Sample records for alternatives study working

  1. Numerical Studies On Bubble Pump With Alternate Working Fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Bruno Augustin


    Full Text Available The importance of energy conservation in the context of growing global population and dwindling fossil fuel resources cannot be overemphasized. Energy can be conserved by using it more efficiently. The energy spent for an application should be of the correct amount and type. It would make more sense to spend heat energy for heating rather than the high grade electricity as most of the electric power in the world is generated from driving heat engines, for which heat is supplied from the combustion of fossil fuels. At the same time, depletion of these conventional resources also poses a serious problem in meeting energy requirements. In this paper, the bubble pump, which is an integral part of diffusion- absorption refrigeration system, has been investigated numerically .A thermally driven bubble pump, which can be powered by solar thermal energy, is used to lift the liquid. The bubble pump runs on solar energy and reduces the amount of energy spent by replacing the compressor in conventional vapour absorption refrigeration system. As a result of the absence of any mechanical moving part, the refrigerator is silent and very reliable in addition to an economical and environmental friendly device. The concept of such a pump is already in existence but optimization studies are yet to be extensively investigated. This paper deals with the comparison of various parameters of the bubble pump using water and Nonane as the working fluid. Numerical simulation of the bubble pump is carried out using simple numerical equations which assume slug flow in the bubble pump. The mass flow rate, the sensible heating time and position of heating element are varied and the effect it has on diameter of the pipe, pumping ratio and the heat required is studied for both the working fluids

  2. Work and Work Alternatives for Disabled Young People. (United States)

    Kuh, D.; And Others


    The study compared the past and current work and work alternatives experienced by 383 disabled young people (aged 16-25 years) and 152 able-bodied controls in East Devon, United Kingdom. Also compared were the aspirations and expectations of the disabled with those of their families and service providers. (Author/DB)

  3. Direct Marketing Alternatives in an Urban Setting: A Case Study of Seattle Youth Garden Works (United States)

    Taylor, Mykel; Young, Doug; Miles, Carol


    The focus of this study is direct marketing of produce from an urban market garden. Rather than discussing broad issues of direct marketing, we use a case study to frame the decisions a market gardener is likely to face in developing both production and marketing plans. The garden featured in this study is located in Seattle, Washington, a city…

  4. Alternative Work Schedules Increase Employee Satisfaction. (United States)

    Turney, John R.; Cohen, Stanley L.


    Facets of alternative work schedules (AWS) are discussed: importance of employee control, possible negative consequences, AWS handbook, time monitoring systems, and treatment of exceptions. AWS' effect on productivity and motivation is examined. (SK)

  5. Seal design alternatives study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Sambeek, L.L. [RE/SPEC Inc., Rapid City, SD (US); Luo, D.D.; Lin, M.S.; Ostrowski, W.; Oyenuga, D. [Parsons Brinckerhoff Quade & Douglas, Inc., San Francisco, CA (US)


    This report presents the results from a study of various sealing alternatives for the WIPP sealing system. Overall, the sealing system has the purpose of reducing to the extent possible the potential for fluids (either gas or liquid) from entering or leaving the repository. The sealing system is divided into three subsystems: drift and panel seals within the repository horizon, shaft seals in each of the four shafts, and borehole seals. Alternatives to the baseline configuration for the WIPP seal system design included evaluating different geometries and schedules for seal component installations and the use of different materials for seal components. Order-of-magnitude costs for the various alternatives were prepared as part of the study. Firm recommendations are not presented, but the advantages and disadvantages of the alternatives are discussed. Technical information deficiencies are identified and studies are outlined which can provide required information.

  6. Demystifying Alternative Education: Considering What Really Works (United States)

    Powell, Diane E.


    The effectiveness of alternative programs requires an understanding of both research and practice. Essential components of alternative educational programs must include opportunities to build and foster resilience in our youth. Program elements must be reflective of the quality and standards mandated by the "No Child Left Behind Act of 2001."…

  7. The Alternative Workplace: Changing Where and How People Work. (United States)

    Apgar, Mahlon, IV


    Discusses the alternative workplace, the combination of nontraditional work practices, settings, and locations that is beginning to supplement traditional offices. Looks at myths and realities, options, advantages and disadvantages, and implementation of alternative workplaces. (JOW)

  8. Ear Infection Treatment: Do Alternative Therapies Work? (United States)

    ... in books and magazines. They include chiropractic adjustments, homeopathy, herbal eardrops and others. Perhaps you're seeking ... infection treatments have been studied with mixed results. Homeopathy. A controversial treatment for ear infection, homeopathy involves ...

  9. Orion Project: Alternate Attitude Study (United States)

    Alvarez-Hernandez, A.; Miller, Stephen W.


    This slide presentation reviews the study done on alternate attitudes for the Orion project's crew exploration vehicle. The analysis focused on the thermal performance of the vehicle with the alternate attitudes. The pressure vessel heater power, other vehicle heaters and radiator sink temperatures were included in the analysis.

  10. The Effective Research of Implementing Talents' Training Mode with Work-study Alternation%工学交替人才培养模式实施的有效性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Talents' training mode with work-study alternation is one talents' training mode to complement alternation of study and work practice.Higher vocational education in five years can make full use of the characteristics of educational system,effectively driving the practice of work-study alternation,which plays an important role in cultivating eligible applicable talents.%工学交替人才培养模式是学习和工作实践交替进行的一种人才培养模式。五年制高职教育可充分利用学制特点,有效推动工学交替的实践,对培养合格的实用型人才具有重要的意义。

  11. Millimeter Wave Alternate Route Study. (United States)



  12. Anatomy of Alternating Quantifier Satisfiability (Work in progress)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dung, Phan Anh; Bjørner, Nikolaj; Monniaux, David

    We report on work in progress to generalize an algorithm recently introduced in [10] for checking satisfiability of formulas with quantifier alternation. The algorithm uses two auxiliary procedures: a procedure for producing a candidate formula for quantifier elimination and a procedure for elimi...

  13. Comparison of alternative versions of the job demand-control scales in 17 European cohort studies: the IPD-Work consortium

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    Fransson Eleonor I


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Job strain (i.e., high job demands combined with low job control is a frequently used indicator of harmful work stress, but studies have often used partial versions of the complete multi-item job demands and control scales. Understanding whether the different instruments assess the same underlying concepts has crucial implications for the interpretation of findings across studies, harmonisation of multi-cohort data for pooled analyses, and design of future studies. As part of the 'IPD-Work' (Individual-participant-data meta-analysis in working populations consortium, we compared different versions of the demands and control scales available in 17 European cohort studies. Methods Six of the 17 studies had information on the complete scales and 11 on partial scales. Here, we analyse individual level data from 70 751 participants of the studies which had complete scales (5 demand items, 6 job control items. Results We found high Pearson correlation coefficients between complete scales of job demands and control relative to scales with at least three items (r > 0.90 and for partial scales with two items only (r = 0.76-0.88. In comparison with scores from the complete scales, the agreement between job strain definitions was very good when only one item was missing in either the demands or the control scale (kappa > 0.80; good for job strain assessed with three demand items and all six control items (kappa > 0.68 and moderate to good when items were missing from both scales (kappa = 0.54-0.76. The sensitivity was > 0.80 when only one item was missing from either scale, decreasing when several items were missing in one or both job strain subscales. Conclusions Partial job demand and job control scales with at least half of the items of the complete scales, and job strain indices based on one complete and one partial scale, seemed to assess the same underlying concepts as the complete survey instruments.

  14. [Corporal Punishment. Three Works:] The Influence of Corporal Punishment on Learning: A Statistical Study. The Bible and the Rod. 1001 Alternatives to Corporal Punishment, Volume One. (United States)

    Maurer, Adah; Wallerstein, James S.

    Arguments against the use of corporal punishment in schools are presented in the three publications collected here. "The Influence of Corporal Punishment on Learning: A Statistical Study," by Adah Maurer and James S. Wallerstein, examines the relationship between rates of corporal punishment use and noncompletion of high school in the 50 states.…

  15. Collaborative Work as an Alternative for Writing Research Articles

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    Nancy Emilce Carvajal Medina


    Full Text Available Academic writing in English in our context is a significant aspect that can be innovative when a convergence model of writing stages is used along with collaborative work. This article reports on a study aimed at analyzing how collaborative work relates to undergraduate electronics students’ academic writing development in English as a foreign language at a Colombian university, following some specific writing stages. Field notes, students’ artifacts, and semi-structured interviews were the instruments used to gather information. The results showed that writing is achievable if students can follow stages and receive feedback from the teacher. Additionally, collaborative work allowed students to write research articles in an easy and dynamic way.

  16. Flexible Workplace Policies: Lessons from the Federal Alternative Work Schedules Act (United States)

    Liechty, Janet M.; Anderson, Elaine A.


    This case study uses a feminist framework to examine the 7-year process by which the Federal Alternative Work Schedules Act (1978-1985) became law and the reasons for reenergized implementation in the 1990s. We analyze the legislative discourse for rationale in support of and opposition to this policy, connect findings to current flexible work…

  17. Alternative Education Completers: A Phenomenological Study (United States)

    Murray, Becky L.; Holt, Carleton R.


    The purpose of this study was to explore the elements of the alternative education experience significant to successful completion of the program. This phenomenological paradigm provided the framework for all aspects of the qualitative study. Students, parents, administrators, and staff members of two alternative programs in the southeast Kansas…

  18. How To Create Alternative, Magnet, and Charter Schools That Work. (United States)

    Barr, Robert D.; Parrett, William H.

    In the early 1970s, pessimism about public education in the United States was on the rise. To counter this outlook, researchers held a conference to identify public schools that were humane, caring, and effective, and from this conference arose a heightened awareness of alternative schools and their place in education. Subsequent years of…

  19. The effect of alternative work arrangements on women's well-being: a demand-control model. (United States)

    Kelloway, E K; Gottlieb, B H


    The growth of women's participation in the labor force and evidence of the conflict they experience between job and family demands have spurred many employers to introduce alternative work arrangements such as flextime, job sharing, and telecommuting. Drawing on data gained from a sample of women (N = 998) in two large Canadian organizations, this study evaluates two mediational models of the impact of alternative work arrangements on women's stress and family role competence. Specifically, it tests and finds support for the hypotheses that (a) work arrangements involving scheduling flexibility (telecommuting and flextime) promote these aspects of women's well-being by increasing their perceived control over their time, and (b) arrangements involving reduced hours of employment (part-time employment and job sharing) promote well-being by reducing perceived job overload. Discussion of these findings centers on their implications for employed women, their employers, and future research.

  20. Jobs, Income, and Work: Ruinous Trends, Urgent Alternatives. (United States)

    Sklar, Holly

    This book examines recent trends in the areas of jobs, income, and work. Among the trends discussed are the following: upward redistribution of wealth; persistent impoverishment; less disposable income; lower wages and higher education; union-free labor and increasing numbers of "disposable" workers; competition for global corporations…

  1. 77 FR 17457 - Work Group on Alternative Test Methods for Commercial Measuring Devices (United States)


    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Work Group on Alternative Test Methods for Commercial...: The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is forming a Work Group (WG) to examine alternative methods for testing the accuracy of commercial measuring devices including, but not limited...

  2. Cornerstone Third Party Alternative Cost Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vrieling, P. Douglas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)


    The attached cost analyses sheets have been developed for use in planning during the Third Party Alternative study currently underway for the Sandia CREATE project. This cost analysis builds upon the previously submitted base estimate dated June 14, 2013 and includes comparison information collected during a Market Validation exercise conducted in August/September 2013.

  3. Studying institutional work in organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Toke


    Purpose – In order to provide new and other directions to institutional studies in organization theory, Lawrence and Suddaby forward the notion of institutional work of actors aimed at maintaining, changing and disrupting institutions. The purpose of this paper is to further theory and method...... in studying the institutional work of people in organizations. Design/methodology/approach – Methodological insights from the ways in which theories of human agency in institutional contexts have co-evolved with field study methodologies are analyzed in related fields of research, particularly in sociology...... work. Research limitations/implications – The findings suggest that institutional organization research may prosper by grounding the study of institutional work on ethnographic methodologies. Originality/value – This paper contributes methodological inspirations to studying organizational actors’ work...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Degani


    Full Text Available Many cultural and behavioral changes have occurred in society in recent years, but with little consequence in the corporate labor relations. Despite the great technological evolution, we work mostly in the same way as a century ago. This study conducts surveys about the expectations and alternatives for the future of executive work and aims to assess the benefits and prerequisites for the adoption of differentiated working relationships to reconcile the interests of professionals, organizations and society. The methods used were a quantitative survey with executives and in-depth interviews with experts. The main conclusions were that the executive work will undergo profound changes in the near future, being the main difference the flexibility of times and places to work, creating greater autonomy and demanding from professionals and companies a new level of motivation, discipline, communication skills where there is no physical presence, clarity of purpose and values. This transformation will be gradual and the companies that come forward in the adoption of processes and competences that support differentiated relationships will gain competitive advantage.

  5. An educational alternative for improving working conditions in small and medium enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Castro S


    Full Text Available Managing health and safety at work involves considering two internal processes common to all organizations: knowledge and human talent management. These two processes are affected by globalizing phenomena that have an effect at the economic, environmental, and occupational levels. This is especially true for countries like Colombia. Objective: to provide an educational alternative that contributes to knowledge management in SME’s in order to improve the working conditions and to support their innovation processes. Methodology: an exploratory and descriptive study. We start by analyzing the concepts related to the improvement of working conditions and experiences from previous projects involving the university-industry relationship. This is done from the systemic viewpoint that characterizes the ergonomics and interdisciplinary perspectives of the professional practice of industrial design. Result: the proposal was approved by regional institutions wishing to conduct a pilot study, and is based on principles establishing health promotion at the workplace. It also includes a methodology for affecting the technological core of companies and contributes to the empowerment of the personnel involved. Conclusion:it is mandatory that organizations express their support and commitment through a policy that facilitates the active participation of employees in these processes.

  6. Implications of flexible work systems for work studies. (United States)

    Kogi, K


    The relationship between changing work systems and work study methods is discussed by focusing on a recent trend toward more flexible work systems in different countries. These systems are commonly characterized by (a) uncoupling of working hours from business hours, (b) combining different atypical work forms and (c) individualized work patterns. Increased flexibility in working patterns is demanded because business hours may be covered by different workers and because special arrangements become necessary for unpopular shifts or linking separate jobs. Changes in work systems seem more successful when they are associated with (a) multiskilled work, (b) independent task implementation, (c) networked communication, (d) balanced or adjusted workload, and (e) accommodation of workers' preferences. Special attention is drawn to safety and health concerns and work-life effects. Many intervention studies done for work improvement are paying attention to multifaceted work aspects, locally available options, and participation by people. All these elements are important because prepackaged solutions do not exist. The following three views seem especially useful for action-oriented work studies: 1) Look at multiple aspects of the work, including work content and atypical work forms; 2) Know worker preferences and available options; and 3) Take into account work elements that may not be well defined, but important from local points of view. It is envisioned that these studies can provide support for a well-informed participatory process of work system changes in each local context.

  7. Ironmaking Process Alternative Screening Study, Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lockwood Greene, . .


    Iron in the United States is largely produced from iron ore mined in the United States or imported from Canada or South America. The iron ore is typically smelted in Blast Furnaces that use primarily iron ore, iron concentrate pellets metallurgical coke, limestone and lime as the raw materials. Under current operating scenarios, the iron produced from these Blast Furnaces is relatively inexpensive as compared to current alternative iron sources, e.g. direct iron reduction, imported pig iron, etc. The primary problem the Blast Furnace Ironmaking approach is that many of these Blast furnaces are relatively small, as compared to the newer, larger Blast Furnaces; thus are relatively costly and inefficient to operate. An additional problem is also that supplies of high-grade metallurgical grade coke are becoming increasingly in short supply and costs are also increasing. In part this is due to the short supply and costs of high-grade metallurgical coals, but also this is due to the increasing necessity for environmental controls for coke production. After year 2003 new regulations for coke product environmental requirement will likely be promulgated. It is likely that this also will either increase the cost of high-quality coke production or will reduce the available domestic U.S. supply. Therefore, iron production in the United States utilizing the current, predominant Blast Furnace process will be more costly and would likely be curtailed due to a coke shortage. Therefore, there is a significant need to develop or extend the economic viability of Alternate Ironmaking Processes to at least partially replace current and declining blast furnace iron sources and to provide incentives for new capacity expansion. The primary conclusions of this comparative Study of Alternative Ironmaking Process scenarios are: (1) The processes with the best combined economics (CAPEX and OPEX impacts in the I.R.R. calculation) can be grouped into those Fine Ore based processes with no scrap

  8. Electrical engineering of engineers 2. Alternative current engineering, loci diagrams, transformers, multiphase systems. A lecture and working book for the basic study. 8 ed.; Elektrotechnik fuer Ingenieure 2. Wechselstromtechnik, Ortskurven, Transformator, Mehrphasensysteme. Ein Lehr- und Arbeitsbuch fuer das Grundstudium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weissgerber, Wilfried


    The book under consideration covers the basics and calculation methods of the alternating current technology, the transformer, loci diagrams as well as three-phase systems. The book is dedicated to the students of engineering and natural sciences, electrical engineering, technical informatics and physics at higher institutes of applied sciences, technical colleges, universities and universities of cooperative education.

  9. Washoe Tribe Alternative Energy Feasibility Study Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Jennifer [Washoe Tribe of NV and CA


    The Washoe Tribe of Nevada and California was awarded funding to complete the Washoe Tribe Alternative Energy Feasibility Study project. The main goal of the project was to complete an alternative energy feasibility study. This study was completed to evaluate “the potential for development of a variety of renewable energy projects and to conduct an alternative energy feasibility study that determines which alternative energy resources have the greatest economic opportunity for the Tribe, while respecting cultural and environmental values” (Baker-Tilly, 2014). The study concluded that distributed generation solar projects are the best option for renewable energy development and asset ownership for the Washoe Tribe. Concentrating solar projects, utility scale wind projects, geothermal, and biomass resource projects were also evaluated during the study and it was determined that these alternatives would not be feasible at this time.

  10. Alternate solutions for mine ventilation network to keep a pre-assigned fixed quantity in a working place

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K A El-Nagdy; A M Shoaib


    In underground constructions, a good ventilation design not only delivers fresh air to establish good working environment, but also provides a scientific and reliable basis to prevent disasters. In emergency cases, unexpected closure of the main airways may occur, providing the workers with alternative airways is substantial. This is important not only to sustain personnel lives, but also to prevent the mine ventilation system from damage. In this research, alternate solutions were introduced in case of failure in the underground construction to keep a pre-assigned fixed quantity in a working place for mine ventilation network. Eight different collapse scenarios were proposed to study their effect on the air quantity distribution among the branches in the ventilation circuit. From these scenarios, it is found that providing a sufficient air quantity in the working places could be achieved through modification of the network topology and adjusting the values of the regulators pressure. It is also indicated that the distance between the collapse and working places has a great effect on the amount of air delivered to it. A reduction in the power consumption could be done by re-arrange the installed regulators and decreasing the number of nodes and branches inside the network. A relationship representing the effect of changing the network topology on the total network power consumption was deduced through regression analysis. It is found that the total network power is quadratic dependent on the number of regulators and number of branches while it is directly dependent on the regulator power.

  11. Myths or theories? Alternative beliefs about HIV and AIDS in South African working class communities. (United States)

    Dickinson, David


    Despite three decades of public health promotion based on the scientific explanation of HIV/AIDS, alternative explanations of the disease continue to circulate. While these are seen as counter-productive to health education efforts, what is rarely analysed is their plurality and their tenacity. This article analyses the 'AIDS myths' collected by African HIV/AIDS workplace peer educators during an action research project. These beliefs about HIV/AIDS are organised, in this article, around core ideas that form the basis of 'folk' and 'lay theories' of HIV/AIDS. These constitute non-scientific explanations of HIV/AIDS, with folk theories drawing on bodies of knowledge that are independent of HIV/AIDS while lay theories are generated in response to the disease. A categorisation of alternative beliefs about HIV/AIDS is presented which comprises three folk theories - African traditional beliefs, Christian theology, and racial conspiracy - and three lay theories, all focused on avoiding HIV infection. Using this schema, the article describes how the plausibility of these alternative theories of HIV/AIDS lies not in their scientific validity, but in the robustness of the core idea at the heart of each folk or lay theory. Folk and lay theories of HIV/AIDS are also often highly palatable in that they provide hope and comfort in terms of prevention, cure, and the allocation of blame. This study argue that there is coherence and value to these alternative HIV/AIDS beliefs which should not be dismissed as ignorance, idle speculation or simple misunderstandings. A serious engagement with folk and lay theories of HIV/AIDS helps explain the continued circulation of alternative beliefs of HIV/AIDS and the slow uptake of behavioural change messages around the disease.

  12. IronMaking Process Alternatives Screening Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This study by Lockwood Greene evaluates a number ironmaking processes. The appendices provide greater detail and further exploration of the ironmaking processes, including components, relative costs, and comparisons.

  13. Alternative Frameworks for the Study of Man. (United States)

    Markova, Ivana


    Two frameworks for the study of man are discussed. The Cartesian model views man as a physical object. A dialectic framework, with the emphasis on the self, grew out of nineteenth century romanticism and reflects the theories of Hegel. Both models have had an effect on social psychology and the study of interpersonal communication. (BH)

  14. Turn to Practice Within Working Life Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Anders; Andersen, Vibeke; Klemsdal, Lars


    What does practice theory and practice-based studies have to offer working life studies? This is the seminal question this special issue poses. In seven articles, researchers with an affiliation to Nordic working life studies and with a background in practice theory illustrate and reflect on how...... practice theoretical approaches can help working life studies in better understanding work practices and the material, technological, economic, organizational, and societal conditions that shape and are shaped by these practices. In addition, this issue contains three reviews of recent practice theoretical...... volumes that strive to theorize (work) practices and assess the merits of practice theoretical perspectives....

  15. [Felines: an alternative in genetic toxicology studies?]. (United States)

    Zamora-Perez, Ana; Gómez-Meda, Belinda C; Ramos-Ibarra, Maria L; Batista-González, Cecilia M; Luna-Aguirre, Jaime; González-Rodríguez, Andrés; Rodríguez-Avila, José L; Zúñiga-González, Guillermo M


    The micronuclei (MN) test carry out in peripheral blood is fast, simple, economic and it is used to detect genotoxic environmental agents. MN are fragments of chromosomes or complete chromosomes remaining in the cytoplasm after cell division, which increase when organisms are exposed to genotoxic agents. Therefore, species with the highest values of spontaneous micronucleated erythrocytes (MNE) are the most suitable to be potentials biomonitor of micronucleogenic agents, using a drop of blood. Nine species of Felines that present spontaneous MNE in peripheral blood are shown. From these species, the cat has been previously proven, with positive results and also lion (Panthera leo), yaguaroundi (Felis yagoaroundi), lynx (Lynx ruffus), jaguar (Panthera onca), puma (Puma concolor), tiger (Panthera tigris), ocelote (Felis padalis) and leopard (Panthera pardus) display spontaneous MNE, and with this characteristic this Family can be propose like a potential group to be used in toxicogenetic studies.

  16. Lithic studies: an alternative approach to Neolithization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gurova


    Full Text Available Most models of Neolithization of the Balkans have focused on pottery, with little attention paid to other aspects of material culture. A distinctive feature of the Early Neolithic Karanovo I culture of Bulgaria is a flint industry characterized by ‘macroblade’ technology and widespread use of ‘Balkan Flint’ in conjunction with formal toolkits. The origins of this technology and the associated raw material procurement system are still unresolved. Balkan flint also occurs in Early Neolithic contexts outside the Karanovo I culture area, notably in the southern Balkans (Turkish Thrace and in the lower Danube catchment (Carpathian Basin, Iron Gates, southern Romania and northern Bulgaria. The only securely identified outcrops of Balkan flint are in the Upper Cretaceous Mezdra Formation in the Pleven-Nikopol region of northern Bulgaria. One of the most challenging aspects of the Neolithization debate is to accommodate the evidence provided by lithic studies. Among outstanding questions are: (i was Balkan flint used by the first (‘pre-Karanovo’ Neolithic communities in Bulgaria; (ii what role did Balkan flint play in the Neolithization of Southeast Europe; (iii did access to Balkan flint result in the emergence of a new laminar technology; (iv how did the Early Neolithic Balkan flint exchange network compare to that based on obsidian, which developed in and around the Aegean Basin; and (iv what and where were the origins of the Balkan flint network and the formal tools associated with it?

  17. Enriching Social Work through Interdisciplinary Disability Studies (United States)

    Carter, Irene; Quaglia, Christine; Leslie, Donald


    This paper recommends that faculties of Social Work incorporate Disability Studies in their curriculum by embracing its interdisciplinary deconstructionist perspective. Disability Studies encourages Social Work to move beyond person-in--the-environment and anti-oppressive approaches to find more effective ways of removing barriers for persons with…

  18. Crafting a neo-Vygotskian approach to adult education in Portugal: Collaborative project work in an alternative curriculum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courela C.


    Full Text Available Collaborative project work facilitates social interactions among peers and between them and their teachers. It allows students to work in their zone of proximal development (ZPD, promoting their knowledge appropriation. It empowers adult students, allowing them to express their voices and their cultures. Inter-empowerment mechanisms are part of this process, facilitating the internalization of intra-empowerment mechanisms. Both of them shape students’ life trajectories of participation (César, 2013a. This work is part of the Interaction and Knowledge (IK project. During 12 years (1994/1995–2005/2006 we studied and promoted social interactions in formal educational scenarios. We assumed an interpretative paradigm and developed an action-research project (three-year alternative curriculum, 7th–9th grades and a 10-year follow up. The participants were the seven students who completed this course, their teachers, and other educational and social agents. Data collecting instruments included observation, interviews, informal conversations, tasks inspired by projective techniques, students’ protocols, and documents. Data treatment and analysis were based on a narrative content analysis. The results are mainly focused on one student: Ernesto. His legitimate participation in this course facilitated his inclusion in school and in society. It promoted his socio-cognitive and emotional development and allowed him to internalize intra-empowerment mechanisms. This enabled him to improve his life trajectory of participation.

  19. Experimental study on the effect of alternator speed to the car charging system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazlan Rozdman K.


    Full Text Available In this paper, we present our work, which is doing an energy audit on alternator’s current output and battery’s voltage based on alternator speed. Up until today, the demand for power in automobile is ever increasing. As technology advances, more and more electrical devices were produced and being installed in vehicles. To cope with the demand, alternator has been designed and modified so that it can produce enough power. This research is to study the effect of alternator speed to the charging system. The car used in this experiment is Proton Preve 1.6 Manual. In both ISO 8854 and SAE J 56, alternator testing and labelling standards indicate that the rated output an alternator is the amount of current that it is capable of producing at 6,000 RPM. Three different constant speed of engine which is 750 RPM as idle speed, 1500 RPM and 3000 RPM as cruise speed were taken as parameter. The speed of the alternator was measured using tachometer, digital multi-meter was used to measure battery’s voltage, and AC/DC Clamp was used to measure alternator current output. The result shows that the faster the alternator spin, the more power it can produce. And when there is more power, the faster the charging rate of the battery.

  20. Ethnographic Fieldwork: Studying Journalists at Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Line Hassall


    I had been working as a journalist for almost 10 years when I began questioning the way we journalists worked. Having a degree in anthropology, I began to think of the newsroom as a place that one could study. To me, it seemed that methods of ethnographic fieldwork derived from anthropology would...... be very fruitful for exploring the everyday routines and practices of journalists at work today. In 2007, I embarked on a PhD study to examine the everyday routines of TV news journalists in the United Kingdom and Denmark. For 18 months, I conducted fieldwork inside the TV newsrooms of BBC News...... and Independent Television (ITV) News (in the United Kingdom), Direct Response Television (DR TV) Avisen and TV2 Nyhederne (in Denmark). In order to explore the everyday working routines, I chose to conduct a participant observation study. The fact that I had myself been a journalist was useful because I was able...

  1. Working While Studying: Does It Matter? An Examination of the Washington State Work Study Program. (United States)

    Van de Water, Gordon; Augenblick, John

    The impact of working on academic performance and persistence of a sample of full-time undergraduates enrolled in Washington State's public and private institutions during fall 1983 through spring 1985 was studied. Data sources included: student records for the State Work Study, College Work Study, and nonworking financial aid recipients; and…

  2. Work Sampling Study of an Engineering Professor during a Regular Contract Period (United States)

    Brink, Jan; McDonald, Dale B.


    Work sampling is a technique that has been employed in industry and fields such as healthcare for some time. It is a powerful technique, and an alternative to conventional stop watch time studies, used by industrial engineers to focus upon random work sampling observations. This study applies work sampling to the duties performed by an individual…

  3. Turbo-alternator-compressor design for supercritical high density working fluids (United States)

    Wright, Steven A.; Fuller, Robert L.


    Techniques for generating power are provided. Such techniques involve a thermodynamic system including a housing, a turbine positioned in a turbine cavity of the housing, a compressor positioned in a compressor cavity of the housing, and an alternator positioned in a rotor cavity between the turbine and compressor cavities. The compressor has a high-pressure face facing an inlet of the compressor cavity and a low-pressure face on an opposite side thereof. The alternator has a rotor shaft operatively connected to the turbine and compressor, and is supported in the housing by bearings. Ridges extending from the low-pressure face of the compressor may be provided for balancing thrust across the compressor. Seals may be positioned about the alternator for selectively leaking fluid into the rotor cavity to reduce the temperature therein.

  4. "Always work with a straight back": the fallacies of modern management and the alternative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Verner C.


    in mind-less and care-less behaviour by employees, while an alternative relying on self-organisation and value-based leadership might preserve and enhance insight, motivation and responsibility. Research limitations/implications - The paper is mainly a conceptual discussion using examples. Practical......Purpose - The purpose of this article is to show that the tools of modern management which are supposed to promote effectiveness, efficiency and responsible behaviour, may in fact contribute to the opposite, and to present the outline of an alternative based upon new ideas of self...

  5. New Ways of Working and Organization: Alternative Agrifood Movements and Agrifood Researchers (United States)

    Friedland, William H.


    The remarkable growth of alternative agrifood movements--organics, fair trade, localism, Slow Food, farmers' markets, community-supported agriculture, food security, food safety, food sovereignty, anti-genetically modified organisms, animal welfare, and others--and their attraction to younger academic scholars offer a unique opportunity to explore…

  6. Assessing Life Skills in Young Working Adults--Part 1: The Development of an Alternative Instrument. (United States)

    van der Wal, Rachel Jacoba; van der Wal, Ruurd


    A collage with pictorial and verbal stimuli to assess life skills of young workers was developed using a framework for alternative assessment and stimuli instruments. The instrument was evaluated using Bloom's taxonomy for the cognitive domain and Krathwohl et al.'s taxonomy for the affective domain. (Contains 16 references.) (SK)

  7. Symbolic Non-Violence in the Work of Teachers in Alternative Education Settings (United States)

    Waters, Richard


    Patterns in analysis of research data on alternative education practices as well as on student and teacher experience in mainstream settings seem to support Pierre Bourdieu and Jean Claude Passeron's theory of symbolic violence. Data from teachers and students suggest that students from low socio-economic backgrounds often disengage from education…

  8. 33 CFR 203.50 - Nonstructural alternatives to rehabilitation of flood control works. (United States)


    ... rehabilitation of flood control works. 203.50 Section 203.50 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS... DISASTER PROCEDURES Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by Flood or Coastal Storm... of flood control works. (a) Authority. Under Public Law 84-99, the Chief of Engineers is...

  9. 77 FR 9882 - Arsenic Small Systems Compliance and Alternative Affordability Criteria Working Group; public... (United States)


    ... Working Group; public meeting AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: EPA is holding an initial meeting of the Arsenic Small Systems Working Group to provide... Working Group composed of representatives from States, small publicly owned water systems, local...

  10. Problems and Countermeasures of Professional Ethics Education in Higher Vocational Colleges under the Work-study Alternation Mode%工学交替模式下高职职业道德教育存在问题及对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    This paper expounded some problems on professional ethics education in higher vocational colleges under the work-study alternation mode, such as the outdated concept, the unapparent effect, and the simple evaluation. And it proposed some measures like building the cultivation mechanism for professional ethics education, creating interactive education mode for school-enterprise cooperation and perfecting evaluation mechanism, which made the students accept the professional ethics education happily and become moral persons with good professional ethics.%在工学交替模式下,高职院校职业道德教育存在观念滞后、成效不明显、评价简单化等问题。本文探讨并提出了构建职业道德教育的培养机制、形成校企合作互动教育模式、完善评价机制等对策,让学生愉快地接受职业道德教育,做一个有良好职业道德的人。

  11. A social work study on job satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Iravani


    Full Text Available Job satisfaction plays an important role on having sustainable growth in any business units. When an unsatisfied employee leaves, the business unit not only loses an employee but also it loses an intangible asset. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate overall job satisfaction occasionally and provide some guidelines for improving work conditions. The proposed study of this paper uses five questionnaires, which are associated with job motivation, job satisfaction and organizational commitment. We have selected 25 sample employees who work for the case study of this research located in west region on Iran. Using some statistical tests we analyze the data and the preliminary results indicate that employee have an average job satisfaction. The results indicate that there are some positive relationships between job satisfaction and other factors including wage increase, psychological needs, physical equipments, entertainment equipment and work-team.

  12. Qualitative Research: Studying How Things Work (United States)

    Stake, Robert E.


    This book provides invaluable guidance for thinking through and planning a qualitative study. Rather than offering recipes for specific techniques, master storyteller Robert Stake stimulates readers to discover "how things work" in organizations, programs, communities, and other systems. Topics range from identifying a research question to…

  13. Alternative Methodologies in Research Literature Review: Links between Clinical Work and MFT Effectiveness. (United States)

    Addison, Shelia M.; Sandberg, Jonathan G.; Corby, Joy; Robila, Mihaela; Platt, Jason J.


    Reviews 15 years of clinical research in three family therapy (FT) journals that provide evidence for the effectiveness of marriage and family therapy. Considers designs that are being utilized in reports on the effectiveness of various models of FT. Makes connections between research and the everyday work of clinicians to make the work more…

  14. Study of Quality of Work Life (QWL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Nasl Saraji


    Full Text Available A high quality of work life (QWL is essential for organizations to continue to attract and retain employees. QWL is a comprehensive program designated to improve employee satisfaction. This research aimed to provide insights into the positive and negative attitudes of Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS Hospitals’ employees from their quality of life. A cross- sectional, descriptive and analytical study was conducted among 908 TUMS hospitals’ employees by questionnaire at 15 studied hospitals. A stratified random sampling technique was used to select respondents as nursing, supportive and paramedical groups. The results showed that the majority of employees were dissatisfied with occupational health and safety, intermediate and senior managers , their income, balance between the time they spent working and with family and also indicated that their work was not interesting and satisfying. TUMS hospitals’ employees responding to this survey have a poor quality of work life. We suggest more training and educations for TUMS hospitals’ managers on QWL issues are planned.

  15. Alternative tools to mass production and human performance indicators in sheltered work centers of Valencian community (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan A. Marin-Garcia


    Full Text Available Purpose: The most popular alternative systems to mass production at an academic level (lean manufacturing, agile manufacturing, flexible customization, mass customization... share many characteristics. Our article identifies an extensive set of alternative practices to mass production; analyzes the classification of practices in categories (Flow, TQM, TPM, Customer Relations, Supplier Relations and Human Resources Practices and analyzes the impact on several human performance indicators such as satisfaction, absenteeism, voluntary turnover, permanent contracts, knowledge, personal & social adjustment activities and integration of workers into ordinary companies. Design/methodology/approach: Survey in sheltered work centers. We use regression analysis in order to prove relations between explicative and criterion variables. Findings: The results of our research allow us to identify that human resource management and customer relationship practices have significant effects on job satisfaction, knowledge, integration into ordinary companies and personal and social adjustment. Research limitations/implications: Data came only from one industry; therefore the results would not be directly generalized to other contexts. Practical implications: Managers in Sheltered work centers can estimate the impact of the deployment of alternative tools to mass production. Originality/value: There are few papers relating lean manufacturing tools and human resources performance indicators. At the same time, there are very few research carried out in sheltered work centers context.

  16. Study of alternative strategies and methods for conserving energy. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Objectives of the study were: (1) to identify and analyze alternative methods, means, and techniques, for controlling and moderating the consumption of energy; (2) to evaluate the impact of regulatory actions, taxes, incentives, subsidies or other strategies and methods on alternative physical technologies for energy conservation; and (3) to evaluate, macro- and micro-economic impacts and consequences of alternative energy conservation methods, means and techniques on work, leisure, life styles, and institutions on a local, regional, and national level. The study excludes automobile and related road vehicle energy consumption control strategies, but includes those for residential, commercial, industrial, and other energy end-use sectors. The time frame is from 1973 to 1990/2000, with emphasis on the period 1973-1980.

  17. Working in English personal study book

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Leo


    Working In English is a comprehensive course for Business English learners from Leo Jones, co-author of the successful New International Business English course. The core course comprises 40 one-hour units, focusing on thye practical day-to-day activities that all business people are involved in, and organised into seven modules. This pocket-sized Personal Study Book offers useful reference material and fun practice activities to do out of class. It comes with a free audio CD to provide extra self-study listening practice.

  18. Alternative techniques to study characters of the genitalia in Lepidoptera. (United States)

    Dias, Fernando M S; Casagrande, Mirna M; Mielke, Olaf H H


    The present note aims to describe two alternative methods for observing genitalia in Lepidoptera. The first one provides means to examine both male and female genitalia without spoiling the scales of the abdomen, preserving it attached to the thorax and aesthetically similar to an unexamined specimen. The second one provides ways of observing certain characters on the male genitalia in a non-destructive way, and does not depend on time-consuming removing and dissection of the abdomen. It is expected that the presented techniques will help on morphological studies and on identifying similar species which consistently differ in genitalic armatures.

  19. An Analysis of Alternative Shore Activity Personnel Execution to Improve Productive Work (United States)


    workplaces indicate the Navy’s desire to balance work and home life for its service members. Efficiency programs that have been tried in the past...In contrast to the hierarchy and market cultures, clan focuses on teamwork , employee involvement and corporate commitment to employees. Leaders can

  20. Exploring the Experiences of Former Alternative Education Participants: Case Studies (United States)

    Washington-Cobb, Shirley L.


    Alternative education has become an integral program, in one form or another throughout most school districts in the United States. Alternative education is a very complex and controversial issue that is best understood through the stories of former alternative education students looking back on their lived experiences. Children in the alternative…

  1. A Comprehensive Study of the Tocks Island Lake Project and Alternatives. Part D. Institutional Alternatives. (United States)


    AT DWGNRA WITH AND WITHOUT TILP XVII-80 1. Market Demand XVII-80 2. Facilities Provided XVII-85 3. Rationing Techniques XVII-87 4. off road driving tennis baseball bicycling horseback riding football boating hiking and nature walks hockey birdwatching snowmobiling...determinants of the actual patronage for alternative concepts of DWGNRA: market demand, facilities provided, rationing techniques and programmed activities

  2. The Problem-Oriented Project Work (PPL) Alternative in Self-Diected Higher Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anders Siig; Heilesen, Simon


    ) a way of organizing undergraduate education into broad interdisciplinary programs; and (3) an interdisciplinary profile where double-major graduate programs allow students to design their own academic and professional profiles. The chapter first explains similarities and differences between PPL and some...... related concepts of SDL: problem-based learning (PBL), inquiry-based learning, and project learning. Secondly, it outlines the origins and development of Roskilde University and of PPL. Thirdly, it introduces and discusses the building blocks and workings of PPL: problem-orientation, interdisciplinarity...

  3. Why Doesn't The GRE or GPA Work in Selecting Graduate Students & What Alternatives Are There ? (United States)

    Sedlacek, William


    The simplest response to the title of this paper is that the measures that are commonly employed in evaluating prospective graduate and professional students don’t work. That is, scores from the Graduate Record Examination (GRE) and prior grades (GPA) appear to have little validity in assessing postbaccalaureate student potential (Sternberg & Williams, 1997; Sedlacek, 1998, 2004; Bair & Haworth, 1999). Measurement problems such as restriction of range will discussed and the need to consider a multiverse statistical model presented. An alternative assessment system based on noncognitive variables will be presented and examples of its use with graduate and professional students discussed (Sedlacek, 2004, 2012, in press).

  4. Horizontal career changes as an alternative to premature exit from work. (United States)

    Aleksandrowicz, Paula; Zieschang, Hanna; Bräunig, Dietmar; Jahn, Frauke


    Certain workplaces are called jobs with limited tenure. Due to physical or psychosocial risk factors, often coupled with qualification mismatches, workers cannot grow old in them. That may lead to premature exit into retirement, to a period of drawing a work incapacity pension or to a long spell of unemployment. A horizontal career change, which enables the worker to move on to a less burdening workplace while preserving social status, is a possible solution. The objective of the "Horizontal career change-a new job opportunity for older employees" project is to develop a model of career changes for workers employed in jobs with limited tenure and to implement it in the form of an information- and communication technology-based tool. Possible applications range from individual career planning, through institutionalized vocational reintegration, to personnel development in small and medium-sized enterprises.

  5. A study on the relationships between age, work experience, cognition, and work ability in older employees working in heavy industry. (United States)

    Chung, Jaeyeop; Park, Juhyung; Cho, Milim; Park, Yunhee; Kim, DeokJu; Yang, Dongju; Yang, Yeongae


    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the correlation of age, work experience, cognition, and work ability in older employees working in heavy industry. [Subjects and Methods] The study was conducted using 100 subjects who were over 55 years old and worked in heavy industry. To obtain data, we first had the subjects complete the MoCA-K test and Work Ability Index (WAI). The data were then analyzed by frequency and correlation using statistical software (SPSS 21.0). [Results] Through this study, we discovered a significant positive correlation between WAI and MoCA-K, age, and work experience. [Conclusion] This study revealed that work ability in older employees increases not with the number of years worked but with the enhancement of cognitive ability. Special management that focuses on cognition is therefore required for senior employees working in the field of heavy industry.

  6. The study, design and simulation of a free piston Stirling engine linear alternatorThe study, design and simulation of a free piston Stirling engine linear alternator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodora Susana Oros


    Full Text Available This paper presents a study, design and simulation of a Free Piston Stirling Engine Linear Alternator. There are presented the main steps of the magnetic and electric calculations for a permanent magnet linear alternator of fixed coil and moving magnets type. Finally, a detailed thermal, mechanical and electrical model for a Stirling engine linear alternator have been made in SIMULINK simulation program. The linear alternator simulation model uses a controllable DC voltage which simulates the linear alternator combined with a rectifier, a variable load and a DC-DC converter, which compensates for the variable nature of Stirling engine operation, and ensures a constant voltage output regardless of the load.

  7. Works of art as a pedagogical tool: an alternative approach to education. (United States)

    Wikström, Britt-Maj


    Contemporary authors on nursing issues discuss the importance of expanding knowledge at all levels of nursing education to empower future nurses to respond in caring situations for the benefit of their patients. This article reviews several studies in which paintings, complemented by a pedagogical structure, allowed students to observe situations relevant to nursing. Results suggest that the use of visual art in nursing education can add a new dimension to students' experiences.

  8. Conservation program works as an alternative irrigation districts in sustainable water management of agricultural use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Manuel Peinado Guevara


    Full Text Available Water scarcity is an issue of worldwide concern since it is already having an impact on social development. Mexico is not an exception to this problem because in several regions of the country are great difficulties in supplying water, primarily for agricultural use. In Sinaloa, it had been mentioned repeatedly by the media that in the Irrigation District 063, located in the northern of the state, there are problems of water scarcity, and yet there still exist difficulties in conserving the resource. More than 49% of the water used for agriculture is wasted. To resolve this problem, producers and government agencies spend significant resources for investment in water conservation. However, the results have not been entirely satisfactory because the waste is high, a situation that motivates them to study more deeply the main weaknesses that affect sustainable resource use. Farmer’s participation in the administration of water infrastructure is important, as well as providing financial resources for the conservation of water system; and participation in activities of construction and repaired of water infrastructure. Farmer’s should also plan and design strategies for water conservation. This situation requires an appropriate level of technology and intellectual, rather than local producers and thus no complicated sustainable resource management. That is what local producers don’t have and therefore it complicates the sustainable management of the resource.

  9. The work of walking: a calorimetric study. (United States)

    Webb, P; Saris, W H; Schoffelen, P F; Van Ingen Schenau, G J; Ten Hoor, F


    Experiments were designed to test the traditional assumption that during level walking all of the energy from oxidation of fuel appears as heat and no work is done. Work is force expressed through distance, or energy transferred from a man to the environment, but not as heat. While wearing a suit calorimeter in a respiration chamber, five women and five men walked for 70 to 90 min on a level treadmill at 2.5, 4.6, and 6.7 km.h-1 and pedalled a cycle ergometer for 70 to 90 min against 53 and 92 W loads. They also walked with a weighted backpack and against a horizontal load. During cycling, energy from fuel matched heat loss plus the power measured by the ergometer. During walking, however, energy from fuel exceeded that which appeared as heat, meaning that work was done. The power increased with walking speed; values were 14, 29, and 63 W, which represented 11, 12, and 13% of the incremental cost of fuel above the resting level. Vertical and horizontal loads increased the fuel cost and heat loss of walking but did not alter the power output. This work energy did not re-appear as thermal energy during 18 h of recovery. The most likely explanation of the work done is in the inter-action between the foot and the ground, such as compressing the heel of the shoe and bending the sole. We conclude that work is done in level walking.

  10. A study of alternative splicing in the pig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillig, Ann-Britt Nygaard; Cirera Salicio, Susanna; Gilchrist, Michael J.;


    BACKGROUND: Since at least half of the genes in mammalian genomes are subjected to alternative splicing, alternative pre-mRNA splicing plays an important contribution to the complexity of the mammalian proteome. Expressed sequence tags (ESTs) provide evidence of a great number of possible...... and mouse, we find putative splice variants in about 30% of the contigs with more than 50 ESTs. Based on the criteria that a minimum of two EST sequences confirmed each splice event, a list of 100 genes with the most distinct tissue-specific alternative splice events was generated from the list...... of candidates. To confirm the tissue specificity of the splice events, 10 genes with functional annotation were randomly selected from which 16 individual splice events were chosen for experimental verification by quantitative PCR (qPCR). Six genes were shown to have tissue specific alternatively spliced...

  11. Technical Study of Slotted Pipe Working

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Helai; Su Feng


    @@ Introduction Slotted pipe is a kind of tool used in the oilfield for drilling wells to proof sand. There are many difficulties in working out several thousands seams which are about 0.3mm to 0.6 mm wide on a 10 meter long alloy steel pipe,and the types are various, such as straight and trapezoid.

  12. WRAP Module 1 sampling strategy and waste characterization alternatives study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergeson, C.L.


    The Waste Receiving and Processing Module 1 Facility is designed to examine, process, certify, and ship drums and boxes of solid wastes that have a surface dose equivalent of less than 200 mrem/h. These wastes will include low-level and transuranic wastes that are retrievably stored in the 200 Area burial grounds and facilities in addition to newly generated wastes. Certification of retrievably stored wastes processing in WRAP 1 is required to meet the waste acceptance criteria for onsite treatment and disposal of low-level waste and mixed low-level waste and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Waste Acceptance Criteria for the disposal of TRU waste. In addition, these wastes will need to be certified for packaging in TRUPACT-II shipping containers. Characterization of the retrievably stored waste is needed to support the certification process. Characterization data will be obtained from historical records, process knowledge, nondestructive examination nondestructive assay, visual inspection of the waste, head-gas sampling, and analysis of samples taken from the waste containers. Sample characterization refers to the method or methods that are used to test waste samples for specific analytes. The focus of this study is the sample characterization needed to accurately identify the hazardous and radioactive constituents present in the retrieved wastes that will be processed in WRAP 1. In addition, some sampling and characterization will be required to support NDA calculations and to provide an over-check for the characterization of newly generated wastes. This study results in the baseline definition of WRAP 1 sampling and analysis requirements and identifies alternative methods to meet these requirements in an efficient and economical manner.

  13. Work. (United States)

    Haines, Annette M.


    Draws upon Maria Montessori's writings to examine work as a universal human tendency throughout life. Discusses the work of adaptation of the infant, work of "psycho-muscular organism" for the preschooler, work of the imagination for the elementary child, community work of the adolescent, and work of the adult. Asserts that…

  14. From "does it work?" to "what is 'it'?": implications for voodoo, psychotherapy, pop-psychology, regular, and alternative medicine. (United States)

    Mommaerts, Jean-Luc; Devroey, Dirk


    In this article, a "healing method" (HM) is defined as any method intended to improve health through non-somatic means. For many healing methods, especially within the realm of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), there is mounting debate over the question "Does it work?" Indeed, this seems to be the primary question for most stakeholders. Yet in light of the well-documented effects of nonspecific factors, particularly empathy and placebo (EP), we contend that the basic question is: "What is 'it'?" Without answering this question, scientific progress is impossible, and research costs will spiral upwards without producing tangible results. Furthermore, it is impossible to characterize the potential side effects of healing methods without a full understanding of the underlying mechanisms through which they act. It is generally acknowledged that many healing methods are sociohistorical artifacts, based on underlying theoretical models that are divorced from established science. There is a need for healing method research that is accommodating of such methods' fluid nature while being congruent with accepted scientific practices. "It works" is no longer an adequate justification for any healing method, as "it" often turns out to be a combination of nonspecific factors.

  15. Study on Alternative Cargo Launch Options from the Lunar Surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheryl A. Blomberg; Zamir A. Zulkefli; Spencer W. Rich; Steven D. Howe


    In the future, there will be a need for constant cargo launches from Earth to Mars in order to build, and then sustain, a Martian base. Currently, chemical rockets are used for space launches. These are expensive and heavy due to the amount of necessary propellant. Nuclear thermal rockets (NTRs) are the next step in rocket design. Another alternative is to create a launcher on the lunar surface that uses magnetic levitation to launch cargo to Mars in order to minimize the amount of necessary propellant per mission. This paper investigates using nuclear power for six different cargo launching alternatives, as well as the orbital mechanics involved in launching cargo to a Martian base from the moon. Each alternative is compared to the other alternative launchers, as well as compared to using an NTR instead. This comparison is done on the basis of mass that must be shipped from Earth, the amount of necessary propellant, and the number of equivalent NTR launches. Of the options, a lunar coil launcher had a ship mass that is 12.7% less than the next best option and 17 NTR equivalent launches, making it the best of the presented six options.

