WorldWideScience

Sample records for alternators

  1. Alternative security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book contains the following chapters: The Military and Alternative Security: New Missions for Stable Conventional Security; Technology and Alternative Security: A Cherished Myth Expires; Law and Alternative Security: Toward a Just World Peace; Politics and Alternative Security: Toward a More Democratic, Therefore More Peaceful, World; Economics and Alternative Security: Toward a Peacekeeping International Economy; Psychology and Alternative Security: Needs, Perceptions, and Misperceptions; Religion and Alternative Security: A Prophetic Vision; and Toward Post-Nuclear Global Security: An Overview

  2. Alternative Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find your chapter: search by state Home > Alzheimer's Disease > Treatments > Alternative Treatments Overview What Is Dementia? What Is Alzheimer's? Younger/Early Onset Facts and Figures Know the 10 Signs Stages Inside the Brain: ...

  3. Cosmic alternatives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Ruth

    2009-04-01

    "Cosmologists are often in error but never in doubt." This pithy characterization by the Soviet physicist Lev Landau sums up the raison d'être of Facts and Speculations in Cosmology. Authors Jayant Narlikar and Geoffrey Burbidge are proponents of a "steady state" theory of cosmology, and they argue that the cosmological community has become fixated on a "Big Bang" dogma, suppressing alternative viewpoints. This book very much does what it says on the tin: it sets out what is known in cosmology, and puts forward the authors' point of view on an alternative to the Big Bang.

  4. Growing Alternatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger-Petersen, Mai Corlin

    2014-01-01

    From 2014, Anhui Province will pilot a reform of the residential land market in China, thus integrating rural Anhui in the national housing market. In contrast, artist and activist Ou Ning has proposed the Bishan time money currency, intending to establish an alternative economic circuit in Bishan...

  5. Alternative 23

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Alternative 23 is a curated exhibition of works by Steve Aylett, David Blandy & Daniel Locke, Let Me Feel Your Finger First, Laura Oldfield Ford, Plastique Fantastique and Henrik Schrat, including the first screening of Let Me Feel Your Finger First’s Postcolonial Capers. In 1985 DC Comics in the US had taken the commercial decision to unify the complex and contradictory character story arcs from its various strips such as Superman, Batman and Green Lantern. The resultant crossover series...

  6. Energy alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to sharp rise in oil proces after the 1973 Arab-Israeli War, world attention has been focussed on the energy problem. At present the energy problem is limited to the cost and reliability of supply, even though there are enough supplies to go round. However, in the future the problem will be of availability, because in spite of the full exploitation of currently available conventional energy sources, the supply will fall short of demand which will always be increasing. Hence, there is need to develop alternate energy sources, including fast breeder reactors, fusion reactors and MHD. Economic and technical aspects of these energy are discussed. (M.G.B.)

  7. Alternative detente

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of the Chernobyl accident on the disarmament and anti-nuclear movements is discussed. The accident directed attention towards the areas in common rather than the areas of disagreement. It also demonstrated the environmental impact of radioactivity, strengthening the ecological case of the anti-nuclear movement. The issues are discussed for the Western and Eastern bloc countries and the relationship between the two. Sections focus on the Eco-protest, Green politics and economics and on the politics of minority protest and the Green alternative. (U.K.)

  8. Alternative crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surplus cereal production in the EEC and decreasing product prices, mainly for cereals, has prompted considerable interest for new earnings in arable farming. The objective was to examine whether suggested new crops (fibre, oil, medicinal and alternative grains crops) could be considered as real alternatives. Whether a specific crop can compete economically with cereals and whether there is a market demand for the crop is analyzed. The described possibilities will result in ca. 50,000 hectares of new crops. It is expected that they would not immediately provide increased earnings, but in the long run expected price developments are more positive than for cereals. The area for new crops will not solve the current surplus cereal problem as the area used for new crops is only 3% of that used for cereals. Preconditions for many new crops is further research activities and development work as well as the establishment of processing units and organizational initiatives. Presumably, it is stated, there will then be a basis for a profitable production of new crops for some farmers. (AB) (47 refs.)

  9. Energy alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    English. A special committe of the Canadian House of Commons was established on 23 May 1980 to investigate the use of alternative energy sources such as 'gasohol', liquified coal, solar energy, methanol, wind and tidal power, biomass, and propane. In its final report, the committee envisions an energy system for Canada based on hydrogen and electricity, using solar and geothermal energy for low-grade heat. The committe was not able to say which method of generating electricty would dominate in the next century, although it recommends that fossil fuels should not be used. The fission process is not specifically discussed, but the outlook for fusion was investigated, and continued governmental support of fusion research is recommended. The report proposes some improvements in governmental energy organizations and programs

  10. Alternative Splice in Alternative Lice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovar-Corona, Jaime M; Castillo-Morales, Atahualpa; Chen, Lu; Olds, Brett P; Clark, John M; Reynolds, Stuart E; Pittendrigh, Barry R; Feil, Edward J; Urrutia, Araxi O

    2015-10-01

    Genomic and transcriptomics analyses have revealed human head and body lice to be almost genetically identical; although con-specific, they nevertheless occupy distinct ecological niches and have differing feeding patterns. Most importantly, while head lice are not known to be vector competent, body lice can transmit three serious bacterial diseases; epidemictyphus, trench fever, and relapsing fever. In order to gain insights into the molecular bases for these differences, we analyzed alternative splicing (AS) using next-generation sequencing data for one strain of head lice and one strain of body lice. We identified a total of 3,598 AS events which were head or body lice specific. Exon skipping AS events were overrepresented among both head and body lice, whereas intron retention events were underrepresented in both. However, both the enrichment of exon skipping and the underrepresentation of intron retention are significantly stronger in body lice compared with head lice. Genes containing body louse-specific AS events were found to be significantly enriched for functions associated with development of the nervous system, salivary gland, trachea, and ovarian follicle cells, as well as regulation of transcription. In contrast, no functional categories were overrepresented among genes with head louse-specific AS events. Together, our results constitute the first evidence for transcript pool differences in head and body lice, providing insights into molecular adaptations that enabled human lice to adapt to clothing, and representing a powerful illustration of the pivotal role AS can play in functional adaptation. PMID:26169943

  11. Looking for an Alternative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Jack

    1999-01-01

    Argues that high school newspapers might do well to create stronger ties with alternative weeklies. Discusses issues of niche marketing, alternative content, and alternative presentation. Notes that high school papers could learn a lot from alternative newspapers. (SR)

  12. Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Help a Friend Who Cuts? Complementary and Alternative Medicine KidsHealth > For Teens > Complementary and Alternative Medicine Print ... replacement. continue How Is CAM Different From Conventional Medicine? Conventional medicine is based on scientific knowledge of ...

  13. Depleted uranium management alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report evaluates two management alternatives for Department of Energy depleted uranium: continued storage as uranium hexafluoride, and conversion to uranium metal and fabrication to shielding for spent nuclear fuel containers. The results will be used to compare the costs with other alternatives, such as disposal. Cost estimates for the continued storage alternative are based on a life-cycle of 27 years through the year 2020. Cost estimates for the recycle alternative are based on existing conversion process costs and Capital costs for fabricating the containers. Additionally, the recycle alternative accounts for costs associated with intermediate product resale and secondary waste disposal for materials generated during the conversion process

  14. Polyphase alternating codes

    CERN Document Server

    Markkanen, Markku

    2007-01-01

    This work introduces a method for constructing polyphase alternating codes in which the length of a code transmission cycle can be $p^m$ or $p-1$, where $p$ is a prime number and $m$ is a positive integer. The relevant properties leading to the construction alternating codes and the algorithm for generating alternating codes is described. Examples of all practical and some not that practical polyphase code lengths are given.

  15. Alternative Solar Indices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lantz, L.J.

    1980-07-01

    Possible alternative Solar Indices which could either be a perturbation from the currently defined Solar Index or possible indices based on current technologies for other media markets are discussed. An overview is given of the current project, including the logic that was utilized in defining its current structure and then alternative indices and definitions are presented and finally, recommendations are made for adopting alternative indices.

  16. On an Alternative Cosmology

    OpenAIRE

    Vankov, A.

    1998-01-01

    The suggested alternative cosmology is based on the idea of barion symmetric universe, in which our home universe is a representative of multitude of typical matter and antimatter universes. This alternative concept gives a physically reasonable explanation of all major problems of the Standard Cosmological Model. Classification Code MSC: Cosmology 524.8 Key words: standard cosmological model, alternative cosmology, barionic symmetry, typical universe, quasars, cosmic rays.

  17. Complex Alternative Splicing

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Jung Woo; Graveley, Brenton R.

    2007-01-01

    Alternative splicing is a powerful means of controlling gene expression and increasing protein diversity. Most genes express a limited number of mRNA isoforms, but there are several examples of genes that use alternative splicing to generate hundreds, thousands, and even tens of thousands of isoforms. Collectively such genes are considered to undergo complex alternative splicing. The best example is the Drosophila Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule (Dscam) gene, which can generate 38,016 is...

  18. Alternators. Experience feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Study of the technical aspects of various accidents having occured on nuclear alternators operating in the French 900 MW nuclear plant unit, and the respective solutions and possibilities for application to alternators of the 1000 and 1500 MW power plants. Analysis of the accidents on CP 1 program alternators: accidents caused by vibratory fatigue (cracking of the hydraulic connection pipes of the stator winding, cracking of the hydraulic-electric connection between the stator coiling and the output terminals, cracking of the hydrogen cooler finned tubes), pollution by copper oxide of the stator winding cooling water circuit. Accidents on CP 2 alternators: accident on the shaft sealing joint, striking inside the terminal box

  19. Alternative Devices for Taking Insulin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... KB). Alternate Language URL Alternative Devices for Taking Insulin Page Content On this page: What alternative devices ... the skin. [ Top ] What alternative devices for taking insulin are available? Insulin pens provide a convenient, easy- ...

  20. Brandmodstandsbidrag for alternative isoleringsmaterialer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place

    2001-01-01

    Resume af rapport om alternative isoleringsmaterialers brandmodstandsbidrag, udarbejdet af Dansk Brandteknisk Institut under Energistyrelsens udviklingsprogram "Miljø- og arbejdsmiljøvenlig isolering"......Resume af rapport om alternative isoleringsmaterialers brandmodstandsbidrag, udarbejdet af Dansk Brandteknisk Institut under Energistyrelsens udviklingsprogram "Miljø- og arbejdsmiljøvenlig isolering"...

  1. Anvendelse af alternative isoleringsmaterialer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place

    2003-01-01

    Resume af By og Byg Anvisning 207 om anvendelse af alternative isoleringsmaterialer, udarbejdet af Statens Byggeforskningsinstitut under udviklingsprogrammet "Miljø- og arbejdsmiljøvenlig isolering"......Resume af By og Byg Anvisning 207 om anvendelse af alternative isoleringsmaterialer, udarbejdet af Statens Byggeforskningsinstitut under udviklingsprogrammet "Miljø- og arbejdsmiljøvenlig isolering"...

  2. Alternative loop rings

    CERN Document Server

    Goodaire, EG; Polcino Milies, C

    1996-01-01

    For the past ten years, alternative loop rings have intrigued mathematicians from a wide cross-section of modern algebra. As a consequence, the theory of alternative loop rings has grown tremendously. One of the main developments is the complete characterization of loops which have an alternative but not associative, loop ring. Furthermore, there is a very close relationship between the algebraic structures of loop rings and of group rings over 2-groups. Another major topic of research is the study of the unit loop of the integral loop ring. Here the interaction between loop rings and group ri

  3. Seal design alternatives study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results from a study of various sealing alternatives for the WIPP sealing system. Overall, the sealing system has the purpose of reducing to the extent possible the potential for fluids (either gas or liquid) from entering or leaving the repository. The sealing system is divided into three subsystems: drift and panel seals within the repository horizon, shaft seals in each of the four shafts, and borehole seals. Alternatives to the baseline configuration for the WIPP seal system design included evaluating different geometries and schedules for seal component installations and the use of different materials for seal components. Order-of-magnitude costs for the various alternatives were prepared as part of the study. Firm recommendations are not presented, but the advantages and disadvantages of the alternatives are discussed. Technical information deficiencies are identified and studies are outlined which can provide required information

  4. Seal design alternatives study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Sambeek, L.L. [RE/SPEC Inc., Rapid City, SD (US); Luo, D.D.; Lin, M.S.; Ostrowski, W.; Oyenuga, D. [Parsons Brinckerhoff Quade & Douglas, Inc., San Francisco, CA (US)

    1993-06-01

    This report presents the results from a study of various sealing alternatives for the WIPP sealing system. Overall, the sealing system has the purpose of reducing to the extent possible the potential for fluids (either gas or liquid) from entering or leaving the repository. The sealing system is divided into three subsystems: drift and panel seals within the repository horizon, shaft seals in each of the four shafts, and borehole seals. Alternatives to the baseline configuration for the WIPP seal system design included evaluating different geometries and schedules for seal component installations and the use of different materials for seal components. Order-of-magnitude costs for the various alternatives were prepared as part of the study. Firm recommendations are not presented, but the advantages and disadvantages of the alternatives are discussed. Technical information deficiencies are identified and studies are outlined which can provide required information.

  5. An alternative currency

    OpenAIRE

    Frendo, Mario; Duca, Edward

    2013-01-01

    Malta- a tiny island, a minute social reality, a precursory canovaccio of European unification- has a unique asset it ought to be prouder of: culture. http://www.um.edu.mt/think/an-alternative-currency/

  6. Alternatives to Nursing Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this website may not be available. Alternatives to nursing homes Before you make any decisions about long ... live and what help you may need. A nursing home may not be your only choice. Discharge ...

  7. Vaginal dryness alternative treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a day. Soybeans contain plant-based substances called isoflavones. These substances have an effect on the body ... soy for vasomotor symptoms: the Herbal Alternatives for Menopause (HALT) Study. Menopause . 2008;15(1):51-58. ...

  8. Alternative fuel information sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    This short document contains a list of more than 200 US sources of information (Name, address, phone number, and sometimes contact) related to the use of alternative fuels in automobiles and trucks. Electric-powered cars are also included.

  9. The alternative library

    OpenAIRE

    Collinson, Timothy; A. Williams

    2004-01-01

    Much time and effort has been devoted to designing and developing library Web sites that are easy to navigate by both new students and experienced researchers. In a review of the Southampton Institute Library it was decided that in addition to updating the existing homepage an alternative would be offered. Drawing on theory relating to user interface design, learning styles and creative thinking, an Alternative Library navigation system was added to the more traditional library homepage. The ...

  10. Alternative fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium resource utilization and economic considerations provide incentives to study alternative fuel cycles as future options to the PHWR natural uranium cycle. Preliminary studies to define the most favourable alternatives and their possible introduction dates are discussed. The important and uncertain components which influence option selection are reviewed, including nuclear capacity growth, uranium availability and demand, economic potential, and required technological developments. Finally, a summary of Ontario Hydro's program to further assess cycle selection and define development needs is given. (auth)

  11. Ultimacy and alternative possibilities

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, John Martin

    2009-01-01

    I explore a key feature of Robert Kane’s libertarianism (about which I have been puzzled for some time). Kane claims that we should separate issues of alternative possibilities from issues of ultimacy, but he further argues that they are connected in a certain way. I call into question this connection, and I continue to argue for a strict separation of considerations pertaining to alternative possibilities and “actual-sequence” considerations.

  12. Des divisions aux alternances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Clemens

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available - From the divisions to the alternations - Society, action and common good give sense to democracy. Society is in fact a set of unmitigated divisions (horizontal and vertical, material and symbolic. Democratic action, since the discourse’s conflicts, doesn’t change the human beings, but things between they, in the alternation of power’s institutions for our only good in common: the body. With this aim, the Basic Income Earth Network is necessary.

  13. Alternative fuels for vehicles; Alternative drivmidler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-02-15

    Up until 2020 and onwards the analysis indicates that especially electricity, biogas and natural gas as propellants is economically attractive compared to conventional gasoline and diesel while other fuels have the same or higher costs for petrol and diesel. Especially biogas and electricity will also offer significant reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions, but also hydrogen, methanol, DME and to a lesser extent the second generation bioethanol and most of the other alternative fuels reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. Use of the traditional food-based first generation biofuels involves, at best, only modest climate benefits if land use changes are counted, and at worst, significant negative climate effects. Natural gas as a propellant involves a moderate climate gain, but may play a role for building infrastructure and market for gaseous fuels in large fleets, thereby contributing to the phasing in of biogas for transport. The electric-based automotive fuels are the most effective due to a high efficiency of the engine and an increasing proportion of wind energy in the electricity supply. The methanol track also has a relatively high efficiency. Among the others, the track based on diesel engines (biodiesel) is more effective than the track based on gasoline/Otto engines (gas and ethanol) as a result of the diesel engine's better efficiency. For the heavy vehicles all the selected alternative fuels to varying degrees reduce emissions of CO{sub 2}, particularly DME based on wood. The only exception to this is - as for passenger cars - the propellant synthetic diesel based on coal. (LN).

  14. Catalysis for alternative energy generation

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Summarizes recent problems in using catalysts in alternative energy generation and proposes novel solutions  Reconsiders the role of catalysis in alternative energy generation  Contributors include catalysis and alternative energy experts from across the globe

  15. Alternative Green Solvents Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Phillip R.

    2012-01-01

    Necessary for safe and proper functioning of equipment. Mainly halogenated solvents. Tetrachloride, Trichloroethylene (TCE), CFC-113. No longer used due to regulatory/safety concerns. Precision Cleaning at KSC: Small % of total parts. Used for liquid oxygen (LOX) systems. Dual solvent process. Vertrel MCA (decafluoropentane (DFP) and trons-dichloroethylene) HFE-7100. DFP has long term environmental concerns. Project Goals: a) Identify potential replacements. b) 22 wet chemical processes. c) 3 alternative processes. d) Develop test procedures. e) Contamination and cleaning. f) Analysis. g) Use results to recommend alternative processes. Conclusions: a) No alternative matched Vertrel in this study. b) No clear second place solvent. c) Hydrocarbons- easy; Fluorinated greases- difficult. d) Fluorinated component may be needed in replacement solvent. e) Process may need to make up for shortcoming of the solvent. f) Plasma and SCC02 warrant further testing.

  16. Alternatives for pseudofinite groups

    CERN Document Server

    Houcine, Abderezak Ould

    2012-01-01

    The famous Tits' alternative states that a linear group either contains a nonabelian free group or is soluble-by-(locally finite). We study in this paper similar alternatives in pseudofinite groups. We show for instance that an $\\aleph_{0}$-saturated pseudofinite group either contains a subsemigroup of rank $2$ or is nilpotent-by-(uniformly locally finite). We call a class of finite groups $G$ weakly of bounded rank if the radical $rad(G)$ has a bounded Pr\\"ufer rank and the index of the sockel of $G/rad(G)$ is bounded. We show that an $\\aleph_{0}$-saturated pseudo-(finite weakly of bounded rank) group either contains a nonabelian free group or is nilpotent-by-abelian-by-(uniformly locally finite). We also obtain some relations between this kind of alternatives and amenability.

  17. Bouncing alternatives to inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Lilley, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Although the inflationary paradigm is the most widely accepted explanation for the current cosmological observations, it does not necessarily correspond to what actually happened in the early stages of our Universe. To decide on this issue, two paths can be followed: first, all the possible predictions it makes must be derived thoroughly and compared with available data, and second, all imaginable alternatives must be ruled out. Leaving the first task to all other contributors of this volume, we concentrate here on the second option, focusing on the bouncing alternatives and their consequences.

  18. Renewable and alternative energy

    CERN Document Server

    Curley, Robert

    2011-01-01

    With growing populations across the world consuming Earth's limited oil and natural gas reserves, the environmental and economic toll of energy dependence becomes an increasingly global concern. The development of renewable forms of energy-solar, wind, water, and geothermal, to name a few-offers alternatives to fossil fuels. Consumers are embracing these new modes of energy delivery and use. This extensive volume examines the possibility of a cleaner and more energy efficient future by detailing the historic and emerging technologies behind some the most promising alternative resources.

  19. Domestic energy alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These alternatives include biomass, clean coal, geothermal, hydropower, natural gas, nuclear, solar and photovoltaic, and wind. With the current, volatile situation in the Middle East, this nation's political leaders appear to be left scratching their heads in their attempts to come up with new, sound, energy policies to reduce our dependence on foreign oil. Therefore, the FORTNIGHTLY's editorial staff thought that this might be an opportune time to briefly examine some home-grown and environmentally responsible fuel alternatives to black gold. While some of these electricity-producing technologies are still on the horizon, others are available now

  20. Compensated pulsed alternator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This invention relates to an electromechanical energy converter with inertial energy storage. The device, a single phase, two or multi-pole alternator with stationary field coils, and a rotating armature is provided. The rotor itself may be of laminated steel for slower pulses or for faster pulses should be nonmagnetic and electrically nonconductive in order to allow rapid penetration of the field as the armature coil rotates. The armature coil comprises a plurality of power generating conductors mounted on the rotor. The alternator may also include a stationary or counterrotating compensating coil to increase the output voltage thereof and to reduce the internal impedance of the alternator at the moment of peak output. As the machine voltage rises sinusoidally, an external trigger switch is adapted to be closed at the appropriate time to create the desired output current from said alternator to an external load circuit, and as the output current passes through zero a self-commutating effect is provided to allow the switch to disconnect the generator from the external circuit

  1. Alternatives to Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Children Today, 1994

    1994-01-01

    Notes that our capacity to diffuse conflict rests in our ability to recognize and verbalize feelings, develop empathy, and think of alternatives to violence. Explores the influence of role models and culture on violence and how the media can use violent images effectively in helping us confront a culture of violence. (HTH)

  2. Tracking alternative energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the third and last article dealing with global energy topics analyzed at the 13th World Energy Congress. The varied particality or applicability of the following alternative energy sources is briefly discussed at a popular level: fusion, solar, ocean thermal energy conversion, waves, winds, tidal, and geothermal

  3. Alternatives to Blood Transfusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... saved articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Blood Transfusion and Donation + - Text Size Download Printable Version [PDF] » TOPICS Document ... Possible risks of blood transfusions Alternatives to blood transfusions Donating blood Blood donation by cancer survivors To learn more References Previous ...

  4. Alternative health insurance schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Hans; Hansen, Bodil O.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we present a simple model of health insurance with asymmetric information, where we compare two alternative ways of organizing the insurance market. Either as a competitive insurance market, where some risks remain uninsured, or as a compulsory scheme, where however, the level...

  5. TWTF design alternates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Transuranic Waste Treatment Facility (TWTF) will process transuranic (TRU) waste in retrievable storage at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The costs for a TWTF concept using a slagging pyrolysis incinerator were excessive. Alternate concepts using a slow speed shredder, a rotary kiln incinerator, and concrete immobilization should result in significant cost reductions. These will be included in future TWTF considerations

  6. Alternative and Integrative Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are the healthcare rituals practiced by a given culture (eg, Asian, Indian, African). Homeopathic Medicine: This alternative medicine system is based on the principle that “like cures like.” In other words, the same substance ... American Brain Tumor Association 8550 W. Bryn Mawr Ave. ...

  7. [Alternatives to animal testing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabre, Isabelle

    2009-11-01

    The use of alternative methods to animal testing are an integral part of the 3Rs concept (refine, reduce, replace) defined by Russel & Burch in 1959. These approaches include in silico methods (databases and computer models), in vitro physicochemical analysis, biological methods using bacteria or isolated cells, reconstructed enzyme systems, and reconstructed tissues. Emerging "omic" methods used in integrated approaches further help to reduce animal use, while stem cells offer promising approaches to toxicologic and pathophysiologic studies, along with organotypic cultures and bio-artificial organs. Only a few alternative methods can so far be used in stand-alone tests as substitutes for animal testing. The best way to use these methods is to integrate them in tiered testing strategies (ITS), in which animals are only used as a last resort. PMID:20669543

  8. Outlook for alternative transportation fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gushee, D.E. [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This presentation provides a brief review of regulatory issues and Federal programs regarding alternative fuel use in automobiles. A number of U.S. DOE initiatives and studies aimed at increasing alternative fuels are outlined, and tax incentives in effect at the state and Federal levels are discussed. Data on alternative fuel consumption and alternative fuel vehicle use are also presented. Despite mandates, tax incentives, and programs, it is concluded alternative fuels will have minimal market penetration. 7 refs., 5 tabs.

  9. ALTERNATIVE DISPUTE RESOLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Irina IONESCU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Alternative dispute resolution (ADR includes dispute resolution processes and techniques that act as a means for disagreeing parties to come to an agreement short of litigation. It is a collective term for the ways that parties can settle disputes, with (or without the help of a third party.Despite historic resistance to ADR by many popular parties and their advocates, ADR has gained widespread acceptance among both the general public and the legal profession in recent years. In fact, some courts now require some parties to resort to ADR of some type, before permitting the parties' cases to be tried. The rising popularity of ADR can be explained by the increasing caseload of traditional courts, the perception that ADR imposes fewer costs than litigation, a preference for confidentiality, and the desire of some parties to have greater control over the selection of the individual or individuals who will decide their dispute.Directive 2013/11/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council on alternative dispute resolution for consumer disputes and amending Regulation (EC No 2006/2004 and Directive 2009/22/EC (hereinafter „Directive 2013/11/EU” aims to ensure a high level of consumer protection and the proper functioning of the internal market by ensuring that complaints against traders can be submitted by consumers on a voluntary basis, to entities of alternative disputes which are independent, impartial, transparent, effective, simple,quick and fair.Directive 2013/11/EU establishes harmonized quality requirements for entities applying alternative dispute resolution procedure (hereinafter "ADR entity" to provide the same protection and the same rights of consumers in all Member States.Besides this, the present study is trying to present broadly how are all this trasposed in the romanian legislation.

  10. Alternatives to ECMO.

    OpenAIRE

    Donn, S M

    1994-01-01

    The past decade has witnessed technological advancements which are unparalleled in neonatology. ECMO has been demonstrated to be a powerful rescue treatment, but has perhaps been overutilised and is not universally available. Alternative treatments have been shown to be both safe and efficacious in the management of infants with respiratory failure. Direct head to head clinical trials will probably be necessary to establish appropriate criteria and indications for use, given the wide diversit...

  11. Alternative approaches in IVF

    OpenAIRE

    Fauser, Bart; Bouchard, P.; Coelingh Bennink, H.J.; Collins, John; Devroey, P.; Evers, Johannes; Van Steirteghem, A

    2002-01-01

    textabstractVarious new developments in clinical and basic science which may impact on IVF in the near or distant future will be discussed in this review. These key areas include the regulation of early follicle development and the extended in-vitro culture of oocytes and embryos. Moreover, alternative compounds and ovarian stimulation protocols will be discussed, along with highlights in the development of the cryopreservation of excess oocytes or embryos. Finally, the health economics of IV...

  12. Alternative Dispute Resolution

    OpenAIRE

    Mihaela Irina IONESCU

    2004-01-01

    Alternative dispute resolution (ADR) includes dispute resolution processes and techniques that act as a means for disagreeing parties to come to an agreement short of litigation. It is a collective term for the ways that parties can settle disputes, with (or without) the help of a third party.Despite historic resistance to ADR by many popular parties and their advocates, ADR has gained widespread acceptance among both the general public and the legal profession in recent years. In fact, some ...

  13. Metamaterials critique and alternatives

    CERN Document Server

    Munk, Ben A

    2009-01-01

    A Convincing and Controversial Alternative Explanation of Metamaterials with a Negative Index of Refraction In a book that will generate both support and controversy, one of the world's foremost authorities on periodic structures addresses several of the current fashions in antenna design-most specifically, the popular subject of double negative metamaterials. Professor Munk provides a comprehensive theoretical electromagnetic investigation of the issues and concludes that many of the phenomena claimed by researchers may be impossible. While denying the existence of negative refractio

  14. Alternatives to Higgs scalars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We discuss alternatives to the Higgs Scalar doublet Φ of the minimal standard model. In particular we review technicolor (TC) and extended technicolor (ETC), and show that the threat of flavour changing neutral currents (FCNC's) is avoided by walking TC and/or strongly coupled ETC. The phenomenology of minimal TC and the techni-family is discussed. Finally we consider the possibility that the Higgs doublet Φ is a composite bound state of quarks from the third (or fourth) family

  15. Fixed field alternating gradient

    OpenAIRE

    Machida, Shinji

    2013-01-01

    The concept of a fixed field alternating gradient (FFAG) accelerator was invented in the 1950s. Although many studies were carried out up to the late 1960s, there has been relatively little progress until recently, when it received widespread attention as a type of accelerator suitable for very fast acceleration and for generating high-power beams. In this paper, we describe the principles and design procedure of a FFAG accelerator.

  16. Alternative Fuels: Research Progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maher A.R. Sadiq Al-Baghdadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chapter 1: Pollutant Emissions and Combustion Characteristics of Biofuels and Biofuel/Diesel Blends in Laminar and Turbulent Gas Jet Flames. R. N. Parthasarathy, S. R. Gollahalli Chapter 2: Sustainable Routes for The Production of Oxygenated High-Energy Density Biofuels from Lignocellulosic Biomass. Juan A. Melero, Jose Iglesias, Gabriel Morales, Marta Paniagua Chapter 3: Optical Investigations of Alternative-Fuel Combustion in an HSDI Diesel Engine. T. Huelser, M. Jakob, G. Gruenefeld, P. Adomeit, S. Pischinger Chapter 4: An Insight into Biodiesel Physico-Chemical Properties and Exhaust Emissions Based on Statistical Elaboration of Experimental Data. Evangelos G. Giakoumis Chapter 5: Biodiesel: A Promising Alternative Energy Resource. A.E. Atabani Chapter 6: Alternative Fuels for Internal Combustion Engines: An Overview of the Current Research. Ahmed A. Taha, Tarek M. Abdel-Salam, Madhu Vellakal Chapter 7: Investigating the Hydrogen-Natural Gas Blends as a Fuel in Internal Combustion Engine. ?lker YILMAZ Chapter 8: Conversion of Bus Diesel Engine into LPG Gaseous Engine; Method and Experiments Validation. M. A. Jemni , G. Kantchev , Z. Driss , R. Saaidia , M. S. Abid Chapter 9: Predicting the Combustion Performance of Different Vegetable Oils-Derived Biodiesel Fuels. Qing Shu, ChangLin Yu Chapter 10: Production of Gasoline, Naphtha, Kerosene, Diesel, and Fuel Oil Range Fuels from Polypropylene and Polystyrene Waste Plastics Mixture by Two-Stage Catalytic Degradation using ZnO. Moinuddin Sarker, Mohammad Mamunor Rashid

  17. State alternative route designations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-07-01

    Pursuant to the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act (HMTA), the Department of Transportation (DOT) has promulgated a comprehensive set of regulations regarding the highway transportation of high-level radioactive materials. These regulations, under HM-164 and HM-164A, establish interstate highways as the preferred routes for the transportation of radioactive materials within and through the states. The regulations also provide a methodology by which a state may select alternative routes. First,the state must establish a ``state routing agency,`` defined as an entity authorized to use the state legal process to impose routing requirements on carriers of radioactive material (49 CFR 171.8). Once identified, the state routing agency must select routes in accordance with Large Quantity Shipments of Radioactive Materials or an equivalent routing analysis. Adjoining states and localities should be consulted on the impact of proposed alternative routes as a prerequisite of final route selection. Lastly, the states must provide written notice of DOT of any alternative route designation before the routes are deemed effective.

  18. State alternative route designations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-07-01

    Pursuant to the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act (HMTA), the Department of Transportation (DOT) has promulgated a comprehensive set of regulations regarding the highway transportation of high-level radioactive materials. These regulations, under HM-164 and HM-164A, establish interstate highways as the preferred routes for the transportation of radioactive materials within and through the states. The regulations also provide a methodology by which a state may select alternative routes. First,the state must establish a state routing agency,'' defined as an entity authorized to use the state legal process to impose routing requirements on carriers of radioactive material (49 CFR 171.8). Once identified, the state routing agency must select routes in accordance with Large Quantity Shipments of Radioactive Materials or an equivalent routing analysis. Adjoining states and localities should be consulted on the impact of proposed alternative routes as a prerequisite of final route selection. Lastly, the states must provide written notice of DOT of any alternative route designation before the routes are deemed effective.

  19. Is garlic alternative medicine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivlin, Richard S

    2006-03-01

    Garlic has been used medicinally since antiquity. In virtually every early civilization known, such as ancient India, Egypt, Rome, China, and Japan, garlic was part of the therapeutic regimen for a variety of maladies. Therefore, the ancient medicinal tradition of garlic use would qualify it as a folk medicine or as an alternative or complementary medicine. But is garlic an alternative to established methods of disease prevention or treatment? Scientists from around the world have identified a number of bioactive substances in garlic that are water soluble (e.g., S-allyl methylcysteine), and fat soluble (e.g., diallyldisulfide). Mechanisms of action are being elucidated by modern technology. The validity of ancient medicine is now being evaluated critically in cell-free systems, animal models, and human populations. Preventive and therapeutic trials of garlic are still in early stages. There are many promising lines of research suggesting the potential effects of garlic. The current state of knowledge does not recognize garlic as a true alternative, but it will likely find a place for garlic as a complement to established methods of disease prevention and treatment. Our goal should be to examine garlic together with other agents to evaluate its possible efficacy and toxicity under conditions of actual use in humans. PMID:16484549

  20. Alternative Energy Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Michaelides, Efstathios E (Stathis)

    2012-01-01

    Alternative Energy Sources is designed to give the reader, a clear view of the role each form of alternative energy may play in supplying the energy needs of the human society in the near and intermediate future (20-50 years).   The two first chapters on energy demand and supply and environmental effects, set the tone as to why the widespread use of alternative energy is essential for the future of human society. The third chapter exposes the reader to the laws of energy conversion processes, as well as the limitations of converting one energy form to another. The sections on exergy give a succinct, quantitative background on the capability/potential of each energy source to produce power on a global scale. The fourth, fifth and sixth chapters are expositions of fission and fusion nuclear energy. The following five chapters (seventh to eleventh) include detailed descriptions of the most common renewable energy sources – wind, solar, geothermal, biomass, hydroelectric – and some of the less common sources...

  1. Alternatives to nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article discusses several possibilities as alternatives to nuclear energy and their relevance to the Philippine case. The major present and future fuel alternatives to petroleum and nuclear energy are coal, geothermal heat, solar energy and hydrogen, the first two of which are being used. Different conversion technologies are also discussed for large scale electricity production namely solar thermal electric conversion (STC), photovoltaic electric power system (PEPS) and ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC). Major environmental considerations affect the choice of energy sources and technologies. We have the problem of long term accumulation of radioactive waste in the case of nuclear energy; in geothermal and fossil-fuels carbon dioxide uranium and accumulation may cause disastrous consequences. With regard to Philippine option, the greatest considerations in selecting alternative energy options would be resources availability - both energy and financial and technology status. For the country's energy plan, coal and geothermal energy are expected to play a significant role. The country's coal resources are 1.4 billion metric tons. For geothermal energy, 25 volcanic centers were identified and has a potential equivalent to 2.5 x 106 million barrels of oil. Solar energy if harnessed, being in the sunbelt, averaging some 2000 hours a year could be an energy source. The present dilemma of the policy maker is whether national resources are better spent on large scale urban-based energy projects or whether those should be focused on small scale, rural oriented installations which produced benefits to the more numerous and poorer members of the population. (RTD)

  2. Alternate fusion concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review summarizes the status of alternate fusion concepts and plans for their future. The concepts selected for review are those employing electromagnetic confinement for which there have been reasonable predictions of net energy gain from pure fusion and which have shown significant recent development or are the subjects of ongoing international activity. They include advanced tokamaks, stellarators, the spherical torus, reversed-field pinch and dense z-field pinch devices, field reversed configuration, and spheromaks. In addition, an overall view of the status of each concept with respect to achieving ignition and to reactor designs is presented

  3. Alternate fuels; Combustibles alternos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero Paredes R, Hernando; Ambriz G, Juan Jose [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana. Iztapalapa (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    In the definition and description of alternate fuels we must center ourselves in those technological alternatives that allow to obtain compounds that differ from the traditional ones, in their forms to be obtained. In this article it is tried to give an overview of alternate fuels to the conventional derivatives of petroleum and that allow to have a clear idea on the tendencies of modern investigation and the technological developments that can be implemented in the short term. It is not pretended to include all the tendencies and developments of the present world, but those that can hit in a relatively short term, in accordance with agreed with the average life of conventional fuels. Nevertheless, most of the conversion principles are applicable to the spectrum of carbonaceous or cellulosic materials which are in nature, are cultivated or wastes of organic origin. Thus one will approach them in a successive way, the physical, chemical and biological conversions that can take place in a production process of an alternate fuel or the same direct use of the fuel such as burning the sweepings derived from the forests. [Spanish] En la definicion y descripcion de combustibles alternos nos debemos centrar en aquellas alternativas tecnologicas que permitan obtener compuestos que difieren de los tradicionales, al menos en sus formas de ser obtenidos. En este articulo se pretende dar un panorama de los combustibles alternos a los convencionales derivados del petroleo y que permita tener una idea clara sobre las tendencias de la investigacion moderna y los desarrollos tecnologicos que puedan ser implementados en el corto plazo. No se pretende abarcar todas las tendencias y desarrollos del mundo actual, sino aquellas que pueden impactar en un plazo relativamente corto, acordes con la vida media de los combustibles convencionales. Sin embargo, la mayor parte de los principios de conversion son aplicables al espectro de materiales carbonaceos o celulosicos los cuales se

  4. Polyphase alternating codes

    OpenAIRE

    M. Markkanen; Vierinen, J.; Markkanen, J.

    2007-01-01

    We present a new class of alternating codes. Instead of the customary binary phase codes, the new codes utilize either p or p–1 phases, where p is a prime number. The first class of codes has code length pm, where m is a positive integer, the second class has code length p–1. We give an actual construction algorithm, and explain the principles behind it. We ...

  5. Polyphase alternating codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Markkanen

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a new class of alternating codes. Instead of the customary binary phase codes, the new codes utilize either p or p–1 phases, where p is a prime number. The first class of codes has code length pm, where m is a positive integer, the second class has code length p–1. We give an actual construction algorithm, and explain the principles behind it. We handle a few specific examples in detail. The new codes offer an enlarged collection of code lengths for radar experiments.

  6. Alternate transportation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zertuche, Tony; Mckinnie, James

    1988-01-01

    Three missions have been identified by NASA for a Space Shuttle-supplementing Alternate Transportation System (ATS) encompassing combinations of booster vehicles, crew modules, and service modules: (1) to achieve manned access to orbit for Space Station crew rotation every 90 days, (2) the lofting of a logistics module resupplying the Space Station every 180 days, and (3) the simultaneous launch of both crews and logistics to the Space Station. A reentry glider is considered, in conjunction with the Space Shuttle's unmanned cargo version and the Apollo manned capsule, as an important ATS element. The Titan IV/NUS is used as a booster.

  7. Alternatives to fundholding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glennerster, H; Cohen, A; Bovell, V

    1998-01-01

    The new Labour government in the United Kingdom is proposing to adapt the reforms begun by the last Thatcher government. In particular, it is proposing to abolish the most controversial element--general practitioner (GP) fundholding. It is looking for alternatives. The study reported here followed and evaluated several such schemes. While fundholders use their purchasing power directly to force change by threatening "exit" to another provider, other GPs have evolved ways of influencing decisions--enhancing their "voice." The authors develop a theory to predict the conditions favoring the relative success of exit and voice strategies in health purchasing, and describe alternative GP-based purchasing schemes and the reasons they evolved in six sample districts. In four of these districts and eight practices in each, fundholding and non-fundholding GPs were then asked to describe their intentions and the outcomes of the purchasing process in which they had participated. Four specialties were taken as examples. The authors compare the relative success of fundholders and non-fundholders in achieving their objectives. PMID:9493753

  8. Alternative Medicine and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Complementary and Alternative Medicine KidsHealth > For Parents > Complementary and Alternative Medicine Print ... works. previous continue How CAM Differs From Traditional Medicine CAM is frequently distinguished by its holistic methods, ...

  9. Pea Island Alternatives Development Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this Alternatives Development Report is to outline,in broad scope, the options, tools and alternatives available to the US Fish and Wildlife Service...

