WorldWideScience

Sample records for alternatives study ecas

  1. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    ECAS compared various advanced energy conversion systems that can use coal or coal-derived fuels for baseload electric power generation. It was conducted in two phases. Phase 1 consisted of parametric studies. From these results, 11 concepts were selected for further study in Phase 2. For each of the Phase 2 systems and a common set of ground rules, performance, cost, environmental intrusion, and natural resource requirements were estimated. In addition, the contractors defined the state of the associated technology, identified the advances required, prepared preliminary research and development plans, and assessed other factors that would affect the implementation of each type of powerplant. The systems studied in Phase 2 include steam systems with atmospheric- and pressurized-fluidized-bed boilers; combined cycle gas turbine/steam systems with integrated gasifiers or fired by a semiclean, coal derived fuel; a potassium/steam system with a pressurized-fluidized-bed boiler; a closed-cycle gas turbine/organic system with a high-temperature, atmospheric-fluidized-bed furnace; a direct-coal-fired, open- cycle magnetohydrodynamic/steam system; and a molten-carbonate fuel cell/steam system with an integrated gasifier. The sensitivity of the results to changes in the ground rules and the impact of uncertainties in capital cost estimates were also examined.

  2. Energy Conservation Alternatives Study (ECAS): Conceptual Design and Implementation Assessment of a Utility Steam Plant with Conventional Furnace and Wet Lime Stack Gas Scrubbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Dale H.

    1976-01-01

    A study was performed to estimate the technical/economic characteristics of a steam power plant (3500 pounds per square inch gauge, 1000 degrees Fahrenheit / 1000 degrees Fahrenheit) with a coal-burning radiant furnace and a wet lime stack gas scrubber to control sulfur emissions. Particulate emissions were controlled by an electrostatic precipitator operating at 300 degrees Fahrenheit. The stack gas from the scrubber was reheated from 125 degrees Fahrenheit to 250 degrees Fahrenheit as a base case, and from 125 degrees Fahrenheit to 175 degrees Fahrenheit as an alternate case. The study was performed on a basis consistent with the General Electric ECAS Phase II evaluation of advanced energy conversion systems for electric utility baseload applications using coal or coal-derived fuels. A conceptual design of the power plant was developed, including the on-site calcination of limestone to lime and the provision of sludge ponds to store the products of flue gas scrubbing. From this design, estimates were derived for power plant efficiency, capital cost, environmental intrusion characteristics, natural resource requirements, and cost of electricity at an assumed capacity factor of 65 percent. An implementation assessment was performed where factors affecting applicability of the conceptual design power plant in electric utility generation systems were appraised. At 250 degrees Fahrenheit and 175 degrees Fahrenheit stack gas temperatures respectively, the plants showed a cost of electricity of 39.8 and 37.0 mills per kilowatt-hours and overall plant efficiencies of 32 percent and 34 percent.

  3. Energy conversion alternatives study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shure, L. T.

    1979-01-01

    Comparison of coal based energy systems is given. Study identifies and compares various advanced energy conversion systems using coal or coal derived fuels for baselaoad electric power generation. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS) reports provede government, industry, and general public with technically consistent basis for comparison of system's options of interest for fossilfired electric-utility application.

  4. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), General Electric Phase 1. Volume 3: Energy conversion subsystems and components. Part 1: Bottoming cycles and materials of construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, R. P.; Solomon, H. D.

    1976-01-01

    Energy conversion subsystems and components were evaluated in terms of advanced energy conversion systems. Results of the bottoming cycles and materials of construction studies are presented and discussed.

  5. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), Westinghouse phase 1. Volume 7: Metal vapor Rankine topping-steam bottoming cycles. [energy conversion efficiency in electric power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deegan, P. B.

    1976-01-01

    Adding a metal vapor Rankine topper to a steam cycle was studied as a way to increase the mean temperature at which heat is added to the cycle to raise the efficiency of an electric power plant. Potassium and cesium topping fluids were considered. Pressurized fluidized bed or pressurized (with an integrated low-Btu gasifier) boilers were assumed. Included in the cycles was a pressurizing gas turbine with its associated recuperator, and a gas economizer and feedwater heater. One of the ternary systems studied shows plant efficiency of 42.3% with a plant capitalization of $66.7/kW and a cost of electricity of 8.19 mills/MJ (29.5 mills/kWh).

  6. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), Westinghouse phase 1. Volume 6: Closed-cycle gas turbine systems. [energy conversion efficiency in electric power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, D. J.; Fentress, W. K.; Stahl, W. F.

    1976-01-01

    Both recuperated and bottomed closed cycle gas turbine systems in electric power plants were studied. All systems used a pressurizing gas turbine coupled with a pressurized furnace to heat the helium for the closed cycle gas turbine. Steam and organic vapors are used as Rankine bottoming fluids. Although plant efficiencies of over 40% are calculated for some plants, the resultant cost of electricity was found to be 8.75 mills/MJ (31.5 mills/kWh). These plants do not appear practical for coal or oil fired plants.

  7. Comparative Evaluation of Phase 1 Results from the Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS). [coal utilization for electric power plants feasibility analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Ten advanced energy conversion systems for central-station, based-load electric power generation using coal and coal-derived fuels which were studied by NASA are presented. Various contractors were selected by competitive bidding to study these systems. A comparative evaluation is provided of the contractor results on both a system-by-system and an overall basis. Ground rules specified by NASA, such as coal specifications, fuel costs, labor costs, method of cost comparison, escalation and interest during construction, fixed charges, emission standards, and environmental conditions, are presented. Each system discussion includes the potential advantages of the system, the scope of each contractor's analysis, typical schematics of systems, comparison of cost of electricity and efficiency for each contractor, identification and reconciliation of differences, identification of future improvements, and discussion of outside comments. Considerations common to all systems, such as materials and furnaces, are also discussed. Results of selected in-house analyses are presented, in addition to contractor data. The results for all systems are then compared.

  8. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), Westinghouse phase 1. Volume 11: Advanced steam systems. [energy conversion efficiency for electric power plants using steam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, R. W.

    1976-01-01

    A parametric analysis was made of three types of advanced steam power plants that use coal in order to have a comparison of the cost of electricity produced by them a wide range of primary performance variables. Increasing the temperature and pressure of the steam above current industry levels resulted in increased energy costs because the cost of capital increased more than the fuel cost decreased. While the three plant types produced comparable energy cost levels, the pressurized fluidized bed boiler plant produced the lowest energy cost by the small margin of 0.69 mills/MJ (2.5 mills/kWh). It is recommended that this plant be designed in greater detail to determine its cost and performance more accurately than was possible in a broad parametric study and to ascertain problem areas which will require development effort. Also considered are pollution control measures such as scrubbers and separates for particulate emissions from stack gases.

  9. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), Westinghouse phase 1. Volume 5: Combined gas-steam turbine cycles. [energy conversion efficiency in electric power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, D. J.; Foster-Pegg, R. W.; Lee, R. M.

    1976-01-01

    The energy conversion efficiency of gas-steam turbine cycles was investigated for selected combined cycle power plants. Results indicate that it is possible for combined cycle gas-steam turbine power plants to have efficiencies several point higher than conventional steam plants. Induction of low pressure steam into the steam turbine is shown to improve the plant efficiency. Post firing of the boiler of a high temperature combined cycle plant is found to increase net power but to worsen efficiency. A gas turbine pressure ratio of 12 to 1 was found to be close to optimum at all gas turbine inlet temperatures that were studied. The coal using combined cycle plant with an integrated low-Btu gasifier was calculated to have a plant efficiency of 43.6%, a capitalization of $497/kW, and a cost of electricity of 6.75 mills/MJ (24.3 mills/kwh). This combined cycle plant should be considered for base load power generation.

  10. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), Westinghouse phase 1. Volume 9: Closed-cycle MHD. [energy conversion efficiency of electric power plants using magnetohydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsu, T. C.

    1976-01-01

    A closed-cycle MHD system for an electric power plant was studied. It consists of 3 interlocking loops, an external heating loop, a closed-cycle cesium seeded argon nonequilibrium ionization MHD loop, and a steam bottomer. A MHD duct maximum temperature of 2366 K (3800 F), a pressure of 0.939 MPa (9.27 atm) and a Mach number of 0.9 are found to give a topping cycle efficiency of 59.3%; however when combined with an integrated gasifier and optimistic steam bottomer the coal to bus bar efficiency drops to 45.5%. A 1978 K (3100 F) cycle has an efficiency of 55.1% and a power plant efficiency of 42.2%. The high cost of the external heating loop components results in a cost of electricity of 21.41 mills/MJ (77.07 mills/kWh) for the high temperature system and 19.0 mills/MJ (68.5 mills/kWh) for the lower temperature system. It is, therefore, thought that this cycle may be more applicable to internally heated systems such as some futuristic high temperature gas cooled reactor.

  11. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), Westinghouse phase 1. Volume 12: Fuel cells. [energy conversion efficiency of, for use in electric power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warde, C. J.; Ruka, R. J.; Isenberg, A. O.

    1976-01-01

    A parametric assessment of four fuel cell power systems -- based on phosphoric acid, potassium hydroxide, molten carbonate, and stabilized zirconia -- has shown that the most important parameters for electricity-cost reduction and/or efficiency improvement standpoints are fuel cell useful life and power density, use of a waste-heat recovery system, and fuel type. Typical capital costs, overall energy efficiencies (based on the heating value of the coal used to produce the power plant fuel), and electricity costs are: phosphoric acid $350-450/kWe, 24-29%, and 11.7 to 13.9 mills/MJ (42 to 50 mills/kWh); alkaline $450-700/kWe, 26-31%, and 12.8 to 16.9 mills/MJ (46 to 61 mills/kWh); molten carbonate $480-650/kWe, 32-46%, and 10.6 to 19.4 mills/MJ (38 to 70 mills/kWh), stabilized zirconia $420-950/kWe, 26-53%, and 9.7 to 16.9 mills/MJ (35 to 61 mills/kWh). Three types of fuel cell power plants -- solid electrolytic with steam bottoming, molten carbonate with steam bottoming, and solid electrolyte with an integrated coal gasifier -- are recommended for further study.