  16. Alternative Assessment: Implications for Social Studies. ERIC Digest. (United States)

    Nickell, Pat

    Alternative forms of evaluating student progress are changing testing or assessment in U.S. schools. From the teacher-made to the standardized test, the familiar over-emphasis on multiple-choice items is giving way to expanded generative formats in which students are called upon to demonstrate mastery through applications in which they use complex…

  17. Working on the street and exposure to violence at work: a study with traffic agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Lancman


    Full Text Available This study was done with transit agents, who for various reasons related to the organization of their work and the fact that the street is their work space, are exposed to situations of intense verbal, and sometimes physical, aggression. By studying this situation it is hoped to make a contribution to understanding the impact of violence on the mental health of workers who work on the streets and its reflections in their health, their work development and relationships. This study was based on theoretical/methodological principles of the psychodynamics of work. This is a reserach-action method in which doing research presupposes having a transformative action on the situation studied. We verified that living with violence in the exercise of their profession has a strong impact on workers' mental health on the one hand, and on the other, they develop strategies and use work-related intelligence in order to be able to continue working.

  18. Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment Alternatives Implementation Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles M. Barnes; James B. Bosley; Clifford W. Olsen


    The purpose of this document is to discuss issues related to the implementation of each of the five down-selected INEEL/INTEC radioactive liquid waste (sodium-bearing waste - SBW) treatment alternatives and summarize information in three main areas of concern: process/technical, environmental permitting, and schedule. Major implementation options for each treatment alternative are also identified and briefly discussed. This report may touch upon, but purposely does not address in detail, issues that are programmatic in nature. Examples of these include how the SBW will be classified with respect to the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA), status of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) permits and waste storage availability, available funding for implementation, stakeholder issues, and State of Idaho Settlement Agreement milestones. It is assumed in this report that the SBW would be classified as a transuranic (TRU) waste suitable for disposal at WIPP, located in New Mexico, after appropriate treatment to meet transportation requirements and waste acceptance criteria (WAC).

  19. Feasibility Study of Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter Permanent Magnet Alternator Start Sequence (United States)

    Kenny, Barbara H.; Tokars, Roger P.


    The Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) mission was a proposed, (recently cancelled) long duration science mission to study three moons of Jupiter: Callisto, Ganymede, and Europa. One design of the JIMO spacecraft used a nuclear heat source in conjunction with a Brayton rotating machine to generate electrical power for the electric thrusters and the spacecraft bus. The basic operation of the closed cycle Brayton system was as follows. The working fluid, a heliumxenon gas mixture, first entered a compressor, then went through a recuperator and hot-side heat exchanger, then expanded across a turbine that drove an alternator, then entered the cold-side of the recuperator and heat exchanger and finally returned to the compressor. The spacecraft was to be launched with the Brayton system off-line and the nuclear reactor shut down. Once the system was started, the helium-xenon gas would be circulated into the heat exchangers as the nuclear reactors were activated. Initially, the alternator unit would operate as a motor so as to drive the turbine and compressor to get the cycle started. This report investigated the feasibility of the start up sequence of a permanent magnet (PM) machine, similar in operation to the alternator unit, without any position or speed feedback sensors ("sensorless") and with a variable load torque. It is found that the permanent magnet machine can start with sensorless control and a load torque of up to 30 percent of the rated value.

  20. Study on ultra-precision magnetic abrasive finishing process using low frequency alternating magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Jinzhong, E-mail:; Zou, Yanhua, E-mail:; Sugiyama, Hitoshi, E-mail:


    We proposed a new ultra-precision magnetic abrasive finishing (MAF) process using low frequency alternating magnetic field in this paper. Magnetic cluster themselves may produce the up and down movement change under alternating magnetic force. The movement may not only promote the dispersion of micro-magnetic particles, but also improve stirring effect and cross-cutting effects of the abrasives, achieving circulation and update to ensure the stability of grinding tools. This process is considered to be able to efficiently apply in ultra-precision finishing of plane and complicated micro-surfaces. In this study, we investigated the effects of alternating magnetic field on magnetic field distribution, finishing force and abrasive behavior. Furthermore, a set of experimental devices have been designed for finishing SUS304 stainless steel plate. The present work is aimed at understanding finishing particularity of this process and studying impacts of important process parameters namely grinding fluid, rotational speed of magnetic pole, current frequency on change in finish surface and material removal. Experimental results indicate that the process can realize ultra-precision finishing of plane by using oily grinding fluid. In the present research, the surface roughness of SUS304 stainless steel plate was improved from 240.24 nm to 4.38 nm by this process. - Highlights: • We investigated magnetic field distribution in processing region. • Magnetic cluster can produce a fluctuating finishing force in alternating magnetic field. • Oily grinding fluid is more applicable to this process. • Few nanometer finish surface can be obtained by this process.

  1. Drilling works on the upper gateroad. An alternative in gateroad and tunnel excavation; Bohren auf der oberen Ebene. Eine wirtschaftliche Alternative im Streckenvortrieb im Bergbau und im Tunnelbau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seelhoff, Guenther [GTA Maschinensysteme GmbH, Hamminkeln (Germany)


    If the use of machinery to drive gateroads and tunnels is restricted to the floor of the cross-section, the individual working steps of excavation and support have to be performed successively, so the advance rate will be determined by the duration of the individual working steps and the setting-up times for moving machines. For nearly all roadway and tunnel drives, however, it is also possible to carry out drilling works using mobile drill rigs suspended from the crown. The separation of working levels opens up many opportunities for performing working steps in parallel as a precondition for faster advance rates. The article summarises the state of development of the machinery available for driving roadways and galleries using roadheaders and drill and blast in mining as well as in conventional tunnel construction. (orig.)

  2. 24 CFR 570.415 - Community Development Work Study Program. (United States)


    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Community Development Work Study... Grants § 570.415 Community Development Work Study Program. (a) Applicability and objectives. HUD makes... students who participate in a work study program while enrolled in full-time graduate programs in...

  3. 38 CFR 21.4145 - Work-study allowance. (United States)


    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Work-study allowance. 21...; Educational Assistance Allowance § 21.4145 Work-study allowance. (a) Eligibility. (1) A veteran or reservist... rate of three-quarter time or full time is eligible to receive a work-study allowance. (2) An...

  4. Work Disability After Whiplash A Prospective Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buitenhuis, J.; Jong, Peter J. de; Jaspers, Jan P. C.; Groothoff, Johan W.


    Study Design. Prospective cohort study. Objective. To investigate the consequences of neck pain after motor vehicle accidents in terms of disability for work and the relationship this has with symptom and work-related factors. Summary of Background Data. Previous studies on work disability related t

  5. Work disability after whiplash : a prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buitenhuis, J.; Jong, Peter J. de; Jaspers, Jan P. C.; Groothoff, Johan W.


    Study Design. Prospective cohort study. Objective. To investigate the consequences of neck pain after motor vehicle accidents in terms of disability for work and the relationship this has with symptom and work-related factors. Summary of Background Data. Previous studies on work disability related t


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiersma, B.


    Due to the need to close High Level Waste storage tanks, chemical cleaning methods are needed for the removal of sludge heel materials remaining at the completion of mechanical tank cleaning efforts. Oxalic acid is considered the preferred cleaning reagent for heel dissolution of iron-based sludge. However, the large quantity of chemical reagents added to the tank farm from oxalic acid based cleaning has significant downstream impacts. Optimization of the oxalic acid cleaning process can potentially reduce the downstream impacts from chemical cleaning. To optimize oxalic acid usage, a detailed understanding of the chemistry of oxalic acid based sludge dissolution is required. Additionally, other acidic systems may be required for specific waste components that have low solubility in oxalic acid, and as a means to reduce oxalic acid usage in general. Electrochemical corrosion studies were conducted with 1 wt. % oxalic acid at mineral acid concentrations above and below the optimal conditions for this oxalic acid concentration. Testing environments included pure reagents, pure iron and aluminum phases, and sludge simulants. Mineral acid concentrations greater than 0.2 M and temperatures greater than 50 C result in unacceptably high corrosion rates. Results showed that manageable corrosion rates of carbon steel can be achieved at dilute mineral acid concentrations (i.e. less than 0.2 M) and low temperatures based on the contact times involved. Therefore, it is recommended that future dissolution and corrosion testing be performed with a dilute mineral acid and a less concentrated oxalic acid (e.g., 0.5 wt.%) that still promotes optimal dissolution. This recommendation requires the processing of greater water volumes than those for the baseline process during heel dissolution, but allows for minimization of oxalic acid additions. The following conclusions can be drawn from the test results: (1) In both nitric and sulfuric acid based reagents, the low temperature and

  7. Greenfield Alternative Study LEU-Mo Fuel Fabrication Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington Division of URS


    This report provides the initial “first look” of the design of the Greenfield Alternative of the Fuel Fabrication Capability (FFC); a facility to be built at a Greenfield DOE National Laboratory site. The FFC is designed to fabricate LEU-Mo monolithic fuel for the 5 US High Performance Research Reactors (HPRRs). This report provides a pre-conceptual design of the site, facility, process and equipment systems of the FFC; along with a preliminary hazards evaluation, risk assessment as well as the ROM cost and schedule estimate.

  8. The Experiences of Expert Group Work Supervisors: An Exploratory Study (United States)

    Atieno Okech, Jane E.; Rubel, Deborah


    Evaluation of group work supervision literature suggests that description of expert group work supervisors' experiences could be useful for expanding existing group work supervision practices and models. This study provided a systematic exploration of the experiences of expert group work supervisors during the supervision process. Results indicate…

  9. Using biofuel tracers to study alternative combustion regimes (United States)

    Mack, J. H.; Flowers, D. L.; Buchholz, B. A.; Dibble, R. W.


    Interest in the use of alternative fuels and engines is increasing as the price of petroleum climbs. The inherently higher efficiency of Diesel engines has led to increased adoption of Diesels in Europe, capturing approximately 40% of the new passenger car market. Unfortunately, lower CO2 emissions are countered with higher nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions and higher noise. Adding oxygenated compounds to the fuel helps reduce PM emissions. However, relying on fuel alone to reduce PM is unrealistic due to economic constraints and difficult due to the emerging PM standards. Keeping peak combustion temperature below 1700 K inhibits NOx formation. Altering the combustion regime to burn at temperatures below the NOx threshold and accept a wide variety of fuels seems like a promising alternative for future engines. Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) is a possible solution. Fuel and air are well mixed prior to intake into a cylinder (homogeneous charge) and ignition occurs by compression of the fuel-air mixture by the piston. HCCI is rapid and relatively cool, producing little NOx and PM. Unfortunately, it is hard to control since HCCI is initiated by temperature and pressure instead of a spark or direct fuel injection. We investigate biofuel HCCI combustion, and use intrinsically labeled biofuels as tracers of HCCI combustion. Data from tracer experiments are used to improve our combustion modeling.

  10. Is Media Work Good Work? A Case Study of Television Documentary


    Hesmondhalgh, D; Zoellner, A.


    This chapter examines a politics of creative media work in order to make claims for what is good work. These claims follow a number of recent critiques of work emerging from media production studies. Drawing on sociology, philosophy, and social theory, the chapter develops a model for the analysis of good and bad work in general. A case study of the independent television sector in the UK and Germany then applies this model to illustrate the coexistence of positive and negative features in me...

  11. Information Retrieval in a Work Setting: A Case Study of the Documentation Part of Chemists’ Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten


    The purpose of this study is to gain insight into a group of chemists’ documentation work in a large, international enterprise. The main concern is how filing is organized to support subsequent retrieval without overloading the primary work. The chemists’ documentation work is based on individual......, partial systems, such as piles with urgent things. Mostly, the final documentation work where documents are made part of the archive is delegated to the secretaries who act as intermediaries between the chemists and the archive. Recently, a comprehensive computer-based filing and retrieval system...... was implemented, primarily supporting the final documentation work. However, to some extent it is also the intention that the chemists shall use this system. The study identifies certain problematic issues in providing computer support for documentation work, but technical solutions are not offered....

  12. Alternative kynurenic acid synthesis routes studied in the rat cerebellum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonali eBlanco Ayala


    Full Text Available Kynurenic acid (KYNA, an astrocyte-derived, endogenous antagonist of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine and excitatory amino acid receptors, regulates glutamatergic, GABAergic, cholinergic and dopaminergic neurotransmission in several regions of the rodent brain. Synthesis of KYNA in the brain and elsewhere is generally attributed to the enzymatic conversion of L-kynurenine (L-KYN by kynurenine aminotransferases (KATs. However, alternative routes, including KYNA formation from D-kynurenine (D-KYN by D-amino acid oxidase (DAAO and the direct transformation of kynurenine to KYNA by reactive oxygen species (ROS, have been demonstrated in the rat brain. Using the rat cerebellum, a region of low KAT activity and high DAAO activity, the present experiments were designed to examine KYNA production from L-KYN or D-KYN by KAT and DAAO, respectively, and to investigate the effect of ROS on KYNA synthesis. In chemical combinatorial systems, both L-KYN and D-KYN interacted directly with peroxynitrite (ONOO- and hydroxyl radicals (OH•, resulting in the formation of KYNA. In tissue homogenates, the non-specific KAT inhibitor aminooxyacetic acid (AOAA; 1 mM reduced KYNA production from L-KYN and D-KYN by 85.1 ± 1.7% and 27.1 ± 4.5%, respectively. Addition of DAAO inhibitors (benzoic acid, kojic acid or 3-methylpyrazole-5-carboxylic acid; 5 µM each attenuated KYNA formation from L-KYN and D-KYN by ~35% and ~66%, respectively. ONOO- (25 µM potentiated KYNA production from both L-KYN and D-KYN, and these effects were reduced by DAAO inhibition. AOAA attenuated KYNA production from L-KYN + ONOO- but not from D-KYN + ONOO-. In vivo, extracellular KYNA levels increased rapidly after perfusion of ONOO- and, more prominently, after subsequent perfusion with L-KYN or D-KYN (100 µM. Taken together, these results suggest that different mechanisms are involved in KYNA production in the rat cerebellum, and that, specifically, DAAO and ROS can function as alternative routes

  13. Alternative kynurenic acid synthesis routes studied in the rat cerebellum (United States)

    Blanco Ayala, Tonali; Lugo Huitrón, Rafael; Carmona Aparicio, Liliana; Ramírez Ortega, Daniela; González Esquivel, Dinora; Pedraza Chaverrí, José; Pérez de la Cruz, Gonzalo; Ríos, Camilo; Schwarcz, Robert; Pérez de la Cruz, Verónica


    Kynurenic acid (KYNA), an astrocyte-derived, endogenous antagonist of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine and excitatory amino acid receptors, regulates glutamatergic, GABAergic, cholinergic and dopaminergic neurotransmission in several regions of the rodent brain. Synthesis of KYNA in the brain and elsewhere is generally attributed to the enzymatic conversion of L-kynurenine (L-KYN) by kynurenine aminotransferases (KATs). However, alternative routes, including KYNA formation from D-kynurenine (D-KYN) by D-amino acid oxidase (DAAO) and the direct transformation of kynurenine to KYNA by reactive oxygen species (ROS), have been demonstrated in the rat brain. Using the rat cerebellum, a region of low KAT activity and high DAAO activity, the present experiments were designed to examine KYNA production from L-KYN or D-KYN by KAT and DAAO, respectively, and to investigate the effect of ROS on KYNA synthesis. In chemical combinatorial systems, both L-KYN and D-KYN interacted directly with peroxynitrite (ONOO−) and hydroxyl radicals (OH•), resulting in the formation of KYNA. In tissue homogenates, the non-specific KAT inhibitor aminooxyacetic acid (AOAA; 1 mM) reduced KYNA production from L-KYN and D-KYN by 85.1 ± 1.7% and 27.1 ± 4.5%, respectively. Addition of DAAO inhibitors (benzoic acid, kojic acid or 3-methylpyrazole-5-carboxylic acid; 5 μM each) attenuated KYNA formation from L-KYN and D-KYN by ~35% and ~66%, respectively. ONOO− (25 μM) potentiated KYNA production from both L-KYN and D-KYN, and these effects were reduced by DAAO inhibition. AOAA attenuated KYNA production from L-KYN + ONOO− but not from D-KYN + ONOO−. In vivo, extracellular KYNA levels increased rapidly after perfusion of ONOO− and, more prominently, after subsequent perfusion with L-KYN or D-KYN (100 μM). Taken together, these results suggest that different mechanisms are involved in KYNA production in the rat cerebellum, and that, specifically, DAAO and ROS can function as alternative

  14. Balancing Work with Study: Impact on Marketing Students' Experience of Group Work (United States)

    D'Alessandro, Steven; Volet, Simone


    Approximately 57% of students in the United States work while attending college. For most of these students (81%), this is more than 20 hours a week. There has been shown to be a negative relationship between hours worked and academic achievement in studies in the United States as well as the United Kingdom and Australia. There is, however, no…

  15. The Professional Work of Teachers in Singapore: Findings from a Work-Shadowing Study (United States)

    Lee, Y.-J.; Poon, C. L.


    The professional activities that constitute the work of school teachers are known to be both numerous and varied. While managing teacher workloads is a major priority for governments around the world, valid and reliable figures are difficult to obtain. From a larger qualitative study of teachers' work culture in Singapore, we report data obtained…

  16. Work-Focused Treatment of Common Mental Disorders and Return to Work: A Comparative Outcome Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lagerveld, S.E.; Blonk, R.W.B.; Brenninkmeijer, V.; Wijngaards-de Meij, L.; Schaufeli, W.B.


    The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of two individual-level psychotherapy interventions: (a) treatment as usual consisting of cognitive– behavioral therapy (CBT) and (b) work-focused CBT (W-CBT) that integrated work aspects early into the treatment. Both interventions were carried

  17. Academic and Work-Related Burnout: A Longitudinal Study of Working Undergraduate University Business Students (United States)

    Galbraith, Craig S.; Merrill, Gregory B.


    We examined the interaction between academic burnout and work-related burnout for a sample of working undergraduate university students. Using a longitudinal design we found that the factors of burnout (Exhaustion, Cynicism, and Efficacy) change significantly over the semester. In addition, the study suggests there are distinct differences in how…



    Obulord F. Okiridu


    The control and auditing of stock in any organisation especially a manufacturing outfit such as Nigeria Engineering Works Limited is very vital, and demand management attention. Auditing could be done manually or electronically through the use of a computer. The study was carried out in four major departments of the company, namely Production, Marketing, Data processing and Internal audit. The study was guided by four research questions and a null/alternate hypothesis to ascertain whether the...

  19. Study of greenhouse gases reduction alternatives for the exploitation of non conventional oil sands in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouchonneau, Deborah [Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), Paris (France)


    High energy prices and greenhouse gases reduction represent the main challenges the current worldwide energetic situation has to face. As a consequence, paradox strategies can be highlighted: oil prices are sufficiently high to exploit non conventional oil resources, like extra heavy oils and oil sands. But the production of these resources emits larger GHG than the conventional oil path and implies other major environmental issues (water management, risks of soil pollution, destruction of the boreal forest), incompatible with the rules validated by the protocol of Kyoto. At the light of the new greenhouse gases reduction regulation framework announced by the Canadian Federal government, this work focuses on the study of greenhouse gases reduction alternatives applied to the non conventional oil sands exploitation in Canada. (author)

  20. Learning and working: types of combining university studies with employment


    Yanbarisova, Diana


    The purpose of this paper is to mark out and describe different types of combining university studies with work among 4th year university students of Yaroslavl and Tatarstan and to analyze their influence on academic achievement. Seven ‘study-work’ types are defined on the basis of two variables: work schedule and work relatedness to specialty. 1) Full-time work from the 1st-2nd university year not in a specialty field (223 students), 2) Full-time work during senior university years not in a ...

  1. Funding Full-Time Study through Part-Time Work (United States)

    Richardson, Mark; Evans, Carl; Gbadamosi, Gbolahan


    Full-time students engaged in part-time studies have been a subject of increasing academic attention. This study extends work in this area by examining: the extent to which full-time undergraduate students undertake part-time employment, the reasons for working whilst studying full-time and the extent to which students relate their part-time…

  2. Can Alternative Education Increase Children's Early School Engagement? A Longitudinal Study from Kindergarten to Third Grade (United States)

    de Bilde, Jerissa; Van Damme, Jan; Lamote, Carl; De Fraine, Bieke


    The current study examines the impact of alternative education on children's early school engagement in terms of school enjoyment and independent participation. A sample of 2,776 children from traditional (e.g., mainstream) and alternative (Freinet and Waldorf) Flemish schools was followed from their 3rd year of kindergarten until 3rd grade. The…

  3. Alternate space shuttle concepts study: Design requirements and phased programs evaluation (United States)


    A study to determine program and technical alternatives to the design of the space shuttle orbiter is described. The alternatives include a phased approach, involving orbiter development and operation with an expendable booster for an interim period, as well as design variations to the basic vehicle. The space shuttle orbiter configurations and predicted performance parameters are presented.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕爱钟; 张路青


    The stress analysis of surrounding rock for two random geometry tunnels is studied inthis paper by using Schwarz's alternating method. The simple and effective alternating algorithm is found, in which the surplus surface force is approximated by Fourier series, thus the iteration derivation can be conducted according to the precision required, finally, the stress results with high precision are obtained.

  5. Considerations of circadian impact for defining 'shift work' in cancer studies: IARC Working Group Report. (United States)

    Stevens, Richard G; Hansen, Johnni; Costa, Giovanni; Haus, Erhard; Kauppinen, Timo; Aronson, Kristan J; Castaño-Vinyals, Gemma; Davis, Scott; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W; Fritschi, Lin; Kogevinas, Manolis; Kogi, Kazutaka; Lie, Jenny-Anne; Lowden, Arne; Peplonska, Beata; Pesch, Beate; Pukkala, Eero; Schernhammer, Eva; Travis, Ruth C; Vermeulen, Roel; Zheng, Tongzhang; Cogliano, Vincent; Straif, Kurt


    Based on the idea that electric light at night might account for a portion of the high and rising risk of breast cancer worldwide, it was predicted long ago that women working a non-day shift would be at higher risk compared with day-working women. This hypothesis has been extended more recently to prostate cancer. On the basis of limited human evidence and sufficient evidence in experimental animals, in 2007 the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified 'shift work that involves circadian disruption' as a probable human carcinogen, group 2A. A limitation of the epidemiological studies carried out to date is in the definition of 'shift work.' IARC convened a workshop in April 2009 to consider how 'shift work' should be assessed and what domains of occupational history need to be quantified for more valid studies of shift work and cancer in the future. The working group identified several major domains of non-day shifts and shift schedules that should be captured in future studies: (1) shift system (start time of shift, number of hours per day, rotating or permanent, speed and direction of a rotating system, regular or irregular); (2) years on a particular non-day shift schedule (and cumulative exposure to the shift system over the subject's working life); and (3) shift intensity (time off between successive work days on the shift schedule). The group also recognised that for further domains to be identified, more research needs to be conducted on the impact of various shift schedules and routines on physiological and circadian rhythms of workers in real-world environments.

  6. 'Red Yeast Rice' Statin Alternative Not Harmless Either, Study Says (United States)

    ... study appears in the British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology . SOURCES: Paul D. Thompson, M.D., chief, cardiology, ... Nutrition; Jan. 19, 2017, British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology , online HealthDay Copyright (c) 2017 HealthDay . All rights ...

  7. 38 CFR 21.9670 - Work-study allowance. (United States)


    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Work-study allowance. 21... rate of pursuit of at least 75 percent may receive a work-study allowance in accordance with the...) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-9/11 GI Bill Payments-Educational Assistance § 21.9670...

  8. What Works Clearinghouse[TM] Reporting Guide for Study Authors (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2012


    This document provides guidance about how to describe studies and report their findings in a way that is clear, complete, and transparent. This document does not include information about how studies are judged against What Works Clearinghouse evidence standards. For information about What Works Clearinghouse evidence standards, please refer to…

  9. Fast-Food Calorie Labeling Not Working, Study Finds (United States)

    ... page: Fast-Food Calorie Labeling Not Working, Study Finds More visible ... not, a new study suggests. Starting next May, fast-food chains with more than 20 locations in the ...

  10. Alternative Policy Study: Environment and energy in Europe and Central Asia 1990-2010. Energy-related environmental impacts of policy scenarios GEO-2000 alternative policy study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vuuren DP van; Bakkes JA; United Nations Environment; MNV


    The GEO-2000 study into alternative policy options for Europe and Central Asia focuses on energy use as an important driver for environmental problems across the region. The problems analyzed are climate change, acidification, summer smog, urban air pollution and risks of reactor accidents associate

  11. Comparative study of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) transportation alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    WIPP transportation studies in the Final Supplement Environmental Impact Statement for WIPP are the baseline for this report. In an attempt to present the most current analysis, this study incorporates the most relevant data available. The following three transportation options are evaluated for the Disposal Phase, which is assumed to be 20 years: Truck shipments, consisting of a tractor and trailer, with three TRUPACT-IIs or one RH-72B; Regular commercial train shipments consisting of up to three railcars carrying up to 18 TRUPACT-IIs or up to six RH-72Bs; Dedicated train shipments consisting of a locomotive, an idle car, railcars carrying 18 TRUPACT-IIs or six RH-72Bs, another idle car, and a caboose or passenger car with an emergency response specialist. No other cargo is carried. This report includes: A consideration of occupational and public risks and exposures, and other environmental impacts; A consideration of emergency response capabilities; and An extimation of comparative costs.

  12. Technical Work Plan for: Fracture and Lithophysal Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The primary objective of the work scope described in this technical work plan (TWP) is to enhance the descriptions of fracture and lithophysal parameters for the repository host horizon (RHH) over the repository footprint utilizing a predictive model. This work is planned to address U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) additional information needs (AINs) associated with the Structural Deformation and Seismicity (SDS) Key Technical Issues (KTI) agreement SDS 3.03 (Schlueter 2000 [DIRS 166615]). The results of the planned work are expected to enhance the technical basis and confirm the results of the fracture analyses presented in ''Drift Degradation Analysis'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 166107], Section 6.1.6). This model is not intended to provide an alternative for the unsaturated zone and saturated zone flow and transport models currently used by the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP). Nor are the outputs of this model intended to address the SDS 3.03 AINs related to the unsaturated zone and saturated zone flow and transport models.

  13. Injury and time studies of working processes in fishing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Olaf Chresten


    Epidemiological studies of occupational injury document the incidence rates of the main structures as type of workplace and the work departments. The work processes within the departments represent an internal structure where the injury rates have not been given much attention before. The purpose...... of the present study was to relate the length of the working time to the number of injuries for the speciWc working processes in Wshing. Time measurements were performed during participation in Wshing trips with four diVerent kinds of vessels. Risk index numbers for the speciWc working processes were calculated...... by dividing the number of injuries within a 5-year period with the total sum of minutes used for each working process as measured during one Wshing trip for each type of Wshing. The highest risk index numbers were found for embarking and disembarking the vessel, which only takes a minimum of time...

  14. Working parents of children with behavioral problems: a study on the family-work interface. (United States)

    Breevaart, Kimberley; Bakker, Arnold B


    This study examines the process by which child behavioral problems are related to parents' well-being. We developed a family-work spillover model that was tested among 225 working parents. It was hypothesized that family-self conflict (FSC) mediates the relationship between child behavioral problems and parental strain, and that family-work conflict (FWC) mediates the relationship between parental strain and work engagement. Further, it was hypothesized that social support moderates the relationship between child behavioral problems and FSC. The results of (moderated) structural equation modeling supported the mediating role of FSC and FWC and the moderating role of social support. These findings suggest that the negative effects of raising a child with behavioral problems on parental well-being can be buffered by social support.

  15. Biowaiver: an alternative to in vivo pharmacokinetic bioequivalence studies. (United States)

    Mishra, V; Gupta, U; Jain, N K


    Bioequivalence is a vital concern in drug development even more significant in the case of Narrow Therapeutic Index (NTI) drugs. In clinical development of New Chemical Entities (NCE), bioequivalence studies necessitate to be performed when the formulation of the pharmaceutical dosage form has been changed. In vivo pharmacokinetic data can be used as surrogate parameters for in vivo solubility and permeability data. The Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) has emerged as a helpful tool in product development by alluding to the in vivo performance of the active substance. The bio-relevance of the BCS properties and the in vitro release are best expressed through a correlation between in vitro and in vivo data. Recently BCS has been implemented for waiving bioequivalence studies on the basis of the solubility and gastrointestinal permeability of drug substance and can be strategically deployed to save time and resources during generic drug development. The BCS has been adopted as a very useful tool for in vivo drug design and development worldwide, particularly in terms of regulatory standards. A BCS-based biowaiver has become an important and cost-saving tool in approval of generic drugs.

  16. Study On Decision-Making for Cafe Management Alternatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-I Hou


    Full Text Available In recent years, many new cafés have emerged onto t he market. Other than view cafés, beautiful cafés t hat seem as if they came from Paris or New York have gr adually appeared in leisure and quiet residential areas, in alleyways, in peripheral areas, and in lo cal commercial areas. In particular, leisure is tre ndy at present, and modern restaurants innovate in terms o f their food, leisure, and consumption. Unlike traditional restaurants, they are able to develop i nto cafés with unique styles to attract consumers. Even though not all of these new cafés are successful, a s cafés are an industry that is at the forefront of fashion, many individuals who dream of entrepreneurship woul d want to open a café. However, as there are many types of cafés on the market, what type and style o f cafés are the most suitable? An overview of cafés in Taiwan shows that each café offer unique services a nd functions to attract consumers, which is the key to sustainable operations of cafés. Therefore, this st udy explores the decisions of companies when choosi ng the style for their cafés. This study uses the anal ytical hierarchy process (AHP to explore the selec tion of café styles, in order to provide references for caf é operators to achieve successful and sustainable operations. Based on literature review, expert inte rviews, and AHP, this study intends to provide usef ul results to the operators of cafés.

  17. An ornithological study of alternate gas pipeline routes in Alaska, Yukon Territory and the Northwest Territories (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The study was an attempt to describe and estimate the numbers of species and relative densities of birds along the two alternate pipeline routes, and to arrive at...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, W.; Hay, M.


    In an effort to develop and optimize chemical cleaning methods for the removal of sludge heels from High Level Waste tanks, solubility tests have been conducted using nonradioactive, pure metal phases. The metal phases studied included the aluminum phase gibbsite and the iron phases hematite, maghemite, goethite, lepidocrocite, magnetite, and wustite. Many of these mineral phases have been identified in radioactive, High Level Waste sludge at the Savannah River and Hanford Sites. Acids evaluated for dissolution included oxalic, nitric, and sulfuric acids and a variety of other complexing organic acids. The results of the solubility tests indicate that mixtures of oxalic acid with either nitric or sulfuric acid are the most effective cleaning solutions for the dissolution of the primary metal phases in sludge waste. Based on the results, optimized conditions for hematite dissolution in oxalic acid were selected using nitric or sulfuric acid as a supplemental proton source. Electrochemical corrosion studies were also conducted (reported separately; Wiersma, 2010) with oxalic/mineral acid mixtures to evaluate the effects of these solutions on waste tank integrity. The following specific conclusions can be drawn from the test results: (1) Oxalic acid was shown to be superior to all of the other organic acids evaluated in promoting the dissolution of the primary sludge phases. (2) All iron phases showed similar solubility trends in oxalic acid versus pH, with hematite exhibiting the lowest solubility and the slowest dissolution. (3) Greater than 90% hematite dissolution occurred in oxalic/nitric acid mixtures within one week for two hematite sources and within three weeks for a third hematite sample with a larger average particle size. This dissolution rate appears acceptable for waste tank cleaning applications. (4) Stoichiometric dissolution of iron phases in oxalic acid (based on the oxalate concentration) and the formation of the preferred 1:1 Fe to oxalate complex


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, W.; Hay, M.


    In an effort to develop and optimize chemical cleaning methods for the removal of sludge heels from High Level Waste tanks, solubility tests have been conducted using nonradioactive, pure metal phases. The metal phases studied included the aluminum phase gibbsite and the iron phases hematite, maghemite, goethite, lepidocrocite, magnetite, and wustite. Many of these mineral phases have been identified in radioactive, High Level Waste sludge at the Savannah River and Hanford Sites. Acids evaluated for dissolution included oxalic, nitric, and sulfuric acids and a variety of other complexing organic acids. The results of the solubility tests indicate that mixtures of oxalic acid with either nitric or sulfuric acid are the most effective cleaning solutions for the dissolution of the primary metal phases in sludge waste. Based on the results, optimized conditions for hematite dissolution in oxalic acid were selected using nitric or sulfuric acid as a supplemental proton source. Electrochemical corrosion studies were also conducted (reported separately; Wiersma, 2010) with oxalic/mineral acid mixtures to evaluate the effects of these solutions on waste tank integrity. The following specific conclusions can be drawn from the test results: (1) Oxalic acid was shown to be superior to all of the other organic acids evaluated in promoting the dissolution of the primary sludge phases. (2) All iron phases showed similar solubility trends in oxalic acid versus pH, with hematite exhibiting the lowest solubility and the slowest dissolution. (3) Greater than 90% hematite dissolution occurred in oxalic/nitric acid mixtures within one week for two hematite sources and within three weeks for a third hematite sample with a larger average particle size. This dissolution rate appears acceptable for waste tank cleaning applications. (4) Stoichiometric dissolution of iron phases in oxalic acid (based on the oxalate concentration) and the formation of the preferred 1:1 Fe to oxalate complex

  20. Alternative Enhanced Chemical Cleaning Basic Studies Results FY09

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hay, M.; King, W.


    Due to the need to close waste storage tanks, chemical cleaning methods are needed for the effective removal of the heels. Oxalic acid is the preferred cleaning reagent for sludge heel dissolution, particularly for iron-based sludge, due to the strong complexing strength of the oxalate. However, the large quantity of oxalate added to the tank farm from oxalic acid based chemical cleaning has significant downstream impacts. Optimization of the oxalic acid cleaning process can potentially reduce the downstream impacts from chemical cleaning. To optimize oxalic acid usage, a detailed understanding of the chemistry of oxalic acid based sludge dissolution is required. Additionally, other acid systems may be required for specific waste components with low solubility in oxalic acid and as a means to reduce oxalic acid usage in general. Solubility tests were conducted using non-radioactive, pure metal phases known to be the primary phases present in High Level Waste sludge. The metal phases studied included the aluminum phases gibbsite and boehmite and the iron phases magnetite and hematite. Hematite and boehmite are expected to be the most difficult iron and aluminum phases to dissolve. These mineral phases have been identified in both SRS and Hanford High Level Waste sludge. Acids evaluated for dissolution included oxalic, nitric, and sulfuric acids. The results of the solubility tests indicate that oxalic and sulfuric acids are more effective for the dissolution of the primary sludge phases. For boehmite, elevated temperature will be required to promote effective phase dissolution in the acids studied. Literature reviews, thermodynamic modeling, and experimental results have all confirmed that pH control using a supplemental proton source (additional acid) is critical for minimization of oxalic acid usage during the dissolution of hematite. These results emphasize the importance of pH control in optimizing hematite dissolution in oxalic acid and may explain the somewhat

  1. Cohort profile: the lidA Cohort Study-a German Cohort Study on Work, Age, Health and Work Participation. (United States)

    Hasselhorn, Hans Martin; Peter, Richard; Rauch, Angela; Schröder, Helmut; Swart, Enno; Bender, Stefan; du Prel, Jean-Baptist; Ebener, Melanie; March, Stefanie; Trappmann, Mark; Steinwede, Jacob; Müller, Bernd Hans


    The lidA Cohort Study (German Cohort Study on Work, Age, Health and Work Participation) was set up to investigate and follow the effects of work and work context on the physical and psychological health of the ageing workforce in Germany and subsequently on work participation. Cohort participants are initially employed people subject to social security contributions and born in either 1959 (n = 2909) or 1965 (n = 3676). They were personally interviewed in their homes in 2011 and will be visited every 3 years. Data collection comprises socio-demographic data, work and private exposures, work ability, work and work participation attitudes, health, health-related behaviour, personality and attitudinal indicators. Employment biographies are assessed using register data. Subjective health reports and physical strength measures are complemented by health insurance claims data, where permission was given. A conceptual framework has been developed for the lidA Cohort Study within which three confirmatory sub-models assess the interdependencies of work and health considering age, gender and socioeconomic status. The first set of the data will be available to the scientific community by 2015. Access will be given by the Research Data Centre of the German Federal Employment Agency at the Institute for Employment Research (

  2. Weekly work engagement and performance: A study among starting teachers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.B. Bakker (Arnold); P.M. Bal (Matthijs)


    textabstractThis study among 54 Dutch teachers tested a model of weekly work engagement. On the basis of theories about the motivational potential of job resources, we predicted that teachers' weekly job resources are positively related to their week-levels of work engagement, and that week-level wo

  3. Prevalence of musculoskeletal disorder and alternative medicine therapies among dentists of North India: A descriptive study

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    Devanand Gupta


    Full Text Available Aim: Health professionals especially the dental professional are the frequent targets of musculoskeletal disorders (MSD. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM can be of some help in managing these MSD especially in. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of CAM therapies as a treatment modality for MSD management among dental professionals of north India. Materials and Methods: Registered dentist of North Indian origin, India (n = 3598 were included in the study. The questionnaire was sent to all the dentists which consisted of the demographic profile, MSD in the past year, CAM therapies utilization and opinion about CAM therapies. Data analysis was done using SPSS version 21 and data were presented in tabular and graphic form. Test of significance was done using chi-square statistics with P < 0.05 considered as significant. Results: A response rate of 80% (n = 2879 was obtained, and all complained of MDS in some or the other part of their life. The use of CAM was reported among 70% (n = 2015 of the dentist who suffered from MSD. Other dentists either used conventional treatment or did not use anything. Conclusion: As the name implies, alternative medical systems is a category that extends beyond a single modality and refers to an entire system of theory and practice that developed separately from conventional medicine. CAM should be subject to rigorous scientific inquiry so that interventions that work are systematically distinguished from those that do not. In addition, the use of CAM treatments should be based on evidence of effectiveness and safety as demonstrated in randomized clinical trials.

  4. Work for sustainability: Case studies of Brazilian companies. (United States)

    Bolis, Ivan; Brunoro, Claudio M; Sznelwar, Laerte I


    The introduction of strategic corporate sustainability policies is expected to result in the improvement of several issues in companies. One of these issues is work, which should involve greater well-being for workers. Within the context of production engineering, this research connects sustainability and work-related issues, the latter seen in light of the discipline of ergonomics. Based on case studies conducted at four companies considered sustainability benchmarks, we examined how the introduction of the theme of sustainability has influenced work-related issues. The elements analyzed here were the corporate sustainability strategy, organizational practices for deploying the strategy, and the work design phase. The last element is the moment in which work is prescribed in the organization. The results show that, despite the announcement of the inclusion of changes in work, there is not any explicit evidence confirming that such changes are considered as a requirement for corporate sustainability projects.

  5. Working in the sky: A diary study on work engagement among flight attendants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Xanthopoulou (Despoina); A.B. Bakker (Arnold); E. Heuven (Ellen); E. Demerouti (Eva); W.B. Schaufeli (Wilmar)


    textabstractThis study aims to gain insight in the motivational process of the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model by examining whether daily fluctuations in colleague support (i.e., a typical job resource) predict day-levels of job performance through self-efficacy and work engagement. Forty-four fl

  6. Transforming English Language Learners' Work Readiness: Case Studies in Explicit, Work-Specific Vocabulary Instruction (United States)

    Madrigal-Hopes, Diana L.; Villavicencio, Edna; Foote, Martha M.; Green, Chris


    This qualitative study examined the impact of a six-step framework for work-specific vocabulary instruction in adult English language learners (ELLs). Guided by research in English as a second language (ESL) methodology and the transactional theory, the researchers sought to unveil how these processes supported the acquisition and application of…

  7. Predictors for postpartum pelvic girdle pain in working women: the Mom@Work cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stomp-van den Berg, G.M.; Hendriksen, I.J.M.; Bruinvels, D.J.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Mechelen, W. van; Poppel, M.N.M. van


    The objective of this study was to examine which factors during pregnancy and postpartum predict pelvic girdle pain (PGP) at 12 weeks postpartum among working women. A total of 548 Dutch pregnant employees were recruited in 15 companies, mainly health care, child care, and supermarkets. The definiti

  8. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of General Practitioners toward Complementary and Alternative Medicine: a Cross-Sectional Study. (United States)

    Barikani, Ameneh; Beheshti, Akram; Javadi, Maryam; Yasi, Marzieh


    Orientation of public and physicians to the complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is one of the most prominent symbols of structural changes in the health service system. The aim of his study was a determination of knowledge, attitude, and practice of general practitioners in complementary and alternative medicine. This cross- sectional study was conducted in Qazvin, Iran in 2013. A self-administered questionnaire was used for collecting data including four information parts: population information, physicians' attitude and knowledge, methods of getting information and their function. A total of 228 physicians in Qazvin comprised the population of study according to the deputy of treatment's report of Qazvin University of Medical Sciences. A total of 150 physicians were selected randomly, and SPSS Statistical program was used to enter questionnaires' data. Results were analyzed as descriptive statistics and statistical analysis. Sixty percent of all responders were male. About sixty (59.4) percent of participating practitioners had worked less than 10 years.96.4 percent had a positive attitude towards complementary and alternative medicine. Knowledge of practitioners about traditional medicine in 11 percent was good, 36.3% and 52.7% had average and little information, respectively. 17.9% of practitioners offered their patients complementary and alternative medicine for treatment. Although there was little knowledge among practitioners about traditional medicine and complementary approaches, a significant percentage of them had attitude higher than the lower limit.

  9. Alternative medicine in Paris and Rio de Janeiro: a study on transformative health experiences

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    Elisabeth Eglem


    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to explore the practice of alternative medicine as an experience capable of modifying the very perception of the body and body feeling, based in a two-field research in France (Paris and Brazil (Rio de Janeiro. In this research, the resort to alternative medicines was considered as urban practice and a possible response to emotional needs, beyond the curative specificities of these medicines. The two countries were chosen for their supposed complementarity concerning the perception of spirituality and therefore, the perception of holistic health concepts. The study relies on an inductive approach and a qualitative methodology: introspective interviews with consumers and professionals, as well as participant observations. After a review of the theoretical aspects on the subject — concepts related to health, alternative medicine, transformative experience —, empirical results are presented. They show that the experience of alternative medicine tends to modify body perception, understood as how individuals define their own body. It also tends to modify body internal feeling, literally how people feel their body. The second conclusion that can be drawn from our study is that, beyond cultural specificities, some similarities appear in the way the practice of alternative medicine impacts on body perception and individual values. In that sense, alternative medicine practices in big urban centers appear to be related to a global consumer culture. However, alternative health behaviors rely on a subjective quest of sense which can be expressed through a variety of practices related to better health, not necessarily involving consumption.

  10. Does work affect personality? A study in horses.

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    Martine Hausberger

    Full Text Available It has been repeatedly hypothesized that job characteristics are related to changes in personality in humans, but often personality models still omit effects of life experience. Demonstrating reciprocal relationships between personality and work remains a challenge though, as in humans, many other influential factors may interfere. This study investigates this relationship by comparing the emotional reactivity of horses that differed only by their type of work. Horses are remarkable animal models to investigate this question as they share with humans working activities and their potential difficulties, such as "interpersonal" conflicts or "suppressed emotions". An earlier study showed that different types of work could be associated with different chronic behavioural disorders. Here, we hypothesised that type of work would affect horses' personality. Therefore over one hundred adult horses, differing only by their work characteristics were presented standardised behavioural tests. Subjects lived under the same conditions (same housing, same food, were of the same sex (geldings, and mostly one of two breeds, and had not been genetically selected for their current type of work. This is to our knowledge the first time that a direct relationship between type of work and personality traits has been investigated. Our results show that horses from different types of work differ not as much in their overall emotional levels as in the ways they express emotions (i.e. behavioural profile. Extremes were dressage horses, which presented the highest excitation components, and voltige horses, which were the quietest. The horses' type of work was decided by the stall managers, mostly on their jumping abilities, but unconscious choice based on individual behavioural characteristics cannot be totally excluded. Further research would require manipulating type of work. Our results nevertheless agree with reports on humans and suggest that more attention should be

  11. Working experiences of Iranian retired nurses: a content analysis study. (United States)

    Nobahar, Monir; Ahmadi, Fazlollah; Alhani, Fatemah; Fallahi Khoshknab, Masood


    Understanding the experiences of retired nurses can be useful in increasing self-confidence, motivation to work and work enthusiasm among nurses. The purpose of this study was to explore the work experiences of Iranian retired nurses. A qualitative design was conducted using a content analysis approach. Purposive sampling was used to choose the study participants. Semi-structured interviews were held to collect the perspectives of 20 retired nurses (10 female and 10 male). Two main themes emerged in the data analysis: 'work problems and unpleasant experiences in a sense' with subthemes 'exhausting work', 'insufficient salary', 'inappropriate relation' and 'unsuitable social position'; and 'job satisfaction and pleasant experiences in a sense' with subthemes 'divine satisfaction and religious belief', 'satisfaction of patients and their companions' and 'love of nursing profession and relaxation experience'. The findings indicate the challenges that nurses face after retirement. These experiences will help nurse managers to adopt appropriate measures to support nurses after retirement.

  12. Quantitative study of electrophoretic and electroosmotic enhancement during alternating current iontophoresis across synthetic membranes. (United States)

    Yan, Guang; Li, S Kevin; Peck, Kendall D; Zhu, Honggang; Higuchi, William I


    One of the primary safety and tolerability limitations of direct current iontophoresis is the potential for electrochemical burns associated with the necessary current densities and/or application times required for effective treatment. Alternating current (AC) transdermal iontophoresis has the potential to eliminate electrochemical burns that are frequently observed during direct current transdermal iontophoresis. Although it has been demonstrated that the intrinsic permeability of skin can be increased by applying low-to-moderate AC voltages, transdermal transport phenomena and enhancement under AC conditions have not been systematically studied and are not well understood. The aim of the present work was to study the fundamental transport mechanisms of square-wave AC iontophoresis using a synthetic membrane system. The model synthetic membrane used was a composite Nuclepore membrane. AC frequencies ranging from 20 to 1000 Hz and AC fields ranging from 0.25 to 0.5 V/membrane were investigated. A charged permeant, tetraethyl ammonium, and a neutral permeant, arabinose, were used. The transport studies showed that flux was enhanced by increasing the AC voltage and decreasing AC frequency. Two theoretical transport models were developed: one is a homogeneous membrane model; the other is a heterogeneous membrane model. Experimental transport data were compared with computer simulations based on these models. Excellent agreement between model predictions and experimental data was observed when the data were compared with the simulations from the heterogeneous membrane model.

  13. LCA to choose among alternative design solutions: the case study of a new Italian incineration line. (United States)

    Scipioni, A; Mazzi, A; Niero, M; Boatto, T


    At international level LCA is being increasingly used to objectively evaluate the performances of different Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) management solutions. One of the more important waste management options concerns MSW incineration. LCA is usually applied to existing incineration plants. In this study LCA methodology was applied to a new Italian incineration line, to facilitate the prediction, during the design phase, of its potential environmental impacts in terms of damage to human health, ecosystem quality and consumption of resources. The aim of the study was to analyse three different design alternatives: an incineration system with dry flue gas cleaning (without- and with-energy recovery) and one with wet flue gas cleaning. The last two technological solutions both incorporating facilities for energy recovery were compared. From the results of the study, the system with energy recovery and dry flue gas cleaning revealed lower environmental impacts in relation to the ecosystem quality. As LCA results are greatly affected by uncertainties of different types, the second part of the work provides for an uncertainty analysis aimed at detecting the extent output data from life cycle analysis are influenced by uncertainty of input data, and employs both qualitative (pedigree matrix) and quantitative methods (Monte Carlo analysis).

  14. Combining University Studies With Work: Influence On Academic Achievement


    Diana M. Yanbarisova


    This paper analyses the influence of different combinations of work and study on academic achievement among university students of Yaroslavl region in Russia. The data was collected during the first wave of longitudinal research on the educational and occupational trajectories of graduates of schools and universities conducted by the Institute of Education, Higher School of Economics, Moscow in 2009. The sample consists of 1474 4th and 5th year university students. Five work-study types are d...

  15. A role perception study of school social work practice. (United States)

    Staudt, M


    A study conducted in an intermediary educational agency examined principals' and special education teachers' perceptions of actual and ideal performance of school social work tasks. Those services seen as provided most frequently are directed toward individuals. Although respondents want these services to continue, they also want more group work services. The study contained several recommendations, including one for the development of individualized building service plans and another on the development of a screening process for special education assessments.

  16. Competence of novice nurses: role of clinical work during studying. (United States)

    Manoochehri, H; Imani, E; Atashzadeh-Shoorideh, F; Alavi-Majd, A


    Aim: Clinical competence is to carry out the tasks with excellent results in a different of adjustments. According to various studies, one of the factors influencing clinical competence is work experience. This experience affects the integrity of students' learning experience and their practical skills. Many nursing students practice clinical work during their full-time studying. The aim of this qualitative research was to clarify the role of clinical work during studying in novice nurses' clinical competence. Methods: This qualitative content analysis performed with the conventional approach. All teaching hospitals of Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences selected as the research environment. To collect data, deep and semi-structured interviews, presence in the scene and manuscripts used. To provide feedback for the next release and the capacity of the data, interviews were transcribed verbatim immediately. Results: 45 newly-graduated nurses and head nurses between 23 and 40 with 1 to 18 years of experience participated in the study. After coding all interviews, 1250 original codes were derived. The themes extracted included: task rearing, personality rearing, knowledge rearing, and profession rearing roles of clinical work during studying. Conclusion: Working during studying can affect performance, personality, knowledge, and professional perspectives of novice nurses. Given the differences that may exist in clinical competencies of novice nurses with and without clinical work experience, it is important to pay more attention to this issue and emphasize on their learning in this period.

  17. A case study using grounded theory of environmental education in an alternative school (United States)

    Lyle, Laurina Isabella

    This study examines the appropriate practices of an alternative school in west Tennessee in educating middle and high school students in long- and short-term alternative school placement. The participants included 23 students in grades 7-12 who had been classified as disruptive or failing academically, thus requiring intervention. The study's aim was to determine the effect of environmental education on the academic progress of these students. Data were obtained through multi-triangulation methodology and analyzed by grounded theory methodology. Four concepts emerged: social dynamics, relevance, conversion, and affirmation. A grounded theory for effective alternative education through environmental education based on the emergent concepts is proposed, including a new learning framework from which alternative school educators can design curricula and instructional units.

  18. Charcoal-Oil Mixture as an Alternative Fuel: A Preliminary Study

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    Roila Awang


    Full Text Available The fast depletion of fuel oil and continuous increase in the demand for power is a global issue. The world energy consumption is projected to grow at an average of 2.7-3.7% from 1996 to 2010. Therefore search for alternative fuel is highly prioritized. Thus this study presents the results on the characteristic of charcoal-oil mixture as an alternative fuel. The calorific value, ash content and stability of the mixture are determined.