  10. Alternative splicing and muscular dystrophy

    OpenAIRE

    Pistoni, Mariaelena; Ghigna, Claudia; Gabellini, Davide

    2010-01-01

    Alternative splicing of pre-mRNAs is a major contributor to proteomic diversity and to the control of gene expression in higher eukaryotic cells. For this reasons, alternative splicing is tightly regulated in different tissues and developmental stages and its disruption can lead to a wide range of human disorders. The aim of this review is to focus on the relevance of alternative splicing for muscle function and muscle disease. We begin by giving a brief overview of alternative splicing, musc...

  11. ALTERNATIVE FUELS FOR DIESEL ENGINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Caban

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development and genesis of the use of alternative fuels in internal combustion ignition engines. Based on the analysis of the literature, this article shows various alternative fuels used in Poland and all over the world. Furthermore, this article describes the research directions for alternative fuels use in road transport powered by diesel engines.

  12. ALTERNATIVE FUELS FOR DIESEL ENGINES

    OpenAIRE

    Jacek Caban; Agata Gniecka; Lukáš Holeša

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the development and genesis of the use of alternative fuels in internal combustion ignition engines. Based on the analysis of the literature, this article shows various alternative fuels used in Poland and all over the world. Furthermore, this article describes the research directions for alternative fuels use in road transport powered by diesel engines.

  13. Alternative energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michaelides, Efstathios E. (Stathis) [Texas Christian Univ., Forth Worth, TX (United States). Dept. of Engineering

    2012-07-01

    Alternative Energy Sources is designed to give the reader, a clear view of the role each form of alternative energy may play in supplying the energy needs of the human society in the near and intermediate future (20-50 years). The two first chapters on energy demand and supply and environmental effects, set the tone as to why the widespread use of alternative energy is essential for the future of human society. The third chapter exposes the reader to the laws of energy conversion processes, as well as the limitations of converting one energy form to another. The sections on exergy give a succinct, quantitative background on the capability/potential of each energy source to produce power on a global scale. The fourth, fifth and sixth chapters are expositions of fission and fusion nuclear energy. The following five chapters (seventh to eleventh) include detailed descriptions of the most common renewable energy sources - wind, solar, geothermal, biomass, hydroelectric - and some of the less common sources, such as tidal and wave energy. The emphasis of these chapters is on the global potential of each source; the engineering/technical systems that are currently used in harnessing the potential of each one of these energy sources; the technological developments that will contribute to wider utilization of the sources; and the environmental effects associated with their current and their wider use. The last three chapters are: energy storage, which is the main limitation of the wider use of solar and wind power and will become an important issue if renewable energy sources are to be used widely; energy conservation, which appears to be everyone's favorite issue, but by itself is not a solution to our energy challenge; and energy economics, a necessary consideration in market-driven economies. The fourteen chapters in the book have been chosen so that one may fit a semester University course around this book. At the end of every chapter, there are 12-20 problems

  14. Alternative tsunami models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, A; Lyatskaya, I [Department of Physics, Alabama A and M University, Normal, AL 35762 (United States)], E-mail: arjun.tan@aamu.edu

    2009-01-15

    The interesting papers by Margaritondo (2005 Eur. J. Phys. 26 401) and by Helene and Yamashita (2006 Eur. J. Phys. 27 855) analysed the great Indian Ocean tsunami of 2004 using a simple one-dimensional canal wave model, which was appropriate for undergraduate students in physics and related fields of discipline. In this paper, two additional, easily understandable models, suitable for the same level of readership, are proposed: one, a two-dimensional model in flat space, and two, the same on a spherical surface. The models are used to study the tsunami produced by the central Kuril earthquake of November 2006. It is shown that the two alternative models, especially the latter one, give better representations of the wave amplitude, especially at far-flung locations. The latter model further demonstrates the enhancing effect on the amplitude due to the curvature of the Earth for far-reaching tsunami propagation.

  15. LIU: exploring alternative ideas

    CERN Document Server

    Damerau, H; Garoby, R; Gilardoni, S; Hancock, S; Mikulec, B; Papaphilippou, Y; Rumolo, G; Shaposhnikova, E; Tomas, R

    2014-01-01

    The baseline upgrade scenarios for the injector complex cover the connection of Linac4 to the PSB, the increase of the PSB-PS transfer energy from 1 . 4 GeV to 2 GeV and the major SPS RF upgrade during LS2. The achievable beam characteristics will nonetheless remain below the expectation of the HL-LHC project. Therefore, alternative or additional options like, e.g., special bunch distributions, the use of injection optics optimized for high space charge or extra RF systems will be discussed. The expected beam parameters, possible implementation and impact on beam availability for these more exotic options will be analysed and compared to the LIU baseline plan. Moreover, the potential interest of further batch compression schemes will be evaluated.

  16. Altern als Widerstand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Maierhofer

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Gullettes kulturwissenschaftliche Untersuchung Aged by Culture ist wie bereits ihre zwei vorangehenden Werke, die sich mit Altern beschäftigen – Safe at Last in the Middle Years: The Invention of the Midlife Progress Novel (1988 und Declining to Decline. Cultural Combat and the Politics of the Middle (1997 –, von großem persönlichen Engagement und durch ein politisches Anliegen motiviert. Sowohl die Dringlichkeit als auch der Widerstand, den Gullette, die sich als „age critic“ definiert, als moralische und politische Notwendigkeit postuliert, werden in der Zweiteilung der Abhandlung angesprochen: „Cultural Urgencies“ und „Theorizing Age Resistantly“. Während Gullette den Begriff „aged by culture“ bereits in Declining to Decline einführt, stellt sie ihn nun in den Mittelpunkt ihrer Untersuchung. Das Buch ist einerseits einer gesellschaftspolitischen Analyse der USA gewidmet, andererseits wird eine Theorie des Widerstands gegenüber Altersdiskriminierung entwickelt.

  17. Alternate laser fusion drivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One objective of research on inertial confinement fusion is the development of a power generating system based on this concept. Realization of this goal will depend on the availability of a suitable laser or other system to drive the power plant. The primary laser systems used for laser fusion research, Nd3+: Glass and CO2, have characteristics which may preclude their use for this application. Glass lasers are presently perceived to be incapable of sufficiently high average power operation and the CO2 laser may be limited by and issues associated with target coupling. These general perceptions have encouraged a search for alternatives to the present systems. The search for new lasers has been directed generally towards shorter wavelengths; most of the new lasers discovered in the past few years have been in the visible and ultraviolet region of the spectrum. Virtually all of them have been advocated as the most promising candidate for a fusion driver at one time or another

  18. An Alternative to Tensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Eric

    2008-10-01

    Some of the most beautiful and complex theories in physics are formulated in the language of tensors. While powerful, these methods are sometimes daunting to the uninitiated. I will introduce the use of Clifford Algebra as a practical alternative to the use of tensors. Many physical quantities can be represented in an indexless form. The boundary between the classical and the quantum worlds becomes a little more transparent. I will review some key concepts, and then talk about some of the things that I am doing with this interesting and powerful tool. Of note to some will be the development of rigid body dynamics for a game engine. Others may be interested in expressing the connection on a spin bundle. My intent is to prove to the audience that there exists an accessible mathematical tool that can be employed to probe the most difficult of topics in physics.

  19. Alternatives to neoliberalism?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warring, Niels; Ahrenkiel, Annegrethe; Nielsen, Birger Steen;

    This paper will discuss the consequences of neoliberal governance in Danish day care centres, the social educators’ response, and the possible development of alternatives based on collective participation of social educators and union representatives. We will show how important and unnoticed...... professional competencies come under pressure, and how collective interest representation is challenged. We will discuss how concepts of “gestural knowledge”, “coherence” and “rhythm” open for a new understanding of professional competence. And we will conclude that the social educators and their unions have...... the possibility to contribute to the development of a new welfare paradigm. The paper is based on material from two research projects (Ahrenkiel et al. 2009, 2011) involving social educators and union representatives in day care institutions. We have observed everyday work activities in day care...

  20. BIODIESEL – ALTERNATIVE FUEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darko Kiš

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A limited quantity of oil, the purchase of which also involves major expenses has become an important factor for intensive search and use of alternative fuels. Biodiesel is used in diesel engines, and is manufactured from vegetable oils, animal fats and recycled edible oils. The production and use of biodiesel are very important not only because of its economic and strategic connotations but also because of its environmental advantages. Favourable conditions in Croatia give good opportunities for a self-sufficient oil rape production, possibility for its intensification and employment of a number of people in both the agricultural production and biodiesel production plants. This paper presents a survey of the biodiesel fuel production, the characteristics and impacts it has on the biodiesel engine features as well as its impact on the environment.

  1. Continuous Spontaneous Alternation and Turn Alternation in Artemia sp.

    OpenAIRE

    Çarkoğlu, Can; Yılmaz, Meltem; Balcı, Fuat

    2015-01-01

    Free-running spontaneous alternation refers to the animal’s tendency to prefer the least recently visited locations in successive spatial choices, which is attributed to the animals’ choice between stimuli based on prior experience.  Turn alternation, which is observed in directional choices preceded by a forced turn in one direction, also reflects the animals’ tendency to alternate between directional choices but this tendency has been assumed to rely on other cues (e.g., proprioceptive cues...

  2. The nuclear power alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Director General of the IAEA stressed the need for energy policies and other measures which would help to slow and eventually halt the present build-up of carbon dioxide, methane and other so-called greenhouse gases, which are held to cause global warming. He urged that nuclear power and various other sources of energy, none of which contribute to global warming, should not be seen as alternatives, but should all be used to counteract the greenhouse effect. He pointed out that the commercially used renewable energies, apart from hydropower, currently represent only 0.3% of the world's energy consumption and, by contrast, the 5% of the world's energy consumption coming from nuclear power is not insignificant. Dr. Blix noted that opposition for nuclear power stems from fear of accidents and concern about the nuclear wastes. But no generation of electricity, whether by coal, hydro, gas or nuclear power, is without some risk. He emphasized that safety can never be a static concept, and that many new measures are being taken by governments and by the IAEA to further strengthen the safety of nuclear power

  3. Suncor's alternative energy business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This PowerPoint presentation focused on Suncor's investment in alternative renewable energy. By 2005, the company will have invested $100 million in wind power, solar energy, run-of-river hydro and biomass. In 2001, $20 million was launched for the Sunbridge wind farm project in Gull Lake, Saskatchewan. The company is investing into renewables because it is an opportunity to create regional jobs, there are technological advances in renewables and an opportunity for domestic manufacturing and project management. They also offer improved air quality by reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The barriers that must be overcome include the low demand and low supply for renewables. It was noted that Canada is rich in wind, biomass and solar resources, but renewable energy accounts for only 1.2 per cent of electric power generation. In 2001, Canada generated 198 MW wind power. The U.S. capacity is 4,200 MW and the world capacity is more than 20,000 MW. International competition is well ahead in renewable support. The federal government is offering an investment tax incentive and federal funding program for renewable energy. In addition, provinces are taking some action to support renewable energy, as are individual companies such as Suncor, BC Hydro, and Hydro-Quebec. 3 figs

  4. Alternative Genres of IS Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avital, Michel; Mathiassen, Lars; Crowston, Kevin;

    2012-01-01

    perspectives, research methods, semantic framing, literary styles, and media of expression. Overall, the application of alternative genres is considered to be a generative act that provides an opportunity to take a fresh look and to gain deeper understanding of the subject matter. Nonetheless, paradoxically......The potential value of alternative genres in IS research is the core question that drives this panel discussion. The term “Alternative Genres” refers to unconventional forms of thinking, doing, and communicating scholarship and practice. It relates to innovation with respect to epistemological...... the prevailing genres have much inertia, in spite of the inherent boundary spanning nature of alternative genres. Building on their own recent empirical research, the panelists will debate the potential value of alternative genres as unconventional modality of IS scholarship and how alternative genres...

  5. Krypton control alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A reprocessing plant for 350 metric tons per year LWR spent fuel cooled for at least 7 years is planned in the FRG. A routine Kr-85 retention for radiation protection reasons is not demanded by the German reactor safety and radiation management technology for larger plants in the future. The licensing authorities also do not require a routine Kr-85 retention at the plant site. Technical and safety characteristics of various Kr-85 removal processes are described and compared, including the precleaning steps in an integrated dissolver off-gas system. The interactions with subsequent conditioning and storage of Kr and with process modifications in the plant headend are also taken into account. A commercial use of the inactive Xe and part of the Kr-85 may have an influence on a cost-benefit analysis and the selection of a removal process. Two alternative processes are being developed on an engineering scale. A cryogenic distillation process using an O2-free off-gas is under investigation on a pilot plant scale since 1976. A selective absorption process using freon-12 at low temperatures and at atmospheric pressure has been investigated at the laboratory scale since 1980. Test operation on an engineering scale started late in 1983. Essential results and operating experiences with both facilities are summarized. Technical as well as safety aspects are in favor of the selective absorption process. A final decision on what process will be used in the future shall be made as soon as comparable technical experiences from both processes are available

  6. Alternative fuelds in urban fleets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this presentation the author addresses four main objectives. They are to: discuss programs that are driving the introduction of alternative fuels into fleet operations in urban areas around the country; define alternative fuels; quantify the present use and future projections on alternative fuel vehicles (AVFs) in the Chicago metropolitan statistical area; and discuss benefits of increased use of alternative fuels in urban areas. Factors which touch on these points include: present domestic dependence on petroleum for autos, with usage exceeding production; the large populations in urban areas which do not meet Clean Air Standards; recent legislative initiatives which give guidance and aid in the adoption of such strategies

  7. Alternative fuelds in urban fleets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsay, T.

    1994-12-31

    In this presentation the author addresses four main objectives. They are to: discuss programs that are driving the introduction of alternative fuels into fleet operations in urban areas around the country; define alternative fuels; quantify the present use and future projections on alternative fuel vehicles (AVFs) in the Chicago metropolitan statistical area; and discuss benefits of increased use of alternative fuels in urban areas. Factors which touch on these points include: present domestic dependence on petroleum for autos, with usage exceeding production; the large populations in urban areas which do not meet Clean Air Standards; recent legislative initiatives which give guidance and aid in the adoption of such strategies.

  8. Alternative energy in Nepal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiwari, H.B.; Bhandari, K.P.

    2011-05-15

    Renewable energy Technology (RET) becomes the mainstream option for rural Nepal to access modern source of energy. It focuses on the trend of RET applications consisting of biogas technology, solar thermal, micro and Pico hydropower, biomass technology bio fuel technology, wind power technology etc. The RET's which provide both electricity based as well as non electricity based services, have been shown to most immediately meet the needs of a cleaner indoor environment, better quality lightning for education and income generating, activities, alternative cooking fuels and agro processing as well as rural industries. Improved cooking stoves and much more beneficial than other technologies. Wind energy utilization is still not popular. Solar thermal to generate thermal energy to cook, warm and dry, biogas for lighting and cooking services. Micro hydropower for electric as well as mechanical use and solar PV mainly for domestic lighting may become choice. The most important Renewable Energy Technology (RET's) in Nepal are related to Pico hydropower and micro-hydropower, biomass energy (biogas, briquettes, gasifies, improved cooking stoves, bio-fuels etc.) solar photovoltaic energy, solar PV water pumping, solar thermal energy (solar heater, solar dryers, solar cookers etc.) and wind energy (such as wind generators, wind mills etc.). One renowned Non-governmental organization has been established in the Jhapa and Mornag Bhutanese refugee camp. Two families from all the seven camps in Nepal received one solar cooker, one hay box and two cooking posts to each family. Under this programme, a total of 6,850 solar cookers, 12600 hay boxes and 25,200 cooking pots have been distributed 2009. The number of beneficiaries from this program has reached 85,000. Before the distribution of the cookers and the utensils, the instruction and orientation training for the maintenance and repair and operation method was improved. The refugees were divided in 315 groups of 40

  9. Normetex Pump Alternatives Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Elliot A.

    2013-04-25

    A mainstay pump for tritium systems, the Normetex scroll pump, is currently unavailable because the Normetex company went out of business. This pump was an all-metal scroll pump that served tritium processing facilities very well. Current tritium system operators are evaluating replacement pumps for the Normetex pump and for general used in tritium service. An all-metal equivalent alternative to the Normetex pump has not yet been identified. 1. The ideal replacement tritium pump would be hermetically sealed and contain no polymer components or oils. Polymers and oils degrade over time when they contact ionizing radiation. 2. Halogenated polymers (containing fluorine, chlorine, or both) and oils are commonly found in pumps. These materials have many properties that surpass those of hydrocarbon-based polymers and oils, including thermal stability (higher operating temperature) and better chemical resistance. Unfortunately, they are less resistant to degradation from ionizing radiation than hydrocarbon-based materials (in general). 3. Polymers and oils can form gaseous, condensable (HF, TF), liquid, and solid species when exposed to ionizing radiation. For example, halogenated polymers form HF and HCl, which are extremely corrosive upon reaction with water. If a pump containing polymers or oils must be used in a tritium system, the system must be designed to be able to process the unwanted by-products. Design features to mitigate degradation products include filters and chemical or physical traps (eg. cold traps, oil traps). 4. Polymer components can work in tritium systems, but must be replaced regularly. Polymer components performance should be monitored or be regularly tested, and regular replacement of components should be viewed as an expected normal event. A radioactive waste stream must be established to dispose of used polymer components and oil with an approved disposal plan developed based on the facility location and its regulators. Polymers have varying

  10. Alternatives of menopausal hormone therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Kutlešić Ranko M.; Popović Jasmina; Stefanović Milan; Vukomanović Predrag; Lukić Bojan; Lilić Goran

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. It has been generally accepted that the benefits of menopausal hormone therapy outweigh the risks, but there are still some concerns about the administration of menopausal hormone therapy, which has introduced alternative treatments. Pharmacological Alternatives. Central alpha-2 agonist clonidine is only marginally more effective than placebo, and significantly less effective than estrogen. Antiepileptic drug gabapentin reduces hot flashes; ho...

  11. Orion Project: Alternate Attitude Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Hernandez, A.; Miller, Stephen W.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the study done on alternate attitudes for the Orion project's crew exploration vehicle. The analysis focused on the thermal performance of the vehicle with the alternate attitudes. The pressure vessel heater power, other vehicle heaters and radiator sink temperatures were included in the analysis.

  12. Alternative Fuels in Cement Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Morten Boberg

    The substitution of alternative for fossil fuels in cement production has increased significantly in the last decade. Of these new alternative fuels, solid state fuels presently account for the largest part, and in particular, meat and bone meal, plastics and tyre derived fuels (TDF) accounted for...... the most significant alternative fuel energy contributors in the German cement industry. Solid alternative fuels are typically high in volatile content and they may differ significantly in physical and chemical properties compared to traditional solid fossil fuels. From the process point of view......, considering a modern kiln system for cement production, the use of alternative fuels mainly influences 1) kiln process stability (may accelerate build up of blockages preventing gas and/or solids flow), 2) cement clinker quality, 3) emissions, and 4) decreased production capacity. Kiln process stability in...

  13. NASA Alternative Aviation Fuel Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, B. E.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Thornhill, K. L., II; Moore, R.; Shook, M.; Winstead, E.; Ziemba, L. D.; Crumeyrolle, S.

    2015-12-01

    We present an overview of research conducted by NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate to evaluate the performance and emissions of "drop-in" alternative jet fuels, highlighting experiment design and results from the Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiments (AAFEX-I & -II) and Alternative Fuel-Effects on Contrails and Cruise Emissions flight series (ACCESS-I & II). These projects included almost 100 hours of sampling exhaust emissions from the NASA DC-8 aircraft in both ground and airborne operation and at idle to takeoff thrust settings. Tested fuels included Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthetic kerosenes manufactured from coal and natural-gas feedstocks; Hydro-treated Esters and Fatty-Acids (HEFA) fuels made from beef-tallow and camelina-plant oil; and 50:50 blends of these alternative fuels with Jet A. Experiments were also conducted with FT and Jet A fuels doped with tetrahydrothiophene to examine the effects of fuel sulfur on volatile aerosol and contrail formation and microphysical properties. Results indicate that although the absence of aromatic compounds in the alternative fuels caused DC-8 fuel-system leaks, the fuels did not compromise engine performance or combustion efficiency. And whereas the alternative fuels produced only slightly different gas-phase emissions, dramatic reductions in non-volatile particulate matter (nvPM) emissions were observed when burning the pure alternative fuels, particularly at low thrust settings where particle number and mass emissions were an order of magnitude lower than measured from standard jet fuel combustion; 50:50 blends of Jet A and alternative fuels typically reduced nvPM emissions by ~50% across all thrust settings. Alternative fuels with the highest hydrogen content produced the greatest nvPM reductions. For Jet A and fuel blends, nvPM emissions were positively correlated with fuel aromatic and naphthalene content. Fuel sulfur content regulated nucleation mode aerosol number and mass concentrations within aging

  14. SAGE--SOLVENT ALTERNATIVES GUIDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    SAGE is a comprehensive guide designed to provide pollution prevention information on solvent and process alternatives for parts cleaning and degreasing. SAGE does not recommend any ozone depleting chemicals. SAGE was developed by the Surface Cleaning Program at Research Triang...

  15. Alternate Propellant Thermal Rocket Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Alternate Propellant Thermal Rocket (APTR) is a novel concept for propulsion of space exploration or orbit transfer vehicles. APTR propulsion is provided by...

  16. Herbs, Supplements and Alternative Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Size: A A A Listen En Español Herbs, Supplements and Alternative Medicines It is best to get ... also more likely to use dietary supplements. Using Supplements Safely If you’re one of the many ...

  17. Alternative food safety intervention technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternative nonthermal and thermal food safety interventions are gaining acceptance by the food processing industry and consumers. These technologies include high pressure processing, ultraviolet and pulsed light, ionizing radiation, pulsed and radiofrequency electric fields, cold atmospheric plasm...

  18. Alternating Quotients of Fuchsian Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Everitt, Brent

    1999-01-01

    It is shown that any finitely generated non-elementary Fuchsian group has among its homomorphic images all but finitely many of the alternating groups. This settles in the affirmative a conjecture of Graham Higman.

  19. Alternative theories of the firm

    OpenAIRE

    Staněk, Jan

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is focusing on alternative theories of the firm and their distinctions to the traditional neoclassical theory of profit maximization. It goes back to perception of the firm in the society and to development of theoretical concepts of the firm, as well as to different points of view of profit or satisfaction principle. You will learn more about the reason which triggered the beginnings of alternative theories of the firm like separation of ownership and control, which was one of th...

  20. Alternative investments: return driving actors

    OpenAIRE

    Elliott, K; G. Marcato

    2011-01-01

    In an asset allocation process, correlations are particularly important if one includes 'alternative investments' such as real estate, commodities and hedge funds, which have been proclaimed to provide diversifying benefits within the overall portfolio context. However, by looking at correlations between asset classes alone some diversification benefits may be over or under-stated. More recently, finance literature has focused on alternative asset classes to study their behaviour and to ident...

  1. Spent-fuel-storage alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Spent Fuel Storage Alternatives meeting was a technical forum in which 37 experts from 12 states discussed storage alternatives that are available or are under development. The subject matter was divided into the following five areas: techniques for increasing fuel storage density; dry storage of spent fuel; fuel characterization and conditioning; fuel storage operating experience; and storage and transport economics. Nineteen of the 21 papers which were presented at this meeting are included in this Proceedings. These have been abstracted and indexed

  2. Autocratic strategies for alternating games

    OpenAIRE

    McAvoy, Alex; Hauert, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Repeated games have a long tradition in behavioral sciences and evolutionary biology. Recently, strategies were discovered that permit an unprecedented level of control over repeated interactions by enabling a player to unilaterally enforce constraints on the payoffs. Here, we extend this theory of autocratic (or zero-determinant) strategies to alternating games, which are often more biologically relevant than synchronous games. More specifically, in a strictly-alternating game with two playe...

  3. The neurogenetics of alternative splicing

    OpenAIRE

    Vuong, CK; Black, DL; S. Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Alternative precursor-mRNA splicing is a key mechanism for regulating gene expression in mammals and is controlled by specialized RNA-binding proteins. The misregulation of splicing is implicated in multiple neurological disorders. We describe recent mouse genetic studies of alternative splicing that reveal its critical role in both neuronal development and the function of mature neurons. We discuss the challenges in understanding the extensive genetic programmes controlled by proteins that r...

  4. A Technique: Generating Alternative Thoughts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan AKKOYUNLU

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the basic techniques of cognitive therapy is examination of automatic thoughts and reducing the belief in them. By employing this, we can overcome the cognitive bias apparent in mental disorders. Despite this view, according to another cognitive perspective in a given situation, there are distinct cognitive representations competing for retrieval from memory just like positive and negative schemas. In this sense generating or strengthening alternative explanations or balanced thoughts that explain the situation better than negative automatic thoughts is one of the important process goals of cognitive therapy.Objective: Aim of this review is to describe methods used to generate alternative/balanced thoughts that are used in examining automatic thoughts and also a part of automatic thought records. Alternative/balanced thoughts are the summary and end point of automatic thought work. In this text different ways including listing alternative thoughts, using examining the evidence for generating balanced thoughts, decatastrophizing in anxiety and a meta-cognitive method named two explanations are discussed. Different ways to use this technique as a homework assignment is also reviewed. Remarkable aspects of generating alternative explanations and realistic/balanced thoughts are also reviewed and exemplified using therapy transcripts. Conclusion: Generating alternative explanations and balanced thoughts are the end point and important part of therapy work on automatic thoughts. When applied properly and rehearsed as homework between sessions, these methods may lead to improvement in many mental disorders

  5. Nuclear energy: a sensible alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book presents in-depth articles on the main issues affecting the use and usefulness of nuclear energy for peaceful domestic purposes. Topics considered include energy futures (a world study), energy demand-energy supplies, an energy-deficient society, energy shortages, the economics of light water reactors (LWRs), fast breeder reactor economics, international cooperation in the nuclear field, nuclear recycling (costs, savings, safeguards), alternative fuels, alternative fuel cycles, alternative reactors, the nuclear weapons proliferation issue, paths to a world with more reliable nuclear safeguards, the homemade bomb issue, LWR risk assessment, accident analysis and risk assessment, the waste disposal risk, radon problems, health effects of low-level radiation, routine releases of radioactivity, plutonium toxicity, and the Price-Anderson Act

  6. Experiences in mainstreaming alternative energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabraal, A.

    1997-12-01

    The author discusses efforts by the Asia Alternative Energy Unit (ASTAE) of the World Bank in supporting alternative energy source projects in Asia. Energy growth rates have been as high as 18% per year, with power capacity doubling each decade in the 1960`s, 70`s and 80`s. Much of this has come from fossil fuel projects coupled with major hydroelectric projects. One consequence is developing air pollution loads originating in Asia. ASTAE has been supporting pilot programs in applying alternative energy sources. The goal has been to mainstream renewable energy sources in World Bank operations, by working with managers from different countries to: include renewable energy in country assistance strategies and sectorial development plans; provide assistance to renewable energy initiatives; expand initiatives to new countries, sectors and technologies.

  7. [Alternative treatment methods in ENT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friese, K H

    1997-08-01

    In this review, the most important complementary und alternative therapies are discussed, focusing particularly on their use in otorhinolaryngology. These therapies include balneology, Kneipp therapy, microbiological therapy, fasting, excretion therapy, different oxygen therapies, hydro-colon therapy, urine therapy, own-blood therapy, Bach therapy, orthomolecular therapy, order therapy, environmental medicine, phytotherapy, homeopathy, complex homeopathy, anthroposophy, neural therapy, electroaccupuncture according to Voll and similar therapies, nasal reflex therapy, reflex-zone massage, manual therapy, massage, lymph drainage, aroma therapy, thermotherapy, bioresonance, kinesiology, hopi candles, and dietetics. Some of these methods and regimens can be recommended, but others should be rejected. In universities, these methods are only represented to a minor extend, but are more accepted by otorhinolaryngologists in practice. This paper provides a guide to which alternative therapies are sensible and possible in otorhinolaryngology. The aim is to stimulate interest in these methods. It is necessary to discuss these alternative methods reasonably and credibly with patients. PMID:9378666

  8. Revisiting the solar hydrogen alternative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomkiewicz, M. [Brooklyn College of CUNY, NY (United States)

    1996-09-01

    Research aimed at the development of technology to advance the solar-hydrogen alternative is per definition mission oriented. The priority that society puts on such research rise and fall with the priorities that we associate with the mission. The mission that we associate with the hydrogen economy is to provide a technological option for an indefinitely sustainable energy and material economies in which society is in equilibrium with its environment. In this paper we try to examine some global aspects of the hydrogen alternative and recommend formulation of a {open_quotes}rational{close_quotes} tax and regulatory system that is based on efforts needed to restore the ecological balance. Such a system, once entered into the price structure of the alternative energy schemes, will be used as a standard to compare energy systems that in turn will serve as a base for prioritization of publicly supported research and development.

  9. FMDP reactor alternative summary report: Volume 4, Evolutionary LWR alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Significant quantities of weapons-usable fissile materials [primarily plutonium and highly enriched uranium (HEU)] have become surplus to national defense needs both in the United States and Russia. These stocks of fissile materials pose significant dangers to national and international security. The dangers exist not only in the potential proliferation of nuclear weapons but also in the potential for environmental, safety, and health (ES ampersand H) consequences if surplus fissile materials are not properly managed. The purpose of this report is to provide schedule, cost, and technical information that will be used to support the Record of Process (ROD). Following the screening process, DOE/MD via its national laboratories initiated a more detailed analysis activity to further evaluate each of the ten plutonium disposition alternatives that survived the screening process. Three ''Alternative Teams,'' chartered by DOE and comprised of technical experts from across the DOE national laboratory complex, conducted these analyses. One team was chartered for each of the major disposition classes (borehole, immobilization, and reactors). During the last year and a half, the Fissile Materials Disposition Program (FMDP) Reactor Alternative Team (RxAT) has conducted extensive analyses of the cost, schedule, technical maturity, S ampersand S, and other characteristics of reactor-based plutonium disposition. The results of the RxAT's analyses of the existing LWR, CANDU, and partially complete LWR alternatives are documented in Volumes 1-3 of this report. This document (Volume 4) summarizes the results of these analyses for the ELWR-based plutonium disposition option

  10. ALTERNATIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HUMBERTO ESCALANTE H.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En Colombia, el procesamiento agroindustrial de fique genera aproximadamente 20 800 kg de residuos/ha sembrada que corresponden a. jugo y bagazo. Estos residuos son descartados al ambiente generando problemas de contaminación. El bagazo de fique tiene un valor calorífico de 3 297.91 kcal/kg, altas concentraciones de celulosa, hemicelulosa y una relación C/N favorable para tratar este residuo mediante conversión anaerobia. Sin embargo, la presencia de lignina en el bagazo hace que se requiera un consorcio microbiano específico para llevar a cabo la degradación. En este trabajo se estudio la producción de biogás a partir del bagazo de fique, empleando como inóculo una mezcla de líquido ruminal y lodo estiércol de cerdo. Se alcanzó una producción de metano de 0.35 m3CH4/kg Sólidos Volátiles (SV adicionados durante quince días de digestión, equivalente a 1.38 kWh/kg SV adicionado, indicando que el bagazo de fique es un residuo atractivo para ser usado como fuente de energía renovable.

  11. Alternative transportation fuels: Financing issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A multitude of alternative fuels could reduce air pollution and the impact of oil price shocks. Only a few of these fuels are readily available and inexpensive enough to merit serious consideration over the coming five years. In New York City, safety regulations narrow the field still further by eliminating propane. As a result, this study focuses on the three alternative fuels readily available in New York City: compressed natural gas, methanol, and electricity. Each has significant environmental benefits and each has different cost characteristics. With the Clean Air Act and the National Energy Strategy highlighting the country's need to improve urban air quality and move away from dependence on imported fuels, fleets may soon have little choice but to convert to altemative fuels. Given the potential for large infrastructure and vehicle costs, these fleets may have difficulty finding the capital to make that conversion. Ultimately, then, it will be the involvement of the private sector that will determine the success of alternative fuels. Whether it be utilities, fuel distributors or suppliers, private financing partners or others, it is critical that altemative fuels programs be structured and planned to attract their involvement. This report examines financing methods that do not involve government subsidies. It also explores financing methods that are specific to alternative fuels. Bond issues and other mechanisms that are used for conventional vehicles are not touched upon in this report. This report explores ways to spread the high cost of alternative fuels among a number of parties within the private sector. The emphasis is on structuring partnerships that suit methanol, electric, or natural gas vehicle fleets. Through these partnerships, alternative fuels may ultimately compete effectively against conventional vehicle fuels

  12. Spent-fuel-storage alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    The Spent Fuel Storage Alternatives meeting was a technical forum in which 37 experts from 12 states discussed storage alternatives that are available or are under development. The subject matter was divided into the following five areas: techniques for increasing fuel storage density; dry storage of spent fuel; fuel characterization and conditioning; fuel storage operating experience; and storage and transport economics. Nineteen of the 21 papers which were presented at this meeting are included in this Proceedings. These have been abstracted and indexed. (ATT)

  13. Integrative Medicine and Complementary and Alternative Therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 000 this month to find cures. Loading... Integrative Medicine and Complementary and Alternative Therapies Integrative Medicine and Complementary and Alternative Therapies SHARE: Print Glossary ...

  14. Alternative energies. Updates on progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presents fundamental and applied research of alternative energies. Address key pillars in the alternative energy field, such as: biomass energy, hydrogen energy, solar energy, wind energy, hydroelectric power, geothermal energy and their environmental implications, with the most updated progress. Includes the life cycle assessment and thermoeconomic analysis as tools for evaluating and optimising environmental and cost subjects. This book presents nine chapters based on fundamental and applied research of alternative energies. At the present time, the challenge is that technology has to come up with solutions that can provide environmentally friendly energy supply options that are able to cover the current world energy demand. Experts around the world are working on these issues for providing new solutions that will break the existing technological barriers. This book aims to address key pillars in the alternative energy field, such as: biomass energy, hydrogen energy, solar energy, wind energy, hydroelectric power, geothermal energy and their environmental implications, with the most updated progress for each pillar. It also includes the life cycle assessment (LCA) and thermoeconomic analysis (TA) as tools for evaluating and optimising environmental and cost subjects. Chapters are organized into fundamental research, applied research and future trends; and written for engineers, academic researches and scientists.

  15. Biodiesel properties and alternative feedstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defined as the long-chain fatty acid monoalkyl esters of vegetable oils, animal fats, or other lipids, biodiesel is an environmentally attractive alternative to conventional petroleum diesel fuel (petrodiesel). Produced by transesterification with a monohydric alcohol, usually methanol, biodiesel h...

  16. An Alternative to Thought Suppression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boice, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Comments on the original article, "Setting free the bears: Escape from thought suppression," by D. M. Wegner (see record 2011-25622-008). While Wegner supposed that we might have to learn to live with bad thoughts, the present author discusses the use of imagination and guided imagery as an alternative to forced thought suppression.

  17. Renewable Energy Alternatives in Maryland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Greg E.; McClellan, Deborah A. S.

    This handbook discusses the renewable energy resources suitable for use in Maryland. It follows a question and answer format with sections about the following alternative renewable energy sources; solar, wind, wood, water, bio-gas/methane, and geothermal. Each section includes a list of recommended readings, appropriate agencies or organizations,…

  18. Alternative Design of Boat Fenders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banke, Lars

    1996-01-01

    On offshore platforms the purpose of fenders is to protect the oil-risers against minor accidental collisions with supply vessels. Normally, the fender is designed by use of thin-walled tubes. However, the tube itself is not capable of resisting the impact load of the boat. Therefore, alternative...

  19. A two-matrix alternative

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rohn, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 26, 15 December (2013), s. 836-841. ISSN 1537-9582 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : two-matrix alternative * solution * algorithm Subject RIV: BA - General Math ematics Impact factor: 0.514, year: 2013 http://www. math .technion.ac.il/iic/ela/ela-articles/articles/vol26_pp836-841.pdf

  20. Corporal Punishment: Facts and Alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder, Pana

    1982-01-01

    Suggests that corporal punishment in the schools be abolished and presents alternatives to physical punishment. Proposes educators and other concerned individuals work together to form student problem committees, adjust classroom environment and improve the curriculum, and exercise their legal rights. (JAC)

  1. An Alternative Triangle Area Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shockey, T. L.; Zhang, P.; Brosnan, P.

    2016-01-01

    We explore the mathematics engagement of a group of mathematics coaches, working in k-12 mathematics education. The incenter of a triangle is used to derive an alternative formula for the area of a triangle inspired by Usiskin, Peressini, Marhisotto, and Stanley (2002).

  2. An Alternative: The Biopsychosocial Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosey, Anne Cronin

    1974-01-01

    This paper suggests a biopsychosocial model as an alternative to the use of medical or health models for occupational therapists. The model moves away from the illness-health continuum to an emphasis upon information, abilities, and values necessary for productive community living. (Author/JA)

  3. Alternative energies. Updates on progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, German (ed.) [CIRCE - Centre of Research for Energy Resources and Consumption, Zaragoza (Spain)

    2013-07-01

    Presents fundamental and applied research of alternative energies. Address key pillars in the alternative energy field, such as: biomass energy, hydrogen energy, solar energy, wind energy, hydroelectric power, geothermal energy and their environmental implications, with the most updated progress. Includes the life cycle assessment and thermoeconomic analysis as tools for evaluating and optimising environmental and cost subjects. This book presents nine chapters based on fundamental and applied research of alternative energies. At the present time, the challenge is that technology has to come up with solutions that can provide environmentally friendly energy supply options that are able to cover the current world energy demand. Experts around the world are working on these issues for providing new solutions that will break the existing technological barriers. This book aims to address key pillars in the alternative energy field, such as: biomass energy, hydrogen energy, solar energy, wind energy, hydroelectric power, geothermal energy and their environmental implications, with the most updated progress for each pillar. It also includes the life cycle assessment (LCA) and thermoeconomic analysis (TA) as tools for evaluating and optimising environmental and cost subjects. Chapters are organized into fundamental research, applied research and future trends; and written for engineers, academic researches and scientists.

  4. Assessment of alternative disposal concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four alternative repository designs for the disposal of spent nuclear in the Finnish crystalline bedrock were assessed in the study. The alternatives were: (1) the basic KBS-3 design in which copper canisters are emplaced in vertical deposition holes bored in the floors of horizontal tunnels, (2) the KBS-3-2C design with two canisters in a deposition hole, (3) Short Horizontal Holes (SHH) in the side walls of the tunnels, and (4) the Medium Long Holes (MLH) concept in which approximately 25 canisters are emplaced in a horizontal deposition hole about 200 metres in length bored between central and side tunnels. In all the alternatives considered, the thickness of the layer of compacted bentonite between copper canister and bedrock is 35 cm. Two different copper canister designs were also assessed. Technical feasibility and flexibility, post-closure safety and repository cost were assessed for each of the alternative canister and repository designs. On the basis of this assessment it is recommended that further development and studies should focus on the vacuum- or inert gas-filled cast insert type copper canister and the basic KBS-3 type repository design with a single canister in a vertical deposition hole. The KBS-3 design is robust and flexible and provides excellent post-closure safety. The transfer, emplacement and sealing operations are technically uncomplicated. The alternative options assessed do not offer any significant benefits in safety or cost over the basic design, but they are technically more complex and also in some respects more vulnerable to malfunction during the emplacement of canisters and buffer, as well as common mode failures. (60 refs.)

  5. Alternatives of menopausal hormone therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kutlešić Ranko M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. It has been generally accepted that the benefits of menopausal hormone therapy outweigh the risks, but there are still some concerns about the administration of menopausal hormone therapy, which has introduced alternative treatments. Pharmacological Alternatives. Central alpha-2 agonist clonidine is only marginally more effective than placebo, and significantly less effective than estrogen. Antiepileptic drug gabapentin reduces hot flashes; however, it is less effective than estrogen. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (paroxetine and fluoxetine and selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (venlafaxine reduce vasomotor symptoms and improve depression, anxiety and sleep. Results of studies about dehydroepiandrosterone effects on menopausal symptoms are inconsistent and additional investigations are needed. Non-Pharmacological Alternatives. Stellatum ganglion blockade is a successful treatment for reducing vasomotor symptoms in patients with contraindications for menopausal hormone therapy. Efficacy of acupuncture, homeopathy and reflexology should be proved by adequate studies. Phytoestrogens could reduce vasomotor symptoms but to a lesser extent than conventional menopausal hormone therapy. However, they have not been proved yet to provide cardiovascular protection and prevention of osteoporosis, nor they could be recommended instead of traditional menopausal hormone therapy. There is a concern about their undesirable effects. Adequate diet, unchanging body weight within ideal values and adequate physical activities have beneficial long-term effects, first of all on preservation of bone density. Alternatives for Atrophic Changes of Vaginal Epithelium. Menopausal symptoms resulting from vaginal atrophy could be resolved by use of hydrophilic preparations, lubricants and topical lidocaine cream or 4% lidocaine water solution for dyspareunia. Conclusion. If there are contrain­dications to menopausal hormone therapy or

  6. EASI—enrichment of alternatively spliced isoforms

    OpenAIRE

    Julian P Venables; Burn, John

    2006-01-01

    Alternative splicing produces more than one protein from the majority of genes and the rarer forms can have dominant functions. Instability of alternative transcripts can also hinder the study of regulation of gene expression by alternative splicing. To investigate the true extent of alternative splicing we have developed a simple method of enriching alternatively spliced isoforms (EASI) from PCRs using beads charged with Thermus aquaticus single-stranded DNA-binding protein (T.Aq ssb). This ...