  12. Measuring reliable change in cognition using the Edinburgh Cognitive and Behavioural ALS Screen (ECAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockford, Christopher; Newton, Judith; Lonergan, Katie; Madden, Caoifa; Mays, Iain; O'Sullivan, Meabhdh; Costello, Emmet; Pinto-Grau, Marta; Vajda, Alice; Heverin, Mark; Pender, Niall; Al-Chalabi, Ammar; Hardiman, Orla; Abrahams, Sharon

    2018-02-01

    Cognitive impairment affects approximately 50% of people with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Research has indicated that impairment may worsen with disease progression. The Edinburgh Cognitive and Behavioural ALS Screen (ECAS) was designed to measure neuropsychological functioning in ALS, with its alternate forms (ECAS-A, B, and C) allowing for serial assessment over time. The aim of the present study was to establish reliable change scores for the alternate forms of the ECAS, and to explore practice effects and test-retest reliability of the ECAS's alternate forms. Eighty healthy participants were recruited, with 57 completing two and 51 completing three assessments. Participants were administered alternate versions of the ECAS serially (A-B-C) at four-month intervals. Intra-class correlation analysis was employed to explore test-retest reliability, while analysis of variance was used to examine the presence of practice effects. Reliable change indices (RCI) and regression-based methods were utilized to establish change scores for the ECAS alternate forms. Test-retest reliability was excellent for ALS Specific, ALS Non-Specific, and ECAS Total scores of the combined ECAS A, B, and C (all > .90). No significant practice effects were observed over the three testing sessions. RCI and regression-based methods produced similar change scores. The alternate forms of the ECAS possess excellent test-retest reliability in a healthy control sample, with no significant practice effects. The use of conservative RCI scores is recommended. Therefore, a change of ≥8, ≥4, and ≥9 for ALS Specific, ALS Non-Specific, and ECAS Total score is required for reliable change.

  13. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), Westinghouse phase 1. Volume 2: Materials considerations. [materials used in boilers and heat exchangers of energy conversion systems for electric power plants using coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, D. E.

    1976-01-01

    Extensive studies are presented which were carried out on materials behavior in nine advanced energy conversion systems employing coal and coal-derived fuels. The areas of materials behavior receiving particular attention in this regard are: (1) fireside corrosion and erosion in boiler and heat exchanger materials, (2) oxidation and hot corrosion of gas turbine materials, (3) liquid metal corrosion and mass transport, (4) high temperature steam corrosion, (5) compatability of materials with coal slag and MHD seed, (6) reaction of materials with impure helium, (7) allowable stresses for boiler and heat exchanger materials, (8) environmental effects on mechanical properties, and (9) liquid metal purity control and instrumentation. Such information was then utilized in recommending materials for use in the critical components of the power systems, and at the same time to identify materials problem areas and to evaluate qualitatively the difficulty of solving those problems. Specific materials recommendations for critical components of the nine advanced systems under study are contained in summary tables.

  14. Electrochemically activated water as an alternative to chlorine for decentralized disinfection

    KAUST Repository

    Ghebremichael, Kebreab A.; Muchelemba, E.; Petruševski, Branislav; Amy, Gary L.

    2011-01-01

    Electrochemically activated (ECA) water is being extensively studied and considered as an alternative to chlorine for disinfection. Some researchers claim that ECA is by and large a chlorine solution, while others claim the presence of reactive

  15. A comparative study of sensor fault diagnosis methods based on observer for ECAS system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xing; Wang, Wei; Zou, Nannan; Chen, Long; Cui, Xiaoli

    2017-03-01

    The performance and practicality of electronically controlled air suspension (ECAS) system are highly dependent on the state information supplied by kinds of sensors, but faults of sensors occur frequently. Based on a non-linearized 3-DOF 1/4 vehicle model, different methods of fault detection and isolation (FDI) are used to diagnose the sensor faults for ECAS system. The considered approaches include an extended Kalman filter (EKF) with concise algorithm, a strong tracking filter (STF) with robust tracking ability, and the cubature Kalman filter (CKF) with numerical precision. We propose three filters of EKF, STF, and CKF to design a state observer of ECAS system under typical sensor faults and noise. Results show that three approaches can successfully detect and isolate faults respectively despite of the existence of environmental noise, FDI time delay and fault sensitivity of different algorithms are different, meanwhile, compared with EKF and STF, CKF method has best performing FDI of sensor faults for ECAS system.

  16. Navigating ECA-Zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Carsten Ørts; Grønsedt, Peter; Hendriksen, Christian

    This report examines the effect that ECA-zone regulation has on the optimal vessel fuel strategies for compliance. The findings of this report are trifold, and this report is coupled with a calculation tool which is released to assist ship-owners in the ECA decision making. The first key insight...... much time their operated vessels navigate the ECA in the future....

  17. 76 FR 71425 - Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs (ECA) Request for Grant Proposals: Study of the United...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-17

    ..., freedom of expression, equality, and diversity and tolerance should be addressed. All Institutes should... expertise. The Institutes should address topics such as: civil rights, minority rights, politics, religion... for further information. IV.3d.2 Diversity, Freedom, and Democracy Guidelines Pursuant to ECA's...

  18. Persuasive Dialogue Based on a Narrative Theory: An ECA Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavazza, Marc; Smith, Cameron; Charlton, Daniel; Crook, Nigel; Boye, Johan; Pulman, Stephen; Moilanen, Karo; Pizzi, David; de La Camara, Raul Santos; Turunen, Markku

    Embodied Conversational Agents (ECA) are poised to constitute a specific category within persuasive systems, in particular through their ability to support affective dialogue. One possible approach consists in using ECA as virtual coaches or personal assistants and to make persuasion part of a dialogue game implementing specific argumentation or negotiation features. In this paper, we explore an alternative framework, which emerges from the long-term development of ECA as "Companions" supporting free conversation with the user, rather than task-oriented dialogue. Our system aims at influencing user attitudes as part of free conversation, albeit on a limited set of topics. We describe the implementation of a Companion ECA to which the user reports on his working day, and which can assess the user's emotional attitude towards daily events in the office, trying to influence such attitude using affective strategies derived from a narrative model. This discussion is illustrated through examples from a first fully-implemented prototype.

  19. Seal design alternatives study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Sambeek, L.L.; Luo, D.D.; Lin, M.S.; Ostrowski, W.; Oyenuga, D.

    1993-06-01

    This report presents the results from a study of various sealing alternatives for the WIPP sealing system. Overall, the sealing system has the purpose of reducing to the extent possible the potential for fluids (either gas or liquid) from entering or leaving the repository. The sealing system is divided into three subsystems: drift and panel seals within the repository horizon, shaft seals in each of the four shafts, and borehole seals. Alternatives to the baseline configuration for the WIPP seal system design included evaluating different geometries and schedules for seal component installations and the use of different materials for seal components. Order-of-magnitude costs for the various alternatives were prepared as part of the study. Firm recommendations are not presented, but the advantages and disadvantages of the alternatives are discussed. Technical information deficiencies are identified and studies are outlined which can provide required information

  20. The structure and significance of enterobacterial common antigen (ECA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Kasper Goździewicz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The enterobacterial common antigen (ECA is a carbohydrate-derived cell surface antigen present in all Gram-negative bacteria belonging to Enterobacteriaceae family. Biosynthetic pathways shared by ECA and LPS (endotoxin suggest close connections between these antigens. ECA occurs in three different forms: a phosphatidyl-linked linear polysaccharide anchored on the cell surface (ECAPG, a cyclic form built of 4-6 repeating units localized in the periplasm (ECACYC and as a linear polysaccharide covalently linked to LPS core oligosaccharide (ECALPS. Regardless of ECA form, poly- and oligosaccharides of ECA consist of the biological trisaccharide repeating units: →3-α-d-Fucp4NAc-(1→4-β-d-ManpNAcA-(1→4-α-d-GlcpNAc-(1→, where Fucp4NAc refers to 4-acetamido-2,4-dideoxygalactose, ManpNAcA to N-acetyl-mannosaminuronic acid and GlcpNAc to N-acetylglucosamine. ECAPG and ECALPS consisting of one unit with Fucp4NAc as a terminal sugar were also identified. The number of the studies shows its occurrence in all members of enteric bacteria with a few exceptions such as Erwinia chrysanthemi. The presence of ECA was also shown for such genera as Plesiomonas [4] and Yersinia [36], previously belonging to the Vibrionaceae and Pasteurellaceae families, respectively. It was one of the reasons to include these two taxa in the Enterobacteriaceae family. The function of ECA is not fully understood, but it was reported that its occurrence is important in resistance of bacterial cells to environmental conditions, such as bile salts in the human digestive tract. The immunogenicity of ECA seems very interesting in the fact that only sparse rough Gram-negative strains, such as Shigella sonnei phase II, Escherichia coli R1, R2, R4, K-12, and Yersinia enterocolitica O:3 are able to induce the production of specific anti-ECA antibodies. It is the effect of the ECALPS, and the evidence for the existence of such covalent linkage was provided by structural analysis of S

  1. Electrochemically activated water as an alternative to chlorine for decentralized disinfection

    KAUST Repository

    Ghebremichael, Kebreab A.

    2011-06-01

    Electrochemically activated (ECA) water is being extensively studied and considered as an alternative to chlorine for disinfection. Some researchers claim that ECA is by and large a chlorine solution, while others claim the presence of reactive oxygen species such as ozone and hydroxyl radicals in addition to chlorine. This study compares sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and ECA in terms of disinfection efficacy, trihalomethanes (THMs) formation, stability and composition. The studies were carried out under different process conditions (pH 5,7 and 9, disinfectant concentrations of 2-5 mg/L and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration of 2-4 mg/L). The results indicated that in the presence of low DOC (<2 mg/L) ECA showed better disinfection efficacy for Escherichia coli inactivation, formed lower THM and had better stability compared with NaOCl at both pH 5 and 7. Stability studies of stock solutions showed that over a period of 30 days, ECA decayed by only 5% while NaOCl decayed by 37.5% at temperatures of 4 °C. In a fresh ECA of 200 mg/L chlorine, about 5.3 mg/L ozone and 36.9 mg/L ClO2 were detected. The study demonstrates that ECA could be a suitable alternative to NaOCl where decentralized production and use are required. © IWA Publishing 2011.

  2. ECA konverents ja kongress Bledis / Jaan Elken

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Elken, Jaan, 1954-

    2000-01-01

    ECA (European Council of Artists) konverents ja aastakongress 12.-14. X 1999 Sloveenias. 1995. a. moodustatud ECA ühendab 24 Euroopa maa kunstnikke, kirjanikke, heliloojaid, näitlejaid, arhitekte. Konverents keskendus organisatsiooni siseprobleemidele. IAA-st (International Association of Art), mille tegevus on hetkel paralüseeritud

  3. 75 FR 70764 - Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs (ECA) Request for Grant Proposals: Study of the U.S...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-18

    ..., journalistic ethics, the media's relationship to the public interest, and media business models. The Institute... following fields: Journalism, media studies, communication studies, and/or other disciplines or sub... for Grant Proposals: Study of the U.S. Institutes for Student Leaders on New Media in Journalism...