  19. Why Lesson Study Works in Japan: A Cultural Perspective (United States)

    Ebaeguin, Marlon; Stephens, Max


    Japanese lesson study has attracted many international educators who have been impressed by its capacity to foster student learning and sustained professional growth of teachers. This paper reports a study on its cultural orientations that may explain why lesson study works seamlessly in Japan. Hofstede's dimensions of national culture are…

  20. Work Plan for the Feasibility Study for Remedial Action at J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benioff, P.; Biang, C.; Haffenden, R.; Goyette, M.; Martino, L.; Patton, T.; Yuen, C.


    The purpose of the feasibility study is to gather sufficient information to develop and evaluate alternative remedial actions to address contamination at J-Field in compliance with the NCP, CERCLA, and SARA. This FS Work Plan summarizes existing environmental data for each AOC and outlines the tasks to be performed to evaluate and select remedial technologies. The tasks to be performed will include (1) developing remedial action objectives and identifying response actions to meet these objectives; (2) identifying and screening remedial action technologies on the basis of effectiveness, implementability, and cost; (3) assembling technologies into comprehensive alternatives for J-Field; (4) evaluating, in detail, each alternative against the nine EPA evaluation criteria and comparing the alternatives to identify their respective strengths and weaknesses; and (5) selecting the preferred alternative for each operable unit.

  1. Photovoltaic system as an alternative source of electricity generation : a case study in Hashemite University, Jordan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etier, I. [Hashemite Univ., Zarqa (Jordan). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Ababneh, M. [Hashemite Univ., Zarqa (Jordan). Dept. of Mechatronics Engineering


    Approximately 97 per cent of the primary energy is imported in Jordan, of which 30 per cent is used to generate electrical energy. In response to increasing oil prices, renewable-energy sources are becoming increasingly viable in Jordan. As such, photovoltaic (PV) systems are gaining attention as an alternative source of energy. This paper presented a case study involving the design and simulation of a 10-kW photovoltaic system in Hashemite University, Jordan. The purpose of the study was to investigate the feasibility of using solar energy in Jordan using a grid-connected photovoltaic-system in an effort to encourage investment in this field. In addition, the site was selected because the campus is located in a desert area where the global radiation numbers are among the highest in the world; the campus has a great deal of safe building flat-roof areas to install solar panels; and most of the power demand occurs during the daytime so that implementing grid-connected PV system would contribute to a considerable savings in electricity. The paper discussed the PV system and described the system components. Actual and simulated meteorological data was used to define and optimize different parts of the system. It was concluded that future work might include improving system-efficiency and optimizing system components by investigating a new mechanism to keep the sun radiation vertical to solar-panels, or using newer technologies for solar cells and inverters. 21 refs., 3 tabs., 6 figs.

  2. A study of three IACUCs and their views of scientific merit and alternatives. (United States)

    Graham, Karen


    Two ethical issues facing Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees [IACUCs] today are assessing scientific merit and the use of alternatives in research proposals. This study evaluated 3 IACUCs using a 19-question survey, with a 77.8% response rate. Although 76% of members answered that scientific merit should be more dili-gently assessed if more than slight pain is caused, 14% believed that assessing scien-tific merit is not the role of the IACUC. Nearly 86% agreed that the search for alterna-tives should be more diligent for protocols that incur more than slight pain to the animals involved. Some members believed that alternatives were not actively enough sought after, while others believed no viable alternatives existed. Additional guide-lines are needed to clarify these issues.

  3. Constructed-Response as an Alternative to Interviews in Conceptual Change Studies: Students' Explanations of Force (United States)

    Schleigh, Sharon Price; Clark, Douglas B.; Menekse, Muhsin


    Although interview formats support rich data collection in conceptual change studies, interview formats limit sample sizes. This study explores the possibility of using constructed-response formats as an alternative or supplement for collecting similarly rich data across larger pools of subjects in conceptual change studies. While research in…

  4. Study on Plastic Coated Overburnt Brick Aggregate as an Alternative Material for Bituminous Road Construction


    Dipankar Sarkar; Manish Pal; Sarkar, Ashoke K.


    There are different places in India where natural stone aggregates are not available for constructional work. Plastic coated OBBA can solve the problem of shortage of stone aggregate to some extent. The engineers are always encouraged to use locally available materials. The present investigation is carried out to evaluate the plastic coated OBBA as an alternative material for bituminous road construction. Shredded waste plastics are mixed with OBBA in different percentages as 0.38, 0.42, 0.46...

  5. Polychronicity and multitasking: a diary study at work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirchberg, D.M.; Roe, R.A.; van Eerde, W.


    Polychronicity and multitasking have been described as being indispensible in work today because they enable people to use their time flexibly and effectively. We conducted a diary study among 93 employees during the mornings and evenings of 5 consecutive workdays (n = 418 observations). The study u

  6. Facilitating Collaborative Work in Tertiary Teaching: A Self-Study (United States)

    Verenikina, Irina


    This paper reports on a self-study undertaken by the author to better understand the educational practices of scaffolding in pre-service teachers' collaborative group work. The method included student interviews, conversations with a critical friend, and the researcher's diary. The self-study allowed for fine-tuning theoretical understanding and…

  7. Does consensus work? A case study of the Cloughjordan ecovillage, Ireland

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    Paul A. Cunningham


    Full Text Available Ecovillages have grown in number around the world since the early 1990s. This growth appears to be largely due to the contested nature of post/modernity and the desire to establish a more simple, meaningful and sustainable lifestyle that is centered on community. The end of the 1990s represented the high tide of neo-liberalism in most advance liberal democracies. Ten years later, and the global economy still demonstrates signs that modes of capitalism have intensified and spread under the influence of global and state orchestrated markets, giving rise to a search for alternatives that might provide other mechanisms for organizing our lives. Cloughjordan Ecovillage is used to examine how governance through a consensus-based decision-making approach works as an alternative in this circumstance. Generally, intentional communities are organized around egalitarian principles and therefore commonly embrace the ideology of consensus. The primary research question guiding this study was—Does consensus work in the governance of alternative lifestyles? The preliminary findings of this case study suggests that in spite of the impressive nature of the built infrastructure at this site, the community continues to struggle with consensus-based decision-making as a form of self-organization and governance.

  8. Oxidising alternative species to chromium VI in zinc-galvanised steel surface treatment. Part 2. An electrochemical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, E. [Inst. Nacional de Engenharia e Tecnologia Industrial, Lisbon (Portugal); Fedrizzi, L. [Material Engineering Department, University of Trento, Trento (Italy); Diamantinio, T.C. [Inst. Nacional de Engenharia e Tecnologia Industrial, Lisbon (Portugal)]|[Instituto do Ambiente e Vida, Departamento de Zoologia, Universidade de Coimbra, Coimbra (Portugal)


    In the first part of this work, the authors present the main results and conclusions of a morphological and chemical study carried out on zinc conversion layers (ZCLs) obtained with oxidising alternative passivation baths, that includes molybdates, permanganates, vanadates and tungstates. A good chromate-based bath was used as reference. In this second part of the work, the authors present the main results obtained on selected zinc conversion layers (ZCLs), using a.c. electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The results obtained were correlated with the morphological and chemical data obtained with the same ZCLs in the first part of this work. Finally, it is concluded that the alternative ZCLs studied, does not seem to be as efficient as that obtained with a chromate-based passivation bath used as reference. It is believed that a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in the ZCL`s formation, can be useful for studying, in the very near future, possible synergetic effects between molybdates and other chemical species. (orig.) 24 refs.

  9. Study of lone working magnetic resonance technologists in Western Australia

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    Tracy Anne Dewland


    Full Text Available Objectives: It is recommended that magnetic resonance (MR technologists should not work alone due to potential occupational health risks although lone working is legally acceptable. The objective of this study was to investigate the current situation of lone working MR technologists in Western Australia (WA and any issue against the regulations. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire regarding the issues of occupational health of lone working MR technologists was developed based on relevant literature and distributed to WA MR technologists. Descriptive (percentage of frequency, mean and standard deviation and inferential statistics (Fisher's exact, Chi2 and t tests, and analysis of variance were used to analyze the responses of the yes/no, multiple choice and 5 pt scale questions from the returned questionnaires. Results: The questionnaire response rate was 65.6% (59/90. It was found that about half of the MR technologists (45.8%, 27/59 experienced lone working. The private magnetic resonance imaging (MRI centers were more likely to arrange technologists to work alone (p < 0.05. The respondents expressed positive views on issues of adequacy of training and arrangement, confidence and comfort towards lone working except immediate assistance for emergency (mean: 3. Factors of existence of MRI safety officer (p < 0.05 and nature of lone working (p < 0.001-0.05 affected MR technologists' concerns. Conclusions: Lone working of MR technologists is common in WA especially in private centers. The training and arrangement provided seem to be adequate for meeting the legal requirements. However, several areas should be improved by the workplaces including enhancement on immediate emergency assistance and concern relief.

  10. A Study on Becoming an Alternatively Certified Career and Technical Educator (United States)

    Cotton-Flanagan, Kymberli A.


    This mixed method study examined the perspectives of twelve practicing high school CTE teachers engaged in a newly approved university model for alternative certification. Using Creswell's (2008) Sequential Exploratory Design and the lens of adult learning theory as established in Knowles' (1970) Theory of Andragogy, this study examines how…

  11. Theoretical and experimental studies on combustion of alternative fuels in cement kilns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Axelsen, Ernst Petter


    In this thesis, the utilization of alternative fuels for NOx reduction by means of reburning and advanced reburning is considered. Laboratory experiments, full-scale experiments and computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations are the basis of the thesis. The goal of the work was to characterize alternative fuels used in cement kilns, with focus on the processes taking place in the precalciner of the cement kiln. To facilitate testing under controlled process conditions, a lab-scale circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) reactor was designed and constructed. A co prehensive study on the fluidization regime in CFBC reactors and precalciners was required to ensure and verify that the operational regime in the CFBC reactor was similar to the regime in a precalciner. Different alternative fuels, such as refuse derived fuel, animal meal and solid hazardous waste, were tested in the CFBC reactor, which proved well suited for characterization of alternative fuels and investigations of NOx reduction, even though the operation of a CFBC reactor is quite complex and gives a certain variation in stability. Experiments with and without circulating mass in the CFBC reactor demonstrated the importance of executing the laboratory combustion experiments in an environment similar to that in the full-scale process, i.e. in the precalciner. Animal meal is believed to follow the reduction route of selective non-catalytic r duction or advanced reburning and to have a special capability of reducing NOx during increased NOx concentrations at the reactor inlet. The increased CO emissions during advanced reburning and reburning with animal meal are most likely to be due to the competition for the OH radical during oxidation of CO and of NH{sub 3}. Furthermore, it was shown, for all fuels, that an increased concentration of NOx at the reactor inlet increases the ratio of NOx at the exit and NOx supplied. Full-scale experiments were executed at Norcem's kiln 6 in Brevik, using

  12. Longitudinal study of spatial working memory development in young children. (United States)

    Tsujii, Takeo; Yamamoto, Eriko; Masuda, Sayako; Watanabe, Shigeru


    This study longitudinally compared activity in the frontal cortex during a spatial working memory task between 5-year-old and 7-year-old children using near-infrared spectroscopy. Eight children participated in this study twice, once at 5 years and once at 7 years of age. Behavioral analysis showed that older children performed the working memory task more precisely and more rapidly than younger children. Near-infrared spectroscopy analysis showed that right hemisphere dominance was observed in older children, whereas no hemispheric difference was apparent in younger children. Children with strengthened lateralization showed improved performance from 5 to 7 years. We therefore offer the first demonstration of the developmental changes in frontal cortical activation during spatial working memory tasks during the preschool period.

  13. Psychosocial work environment and antidepressant medication: a prospective cohort study

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    Westergaard-Nielsen Niels


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adverse psychosocial work environments may lead to impaired mental health, but it is still a matter of conjecture if demonstrated associations are causal or biased. We aimed at verifying whether poor psychosocial working climate is related to increase of redeemed subscription of antidepressant medication. Methods Information on all antidepressant drugs (AD purchased at pharmacies from 1995 through 2006 was obtained for a cohort of 21,129 Danish public service workers that participated in work climate surveys carried out during the period 2002–2005. Individual self-reports of psychosocial factors at work including satisfaction with the work climate and dimensions of the job strain model were obtained by self-administered questionnaires (response rate 77,2%. Each employee was assigned the average score value for all employees at his/her managerial work unit [1094 units with an average of 18 employees (range 3–120]. The risk of first-time AD prescription during follow-up was examined according to level of satisfaction and psychosocial strain by Cox regression with adjustment for gender, age, marital status, occupational status and calendar year of the survey. Results The proportion of employees that received at least one prescription of ADs from 1995 through 2006 was 11.9% and prescriptions rose steadily from 1.50% in 1996 to the highest level 6.47% in 2006. ADs were prescribed more frequent among women, middle aged, employees with low occupational status and those living alone. None of the measured psychosocial work environment factors were consistently related to prescription of antidepressant drugs during the follow-up period. Conclusion The study does not indicate that a poor psychosocial work environment among public service employees is related to prescription of antidepressant pharmaceuticals. These findings need cautious interpretation because of lacking individual exposure assessments.

  14. An interpretive study of Yosemite National Park visitors' perspectives toward alternative transportation in Yosemite Valley. (United States)

    White, Dave D


    The National Park Service (NPS) is increasingly focusing on alternative transportation systems in national parks to address environmental and social problems arising from a historical reliance on personal automobiles as the primary means of visitor access. Despite the potential advantages, alternative transportation may require a reorientation in the way that Americans have experienced national parks since the advent of auto-tourism in the early twentieth century. Little research exists, however, on visitor perspectives towards alternative transportation or the rationale underlying their perspectives. It remains unclear how transportation systems affect visitors' experiences of the park landscape or the factors influencing their travel behavior in the parks. This report presents an interpretive study of visitor perspectives toward transportation management in the Yosemite Valley area of Yosemite National Park, California. Qualitative analysis of 160 semi-structured interviews identified individual psychological factors as well as situational influences that affect visitors' behavior and perspectives. Individual psychological factors include perceived freedom, environmental values and beliefs, prior experience with Yosemite National Park and other national parks, prior experience with alternative transportation in national parks, and sensitivity to subjective perceptions of crowding. Situational factors included convenience, access, and flexibility of travel modes, as well as type of visit, type of group, and park use level. Interpretive communication designed to encourage voluntary visitor use of alternative transportation should focus on these psychological and situational factors. Although challenges remain, the results of this study suggest approaches for shaping the way Americans visit and experience their national parks to encourage environmental sustainability.

  15. The Work-Study Experience of Indigenous Undergraduates in Taiwan (United States)

    Chen, Shan-Hua


    Due to the large number of universities in Taiwan and the increased availability of scholarships for disadvantaged students, the number of college students from indigenous families has been on the rise in recent years. However, many indigenous students still find it necessary to work part-time. In this study, indigenous students were interviewed…

  16. Putting Disability Studies to Work in Art Education (United States)

    Penketh, Claire


    Putting disability studies to work in art education suggests a form of action or industry, a creative opportunity for something to be done, recognising the relationship between theory and practice. Drawing on discourse analysis, this article offers an initial theoretical discussion of some of the ways in which disability is revealed and created…

  17. Social Work Information Center 2.0: A Case Study (United States)

    Xu, F. Grace


    The social work library at USC provides a case study of an academic library's transition to an information center service model. Analysis of the collection, user community, Web 2.0 applications, and Web usage data demonstrates how the changes facilitated library services and information literacy instruction. (Contains 6 tables and 3 figures.)

  18. The significance of field work in monographic studies (United States)

    The focus of this paper is to document the clear and obvious advantages of field work for monographic studies. These advantages include: 1) ability to understand published distributions better and greatly expand these data, 2) access to taxonomic data obscured on herbarium sheets (as colors, odors, ...

  19. Grit and Work Engagement: A Cross-Sectional Study. (United States)

    Suzuki, Yuhei; Tamesue, Dai; Asahi, Kentaro; Ishikawa, Yoshiki


    Grit, defined as perseverance of effort and consistency of interest, has attracted attention as a predictor of success in various fields beyond IQ and the Big Five personality dimension of Conscientiousness. The purpose of the current study was to examine previously uninvestigated questions regarding grit using a cross-sectional design among a large number of working adults in Japan. First, we tested geographical generalizability of associations between grit and orientations towards happiness by comparing previous studies in the U.S. and the current study in Japan. It was confirmed that orientation towards meaning rather than orientation towards engagement had a stronger positive correlation with grit in our sample of Japanese people. This result is inconsistent with previous studies in the U.S. Furthermore, the Big Five dimension of Openness to Experience was newly confirmed as having a positive association with grit. Second, we examined the association between grit and work engagement, which is considered as an outcome indicator for work performance. In this analysis, grit was a strong predictor for work performance as well as academic performance.

  20. Teachers' Engagement at Work: An International Validation Study (United States)

    Klassen, Robert M.; Aldhafri, Said; Mansfield, Caroline F.; Purwanto, Edy; Siu, Angela F. Y.; Wong, Marina W.; Woods-McConney, Amanda


    This study explored the validity of the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale in a sample of 853 practicing teachers from Australia, Canada, China (Hong Kong), Indonesia, and Oman. The authors used multigroup confirmatory factor analysis to test the factor structure and measurement invariance across settings, after which they examined the relationships…

  1. Studying and Working Abroad. Leonardo da Vinci Series: Good Practices. (United States)

    Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General for Education and Culture.

    This document profiles recent successful examples of students studying and working abroad as part of the European Commission's Leonardo da Vinci program, which is designed to give students across the European Union the opportunity to experience vocational training in a foreign country. The following examples are presented: (1) 3 Finnish students…

  2. Manned remote work station development article. Volume 1, book 2, appendix B: Trade and design definition studies (United States)


    System trades, evaluations, and selection were organized under the appropriate manned remote work station roles and subsystems. Those trades/evaluations that have an impact on simulator fidelity were given emphasis in terms of identifying alternate concepts, making a selection, and defining the system approach. Those trades that do not impact simulator fidelity have the issues delineated and future study requirements identified.

  3. Ergonomic study of an operator's work of a molybdenum plant. (United States)

    Oñate, Esteban; Meyer, Felipe


    This study was part of an ergonomic program which is being carried out through an agreement between the University of Concepción and a Chilean private mining company. The purpose of this case study was to identify working conditions in which the physical and mental workload could be over the capabilities of the operator. He was responsible for loading trucks with sacks of molybdenum and for downloading reagents and handles them. The methods employed in this study included electronic records, interviews, surveys, review of the company standards, a time study and physical and mental workload analysis. Results showed that 84% of the time the operator was carrying out principal and secondary activities and no break periods were detected. It was found that the pace of work and the shift system generated unfavorable conditions by imbalance in the workload on the different days of the week. In the light of the results recommendations were made for a number of ergonomic changes. Most of them were accepted by the company. The most important achievement was a change in the shift system. The overload of the operator was due to the fact that he was in a shift working 5 days and resting on weekends. The imbalance was mainly because the work of the week end was accumulated for Monday. As a result of the study, the company contracted a second worker for this job and adopted a 7x7 shift system, meaning that they work seven days and rest seven days. An evaluation carried out two month after adopting the new shift revealed that changes were well accepted by the worker.

  4. Healthy organizational practices against violence at work. Study of incidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Gimeno Navarro


    Full Text Available Violence at work is a growing problem for organizations. It involves significant costs for the organization, its members and the community. In its various dimensions, organized violence is one of the least investigated. This study provides evidence of the relevance of this dimension has on the development of violent behavior in the workplace. The results indicate that practices an organization implements an impact on levels of violence that occur at work. For the development of healthy organizations, free of violence, the company management must take a holistic approach and look at best practices related to human resource management, with leadership factors or job design

  5. Lake Erie Water Level Study. Appendix B. Regulatory Works. (United States)


    footbridge would be constructed over the alternative S2 gate bay to permit maintenance access from the Black Rock Lock side. A similar enclosed... footbridge would be provided over the alternative S3 gate bays to allow public access to the Bird Island Pier for recreational fishing. In addition to the...with connecting footbridges across the entrance to the proposed alternative S2 diversion channel; 6. A temporary ice boom across the Black Rock Canal

  6. A case study of alternatively trained science teachers: Attainment of pedagogical content knowledge (United States)

    Duncan, Benjamin R.

    Elements essential to effective teaching are closely aligned with the domains of a teacher's pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) (Park & Oliver, 2008). Often, alternatively trained teachers enter the teaching profession lacking exposure to pedagogical events that allow these educators opportunities to reflect on their practice and construction of their PCK (Friedrichsen et al., 2007); yet little is known about the knowledge of experienced alternatively trained educators and the complexities associated with their PCK development. The purpose of this study was to describe the nature and sources of alternatively trained secondary school science teachers' PCK after gaining classroom experience. The Park and Oliver (2008) hexagon PCK model was used as the theoretical framework. A case study of two experienced secondary science teachers at a school in the southeastern region of the United States was conducted. Data were collected from multiple sources, such as interviews, classroom observations, participant field journals, lesson plans, classroom assignments, classroom assessments, and researcher's field notes. Data analysis was conducted using the constant comparative method, qualitative deductive analysis, and a content representation. The results showed that experienced alternatively trained science teachers' PCK development was heavily influenced by each teacher's orientation to science teaching. Alternatively trained science teachers compensated for their lack of pedagogical training by relying heavily upon their content knowledge, their knowledge of students, and past experiences. Even after gaining years of experience in a school setting, alternatively trained teachers still lacked familiarity with traditional educational terminology and practices, rather relying upon instructional approaches and techniques independently acquired while each teacher was in "survival" mode. This study provides several implications for teacher preparation, research, and policy.

  7. Flame ignition studies of conventional and alternative jet fuels and surrogate components (United States)

    Liu, Ning

    Practical jet fuels are widely used in air-breathing propulsion, but the chemical mechanisms that control their combustion are not yet understood. Thousands of components are contained in conventional and alternative jet fuels, making thus any effort to model their combustion behavior a daunting task. That has been the motivation behind the development of surrogate fuels that contain typically a small number of neat components, whose physical properties and combustion behavior mimic those of the real jet fuel, and whose kinetics could be modeled with increased degree of confidence. Towards that end, a large number of experimental data are required both for the real fuels and the attendant surrogate components that could be used to develop and validate detailed kinetic models. Those kinetic models could be used then upon reduction to model a combustor and eventually optimize its performance. Among all flame phenomena, ignition is rather sensitive to the oxidative and pyrolytic propensity of the fuel as well as to its diffusivity. The counterflow configuration is ideal in probing both the fuel reactivity and diffusivity aspects of the ignition process and it was used in the present work to determine the ignition temperatures of premixed and non-premixed flames of a variety of fuels relevant to air-breathing propulsion. The experiments were performed at atmospheric pressure, elevated unburned fuel mixture temperatures, and various strain rates that were measured locally. Several recent kinetic models were used in direct numerical simulations of the experiments and the computed results were tested against the experimental data. Furthermore, through sensitivity, reaction path, and structure analyses of the computed flames, insight was provided into the dominant mechanisms that control ignition. It was found that ignition is primarily sensitive to fuel diffusion and secondarily sensitive to chemical kinetics and intermediate species diffusivities under the low fuel

  8. Spontaneously Fluctuating Motor Cortex Excitability in Alternating Hemiplegia of Childhood: A Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Study (United States)

    Stern, William M.; Desikan, Mahalekshmi; Hoad, Damon; Jaffer, Fatima; Strigaro, Gionata; Sander, Josemir W.; Rothwell, John C.; Sisodiya, Sanjay M.


    Background Alternating hemiplegia of childhood is a very rare and serious neurodevelopmental syndrome; its genetic basis has recently been established. Its characteristic features include typically-unprovoked episodes of hemiplegia and other transient or more persistent neurological abnormalities. Methods We used transcranial magnetic stimulation to assess the effect of the condition on motor cortex neurophysiology both during and between attacks of hemiplegia. Nine people with alternating hemiplegia of childhood were recruited; eight were successfully tested using transcranial magnetic stimulation to study motor cortex excitability, using single and paired pulse paradigms. For comparison, data from ten people with epilepsy but not alternating hemiplegia, and ten healthy controls, were used. Results One person with alternating hemiplegia tested during the onset of a hemiplegic attack showed progressively diminishing motor cortex excitability until no response could be evoked; a second person tested during a prolonged bilateral hemiplegic attack showed unusually low excitability. Three people tested between attacks showed asymptomatic variation in cortical excitability, not seen in controls. Paired pulse paradigms, which probe intracortical inhibitory and excitatory circuits, gave results similar to controls. Conclusions We report symptomatic and asymptomatic fluctuations in motor cortex excitability in people with alternating hemiplegia of childhood, not seen in controls. We propose that such fluctuations underlie hemiplegic attacks, and speculate that the asymptomatic fluctuation we detected may be useful as a biomarker for disease activity. PMID:26999520

  9. Barriers to partnership working in public health: a qualitative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Carlton Taylor-Robinson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Public health provision in England is undergoing dramatic changes. Currently established partnerships are thus likely to be significantly disrupted by the radical reforms outlined in the Public Health White Paper. We therefore explored the process of partnership working in public health, in order to better understand the potential opportunities and threats associated with the proposed changes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 70 participants took part in an in-depth qualitative study involving 40 semi-structured interviews and three focus group discussions. Participants were senior and middle grade public health decision makers working in Primary Care Trusts, Local Authorities, Department of Health, academia, General Practice and Hospital Trusts and the third sector in England. Despite mature arrangements for partnership working in many areas, and much support for joint working in principle, many important barriers exist. These include cultural issues such as a lack of shared values and language, the inherent complexity of intersectoral collaboration for public health, and macro issues including political and resource constraints. There is particular uncertainty and anxiety about the future of joint working relating to the availability and distribution of scarce and diminishing financial resources. There is also the concern that existing effective collaborative networks may be completely disrupted as the proposed changes unfold. The extent to which the proposed reforms might mitigate or potentiate these issues remains unclear. However the threats currently remain more salient than opportunities. CONCLUSIONS: The current re-organisation of public health offers real opportunity to address some of the barriers to partnership working identified in this study. However, significant threats exist. These include the breakup of established networks, and the risk of cost cutting on effective public health interventions.

  10. Alternative Conceptions in Animal Classification Focusing on Amphibians and Reptiles: A Cross-Age Study (United States)

    Yen, Chiung-Fen; Yao, Tsung-Wei; Chiu, Yu-Chih


    This study examined students' alternative conceptions of reptiles and amphibians and the extent to which these conceptions remain intact through the elementary (grades 4 and 6), junior, and senior high school years. We administered multiple-choice and free-response instruments to a total of 513 students and interviewed at least 20 students at each…

  11. An Alternative Counseling Model for Alcohol Abuse in College: A Case Study (United States)

    Hayes, B. Grant; Curry, Jennifer; Freeman, Mark S.; Kuch, Tyson H.


    Abstinence education remains a prevailing approach for addressing college student alcohol abuse. This case study illustrates an alternative method of intervening that combines motivational interviewing, harm reduction, and a brief solution-focused model. The counseling approach illustrated emphasizes reduction in, rather than abstinence from,…

  12. Korean Word Frequency and Commonality Study for Augmentative and Alternative Communication (United States)

    Shin, Sangeun; Hill, Katya


    Background: Vocabulary frequency results have been reported to design and support augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) interventions. A few studies exist for adult speakers and for other natural languages. With the increasing demand on AAC treatment for Korean adults, identification of high-frequency or core vocabulary (CV) becomes…

  13. "Working and Learning Alternation" Nursing Teaching Mode in Hospital%护理"工学交替"教学模式在医院的实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective: To explore practical effects of reformed nursing teaching mode "working and learning alternation" performed by hospital and school together. Method: On the foundation of meeting the requirement of major courses, corresponding class featured in hospital and clinical practice teaching, which centered on nursing practice teaching and guided by employment, were administered to students by hospital. Result: Nursing teaching mode "working and learning mode" could effectively help students accumulate clinical work experience, enhance personal communication skills, fully improve comprehensive quality of students and also the scores of nursing licensed exam. Conclusion: Nursing teaching mode "working and learning alternation" demonstrates remarkable advantages in improving students' comprehensive quality, master and application of the knowledge compared with traditional teaching mode of school.%目的:探讨学校与医院联合进行"工学交替"护理教学模式改革的实践效果.方法:医院以护理实践教学为中心,以就业为导向,在满足学校本专业课程的基础上,对学生进行具有医院特色的课堂教学及临床实践教学.结果:"工学交替"的护理教学模式有效促进了学生实际工作经验的积累,增强了学生的人际沟通技巧,全面提高了学生的综合素质,学生护理执业考试成绩大幅提高.结论:"工学交替"的护理教学模式相较于学校传统教学模式在学生的综合素质提高、知识的掌握及运用上都有明显优势.

  14. Final cost reduction study for the Geysers Recharge Alternative. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The purpose of this study is to determine whether or not cost reduction opportunities exist for the Geysers Recharge Alternative as defined in the Santa Rosa Subregional Long-Term Wastewater Project EIR/EIS. The City of Santa Rosa has been directed to have a plan for reclaimed water disposal in place by 1999 which will meet future capacity needs under all weather conditions. A Draft EIR/EIS released in July 1996 and a Final EIR certified in June 1997 examine four primary alternatives plus the No Action Alternative. Two of the primary alternatives involve agricultural irrigation with reclaimed water, either in western or southern Sonoma County. Another involves increased discharge of reclaimed water into the Russian River. The fourth involves using reclaimed water to replenish the geothermal reservoir at the Geysers. The addition of this water source would enable the Geysers operators to produce more steam from the geothermal area and thereby prolong the life and economic production level of the steamfield and the geothermal power plants supplied by the steamfield. This study provides additional refined cost estimates for new scenarios which utilize an alternative pipeline alignment and a range of reclaimed water flows, which deliver less water to the Geysers than proposed in the EIR/EIS (by distributing flow to other project components). Also, electrical power rates were revised to reflect the recent changes in costs associated with deregulation of the power industry. In addition, this report provides information on sources of potential public and private funding available and future environmental documentation required if the cost reduction scenarios were to be selected by the City as part of their preferred alternative.

  15. Alternative Education: A Comparative Case Study of the Behavior Modification Programs of Two Upstate South Carolina Alternative Schools for Youth Who Exhibit Behavior That Is Disruptive (United States)

    Scipio, Timothy Lamont


    This study examined behavior modification programs in schools designed to focus on discipline and that aim to reform disruptive behavior in students, usually over a limited period of time. This was a comparative case study of two type II alternative schools in the Upstate of South Carolina. The findings contributed to the research base regarding…

  16. The meaning of work and working life after cancer: an interview study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Dorte M; Elverdam, Beth


    the cultural meaning of work in capitalist society, we incorporate the theoretical perspective of Max Weber. CONCLUSION: Those who after cancer treatment are unable to work lose a part of their identity; they lose the personal challenge and satisfaction related to work. They are no longer part...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singkir Hudijono


    Full Text Available This study discusses about an Alternative Dispute Resolution in BanyumasRegency as a non-litigation dispute resolution. The problem observed was a breakthroughtaken by the Society in Banyumas Regency in overcoming the so far deadlock of lawenforcement and the attitude of not trusting the justice enforcement. It has been a publicsecret that the dispute resolutions employing the legal centralism paradigm have beendominated by the judicial network. This has caused the acknowledgement of the state lawto decrease, being a commodity that can be traded. The research aims at finding out anddescribing how the alternative dispute resolution (ADR emerges as an alternativemechanism in deconstructing the legal centralism; interpreting and describing what ismeant by the alternative dispute resolution (ADR in the development of progressive law.This research was conducted employing qualitative method. In this context, theresearcher explored various pieces of related information with the reason that the societyin Banyumas Regency has chosen the alternative dispute resolution mechanism as themechanism in deconstructing the legal centralism. The research was conducted asfollows: the problems were identified, the theories for analyzing the data were selected,the primary and secondary data were collected, the collected data were analyzed andinterpreted, and finally, the results of the research were written and constructed. Thetheories employed were critical legal studies, deconstruction, and large narration criticismtheories.The results of the research show that: firstly, the alternative dispute resolution hasemerged because of the awakened local knowledge, as the form of anticipation to theineffective formal law domination. With regard to the effect of global intercourse, thealternative dispute resolution has emerged because of the refusal against the culturalhomogeneity. Secondly, the implementation of the alternative dispute resolution hasbecome the preferred

  18. Epidemiological aspects of studying work-related musculoskeletal disorders. (United States)

    Driscoll, Tim


    There are many challenges to conducting valid epidemiological research of work-related musculoskeletal disorders and interpreting reports describing the results. In particular, these concern the basic study design, selection of subjects, measurement of exposure and outcome, control of confounding and the limitations of workers' compensation data systems. Researchers and people interested in the research results need to be aware of the major potential problems and pay careful attention to them when designing, conducting and using the results of such research.

  19. Positive reinforcement training for a trunk wash in Nepal's working elephants: demonstrating alternatives to traditional elephant training techniques. (United States)

    Fagen, Ariel; Acharya, Narayan; Kaufman, Gretchen E


    Many trainers of animals in the zoo now rely on positive reinforcement training to teach animals to voluntarily participate in husbandry and veterinary procedures in an effort to improve behavioral reliability, captive management, and welfare. However, captive elephant handlers in Nepal still rely heavily on punishment- and aversion-based methods. The aim of this project was to determine the effectiveness of secondary positive reinforcement (SPR) in training free-contact elephants in Nepal to voluntarily participate in a trunk wash for the purpose of tuberculosis testing. Five female elephants, 4 juveniles and 1 adult, were enrolled in the project. Data were collected in the form of minutes of training, number of offers made for each training task, and success rate for each task in performance tests. Four out of 5 elephants, all juveniles, successfully learned the trunk wash in 35 sessions or fewer, with each session lasting a mean duration of 12 min. The elephants' performance improved from a mean success rate of 39.0% to 89.3% during the course of the training. This study proves that it is feasible to efficiently train juvenile, free-contact, traditionally trained elephants in Nepal to voluntarily and reliably participate in a trunk wash using only SPR techniques.

  20. Investigating the Relationship of Work Values and Work Ethics: A Comparative Study on Public and Private Sector Employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdar Bozkurt

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between work values and attitudes towards work ethics for public and private sector employees. The results of the study reveal a significant relationship between work values and attitudes towards work ethics. A further examination pointed out a positive relationship between attitudes towards work ethics and dimensions of work values, namely management, achievement, security, associates, aesthetic, prestige, independence, variety, economic return and intellectual stimulation. Furthermore, work values of employees are found to vary depending on gender variable whereas management and aesthetic dimensions of work values are found to vary depending on the sector of the employee. Attitudes towards ethics and work values do not show difference according to demographic variables such as education level, age and marital status.

  1. Work stress models and diurnal cortisol variations: The SALVEO study. (United States)

    Marchand, Alain; Juster, Robert-Paul; Durand, Pierre; Lupien, Sonia J


    The objective of this study was to assess components, subscales, and interactions proposed by the popular Job Demand-Control (JDC), Job Demand-Control-Support (JDCS), and Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) work stress models in relation to diurnal variation of the stress hormone cortisol. Participants included 401 day-shift workers employed from a random sampling of 34 Canadian workplaces. Questionnaires included the Job Content Questionnaire to measure psychological demands, decision latitude, and social support as well as the Effort-Reward Imbalance Questionnaire to measure effort, reward, and overcommitment. Salivary cortisol was collected on 2 working days at awaking, +30 min after awaking, 1400h, 1600h, and bedtime. Multilevel regressions with 3 levels (time of day, workers, workplaces) were performed. Results revealed that JDC, JDCS and ERI interactions were not statistically associated with variations in diurnal cortisol concentrations. By contrast when assessing specific work stress subscales, increased psychological demands were linked to decreased bedtime cortisol, increased job recognition was linked to increased cortisol +30 min after waking and at bedtime, and finally increased overcommitment was linked to increased awakening cortisol and decreased cortisol at 1400h, 1600h, and bedtime. Sex moderation effects principally among men were additionally detected for psychological demands, total social support, and supervisor support. Our findings suggest that components and subsubscales of these popular work stress models rather than theorized interactions are more meaningful in explaining diurnal cortisol variations. In particular, psychological demands, job recognition, overcommitment, and to a lesser extent social support at work are the most significant predictors of diurnal cortisol variation in this large sample of Canadian workers. Importantly, the overall effect sizes of these subscales that explained diurnal cortisol concentrations were weak.

  2. Patella spp. as na alternative to Mytilus spp in marine pollution studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Begoña Pérez-Fernández


    Full Text Available The most widely used species for marine pollution studies is mussel, Mytilus spp., as it is a filter feeder, sessile, easy to get and present in most worldwide coasts. However, sometimes it is necessary to have an alternative for areas where mussels are scarce or even absent. Patella spp. could be a useful substitute to Mytilus as these organisms have already been used in some pollution studies (Bartolomé, 2011 and both groups have similar characteristics except for the feeding strategy that in limpets is based on grazing on the small algae that grow on the rocks where they live. For this study, four sampling sites where selected: two in Galicia (Ría de Arousa and Ría de Ferrol and two in the Bay of Biscay (Suances and Fuenterrabía. In the four sampling sites both mussels and limpets were collected and 12 parent PAHs were analysed by means of HPLC and fluorescence detector with programmable wavelength (Viñas 2002. The method is subject to a strict quality control that guarantees the quality of the data. Mussels always present a higher PAH content than limpets sampled in the same area. When comparing the value for the sum of PAHs, it is shown that the maximum value measured in limpets (26.0 µg/kg d.w. in Arousa is less than the minimum value measured in mussels (63.7 µg/kg d.w. in Fuenterrabía. However, the sites pointed as more polluted using limpets coincide with the ones that are pointed out using mussels and the other way around. The individual PAH distribution pattern also presents some differences in both species mainly due to the phenathrene proportion that is higher in limpets than in mussels and this is clearer in the Bay of Biscay area. The main conclusion of the study is that there is no direct conversion factor between the PAH burden in both species but it could be possible to estimate the pollution status of an area using limpets. To compare levels between species it would be necessary to do some more work including more

  3. Stress and parental competence: a study with working parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez Padilla, Javier


    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to explore the role of some dimensions related with labor and family context, and examine their influence to the stress level associated with parenthood. Special attention was given to the perceived competence as a parent after controlling different characteristics from both contexts. Several analyses were performed with the information obtained from 74 active-working parents responsible for at least one school-aged child. The results indicated that the work time, the number of children at home and the perception of difficulty about child caring were the most important variables for explaining the parental stress. Furthermore, analysis showed that a positive and optimistic perception of the parental role and child care helped to mitigate the appearance of parental stress

  4. Collaborative Work as an Alternative for Writing Research Articles (El trabajo colaborativo como alternativa para la escritura de artículos investigativos) (United States)

    Carvajal Medina, Nancy Emilce; Roberto Flórez, Eliana Edith


    Academic writing in English in our context is a significant aspect that can be innovative when a convergence model of writing stages is used along with collaborative work. This article reports on a study aimed at analyzing how collaborative work relates to undergraduate electronics students' academic writing development in English as a foreign…

  5. Work-Life Balance: A Study In The Petroleum Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy De Villiers


    Full Text Available A qualitative study was completed to discover how employees of a company in the petroleum industry define and experience the phenomenon of work-life balance, to identify the workplace determinants of work-life imbalance and to elicit some solutions for the problem. It was found that work-life balance is a personal issue that varies across time and situations and the underlying conflict experienced pertains to role overload and role interference. The most significant work-life conflict arises from complex workplace issues, including managing change, supervisory and technical competences, leadership, roles and accountabilities, and culture. Solutions to address the workplace issues, as well as the development of individual balance-enabling skills, are suggested. Opsomming’n Kwalitatiewe studie is onderneem om vas te stel hoe die werknemers van ’n maatskappy in die petroleumnywerheid die fenomeen van die werk-lewe ewewig definieer en ervaar, om die werkpleksdeterminante van ’n werk-lewe onewewigtigheid te identifiseer en om sekere oplossings vir die probleem aan die hand te doen. Dit is gevind dat werk-lewe ewewig ’n persoonlike saak is wat oor tyd en omstandighede varieer en die ervaarde onderliggende konflik na roloorladingsrolle en -inmenging verwys. Die mees betekenisvolle werk-lewe konflik tree na vore vanuit komplekse werkplekaangeleenthede, insluitende die bestuur van veranderings, toesighoudende en tegniese vaardighede, leierskap, rolle en aanspreeklikheid, asook kultuur. Oplossings om die werkpleksake aan te spreek, asook die ontwikkeling van individuele vaardighede om ’n ewewig teweeg te bring, word voorgestel.

  6. Does Working Help or Hurt College Students? The Effects of Federal Work-Study Participation on Student Outcomes. A CAPSEE Working Paper (United States)

    Soliz, Adela; Long, Bridget Terry


    Due to rising costs and declining affordability, many students have to work while attending college. The federal government takes a major role in subsidizing the wages of college students and spent over $1 billion on the Work-Study program in 2010-11 (College Board, 2011), yet little is known about how working during the school year impacts…

  7. A study on relationship between working capital and profitability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Ghodrati


    Full Text Available This paper studies the relationship between working capital management and profitability of accepted corporations in Tehran Stock Exchange over the period 2008-2012. The study selected 66 firms as a statistical sample based on Cochran formula and simple random selection. In this study, variables including the average period of collecting accordance, periods of circulation of inventories, the average period of debt payment, and cycle of cash conversion on the factories operating profits are studied. The research method is applied and collection of data is solidarity, the Pierson and Regression solidarity are used. Results show that variables of capital investment management and profitability were in opposite direction. If the period of collecting accordance, period of debt payment, period of circulation of inventories and the cycle of cash conversion increase, it decreases the period profitability and the manager can decrease the period of debt payment, period of cash conversion to the least amount of positive value for affiliate.

  8. Considerations of circadian impact for defining 'shift work' in cancer studies: IARC Working Group Report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.G. Stevens; J. Hansen; G. Costa; E. Haus; T. Kauppinen; K.J. Aronson; G. Castaño-Vinyals; S. Davis; M.H.W. Frings-Dresen; L. Fritschi; M. Kogevinas; K. Kogi; J.A. Lie; A. Lowden; B. Peplonska; B. Pesch; E. Pukkala; E. Schernhammer; R.C. Travis; R. Vermeulen; T. Zheng; V. Cogliano; K. Straif


    Based on the idea that electric light at night might account for a portion of the high and rising risk of breast cancer worldwide, it was predicted long ago that women working a non-day shift would be at higher risk compared with day-working women. This hypothesis has been extended more recently to

  9. An Independent Evaluation of the FMEA/CIL Hazard Analysis Alternative Study (United States)

    Ray, Paul S.


    The present instruments of safety and reliability risk control for a majority of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) programs/projects consist of Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA), Hazard Analysis (HA), Critical Items List (CIL), and Hazard Report (HR). This extensive analytical approach was introduced in the early 1970's and was implemented for the Space Shuttle Program by NHB 5300.4 (1D-2. Since the Challenger accident in 1986, the process has been expanded considerably and resulted in introduction of similar and/or duplicated activities in the safety/reliability risk analysis. A study initiated in 1995, to search for an alternative to the current FMEA/CIL Hazard Analysis methodology generated a proposed method on April 30, 1996. The objective of this Summer Faculty Study was to participate in and conduct an independent evaluation of the proposed alternative to simplify the present safety and reliability risk control procedure.

  10. National logistics working groups: A landscape analysis study. (United States)

    Leab, Dorothy; Schreiber, Benjamin; Kasonde, Musonda; Bessat, Olivia; Bui, Son; Loisel, Carine


    Several countries have acknowledged the contributions made by national logistics working groups (NLWG) to ensure equitable access to the expanded program on immunization's (EPI) vaccines against preventable diseases. In order to provide key insights to the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) and the World Health Organization (WHO) supply chain hub - as well as other players, including national EPI - a landscape analysis study was conducted from September 2015 to February 2016. This is a cross-sectional survey taken by 43 countries that combines qualitative and quantitative approaches. Data was collected through a desk review, consultation, interviews, and distance questioning. References and guidance were used to determine and specify the underlying mechanisms of NLWGs. The key findings are:This study has provided a general overview of the status of NLWGs for immunization in various countries. Based on the key insights of the study, technical assistance needs have been identified, and immunization partners will be required to help countries create and reinforce their NLWGs.

  11. Working with "rookies": A case study of science teachers mentors (United States)

    Meagher, Thomas Francis

    To gain insight into the world of mentoring new science teachers it is imperative to examine how a veteran science teacher is influenced through his or her work mentoring a new teacher. The impacts of mentoring new teachers have been extensively researched within the literature, documenting many of the factors that may enhance the teaching abilities of new teachers (Hobson, Ashby, Malderez & Tomlinson, 2008; Ingersoll & Kralik, 2004; Wang & Odell, 2002). A thorough search of the literature reveals an unbalanced representation of research focusing on the many influences mentoring may bring to a new teacher while ignoring the impact on the mentor. It is when the activity of mentoring a new teacher is examined within the theoretical frame work of social cognitive learning, it is apparent that not only are two individuals participating in working together, but also that research needs to investigate both sides of the relationship. Also, since the mentoring relationship is situated within a community of practice, it becomes important to utilize a situated learning theoretical framework in tandem with social cognitive learning to provide the clearest picture of this dynamic social relationship. This case study seeks to share the impacts experienced by mentors through their work with new teachers and provide balance to the other side of research into the social partnership of mentoring. Five science teachers mentoring new teachers online, through the University of Minnesota's Science Engineering, Math Mentoring Program (STEMMP) and Science Teacher Induction Network (TIN), participated in this study that explores their experiences through a phenomenographic lens and follows an interpretive research approach. Four main themes emerged that identified how science teacher mentors were impacted from mentoring which included: (1) impacts to their teaching practice, (2) perceptions influenced from feedback, (3) enhanced reflection, and (4) enhancement of self-efficacy. The

  12. Low-dose memantine induced working memory improvement in the allothetic place avoidance alternation task (APAAT in young adult male rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malgorzata Julita Wesierska


    Full Text Available N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDAR are involved in neuronal plasticity. To assess their role simultaneously in spatial working memory and non-cognitive learning, we used NMDAR antagonists and the Allothetic Place Avoidance Alternation Task (APAAT. In this test rats should avoid entering a place where shocks were presented on a rotating arena which requires cognitive coordination for the segregation of stimuli. The experiment took place 30 min after intraperitoneal injection of memantine (5; 10; 20 mg/kg b.w.: MemL, MemM, MemH respectively and (+MK-801 (0.1; 0.2; 0.3 mg/kg b.w.: MK-801L, MK-801M, MK-801H respectively. Rats from the control group were intact or injected with saline (0.2 ml/kg. Over three consecutive days the rats underwent habituation, two avoidance training intervals with shocks, and a retrieval test. The shock sector was alternated daily. The after-effects of the agents were tested on Day21. Rats treated with low dose memantine presented a longer maximum time avoided and fewer entrances than the MemH, MK-801M, MK-801H and Control rats. The shocks per entrances ratio, used as an index of cognitive skill learning, showed skill improvement after D1, except for rats treated by high doses of the agents. The activity levels, indicated by the distance walked, were higher for the groups treated with high doses of the agents. On D21 the MK801H rats performed the memory task better than the MemH rats, whereas the rats’ activity depended on condition, not on the group factor. These results suggest that in naïve rats mild NMDAR blockade by low-dose memantine improves working memory related to a highly challenging task.

  13. Designing medical and educational intervention studies. A review of some alternatives to conventional randomized controlled trials


    Bradley, Clare


    The advantages and limitations of RCT designs are discussed, and a range of alternative designs for medical and educational intervention studies considered. Designs selected are those that address the much neglected psychological issues involved in the recruitment of patients and allocation of patients to treatments within trials. Designs include Zelen's (18) randomized consent design, Brewin and Bradley's (20) partially randomized patient-centered design, and Korn and Baumrind's (21) partial...

  14. Semiotic Analysis in the Study of Social Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laine, Terhi


    Full Text Available Research and professional practices have the joint aim of re-structuring the preconceived notions of reality. They both want to gain the understanding about social reality. Social workers use their professional competence in order to grasp the reality of their clients, while researchers’ pursuit is to open the secrecies of the research material. Development and research are now so intertwined and inherent in almost all professional practices that making distinctions between practising, developing and researching has become difficult and in many aspects irrelevant. Moving towards research-based practices is possible and it is easily applied within the framework of the qualitative research approach (Dominelli 2005, 235; Humphries 2005, 280. Social work can be understood as acts and speech acts crisscrossing between social workers and clients. When trying to catch the verbal and non-verbal hints of each others’ behaviour, the actors have to do a lot of interpretations in a more or less uncertain mental landscape. Our point of departure is the idea that the study of social work practices requires tools which effectively reveal the internal complexity of social work (see, for example, Adams & Dominelli & Payne 2005, 294 – 295. The boom of qualitative research methodologies in recent decades is associated with much profound the rupture in humanities, which is called the linguistic turn (Rorty 1967. The idea that language is not transparently mediating our perceptions and thoughts about reality, but on the contrary it constitutes it was new and even confusing to many social scientists. Nowadays we have got used to read research reports which have applied different branches of discursive analyses or narratologic or semiotic approaches. Although differences are sophisticated between those orientations they share the idea of the predominance of language. Despite the lively research work of today’s social work and the research-minded atmosphere of

  15. Substance use and dietary practices among students attending alternative high schools: results from a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannan Peter J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Substance use and poor dietary practices are prevalent among adolescents. The purpose of this study was to examine frequency of substance use and associations between cigarette, alcohol and marijuana use and selected dietary practices, such as sugar-sweetened beverages, high-fat foods, fruits and vegetables, and frequency of fast food restaurant use among alternative high school students. Associations between multi-substance use and the same dietary practices were also examined. Methods A convenience sample of adolescents (n = 145; 61% minority, 52% male attending six alternative high schools in the St Paul/Minneapolis metropolitan area completed baseline surveys. Students were participants in the Team COOL (Controlling Overweight and Obesity for Life pilot study, a group randomized obesity prevention pilot trial. Mixed model multivariate analyses procedures were used to assess associations of interest. Results Daily cigarette smoking was reported by 36% of students. Cigarette smoking was positively associated with consumption of regular soda (p = 0.019, high-fat foods (p = 0.037, and fast food restaurant use (p = 0.002. Alcohol (p = 0.005 and marijuana use (p = 0.035 were positively associated with high-fat food intake. With increasing numbers of substances, a positive trend was observed in high-fat food intake (p = 0.0003. There were no significant associations between substance use and fruit and vegetable intake. Conclusions Alternative high school students who use individual substances as well as multiple substances may be at high risk of unhealthful dietary practices. Comprehensive health interventions in alternative high schools have the potential of reducing health-compromising behaviors that are prevalent among this group of students. This study adds to the limited research examining substance use and diet among at-risk youth. Trial registration number NCT01315743

  16. Brain potentials distinguish new and studied objects during working memory. (United States)

    Guo, Chunyan; Lawson, Adam L; Zhang, Qin; Jiang, Yang


    We investigated brain responses to matching versus nonmatching objects in working memory (WM) with a modified delayed match-to-sample task using event-related potentials (ERPs). In addition, ERP correlates of new items (new matches/new nonmatches) and previously studied items (studied matches/studied nonmatches) were examined in the WM task. Half of the common visual objects were initially studied until 95% accuracy was attained and half were new. Each memory trial began with the presentation of a sample object followed by nine test objects. Participants indicated whether each test item was the same as the object held in mind (i.e., match) or a nonmatch. Compared to studied matches, new matches evoked activity that was 50 ms earlier and largest at frontal sites. In contrast, P3 activity associated with studied nonmatches was larger than for new nonmatches at mostly posterior sites, which parallels previously reported old-new ERP effects. The ERP source analysis further confirms that the cortical mechanisms underlying matching objects and rejecting irrelevant objects during the task are both temporally and spatially distinct. Moreover, our current findings suggest that prior learning affects brain responses to matching visual items during a WM task.