  7. Alternative Structures and Bihamiltonian Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Marmo, G; Simoni, A; Ventriglia, F

    2002-01-01

    In the study of bi-Hamiltonian systems (both classical and quantum) one starts with a given dynamics and looks for all alternative Hamiltonian descriptions it admits.In this paper we start with two compatible Hermitian structures (the quantum analog of two compatible classical Poisson brackets) and look for all the dynamical systems which turn out to be bi-Hamiltonian with respect to them.

  8. An alternative analysis of variance

    OpenAIRE

    Longford, Nicholas T.

    2008-01-01

    The one-way analysis of variance is a staple of elementary statistics courses. The hypothesis test of homogeneity of the means encourages the use of the selected-model based estimators which are usually assessed without any regard for the uncertainty about the outcome of the test. We expose the weaknesses of such estimators when the uncertainty is taken into account, as it should be, and propose synthetic estimators as an alternative.

  9. Beyond LCDM: a viable alternative?

    OpenAIRE

    Gough, Michael Paul

    2016-01-01

    We are encouraged to look beyond LCDM as there are still no satisfactory explanations for either dark energy or dark matter. A data centred phenomenological approach supports an alternative explanation in which dark energy is not a universe-wide constant energy density, but the Holographic Dark Information Energy, HDIE, naturally centred around galaxies. HDIE can explain many of the effects attributed separately to Lambda and CDM. HDIE mimics Lambda with sufficient overall total energy and an...

  10. Alternate-fuel reactor studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of studies related to improvements and/or greater understanding of alternate-fueled reactors is presented. These studies cover the areas of non-Maxwellian distributions, materials and lifetime analysis, a 3He-breeding blanket, tritium-rich startup effects, high field magnet support, and reactor operation spanning the range from full D-T operation to operation with no tritium breeding

  11. An alternative dimensional reduction prescription

    CERN Document Server

    Edelstein, J D; Núñez, C; Schaposnik, F A

    1995-01-01

    We propose an alternative dimensional reduction prescription which in respect with Green functions corresponds to drop the extra spatial coordinate. From this, we construct the dimensionally reduced Lagrangians both for scalars and fermions, discussing bosonization and supersymmetry in the particular 2-dimensional case. We argue that our proposal is in some situations more physical, in the sense that it mantains the form of the interactions between particles, thus preserving the dynamics corresponding to the higher dimensional space.

  12. Telomere elongation chooses TERRA ALTernatives

    OpenAIRE

    Arora, Rajika; Azzalin, Claus M.

    2015-01-01

    Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres (ALT) mechanisms allow telomerase-negative immortal cells to buffer replicative telomere shortening. ALT is naturally active in a number of human cancers and might be selected upon telomerase inactivation. ALT is thought to operate through homologous recombination (HR) occurring between telomeric repeats from independent chromosome ends. Indeed, suppression of a number of HR factors impairs ALT cell proliferation. Yet, how HR is initiated at ALT telomeres ...

  13. Alternative Medicine on the Internet

    OpenAIRE

    Muret, Marc

    2000-01-01

    If you go to a bookstore to look for information on a particular health problem you will have a choice between the "medicine" corner with scientific manuals for professionals and the "health" corner with all kinds of books about acupuncture, ayurveda, natural healing, homeopathy, nutrition, massage, and so on! How is it on the Net? Even a short tour will bring you a lot of "medical" information, but when you look for alternative approaches in the "health" corner you will be rather disappointe...

  14. Towards an Alternative Gravitational Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Nieto, J.A.; Beltrán, L. A.

    2014-01-01

    In 1680 Cassini proposed oval curves as alternative trajectories for the visible planets around the sun. The Cassini ovals were of course overshadow by the Kepler's first law (1609), namely the planets move around the sun describing conic orbits. Here we describe the possibility that the Cassini's idea works at larger or smaller scales. Indeed, we consider the Spiric curves (which are a generalization of the Cassini oval) and present the first steps towards a Spiric gravitational theory. We s...

  15. Casimir force: an alternative treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, P. R.

    2009-01-01

    The Casimir force between two parallel uncharged closely spaced metallic plates is evaluated in ways alternatives to those usually considered in the literature. In a first approximation we take in account the suppressed quantum numbers of a cubic box, representing a cavity which was cut in a metallic block. We combine these ideas with those of the MIT bag model of hadrons, but adapted to non-relativistic particles. In a second approximation we consider the particles occupying the energy level...

  16. An alternative dimensional reduction prescription

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose an alternative dimensional reduction prescription which in respect with Green functions corresponds to drop the extra spatial coordinate. From this, we construct the dimensionally reduced Lagrangians both for scalars and fermions, discussing bosonization and supersymmetry in the particular 2-dimensional case. We argue that our proposal is in some situations more physical in the sense that it maintains the form of the interactions between particles thus preserving the dynamics corresponding to the higher dimensional space. (author). 12 refs

  17. Alternative Assessment of Glycemic Control

    OpenAIRE

    Greven, W.L.

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease associated with development of microvascular and macrovascular complications. Optimal glycemic control, usually measured by HbA1c is the cornerstone for prevention of complications. In this thesis glycemic variability (which resembles actual glucose levels, glucose peaks and nadirs) and advanced glycation end products (AGEs) (a more long-term reflection of hyperglycemia and tissue glycation) are investigated as alternative assessment of glycemic control....

  18. Intronic Alus influence alternative splicing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galit Lev-Maor

    Full Text Available Examination of the human transcriptome reveals higher levels of RNA editing than in any other organism tested to date. This is indicative of extensive double-stranded RNA (dsRNA formation within the human transcriptome. Most of the editing sites are located in the primate-specific retrotransposed element called Alu. A large fraction of Alus are found in intronic sequences, implying extensive Alu-Alu dsRNA formation in mRNA precursors. Yet, the effect of these intronic Alus on splicing of the flanking exons is largely unknown. Here, we show that more Alus flank alternatively spliced exons than constitutively spliced ones; this is especially notable for those exons that have changed their mode of splicing from constitutive to alternative during human evolution. This implies that Alu insertions may change the mode of splicing of the flanking exons. Indeed, we demonstrate experimentally that two Alu elements that were inserted into an intron in opposite orientation undergo base-pairing, as evident by RNA editing, and affect the splicing patterns of a downstream exon, shifting it from constitutive to alternative. Our results indicate the importance of intronic Alus in influencing the splicing of flanking exons, further emphasizing the role of Alus in shaping of the human transcriptome.

  19. FMDP reactor alternative summary report. Volume 1 - existing LWR alternative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, S.R.; Bevard, B.B. [and others

    1996-10-07

    Significant quantities of weapons-usable fissile materials [primarily plutonium and highly enriched uranium (HEU)] are becoming surplus to national defense needs in both the United States and Russia. These stocks of fissile materials pose significant dangers to national and international security. The dangers exist not only in the potential proliferation of nuclear weapons but also in the potential for environmental, safety, and health (ES&H) consequences if surplus fissile materials are not properly managed. This document summarizes the results of analysis concerned with existing light water reactor plutonium disposition alternatives.

  20. FMDP reactor alternative summary report. Volume 1 - existing LWR alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Significant quantities of weapons-usable fissile materials [primarily plutonium and highly enriched uranium (HEU)] are becoming surplus to national defense needs in both the United States and Russia. These stocks of fissile materials pose significant dangers to national and international security. The dangers exist not only in the potential proliferation of nuclear weapons but also in the potential for environmental, safety, and health (ES ampersand H) consequences if surplus fissile materials are not properly managed. This document summarizes the results of analysis concerned with existing light water reactor plutonium disposition alternatives

  1. [Alternative medicine: really an alternative to academic medicine?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happle, R

    2000-06-01

    Numerous courses on alternative medicine are regularly advertised in Deutsches Arzteblatt, the organ of the German Medical Association. The present German legislation likewise supports this form of medicine, and this explains why Iscador, an extract of the mistletoe, is found in the Rote Liste, a directory of commercially available medical drugs, under the heading "cytostatic and antimetastatic drugs" although such beneficial effect is unproven. To give another example, a German health insurance fund was sentenced to pay for acupuncture as a treatment for hepatic failure. This judgement is characteristic of the present German judicial system and represents a victory of "oracling irrationalism" (Popper). The astonishing popularity of alternative medicine can be explained by a revival of romanticism. An intellectually fair opposite position has been delineated by Karl Popper in the form of critical rationalism. It is important to realize, however, that our decision to adhere to rational thinking is made in the innermost depth of our heart but not on the basis of rational arguing. Rather, the decision in favor of reason has a moral dimension. PMID:10907162

  2. Alternative energy and environmental concerns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The New Brunswick Market Design Committee will address environmental concerns within the context of the new energy policy and market rules for the newly restructured electric power industry. The new rules that come with power restructuring will in some ways facilitate environmental protection but they can also complicate it. With open access markets, it will be possible to coordinate evolving energy frameworks with current environmental objectives. Restructuring provides an opportunity to create incentives and guidelines to operate in an environmentally sustainable manner, as suggested in the New Brunswick Energy Policy, White Paper which outlines green pricing, the development of a provincial Climate Change Action Plan, and promotion of alternative energy. The Market Design Committee examined the environmental concerns listed within the White Paper that pertain to the generation and transmission of electricity. These include the integration of energy and environmental policy. Other issues addressed in this report were trans-boundary and global air emissions, the development of a provincial climate change action plan, and a federal-provincial climate change framework agreement. New Brunswick will encourage the development of pilot studies that demonstrate the benefits of renewable and alternative technologies and that help promote the market to manufacture, sell and maintain renewable and alternative technologies in small-scale on-site power generation. This report also discussed the 4 key air pollutants for which specific treatment has been defined, including sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, mercury and carbon dioxide. Recommendations for reducing these emissions include the use of renewable energy sources, the use of lower carbon fuels, increased efficiency of power transmission/generation/distribution systems, reducing power demand by the industrial sector, and promoting energy efficient building codes. 34 refs., 1 tab

  3. Alternative routes of insulin delivery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ranjith K. Krishnankutty; Aju Mathew; Saikiran K. Sedimbi; Shrikumar Suryanarayan; Carani B. Sanjeevi

    2009-01-01

    Parenteral route of insulin administration has been the mode of treatment for all Type 1 diabetics and Type 2 diabetics with complications. Patient compliance has really been a major concern for this route of administration. Several alternative routes of administration are under consideration for effective glycemic control, including oral, inhaled, buccal, nasal, and patch routes. One of the approaches involving inhaled insulin has now reached the market. Several other candidates may reach the market in the near future, the promising one being oral insulin.

  4. MR pelvimetry - a practical alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelvimetry remains a useful technique as part of the assessment of the term breech pregnancy where vaginal delivery is planned. MR pelvimetry is accurate, well tolerated and shows soft-tissue structures as well as bone. It avoids the potentially carcinogenic effects of ionising radiation and is thought to be completely safe for mother and fetus. A technique of MR pelvimetry is described which uses gradient-echo sequences. This quick, practical method makes minimal in roads into valuable scanning time, and may therefore be considered a potentially cost-effective alternative to conventional pelvimetry. (orig.)

  5. Alternatives to quintessence model building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We discuss the issue of toy model building for the dark energy component of the universe. Specifically, we consider two generic toy models recently proposed as alternatives to quintessence models, respectively known as Cardassian expansion and the Chaplygin gas. We show that the former is entirely equivalent to a class of quintessence models. We determine the observational constraints on the latter, coming from recent supernovae results and from the shape of the matter power spectrum. As expected, these restrict the model to a behavior that closely matches that of a standard cosmological constant Λ

  6. Alternating current for the West

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of the reactor EPR construction in the Manche, the authors wonder on the pertinence of this energy choice for the economy and the environment of the West France. They show that there is an alternative to this choice. In a first part a state of the situation concerning the electricity supply and demand in the region is detailed. Then from the local potential of renewable electric power production and the electricity conservation, they propose many concrete actions. (A.L.B.)

  7. Alternatives for Ground Water Cleanup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudak, P. F.

    Aquifer remediation is one of our most difficult environmental challenges; technological limitations and problems arising from the physical and chemical complexities of contaminated subsurface environments thwart our best efforts. A 19-member committee of leaders in environmental engineering, hydrogeology, epidemiology, environmental economics, and environmental policy has written an ambitious book that broadly addresses the groundwater remediation problem. Topics include site characterization, capabilities and limitations of pump-and-treat and alternative technologies, alternative goals for ground water cleanup, and policy implications.One of the book's strengths is its information base, which includes various public and private groups, data from 80 pump-and-treat sites, and an extensive literature review. The text is clearly written and well organized. Specific conclusions are stated at the end of each major chapter, and sound policy recommendations are offered at the end of the final chapter. An appendix summarizes pump-andtreat systems reviewed during the study. Several case studies, diagrams, and photographs effectively illustrate concepts and ideas conveyed in the text.

  8. Alternative forms for genomic clines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Benjamin M

    2013-07-01

    Understanding factors regulating hybrid fitness and gene exchange is a major research challenge for evolutionary biology. Genomic cline analysis has been used to evaluate alternative patterns of introgression, but only two models have been used widely and the approach has generally lacked a hypothesis testing framework for distinguishing effects of selection and drift. I propose two alternative cline models, implement multivariate outlier detection to identify markers associated with hybrid fitness, and simulate hybrid zone dynamics to evaluate the signatures of different modes of selection. Analysis of simulated data shows that previous approaches are prone to false positives (multinomial regression) or relatively insensitive to outlier loci affected by selection (Barton's concordance). The new, theory-based logit-logistic cline model is generally best at detecting loci affecting hybrid fitness. Although some generalizations can be made about different modes of selection, there is no one-to-one correspondence between pattern and process. These new methods will enhance our ability to extract important information about the genetics of reproductive isolation and hybrid fitness. However, much remains to be done to relate statistical patterns to particular evolutionary processes. The methods described here are implemented in a freely available package "HIest" for the R statistical software (CRAN; http://cran.r-project.org/). PMID:23919142

  9. Alternate approaches to nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the US nuclear power industry to expand, a greatly increased portion of the public must come to share the industry's confidence in reactor safety. Major obstacles to establishing this confidence are frequent incidents with potential safety implications and a lack of incontrovertible proof that the risk of a major accident is very low. The most important step toward overcoming these obstacles would be for each utility to operate, maintain, and evaluate its reactors according to far higher standards. With improvements in reliability and safety margins, existing plants would be a stimulus for building new ones rather than an impediment. If changes to the operation of existing plants and improvements to the design of future ones were inadequate, the only hope for a revival of the nuclear industry would be an alternative reactor so obviously safe that risk would no longer be an issue. Three possible concepts are the modular high-temperature gas reactor, the process inherent ultimate safety reactor, and the liquid-metal fast reactor. All three have inherent safety features that should make a meltdown essentially impossible. They cannot know just how great the advantage of these alternate reactors would be, but the benefits of developing one or more of the concepts appear great

  10. Analysis of supermarket dehumidification alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, J.W. Urban, R.E.; Beckman, W.A.; Dorgan, C.E.; Lindell, C.J. (Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States). Solar Energy Lab.)

    1992-11-01

    Alternative methods to provide space conditioning in supermarkets were studied. Four basic air-conditioning systems were selected for evaluation in a store in Miami, Florida: (1) conventional vapor compression systems, (2) vapor compression air-conditioning systems designed for supermarket loads, (3) hybrid desiccant air-conditioning systems, and (4) cool storage systems. Computer models were created and annual simulations of performance were made. The impacts on energy use and cost of circulation flow rate, store humidity set point, heat pipe heat exchangers, and climate on energy use and cost were determined. Dual path electric systems and desiccant systems were found to consume the least electrical energy. Savings of the desiccant system are partially offset by natural gas needed to reactivate the desiccant. Single path systems with reduced circulation air flow consumed significantly less electricity than the conventional system. Lower humidity shifts the air-conditioning load from the refrigerated cases to the HVAC system and reduces the electrical use for all but the conventional system. Heat pipe heat exchangers provide little benefit. Flat and time-of-use electric rate schedules were used to estimate operating savings and to determine the cost effectiveness of the alternative approaches.

  11. Alternate fusion concepts as reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recent successes of the tokamak concept of controlled fusion have not quenched interest in possible alternatives. This report summarizes a recent study sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute, which tried to quantify which hoped-for advantages persist when a serious attempt is made to design reactor plants around eight specific alternative concepts (Electron Beam-Heated Solenoid, Elmo Bumpy Torus, Fast Liner, Laser-Heated Solenoid, Linear Theta-Pinch, LINUS, Reversed-Field-Pinch, and Shock-Heated Annulus) addressing key technological issues and economic issues for each concept. The study aimed to isolate the cost drivers for the reactor plant and to compare their capital cost per kilowatt of electricity as well as address the impact of technological difficulty. Results of the study indicated that reactor block costs for the eight plants studied represent a substantially larger fraction of total plant costs than the corresponding fraction for light water reactors; bottom line costs of $ /kWe range over a factor of about two with cost drivers being the physical size of the power producing plasma and the relative magnitudes of the circulating power fraction and the nature of the power circulation. Other cost considerations are also enumerated and the author concludes by noting that one value of the engineering study and cost estimate has been to quantify the relation between physics uncertainty and cost uncertainty

  12. Alternative fuels: a Brazilian outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper focuses on studies and information related to the use of alternative fuels in Brazil. The first part of this paper deals with the economics of different biomass technologies. The analysis consists of a careful costing of all operations involved. The study deals with wood, sugar cane and cassava, since these crops are exploited for commercial purposes in Brazil. Corn, although a useful raw material for producing ethanol in the United States, is not used for this purpose in Brazil. The second part deals with the industrial technologies used to convert biomass into energy. We consider several forms of energy derived from biomass and evaluate the economics of the processes. When opportune, we compare costs with those of the North American market. Market analysis and displacement of conventional energy are the subject of the third part of the paper. While the cost of each product is evaluated in most cases; in others the current market price is used. Finally, we raise the issues of institutional problems and planning and offer some conclusions on the future of biomass as an alternative energy source. The technological discussion in this paper is based on the Brazilian experience in producing ethanol and other fuels from biomass. It is possible to extrapolate the Brazilian experience to other developing countries. The observations made in this chapter are based on the conditions prevalent in the Brazilian south-central agricultural region, specifically the state of Sao Paulo. (author). 91 refs., 16 figs., 11 tabs

  13. Alternatives for nuclear fuel disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spent fuel is one of the most important issues in the nuclear industry, currently spent fuel management is been cause of great amount of research, investments in the construction of repositories or constructing the necessary facilities to reprocess the fuel, and later to recycle the plutonium recovered in thermal reactors. What is the best solution? or, What is the best technology for a specific solution? Many countries have deferred the decision on selecting an option, while other works actively constructing repositories and others implementing the reprocessing facilities to recycle the plutonium obtained from nuclear spent fuel. In Mexico the nuclear power is limited to two reactors BWR type and medium size. So the nuclear spent fuel discharged has been accommodated at reactor's spent fuel pools. Originally these pools have enough capacity to accommodate spent fuel for the 40 years of designed plant operation. However, currently is under process an extended power up rate to 20% of their original power and also there are plans to extend operational life for 20 more years. Under these conditions there will not be enough room for spent fuel in the pools. So this work describes some different alternatives that have been studied in Mexico to define which will be the best alternative to follow. (Author)

  14. IBD and Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alternative Medicine (CAM) Go Back Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) Email Print + Share Crohn’s disease and ulcerative ... Energy Medicine, and Biologically-Based Practices. Mind-Body Medicine Mind-body medicine is a set of interventions ...

  15. Alternative Medicine Taking Hold Among Americans: Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159511.html Alternative Medicine Taking Hold Among Americans: Report More than $30 ... chunk of their health care dollars on alternative medicine, such as acupuncture, yoga, chiropractic care and natural ...

  16. Towards a critical theory of alternative media.

    OpenAIRE

    SANDOVAL, M.; C. Fuchs

    2010-01-01

    In this contribution, we warn against being too optimistic about the actual democratic effects of notions like "civil media", ”community media” "alternative media", "grassroots media", "participatory media", or "participatory culture". We argue that in contemporary society, which is characterized by structural inequalities, an understanding of alternative media as participatory media is insufficient. As an alternative concept, we suggest the notion of alternative media as critical media. This...

  17. Evolution of alternative splicing after gene duplication

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Zhixi; Wang, Jianmin; Yu, Jun; Huang, Xiaoqiu; Gu, Xun

    2006-01-01

    Alternative splicing and gene duplication are two major sources of proteomic function diversity. Here, we study the evolutionary trend of alternative splicing after gene duplication by analyzing the alternative splicing differences between duplicate genes. We observed that duplicate genes have fewer alternative splice (AS) forms than single-copy genes, and that a negative correlation exists between the mean number of AS forms and the gene family size. Interestingly, we found that the loss of ...

  18. Alternator control for battery charging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunstetter, Craig A.; Jaye, John R.; Tallarek, Glen E.; Adams, Joseph B.

    2015-07-14

    In accordance with an aspect of the present disclosure, an electrical system for an automotive vehicle has an electrical generating machine and a battery. A set point voltage, which sets an output voltage of the electrical generating machine, is set by an electronic control unit (ECU). The ECU selects one of a plurality of control modes for controlling the alternator based on an operating state of the vehicle as determined from vehicle operating parameters. The ECU selects a range for the set point voltage based on the selected control mode and then sets the set point voltage within the range based on feedback parameters for that control mode. In an aspect, the control modes include a trickle charge mode and battery charge current is the feedback parameter and the ECU controls the set point voltage within the range to maintain a predetermined battery charge current.

  19. Alternative Mathematics without Actual Infinity

    CERN Document Server

    Tsujishita, Toru

    2012-01-01

    An alternative mathematics based on qualitative plurality of finiteness is developed to make non-standard mathematics independent of infinite set theory. The vague concept "accessibility" is used coherently within finite set theory whose separation axiom is restricted to definite objective conditions. The weak equivalence relations are defined as binary relations with sorites phenomena. Continua are collection with weak equivalence relations called indistinguishability. The points of continua are the proper classes of mutually indistinguishable elements and have identities with sorites paradox. Four continua formed by huge binary words are examined as a new type of continua. Ascoli-Arzela type theorem is given as an example indicating the feasibility of treating function spaces. The real numbers are defined to be points on linear continuum and have indefiniteness. Exponentiation is introduced by the Euler style and basic properties are established. Basic calculus is developed and the differentiability is capt...

  20. Alternative approaches to plasma confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    The paper discusses 20 plasma confinement schemes each representing an alternative to the tokamak fusion reactor. Attention is given to: (1) tokamak-like devices (TORMAC, Topolotron, and the Extrap concept), (2) stellarator-like devices (Torsatron and twisted-coil stellarators), (3) mirror machines (Astron and reversed-field devices, the 2XII B experiment, laser-heated solenoids, the LITE experiment, the Kaktus-Surmac concept), (4) bumpy tori (hot electron bumpy torus, toroidal minimum-B configurations), (5) electrostatically assisted confinement (electrostatically stuffed cusps and mirrors, electrostatically assisted toroidal confinement), (6) the Migma concept, and (7) wall-confined plasmas. The plasma parameters of the devices are presented and the advantages and disadvantages of each are listed.

  1. Ash Properties of Alternative Biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capablo, Joaquin; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Pedersen, Kim Hougaard;

    2009-01-01

    The ash behavior during suspension firing of 12 alternative solid biofuels, such as pectin waste, mash from a beer brewery, or waste from cigarette production have been studied and compared to wood and straw ash behavior. Laboratory suspension firing tests were performed on an entrained flow...... reactor and a swirl burner test rig, with special emphasis on the formation of fly ash and ash deposit. Thermodynamic equilibrium calculations were performed to support the interpretation of the experiments. To generalize the results of the combustion tests, the fuels are classified according to fuel ash...... analysis into three main groups depending upon their ash content of silica, alkali metal, and calcium and magnesium. To further detail the biomass classification, the relative molar ratio of Cl, S, and P to alkali were included. The study has led to knowledge on biomass fuel ash composition influence on...

  2. Nuclear power and its alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For nuclear power to contribute significantly to the alleviation of demands for increased electricity by the year 2000, a further obstacle must be overcome, namely the present nuclear phobia of the American public. This phobia can be addressed only through public education leading to a balanced perspective of the benefits and hazards of nuclear power compared with those of alternate sources of energy and to the risks associated with an insufficient supply of energy in a few years. Also to be considered in a public education effort should be the precarious and capricious nature of this country's continued reliance on energy sources imported from politically unstable countries, as well as the risk this importation poses for the nation's economic, social and military security

  3. ADAPTABLE ALTERNATE REALITY GAMES PLATFORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu-Adrian Cotfas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present an alternate reality games platform that facilitates the creation of ARG projects with different themes and sizes. The platform is well integrated with the most important social media networks, thus facilitating both the involvement of the public and the creation of a more engaging interaction for the participants. A cloud-based architecture was used in order to allow the platform to easily accommodate projects of various sizes and to provide a good level of scalability. The platform is fully localizable in any language and multiple languages can be used at once to create projects that target users from different countries. An initial project that uses gamification to create an immersive learning environment has been created around the developed platform. The project combines professional and public feedback in order to provide an enhanced learning experience.

  4. Nuclear energy: a sensible alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book presents information on energy futures; energy demand, energy supplies; exclusive paths and difficult choices--hard, soft, and moderate energy paths; an energy-deficient society; energy shortages; economics of light-water reactors; fast breeder reactor economics; international cooperation in the nuclear field; nuclear recycling; alternative fuels, fuel cycles, and reactors; the nuclear weapons proliferation issue; paths to a world with more reliable nuclear safeguards; the homemade bomb issue; LWR risk assessment; accident analysis and risk assessment; the waste disposal risk; radon problems; risks in our society; health effects of low-level radiation; routine releases of radioactivity from the nuclear industry; low-level radioactivity and infant mortality; the myth of plutonium toxicity; myths about high-level radioactive waste; the aging reactor myth; the police state myth; insurance and nuclear power--the Price-Anderson Act; and solar and nuclear power as partners

  5. The rural energy alternatives project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A cooperative survey by the New York State Energy Office (SEO) and Office of Rural Affairs (ORA) identified hundreds of residences without utility electric power due to excessive line extension costs. SEO selected several of these residences for feasibility studies which compared site specific options for electricity generation, including existing fossil fuel generator(s), generator/battery sets, photovoltaic (PV) hybrid and micro-hydroelectric systems as well as utility provided electric service. Comprehensive reports included examination of a range of energy conservation measures. Alternatives to present fossil fuel systems were assessed for domestic hot water, refrigeration, and water pumping. Results included electric load data, solar and hydroelectric potential, life cycle cost estimates for electricity, and estimated system sizing information based on energy cost considerations. In addition to providing useful information to individual homeowners, these studies served as the basis for cooperative efforts to install and monitor stand-alone prototype PV hybrid systems

  6. Alternative calcination development status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Programmatic Spent Nuclear Fuel and (INEEL) Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programs Environmental Impact Statement Record of Decision, dated June 1, 1995, specifies that high-level waste stored in the underground tanks at the ICPP continue to be calcined while other options to treat the waste are studied. Therefore, the High-Level Waste Program has funded a program to develop new flowsheets to increase the liquid waste processing rate. Simultaneously, a radionuclide separation process, as well as other options, are also being developed, which will be compared to the calcination treatment option. Two alternatives emerged as viable candidates; (1) elevated temperature calcination (also referred to as high temperature calcination), and (2) sugar-additive calcination. Both alternatives were determined to be viable through testing performed in a lab-scale calcination mockup. Subsequently, 10-cm Calciner Pilot Plant scoping tests were successfully completed for both flowsheets. The results were compared to the standard 500 C, high-ANN flow sheet (baseline flowsheet). The product and effluent streams were characterized to help elucidate the process chemistry and to investigate potential environmental permitting issues. Several supplementary tests were conducted to gain a better understanding of fine-particles generation, calcine hydration, scrub foaming, feed makeup procedures, sugar/organic elimination, and safety-related issues. Many of the experiments are only considered to be scoping tests, and follow-up experiments will be required to establish a more definitive understanding of the flowsheets. However, the combined results support the general conclusion that flowsheet improvements for the NWCF are technically viable

  7. Quantifying asymmetry: ratios and alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks, Erin M; Cabo, Luis L

    2014-08-01

    Traditionally, the study of metric skeletal asymmetry has relied largely on univariate analyses, utilizing ratio transformations when the goal is comparing asymmetries in skeletal elements or populations of dissimilar dimensions. Under this approach, raw asymmetries are divided by a size marker, such as a bilateral average, in an attempt to produce size-free asymmetry indices. Henceforth, this will be referred to as "controlling for size" (see Smith: Curr Anthropol 46 (2005) 249-273). Ratios obtained in this manner often require further transformations to interpret the meaning and sources of asymmetry. This model frequently ignores the fundamental assumption of ratios: the relationship between the variables entered in the ratio must be isometric. Violations of this assumption can obscure existing asymmetries and render spurious results. In this study, we examined the performance of the classic indices in detecting and portraying the asymmetry patterns in four human appendicular bones and explored potential methodological alternatives. Examination of the ratio model revealed that it does not fulfill its intended goals in the bones examined, as the numerator and denominator are independent in all cases. The ratios also introduced strong biases in the comparisons between different elements and variables, generating spurious asymmetry patterns. Multivariate analyses strongly suggest that any transformation to control for overall size or variable range must be conducted before, rather than after, calculating the asymmetries. A combination of exploratory multivariate techniques, such as Principal Components Analysis, and confirmatory linear methods, such as regression and analysis of covariance, appear as a promising and powerful alternative to the use of ratios. PMID:24842694

  8. COMMUNICATION: Alternative splicing and genomic stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Kevin

    2004-06-01

    Alternative splicing allows an organism to make different proteins in different cells at different times, all from the same gene. In a cell that uses alternative splicing, the total length of all the exons is much shorter than in a cell that encodes the same set of proteins without alternative splicing. This economical use of exons makes genes more stable during reproduction and development because a genome with a shorter exon length is more resistant to harmful mutations. Genomic stability may be the reason why higher vertebrates splice alternatively. For a broad class of alternatively spliced genes, a formula is given for the increase in their stability.

  9. ALTERNATIVE SOURCES OF ENERGY - ALTERNATIVE SOURCES OF POLLUTION?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius-Razvan SURUGIU

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In many countries of the world investments are made for obtaining energy efficiency, pursuing to increase the generation of non-polluting fuels due to the fact that energy is vital for any economy. The increase in non-polluting fuels and in renewable energy generation might lead to diminishing the dependence of countries less endowed with conventional energy resources on oil and natural gas from Russia or from Arab countries. Nevertheless, environmental issues represent serious questions facing the mankind, requiring the identification, prevention, and why not, their total solving.European Union countries depend on imports of energy, especially on oil imports. At the same time, the European Union countries record a high volume of greenhouse gas emissions, substances adding to global warming. The transport sector is the main consumer of fossil fuels and generator of greenhouse gas emissions. Therefore, diversifying the energy supply used in the transport sector with less polluting sources is an essential objective of the European Union policy in the transport, energy and environment sector. Road transports’ is the sector recording the highest consumption of energy and the highest volume of greenhouse gas emissions.The use of ecologic fuels in the transport sector is an important factor for achieving the objectives of European policies in the field. It is yet to be seen to what extent alternative energy sources are damaging to the environment, as it is a known fact that even for them is recorded a certain level of negative externalities.

  10. Alternatives to traditional transportation fuels: An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    This report presents the first compilation by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of information on alternatives to gasoline and diesel fuel. The purpose of the report is: (1) to provide background information on alternative transportation fuels and replacement fuels compared with gasoline and diesel fuel, and (2) to furnish preliminary estimates of alternative transportation fuels and alternative fueled vehicles as required by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT), Title V, Section 503, ``Replacement Fuel Demand Estimates and Supply Information.`` Specifically, Section 503 requires the EIA to report annually on: (1) the number and type of alternative fueled vehicles in existence the previous year and expected to be in use the following year, (2) the geographic distribution of these vehicles, (3) the amounts and types of replacement fuels consumed, and (4) the greenhouse gas emissions likely to result from replacement fuel use. Alternative fueled vehicles are defined in this report as motorized vehicles licensed for on-road use, which may consume alternative transportation fuels. (Alternative fueled vehicles may use either an alternative transportation fuel or a replacement fuel.) The intended audience for the first section of this report includes the Secretary of Energy, the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the automobile manufacturing industry, the transportation fuel manufacturing and distribution industries, and the general public. The second section is designed primarily for persons desiring a more technical explanation of and background for the issues surrounding alternative transportation fuels.

  11. ALTERNATE PRICING STRATEGIES IN CONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Mochtar

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent research findings on pricing strategies both in general and in construction are reviewed and explored. First%2C pricing strategy in general%2C mostly in the manufacturing industry%2C is reviewed. It includes the concepts of pricing strategy%2C predatory pricing%2C price wars%2C and price policy development. Second%2C pricing strategy in construction is explored. It includes various pricing models for bid price determination%2C such as the Friedman-Gates models%2C expected utility models%2C risk-pricing model%2C and the crew-day%2C multiple regression%2C and fuzzy-set pricing models. In conclusion%2C pricing strategies in construction are still predominantly based on a cost-based approach. More recent models try to close the gap between the models and the real life conditions of a bidder%5C%27s decision-making process. It appears that there are more problems in cost-based pricing as opposed to market-based pricing. Consequently%2C it is highly recommended that%2C alternative pricing approach such as that are closer to the proposed market-based pricing model need to be explored and developed for use in the construction industry. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Pricing+strategy%2C+cost-based+pricing%2C+market-based+pricing.

  12. Subjective preferences and alternative costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Barnett II

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The present paper is an exploration of the economics of subjectivism and opportunity or alternative costs. Most contemporary economists pay lip service to these concepts, but when push comes to shove, all too often they jettison them. We shall illustrate this lapse from basic economics with a challenge that has been perplexing several modern economists: why do people always walk on staircases, but only sometimes on escalators. Landsburg (2002 misunderstood the reason people only sometimes walk on escalators, whereas they always walk on stairs. Garrison (2009 tackled the same problem, with somewhat different results. Both of them, however, are guilty of a failure to use what is perhaps the most fundamental concept in the economist’s toolkit – opportunity cost, known to an immense number of non-economists by the aphorism ‘There’s no such thing as a free lunch.’ This oversight resulted in his (their failure to explain why people only sometimes walk on escalators, in contradistinction to the fact that they always walk on staircases.

  13. Alternative Modernities for Colonial Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Lee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Sunyoung Park. The Proletarian Wave: Literature and Leftist Culture in Colonial Korea, 1910–1945. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2015. 348 pp. $50 (cloth. Vladimir Tikhonov. Modern Korea and Its Others: Perceptions of the Neighbouring Countries and Korean Modernity. London: Routledge, 2016. 218 pp. $160 (cloth. It has become a global scholarly undertaking: how to rethink modernity so as to decouple it from Westernization (Chakrabarty 2000. Strategies have included foregrounding the plurality of history to disrupt linear progress; positing non-Western centers of modernity in, say, Moscow or Shanghai; and tracing anticolonial circuits connecting Asia to Africa to Latin America. The two recent books under review here add colonial-era Korea to such far-reaching discussions by situating the country across national boundaries. Interestingly, one connecting thread here is the alternative world system provided by the interwar, Soviet-oriented Left. The result is an unsettling of binaries that subsequently became entrenched during the Cold War: for example, north-south, socialist-nationalist, and, for literature, realist-modernist. But more broadly, pervading both books is the sense that history could have turned out differently—that revisiting northeast Asia’s porous borders in the early twentieth century reveals the Korean peninsula’s lost, internationalist potential...

  14. Casimir force: an alternative treatment

    CERN Document Server

    Silva, P R

    2009-01-01

    The Casimir force between two parallel uncharged closely spaced metallic plates is evaluated in ways alternatives to those usually considered in the literature. In a first approximation we take in account the suppressed quantum numbers of a cubic box, representing a cavity which was cut in a metallic block. We combine these ideas with those of the MIT bag model of hadrons, but adapted to non-relativistic particles. In a second approximation we consider the particles occupying the energy levels of the Bohr atom, so that the Casimir force depends explicitly on the fine structure constant alpha. In both treatments, the mean energies which have explicit dependence on the particle mass and on the maximum occupied quantum number (related to the Fermi level of the system) at the beginning of the calculations, have these dependences mutually canceled at the end of them. Finally by comparing the averaged energies computed in both approximations, we are able to make an estimate of the value of the fine structure consta...

  15. Alternative Water Processor Test Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Karen D.; Mitchell, Julie; Vega, Leticia; Adam, Niklas; Flynn, Michael; Wjee (er. Rau); Lunn, Griffin; Jackson, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    The Next Generation Life Support Project is developing an Alternative Water Processor (AWP) as a candidate water recovery system for long duration exploration missions. The AWP consists of biological water processor (BWP) integrated with a forward osmosis secondary treatment system (FOST). The basis of the BWP is a membrane aerated biological reactor (MABR), developed in concert with Texas Tech University. Bacteria located within the MABR metabolize organic material in wastewater, converting approximately 90% of the total organic carbon to carbon dioxide. In addition, bacteria convert a portion of the ammonia-nitrogen present in the wastewater to nitrogen gas, through a combination of nitrogen and denitrification. The effluent from the BWP system is low in organic contaminants, but high in total dissolved solids. The FOST system, integrated downstream of the BWP, removes dissolved solids through a combination of concentration-driven forward osmosis and pressure driven reverse osmosis. The integrated system is expected to produce water with a total organic carbon less than 50 mg/l and dissolved solids that meet potable water requirements for spaceflight. This paper describes the test definition, the design of the BWP and FOST subsystems, and plans for integrated testing.

  16. Alternative Water Processor Test Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Karen D.; Mitchell, Julie L.; Adam, Niklas M.; Barta, Daniel; Meyer, Caitlin E.; Pensinger, Stuart; Vega, Leticia M.; Callahan, Michael R.; Flynn, Michael; Wheeler, Ray; Birmele, Michele; Lunn, Griffin; Jackson, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    The Next Generation Life Support Project is developing an Alternative Water Processor (AWP) as a candidate water recovery system for long duration exploration missions. The AWP consists of biological water processor (BWP) integrated with a forward osmosis secondary treatment system (FOST). The basis of the BWP is a membrane aerated biological reactor (MABR), developed in concert with Texas Tech University. Bacteria located within the MABR metabolize organic material in wastewater, converting approximately 90% of the total organic carbon to carbon dioxide. In addition, bacteria convert a portion of the ammonia-nitrogen present in the wastewater to nitrogen gas, through a combination of nitrification and denitrification. The effluent from the BWP system is low in organic contaminants, but high in total dissolved solids. The FOST system, integrated downstream of the BWP, removes dissolved solids through a combination of concentration-driven forward osmosis and pressure driven reverse osmosis. The integrated system is expected to produce water with a total organic carbon less than 50 mg/l and dissolved solids that meet potable water requirements for spaceflight. This paper describes the test definition, the design of the BWP and FOST subsystems, and plans for integrated testing.