  4. Induction of keratinocyte migration by ECa 233 is mediated through FAK/Akt, ERK, and p38 MAPK signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singkhorn, Sawana; Tantisira, Mayuree H; Tanasawet, Supita; Hutamekalin, Pilaiwanwadee; Wongtawatchai, Tulaporn; Sukketsiri, Wanida

    2018-03-13

    Centella asiatica is widely considered the most important medicinal plant for treating and relieving skin diseases. Recently developed standardized extract of Centella asiatica ECa 233 has demonstrated positive effects on wound healing of incision and burn wound in rats. However, knowledge associated with wound healing mechanism of ECa 233 was scare. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect and underlying molecular mechanisms of ECa 233 on the migration of a human keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT) using scratch wound healing assay. Formation of filopodia, a key protein in cell migration as well as signaling pathways possibly involved were subsequently assessed. It was found that HaCaT cell migration was significantly enhanced by ECa 233 in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The filopodia formations were accordingly increased in exposure to ECa 233 at concentrations of 0.1-100 μg/ml. Furthermore, ECa 233 was found to significantly upregulate the expression of Rac1 and RhoA and to induce phosphorylation of FAK and Akt as well as ERK and p38 MAPK. Taken all together, it is suggestive that ECa 233 induces cell migration and subsequently promotes wound healing activity, through the activation of FAK, Akt, and MAPK signaling pathways thereby supporting the role of ECa 233 to be further developed for the clinical treatment of wound. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), General Electric Phase 1. Volume 1: Executive summary. [using coal or coal derived fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corman, J. C.

    1976-01-01

    A data base for the comparison of advanced energy conversion systems for utility applications using coal or coal-derived fuels was developed. Estimates of power plant performance (efficiency), capital cost, cost of electricity, natural resource requirements, and environmental intrusion characteristics were made for ten advanced conversion systems. Emphasis was on the energy conversion system in the context of a base loaded utility power plant. All power plant concepts were premised on meeting emission standard requirements. A steam power plant (3500 psig, 1000 F) with a conventional coal-burning furnace-boiler was analyzed as a basis for comparison. Combined cycle gas/steam turbine system results indicated competitive efficiency and a lower cost of electricity compared to the reference steam plant. The Open-Cycle MHD system results indicated the potential for significantly higher efficiency than the reference steam plant but with a higher cost of electricity.

  6. Normetex Pump Alternatives Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, Elliot A.

    2013-01-01

    A mainstay pump for tritium systems, the Normetex scroll pump, is currently unavailable because the Normetex company went out of business. This pump was an all-metal scroll pump that served tritium processing facilities very well. Current tritium system operators are evaluating replacement pumps for the Normetex pump and for general used in tritium service. An all-metal equivalent alternative to the Normetex pump has not yet been identified. 1. The ideal replacement tritium pump would be hermetically sealed and contain no polymer components or oils. Polymers and oils degrade over time when they contact ionizing radiation. 2. Halogenated polymers (containing fluorine, chlorine, or both) and oils are commonly found in pumps. These materials have many properties that surpass those of hydrocarbon-based polymers and oils, including thermal stability (higher operating temperature) and better chemical resistance. Unfortunately, they are less resistant to degradation from ionizing radiation than hydrocarbon-based materials (in general). 3. Polymers and oils can form gaseous, condensable (HF, TF), liquid, and solid species when exposed to ionizing radiation. For example, halogenated polymers form HF and HCl, which are extremely corrosive upon reaction with water. If a pump containing polymers or oils must be used in a tritium system, the system must be designed to be able to process the unwanted by-products. Design features to mitigate degradation products include filters and chemical or physical traps (eg. cold traps, oil traps). 4. Polymer components can work in tritium systems, but must be replaced regularly. Polymer components performance should be monitored or be regularly tested, and regular replacement of components should be viewed as an expected normal event. A radioactive waste stream must be established to dispose of used polymer components and oil with an approved disposal plan developed based on the facility location and its regulators. Polymers have varying

  7. Edinburgh Cognitive and Behavioural ALS Screen (ECAS)-Italian version: regression based norms and equivalent scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siciliano, Mattia; Trojano, Luigi; Trojsi, Francesca; Greco, Roberta; Santoro, Manuela; Basile, Giuseppe; Piscopo, Fausta; D'Iorio, Alfonsina; Patrone, Manila; Femiano, Cinzia; Monsurrò, Mariarosaria; Tedeschi, Gioacchino; Santangelo, Gabriella

    2017-06-01

    Cognitive assessment for individuals with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) can be difficult because of frequent occurrence of difficulties with speech, writing, and drawing. The Edinburgh Cognitive and Behavioural ALS Screen (ECAS) is a recent multi-domain neuropsychological screening tool specifically devised for this purpose, and it assesses the following domains: executive functions, social cognition, verbal fluency and language (ALS-specific), but also memory and visuospatial abilities (Non-ALS specific). ECAS total score ranges from 0 (worst performance) to 136 (best performance). Moreover, a brief caregiver interview provides an assessment of behaviour changes and psychotic symptoms usually associated with ALS patients. The aim of the present study was to provide normative values for ECAS total score and sub-scores in a sample of Italian healthy subjects. Two hundred and seventy-seven Italian healthy subjects (151 women and 126 men; age range 30-79 years; educational level from primary school to university) underwent ECAS and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that age and education significantly influenced performance on ECAS total score and sub-scale scores. From the derived linear equation, a correction grid for raw scores was built. Inferential cut-off scores were estimated using a non-parametric technique and equivalent scores (ES) were computed. Correlation analysis showed a good significant correlation between adjusted ECAS total scores with adjusted MoCA total scores (r rho  = 0.669, p < 0.0001). The present study provided normative data for the ECAS in an Italian population useful for both clinical and research purposes.

  8. 76 FR 27156 - Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs (ECA) Request for Grant Proposals; Teacher Exchange...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-10

    ... English, math, science and social studies although the majority of participants are teachers of English as... Award: Cooperative Agreement(s). ECA's level of involvement in this program is listed under number I... maximum levels of cost sharing and funding in support of its programs. When cost sharing is offered, it is...

  9. Designing for friendship: Becoming friends with your ECA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stronks, Bas; Marriott, A.; Nijholt, Antinus; Pelachaud, C.; van der Vet, P.E.; Rist, T.; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Ruttkay, Z.M.; Vilhjalmsson, H.

    2002-01-01

    This paper is about the design of Embodied Conversational Agents (ECAs). In this field of Human Computer Interaction (HCI) and Artificial Intelligence (AI), the design of ECAs, or ‘virtual humans’, and the communication between those agents and human users is the main object of our research. A lot

  10. 77 FR 65543 - Energy Corporation of America; Eastern American Energy Corporation; First ECA Midstream LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-29

    ... Corporation of America; Eastern American Energy Corporation; First ECA Midstream LLC; Notice of Application Take notice that on October 16, 2012, Energy Corporation of America and Eastern American Energy Corporation (collectively, ECA), and First ECA Midstream LLC (First ECA Midstream), 501 56th Street SE...

  11. Alternative Education Completers: A Phenomenological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Becky L.; Holt, Carleton R.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the elements of the alternative education experience significant to successful completion of the program. This phenomenological paradigm provided the framework for all aspects of the qualitative study. Students, parents, administrators, and staff members of two alternative programs in the southeast Kansas…

  12. Alternative Middle School Models: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffield, Stacy Kay

    2018-01-01

    A Midwestern state allocated grant funding to encourage more accessible alternative programming at the middle level. Seventeen schools were approved for this grant and used the funds to supplement the operation of a new or existing program. This study provides policymakers and educators with an overview of the various types of alternative middle…

  13. Manufacturing of Nanostructured Rings from Previously ECAE-Processed AA5083 Alloy by Isothermal Forging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Luis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The manufacturing of a functional hollow mechanical element or ring of the AA5083 alloy previously equal channel angular extrusion (ECAE processed, which presents a submicrometric microstructure, is dealt with. For this purpose, the design of two isothermal forging dies (preform and final shape is carried out using the design of experiments (DOE methodology. Moreover, after manufacturing the dies and carrying out tests so as to achieve real rings, the mechanical properties of these rings are analysed as well as their microstructure. Furthermore, a comparison between the different forged rings is made from ECAE-processed material subjected to different heat treatments, previous to the forging stage. On the other hand, the ring forging process is modelled through the use of finite element simulation in order to improve the die design and to study the force required for the isothermal forging, the damage value, and the strain the material predeformed by ECAE has undergone. With this present research work, it is intended to improve the knowledge about the mechanical properties of nanostructured material and the applicability of this material to industrial processes that allow the manufacturing of functional parts.

  14. Electric current activated/assisted sintering (ECAS): a review of patents 1906-2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grasso, Salvatore; Sakka, Yoshio; Maizza, Giovanni

    2009-01-01

    The electric current activated/assisted sintering (ECAS) is an ever growing class of versatile techniques for sintering particulate materials. Despite the tremendous advances over the last two decades in ECASed materials and products there is a lack of comprehensive reviews on ECAS apparatuses and methods. This paper fills the gap by tracing the progress of ECAS technology from 1906 to 2008 and surveys 642 ECAS patents published over more than a century. It is found that the ECAS technology was pioneered by Bloxam (1906 GB Patent No. 9020) who developed the first resistive sintering apparatus. The patents were searched by keywords or by cross-links and were withdrawn from the Japanese Patent Office (342 patents), the United States Patent and Trademark Office (175 patents), the Chinese State Intellectual Property Office of P.R.C. (69 patents) and the World Intellectual Property Organization (12 patents). A subset of 119 (out of 642) ECAS patents on methods and apparatuses was selected and described in detail with respect to their fundamental concepts, physical principles and importance in either present ECAS apparatuses or future ECAS technologies for enhancing efficiency, reliability, repeatability, controllability and productivity. The paper is divided into two parts, the first deals with the basic concepts, features and definitions of basic ECAS and the second analyzes the auxiliary devices/peripherals. The basic ECAS is classified with reference to discharge time (fast and ultrafast ECAS). The fundamental principles and definitions of ECAS are outlined in accordance with the scientific and patent literature. (topical review)

  15. Hopewell Furnace NHS : alternative transportation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-31

    This study assesses the potential for an alternative transportation system (ATS) at Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site (NHS). The Volpe Center investigated internal circulation and potential partnerships with local historic, cultural, and recrea...