  17. Complementary and Alternative Medicine in the Pediatrics with Leukemia: A Narrative Review Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Miladinia


    Full Text Available BackgroundFor using of complementary and alternative medicine methods (CAM in the leukemia pediatrics than other types of cancer, we have two great challenges; first challenge is their safety and risks and second challenge is study gaps in this field. Regarding to these challenges, this study is a narrative review of some CAM methods in the leukemia pediatrics from the perspective of their safety, risks and study gaps.Materials and MethodsIn this narrative review study searched both international electronic databases including ISI Web of science, PubMed, PsycINFO, CINAHL, ISC, Embase, Scopus, Google Scholar and also, Iranian electronic databases including Magiran, Medlib and SID. Also, searches were performed separately in the specialized journals in the field of leukemia pediatrics and complementary and alternative medicine research.ResultsMusic therapy, gentle yoga movements, gentle massage types are quite safe for leukemia pediatrics. But, use of heavy yoga movements, massages with deep pressure, acupressure and acupuncture can be dangerous for leukemia pediatrics (risks of bleeding and or infection. Also, this study showed that, the number of investigations about the use of CAM in the leukemia pediatrics is very limited; especially in the field of yoga and acupuncture.ConclusionThe results of this study can be a basis both for chose of safe CAM method in these children and a basis for future studies on the basis of identified study gaps in this review study.

  18. A social work study on family patterns and street children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Iravani


    Full Text Available This paper presents a social work study on relationship between various family characteristics and street children in rural area as well as city of Esfahan, Iran. The proposed study selects a sample of 150 street children, 75 from city and 75 from rural area, and using some statistical tests verifies the effects of three factors including family income, place of residency and family size on street children. The results indicate that the city residence had more street children than rural residence did. In addition, there was a meaningful difference between the number of street children in low-income families and high-income families. Finally, the survey results indicate that big size families more likely suffered from street children than low size families did.

  19. A social work study to measure the effect of unemployment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Iravani


    Full Text Available Unemployment is believed as one of most important issues in today's economy around the world. The recent economic turmoil in European countries, for instance, has created some troubles such as increase in rate of depression, divorce, etc. In this paper, we present a social study work in one of regions of Iran. The proposed study of this paper designs and distributes a questionnaire among 80 experts who live in the region and tries to understand whether there is a correlation between unemployment and rubbery, immigration, drug addiction and non-value jobs. The survey uses Pearson correlation to test four hypotheses and the results indicate that although there is no strong correlation between unemployment and rubbery and immigration but there is a strong evidence to believe that unemployment can increase drug addiction and non-value added jobs.

  20. Alternative oxidizers for strip coal mine blasting agents. [Including study of possible substitutes; 53 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudweeks, W.B.; Collins, T.K.


    Since ammonium nitrate manufacture is dependent on natural gas, a shortage in natural gas could lead to a critical shortage in coal by limiting the availability of ammonium nitrate for blasting. The purpose of this study was to assess the future availability of ammonium nitrate and to evaluate the potential of alternative oxidizers not dependent upon natural gas for use in blasting agents. Increased storage capacities and rapidly increasing levels of relativey cheap imported ammonia appear to ensure the availability of adequate levels of ammonium nitrate in the near future. In the longer time frame, rising energy costs have increased the potential for basing ammonia production on alternative sources of hydrogen as well as obtaining natural gas from relatively unlimited unconventional sources. While still somewhat uncertain, such unconventional sources appear to have sufficient potential to ensure the availability of ammonium nitrate even long term. However, there are several oxidizers that could be considered as possible replacements for ammonium nitrate if needed. After a critical evaluation two possible alternatives are recommended for further study: the use of sodium nitrate as a partial replacement and the development of a new type of blasting agent based upon water as the main oxidizer.

  1. Theoretical study of OCCHCN as a potential alternative insulation gas for SF6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiguo Chen


    Full Text Available Cyanoketene (OCCHCN has been reported as a potential alternative insulation gas for SF6 in Patent US0135817. Stationary point equilibrium geometries on the ground state have been optimized at the B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p level, and the harmonic vibration frequencies are calculated at the same level. The HOMO-LUMO energy gaps (Eg, ionization potentials (IP, and electron affinities (EA of the studied molecules are obtained. The minimum energy path (MEP is obtained by the intrinsic reaction coordinate (IRC theory, and the energetic information is further refined by QCISD(T (single-point method. The results show that OCCHCN can be used as SF6 alternative insulation gas in high voltage equipment according to potential energy surface analysis. As the isomerization and the cleavage reactions potential barriers are lower than the Eg and IP values, resulting in OCCHCN is not easy to be ionized and excited.

  2. "¡Todos Somos Indios!" Revolutionary Imagination, Alternative Modernity, and Transnational Organizing in the Work of Silko, Tamez, and Anzaldúa


    Adamson, Joni


    This essay builds on Shari Huhndorf’s analysis of the “significant implications” of Leslie Marmon Silko’s Almanac of the Dead for Indigenous Studies by setting the novel into the context of María Josefina Saldaña-Portillo’s analysis of how Zapatista organizing activities in Chiapas, Mexico, reshaped the “revolutionary imagination in the Americas” and helped to construct an “alternative modernity” that disrupts the empty signifier of “authentic” indigenous identity. The essay juxtaposes Silko’...

  3. Youth who neither work nor study: The Peruvian case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramiro Málaga


    Full Text Available Drawing on information from the Encuesta de la Transición de la Escuela al Trabajo 2012 (Survey on the Transition from School to Work, this study analyzes the characteristics of young people who are not in education, employment or training (NEETs. We find that, overall, 17.94% of Peruvian urban youth between 15 and 29 years of age are NEETs. Of these, around three quar- ters (74.09% are females, which points toward the presence of factors associated with gender, such as fertility, the role within the household economy, or educational reasons, such as the explanatory variables in the previous result.Accordingly, the likelihood of being a NEET increases for females if there are children in the house- hold and if the individual has a partner, while the reverse is true in the case of males. Moreover, the likelihood of belonging to the NEET group increases when there are young men in the household; decreases when they are heads of household; if there is production in the household; or if the part- ner is engaged in domestic work. As regards individual decisions, young people’s life goals affect the likelihood of being a NEET. Moreover, the higher the level of education, the lower the likelihood of being a NEET due to the greater opportunity cost associated with better earning prospects.

  4. Person-related work and incident use of antidepressants: relations and mediating factors from the Danish work environment cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ida E H; Diderichsen, Finn; Burr, Hermann


    Previous Danish studies have shown that employees who "work with people" (i.e., do person-related work) are at increased risk of hospitalization with a diagnosis of depression. However, these studies were purely register-based and consequently unable to point to factors underlying this elevated r...

  5. Sickness absence and psychosocial work conditions : a multilevel study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, C.A.; Weites, S.H.; Koopmans, P.C.; van der Klink, J.J.; Groothoff, J.W.


    Background Psychosocial work conditions, particularly psychological job demands, are inconsistently associated with sickness absence rates. This might be the result of investigating the psychosocial work environment at the individual level, reflecting personal perceptions rather than actual demands.

  6. Development and validation of an alternative disturbed skin model by mechanical abrasion to study drug penetration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Schlupp


    Skin permeation of the three substances was increased in tape-stripped and abraded skin compared to untreated skin due to the reduced barrier integrity. Enhancement of drug uptake was highest for the most hydrophilic substance, caffeine, followed by sorbic acid and lipophilic testosterone. No significant difference in drug uptake studies was observed between the new abrasion method with an aluminum-coated sponge and the tape-stripping method. The obtained results demonstrate that this abrasion method is an alternative way to achieve a disturbed skin barrier for drug and chemical uptake studies.

  7. Use of alternative medicine for hypertension in Buikwe and Mukono districts of Uganda: a cross sectional study


    Nuwaha, Fred; Musinguzi, Geofrey


    Background Use of alternative medicine for chronic diseases such as hypertension is common in low as well as high income countries. This study estimated the proportion of people who were aware of their hypertension that use alternative medicine and identified factors predicting the use of alternative medicine. Methods In a community based cross sectional survey among people ≥ 15 years in Buikwe and Mukono districts of Uganda 258 people aware of their hypertension were questioned about use of ...

  8. Raman study of a work of art fragment

    CERN Document Server

    Scremin, Barbara Federica


    The purpose of the present report was the study and identification of an unspecified sample on a work of art by means only of a microscope coupled to a Raman spectrometer. The origin of the fragment was unknown. The Raman spectra on the virgin sample were giving no results because of a deteriorated surface treatment, in spite of the evident blue color identified by microscopic visual inspection. The sample fragmentation and the preparation of a KBr pellet allowed the distribution of the painting layers of the different components on a flat substrate reducing surface effects. Selecting the areas of different color and focusing there it was possible to identify the pigments from their Raman spectra locally acquired by selective excitation. Raman spectra were assigned by comparison with published databases. It was possible to connect Carbon Black and Orange iron oxide, as documented historically, as constituents of Azurite preparatory layer Morellone, according to a technique generally employed to allow the use ...

  9. Evergreen Brick Works: An Innovation and Sustainability Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seana Irvine


    Full Text Available Technology is rapidly being deployed to advance social innovation that creates lasting change. This case study of Evergreen Brick Works explores how Evergreen is leveraging the power of its unique new campus as a showcase for advancing sustainability-related behavioural change along with new and emerging state-of-the-art technologies to advance its mission. The ultimate success of these technologies will be in their ability to engage larger numbers and greater diversity among participants, and in their ability to translate new insights into on-the-ground change in their communities. The article also identifies that the need for an organizational network mindset is as important as the technologies to achieve these changes.

  10. Battlefield Utility of Antipersonnel Landmines and Proposed Alternatives (Analysis in Support of the NATO SAS-023 APM Study)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crandley, J F; Greenwalt, R J; Magnoli, D E; Randazzo, A S


    This study consists of work done in support of the U.S. delegation to the NATO SAS-023 Antipersonnel Landmine Study Group, supplemented by additional work done for the U.S. Office of the Secretary of Defense Antipersonnel Landmine Alternative Concept Exploration Program (Track III). It explores the battlefield utility of current antipersonnel landmines (APL) in both pure and mixed APL/antitank minefields and evaluates the value of military suggested non-materiel alternatives. The historical record is full of examples where the presence (or absence) of antipersonnel landmines made a critical difference in battle. The current generation of military thinkers and writers lack any significant combat experience employing either mixed or antipersonnel minefields, which leaves a critical gap in available expert advice for policy and decision-makers. Because of this lack of experienced-based professional military knowledge, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory analyzed the employment of antipersonnel landmines in tactical mixed minefields and in protective antipersonnel minefields. The scientific method was employed where hypotheses were generated from the tactics and doctrine of the antipersonnel landmine era and tested in a simulation laboratory. A high-resolution, U.S. Joint Forces Command combat simulation model (the Joint Conflict and Tactical Simulation--JCATS) was used as the laboratory instrument. A realistic European scenario was obtained from a multi-national USAREUR exercise and was approved by the SAS-023 panel members. Additional scenarios were provided by U.S. CINC conferences and were based on Southwest Asia and Northeast Asia. Weapons data was obtained from the U.S. family of Joint Munitions Effectiveness Manuals. The U.S. Army Materiel Systems Analysis Agency conducted a limited verification and validation assessment of JCATS for purposes of this study.

  11. Social Strategies during University Studies Predict Early Career Work Burnout and Engagement: 18-Year Longitudinal Study (United States)

    Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Tolvanen, Asko; Nurmi, Jari-Erik


    This longitudinal study spanning 18 years examined the role of social strategies in early career adaptation. The aim was to find out whether individuals' social strategies measured during their university studies had an impact on work burnout and work engagement measured 10-18 years later. A sample of 292 university students completed the SAQ…

  12. An exploratory study of complementary and alternative medicine in hospital midwifery: models of care and professional struggle. (United States)

    Adams, Jon


    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is increasingly popular amongst midwives in Australia. A growing number of hospital midwives are personally integrating one or a range of CAM within their midwifery practice. Despite this trend we still know little about CAM in midwifery, particularly at a grass-roots level. This paper reports findings from one section of a larger exploratory study examining grass-root practitioners' understandings and experiences of complementary therapies in nursing and midwifery. Thirteen in-depth interviews were conducted with midwives working in New South Wales public hospitals and currently integrating CAM within their general midwifery practice. Analysis illustrates how midwives' explanations of, and affinity claims regarding, CAM feed into wider ongoing issues relating to professional autonomy and the relationship between midwifery and obstetrics.

  13. The Effects of Work Values and Work Centrality on Job Satisfaction. A study with older spanish workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Orgambídez-Ramos


    Full Text Available Since workforces are ageing throughout Europe, interest in the role of age in the workplace is increasing. Older workers with high work centrality are more likely to negotiate a relational contract and express higher levels of job satisfaction than older workers with low work centrality (Armstrong-Stassen and Schlosser, 2008. This study examines the role of work centrality and valued work outcomes as antecedents of job satisfaction. A cross sectional study using questionnaires was conducted. The sample consisted of 203 Spanish employees (M age = 55.78, SD = 3.01. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses have revealed that job satisfaction was significantly predicted by needed income and work centrality. When work is not an important part of older workers’ lives, they will prefer extrinsic outcomes and will not invest in the relationship with their organization (Grant & Wade-Benzoni, 2009. Implications for research and theory are explored in the conclusion.

  14. Strengthening the "Work" in Federal Work-Study: Improving Access to Financial Aid and Career-Related Work Experience for Low-Income and Post-Traditional Students (United States)

    Kenefick, Elizabeth


    Low-income students must increasingly rely on work and loans to meet the high costs of college. Too often, though, the jobs they take are not in their field of study, which can impair the potential for career exploration and improved employment outcomes in the future. Despite the need to combine work and school in a meaningful way, only a limited…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahibur Rokhman


    Full Text Available Using sample 370 employees from Islamic microfinance institutions in Central Java, Indonesia, this study was conducted to examine the effect of Islamic work ethics on job satisfaction, organizational commitment and turnover intention. The empirical testing indicates that Islamic work ethic has positive effects on both job satisfaction and organizational commitment; whereas there is no significant evidence of the effect of Islamic work ethic on turnover intention. Implication, limitation and suggestion for future research are also discussed.

  16. Alternatively Spliced Genes as Biomarkers for Schizophrenia, Bipolar Disorder and Psychosis: A Blood-Based Spliceome-Profiling Exploratory Study. (United States)

    Glatt, S J; Chandler, S D; Bousman, C A; Chana, G; Lucero, G R; Tatro, E; May, T; Lohr, J B; Kremen, W S; Everall, I P; Tsuang, M T


    reconciled with an analysis of the ontologies, the pathways and the protein domains significantly over-represented among the alternatively spliced genes, several of which support prior discoveries. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first blood-based spliceome-profiling study of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder to be reported. The battery of alternatively spliced genes and exons identified in this discovery-oriented exploratory study, if replicated, may have potential utility to discern the molecular subtypes of psychosis. Spliceome-profiling, as a new methodological approach in transcriptomics, warrants further work to evaluate its utility in personalized medicine. Potentially, this approach could also permit the future development of tissue-sampling methodologies in a form that is more acceptable to patients and thereby allow monitoring of dynamic and time-dependent plasticity in disease severity and response to therapeutic interventions in clinical psychiatry.

  17. Water's contribution and enzyme's work: a KITA study (United States)

    Born, Benjamin; Sagi, Irit; Havenith, Martina


    Enzyme dynamics control and contribute to myriads of mostly well-characterized metabolic processes. Yet, understanding the role of the aqueous reaction matrix remains an experimental challenge. By kinetic THz absorption (KITA) spectroscopy, we have studied the dynamic interplay between water and a human metalloenzyme at work in realtime. In our KITA setup, we combined a THz-time domain spectrometer (THz-TDS) with a stopped-flow mixer to study reactions with millisecond time resolution. We used picosecond THz pulses which directly probe hydrogen bond formation and breaking in the water network to observe enzyme-water interactions upon enzyme catalysis at the active site of a matrix-metalloprotease. During formation of the productive Michaelis complex, we detected a perturbation of coupled enzyme-water network dynamics. Supplemented by real-time biophysical techniques and molecular dynamics simulations we characterized the enzyme-water interplay in the particular case of enzyme catalysis. Our results suggest a polarization-induced gradient of water dynamics at the remote active site of a metalloenzyme with decelerated hydration water dynamics towards the active site. The observed long-range gradient of collective water motions might facilitate productive binding of substrates to enzyme active sites. Further KITA experiments shall improve our understanding of water's contribution to biological function.

  18. Parametric Study to Characterize Low Activity Waste Tank Heat Removal Alternatives for Phase 1 Specification Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Alternative for removing heat from Phase 1, low-activity waste feed double-shell tanks using the ventilation systems have been analyzed for Phase 1 waste feed delivery. The analysis was a parametric study using a model that predicted the waste temperatures for a range of primary and annulus ventilation system flow rates. The analysis was performed to determine the ventilation flow required to prevent the waste temperature from exceeding the Limiting Conditions for Operation limits during normal operation and the Safety Limits during off-normal events.

  19. A Preliminary Study: Do Alternative Certification Route Programs Develop the Necessary Skills and Knowledge in Assistive Technology? (United States)

    Bell, Sherry Mee; Cihak, David F.; Judge, Sharon


    A large number of special education teachers in the United States are prepared in alternative certification programs and insufficient empirical information exists regarding their knowledge of assistive technology. The purpose of this study was to conduct a preliminary investigation of alternatively licensed special education teachers' knowledge,…

  20. School Process and Teacher Job Satisfaction at Alternative Schools: A Multilevel Study Using SASS 2007-08 Data (United States)

    Xia, Jiangang; Izumi, Masashi; Gao, Xingyuan


    This study examined the associations between public alternative schools' teacher job satisfaction and school processes. Based on a multilevel analysis of the national School and Staffing Survey 2007-08 data, we found that among the seven school processes, public alternative schools' administrative support, staff collegiality, career and working…

  1. Development and validation of an alternative disturbed skin model by mechanical abrasion to study drug penetration. (United States)

    Schlupp, P; Weber, M; Schmidts, T; Geiger, K; Runkel, F


    Pharmaceuticals and cosmetics for dermal application are usually tested on healthy skin, although the primary permeation barrier, the stratum corneum, is often impaired by skin diseases or small skin lesions, especially on the hands. These skin conditions can considerably influence the permeation of chemicals and drugs. Furthermore, risk assessment for example of nanoparticles should be performed under various skin conditions to reflect the true circumstances. Therefore, an alternative and reproducible method for a high throughput of skin samples with impaired skin barrier was developed and verified by skin permeation studies (25 h) of caffeine, sorbic acid and testosterone compared to healthy (untreated) and tape-stripped skin. Skin barrier disruption was controlled by TEWL measurement. Skin permeation of the three substances was increased in tape-stripped and abraded skin compared to untreated skin due to the reduced barrier integrity. Enhancement of drug uptake was highest for the most hydrophilic substance, caffeine, followed by sorbic acid and lipophilic testosterone. No significant difference in drug uptake studies was observed between the new abrasion method with an aluminum-coated sponge and the tape-stripping method. The obtained results demonstrate that this abrasion method is an alternative way to achieve a disturbed skin barrier for drug and chemical uptake studies.

  2. Study of low work function materials for hot cavity resonance ionization laser ion sources

    CERN Document Server

    Schwellnus, F; Crepieux, B; Fedosseev, V N; Marsh, B A; Mattolat, Ch; Menna, M; Österdahl, F K; Raeder, S; Stora, T; Wendta, K


    The selectivity of a hot cavity resonance ionization laser ion source (RILIS) is most often limited by contributions from competing surface ionization of the hot walls of the ionization cavity. In this article we present investigations on the properties of designated high temperature, low work function materials regarding their performance and suitability as cavity material for RILIS. Tungsten test cavities, impregnated with a mixture of barium oxide and strontium oxide (BaOSrO on W), or alternatively gadolinium hexaboride (GdB6) were studied in comparison to a standard tungsten RILIS cavity as being routinely used for hot cavity laser ionization at ISOLDE. Measurement campaigns took place at the off-line mass separators at ISOLDE/CERN, Geneva and RISIKO/University of Mainz.

  3. Study of Low Work Function Materials for Hot Cavity Resonance Ionization Laser Ion Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Catherall, R; Fedosseev, V; Marsh, B; Mattolat, C; Menna, Mariano; Österdahl, F; Raeder, S; Schwellnus, F; Stora, T; Wendt, K; CERN. Geneva. AB Department


    The selectivity of a hot cavity resonance ionization laser ion source (RILIS) is most often limited by contributions from competing surface ionization on the hot walls of the ionization cavity. In this article we present investigations on the properties of designated high-temperature, low-work function materials regarding their performance and suitability as cavity material for RILIS. Tungsten test cavities, impregnated with a mixture of barium oxide and strontium oxide (BaOSrO on W), or alternatively gadolinium hexaboride (GdB6) were studied in comparison to a standard tungsten RILIS cavity as being routinely used for hot cavity laser ionization at ISOLDE. Measurement campaigns took place at the off-line mass separators at ISOLDE / CERN, Geneva and RISIKO / University of Mainz.

  4. The relationship between study addiction and work addiction: A cross-cultural longitudinal study. (United States)

    Atroszko, Paweł A; Andreassen, Cecilie Schou; Griffiths, Mark D; Pallesen, Ståle


    Aims Recent empirical studies investigating "study addiction" have conceptualized it as a behavioral addiction, defined within the framework of work addiction. This study is the first attempt to examine the longitudinal relationship between study addiction and work addiction. Methods The Bergen Study Addiction Scale (BStAS), the Bergen Work Addiction Scale (BWAS), and the Ten-Item Personality Inventory were administered online together with questions concerning demographics and study-related variables in two waves. In Wave 1, a total of 2,559 students in Norway and 2,177 students in Poland participated. A year later, in Wave 2, 379 Norwegians and 401 Polish who began to work professionally completed the survey. Results The intraclass correlation between BStAS and BWAS revealed that the scores were somewhat related; however, the relationship was slightly weaker than the temporal stability of both constructs. In the Norwegian sample, scoring higher on neuroticism and lower on learning time outside educational classes in Wave 1 was positively related to work addiction in Wave 2, whereas gender was unrelated to work addiction in Wave 2 when controlling for other studied variables in either samples. Conclusion Study addiction and work addiction appear to be closely related suggesting that the former may be a precursor for (or an early form of) the latter.

  5. Does Economic Research in Education Work? For Which Studies? (United States)

    Makel, Matthew C.; Wai, Jonathan


    In their National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER) working paper, "Does Gifted Education Work? For Which Students?" Card and Giuliano (C & G) made an enormous splash in not just gifted education but also the world (e.g., "The Washington Post," "The Atlantic," Five Thirty Eight). In this commentary, we highlight…

  6. Reciprocal Relations between Work-Related Authenticity and Intrinsic Motivation, Work Ability and Depressivity: A Two-Wave Study. (United States)

    Emmerich, Astrid I; Rigotti, Thomas


    This study investigates the role of context-specific authenticity at work for work-related outcomes (intrinsic motivation, work ability) and depressivity. Furthermore reciprocal relations between work-related authenticity and healthy psychological functioning are investigated. Longitudinal data from 1,243 employees from 63 subsidiaries of a non-profit organization in the social sector were analyzed using multilevel structural equation modeling. Work-related authenticity at T1 predicted work ability and depressivity, but not intrinsic motivation at T2, about 6 months later. Work-related authenticity at T2 was predicted by intrinsic motivation and depressivity, but not by work ability at T1. We conclude that work-related authenticity and healthy psychological functioning are positively reinforcing each other. Thus, enabling employees to be authentic supposedly increases their well-being and is a pivotal opportunity for organizations to foster health and performance-related indicators like work ability and prevent negative health indicators like depressivity. At the same time, authenticity of employees can be fostered through workplace health promotion.

  7. Radiation therapists' and radiation oncology medical physicists' perceptions of work and the working environment in Australia: a qualitative study. (United States)

    Halkett, G K B; McKay, J; Hegney, D G; Breen, Lauren J; Berg, M; Ebert, M A; Davis, M; Kearvell, R


    Workforce recruitment and retention are issues in radiation oncology. The working environment is likely to have an impact on retention; however, there is a lack of research in this area. The objectives of this study were to: investigate radiation therapists' (RTs) and radiation oncology medical physicists' (ROMPs) perceptions of work and the working environment; and determine the factors that influence the ability of RTs and ROMPs to undertake their work and how these factors affect recruitment and retention. Semi-structured interviews were conducted and thematic analysis was used. Twenty-eight RTs and 21 ROMPs participated. The overarching themes were delivering care, support in work, working conditions and lifestyle. The overarching themes were mostly consistent across both groups; however, the exemplars reflected the different roles and perspectives of RTs and ROMPs. Participants described the importance they placed on treating patients and improving their lives. Working conditions were sometimes difficult with participants reporting pressure at work, large workloads and longer hours and overtime. Insufficient staff numbers impacted on the effectiveness of staff, the working environment and intentions to stay. Staff satisfaction is likely to be improved if changes are made to the working environment. We make recommendations that may assist departments to support RTs and ROMPs.

  8. A Study of Understandings in Care Work with Elderly People: Experiences using the Sophos Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Helle Krogh


    At study about understandings in Care Work. Using Second Order Phenomenological Observation Scheme......At study about understandings in Care Work. Using Second Order Phenomenological Observation Scheme...

  9. Case studies in control putting theory to work

    CERN Document Server

    Juričić, Đani


    Case Studies in Control presents a framework to facilitate the use of advanced control concepts in real systems based on two decades of research and over 150 successful applications for industrial end-users from various backgrounds. In successive parts the text approaches the problem of putting the theory to work from both ends, theoretical and practical. The first part begins with a stress on solid control theory and the shaping of that theory to solve particular instances of practical problems. It emphasizes the need to establish by experiment whether a model-derived solution will perform properly in reality. The second part focuses on real industrial applications based on the needs and requirements of end-users. Here, the engineering approach is dominant but with theoretical input of varying degree depending on the particular process involved. Following the illustrations of the progress that can be made from either extreme of the well-known theory–practice divide, the text proceeds to a third part relate...

  10. Study on Braking Sensation Based on Urban Working Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abi Lanie


    Full Text Available In this paper we researched the vehicle braking sense in three aspects of human, vehicle and environment and analysed their impacts on brake feeling. Through the real vehicle test we analysed the relationship among pedal force, pedal travel and deceleration. We used dynamometer test method to study the brake noise question. We designed a fixture which could imitate the suspension and made the test more close to the true level. Moreover we discussed how to establish the evaluation system of vehicle braking condition. Through real vehicle test of braking, we can test and record the brake system parameters in the braking process under urban working conditions. We recorded the brake frequency, the change of brake speed and brake disc temperature. Meanwhile, based on the analysis of braking condition, we put forward the index of brake load to reflect the city’s traffic conditions. Experiment show that the braking condition and brake feel are related, braking condition also provides theoretical support for the design of brake system.

  11. Cross Functional Working and Concurrent Engineering – a UK Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Williams


    Full Text Available This paper reports on the preliminary results of an investigative study into the implementation of concurrent engineering applied to new product development. Concurrent (or Simultaneous engineering is the term commonly given to creating new products using multi-disciplined teams of marketing, design, manufacturing and support functions together with supplier and customers. Such techniques have produced robust, low cost quality products in short concept to market times compared to traditional ones. The research investigated design management practice and performance in a number of organisations across a range of industrial sectors in the UK by means of a questionnaire survey. The results identify the current use of a variety of design practices and methodologies such as different organisational structures, the extent of cross-functional working, the use of design and phase reviews and the use of different technologies. They indicate that companies implementing CE are more successful in time to market performance than those who don’t implement CE. Factors most influencing the successful adoption of CE are design and phase reviews, and, to a lesser extent, the use of multifunctional teams and supplier partnerships.

  12. The relationship between marriage and family therapists and complementary and alternative medicine approaches: a qualitative study. (United States)

    Becvar, Dorothy S; Caldwell, Karen L; Winek, Jon L


    In this article, we delineate the qualitative phase of a mixed-method research study focused on understanding the relationship between Clinical Members of the American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy (MFT) and complementary alternative medicine (CAM). Based on an analysis of the data derived from telephone interviews with 54 respondents, we describe four themes: definitional issues, depth of awareness of CAM, fit with MFT, and ethical considerations. Our discussion focuses on the findings of this phase, considerations from the quantitative phase, and reflections on the research study as a whole. While acknowledging the limitations of the study, we conclude that the growing awareness of and involvement with CAM approaches and practitioners among MFTs suggest a need for further education for both professionals and clients. We also note the importance of additional research support for the use of CAM practices.

  13. Are some "safer alternatives" hazardous as PBTs? The case study of new flame retardants. (United States)

    Gramatica, Paola; Cassani, Stefano; Sangion, Alessandro


    Some brominated flame retardants (BFRs), as PBDEs, are persistent, bioaccumulative, toxic (PBT) and are restricted/prohibited under various legislations. They are replaced by "safer" flame retardants (FRs), such as new BFRs or organophosphorous compounds. However, informations on the PBT behaviour of these substitutes are often lacking. The PBT assessment is required by the REACH regulation and the PBT chemicals should be subjected to authorization. Several new FRs, proposed and already used as safer alternatives to PBDEs, are here screened by the cumulative PBT Index model, implemented in QSARINS (QSAR-Insubria), new software for the development/validation of QSAR models. The results, obtained directly from the chemical structure for the three studied characteristics altogether, were compared with those from the US-EPA PBT Profiler: the two different approaches are in good agreement, supporting the utility of a consensus approach in these screenings. A priority list of the most harmful FRs, predicted in agreement by the two modelling tools, has been proposed, highlighting that some supposed "safer alternatives" are detected as intrinsically hazardous for their PBT properties. This study also shows that the PBT Index could be a valid tool to evaluate appropriate and safer substitutes, a priori from the chemical design, in a benign by design approach, avoiding unnecessary synthesis and tests.

  14. Methodologic considerations in the study of diet as part of complementary and alternative medicine modalities. (United States)

    Zander, Mary E S; Wargovich, Michael J; Hebert, James R


    Diet is an essential component of most comprehensive health systems. Food figures prominently in the consciousness of most individuals, and the sensations of taste and smell are fundamentally important in human emotion. Complex configurations of dietary sanctions and strictures exist in virtually every human society, providing additional force to the power of diet. A wide variety of epidemiologic and laboratory-based studies have implicated a number of specific dietary factors in health and disease, with the former producing much in the way of equivocal evidence on most diet-health relationships and the latter often focusing so narrowly as to call into question the relevance of findings to human health. Assessing the role of diet as an important component of complementary and alternative medical treatment and preventive strategies will require a broad understanding of methodologic issues. Careful consideration of what is required to answer substantive questions in this intriguing and important area also will serve to advance the study of complementary and alternative modalities more generally.

  15. Preliminary studies of alternative feed additives for broilers: Alternanthera brasiliana extract, propolis extract and linseed oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MW Biavatti


    Full Text Available The influence of alternative treatments using fluidextracts of Alternanthera brasiliana, propolis resin and linseed oil on the performance and blood biochemistry of broilers was evaluated. The study was done with five treatments: basal diet (negative control; basal diet + 40 ppm avylamicin and 120 ppm monensin (positive control; basal diet + A. brasiliana extract (180 mL/200 kg of feed; basal diet + propolis extract (200 mL/200 kg of feed and basal diet + linseed oil (2.5% replacing soybean oil. Propolis and A. brasiliana extracts improved broiler performance from 14 to 21 days, whereas linseed oil had no effect. The findings of this experiment revealed that A. brasiliana and propolis extracts can be used as antimicrobials, but further studies are necessary to find the best concentration in broiler diets.

  16. Carbon offsets as an economic alternative to large-scale logging: a case study in Guyana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborne, T. [Energy and Resources Group, University of California Berkeley, 310 Barrows Hall, Berkeley CA 94720 (United States); Kiker, C. [Food and Resource Economics Department, University of Florida, PO Box 110240, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)


    The objective of this study is to analyze the economic viability of carbon-offset projects that avoid logging in Guyana's forests. The results of this case study illustrate the cost effectiveness of alternative land-use options that reduce deforestation and associated greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This analysis demonstrates that using Guyana's rainforests for climate change mitigation can generate equivalent revenue to that of conventional large-scale logging without detrimental environmental impacts. At a 12% discount rate, the break-even price for carbon is estimated to be about US$ 0.20/tC. This estimate falls toward the low range of carbon prices for existing carbon offset projects that avoid deforestation.

  17. Biodiversity loss and turnover in alternative states in the Mediterranean Sea: a case study on meiofauna (United States)

    Bianchelli, Silvia; Buschi, Emanuela; Danovaro, Roberto; Pusceddu, Antonio


    In the Mediterranean Sea hard-bottom macroalgal meadows may switch to alternative and less-productive barrens grounds, as a result of sea urchins overgrazing. Meiofauna (and especially nematodes) represent key components of benthic ecosystems, are highly-diversified, sensitive to environmental change and anthropogenic impacts, but, so-far, have been neglected in studies on regime shifts. We report here that sedimentary organic matter contents, meiofaunal taxa richness and community composition, nematode α- and β-biodiversity vary significantly between alternative macroalgal and barren states. The observed differences are consistent in six areas spread across the Mediterranean Sea, irrespective of barren extent. Our results suggest also that the low biodiversity levels in barren states are the result of habitat loss/fragmentation, which is associated also with a lower availability of trophic resources. Furthermore, differences in meiofaunal and nematode abundance, biomass and diversity between macroalgal meadow and barren states persist when the latter is not fully formed, or consists of patches interspersed in macroalgal meadows. Since barren grounds are expanding rapidly along the Mediterranean Sea and meiofauna are a key trophic component in marine ecosystems, we suggest that the extension and persistence of barrens at the expenses of macroalgal meadows could also affect resilience of higher trophic level.

  18. Pulse Intravenous Clomipramine as an alternative antidepressant treatment to ECT: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maj-Liz Persson


    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The aim of the study was to examine the antidepressant effect of a single pulse dose of intravenous clomipramine (200 mg i.v. followed by oral administration as an alternative method to electroconvulsive therapy. Methods: Twenty-one inpatients (8 male, 13 female with major depression were included. Depression severity was measured by Montgomery Asberg Rating Scale (MADRS and Clinical Global Impression severity scale (CGI-S before the pulse dose and 1 week after. The day after the pulse dose, the patient was medicated with 75 mg of oral clomipramine and from day two with 150 mg clomipramine daily. Results: The MADRS score dropped with 39% ± 22% and the CGI score with 28% ± 19% in one week. The improvement of the MADRS score after one week was 13.1 (C.I.9.5-17.0. CGI-ratings dropped from a mean of 5.5 (SD 1.2 to 3.9 (SD 1.1, an improvement of 28% ± 19%.(C.I. 1.0-2.1. Both improvements were significant (p<000.1. Conclusions: Single pulse dose clomipramine administration ameliorates depressive symptoms, and may be an alternative to ECT.

  19. Biodiversity loss and turnover in alternative states in the Mediterranean Sea: a case study on meiofauna (United States)

    Bianchelli, Silvia; Buschi, Emanuela; Danovaro, Roberto; Pusceddu, Antonio


    In the Mediterranean Sea hard-bottom macroalgal meadows may switch to alternative and less-productive barrens grounds, as a result of sea urchins overgrazing. Meiofauna (and especially nematodes) represent key components of benthic ecosystems, are highly-diversified, sensitive to environmental change and anthropogenic impacts, but, so-far, have been neglected in studies on regime shifts. We report here that sedimentary organic matter contents, meiofaunal taxa richness and community composition, nematode α- and β-biodiversity vary significantly between alternative macroalgal and barren states. The observed differences are consistent in six areas spread across the Mediterranean Sea, irrespective of barren extent. Our results suggest also that the low biodiversity levels in barren states are the result of habitat loss/fragmentation, which is associated also with a lower availability of trophic resources. Furthermore, differences in meiofaunal and nematode abundance, biomass and diversity between macroalgal meadow and barren states persist when the latter is not fully formed, or consists of patches interspersed in macroalgal meadows. Since barren grounds are expanding rapidly along the Mediterranean Sea and meiofauna are a key trophic component in marine ecosystems, we suggest that the extension and persistence of barrens at the expenses of macroalgal meadows could also affect resilience of higher trophic level. PMID:27708343

  20. Numerical Study on Plume Interaction Above An Alternating Diffuser in Stagnant Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KUANG Cui-ping; LEE Joseph H.W.; LIU Shu-guang; GU Jie


    The plume interaction above an alternating diffuser in stagnant water is studied with 3D Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations (RANS) combined with a buoyancy-extended k-ε model. The steady three-dimensional turbulent flow and temperature fields are computed by use of the finite volume method on a non-uniform high resolution orthogonal grid. The numerical predictions demonstrate a generic flow pattern for different turbulent heated jet discharges: the buoyant jets on each side of the diffuser first merge to form an essentially two-dimensional plume which bends back toward the diffuser centerline due to a low pressure cavity. In general, an under-pressure exists in the cavity until the plumes merge; the pressure increases to slightly positive afterwards. Two-dimensionality of the scalar and flow field is attained much later than the point of zero pressure. The position of merging point is governed by mainly four parameters - the discharge densimetric Froude number, the port diameter and space, and the horizontal distance between alternating jet nozzles. A formula from numerical simulations is obtained through regression analysis and it is used to predict the position of plume merging point. The predicted temperature fields are comparable to previous experiments.

  1. Evaluation of microlithographic performance of `deep UV’ resists: Synthesis, and 2D NMR studies on alternating `high ortho’ novolak resins

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Maneesh Sharma; Anant A Naik; P Raghunathan; S V Eswaran


    Lithographic evaluation of a `deep UV’ negative photoresist is discussed along with the synthesis of an alternating `high-ortho’ novolak resin. 2-D NMR studies (COSY, NOESY, HSQC, HMBC) on this resin are also discussed.

  2. Time-greedy employment relationships: four studies on the time claims of post-Fordist work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Echtelt, P.


    Recent case studies consistently show that employees in contemporary work structures (often referred to as post-Fordist work designs) spend longer hours at work than in more traditional workplaces. This study investigates the association of post-Fordist work with working unpaid overtime and over-emp

  3. Time-greedy employment relationships. Four studies on the time claims of post-Fordist work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Echtelt, Patricia Elisabeth van


    Recent case studies consistently show that employees in contemporary work structures (often referred to as post-Fordist work designs) spend longer hours at work than in more traditional workplaces. This study investigates the association of post-Fordist work with working unpaid overtime and over-emp

  4. Psychosocial work environment and antidepressant medication: a prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Jens Peter; Munch-Hansen, T.; Wieclaw, J.;


    -reports of psychosocial factors at work including satisfaction with the work climate and dimensions of the job strain model were obtained by self-administered questionnaires (response rate 77,2%). Each employee was assigned the average score value for all employees at his/her managerial work unit [1094 units...... with an average of 18 employees (range 3-120)]. The risk of first-time AD prescription during follow-up was examined according to level of satisfaction and psychosocial strain by Cox regression with adjustment for gender, age, marital status, occupational status and calendar year of the survey. RESULTS......: The proportion of employees that received at least one prescription of ADs from 1995 through 2006 was 11.9% and prescriptions rose steadily from 1.50% in 1996 to the highest level 6.47% in 2006. ADs were prescribed more frequent among women, middle aged, employees with low occupational status and those living...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano García-Izquierdo


    Full Text Available In the last two decades, mobbing has been one of the topics of research in work and organizational psychology. Since its inception in 2001, the Service of Ergonomics and Applied Psychosociology (Serpa at the University of Murcia has been working on this problem, which has a leading role and impact in work and social fields. This text is an overview of the most interesting findings by this research group and their comparison with other results that appear in the scientific literature. We begin with questions on the delimitation of the concept, forms of quantification, the prevalence and the source of bullying behaviors. Subsequently we review the determinants and consequences, and we refer to a personal resource, self-efficacy, which may moderate the effects of harassment on health behaviors. Finally, we discuss the main forms of intervention and note some considerations with a view to adequate prevention.

  6. 76 FR 67558 - Proposed Information Collection (Application for Work-Study Allowance) Activity: Comment Request (United States)


    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Application for Work-Study Allowance) Activity: Comment Request... comments for information needed to determine a claimant's eligibility for work-study benefits. DATES.... Application for Work-Study Allowance, VA Form 22-8691. b. Student Work-Study Agreement (Advance Payment),...

  7. 77 FR 2351 - Agency Information Collection (Application for Work-Study Allowance): Activity Under OMB Review (United States)


    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Application for Work-Study Allowance): Activity Under OMB Review... INFORMATION: Titles a. Application for Work-Study Allowance, VA Form 22-8691. b. Student Work-Study Agreement (Advance Payment), VA Form 22-8692. c. Extended Student Work-Study Agreement, VA Form 22-8692a. d....

  8. Diluted isoflurane as a suitable alternative for diethyl ether for rat anaesthesia in regular toxicology studies. (United States)

    Nagate, Toshiaki; Chino, Tomonobu; Nishiyama, Chizuru; Okuhara, Daisuke; Tahara, Toru; Maruyama, Yoshimasa; Kasahara, Hiroko; Takashima, Kayoko; Kobayashi, Sayaka; Motokawa, Yoshiyuki; Muto, Shin-ichi; Kuroda, Junji


    Despite its explosive properties and toxicity to both animals and humans, diethyl ether is an agent long used in Japan in the anaesthesia jar method of rat anaesthetises. However, in response to a recent report from the Science Council of Japan condemning diethyl ether as acceptable practice, we searched for an alternative rat anaesthesia method that provided data continuous with pre-existing regular toxicology studies already conducted under diethyl ether anaesthesia. For this, we examined two candidates; 30% isoflurane diluted with propylene glycol and pentobarbitone. Whereas isoflurane is considered to be one of the representatives of modern volatile anaesthetics, the method of propylene glycol-diluted 30% isoflurane used in this study was our modification of a recently reported method revealed to have several advantages as an inhalation anaesthesia. Intraperitoneal pentobarbitone has long been accepted as a humane method in laboratory animal anaesthesiology. These 2 modalities were scrutinized in terms of consistency of haematology and blood chemistry with previous results using ether. We found that pentobarbitone required a much longer induction time than diethyl ether, which is suspected to be the cause of fluctuations in several haematological and blood chemical results. Conversely, only calcium ion concentration showed a slight difference from traditional results in the case of 30% isoflurane. Additionally, serum prolactin and corticosterone levels indicated that 30% isoflurane induced less stress than ether, confirming that 30% isoflurane can both provide results consistent with diethyl ether, while at the same time remove its disadvantages. As such 30% isoflurane appears to be a strong alternative anaesthetic agent for future regular toxicology studies in Japan.

  9. Study on Plastic Coated Overburnt Brick Aggregate as an Alternative Material for Bituminous Road Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipankar Sarkar


    Full Text Available There are different places in India where natural stone aggregates are not available for constructional work. Plastic coated OBBA can solve the problem of shortage of stone aggregate to some extent. The engineers are always encouraged to use locally available materials. The present investigation is carried out to evaluate the plastic coated OBBA as an alternative material for bituminous road construction. Shredded waste plastics are mixed with OBBA in different percentages as 0.38, 0.42, 0.46, 0.50, 0.54, and 0.60 of the weight of brick aggregates. Marshall Method of mix design is carried out to find the optimum bitumen content of such bituminous concrete mix prepared by plastic coated OBBA. Bulk density, Marshall Stability, flow, Marshall Quotient, ITS, TSR, stripping, fatigue life, and deformations have been determined accordingly. Marshall Stability value of 0.54 percent of plastic mix is comparatively higher than the other mixes except 0.60 percent of plastic mix. Test results are within the prescribed limit for 0.54 percent of plastic mix. There is a significant reduction in rutting characteristics of the same plastic mix. The fatigue life of the mix is also significantly higher. Thus plastic coated OBBA is found suitable in construction of bituminous concrete road.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Critical reflective teaching has been a goal of English teacher preparation program. Although many English educators have promoted and carried out reflective teaching in their methodology courses, success of such practice has been limited, not sufficiently reflecting what has been desired. Questions have been raised whether reflective teaching within pre-service English teacher education is a realistic aim. One argument for this has been: reflective teaching can only be learned by beginning teachers working in schools with experienced teachers who value critical reflection. This article examines 40 journals of teaching reflection produced by 40 pre-service English teachers after they completed teaching practicum in schools over a period of three months. The journals were analyzed using a theoretical model developed by Smith (2011 which encompasses different purposes with different forms of reflection: personal, interpersonal, contextual, and critical. The analysis shows that the teaching journals contained more reflection on the personal and contextual domains of teaching, indicating that the pre-service teachers were more concerned with the contextual aspects of teaching which influenced their practices in the classroom. It is recommended that a more balanced reflection be created as an alternative form of assessment in English teacher education involving personal as well as social aspects of teaching.

  11. Music Training and Working Memory: An ERP Study (United States)

    George, Elyse M.; Coch, Donna


    While previous research has suggested that music training is associated with improvements in various cognitive and linguistic skills, the mechanisms mediating or underlying these associations are mostly unknown. Here, we addressed the hypothesis that previous music training is related to improved working memory. Using event-related potentials…

  12. Voice Assessment of Student Work: Recent Studies and Emerging Technologies (United States)

    Eckhouse, Barry; Carroll, Rebecca


    Although relatively little attention has been given to the voice assessment of student work, at least when compared with more traditional forms of text-based review, the attention it has received strongly points to a promising form of review that has been hampered by the limits of an emerging technology. A fresh review of voice assessment in light…

  13. A work-study course in an ADN program. (United States)

    Farley, V M; Tyree, A


    This article describes a nursing student practicum in which students enrolled in the ADN program experience the real world of work over a five week period of time. The student's role and the RN mentor's role are described, as well as a report on the findings of this unique clinical elective in a basic nursing program.

  14. Working conditions in the engine department - A qualitative study among engine room personnel on board Swedish merchant ships. (United States)

    Lundh, Monica; Lützhöft, Margareta; Rydstedt, Leif; Dahlman, Joakim


    The specific problems associated with the work on board within the merchant fleet are well known and have over the years been a topic of discussion. The work conditions in the engine room (ER) are demanding due to, e.g. the thermal climate, noise and awkward working postures. The work in the engine control room (ECR) has over recent years undergone major changes, mainly due to the introduction of computers on board. In order to capture the impact these changes had implied, and also to investigate how the work situation has developed, a total of 20 engine officers and engine ratings were interviewed. The interviews were semi-structured and Grounded Theory was used for the data analysis. The aim of the present study was to describe how the engine crew perceive their work situation and working environment on board. Further, the aim was to identify areas for improvements which the engine crew consider especially important for a safe and effective work environment. The result of the study shows that the design of the ECR and ER is crucial for how different tasks are performed. Design which does not support operational procedures and how tasks are performed risk inducing inappropriate behaviour as the crew members' are compelled to find alternative ways to perform their tasks in order to get the job done. These types of behaviour can induce an increased risk of exposure to hazardous substances and the engine crew members becoming injured.

  15. Preliminary design study of an alternate heat source assembly for a Brayton isotope power system (United States)

    Strumpf, H. J.


    Results are presented for a study of the preliminary design of an alternate heat source assembly (HSA) intended for use in the Brayton isotope power system (BIPS). The BIPS converts thermal energy emitted by a radioactive heat source into electrical energy by means of a closed Brayton cycle. A heat source heat exchanger configuration was selected and optimized. The design consists of a 10 turn helically wound Hastelloy X tube. Thermal analyses were performed for various operating conditions to ensure that post impact containment shell (PICS) temperatures remain within specified limits. These limits are essentially satisfied for all modes of operation except for the emergency cooling system for which the PICS temperatures are too high. Neon was found to be the best choice for a fill gas for auxiliary cooling system operation. Low cycle fatigue life, natural frequency, and dynamic loading requirements can be met with minor modifications to the existing HSA.

  16. Closure Alternatives for Municipal Waste Landfills.Study Case: Municipal Waste Landfill Medias,Sibiu County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In the recent decades, the environmental impact produced by municipal solid wastes has received specialattention. All new EU countries are involved in the process of implementation of the European Council Directive31/99/EC on the landfill of waste in the European Union. As consequence National legislation, adapted to fit the EUrequirements, focuses on integrated waste management and environmental control of municipal solid waste landfills,from start-up to closure and assimilation into the environment. In Romania, by Government decision, HG 349/2005,was established the obligatoriness of closing unconform waste landfills located in urban areas starting at July 2009. Asconsequence the owner of municipal waste landfill Medias started the proceedings of closure for the landfill. The aim ofthis study is to compare, from an environmental point of view, different alternatives for the closure of the municipalsolid waste landfill Somard-Medias (Romania.