  17. HFIR spent fuel management alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Martin Marietta Energy Systems' Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been unable to ship its spent fuel to Savannah River Site (SRS) for reprocessing since 1985. The HFIR storage pools are expected to fill up in the February 1994 to February 1995 time frame. If a management altemative to existing HFIR pool storage is not identified and implemented before the HFIR pools are full, the HFIR will be forced to shut down. This study investigated several alternatives for managing the HFIR spent fuel, attempting to identify options that could be implemented before the HFIR pools are full. The options investigated were: installing a dedicated dry cask storage facility at ORNL, increasing HFIR pool storage capacity by clearing the HFIR pools of debris and either close-packing or stacking the spent fuel elements, storing the spent fuel at another ORNL pool, storing the spent fuel in one or more hot cells at ORNL, and shipping the spent fuel offsite for reprocessing or storage elsewhere

  18. Alternative Energy for Higher Education

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Cherney, PhD

    2012-02-22

    This project provides educational opportunities creating both a teaching facility and center for public outreach. The facility is the largest solar array in Nebraska. It was designed to allow students to experience a variety of technologies and provide the public with opportunities for exposure to the implementation of an alternative energy installation designed for an urban setting. The project integrates products from 5 panel manufacturers (including monocrystalline, polycrystalline and thin film technologies) mounted on both fixed and tracking structures. The facility uses both micro and high power inverters. The majority of the system was constructed to serve as an outdoor classroom where panels can be monitored, tested, removed and replaced by students. As an educational facility it primarily serves students in the Creighton University and Metropolitan Community College, but it also provides broader educational opportunities. The project includes a real-time dashboard and a historical database of the output of individual inverters and the corresponding meteorological data for researcher and student use. This allows the evaluation of both panel types and the feasibility of installation types in a region of the country subject to significant temperature, wind and precipitation variation.

  19. Beyond LCDM: a viable alternative?

    CERN Document Server

    Gough, Michael Paul

    2016-01-01

    We are encouraged to look beyond LCDM as there are still no satisfactory explanations for either dark energy or dark matter. A data centred phenomenological approach supports an alternative explanation in which dark energy is not a universe-wide constant energy density, but the Holographic Dark Information Energy, HDIE, naturally centred around galaxies. HDIE can explain many of the effects attributed separately to Lambda and CDM. HDIE mimics Lambda with sufficient overall total energy and an equation of state parameter, w = -1.03+-0.05 for z 1.35, HDIE was phantom, w = -1.82+-0.08, providing a clear prediction that will enable the model to be verified or falsified. HDIE is shown to fit Planck dark energy wo-wa plots at least as well as Lambda, and to be consistent with other results that suggest dark energy was phantom at earlier times. A new w parameterisation is proposed here, as the usual CPL parameterisation is found to be biased and unsuitable for distinguishing between the HDIE/baryon and LCDM models.

  20. A multiagent model for alternative plan generation

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    The utilization of multiagent technology for urban planning purposes has already received much attention with regard to predicting and evaluating the effects of different policy scenarios and plan alternatives. The generation of these plan alternatives, however, remains underexplored in this context. In this paper the authors describe a multiagent model for generating alternative land-use plans, in which the agents are land-use experts that initiate the development of plan proposals and commu...

  1. Complementary and Alternative Therapies in ALS

    OpenAIRE

    Bedlack, Richard S.; Joyce, Nanette; Carter, Gregory T.; Pagononi, Sabrina; Karam, Chafic

    2015-01-01

    Given the severity of their illness and lack of effective disease modifying agents, it is not surprising that most patients with ALS consider trying complementary and alternative therapies. Some of the most commonly considered alternative therapies include special diets, nutritional supplements, cannabis, acupuncture, chelation and energy healing. This chapter reviews these in detail. We also describe 3 models by which physicians may frame discussions about alternative therapies: paternalism,...

  2. Alternating Turing machines for inductive languages

    OpenAIRE

    Leivant, Daniel M

    2013-01-01

    We show that alternating Turing machines, with a novel and natural definition of acceptance, accept precisely the inductive (Pi-1-1) languages. Total alternating machines, that either accept or reject each input, accept precisely the hyper-elementary (Delta-1-1) languages. Moreover, bounding the permissible number of alternations yields a characterization of the levels of the arithmetical hierarchy. Notably, these results use simple finite computing devices, with finitary and discrete operati...

  3. An alternative model of spherical oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An alternative model of Higgs spherical oscillator is considered. The quasiradial wave functions and energy spectra of the alternative model of spherical oscillator on the D-dimensional sphere and D-dimensional two-sheeted hyperboloid are found. It is shown that the energy spectrum of the alternative model of spherical oscillator on a two-sheeted hyperboloid takes both discrete and continuous values. The obtained results can be applied in higher dimensions for constructing quantum Hall effect theory

  4. Meeting Report: Alternatives for Developmental Neurotoxicity Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Lein, Pamela; Locke, Paul; Goldberg, Alan

    2007-01-01

    Developmental neurotoxicity testing (DNT) is perceived by many stakeholders to be an area in critical need of alternatives to current animal testing protocols and guidelines. To address this need, the Johns Hopkins Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing (CAAT), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the National Toxicology Program are collaborating in a program called TestSmart DNT, the goals of which are to: (a) develop alternative methodologies for identifying and prioritizing che...

  5. Evolutionary conservation of alternative splicing in chicken

    OpenAIRE

    Katyal, S.; Gao, Z.; Liu, R.-Z.; R Godbout

    2007-01-01

    Alternative splicing represents a source of great diversity for regulating protein expression and function. It has been estimated that one-third to two-thirds of mammalian genes are alternatively spliced. With the sequencing of the chicken genome and analysis of transcripts expressed in chicken tissues, we are now in a position to address evolutionary conservation of alternative splicing events in chicken and mammals. Here, we compare chicken and mammalian transcript sequences of 41 alternati...

  6. Young doctors' views on alternative medicine.

    OpenAIRE

    Reilly, D T

    1983-01-01

    A survey was undertaken to explore attitudes to alternative medicine among 100 general practitioner trainees. A positive attitude emerged from the 86 respondents, with 18 doctors using at least one alternative method themselves and 70 wanting to train in one or more. A total of 31 trainees had referred patients for such treatments; 12 of these doctors made referrals to non-medically qualified practitioners. The most commonly used alternative treatments were hypnosis, manipulation, homoeopathy...

  7. Potential of renewable and alternative energy sources

    OpenAIRE

    Konovalov, Vyacheslav Vasilievich; Pozharnitskaya, Olga Vyacheslavovna; Rostovshchikova, А.; Matveenko, Irina Alekseevna

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with application potential of clean alternative renewable energy sources. By means of system analysis the forecast for consumption of electrical energy in Tomsk Oblast as well as main energy sources of existing energy system have been studied up to 2018. Engineering potential of renewable and alternative energy sources is evaluated. Besides, ranking in the order of their efficiency descending is performed. It is concluded that Tomsk Oblast has high potential of alternative a...

  8. ASD: a bioinformatics resource on alternative splicing

    OpenAIRE

    Stamm, Stefan; Riethoven, Jean-Jack; Le Texier, Vincent; Gopalakrishnan, Chellappa; Kumanduri, Vasudev; Tang, Yesheng; Barbosa-Morais, Nuno L.; Thanaraj, Thangavel Alphonse

    2005-01-01

    Alternative splicing is an important regulatory mechanism of mammalian gene expression. The alternative splicing database (ASD) consortium is systematically collecting and annotating data on alternative splicing. We present the continuation and upgrade of the ASD [T. A. Thanaraj, S. Stamm, F. Clark, J. J. Riethoven, V. Le Texier, J. Muilu (2004) Nucleic Acids Res. 32, D64–D69] that consists of computationally and manually generated data. Its largest parts are AltSplice, a value-added database...

  9. ARI delegation to Japan on Alternative Refrigerants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-02-01

    Researchers from ARI member companies spoke at the International Conference on Alternative Refrigerants in Tokyo and visited several Japanese organizations for the purpose of exchanging information on alternative refrigerants. The specific purpose of the meetings was to review the methods being utilized to screen alternatives to CFCs and HCFCs: materials compatibility screening methods, lubricant testing techniques, as well as flammability studies. A list of papers presented at the conference is included.

  10. Planetary Protection Alternate Protocol Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Amy; Barengoltz, Jack; Tisdale, David

    The talk presents a standardized approach for new method certification or alterative testing protocol (ATP) certification against the existing U.S. Planetary Protection Standards. In consideration of new method certification there are two phases of activities that are relevant to the certification process. The first is sample acquisition which typically incorporates swab or wipes sampling on relevant hardware, associated facilities and ground support equipment. The sampling methods introduce considerations of field sampling efficiency as it relates to spore distribution on the spacecraft, spacecraft material influences on the ability of the swab or wipe to remove spores from the hardware, the types of swabs and wipes used (polyester, cotton, macrofoam), and human sampling influences. The second portion of a new protocol certification looks specifically at the lab work-up or analysis of the samples provided to the laboratory. Variables in this process include selection of appropriate biomarkers, extraction efficiencies (removal of spores or constituents of interest from the sampling device), and a method's ability to accurately determine the number of spores present in the sample with a statistically valid level of confidence as described by parameters such as precision, accuracy, robustness, specificity and sensitivity. Considerations for alternative testing protocols such as those which utilize bioburden reduction techniques include selection of appropriate biomarkers for testing, test materials and a defined statistical approach that provides sufficient scientific data to support the modification of an existing NASA specification or the generation of a new NASA specification. Synergies between the U.S. and European Space Agency approaches will also be discussed.

  11. Alternative energy sources. Part B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This text has been assembled from the proceedings of the Alternative Energy Sources Symposium of the International Symposium Series of the Kuwait Foundation for the Advancement of Sciences (KFAS) that was held in Kuwait in February 1980. The focus of this symposium was to review and assess those technologies that presently complement and will most likely substitute in the future for oil and gas extracted by conventional techniques. This text includes the state-of-the-art of these technologies as seen by experts in their respective disciplines. In the coverage of the technologies presented, an attempt has been made to include present developed technologies and those under development. As a consequence, the level of detail in each presentation is appropriate to the developmental stage of the technology under consideration, as assessed by the author. In general, the papers covering proven or nearly proven technologies mostly consist of detailed and or comparative assessments of the diverse engineering schemes without unduly dwelling on basics, while papers addressing technologies under development review the theoretical basis of these technologies in some details. In all instances where meaningful economics are available, numbers are included. This text also includes review papers of electric storage technology and transportation and energy, topics that, along with conservation, affect most strategic energy planning for the foreseeable future. The text also includes economics methodology and economical development papers that will hopefully allow researchers in the energy field access to the more common tools and approaches of the economic and financial analysts and the international development economists. Separate abstracts of individual presentations have been prepared for inclusion in the Energy Data Base

  12. Display Sharing: An Alternative Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    The current Johnson Space Center (JSC) Mission Control Center (MCC) Video Transport System (VTS) provides flight controllers and management the ability to meld raw video from various sources with telemetry to improve situational awareness. However, maintaining a separate infrastructure for video delivery and integration of video content with data adds significant complexity and cost to the system. When considering alternative architectures for a VTS, the current system's ability to share specific computer displays in their entirety to other locations, such as large projector systems, flight control rooms, and back supporting rooms throughout the facilities and centers must be incorporated into any new architecture. Internet Protocol (IP)-based systems also support video delivery and integration. IP-based systems generally have an advantage in terms of cost and maintainability. Although IP-based systems are versatile, the task of sharing a computer display from one workstation to another can be time consuming for an end-user and inconvenient to administer at a system level. The objective of this paper is to present a prototype display sharing enterprise solution. Display sharing is a system which delivers image sharing across the LAN while simultaneously managing bandwidth, supporting encryption, enabling recovery and resynchronization following a loss of signal, and, minimizing latency. Additional critical elements will include image scaling support, multi -sharing, ease of initial integration and configuration, integration with desktop window managers, collaboration tools, host and recipient controls. This goal of this paper is to summarize the various elements of an IP-based display sharing system that can be used in today's control center environment.

  13. Alternative to particle dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury, Justin

    2015-01-01

    We propose an alternative to particle dark matter that borrows ingredients of modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND) while adding new key components. The first new feature is a dark matter fluid, in the form of a scalar field with small equation of state and sound speed. This component is critical in reproducing the success of cold dark matter for the expansion history and the growth of linear perturbations, but does not cluster significantly on nonlinear scales. Instead, the missing mass problem on nonlinear scales is addressed by a modification of the gravitational force law. The force law approximates MOND at large and intermediate accelerations, and therefore reproduces the empirical success of MOND at fitting galactic rotation curves. At ultralow accelerations, the force law reverts to an inverse-square law, albeit with a larger Newton's constant. This latter regime is important in galaxy clusters and is consistent with their observed isothermal profiles, provided the characteristic acceleration scale of MOND is mildly varying with scale or mass, such that it is 12 times higher in clusters than in galaxies. We present an explicit relativistic theory in terms of two scalar fields. The first scalar field is governed by a Dirac-Born-Infeld action and behaves as a dark matter fluid on large scales. The second scalar field also has single-derivative interactions and mediates a fifth force that modifies gravity on nonlinear scales. Both scalars are coupled to matter via an effective metric that depends locally on the fields. The form of this effective metric implies the equality of the two scalar gravitational potentials, which ensures that lensing and dynamical mass estimates agree. Further work is needed in order to make both the acceleration scale of MOND and the fraction at which gravity reverts to an inverse-square law explicitly dynamical quantities, varying with scale or mass.

  14. Mixed oxide conversion facility alternative conceptual designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allied-General Nuclear Services recently performed studies to evaluate alternative proliferation-resistant flowsheets of the uranium-based LWR fuel cycle. The alternatives evaluated consist of coprocessing schemes with either a gamma or a heat spike added. A literature search and evaluation were performed to select a process technology for mixed oxide coconversion. The COPRECAL process was chosen as the most suitable conversion process technology. Three alternative mixed oxide conversion facility design concepts were prepared based on the COPRECAL technology. These alternative concepts are compared to a pure plutonium conversion facility. Facility designs, relative proliferation resistance, and cost estimates are discussed

  15. Alternative large Nc baryons and holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In gauge theories in the limit of a large number Nc of colors baryons are usually described as heavy solitonic objects with mass of order Nc. We discuss an alternative large Nc description both directly in the field theory as well as using holography. In this alternative large Nc limit at least some of the baryons behave like mesons, that is they stay light even at large Nc and their interactions vanish in that limit. For Nc=3 these alternative large Nc baryons are equivalent to the standard baryons. In the holographic description it is manifest that the Regge slopes of mesons and alternative baryons are degenerate.

  16. Alternative large Nc baryons and holography

    CERN Document Server

    Hoyos-Badajoz, Carlos

    2009-01-01

    In gauge theories in the limit of a large number Nc of colors, baryons are usually described as heavy solitonic objects with mass of order Nc. We discuss an alternative large Nc description both directly in the field theory as well as using holography. In this alternative large Nc limit at least some of the baryons behave like mesons, that is they stay light even at large Nc and their interactions vanish in that limit. For Nc=3 these alternative large Nc baryons are equivalent to the standard baryons. In the holographic description it is manifest that the Regge slopes of mesons and alternative baryons are degenerate.

  17. Non-Gasoline Alternative Fueling Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Through a nationwide network of local coalitions, Clean Citiesprovides project assistance to help stakeholders in the public and private sectors deploy alternative...

  18. An alternative storage method for entomopathogenic nematodes

    OpenAIRE

    GÜLCÜ, Barış; HAZIR, Selçuk

    2012-01-01

    Tetra Pak containers were evaluated as an alternative to tissue culture flasks for nematode storage. Our data showed that Tetra Pak containers were an excellent alternative to tissue culture flasks for storage of H. bacteriophora and will more than likely be useful for other entomopathogenic nematode species.

  19. Alternative Learning Environments in the Elementary School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Eugene D.

    This paper outlines a program utilized in the Countryside School which offers alternative learning environments in the elementary school. The program includes (1) semi-departmentalization; (2) team teaching; and (3) an open-alternatives program. Each of these areas is outlined and fully discussed in terms of student and parent needs. (YRJ)

  20. Alternative Natural Energy Sources in Building Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Albert J.; Schubert, Robert P.

    This publication provides a discussion of various energy conserving building systems and design alternatives. The information presented here covers alternative space and water heating systems, and energy conserving building designs incorporating these systems and other energy conserving techniques. Besides water, wind, solar, and bio conversion…

  1. Alternative binder for copper concentrate briquetting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Łabaj

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, results of investigations on the use of new, alternative binder, based on technical grade glycerine and higher alcohols, for copper matte briquetting are presented. The use of alternative binder yields briquettes that show better drop and compressive strength properties compared with briquettes produced using traditional, sulphite lye binding material.

  2. Alternative binder for copper concentrate briquetting

    OpenAIRE

    J. Łabaj; M. Jodkowski; Szeja, W.; Helhmann, J.; Kozioł, M.

    2015-01-01

    In the paper, results of investigations on the use of new, alternative binder, based on technical grade glycerine and higher alcohols, for copper matte briquetting are presented. The use of alternative binder yields briquettes that show better drop and compressive strength properties compared with briquettes produced using traditional, sulphite lye binding material.

  3. Complementary and Alternative Therapies for Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roizen, Nancy J.

    2005-01-01

    In their role as committed advocates, parents of children with Down syndrome have always sought alternative therapies, mainly to enhance cognitive function but also to improve their appearance. Nutritional supplements have been the most frequent type of complementary and alternative therapy used. Cell therapy, plastic surgery, hormonal therapy,…

  4. Alternatives to prison sentences: Experiences and development

    OpenAIRE

    Junger-Tas, J.

    1994-01-01

    This study presents an overview of experiences with alternative sanctions in other countries with a view to the future development of the Dutch sanctioning system. The principal objective of the study was to examine the use of alternatives to prison with respect to their effectiveness and efficiency.

  5. Alternatives to prison sentences : Experiences and development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Junger-Tas, J.

    1994-01-01

    This study presents an overview of experiences with alternative sanctions in other countries with a view to the future development of the Dutch sanctioning system. The principal objective of the study was to examine the use of alternatives to prison with respect to their effectiveness and efficiency

  6. Sodium Bearing Waste Processing Alternatives Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A multidisciplinary team gathered to develop a BBWI recommendation to DOE-ID on the processing alternatives for the sodium bearing waste in the INTEC Tank Farm. Numerous alternatives were analyzed using a rigorous, systematic approach. The data gathered were evaluated through internal and external peer reviews for consistency and validity. Three alternatives were identified to be top performers: Risk-based Calcination, MACT to WIPP Calcination and Cesium Ion Exchange. A dual-path through early Conceptual design is recommended for MACT to WIPP Calcination and Cesium Ion Exchange since Risk-based Calcination does not require design. If calcination alternatives are not considered based on giving Type of Processing criteria significantly greater weight, the CsIX/TRUEX alternative follows CsIX in ranking. However, since CsIX/TRUEX shares common uncertainties with CsIX, reasonable backups, which follow in ranking, are the TRUEX and UNEX alternatives. Key uncertainties must be evaluated by the decision-makers to choose one final alternative. Those key uncertainties and a path forward for the technology roadmapping of these alternatives is provided

  7. Context-driven expectations about focus alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Christina S; Gunlogson, Christine; Tanenhaus, Michael K; Runner, Jeffrey T

    2015-06-01

    What is conveyed by a sentence frequently depends not only on the descriptive content carried by its words, but also on implicit alternatives determined by the context of use. Four visual world eye-tracking experiments examined how alternatives are generated based on aspects of the discourse context and used in interpreting sentences containing the focus operators only and also. Experiment 1 builds on previous reading time studies showing that the interpretations of only sentences are constrained by alternatives explicitly mentioned in the preceding discourse, providing fine-grained time course information about the expectations triggered by only. Experiments 2 and 3 show that, in the absence of explicitly mentioned alternatives, lexical and situation-based categories evoked by the context are possible sources of alternatives. While Experiments 1-3 all demonstrate the discourse dependence of alternatives, only explicit mention triggered expectations about alternatives that were specific to sentences with only. By comparing only with also, Experiment 4 begins to disentangle expectations linked to the meanings of specific operators from those generalizable to the class of focus-sensitive operators. Together, these findings show that the interpretation of sentences with focus operators draws on both dedicated mechanisms for introducing alternatives into the discourse context and general mechanisms associated with discourse processing. PMID:25797456

  8. Ship detection with Envisat's alternating polarization mode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, A.J.E.; Chesworth, J.; Greidanus, H.

    2005-01-01

    A ship detection algorithm is developed that uses Envisat ASAR imagery in alternating polarisation mode. From airborne data it is shown that of the two co-polarisations, HH is preferred over VV because of a larger ship-to-clutter ratio. Combining the HH and HV images of alternating polarisation mode

  9. Sodium Bearing Waste Processing Alternatives Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, James Anthony; Palmer, Brent J; Perry, Keith Joseph

    2003-12-01

    A multidisciplinary team gathered to develop a BBWI recommendation to DOE-ID on the processing alternatives for the sodium bearing waste in the INTEC Tank Farm. Numerous alternatives were analyzed using a rigorous, systematic approach. The data gathered were evaluated through internal and external peer reviews for consistency and validity. Three alternatives were identified to be top performers: Risk-based Calcination, MACT to WIPP Calcination and Cesium Ion Exchange. A dual-path through early Conceptual design is recommended for MACT to WIPP Calcination and Cesium Ion Exchange since Risk-based Calcination does not require design. If calcination alternatives are not considered based on giving Type of Processing criteria significantly greater weight, the CsIX/TRUEX alternative follows CsIX in ranking. However, since CsIX/TRUEX shares common uncertainties with CsIX, reasonable backups, which follow in ranking, are the TRUEX and UNEX alternatives. Key uncertainties must be evaluated by the decision-makers to choose one final alternative. Those key uncertainties and a path forward for the technology roadmapping of these alternatives is provided.

  10. Demystifying Alternative Education: Considering What Really Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Diane E.

    2003-01-01

    The effectiveness of alternative programs requires an understanding of both research and practice. Essential components of alternative educational programs must include opportunities to build and foster resilience in our youth. Program elements must be reflective of the quality and standards mandated by the "No Child Left Behind Act of 2001."…

  11. Luftforureninger ved anvendelse af alternative isoleringsmaterialer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place

    2003-01-01

    Resume af rapport om luftforureninger ved anvendelse af alternative isoleringsmaterialer, udarbejdet af Arbejdsmiljøinstituttet og Statens Byggeforskningsinstitut under Energistyrelsens udviklingsprogram "Miljø- og arbejdsmiljøvenlig isolering"......Resume af rapport om luftforureninger ved anvendelse af alternative isoleringsmaterialer, udarbejdet af Arbejdsmiljøinstituttet og Statens Byggeforskningsinstitut under Energistyrelsens udviklingsprogram "Miljø- og arbejdsmiljøvenlig isolering"...

  12. Bygningsakustiske egenskaber for bygningsdele med alternative isoleringsmaterialer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place

    2004-01-01

    Resume af rapport om bygningsakutiske egenskaber for alternative isoleringsmaterialer, udarbejdet af DELTA under Energistyrelsens udviklingsprogram "Miljø- og arbejdsmiljøvenlig isolering"......Resume af rapport om bygningsakutiske egenskaber for alternative isoleringsmaterialer, udarbejdet af DELTA under Energistyrelsens udviklingsprogram "Miljø- og arbejdsmiljøvenlig isolering"...

  13. Special Section: Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM):Quiz on Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Special Section CAM Quiz on Complementary and Alternative Medicine Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table of Contents For ... low back pain. True False Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) includes: Meditation Chiropractic Use of natural products, ...

  14. Alternative Dispute Resolution – Justice without Trial?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Roşu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This research is proposed to analyze the alternative means of dispute resolution, as an alternativeof justice, or as a justice alternative, after studying both European critical literature and national one. Thephrase „alternative dispute resolution” means any alternative way of dispute resolution method whereby two ormore people try using a third party to reach a solution to the problem that precludes them, whether it ismediation, conciliation, assisted negotiation. In this research, we proposed to use the observation as a commonmethod. We concluded that the main reason of the alternative means for dispute resolution results from thepossibility to avoid the judicial system that makes it available for the litigants. It was also shown that users ofalternative means for dispute resolution not seek to resolve the dispute outside a court as an amicablesettlement, negotiated, consensual of their dispute.

  15. Alternative Energy Lessons in Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Julie

    2010-05-01

    In Scotland the new science curriculum for pupils aged 12 to 15 shall include the following outcomes: "Using my knowledge and understanding, I can express an informed view on a national or global environmental issue;" "I have participated in constructing a model to harness a renewable source of energy and can investigate how to optimise the output;" and "I can discuss why it is important to me and to the future of the world that alternatives to fossil fuels are developed." There will be an emphasis on creating lessons that will nurture responsible citizens, improve pupil engagement and allow students to develop their team working skills. To help teachers plan lessons to address this, the Scottish Schools Equipment Research Centre and Edinburgh University made teaching materials on four renewable energy resources. This poster describes how their suggested activities on solar cells, wind turbines, hydroelectric power stations and wave power were used in science lessons with twelve year old students. After an initial class discussion based on issues related to climate change and diminishing fossil fuel supplies, a workshop activity was carried out in three stages. The students were issued with a fact sheet about one of four imaginary islands (Skisdale, Cloudy Island, Surfsville and Sun City) and they were asked to work in teams to choose the most suitable method of generating electricity for their island. Issues such as costs, where it will be sited and environmental implications were considered. They were then asked to conduct practical activities by constructing and testing models for these forms of renewable energy. To conclude, they presented their proposal to the rest of the class with reasoned explanations. The kits used in the lessons can be purchased from Anderson Scientific (sales@andersonscientific.co.uk). The solar cells were simply connected to a voltmeter. The wind and hydroelectric groups used the same basic equipment. This was made using a small water

  16. Alternative Energy Development and China's Energy Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Nina; Fridley, David

    2011-06-15

    In addition to promoting energy efficiency, China has actively pursued alternative energy development as a strategy to reduce its energy demand and carbon emissions. One area of particular focus has been to raise the share of alternative energy in China’s rapidly growing electricity generation with a 2020 target of 15% share of total primary energy. Over the last ten years, China has established several major renewable energy regulations along with programs and subsidies to encourage the growth of non-fossil alternative energy including solar, wind, nuclear, hydro, geothermal and biomass power as well as biofuels and coal alternatives. This study thus seeks to examine China’s alternative energy in terms of what has and will continue to drive alternative energy development in China as well as analyze in depth the growth potential and challenges facing each specific technology. This study found that despite recent policies enabling extraordinary capacity and investment growth, alternative energy technologies face constraints and barriers to growth. For relatively new technologies that have not achieved commercialization such as concentrated solar thermal, geothermal and biomass power, China faces technological limitations to expanding the scale of installed capacity. While some alternative technologies such as hydropower and coal alternatives have been slowed by uneven and often changing market and policy support, others such as wind and solar PV have encountered physical and institutional barriers to grid integration. Lastly, all alternative energy technologies face constraints in human resources and raw material resources including land and water, with some facing supply limitations in critical elements such as uranium for nuclear, neodymium for wind and rare earth metals for advanced solar PV. In light of China’s potential for and barriers to growth, the resource and energy requirement for alternative energy technologies were modeled and scenario analysis

  17. Modified Waste Emplacement Mode Design Alternative Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The alternative emplacement modes presented in this report provide potential conceptual design options to the VA design that enhance human access to the emplacement drift area during abnormal events. The alternative conceptual designs emplace waste packages in configurations that reduce the level of radiation exposure utilizing shield doors, shield plugs, and concrete slabs to allow for human access during off-normal events. The alternative emplacements modes rank slightly lower than the VA design when evaluated against the eight criteria (i.e., postclosure performance; preclosure performance; assurance of safety; engineering acceptance, construction, operations and maintenance; schedule; cost and environmental considerations) presented in Section 5. However, the alternative emplacement modes allow the waste packages to be more accessible for human access to perform infrequent and unplanned events. The alternative emplacement modes were evaluated by a team of experts in assessing the confidence level that would be presented by each one of the design emplacement mode concepts (See Appendix A). The experts ranked the alternative emplacement mode concepts on a scale from A to E (i.e., A represents a high level of confidence and E represents the lowest level of confidence). The criteria in which the alternative modes were evaluated include the following: postclosure performance; preclosure performance; assurance of safety; engineering acceptance; construction, operations and maintenance; schedule; and cost. The results of the evaluation concluded that the alternative emplacement modes have a moderate level of confidence when evaluated against the selected criteria. Overall, the average rankings for the alternative emplacement modes presented in this report score below the VA reference design when analyzed against the evaluation criteria. Some limited calculations for the postclosure performance criteria were generated to determine the TSPA for each alternative

  18. Modified waste emplacement mode design alternative report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The alternative emplacement modes presented in this report provide potential conceptual design options to the VA design that enhance human access to the emplacement drift area during abnormal events. The alternative conceptual designs emplace waste packages in configurations that reduce the level of radiation exposure utilizing shield doors, shield plugs, and concrete slabs to allow for human access during off-normal events. The alternative emplacements modes rank slightly lower than the VA design when evaluated against the eight criteria (i.e., postclosure performance; preclosure performance; assurance of safety; engineering acceptance, construction, operations and maintenance; schedule; cost and environmental considerations) presented in Section 5. However, the alternative emplacement modes allow the waste packages to be more accessible for human access to perform infrequent and unplanned events. The alternative emplacement modes were evaluated by a team of experts in assessing the confidence level that would be presented by each one of the design emplacement mode concepts (See Appendix A). The experts ranked the alternative emplacement mode concepts on a scale from A to E (i.e., A represents a high level of confidence and E represents the lowest level of confidence). The criteria in which the alternative modes were evaluated include the following: postclosure performance; preclosure performance; assurance of safety; engineering acceptance; construction, operations and maintenance; schedule; and cost. The results of the evaluation concluded that the alternative emplacement modes have a moderate level of confidence when evaluated against the selected criteria. Overall, the average rankings for the alternative emplacement modes presented in this report score below the VA reference design when analyzed against the evaluation criteria. Some limited calculations for the postclosure performance criteria were generated to determine the TSPA for each alternative

  19. Advancing practice relating to SEA alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Developing and assessing alternatives is a key and central stage to Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA). However, research has repeatedly reported this stage as one of the most poorly undertaken aspects of the SEA process. Current practice limitations include belated consideration of reasonable alternatives, narrow scope of alternatives that often include unrealistic or retrofitted options, limited stakeholder and public involvement in their identification, assessment and selection, lack of systematic approaches to their assessment and comparison, and inadequate reporting of the ‘storyline’ on how they were identified, what the potential impacts are and why the preferred alternative was selected. These issues have resulted in objections and judicial reviews. On the positive side, a number of good practice case studies enable extraction of key lessons and formulation of a set of general recommendations to advance practice in SEA alternatives. In this paper, practical guidance on the identification and development of alternatives, their assessment and comparison, selection of the preferred option, and documentation of the process and the reasons for selection is provided and discussed to frame good practice approaches. - Highlights: • Alternatives are one of the most poorly completed aspects of Strategic Environmental Assessment. • Current practice limitations need to be addressed to enhance SEA effectiveness. • A set of recommendations are extracted from good practice case studies. • These recommendations can be applied across jurisdictions and sectors and tailored as necessary

  20. The Architecture of Chemical Alternatives Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiser, Kenneth; Tickner, Joel; Edwards, Sally; Rossi, Mark

    2015-12-01

    Chemical alternatives assessment is a method rapidly developing for use by businesses, governments, and nongovernment organizations seeking to substitute chemicals of concern in production processes and products. Chemical alternatives assessment is defined as a process for identifying, comparing, and selecting safer alternatives to chemicals of concern (including those in materials, processes, or technologies) on the basis of their hazards, performance, and economic viability. The process is intended to provide guidance for assuring that chemicals of concern are replaced with safer alternatives that are not likely to be later regretted. Conceptually, the assessment methods are developed from a set of three foundational pillars and five common principles. Based on a number of emerging alternatives assessment initiatives, in this commentary, we outline a chemical alternatives assessment blueprint structured around three broad steps: Scope, Assessment, and Selection and Implementation. Specific tasks and tools are identified for each of these three steps. While it is recognized that on-going practice will further refine and develop the method and tools, it is important that the structure of the assessment process remain flexible, adaptive, and focused on the substitution of chemicals of concern with safer alternatives. PMID:26630442

  1. Advancing practice relating to SEA alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    González, Ainhoa, E-mail: agonzal@tcd.ie [School of Natural Sciences, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Thérivel, Riki, E-mail: levett-therivel@phonecoop.coop [Levett-Therivel Sustainability Consultants (United Kingdom); Fry, John, E-mail: john.fry@ucd.ie [School of Agriculture and Food Science, University College Dublin, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Foley, Walter, E-mail: walterfoley@gmail.com [School of Geography, Planning and Environmental Policy, University College Dublin, Dublin 4 (Ireland)

    2015-07-15

    Developing and assessing alternatives is a key and central stage to Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA). However, research has repeatedly reported this stage as one of the most poorly undertaken aspects of the SEA process. Current practice limitations include belated consideration of reasonable alternatives, narrow scope of alternatives that often include unrealistic or retrofitted options, limited stakeholder and public involvement in their identification, assessment and selection, lack of systematic approaches to their assessment and comparison, and inadequate reporting of the ‘storyline’ on how they were identified, what the potential impacts are and why the preferred alternative was selected. These issues have resulted in objections and judicial reviews. On the positive side, a number of good practice case studies enable extraction of key lessons and formulation of a set of general recommendations to advance practice in SEA alternatives. In this paper, practical guidance on the identification and development of alternatives, their assessment and comparison, selection of the preferred option, and documentation of the process and the reasons for selection is provided and discussed to frame good practice approaches. - Highlights: • Alternatives are one of the most poorly completed aspects of Strategic Environmental Assessment. • Current practice limitations need to be addressed to enhance SEA effectiveness. • A set of recommendations are extracted from good practice case studies. • These recommendations can be applied across jurisdictions and sectors and tailored as necessary.

  2. Alternative energy companies : a financier's view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Canadian energy technology sector can be divided into 2 categories: (1) alternative energy generators which include small hydro, wind, biomass, solar energy and fuel cells, and (2) energy technology services. This presentation focused on publicly traded entities and how financing alternatives are limited to project finance, and venture capital. This situation may change as the long term winners emerge and various segments are recognized as not requiring special regulatory and price incentives. Case studies were presented of financing renewable energy projects and the commitment of the Royal Bank of Canada's (RBC) Financial Group to provide financing for alternative energy projects that impact the transportation sector. 15 figs

  3. Potential of renewable and alternative energy sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konovalov, V.; Pogharnitskaya, O.; Rostovshchikova, A.; Matveenko, I.

    2015-11-01

    The article deals with application potential of clean alternative renewable energy sources. By means of system analysis the forecast for consumption of electrical energy in Tomsk Oblast as well as main energy sources of existing energy system have been studied up to 2018. Engineering potential of renewable and alternative energy sources is evaluated. Besides, ranking in the order of their efficiency descending is performed. It is concluded that Tomsk Oblast has high potential of alternative and renewable energy sources, among which the most promising development perspective is implementation of gasification stations to save fuel consumed by diesel power stations as well as building wind-power plants.

  4. Implementation barriers of alternative transport fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troelstra, W.P. [Innas, Breda (Netherlands); Smith, A. [AEA Technology, London (United Kingdom); Bol, M. [Sypher Mueller International, Morristown, New Jersey (United Kingdom)

    1999-02-01

    The study on the title subject aims to present an overview of the practical barriers associated with the introduction of alternative fuels for transport applications in IEA countries. The aim is to provide an information source to which potential users can refer when deciding whether to introduce an alternative fuel. The report will highlight potential problems so that users can either select the alternative fuel best suited to their needs, or implement possible solutions to the problems. The study covers natural gas (both compressed (CNG) and liquefied (LNG)), LPG (liquefied petroleum gas), ethanol (mainly bio-ethanol), methanol, bio-diesel, hydrogen, DME(dimethyl ether), and electricity. 48 refs.

  5. Characterization of alternative FBR development strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Near-term decisions regarding the nature and place of the FBR development program must be made. This study is part of a larger program designed to provide the Department of Energy (DOE) with imformation that can be used to make strategic programmatic decisions. The focus of this report is the description of alternative approaches for developing the FBR and the quantification of the duration and cost of each alternative. The time frames of the alternative approaches are investigated in companion reports (White 1981 and Fraley 1981). The results of these analyses will be described in a summary report

  6. Implementation barriers of alternative transport fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study on the title subject aims to present an overview of the practical barriers associated with the introduction of alternative fuels for transport applications in IEA countries. The aim is to provide an information source to which potential users can refer when deciding whether to introduce an alternative fuel. The report will highlight potential problems so that users can either select the alternative fuel best suited to their needs, or implement possible solutions to the problems. The study covers natural gas (both compressed (CNG) and liquefied (LNG)), LPG (liquefied petroleum gas), ethanol (mainly bio-ethanol), methanol, bio-diesel, hydrogen, DME(dimethyl ether), and electricity. 48 refs

  7. Innovative and Alternative Technology Assessment Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-02-01

    This four chapter, six appendix manual presents the procedures and methodology as well as the baseline costs and energy information necessary for the analysis and evaluation of innovative and alternative technology applications submitted for federal grant assistance under the innovative and alternative technology provisions of the Clean Water Act of 1977. The manual clarifies and interprets the intent of Congress and the Environmental Protection Agency in carrying out the mandates of the innovative and alternative provisions of the Clean Water Act of 1977. [DJE 2005

  8. ASDB: database of alternatively spliced genes

    OpenAIRE

    Dralyuk, I; Brudno, M.; Gelfand, M S; Zorn, M.; Dubchak, I.

    2000-01-01

    Version 2.1 of ASDB (Alternative Splicing Data Base) contains 1922 protein and 2486 DNA sequences. The protein entries from SWISS-PROT are joined into clusters corresponding to alternatively spliced variants of one gene. The DNA division consists of complete genes with alternative splicing mentioned or annotated in GenBank. The search engine allows one to search over SWISS-PROT and GenBank fields and then follow the links to all variants. The database can be assessed at the URL http://cbcg.ne...

  9. Alternative Work Schedules Increase Employee Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, John R.; Cohen, Stanley L.

    1983-01-01

    Facets of alternative work schedules (AWS) are discussed: importance of employee control, possible negative consequences, AWS handbook, time monitoring systems, and treatment of exceptions. AWS' effect on productivity and motivation is examined. (SK)

  10. Alternative affinity tools: more attractive than antibodies?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruigrok, V.J.B.; Levisson, M.; Eppink, M.H.M.; Smidt, H.; Oost, van der J.

    2011-01-01

    Antibodies are the most successful affinity tools used today, in both fundamental and applied research (diagnostics, purification and therapeutics). Nonetheless, antibodies do have their limitations, including high production costs and low stability. Alternative affinity tools based on nucleic acids

  11. INTEGRATING DESALINATION AND AGRICULTURAL SALINITY CONTROL ALTERNATIVES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cost-effectiveness relationships for various agricultural and desalination alternatives for controlling salinity in irrigation return flows are developed. Selection of optimal salinity management strategies on a river basin scale is described as a problem of integrating optim...

  12. An Alternative Framework for Defining Mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Linda M.; Graham, John W.; Flaherty, Brian P.

    1998-01-01

    Presents an alternative framework for evaluating mediated relationships. The distinguishing feature of mediation is that mediation involves a chain reaction. The definition presented emphasizes the intra-individual, time-ordered nature of mediation. (SLD)

  13. On the Representation Theory of Alternating Groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christine Bessenrodt

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we survey the classification of the irreducible linear and projective representations of the symmetric and alternating groups, and we present some new results on constituents in Kronecker products of complex linear and spin characters.

  14. Survey of alternative feedstocks for biodiesel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summarized will be results obtained from the production of biodiesel from several alternative feedstocks with promising agronomic characteristics. Such feedstocks include camelina (Camelina sativa L.), coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.), and meadowfoam (Limnanth...

  15. Global Energy Issues and Alternate Fueling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Robert C.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes world energy issues and alternate fueling effects on aircraft design. The contents include: 1) US Uses about 100 Quad/year (1 Q = 10(exp 15) Btu) World Energy Use: about 433 Q/yr; 2) US Renewable Energy about 6%; 3) Nuclear Could Grow: Has Legacy Problems; 4) Energy Sources Primarily NonRenewable Hydrocarbon; 5) Notes; 6) Alternate Fuels Effect Aircraft Design; 7) Conventional-Biomass Issue - Food or Fuel; 8) Alternate fuels must be environmentally benign; 9) World Carbon (CO2) Emissions Problem; 10) Jim Hansen s Global Warming Warnings; 11) Gas Hydrates (Clathrates), Solar & Biomass Locations; 12) Global Energy Sector Response; 13) Alternative Renewables; 14) Stratospheric Sulfur Injection Global Cooling Switch; 15) Potential Global Energy Sector Response; and 16) New Sealing and Fluid Flow Challenges.