  16. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), Westinghouse phase 1. Volume 1: Introduction and summary and general assumptions. [energy conversion systems for electric power plants using coal - feasibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beecher, D. T.

    1976-01-01

    Nine advanced energy conversion concepts using coal or coal-derived fuels are summarized. They are; (1) open-cycle gas turbines, (2) combined gas-steam turbine cycles, (3) closed-cycle gas turbines, (4) metal vapor Rankine topping, (5) open-cycle MHD; (6) closed-cycle MHD; (7) liquid-metal MHD; (8) advanced steam; and (9) fuel cell systems. The economics, natural resource requirements, and performance criteria for the nine concepts are discussed.

  17. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), Westinghouse phase 1. Volume 3: Combustors, furnaces and low-BTU gasifiers. [used in coal gasification and coal liquefaction (equipment specifications)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, J. R.

    1976-01-01

    Information is presented on the design, performance, operating characteristics, cost, and development status of coal preparation equipment, combustion equipment, furnaces, low-Btu gasification processes, low-temperature carbonization processes, desulfurization processes, and pollution particulate removal equipment. The information was compiled for use by the various cycle concept leaders in determining the performance, capital costs, energy costs, and natural resource requirements of each of their system configurations.

  18. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), Westinghouse phase 1. Volume 10: Liquid-metal MHD systems. [energy conversion efficiency of electric power plants using liquid metal magnetohydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, R. R.; Lippert, T. E.

    1976-01-01

    Electric Power Plant costs and efficiencies are presented for two basic liquid-metal cycles corresponding to 922 and 1089 K (1200 and 1500 F) for a commercial applications using direct coal firing. Sixteen plant designs are considered for which major component equipment were sized and costed. The design basis for each major component is discussed. Also described is the overall systems computer model that was developed to analyze the thermodynamics of the various cycle configurations that were considered.

  19. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), General Electric Phase 1. Volume 2: Advanced energy conversion systems. Part 1: Open-cycle gas turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, D. H.; Corman, J. C.

    1976-01-01

    Ten energy conversion systems are defined and analyzed in terms of efficiency. These include: open-cycle gas turbine recuperative; open-cycle gas turbine; closed-cycle gas turbine; supercritical CO2 cycle; advanced steam cycle; liquid metal topping cycle; open-cycle MHD; closed-cycle inert gas MHD; closed-cycle liquid metal MHD; and fuel cells. Results are presented.

  20. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), Westinghouse phase 1. Volume 8: Open-cycle MHD. [energy conversion efficiency and design analysis of electric power plants employing magnetohydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, D. Q.

    1976-01-01

    Electric power plant costs and efficiencies are presented for three basic open-cycle MHD systems: (1) direct coal fired system, (2) a system with a separately fired air heater, and (3) a system burning low-Btu gas from an integrated gasifier. Power plant designs were developed corresponding to the basic cases with variation of major parameters for which major system components were sized and costed. Flow diagrams describing each design are presented. A discussion of the limitations of each design is made within the framework of the assumptions made.

  1. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), General Electric Phase 1. Volume 3: Energy conversion subsystems and components. Part 3: Gasification, process fuels, and balance of plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boothe, W. A.; Corman, J. C.; Johnson, G. G.; Cassel, T. A. V.

    1976-01-01

    Results are presented of an investigation of gasification and clean fuels from coal. Factors discussed include: coal and coal transportation costs; clean liquid and gas fuel process efficiencies and costs; and cost, performance, and environmental intrusion elements of the integrated low-Btu coal gasification system. Cost estimates for the balance-of-plant requirements associated with advanced energy conversion systems utilizing coal or coal-derived fuels are included.

  2. A Framework for Research in Gamified Mobile Guide Applications using Embodied Conversational Agents (ECAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Doumanis

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Guides are mobile applications that provide players with local and location-based services (LBS, such as navigation assistance, where and when they need them most. Advances in mobile technologies in recent years have enabled the gamification of these applications, opening up new opportunities to transfer education and culture through game play. However, adding traditional game elements such as PBLs (points, badges, and leaderboards alone cannot ensure that the intended learning outcomes will be met, as the player’s cognitive resources are shared between the application and the surrounding environment. This distribution of resources prevents players from easily immersing themselves into the educational scenario. Adding artificial conversational characters (ECAs that simulate the social norms found in real-life human-to-human guide scenarios has the potential to address this problem and improve the player’s experience and learning of cultural narratives [1]. Although significant progress has been made towards creating game-like mobile guides with ECAs ([2], [3], there is still a lack of a unified framework that enables researchers and practitioners to investigate the potential effects of such applications to players and how to approach the concepts of player experience, cognitive accessibility and usability in this context. This paper presents a theoretically-well supported research framework consisted of four key components: differences in players, different features of the gamified task, aspects of how the ECA looks, sound or behaves and different mobile environments. Furthermore, it provides based on this framework a working definition of what player experience, cognitive accessibility and usability are in the context of game-like mobile guide applications. Finally, a synthesis of the results of six empirical studies conducted within this research framework is discussed and a series of design guidelines for the effective gamification

  3. The Complex Interplay Between Depression/Anxiety and Executive Functioning: Insights From the ECAS in a Large ALS Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solca, Federica; Faini, Andrea; Madotto, Fabiana; Lafronza, Annalisa; Monti, Alessia; Zago, Stefano; Doretti, Alberto; Ciammola, Andrea; Ticozzi, Nicola; Silani, Vincenzo; Poletti, Barbara

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: The observed association between depressive symptoms and cognitive performances has not been previously clarified in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (pALS). In fact, the use of cognitive measures often not accommodating for motor disability has led to heterogeneous and not conclusive findings about this issue. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between cognitive and depressive/anxiety symptoms by means of the recently developed Edinburgh Cognitive and Behavioral ALS Screen (ECAS), a brief assessment specifically designed for pALS. Methods: Sample included 168 pALS (114 males, 54 females); they were administered two standard cognitive screening tools (FAB; MoCA) and the ECAS, assessing different cognitive domains, including ALS-specific (executive functions, verbal fluency, and language tests) and ALS non-specific subtests (memory and visuospatial tests). Two psychological questionnaires for depression and anxiety (BDI; STAI/Y) were also administered to patients. Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used to assess the degree of association between cognitive and psychological measures. Results: Depression assessment negatively correlated with the ECAS, more significantly with regard to the executive functions subdomain. In particular, Sentence Completion and Social Cognition subscores were negatively associated with depression levels measured by BDI total score and Somatic-Performance symptoms subscore. Conversely, no significant correlations were observed between depression level and cognitive functions as measured by traditional screening tools for frontal abilities (FAB) and global cognition (MoCA) assessment. Finally, no significant correlations were observed between state/trait anxiety and the ECAS. Discussion and conclusion: This represents the first study focusing on the relationship between cognitive and psychological components in pALS by means of the ECAS, the current gold standard for ALS cognitive

  4. Assateague Island National Seashore alternative transportation systems planning study and business plan for alternative transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-31

    The purpose of this study was to (1) study the potential expansion of existing alternative transportation systems (bicycle facilities) and development of new alternative transportation systems in and around the Maryland District of Assateague Island ...

  5. Field study plan for alternate barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, H.D.; Gee, G.W.; Relyea, J.F.

    1989-05-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is providing technical assistance in selecting, designing, evaluating, and demonstrating protective barriers. As part of this technical assistance effort, asphalt, clay, and chemical grout will be evaluated for use as alternate barriers. The purpose of the subsurface layer is to reduce the likelihood that extreme events (i.e., 100-year maximum storms, etc.) will cause significant drainage through the barrier. The tests on alternate barriers will include laboratory and field analysis of the subsurface layer performance. This field test plan outlines the activities required to test and design subsurface moisture barriers. The test plan covers activities completed in FY 1988 and planned through FY 1992 and includes a field-scale test of one or more of the alternate barriers to demonstrate full-scale application techniques and to provide performance data on a larger scale. Tests on asphalt, clay, and chemical grout were initiated in FY 1988 in small (30.5 cm diameter) tube-layer lysimeters. The parameters used for testing the materials were different for each one. The tests had to take into account the differences in material characteristics and response to change in conditions, as well as information provided by previous studies. 33 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  6. NRC inspection alternatives. A study report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conver, S.K.; Legasey, E.E.; LeDoux, J.C.; Rehfuss, C.

    1977-04-01

    IE's efforts in pursuing various resident inspection concepts are consistent with the stated interests of the new Administration in improving federal oversight of the nuclear industry. Four alternative resident inspection concepts are described and evaluated vis-a-vis the current program. The concept of full-time onsite inspectors as a preferred alternative is discussed. The tasks necessary to implement this preferred alternative are described

  7. Sinoporphyrin sodium, a novel sensitizer, triggers mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis in ECA-109 cells via production of reactive oxygen species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang H

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Haiping Wang,1 Xiaobing Wang,1 Shaoliang Zhang,2 Pan Wang,1 Kun Zhang,1 Quanhong Liu1 1Key Laboratory of Medicinal Resources and Natural Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Ministry of Education, National Engineering Laboratory for Resource Developing of Endangered Chinese Crude Drugs in Northwest of China, College of Life Sciences, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi'an, Shaanxi, 2Qinglong High-Tech Co, Ltd, Yichun, Jiangxi, People's Republic of China Background: Sonodynamic therapy (SDT is a promising method that uses ultrasound to activate certain chemical sensitizers for the treatment of cancer. The purpose of this study was to investigate the sonoactivity of a novel sensitizer, sinoporphyrin sodium (DVDMS, and its sonotoxicity in an esophageal cancer (ECA-109 cell line. Methods: The fluorescence intensity of DVDMS, hematoporphyrin, protoporphyrin IX, and Photofrin II was detected by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Generation of singlet oxygen was measured using a 1, 3-diphenylisobenzofuran experiment. A 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay was used to examine cell viability. Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS and destabilization of the mitochondrial membrane potential were assessed by flow cytometry. Apoptosis was analyzed using Annexin-PE/7-amino-actinomycin D staining. Confocal microscopy was performed to assess mitochondrial damage and identify release of cytochrome C after treatment. Western blots were used to determine expression of oxidative stress-related and apoptosis-associated protein. Ultrastructural changes in the cell were studied by scanning electron microscopy. Results: DVDMS showed higher autofluorescence intensity and singlet oxygen production efficiency compared with other photosensitizers in both cancerous and normal cells. Compared with hematoporphyrin, DVDMS-mediated SDT was more cytotoxic in ECA-109 cells. Abundant intracellular ROS was found in the SDT groups, and the cytotoxicity