  17. Oxidative degradation of alternative gasoline oxygenates in aqueous solution by ultrasonic irradiation: Mechanistic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Duk Kyung, E-mail: [Department of Physical Science, Auburn University Montgomery, Montgomery, AL 36117 (United States); O' Shea, Kevin E., E-mail: [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Florida International University, University Park, Miami, FL 33199 (United States); Cooper, William J. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Urban Water Research Center, University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697-2175 (United States)


    Widespread pollution has been associated with gasoline oxygenates of branched ethers methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), di-isopropyl ether (DIPE), ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE), and tert-amyl ether (TAME) which enter groundwater. The contaminated plume develops rapidly and treatment for the removal/destruction of these ethers is difficult when using conventional methods. Degradation of MTBE, with biological methods and advanced oxidation processes, are rather well known; however, fewer studies have been reported for degradation of alternative oxygenates. Degradation of alternative gasoline oxygenates (DIPE, ETBE, and TAME) by ultrasonic irradiation in aqueous oxygen saturation was investigated to elucidate degradation pathways. Detailed degradation mechanisms are proposed for each gasoline oxygenate. The common major degradation pathways are proposed to involve abstraction of {alpha}-hydrogen atoms by hydroxyl radicals generated during ultrasound cavitation and low temperature pyrolytic degradation of ETBE and TAME. Even some of the products from {beta}-H abstraction overlap with those from high temperature pyrolysis, the effect of {beta}-H abstraction was not shown clearly from product study because of possible 1,5 H-transfer inside cavitating bubbles. Formation of hydrogen peroxide and organic peroxides was also determined during sonolysis. These data provide a better understanding of the degradation pathways of gasoline oxygenates by sonolysis in aqueous solutions. The approach may also serve as a model for others interested in the details of sonolysis. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gasoline oxygenates (ETBE, TAME, DIPE) were completely degraded after 6 hours under ultrasonic irradiation in O{sub 2} saturation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The major degradation pathways were proposed to involve abstraction of {alpha}-hydrogen atoms by hydroxyl radicals and low temperature pyrolytic degradation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of {beta

  18. Environmental assessment of alternative municipal solid waste management strategies. A Spanish case study. (United States)

    Bovea, M D; Ibáñez-Forés, V; Gallardo, A; Colomer-Mendoza, F J


    The aim of this study is to compare, from an environmental point of view, different alternatives for the management of municipal solid waste generated in the town of Castellón de la Plana (Spain). This town currently produces 207 ton of waste per day and the waste management system employed today involves the collection of paper/cardboard, glass and light packaging from materials banks and of rest waste at street-side containers. The proposed alternative scenarios were based on a combination of the following elements: selective collection targets to be accomplished by the year 2015 as specified in the Spanish National Waste Plan (assuming they are reached to an extent of 50% and 100%), different collection models implemented nationally, and diverse treatments of both the separated biodegradable fraction and the rest waste to be disposed of on landfills. This resulted in 24 scenarios, whose environmental behaviour was studied by applying the life cycle assessment methodology. In accordance with the ISO 14040-44 (2006) standard, an inventory model was developed for the following stages of the waste management life cycle: pre-collection (bags and containers), collection, transport, pre-treatment (waste separation) and treatment/disposal (recycling, composting, biogasification+composting, landfill with/without energy recovery). Environmental indicators were obtained for different impact categories, which made it possible to identify the key variables in the waste management system and the scenario that offers the best environmental behaviour. Finally, a sensitivity analysis was used to test some of the assumptions made in the initial life cycle inventory model.

  19. A work-directed intervention to enhance the return to work of employees with cancer: a case study. (United States)

    Tamminga, Sietske J; Verbeek, Jos H A M; de Boer, Angela G E M; van der Bij, Ria M; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W


    The purpose of this case study was to describe how the return-to-work process evolved in an employee with cancer in the Netherlands and how a work-directed intervention supported this process. The patient was a 35-year old female employee diagnosed with cervix carcinoma. After surgery, the patient experienced depression, fatigue, fear of recurrence, and low mental working capacity. Communication with the occupational physician was difficult. A social worker at the hospital provided three counselling sessions aimed to support return to work and sent letters to the occupational physician to improve the communication. The support by the social worker helped the patient to resume work gradually and the sending of information from the treating physician and social worker improved the communication with the occupational physician. This resulted in the patient being able to achieve lasting return to work. This work-directed intervention was highly valued by the patient and could be an important addition to usual psycho-oncological care for employees with cancer.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisham DZAKIRIA


    Full Text Available Globally, blended learning (BL technologies have been increasingly applied in a variety of fields, both public and private sectors. In recent years, universities, public and private businesses and organizations are among those employing blended learning methods and technologies in training and re-training of professionals in the workforce. In Malaysia, the increasing use of blended learning to enhance learning and enriching of soft skills among professionals and individuals in the work place is evident. The advancement of technology is an onset to many new avenues and tool for learning and teaching, and it is the coalescing of these various technologies with particular pedagogy or andragogy has helped to popularize BL. However, when an institution makes the critical choice of delivery methods, it is pertinent that the university needs to consider various success factors. One in particular is student-centered approach that entails the need to understand the students as the beneficiary of learning, and the support system they need to help them learn. This qualitative study reports in detail the experience of a small group of students undertaking Executive Diplomas at Executive Development Centre (EDC, Universiti Utara Malaysia as they progress through their Executive program. This paper looks at learning experiences as described by the learners- it is their story, their experience, and their perspective. This study suggests that BL offered a comfortable middle ground, and has lots of potential in higher education in Malaysia. It is a pedagogical alternative that could play a significant role not only for teaching Business Communication, but has the potential to promote lifelong learning initiatives in Malaysia in a much meaningful and inviting way. Although this study shows that BL contributed a significant and meaningful learning particularly for adult learners, it needs more definitive studies. Such information can be used to guide policy makers

  1. Educating the seamstress: studying and writing the memory of work


    Tamboukou, Maria


    In this paper I excavate the memory of work by looking into institutional histories, discourses and ideologies revolving around women workers’ educational experiences, cultural lives and political activities in the first half of the twentieth century in the US. In doing this I sketch Rose Pesotta’s pen-portrait, drawing on her autobiographical narratives. As a migrant garment worker, an anarchist trade union leader and one of the few women vice-presidents in the history of the International L...

  2. 76 FR 15052 - Proposed Information Collection (Time Record (Work-Study Program); Comment Request (United States)


    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Time Record (Work-Study Program); Comment Request AGENCY... information needed to verify the actual number of hours worked by a work-study claimant. DATES: Written... Record (Work-Study Program)), VA Form 22-8690. OMB Control Number: 2900-0379. Type of Review:...

  3. Preventing long-lasting fear recovery using bilateral alternating sensory stimulation: A translational study. (United States)

    Wurtz, H; El-Khoury-Malhame, M; Wilhelm, F H; Michael, T; Beetz, E M; Roques, J; Reynaud, E; Courtin, J; Khalfa, S; Herry, C


    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a highly debilitating and prevalent psychological disorder. It is characterized by highly distressing intrusive trauma memories that are partly explained by fear conditioning. Despite efficient therapeutic approaches, a subset of PTSD patients displays spontaneous recurrence of traumatic memories after successful treatment. The development of animal behavioral models mimicking the individual variability in treatment outcome for PTSD patients represent therefore an important challenge as it allows for the identification of predicting factors of resilience or susceptibility to relapse. However, to date, only few animal behavioral models of long-lasting fear recovery have been developed and their predictive validity has not been tested directly. The objectives of this study were twofold. First we aimed to develop a simple animal behavioral model of long-lasting fear recovery based on auditory cued fear conditioning and extinction learning, which recapitulates the heterogeneity of fear responses observed in PTSD patients after successful treatment. Second we aimed at testing the predictive validity of our behavioral model and used to this purpose a translational approach based (i) on the demonstration of the efficiency of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) therapy to reduce conditioned fear responses in PTSD patients and (ii) on the implementation in our behavioral model of an electrical bilateral alternating stimulation of the eyelid which mimics the core feature of EMDR. Our data indicate that electrical bilateral alternating stimulation of the eyelid during extinction learning alleviates long-lasting fear recovery of conditioned fear responses and dramatically reduces inter-individual variability. These results demonstrate the face and predictive validity of our animal behavioral model and provide an interesting tool to understand the neurobiological underpinnings of long-lasting fear recovery.

  4. A Correlational Study on Attachment Style and GPA of Students at an Alternative Education Center (United States)

    Burdick, Cindy L.


    Adolescents in America are dropping out of school in alarming rates. In the school year 2009-2010, 514,238 adolescents dropped out of high school. While alternative education centers have been created to meet the needs of these individuals, they are not always successful as evidenced by a graduation rate below 5% in several alternative centers in…

  5. Evaluation of Colocasia esculenta Starch as an Alternative Tablet Excipient to Maize Starch: Assessment by Preformulation and Formulation Studies


    Kusuma. R; Venkat Reddy. P; Samba Shiva Rao. A


    Starch isolated from Colocasia esculenta plant was studied as an alternative pharmaceutical excipient to maize and potato starch. The Colocasia esculenta starch has been evaluated by series of tests as mentioned in Indian Pharmacopoeia before being used for evaluation. It was tested along with maize and potato starch as an alternative excipient by performing battery of preformulation and formulation tests. The results obtained for Colocasia esculenta starch was comparable with maize starch an...

  6. A Comprehensive Study of Internal Distraction Plating, an Alternative Method for Distal Radius Fractures (United States)

    Mavani, Kinjal J


    Introduction The management of highly comminuted distal radius fractures still remains a major treatment challenge. Articular comminution and compromised bone quality are the culprits. One novel approach is the technique of Internal Distraction Plating which involves “bridging” the fracture with the use of a standard 3.5mm plate applied dorsally in distraction from the radius, proximal to the fracture, to the long finger metacarpal distally, bypassing the comminuted segment. The plate is removed once fracture union has been achieved. Aim The present study was conducted with the aim to evaluate the role of internal dorsal distraction plating as an alternative method in the treatment of fracture distal radius in terms of special indications, technique and outcome. Materials and Methods This study was a prospective longitudinal study on 20 patients (mean age 62 years) treated with internal distraction plating for comminuted distal radius fractures with specific indications. Regular follow-ups with standard radiographs and analysis were done upto 24 months. Functional outcome were assessed by DASH Score and the Gartland and Werley demerit score. Results At final follow-up, all fractures had united and X-rays showed mean palmar tilt of 7°, positive ulnar variance of 0.5mm, radial inclination of 18° and average loss of 2mm of radial height. Mean range of motion values for wrist flexion 46°, extension 50°, pronation 79° and supination 77° At final follow-up, the mean DASH score was 32. 85% patient had excellent to good result as per Gartland and Werley demerit score. This construct has yield satisfactory clinical and radiographic results with these very challenging injuries. Conclusion The purpose of this study was to report the radiographic and the functional outcomes of treatment with this technique. External fixator and volar plating in communited distal end radius fractures are not always satisfactory in old age with osteoporotic bone because of

  7. Studies on a frustrated Heisenberg spin chain with alternating ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic exchanges. (United States)

    Sahoo, Shaon; Durga Prasad Goli, V M L; Sen, Diptiman; Ramasesha, S


    We study Heisenberg spin-1/2 and spin-1 chains with alternating ferromagnetic (J(F)(1)) and antiferromagnetic (J(A)(1)) nearest-neighbor interactions and a ferromagnetic next-nearest-neighbor interaction (J(F)(2)). In this model frustration is present due to the non-zero J(F)(2). The model with site spin s behaves like a Haldane spin chain, with site spin 2s in the limit of vanishing J(F)(2)and large J(F)(1)/J(A)(1). We show that the exact ground state of the model can be found along a line in the parameter space. For fixed J(F)(1), the phase diagram in the space of J(A)(1)-J(F)(2) is determined using numerical techniques complemented by analytical calculations. A number of quantities, including the structure factor, energy gap, entanglement entropy and zero temperature magnetization, are studied to understand the complete phase diagram. An interesting and potentially important feature of this model is that it can exhibit a macroscopic magnetization jump in the presence of a magnetic field; we study this using an effective Hamiltonian.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byunghun Choi


    Full Text Available Chinese responsibility for reducing Greenhouse Gas or carbon dioxide emission increases continuously. Chinese government suggested two targets; Alternative Fuel Vehicle output volume 500 thousand and AFV market share 5% by the end of 2011. However any of two targets did not come true. Therefore this study accessed the question, ‘why Chinese government initiative model for AFV promotion has been so poor?’ This study reviewed the transition process for AFV policies in China and made a structural analysis for three key policies since 2009. As a result the number of articles for related industries or factor endowments was relatively more than firm strategy or demand conditions. Also this study accessed the AFV strategy of Six SOEs from the perspective of social responsibility. Six SOEs have more concentrated on electric vehicle rather than hybrid vehicle with following the government leadership. However major EV or HEV models of them mostly were made by Joint Ventures being under control of foreign makers and the JVs have actually controlled over AFV business. So the limitation of Chinese government initiative model resulted from supplier-centric approach with targeting for public transportation and institution consumer, and it caused a failure to create the demand conditions of general customers.

  9. Alternative Exercise Technologies to Fight against Sarcopenia at Old Age: A Series of Studies and Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Kemmler


    Full Text Available The most effective physiologic mean to prevent sarcopenia and related muscle malfunction is a physically active lifestyle, or even better, physical exercise. However, due to time constraints, lack of motivation, or physical limitations, a large number of elderly subjects are either unwilling or unable to perform conventional workouts. In this context, two new exercise technologies, whole-body vibration (WBV and whole-body electromyostimulation (WB-EMS, may exhibit a save, autonomous, and efficient alternative to increase or maintain muscle mass and function. Regarding WB-EMS, the few recent studies indeed demonstrated highly relevant effects of this technology on muscle mass, strength, and power parameters at least in the elderly, with equal or even higher effects compared with conventional resistance exercise. On the contrary, although the majority of studies with elderly subjects confirmed the positive effect of WBV on strength and power parameters, a corresponding relevant effect on muscle mass was not reported. However, well-designed studies with adequate statistical power should focus more intensely on this issue.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This study focuses on the remediation methods and technologies applicable for use at 200-PO-I Groundwater Operable Unit (OU) at the Hanford Site. The 200-PO-I Groundwater au requires groundwater remediation because of the existence of contaminants of potential concern (COPC). A screening was conducted on alternative technologies and methods of remediation to determine which show the most potential for remediation of groundwater contaminants. The possible technologies were screened to determine which would be suggested for further study and which were not applicable for groundwater remediation. COPCs determined by the Hanford Site groundwater monitoring were grouped into categories based on properties linking them by remediation methods applicable to each COPC group. The screening considered the following criteria. (1) Determine if the suggested method or technology can be used for the specific contaminants found in groundwater and if the technology can be applied at the 200-PO-I Groundwater au, based on physical characteristics such as geology and depth to groundwater. (2) Evaluate screened technologies based on testing and development stages, effectiveness, implementability, cost, and time. This report documents the results of an intern research project conducted by Mathew Dado for Central Plateau Remediation in the Soil and Groundwater Remediation Project. The study was conducted under the technical supervision of Gloria Cummins and management supervision of Theresa Bergman and Becky Austin.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Podoabă Lucia


    Full Text Available This paper is part of an applied, broad, based popular empirical procedures (such as natural observation scientific research. The positivist research methodology used was based on consensual-inductive system (Locke, which is why we studied different specialists’ opinions on the use of EU funds for the elderly in Romania or employer contributions to voluntary private funds, necessary to formulate the problem of generating relevant information. The used research strategies were the comparative and longitudinal ones, as we analyzed the time evolution in time of the number of pensioners and employees in Romania, in the main time with the EU funding for the elderly, to determine Romania's concrete economic alternatives to support this category of populations. Causality assumptions about the relationship efficient use of EU funds-beneficiaries was inductively built in this paper (by analyzing the European funds management issue in Romania, causally (by cause and effect explanation of the studied phenomenon, deductively, logically and subjectively (on the basis of existence and perpetuation of fund premise conflict between strategic absorption of European funds and regional development. The qualitative approach of the phenomenon studied was made by collecting information (using the mediate data collection technique has allowed relevant findings and practical solutions necessary for all those involved in this concerted action for the elderly, which affects us all.

  12. Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) as an alternative host to study fungal infections. (United States)

    de Souza, Patrícia Canteri; Morey, Alexandre Tadachi; Castanheira, Gabriel Marcondes; Bocate, Karla Paiva; Panagio, Luciano Aparecido; Ito, Fabio Augusto; Furlaneto, Márcia Cristina; Yamada-Ogatta, Sueli Fumie; Costa, Idessânia Nazareth; Mora-Montes, Hector Manuel; Almeida, Ricardo Sergio


    Models of host–pathogen interactions are crucial for the analysis of microbial pathogenesis. In this context, invertebrate hosts, including Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly), Caenorhabditis elegans (nematode) and Galleria mellonella (moth), have been used to study the pathogenesis of fungi and bacteria. Each of these organisms offers distinct benefits in elucidating host–pathogen interactions. In this study,we present a newinvertebrate infection model to study fungal infections: the Tenebrio molitor (beetle) larvae. Here we performed T. molitor larvae infection with one of two important fungal human pathogens, Candida albicans or Cryptococcus neoformans, and analyzed survival curves and larva infected tissues.We showed that increasing concentrations of inoculum of both fungi resulted in increased mortality rates, demonstrating the efficiency of the method to evaluate the virulence of pathogenic yeasts. Additionally, following 12 h post-infection, C. albicans formsmycelia, spreading its hyphae through the larva tissue,whilst GMS stain enabled the visualization of C. neoformans yeast and theirmelanin capsule. These larvae are easier to cultivate in the laboratory than G. mellonella larvae, and offer the same benefits. Therefore, this insect model could be a useful alternative tool to screen clinical pathogenic yeast strainswith distinct virulence traits or different mutant strains.

  13. Alternative energies; Energies alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonal, J.; Rossetti, P


    The earth took millions years to made the petroleum, the gas the coal and the uranium. Only a few centuries will be needed to exhaust these fossil fuels and some years to reach expensive prices. Will the wold continue on this way of energy compulsive consumption? The renewable energies and some citizen attitudes are sufficient to break this spiral. This book proposes to discuss these alternative energies. It shows that this attitude must be supported by the government. It takes stock on the more recent information concerning the renewable energies. it develops three main points: the electricity storage, the housing and the transports. (A.L.B.)

  14. Closure of the Spent Fuel Repository in Forsmark - Studies of alternative concepts for sealing of ramp, shafts and investigation boreholes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gylling, Bjoern [SKB AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Luterkort, David [SGI, Stockholm (Sweden); Johansson, Roland [Miljoe- och Energikonsult AB, Ekeroe (Sweden)


    good sealing. Such a solution, which could be based on crushed rock with the right grain size distribution, might also be more robust to control and verify with respect to long-term durability. However, relaxing the design premises in this way would require additional sensitivity analyses. Further, the assessment in SR-Site indicates that the reference design is appropriate for the purpose. However, if the the design premises are relaxed, more robust designs might be worth investigating. This has been studied and the results are presented in this report. Research and development specifically focused on technology for repository closure has not yet been carried out. On the other hand, SKB and other organisations have for many years studied and conducted considerable research on backfilling and sealing of deposition tunnels, including full-scale tests. SKB has also developed and tested technology for sealing of investigation boreholes. Experience and results from these efforts comprise an important basis for this project. The work has focused on sealing of shafts, ramp and investigation boreholes. Alternatives for top sealing and sealing of the central area have not been studied, since their impact on the flow through the repository is judged to be marginal. Nor have alternative concepts for sealing of main and transport tunnels been developed, since it is believed that filling with blocks and pellets of swelling clay is the only alternative that ensures sufficiently low hydraulic conductivity.

  15. Use of multi-criteria decision analysis in regulatory alternatives analysis: a case study of lead free solder. (United States)

    Malloy, Timothy F; Sinsheimer, Peter J; Blake, Ann; Linkov, Igor


    Regulators are implementing new programs that require manufacturers of products containing certain chemicals of concern to identify, evaluate, and adopt viable, safer alternatives. Such programs raise the difficult question for policymakers and regulated businesses of which alternatives are "viable" and "safer." To address that question, these programs use "alternatives analysis," an emerging methodology that integrates issues of human health and environmental effects with technical feasibility and economic impact. Despite the central role that alternatives analysis plays in these programs, the methodology itself is neither well-developed nor tailored to application in regulatory settings. This study uses the case of Pb-based bar solder and its non-Pb-based alternatives to examine the application of 2 multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) methods to alternatives analysis: multi-attribute utility analysis and outranking. The article develops and evaluates an alternatives analysis methodology and supporting decision-analysis software for use in a regulatory context, using weighting of the relevant decision criteria generated from a stakeholder elicitation process. The analysis produced complete rankings of the alternatives, including identification of the relative contribution to the ranking of each of the highest level decision criteria such as human health impacts, technical feasibility, and economic feasibility. It also examined the effect of variation in data conventions, weighting, and decision frameworks on the outcome. The results indicate that MCDA can play a critical role in emerging prevention-based regulatory programs. Multi-criteria decision analysis methods offer a means for transparent, objective, and rigorous analysis of products and processes, providing regulators and stakeholders with a common baseline understanding of the relative performance of alternatives and the trade-offs they present.

  16. Company Policies on Working Hours and Night Work in Relation to Older Workers' Work Ability and Work Engagement: Results From a Dutch Longitudinal Study with 2 Year Follow-Up. (United States)

    van der Meer, Laudry; Leijten, Fenna R M; Heuvel, Swenneke G; Ybema, Jan F; de Wind, Astrid; Burdorf, Alex; Geuskens, Goedele A


    Purpose To longitudinally investigate (1) whether lower work ability and work engagement predict the use of company policies on reduced working hours and exemption from evening/night work among older workers, and (2) whether using such policies subsequently contribute to higher work ability and work engagement. Methods In total 6922 employees (45-64 years) participating in the first three waves of the Study on Transitions in Employment, Ability and Motivation were included. Participants yearly filled out an online questionnaires. Regression analyses were applied to study the influence of baseline work ability and work engagement on the incident use of policies during the first year of follow-up, and the incident use of these policies on work ability and work engagement during the second year of follow-up. Results Employees with a higher work ability were less likely to start using the policy 'reduced working hours' [OR 0.91 (95 % CI 0.83-0.98)]. Starting to use this policy was in turn related to lower work ability 1 year later [B -0.28 (95 % CI -0.47 to -0.08)]. Starting to use the policy 'exemption from evening/night work' was related to higher work engagement 1 year later [B 0.23 (95 % CI 0.07-0.39)]. Conclusions Low work ability precedes the use of some company policies aiming to support sustainable employability of older workers. Further research is needed to explore whether company policies result in a (longstanding) improvement, or reduced deterioration, of older workers' employability.

  17. Out-of-School-Time Study Programmes: Do They Work? (United States)

    Pensiero, Nicola; Green, Francis


    We analyse the prevalence and effectiveness of out-of-school-time (OST) study programmes among secondary aged students, focusing on their potential for reducing socio-economic gaps in educational achievement. Compared to several extant studies, including the only prior study for Britain, whose findings could be affected by heterogeneous…

  18. Does work stress make you shorter? An ambulatory field study of daily work stressors, job control, and spinal shrinkage. (United States)

    Igic, Ivana; Ryser, Samuel; Elfering, Achim


    Body height decreases throughout the day due to fluid loss from the intervertebral disk. This study investigated whether spinal shrinkage was greater during workdays compared with nonwork days, whether daily work stressors were positively related to spinal shrinkage, and whether job control was negatively related to spinal shrinkage. In a consecutive 2-week ambulatory field study, including 39 office employees and 512 days of observation, spinal shrinkage was measured by a stadiometer, and calculated as body height in the morning minus body height in the evening. Physical activity was monitored throughout the 14 days by accelerometry. Daily work stressors, daily job control, biomechanical workload, and recreational activities after work were measured with daily surveys. Multilevel regression analyses showed that spinal disks shrank more during workdays than during nonwork days. After adjustment for sex, age, body weight, smoking status, biomechanical work strain, and time spent on physical and low-effort activities during the day, lower levels of daily job control significantly predicted increased spinal shrinkage. Findings add to knowledge on how work redesign that increases job control may possibly contribute to preserving intervertebral disk function and preventing occupational back pain.

  19. An 11-year follow-up study of neonatal-onset, bath-induced alternating hemiplegia of childhood in twins. (United States)

    Incorpora, Gemma; Pavone, Piero; Polizzi, Agata; Cocuzza, Mariadonatella; Privitera, Michael; Pavone, Lorenzo; Ruggieri, Martino


    The authors previously reported on the initial manifestations in a set of female twins, who presented soon after birth with bath-induced paroxysmal events each time they were immersed in a warm water bath. These episodes progressively ceased by the age of 36 months, replaced by paroxysmal episodes of alternating hemiplegia unrelated to water immersion. By age 4 years, the twins developed the classic features of alternating hemiplegia of childhood. Clinical outcomes at the age of 11 years are now reported. Standard and video-electroencephalograms showed a large, slow background activity followed by lower amplitude waves without focal abnormalities or other abnormal findings. This represents the first report on (a) alternating hemiplegia of childhood started with bath-induced paroxysmal episodes; (b) this condition in monozygotic twins; and (c) an 11-year follow-up study in which the twins continue to experience episodes of alternating hemiplegia in the setting of baseline cognitive impairment without epileptic episodes.

  20. An Empirical Study on Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicine Usage among Malaysian Cancer Patients. (United States)

    Nagashekhara, Molugulu; Murthy, Vasudeva; Mruthyunjaya, Anil Tumkur; Li Ann, Lim


    Usage of traditional, complementary and alternative medicine (TCAM) has gained popularity over the past few years. However, very little is known about TCAM use among Malaysian cancer patients. This study aimed to identify the determinants of TCAM usage among cancer patients with determination of relationships between demographic factors, patient satisfaction with conventional treatment, knowledge on TCAM and healthcare professional influence. Patient's perceptions towards TCAM were also determined. A simple random convenient sampling method was used to recruit 354 patients from Hospital Kuala Lumpur between February to April 2013. All were directly interviewed with a structured questionnaire. In this study, 172 respondents were TCAM users. There was no significant differences between demographic background of respondents in the usage of TCAM. Minimal correlation was found between patient satisfaction with the conventional treatment and usage of TCAM (r=0.091). A poor correlation was found between healthcare professional's influence and TCAM usage (r=-0.213) but the results suggested that increase in influence would decrease TCAM usage. Patient TCAM knowledge correlated negatively with the TCAM usage (r=-0.555) indicated that cancer patients are less likely to use TCAM when they have more TCAM knowledge. Healthcare professionals should be fully equipped with the necessary TCAM knowledge while maintaining patient satisfaction with the conventional treatment. They should also intervene on patient TCAM usage where a potential drug interaction or a harmful adverse event can occur.

  1. a Study on the Alternative Technology Using Unsm Instead of the Presetting Method for Torsion Bar (United States)

    Suh, Chang-Min; Kim, Min-Ho; Baek, Un-Bong; Pyoun, Young-Sik; Kim, Chang-Sik; Chi, Chong-Ho

    The torsion bar must be changed periodically due to its lack of durability and a phenomenon related to stress relaxation. Therefore technical development regarding the torsion bar's durability is urgently needed. In order to improve the fatigue life and durability of the dynamic components, new surface treatment technology such as ultrasonic shot peening, deep rolling, laser shock peening, etc. are developing widely. In this study, Ultrasonic Nanocrystal Surface Modification (UNSM) technology is applied as an advanced one to replace the presetting method (PM). UNSM and PM technology also induced the compressive residual stress on the surface layer of the torsion bar, which is the main improvement factor of fatigue life. DIN17221 material as a new MIL specification of torsion bar and SCM440 (as an alternative one to a old MIL-DTL-62567C) were processed with the UNSM technology to obtain the basic data and compare it between two, and then torsion fatigue tests of two materials were carried out to obtain the characteristics of torsion fatigue in this study.

  2. Alternating current cloud point extraction on a microchip: a comprehensive study. (United States)

    Sasaki, Naoki; Takemura, Azusa; Sato, Kae


    We present a comprehensive study of alternating current cloud point extraction (ACPE) on a microchip. ACPE is an extraction technique for preconcentration of membrane-associated biomolecules. To characterize and optimize ACPE, we carried out ACPE experiments under various experimental conditions including amplitude and frequency of applied voltages, flow velocity, and concentration of surfactant, analyte, and salt. We found that ACPE has an amplitude threshold (15 V(p-p)), above which the extraction was more efficient. The dependence of the extraction on frequency (>5 MHz) was insignificant. Efficient extraction was achieved when the velocity of the test solution was 0.10∼0.67 mm s⁻¹ and the concentration of surfactant was 0.10∼1.0%. In contrast, the extraction was independent of the concentration of analytes (0.20∼20 μmol dm⁻³). The technique was applicable to solutions with a salt concentration of 0.050∼0.15 mol dm⁻³ under temperature control of the devices. Solution temperature in ACPE was also studied. These results provide guidelines for use of the ACPE technique in microfluidic chemical and biochemical analyses.

  3. Combining Work and Study by Russian Higher Education Institution Students


    Sergey Roshchin; Victor Rudakov


    Sergey Roshchin - Candidate of Science, Associate Professor, Prorector, Head of the Subdepartment of Labour and Population Economics, Director of the Laboratory for Labor Market Studies, National Research University - Higher School of Economics. E-mail: Rudakov - Analyst, Laboratory for Labor Market Studies, National Research University - Higher School of Economics. E-mail: Address: 26 Shabolovka str., Moscow, 119049, Russian Federation.Combin...

  4. School Counselors' Experiences Working with Digital Natives: A Qualitative Study (United States)

    Gallo, Laura L.


    To better understand school counselors' experiences related to students' use of social media, the authors conducted a qualitative study, utilizing a phenomenological approach, with eight practicing high school counselors. Three major themes emerged from the study: "the digital cultural divide," "frustration and fear," and…

  5. Alternative additives; Alternative additiver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    In this project a number of industrial and agricultural waste products have been characterised and evaluated in terms of alkali-getter performance. The intended use is for biomass-fired power stations aiming at reducing corrosion or slagging related problems. The following products have been obtained, characterised and evaluated: 1) Brewery draff 2) Danish de-gassed manure 3) Paper sludge 4) Moulding sand 5) Spent bleaching earth 6) Anorthosite 7) Sand 8) Clay-sludge. Most of the above alternative additive candidates are deemed unsuitable due to insufficient chemical effect and/or expensive requirements for pre-treatment (such as drying and transportation). 3 products were selected for full-scale testing: de-gassed manure, spent bleaching earth and clay slugde. The full scale tests were undertaken at the biomass-fired power stations in Koege, Slagelse and Ensted. Spent bleaching earth (SBE) and clay sludge were the only tested additive candidates that had a proven ability to react with KCl, to thereby reduce Cl-concentrations in deposits, and reduce the deposit flux to superheater tubes. Their performance was shown to nearly as good as commercial additives. De-gassed manure, however, did not evaluate positively due to inhibiting effects of Ca in the manure. Furthermore, de-gassed manure has a high concentration of heavy metals, which imposes a financial burden with regard to proper disposal of the ash by-products. Clay-sludge is a wet clay slurring, and drying and transportation of this product entails substantial costs. Spent bleaching does not require much pre-treatment and is therefore the most promising alternative additive. On the other hand, bleaching earth contains residual plant oil which means that a range of legislation relating to waste combustion comes into play. Not least a waste combustion fee of 330 DKK/tonne. For all alternative (and commercial) additives disposal costs of the increase ash by-products represents a significant cost. This is

  6. Aplastic Anemia: Alternative Immunosuppressive Treatments and Eltrombopag. A report from the 2014 EBMT Educational Meeting from the Severe Aplastic Anaemia and Infectious Diseases Working Parties. (United States)

    Risitano, Antonio M


    Acquired idiopathic AA is the most typical form of immune-mediated bone marrow failure; the standard treatment of AA for patients who lack a transplant option is immunosuppressive treatment (IST). The standard IST regimen is horse anti-thymocyte globuline (h-ATG) combined with cyclosporine A (CsA), which results in a long term survival around 65-70%. In the past two decades several efforts have been made to improve these results, however results were quite disappointing. Indeed, the addition of a third immunosuppressive agent (micophenolate and sirolimus) on the h-ATG/CsA platform has not resulted in any benefit. Furthermore, the use of anti-lymphocyte agents other than h-ATG (rabbit-ATG, cyclophosphamide, alemtuzumab) has not reproduced the positive outcome seen with standard h-ATG + CsA, irrespective of a more pronounced lymphocyte depletion observed with these alternative compounds. Thus, at least with the strategies tested so far, the strengthening of IST has not led to improved results. More recently, the use of the thrombopoietin mimetic agent eltrombopag has emerged as a possible option to rescue patients failing IST. Nowadays the protection and/or stimulation of residual hematopoietic stem cells by eltrombopag seem an interesting strategy which, once combined with IST, may improve its clinical efficacy. Prospective studies which combine h-ATG and CsA with eltrombopag are currently ongoing in the United States and in Europe, eventually aiming to establish the best non-transplant treatment of AA in the new millennium.

  7. Health status of people with work-related musculoskeletal disorders in return to work programs: a Malaysian study. (United States)

    Murad, Mohd Suleiman; O'Brien, Lisa; Farnworth, Louise; Chien, Chi-Wen


    This study examined the health status of injured workers with musculoskeletal disorders enrolled in the Malaysian Return to Work (RTW) program. The 102 participants were categorized into three RTW groups: Off-work (n = 30, 29.4%), Re-entry (n = 44, 43.1%), and Maintenance (n = 28, 27.5%). Overall health status, as measured by the SF-36 version 2, of the workers exhibited below average compared to the internationally established normative population, with their physical health component summary rated lower than mental health. Across the different groups, significant differences were found in role-physical, vitality, bodily pain, general health, and mental health. However, the mean values of these variables were higher in the Maintenance group and were found significant. The current health status of injured workers at Off-work and Re-entry phases was significantly low and warranted to be improved by involving other health professionals such as occupational therapists, ergonomists, and psychologists.

  8. Laser Pulpotomy–An Effective Alternative to Conventional Techniques: A 12 Months Clinicoradiographic Study (United States)

    Rana, Vivek; Srivastava, Nikhil; Chandna, Preetika


    ABSTRACT Background: Vital pulpotomy is a single-stage procedure of surgical amputation of the coronal portion of exposed vital pulp, usually as a means of preserving the vitality and function of the remaining radicular portion. Aims and objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the clinical and radiographic success rates for ferric sulfate (FS), electrosurgery (ES) and laser pulpotomy in human primary molars. Materials and methods: In a randomized clinical trial, 30 primary molars indicated for pulpotomy in children aged 4 to 10 years were treated using either a FS (10 teeth), ES technique (10 teeth) and laser (10 teeth). Following the pulpotomy, the teeth were evaluated for clinical and radiographic success at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months on the basis of the presence of pain, sinus, mobility, internal and external resorption, periapical radiolucency, calcification in the canal and bone loss. Statistical analysis: The data were assessed with Chi-square test. Results: After 12 months of follow-up, both clinical and radiographic success rates were 100% in the laser group but only 80% in both ES and FS groups. There was statistically significant difference between the success rates of three groups (p pulpotomy showed better clinical as well as radiographical results than ES and FS pulpotomy. Laser pulpotomy was also found superior in terms of operating time, patient cooperation, ease of use and pain. Although results of the study showed the failure rates for electrosurgical pulpotomy to be equal to those for FS pulpotomy, electrosurgical pulpotomy being a nonpharmacological technique considered more favorable. Further studies using larger sample size and longer evaluation periods are suggested. How to cite this article: Gupta G, Rana V, Srivastava N, Chandna P. Laser Pulpotomy–An Effective Alternative to Conventional Techniques: A 12 Months Clinicoradiographic Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(1):18-21. PMID:26124576

  9. Atmospheric Photochemistry Studies of Pollutant Emissions from Transportation Vehicles Operating on Alternative Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffries, H.; Sexton, K.; Yu, J.


    This project was undertaken with the goal of improving our ability to predict the changes in urban ozone resulting from the widespread use of alternative fuels in automobiles. This report presents the results in detail.

  10. A social work study for assessment of entrepreneurs' personal characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ahmadkhani


    Full Text Available The personality of an entrepreneur plays an important role on the success of creating new ideas. There are different characteristics such as courage, hardness, braveness, which could help an entrepreneur reach his/her goals. In this paper, we present an empirical study to learn more about students who are supposed to act as entrepreneur to create jobs in different fields of accounting, computer science, mechanical engineering, etc. In this paper, There are seven aspects of accepting reasonable risk, locus of control, the need for success, mental health conditions, being pragmatic, tolerating ambiguity, dreaming and the sense of challenging in our study to measure the level of entrepreneurship. We implement ANOVA test to measure different entrepreneurship characteristics of students who study in various educational fields. The case study is associated with Sama private university located in city of Zanjan/Iran. The results indicate that there are not meaningful differences among pairwise comparison of many engineering fields.

  11. LM-Tests for Linearity Against Smooth Transition Alternatives: A Bootstrap Simulation Study


    Hill, Jonathan B.


    The universal method for testing linearity against smooth transition autoregressive (STAR) alternatives is the linearization of the STAR model around the null nuisance parameter value, and performing F-tests on polynomial regressions in the spirit of the RESET test. Polynomial regressors, however, are poor proxies for the nonlinearity associated with STAR processes, and are not consistent (asymptotic power of one) against STAR alternatives, let alone general deviations from the null. Moreover...

  12. Alternatives to neonicotinoid insecticides for pest control: case studies in agriculture and forestry. (United States)

    Furlan, Lorenzo; Kreutzweiser, David


    Neonicotinoid insecticides are widely used for control of insect pests around the world and are especially pervasive in agricultural pest management. There is a growing body of evidence indicating that the broad-scale and prophylactic uses of neonicotinoids pose serious risks of harm to beneficial organisms and their ecological function. This provides the impetus for exploring alternatives to neonicotinoid insecticides for controlling insect pests. We draw from examples of alternative pest control options in Italian maize production and Canadian forestry to illustrate the principles of applying alternatives to neonicotinoids under an integrated pest management (IPM) strategy. An IPM approach considers all relevant and available information to make informed management decisions, providing pest control options based on actual need. We explore the benefits and challenges of several options for management of three insect pests in maize crops and an invasive insect pest in forests, including diversifying crop rotations, altering the timing of planting, tillage and irrigation, using less sensitive crops in infested areas, applying biological control agents, and turning to alternative reduced risk insecticides. Continued research into alternatives is warranted, but equally pressing is the need for information transfer and training for farmers and pest managers and the need for policies and regulations to encourage the adoption of IPM strategies and their alternative pest control options.

  13. Alternative Chemical Cleaning Methods for High Level Waste Tanks: Simulant Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudisill, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); King, W. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hay, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jones, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)


    Solubility testing with simulated High Level Waste tank heel solids has been conducted in order to evaluate two alternative chemical cleaning technologies for the dissolution of sludge residuals remaining in the tanks after the exhaustion of mechanical cleaning and sludge washing efforts. Tests were conducted with non-radioactive pure phase metal reagents, binary mixtures of reagents, and a Savannah River Site PUREX heel simulant to determine the effectiveness of an optimized, dilute oxalic/nitric acid cleaning reagent and pure, dilute nitric acid toward dissolving the bulk non-radioactive waste components. A focus of this testing was on minimization of oxalic acid additions during tank cleaning. For comparison purposes, separate samples were also contacted with pure, concentrated oxalic acid which is the current baseline chemical cleaning reagent. In a separate study, solubility tests were conducted with radioactive tank heel simulants using acidic and caustic permanganate-based methods focused on the “targeted” dissolution of actinide species known to be drivers for Savannah River Site tank closure Performance Assessments. Permanganate-based cleaning methods were evaluated prior to and after oxalic acid contact.

  14. Hypersensitivity reaction studies of a polyethoxylated castor oil-free, liposome-based alternative paclitaxel formulation. (United States)

    Wang, Hongbo; Cheng, Guang; Du, Yuan; Ye, Liang; Chen, Wenzhong; Zhang, Leiming; Wang, Tian; Tian, Jingwei; Fu, Fenghua


    The commercial drug paclitaxel (Taxol) may introduce hypersensitivity reactions associated with the polyethoxylated castor oil-ethanol solvent. To overcome these problems, we developed a polyethoxylated castor oil-free, liposome-based alternative paclitaxel formulation, known as Lipusu. In this study, we performed in vitro and in vivo experiments to compare the safety profiles of Lipusu and Taxol, with special regard to hypersensitivity reactions. First, Swiss mice were used to determine the lethal dosages, and then to evaluate hypersensitivity reactions, followed by histopathological examination and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) of serum SC5b-9 and lung histamine. Additionally, healthy human serum was used to analyze in vitro complement activation. Finally, an MTT assay was used to determine the in vitro anti-proliferation activity. Our data clearly showed that Lipusu displayed a much higher safety margin and did not induce hypersensitivity or hypersensitivity-related lung lesions, which may be associated with the fact that Lipusu did not activate complement or increase histamine release in vivo. Moreover, Lipusu did not promote complement activation in healthy human serum in vitro, and demonstrated anti-proliferative activity against human cancer cells, similar to that of Taxol. Therefore, the improved formulation of paclitaxel, which exhibited a much better safety profile and comparable cytotoxic activity to Taxol, may bring a number of benefits to cancer patients.

  15. Systematic study of the structure of alternate pyromellitimide-PEO copolymers: Influence of the chain flexibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djurado, David [Laboratoire d' Electronique Moleculaire Organique and Hybride, DRFMC/SPrAM/CEA Grenoble, UMR CEA-CNRS-UJF 5819, 17 Avenue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Curtet, Jean Pierre; Bee, Marc [Laboratoire de Spectrometrie Physique (UMR CNRS-UJF-5588) Universite J. Fourier, Grenoble I, Domaine Universitaire, B.P. 87 38402 St Martin d' Heres Cedex (France); Michot, Christophe [Department of Chemistry, University of Montreal, C.P. 6128, Succursale Centre-Ville, Montreal, Quebec H3C JJ7 (Canada); Armand, Michel [Department of Chemistry, University of Montreal, C.P. 6128, Succursale Centre-Ville, Montreal, Quebec H3C JJ7 (Canada); Laboratoire de Reactivite et de Chimie des Solides, Universite de Picardie Jules Verne, UMR 6007 CNRS, 33 rue Saint-Leu, 80039 Amiens (France)


    The structure of a family of copolyimides in which are alternating stiff/redox pyromellitimide units and flexible/solvating polyethyleneoxide (PEO) strands were studied by using wide angle and small angle X-ray scattering techniques and is fully discussed. It is shown that the rich variety of structures exhibited by these compounds can be understood by considering the dramatic change of flexibility of the chain induced by the variation of the length of the PEO strand compared to that of the pyromellimide segment. In this respect, concerning the compounds which exhibit fully amorphous structures a better understanding of their structural behavior can be obtained in the framework of Flory's theory of semi-rigid polymers. In this approach, the degree of flexibility of the chain is mainly resulting from the relative amount of flexible units constituting the repetition unit of the polymer chain. The final structural mode adopted by each compound in the solid state is then directly a consequence of this intrinsic property of the chain. The introduction of a lithium salt in contact with the copolymer chains induces some structure changes which can also be explained by the modification of the degree of flexibility of the chain. It is found that the best performances in terms of electroactivity and mixed conduction are precisely obtained with the only compound which keeps full amorphicity in absence and in presence of the lithium salt. (author)

  16. A comparative study between different alternatives to prepare gaseous standards for calibrating UV-Ion Mobility Spectrometers. (United States)

    Criado-García, Laura; Garrido-Delgado, Rocío; Arce, Lourdes; Valcárcel, Miguel


    An UV-Ion Mobility Spectrometer is a simple, rapid, inexpensive instrument widely used in environmental analysis among other fields. The advantageous features of its underlying technology can be of great help towards developing reliable, economical methods for determining gaseous compounds from gaseous, liquid and solid samples. Developing an effective method using UV-Ion Mobility Spectrometry (UV-IMS) to determine volatile analytes entails using appropriate gaseous standards for calibrating the spectrometer. In this work, two home-made sample introduction systems (SISs) and a commercial gas generator were used to obtain such gaseous standards. The first home-made SIS used was a static head-space to measure compounds present in liquid samples and the other home-made system was an exponential dilution set-up to measure compounds present in gaseous samples. Gaseous compounds generated by each method were determined on-line by UV-IMS. Target analytes chosen for this comparative study were ethanol, acetone, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene isomers. The different alternatives were acceptable in terms of sensitivity, precision and selectivity.

  17. A social work study on measuring adherence to religious values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa Allahyari


    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the effects of demographic characteristics, including gender, marital status, level of education and age on adherence to religious values among young people in city of Shahin Dezh and Takab, located in province of West Azerbaijan, Iran in 2014. The study has accomplished between two groups of Turk and Kurd with the population of 85,000 and 89,000, respectively. The study uses a sample of 20 and 30 people from Turkish and Kurdish tribes, respectively, and uses t-student test as well as regression analysis to examine different hypotheses of the survey. The results show that there was a meaningful difference among various variables of gender, marital status, education level and age in adherence to religious values among the youth who live in this city.

  18. Study of Gasohol as Alternative Fuel for Gasoline Substitution: Characteristics and Performances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bardi Murachman


    Full Text Available Gasohol is a mixture of premium petrol (gasoline with alcohol, in this case ethanol. The use of gasohol can reduce fuel consumption without having to modify the existing engine. Therefore, this research is conducted to study the characteristics and performance of gasohol in various mixing ratios, which includes analysis of physical properties and the use of gasohol in the machine. Results show that the addition of technical ethanol at 7.0169%v increases the value of gasohol vapor pressure on the value of 8.6682 psi (7.7 psi for regular gasoline. Gasohol with technical ethanol content above 30%v decreases vapor pressure, promotes phase separation, and causes a sharp drop in temperature from 40%v distillation. In term of corrosivity, gasohol with up to 50%v ethanol content has the same corrosion level with regular gasoline, which is corrosion level 1A. Based on gasohol characteristics test, it is known that gasohol with technical ethanol content below 20%v can be used as a fuel substitute for gasoline. Real-time performance test of gasohol in engines has shown that the addition of ethanol content in gasohol tend to increase the engine power at a certain compression ratio, but it also increases fuel consumption because the heat value of ethanol is lower than gasoline. Machine in gasohol with ethanol content below 20%v can operate smoothly without having to modify the engine. Based on the studies that have been done, gasohol in the range of 10%v ethanol content is well-functioned as a substitute for gasoline fuel and meets fuel specifications required by the General Director of Oil and Gas. The feasibility of using gasohol as an alternative fuel can be studied further.

  19. Working on asymmetry in Parkinson's disease: randomized, controlled pilot study. (United States)

    Ricciardi, Lucia; Ricciardi, Diego; Lena, Francesco; Plotnik, Meir; Petracca, Martina; Barricella, Simona; Bentivoglio, Anna Rita; Modugno, Nicola; Bernabei, Roberto; Fasano, Alfonso


    Posture, gait and balance problems are very disabling symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD). An increased stride-to-stri de variability, reduction of automaticity and asymmetry of lower limbs function characterize parkinsonian gait. These features predispose to freezing of gait (FOG), which often leads to falls. The aim of this study was to evaluate how the modulation of asymmetry through physiotherapy might improve gait and reduce FOG, thus preventing falls. Twenty-eight PD patients entered a double-blind pilot feasibility controlled study and were evaluated at baseline and after 3 months of a rehabilitative program (performed twice a week) by means of the motor part of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS-III), Gait and Falls Questionnaire, Tinetti balance and gait scale, Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), European Quality of Life questionnaire. Patients were randomly assigned to three treatment arms: (1) worst side improvement; (2) best side improvement; (3) standard therapy. All study arms showed a significant improvement of the Tinetti and SPPB scores. BSI led to a greater improvement than ST in terms of UPDRS-III (p = 0.01); Tinetti total score (p = 0.05) and Tinetti gait subscore (p = 0.01). Our study confirms the efficacy of physical therapy in the treatment of PD and, more importantly, suggests that specific intervention tailored on individual feature (e.g., asymmetry of motor condition) might be even more effective than standard rehabilitative programs.

  20. Learning to Speak: Student Work. Female Studies X. (United States)

    Rosenfelt, Deborah Silverton, Ed.

    The tenth volume in a series, this publication is a collection of papers produced by college students in women's studies classes around the country. The major purpose of the collection is to provide teachers and students in the field with access to the products of classes other than their own. Most of the writings come from the humanities or from…

  1. Academic and Personal Development through Group Work: An Exploratory Study (United States)

    Steen, Sam


    This exploratory study linked academic and personal development within a group counseling intervention. A pre-test post-test research design compared social skills, learning behaviors, and achievement with a convenience sample and control group of students from three elementary schools. For the treatment group, grade point average in Language Arts…

  2. Work Stress and Psychological Consequences in The Workplace: Study on Elementary School Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arismunandar Arismunandar


    Full Text Available There are very limited studies examining the relationships between work stress and psychological consequences of the teachers, especially elementary school teachers. Therefore, the primary purpose of conducting this research is to understand the correlation between teachers work stress, and burnout and job satisfaction. It also aims to understand sources and levels of teachers work stress. The findings of the study showed that there was no correlation between teachers work stress and burnout, and between teachers work stress and job satisfaction

  3. Study of Solar Cooling Alternatives for Residential Houses in Bahir dar city :


    Mengistu, Meron Mulatu


    The energy consumption rate of non-OECD countries rises about 2.3 percent per year as compared to the energy consumption rate of OECD countries which is 0.6 percent. If developing countries use energy efficient technology and integrate renewable energy systems in the new building their carbon dioxide emission rate reduces by 25 to 44 percent.  However, even now, renewable energy integrated buildings are hardly considered while constructing them.   This thesis work focuses on the study of sola...

  4. Technical Approach and Results from the Fuels Pathway on an Alternative Selection Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bob Youngblood; Curtis Smith


    The report presents a detailed plan for conducting case studies to characterize probabilistic safety margins associated with different fuel cladding types in a way that supports a valid comparison of different fuels' performance. Recent work performed in other programs is described briefly and used to illustrate the challenges posed by characterization of margin in a probabilistic way. It is additionally pointed out that consistency of evaluation of performance across different cladding types is not easy to assure; a process for achieving the needed consistency is described.

  5. A social work study on violence against women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najmeh Sedrpoushan


    Full Text Available Violence against women has been one of the most controversial issues in modern societies. During the past few decades, there have been tremendous efforts on providing supports for women against any kind of family violence and dispute. The proposed study of this paper attempts to investigate women's position on domestic violence. We design a questionnaire and distribute among 880 people who are randomly chosen from a population of 441782 residences who live in city of Esfahan, Iran. The result of our survey confirms that Iranian women experienced different types of violence in their lives. The study also suggests some guidelines based on an adaptation of advices in other countries in an attempt to reduce the rates of crime, significantly.

  6. Study of the work of laboratory-scale oxidation ditch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gogina Elena Sergeevna

    Full Text Available The social and economic development of the society to a greater or lesser degree touches upon ecological questions, which include water supply conservation. Waste water treatment plays a very important role. Over the recent years in developed countries the phenomenon of suburbanization has appeared. It means growth and development of the suburban area of the biggest cities. In relation with it, it seems perspective to investigate the technologies aimed at wastewater treatment coming from small settlements. The paper considers the prospects of the use of oxidation ditches as the main biological WWTP-structures for small towns in the Moscow region. In order to study the conditions to achieve high efficiency of nitrogen removal and to investigate the rule of simultaneous nitrification and denitrification removal (SND, the laboratory-scale oxidation ditch model was made in the Laboratory of Biological methods of Wastewater Treatment of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering. The experiment lasted for 6 months and showed good results, which can be used for further studies. The Michaelis - Menten formulas for enzyme kinetics of the studied biological system were obtained.