  16. Economic analysis of alternative LLW disposal methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has evaluated the costs and benefits of alternative disposal technologies as part of its program to develop generally applicable environmental standards for the land disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW). Costs, population health effects and Critical Population Group (CPG) exposures resulting from alternative waste treatment and disposal methods were developed and input into the analysis. The cost-effectiveness analysis took into account a number of waste streams, hydrogeologic and climatic region settings, and waste treatment and disposal methods. Total costs of each level of a standard included costs for packaging, processing, transportation, and burial of waste. Benefits are defined in terms of reductions in the general population health risk (expected fatal cancers and genetic effects) evaluated over 10,000 years. A cost-effectiveness ratio, was calculated for each alternative standard. This paper describes the alternatives considered and preliminary results of the cost-effectiveness analysis

  17. Gap seal dissipation in linear alternators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonen, Eran; Grossman, Gershon

    2015-04-01

    Earlier models of the coupling between a thermoacoustic system and an electrodynamic motor/alternator considered mechanical damping but ignored the viscous friction and blow-by losses produced by the motor/alternator's piston oscillating within a tight-fitting gap. The model presented here extends previous models to demonstrate that the inclusion of these effects leads to a better estimate of the electroacoustic conversion efficiency and can be used to determine the optimal load resistance for such an alternator's electrical power output. Model predictions were shown to be in excellent agreement with the performance measurements made using two different thermoacoustic engines and using a sealed volume (dummy load) connected to multiple, horizontally opposed motor/alternators, using an empirical determination of the piston-cylinder gap. PMID:25920827

  18. ALTERNATING CURRENT ELECTROCOAGULATION FOR SUPERFUND SITE REMEDIATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The technical and economical feasibility of alternating current electrocoagulation (ACE) developed by Electro-Pure Systems, Inc., was evaluated for a 2-year period. CE is an electrochemical technology where highly-charged aluminum polyhydroxide species are introduced into aqueous...

  19. Complementary/Alternative versus Prescription Medications

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2016-01-01

    Investigators from the Mayo Clinic, Rochester MN, determined the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in an outpatient pediatric neurology clinic, and assessed family attitudes toward the efficacy of CAM versus prescription medications.

  20. Percutaneous duodenostomy - alternative route for enteral nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Percutaneous translumbar duodenostomy for enteral feeding was performed in one patient with nutritional difficulties. No complication was encountered. The procedure can be an alternative to percutaneous gastrostomy and jejunostomy for enteral feeding in special situations. (orig.)

  1. GLOBALIZATION VS GLOCALIZATION OF ALTERNATIVE SYMBOLIC UNIVERSE

    OpenAIRE

    ДОМБРОВСЬКИЙ, О.Г.; Інститут світової економіки і міжнародних відносин НАН України

    2012-01-01

     This paper considers local and global dimensions of globalization. Features and disadvantages of glocalization concept are analyzed. The problem of chaosmos is reviewed as an alternative way of contemporary economic systems behavior.

  2. GLOBALIZATION VS GLOCALIZATION OF ALTERNATIVE SYMBOLIC UNIVERSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О.Г. ДОМБРОВСЬКИЙ

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available  This paper considers local and global dimensions of globalization. Features and disadvantages of glocalization concept are analyzed. The problem of chaosmos is reviewed as an alternative way of contemporary economic systems behavior.

  3. Beating the traffic with commuting alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    This pamphlet describes how, by encouraging commuting options, local governments can help reduce air pollution, fuel consumption, and traffic congestion. Minimizing these problems makes the community more appealing to businesses, residents, and visitors and boosts the local economy. Approaches to alternative transportation are as varied as the communities devising and using them. But the critical factor is initiative from local governments, often one of communities largest employers. They can use and promote commuting alternatives among their employees. Local governments can also promote alternative transportation among other employers and the general public. They can provide information on commuting options, improve the infrastructure, and use local authority to require and reward those changes necessary to make alternative transportation a widely accepted part of community life. Best of all, local governments can lead by example and establish a template for other employers to follow.

  4. Standardization of Alternative Fuels. Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-08-15

    There are different interpretations of the term 'alternative fuels', depending on the part of the world in which the definition is used. In this report, alternative fuels mainly stand for fuels that can replace gasoline and diesel oil and at the same time contribute to lowered emissions with impact on health, environment and climate. The use of alternative vehicle fuels has increased during the last 30 years. However, the increase has developed slowly and today the use is very limited, compared to the use of conventional fuels. Although, the use in some special applications, often in rather small geographical areas, can be somewhat larger. The main interest for alternative fuels has for a long time been driven by supply security issues and the possibility to reduce emissions with a negative impact on health and environment. However, the development of reformulated gasoline and low sulphur diesel oil has contributed to substantially decreased emissions from these fuels without using any alternative fuel. This has reduced the environmental impact driving force for the introduction of alternative fuels. In line with the increased interest for climate effects and the connections between these effects and the emission of greenhouse gases, and then primarily carbon dioxide, the interest for biomass based alternative fuels has increased during the 1990s. Even though one of the driving forces for alternative fuels is small today, alternative fuels are more commonly accepted than ever before. The European Commission has for example in May 2003 agreed on a directive for the promotion of the use of bio fuels. In the directive there are goals for the coming 7 years that will increase the use of alternative fuels in Europe rather dramatically, from below 1 percent now up to almost 6 percent of the total vehicle fuel consumption in 2010. The increased use of alternative fuels in Europe and the rest of the world will create a need for a common interpretation of what we

  5. Alternative institutional arrangements for nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper investigates how alternative organizations of nuclear power generation would effect the regulatory environment for nuclear power production, how it would effect financial constraints on new construction, and what governmental barriers to such reorganization exist

  6. Membership Policy Alternatives for Marketing Cooperatives

    OpenAIRE

    Sporleder, Thomas L.

    1988-01-01

    Marketing cooperatives operating pools that consistently obtain member returns in excess of cash market prices must accommodate new members. In some cooperatives, the membership policy is based only on the capital plan. This article presents alternative membership policies for the acquisition and transfer of rights to original members. Specific policy alternatives for each component are defined and examined. The analysis suggests that strategic planning in some cooperatives should involve exp...

  7. Changing Configuration of Alternative Energy Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Bhuyan, Radhika; Mytelka, Lynn K.

    2008-01-01

    Recent and rampant regulatory changes for sustainable development are seeking to transform current energy systems towards cleaner and greener forms of energy sources. In this scenario, alternative energy technologies are considered the building blocks towards this transformed energy system. This chapter will show how the alternative energy market since the 1970s changed, in response to external oil price shocks and to other selective pressures and institutions. It will observe that the config...

  8. Financial Intermediation, Markets, and Alternative Financial Sectors

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, Franklin; CARLETTI, Elena; QIAN, Jun 'QJ'; Valenzuela, Patricio

    2012-01-01

    We provide a comprehensive review of firms’ financing channels (internal and external, domestic and international) around the globe, with the focus on alternative finance—financing from all the nonmarket, non-bank external sources. We argue that while traditional financing channels, including financial markets and banks, provide significant sources of funds for firms in developed countries, alternative financing channels provide an equally important source of funds in both developed and devel...

  9. A journey through alternative ways of living

    OpenAIRE

    Baroncelli Torretta, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    This master thesis examines how an evolution towards sustainable ways of urban living can be achieved through small steps. In this way, a literature review on the fields of design, sustainability and alternative ways of living provides a frame for approaching design for sustainability as well as an historical overview on alternative social movements and its motivations. Consequently, a field research proves Helsinki area as a powerful agent on practices informing sustainable futures. This are...

  10. Tau exon 10 alternative splicing and tauopathies

    OpenAIRE

    Liu Fei; Gong Cheng-Xin

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Abnormalities of microtubule-associated protein tau play a central role in neurofibrillary degeneration in several neurodegenerative disorders that collectively called tauopathies. Six isoforms of tau are expressed in adult human brain, which result from alternative splicing of pre-mRNA generated from a single tau gene. Alternative splicing of tau exon 10 results in tau isoforms containing either three or four microtubule-binding repeats (3R-tau and 4R-tau, respectively). Approximate...

  11. Alternatives to animal experimentation: The regulatory background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The framework, in which alternatives to animal experiments can be developed, standardized, respectively formally validated, has to be seen in a global context. The ever increasing demand of testing for hazard and risk assessment in health and environment, exemplified by the EU REACH program, subsequently triggers laboratory animal testing. This holds especially true, if no valid alternative methods agreed to by the regulatory authorities and the scientific community are available. At least for regulatory toxicity testing, the global frame and network are given by institutions such as OECD, ICH, and alike. However, due to the necessity of global consent of states, organizations, and stakeholders, the time gap between availability of a novel alternative test method and its final acceptance by authorities and implementation thereafter is widening. The lack of new technologies or opportunities for alternative method application such as, for example, the broad use of transgenic animals for refinement of existing tests, adds to the problem. The bare existence of certain in vivo tests increases also the gap between public demands for testing versus availability of alternative tests. Industries operating on a worldwide basis support the alternative test development in their respective area of research and operational business. However, a more coordinating approach such as that of the ecopa-organization (European Consensus Platform on Alternatives) is needed to exploit the existing possibilities within the current regulatory framework. This will speed up the process of acceptance and challenge the political worldto feel responsible for the sequels of their demanding more testing, that is, by funding alternative method development in academia and industry

  12. Natural sweet substances - alternative of sugar

    OpenAIRE

    Kratochvílová, Kateřina

    2014-01-01

    Natural sweet substances – alternative of sugar Summary Sugar (sucrose) is undoubtedly the most commonly used sweetening agent of natural origin, but certainly not the only one. Large amount of sweet substances with different structure has been isolated from the plants. These non-carbohydrate sweetening agents have several advantages over sucrose. They are low-energy substances, which have much higher sweetening effect than sucrose, and therefore become a suitable alternative sugar. U...

  13. Alternative motor fuels today and tomorrow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bensaid, B

    2004-07-01

    Today, petroleum products account for 97% of the energy consumed in road transport. The purpose of replacing these products with alternative energies is to reduce oil dependence as well as greenhouse gas emissions. The high price of oil has promoted the use of 'conventional' alternative motor fuels (biofuels, LPG, NGV) and also renewed interest in syn-fuels (GTL, CTL, BTL) that have already given rise to industrial and pilot projects. (author)

  14. Alternative motor fuels today and tomorrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Today, petroleum products account for 97% of the energy consumed in road transport. The purpose of replacing these products with alternative energies is to reduce oil dependence as well as greenhouse gas emissions. The high price of oil has promoted the use of 'conventional' alternative motor fuels (biofuels, LPG, NGV) and also renewed interest in syn-fuels (GTL, CTL, BTL) that have already given rise to industrial and pilot projects. (author)

  15. Mechano-Regulation of Alternative Splicing

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Huan; Tang, Liling

    2013-01-01

    Alternative splicing contributes to the complexity of proteome by producing multiple mRNAs from a single gene. Affymetrix exon arrays and experiments in vivo or in vitro demonstrated that alternative splicing was regulated by mechanical stress. Expression of mechano-growth factor (MGF) which is the splicing isoform of insulin-like growth factor 1(IGF-1) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) splicing variants such as VEGF121, VEGF165, VEGF206, VEGF189, VEGF165 and VEGF145 are regulated...

  16. Conserved RNA secondary structures promote alternative splicing

    OpenAIRE

    Shepard, PJ; Hertel, KJ

    2008-01-01

    Pre-mRNA splicing is carried out by the spliceosome, which identifies exons and removes intervening introns. Alternative splicing in higher eukaryotes results in the generation of multiple protein isoforms from gene transcripts. The extensive alternative splicing observed implies a flexibility of the spliceosome to identify exons within a given pre-mRNA. To reach this flexibility, splice-site selection in higher eukaryotes has evolved to depend on multiple parameters such as splice-site stren...

  17. Alcoholism and Alternative Splicing of Candidate Genes

    OpenAIRE

    Toshikazu Sasabe; Shoichi Ishiura

    2010-01-01

    Gene expression studies have shown that expression patterns of several genes have changed during the development of alcoholism. Gene expression is regulated not only at the level of transcription but also through alternative splicing of pre-mRNA. In this review, we discuss some of the evidence suggesting that alternative splicing of candidate genes such as DRD2 (encoding dopamine D2 receptor) may form the basis of the mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology of alcoholism. These reports sugg...

  18. Comparative Studies of Alternative Anaerobic Digestion Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Inman, David C.

    2004-01-01

    Washington D.C. Water and Sewage Authority is planning to construct a new anaerobic digestion facility at its Blue Plains WWTP by 2008. The research conducted in this study is to aid the designers of this facility by evaluating alternative digestion technologies. Alternative anaerobic digestion technologies include thermophilic, acid/gas phased, and temperature phased digestion. In order to evaluate the relative merits of each, a year long study evaluated the performance of bench scale dig...

  19. Detraditionalisation, gender and alternative and complementary medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sointu, Eeva

    2011-03-01

    This article is premised on the importance of locating the appeal and meaning of alternative and complementary medicines in the context of gendered identities. I argue that the discourse of wellbeing--captured in many alternative and complementary health practices--is congruent with culturally prevalent ideals of self-fulfilling, authentic, unique and self-responsible subjectivity. The discourse of wellbeing places the self at the centre, thus providing a contrast with traditional ideas of other-directed and caring femininity. As such, involvement in alternative and complementary medicines is entwined with a negotiation of shifting femininities in detraditionalising societies. Simultaneously, many alternative and complementary health practices readily tap into and reproduce traditional representations of caring femininity. It is through an emphasis on emotional honesty and intimacy that the discourse of wellbeing also captures a challenge to traditional ideas of masculinity. Expectations and experiences relating to gender add a further level of complexity to the meaningfulness and therapeutic value of alternative and complementary medicines and underlie the gender difference in the utilisation of holistic health practices. I draw on data from a qualitative study with 44, primarily white, middle-class users and practitioners of varied alternative and complementary medicines in the UK. PMID:21251021

  20. Alternatives to traditional transportation fuels 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-01-01

    In recent years, gasoline and diesel fuel have accounted for about 80 percent of total transportation fuel and nearly all of the fuel used in on-road vehicles. Growing concerns about the environmental effects of fossil fuel use and the Nation`s high level of dependence on foreign oil are providing impetus for the development of replacements or alternatives for these traditional transportation fuels. (The Energy Policy Act of 1992 definitions of {open_quotes}replacement{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}alternative{close_quotes} fuels are presented in the following box.) The Alternative Motor Fuels Act of 1988, the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA90) and the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT) are significant legislative forces behind the growth of replacement fuel use. Alternatives to Traditional Transportation Fuels 1993 provides the number of on-road alternative fueled vehicles in use in the United States, alternative and replacement fuel consumption, and information on greenhouse gas emissions resulting from the production, delivery, and use of replacement fuels for 1992, 1993, and 1995.

  1. Alternative non-CFC mobile air conditioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mei, V.C.; Chen, F.C.; Kyle, D.M.

    1992-09-01

    Concern about the destruction of the global environment by chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) fluids has become an impetus in the search for alternative, non-CFC refrigerants and cooling methods for mobile air conditioning (MAC). While some alternative refrigerants have been identified, they are not considered a lasting solution because of their high global warming potential, which could result in their eventual phaseout. In view of this dilemma, environmentally acceptable alternative cooling methods have become important. This report, therefore, is aimed mainly at the study of alternative automotive cooling methodologies, although it briefly discusses the current status of alternative refrigerants. The alternative MACs can be divided into work-actuated and heat-actuated systems. Work-actuated systems include conventional MAC, reversed Brayton air cycle, rotary vane compressor air cycle, Stirling cycle, thermoelectric (TE) cooling, etc. Heat-actuated MACs include metal hydride cooling, adsorption cooling, ejector cooling, absorption cycle, etc. While we are better experienced with some work-actuated cycle systems, heat-actuated cycle systems have a high potential for energy savings with possible waste heat applications. In this study, each altemative cooling method is discussed for its advantages and its limits.

  2. Alternative Therapy of Animals – Homeopathy and Other Alternative Methods of Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Løken Torleiv

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Alternative therapy of animals is described, in the meaning of alternatives to veterinary therapy traditionally accepted by veterinary faculties and schools and included in their curricula. Alternative therapy composes of different disciplines, of which homeopathy is emphasised in this presentation. Information is given on the use and interest of such therapy among veterinarians and animal owners. Homeopathy as other alternative therapies, may offer great advances, if they induce any effect. Some of the disciplines are based on a scientifically accepted documentation. Others, and homeopathy in particular, are missing such a documentation of effect. The justification of including alternative therapy in treating animals is discussed. Research in alternative therapy of animals is greatly needed, in particular to evaluate therapeutic methods which are in extensive use without any documented effect. An ongoing research project in Norway on the effect of homeopathic treatment of mastitis in cows is shortly presented.

  3. Potential interactions between alternative therapies and warfarin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heck, A M; DeWitt, B A; Lukes, A L

    2000-07-01

    Potential and documented interactions between alternative therapy agents and warfarin are discussed. An estimated one third of adults in the United States use alternative therapies, including herbs. A major safety concern is potential interactions of alternative medicine products with prescription medications. This issue is especially important with respect to drugs with narrow therapeutic indexes, such as warfarin. Herbal products that may potentially increase the risk of bleeding or potentiate the effects of warfarin therapy include angelica root, arnica flower, anise, asafoetida, bogbean, borage seed oil, bromelain, capsicum, celery, chamomile, clove, fenugreek, feverfew, garlic, ginger ginkgo, horse chestnut, licorice root, lovage root, meadowsweet, onion, parsley, passionflower herb, poplar, quassia, red clover, rue, sweet clover, turmeric, and willow bark. Products that have been associated with documented reports of potential interactions with warfarin include coenzyme Q10, danshen, devil's claw, dong quai, ginseng, green tea, papain, and vitamin E. Interpretation of the available information on herb-warfarin interactions is difficult because nearly all of it is based on in vitro data, animal studies, or individual case reports. More study is needed to confirm and assess the clinical significance of these potential interactions. There is evidence that a wide range of alternative therapy products have the potential to interact with warfarin. Pharmacists and other health care professionals should question all patients about use of alternative therapies and report documented interactions to FDA's MedWatch program. PMID:10902065

  4. Proceedings of the 1993 Windsor Workshop on Alternative Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    This report contains viewgraph papers on the following topics on alternative fuels: availability of alternative fueled engines and vehicles; emerging technologies; overcoming barriers to alternative fuels commercialization; infrastructure issues; and new initiatives in research and development.

  5. Thyroid Disease and Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Donate Thyroid Disease and Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) WHAT IS A THYROID NODULE? The term ... type of evaluation. WHAT IS COMPLEMENTARY AND ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE (CAM)? Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) is defined ...

  6. Alter(n – ein vielschichtiger Begriff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Maly-Lukas

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Diese Veröffentlichung, die aus einer Vortragsreihe an der katholischen Fachhochschule Freiburg entstanden ist, führt die Leserinnen und Leser in die verschiedenen Sichtweisen des Alter(ns in der modernen Gesellschaft ein. Es handelt sich um eine gelungene Zusammenstellung von Beiträgen aus unterschiedlichen Disziplinen, die sich alle aus ihrer Sicht dem Thema Alter(n widmen. Die einzelnen Artikel sind zwischen 8 und 38 Seiten lang und recht schnell und einfach zu lesen. Je nach Hintergrund und Interessen werden die einzelnen Leserinnen und Leser dabei sicher unterschiedliche Beiträge favorisieren. Schade ist nur, dass durch die ungleichen Längen der Beiträge bestimmte thematische Schwerpunkte – ob gewollt oder nicht – gesetzt werden. Dies sollte die Leserinnen und Leser, die offen für unterschiedlichste Sichtweisen des Alter(ns sind, jedoch nicht davon abhalten, dieses Buch zu lesen.

  7. Alternative Expression for the Electromagnetic Lagrangian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldanha, Pablo L.

    2016-06-01

    We reintroduce an alternative expression for the Lagrangian density that governs the interaction of a charged particle with external electromagnetic fields, proposed by Livens about one century ago. This Lagrangian is written in terms of the local superposition of the particle fields with the applied electromagnetic fields, not in terms of the particle charge and of the electromagnetic potentials as is usual. Here, we show that the total Lagrangian for a set of charged particles assumes a simple elegant form with the alternative formulation, giving an aesthetic support for it. We also show that the alternative Lagrangian is equivalent to the traditional one in their domain of validity and that it provides an interesting description of the Aharonov-Bohm effect.

  8. Quasi-classical alternatives in quantum chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Gineityte, V

    2014-01-01

    The article contains an overview of authors achievements in development of alternative quantum-chemical approaches oriented towards revival of the classical tradition of qualitative chemical thinking instead of obtaining numerical results. The above-mentioned tradition is concluded to be based mainly on principles (rules) of additivity, transferability and locality of molecular properties. Accordingly, model Hamiltonian matrices are used in the approaches under development (called quasi-classical alternatives), wherein algebraic parameters play the role of matrix elements and these are assumed to be transferable for similar atoms and/or atomic orbitals in addition. Further, passing to delocalized descriptions of electronic structures (as usual) is expected to be the main origin of difficulties seeking to formulate quasi-classical alternatives. In the framework of the canonical method of molecular orbitals (MOs), delocalization is shown to be partially avoidable by invoking a recently-suggested approach to sec...

  9. Evaluation of financial assurance alternatives of licensees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Uranium and Thorium Mining Regulations of the Atomic Energy Control Act require that applicants/licensees indicate to the AECB what financial assurance plans they have made to fund the decommissioning plan they propose to put in place. We have determined through our own business knowledge from other projects, as well as information provided by contacts in the banking, accounting, legal, investment and insurance communities, what financial assurance plans might be available. We have tabulated these alternatives, included explanations of how each might be implemented, and recorded advantages and disadvantages of each alternative to both the AECB and the applicant/licensee. In addition we have ranked the alternatives in order of most suitable to least suitable, from the AECB's perspective. Although these financial assurance mechanisms have been tabulated with a view to decommissioning of a uranium mine, they could be used in other licence or business arrangements that require financial assurance. (author). 3 tabs., 1 fig

  10. A Framework to Uncover Multiple Alternative Clusterings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dang, Xuan-Hong; Bailey, James

    Clustering is often referred to as unsupervised learning which aims at uncovering hidden structures from data. Unfortunately, though widely being used as one of the principal tools to understand the data, most conventional clustering techniques are limited in achieving this goal since they only...... attempt to find a single clustering solution from the data. For many real-world applications, especially those being described in high dimensional data, it is common to see that the data can be grouped into different yet meaningful ways. This gives rise to the recently emerging research area of mining...... alternative clusterings. In this paper, we propose a framework named MACL that is capable of discovering multiple alternative clusterings from a given dataset.MACL seeks alternative clusterings in sequence and a novel solution is found by conditioning on all previously known clusterings. The framework takes a...

  11. Alternative fusion concepts: engineering and utility considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alternative systems are described to be an integral part of the total fusion effort, making use of many developments of the mainline efforts but also contributing on a broad scale to improved understanding of fusion plasmas, technology and engineering. We hypothesize that the rationale for supporting alternative concepts will shift from physics related justifications to the perceived benefits for commercial use. Three principal factors are used to describe the commercialization potential of energy systems: technological risk, perceived benefit, and capital requirements. R and D can reduce the risk of a technology option, but perceived benefit and capital availability are largely governed by non-R and D elements. Hence, power station decision criteria as determined by electric-utility executives are presented, and a balance among the three commercialization factors described. An outline of past and on-going alternative concept reactor study endeavors is given and a suggestion for rapidly developing the physics base of the concepts is described

  12. Alternative Fuels and Chemicals from Synthesis Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Tijrn

    2003-01-02

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  13. ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Tijrn

    2003-02-03

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  14. Alternative fuels and chemicals from synthesis gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    1998-08-01

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  15. ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter J. Tijrn

    2000-09-30

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  16. ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2001-03-31

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  17. ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter J. Tijrn

    2000-06-30

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  18. ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-10-01

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  19. ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    1999-07-01

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  20. ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2002-07-01

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  1. ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    1999-04-01

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  2. ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2000-10-01

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  3. ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    1998-01-01

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  4. Alternative types of roundabouts an informational guide

    CERN Document Server

    Tollazzi, Tomaž

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a history of roundabouts, an introduction to their design, calculations of their capacity and traffic-safety features. It describes the key features of standard roundabouts and their limitations. Alternative types of roundabouts are a fairly recent development and have only been implemented in a few countries to date. The book illustrates a broad variety of these recent alternative types of roundabouts, as well as proposed types still in the development phase, explaining for each the specific needs it meets, its advantages and drawbacks. In closing, the book offers an outlook on the role of roundabouts in future street traffic.

  5. Alternative expression for the electromagnetic Lagrangian

    CERN Document Server

    Saldanha, Pablo L

    2015-01-01

    We propose an alternative expression for the Lagrangian density that governs the interaction of a charged particle with external electromagnetic fields. The proposed Lagrangian is written in terms of the local superposition of the particle fields with the applied electromagnetic fields, not in terms of the particle charge and of the electromagnetic potentials as is usual. The total Lagrangian for a set of charged particles assumes a simple elegant form with the alternative formulation, giving an aesthetic support for it. The proposed Lagrangian is equivalent to the traditional one in their domain of validity and provides an interesting description of the Aharonov-Bohm effect.

  6. Comparison of Alternative Processes for Support Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Martínez-Álvarez

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available There are many tasks that revolve around combinatorial analysis problems, same tasks found in Decision Support Systems (DSS as most of these are responsible for assessing a number of possibilities to deliver the best options. Within the analysis of possible solutions is performed by the DSS there are alternative procedures inside the engine for making decisions that involve them. As part of these alternative procedures today has highlighted the use of metaheuristics, thus in this paper we propose a comparison of some of them trying to broaden the spectrum we have for the applications nowadays.

  7. ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    1999-01-01

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  8. Ethanol as an alternative source of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakistan, at present facades huge shortage of energy that has disabled several industries and has worsened the living standards of a common man. Its economy mainly depends upon agriculture but relies heavily on imported petroleum to meet the necessities. The importance of national resources as an alternative energy resource is thus greatly felt. The sugar cane industry of Pakistan holds a potential to provide such an alternative fuel as bio ethanol that can be produced entirely from molasses. This paper looks deeper into scope of ethanol as one replacement that can reduce the financial and environmental cost of petroleum based fuels. (author)

  9. Walking while talking: Investigation of alternate forms✩

    OpenAIRE

    Brandler, Tamar C; Oh-Park, Mooyeon; Wang, Cuiling; Holtzer, Roee; Verghese, Joe

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop alternate forms of the walking while talking (WWT) dual task, and to determine whether beginning the WWT in mid-alphabet vs. at the beginning of the alphabet, affects task outcomes. Alternate test forms help reduce practice effects leading to more precise estimates of change over time. We conducted a cross-sectional study in 145 community-residing older adults (mean age, 79.2 ± 6.8 y) without dementia or depression. Subjects performed four WWT trials with ...

  10. Public concerns and alternative nuclear power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic task undertaken in this study was to assess the relative public acceptability of three general types of nuclear power systems as alternatives to the existing Light Water Reactor (LWR) system. Concerns registered toward nuclear power constituted the basic data for this assessment. The primary measure adopted for determining the significance of concerns was the degree of difficulty posed by the concern to the nuclear power decisional structure in the establishment and maintenance of norms to control risks or to advance intended energy objectives. Alleviations or exacerbations of concern resulting from particular attributes of alternative systems were measured from an LWR baseline

  11. Sulphur release from alternative fuel firing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortada Mut, Maria del Mar; Nørskov, Linda Kaare; Glarborg, Peter;

    2014-01-01

    The cement industry has long been dependent on the use of fossil fuels, although a recent trend in replacing fossil fuels with alternative fuels has arisen. 1, 2 However, when unconverted or partly converted alternative fuels are admitted directly in the rotary kiln inlet, the volatiles released...... from the fuels may react with sulphates present in the hot meal to form SO 2 . Here Maria del Mar Cortada Mut and associates describe pilot and industrial scale experiments focusing on the factors that affect SO 2 release in the cement kiln inlet....

  12. Alternative Local Development models from the periphery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Lopez Oropeza

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available As neoliberal capitalism continues to fail on reducing inequities, and continues to fail on fulfilling its promise of a kind of “development” that would allow impoverished men and women to improve their situation and be able to experience a “freedom” which would empower them with new and better opportunities to vanish their many types of “poverties”, new and alternative models raise, presenting a different and inclusive type of development which intends to respond to their particular situations of exclusion and build on an alternative model.

  13. Alternative substrates for higher mushrooms mycelia cultivation

    OpenAIRE

    TETIANA KRUPODOROVA; VICTOR BARSHTEYN

    2015-01-01

    Cultivation of 29 species of higher mushroom mycelia on alternative substrates – wastes of Ukrainian oil-fat industry, has been investigated. The amount of mushroom mycelia obtaining on 12 investigated substrates varied significantly, from 1.0 g/L to 22.9 g/L on the 14th day of cultivation. The superficial cultivation adopted in this study allows for easy to choose appropriate medium (substrate) for mycelia production. Alternative substrates (compared to glucose-peptone-yeast medium) were sel...

  14. Modeling dative alternations of individual children

    OpenAIRE

    Bosch, A.P.J. van den; Bresnan, J.

    2015-01-01

    We address the question whether children can acquire mature use of higher-level grammatical choices from the linguistic input, given only general prior knowledge and learning biases. We do so on the basis of a case study with the dative alternation in English, building on a study by de Marneffe et al. (2012) who model the production of the dative alternation by seven young children, using data from the Child Language Data Exchange System corpus. Using mixed-effects logistic modelling on the a...

  15. Alternative Fuels and Chemicals From Synthesis Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none

    1998-07-01

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  16. 76 FR 67287 - Alternative Fuel Transportation Program; Alternative Fueled Vehicle Credit Program (Subpart F...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-31

    ... and Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles C. Investments 1. Alternative Fuel Infrastructure 2. Alternative... plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) are commercialized (see Part IV.B.2 below). Except in those... EPAct 1992, as amended, as ``an electric, hybrid electric, or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle with...

  17. FMDP Reactor Alternative Summary Report: Volume 2 - CANDU heavy water reactor alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (DOE/MD) initiated a detailed analysis activity to evaluate each of ten plutonium disposition alternatives that survived an initial screening process. This document, Volume 2 of a four volume report, summarizes the results of these analyses for the CANDU reactor based plutonium disposition alternative

  18. 76 FR 21673 - Alternative Efficiency Determination Methods and Alternate Rating Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-18

    ...-substantiation of an AEDM or ARM as a result of a change in standard or test procedure. 76 FR 12492 (March 7...; ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 431 RIN 1904-AC46 Alternative Efficiency Determination Methods and Alternate Rating Methods AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy....

  19. The Political Construction of Alternative Dispute Resolution and Alternatives to Incarceration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, Dennis J.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    This discussion of evaluations of mediation programs at seven sites and of shock incarceration and home arrest focuses on the similarities in the interpretations of alternative dispute-resolution programs to interpretations of alternatives to incarceration programs. The political construction of the two approaches, which are both designed to…

  20. FMDP Reactor Alternative Summary Report: Volume 3 - partially complete LWR alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (DOE/MD) initiated a detailed analysis activity to evaluate each of ten plutonium disposition alternatives that survived an initial screening process. This document, Volume 3 of a four volume report summarizes the results of these analyses for the partially complete LWR (PCLWR) reactor based plutonium disposition alternative

  1. Development of an alternative plutonium canister assay system (APCA) using He-3 alternative neutron detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to deal with the global shortage of He-3 gas, He-3 alternative neutron detectors using ZnS/10B2O3 ceramic scintillators for nuclear security and the safeguards, and a demonstrator of Alternative Plutonium Canister Assay System (APCA) for the safeguards NDA in which the alternative detectors are employed, have been developed with the support of Japanese government (the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology). The results of the optical guide property of scintillation lights in the alternative detector tubes derived from the simulations using a ray-tracing code are presented in comparison with the test results of the developed alternative detectors. Furthermore, the fundamental performance of APCA estimated from the neutron Monte-Carlo code MVP and the comparison with the performance of the current PCAS are also described, respectively, together with the future plan of the APCA demonstration test. (author)

  2. Commutative Moufang loops and alternative algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Grishkov, Alexander N.; Shestakov, Ivan P.

    2008-01-01

    We compute the orders of free commutative Moufand loops of exponent 3 with $n\\leq 7$ free generators and find embeddings of such loops into a loop of invertible elements of the free commutative alternative algebra with identity $x^3=0$.

  3. Revised evaluation of steam generator testing alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A scoping evaluation was made of various facility alternatives for test of LMFBR prototype steam generators and models. Recommendations are given for modifications to EBR-II and SCTI (Sodium Components Test Installation) for prototype SG testing, and for few-tube model testing

  4. Making a Non-animal Alternative Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawistowski, Stephen

    1990-01-01

    Described is the author's decision to help a student find alternatives to performing several terminal experiments on animals in a college physiology class. Replacement exercises used for studying the properties of muscle types are described. Details about the difficulties and successes of the entire experience are reported. (KR)

  5. Alternative measurement techniques for infrared sensor performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, A.N. de; Franken, E.M.; Winkel, J.

    2003-01-01

    This paper deals with measurement and characterization of IR sensor performance. Alternative methods have been investigated in order to determine the performance more reproducibly and accurately. Furthermore, the new methodologies reduce the subjectivity of the performance parameters such as the sta

  6. Alternative dimensional models of personality disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Widiger, Thomas A; Simonsen, Erik

    2005-01-01

    The recognition of the many limitations of the categorical model of personality disorder classification has led to the development of quite a number of alternative proposals for a dimensional classification. The purpose of this article is to suggest that future research work toward the integration...... personality disorder are provided....

  7. Electromechanical systems generating constant frequency alternating current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Т.А. Мазур

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available  In the article we consider the usage of electromechanical drivers of constant speed rotation, which is based on many stepped electrodynamic reduction unit, in onboard main systems of electric supply of alternative current with constant frequency.

  8. Alternative polyadenylation: New insights from global analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Yongsheng

    2012-01-01

    Recent global studies revealed that mRNA alternative polyadenylation (APA) is widespread in eukaryotic transcriptomes and is an important mechanism for gene regulation. APA deregulation has been found in a variety of diseases. This article reviews recent progress in the field and provides a global perspective on the prevalence, mechanisms, and functional impact of APA.

  9. Supplementing Conservation Practices with Alternative Energy Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraetsch, Gayla A.

    1981-01-01

    Universities and colleges have two major roles: to reduce their own energy consumption and costs, and to develop and test new energy options. Alternative energy sources considered include solar energy, wind power, biomass, hydropower, ocean energy, geothermal heat, coal, and nuclear energy. (MLW)

  10. Alternatives to Pearson's and Spearman's Correlation Coefficients

    CERN Document Server

    Smarandache, Florentin

    2008-01-01

    This article presents several alternatives to Pearson's correlation coefficient and many examples. In the samples where the rank in a discrete variable counts more than the variable values, the mixtures that we propose of Pearson's and Spearman's correlation coefficients give better results.

  11. Alternative alkali resistant deNOx catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Putluru, Siva Sankar Reddy; Kristensen, Steffen Buus; Due-Hansen, Johannes;

    2012-01-01

    Alternative alkali resistant deNOx catalysts were prepared using three different supports ZrO2, TiO2 and Mordenite zeolite. The majority of the catalysts were prepared by incipient wetness impregnation of a commercial support, with vanadium, copper or iron precursor, one catalyst was prepared by...

  12. Taiwanese Students' Alternative Conceptions of Animal Biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Chiung-Fen; Yao, Tsung-Wei; Mintzes, Joel J.

    2007-01-01

    This study explored and documented Taiwanese students' alternative conceptions of animal classification. We examined the understanding of the "animal", "vertebrate" and "invertebrate", "fish", "amphibian", "reptile", "bird", and "mammal" concepts among elementary, junior high school and senior high school, and university students in a sample…

  13. Dense Alternating Sign Matrices and Extensions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fiedler, Miroslav; Hall, F.J.; Stroev, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 444, 1 March (2014), s. 219-226. ISSN 0024-3795 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : alternating sign matrix * dense matrix * totally unimodular matrix * combined matrix * generalized complementary basic matrix Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.939, year: 2014

  14. Governor's Schools: An Alternative for Gifted Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Daniel L.; Stephenson, Scott; Jolly, Jennifer L.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss Governor's Schools as an alternative for gifted students. When the word school is used, people typically think about traditional schooling. But Governor's Schools are different in the type of schooling provided and the type of students served--they educate predominantly gifted children, teach a wide array of…

  15. Calcine Conversion Facility alternative concepts engineering studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the engineering study reported is to develop conceptual designs for two alternative facilities for the conversion of high level waste calcine to high level glass. The objectives and design bases of the two concepts (CCF/RSSF and CCF/FRP) are described. No recommendation of one concept in preference to the other is given. (LK)

  16. Literacy, Numeracy and Alternative Dispute Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumming, J. Joy; Wilson, Janice M.

    2005-01-01

    The formal court system in Australia has long been criticised for its adversarial nature. As a result, there has been an increase in the use of alternative dispute resolution processes such as mediation. These are promoted as a means of increasing access to justice by disadvantaged groups and as an inexpensive way of solving legal or quasi-legal…

  17. Alternative Dispute Resolution to the Rescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassberg, Maria

    1989-01-01

    Examines the use of mediation and arbitration to settle civil disputes which have been traditionally settled through the courts. Discusses the advantages of alternative forms of dispute resolution. Describes the operations of dispute resolution centers and provides information about the individuals who serve as dispute mediators. (KO)

  18. Systems impacts of spent fuel disassembly alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three studies were completed to evaluate four alternatives to the disposal of intact spent fuel assemblies in a geologic repository. A preferred spent fuel waste form for disposal was recommended on consideration of (1) package design and fuel/package interaction, (2) long-term, in-repository performance of the waste form, and (3) overall process performance and costs for packaging, handling, and emplacement. The four basic alternative waste forms considered were (1) end fitting removal, (2) fission gas venting, (3) disassembly and close packing, and (4) shearing/immobilization. None of the findings ruled out any alternative on the basis of waste package considerations or long-term performance of the waste form. The third alternative offers flexibility in loading that may prove attractive in the various geologic media under consideration, greatly reduces the number of packages, and has the lowest unit cost. These studies were completed in October, 1981. Since then Westinghouse Electric Corporation and the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation have completed studies in related fields. This report is now being published to provide publicly the background material that is contained within. 47 references, 28 figures, 31 tables

  19. Listening Clearly: Alternative Treatments for Adolescent Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlasson, Terry D.

    2012-01-01

    For many years now, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and anti-depressant medications have been the primary treatments for adolescent depression. However, there are many youth today with mild to moderate depressive symptoms for whom these treatments are not necessary. This article briefly summarizes several alternative therapeutic approaches for…

  20. Alternative policies for solid waste management

    OpenAIRE

    Percoco Marco

    2004-01-01

    Because of the recent dramatic increase in waste production, solid waste management and control have become one of the central issues in environmental policy. In this paper we review alternative fiscal instruments to control the production of residuals by using the benchmark given by the social optimum. Finnally, we apply the model to theoretically evaluate the TARI.

  1. 25 CFR 11.1012 - Dispositional alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... LAW AND ORDER CODE Juvenile Offender Procedure § 11.1012 Dispositional alternatives. (a) If a minor has been adjudged a juvenile offender, the children's court may make the following disposition: (1) Place the minor on probation subject to conditions set by the children's court; (2) Place the minor...

  2. Alternative Instructional Strategies in an IS Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Kevin R.; LeRouge, Cynthia; Trimmer, Ken

    2005-01-01

    Systems Analysis and Design is a core component of an education in information systems. To appeal to a wider range of constituents and facilitate the learning process, the content of a traditional Systems Analysis and Design course has been supplemented with an alternative modeling approach. This paper presents an instructional design that…

  3. SKOLE: The Journal of Alternative Education, 1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leue, Mary, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    The four issues of the journal SKOLE published in 1998 contain articles, personal narratives, and interviews about educational philosophy, small alternative schools, freedom and democratic practices in education, and the overuse of Ritalin in schools. Feature articles discuss holistic education, how classroom technology promotes passivity and…

  4. Alternatives to Drug Treatment for Hyperactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Den Houtter, Kathryn

    1980-01-01

    Results from recent studies on the effectiveness of Ritalin for "hyperactivity" show that this treatment is dubious at best. This article presents an alternative treatment approach, placing emphasis on devising an appropriate learning situation that meets the needs of the so-called hyperactive child. (Author)

  5. Alternative Design of Postgraduate English Writing Course

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芬

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an alternative design of postgraduate English writing course to meet the requirement of the current postgraduate English teaching reform.The author believes that efficiently-organized writing activities based on practical needs could refresh teaching frame- work and consequently assist postgraduates in English writing.

