Logistic regression identified tea as the only food risk factor for CDI recurrence (adjusted OR: 5.71; 95% CI: 1.26-25.89). Conclusion. The present results indicate a possible association between tea and CDI recurrence. Additional studies are needed to characterize and confirm this association.

  20. Structure and function of the universal stress protein TeaD and its role in regulating the ectoine transporter TeaABC of Halomonas elongata DSM 2581(T).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweikhard, Eva S; Kuhlmann, Sonja I; Kunte, Hans-Jörg; Grammann, Katrin; Ziegler, Christine M

    2010-03-16

    The halophilic bacterium Halomonas elongata takes up the compatible solute ectoine via the osmoregulated TRAP transporter TeaABC. A fourth orf (teaD) is located adjacent to the teaABC locus that encodes a putative universal stress protein (USP). By RT-PCR experiments we proved a cotranscription of teaD along with teaABC. Deletion of teaD resulted in an enhanced uptake for ectoine by the transporter TeaABC and hence a negative activity regulation of TeaABC by TeaD. A transcriptional regulation via DNA binding could be excluded. ATP binding to native TeaD was shown by HPLC, and the crystal structure of TeaD was solved in complex with ATP to a resolution of 1.9 A by molecular replacement. TeaD forms a dimer-dimer complex with one ATP molecule bound to each monomer, which has a Rossmann-like alpha/beta overall fold. Our results reveal an ATP-dependent oligomerization of TeaD, which might have a functional role in the regulatory mechanism of TeaD. USP-encoding orfs, which are located adjacent to genes encoding for TeaABC homologues, could be identified in several other organisms, and their physiological role in balancing the internal cellular ectoine pool is discussed.