  7. 75 FR 12217 - Federal Perkins Loan, Federal Work-Study, and Federal Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grant... (United States)


    ... Federal Perkins Loan, Federal Work-Study, and Federal Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grant programs... Perkins Loan, Federal Work-Study (FWS), and Federal Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grant (FSEOG.... (2) General Provisions for the Federal Perkins Loan Program, Federal Work-Study Program, and...

  8. 28 CFR 523.12 - Work/study release good time. (United States)


    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Work/study release good time. 523.12..., CLASSIFICATION, AND TRANSFER COMPUTATION OF SENTENCE Extra Good Time § 523.12 Work/study release good time. Extra good time for an inmate in work or study release programs is awarded automatically, beginning on...

  9. 76 FR 31682 - Agency Information Collection (Time Record (Work-Study Program)) Activity Under OMB Review (United States)


    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Time Record (Work-Study Program)) Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY... INFORMATION: Title: Time Record (Work-Study Program), VA Form 22-8690. OMB Control Number: 2900-0379. Type of... 22-8690 to report the number of work-study hours a claimant has completed. When a claimant elects...

  10. 76 FR 5787 - Federal Perkins Loan, Federal Work-Study, and Federal Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grant... (United States)


    ... Federal Perkins Loan, Federal Work-Study, and Federal Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grant Programs... Perkins Loan, Federal Work-Study (FWS), and Federal Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grant (FSEOG... Federal Perkins Loan Program, Federal Work-Study Program, and Federal Supplemental Educational...

  11. 77 FR 4547 - Federal Perkins Loan, Federal Work-Study, and Federal Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grant... (United States)


    ... Federal Perkins Loan, Federal Work-Study, and Federal Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grant Programs... requests and documents from postsecondary institutions for the Federal Perkins Loan, Federal Work-Study.... (2) General Provisions for the Federal Perkins Loan Program, Federal Work-Study Program, and...

  12. 78 FR 14776 - Federal Perkins Loan, Federal Work-Study, and Federal Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grant... (United States)


    ... Federal Perkins Loan, Federal Work-Study, and Federal Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grant Programs... requests and documents from postsecondary institutions for the Federal Perkins Loan, Federal Work-Study..., Federal Work-Study Program, and Federal Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grant Program, 34 CFR...

  13. 78 FR 18629 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Work-Study... (United States)


    ...; Work-Study Program of the Child Labor Regulations ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Labor (DOL..., ``Work-Study Program of the Child Labor Regulations,'' to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for... Work-Study Program (WSP) of the Child Labor Regulations. This program allows for the employment of...

  14. 38 CFR 1.929 - Reduction of debt through performance of work-study services. (United States)


    ... performance of work-study services. 1.929 Section 1.929 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF... performance of work-study services. (a) Scope. (1) Subject to the provisions of this section VA may allow an... becomes entitled by performance of work-study services under 38 U.S.C. 3485 and 3537 when the debt...

  15. 45 CFR 2519.120 - What is the Federal Work-Study requirement? (United States)


    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What is the Federal Work-Study requirement? 2519... Eligibility To Apply § 2519.120 What is the Federal Work-Study requirement? To be eligible for assistance... 1965 (42 U.S.C. 2751 et seq.) (relating to Federal Work-Study programs) in community service...

  16. Specific determinants of intrinsic work motivation, burnout and turnover intentions: A study among nurses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, P.P.M.; Jonge, J. de; Bakker, A.B.


    This study of 156 Dutch general hospital nurses tested a theoretically derived model of specific relationships between work stressors and stress reactions. The model proposes four central domains of the work situation, namely work content, working conditions, social and labour relations, and conditi

  17. A social work study on aggressive behavior among Iranian students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Iravani


    Full Text Available Aggressive behavior has many bad effects on people's health care and lifestyle and any attempt to find the main issues influencing aggressive behavior among young students could help setup appropriate programs to control and possibly reduce aggressive attitudes. The proposed study of this paper performs an empirical study to find out the relationship between aggressive behavior and other important factors such as gender, age, etc. The survey uses a well-known questionnaire introduced by Buss and Perry (The aggression questionnaire, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 63, 452-459, 1992. The survey distributes 50 questionnaire consists of different questions based on Likert scale among 25 female and 25 male students. The questionnaire consists of various questions including anger, physical aggression, verbal aggression and hostility. The results indicate that while there is no meaningful difference between aggression attitudes of female and male students (with p-value<0.001, the aggressive attitudes increases among older male students but this aggressive reduces among female students as they get older.

  18. A social work study high-risk behavior among teenagers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Iravani


    Full Text Available Teenagers are believed the people who are supposed to build the world's future. High-risk behaviors such as addiction to drugs, smoking cigarettes, sex, etc. could significantly hurts teenagers and there must be some supporting programs to reduce these issues as much as possible. This paper performs an empirical investigation to study the different factors influencing high- risk behavior among teenagers who live in a city of Esfahan, Iran. The proposed study designs a questionnaire and distribute between two groups of female and male teenagers. The results indicate that while there is a meaningful relationship between high-risk behaviors and average high school marks among male students there is no meaningful relationship between high-risk behaviors and high school grades among female students. The results also indicate that there is a meaningful difference between gender and high-risk behavior. The season of birth for female and male students is another important factor for having high-risk behaviors. While the order of birth plays an important role among male students, the order of birth is not an important factor among female teenagers. Finally, the results indicate that teenagers' parental financial affordability plays a vital role on both female and male teenagers.

  19. What really works? An exploratory study of condom negotiation strategies. (United States)

    Lam, Amy G; Mak, Amy; Lindsay, Patricia D; Russell, Stephen T


    Verbal-direct strategies are assumed to be the most effective strategies in negotiating condom use. Both cultural and gender differences in communication styles suggest that individuals may negotiate condoms in ways that are not exclusively verbal and direct. This study examined the use of other forms of condom negotiations by developing an exploratory scale that distinguished strategies on how verbal and direct they were (i.e., verbal-direct, verbal-indirect, nonverbal-direct, nonverbal-indirect). The study compared the use of negotiation strategies among Asian and White American students at a northern California university. Results indicated that although direct strategies (verbal and nonverbal) were more frequently used, condom users also employed indirect strategies (verbal and nonverbal) to negotiate condom use. Moreover, Asians used verbal-indirect strategies more than Whites. Women used nonverbal-indirect strategies more than men. HIV preventions seeking to be culturally sensitive to Asians and women may benefit from incorporating these strategies into their interventions.

  20. Final Technical Report for Alternative Fuel Source Study-An Energy Efficient and Environmentally Friendly Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zee, Ralph [Auburn University, AL (United States); Schindler, Anton [Auburn University, AL (United States); Duke, Steve [Auburn University, AL (United States); Burch, Thom [Auburn University, AL (United States); Bransby, David [Auburn University, AL (United States); Stafford, Don [Lafarge North America, Inc., Alpharetta, GA (United States)


    The objective of this project is to conduct research to determine the feasibility of using alternate fuel sources for the production of cement. Successful completion of this project will also be beneficial to other commercial processes that are highly energy intensive. During this report period, we have completed all the subtasks in the preliminary survey. Literature searches focused on the types of alternative fuels currently used in the cement industry around the world. Information was obtained on the effects of particular alternative fuels on the clinker/cement product and on cement plant emissions. Federal regulations involving use of waste fuels were examined. Information was also obtained about the trace elements likely to be found in alternative fuels, coal, and raw feeds, as well as the effects of various trace elements introduced into system at the feed or fuel stage on the kiln process, the clinker/cement product, and concrete made from the cement. The experimental part of this project involves the feasibility of a variety of alternative materials mainly commercial wastes to substitute for coal in an industrial cement kiln in Lafarge NA and validation of the experimental results with energy conversion consideration.

  1. Sex Work and Mental Health: A Study of Women in the Netherlands. (United States)

    Krumrei-Mancuso, Elizabeth J


    This study examined how characteristics of prostitution and quality-of-life factors related to symptoms of depression and post-traumatic stress among 88 women engaged in prostitution in the Netherlands. Numerous factors were associated with elevated mental health concerns, including the experience of violence in prostitution, engaging in street prostitution, being motivated to engage in prostitution for financial reasons, having less confidence in one's ability to find alternative work, desiring to leave prostitution, and sense of self-transcendence. In contrast, focusing on achievement, having a sense of fair treatment from others and society, and self-acceptance were associated with better mental health outcomes. Finally, mediation analyses indicated that post-traumatic stress associated with engaging in prostitution against one's deeper desire to exit prostitution was, in part, the result of a lack of self-acceptance. The analyses controlled for relevant demographic factors, including age and level of education. The effect sizes for each of the findings ranged from medium to large. Implications for mental health care and public policy are included.

  2. The Case for Alternative Social Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W. Gehl


    Full Text Available What are “alternative social media”? How can we distinguish alternative social media from mainstream social media? Why are social media alternatives important? How do they work? Why do people make them? What do they tell us about contemporary corporate social media and its related phenomena: surveillance, privacy, power, self-expression, and sociality? This essay answers these questions by theorizing alternative social media. The empirical data for this alternative social media theory are drawn from previous work on alternative sites such as Diaspora,, Twister, GNU social, and the Dark Web Social Network. These cases are used to build a generalized conceptual framework. However, this article does not solely theorize from these examples, but rather seeks to contextualize and historicize alternative social media theory within larger bodies of work. In addition to generalization from examples, the theory is informed by two threads. The first thread is the work of alternative media scholars such as Nick Couldry, Chris Atton, and Clemencia Rodriguez, who have done the historical and theoretical work to define alternative media. The second thread is a synthesis of works exploring the technical side of contemporary media, coming from new fields such as software studies. The threads and empirical analyses of sites such as Diaspora, Quitter, and are combined into a theoretical matrix that can account for the processes and technical infrastructures that comprise social media alternatives and explain why they are distinct from sites such as Facebook, Twitter, and Google, as well as why they are important.

  3. Use of complementary alternative medicine for low back pain consulting in general practice: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baum Erika


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although back pain is considered one of the most frequent reasons why patients seek complementary and alternative medical (CAM therapies little is known on the extent patients are actually using CAM for back pain. Methods This is a post hoc analysis of a longitudinal prospective cohort study embedded in a RCT. General practitioners (GPs recruited consecutively adult patients presenting with LBP. Data on physical function, on subjective mood, and on utilization of health services was collected at the first consultation and at follow-up telephone interviews for a period of twelve months Results A total of 691 (51% respectively 928 (69% out of 1,342 patients received one form of CAM depending on the definition. Local heat, massage, and spinal manipulation were the forms of CAM most commonly offered. Using CAM was associated with specialist care, chronic LBP and treatment in a rehabilitation facility. Receiving spinal manipulation, acupuncture or TENS was associated with consulting a GP providing these services. Apart from chronicity disease related factors like functional capacity or pain only showed weak or no association with receiving CAM. Conclusion The frequent use of CAM for LBP demonstrates that CAM is popular in patients and doctors alike. The observed association with a treatment in a rehabilitation facility or with specialist consultations rather reflects professional preferences of the physicians than a clear medical indication. The observed dependence on providers and provider related services, as well as a significant proportion receiving CAM that did not meet the so far established selection criteria suggests some arbitrary use of CAM.

  4. Preconceptual Feasibility Study to Evaluate Alternative Means to Produce Plutonium-238

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John D. Bess; Matthew S. Everson


    There is currently no large-scale production of 238Pu in the United States. Feasibility studies were performed at the Idaho National Laboratory to assess the capability of developing alternative 238Pu production strategies. Initial investigations indicate potential capability to provision radioisotope-powered systems for future space exploration endeavors. For the short term production of 238Pu, sealed canisters of dilute 237Np solution in nitric acid could be irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). Targets in the large and medium “I” positions of the ATR were irradiated over a simulated period of 306 days and analyzed using MCNP5 and ORIGEN2.2. Approximately 0.5 kg of 238Pu could be produced annually in the ATR with purity greater than 92%. Optimization of the irradiation cycles could further increase the purity to greater than 98%. Whereas the typical purity of space batteries is between 80 to 85%, the higher purity 238Pu produced in the ATR could be blended with existing lower-purity inventory to produce useable material. Development of irradiation methods in the ATR provides the fastest alterative to restart United States 238Pu production. The analysis of 238Pu production in the ATR provides the technical basis for production using TRIGA® (Training, Research, Isotopes, General Atomics) nuclear reactors. Preliminary analyses envisage a production rate of approximately 0.7 kg annually using a single dedicated 5-MW TRIGA reactor with continuous flow loops to achieve high purity product. Two TRIGA reactors represent a robust means of providing at over 1 kg/yr of 238Pu annually using dilute solution targets of 237Np in nitric acid. Further collaboration and optimization of reactor design, radiochemical methods, and systems analyses would further increase annual 238Pu throughput, while reducing the currently evaluated reactor requirements.

  5. The Effect of Alternative Work Schedules (AWS) on Performance During Acquisition Based Testing at the U.S. Army Aberdeen Test Center (United States)


    week Telework/ Telecommuting  “[t]he term ’telework’ or ’teleworking’ refers to a work flexibility arrangement under which an employee performs the...including: flextime, telecommuting , compressed work schedules and job sharing. All employees of KPMG are eligible to take advantage of the workplace...flextime, compressed work schedules and telecommuting (also known as virtual office at Kodak). Although Kodak, like ATC, has not analyzed data to

  6. Staying at work with chronic nonspecific musculoskeletal pain: a qualitative study of workers' experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geertzen Jan HB


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many people with chronic nonspecific musculoskeletal pain (CMP have decreased work ability. The majority, however, stays at work despite their pain. Knowledge about workers who stay at work despite chronic pain is limited, narrowing our views on work participation. The aim of this study was to explore why people with CMP stay at work despite pain (motivators and how they manage to maintain working (success factors. Methods A semi-structured interview was conducted among 21 subjects who stay at work despite CMP. Participants were included through purposeful sampling. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and imported into computer software Atlas.ti. Data was analyzed by means of thematic analysis. The interviews consisted of open questions such as: "Why are you working with pain?" or "How do you manage working while having pain?" Results A total of 16 motivators and 52 success factors emerged in the interviews. Motivators were categorized into four themes: work as value, work as therapy, work as income generator, and work as responsibility. Success factors were categorized into five themes: personal characteristics, adjustment latitude, coping with pain, use of healthcare services, and pain beliefs. Conclusions Personal characteristics, well-developed self-management skills, and motivation to work may be considered to be important success factors and prerequisites for staying at work, resulting in behaviors promoting staying at work such as: raising adjustment latitude, changing pain-coping strategies, organizing modifications and conditions at work, finding access to healthcare services, and asking for support. Motivators and success factors for staying at work may be used for interventions in rehabilitation and occupational medicine, to prevent absenteeism, or to promote a sustainable return to work. This qualitative study has evoked new hypotheses about staying at work; quantitative studies on staying at

  7. A pilot study of complementary and alternative medicine use in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wall GC


    Full Text Available Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS is a complex disorder, with primary symptoms of sleep disturbances, pain, and fatigue. FMS is one of the most common reasons for patient visits to a rheumatologist. Previous studies have suggested that complementary and alternative medicine (CAM use in patients with rheumatic diseases is common, but such data specific to FMS patients is limited. Objective: The following study sought to describe the prevalence of CAM use in a primary care practice of patients with FMS and assess whether these patients discuss CAM use with their physician, physician-extender, and/or pharmacist. Methods: A one-group cross-sectional survey design was implemented in a large, community-based, private physician practice of patients diagnosed with FMS. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed during clinic visits. It solicited information related to demographic characteristics; FMS-specific health background; whether CAM use had been discussed with a health care provider; and the “ever-use” of common types of CAM. Respondents returned the questionnaire via US mail in a postage-paid, self-addressed envelope. Results: A total of 115 surveys were distributed with 54 returned for analysis (47% completion rate. The sample was predominantly female, well educated and had a mean age of 55.6 years. All respondents were White. Most respondents (92.6% reported using some type of CAM. Exercise (92.2%, chiropractic treatment (48.1%, lifestyle and diet (45.8%, relaxation therapy (44.9%, and dietary and herbal supplements (36.5% were most commonly reported CAM therapies “ever-used” by respondents. Dietary and herbal supplements with the highest prevalence of “ever-use” were magnesium (19.2%, guaifenesin (11.5%, and methylsulfonylmethane (MSM (9.6%. Respondents most commonly discussed CAM with the clinic rheumatologist and the primary care physician (53.7% and 38.9%, respectively. Only 14.8% of respondents discussed CAM with a pharmacist

  8. Alternative Policy Study: Environment and energy in Europe and Central Asia 1990-2010. Energy-related environmental impacts of policy scenarios GEO-2000 alternative policy study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vuuren DP van; Bakkes JA; MNV


    Deze GEO-2000 studie naar alternatief beleid voor Europa en Centraal Azie is gericht op energie als een belangrijke kracht achter milieuproblemen in de hele regio. De studie heeft betrekking op klimaatverandering, verzuring, zomersmog, stedelijke luchtverontreiniging en het risico op dodelijke o

  9. Construing Systems of Management among Primary Headteachers: Moving Forward from Work Activity Studies. (United States)

    Jones, Norah; Connolly, Michael


    A study used a Personal Construct Theory/Repertory Grid approach to examine the work of 12 Welsh primary headteachers. Analysis of thematic work-activity grids suggests principals have a more coherent view of their work (as centered on children and education) than Henry Mintzberg's observational studies portrayed. (Contains 36 references.) (MLH)

  10. Design Principles of Worked Examples: A Review of the Empirical Studies (United States)

    Shen, Chun-Yi; Tsai, Hui-Chun


    Many researchers investigated the efficacy of using worked examples in classroom instruction and provided evidence in the effectiveness of worked example instruction in mathematics, computer programming, physics, and etc. However, there are limited studies in worked example design. The purpose of this study is to generate the instructional design…

  11. Return to work after total hip and knee arthroplasty: results from a clinical study. (United States)

    Tilbury, C; Leichtenberg, C S; Tordoir, R L; Holtslag, M J; Verdegaal, S H M; Kroon, H M; Nelissen, R G H H; Vliet Vlieland, T P M


    The aim of this study was to measure return to work and duration until return to work in patients undergoing total hip or knee arthroplasty (THA or TKA). This prospective study included patients under 65 years of age, undergoing THA or TKA, who provided information on their work status preoperatively (paid work yes/no and working hours) and 1 year thereafter (paid work yes/no, working hours and time until return to work). Seventy-one THA and 64 TKA patients had a paid job preoperatively. The employment rates 1 year postoperatively were 64/71 (90 %) after THA and 53/64 (83 %) after TKA. Of those who returned to work, 9/64 (14 %) of THA patients and 10/53 (19 %) of TKA patients worked less hours than preoperatively [mean decrease of 16 (SD 11.5) and 14 (SD 13.0) hours, respectively]. The mean time to return to work was 12.5 (SD 7.6) and 12.9 (SD 8.0) weeks in THA and TKA, respectively. The majority of working patients who underwent THA or TKA returned to work, after approximately 12 weeks. A considerable proportion of the patients returning to work worked less hours than preoperatively. More research into patients who do not return or decrease their working hours is needed.

  12. Study of the optimal reaction conditions for assay of the mouse alternative complement pathway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, H. van; Rademaker, P.M.; Klerx, J.P.A.M.; Willers, J.M.M.


    The optimal reaction conditions for hemolytic assay of alternative complement pathway activity in mouse serum were investigated. A microtiter system was used, in which a number of 7.5×106 rabbit erythrocytes per test well appeared to be optimal. Rabbit erythrocytes were superior as target cells over

  13. Multivoiced Supervision of Master's Students: A Case Study of Alternative Supervision Practices in Higher Education (United States)

    Dysthe, Olga; Samara, Akylina; Westrheim, Kariane


    This article describes and analyzes an alternative supervision model at the Master of Education Programme at the University of Bergen aimed at improving research supervision. A three-pronged approach was introduced, combining supervision groups, student colloquia and individual supervision. The supervision groups consisted of two supervisors and…


    The report gives results of an investigation of the operation of a centrifugal compressor--part of a chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)-114 chiller installation--with the new refrigerant hydrofluorocarbon (HFC)-236ea, a proposed alternative to CFC-114. A large set of CFC-236ea operating da...


    Under the current regulations (CFR 503), Class B biosolids may be land applied with certain site restrictions. One method for achieving Class B status is to raise the pH of the sludge to >12 for a minimum of 2 hours with an alkaline material (normally lime). Alternately, a Clas...

  16. Evaluation of Colocasia esculenta Starch as an Alternative Tablet Excipient to Maize Starch: Assessment by Preformulation and Formulation Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusuma. R


    Full Text Available Starch isolated from Colocasia esculenta plant was studied as an alternative pharmaceutical excipient to maize and potato starch. The Colocasia esculenta starch has been evaluated by series of tests as mentioned in Indian Pharmacopoeia before being used for evaluation. It was tested along with maize and potato starch as an alternative excipient by performing battery of preformulation and formulation tests. The results obtained for Colocasia esculenta starch was comparable with maize starch and the Colocasia esculenta starch can be used as a pharmaceutical excipient in tablets preparation.

  17. Return to work among sickness-absent Danish employees: prospective results from the Danish Work Environment Cohort Study/National Register on Social Transfer Payments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Thomas; Labriola, Merete; Christensen, Karl B;


    This study investigates the determinants within socio-demography, health behaviour, employer characteristics, and psychosocial and physical work environment for return to work. In 2000, a total of 5357 employees were interviewed regarding age, gender, family status, education, health behaviour......, no post-school education, being employed by a public employer, working at a workplace with 20 or more employees, high emotional demands in work, high job insecurity and sedentary work. There were no associations between health behaviour variables and return to work. The study indicates a potential...... for promoting return to work through interventions targeting emotional job demands, job insecurity and decreasing the risks associated with sedentary work....

  18. Observational Learning from Animated Models: Effects of Studying-Practicing Alternation and Illusion of Control on Transfer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, Pieter; Paas, Fred; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen


    Wouters, P. J. M., Paas, F., & Van Merriënboer, J. J. G. (2010). Observational learning from animated models: effects of studying-practicing alternation and illusion of control on transfer. Instructional Science, 38(1), 89-104. doi:10.1007/s11251-008-9079-0

  19. Effects of alternating and direct electrical current application on the odontoblastic layer in human teeth : an in vitro study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alwas-Danowska, HM; Huysmans, MCDNJM; Verdonschot, EH


    Aim The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of a low intensity alternating current on the odontoblasts and odontoblast layer and compare this with the effects of a direct current. Methodology Teeth extracted for orthodontic were immersed in physiological saline stabilized with thymol

  20. Engineering study - alternatives for SHMS high temperature/moisture gas sample conditioners for the aging waste facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Standard Hydrogen Monitoring Systems have been experiencing high temperature/moisture problems with gas samples from the Aging Waste Tanks. These moist hot gas samples have stopped the operation of the SHMS units on tanks AZ-101, AZ-102, and AY-102. This study looks at alternatives for gas sample conditioners for the Aging Waste Facility.

  1. Parametric Optimization of Some Critical Operating System Functions--An Alternative Approach to the Study of Operating Systems Design (United States)

    Sobh, Tarek M.; Tibrewal, Abhilasha


    Operating systems theory primarily concentrates on the optimal use of computing resources. This paper presents an alternative approach to teaching and studying operating systems design and concepts by way of parametrically optimizing critical operating system functions. Detailed examples of two critical operating systems functions using the…

  2. Study of Oxidizing Agents for Tritium Removal in ITER -Compatible Conditions: Alternatives to Oxygen and Ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabares, F. L.; Tafalla, D.; Ferreira, J. A.; Gomez-Aleixandre, C.; Maria Albella, J.; Soria, J.; Rodriguez-Ramos, I.


    In the present report, the studies of tritiated carbon-film removal by oxidizing agents other than Oxygen and Ozone in ITER are described. Exposure of laboratory produced a-C:H/D films and tokamak flakes (Asdex Upgrade and Textor) to nitric oxide, water and hydrogen peroxide has been carried out. Temperatures of exposure up to 350 degree centigree were used, and thermal desorption of the samples at temperatures up to 750 degree centigree was performed for sample characterization prior to and after the treatment. Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis (ERDA), Infrared Spectroscopy, XPS and Nano indentation hardness analysis were applied to the characterization of the physical and chemical changes of the samples. This work was done under the EFDA Task 04-1175. (Author) 8 refs.

  3. Past and Future Work on Radiobiology Mega-Studies: A Case Study At Argonne National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haley, Benjamin; Wang, Qiong; Wanzer, Beau; Vogt, Stefan; Finney, Lydia; Yang, Ping Liu; Paunesku, Tatjana; Woloschak, Gayle


    Between 1952 and 1992, more than 200 large radiobiology studies were conducted in research institutes throughout Europe, North America, and Japan to determine the effects of external irradiation and internal emitters on the lifespan and tissue toxicity development in animals. At Argonne National Laboratory, 22 external beam studies were conducted on nearly 700 beagle dogs and 50,000 mice between 1969 and 1992. These studies helped to characterize the effects of neutron and gamma irradiation on lifespan, tumorigenesis, and mutagenesis across a range of doses and dosing patterns. The records and tissues collected at Argonne during that time period have been carefully preserved and redisseminated. Using these archived data, ongoing statistical work has been done and continues to characterize quality of radiation, dose, dose rate, tissue, and gender-specific differences in the radiation responses of exposed animals. The ongoing application of newly-developed molecular biology techniques to the archived tissues has revealed gene-specific mutation rates following exposure to ionizing irradiation. The original and ongoing work with this tissue archive is presented here as a case study of a more general trend in the radiobiology megastudies. These experiments helped form the modern understanding of radiation responses in animals and continue to inform development of new radiation models. Recent archival efforts have facilitated open access to the data and materials produced by these studies, and so a unique opportunity exists to expand this continued research.

  4. Evaluation of alternative containers to determining the working width of fertilizer spreaders Coletores alternativos para a determinação da largura de trabalho de distribuidores de fertilizantes sólidos a lanço

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo A. Primo


    Full Text Available Farmers have difficult of determining the evenness of transverse distribution and the working width, due the tests with this aim require equipments and complex methodologies. So, this study evaluates some alternative containers with the aim to allow a more accessible adjustment of the full width of the solid fertilizer spreaders. Four different containers were tested: i standard container constructed in accordance with ISO 5690/1; ii container of polyethylene (plastic trays with screen shading to prevent the ricochet of material; iii containers composed by boxes of long-life milk, and iv containers composed by flowerpots (number 3.5. Also, three different spreaders were used for the tests. Alternative containers showed greater retention of particles than the standardized containers. The full width of work obtained for the coefficients of variation of 12.5; 15; 17.5 and 20%, ranged due the containers in the different pathways. The flowerpots of polyethylene showed similar results to the standardized containers. The heights of the containers were more important for its efficiency than its area of collection.Os ensaios de largura de trabalho e uniformidade de distribuição são de difícil execução para o agricultor por exigirem equipamentos, recursos e métodos complexos. Portanto, este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar coletores alternativos para tornar mais acessível a regulagem e a avaliação de distribuidores de fertilizantes sólidos a lanço. Foram utilizados quatro diferentes conjuntos de coletores: i coletores construídos segundo a norma ISO 5690/1; ii coletores de polietileno (bandejas plásticas com tela de sombreamento para evitar o ricochete de material; iii coletores formados por caixas de leite longa vida, e iv coletores formados por vasos de polietileno (número 3,5. Também foram utilizados três diferentes distribuidores para as avaliações. Os coletores alternativos apresentaram maior retenção de partículas que os

  5. Repair work in the context of English language mediated computer interface use: A conversation analytic study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raudaskoski, Pirkko


    The main aim in this study is to develop an understanding of how repair work is managed in the intertwining of activities and actions with talk and language. By doing this, the richness of the concept of repair in interactional studies is shown. The core work concentrates on exploring repair work...... the English language as a resource. The computer interface use context was chosen to show how narrowly traditional research has seen repair work....

  6. Alternative medicines for AIDS in resource-poor settings: Insights from exploratory anthropological studies in Asia and Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Emmanuelle


    Full Text Available Abstract The emergence of alternative medicines for AIDS in Asia and Africa was discussed at a satellite symposium and the parallel session on alternative and traditional treatments of the AIDSImpact meeting, held in Marseille, in July 2007. These medicines are heterogeneous, both in their presentation and in their geographic and cultural origin. The sessions focused on the role of these medications in selected resource poor settings in Africa and Asia now that access to anti-retroviral therapy is increasing. The aims of the sessions were to (1 identify the actors involved in the diffusion of these alternative medicines for HIV/AIDS, (2 explore uses and forms, and the way these medicines are given legitimacy, (3 reflect on underlying processes of globalisation and cultural differentiation, and (4 define priority questions for future research in this area. This article presents the insights generated at the meeting, illustrated with some findings from the case studies (Uganda, Senegal, Benin, Burkina Faso, China and Indonesia that were presented. These case studies reveal the wide range of actors who are involved in the marketing and supply of alternative medicines. Regulatory mechanisms are weak. The efficacy claims of alternative medicines often reinforce a biomedical paradigm for HIV/AIDS, and fit with a healthy living ideology promoted by AIDS care programs and support groups. The AIDSImpact session concluded that more interdisciplinary research is needed on the experience of people living with HIV/AIDS with these alternative medicines, and on the ways in which these products interact (or not with anti-retroviral therapy at pharmacological as well as psychosocial levels.

  7. Work-related treatment for major depressive disorder and incapacity to work: preliminary findings of a controlled, matched study. (United States)

    Kröger, Christoph; Bode, Katharina; Wunsch, Eva-Maria; Kliem, Sören; Grocholewski, Anja; Finger, Friederike


    The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of work-related cognitive-behavioral treatment (W-CBT) with that of cognitive-behavioral treatment as usual (CBT-AU) for employees on sick leave as a result of a major depressive disorder (MDD). We collected data for 26 matched outpatients at pre- and posttreatment, as well as at 1-year follow-up. Outcome measures were the days of incapacity to work (DIW) as well as self-report measures (Beck Depression Inventory [BDI], Symptom Checklist 90-R [GSI], Life Satisfaction Questionnaire [FLZ]). We analyzed data with hierarchical linear modeling in a 2-level model. Therapy effects were defined in 3 ways: effect size (ES), response (based on the reliable change index), and remission compared with the general population's symptom level. The DIW were reduced significantly after both types of treatment, but employees showed even fewer DIW after W-CBT. At follow-up, significantly more employees were working as a result of W-CBT than with CBT-AU. Significant improvements on scores of self-rating measures corresponded with moderate-to-large effect sizes for both treatment types. Approximately 2 thirds of the treated employees were categorized as unimpaired on BDI scores at posttreatment and at follow-up. At least 1 half of the employees were classified as unimpaired on GSI scores at both assessment points. In future research, a randomized controlled trial should be conducted using a larger sample size to investigate the impact of moderators (e.g., employees at different branches of the company). Findings provided support for using common CBT techniques to enhance return to work without losing expected improvements at the symptom level.

  8. Working conditions and major weight gain-a prospective cohort study. (United States)

    Roos, Eira; Lallukka, Tea; Rahkonen, Ossi; Lahelma, Eero; Laaksonen, Mikko


    The objective of this study was to examine the associations of working conditions with major weight gain. Three different groups of work-related factors were examined: (i) work arrangements, (ii) physical working conditions, and (iii) psychosocial working conditions. The data are based on the Helsinki Health Study (HHS) questionnaire surveys. A baseline mail survey was made among middle-aged employees of the City of Helsinki in 2000-2002. A follow-up survey was made in 2007. Regression analyses with odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. During the 5- to 7-year follow-up, 26% of women and 24% of men gained in weight 5 kg or more. Working conditions were mostly unassociated with weight gain. However, nighttime shift work, physical threat at work, and hazardous exposures at work were moderately associated with weight gain. More attention should be devoted to the prevention of weight gain in general and among risk groups in particular.

  9. Study of Alternative GPS Network Meteorological Sensors in Taiwan: Case Studies of the Plum Rains and Typhoon Sinlaku. (United States)

    Chiang, Kai-Wei; Peng, Wei-Chih; Yeh, Yen-Hua; Chen, Kwo-Hwa


    Plum rains and typhoons are important weather systems in the Taiwan region. They can cause huge economic losses, but they are also considered as important water resources as they strike Taiwan annually and fill the reservoirs around the island. There are many meteorological sensors available for investigating the characteristics of weather and climate systems. Recently, the use of GPS as an alternative meteorological sensor has become popular due to the catastrophic impact of global climate change. GPS provides meteorological parameters mainly from the atmosphere. Precise Point Positioning (PPP) is a proven algorithm that has attracted attention in GPS related studies. This study uses GPS measurements collected at more than fifty reference stations of the e-GPS network in Taiwan. The first data set was collected from June 1st 2008 to June 7th 2008, which corresponds to the middle of the plum rain season in Taiwan. The second data set was collected from September 11th to September 17th 2008 during the landfall of typhoon Sinlaku. The data processing strategy is to process the measurements collected at the reference stations of the e-GPS network using the PPP technique to estimate the zenith tropospheric delay (ZTD) values of the sites; thus, the correlations between the ZTD values and the variation of rainfall during the plum rains and typhoon are analyzed. In addition, several characteristics of the meteorological events are identified using spatial and temporal analyses of the ZTD values estimated with the GPS network PPP technique.

  10. Study of Alternative GPS Network Meteorological Sensors in Taiwan: Case Studies of the Plum Rains and Typhoon Sinlaku

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwo-Hwa Chen


    Full Text Available Plum rains and typhoons are important weather systems in the Taiwan region. They can cause huge economic losses, but they are also considered as important water resources as they strike Taiwan annually and fill the reservoirs around the island. There are many meteorological sensors available for investigating the characteristics of weather and climate systems. Recently, the use of GPS as an alternative meteorological sensor has become popular due to the catastrophic impact of global climate change. GPS provides meteorological parameters mainly from the atmosphere. Precise Point Positioning (PPP is a proven algorithm that has attracted attention in GPS related studies. This study uses GPS measurements collected at more than fifty reference stations of the e-GPS network in Taiwan. The first data set was collected from June 1st 2008 to June 7th 2008, which corresponds to the middle of the plum rain season in Taiwan. The second data set was collected from September 11th to September 17th 2008 during the landfall of typhoon Sinlaku. The data processing strategy is to process the measurements collected at the reference stations of the e-GPS network using the PPP technique to estimate the zenith tropospheric delay (ZTD values of the sites; thus, the correlations between the ZTD values and the variation of rainfall during the plum rains and typhoon are analyzed. In addition, several characteristics of the meteorological events are identified using spatial and temporal analyses of the ZTD values estimated with the GPS network PPP technique.

  11. Estudos sobre Pedagogia da Alternância no Brasil: revisão de literatura e perspectivas para a pesquisa Studies on the Pedagogy of Alternating in Brazil: literature survey and perspectives for research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edival Sebastião Teixeira


    , where the first three Escolas Famílias Agrícolas (Agricultural Family Schools were built. Nevertheless, after 40 years of its implementation in this country, this pedagogical proposal is still little discussed within our academic milieu. In a research project that we have been developing we have conducted a survey of master and doctoral dissertations presented to Brazilian universities between 1969 and 2006. The objective of the present article is to discuss this production with a view to draw a first picture of the "state of the art" in this field of investigation. The survey includes 46 works, of which 7 are doctoral theses and 39 are master dissertations. In the text, we present the most recurrent themes of study, the regional distribution of this production, and what we regard as consensual aspects and limitations of these works.

  12. Direct Grout Stabilization of High Cesium Salt Waste: Salt Alternative Phase III Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C.A.


    The direct grout alternative is a viable option for treatment/stabilization and disposal of salt waste containing Cs-137 concentrations of 1-3 Ci/gal. The composition of the direct grout salt solution is higher in sodium salts and contains up to a few hundred ppm Cs-137 more than the current reference salt solution. However it is still similar to the composition of the current reference salt solution. Consequently, the processing, setting, and leaching properties (including TCLP for Cr and Hg) of the direct grout and current saltstone waste forms are very similar. The significant difference between these waste solutions is that the high cesium salt solution will contain between 1 and 3 Curies of Cs-137 per gallon compared to a negligible amount in the current salt solution. This difference will require special engineering and shielding for a direct grout processing facility and disposal units to achieve acceptable radiation exposure conditions. The Cs-137 concentration in the direct grout salt solution will also affect the long-term curing temperature of the waste form since 4.84 Watts of energy are generated per 1000 Ci of Cs-137. The temperature rise of the direct grout during long-term curing has been calculated by A. Shaddy, SRTC.1 The effect of curing temperature on the strength, leaching and physical durability of the direct grout saltstone is described in this report. At the present time, long term curing at 90 degrees C appears to be unacceptable because of cracking which will affect the structural integrity as evaluated in the immersion test. (The experiments conducted in this feasibility study do not address the effect of cracking on leaching of contaminants other than Cr, Hg, and Cs.) No cracking of the direct grout or reference saltstone waste forms was observed for samples cured at 70 degrees C. At the present time the implications of waste form cracking at elevated curing temperatures has not been fully addressed. The direct grout falls within the

  13. [Alternative treatment forms used by patients with muscular atrophy. A questionnaire study of the use of alternative treatment by 345 patients with muscular atrophy]. (United States)

    Hunsballe, J M; Mortensen, F V


    An investigation about the use of alternative treatment by a group of persons with muscular atrophy revealed that 24% had employed alternative treatment during the period 1.1.1983-1.4.1986. This is probably a greater proportion than in the Danish population as a whole. Patients with muscular atrophy were subdivided into three groups on the basis of their ability to function in daily life. No significant connection was found between the degree of loss of function and alternative treatment as regards the frequencies of alternative treatment and the numbers of treatments employed. A given form form of treatment was most frequently recommended by an unaffected acquaintance. Physical forms of treatment such as zone therapy and chiropractics were employed more frequently than chemical forms of therapy. Less than half of the patients were satisfied with the results of treatment. Treatment was often concluded in a negative manner. Patients considered that, in contrast to the alternative therapist, the doctor performs the best and most thorough examination and provides them with the best information about their condition.

  14. The moderating effect of work-time influence on the effect of shift work: a prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Garde, Anne Helene; Albertsen, Karen;


    To investigate whether work-time influence moderated the effect of shift work on psychological well-being measured as vitality, mental health, somatic stress symptoms, and disturbed sleep.......To investigate whether work-time influence moderated the effect of shift work on psychological well-being measured as vitality, mental health, somatic stress symptoms, and disturbed sleep....

  15. Experimental Study on Current Decay Characteristics of Persistent Current HTS Magnet by Alternating Magnetic Field (United States)

    Park, Young Gun; Lee, Chang Young; Hwang, Young Jin; Lee, Woo Seung; Lee, Jiho; Jo, Hyun Chul; Chung, Yoon Do; Ko, Tae Kuk

    This paper deals with a current decay characteristics of a high temperature superconducting (HTS) magnet operated in persistent current mode (PCM). In superconducting synchronous machine applications such as linear synchronous motor (LSM), the superconducting coil is designed to operate in the PCM to obtain steady magnetic field with DC transport current. This superconducting magnet operates on a direct current, but it can be exposed to alternating magnetic field due to the armature winding. When the magnet is subjected to an external time-varying magnetic field, it is possible to result in a decay of the current in PCM system due to AC loss. In this research, a PCM system with armature coil which generates time-varying magnetic field was fabricated to verify current decay characteristics by external alternating magnetic field. The current decay rate was measured by using a hall sensor as functions of amplitude and frequency of armature coil.

  16. Alternative Medicine and Your Child (United States)

    ... 1- to 2-Year-Old Complementary and Alternative Medicine KidsHealth > For Parents > Complementary and Alternative Medicine A ... works. previous continue How CAM Differs From Traditional Medicine CAM is frequently distinguished by its holistic methods, ...

  17. Transient exposure to ethanol during zebrafish embryogenesis results in defects in neuronal differentiation: an alternative model system to study FASD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Joya

    Full Text Available The exposure of the human embryo to ethanol results in a spectrum of disorders involving multiple organ systems, including the impairment of the development of the central nervous system (CNS. In spite of the importance for human health, the molecular basis of prenatal ethanol exposure remains poorly understood, mainly to the difficulty of sample collection. Zebrafish is now emerging as a powerful organism for the modeling and the study of human diseases. In this work, we have assessed the sensitivity of specific subsets of neurons to ethanol exposure during embryogenesis and we have visualized the sensitive embryonic developmental periods for specific neuronal groups by the use of different transgenic zebrafish lines.In order to evaluate the teratogenic effects of acute ethanol exposure, we exposed zebrafish embryos to ethanol in a given time window and analyzed the effects in neurogenesis, neuronal differentiation and brain patterning. Zebrafish larvae exposed to ethanol displayed small eyes and/or a reduction of the body length, phenotypical features similar to the observed in children with prenatal exposure to ethanol. When neuronal populations were analyzed, we observed a clear reduction in the number of differentiated neurons in the spinal cord upon ethanol exposure. There was a decrease in the population of sensory neurons mainly due to a decrease in cell proliferation and subsequent apoptosis during neuronal differentiation, with no effect in motoneuron specification.Our investigation highlights that transient exposure to ethanol during early embryonic development affects neuronal differentiation although does not result in defects in early neurogenesis. These results establish the use of zebrafish embryos as an alternative research model to elucidate the molecular mechanism(s of ethanol-induced developmental toxicity at very early stages of embryonic development.

  18. Validity study of Animal-City Alternating Form Fluency Test in the identification of mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-bo SHI


    Full Text Available Objective To identify the sensitivity and specificity of Animal-City Alternating Form Fluency Test (ACFT differentiating mild cognitive impairment (MCI and Alzheimer's disease (AD from normal controls.  Methods A total of 121 MCI patients, 104 AD patients and 104 healthy controls, who were matched in sex, age and education level, were enrolled in this study. They performed Animal Category Verbal Fluency Test (AFT, City Category Verbal Fluency Test (CFT and ACFT. A series of standard neuropsychological tests were also administered to reflect episodic memory, verbal ability, working memory, executive function and processing speed. The validity and related influencing factors of ACFT was evaluated.  Results Compared with control group, the ACFT correct number in MCI and AD groups reduced significantly (P = 0.000, 0.000. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve revealed the sensitivity and specificity of ACFT in discriminating MCI (P = 0.012, 0.030 and AD (P = 0.004, 0.003 from normal controls were higher than those of AFT and CFT. There was no correlation of correct number in ACFT with age and education (P > 0.05, for all. The correlations of ACFT with Stroop Color-Word Test (SCWT, Digital Symbol Substitution Test (DSST, Shape Trail Test (STT and Digit Span Test (DS, all of which reflected attention and executive function, were significantly closer than those of AFT and CFT (P < 0.05, for all. Conclusions ACFT is more efficient in early cognitive impairment identification than the other traditional category verbal fluency tests. It is a new variant form of category verbal fluency test that could assess cognitive function and could be broadly applied in clinical practice. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.07.010

  19. Transient Exposure to Ethanol during Zebrafish Embryogenesis Results in Defects in Neuronal Differentiation: An Alternative Model System to Study FASD (United States)

    Joya, Xavier; Garcia-Algar, Oscar; Vall, Oriol; Pujades, Cristina


    Background The exposure of the human embryo to ethanol results in a spectrum of disorders involving multiple organ systems, including the impairment of the development of the central nervous system (CNS). In spite of the importance for human health, the molecular basis of prenatal ethanol exposure remains poorly understood, mainly to the difficulty of sample collection. Zebrafish is now emerging as a powerful organism for the modeling and the study of human diseases. In this work, we have assessed the sensitivity of specific subsets of neurons to ethanol exposure during embryogenesis and we have visualized the sensitive embryonic developmental periods for specific neuronal groups by the use of different transgenic zebrafish lines. Methodology/Principal Findings In order to evaluate the teratogenic effects of acute ethanol exposure, we exposed zebrafish embryos to ethanol in a given time window and analyzed the effects in neurogenesis, neuronal differentiation and brain patterning. Zebrafish larvae exposed to ethanol displayed small eyes and/or a reduction of the body length, phenotypical features similar to the observed in children with prenatal exposure to ethanol. When neuronal populations were analyzed, we observed a clear reduction in the number of differentiated neurons in the spinal cord upon ethanol exposure. There was a decrease in the population of sensory neurons mainly due to a decrease in cell proliferation and subsequent apoptosis during neuronal differentiation, with no effect in motoneuron specification. Conclusion Our investigation highlights that transient exposure to ethanol during early embryonic development affects neuronal differentiation although does not result in defects in early neurogenesis. These results establish the use of zebrafish embryos as an alternative research model to elucidate the molecular mechanism(s) of ethanol-induced developmental toxicity at very early stages of embryonic development. PMID:25383948

  20. Utilization of Alternative Fuels in Cement Pyroprocessing : the Messebo Factory case study in Ethiopia


    Ebuy Teka, Axumawi


    Energy costs and environmental standards encouraged cement manufacturers worldwide to evaluate to what extent conventional fuels (Furnace oil, Coal and Petcock) can be replaced by alternative fuels in cement production, i.e. biomass or processed waste materials like sewage sludge, MSW (municipal solid waste), Refuse Derived Fuels (RDF), Tire Derived Fuel (TDF), Plastic Derived Fuel (PDF), Biomass Derived Fuels (BDF), meat and bone meal (MBM), etc.  High temperature of >1500 C, long residen...

  1. KAJIAN CIDER SEBAGAI ALTERNATIF PENGANEKARAGAMAN PRODUK KOPI Study of Cider as Alternative Product Diversivication from Coffee


    Suharyono Apno Sugito


    Coffee is an important export commodity from Indonesia. There are not many processed product from coffee, and sincecoffee is a delightful refreshing beverage, it is interesting to make product diversivication from coffee. An alternative processing could be a cider. Coffee used in this research were decaffeinated, Robusta and Arabica coffee. The amount of added sugar were 15 %, 20 %, and 25 %. Natural cultures, combination of Sacharomyces cerevisiae and Acetobacter xylinum, combination of Sach...

  2. Development and validation of an alternative disturbed skin model by mechanical abrasion to study drug penetration


    Schlupp, P.; M. Weber; T. Schmidts; Geiger, K.; Runkel, F.


    Pharmaceuticals and cosmetics for dermal application are usually tested on healthy skin, although the primary permeation barrier, the stratum corneum, is often impaired by skin diseases or small skin lesions, especially on the hands. These skin conditions can considerably influence the permeation of chemicals and drugs. Furthermore, risk assessment for example of nanoparticles should be performed under various skin conditions to reflect the true circumstances. Therefore, an alternative and re...

  3. Feasibility Study of Contamination Remediation at Naval Weapons Station, Concord, California. Volume 1. Remedial Action Alternatives. (United States)


    few years, particularly along the Port Chicago Highway across from the main gate of NWS Concord. Phillips Petroleum Company and Monsanto--V 2.23 %" r...acci- dental disturbance of the monofill. ,p Grading and Revegetation. See Alternative 3-3A. Operation and Maintenance of Remediation Area. See...washing process; b. Site preparation and support facilities; c. Excavation of contaminated materials; d. Classification of contaminated materialL ; e

  4. Experimental study on spray characteristics of alternate jet fuels using Phase Doppler Anemometry (United States)

    Kannaiyan, Kumaran; Sadr, Reza


    Gas-to-Liquid (GTL) fuels have gained global attention due to their cleaner combustion characteristics. The chemical and physical properties of GTL jet fuels are different from conventional jet fuels owing to the difference in their production methodology. It is important to study the spray characteristics of GTL jet fuels as the change of physical properties can affect atomization, mixing, evaporation and combustion process, ultimately affecting emission process. In this work, spray characteristics of two GTL synthetic jet fuels are studied using a pressure-swirl nozzle at different injection pressures and atmospheric ambient condition. Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA) measurements of droplet size and velocity are compared with those of regular Jet A-1 fuel at several axial and radial locations downstream of the nozzle exit. Experimental results show that although the GTL fuels have different physical properties such as viscosity, density, and surface tension, among each other the resultant change in the spray characteristics is insignificant. Furthermore, the presented results show that GTL fuel spray characteristics exhibit close similarity to those of Jet A-1 fuel. Funded by Qatar Science and Technology Park.

  5. A qualitative model for strategic analysis of organizations. Application and alternative proposal on a study case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Ferro Moreno


    Full Text Available The strategic analysis of organizations is based on the internal and external environments, in order to identify positive and negative variables and factors. The interrelation and timing of these strategic forces are essential to create alternative solutions that tend to achieve the organizational objectives.The normative prospective has theorical and methodological foundations to create a desired future and from it, be able to identify impelling and restraining forces that have influence on the particular problematic situation (go from the current situation to a better one in a certain time.The aim of this article is to analyze on a strategic way a real case with a normative-prospective model that considers the temporal dynamics of the factors impact and variables in time allowing to suggest alternative solutions.Semi-structured interviews were performed with all the employees of this case and structured observations and workshops with the commercial and general management.In consequence, with the results, the desired, current and improved situations were built. Additionally, forces were identified classified and appreciated and lastly solutions were suggested. With the proposed prospective method, alternative solutions could be constructed in order to settle temporary organizational objectives. No constraints were found to use the current method in other cases.Keywords: Strategic forces, Normative prospective, Problematic situations, Strategies


    Christensen, Michael


    Voter studies conducted in the United States during the first decades after World War II transformed social scientific research on democracy. Especially important were the rapid innovations in survey research methods developed by two prominent research centers at Columbia University and the University of Michigan. This article argues that the Columbia and Michigan voter studies presented two visions for research on democracy. Where the Michigan research produced quantitative measures expressing the 'political behavior' of the electorate, the Columbia studies, and especially Paul F. Lazarsfeld, presented an alternative vision for qualitative research on political choice. Largely ignored by later voter studies, this vision prefigured much contemporary research on democracy that embraces a qualitative or interpretive approach. This article reconstructs Lazarsfeld's alternative vision, describes the institutional context in which scholars disregarded it in favor of formal quantitative models, and argues for its recognition as a forerunner to qualitative research on democratic processes.

  7. Returning to work after stroke: perspectives of employer stakeholders, a qualitative study.


    Coole, Carol; Radford, Kathryn; Grant, Mary; Terry, Jane


    Purpose: More than 40 % of working age adults with stroke fail to return to work. The work context is a key factor in return to work, but little is known about the experiences of employers in supporting employees with stroke. The aim of this study was to explore return to work after stroke from the employer perspective, to identify key features associated with success and to seek participants’ views regarding the role of healthcare in return to work. Methods: Data was gathered through 18 semi...