  6. Alternant Leadership: Increasing School System Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoop, Robert; Wagner, James

    1986-01-01

    A model of "alternant leadership"--leading and succeeding one another by turn--is presented that proposes a democratic, collegial, multivoter, team approach to electing educational leaders. The rationale is based on contingency theories of administration and studies on leadership succession. Related articles are EA 519 583 and 584. (MLF)

  7. Alternative Funding Sources for Migrant Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Eugene

    Despite 1983 Elementary and Secondary Education ACT (ESEA) Title I federal funding of over $255 million for more than 3,000 projects for some 600,000 migrant children and youth, there is still need for alternate funding sources to overcome spiraling inflation and increasing program costs and numbers of eligible children. Other federal, state,…

  8. Alternative transportation fuels and air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper discusses the air quality impact of the following alternative fuels: reformulated gasoline, methanol, ethanol, diesel, compressed natural gas, liquid petroleum gases, hydrogen, and electric power. Emissions of NOx, CO, and toxic compounds, as well as global climatic change impacts are described

  9. Survival of Colletotrichum acutatum on alternative hosts

    OpenAIRE

    Parikka, Päivi; Lemmetty, Anne

    2009-01-01

    To detect possibilities for weeds to transfer the pathogen from infected plants to a second crop, the susceptibility of some alternate hosts was studied. Altogether 18 annual and perennial weed species common on strawberry fields were inoculated in greenhouse with spore suspension of C. acutatum.

  10. Alternatives to proposed replacement production reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To insure adequate supplies of plutonium and tritium for defense purposes, an independent evaluation was made by Los Alamos National Laboratory of the numerous alternatives to the proposed replacement production reactors (RPR). This effort concentrated on the defense fuel cycle operation and its technical implications in identifying the principal alternatives for the 1990s. The primary options were identified as (1) existing commercial reactors, (2) existing and planned government-owned facilities (not now used for defense materials production), and (3) other RPRs (not yet proposed) such as CANDU or CANDU-type heavy-water reactors (HWR) for both plutonium and tritium production. The evaluation considered features and differences of various options that could influence choice of RPR alternatives. Barring a change in the US approach to civilian and defense fuel cycles and precluding existing commercial reactors at government-owned sites, the most significant alternatives were identified as a CANDU-type HWR at Savannah River Plant (SRP) site or the Three Mile Island commercial reactor with reprocessing capability at Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant and at SRP

  11. Cornerstone Third Party Alternative Cost Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vrieling, P. Douglas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2013-10-15

    The attached cost analyses sheets have been developed for use in planning during the Third Party Alternative study currently underway for the Sandia CREATE project. This cost analysis builds upon the previously submitted base estimate dated June 14, 2013 and includes comparison information collected during a Market Validation exercise conducted in August/September 2013.

  12. Understanding alternatives to forest use in Malawi

    OpenAIRE

    SANREM CRSP

    2006-01-01

    Over-reliance on forest resources for household income negatively impacts forest ecosystems and the long-term economic stability of low-income households in Malawi. In order to develop economic and environmentally sustainable alternatives, policy makers need to understand what motivates forest resource use.

  13. Passive levitation in alternating magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Louis; Christenson, Todd; Aronson, Eugene A.

    2010-09-14

    Stable levitation of an object in an alternating magnetic field can be achieved by eliminating coupling between the rotational and translational forces acting on the object. Stable levitation can also be achieved by varying the coupling between the rotational and translational forces acting on the object, while maintaining one or more of the rotational and translational forces steady in time.

  14. Research reactors and alternative devices for research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report includes papers on research reactors and alternatives to the research reactors - radioisotopic neutron sources, cyclotrons, D-T neutron generators and small accelerators, used for radioisotope production, neutron activation analysis, material science, applied and basic research using neutron beams. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 7 papers

  15. Exploring Alternative Fuels in Middle Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donley, John F.; Stewardson, Gary A.

    2010-01-01

    Alternative energy sources have become increasingly important as the production of domestic oil has declined and dependence on foreign oil has increased. Historically, there have been four time periods during which the United States was in fact crippled by oil shortages. These time periods include: (1) the early 1900s; (2) World War II; (3) the…

  16. Emerging Energy Alternatives for the Southeastern States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanakos, E. K. (Editor)

    1978-01-01

    The proceedings of the first symposium on emerging energy alternatives for the Southeastern States are presented. Some topics discussed are: (1) solar energy, (2) wood energy, (3) novel energy sources, (4) agricultural and industrial process heat, (5) waste utilization, (6) energy conservation and (7) ocean thermal energy conversion.

  17. Stability of alternating current gliding arcs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusano, Yukihiro; Salewski, Mirko; Leipold, Frank;

    2014-01-01

    on Ohm’s law indicates that the critical length of alternating current (AC) gliding arc discharge columns can be larger than that of a corresponding direct current (DC) gliding arc. This finding is supported by previously published images of AC and DC gliding arcs. Furthermore, the analysis shows...

  18. An alternative strategy for Kyoto protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Europe will unlikely meet its Kyoto target of reducing greenhouse gas emission by 8 percent below 1990 levels. The economic impact of reductions might be dramatic, especially given Europe's slow economic growth. An alternative strategy should then be considered, in order to gain a global participation to the process and find a long-term solution

  19. Alternating hemiplegia of childhood in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høi-Hansen, Christina; Dali, Christine I.; Lyngbye, Troels Johan Brünnich;

    2014-01-01

    Alternating hemiplegia of childhood (AHC) is a rare neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by early-onset recurrent distinctive hemiplegic episodes commonly accompanied by other paroxysmal features and developmental impairment. De novo mutations in ATP1A3 were recently identified as a genetic...

  20. Systems impacts of spent fuel disassembly alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-07-01

    Three studies were completed to evaluate four alternatives to the disposal of intact spent fuel assemblies in a geologic repository. A preferred spent fuel waste form for disposal was recommended on consideration of (1) package design and fuel/package interaction, (2) long-term, in-repository performance of the waste form, and (3) overall process performance and costs for packaging, handling, and emplacement. The four basic alternative waste forms considered were (1) end fitting removal, (2) fission gas venting, (3) disassembly and close packing, and (4) shearing/immobilization. None of the findings ruled out any alternative on the basis of waste package considerations or long-term performance of the waste form. The third alternative offers flexibility in loading that may prove attractive in the various geologic media under consideration, greatly reduces the number of packages, and has the lowest unit cost. These studies were completed in October, 1981. Since then Westinghouse Electric Corporation and the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation have completed studies in related fields. This report is now being published to provide publicly the background material that is contained within. 47 references, 28 figures, 31 tables.

  1. Alternatives to animal testing: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doke, Sonali K; Dhawale, Shashikant C

    2015-07-01

    The number of animals used in research has increased with the advancement of research and development in medical technology. Every year, millions of experimental animals are used all over the world. The pain, distress and death experienced by the animals during scientific experiments have been a debating issue for a long time. Besides the major concern of ethics, there are few more disadvantages of animal experimentation like requirement of skilled manpower, time consuming protocols and high cost. Various alternatives to animal testing were proposed to overcome the drawbacks associated with animal experiments and avoid the unethical procedures. A strategy of 3 Rs (i.e. reduction, refinement and replacement) is being applied for laboratory use of animals. Different methods and alternative organisms are applied to implement this strategy. These methods provide an alternative means for the drug and chemical testing, up to some levels. A brief account of these alternatives and advantages associated is discussed in this review with examples. An integrated application of these approaches would give an insight into minimum use of animals in scientific experiments. PMID:26106269

  2. Assessment Benchmarks for an Alternative Certification Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denton, Jon; Davis, Trina; Smith, Ben; Beason, Lynn; Graham, Diane; Strader, Arlen

    2008-01-01

    The Accelerate Online/OPTIONS alternative certification program provides those possessing a degree an option leading to certification that can be completed in 18 months. The program consists of an online curriculum, an early field experience, and a year-long paid internship. To determine program effectiveness across five years, five benchmark…

  3. Alternate-Fueled Combustor-Sector Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Nikita T.; Thomas, Anna E.; Shouse, Dale T.; Neuroth, Craig; Hendricks, Robert C.; Lynch, Amy; Frayne, Charles W.; Stutrud, Jeffrey S.; Corporan, Edwin; Hankins, Terry

    2013-01-01

    In order to meet rapidly growing demand for fuel, as well as address environmental concerns, the aviation industry has been testing alternate fuels for performance and technical usability in commercial and military aircraft. In order to make alternate fuels (and blends) a viable option for aviation, the fuel must be able to perform at a similar or higher level than traditional petroleum fuel. They also attempt to curb harmful emissions, and therefore a truly effective alternate fuel would emit at or under the level of currently used fuel. This report analyzes data from gaseous and particulate emissions of an aircraft combustor sector. The data were evaluated at various inlet conditions, including variation in pressure and temperature, fuel-to-air ratios, and percent composition of alternate fuel. Traditional JP-8+100 data were taken as a baseline, and blends of JP-8+100 with synthetic-paraffinic-kerosene (SPK) fuel (Fischer-Tropsch (FT)) were used for comparison. Gaseous and particulate emissions, as well as flame luminosity, were assessed for differences between FT composition of 0, 50, and 100 percent. The data show that SPK fuel (an FT-derived fuel) had slightly lower harmful gaseous emissions, and smoke number information corroborated the hypothesis that SPK-FT fuels are cleaner burning fuels.

  4. Verbal directionality and argument alternation in Dinka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben

    2012-01-01

    (wards) an explicit or implicit goal. The object of a directional verb may play another role in the event described by the sentence than the object of the corresponding simple (and non-directional) verb. This gives rise to so-called argument alternation, in that, for instance, an object and an instrumental...

  5. Alternative Anode Reaction for Copper Electrowinning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2005-07-01

    This report describes a project funded by the Department of Energy, with additional funding from Bechtel National, to develop a copper electrowinning process with lower costs and lower emissions than the current process. This new process also includes more energy efficient production by using catalytic-surfaced anodes and a different electrochemical couple in the electrolyte, providing an alternative oxidation reaction that requires up to 50% less energy than is currently required to electrowin the same quantity of copper. This alternative anode reaction, which oxidizes ferric ions to ferrous, with subsequent reduction back to ferric using sulfur dioxide, was demonstrated to be technically and operationally feasible. However, pure sulfur dioxide was determined to be prohibitively expensive and use of a sulfur burner, producing 12% SO{sub 2}, was deemed a viable alternative. This alternate, sulfur-burning process requires a sulfur burner, waste heat boiler, quench tower, and reaction towers. The electrolyte containing absorbed SO{sub 2} passes through activated carbon to regenerate the ferrous ion. Because this reaction produces sulfuric acid, excess acid removal by ion exchange is necessary and produces a low concentration acid suitable for leaching oxide copper minerals. If sulfide minerals are to be leached or the acid unneeded on site, hydrogen was demonstrated to be a potential reductant. Preliminary economics indicate that the process would only be viable if significant credits could be realized for electrical power produced by the sulfur burner and for acid if used for leaching of oxidized copper minerals on site.

  6. Interpolation-based Decoding of Alternant Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Kwankyu

    2007-01-01

    We formulate the classical decoding algorithm of alternant codes afresh based on interpolation as in Sudan's list decoding of Reed-Solomon codes, and thus get rid of the key equation and the linear recurring sequences in the theory. The result is a streamlined exposition of the decoding algorithm using a bit of the theory of Groebner bases of modules.

  7. Prediction of windage power loss in alternators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrancik, J. E.

    1971-01-01

    Simplified equations and constants, based on laminar and turbulent flow theory between parallel plates, estimate windage loss in rotating electrical machinery. Comparison of calculated results and experimental data for smooth cylindrical rotor and slotted alternator yields 7 percent maximum variation between calculated and experimental data.

  8. Blood cell morphology : controversies and alternatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, Wim van der

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis we describe controversial morphologic features in both microscopic and automated differentiation of blood cells. In addition, we have investigated alternative methods to overcome these shortcomings. Furthermore we describe the variance of microscopic counting of band cells and variant

  9. Modeling dative alternations of individual children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, A.P.J. van den; Bresnan, J.

    2015-01-01

    We address the question whether children can acquire mature use of higher-level grammatical choices from the linguistic input, given only general prior knowledge and learning biases. We do so on the basis of a case study with the dative alternation in English, building on a study by de Marneffe et a

  10. Beyond GDP: Classifying Alternative Measures for Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleys, Brent

    2012-01-01

    Both the potential pitfalls of macro-economic policies focused on stimulating economic growth and the problems involved in using GDP as a measure of well-being or economic welfare have long been recognized by economists and researchers from other social sciences. Therefore, it is no surprise that alternative measures for policy-making have been…

  11. Givenness, complexity and the Danish dative alternation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kizach, Johannes; Balling, Laura Winther

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the interaction between givenness and complexity on the choice of syntactic structure, via two experiments using speeded acceptability judgments. Experiment 1 showed that for the Danish dative alternation, given–new orders are only easier to process for double-objec...

  12. Passive levitation in alternating magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Louis; Christenson, Todd; Aronson, Eugene A.

    2009-06-16

    Stable levitation of an object in an alternating magnetic field can be achieved by eliminating coupling between the rotational and translational forces acting on the object. Stable levitation can also be achieved by varying the coupling between the rotational and translational forces acting on the object, while maintaining one or more of the rotational and translational forces steady in time.

  13. Complementary and alternative medicine for multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, S; Knorr, C; Geiger, H; Flachenecker, P

    2008-09-01

    We analyzed characteristics, motivation, and effectiveness of complementary and alternative medicine in a large sample of people with multiple sclerosis. A 53-item survey was mailed to the members of the German Multiple Sclerosis Society, chapter of Baden-Wuerttemberg. Surveys of 1573 patients (48.5 +/- 11.7 years, 74% women, duration of illness 18.1 +/- 10.5 years) were analyzed. In comparison with conventional medicine, more patients displayed a positive attitude toward complementary and alternative medicine (44% vs 38%, P job, and higher education (P < 0.05). Compared with conventional therapies, complementary and alternative medicine rarely showed unwanted side effects (9% vs 59%, P < 0.00001). A total of 52% stated that the initial consultation with their physician lasted less than 15 min. To conclude, main reasons for the use of complementary and alternative medicine include the high rate of side effects and low levels of satisfaction with conventional treatments and brief patients/physicians contacts. PMID:18632773

  14. Business System Planning Project, Alternatives Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CHG Chief Information Officer (CIO) requested a study of alternatives to the current business system computing environment. This Business Systems Planning (BSP) Project Alternatives Analysis document presents an analysis of the current Project Controls, Work Management, and Business Management systems environment and alternative solutions that support the business functions. The project team has collected requirements and priorities from stakeholders in each business area and documented them in the BSP System Requirements Specification (SRS), RPP-6297. The alternatives analysis process identifies and measures possible solutions in each of the business process areas against the requirements as documented in the SRS. The team gathered input from both internal and external sources to identify and grade the possible solutions. This document captures the results of that activity and recommends a suite of software products. This study was to select the best product based on how well the product met the requirements, not to determine the platform or hardware environment that would be used. Additional analysis documentation can be found in BSP project files

  15. Alternative Educational Futures for a Knowledge Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This article offers a critical analysis of recent trends in educational policy with particular reference to their assumptions about the knowledge society. It examines the implications of the analysis for the issue of elitism and the promotion of greater educational equality. The article concludes by offering an alternative approach to educational…

  16. Economic analysis of alternative LLW disposal methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has evaluated the costs and benefits of alternative disposal technologies as part of its program to develop generally applicable environmental standards for the land disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW). Costs, population health effects and Critical Population Group (CPG) exposures resulting from alternative waste treatment and disposal methods were evaluated both in absolute terms and also relative to a base case (current practice). Incremental costs of the standard included costs for packaging, processing, transportation, and burial of waste. Benefits are defined in terms of reductions in the general population health risk (expected fatal cancers and genetic effects) evaluated over 10,000 years. A cost-effectiveness ratio, defined as the incremental cost per avoided health effect, was calculated for each alternative standard. The cost-effectiveness analysis took into account a number of waste streams, hydrogeologic and climatic region settings, and waste treatment and disposal methods. This paper describes the alternatives considered and preliminary results of the cost-effectiveness analysis. 15 references, 7 figures, 3 tables

  17. Supplementary vote; analysis, applications, and alternatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, van der Henk

    2008-01-01

    The Supplementary Vote (SV) was invented as a compromise between the two-round runoff system and the alternative vote. This paper shows that in many ways it is not. Under SV voters rank order a limited number of candidates. If one candidate is supported by over 50% of the voters he/she is declared t

  18. Alternatives to crop residues for soil amendment

    OpenAIRE

    Powell, J.M.; Unger, P.W.

    1997-01-01

    Metadata only record In semiarid agroecosystems, crop residues can provide important benefits of soil and water conservation, nutrient cycling, and improved subsequent crop yields. However, there are frequently multiple competing uses for residues, including animal forage, fuel, and construction material. This chapter discusses the various uses of crop residues and examines alternative soil amendments when crop residues cannot be left on the soil.

  19. NRC perspective on alternative disposal methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper is discussed an NRC staff strategy for the development of technical criteria and procedures for the licensing of various alternatives for disposal of low-level radioactive waste. Steps taken by the staff to identify viable alternative disposal methods and to comply with the requirements of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act (LLRWPAA) of 1985 are also discussed. The strategy proposed by the NRC staff is to focus efforts in FY 87 on alternative concepts that incorporate concrete materials with soil or rock cover (e.g., below ground vaults and earth-mounded concrete bunkers), which several State and State Compacts have identified as preferred disposal options. While the NRC staff believes that other options, such as above ground vaults and mined cavities, are workable and licensable, the staff also believes, for reasons addressed in the paper, that it is in the best interest of the industry and the public to encourage standardization and to focus limited resources on a manageable number of alternative options. Therefore, guidance on above ground vaults, which are susceptible to long-term materials degradation due to climatological effects, and mined cavities, which represent a significant departure from the current experience base for low-level radioactive waste disposal, will receive minimal attention. 6 references

  20. Outlook on Standardization of Alternative Vehicle Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehnlund, B. [Atrax Energi AB (Sweden)

    2008-10-15

    The use of fossil but in first hand biobased alternative fuels in transportation has increased over the last decades. This change is primarily driven by concerns about climate change that is caused by emissions of fossil carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases, but also by the impact on health and environment, caused by emissions of regulated as well as non-regulated emissions from the transport sector. Most alternative fuels will help to reduce the emissions of regulated and non-regulated emissions, while alternative fuels based on biomass also will contribute to reduced net emissions of carbon dioxide. Since the mid 1990s, the use of biomass based fuels such as ethanol and biodiesel has reached levels high enough in for example Europe, Brazil and the U.S. to motivate national or regional specifications/standards. Especially from the vehicle/engine manufacturer's point of view standards are of high importance. From early 2000 onwards, the international trade of biofuels (for example from Brazil to the U.S. and Europe) has grown, and this has created a need for common international specifications/standards. This report presents information about national and regional standards for alternative fuels, but also, when existing and reported, standards on a global level are described and discussed. Ongoing work concerning new or revised standards on alternative fuels on national, regional or global level is also discussed. In this report we have covered standards on all kind of alternative fuels, exemplified below. However, the focus is on liquid biofuels for diesel engines and Otto engines. 1) Liquid fuels for diesel engines (compression ignition engines), such as Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME), Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters (FAEE), alcohols, alcohol derivates and synthetic diesel fuels. 2) Liquid fuels for Otto engines (spark ignition engines), such as alcohols, ethers and synthetic gasoline. 3) Liquefied fossil petroleum gas (LPG). 4) Di-Methyl Ether (DME). 5

  1. Emerging trends in alternative aviation fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, Cody

    The days of petroleum-based aviation fuels are numbered. New regulations to be set in place in the coming years will force current fuels to be phased out in favor of cleaner fuels with less toxic emissions. The alternative fuel industry has already taken its foothold in other modes of transportation, and aviation will soon follow suit. Many companies have cropped up over the last decade, and a few have been around longer, that work hard to develop the alternative aviation fuels of the future. It is important, however, for the aviation community to know what to expect and when to expect it concerning alternative fuels. This study investigates where various companies in the alternative aviation fuel industry currently stand in their development and production processes, and how their products will affect aircraft owners and operators. By interviewing representatives from these companies and analyzing their responses to identify trends, an educated prediction can be made about where the industry is headed and when the aviation community can expect these fuel to be available. The findings of this study indicate that many companies are still in their developmental stages, with a few notable outliers, and that most of these companies expect to see production of their product by 2017. Also, the fuel manufacturers are dealing with all the legal hurdles regarding alternative fuels, so little to no effort will be required on the part of the consumer. These findings, along with their analysis, will enable the aviation community to make educated decisions concerning fuel and their aircraft, as well and do their part to help these beneficial fuels get to market.

  2. A methodology for assessing the market benefits of alternative motor fuels: The Alternative Fuels Trade Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leiby, P.N.

    1993-09-01

    This report describes a modeling methodology for examining the prospective economic benefits of displacing motor gasoline use by alternative fuels. The approach is based on the Alternative Fuels Trade Model (AFTM). AFTM development was undertaken by the US Department of Energy (DOE) as part of a longer term study of alternative fuels issues. The AFTM is intended to assist with evaluating how alternative fuels may be promoted effectively, and what the consequences of substantial alternative fuels use might be. Such an evaluation of policies and consequences of an alternative fuels program is being undertaken by DOE as required by Section 502(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992. Interest in alternative fuels is based on the prospective economic, environmental and energy security benefits from the substitution of these fuels for conventional transportation fuels. The transportation sector is heavily dependent on oil. Increased oil use implies increased petroleum imports, with much of the increase coming from OPEC countries. Conversely, displacement of gasoline has the potential to reduce US petroleum imports, thereby reducing reliance on OPEC oil and possibly weakening OPEC`s ability to extract monopoly profits. The magnitude of US petroleum import reduction, the attendant fuel price changes, and the resulting US benefits, depend upon the nature of oil-gas substitution and the supply and demand behavior of other world regions. The methodology applies an integrated model of fuel market interactions to characterize these effects.

  3. Alternative algebras admitting derivations with invertible values and invertible derivations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We prove an analogue of the Bergen-Herstein-Lanski theorem for alternative algebras: describe all alternative algebras that admit derivations with invertible values. We also prove an analogue of Moens' theorem for alternative algebras (a finite-dimensional alternative algebra over a field of characteristic zero is nilpotent if and only if it admits an invertible Leibniz derivation)

  4. Finding Sums for an Infinite Class of Alternating Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhibo; Wei, Sheng; Xiao, Xuerong

    2012-01-01

    Calculus II students know that many alternating series are convergent by the Alternating Series Test. However, they know few alternating series (except geometric series and some trivial ones) for which they can find the sum. In this article, we present a method that enables the students to find sums for infinitely many alternating series in the…

  5. 27 CFR 24.135 - Wine premises alternation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wine premises alternation..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Establishment and Operations Alternation § 24.135 Wine premises alternation. (a) General. The proprietor of a bonded winery or bonded wine cellar may alternate all or...

  6. 40 CFR 35.2032 - Innovative and alternative technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Innovative and alternative technologies... Innovative and alternative technologies. (a) Funding for innovative and alternative technologies. Projects or... innovative or alternative technology shall receive increased grants under § 35.2152. (1) Only funds from...

  7. 48 CFR 852.233-71 - Alternate protest procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alternate protest... § 852.233-71 Alternate protest procedure. As prescribed in 833.106, insert the following provision: Alternate Protest Procedure (JAN 1998) As an alternative to filing a protest with the contracting...

  8. Electromagnetic propulsion alternatives. [in mass drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolm, H.; Fine, K.; Mongeau, P.; Williams, F.

    1979-01-01

    Mass drivers can serve to propel massive objects by expelling any available material as reaction mass, however, mass driver engines have several limitations such as relatively large payload size and dynamic stability problems. A number of alternative acceleration mechanisms exist which offer advantages for certain applications, such as higher acceleration at a sacrifice in efficiency, smaller possible size and decreased complexity at a sacrifice in service life, etc. The alternative concepts include several variants of the railgun, a family of superconducting slingshot oscillators, a momentum transformer, an impulse induction motor, and a family of hybrid synchronous accelerators. A potential application of considerable interest is the earth-based launching of space cargo or nuclear waste by using off-peak generating capacity to accelerate one ton cargo cylinders at intervals of several minutes.

  9. [Using alternative therapies in treating sleep disturbance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Hsuan-Man; Chen, Chung-Hey

    2011-02-01

    Sleep disturbance is a common health problem among adults, and enhancing sleep quality is an issue of significant importance to healthcare providers. As sleep quality worsens into insomnia, individuals may seek assistance from medication. However, sedative hypnotic drugs pose potentially adverse effects. Also, most medical treatments (e.g., positive pressure assistant ventilators) represent invasive interventions that must be prescribed by physicians. Non-pharmacological alternative therapies are commonly recommended and adopted by community nurses. Alternative therapies for sleep disturbance included exercise, cognitive behavior therapy, multiple strategies, music, and acupressure. In general, moderately intensive walking exercise is the intervention most recommended by professionals to help patients deal with sleep disturbance. Therefore, it is suggested that future researchers devise sleep quality promotion strategies that are suitable for home practice in order to apply the findings and spirit of research already done in this area. PMID:21328208

  10. Alternative $Z'$ Bosons in $E_6$

    CERN Document Server

    Rojas, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    We classify the quantum numbers of the extra $U(1)'$ symmetries contained in $E_6$. In particular, we categorize the cases with rational charges and present the full list of models which arise from the chains of the maximal subgroups of $E_6$. As an application, the classification allows us to determine all embeddings of the Standard Model fermions in all possible decompositions of the fundamental representation of $E_6$ under its maximal subgroups. From this we find alternative chains of subgroups for Grand Unified Theories. We show how many of the known models including some new ones appear in alternative breaking patterns. We also use low energy constraints coming from parity-violating asymmetry measurements and atomic parity non-conservation to set limits on the $E_6$ motivated parameter space for a $Z'$ boson mass of~1.2~TeV. We include projected limits for the present and upcoming QWEAK, MOLLER and SOLID experiments.

  11. Outlook for alternative energy sources. [aviation fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Card, M. E.

    1980-01-01

    Predictions are made concerning the development of alternative energy sources in the light of the present national energy situation. Particular emphasis is given to the impact of alternative fuels development on aviation fuels. The future outlook for aircraft fuels is that for the near term, there possibly will be no major fuel changes, but minor specification changes may be possible if supplies decrease. In the midterm, a broad cut fuel may be used if current development efforts are successful. As synfuel production levels increase beyond the 1990's there may be some mixtures of petroleum-based and synfuel products with the possibility of some shale distillate and indirect coal liquefaction products near the year 2000.

  12. Propofol alternatives in gastrointestinal endoscopy anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basavana Gouda Goudra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although propofol has been the backbone for sedation in gastrointestinal endoscopy, both anesthesiologists and endoscopists are faced with situations where an alternative is needed. Recent national shortages forced many physicians to explore these options. A midazolam and fentanyl combination is the mainstay in this area. However, there are other options. The aim of this review is to explore these options. The future would be, invariably, to move away from propofol. The reason is not in any way related to the drawbacks of propofol as a sedative. The mandate that requires an anesthesia provider to administer propofol has been a setback in many countries. New sedative drugs like Remimazolam might fill this void in the future. In the meantime, it is important to keep an open eye to the existing alternatives.

  13. A New Challenge for Alternative Energy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Editorial Department of China Power Enterprise Management

    2009-01-01

    @@ The year 2008 sees a turning point in China's strategy of promoting energy saving and emissions reduction,as well as development of renewable energy.Oil price breaking US$140 and large area in China suffering from ice and snow disaster,a result of global warming,have both stressed the importance of developing alternative energy.Today,alterative energy accounts for a very small portion in China's power industry.Therefore,it is imminently required to speed up energy restructuring,to vigorously develop power generation with alternative energy such as nuclear energy,hydroenergy,wind energy,solar energy,biomass energy,geothermic energy,thus to realize sustainable development.

  14. Spent Nuclear Fuel Alternative Technology Decision Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) made a FY98 commitment to the Department of Energy (DOE) to recommend a technology for the disposal of aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The two technologies being considered, direct co-disposal and melt and dilute, had been previously selected from a group of eleven potential SNF management technologies by the Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel Task Team chartered by the DOE''s Office of Spent Fuel Management. To meet this commitment, WSRC organized the SNF Alternative Technology Program to further develop the direct co-disposal and melt and dilute technologies and ultimately provide a WSRC recommendation to DOE on a preferred SNF alternative management technology

  15. Research requirements for alternative reactor development strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to estimate and compare resource requirements and other fuel cycle quantities for alternative reactor deployment strategies. The paper examines from global and national perspectives the interaction of various fuel cycle alternatives described in the previous U.S. submissions to Working Groups 4, 5, 8 and Subgroup 1A/2A. Nuclear energy forecasts of Subgroup 1A/2A are used in the calculation of uranium demand for each strategy. These uranium demands are then compared to U.S. estimates of annual uranium producibility. Annual rather than cumulative producibility was selected because it does not assume preplanned stockpiling, and is therefore more conservative. The strategies attempt to span a range of nuclear power mixes which could evolve if appropriate commercial and governmental climates develop

  16. Alternative Z ' bosons in E 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Eduardo; Erler, Jens

    2015-10-01

    We classify the quantum numbers of the extra U(1)' symmetries contained in E 6. In particular, we categorize the cases with rational charges and present the full list of models which arise from the chains of the maximal subgroups of E 6. As an application, the classification allows us to determine all embeddings of the Standard Model fermions in all possible decompositions of the fundamental representation of E 6 under its maximal subgroups. From this we find alternative chains of subgroups for Grand Unified Theories. We show how many of the known models including some new ones appear in alternative breaking patterns. We also use low energy constraints coming from parity-violating asymmetry measurements and atomic parity non-conservation to set limits on the E 6 motivated parameter space for a Z ' boson mass of 1.2 TeV. We include projected limits for the present and upcoming QWEAK, MOLLER and SOLID experiments.

  17. The Dounreay run down: impacts and alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In July 1988 it was announced that Government funding for the nuclear fast reactor programme would be reduced. This report measures the impacts upon and examines the alternatives for, the economy of the Caithness area of Scotland where the Dounreay Nuclear Establishment (main centre for fast reactor programme) is situated. Unless alternative activities are developed on the site, employment will fall from over 2000 in 1988 to only 550 in 1997. This will result in a substantial increase in unemployment and/or heavy out-migration away from the area. There would also be a major effect on the social and economic infrastructure, especially in housing, education and health. The study considers the impacts of major closures in remote areas in other countries. In Caithness the impact may be greater because of Government unwillingness to subsidise the area. Various development opportunities including tourism are recommended. (author)

  18. Elections, Protest, and Alternation of Power

    CERN Document Server

    Little, Andrew T; LaGatta, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Despite many examples to the contrary, most models of elections assume that rules determining the winner will be followed. We present a model where elections are solely a public signal of the incumbent popularity, and citizens can protests against leaders that do not step down from power. In this minimal setup, rule-based alternation of power as well as "semi-democratic" alternation of power independent of electoral rules can both arise in equilibrium. Compliance with electoral rules requires there to be multiple equilibria in the protest game, where the electoral rule serves as a focal point spurring protest against losers that do not step down voluntarily. Such multiplicity is possible when elections are informative and citizens not too polarized. Extensions to the model are consistent with the facts that protests often center around accusations of electoral fraud and that in the democratic case turnover is peaceful while semi-democratic turnover often requires citizens to actually take to the streets.

  19. An Alternative Hypothesis for Special Relativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eckardt H.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available An alternative theory being analogous to Einstein’s special theory of relativity is pre- sented. While Einstein based his theory on the relativity principle of motion and con- stancy of the velocity of light, this theory assumes an absolute frame of reference and a general length contraction. Both concepts are taken from general relativity and applied to an asymptotically flat space. This results in a transformation group being differ- ent from the Lorentz transformation and a Eucledian addition theorem of velocitites. The results are in accordance with experiments and long known discrepancies between special relativity and experimental findings are resolved as well as paradoxa being in- troduced by Einstein’s original theory. Physical facts being unintelligible before can be interpreted in the light of the alternative theory.

  20. Alternative diagnoses at paediatric appendicitis MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the utilization of MRI in the assessment for paediatric appendicitis increases in clinical practice, it is important to recognize alternative diagnoses as the cause of abdominal pain. The purpose of this review is to share our institution's experience using MRI in the evaluation of 510 paediatric patients presenting with suspected appendicitis over a 30 month interval (July 2011 to December 2013). An alternative diagnosis was documented in 98/510 (19.2%) patients; adnexal pathology (6.3%, n = 32), enteritis–colitis (6.3%, n = 32), and mesenteric adenitis (2.2%, n = 11) comprised the majority of cases. These common entities and other less frequent illustrative cases obtained during our overall institutional experience with MRI for suspected appendicitis are reviewed

  1. Spent Nuclear Fuel Alternative Technology Decision Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shedrow, C.B.

    1999-11-29

    The Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) made a FY98 commitment to the Department of Energy (DOE) to recommend a technology for the disposal of aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The two technologies being considered, direct co-disposal and melt and dilute, had been previously selected from a group of eleven potential SNF management technologies by the Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel Task Team chartered by the DOE''s Office of Spent Fuel Management. To meet this commitment, WSRC organized the SNF Alternative Technology Program to further develop the direct co-disposal and melt and dilute technologies and ultimately provide a WSRC recommendation to DOE on a preferred SNF alternative management technology.

  2. Titin Diversity—Alternative Splicing Gone Wild

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Guo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Titin is an extremely large protein found in highest concentrations in heart and skeletal muscle. The single mammalian gene is expressed in multiple isoforms as a result of alternative splicing. Although titin isoform expression is controlled developmentally and in a tissue specific manner, the vast number of potential splicing pathways far exceeds those described in any other alternatively spliced gene. Over 1 million human splice pathways for a single individual can be potentially derived from the PEVK region alone. A new splicing pattern for the human cardiac N2BA isoform type has been found in which the PEVK region includes only the N2B type exons. The alterations in splicing and titin isoform expression in human heart disease provide impetus for future detailed study of the splicing mechanisms for this giant protein.

  3. Alternative Poultry Breeding: Guinea Fowl Breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sezai Alkan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Guinea fowl live on the Africa continent as wild and where used intensively family livestock farming in the rural. Although the homeland of the Africa continent, Guinea growing rapidly increasing in the World. Nowadays, Guinea fowl is an important alternative genetic resource can be used in organic livestock farming which developing quickly. Able to adapt to different climatic conditions, have an economic efficiency level in the don’t good environmental conditions and being resistant to diseases are the biggest advantages. Besides, Guinea fowl eats insects, ticks, worms, mouse and snakes, especially in the surrounding of the livestock farming in the rural it can be used for biological control of these pests easily. Because of these advantages, Guinea fowl has a potential for alternative poultry production in Turkey. In this review, importance and general characteristics of Guinea fowl are given.

  4. Choice, Rejection, and Elaboration on Preference-Inconsistent Alternatives

    OpenAIRE

    Juliano Laran; Keith Wilcox

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that rejecting product alternatives (i.e., choosing which alternatives to give up) may cause preference reversals compared to choosing alternatives. We provide an investigation into the psychological processes underlying this phenomenon. These preference reversals can be caused by increased elaboration on the features of preference-inconsistent alternatives when people reject alternatives. When these features are appealing, increased elaboration increases pr...

  5. Alternative schemes for the inertial fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The advanced target designs are requiring a lower laser energy for ignition and promising higher energy gains. Two approaches are under development within the European inertial fusion energy project HiPER: the fast ignition scheme with energetic electrons and the shock ignition scheme. The fundamental physical issues and major experimental works related to the alternative ignition schemes as well as the reactor designs are discussed.

  6. Resident Attitudes toward Community Development Alternatives

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Chih-Yao

    2010-01-01

    Utilizing survey data collected in four communities in the State of Utah, this study examined the extent to which rural resident perceptions and attitudes toward local community circumstances influence their own expectations and attitudes subjectively toward future community development alternatives. Understanding perceptions of community and community development, as well as the patterns of localized community development, is crucial and needs to consider residents' opinions and attitudes to...

  7. Measurement and evaluation of alternative planning strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Jwala, Vidya Ranya

    1995-01-01

    Strategic Planning is a function practiced by most public and private sector organizations. Most managers are familiar with the concept of strategic planning and associated processes. There has been some research in the field of management focusing on the alternatives to strategic planning approach. "Management by groping along" is one such approach. The "Management by groping along" strategy attempts to make an organization capable of adapting, responding and, allocating resou...

  8. Intuitions in Epistemology: Towards a Naturalistic Alternative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlström, Kristoffer

    2009-01-01

    The present paper revisits the main methodological problems with conceptual analysis and considers two attempts to rectify them in terms of prototypes and reflective equilibria, respectively. Finding both wanting for the purposes of epistemological analysis, a naturalistic alternative is then...... sketched that explores the positive implications of aforementioned problems for the demarcation of the respective roles of intuitions and empirical investigation within three epistemological domains, viz., the evaluation of epistemological hypotheses, the amelioration of epistemic practices, and the...

  9. Alternative Regulation for North American Electric Utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a decade of favorable operating conditions, utilities find themselves faced with accelerating prices for key inputs and a growing need for new capacity. These pressures are likely to prompt increasingly frequent, and perhaps more contentious, rate cases. Steady progress in the development of alternative regulation provides hope that the utility industry will respond to these challenges much better than in 1975-85. (author)

  10. Towards an alternative paradigm of consumer behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Di Giovinazzo, V

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores Scitovsky’s contribution to behavioral economics and examines in particular the changes his theory based on the findings of human brain psychophysiologists has brought to choice theory. The evidence here gathered points out how Scitovsky was making his suggestions for an alternative to the rationalist-based theory of choice model as far back in the early 1970s. The same evidence singles out Scitovsky as one of the most influential forerunners of a successful program of psy...

  11. External project management as an alternative

    OpenAIRE

    Smirnov, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    This report aims to consider external project management as an alternative of in-house project management through analysis of reasons, advantages (disadvantages) of hiring external project managers, incentives for project managers and its influence in work performance. It provides different theories, methods and approaches of industrial and human motivation. The paper distinguishes on four parts in order to cover all fields of motivations, project management, show survey, discuss findings, an...

  12. Random prism: an alternative to random forests

    OpenAIRE

    Stahl, F.; Bramer, Max

    2012-01-01

    Ensemble learning techniques generate multiple classifiers, so called base classifiers, whose combined classification results are used in order to increase the overall classification accuracy. In most ensemble classifiers the base classifiers are based on the Top Down Induction of Decision Trees (TDIDT) approach. However, an alternative approach for the induction of rule based classifiers is the Prism family of algorithms. Prism algorithms produce modular classification rules that do not nece...

  13. Alternative interventions for young men's mental health

    OpenAIRE

    McGale, Nadine

    2011-01-01

    The main aim of this thesis was to explore the effectiveness and acceptability of alternative interventions for facilitating help-seeking and improving the mental health of young adult males. Based on recommendations for innovative ways to develop interventions that facilitate mental health help-seeking specific to men (Addis & Mahalik, 2003), the interventions employed in this thesis integrate exercise and psychotherapeutic strategies, and make use of sport as a vehicle for mental health pr...

  14. ARCO outlines alternative to emissions trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that ARCO has proposed an alternative to southern California's proposed air emissions trading program. ARCO Products Co. Pres. George Babikian warned that unless the controversial Regional Clean Air Incentives Market (Reclaim) program under development by the South Coast Air Quality Management District (Scaqmd) is dramatically changed, many local businesses would shut down, thus driving more jobs from the state. Babikian the ARCO's plan would achieve significant emissions reductions while still encouraging business and industry development in the region

  15. Trophic specialisations in alternative heterochronic morphs

    OpenAIRE

    Denoël, Mathieu; Schabetsberger, Robert; Joly, Pierre

    2004-01-01

    Polymorphisms are suspected of reducing competition among conspecifics in heterogeneous environments by allowing differential resource use. However the adaptive significance of alternative morphs has been poorly documented. The aim of this study is to determine food partitioning of two heterochronic morphs of the Alpine newt, Triturus alpestris, in mountain lakes. The morphs differ in the functional morphology of their feeding apparatus. Only paedomorphs are able to expel water during prey su...

  16. Alternative protein sources in sea bass nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. D’Agaro

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Intensive fish farming profitability is declining word-wide. This situation is mainly due to the extensive reliance on fish meal (FM as feed ingredient in finfish diets in order to meet the high dietary protein needs. FM quality and prices are variable and its global supply is decreasing and highly dependent on meteoric events (e.g. El niño. Several protein sources are potentially excellent alternatives to FM...