  8. Autoignition Studies of Diesel Alternative Biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weijing

    The autoignition of biofuel compounds that offer potential as diesel fuel alternatives was studied under high-pressure engine-like conditions using the shock tube technique. Ignition delay times were determined in reflected shock experiments using measured pressure and electronically-excited OH emission. Measurements were made at conditions ranging from 650 to 1350 K, pressures from 6 to 50 atm, and for fuel/air/diluent mixtures at equivalence ratios from 0.5 to 2. The wide range of temperatures examined provides observation of autoignition in three reactivity regimes, including the negative temperature coefficient (NTC) regime which is characteristic of fuels containing alkyl functionalities. Compounds studied include biodiesel-related compounds and real biodiesel fuels, dimethyl ether, and 3-methylheptane which is representative of compounds found in synthetic diesel fuels produced using the Fischer-Tropsch and hydrotreatment processes. Biodiesel compounds studied include biodiesel surrogates, methyl decanoate, methyl-5-decenoate, and methyl-9-decenoate; compounds found in large quantities in biodiesels, methyl palmitate, methyl stearate, methyl oleate, and methyl linoleate; and soy-based and animal fat based methyl ester biodiesels. Comparison of biodiesel compounds illustrates the influence of molecular structure (e.g., chain length, double bonds, and ester functionality) on reactivity. For methyl decanoate, the effect of high pressure exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) conditions relevant to internal combustion engines was also determined. Results showed that the first-order influence of EGR by displacing fuel and O2 to decrease radical branching. Measurements were compared to kinetic modeling results from models available in the literature providing varying degrees of model validation. Reaction flux analyses were also carried out to further examine the kinetic differences in different temperature regimes for fuel compounds. For example, reaction flux analyses

  9. Ironmaking Process Alternative Screening Study, Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lockwood Greene, . .

    2005-01-06

    Iron in the United States is largely produced from iron ore mined in the United States or imported from Canada or South America. The iron ore is typically smelted in Blast Furnaces that use primarily iron ore, iron concentrate pellets metallurgical coke, limestone and lime as the raw materials. Under current operating scenarios, the iron produced from these Blast Furnaces is relatively inexpensive as compared to current alternative iron sources, e.g. direct iron reduction, imported pig iron, etc. The primary problem the Blast Furnace Ironmaking approach is that many of these Blast furnaces are relatively small, as compared to the newer, larger Blast Furnaces; thus are relatively costly and inefficient to operate. An additional problem is also that supplies of high-grade metallurgical grade coke are becoming increasingly in short supply and costs are also increasing. In part this is due to the short supply and costs of high-grade metallurgical coals, but also this is due to the increasing necessity for environmental controls for coke production. After year 2003 new regulations for coke product environmental requirement will likely be promulgated. It is likely that this also will either increase the cost of high-quality coke production or will reduce the available domestic U.S. supply. Therefore, iron production in the United States utilizing the current, predominant Blast Furnace process will be more costly and would likely be curtailed due to a coke shortage. Therefore, there is a significant need to develop or extend the economic viability of Alternate Ironmaking Processes to at least partially replace current and declining blast furnace iron sources and to provide incentives for new capacity expansion. The primary conclusions of this comparative Study of Alternative Ironmaking Process scenarios are: (1) The processes with the best combined economics (CAPEX and OPEX impacts in the I.R.R. calculation) can be grouped into those Fine Ore based processes with no scrap

  10. Enhanced Access Design Alternative I Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eble, G.B.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to evaluate Enhanced Design Alternative (EDA) 1, the low temperature repository design concept (CRWMS M and O 1999a). This technical document will provide supporting information for Site Recommendation (SR) and License Application (LA). Preparation of this evaluation will be in accordance with the technical document preparation plan (TDPP), (CRWMS M and O 1999b). EDA 1, one of five EDAs, was evolved from evaluation of a series of design features and alternatives developed during the first phase of the License Application Design Selection (LADS) process. Low, medium, and high temperature concepts were developed from the design features and alternatives prepared during Phase 1 of the LADS effort (CRWMS M and O 1999a). EDA 1 will first be evaluated against a single Screening Criterion, outlined in CRWMS M and O 1999a, which addresses post-closure performance of the repository. The performance of the repository is defined quantitatively as the peak radiological dose rate to an average individual of a critical group at a distance of 20 km from the repository site within 10,000 years. To satisfy this criterion the peak dose rate must not exceed the anticipated regulatory level of 25 mrem/yr within 10,000 years. If the EDA meets the screening criterion, the EDA will be further evaluated against the LADS Phase 2 Evaluation Criteria contained in CRWMS M and O 1999a

  11. Categorical Alternatives: An Educational Criticism Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth J. EVANS

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the writing of this paper, the design of which is based on Elliot Eisners Educational Criticism model, both linguistic and non-linguistic description were used to encourage the interpretation and evaluation of a specific and unique alternative educational setting. Five years ago, Ellens Learning Annex, a multi-age, one-room school house, was just next door to the researcher, while her son was struggling at the public school a mile away. A day spent observing Ellen and her students yielded data from which three general themes emerged: Heterogeneous age-grouping, place-based education, and sensory integration in a teaching and learning environment.

  12. Genome-wide analysis of wheat calcium ATPases and potential role of selected ACAs and ECAs in calcium stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Roohi; Williams, Lorraine E; Bhatti, Muhammad Faraz; Virk, Nasar

    2017-10-27

    P 2 - type calcium ATPases (ACAs-auto inhibited calcium ATPases and ECAs-endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPases) belong to the P- type ATPase family of active membrane transporters and are significantly involved in maintaining accurate levels of Ca 2+ , Mn 2+ and Zn 2+ in the cytosol as well as playing a very important role in stress signaling, stomatal opening and closing and pollen tube growth. Here we report the identification and possible role of some of these ATPases from wheat. In this study, ACA and ECA sequences of six species (belonging to Poaceae) were retrieved from different databases and a phylogenetic tree was constructed. A high degree of evolutionary relatedness was observed among P 2 sequences characterized in this study. Members of the respective groups from different plant species were observed to fall under the same clade. This pattern highlights the common ancestry of P 2- type calcium ATPases. Furthermore, qRT-PCR was used to analyse the expression of selected ACAs and ECAs from Triticum aestivum (wheat) under calcium toxicity and calcium deficiency. The data indicated that expression of ECAs is enhanced under calcium stress, suggesting possible roles of these ATPases in calcium homeostasis in wheat. Similarly, the expression of ACAs was significantly different in plants grown under calcium stress as compared to plants grown under control conditions. This gives clues to the role of ACAs in signal transduction during calcium stress in wheat. Here we concluded that wheat genome consists of nine P 2B and three P 2A -type calcium ATPases. Moreover, gene loss events in wheat ancestors lead to the loss of a particular homoeolog of a gene in wheat. To elaborate the role of these wheat ATPases, qRT-PCR was performed. The results indicated that when plants are exposed to calcium stress, both P 2A and P 2B gene expression get enhanced. This further gives clues about the possible role of these ATPases in wheat in calcium management. These findings can be

  13. Washoe Tribe Alternative Energy Feasibility Study Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Jennifer [Washoe Tribe of NV and CA

    2014-10-01

    The Washoe Tribe of Nevada and California was awarded funding to complete the Washoe Tribe Alternative Energy Feasibility Study project. The main goal of the project was to complete an alternative energy feasibility study. This study was completed to evaluate “the potential for development of a variety of renewable energy projects and to conduct an alternative energy feasibility study that determines which alternative energy resources have the greatest economic opportunity for the Tribe, while respecting cultural and environmental values” (Baker-Tilly, 2014). The study concluded that distributed generation solar projects are the best option for renewable energy development and asset ownership for the Washoe Tribe. Concentrating solar projects, utility scale wind projects, geothermal, and biomass resource projects were also evaluated during the study and it was determined that these alternatives would not be feasible at this time.

  14. IronMaking Process Alternatives Screening Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2000-10-01

    This study by Lockwood Greene evaluates a number ironmaking processes. The appendices provide greater detail and further exploration of the ironmaking processes, including components, relative costs, and comparisons.

  15. Alternative Frameworks for the Study of Man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markova, Ivana

    1979-01-01

    Two frameworks for the study of man are discussed. The Cartesian model views man as a physical object. A dialectic framework, with the emphasis on the self, grew out of nineteenth century romanticism and reflects the theories of Hegel. Both models have had an effect on social psychology and the study of interpersonal communication. (BH)

  16. Alternative Transportation Study : Monomoy National Wildlife Refuge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-31

    This report provides an overview of the historic and current visitation, infrastructure, and transportation conditions related to Monomoy National Wildlife Refuge and the surrounding areas in Chatham, MA. The study defines transportation-related goal...

  17. Alternative transportation study : Wichita Mountains Wildlife Refuge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    This report provides an assessment of historic and current visitation, infrastructure, and transportation conditions at the Wichita Mountains Wildlife Refuge and surrounding areas in southwest Oklahoma. The study defines transportation-related goals ...

  18. Mobile radio alternative systems study traffic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, W. T.; Anderson, R. E.

    1983-06-01

    The markets for mobile radio services in non-urban areas of the United States are examined for the years 1985-2000. Three market categories are identified. New Services are defined as those for which there are different expressed ideas but which are not now met by any application of available technology. The complete fulfillment of the needs requires nationwide radio access to vehicles without knowledge of vehicle location, wideband data transmission from remote sites, one- and two way exchange of short data and control messages between vehicles and dispatch or control centers, and automatic vehicle location (surveillance). The commercial and public services market of interest to the study is drawn from existing users of mobile radio in non-urban areas who are dissatisfied with the geographical range or coverage of their systems. The mobile radio telephone market comprises potential users who require access to the public switched telephone network in areas that are not likely to be served by the traditional growth patterns of terrestrial mobile telephone services. Conservative, likely, and optimistic estimates of the markets are presented in terms of numbers of vehicles that will be served and the radio traffic they will generate.

  19. Sandy Hook : alternative access concept plan and vehicle replacement study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    This study addresses two critical issues of concern to the Sandy Hook Unit of Gateway National : Recreational Area: (1) options for alternative access to Sandy Hook during peak summer season, : particularly when the park is closed to private vehicles...