  8. Comparative study between an alternating current (AC) and a direct current (DC) electrification of an urban railway


    Garriga Turu, Jordi


    This study will evaluate technically, energetic and economically the traction electrification network of the line Barcelona – Vallès operated by Ferrocarrils de la Generalitat de Catalunya (FGC) in the existing voltage system (1500 Vdc) and a new electrification under alternative current (25 kVac) will be proposed to be as well studied. The results obtained will be compared in order to obtain decision factors on which system best fits.

  9. An Assessment of Intervention Fidelity in Published Social Work Intervention Research Studies (United States)

    Corley, Nicole A.; Kim, Irang


    Objectives: Intervention fidelity is a critical strategy to help advance the usefulness and integrity of social work research. This study assessed the extent to which a selected sample of published social work intervention researchers reported its intervention protocols. Methods: Six core social work journals were reviewed in this analysis. The…

  10. Supporting Distributed Team Working in 3D Virtual Worlds: A Case Study in Second Life (United States)

    Minocha, Shailey; Morse, David R.


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report on a study into how a three-dimensional (3D) virtual world (Second Life) can facilitate socialisation and team working among students working on a team project at a distance. This models the situation in many commercial sectors where work is increasingly being conducted across time zones and between…

  11. Working-Class Women Study Social Science Degrees: Remembering Enablers and Detractors (United States)

    Fraser, Heather; Michell, Dee; Beddoe, Liz; Jarldorn, Michele


    In this article, we report on a feminist memory work project conducted with 11 working-class women in Australia. Participants responded to the question: "what helps and hinders working-class women study social science degrees?" The women confirmed that to succeed at university, they needed opportunities, resources, support and…

  12. Psychosocial work conditions and registered sickness absence : a 3-year prospective cohort study among office employees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, C. A. M.; Koopmans, P. C.; Bultmann, U.; Groothoff, J. W.; van der Klink, J. J. L.


    Purpose To investigate associations between a wide variety of psychosocial work conditions and sickness absence in a medium-sized company. Methods Prospective cohort study of 395 employees working in an insurance office. Self-reported psychosocial work conditions were measured by questionnaire in Ja

  13. Emotional energy, work self-efficacy, and perceived similarity during the Mars 520 study


    Šolcová, I. (Iva); Gushin, V. (1); Vinokhodova, A.; Lukavský, J. (Jiří)


    The objective of the present research was to study the dynamics of changes in emotional energy, work self-efficacy, and perceived similarity in the crew of the Mars 520 experimental study that simulated traveling to Mars, orbiting it, landing, and returning to Earth. The study comprised six volunteers, all men, between 27–38 yr of age. During the simulation, measures of emotional energy, work self-efficacy, and perceived similarity were repeated every month. Emotional energy, work self-effica...

  14. Resuming Work After Cancer : A Prospective Study of Occupational Register Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, C. A. M.; Koopmans, P. C.; Schellart, A. J. M.; van der Beek, A. J.


    Introduction Long-term employment rates have been studied in cancer survivors, but little is known about the return to work of cancer patients. This study investigated return to work (RTW) within 2 years after the diagnosis of different types of cancer. Methods This prospective study investigated th

  15. Academic Performance of College Students: Influence of Time Spent Studying and Working (United States)

    Nonis, Sarath A.; Hudson, Gail I.


    Today's college students are less prepared for college-level work than their predecessors. Once they get to college, they tend to spend fewer hours studying while spending more hours working, some even full time (D. T. Smart, C. A. Kelley, & J. S. Conant, 1999). In this study, the authors examined the effect of both time spent studying and time…

  16. Improving return-to-work after childbirth: design of the Mom@Work study, a randomised controlled trial and cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruinvels David J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many women suffer from health problems after giving birth, which can lead to sick leave. About 30% of Dutch workers are on sick leave after maternity leave. Structural contact of supervisors with employees on maternity leave, supported by early medical advice of occupational physicians, may increase the chances of return-to-work after maternity leave. In addition, to understand the process of sick leave and return-to-work after childbirth it is important to gain insight into which factors hinder return-to-work after childbirth, as well, as which prognostic factors lead to the development of postpartum health complaints. In this paper, the design of the Mom@Work study is described. Methods The Mom@Work study is simultaneously a randomised controlled trial and a cohort study. Pregnant women working for at least 12 hours a week at one of the 15 participating companies are eligible to participate. The supervisors of these pregnant employees are randomised at 35 weeks pregnancy into the intervention group or control group. During maternity leave, supervisors in the intervention group contact their employee six weeks after delivery using a structured interview. When employees do not expect to return to their jobs at the end of their scheduled maternity leave due to health problems, the supervisor offers early support of the occupational physician. Supervisors in the control group have no structural contact with their employees during maternity leave. Measurements take place at 30 weeks pregnancy and at 6, 12, 24 and 52 weeks postpartum. In addition, cost data are collected. For the RCT, primary outcome measures are sick leave and return-to-work, and secondary outcome measures are costs, health, satisfaction with intervention and global feelings of recovery. Outcome measures for the cohort are pregnancy-related pelvic girdle pain, fatigue and depression. Finally, a number of prognostic factors for return-to-work and for the

  17. Analysis of an alternative method for the study of bromeliad-associated fauna in plants with different foliar organization. (United States)

    Müller, Gerson A; Name, Fernando T; Pacheco, Frederico C L; Marcondes, Carlos B


    The efficiency of an alternative method of collection (by suction of water) for the study of Culicidae and Chironomidae (Diptera), Scirtidae (Coleoptera) and Coenagrionidae (Odonata) in bromeliads with different foliar architecture in a restinga at Florianópolis, SC, Brazil, was studied. The alternative method was less efficient to collect Culicidae and Chironomidae (Wilcoxon test p 0.05) from Aechmea lindenii. This method was less efficient to collect insects of all groups from Vriesea friburgensis (Wilcoxon test p insects in both species of bromeliads. The higher mobility of immature forms of beetles and dragonflies, and the availability of only one tank in Aechea lindenii, contrasting to several tanks in Vriesea friburgensis that help the suction of these immature, probably influenced the results, which indicated that the suction method should not replace the dismantling in the study of Culicidae and Chironomidae. This method can be useful to get immature forms of Scirtidae and Coenagrionidae in one-tank bromeliads.

  18. How to do a grounded theory study: a worked example of a study of dental practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans R


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Qualitative methodologies are increasingly popular in medical research. Grounded theory is the methodology most-often cited by authors of qualitative studies in medicine, but it has been suggested that many 'grounded theory' studies are not concordant with the methodology. In this paper we provide a worked example of a grounded theory project. Our aim is to provide a model for practice, to connect medical researchers with a useful methodology, and to increase the quality of 'grounded theory' research published in the medical literature. Methods We documented a worked example of using grounded theory methodology in practice. Results We describe our sampling, data collection, data analysis and interpretation. We explain how these steps were consistent with grounded theory methodology, and show how they related to one another. Grounded theory methodology assisted us to develop a detailed model of the process of adapting preventive protocols into dental practice, and to analyse variation in this process in different dental practices. Conclusions By employing grounded theory methodology rigorously, medical researchers can better design and justify their methods, and produce high-quality findings that will be more useful to patients, professionals and the research community.

  19. Study of energy recovery and power generation from alternative energy source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulhakim Amer A. Agll


    Full Text Available The energy requirement pattern of world is growing up and developing technology. The available sources, while exhausting and not friendly to the environment, are highly used. Looking at partial supply and different options of environment problems associated with usage, renewable energy sources are getting attention. MSW (Municipal solid waste composition data had been collected from 1997 to 2009, in Benghazi Libya, to evaluate the waste enthalpy. An incinerator with capacity of 47,250 kg/h was confirmed to burn all the quantity of waste generated by the city through the next 15 years. Initial study was performed to investigate energy flow and resource availability to insure sustainable MSW required by the incinerator to work at its maximum capacity during the designated period. The primary purpose of the paper is to discuss the design of Rankin steam cycle for the generation of both power (PG and combined heat power (CHP. In the power generation case, the system was found to be able to generate electrical power of 13.1 MW. Including the combined heat power case, the results showed that the system was able to produce 6.8 million m3/year of desalinated water and generate 11.33 MW of electricity. In conclusion, the CHP designed system has the greatest potential to maximize energy saving, due to the optimal combination of heat production and electricity generation.

  20. The study on injection parameters of selected alternative fuels used in diesel engines (United States)

    Balawender, K.; Kuszewski, H.; Lejda, K.; Lew, K.


    The paper presents selected results concerning fuel charging and spraying process for selected alternative fuels, including regular diesel fuel, rape oil, FAME, blends of these fuels in various proportions, and blends of rape oil with diesel fuel. Examination of the process included the fuel charge measurements. To this end, a set-up for examination of Common Rail-type injection systems was used constructed on the basis of Bosch EPS-815 test bench, from which the high-pressure pump drive system was adopted. For tests concerning the spraying process, a visualisation chamber with constant volume was utilised. The fuel spray development was registered with the use of VisioScope (AVL).

  1. Understanding the dark and bright sides of heavy work investment: Psychological studies on workaholism and work engagement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beek, I.


    This thesis focused on two different types of heavy work investment: workaholism and work engagement. Its principal aim was to explore why workaholic and engaged employees work hard. The motivational origins were addressed from three different perspectives: (1) a trait-based perspective, based on Re

  2. Being engaged at work and detached at home: A week-level study on work engagement, psychological detachment, and affect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonnentag, S.E.; Mojza, E.J.; Binnewies, C.; Scholl, A.


    Although earlier research has shown that work engagement is associated with positive outcomes for the employee and the organization, this paper suggests that employees also need time periods for temporarily disengaging (i.e., psychological detaching) from work. We hypothesized that work engagement a

  3. F- and H-Area Seepage Basins Water Treatment System Process Optimization and Alternative Chemistry Ion Exchange/Sorbent Material Screening Clearwell Overflow Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serkiz, S.M.


    This study investigated alternative ion exchange/sorbent materials and polishing chemistries designed to remove specific radionuclides not removed during the neutralization/precipitation/clarification process.

  4. A study of effect of shift work, sex, and smoking on development of ONIHL in plastic weavers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayesh D Solanki


    Full Text Available Background: Exposure to Occupational noise is the major avoidable cause of permanent hearing loss that is preventable by protective measures. Present study evaluated hearing profile and effects of shift, sex, and smoking on hearing loss in plastic weavers working in textile industry exposed to impact type of noise. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study of hearing threshold of various shift workers of plastic weaving industries (18 males, 32 females at various frequencies was done and effect of various factors was tested at low and high frequencies and compared at 4 kHz, 6 kHz, and 8 kHz statistically. Results: Hearing thresholds were significantly higher at high frequencies than speech frequencies, in day shift workers than night shift workers and within day shift workers more with continuous type of shift work than interrupted type. Females showed better hearing than males and for non-smokers than smokers, but the difference observed in both instances proved statistically insignificant. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the use of alternate day and night shift, interrupted day shift may be used to prevent hearing loss and for further confirmation few more studies are warranted. Being female and non smoking also proved an advantage. Comparatively, mild to moderate degree of hearing loss further reinforces the scope of prevention by hearing protective devices and interrupted shift design of work.

  5. Perception of Work, Relationships and Career: A Study with Undergraduate Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Nogueira Pereira


    Full Text Available This study researched how a population of 40 undergraduate students attending a career planning project in a private college perceived work, career and their relation with interpersonal relationships. The questionnaire revealed that most subjects perceived work positively, reported through four different perceptions of work, reported perceiving a social dimension of work, but about half of it reported that they didn’t perceive people in general working in a way that showed being concerned about changing society. When the subjects listed people who worked with the same values they held, reports ranged through parents, bosses and friends; when asked about people that didn’t have the same values, they listed work-mates, peers and siblings; when asked about most important people for their career, they listed their parents separately, teachers and children. Data suggested a wide participation of relationships in processing information and constructing conceptions related to work and career.

  6. The effects of new ways of work in the Netherlands: national data and a case study. (United States)

    Vink, P; Blok, M; Formanoy, M; de Korte, E; Groenesteijn, L


    In 2010 15.2% of the work force in the Netherlands works with a computer at another location than at the office or at the clients' location. 27% of the Dutch working population is not satisfied about the possibility to work at home and 18% is not satisfied on the possibility to plan your own working time. The case control study affirms what has been reported as effects of new ways of work: the experienced productivity by communication and the representativeness of the office interior are improved and attention is needed for workers that need concentration space and need to personalize their work environment. In implementing new ways of work these issues need attention.

  7. Study on Spacing Threshold of Nonsubmerged Spur Dikes with Alternate Layout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomeng Cao


    Full Text Available This paper investigated the spacing threshold of nonsubmerged spur dikes with alternate layout to classify the impact scale of spur dikes. A mathematical model was built based on standard k-ε model, finite volume method (FVM, and rigid lid assumption and was verified by experimental data. According to dimensional analysis, three indices, that is, Fr (Froude number, B/b (channel width to dike length, and B/h (channel width to water depth, were identified as the influencing factors on the spacing threshold, based on which fifteen sets of conditions were simulated. The calculation results indicate that B/h is the most influencing parameter on Sc/b (spacing threshold to dike length, followed by B/b and Fr. A dimensionless empirical formula of spacing threshold is fitted by multivariate regression. The results of four sets of additional conditions illustrate that the generalization of empirical formula is satisfactory and the precision of interpolation is higher than that of extrapolation. Furthermore, the spacing threshold of alternate spur dikes is generally smaller than ipsilateral spur dikes.

  8. Availability of Alternatives and the Processing of Scalar Implicatures: A Visual World Eye-Tracking Study. (United States)

    Degen, Judith; Tanenhaus, Michael K


    Two visual world experiments investigated the processing of the implicature associated with some using a "gumball paradigm." On each trial, participants saw an image of a gumball machine with an upper chamber with orange and blue gumballs and an empty lower chamber. Gumballs dropped to the lower chamber, creating a contrast between a partitioned set of gumballs of one color and an unpartitioned set of the other. Participants then evaluated spoken statements, such as "You got some of the blue gumballs." Experiment 1 investigated the time course of the pragmatic enrichment from some to not all when the only utterance alternatives available to refer to the different sets were some and all. In Experiment 2, the number terms two, three, four, and five were also included in the set of alternatives. Scalar implicatures were delayed relative to the interpretation of literal statements with all only when number terms were available. The results are interpreted as evidence for a constraint-based account of scalar implicature processing.

  9. The concepts of work, study, and leisure of parents and children. (United States)

    Nota, Laura; Ginevra, Maria Cristina


    The present work examines how a group of Italian parents and their adolescent children view work, study, and leisure in order to check for possible relations between the ideas of parents and their children's. A total of 160 adolescents and 160 parents were recruited. Semi-structured interviews that assessed the participants' concepts about work, study, and leisure were conducted. The analyses carried out demonstrate that there are connections between the parents' and adolescents' perceptions regarding work, study, and leisure. The results confirm the importance of considering both constructs and the parents' perspectives on them, and of involving parents in their children vocational guidance actions.

  10. A Parallel World for the World Bank: A Case Study of Urgent: Evoke, An Educational Alternate Reality Game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David I. Waddington


    Full Text Available In 2010, the World Bank launched Urgent: Evoke, an alternate reality game. Conceived in response to the demands of African universities, the game was designed to promote the World Bank Institute’s vision of positive global change through social innovation, and made substantial use of Web 2.0 tools such as blogs, personal profiles, and social networks. This article offers a case study of Urgent: Evoke, divided into four sections: first, the potential to use video games as citizenship education tools is discussed; second, the unique game genre (alternate reality games into which Evoke falls is explained and some possible uses of this genre in higher education are examined; third, the functioning of the Evoke game world is explained; and fourth, the results of the Evoke educational project are assessed. The case study concludes with some commentary on Evoke’s ideological message, which those less sympathetic to capitalism may view as problematic.

  11. Combining Work and Study in Tatarstan Higher Education Institutions: How Academic Performance Is Affected?


    Diana Yanbarisova


    Diana Yanbarisova - Research Fellow at Institute of Education, HSE. E-mail: s, combining work and study is typical for both low-income students and those who are well off. Such students have an array of reasons to start working, from the ambition to get integrated into the job market and build a career to the desire to fill their spare time. The paper investigates how different combinations of work and study affect academic performance of students in their final ...

  12. Expert consensus on facilitators and barriers to return-to-work following surgery for non-traumatic upper extremity conditions: a Delphi study. (United States)

    Peters, S E; Johnston, V; Ross, M; Coppieters, M W


    This Delphi study aimed to reach consensus on important facilitators and barriers for return-to-work following surgery for non-traumatic upper extremity conditions. In Round 1, experts ( n = 42) listed 134 factors, which were appraised in Rounds 2 and 3. Consensus (⩾85% agreement) was achieved for 13 facilitators (high motivation to return-to-work; high self-efficacy for return-to-work and recovery; availability of modified/alternative duties; flexible return-to-work arrangements; positive coping skills; limited heavy work exertion; supportive return-to-work policies; supportive supervisor/management; no catastrophic thinking; no fear avoidance to return-to-work; no fear avoidance to pain/activity; return to meaningful work duties; high job satisfaction) and six barriers (mood disorder diagnosis; pain/symptoms at more than one musculoskeletal site; heavy upper extremity exertions at work; lack of flexible return-to-work arrangements; lack of support from supervisor/management; high level of pain catastrophizing). Future prognostic studies are required to validate these biopsychosocial factors to further improve return-to-work outcomes.

  13. No Evidence of Intelligence Improvement after Working Memory Training: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study (United States)

    Redick, Thomas S.; Shipstead, Zach; Harrison, Tyler L.; Hicks, Kenny L.; Fried, David E.; Hambrick, David Z.; Kane, Michael J.; Engle, Randall W.


    Numerous recent studies seem to provide evidence for the general intellectual benefits of working memory training. In reviews of the training literature, Shipstead, Redick, and Engle (2010, 2012) argued that the field should treat recent results with a critical eye. Many published working memory training studies suffer from design limitations…

  14. Job Demands and Resources as Antecedents of Work Engagement: A Longitudinal Study (United States)

    Mauno, Saija; Kinnunen, Ulla; Ruokolainen, Mervi


    By utilizing a 2-year longitudinal design, the present study investigated the experience of work engagement and its antecedents among Finnish health care personnel (n = 409). The data were collected by questionnaires in 2003 (Time 1) and in 2005 (Time 2). The study showed that work engagement--especially vigor and dedication--was relatively…

  15. Does Social Work Education Have an Impact on Social Policy Preferences? A Three-Cohort Study (United States)

    Weiss, Idit; Gal, John; Cnaan, Ram A.


    This article examines the impact of social work education on the social policy preferences of social work students through a panel study of 3 cohorts of students at universities in 2 countries--the United States and Israel. The findings of the study indicate that though the initial policy preferences of the students at the beginning of their…

  16. An experimental study into the influence of works council advice on managerial decision-making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sapulete, S.; van Witteloostuijn, A.; Kaufmann, W.


    This paper experimentally studies the potential effect of works councils on managerial decision-making. Empirical evidence on the influence of works councils in organizations is still mixed. Therefore, this experimental study tries to gain more insights into the mechanisms that may underlie the impa

  17. Site Selection for the European ELT: working package included in the European FP6 ``ELT design study'' contract (United States)

    Muñoz-Tuñón, C.; Sarazin, M.; Vernin, J.


    The site selection for the future European Large Telescope (E-ELT) is a key issue within the European proposal funded by the European Union (EU), within the ``ELT design study'' proposal. The organization, working scheme and baseline frameworks are reviewed. For the definition of the working package WP12000 ``Site Characterization'', important use has been done of previous work in the definition of techniques and tools for the study of the atmosphere above observing sites. We have also taken advantage of the number of data already available which have naturally defined a ranking among the known places which have also been taken as a base line for pre-selecting the candidate sites. The work will last 4 years, it started in 2005 and is organized in subtasks, working packages WP, whose main objectives are the following: WP12100: to characterize two top astronomical sites (ORM and North-Paranal) and to explore three other alternatives (Macon in Argentina, Izaña in Spain and Aklim in Morocco) suitable to install an ELT under the best conditions (Dome C is been currently under investigation, and no particular effort will be put in this site, but rather its atmospheric properties will be compared to the above mentioned sites). WP12200 is dedicated to design, build and operate a set of standard equipment in all the sites and to perform long term campaign. WP12300 will investigate wavefront properties over large baselines (50-100 m) corresponding to the size of the future ELT, as well as the fine characterization of the optical turbulence within the boundary layer. A similar plan is being carried out by the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) site selection team. For the sake of saving resources (budget and people), the TMT preselected sites (all in the American Continent) are not included in our European study.

  18. To Improve Productivity By Using Work Study & Design A Fixture In Small Scale Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayank Dev Singh


    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to improve production capabilities for small scale industry and this research focused on the company, which produce Stay vane of Francis turbine. This research used work study technique to improve work process in company, and the research objectives towards accomplished this study is to identify problems in the production work process and improved it in terms of production time, number of process and production rate by proposing an efficient work process to company. This research used systematic observation, flow process and stopwatch time study as research methodology. Pro-E model software used for model testing and develop new model. The improvement of work process was executed by eliminating and combining of work process, which reduces production time, number of process and space utilization.

  19. Zest for work? Assessment of enthusiasm and satisfaction with the present work situation and health--a 1.5-year follow-up study. (United States)

    Josephson, Malin; Vingård, Eva


    The aim of the study was to investigate whether assessing zest for work is a valuable approach in occupational health work. The term "zest for work" comes from the expression "zest for life" and can roughly be interpreted as the degree of enthusiasm and satisfaction with the present work situation. The measurements comprise three components: listing important factors for the feeling of zest for work, attitude rating and stating whether it is possible to have any influence over the listed factors. Included in this study were 5539 employees, mainly women. Low zest for work was associated with job strain and insufficient social support and imposed an increased risk for poor health for working and long spells of sick leave. The results support that assessing zest for work can be useful in occupational health work.

  20. Collaborative ethnography for information systems research Studying knowledge work practices and designing supportive information systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Maier


    Full Text Available Understanding knowledge work and supporting it with information systems (ISs are challenging tasks. Knowledge work has changed substantially recently and studies on how knowledge work is currently performed are scarce. Ethnography is the most suitable qualitative research method for studying knowledge work, yet too time-consuming, costly and unfocused for the fast changing IS domain. Moreover, results from qualitative studies need to be transformed into artefacts useful for IS requirements engineering and design. This paper proposes a procedure for collaborative ethnography to study knowledge work practices and inform IS requirements gathering and design illustrated with the case of a collaborative ethnographic study of seven organisations in four European countries performed in a large-scale international IS research and development project. The paper also critically discusses the procedure’s applicability and limitations.

  1. Electric impedance study of elastic alternating propylene-carbon monoxide copolymer (PCO-200) (United States)

    Abdul Jawad, Saadi; Abu-Surrah, Adnan S.; Maghrabi, Mufeed; Khattari, Ziad


    The electrical properties of elastic alternating propylene-carbon monoxide copolymer (PCO-200) were investigated using the impedance spectroscopy technique. The results revealed a phase transition at about 70 °C where the material transforms from its insulating phase of conductivity in the order of 6×10-9 to about 9×10-5 (Ω m)-1, The second phase is characterized by temperature dependent electrical relaxation phenomena. The plot of the complex electric modulus and the complex impedance yields semicircles in the temperature range 70 up to 110 °C and a decreasing radius with increasing temperature. The activation energy was found to be in the order of 0.8 eV.

  2. Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine for Epileptic Children in Tehran: A Cross-Sectional Study (2009-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Hassan TONEKABONI


    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Tonekaboni Sh, Jafari Naeini S, Khajeh A, Yaghini O, Ghazavi A, Abdollah Gorji F. Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine for Epileptic Children in Tehran: A Cross-Sectional Study (2009-2011. Iran J Child Neurol. 2014 Winter; 8(1:26-31.ObjectiveAlthough the use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM has been evaluated globally, there are few studies in our country on this subject. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence, pattern of use, parental sources of information, and benefits of CAM in epileptic children in Tehran.Materials & MethodsOne hundred thirty-three parents or relatives of epileptic children who were referred to outpatient clinics or admitted in neurologic ward of four major hospitals in Tehran, were interviewed by our researcher based on a structured questionnaire; from 2009 to 2010. The information obtained comprised the demographic data of patients and their parents, frequency and morphology of convulsions, the type and sources of CAM and finally, the benefits and adverseeffects of this practice.ResultsForty-four percent of the respondents had used CAM methods either alone or in combination with other methods. The most frequently used CAM was written prayers followed by oral herbs and special diets. CAM was mainly introduced to them by relatives. Only 16.7% of these parents had discussed this matter with their children’s physicians. No efficacy to control seizure was observed for most of these methods.ConclusionThis study showed that use of CAM in our study group is relatively common and may have a potentially hazardous role in the treatment process. So, it is necessary for physicians to have enough information about CAM practice in their patients. References:National Institutes of health. More than one third of US adults use complementary and alternative medicine, according to new government survey. [Serial online] 2004 (cited 2004 May 27. Available

  3. Need satisfaction and employees' recovery state at work: A daily diary study. (United States)

    van Hooff, Madelon L M; Geurts, Sabine A E


    The present study aimed to advance insight in the associations between employees' daily effort expenditure at work and their recovery state during the workday, and specifically focused on the role of daily work-related need satisfaction in this process. We examined (a) if high intrinsic work motivation and low self-control effort act as mediating mechanisms underlying the beneficial role of need satisfaction, and (b) to what extent need satisfaction mitigates the adverse effects of high job demands (work pressure and cognitive demands) on employee recovery. Data were collected by means of a 5-day daily diary study (2 measurements daily: in the morning before work, and at the end of the workday) among 68 participants. Multilevel analyses showed that need satisfaction at work was related to a beneficial recovery state at the end of the workday, and that this association was mediated by high intrinsic work motivation and low self-control effort. Furthermore, need satisfaction attenuated the adverse effects of high work pressure on employee recovery. All in all, this study increased our understanding of employees' daily effort and recovery processes at work, and highlighted the beneficial role of need satisfaction at work.

  4. Burnout, working conditions and gender - results from the northern Sweden MONICA Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindahl Bernt


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sick-leave because of mental and behavioural disorders has increased considerably in Sweden since the late nineties, and especially in women. The aim of this study was to assess the level of burnout in the general working population in northern Sweden and analyse it's relation to working conditions and gender. Methods In this cross-sectional study the survey from the MONICA-study (Monitoring of Trends and Determinants in Cardiovascular Disease in northern Sweden 2004 was used. A burnout instrument, the Shirom Melamed Burnout Questionnaire (SMBQ, was incorporated in the original survey which was sent to a random sample of 2500 individuals with a response rate of 76%. After including only actively working people, aged 25-64 years, our study population consisted of 1000 participants (497 women and 503 men. ANOVA and multiple linear regression models were used. Results The prevalence of a high level of burnout (SMBQ >4.0 was 13%. Women had a higher level of burnout than men with the most pronounced difference in the age group 35-44 years. In both sexes the level of burnout decreased with age. Demand and control at work, and job insecurity were related to burnout. In women the level of education, socioeconomic position, work object, and working varying hours were of importance. Interaction effects were found between sex and work object, and sex and working hours. In a multiple regression analysis almost half of the gender difference could be explained by work related and life situational factors. Conclusions Working life conditions contributed to the level of burnout in this actively working sample from the general population in northern Sweden. Especially in women, socioeconomic position was associated with burnout. The high level of burnout in women compared to men was partly explained by more unfavourable working conditions and life situational factors. Efforts to level out gender differences in burnout should probably focus on

  5. Studying the relationship between low back pain and working postures among those who stand and those who sit most of the working day. (United States)

    Tissot, F; Messing, K; Stock, S


    A relationship between low back pain (LBP) and prolonged standing or prolonged sitting at work has not been clearly shown, despite its biological plausibility. Because sitting and standing postures vary as to duration and freedom to alternate postures, and standing postures vary as to mobility, associations between specific working postures and LBP were explored using multiple logistic regression. Associations between work factors and self-reported LBP during the previous 12 months that interfered with usual activities were examined among 4493 standing workers and 3237 sitting workers interviewed in the 1998 Quebec Health and Social Survey; 24.5% reported significant LBP. Since the same conditions can correspond to different physiological demands for sitting compared with standing workers, analyses were performed separately for the two groups. Standing without freedom to sit was associated with LBP. Different occupational physical and psychosocial factors were associated with LBP in sitting compared with standing populations.

  6. A Human Work Interaction Design (HWID) Case Study in E-Government and Public Information Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Torkil


    This paper first outlines a revised version of the general HWID framework, with a focus on what connects empirical work analysis and interaction design, and then presents a case study of the Danish government one-for-all authentication system NemID. The case is briefly analyzed, using...... ethnomethodology, work domain/task analysis, and the HWID approach, and comparing the results. Compared to the traditional approaches, the HWID focus on case-specific connections between human work and interaction design, gives different and supplementary answers. The conclusion is that there are benefits...... in studying how human work analysis and interaction design in concrete cases are related and connected....

  7. The Effect of the Japan 2011 Disaster on Nuclear and Alternative Energy Stocks Worldwide: An Event Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Ferstl


    Full Text Available This event study investigates the impact of the Japanese nuclear disaster in Fukushima-Daiichi on the daily stock prices of French, German, Japanese, and U.S. nuclear utility and alternative energy firms. Hypotheses regarding the (cumulative abnormal returns based on a three-factor model are analyzed through joint tests by multivariate regression models and bootstrapping. Our results show significant abnormal returns for Japanese nuclear utility firms during the one-week event window and the subsequent four-week post-event window. Furthermore, while French and German nuclear utility and alternative energy stocks exhibit significant abnormal returns during the event window, we cannot confirm abnormal returns for U.S. stocks.

  8. Intercultural Competence in Work: A Case Study in Eastern Finnish Enterprises

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    Pirkko Pitkänen


    Full Text Available This paper presents the research results of a study that focused on intercultural interaction issues in private sector workplaces in Eastern Finland. The results show that the current challenges caused by the globalisation pressures in the realm of economics behoves work communities to review their personnel training and management practices: the work communities as a whole should be helped to deal with increasing cultural diversity. Although the number of workers with foreign backgrounds has increased in Eastern Finland, so far, there have been only a few attempts to restructure the working practices in an effort to take into account the demands of increasingly diverse working contexts. In all participating companies the mainstream people were the norm. It was common that Finnish language proficiency was seen as a necessary but not yet sufficient qualification for work. In addition, knowledge of the practices of Finnish working life, as well as training and working experience acquired in Finland were desired.

  9. Emerging Themes on the Efficacy of Ballet Barre Work and Its Connection to Center Work: An Investigatory Study (United States)

    Martinell, Nicole Antonette


    Research on the efficacy of traditional ballet barre exercises in relation to student learning and performance in technique class essentially is non-existent. This research explored how students described their experiences with barre work as well as how they saw these experiences as developing desired skills for moving in the center work.…

  10. The Joy of Social Work Administration: An Exploratory Qualitative Study of Human Service Administrators' Positive Perceptions of Their Work (United States)

    Watson, Larry D.; Hoefer, Richard A.


    Positive organizational psychology suggests that researchers should focus on the rewarding elements of work life, yet those in the fields of social work and nonprofit administration have not conducted research in line with this admonition. Indeed, the current focus on administrative challenges and problems may be part of the reason there is…

  11. The Lesser of Two Evils? A Qualitative Study of Offenders' Preferences for Prison Compared to Alternatives (United States)

    Williams, Alisha; May, David C.; Wood, Peter B.


    Recent work has demonstrated that many offenders will choose to serve prison rather than any amount of a community-based sanction. This primarily quantitative research has found that offender-generated exchange rates are influenced by a wide variety of experiences and characteristics. Missing from this literature is a qualitative evaluation of…

  12. (Post) Modern Science (Education): Propositions and Alternative Paths. Counterpoints: Studies in the Postmodern Theory of Education. (United States)

    Weaver, John A., Ed.; Morris, Marla, Ed.; Appelbaum, Peter, Ed.

    This collection of essays offers new perspectives for science educators, curriculum theorists, and cultural critics on science education, French post-structural thought, and the science debates. This book contains chapters on the work of Bruno Latour, Michael Serres, and Jean Baudrillard plus chapters on postmodern approaches to science education…

  13. Perceived quality of an alternative to acute hospitalization: an analytical study at a community hospital in Hallingdal, Norway. (United States)

    Lappegard, Øystein; Hjortdahl, Per


    There is growing international interest in the geography of health care provision, with health care providers searching for alternatives to acute hospitalization. In Norway, the government has recently legislated for municipal authorities to develop local health services for a selected group of patients, with a quality equal to or better than that provided by hospitals for emergency admissions. General practitioners in Hallingdal, a rural district in southern Norway, have for several years referred acutely somatically ill patients to a community hospital, Hallingdal sjukestugu (HSS). This article analyzes patients' perceived quality of HSS to demonstrate factors applicable nationally and internationally to aid in the development of local alternatives to general hospitals. We used a mixed-methods approach with questionnaires, individual interviews and a focus group interview. Sixty patients who were taking part in a randomized, controlled study of acute admissions at HSS answered the questionnaire. Selected patients were interviewed about their experiences and a focus group interview was conducted with representatives of local authorities, administrative personnel and health professionals. Patients admitted to HSS reported statistically significant greater satisfaction with several care aspects than those admitted to the general hospital. Factors highlighted by the patients were the quiet and homelike atmosphere; a small facility which allowed them a good overall view of the unit; close ties to the local community and continuity in the patient-staff relationship. The focus group members identified some overarching factors: an interdisciplinary and holistic approach, local ownership, proximity to local general practices and close cooperation with the specialist health services at the hospital. Most of these factors can be viewed as general elements relevant to the development of local alternatives to acute hospitalization both nationally and internationally. This

  14. Return to work of breast cancer survivors: a systematic review of intervention studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frings-Dresen MHW


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer management has improved dramatically in the past three decades and as a result, a population of working age women is breast cancer survivor. Interventions for breast cancer survivors have shown improvements in quality of life and in physical and psychological states. In contrast, efforts aimed at stimulating re-employment and return-to-work interventions for breast cancer survivors have not kept pace. The objective of this review was to study the effects and characteristics of intervention studies on breast cancer survivors in which the outcome was return to work. Methods The Cochrane Controlled Trials Register (The Cochrane Library, Issue 4, 2006, Medline, Ovid, EMBASE and PsychInfo were systematically searched for studies conducted between 1970 to February 2007. Intervention studies for female breast cancer survivors that were focused on return to work were included. Results Our search strategy identified 5219 studies. Four studies out of 100 potentially relevant abstracts were selected and included 46–317 employed women who had had mastectomy, adjuvant therapy and rehabilitation, with the outcome return to work. The intervention programs focused on improvement of physical, psychological and social recovery. Although a substantial percentage (between 75% to 85% of patients included in these studies returned to work after rehabilitation, it is not clear whether this proportion would have been lower for patients without counseling or exercise, or any other interventions, as three out of four studies did not include a comparison group. Conclusion The most important finding of this review is the lack of methodologically sound intervention studies on breast cancer survivors with the outcome return to work. Using evidence from qualitative and observational studies on cancer and the good results of intervention studies on return to work programs and vocational rehabilitation, return to work interventions for breast

  15. Assessing Statistical Change Indices in Selected Social Work Intervention Research Studies (United States)

    Ham, Amanda D.; Huggins-Hoyt, Kimberly Y.; Pettus, Joelle


    Objectives: This study examined how evaluation and intervention research (IR) studies assessed statistical change to ascertain effectiveness. Methods: Studies from six core social work journals (2009-2013) were reviewed (N = 1,380). Fifty-two evaluation (n= 27) and intervention (n = 25) studies met the inclusion criteria. These studies were…

  16. Could work be a source of behavioural disorders? A study in horses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine Hausberger

    Full Text Available Stress at work, as shown by a number of human studies, may lead to a variety of negative and durable effects, such as impaired psychological functioning (anxiety, depression.... Horses share with humans this characteristic of working on a daily basis and are submitted then to work stressors related to physical constraints and/or more "psychological" conflicts, such as potential controversial orders from the riders or the requirement to suppress emotions. On another hand, horses may perform abnormal repetitive behaviour ("stereotypies" in response to adverse life conditions. In the present study, we investigated whether the type of work the horses are used for may have an impact on their tendency to show stereotypic behaviour (and its type outside work. Observations in their box of 76 horses all living in the same conditions, belonging to one breed and one sex, revealed that the prevalence and types of stereotypies performed strongly depended upon the type of work they were used for. The stereotypies observed involved mostly mouth movements and head tossing/nodding. Work constraints probably added to unfavourable living conditions, favouring the emergence of chronic abnormal behaviours. This is especially remarkable as the 23 hours spent in the box were influenced by the one hour work performed every day. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence of potential effects of work stressors on the emergence of abnormal behaviours in an animal species. It raises an important line of thought on the chronic impact of the work situation on the daily life of individuals.

  17. Could work be a source of behavioural disorders? A study in horses. (United States)

    Hausberger, Martine; Gautier, Emmanuel; Biquand, Véronique; Lunel, Christophe; Jégo, Patrick


    Stress at work, as shown by a number of human studies, may lead to a variety of negative and durable effects, such as impaired psychological functioning (anxiety, depression...). Horses share with humans this characteristic of working on a daily basis and are submitted then to work stressors related to physical constraints and/or more "psychological" conflicts, such as potential controversial orders from the riders or the requirement to suppress emotions. On another hand, horses may perform abnormal repetitive behaviour ("stereotypies") in response to adverse life conditions. In the present study, we investigated whether the type of work the horses are used for may have an impact on their tendency to show stereotypic behaviour (and its type) outside work. Observations in their box of 76 horses all living in the same conditions, belonging to one breed and one sex, revealed that the prevalence and types of stereotypies performed strongly depended upon the type of work they were used for. The stereotypies observed involved mostly mouth movements and head tossing/nodding. Work constraints probably added to unfavourable living conditions, favouring the emergence of chronic abnormal behaviours. This is especially remarkable as the 23 hours spent in the box were influenced by the one hour work performed every day. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence of potential effects of work stressors on the emergence of abnormal behaviours in an animal species. It raises an important line of thought on the chronic impact of the work situation on the daily life of individuals.

  18. Impact of Fatigue in Rheumatic Diseases in the Work Environment: A Qualitative Study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Connolly, Deirdre


    Fatigue is a symptom of arthritis that causes difficulty at work. An improved understanding of this symptom could assist its management in the work environment. The aim of this study was to explore people with rheumatic diseases\\' experiences of fatigue in work. A qualitative descriptive design was used with semi-structured interviews and a constant comparative method of data analysis. There were 18 participants, the majority of them female with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) and working full-time. Three themes were identified: "Impact of fatigue on work performance" with cognition, mood and physical abilities being the main difficulties reported. In the second theme "Disclosure at Work" participants discussed disclosing their disease to employers but reported a lack of understanding of fatigue from colleagues. The final theme "work-based fatigue management strategies" included cognitive strategies and energy management techniques, which were mainly self-taught. In this study, fatigue was reported to impact on many areas of work performance with limited understanding from colleagues and employers. Interventions from health professionals to assist with development of work-related self-management skills are required to assist with symptom management in the work place. Such interventions should include education to employers and colleagues on the nature of fatigue in Rheumatic diseases.

  19. A Study on Quality of Work Life among Nurses in a Medical College Hospital in Bangalore


    Naveen Ramesh, Catherine Nisha, Andre Mary Josephine, Seena Thomas, Bobby Joseph


    Introduction: Quality of Work Life (QWL) is defined as the extent to which an employee is satisfied with personal and working needs through participating in the workplace while achieving the goals of the organization. Objectives: To assess the quality of life of nurses working in a medical college hospital in Bangalore and the factors associated with it. Methods: Ethical approval from the institution and informed consent from the study participants was obtained and quality of life que...

  20. The influence of ethical leadership on trust and work engagement: An exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amos S. Engelbrecht


    Full Text Available Orientation: Work engagement is increasingly becoming an important outcome for organisational success. A trusting and ethical relationship between leaders and followers is likely to positively contribute to the work engagement of employees.Research purpose: The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between ethical leadership and trust in the leader and the effect these constructs have on the work engagement of employees.Motivation for the study: The study on the role of ethical leadership practices on employee engagement was motivated by the need to create an engaged workforce and a trusting work environment.Research approach, design and method: Data was collected using an electronic web-based questionnaire comprising three scales, namely the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES,Leader Trust Scale (LTS and the Leadership of Ethics Scale (LES. In total, 204 completed questionnaires were returned. Data was analysed by means of item and confirmatory factor analysis conducted via structural equation modelling (SEM.Main findings: High levels of reliability were found for all the measurement scales used. The results from the structural equation modelling (SEM indicated positive relationships between trust in the leader and work engagement, between ethical leadership and work engagement and between ethical leadership and trust in the leader.Practical/managerial implications: The findings emphasise the role played by ethical leadership behaviour of managers in promoting work engagement through the creation of employee relationships anchored on trust. Future studies should develop the theoretical model further by identifying other variables that influence work engagement.Contribution/value-add: Organisations today still face the challenge of developing an effective strategy for achieving work engagement. The ethical leadership style of managers is likely to create an ethical and trusting work climate conducive to the work engagement of

  1. Wrist Hypothermia Related to Continuous Work with a Computer Mouse: A Digital Infrared Imaging Pilot Study


    Jelena Reste; Tija Zvagule; Natalja Kurjane; Zanna Martinsone; Inese Martinsone; Anita Seile; Ivars Vanadzins


    Computer work is characterized by sedentary static workload with low-intensity energy metabolism. The aim of our study was to evaluate the dynamics of skin surface temperature in the hand during prolonged computer mouse work under different ergonomic setups. Digital infrared imaging of the right forearm and wrist was performed during three hours of continuous computer work (measured at the start and every 15 minutes thereafter) in a laboratory with controlled ambient conditions. Four people p...

  2. Associations of Work-Related Factors and Work Engagement with Mental and Physical Health: A 1-Year Follow-up Study Among Older Workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijten, F.R.M.; Heuvel, S.G. van den; Beek, A.J. van der; Ybema, J.F.; Robroek, S.J.W.; Burdorf, A.


    Purpose The goals of this study were to determine whether, among older employees, unfavourable physical and psychosocial work-related factors were associated with poorer mental and physical health and whether high work engagement buffered the associations between unfavourable work-related factors an

  3. Associations of Work-Related Factors and Work Engagement with Mental and Physical Health : A 1-Year Follow-up Study Among Older Workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijten, Fenna R M; van den Heuvel, Swenne G.; van der Beek, Allard J.; Ybema, Jan Fekke; Robroek, Suzan J W; Burdorf, Alex


    Purpose The goals of this study were to determine whether, among older employees, unfavourable physical and psychosocial work-related factors were associated with poorer mental and physical health and whether high work engagement buffered the associations between unfavourable work-related factors an


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zholobova M. V.


    Full Text Available The process of the presowing seed treatment with alternating electromagnet field of the commercial frequency (EMF CF 50 Hz is economically efficient. The use of the EMF CF 50 Hz in the unit with ring pole pieces allows increasing the germinating energy and power. The electromagnet seed treatment in the units with ring pole pieces is the perspective process of the presowing treatment which does not make unhealthy influence on the operating personnel. At the presowing treatment we have to take into account three factors, they are the arrangement of seeds in the working chamber, the time of treatment and the seed humidity. In this article the authors recommend to promote the unit consisting of a magnetic circuit with ring pole pieces of the rectangular cross-section, a magnetizing coil and an embedding of the non-magnetic material in the working chamber which allows increasing the germinating energy of spring barley by 10% and the germination by 7%. As field experiences have shown the highest seed germination and good crop capacity take place in the work chamber zone with boundaries R1=0,012 m and R2=0,035 m at seed humidity from 12% till 18% and the time of seed treatment is 0,9-2,75 s. The addition to crop capacity has run to 7% as a result of the spring barley treatment

  5. Complementary and alternative medicines and childhood eczema: a US population-based study. (United States)

    Silverberg, Jonathan I; Lee-Wong, Mary; Silverberg, Nanette B


    The prevalence of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use in US children with eczema is unknown. Furthermore, it is unknown whether CAM use in the United States is associated with higher eczema prevalence. We sought to determine the eczema prevalence in association with CAM usage. We analyzed data from the 2007 National Health Interview Survey that included a nationally representative sample of 9417 children ages 0 to 17 years. Overall, 46.9% (95% confidence interval, 45.6%-48.2%) of children in the United States used 1 or more CAM, of which 0.99% (0.28%-1.71%) used CAM specifically to treat their eczema, including herbal therapy (0.46%), vitamins (0.33%), Ayurveda (0.28%), naturopathy (0.24%), homeopathy (0.20%), and traditional healing (0.12%). Several CAMs used for other purposes were associated with increased eczema prevalence, including herbal therapy (survey logistic regression; adjusted odds ratio [95% confidence interval], 2.07 [1.40-3.06]), vitamins (1.45 [1.21-1.74]), homeopathic therapy (2.94 [1.43-6.00]), movement techniques (3.66 [1.62-8.30]), and diet (2.24 [1.10-4.58]), particularly vegan diet (2.53 [1.17-5.51]). In conclusion, multiple CAMs are commonly used for the treatment of eczema in US children. However, some CAMs may actually be harmful to the skin and be associated with higher eczema prevalence in the United States.

  6. A case study of alternative site response explanatory variables in Parkfield, California (United States)

    Thompson, E.M.; Baise, L.G.; Kayen, R.E.; Morgan, E.C.; Kaklamanos, J.


    The combination of densely-spaced strong-motion stations in Parkfield, California, and spectral analysis of surface waves (SASW) profiles provides an ideal dataset for assessing the accuracy of different site response explanatory variables. We judge accuracy in terms of spatial coverage and correlation with observations. The performance of the alternative models is period-dependent, but generally we observe that: (1) where a profile is available, the square-root-of-impedance method outperforms VS30 (average S-wave velocity to 30 m depth), and (2) where a profile is unavailable, the topographic-slope method outperforms surficial geology. The fundamental site frequency is a valuable site response explanatory variable, though less valuable than VS30. However, given the expense and difficulty of obtaining reliable estimates of VS30 and the relative ease with which the fundamental site frequency can be computed, the fundamental site frequency may prove to be a valuable site response explanatory variable for many applications. ?? 2011 ASCE.

  7. Transcranial Alternating Current Stimulation: A Potential Risk for Genetic Generalized Epilepsy Patients (Study Case) (United States)

    San-Juan, Daniel; Sarmiento, Carlos Ignacio; Hernandez-Ruiz, Axel; Elizondo-Zepeda, Ernesto; Santos-Vázquez, Gabriel; Reyes-Acevedo, Gerardo; Zúñiga-Gazcón, Héctor; Zamora-Jarquín, Carol Marina


    Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) is a re-emergent neuromodulation technique that consists in the external application of oscillating electrical currents that induces changes in cortical excitability. We present the case of a 16-year-old female with pharmaco-resistant juvenile myoclonic epilepsy to 3 antiepileptic’s drugs characterized by 4 myoclonic and 20 absence seizures monthly. She received tACS at 1 mA at 3 Hz pulse train during 60 min over Fp1–Fp2 (10–20 EEG international system position) during 4 consecutive days using an Endeavor™ IOM Systems device® (Natus Medical Incorporated, Middleton, WI, USA). At the 1-month follow-up, she reported a 75% increase in seizures frequency (only myoclonic and tonic–clonic events) and developed a 24-h myoclonic status epilepticus that resolved with oral clonazepam and intravenous valproate. At the 2-month follow-up, the patient reported a 15-day seizure-free period. PMID:27965623

  8. Transcranial Alternating Current Stimulation: A potential risk for genetic generalized epilepsy patients (Study Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel San Juan Orta


    Full Text Available Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS is a re-emergent neuromodulation technique that consists in the external application of oscillating electrical currents that induces changes in cortical excitability. We present the case of a 16-year-old female with pharmaco-resistant juvenile myoclonic epilepsy to three antiepileptic’s drugs characterized by four myoclonic and 20 absence seizures monthly. She received tACS at 1mA@3Hz pulse train during 60 minutes over Fp1-Fp2 (10-20 EEG international system position during 4 consecutive days using an Endeavor™ IOM Systems device® (Natus Medical Incorporated, Middleton, WI, USA. At the one-month follow-up, she reported a 75% increase in seizures frequency (only myoclonic and tonic-clonic events and developed a 24h myoclonic status epilepticus that resolved with oral clonazepam and intravenous valproate. At the two-month follow-up, the patient reported a 15-day seizure-free period.

  9. Energy potential and alternative usages of biogas and sludge from UASB reactors: case study of the Laboreaux wastewater treatment plant. (United States)

    Rosa, A P; Conesa, J A; Fullana, A; Melo, G C B; Borges, J M; Chernicharo, C A L


    This work assessed the energy potential and alternative usages of biogas and sludge generated in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors at the Laboreaux sewage treatment plant (STP), Brazil. Two scenarios were considered: (i) priority use of biogas for the thermal drying of dehydrated sludge and the use of the excess biogas for electricity generation in an ICE (internal combustion engine); and (ii) priority use of biogas for electricity generation and the use of the heat of the engine exhaust gases for the thermal drying of the sludge. Scenario 1 showed that the electricity generated is able to supply 22.2% of the STP power demand, but the thermal drying process enables a greater reduction or even elimination of the final volume of sludge to be disposed. In Scenario 2, the electricity generated is able to supply 57.6% of the STP power demand; however, the heat in the exhaust gases is not enough to dry the total amount of dehydrated sludge.

  10. Carbon/graphite composite material study. Appendix C: NASA studies on modification of carbon/graphite fibers and alternative materials (United States)


    The feasibility of modifying resin matrix composites to reduce the potential of electrical shorting from fire released fiber was explored. The effort included modifications to or coatings for graphite fibers, alternative fibers, modifications to matrix materials, and hybrid composites. The objectives included reduction of the conductivity of the graphite fiber, char formation to reduce fiber release, glass formation to prevent fiber release, catalysis to assure fiber consumption in a fire, and replacement of the graphite fibers with nonconductive fibers of similar mechanical potential.

  11. Company Policies on Working Hours and Night Work in Relation to Older Workers’ Work Ability and Work Engagement: Results From a Dutch Longitudinal Study with 2 Year Follow-Up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, L. van der; Leijten, F.R.; Heuvel, S.G. van den; Ybema, J.F.; Wind, A. de; Burdorf, A.; Geuskens, G.A.