  17. Alternative crypto currency analysis and mining

    OpenAIRE

    Ballek, Miroslav

    2014-01-01

    Over the past few years, bitcoin has become a globally successful and much followed project. It is a kind of decentralized digital currency, which functions based on mathematical-cryptographical principles and is created using a computationally intensive process called mining. Thousands of other alternative crypto currencies exist, which have so far stayed unnoticed by the media, even though they outperform bitcoin in many aspects. The central topic of this paper is the extensive ecosystem of...

  18. Alternatives of seawater desalination using nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Cogeneration is economically assessed using two different size nuclear reactors. ► Mexican northwest region was the case for economical comparisons of cogeneration. ► Medium size nuclear reactors provide more flexibility to meet coupling demands. ► Although there is a higher overnight cost for medium size reactors, they are cost competitive. ► Cogeneration alternative using medium size reactors is less expensive. - Abstract: Nuclear power is a clean energy alternative that is already used to provide water and electricity and it helps to reduce concern of climate change. The new deployments of nuclear power are based on the Generation III reactors which come in sizes from 1100 to 1700 MWe, in addition there is a process in the very close future to provide a new generation of small and medium size reactors, less than 600 MWe. Thus, cogeneration of electricity and potable water from desalination can be based on big or small/medium reactors. This paper performs an economical comparison of nuclear desalination using two PWR (pressurized water reactor) reactor type, a big one, AP1000, against a medium reactor, IRIS. It assesses the electricity and potable water needs for the northwest region of Mexico and presents alternatives of supply based on cogeneration, using the three different single potable water processes, reverse osmosis (RO), multi-stage flash distillation (MSF) and multi-effect distillation (MED), and two hybrid methods for different potable water quality based on the amount of dissolved solids in the potable water. Investment results for the specific need are presented for all the alternatives assessed along with advantages and disadvantages.

  19. Work and citizenship: crises and alternatives

    OpenAIRE

    Kovács, Ilona

    2009-01-01

    One purpose of this article is to refute some commonly held ideas which consider that ongoing changes in work and employment are inevitable and they have positive consequences at the social and individual level. It is subjacent on approach considering that there is no single striking trend while there are alternatives deserving discussion. The paper starts with analysis on the crises in the Fordist-Keynesian employment regime, the basis of our modern social citizenship. There is no consensus ...

  20. Review of alternative concepts for magnetic fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although the Tokamak represents the mainstay of the world's quest for magnetic fusion power, with the tandem mirror serving as a primary backup concept in the US fusion program, a wide range of alternative fusion concepts (AFC's) have been and are being pursued. This review presents a summary of past and present reactor projections of a majority of AFC's. Whenever possible, quantitative results are given

  1. Alternating Spatial Patterns for Coordinated Group Motion

    OpenAIRE

    Swain, Daniel T.; Leonard, Naomi Ehrich; Couzin, Iain D; Kao, Albert; Sepulchre, Rodolphe

    2007-01-01

    Abstract—Motivated by recent observations of fish schools, we study coordinated group motion for individuals with oscillatory speed. Neighbors that have speed oscillations with common frequency, amplitude and average but different phases, move together in alternating spatial patterns, taking turns being towards the front, sides and back of the group. We propose a model and control laws to investigate the connections between these spatial dynamics, communication when sensi...

  2. Alternative proposal to modified Newtonian dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Romero, Juan M.; Zamora, Adolfo

    2006-01-01

    From a study of conserved quantities of the so-called Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) we propose an alternative to this theory. We show that this proposal is consistent with the Tully-Fisher law, has conserved quantities whose Newtonian limit are the energy and angular momentum, and can be useful to explain cosmic acceleration. The dynamics obtained suggests that, when acceleration is very small, time depends on acceleration. This result is analogous to that of special relativity where tim...

  3. Alternative proposal to modified Newtonian dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From a study of conserved quantities of the so-called modified Newtonian dynamics we propose an alternative to this theory. We show that this proposal is consistent with the Tully-Fisher law, has conserved quantities whose Newtonian limit are the energy and angular momentum, and can be useful to explain cosmic acceleration. The dynamics obtained suggests that, when acceleration is very small, time depends on acceleration. This result is analogous to that of special relativity where time depends on velocity

  4. The Quest for Alternatives beyond (Neoliberal) Capitalism

    OpenAIRE

    Serrano, Melisa R.; Xhafa, Edlira

    2011-01-01

    Capitalism is not the only form of economy. Alternative economies - people’s economies - exist in which human needs and relationships are more important than competition and profit. Forms of solidarity economy built on the principles and values of cooperation, equality, self-determination and democracy, exist and are taking shape in many parts of the world. These forms include household economies, barter economies, collective economies including cooperatives, worker-controlled economies, subs...

  5. ATRX represses alternative lengthening of telomeres

    OpenAIRE

    Napier, Christine E.; Huschtscha, Lily I.; Harvey, Adam; Bower, Kylie; Noble, Jane R.; Hendrickson, Eric A.; Reddel, Roger R

    2015-01-01

    The unlimited proliferation of cancer cells requires a mechanism to prevent telomere shortening. Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres (ALT) is an homologous recombination-mediated mechanism of telomere elongation used in tumors, including osteosarcomas, soft tissue sarcoma subtypes, and glial brain tumors. Mutations in the ATRX/DAXX chromatin remodeling complex have been reported in tumors and cell lines that use the ALT mechanism, suggesting that ATRX may be an ALT repressor. We show here th...

  6. Unwinding Protein Complexes in ALTernative Telomere Maintenance

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattacharyya, Saumitri; Sandy, April; Groden, Joanna

    2010-01-01

    Telomeres are composed of specialized chromatin that includes DNA repair/recombination proteins, telomere DNA-binding proteins and a number of three dimensional nucleic acid structures including G-quartets and D-loops. A number of studies suggest that the BLM and WRN recQ-like helicases play important roles in recombination-mediated mechanisms of telomere elongation or Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres (ALT), processes that maintain/elongate telomeres in the absence of telomerase. BLM and ...

  7. ALTERNATIVE SOURCES OF FINANCING HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    L. V. Kozarezenko

    2014-01-01

    The article studies the possibilities and expediency of endowment utilization as an alternative of the social sphere elements budgetary funding in Ukraine. We have conclusions that the endowments have some advantages. That’s is creates the possibility for a long-term planning and development of social sphere (mechanism of adequate general stable situation in the country), convenient for major companies inclined to strategic business planning and contributions in the social sphere, transparent...

  8. An Alternative View of Privacy on Facebook

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Fuchs

    2011-01-01

    The predominant analysis of privacy on Facebook focuses on personal information revelation. This paper is critical of this kind of research and introduces an alternative analytical framework for studying privacy on Facebook, social networking sites and web 2.0. This framework is connecting the phenomenon of online privacy to the political economy of capitalism—a focus that has thus far been rather neglected in research literature about Internet and web 2.0 privacy. Liberal privacy philosophy ...

  9. An Alternative Hypothesis for Special Relativity

    OpenAIRE

    Eckardt H.

    2009-01-01

    An alternative theory being analogous to Einstein’s special theory of relativity is pre- sented. While Einstein based his theory on the relativity principle of motion and con- stancy of the velocity of light, this theory assumes an absolute frame of reference and a general length contraction. Both concepts are taken from general relativity and applied to an asymptotically flat space. This results in a transformation group being differ- ent from the Lorentz transfo...

  10. Alternative medicine and doping in sports

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin Koh; Lynne Freeman; Christopher Zaslawski3

    2012-01-01

    Athletes are high achievers who may seek creative or unconventional methods to improve performance. The literature indicates that athletes are among the heaviest users of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) and thus may pioneer population trends in CAM use. Unlike non-athletes, athletes may use CAM not just for prevention, treatment or rehabilitation from illness or injuries, but also for performance enhancement. Assuming that athletes’ creative use of anything unconventional is aime...

  11. Fossil Fuels, Alternative Energy and Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Raul Barreto

    2013-01-01

    We present a theoretical framework that incorporates energy within an endogenous growth model. The model explicitly allows for the interaction and substitution between fossil fuels, defined as a non-renewable resource derived from some fixed initial stock, and alternative energy, defined as renewable resource whose production requires capital input. The dynamics of the model depict a unique balance growth to a saddle point. The consumption path temporarily peaks, when fossil fuels are plentif...

  12. Alternative frameworks for providing financial services

    OpenAIRE

    Claessens, Stijn; Klingebiel, Daniela

    1999-01-01

    Drawing on country experience, the authors analyze alternative frameworks for providing financial services. Scope of permissible activities: The integrated banking model (commercial banking fully integrated with other financial services, including investment banking) benefits both financial institutions and consumers. Potential costs, such as extending the safety net to non-deposit financial services, can be mitigated with safeguards and firewalls, which require regulatory enforcement and mon...

  13. An alternative measure of structural unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Uluc Aysun; Florence Bouvet; Richard Hofler

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we derive an alternative measure for structural unemployment using a stochastic frontier analysis. This measure, by empirical design, is always less than total unemployment and it is, thus, more consistent with the theoretical description of structural unemployment than its usual interpretation as a smoothed long-run average of total unemployment. We find that our measure does not always track the long-run trends in total unemployment in the U.S. and when compared to the existin...

  14. Used oil as a fuel oil alternative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karaosmanoglu, F.; Beker, U.G. [Istanbul Technical Univ. (Turkey). Chemical Engineering Dept.

    1996-09-01

    In this study, the possibility of using used frying oil as a fuel oil alternative has been investigated. The fuel oil analysis tests applied to the reference fuel oil, used frying oil and its blends with fuel oil, were done according to standard test methods. The experimental results indicated that used frying oil and its blends with fuel oil can be proposed as a possible substitute for fuel oil.

  15. Transnational Neomelodica Music and Alternative Economic Cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Pine, Jason; Pepe, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    In the 1980s, another popular Neapolitan vocal music scene emerged that today thrives in a position of ambiguous alterity to the once-dominant “traditional” music industry that thrived in the decades before and after the turn of the 20th century. La canzone neomelodica, or neo-melodic song, is produced, distributed, performed and consumed in an alternative political economic culture, where the so-called formal, informal and illicit economies overlap. The neomelodica music scene constitutes an...

  16. Commercially available alternatives to palm oil

    OpenAIRE

    Hinrichsen, Nils

    2016-01-01

    Since several years there has been a demand for food products free of palm oil, noticeable in the Western European market. Alternatives based on liquid oils, fully hydrogenated fats, and exotic fats like shea and sal etc., have been developed by the research groups of several specialty oils and fats suppliers. This article describes the advantages and disadvantages of those products and compares them to similar products based on palm oil. It is also discussed how reasonable the replacement of...

  17. Review of alternative concepts for magnetic fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krakowski, R.A.; Miller, R.L.; Hagenson, R.L.

    1980-01-01

    Although the Tokamak represents the mainstay of the world's quest for magnetic fusion power, with the tandem mirror serving as a primary backup concept in the US fusion program, a wide range of alternative fusion concepts (AFC's) have been and are being pursued. This review presents a summary of past and present reactor projections of a majority of AFC's. Whenever possible, quantitative results are given.

  18. Alfalfa Hay Quality and Alternative Pricing Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Hopper, Jared A.; Peterson, Hikaru Hanawa; Burton, Robert O., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    Price-quality relationships for alfalfa hay were analyzed by hedonic pricing models using 1996-2001 Wisconsin auction data. Individual nutrients included in the analysis all affected alfalfa price, with acid detergent fiber accounting for the largest impact. Alternative pricing models, based on an aggregate quality index or detailed quality information, were similar in their ability to predict price. However, disaggregating price predictions to account for differences in relative feed value (...

  19. Doctors Look for Liver Transplant Alternatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@ Robert Pennington, a 19 - year - old boy, suffers from liver disease. His name was put on a transplant waiting list, but no livers were available. Then Dr. Marlon Levy, a transplant surgeon at Baylor University Medical Center, offered an alternative: a procedure2 using a dead pig's liver. But not a liver from an ordinary pig, "They're genetically modified3 to try to prevent a reaction between the human blood and the pig liver" , Levy said.

  20. Alternative Splicing Programs in Prostate Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Claudio Sette

    2013-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) remains one of the most frequent causes of death for cancer in the male population. Although the initial antiandrogenic therapies are efficacious, PCa often evolves into a hormone-resistant, incurable disease. The genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity of this type of cancer renders its diagnosis and cure particularly challenging. Mounting evidence indicates that alternative splicing, the process that allows production of multiple mRNA variants from each gene, contributes ...

  1. Inferring the relative resilience of alternative states.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G Angeler

    Full Text Available Ecological systems may occur in alternative states that differ in ecological structures, functions and processes. Resilience is the measure of disturbance an ecological system can absorb before changing states. However, how the intrinsic structures and processes of systems that characterize their states affects their resilience remains unclear. We analyzed time series of phytoplankton communities at three sites in a floodplain in central Spain to assess the dominant frequencies or "temporal scales" in community dynamics and compared the patterns between a wet and a dry alternative state. The identified frequencies and cross-scale structures are expected to arise from positive feedbacks that are thought to reinforce processes in alternative states of ecological systems and regulate emergent phenomena such as resilience. Our analyses show a higher species richness and diversity but lower evenness in the dry state. Time series modeling revealed a decrease in the importance of short-term variability in the communities, suggesting that community dynamics slowed down in the dry relative to the wet state. The number of temporal scales at which community dynamics manifested, and the explanatory power of time series models, was lower in the dry state. The higher diversity, reduced number of temporal scales and the lower explanatory power of time series models suggest that species dynamics tended to be more stochastic in the dry state. From a resilience perspective our results highlight a paradox: increasing species richness may not necessarily enhance resilience. The loss of cross-scale structure (i.e. the lower number of temporal scales in community dynamics across sites suggests that resilience erodes during drought. Phytoplankton communities in the dry state are therefore likely less resilient than in the wet state. Our case study demonstrates the potential of time series modeling to assess attributes that mediate resilience. The approach is useful

  2. Therapeutic manuka honey: no longer so alternative

    OpenAIRE

    Dee A Carter; Blair, Shona E.; Nural eCokcetin; Daniel eBouzo; Peter eBrooks; Schlothauer, Ralf C.; Elizabeth J. Harry

    2016-01-01

    Medicinal honey research is undergoing a substantial renaissance. From a folklore remedy largely dismissed by mainstream medicine as alternative, we now see increased interest by scientists, clinical practitioners and the general public in the therapeutic uses of honey. There are a number of drivers of this interest: first, the rise in antibiotic resistance by many bacterial pathogens has prompted interest in developing and using novel antibacterials; second, an increasing number of reliabl...

  3. International research into chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marseille, T.J.; Shankle, D.L.; Thurman, A.G.

    1992-05-01

    Selected researchers from 21 countries were queried through questionnaires about their current and planned research activities. The results of the survey show that the majority of research being conducted by the respondents is devoted to investigating the hydrogenated fluorocarbon HFC-134a as a replacement for CFC-12 in refrigeration applications. The main issue with this alternative is identifying compatible lubricants that do not reduce its effectiveness.

  4. Competitive Cost Analysis of Alternative Powertrain Technologies.

    OpenAIRE

    Redelbach, Martin; Propfe, Bernd; Friedrich, Horst E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the cost competitiveness of different electrified propulsion technologies from hybrid cars to full battery electric vehicles in the time horizon 2010 to 2020. The assessment shows that the current TCO gaps for alternative drivetrains will increasingly converge over time mainly driven by decreasing production cost. However, the cost-efficiency of different powertrain architectures depends highly on the mileage a user expects to drive per year. In the mid-run, hybrid elec...

  5. Fixed-Field Alternating-Gradient Accelerators

    OpenAIRE

    Sheehy, S. L.

    2016-01-01

    These notes provide an overview of Fixed-Field Alternating-Gradient (FFAG) accelerators for medical applications. We begin with a review of the basic principles of this type of accelerator, including the scaling and non-scaling types, highlighting beam dynamics issues that are of relevance to hadron ac- celerators. The potential of FFAG accelerators in the field of hadron therapy is discussed in detail, including an overview of existing medical FFAG designs. The options for FFAG treatment gan...

  6. An Alternative View of Schizophrenic Cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Snyder, Douglas M.

    1991-01-01

    An alternative view to the traditionally held view that schizophrenia is characterised by severely disordered cognition is presented. It is possible that apparently self-contradictory expressions of schizophrenics are well-formed communicative expressions of highly ordered cognitive systems. Building on the premise that behavior is in general communicative, and using Godel’s Incompleteness Theorem from logic as a model, it is shown that the most characteristic symptoms of schizophrenia (namel...

  7. Secular stagnation and progressive economic policy alternatives

    OpenAIRE

    Onaran, Özlem

    2016-01-01

    This paper summarizes two main findings in the Post-Keynesian literature regarding the linkages between financialization, income distribution, accumulation and productivity. Firstly, at the core of secular stagnation lies the missing link between profits and investment. Secondly, rising inequality and financialization have been the main reasons for this missing link and hence the major brakes against capital accumulation and growth. The paper concludes with alternative progressive policies b...

  8. Alternative banking: theory and evidence from Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt Von Mettenheim

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Since financial liberalization in the 1980s, non-profit maximizing, stakeholder-oriented banks have outperformed private banks in Europe. This article draws on empirical research, banking theory and theories of the firm to explain this apparent anomaly for neo-liberal policy and contemporary market-based banking theory. The realization of competitive advantages by alternative banks (savings banks, cooperative banks and development banks has significant implications for conceptions of bank change, regulation and political economy.

  9. Without wheels: alternatives to the private car

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bendixson, T.

    1975-01-01

    Alternatives to private cars are examined in a response to the need for new transportation strategies. It is believed that there is no single panacea for the problem, and both existing technologies (trains, buses, taxis, bicycles, and cars) and new technologies (driverless vehicles, electronic guidance systems, and moving sidewalks) are considered. New concepts in town planning and life style that could reduce travel needs are examined, and various current urban experiments are detailed. (PMA)

  10. Measured moisture properties for alternative insulation products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan De Place; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard; Padfield, Tim

    During the past few years there has been a growing interest in using alternative insulation products in buildings. Among these products are the organic materials cellulose fibre, flax and sheep's wool as well as the inorganic perlite. The organic materials are regarded with some suspicion, because...... of their hygroscopicity. This paper describes two of the moisture-related properties of these materials: the water sorption and the water vapour transmission. For reference, some mineral fibre products are studied as well....

  11. Contemplative interaction: alternating between immersion and reflection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lone Koefoed

    2005-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between user and artefact in interfaces moving beyond transparency and into experience provision, is becoming an important area within HCI. The user-artefact relationship is central to aesthetics dealing with contemplation, a term describing how the artwork makes th...... user alternate between reflection and immersion. By analysing two interactive artefacts, an artwork and a design proposal, this paper investigates how contemplation appears in and can be transferred to interactive artefacts aimed at providing seductive, fun and interesting experiences....

  12. Alternative formulations of the electricity tax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to EFTA's surveillance authority ESA, the current form of the electricity tax may have a competition distorting effect since only the industry and a few other sectors are exempt from it. This document discusses four alternative formulations of the electricity tax: same tax for all business sectors and households, defining a maximum payment for each firm, introduce a tax on power transmission, or have taxation only on power used for heating.

  13. Deletion Diagnostics for Alternating Logistic Regressions

    OpenAIRE

    Preisser, John S; By, Kunthel; Perin, Jamie; Qaqish, Bahjat F.

    2012-01-01

    Deletion diagnostics are introduced for the regression analysis of clustered binary outcomes estimated with alternating logistic regressions, an implementation of generalized estimating equations (GEE) that estimates regression coefficients in a marginal mean model and in a model for the intracluster association given by the log odds ratio. The diagnostics are developed within an estimating equations framework that recasts the estimating functions for association parameters based upon conditi...

  14. Fixed-Field Alternating-Gradient Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Sheehy, S L

    2016-01-01

    These notes provide an overview of Fixed-Field Alternating-Gradient (FFAG) accelerators for medical applications. We begin with a review of the basic principles of this type of accelerator, including the scaling and non-scaling types, highlighting beam dynamics issues that are of relevance to hadron ac- celerators. The potential of FFAG accelerators in the field of hadron therapy is discussed in detail, including an overview of existing medical FFAG designs. The options for FFAG treatment gantries are also considered.

  15. Introducing linear functions: an alternative statistical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Caroline; Herbert, Sandra

    2015-12-01

    The introduction of linear functions is the turning point where many students decide if mathematics is useful or not. This means the role of parameters and variables in linear functions could be considered to be `threshold concepts'. There is recognition that linear functions can be taught in context through the exploration of linear modelling examples, but this has its limitations. Currently, statistical data is easily attainable, and graphics or computer algebra system (CAS) calculators are common in many classrooms. The use of this technology provides ease of access to different representations of linear functions as well as the ability to fit a least-squares line for real-life data. This means these calculators could support a possible alternative approach to the introduction of linear functions. This study compares the results of an end-of-topic test for two classes of Australian middle secondary students at a regional school to determine if such an alternative approach is feasible. In this study, test questions were grouped by concept and subjected to concept by concept analysis of the means of test results of the two classes. This analysis revealed that the students following the alternative approach demonstrated greater competence with non-standard questions.

  16. Alternative models for academic family practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yarnall Kimberly SH

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Future of Family Medicine Report calls for a fundamental redesign of the American family physician workplace. At the same time, academic family practices are under economic pressure. Most family medicine departments do not have self-supporting practices, but seek support from specialty colleagues or hospital practice plans. Alternative models for academic family practices that are economically viable and consistent with the principles of family medicine are needed. This article presents several "experiments" to address these challenges. Methods The basis of comparison is a traditional academic family medicine center. Apart of the faculty practice plan, our center consistently operated at a deficit despite high productivity. A number of different practice types and alternative models of service delivery were therefore developed and tested. They ranged from a multi-specialty office arrangement, to a community clinic operated as part of a federally-qualified health center, to a team of providers based in and providing care for residents of an elderly public housing project. Financial comparisons using consistent accounting across models are provided. Results Academic family practices can, at least in some settings, operate without subsidy while providing continuity of care to a broad segment of the community. The prerequisites are that the clinicians must see patients efficiently, and be able to bill appropriately for their payer mix. Conclusion Experimenting within academic practice structure and organization is worthwhile, and can result in economically viable alternatives to traditional models.

  17. A New Characterization of Some Alternating Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HE Li-guan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Let G be a finite group, πe(Gdenote the set of orders of elements in G, k1(Gdenote the largest element order of G,and k2(G, the second largest element order. It is a well-known topic to characterize a finite simple group by using two quantities, the order of G and πe(Gin the past 30 years. In 2009, this topic has been finished by V. D. Mazurov, et al. This paper will try to characterize some alternating groups by using less quantities and proves that: 1Let G be a finite group,M be alternating group An(n=5, 6, 7, 9, 10,11, 13. Then GM if and only if |G|=|M|,and k1(G=k1(M; 2LetG be a finite group,M be alternating group An(n=8, 12. ThenGM if and only if|G|=|M, and ki(G=ki(M, where i=1,2.

  18. Alternating phase focussing including space charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longitudinal stability can be obtained in a non-relativistic drift tube accelerator by traversing each gap as the rf accelerating field rises. However, the rising accelerating field leads to a transverse defocusing force which is usually overcome by magnetic focussing inside the drift tubes. The radio frequency quadrupole is one way of providing simultaneous longitudinal and transverse focusing without the use of magnets. One can also avoid the use of magnets by traversing alternate gaps between drift tubes as the field is rising and falling, thus providing an alternation of focussing and defocusing forces in both the longitudinal and transverse directions. The stable longitudinal phase space area is quite small, but recent efforts suggest that alternating phase focussing (APF) may permit low velocity acceleration of currents in the 100-300 ma range. This paper presents a study of the parameter space and a test of crude analytic predictions by adapting the code PARMILA, which includes space charge, to APF. 6 refs., 3 figs

  19. Field study plan for alternate barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is providing technical assistance in selecting, designing, evaluating, and demonstrating protective barriers. As part of this technical assistance effort, asphalt, clay, and chemical grout will be evaluated for use as alternate barriers. The purpose of the subsurface layer is to reduce the likelihood that extreme events (i.e., 100-year maximum storms, etc.) will cause significant drainage through the barrier. The tests on alternate barriers will include laboratory and field analysis of the subsurface layer performance. This field test plan outlines the activities required to test and design subsurface moisture barriers. The test plan covers activities completed in FY 1988 and planned through FY 1992 and includes a field-scale test of one or more of the alternate barriers to demonstrate full-scale application techniques and to provide performance data on a larger scale. Tests on asphalt, clay, and chemical grout were initiated in FY 1988 in small (30.5 cm diameter) tube-layer lysimeters. The parameters used for testing the materials were different for each one. The tests had to take into account the differences in material characteristics and response to change in conditions, as well as information provided by previous studies. 33 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  20. Therapeutic Manuka Honey: No Longer So Alternative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Dee A; Blair, Shona E; Cokcetin, Nural N; Bouzo, Daniel; Brooks, Peter; Schothauer, Ralf; Harry, Elizabeth J

    2016-01-01

    Medicinal honey research is undergoing a substantial renaissance. From a folklore remedy largely dismissed by mainstream medicine as "alternative", we now see increased interest by scientists, clinical practitioners and the general public in the therapeutic uses of honey. There are a number of drivers of this interest: first, the rise in antibiotic resistance by many bacterial pathogens has prompted interest in developing and using novel antibacterials; second, an increasing number of reliable studies and case reports have demonstrated that certain honeys are very effective wound treatments; third, therapeutic honey commands a premium price, and the honey industry is actively promoting studies that will allow it to capitalize on this; and finally, the very complex and rather unpredictable nature of honey provides an attractive challenge for laboratory scientists. In this paper we review manuka honey research, from observational studies on its antimicrobial effects through to current experimental and mechanistic work that aims to take honey into mainstream medicine. We outline current gaps and remaining controversies in our knowledge of how honey acts, and suggest new studies that could make honey a no longer "alternative" alternative. PMID:27148246

  1. Insects as alternative hosts for phytopathogenic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadarasah, Geetanchaly; Stavrinides, John

    2011-05-01

    Phytopathogens have evolved specialized pathogenicity determinants that enable them to colonize their specific plant hosts and cause disease, but their intimate associations with plants also predispose them to frequent encounters with herbivorous insects, providing these phytopathogens with ample opportunity to colonize and eventually evolve alternative associations with insects. Decades of research have revealed that these associations have resulted in the formation of bacterial-vector relationships, in which the insect mediates dissemination of the plant pathogen. Emerging research, however, has highlighted the ability of plant pathogenic bacteria to use insects as alternative hosts, exploiting them as they would their primary plant host. The identification of specific bacterial genetic determinants that mediate the interaction between bacterium and insect suggests that these interactions are not incidental, but have likely arisen following the repeated association of microorganisms with particular insects over evolutionary time. This review will address the biology and ecology of phytopathogenic bacteria that interact with insects, including the traditional role of insects as vectors, as well as the newly emerging paradigm of insects serving as alternative primary hosts. Also discussed is one case where an insect serves as both host and vector, which may represent a transitionary stage in the evolution of insect-phytopathogen associations. PMID:21251027

  2. Energy Efficient Alternatives to Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1993-06-01

    An assessment of the state of the art in refrigeration and insulation technologies is carried out to evaluate the potential for efficient substitutes for CFCs and HCFCs to facilitate the transition to a CFC-free environment. Opportunities for improved efficiency in domestic refrigeration, building chillers, commercial refrigeration and industrial refrigeration are evaluated. Needs for alternate refrigerants, improved components, and/or alternate cycles are identified. A summary of on-going research is presented in each area, and the potential roles of industry and government are considered. The most promising approaches for refrigeration technology fall into these categories: (1) improved vapor compressor cycles with alternate fluids, (2) Stirling cycle development and (3) advances in absorption technology. A summary of on-going research into advanced insulation, focused on vacuum-based insulation technology refrigeration is developed. Insulation applications considered include appliances, transport refrigeration, and buildings. Specific recommendations for a long-term R&D agenda are presented. The potential benefits, research, general approach, and probability of success are addressed.

  3. Considering alternative calculations of weight suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaumberg, Katherine; Anderson, Lisa M; Reilly, Erin E; Gorrell, Sasha; Anderson, Drew A; Earleywine, Mitch

    2016-01-01

    Weight suppression (WS)--the difference between an individual's highest adult weight and current weight-relates to eating pathology and weight gain; however, there are several methodological issues associated with its calculation. The current study presents four alternative methods of calculating WS and tests whether these methods differentially relate to maladaptive outcomes. Alternative methods of calculation included: (1) change in BMI units; (2) BMI category change; (3) percent change in weight; and (4) two different uses of regression residuals. A sample of undergraduate students (N=631) completed self-report measures of eating pathology, current and past weight, and teasing. Measures included the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire and the Perceptions of Teasing Scale. Results indicated that components of WS, current weight and highest weight, were strongly related in the present sample. The traditional method of calculating WS was related to eating pathology, binge eating and teasing for both males and females. However, WS indices orthogonal to the highest weight did not correlate with eating pathology and teasing in both males and females; for females, WS indices orthogonal to current weight were also unrelated to eating pathology. Findings suggest that the link between WS and eating pathology is mitigated after accounting for an individual's highest weight. Future research should continue to assess the reliability and clinical utility of this construct and consider using alternative WS calculations. PMID:26643591

  4. The essence of alternative medicine. A dermatologist's view from Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happle, R

    1998-11-01

    In Germany, alternative medicine is presently very popular and is supported by the federal government. When deliberating on the essence of alternative medicine we should simultaneously reflect on the intellectual and moral basis of regular medicine. To provide an epistemological demarcation of the 2 fields, the following 12 theses are advanced: (1) alternative and regular medicine are speaking different languages; (2) alternative medicine is not unconventional medicine; (3) the paradigm of regular medicine is rational thinking; (4) the paradigm of alternative medicine is irrational thinking; (5) the present popularity of alternative medicine can be explained by romanticism; (6) some concepts of alternative medicine are falsifiable and others are not; (7) alternative medicine and evidence-based medicine are mutually exclusive; (8) the placebo effect is an important factor in regular medicine and the exclusive therapeutic principle of alternative medicine; (9) regular and alternative medicine have different aims: coming of age vs faithfulness; (10) alternative medicine is not always safe; (11) alternative medicine is not economic; and (12) alternative medicine will always exist. The fact that alternative methods are presently an integral part of medicine as taught at German universities, as well as of the physician's fee schedule, represents a collective aberration of mind that hopefully will last for only a short time. PMID:9828884

  5. Alternative Fuel for Portland Cement Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schindler, Anton K; Duke, Steve R; Burch, Thomas E; Davis, Edward W; Zee, Ralph H; Bransby, David I; Hopkins, Carla; Thompson, Rutherford L; Duan, Jingran; ; Venkatasubramanian, Vignesh; Stephen, Giles

    2012-06-30

    The production of cement involves a combination of numerous raw materials, strictly monitored system processes, and temperatures on the order of 1500 °C. Immense quantities of fuel are required for the production of cement. Traditionally, energy from fossil fuels was solely relied upon for the production of cement. The overarching project objective is to evaluate the use of alternative fuels to lessen the dependence on non-renewable resources to produce portland cement. The key objective of using alternative fuels is to continue to produce high-quality cement while decreasing the use of non-renewable fuels and minimizing the impact on the environment. Burn characteristics and thermodynamic parameters were evaluated with a laboratory burn simulator under conditions that mimic those in the preheater where the fuels are brought into a cement plant. A drop-tube furnace and visualization method were developed that show potential for evaluating time- and space-resolved temperature distributions for fuel solid particles and liquid droplets undergoing combustion in various combustion atmospheres. Downdraft gasification has been explored as a means to extract chemical energy from poultry litter while limiting the throughput of potentially deleterious components with regards to use in firing a cement kiln. Results have shown that the clinkering is temperature independent, at least within the controllable temperature range. Limestone also had only a slight effect on the fusion when used to coat the pellets. However, limestone addition did display some promise in regards to chlorine capture, as ash analyses showed chlorine concentrations of more than four times greater in the limestone infused ash as compared to raw poultry litter. A reliable and convenient sampling procedure was developed to estimate the combustion quality of broiler litter that is the best compromise between convenience and reliability by means of statistical analysis. Multi-day trial burns were conducted

  6. Alternatives Analysis for the Resumption of Transient Testing Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee Nelson

    2013-11-01

    An alternatives analysis was performed for resumption of transient testing. The analysis considered eleven alternatives – including both US international facilities. A screening process was used to identify two viable alternatives from the original eleven. In addition, the alternatives analysis includes a no action alternative as required by the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). The alternatives considered in this analysis included: 1. Restart the Transient Reactor Test Facility (TREAT) 2. Modify the Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) which includes construction of a new hot cell and installation of a new hodoscope. 3. No Action

  7. Alternative drives for motor cars. Hybrid systems, fuel cells, alternative energy sources. 3. ed.; Alternative Antriebe fuer Automobile. Hybridsysteme, Brennstoffzellen, alternative Energietraeger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stan, Cornel [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States); Paris-1 Univ., 75 (France); Pisa Univ. (Italy); Perugia Univ. (Italy); Kronstadt Univ. (Russian Federation)

    2012-07-01

    This book describes and assesses on the basis of the latest research and development projects worldwide what the possibilities are for the realisation of future drive concepts, ranging from battery-driven electromotors to hybrid systems combining electromotor and combustion engine to alternative energy resources such as hydrogen or alcohol. Power density, torque band, acceleration characteristics, specific energy consumption and chemical and noise emissions are the most important criteria for assessing the quality of a drive configuration. The boundary conditions for the introduction of alternative automotive drives are determined by the availability or production characteristics and the storability of the energy resources in question as well as by the degree of technical complexity, costs, safety, infrastructure and service. This book provides an updated overview and analysis of the processes, prime movers and energy resources that can be combined in complex energy management systems for automobiles. Up-to-date information of this kind is indispensable for the development of new concepts. The contents in overview: current data and facts on the development of new concepts; compact overview and analysis of processes, prime movers and energy resources; methods and solutions in designing alternative drives. [German] Die Realisierungsmoeglichkeiten zukuenftiger Antriebskonzepte - von batteriebetriebenen Elektromotoren und Hybridsystemen bestehend aus Elektro- und Verbrennungsmotor ueber Brennstoffzellen bis hin zu alternativen Energietraegern wie Wasserstoff oder Alkohol - werden auf Basis neuesten Forschungs- und Entwicklungsarbeiten weltweit praesentiert und bewertet. Leistungsdichte, Drehmomentverlauf, Beschleunigungscharakteristik, spezifischer Energieverbrauch sowie Emission chemischer Stoffe und Geraeusche sind wichtige Merkmale zur Beurteilung der Qualitaet einer Antriebskonfiguration. Die Verfuegbarkeit oder die Herstellungsmerkmale sowie die Speicherfaehigkeit

  8. Alternatives to incineration. Technical area status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwinkendorf, W.E. [BDM Federal, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); McFee, J.; Devarakonda, M. [International Technology Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Nenninger, L.L.; Fadullon, F.S. [Science Applications International Corp., Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Donaldson, T.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Dickerson, K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)]|[Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, Golden, CO (United States)

    1995-04-01

    Recently, the DOE`s Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) (superseded by the Mixed Waste Focus Area) initiated an evaluation of alternatives to incineration to identify technologies capable of treating DOE organically contaminated mixed wastes and which may be more easily permitted. These technologies have the potential of alleviating stakeholder concerns by decreasing off-gas volurties and the associated emissions of particulates, volatilized metals and radionuclides, PICs, NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, and recombination products (dioxins and furans). Ideally, the alternate technology would be easily permitted, relatively omnivorous and effective in treating a variety of wastes with varying constituents, require minimal pretreatment or characterization, and be easy to implement. In addition, it would produce secondary waste stream volumes significantly smaller than the original waste stream, and would minimize the environmental health and safety effects on workers and the public. The purpose of this report is to provide an up-to-date (as of early 1995) compendium of iternative technologies for designers of mixed waste treatment facilities, and to identify Iternate technologies that may merit funding for further development. Various categories of non-thermal and thermal technologies have been evaluated and are summarized in Table ES-1. Brief descriptions of these technologies are provided in Section 1.7 of the Introduction. This report provides a detailed description of approximately 30 alternative technologies in these categories. Included in the report are descriptions of each technology; applicable input waste streams and the characteristics of the secondary, or output, waste streams; the current status of each technology relative to its availability for implementation; performance data; and costs. This information was gleaned from the open literature, governments reports, and discussions with principal investigators and developers.

  9. Treatment Technology and Alternative Water Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    At this point in our settlement of the planet Earth, with over seven billion human inhabitants, there are very few unallocated sources of fresh water. We are turning slowly toward "alternatives" such as municipal and industrial wastewater, saline groundwater, the sea, irrigation return flow, and produced water that comes up with oil and gas deposits from deep beneath the surface of the earth. Slowly turning, not because of a lack in technological ability, but because it takes a large capital investment to acquire and treat these sources to a level at which they can be used. The regulatory system is not geared up for alternative sources and treatment processes. Permitting can be circular, contradictory, time consuming, and very expensive. The purpose for the water, or the value of the product obtained using the water, must be such that the capital and ongoing expense seem reasonable. There are so many technological solutions for recovering water quality that choosing the most reliable, economical, and environmentally sound technology involves unraveling the "best" weave of treatment processes from a tangled knot of alternatives. Aside from permitting issues, which are beyond the topic for this presentation, the "best" weave of processes will be composed of four strands specifically fitted to the local situation: energy, pretreatment, driving force for separation processes, and waste management. A range of treatment technologies will be examined in this presentation with a focus on how the quality of the feed water, available power sources, materials, and waste management opportunities aid in choosing the best weave of treatment technologies, and how innovative use of a wide variety of driving forces are increasing the efficiency of treatment processes.