  20. 76 FR 13256 - Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs (ECA) Request for Grant Proposals: American Music Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-10

    ... that the program continues to recruit new diversity and talent, American Music Abroad musicians may... Accountability and Transparency Act (FFATA), and will be made available to the public by the Office of Management... sent to: Program Management Division, ECA-IIP/EX/PM, Ref.: ECA/PE/C/CU-11-09, SA-5, Floor 4, Department...

  1. A study of alternative splicing in the pig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jørgensen Claus B

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since at least half of the genes in mammalian genomes are subjected to alternative splicing, alternative pre-mRNA splicing plays an important contribution to the complexity of the mammalian proteome. Expressed sequence tags (ESTs provide evidence of a great number of possible alternative isoforms. With the EST resource for the domestic pig now containing more than one million porcine ESTs, it is possible to identify alternative splice forms of the individual transcripts in this species from the EST data with some confidence. Results The pig EST data generated by the Sino-Danish Pig Genome project has been assembled with publicly available ESTs and made available in the PigEST database. Using the Distiller package 2,515 EST clusters with candidate alternative isoforms were identified in the EST data with high confidence. In agreement with general observations in human and mouse, we find putative splice variants in about 30% of the contigs with more than 50 ESTs. Based on the criteria that a minimum of two EST sequences confirmed each splice event, a list of 100 genes with the most distinct tissue-specific alternative splice events was generated from the list of candidates. To confirm the tissue specificity of the splice events, 10 genes with functional annotation were randomly selected from which 16 individual splice events were chosen for experimental verification by quantitative PCR (qPCR. Six genes were shown to have tissue specific alternatively spliced transcripts with expression patterns matching those of the EST data. The remaining four genes had tissue-restricted expression of alternative spliced transcripts. Five out of the 16 splice events that were experimentally verified were found to be putative pig specific. Conclusions In accordance with human and rodent studies we estimate that approximately 30% of the porcine genes undergo alternative splicing. We found a good correlation between EST predicted tissue

  2. Cosas de muñecas : (las prácticas que habitan los objetos)

    OpenAIRE

    Suárez, Natalia

    2015-01-01

    El objeto muñeca, o las figuras similares a estas en las primeras culturas, fueron objetos mágicos de protección y culto. Todas las civilizaciones del mundo han realizado muñecas. A lo largo de la historia, el hombre ha encontrado diferentes formas de vincularse y de cargar de sentido a estos objetos, los ha utilizados para narrar cuentos, para expresar deseos y temores o para materializar una comunicación o establecer vínculos hacia otro espacio tiempo, abarcando una diversidad de relatos y ...

  3. Andrographolide radiosensitizes human esophageal cancer cell line ECA109 to radiation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z-M; Kang, Y-H; Yang, X; Wang, J-F; Zhang, Q; Yang, B-X; Zhao, K-L; Xu, L-P; Yang, L-P; Ma, J-X; Huang, G-H; Cai, J; Sun, X-C

    2016-01-01

    To explore the radiosensitivity of andrographolide on esophageal cancer cell line ECA109. The inhibition effects of andrographolide were measured using 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium (MTT) assay. Clonogenic survival assay was used to evaluate the effects of andrographolide on the radiosensitivity of esophageal cancer cells. Immunofluorescence was employed to examine Bax expression. The changes in cell cycle distribution and apoptosis were assayed using flow cytometry. The expression of NF-κb/Cleaved-Caspase3/Bax/Bcl-2 was measured using Western blot analysis. DNA damage was detected via γ-H2AX foci counting. With a clear dose and time effects, andrographolide was found to inhibit the proliferation of esophageal cell line ECA109. The results of the clonogenic survival assay show that andrographolide could markedly enhance radiosensitivity (P Andrographolide caused a dose-dependent increase in Cleaved-Caspase3/Bax protein expression and a decrease in Bcl-2/NF-κb expression. Apoptosis in andrographolide-treated ECA-109 increased significantly compared with the apoptosis in the simple drug and radiation combined with drug groups (P andrographolide combined with radiation group increased the number of DNA double chain breaks. Andrographolide can increase the radiosensitivity of esophageal cell line ECA109. This result may be associated with the decrease in the NF-κb level and the induced apoptosis of esophageal cancer cells. © 2014 International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus.

  4. 76 FR 14725 - Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs (ECA) Request for Grant Proposals: Open Competition...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-17

    ... methodology, etc. Please refer to guidance in PSI under ``Diversity, Freedom and Democracy Guidelines.'' I.8b..., (ECA/EC/D), SA-5, Floor C2, Department of State, Washington, DC 20037. IV.3d2. Diversity, Freedom and... including, but not limited to ethnicity, race, gender, religion, geographic location, socio-economic status...

  5. Through-Thickness Variations of Deformed and Annealed Microstructures in ECAE-Processed Copper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishin, Oleg; Bowen, Jacob R.

    2009-01-01

    in the deformed sample follows the distribution of strain imposed by ECAE, where lower strain is imparted to the material that passes through the outer die corner. Also, the macroscopic distribution of recrystallized grains as a function of depth in the billet is found to be in correspondence to the applied...

  6. 76 FR 25734 - Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs (ECA) Request for Grant Proposals: Youth Leadership...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-05

    ... for Grant Proposals: Youth Leadership Program Announcement Type: New Cooperative Agreement. Funding... Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs (ECA) announces an open competition for the Youth Leadership... leadership development, and to support follow-on projects in their home communities. U.S. Embassies in the...

  7. EBSD Analysis of Deformed and Partially Recrystallized Microstructures in ECAE-Processed Copper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishin, Oleg; Bowen, Jacob R.; Godfrey, A.

    2012-01-01

    The deformed microstructure and recrystallization behavior of copper samples processed using equal channel angular extrusion (ECAE) have been investigated. The heavily deformed microstructure was found to be non-uniform through the sample thickness and to vary in a manner consistent with the non...

  8. Innovation Forms and Firm Export Performance: Empirical Evidence from ECA Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Cieślik

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The main objective of this paper is to verify empirically the relationship between various forms of innovation and export performance of firms from European and Central Asian (ECA countries. Research Design & Methods: In our empirical approach we refer to the self-selection hypothesis derived from the Melitz (2003 model which proposed the existence of a positive relationship between firm productivity and the probability of exporting. We argue that innovation activities should be regarded as a key element that can increase the level of firm productivity. We focus our analysis on four forms of innovation activities: product, process, marketing, organizational and managerial innovation. The empirical implementation of our analytical framework is based on the probit model, applied to the fifth edition of the BEEPS firm level dataset covering 2011-2014. Findings: Our empirical results indicate that the probability of exporting is positively related to both product and process innovations. The marketing and managerial innovations do not seem to affect positively export performance of firms from ECA countries. Implications & Recommendations: It is recommended to develop innovation supporting mechanisms that would target both product and process innovations rather than other forms of innovation in the ECA countries. Contribution & Value Added: The originality of this work lies in the use of the multi-country firm level dataset that allows distinguishing between various forms of innovations in the ECA countries.

  9. [Inhibitory effect of 17-AAG combined with paclitaxel on proliferation of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma Eca-109 cells in vitro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Size; Chen, Xuemei; Li, Yuqi; Yang, Shu; Mo, Xianyi; Zhang, Fan; Mo, Kailan; Ding, Ying

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the effect of 17-AAG combined with paclitaxel (PTX) on the proliferation and apoptosis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cell line Eca-109 in vitro. Eca-109 cells were treated with 17-AAG and PTX either alone or in combination. The proliferation of Eca-109 cells was detected by MTT assay, and the cell cycle changes and cell apoptosis were determined by flow cytometry. Compared with the control group, both 17-AAG and PTX significantly inhibited the proliferation of Eca-109 cells. A combined treatment of the cells with 0.5 µmol/L PTX and 0.625 µmol/L 17-AAG produced an obviously stronger inhibitory effect on the cell proliferation than either of the agents used alone (PAAG and PTX used alone caused Eca-109 cell cycle arrest in G2/M phase and S phase, respectively, and their combined use caused cell cycle arrest in both G2/M and S phases. The cell apoptosis rates of Eca-109 cells treated with 17-AAG, PTX and their combination were 4.52%, 10.91%, and 29.88%, respectively, all significantly higher than that in the control group (1.32%); the combined treatment resulted in a distinct apoptotic peak that was significantly higher than that caused by either of the agents alone. 17-AAG and PTX can inhibit cell proliferation and promote apoptosis of Eca-109 cells, and their combination produces stronger effects in inhibiting cell proliferation and increasing cell apoptosis.

  10. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), Westinghouse phase 1. Volume 4: Open recuperated and bottomed gas turbine cycles. [performance prediction and energy conversion efficiency of gas turbines in electric power plants (thermodynamic cycles)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, D. J.; Grube, J. E.

    1976-01-01

    Open-cycle recuperated gas turbine plant with inlet temperatures of 1255 to 1644 K (1800 to 2500 F) and recuperators with effectiveness values of 0, 70, 80 and 90% are considered. A 1644 K (2500 F) gas turbine would have a 33.5% plant efficiency in a simple cycle, 37.6% in a recuperated cycle and 47.6% when combined with a sulfur dioxide bottomer. The distillate burning recuperated plant was calculated to produce electricity at a cost of 8.19 mills/MJ (29.5 mills/kWh). Due to their low capital cost $170 to 200 $/kW, the open cycle gas turbine plant should see duty for peaking and intermediate load duty.

  11. ECAE-processed Cu-Nb and Cu-Ag nanocomposite wires for pulse magnet applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edgecumbe Summers, T.S.; Walsh, R.P.; Pernambuco-Wise, P.