    Purpose To longitudinally investigate (1) whether lower work ability and work engagement predict the use of company policies on reduced working hours and exemption from evening/night work among older workers, and (2) whether using such policies subsequently contribute to higher work ability and work

  12. Determinants of Shift Work impacting Job Satisfaction: A study on Service Sector Organizations in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasim Abbas Awan


    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the impact of determinants of shift work on job satisfaction in service sector organizations of Pakistan. History reveals that the invention of Thomas Edison brought the change in working environment and industrial revolution results in the birth of shift works. A great number of theories in Management are there to define Job satisfaction. All of them show the relationship between ability to perform and the productivity. In order to investigate their impact descriptive study is taken in to account in which survey research method is used to collect data. On the basis of quantitative analysis this study reveals that determinants of shift work has positive impact on job satisfaction. Finally recommendations are made to increase shift work in service sector organizations of Pakistan so that people may upraise their standards of living.

  13. Critical factors related to return to work after stroke: a qualitative study. (United States)

    Hartke, Robert J; Trierweiler, Robert; Bode, Rita


    Return to work (RTW) after stroke is often perceived as a critical marker of recovery and contributes to overall well-being and life satisfaction of survivors. Quantitative studies have yielded conflicting results in identifying specific predictors of successful RTW, and qualitative studies have been very limited. The current study conducted in-depth interviews with 12 stroke survivors selected by job type and extent of RTW. Seven themes were identified in an analysis of interview transcripts: financial, impairments as barriers, interpersonal support, therapy supporting RTW, organizational influences, work/job specific issues, and psychological issues. These themes confirm and expand on existing qualitative data that focus on survivors' perceptions of their work potential and efforts by emphasizing the need to focus beyond the survivors and their work to include other people and organizations to facilitate the RTW process. Implications for intervention at the individual, work, and community levels are discussed.

  14. Persistent work-life conflict and health satisfaction - A representative longitudinal study in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hämmig Oliver


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objectives of the present study were (1 to track work-life conflict in Switzerland during the years 2002 to 2008 and (2 to analyse the relationship between work-life conflict and health satisfaction, examining whether long-term work-life conflict leads to poor health satisfaction. Methods The study is based on a representative longitudinal database (Swiss Household Panel, covering a six-year period containing seven waves of data collection. The sample includes 1261 persons, with 636 men and 625 women. Data was analysed by multi-level mixed models and analysis of variance with repeated measures. Results In the overall sample, there was no linear increase or decrease of work-life conflict detected, in either its time-based or strain-based form. People with higher education were more often found to have a strong work-life conflict (time- and strain-based, and more men demonstrated a strong time-based work-life conflict than women (12.2% vs. 5%. A negative relationship between work-life conflict and health satisfaction over time was found. People reporting strong work-life conflict at every wave reported lower health satisfaction than people with consistently weak work-life conflict. However, the health satisfaction of those with a continuously strong work-life conflict did not decrease during the study period. Conclusions Both time-based and strain-based work-life conflict are strongly correlated to health satisfaction. However, no evidence was found for a persistent work-life conflict leading to poor health satisfaction.

  15. Small Is Not Always Beautiful – A Comparative Study Of Working Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ole Henning; Hasle, Peter; Bach, Elsa;


    When considering working conditions, the myth sometimes holds that small is beautiful. Some studies of occupational accidents show that small companies have fever accidents than large. This indicates that small companies have better working conditions than large. A Danish study based on a random...... sample of employees in the general industry rejects this myth. The figures show that physical working conditions become systematically worse the smaller the size of privately owned companies. The study also supports international data that small companies underreport accidents, and that this might...

  16. An Exploratory Study into Work/Family Balance within the Australian Higher Education Sector (United States)

    Pillay, Soma; Kluvers, Ron; Abhayawansa, Subhash; Vranic, Vedran


    The higher education landscape is undergoing major transformation, with a significant impact on the work and family practices of academics and professional staff. The purpose of this exploratory study is to examine the extent to which (1) time-related, (2) strain-related and (3) demographical variables impact on the work/family balance of academic…

  17. Strategies for Research Development in Hospital Social Work: A Case Study (United States)

    McNeill, Ted; Nicholas, David Bruce


    Objectives: This article identifies salient components in the advancement of social work research leadership within health care. Method: Using tenets of a modified retrospective case study approach, processes and outcomes of social work research progression at a pediatric hospital are reviewed. Results: Capacity-building processes were…

  18. The Effect of Job Resources on Work Engagement: A Study on Academicians in Turkey (United States)

    Altunel, Mustafa C.; Kocak, Omer Erdem; Cankir, Bilal


    Conducting research and publishing these research papers in academic journals is an accepted norm in the academic world. Previous studies prove that work engagement is a significant predictor of performance. Herein, the relationship between work engagement, which is assumed as a substitute for performance, and job resources is examined. At least…

  19. The Federal Work-Study Program: Impacts on Academic Outcomes and Employment. Policy Brief (United States)

    Center for Analysis of Postsecondary Education and Employment, 2015


    Student employment subsidies are one of the largest types of employment subsidies and one of the oldest forms of student aid. The Federal Work-Study program (FWS) is the largest student employment subsidy program; since 1964, it has provided about $1 billion per year to cover 75 percent of wages for student employees, who typically work on campus…

  20. A diary study to open up the black box of overtime work among university faculty members

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beckers, D.G.J.; Hooff, M.L.M. van; Linden, D. van der; Kompier, M.A.J.; Taris, T.W.; Geurts, S.A.E.


    Objectives: This study aimed at opening up the black box of overtime work among university faculty members by providing information on (i) when faculty members work overtime, (ii) what activities are undertaken during overtime, and (iii) how overtime is experienced. Methods: Data were collected amon

  1. Work-site musculoskeletal pain risk estimates by trained observers - a prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenen, P.; Kingma, I.; Boot, C.R.L.; Douwes, M.; Bongers, P.M.; Dieën, J.H. van


    Work-related musculoskeletal pain (MSP) risk assessments by trained observers are often used in ergonomic practice; however, the validity may be questionable. We investigated the predictive value of work-site MSP risk estimates in a prospective cohort study of 1745 workers. Trained observers estimat

  2. The Phenomenon of Studying While Working in Nigerian Universities: Preliminary Report on NCE Teachers. (United States)

    Duyilemi, B. O.


    In Nigeria, 340 male and 160 female certified teachers studying for bachelor's degrees while working were surveyed. Primary motives for combining work and education were improvement of academic qualifications (85%), self-actualization (76%), effective job performance (58%), and job security (53%). (SK)

  3. A Study of Leadership Strategies and Their Impact on Teacher Working Conditions (United States)

    Rosenbalm, Elizabeth M.


    Throughout this study, the researcher sought to find the key strategies needed to improve school culture and working conditions. These findings were measured by the 2010 and 2012 North Carolina Teacher Working Conditions Survey (NC TWCS) data, as well as staff focus-group dialogue at three selected schools. The participant groups consisted of an…

  4. Chair Report Consultancy Meeting on Nuclear Security Assessment Methodologies (NUSAM) Transport Case Study Working Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shull, Doug [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    The purpose of the consultancy assignment was to (i) apply the NUSAM assessment methods to hypothetical transport security table top exercise (TTX) analyses and (ii) document its results to working materials of NUSAM case study on transport. A number of working group observations, using the results of TTX methodologies, are noted in the report.

  5. Outcome Studies in Social Work Journals: A Review of Publication Trends (United States)

    LeCroy, Craig W.; Williams, Lela Rankin


    Social work practice emerges from research conducted with outcome studies that attempt to capture the "change" that social work services are designed to influence. However, it is unclear the extent to which social workers are prioritizing, and thereby producing, publications that investigate this change. We find that both the number and…

  6. Handheld Versus Wearable Interaction Design for Professionals - A Case Study of Hospital Service Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stisen, Allan; Blunck, Henrik; Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun;


    service work. This explorative study was conducted with 4 experienced hospital orderlies who interacted with an application across two wearable concepts, and one handheld smartphone in five scenarios in a hospital environment. The interaction was video recorded with a chest-mounted video afterwards semi...... aspects to aid designers of next generation wearable designs for hospital service work....

  7. From Laura Ingalls to Wing Biddlebaum: A Study of Teacher Identity in Works of Literature (United States)

    Muchmore, James A.


    The purpose of this study is to systemically analyze the types of teachers that appear in works of literature, and to explore the various teacher identities that are depicted. The data consists of 44 works of literature representing a wide variety of genres, settings, cultures, and historical periods. They include 20 adult novels, 6 young adult…

  8. Stability and Change in Work Values: A Meta-Analysis of Longitudinal Studies (United States)

    Jin, Jing; Rounds, James


    A meta-analysis of longitudinal studies was conducted to investigate stability and change in work values across the life span. Both rank-order stability and mean-level change were investigated using an integrative classification for intrinsic, extrinsic, social and status work values (Ross, Schwartz, & Surkis, 1999). Results of rank-order…

  9. Perceived Barriers and Facilitators to School Social Work Practice: A Mixed-Methods Study (United States)

    Teasley, Martell; Canifield, James P.; Archuleta, Adrian J.; Crutchfield, Jandel; Chavis, Annie McCullough


    Understanding barriers to practice is a growing area within school social work research. Using a convenience sample of 284 school social workers, this study replicates the efforts of a mixed-method investigation designed to identify barriers and facilitators to school social work practice within different geographic locations. Time constraints and…

  10. Is networking different with part-time working colleagues? A study of medical teams.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heiligers, P.; Jong, J. de; Groenewegen, P.; Hingstman, L.


    Changes in work arrangements like the introduction of part-time work can affect both formal and informal organization. This study will focus on informal networks amongst teams of medical specialists, some but not all of which include part-time workers. Are there notable differences in the structure

  11. Work engagement and financial returns: A diary study on the role of job and personal resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Xanthopoulou (Despoina); A.B. Bakker (Arnold); E. Demerouti (Eva); W.B. Schaufeli (Wilmar)


    textabstractThis study investigates how daily fluctuations in job resources (autonomy, coaching, and team climate) are related to employees' levels of personal resources (self-efficacy, self-esteem, and optimism), work engagement, and financial returns. Forty-two employees working in three branches

  12. An experimental study into the influence of works council advice on managerial decision-making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sapulete, Sarai; van Witteloostuijn, Arjen; Kaufmann, Wesley


    This paper experimentally studies the effect of works council advice on managerial decision-making, aiming to gain more insights into the fundamental mechanisms that may underlie the impact of works council advice. We conducted laboratory experiments in which subjects played a two-player Prisoner's

  13. Married Thai Working Mothers: Coping with Initial Part-Time Doctoral Study (United States)

    Thinnam, Thanit


    Advanced educational attainment can "grow" a career. But acquiring a doctoral qualification adds study to existing work and family responsibilities, especially for women. This phenomenological research explores the experiences of eight Thai working mothers enrolled in the initial stage of part-time doctoral programs in Thailand. A…

  14. What's Working Memory Got to Do with It? A Case Study on Teenagers (United States)

    Price, Andrew; Oliver, Mary; McGrane, Joshua


    This paper presents the results of a small-scale study concerned with the development of working memory during adolescence. The working memory of adolescent students was examined with a novel method, electroencephalography, which allowed insight into the neurological development of the students. Results showed that: electroencephalography is a…

  15. The influence of endometriosis-related symptoms on work life and work ability - a study of Danish endometriosis patients in employment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Karina Ejgaard; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler; Baldursson, Einar B


    Abstract Objective Little is known about the implications of endometriosis on women's work life. This study aimed at examining the relation between endometriosis-related symptoms and work ability in employed women with endometriosis. Study design In a cohort study, 610 patients with diagnosed...... ability. The level of statistical significance was set at pResults In binary analyses a diagnosis of endometriosis was associated with more sick days, work disturbances due to symptoms, lower work ability and a wide number of other implications on work life in employed women...... endometriosis and 751 reference women completed an electronic survey based on the Endometriosis Health Profile 30-questionnaire and the Work Ability Index (short form). Percentages were reported for all data. Binary and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to assess risk factors for low work...

  16. Does "grief work" work?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stroebe, M; Stroebe, W


    This article challenges the long-standing belief in the necessity of "grief work" for adjustment to bereavement. Evidence is offered from a prospective study of 30 widows and 30 widowers that indicates that grief work is not always as essential for adjustment to bereavement as theorists and clinicia

  17. Alternative metrics (United States)


    As the old 'publish or perish' adage is brought into question, additional research-impact indices, known as altmetrics, are offering new evaluation alternatives. But such metrics may need to adjust to the evolution of science publishing.

  18. Work happiness among teachers: a day reconstruction study on the role of self-concordance. (United States)

    Tadić, Maja; Bakker, Arnold B; Oerlemans, Wido G M


    Self-concordant work motivation arises from one's authentic choices, personal values, and interests. In the present study, we investigated whether self-concordant motivation may fluctuate from one work-related task to the next. On the basis of self-determination theory, we hypothesized that momentary self-concordance buffers the negative impact of momentary work demands on momentary happiness. We developed a modified version of the day reconstruction method to investigate self-concordance, work demands, and happiness during specific work-related tasks on a within-person and within-day level. In total, 132 teachers completed a daily diary on three consecutive work days as well as a background questionnaire. The daily diary resulted in 792 reported work activities and activity-related work demands, self-concordance, and happiness scores. Multilevel analysis showed that-for most work activities-state self-concordant motivation buffered the negative association of work demands with happiness. These findings add to the literature on motivation and well-being by showing that the levels of self-concordance and happiness experienced by employees vary significantly on a within-day level and show a predictable pattern. We discuss theoretical and practical implications of the findings to increase employees' well-being.

  19. A study on work life balance amongst managers of garment units in Tamilnadu State, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalaiselvi Kandampalayam Thulasimani


    Full Text Available Work life balance plays an important role now a day. Employees want it, managers need it, and organization cannot afford to ignore it! Managers need to take work-life balance seriously particularly in garment units. The more overworked and overloaded, the higher the demands or the expectations on the department or the work unit, the more the managers have to rely on their employees to produce at the highest possible level of efficiency, effectiveness, and quality. If managers are out of balance or stressed or sick then they will be less committed to the outcomes, they will be less committed to the organization, they will be less committed to the client, the product or goods or service that they are producing. This research paper examined the work life balance amongst managers of garment units in Tamil nadu state. The methodology adopted for the study was descriptive research design. Data were collected from 480 managers through questionnaire method around Tamilnadu state, India. In the present study, stastical tools such as percentage analysis, mean value, chi-square, ANOVA, and correlation analysis were used for the analysis. The results indicated that the work life balance of managers are not completely successful due to their present working hours, working environment and increase in products prices, work load, responsibilities in work and  decrease of job security due to recession.

  20. A pilot study examining if satisfaction of basic needs can ameliorate negative effects of shift work. (United States)

    Saksvik-Lehouillier, Ingvild; Hetland, Hilde


    The objective of the present study was to investigate if satisfaction of the basic needs of autonomy, competence, and relatedness is related to shift work tolerance, specifically physical and mental fatigue, insomnia, and digestive troubles in a sample of shift workers. This is a cross-sectional pilot questionnaire study, including 252 shift workers employed in a municipality in Norway. Autonomy was negatively related to physical fatigue and digestive troubles, while competence was negatively related to mental fatigue. Relatedness showed significant correlations with insomnia and mental fatigue, but did not reach significance in the regression model controlling for the two other basic needs as well as work scheduling, night work exposure, and sleep medication. Sleep medication was significant in the final regression model for insomnia, but unrelated to fatigue and digestive troubles. The demographic variables, work hours per week, work schedule, and night work exposure were unrelated to all four measures of shift work tolerance. Autonomy and competence may be more important for fatigue and digestive troubles among shift workers than work arrangement variables, night work exposure, and sleep medication use.

  1. On alternating quantum walks (United States)

    Rousseva, Jenia; Kovchegov, Yevgeniy


    We study an inhomogeneous quantum walk on a line that evolves according to alternating coins, each a rotation matrix. For the quantum walk with the coin alternating between clockwise and counterclockwise rotations by the same angle, we derive a closed form solution for the propagation of probabilities, and provide its asymptotic approximation via the method of stationary phase. Finally, we observe that for a x03c0;/4 angle, this alternating rotation walk will replicate the renown Hadamard walk.

  2. SLIM: an alternative Web interface for MEDLINE/PubMed searches – a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ackerman Michael


    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the rapid growth of medical information and the pervasiveness of the Internet, online search and retrieval systems have become indispensable tools in medicine. The progress of Web technologies can provide expert searching capabilities to non-expert information seekers. The objective of the project is to create an alternative search interface for MEDLINE/PubMed searches using JavaScript slider bars. SLIM, or Slider Interface for MEDLINE/PubMed searches, was developed with PHP and JavaScript. Interactive slider bars in the search form controlled search parameters such as limits, filters and MeSH terminologies. Connections to PubMed were done using the Entrez Programming Utilities (E-Utilities. Custom scripts were created to mimic the automatic term mapping process of Entrez. Page generation times for both local and remote connections were recorded. Results Alpha testing by developers showed SLIM to be functionally stable. Page generation times to simulate loading times were recorded the first week of alpha and beta testing. Average page generation times for the index page, previews and searches were 2.94 milliseconds, 0.63 seconds and 3.84 seconds, respectively. Eighteen physicians from the US, Australia and the Philippines participated in the beta testing and provided feedback through an online survey. Most users found the search interface user-friendly and easy to use. Information on MeSH terms and the ability to instantly hide and display abstracts were identified as distinctive features. Conclusion SLIM can be an interactive time-saving tool for online medical literature research that improves user control and capability to instantly refine and refocus search strategies. With continued development and by integrating search limits, methodology filters, MeSH terms and levels of evidence, SLIM may be useful in the practice of evidence-based medicine.

  3. Integrated Experimental and Computational Study of Hydraulic Fracturing and the Use of Alternative Fracking Fluids (United States)

    Viswanathan, H.; Carey, J. W.; Karra, S.; Porter, M. L.; Rougier, E.; Zhang, D.; Makedonska, N.; Middleton, R. S.; Currier, R.; Gupta, R.; Lei, Z.; Kang, Q.; O'Malley, D.; Hyman, J.


    Shale gas is an unconventional fossil energy resource that is already having a profound impact on US energy independence and is projected to last for at least 100 years. Production of methane and other hydrocarbons from low permeability shale involves hydrofracturing of rock, establishing fracture connectivity, and multiphase fluid-flow and reaction processes all of which are poorly understood. The result is inefficient extraction with many environmental concerns. A science-based capability is required to quantify the governing mesoscale fluid-solid interactions, including microstructural control of fracture patterns and the interaction of engineered fluids with hydrocarbon flow. These interactions depend on coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical (THMC) processes over scales from microns to tens of meters. Determining the key mechanisms in subsurface THMC systems has been impeded due to the lack of sophisticated experimental methods to measure fracture aperture and connectivity, multiphase permeability, and chemical exchange capacities at the high temperature, pressure, and stresses present in the subsurface. This project uses innovative high-pressure microfluidic and triaxial core flood experiments on shale to explore fracture-permeability relations and the extraction of hydrocarbon. These data are integrated with simulations including lattice Boltzmann modeling of pore-scale processes, finite-element/discrete element models of fracture development in the near-well environment, discrete-fracture modeling of the reservoir, and system-scale models to assess the economics of alternative fracturing fluids. The ultimate goal is to make the necessary measurements to develop models that can be used to determine the reservoir operating conditions necessary to gain a degree of control over fracture generation, fluid flow, and interfacial processes over a range of subsurface conditions.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Communication has a role of heart in all kinds of educational interactions, with the popularization of computer technology for home and office use, teaching methods have changed communication styles from plain lectures to multimedia presentations. These new trends in education are in their infancy, online learning or E-learning, and are quickly becoming an important aspect of education in our future around the world. In spite of easy availability of new multimedia support, still the uses of technological tools of communication in the educational fields are in their initial stages, in the under developing countries like Oman. We have yet to fully experience the transformative effects of these mediums, particularly on web based learning. Group work activities are another main point or task in the high education. Switzer and Shriner [20] were of the view that students are the most obvious party who benefit from group work among students, faculty members, and the community. According to them there are four overlapping types of benefits for students. These are: 1 immediate educational benefits, 2 immediate social benefits, 3 critical thinking benefits, and 4 long-term career benefits. Different researchers were of the opinion that face to face communication will not solve the empowerment problems in group work activities. As, through FTF interaction male dominant role can be produced due to identity of speaker, eye contact, nodding, moving the hands , and facial expressions etc. In this situation suitable adoption of technology can be consider as an alternative mode of communication, where there is a chance of discrimination. This case study will be a further step in addition to the previous technological tools & group work related researches. In this researcher will try to explore that how suitable technological tools can play a role to overcome the group work problems and to increase the performance of the students in the developing countries like

  5. Work Experience in Relation to Study Pace and Thesis Grade: Investigating the Mediating Role of Student Learning (United States)

    Tuononen, Tarja; Parpala, Anna; Mattsson, Markus; Lindblom-Ylänne, Sari


    University students often work during their studies, and working is considered to be one reason for high dropout rates or slow progress in studies. Moreover, the nature of students' work experience varies greatly. The study aimed to explore how working while studying is related to study success, and took approaches to learning and the nature of…

  6. Evaluation of work place stress in health university workers: A study from rural India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badrinarayan Mishra


    Full Text Available Background: Healthcare providers being over-worked and under staffed are prone to poor mental health. Unhealthy work place compounds it further. Aims: This study was aimed at to assess the mental health status of a medical university employee with special reference to work place stressors. Settings and design: A cross-sectional study was designed and carried out at a Rural Health University. Materials and Methods: Both the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12 and Holmes-Rahe Scale were used to evaluate 406 participants. Statistical analysis: Multivariate analysis, correlation, and ANOVA by SPSS 11.0. Results: The minimum age of the participant was 19 years and the maximum 64 years, with an average age at 35.09 years. On the GHQ scale 239(58.9% recorded psychiatric morbidity out of which 201(49.5% had moderate and 38(9.3% severe morbidity. Doctors were the highest stressed group (P ≤ 0.04. Prominent work environmental stressors were poor departmental reorganization, lack of cohesiveness in department, difficult superiors and juniors (P ≤ 0.001, Pearson correlation. Stressors associated with work organization and work nature were: noninvolvement in departmental decision making and lack of proper feedback; along with; work load, lack of clarity in job, and a erratic work schedule (P ≤ 0.001 on Pearson correlation. Harassment, favoritism, discrimination, and lack of self-expression (P ≤ 0.003 were other factors responsible for work dissatisfaction. Conclusions: A high stress level was detected in the study population. The principal stressors were work environment related. Poor work culture was found to lead to job dissatisfaction among majority.

  7. Comparative study of specific physical abilities to prove the efficacy of working with performance subgroups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Castellanos Gil


    Full Text Available Background: Sport and Physical Education improve studying capacity. It is part of nowadays men, as a way of fighting inactivity caused by fast development. Objective: To suggest a strategy of subgroups-work to develop some physical capacities. Methods: This work is based on some physical aptitude tests and on Ruffier test; comparing them to proof that work through proficiency subgroup is effective to improve skills. We used SPSS for data processing and determined maximum and minimal values comparing measures for independent samples which determined changes. This allowed an objective assessment of our work useful for improved class planning as for a future assessment of the program. Results: This work is a scientifically supported document for possible modifications of Physical Education curriculums in Medicine Studies.

  8. Some Working Parameters and Energy Use in a Pistachio Nut Processing Plant: A Case Study (United States)

    Polat, Refik; Erol Ak, Bekir; Acar, Izzet

    This study was performed with the objective to investigate the work process, work capacity, work effectiveness, energy consumption and labor force requirements of basic units such as washing, dehulling, sorting, separating, roasting and packing in a pistachio processing plant which has been mechanized in the last years. As a result of this study, the work capacity in washing, sorting, breaking, drying, separating units was found to be 1.5, 1.5, 2, 1, 1.6 t h-1, respectively. The work effectiveness in sorting and breaking units was found to be 95% and that of separating unit was 99%. The total energy consumption of the units was found to be 20.42 kW h-1 and the total labor force requirement was found to be five workers.

  9. How Work Organization Affects the Prevalence of WMSDs:A Case-control Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Lu; CHEN Song Gen; TANG Shi Chuan; WANG Sheng; HE Li Hua; GUO Ze Hua; LI Jing Yun; YU Shan Fa; WANG Zhong Xu


    Objective In this study, we aimed at exploring the association between work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) and work organization based on a case-control study. Methods A total of 1938 workers who claimed to suffer from WMSDs were selected from Beijing, Henan, Hubei, and the Guangdong province. The control group consisted of 2009 workers employed in similar industries without severe disease or musculoskeletal discomforts. We used a modified version of the questionnaire developed by the NMQ and the DMQ to investigate individual and work-related factors. Results A total of 13 variables (P Conclusion Work organization may have comprehensive effects on the occurrence of WMSDs. This pattern of associations suggests that further investigation into the mechanism of how work organization affects the prevalence of WMSDs is required.

  10. Validation study of the Spanish version of the Work-Family Conflict Questionnaire (CCTF). (United States)

    Blanch, Angel; Aluja, Anton


    In this study, a brief Work-Family Conflict (WFC) Questionnaire in the Spanish language is proposed that takes into account the two directions commonly reported in the literature: work interference with family (WIF), and family interference with work (FIW). The results obtained through exploratory factor analyses (EFA) and confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) with two independent samples, carried out for women and men, showed acceptable validity and reliability. A copy of the instrument in Spanish language is provided, together with the Amos 4 syntax to perform the factor invariance analysis for women and men. The suggested Work-Family Conflict Questionnaire (in Spanish, abbreviated as CCTF) may be useful in studies performed in the work setting, considering the special relevance of the concept in this line of research.

  11. [Study of hydrogen cyanide activity in various working environment in gold-mining industry]. (United States)

    Dedkova, L A; Dorogova, V B; Petrov, V F


    The study concerned an influence of saline content of liquid phase of crushed ore and presence or absence of solution blending on the process of cyanic hydrogen release in air of working area gold-mining industry.

  12. Injury risk at the work processes in fishing: a case-referent study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Olaf C


    Epidemiological studies on occupational injuries describe the incidence ratios related to the main strata in the industries, while the injury incidence ratios for the specific work processes within the work places have not yet been studied. The aim was to estimate the injury rate-ratios for the m......Epidemiological studies on occupational injuries describe the incidence ratios related to the main strata in the industries, while the injury incidence ratios for the specific work processes within the work places have not yet been studied. The aim was to estimate the injury rate...... types of fishing. The OR's for traffic on board was 15.3 (12.0-19.4). The variations in the odds ratios indicate that the fishermen continuously shift between low and high-risk areas pointing out areas for prevention. The case-referent design with samples of person-time is useful for other areas...

  13. Managing the Work and Family Roles. Does Flexibility Reduce the Negative Interference? An Exploratory Study

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    Cătălina CICEI


    Full Text Available Balancing work and family demands has become a great challenge for employees. By providing flexible benefits, organizations actively engage in endeavours aimed at reducing the negative interference between the two life spheres. Even if some empirical studies have examined the effects of family supportive initiatives, focusing on flexibility, however, the findings tend to lack consistency. If flexible benefits are traditionally associated with reduced levels of work-family conflict, in some studies no significant results have been reported. Another line of research suggests that flexibility can actually increase the negative work-family interface. From this perspective, the current study examines the relationship between the flexibility benefits used and work-family conflict, focusing especially on the role flextime and telecommuting. Using flexible benefits is negatively associated with time and strain-based conflict, the effects of flextime and telecommuting varying accordingly to the type of conflict examined. Limitations of the current study andfuture research directions are examined.

  14. A Study of Alternate Approaches to Utilization Review of Laboratory Services within an Army Medical Center (United States)


    pH Trichomonas vaginalis Reducing Substances Fecal fat (qualitative) Trypsin Knott’s Concentration for Microfilariae Worm Identification Malaria Anti...Parasitology Bone Marrow Studies Trichomonas Vaginalis Special Coagulation Studies Leishmania Trypanosoma Osmotic Fragility Microfileriae Cryogl obul in

  15. An efficiency reporting system for organisational sustainabilitybased on work study techniques


    Sookdeo, Barnes


    This article aims to demonstrate that work study techniques must be used to determine standard times for operations and to develop efficiency reporting systems to sustain organisations. Many organisations do not measure their efficiencies and do not have reporting systems. This article presents an efficiency reporting system designed and based on work study techniques that can be used to measure performance. The empirical results of the research instrument supported the need for the system. T...

  16. KAJIAN CIDER SEBAGAI ALTERNATIF PENGANEKARAGAMAN PRODUK KOPI Study of Cider as Alternative Product Diversivication from Coffee

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    Suharyono Apno Sugito


    Full Text Available Coffee is an important export commodity from Indonesia. There are not many processed product from coffee, and sincecoffee is a delightful refreshing beverage, it is interesting to make product diversivication from coffee. An alternative processing could be a cider. Coffee used in this research were decaffeinated, Robusta and Arabica coffee. The amount of added sugar were 15 %, 20 %, and 25 %. Natural cultures, combination of Sacharomyces cerevisiae and Acetobacter xylinum, combination of Sacharomyces ludwigii and Acetobacter xylinum, combination of  S. cerevisiae, S. ludwigii, and A. xylinum were used as starters. The parameters observed included: reducing sugar content, alcohol, total tertitrasi acid, pH and Organoleptic Test (color, aroma, taste, clarity, and general acceptance. Coffee cider with the highest overall acceptance score was made from decaffeinated coffee, with 20 % sugar addition and combination of S. ludwigii and A. xylinum as starter.The result of correlation analysis showed a negative significant correlation between reducing sugar content and aroma of coffee cider. Positive significant correlation were found between total titrable acidity and aroma, taste and overall acceptance of coffee cider. ABSTRAK Kopi merupakan komoditas ekspor penting   Indonesia. Tidak banyak produk olahan dari kopi, yang lebih dikenalsebagai minuman menyegarkan dan menyenangkan, sehingga menarik untuk membuat diversifikasi produk kopi. Salah satu alternatif adalah pengolahan cider. Kopi yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah kopi tanpa kafein, Robusta dan Arabika. Jumlah gula yang ditambahkan adalah 15 %, 20 %, dan 25 %. Kultur alami, kombinasi Sacharomyces cerevisea dan Acetobacter xylinum, kombinasi Sacharomyces Ludwigii dan Acetobacter xylinum, kombinasi S. cerevisiae, S.Ludwigii , dan A.xylinum digunakan sebagai starter. Parameter yang diamati meliputi: kadar gula pereduksi, alkohol, total asam tertitrasi, pH dan Uji Organoleptik (warna

  17. Lifeline electric rates and alternative approaches to the problems of low-income ratepayers. Ten case studies of implemented programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Program summaries, issue developments, governmental processes, and impacts are discussed for 10 case studies dealing with lifeline electric rates and alternative approaches to the problems of low-income ratepayers, namely; the Boston Edison rate freeze; the California lifeline; Florida Power and Light conservation rate; the Iowa-Illinois Gas and Electric small-use rate; the Maine demonstration lifeline program; the Massachusetts Electric Company A-65 rate; the Michigan optional senior citizen rate; the Narragansett Electric Company A-65 SSI rate; the Northern States Power Company conservation rate break; and the Potomac Electric Power Company rate freeze. (MCW)

  18. An alternative method to record rising temperatures during dental implant site preparation: a preliminary study using bovine bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenica Laurito


    Full Text Available Overheating is constantly mentioned as a risk factor for bone necrosis that could compromise the dental implant primary stability. Uncontrolled thermal injury can result in a fibrous tissue, interpositioned at the implant-bone interface, compromising the long-term prognosis. The methods used to record temperature rise include either direct recording by thermocouple instruments or indirect estimating by infrared thermography. This preliminary study was carried out using bovine bone and a different method of temperatures rising estimation is presented. Two different types of drills were tested using fluoroptic thermometer and the effectiveness of this alternative temperature recording method was evaluated.

  19. Estudo da durabilidade de argamassas alternativas contendo resíduos Durability study of alternative mortars containing wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Farias Filho


    study the durability of the alternative mortar incorporated with residues from civil construction and from granite industry. To quantify the durability of the studied materials, it was made test of natural and accelerated weathering through wetting and drying cycles. The materials were submitted to conditions that simulated their use to evaluate their degradation. In the studies of durability of the mortar elevation, percentages of substitutions of lime by recycling residue were used. The amount changed from 30% to 50%. The natural weathering cause a compromise in the durability of the material after 60 days with a decrease in the mechanical behavior and the best results occur to the sample with 30% and 50% of residue. In the accelerated weathering, the results show indicate the formation of calcium and potassium aluminosilicates that can give an increase in the mechanical behavior, however, it was not observed a compromise in the material durability.

  20. Racial and Ethnic Profiles of Complementary and Alternative Medicine Use Among Young Adults in the United States: Findings From the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. (United States)

    Upchurch, Dawn M; Wexler Rainisch, Bethany K


    This study describes complementary and alternative medicine use among a national sample of young adults, with an emphasis on characterizing racial and ethnic differences, highlighting variation across subgroups of Hispanics. The authors examined young adults ages 18 to 27 years (n = 14 128) from wave III (2001-2002) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Prevalence estimates and logistic regression results were weighted and adjusted for complex sample design. The study examined recent complementary and alternative medicine use in the past 12 months, recent use for each of 15 specific complementary and alternative medicine modalities, and the 5 most commonly used modalities (herbs, massage, chiropractic, relaxation, and vitamins). Results showed that 29% of young adults aged 18 to 27 years recently used complementary and alternative medicine. Prevalence was highest among Cuban Americans (42%) and lowest among blacks (22%). Young adults used a diversity of complementary and alternative medicine modalities and there were substantial differences in use across racial and ethnic groups.

  1. Working conditions as risk factors for disability retirement: a longitudinal register linkage study

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    Lahelma Eero


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early retirement due to disability is a public health and work environment problem that shortens working careers. Transition to disability retirement is based on ill-health, but working conditions are also of relevance. We examined the contributions of work arrangements, physical working conditions and psychosocial working conditions to subsequent disability retirement. Methods The data were derived from the Helsinki Health Study cohort on employees of the City of Helsinki, Finland. Information on working conditions was obtained from the baseline surveys conducted in 2000, 2001 and 2002. These data were linked with register data on disability retirement and their main diagnoses obtained from the Finnish Centre for Pensions. Follow up by the end of 2008 yielded 525 disability retirement events. The analysed data included 6525 participants and 525 disability retirement events. Hazard ratios (HR and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI were calculated from Cox regression analysis. Results Several working conditions showed own associations with disability retirement before adjustment. After adjustment for all working conditions, the primary risk factors for all-cause disability retirement were physical workload among women (HR 2.02, 95% CI 1.57-2.59 and men (HR 2.00, 95% CI 1.18-3.38, and low job control among women (HR 1.60, 95% CI 1.29-1.99. In addition, for disability retirement due to musculoskeletal causes, the risk factors were physical workload and low job control. For disability retirement due to mental causes the risk factors were computer work and low job control. Furthermore, occupational class was a risk factor for disability retirement due to all causes and musculoskeletal diseases. Conclusions Among various working conditions, those that are physically demanding and those that imply low job control are potential risk factors for disability retirement. Improving the physical working environment and enhancing control over

  2. Management of work place bullying in hospital: A review of the use of cognitive rehearsal as an alternative management strategy

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    Wee Meng Steven Koh


    Full Text Available Lateral violence is not uncommon in workplaces. Unfortunately, nursing, a profession that builds its practice on compassion and code of ethics while caring for their patients is not spared from this phenomenon of lateral violence. Studies have reported cases of lateral violence among nurses to occur frequently worldwide. The impact of lateral violence has serious repercussions not only on the health of bullied victims but also on the structure and financial spending of the organisation. More importantly, the potential latent impacts on the patients' safety and health is of great concern. This literature review suggests that the contributing factors towards lateral violence are mainly due to characteristics of perpetrators, victims' reaction to bullying and organisation's characteristic. To mitigate the impact of lateral violence among young and inexperienced nurses, a cognitive rehearsal scripted response is proposed to prevent harassment and bullying incidents from becoming a feature at the workplace for nurses.

  3. Medical work Assessment in German hospitals: a Real-time Observation study (MAGRO – the study protocol

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    Mache Stefanie


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increasing economic pressure characterizes the current situation in health care and the need to justify medical decisions and organizational processes due to limited financial resources is omnipresent. Physicians tend to interpret this development as a decimation of their own medical influence. This becomes even more obvious after a change in hospital ownership i.e. from a public to a private profit oriented organization. In this case each work procedure is revised. To date, most research studies have focused mainly on differences between hospitals of different ownership regarding financial outcomes and quality of care, leaving important organizational issues unexplored. Little attention has been devoted to the effects of hospital ownership on physicians' working routines. The aim of this observational real time study is to deliver exact data about physicians' work at hospitals of different ownership. Methods The consequences of different management types on the organizational structures of the physicians' work situation and on job satisfaction in the ward situation are monitored by objective real time studies and multi-level psycho diagnostic measurements. Discussion This study is unique in its focus. To date no results have been found for computer-based real time studies on work activity in the clinical field in order to objectively evaluate a physician's work-related stress. After a complete documentation of the physicians' work processes the daily work flow can be estimated and systematically optimized. This can stimulate an overall improvement of health care services in Germany.

  4. A Statistical Comparative Study of the Working Poor in Japan and Canada

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    Masatoshi Murakami


    Full Text Available Problem statement: Recently in Japan, there has been an increase in the group which is termed the ‘Working Poor’. However, the group’s size and configuration remains unknown. Approach: The purpose of this study is to compare the working poor in Canada and Japan using microdata. First, the definition and method of estimation of the working poor provided by (Iwai and Murakami, 2007 are provided along with later modifications. Second, results of the investigation into data appropriate for use in estimating Canada’s working poor and poverty line are given, as are estimates of Canada’s working poor. Last, the characteristics of unemployment, unstable employment and the labor market are examined for both Canada and Japan and the similarities and differences between the two countries are highlighted. Results: In Canada and Japan, the working poor are most likely to be found among the young, those with a low level of education, those in unstable employment or those working in a company having few employees. As regards the differences between the two countries, males are more likely to be the working poor than females in Canada, though this trend is not seen in Japan; moreover, the percentage of the working poor is high among the 25-34 and 35-44 age groups in Japan, though this is not the case in Canada. Conclusion: As conclusions of this study, the first challenge that lies ahead is to find data from the two countries that allows a more rigorous comparison. The second challenge is to re-evaluate estimates made to date after a full investigation of labor market systems. Statistical Analysis Research Project (2009, we have estimated the working poor of the UK and compared their figures with those of Japan. The third challenge is thus to add the findings of this study to those from the UK/Japan and thereby perform a trilateral comparison.

  5. "Solidarity and Support": Feminist Memory Work Focus Groups with Working-Class Women Studying Social Science Degrees in Australia (United States)

    Michell, Dee; Beddoe, Liz; Fraser, Heather; Jarldorn, Michele


    This paper reports on our use of a two-phased, feminist memory work in a project conducted with 11 women, social science students at an Australian university. We begin by describing government-led attempts to widen participation in Australian universities because 10 of the 11 women who participated in our project were from…

  6. International Students' Experience of Studying and Working at a Northeastern Public University in the US (United States)

    Kwadzo, Moses


    This study explores international students' experiences with studying and working at a North Eastern public university. Through phenomenological research approach that utilized face-to-face interview and photo-elicitation techniques, the personal experiences of twenty international students were captured. The findings of this study indicated that…

  7. Challenges and potentials in using alternative landscape futures during climate change: A literature review and survey study

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    Amin Rastandeh


    Full Text Available This study focuses on the feasibility of applying alternative futures and scenario analysis in landscape planning during climate change to provide a wider perspective and deeper understanding of this approach for better use and more effective application in the future. The study consists of a literature review and an analysis of recent applied projects carried out worldwide. In addition, an electronic survey was conducted from March to September 2014 to examine viewpoints on the use and application of this approach with reference to climate-change impacts. The survey participants were a group of highly experienced researchers from eighteen countries involved in at least one applied project since 2000 relating to this topic. After analysis of more than forty applied projects, the survey results were incorporated into the analysis to create a comprehensive picture regarding the potentials and limitations of alternative futures and scenario analysis in landscape planning with particular attention to climate change. The findings show that this method is one of the most effective decision-making approaches for adopting landscape policies where landscapes change rapidly under the pressure of urbanisation and climate change. Nevertheless, there is a gap between the advances offered by the approach in various dimensions and the complexity of patterns, uncertainties and upheavals in landscapes due to climate-change impacts in the urbanising world. The research indicates that the approach opens up a great opportunity for decision-makers to expand their perspective and adopt appropriate landscape policies before reaching a point of no return from the sustainability point of view. Meanwhile, there are challenges and barriers in the application of alternative futures and scenario analysis for envisioning the landscapes influenced by climate change and urbanisation that should be pushed back. Although informative, this research raises new questions about this

  8. Psychosocial work environment and risk of ischaemic heart disease in women: the Danish Nurse Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allesøe, Karen; Hundrup, Yrsa Andersen; Thomsen, Jane Frølund


    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of work pressure and job influence on the development of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) in women. METHODS: The effect of work pressure and job influence on the 15-year incidence of IHD in women participating in the Danish Nurse Cohort Study was prospectively...... studied. A total of 12 116 participants, aged 45-64 years, were examined in 1993 using a questionnaire and were followed by individual linkage in the National Register of Hospital Discharges to the beginning of 2008. Work pressure, job influence, occupational characteristics, demographic factors and known......: In this study we find that work pressure that is too high is a significant risk factor for IHD in younger female employees (results should be taken into account in the planning of primary prevention....

  9. A study on the level of awareness of school principles on professional social work

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    Mohammad Reza Iravani


    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a study to determine the level of awareness of school principles on professional social work in the city of Esfehan, Iran. The proposed study of this paper distributes questionnaire among eighty principle managers who work for different schools in this city. The first part of the questionnaire is devoted to people's personal characteristics such as gender, age, etc. and the second part is associated with the some questions about their awareness on professional social work. The study, for instance, finds that there is a meaningful relationship between job experience and gender and awareness when the statistical significance level is less than five percent but there is no relationship between the level of education and the awareness on professional social work.

  10. Hospital work and pregnancy outcomes: a study in the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suárez-Varela, María M Morales; Kaerlev, Linda; Zhu, Jin Liang;


    In hospitals, women of reproductive age do a range of work tasks, some of which are known to carry potential risks. Tasks such as working with radiation, chemicals, and infectious agents, as well as performing heavy lifting or tasks requiring erratic sleep patterns have been reported to increase...... the risk of reproductive failures. Our aim was to study pregnancy outcomes in female hospital workers in Denmark. We performed a cohort study of 5976 female hospital workers and used as a reference group 60,890 women employed outside of hospitals. The reproductive health of hospital workers working during...... pregnancy is comparable to those of non-hospital workers for the majority of reproductive failures studied. However, an increased prevalence of congenital abnormalities was noted in some subgroups of hospital workers, which may indicate that some hospital work still entails fetotoxic hazards....

  11. Hospital work and pregnancy outcomes: a study in the Danish National Birth Cohort. (United States)

    Suárez-Varela, María M Morales; Kaerlev, Linda; Zhu, Jin Liang; Bonde, Jens Peter; Nøhr, Ellen-Aagaard; Llopis-González, Agustín; Olsen, Jørn


    In hospitals, women of reproductive age do a range of work tasks, some of which are known to carry potential risks. Tasks such as working with radiation, chemicals, and infectious agents, as well as performing heavy lifting or tasks requiring erratic sleep patterns have been reported to increase the risk of reproductive failures. Our aim was to study pregnancy outcomes in female hospital workers in Denmark. We performed a cohort study of 5976 female hospital workers and used as a reference group 60,890 women employed outside of hospitals. The reproductive health of hospital workers working during pregnancy is comparable to those of non-hospital workers for the majority of reproductive failures studied. However, an increased prevalence of congenital abnormalities was noted in some subgroups of hospital workers, which may indicate that some hospital work still entails fetotoxic hazards.

  12. Motivation of volunteers to work in palliative care setting: A qualitative study

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    M A Muckaden


    Full Text Available Background: Volunteers are an integral part of the palliative care services in the Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India. These volunteers are an important resource for the department. Thus, it is necessary for the department to determine what motivates these volunteers to continue to work in the setting, acknowledge them and direct efforts toward retaining them and giving them opportunities to serve to the best of their desire and abilities. Aims: The current study aimed at understanding the motivation of volunteers to work in palliative care, to identify the challenges they face and also the effect of their work on their self and relationships. Methodology: In-depth interviews were conducted using semistructured interview guide to study above mentioned aspects. Themes were identified and coding was used to analyze the data. Results: The results suggested that the basic motivation for all the volunteers to work in a palliative care setting is an inherent urge, a feeling of need to give back to the society by serving the sick and the suffering. Other motivating factors identified were team spirit, comfort shared, warm and respectful treatment by the team, satisfying nature of work, experience of cancer in the family, and aligned values and beliefs. Some intrinsic rewards mentioned by volunteers were joy of giving, personal growth, enriching experiences, and meaningful nature of work. Conclusion: The study attempted to improve opportunities of working for these volunteers. Although limited in scope, it offers insight for future research in the area of volunteerism in palliative care setup.

  13. A pilot study of rivastigmine in the treatment of delirium after stroke : A safe alternative

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldenbeuving, Annemarie W.; de Kort, Paul L. M.; Jansen, Ben P. W.; Kappelle, Jaap; Roks, Gerwin


    Background: Delirium is a common disorder in the early phase of stroke. Given the presumed cholinergic deficiency in delirium, we tested treatment with the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor rivastigmine. Methods: This pilot study was performed within an epidemiological study. In 527 consecutive stroke

  14. Alternative Mechanisms for Compensatory Mitigation: Case Studies and Lessons About Fee-Based Compensatory Wetlands Mitigation (United States)


    Grove West Vineyard Urban Study Area, Placer County, California . Key Features of Fee-Based Compensation as Represented by the Case Study Programs Fee...supports a wide variety of wildflower and other plant species. Scientists maintain that these forests are among the most floristically diverse in the

  15. Time and motion study for alternative mixed low-level waste treatment systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biagi, C.; Vetromile, J.; Teheranian, B.


    The time and motion study was developed to look at time-related aspects of the technologies and systems studied in the Integrated Thermal Treatment Systems (ITTS) and Integrated Nonthermal Treatment Systems (INTS) studies. The INTS and ITTS studies combined technologies into systems and subsystems for evaluation. The system approach provides DOE a method of measuring advantages and disadvantages of the many technologies currently being researched. For example, technologies which are more likely to create secondary waste or require extensive pretreatment handling may be less desirable than technologies which require less support from other processes. The time and motion study was designed to address the time element in the INTS and ITTS systems studies. Previous studies have focused on material balance, cost, technical effectiveness, regulatory issues, community acceptance, and operability. This study looks at system dynamics by estimating the treatment time required for a unit of waste, from receipt to certification for shipping. Labor estimates are also developed, based on the time required to do each task for each process. This focus on time highlights critical path processes and potential bottlenecks in the INTS and ITTS systems.

  16. Social Work Professionals’ Emotional Intelligence, Locus Of Control And Role Efficacy: An Exploratory Study

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    Sanjay K. Singh


    Full Text Available The principal objective of the study was to study social work professionals psychologically. This study was conducted on a sample of 178 participants. The findings depict role efficacy to be associated positively with emotional intelligence and internal locus of control, but negatively with external locus of control. Similarly, emotional intelligence was found to be associated positively with internality, but negatively related to externality. The findings also indicated that emotional intelligence alone accounts for 43% of the variance on role efficacy of social work professionals. The findings of the study have major implications for non-governmental organizations and are discussed.

  17. Stress appraisal, coping, and work engagement among police recruits: an exploratory study. (United States)

    Kaiseler, Mariana; Queirós, Cristina; Passos, Fernando; Sousa, Pedro


    This study investigated the influence of stress appraisal and coping on work engagement levels (Absorption, Vigour, and Dedication) of police recruits. Participants were 387 men, ages 20 to 33 yr. (M = 24.1, SD = 2.4), in their last month of academy training before becoming police officers. Partially in support of predictions, work engagement was associated with Stressor control perceived, but not Stress intensity experienced over a self-selected stressor. Although the three dimensions of work engagement were explained by Stressor control and coping, Absorption was the dimension better explained by these variables. Police recruits reporting higher Absorption, Vigour, and Dedication reported using more Active coping and less Behavioural disengagement. Results showed that stress appraisal and coping are important variables influencing work engagement among police recruits. Findings suggested that future applied interventions fostering work engagement among police recruits should reinforce perceptions of control over a stressor as well as Active coping strategies.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harsh, Vineet, KAUR


    Full Text Available Efficient management of working capital means management of various components of working capital in such a way that an adequate amount of working capital is maintained for smooth running of a firm and for fulfilment of twin objectives of liquidity and profitability. Also it is the most crucial factor for survival and solvency of a concern. The present paper attempts to measure the efficiency of working capital of firms in Healthcare Sector in India. The study reveals that most of the firms of this sector have efficiently managed their current assets for the purpose of generation of sales. Further more efficient management of working capital has a positive effect on Income to Average total assets.

  19. Factors influencing feeding practices of extreme poor infants and young children in families of working mothers in Dhaka slums: A qualitative study (United States)

    Maitrot, Mathilde Rose Louise


    Background Nutritional status differs between infants and young children living in slum and non-slum conditions—infants and young children living in City Corporation slums are likely to have worse nutritional status compared to those from non-slums. Furthermore, families in slums tend to engage female labor in cash-earning activities as a survival strategy; hence, a higher percentage of mothers stay at work. However, little is known about feeding practices for infants and young children in families with working mothers in slums. This study aims to understand the factors that determine feeding practices for infants and young children living in families with working mothers in Dhaka slums. Methods This study adopted a qualitative approach. Sixteen In-depth Interviews, five Key Informant Interviews, and Focused Group Discussions were conducted with family members, community leaders, and program staff. Method triangulation and thematic analyses were conducted. Results Feeding practices for infants and young children in families with working mothers are broadly determined by mothers’ occupation, basis civic facilities, and limited family buying capacity. Although mothers have good nutritional knowledge, they negotiate between work and feeding their infants and young children. Household composition, access to cooking facilities, and poverty level were also found to be significant determining factors. Conclusion The results suggest a trade-off between mothers’ work and childcare. The absence of alternative care support in homes and/or work places along with societal factors outweighs full benefits of project interventions. Improving alternative childcare support could reduce the burden of feeding practice experienced by working mothers and may improve nutritional outcomes. PMID:28207894


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    Full Text Available Technically, carrying out Spinal Anaesthesia in adults, may not pose much problems, because of patient co-operation, but same is not always so in case of toddlers and children, because of inherent fear of Hospital atmosphere, detachment from parents, immaturity and other. This study aims at performing Spinal Anaesthesia, in children, if they are pre-medicated, and pre-subdued, might pave way for the comfort of both patient and Anesthesiologists. So, pre-medicated, pre-subdued Spinal Technique may be cheaper, safer alternative to General Anaesthesia. In our Observational study, results are satisfactory, with no occurrence of described complications, and study needs to be done in large number of cases.