  10. Necessary alternatives: patients’ views of asthma treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Kopnina

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Helen Kopnina1, Joke Haafkens21Amsterdam Institute for Advanced Labor Studies, University of Amsterdam; 2Department of General Practice, Academic Medical Centre of the University of Amsterdam, The NetherlandsAbstract: This article is based on semistructured interviews and focus groups conducted with 27 asthma patients in The Netherlands who chose complementary and alternative medicine (CAM for treatment of their condition. All subjects were contacted through an online forum for asthma patients hosted by the Dutch Asthma Foundation. Nineteen subjects (12 women and seven men between the ages of 29 and 65 years participated in the interviews, held between June 2009 and January 2010. All of the participating subjects had experience with conventional medications, including anti-inflammatory corticosteroids and bronchodilators. For the focus group meeting, held in February 2010, the sample included seven subjects (four women and three men between the ages of 31 and 46 years, none of whom had ever used conventional medication and all of whom were using CAM. All subjects in the sample had been diagnosed with asthma by their physician or lung specialist. The study examined the causes of patient noncompliance with the prescribed medical regime. It is argued that evidence-based rationality on the part of subjects is an overlooked dimension of their experience of asthma. This study demonstrates the role that the patients’ social network, including medical practitioners, friends, and family, and other asthmatics, plays in the process of decision-making and choices about treating asthma. It also demonstrates the role of patients’ information-searching strategies. The author concludes that patient noncompliance with commonly prescribed medication and selection of alternative medical treatment is less a matter of denial of their diagnosis or the severity of their illness, but more a matter of choice informed by evidence-based rationality.Keywords: asthma

  11. FAMS DECOMMISSIONING END-STATE ALTERNATIVE EVALUATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear Material Management (NMM) completed a comprehensive study at the request of the Department of Energy Savannah River Operations Office (DOE-SR) in 2004 (Reference 11.1). The study evaluated the feasibility of removal and/or mitigation of the Pu-238 source term in the F-Area Material Storage (FAMS) facility during on-going material storage operations. The study recommended different options to remove and/or mitigate the Pu-238 source term depending on its location within the facility. During April 2005, the Department of Energy (DOE) sent a letter of direction (LOD) to Washington Savannah River Company (WSRC) directing WSRC to implement a new program direction that would enable an accelerated shutdown and decommissioning of FAMS (Reference 11.2). Further direction in the LOD stated that effective December 1, 2006 the facility will be transitioned to begin deactivation and decommissioning (D and D) activities. To implement the LOD, Site D and D (SDD) and DOE agreed the planning end-state would be demolition of the FAMS structure to the building slab. SDD developed the D and D strategy, preliminary cost and schedule, and issued the deactivation project plan in December 2005 (Reference 11.3). Due to concerns and questions regarding the FAMS planning end-state and in support of the project's Critical Decision 1, an alternative study was performed to evaluate the various decommissioning end-states and the methods by which those end-states are achieved. This report documents the results of the alternative evaluation which was performed in a structured decision-making process as outlined in the E7 Manual, Procedure 2.15, ''Alternative Studies'' (Reference 11.4)

  12. [Alternatives to pharmaceutical distribution and reimbursement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneu, R

    2002-01-01

    In Spain pharmaceutical distribution is carried out mainly thorugh the 20,000 independent pharmacies located throughout the country. This situation contrasts with that in other countries where other health care providers play a major role in drug dispensation or where pharmacies form part of industrial conglomerates or commercial chains. We describe the pharmaceutical distribution chain in Spain wholesale and through the pharmacies and place particular emphasis on five aspects of relevance when considering alternatives: ownership of the pharmacy and norms of professional service, criteria for setting up a pharmacy, monopoly on dispensing, automatic ageement with the Spanish national health system and reimbursement system. Several alternatives found in comparable countries are described: mail order and on-line distribution, sale of over-the counter pharmaceutical products in establishments other than pharmacies, the estabilishment of pharmaceutical chains, dispensing by providers, the repercussions of electronic prescribing and the possibilities of the still-emerging Pharmacuetical Care. The characteristics of pharmacy reimbursement systems are also reviewed. We recommend modification of limitations on ownership of pharmacies, the establishment of optional agreements between pharmacies and the Spanish national health system and the authorization of alternative or complementary channels of distribution for some products. We propose a mixed model of reimbursement that would include: a) a ficed price for dispensing; b) almost total return of the cost of the product; c) reimbursement for services explicity defined by the financer, and d) the possibility of a selective fixed payment for certain situations depending on the agreed services or a guaranteed minimum income. PMID:11958754

  13. Alternatives to incineration. Technical area status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, the DOE's Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) (superseded by the Mixed Waste Focus Area) initiated an evaluation of alternatives to incineration to identify technologies capable of treating DOE organically contaminated mixed wastes and which may be more easily permitted. These technologies have the potential of alleviating stakeholder concerns by decreasing off-gas volurties and the associated emissions of particulates, volatilized metals and radionuclides, PICs, NOx, SOx, and recombination products (dioxins and furans). Ideally, the alternate technology would be easily permitted, relatively omnivorous and effective in treating a variety of wastes with varying constituents, require minimal pretreatment or characterization, and be easy to implement. In addition, it would produce secondary waste stream volumes significantly smaller than the original waste stream, and would minimize the environmental health and safety effects on workers and the public. The purpose of this report is to provide an up-to-date (as of early 1995) compendium of iternative technologies for designers of mixed waste treatment facilities, and to identify Iternate technologies that may merit funding for further development. Various categories of non-thermal and thermal technologies have been evaluated and are summarized in Table ES-1. Brief descriptions of these technologies are provided in Section 1.7 of the Introduction. This report provides a detailed description of approximately 30 alternative technologies in these categories. Included in the report are descriptions of each technology; applicable input waste streams and the characteristics of the secondary, or output, waste streams; the current status of each technology relative to its availability for implementation; performance data; and costs. This information was gleaned from the open literature, governments reports, and discussions with principal investigators and developers

  14. Team management: an alternative to acting directorship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodson, K E; Ryan, M E; Judy, M; Foster, S L

    1990-01-01

    A sudden absence of leadership due to unexpected illness, death, or resignation can seriously weaken an organization. Orderly administrative transition was believed to be necessary by those confronting a sudden leadership void. A team management administrative approach was proposed in response to an urgent and complex problem. Results of an evaluation of the team at the end of 1 year of leadership are presented. Team management is documented as a viable alternative to a one person acting director in an academic setting. PMID:2377327

  15. "Introduction to an Alternative History of Money"

    OpenAIRE

    Wray , L. Randall

    2012-01-01

    This paper integrates the various strands of an alternative, heterodox view on the origins of money and the development of the modern financial system in a manner that is consistent with the findings of historians and anthropologists. As is well known, the orthodox story of money's origins and evolution begins with the creation of a medium of exchange to reduce the costs of barter. To be sure, the history of money is "lost in the mists of time," as money's invention probably predates writing....

  16. Alternative parameter determination methods for a PMSG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalogiannis, Theodoros; Malz, Elena; Llano, Enrique Muller; Petersen, Lennart; Schimmelmann, Marie; Leban, Krisztina; Ritchie, Ewen

    standards. In the other hand a new approach for an alternative stator inductance and inertia measurement is analysed. More precisely, the former is obtained through laboratory work based on the locked rotor test, and the latter through a CAD software based on a 3D model. In order to assess and validate the...... obtained values, an electromechanical model is derived for validation and contribution of the whole project. Finally, small relative errors between measured and simulated values indicate the functionality of the used methods and of the machine....

  17. Novel, Alternative, and Controversial Therapies of Rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surda, Pavol; Fokkens, Wytske J

    2016-05-01

    Rhinitis is a multifactorial disease characterized by sneezing, rhinorrhea, postnasal drip, and nasal congestion. This condition affects 10% to 40% of the population and is responsible for billions of spent health care dollars and impairment in quality of life for those affected. Currently available medical and vaccine therapies are effective for a large segment of this population; however, a subset of patients still has difficult-to-control rhinitis. This article reviews the current progress being made in novel drug and vaccine development and delves into alternative medical, surgical, and homeopathic strategies that may be promising adjunctive treatments for the difficult-to-treat rhinitis patient. PMID:27083111

  18. Evolutionary criteria in thallophytes: a radical alternative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margulis, L

    1968-09-01

    The classical assumptions, upon which all previous phylogenies for the lower plants (Thallophytes) have been based, are claimed to be erroneous. An alternative view, that the eukaryotic cell arose in the late Precambrian from prokaryotic ancestors by a specific series of symbioses, is referred to here. Mutually consistent phylogenies, one for the prokaryotes, another for the lower eukaryotes, can be constructed on the basis of the symbiotic theory. The resulting prokaryote phylogeny is presented here; it is claimed to be more consistent with cytological data, measured DNA base ratios, and the fossil record than the several classical partial phylogenies for Thallophytes recently published. PMID:17812802

  19. Alternate Proposal for Interest Free House Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Shaikh, Salman

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present an alternate proposal for house finance. In our proposal, the Islamic bank buys the house paying the house owner the full amount of the house and becomes the owner. Then, the bank gives the house on rent to the client and the Islamic bank also enters into an options contract as the call option writer. If the call buyer does not exercise the option, the options contract expires and the Islamic bank is in a position to give the house on rent again. We present numerical...

  20. Scaling CMOS devices through alternative structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The conventional wisdom holds that CMOS devices cannot be scaled much further from where they are today because of several device physics limitations such as the large tunneling current in very thin gate dielectrics. It is shown that alternative device structures can allow CMOS transistors to scale by another 20 times. That is as large a factor of scaling as what the semiconductor industry accomplished in the past 25 years. There will be many opportunities and challenges in finding novel device structures and new processing techniques, and in understanding the physics of future devices.

  1. Profile control for an alternative spherical tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetically driven plasma guns that are inserted around a flux conserver at definite angular intervals are considered. The creation and the control of plasma channels are examined. By means of the hybrid model developed, both a system analysis of the Alternative Spherical Tokamak (AST) and relevant computational experiments have been carried out. In addition, by using the results obtained from the numerical scheme, the complex non-inductive current drive mechanisms of bootstrap and helicity injection in the AST system are discussed in detail. (author). 2 refs, 2 figs

  2. Alternatives to Quintessence Model-building

    CERN Document Server

    Pina-Avelino, P; De Carvalho, J P M; Martins, C J; Pinto, P

    2003-01-01

    We discuss the issue of toy model building for the dark energy component of the universe. Specifically, we consider two generic toy models recently proposed as alternatives to quintessence models, known as Cardassian expansion and the Chaplygin gas. We show that the former is enteriely equivalent to a class of quintessence models. We determine the observational constraints on the latter, coming from recent supernovae results and from the shape of the matter power spectrum. As expected, these restrict the model to a behaviour that closely matches that of a standard cosmological constant $\\Lambda$.

  3. Alternate Cluster Generation for Picomolar NGS Libraries

    OpenAIRE

    Huerta, G.; Heckmann, T; Deiderick, H.; Barnette, M.; Hunicke-Smith, S.P.; Podnar, J.W.

    2014-01-01

    While advancements in library preparation techniques now enable NGS library preparation from single cells and nano- to picograms of DNA or RNA, it can still be difficult to reach Illumina's recommended final library concentration of 2 nM for DNA template preparation prior to cluster generation. This can be an acute issue for ChIP-seq, RIP-seq, and LCM-based samples. We have developed a simple and robust alternative method that maximizes number of reads from an Illumina library without having ...

  4. Biofuel Cells – Alternative Power Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy generation from renewable sources and effective waste treatment are two key challenges for the sustainable development. Microbiological (or Bio-) Fuel Cells provide an elegant solution by linking both tasks. Biofuel cells, which can directly generate electricity from biodegradable substances, have rapidly gained increasing research attention. Widely available fuel sources and moderate operational conditions make them promising in renewable energy generation, wastewater treatment, power sources for remote devices, etc. This paper reviews the use of microorganisms as biocatalysts in microbiological fuel cells. The principle of biofuel cells and their construction elements are discussed. Keywords: alternative power sources, biofuel cells, biocatalysts

  5. Alternative power generation concepts for space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the advent of the NASA Space Station, there has emerged a general realization that large quantities of power in space are necessary and, in fact, enabling. This realization has led to the examination of alternative options to the ubiquitous solar array/battery power system. Several factors led to the consideration of solar dynamic and nuclear power systems. These include better scaling to high power levels, higher efficiency conversion and storage subsystems, and lower system specific mass. The objective of this paper is to present the results of trade and optimization studies that high-light the potential of solar and nuclear dynamic systems relative to photovoltaic power systems

  6. Economics of alternative uranium tailings transport methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper is directed at selecting an economic method for transporting tailings from existing locations to final disposal sites. The method of transportation chosen will depend on the quantity of tailings, the terrain and the distance to be transported. This paper outlines the methods for transporting tailings by truck, rail, conveyor, tram, and slurry pipeline and discusses the advantages and disadvantages of each method. Emphasis is placed on uranium tailings disposal. The paper provides economic data and recommendations that may be used for selection of a system for a particular situation. Finally, general conclusions are reached relating the characteristics of a system with economic alternatives for transporting the material

  7. Alternative Systemic Treatments for Vitiligo: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Brandon E; Elbuluk, Nada; Mu, Euphemia W; Orlow, Seth J

    2015-12-01

    Vitiligo is a common, acquired disorder of skin pigmentation that can significantly impact quality of life. It often represents a therapeutic challenge, which has resulted in interest in alternative treatments such as herbal and vitamin supplements. In this review, we provide an overview of the most commonly studied complementary agents, describe proposed mechanisms of action, identify potential adverse effects, and discuss the primary evidence supporting their use. Our discussion focuses on L-phenylalanine, Polypodium leucotomos, khellin, Ginkgo biloba, and vitamins and minerals, including vitamins B12, C, and E, folic acid, and zinc used as monotherapy or in combination with other treatments for the management of vitiligo. PMID:26329814

  8. Beyond CANLUB: an improvement alternative coating development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farahani, M.; Ferrier, G.A; Chan, P.K.; Corcoran, E.C., E-mail: Paul.Chan@rmc.ca, E-mail: Emily.Corcoran@rmc.ca [Royal Military College of Canada, Dept. of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Pant, A. [Cameco Fuel Manufacturing Limited, Port Hope/Cobourg, Ontario (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    The CANLUB graphite coating is exclusively used in CANDU nuclear reactors to protect fuel sheaths from stress corrosion cracking. However, uncertainties regarding its quality control, manufacturing continuity, and performance at high burnups provide sufficient motivation for exploring alternative coating materials. Since the chemistry of polysiloxanes may offer improved protection against stress corrosion cracking, we describe the physical and elemental characterization of CANLUB and three commercial polysiloxane coatings. Preliminary results suggest that the Pyromark coating has the greatest potential to replace the CANLUB coating. (author)

  9. Beyond CANLUB: an improvement alternative coating development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CANLUB graphite coating is exclusively used in CANDU nuclear reactors to protect fuel sheaths from stress corrosion cracking. However, uncertainties regarding its quality control, manufacturing continuity, and performance at high burnups provide sufficient motivation for exploring alternative coating materials. Since the chemistry of polysiloxanes may offer improved protection against stress corrosion cracking, we describe the physical and elemental characterization of CANLUB and three commercial polysiloxane coatings. Preliminary results suggest that the Pyromark coating has the greatest potential to replace the CANLUB coating. (author)

  10. A live alternative to quantum spooks

    CERN Document Server

    Price, Huw

    2015-01-01

    Quantum weirdness has been in the news recently, thanks to an ingenious new experiment by a team led by Roland Hanson, at the Delft University of Technology. Much of the coverage presents the experiment as good (even conclusive) news for spooky action-at-a-distance, and bad news for local realism. We point out that this interpretation ignores an alternative, namely that the quantum world is retrocausal. We conjecture that this loophole is missed because it is confused for superdeterminism on one side, or action-at-a-distance itself on the other. We explain why it is different from these options, and why it has clear advantages, in both cases.

  11. Complementary alternative medicine and nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complementary alternative medicines (CAMs), including food supplements, are taken widely by patients, especially those with cancer. Others take CAMs hoping to improve fitness or prevent disease. Physicians (and patients) may not be aware of the potential side-effects and interactions of CAMs with conventional treatment. Likewise, their known physiological effects could interfere with radiopharmaceutical kinetics, producing abnormal treatment responses and diagnostic results. Nuclear medicine physicians are encouraged to question patients on their intake of CAMs when taking their history prior to radionuclide therapy or diagnosis. The potential effect of CAMs should be considered when unexpected therapeutic or diagnostic results are found. (orig.)

  12. Intuitions in Epistemology: Towards a Naturalistic Alternative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristoffer Ahlstrom

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper revisits the main methodological problems with conceptual analysis and considers two attempts to rectify them in terms of prototypes and reflective equilibria, respectively. Finding both wanting for the purposes of epistemological analysis, a naturalistic alternative is then sketched that explores the positive implications of aforementioned problems for the demarcation of the respective roles of intuitions and empirical investigation within three epistemological domains, viz., the evaluation of epistemological hypotheses, the amelioration of epistemic practices, and the construction of a theory of epistemic value.

  13. Alternative Raw Materials for Animal Feed

    OpenAIRE

    A. R. Alimon

    2009-01-01

    The increase in world fuel prices in the last few years has charged the global animal feedstuffs. In Malaysia, the feed industry is dependent on the importation of corn and soybean meal as the poultry and swine industries are almost totally based on corn soya bean meal diets. However, there are many byproducts and coproducts available in Malaysia as alternatives to corn or soy bean. Since Malaysia has more than 4 million hectares of oil palm plantation and after processing for the oil, large ...

  14. Alternative Raw Materials for Animal Feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A R Alimon

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The increase in world fuel prices in the last few years has charged the global animal feedstuffs. In Malaysia, the feed industry is dependent on the importation of corn and soybean meal as the poultry and swine industries are almost totally based on corn soya bean meal diets. However, there are many byproducts and coproducts available in Malaysia as alternatives to corn or soy bean. Since Malaysia has more than 4 million hectares of oil palm plantation and after processing for the oil, large quantities of several byproducts are produced. This paper describes several available byproducts and co products in Malaysia, their nutritive value and their problems.

  15. Environmental considerations for alternative fusion reactor blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comparisons of alternative fusion reactor blanket/coolant systems suggest that environmental considerations will enter strongly into selection of design and materials. Liquid blankets and coolants tend to maximize transport of radioactive corrosion products. Liquid lithium interacts strongly with tritium, minimizing permeation and escape of gaseous tritium in accidents. However, liquid lithium coolants tend to create large tritium inventories and have a large fire potential compared to flibe and solid blankets. Helium coolants minimize radiation transport, but do not have ability to bind the tritium in case of accidental releases. (auth)

  16. Alternative fuels: how real? how soon?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nations of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) are looking for politically stable sources of oil in response to the ever growing demand for fuel. World oil consumption has reached 76.5 MMB/d and demand is expected to be 80 MMB/d by 2005. More restrictive environmental policies are resulting in improved conversion efficiency of oil dependent supply chains and the switching to alternative fuels. The adoption of new fuels however, depends on many factors such as the economic advantage, technological superiority, and convenience. The dominant electrical supply chains at the moment are nuclear, coal, hydropower, hydrocarbons, and renewable energy alternatives such as wind, solar and hydrogen fuels. The paper presented graphs illustrating adoption patterns for various fuels over the past century and presented a potential adoption pattern for fuel cell vehicles. Also included in this presentation were graphs depicting how price can drive supply chain demand and allow other fuels to gain market share. The impact of fuel substitution, efficiency and price effects was mentioned along with the impact of recent policy changes on vehicle fuel efficiency and carbon dioxide emissions. The role of government incentives to promote alternative fuel sales was also discussed along with a broad assessment of renewable supply chains. It was noted that most new fuels are linked to hydrocarbons. For example, hydrogen generation through water electrolysis requires petroleum generated electricity or the steam reforming of natural gas. Ethanol processes also require hydrocarbon consumption indirectly. It was noted that the average efficiencies of coal and natural gas plants has increased in the past decade and the incumbent price trends in electricity in the United States have decreased for fuels such as oil, gas, coal and nuclear energy. With ongoing innovation in the internal combustion engine in the past 30 years, the incumbents have also improved with

  17. Alternative algebraic approaches in quantum chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mezey, Paul G., E-mail: paul.mezey@gmail.com [Canada Research Chair in Scientific Modeling and Simulation, Department of Chemistry and Department of Physics and Physical Oceanography, Memorial University of Newfoundland, 283 Prince Philip Drive, St. John' s, NL A1B 3X7 (Canada)

    2015-01-22

    Various algebraic approaches of quantum chemistry all follow a common principle: the fundamental properties and interrelations providing the most essential features of a quantum chemical representation of a molecule or a chemical process, such as a reaction, can always be described by algebraic methods. Whereas such algebraic methods often provide precise, even numerical answers, nevertheless their main role is to give a framework that can be elaborated and converted into computational methods by involving alternative mathematical techniques, subject to the constraints and directions provided by algebra. In general, algebra describes sets of interrelations, often phrased in terms of algebraic operations, without much concern with the actual entities exhibiting these interrelations. However, in many instances, the very realizations of two, seemingly unrelated algebraic structures by actual quantum chemical entities or properties play additional roles, and unexpected connections between different algebraic structures are often giving new insight. Here we shall be concerned with two alternative algebraic structures: the fundamental group of reaction mechanisms, based on the energy-dependent topology of potential energy surfaces, and the interrelations among point symmetry groups for various distorted nuclear arrangements of molecules. These two, distinct algebraic structures provide interesting interrelations, which can be exploited in actual studies of molecular conformational and reaction processes. Two relevant theorems will be discussed.

  18. ["Matreshka" Genes with Alternative Reading Frames].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheshukova, E V; Shindyapina, A V; Komarova, T V; Dorokhov, Yu L

    2016-02-01

    Although a relatively small part of the human genome contains protein encoding genes, the latest data on the discovery of alternative open reading frames (ORFs) in conventional mRNAs has highlighted the expanded coding potential of these genes. Until recently, it was believed that each mRNA transcript encodes a single protein. Recent proteogenomics data indicate the existence of exceptions to this rule, which greatly changes the usual meaning of the term "gene". The topology of a gene with overlapping ORFs resembles a Russian "matreshka" toy. There are two levels of "matreshka" genetic systems. First, the chromosomal level, when the "nested" gene is located within introns and exons of the main chromosomal gene, both in the sense and antisense orientation relative to the external gene. The second level is a mature mRNA molecule containing overlapping ORFs or an ORF with an alternative-start codon. In this review we will focus on the properties of "matreshka" genes of the second type and methods for their detection and verification. Particular attention is paid to the biological properties of the polypeptides encoded by these genes. PMID:27215029

  19. The FO^2 alternation hierarchy is decidable

    CERN Document Server

    Kufleitner, Manfred

    2012-01-01

    We consider the two-variable fragment FO^2[<] of first-order logic over finite words. Numerous characterizations of this class are known. Th\\'erien and Wilke have shown that it is decidable whether a given regular language is definable in FO^2[<]. From a practical point of view, as shown by Weis, FO^2[<] is interesting since its satisfiability problem is in NP. Restricting the number of quantifier alternations yields an infinite hierarchy inside the class of FO^2[<]-definable languages. We show that each level of this hierarchy is decidable. For this purpose, we relate each level of the hierarchy with a decidable variety of finite monoids. Our result implies that there are many different ways of climbing up the FO^2[<]-quantifier alternation hierarchy: deterministic and co-deterministic products, Mal'cev products with definite and reverse definite semigroups, iterated block products with J-trivial monoids, and some inductively defined omega-term identities. A combinatorial tool in the process o...

  20. Alternative substrates for higher mushrooms mycelia cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TETIANA KRUPODOROVA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cultivation of 29 species of higher mushroom mycelia on alternative substrates – wastes of Ukrainian oil-fat industry, has been investigated. The amount of mushroom mycelia obtaining on 12 investigated substrates varied significantly, from 1.0 g/L to 22.9 g/L on the 14th day of cultivation. The superficial cultivation adopted in this study allows for easy to choose appropriate medium (substrate for mycelia production. Alternative substrates (compared to glucose-peptone-yeast medium were selected for all studied species, from soybean cake – most suitable for the mycelial growth of 24 species, to walnut cake − suitable only for 2 species. The utilization of substrates has been evaluated by biological efficiency. The best index of biological efficiency varied from 19.0% to 41.6% depending on the mushroom species. It was established high biological efficiency of mycelia cultivation on substrates: wheat seed cake – Pleurotus djamor, Lyophyllum shimeji, Crinipellis schevczenkovi, Phellinus igniarius, Spongipellis litschaueri; oat seed cake – Ganoderma applanatum and G. lucidum; soybean cake – Hohenbuehelia myxotricha, Trametes versicolor, Morchella esculenta, Cordyceps sinensis, C. militaris, and Agrocybe aegerita; rape seed cake – Auriporia aurea; camelina seed cake – Fomes fomentarius. The cultivation of these species are perspective as a biotechnological process of agricultural wastes converted into mycelia, which could be used in different forms of products with therapeutic action: powder or tablets nutraceuticals or ingredients for functional foods.

  1. Proposing an alternative linear a successful example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mandated Sub-Title D landfill liner design which meets the basic Sub-Title D performance requirement (no exceedance of groundwater quality standards at the landfill boundary in 30 years) specifies construction of a two foot thick clay layer with a hydraulic conductivity no greater than 10-7 cm/sec and a 60 mil HDPE membrane. This mandated design is easily accepted by the regulatory community but very difficult and expensive to properly construct. Fundamental problems arise constructing a clay linear that meets the 10-7cm/sec hydraulic conductivity requirement and, in cold climates, protecting the clay but their use requires obtaining special approval for an open-quotes alternative linearclose quotes from the appropriate regulatory agency. This paper presents a simple example of an open-quotes alternative linerclose quotes proposal that has been accepted by the Montana Department of Health and Environmental Sciences for a new landfill. The arguments presented for the use of a GCL combine site-specific parameters with easily understood calculations to demonstrate compliance with the basic Sub-Title D performance requirement. 8 refs., 6 tabs

  2. Alternative algebraic approaches in quantum chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various algebraic approaches of quantum chemistry all follow a common principle: the fundamental properties and interrelations providing the most essential features of a quantum chemical representation of a molecule or a chemical process, such as a reaction, can always be described by algebraic methods. Whereas such algebraic methods often provide precise, even numerical answers, nevertheless their main role is to give a framework that can be elaborated and converted into computational methods by involving alternative mathematical techniques, subject to the constraints and directions provided by algebra. In general, algebra describes sets of interrelations, often phrased in terms of algebraic operations, without much concern with the actual entities exhibiting these interrelations. However, in many instances, the very realizations of two, seemingly unrelated algebraic structures by actual quantum chemical entities or properties play additional roles, and unexpected connections between different algebraic structures are often giving new insight. Here we shall be concerned with two alternative algebraic structures: the fundamental group of reaction mechanisms, based on the energy-dependent topology of potential energy surfaces, and the interrelations among point symmetry groups for various distorted nuclear arrangements of molecules. These two, distinct algebraic structures provide interesting interrelations, which can be exploited in actual studies of molecular conformational and reaction processes. Two relevant theorems will be discussed

  3. Predicting soil erosion for alternative land uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Erda; Xin, Chang; Williams, Jimmy R; Xu, Cheng

    2006-01-01

    The APEX (Agricultural Policy-Environmental eXtender) model developed in the United States was calibrated for northwestern China's conditions. The model was then used to investigate soil erosion effects associated with alternative land uses at the ZFG (Zi-Fang-Gully) watershed in northwestern China. The results indicated that the APEX model could be calibrated reasonably well (+/-15% errors) to fit those areas with >50% slope within the watershed. Factors being considered during calibration include runoff, RUSLE (Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation) slope length and steepness factor, channel capacity flow rate, floodplain saturated hydraulic conductivity, and RUSLE C factor coefficient. No changes were made in the APEX computer code. Predictions suggest that reforestation is the best practice among the eight alternative land uses (the status quo, all grass, all grain, all grazing, all forest, half tree and half grass, 70% tree and 30% grain, and construction of a reservoir) for control of water runoff and soil erosion. Construction of a reservoir is the most effective strategy for controlling sediment yield although it does nothing to control upland erosion. For every 1 Mg of crop yield, 11 Mg of soil were lost during the 30-yr simulation period, suggesting that expanding land use for food production should not be encouraged on the ZFG watershed. Grass species are less effective than trees in controlling runoff and erosion on steep slopes because trees generally have deeper and more stable root systems. PMID:16455846

  4. Induction MHD generator using alternating magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The induction MHD generator using an alternating magnetic field is proposed. The characteristics of the machine are analyzed theoretically and also compared with those of the induction MHD generator using a traveling magnetic field. Following conclusions are obtained for the fundamental characteristics of the present machine: (1) This type of the machine is possibly operated not only as the generator but also as the pump or as the damper. (2) The optimum condition for the maximum generator efficiency exists among the relations of the frequency, the fluid velocity and the inner core radius because of the eddy current loss due to an alternating magnetic field. (3) The power ratio of the reactive power of the machine to the gross output power can be reduced to a much smaller value than that of the traveling wave MHD generator. Therefore, even in the case of the working fluid with a relative low electrical conductivity such as two-phase liquid metal flow with high void fraction, the acceptable power ratio can be expected. (4) For the working fluid with higher electrical conductivity the skin effect is also able to be reduced to the acceptable level in the present machine, while it is a serious problem in the traveling wave MHD generator. (author)

  5. Alternating current electrocoagulation for Superfund site remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study is being conducted by Electro-Pure Systems, Inc. (EPS) under the Emerging Technology portion of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program to study alternating current electrocoagulation for Superfund site remediation. Alternating current electrocoagulation has proven to be effective in agglomerating and removing colloidal solids, metals and certain organic contaminants from surrogate soils prepared from the US EPA's Synthetic Soil Matrix. Treatments under a wide range of operating conditions have enabled the optimum parameter settings to be established for multiple phase separation. Electrocoagulation enables appreciably enhanced filtration and dewatering rates to be realized for metals- and diesel fuel-spiked surrogate soil slurries; such enhancements are prompted by growth in the mean particle size of the clays and particulates from typically < 10 microns to as much as 150 microns depending on the degree of electrocoagulation. Reduction in the total suspended solids content of clays in all slurries in excess of 90% can routinely be achieved. Bench-scale experiments of the metals-spiked surrogate soils indicate that electrocoagulation preferentially concentrates soluble metals into the sludge phase; excellent metals separation (Pb, Cr, Cu, Cd) can be realized. Experiments on surrogate wastes spiked with volatile organics suggest that this technology is not capable of effecting good volatile extractions from the aqueous phase. Reductions in excess of 80% in the total organic carbon (TOC) content of the diesel fuel-spiked surrogates can, however, be achieved

  6. Mixed waste focus area alternative technologies workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA)-sponsored Alternative Technology Workshop held in Salt Lake City, Utah, from January 24--27, 1995. The primary workshop goal was identifying potential applications for emerging technologies within the Options Analysis Team (OAT) ''wise'' configuration. Consistent with the scope of the OAT analysis, the review was limited to the Mixed Low-Level Waste (MLLW) fraction of DOE's mixed waste inventory. The Los Alamos team prepared workshop materials (databases and compilations) to be used as bases for participant review and recommendations. These materials derived from the Mixed Waste Inventory Report (MWIR) data base (May 1994), the Draft Site Treatment Plan (DSTP) data base, and the OAT treatment facility configuration of December 7, 1994. In reviewing workshop results, the reader should note several caveats regarding data limitations. Link-up of the MWIR and DSTP data bases, while representing the most comprehensive array of mixed waste information available at the time of the workshop, requires additional data to completely characterize all waste streams. A number of changes in waste identification (new and redefined streams) occurred during the interval from compilation of the data base to compilation of the DSTP data base with the end result that precise identification of radiological and contaminant characteristics was not possible for these streams. To a degree, these shortcomings compromise the workshop results; however, the preponderance of waste data was linked adequately, and therefore, these analyses should provide useful insight into potential applications of alternative technologies to DOE MLLW treatment facilities

  7. Predicting watershed acidification under alternate rainfall conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of alternate rainfall scenarios on acidification of a forested watershed subjected to chronic acidic deposition was assessed using the model of acidification of groundwater in catchments (MAGIC). The model was calibrated at the Panola Mountain Research Watershed, near Atlanta, Georgia, USA using measured soil properties, wet and dry deposition, and modeled hydrologic routing. Model forecast simulations were evaluated to compare alternate temporal averaging of rainfall inputs and variations in rainfall amount and seasonal distribution. Soil water alkalinity was predicted to decrease to substantially lower concentrations under lower rainfall compared with current or higher rainfall conditions. Soil water alkalinity was also predicted to decrease to lower levels when the majority of rainfall occurred during the growing season compared with other rainfall distributions. Changes in rainfall distribution that result in decreases in net soil water flux will temporarily delay acidification. Ultimately, however, decreased soilwater flux will result in larger increases in soil-adsorbed sulfur and soil-water sulfate concentrations and decreases in alkalinity when compared to higher water flux conditions. Potential climate change resulting in significant changes in rainfall amounts, seasonal distributions of rainfall, or evapotranspiration will change net soil water flux and, consequently, will affect the dynamics of the acidification response to continued sulfate loading. 29 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs

  8. MANAGEMENT ALTERNATIVES FOR INFANT COLIC (IN SPANISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González-Coquel Suanny del Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: infant colic is a frequent problem in pediatric consultation, it has a prevalence from 15 to 40% in children younger than four months old, independently of the type of breast feeding administered. It usually generates anxiety to carers and even to pediatricians. Objective: to identify which one is the best alternative for infantile colic management. Methodology: a search was realized on the web in different databases of scientific articles. Systematic reviews, clinical trials and abstracts were considered. There were analyzed the different alternatives proposed for the managing of colic. RESULTS: infantile colic is multifactorial. Treatment options include the use of milkbased extensively hydrolyzed protein, lactose-free milk or soy protein-based, behavioral therapy, breastfeeding and use of drugs as: simethicone, dicyclomine and probiotics. Milks based on extensively hydrolyzed proteins are effective in infants with atopy history. Soy milk can generate unwanted effects in the reproductive system and crossreactive with proteins in cow’s milk effects, which is not recommended. Some studies have showed the efficiency of dicyclomine, nevertheless, it has important adverse effects. Administration of Lactobacillus reuteri has shown efficacy and appears to be an important therapeutic. CONCLUSION: changes in infant formula, drugs, behavioral measures and recently probiotics (L. Reuteri are proposed and recommended for an undefined cause benign and self-limited course. Rev.cienc.biomed. 2014;5(1:100-106 KEYWORDS Colic, Infant, Infant care, Infant welfare, Infant nutrition.

  9. Brownian dipole rotator in alternating electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozenbaum, V. M.; Vovchenko, O. Ye.; Korochkova, T. Ye.

    2008-06-01

    The study addresses the azimuthal jumping motion of an adsorbed polar molecule in a periodic n -well potential under the action of an external alternating electric field. Starting from the perturbation theory of the Pauli equation with respect to the weak field intensity, explicit analytical expressions have been derived for the time dependence of the average dipole moment as well as the frequency dependences of polarizability and the average angular velocity, the three quantities exhibiting conspicuous stochastic resonance. As shown, unidirectional rotation can arise only provided simultaneous modulation of the minima and maxima of the potential by an external alternating field. For a symmetric potential of hindered rotation, the average angular velocity, if calculated by the second-order perturbation theory with respect to the field intensity, has a nonzero value only at n=2 , i.e., when two azimuthal wells specify a selected axis in the system. Particular consideration is given to the effect caused by the asymmetry of the two-well potential on the dielectric loss spectrum and other Brownian motion parameters. When the asymmetric potential in a system of dipole rotators arises from the average local fields induced by an orientational phase transition, the characteristics concerned show certain peculiarities which enable detection of the phase transition and determination of its parameters.

  10. Costs of berm and causeway alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments initiated in February 1985 and still in progress have demonstrated that removal of 30 cm of topsoil brings the specific activity of Bikini Island soil down to the level of that on Eneu and reduces the external exposure rate to gamma rays from an average of 68 pr/h to 5 pr/h. The analytical data completed thus far for food crops grown in the experimental and control areas indicate a parallel response. During 1986 results became available showing that removal of topsoil would also limit productivity. However, it is now known that with adequate care the excavated plot can be as productive as the unexcavated (natural) one. The removal of 30 cm (1 foot) of topsoil at Bikini Island would produce large amounts of waste vegetable matter and approximately 719,000 cubic meters of contaminated topsoil. Three principal alternatives have been considered for the disposal of the spoil. The cost estimates for these and other rehabilitation alternatives were developed in detail by a panel of engineers, chaired by BARC member Arthur S. Kubo, which met in January 1986. The panel's report constitutes Appendix C of BARC Report No. 4

  11. Brownian dipole rotator in alternating electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozenbaum, V M; Vovchenko, O Ye; Korochkova, T Ye

    2008-06-01

    The study addresses the azimuthal jumping motion of an adsorbed polar molecule in a periodic n -well potential under the action of an external alternating electric field. Starting from the perturbation theory of the Pauli equation with respect to the weak field intensity, explicit analytical expressions have been derived for the time dependence of the average dipole moment as well as the frequency dependences of polarizability and the average angular velocity, the three quantities exhibiting conspicuous stochastic resonance. As shown, unidirectional rotation can arise only provided simultaneous modulation of the minima and maxima of the potential by an external alternating field. For a symmetric potential of hindered rotation, the average angular velocity, if calculated by the second-order perturbation theory with respect to the field intensity, has a nonzero value only at n=2 , i.e., when two azimuthal wells specify a selected axis in the system. Particular consideration is given to the effect caused by the asymmetry of the two-well potential on the dielectric loss spectrum and other Brownian motion parameters. When the asymmetric potential in a system of dipole rotators arises from the average local fields induced by an orientational phase transition, the characteristics concerned show certain peculiarities which enable detection of the phase transition and determination of its parameters. PMID:18643221

  12. Microalgae: An Alternative Source of Renewable Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Z. A. Saifullah

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview on the potentiality of microalgae with particular emphasis as a sustainable renewable energy source for biodiesel. One of the most important dilemmas of the modern world is to supply maximal amount of energy with minimal environmental impact. The total energy demand of our planet is increasing with population growth whereas the fossil fuel reserves are dwindling swiftly. Biodiesel produced from biomass is widely considered to be one of the most sustainable alternatives to fossil fuels and a viable means for energy security and environmental and economic sustainability. But as a large area of arable land is required to cultivate biodiesel producing terrestrial plants, it may lead towards food scarcity and deforestation. Microalgae have a number of characteristics that allow the production concepts of biodiesel which are significantly more sustainable than their alternatives. Microalgae possess high biomass productivity, oils with high lipid content, fast growth rates, possibility of utilizing marginal and infertile land, capable of growing in salt water and waste streams, and capable of utilizing solar light and CO2 gas as nutrients.

  13. Addition of alternative materials to ceramic slabs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. O. B. Nara

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The construction market is very growing, leading to the emergence of new technologies and materials, and a growing need for sustainable products for the construction process, and the call for quality of life we present the description of a new option alternative materials for environments that require careful with the acoustics. The research covers the development and incorporation of new material in construction, with the potential acoustic, from tests and measurements with calibrated decibel meter called. We also used the ceramic tiles pre-molded, used for making floors or ceilings in buildings and homes. The methodology used for the development of this research was characterized as literature, exploratory, descriptive, qualitative and quantitative, alternative and affordable. How after the analysis results of the tests performed it can be seen that the incorporation of rice hulls of agglomerated to form ceramic tiles, possible reductions in noise levels on the order of 8 dB (A than the traditional construction of the buildings, and then an excellent material. This research contributes to the construction so that presented a description of a new product developed from a conventional material, originating in agriculture, waste rice husk and its incorporation during the construction of buildings and home, with the potential acoustic observed from tests and measurements with calibrated decibel meter called.

  14. Mind-Body Medicine Practices in Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education Visitor Information RePORT NIH Fact Sheets Home > Mind-Body Medicine Practices in Complementary and Alternative Medicine Small Text Medium Text Large Text Mind-Body Medicine Practices in Complementary and Alternative Medicine ...

  15. Experiment and Analysis of Car Alternator for Wind Turbine Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pudji Irasari

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses experiment and analysis to find out the feasibility of a car alternator to be used as a generator for wind turbine. The experiment was conducted twice. The first experiment was to characterize the alternator to determine the mechanical transmission ratio. In this experiment the alternator was driven by a lathe machine and its output power was supplied to charge a battery. In the second experiment the alternator was integrated with the turbine blades and they were tested as a unit system. In both experiments, the electric generation of alternator was executed with fixed excitation current method. The correlation between the alternator characteristic and the tip speed ratio gives the mechanical transmission ratio of 1 : 3. The experiment results show that the efficiency of alternator is around 50% and cut-in wind speed (after correction is 6.35 m/s indicating that alternator is not feasible for wind turbine system application. 

  16. 42 CFR 441.103 - Alternate plans of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Medicaid for Individuals Age 65 or Over in Institutions for Mental Diseases § 441.103 Alternate plans of... otherwise need care in an institution for mental diseases. (b) These alternate plans of care must— (1)...

  17. Alternative Practice Dental Hygiene in California: Past, Present, and Future

    OpenAIRE

    MERTZ, ELIZABETH; Glassman, Paul

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the development of the registered dental hygienist in alternative practice in California through an analysis of archival documents, stakeholder interviews, and two surveys of the registered dental hygienist in alternative practice. Designing, testing and implementing a new practice model for dental hygienists took 23 years. Today, registered dental hygienists in alternative practice have developed viable alternative methods for delivering preventive oral health care servic...

  18. Free piston variable-stroke linear-alternator generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haaland, C.M.

    1998-12-15

    A free-piston variable stroke linear-alternator AC power generator for a combustion engine is described. An alternator mechanism and oscillator system generates AC current. The oscillation system includes two oscillation devices each having a combustion cylinder and a flying turnbuckle. The flying turnbuckle moves in accordance with the oscillation device. The alternator system is a linear alternator coupled between the two oscillation devices by a slotted connecting rod. 8 figs.

  19. Free piston variable-stroke linear-alternator generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haaland, Carsten M. (Dadeville, AL)

    1998-01-01

    A free-piston variable stroke linear-alternator AC power generator for a combustion engine. An alternator mechanism and oscillator system generates AC current. The oscillation system includes two oscillation devices each having a combustion cylinder and a flying turnbuckle. The flying turnbuckle moves in accordance with the oscillation device. The alternator system is a linear alternator coupled between the two oscillation devices by a slotted connecting rod.

  20. Alternative splicing of DNA damage response genes and gastrointestinal cancers

    OpenAIRE

    Rahmutulla, Bahityar; Matsushita, Kazuyuki; Nomura, Fumio

    2014-01-01

    Alternative splicing, which is a common phenomenon in mammalian genomes, is a fundamental process of gene regulation and contributes to great protein diversity. Alternative splicing events not only occur in the normal gene regulation process but are also closely related to certain diseases including cancer. In this review, we briefly demonstrate the concept of alternative splicing and DNA damage and describe the association of alternative splicing and cancer pathogenesis, focusing on the pote...