    1997-01-01

    Cu-Nb and Cu-Ag nanocomposites have recently become of interest to pulse magnet designers because of their unusual combination of high strength with reasonable conductivity. In the as-cast condition, these conductors consist of two phases, one of almost pure Nb (or Ag) and the other almost pure Cu. When these castings are cold worked as in a wire-drawing operation for example, the two phases are drawn into very fine filaments which produce considerable strengthening without an unacceptable decrease in conductivity. Unfortunately, any increase in strength with operations such as wire drawing is accompanied by a reduction in the cross section of the billet, and thus far, no wires with strengths on the order of 1.5 GPa or more have been produced with cross sections large enough to be useful in magnet applications. Equal Channel Angular Extrusion (ECAE) is an innovative technique which allows for the refinement of the as-cast ingot structure without a reduction in the cross sectional dimensions. Samples processed by the ECAE technique prior to wire drawing should be stronger at a given wire diameter than those processed by wire drawing alone. The tensile properties of wire-drawn Cu-18%Nb and Cu-25%Ag both with and without prior ECAE processing were tested and compared at both room temperature and 77K. All samples were found to have resistivities consistent with their strengths, and the strengths of the ECAE-processed wires were significantly higher than their as-cast and drawn counterparts. Therefore, with ECAE processing prior to wire drawing, it appears to be possible to make high-strength conductors with adequately large cross sections for pulse magnets

  12. Project on Alternative Systems Study - PASS. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-10-01

    Alternative repository systems for deep disposal of spent fuel and different types of canisters are studied regarding technical aspects in Project on Alternative System Study (PASS). The objective is to present a ranking of repository systems as well as of canister types for each system. The studies and compared systems are: KBS-3, Medium Long Tunnels (MLH), Long tunnels (VLH) and Deep Boreholes (VDH). For KBS-3 and MLH five canister types are compared (copper/steel, copper/lead, copper (HIP), steel/lead and steel), for VLH two types (copper/steel and steel), and for VDH three types (titanium/concrete with non-consolidated fuel assemblies, titanium/concrete with consolidated assemblies and copper (HIP) with non-consolidated assemblies). The comparison is separated into three sub-comparisons (Technology, Long-term performance and safety, and Costs), which eventually are merged into one ranking. With respect to canister alternatives the result is that the copper/steel canister is ranked first for KBS-3, MLH and VLH, while the titanium/concrete canister is ranked first for VDH (non-consolidated as well as consolidated assemblies. With these canister alternatives the merged ranking of repository systems results in placing KBS-3 slightly in front of MLH. VLH comes thereafter and VDH last. (32 refs.)

  13. B cell remote-handled waste shipment cask alternatives study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RIDDELLE, J.G.

    1999-01-01

    The decommissioning of the 324 Facility B Cell includes the onsite transport of grouted remote-handled radioactive waste from the 324 Facility to the 200 Areas for disposal. The grouted waste has been transported in the leased ATG Nuclear Services 3-82B Radioactive Waste Shipping Cask (3-82B cask). Because the 3-82B cask is a U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)-certified Type B shipping cask, the lease cost is high, and the cask operations in the onsite environment may not be optimal. An alternatives study has been performed to develop cost and schedule information on alternative waste transportation systems to assist in determining which system should be used in the future. Five alternatives were identified for evaluation. These included continued lease of the 3-82B cask, fabrication of a new 3-82B cask, development and fabrication of an onsite cask, modification of the existing U.S. Department of Energy-owned cask (OH-142), and the lease of a different commercially available cask. Each alternative was compared to acceptance criteria for use in the B Cell as an initial screening. Only continued leasing of the 3-82B cask, fabrication of a new 3-82B cask, and the development and fabrication of an onsite cask were found to meet all of the B Cell acceptance criteria

  14. Screening for cognitive dysfunction in ALS: validation of the Edinburgh Cognitive and Behavioural ALS Screen (ECAS) using age and education adjusted normative data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto-Grau, Marta; Burke, Tom; Lonergan, Katie; McHugh, Caroline; Mays, Iain; Madden, Caoifa; Vajda, Alice; Heverin, Mark; Elamin, Marwa; Hardiman, Orla; Pender, Niall

    2017-02-01

    Cognitive and behavioural changes are an important aspect in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). The Edinburgh Cognitive and Behavioural ALS Screen (ECAS) briefly assesses these changes in ALS. To validate the ECAS against a standardised neuropsychological battery and assess its sensitivity and specificity using age and education adjusted cut-off scores. 30 incident ALS cases were assessed on both, ECAS and neuropsychological battery. Age and education adjusted cut-off scores were created from a sample of 82 healthy controls. ECAS composite scores (Total, ALS Specific and Non-Specific) were highly correlated with battery composite scores. High correlations were also observed between ECAS and full battery cognitive domains and subtests. The ECAS Total, ALS Specific and Non-Specific scores were highly sensitive to cognitive impairment. ECAS ALS-Specific cognitive domains also evidenced high sensitivity. Individual subtest sensitivity was medium to low, suggesting that caution should be used when interpreting these scores. Low positive predictive values indicated the presence of false positives. Psychometric properties of the ECAS using age and education adjusted norms indicate that the ECAS, when used as an overall measure of cognitive decline, is highly sensitive. Further comprehensive assessment is required for patients that present as impaired on the ECAS.

  15. Artrosis de muñeca, estudio y opciones de tratamiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. G. Francisco Andrade

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available La artrosis de muñeca es una patología que se origina generalmente tras una lesión ligamentosa intraósea del carpo, debido a una no unión de fractura de escafoides o después de una fractura articular del radio. Se sabe que la artrosis no mejora ni retrocede, por lo que se debe tener el tratamiento ideal para cada paciente según sus propias necesidades, que van desde el manejo médico (cambios de actividad, inmovilización, AINES o infiltración con corticoides. Cuando falla el tratamiento médico, se pueden realizar procedimientos poco invasivos como la denervación, carpectomía proximal o una artrodesis de cuatro esquinas. En estadios avanzados, sólo se puede proponer una artroplastia o artrodesis total de la muñeca.

  16. Modulation of the epithelial Ca2+ channel ECaC by extracellular pH.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vennekens, R.; Prenen, J.; Hoenderop, J.G.J.; Bindels, R.J.M.; Droogmans, G.; Nilius, B.

    2001-01-01

    We investigated the effect of extracellular pH on whole-cell currents through the epithelial Ca2+ channel, ECaC, expressed in HEK 293 cells. Both mono- and divalent current densities were significantly smaller at pH 6.0 than at pH 7.4. At pH 8.5 they were slightly larger. Lowering extracellular pH

  17. Environmental Cost Analysis System (ECAS) Status and Compliance Requirements for EM Consolidated Business Center Contracts - 13204

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanford, P.C.; Moe, M.A.; Hombach, W.G.; Urdangaray, R.

    2013-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) has developed a web-accessible database to collect actual cost data from completed EM projects to support cost estimating and analysis. This Environmental Cost Analysis System (ECAS) database was initially deployed in early 2009 containing the cost and parametric data from 77 decommissioning, restoration, and waste management projects completed under the Rocky Flats Closure Project. In subsequent years we have added many more projects to ECAS and now have a total of 280 projects from 8 major DOE sites. This data is now accessible to DOE users through a web-based reporting tool that allows users to tailor report outputs to meet their specific needs. We are using it as a principal resource supporting the EM Consolidated Business Center (EMCBC) and the EM Applied Cost Engineering (ACE) team cost estimating and analysis efforts across the country. The database has received Government Accountability Office review as supporting its recommended improvements in DOE's cost estimating process, as well as review from the DOE Office of Acquisition and Project Management (APM). Moving forward, the EMCBC has developed a Special Contract Requirement clause or 'H-Clause' to be included in all current and future EMCBC procurements identifying the process that contractors will follow to provide DOE their historical project data in a format compatible with ECAS. Changes to DOE O 413.3B implementation are also in progress to capture historical costs as part of the Critical Decision project closeout process. (authors)

  18. Evaluation of hybrid power system alternatives: a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenthal, Andrew L.

    1999-01-01

    Pursuant to executive and statutory policies, the National Park Service (NPS) has been evaluating the use of photovoltaic (PV) hybrid power systems, for many of its remote, off-grid areas. This paper reports the results of a detailed technical and economic evaluation for one such area: the Needles District of Canyonlands National Park. The study evaluates the presented power systems and five alternative power generation configurations, four of which utilise PV. Projections are provided for the generator run-time and fuel use associated with each configuration as well as all initial and future costs. Included in the study are specific recommendations for energy efficiency improvements at the site. Results show that the generation systems presently in use, two full-time diesel generators, has the lowest conventional 20-year life cycle costs (LCC) of the six systems evaluated. However, when emissions costs are included (per NPS guidelines), several of the PV hybrid alternatives attain a lower LCC than the diesel-only systems. General discussion of the effects of initial versus future costs of PV hybrids as they compare with engine generator system is presented. (Author)

  19. O ECA e a violência na sala de aula: vulnerabilidade da escola brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilda da Silva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-795X.2015v33n2p789 Este artigo trata de uma pesquisa quanti-qualitativa exploratória sobre a produção do fenômeno violência em espaço escolar, especificamente a violência cometida por professores em sala de aula contra crianças e adolescentes, explicitando a vulnerabilidade institucional que essa violência gera. O objetivo é abrir uma chave interpretativa sobre violência em sala de aula por professores contra alunos à luz do Estatuto da Criança e do Adolescente (ECA e do mecanismo da produção da cultura da violência, a partir desse entrecruzamento. As fontes foram o ECA e 184 histórias de escolarização produzidas nos anos de 2004, 2007 e 2010 por alunos do Curso de Pedagogia oferecido pela Faculdade de Ciências e Letras, campus de Araraquara, da Universidade Estadual Paulista Júlio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP, que diziam respeito às experiências vivenciadas na escolarização básica. As narrativas foram trabalhadas por meio de uma inflexão à Análise de Conteúdo, configurando uma análise categorial que permitiu uma base empírica que dialogou, analiticamente, com as prescrições do ECA. Dos resultados pode-se destacar que os professores cometem violência contra alunos na sala de aula de várias maneiras e por diferentes razões em todos os níveis de ensino; o tipo de violência mais cometida é a verbal; o contexto das situações em que ocorrem essa violência é, sobretudo, o de aprendizagem de algum conteúdo; a faixa etária mais atingida é de 8 a 9 anos; o ECA não é respeitado por professores no âmbito da relação professor-aluno. Sendo assim, esse conjunto gera vulnerabilidade da escola.     ECA and violence in class: vulnerability of the Brazilian school  Abstract This is a exploratory quantitative and qualitative research about school violence production, mainly when it is committed by teachers against children and adolescents, since it demonstrates the vulnerability of

  20. Alternation learning in pathological gamblers: an fMRI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannon, Pinhas N; Kushnir, Tammar; Aizer, Anat; Gross-Isseroff, Ruth; Kotler, Moshe; Manor, David

    2011-03-01

    We have previously reported that pathological gamblers have impaired performance on the Stroop color word naming task, go-no-go task and speed accuracy tradeoff performance, tasks used to assess executive function and interference control. The aim of the present neuroimaging study was to explore the relationship between frontal cortex function and gambling severity in pathological gamblers. Functional MRI (fMRI) was used to estimate brain activity of ten male medication-free pathological gamblers during performance of an alternation learning task. Performance of this task has been shown to depend on the function of regions in the frontal cortex. The executive functions needed to perform the alternation learning task were expressed as brain activation in lateral and medial frontal as well as parietal and occipital regions. By correlating the level of local brain activation to task performance, parietal regions and lateral frontal and orbitofrontal regions were demonstrated. A higher score in SOGS was associated with intrusion on the task-specific activation in the left hemisphere, to some extant in parietal regions and even more pronouncedly in left frontal and orbitofrontal regions. Our preliminary data suggests that pathological gambling may be characterized by specific neuro-cognitive changes related to the frontal cortex.

  1. Digital radiography: study of an alternative technique to conventional radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banchet, J.; Tisseur, D.; Thomas, A.

    2009-01-01

    Digital radiography, already in use in many industrial applications, appears as a potential alternative technique to conventional radiography in the nuclear field (and more especially to the inspection of welded joints). The advantages of digital radiography are a reduced explosion risk (due to the use of lower energy and activity sources), a lower installation time, a reduced exclusion zone, and the absence of effluents. However, to the contrary of the US case, this technique may not be used in France as it is not referenced in the regulating codes (RCCM, etc.). Areva has launched a R and D study in order to characterize the equivalencies between digital and conventional radiography. First results of this study are given

  2. A Preliminary Study of the Application of Electromagnetic Conductivity Meter on Soil Properties of Paddy Cultivation Areas at Wue Village, Jantho, Aceh Besar District, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    . Marwan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional soil sampling is time consuming and requires meticulous laboratory analysis. Hence, mapping of soil apparent in respect to electrical conductivity (ECa has been developed to identify areas of contrasting soil properties. Such ECa values are represent measures of soil properties. The sensor system, GF Instrument model CMD-4 were used to analyze soil physical properties. This system consists of three important parts, ECa sensor, data logger and Global Positioning System (DGPS receiver. This research was aimed to evaluate the relationships between ECa and soil properties as well as the yield of rice (paddy in paddy’s farming fields. One study site was chosen. The sensor was pulled through a plotted area of 0.25 km2. The distribution map of ECa was developed to identify the contrast of ECa. More than 100 ECa of data points were collected in 3-hour for the large plot. The data was later transferred to a notebook computer for generation of ECa maps using Surfer 11 software. According to the data analyses, field and ECa showed positive correlation. The average values of ECa are significantly different between hilly area and drainage canal area signifying differences in soil structure. Soil ECa could provide a measure of the spatial differences associated with soil physical and chemical properties, which for paddy soil may be a measure of soil suitability for crop growth and its productivity. This sensor can measure the soil ECa through the field quickly for detailed features of the soil and can be operated by just one worker. The ECa map provides some ideas for future soil management

  3. An alternative approach for socio-hydrology: case study research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostert, Erik

    2018-01-01

    Currently the most popular approach in socio hydrology is to develop coupled human-water models. This article proposes an alternative approach, qualitative case study research, involving a systematic review of (1) the human activities affecting the hydrology in the case, (2) the main human actors, and (3) the main factors influencing the actors and their activities. Moreover, this article presents a case study of the Dommel Basin in Belgium and the Netherlands, and compares this with a coupled model of the Kissimmee Basin in Florida. In both basins a pendulum swing from water resources development and control to protection and restoration can be observed. The Dommel case study moreover points to the importance of institutional and financial arrangements, community values, and broader social, economic, and technical developments. These factors are missing from the Kissimmee model. Generally, case studies can result in a more complete understanding of individual cases than coupled models, and if the cases are selected carefully and compared with previous studies, it is possible to generalize on the basis of them. Case studies also offer more levers for management and facilitate interdisciplinary cooperation. Coupled models, on the other hand, can be used to generate possible explanations of past developments and quantitative scenarios for future developments. The article concludes that, given the limited attention they currently get and their potential benefits, case studies deserve more attention in socio-hydrology.

  4. The study, design and simulation of a free piston Stirling engine linear alternatorThe study, design and simulation of a free piston Stirling engine linear alternator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodora Susana Oros

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study, design and simulation of a Free Piston Stirling Engine Linear Alternator. There are presented the main steps of the magnetic and electric calculations for a permanent magnet linear alternator of fixed coil and moving magnets type. Finally, a detailed thermal, mechanical and electrical model for a Stirling engine linear alternator have been made in SIMULINK simulation program. The linear alternator simulation model uses a controllable DC voltage which simulates the linear alternator combined with a rectifier, a variable load and a DC-DC converter, which compensates for the variable nature of Stirling engine operation, and ensures a constant voltage output regardless of the load.

  5. Techno-economic study of different alternatives for biodiesel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchetti, J.M.; Miguel, V.U.; Errazu, A.F.

    2008-01-01

    Biodiesel has become an attractive diesel fuel substitute due to its environmental benefits since it can be made from renewable resource. However, the high costs surrounding biodiesel production remains the main problem in making it competitive in the fuel market either as a blend or as a neat fuel. More than 80% of the production cost is associated with the feedstock itself and consequently, efforts are focused on developing technologies capable of using lower-cost feedstocks, such as recycled cooking oils and wastes from animal or vegetable oil processing operations. The main issue with spent oils is the high level of free fatty acids found in the recycled materials. The conventional technology employs sodium methoxide as a homogeneous base catalyst for the transesterification reaction and illustrates the drawbacks in working with feedstocks that contain high levels of free fatty acids. On the other hand, homogeneous acidic catalysts are being used for exactly such feedstocks. Both acid and basic homogeneous catalyzed processes require downstream purification equipment to neutralize the catalyst and to purify the biodiesel as well as the glycerol. Recent studies have been conducted to employ heterogeneous catalysts, such acidic or basic solid resins, or immobilized lipases. These catalysts will allow the use of different feedstocks that will permit operation at lower investment costs and will require less downstream process equipment. A conceptual design of these alternative production plants has been done with a techno-economic analysis in order to compare these alternatives. A process simulator was employed to carry out the conceptual design and simulation of each technology. Using these models it was possible to analyze different scenarios and to evaluate productivity, raw material consumption, economic competitiveness, and environmental impacts of each process. (author)

  6. Integrating alternative providers into managed care: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broida, M

    1997-09-01

    Alternative medical techniques have become extremely popular, particularly in the western United States. Washington State recently enacted a law requiring certain health plans to include alternative providers on their physician panels. The author describes the efforts of one MCO to comply.

  7. Alternative Tobacco Product Use and Smoking Cessation: A National Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, Lucy

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated the frequency of alternative tobacco product use (loose leaf, moist snuff, snus, dissolvables, electronic cigarettes [e-cigarettes]) among smokers and the association with quit attempts and intentions. Methods. A nationally representative probability-based cross-sectional survey of 1836 current or recently former adult smokers was completed in November 2011. Multivariate logistic regressions evaluated associations between alternative tobacco product use and smoking cessation behaviors. Results. Of the smokers, 38% had tried an alternative tobacco product, most frequently e-cigarettes. Alternative tobacco product use was associated with having made a quit attempt, and those intending to quit were significantly more likely to have tried and to currently use the products than were smokers with no intentions to quit. Use was not associated with successful quit attempts. Interest in future use of alternative tobacco products was low, except for e-cigarettes. Conclusions. Alternative tobacco products are attractive to smokers who want to quit smoking, but these data did not indicate that alternative tobacco products promote cessation. Unsubstantiated overt and implied claims that alternative tobacco products aid smoking cessation should be prohibited. PMID:23488521

  8. 40 CFR 80.602 - What records must be kept by entities in the NRLM diesel fuel, ECA marine fuel, and diesel fuel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel Recordkeeping and Reporting Requirements... in the NRLM diesel fuel, ECA marine fuel, and diesel fuel additive production, importation, and...

  9. 40 CFR 80.511 - What are the per-gallon and marker requirements that apply to NRLM diesel fuel, ECA marine fuel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel General Information § 80.511 What are the per-gallon and... requirements that apply to NRLM diesel fuel, ECA marine fuel, and heating oil downstream of the refiner or...

  10. Environmental Cost Analysis System (ECAS) Status and Compliance Requirements for EM Consolidated Business Center Contracts - 13204

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanford, P.C. [Consultant, 11221 E. Cimmarron Dr., Englewood, CO 80111 (United States); Moe, M.A. [EMCBC Office of Cost Estimating and Analysis, United States Department of Energy, 250 E. 5th Street, Suite 500, Cincinnati, OH 45202 (United States); Hombach, W.G. [Team Analysis, Inc., 2 Cardinal Park Drive, Suite 105A, Leesburg, VA 20175 (United States); Urdangaray, R. [Project Performance Corporation, 1760 Old Meadow Road, McLean, VA 22102 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) has developed a web-accessible database to collect actual cost data from completed EM projects to support cost estimating and analysis. This Environmental Cost Analysis System (ECAS) database was initially deployed in early 2009 containing the cost and parametric data from 77 decommissioning, restoration, and waste management projects completed under the Rocky Flats Closure Project. In subsequent years we have added many more projects to ECAS and now have a total of 280 projects from 8 major DOE sites. This data is now accessible to DOE users through a web-based reporting tool that allows users to tailor report outputs to meet their specific needs. We are using it as a principal resource supporting the EM Consolidated Business Center (EMCBC) and the EM Applied Cost Engineering (ACE) team cost estimating and analysis efforts across the country. The database has received Government Accountability Office review as supporting its recommended improvements in DOE's cost estimating process, as well as review from the DOE Office of Acquisition and Project Management (APM). Moving forward, the EMCBC has developed a Special Contract Requirement clause or 'H-Clause' to be included in all current and future EMCBC procurements identifying the process that contractors will follow to provide DOE their historical project data in a format compatible with ECAS. Changes to DOE O 413.3B implementation are also in progress to capture historical costs as part of the Critical Decision project closeout process. (authors)

  11. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE GRAINS IN 2014 ALUMINIUM ALLOY AFTER EQUAL CHANNEL ANGULAR EXTRUSION (ECAE PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Boczkal

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In 2014 alloy deformed by Equal Channel Angular Extrusion process (ECAE the changes in the size and shape of structural constituents were examined. The samples subjected after deformation to additional annealing at 300°C/10min were characterized by larger grains of nearly-equiaxial shapes. The microstructure after deformation was composed of a large number of the mutually crossing bands and microbands. The intersection of microbands resulted in formation of rectangular and rhombohedral grains. It was noted that the average grain size after ε = 4.6 (4 passes was 0.2 μm.

  12. ECA3, a Golgi-localized P2A-type-ATPase, plays a crucial role in manganese nutrition in Arabidopsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mills, Rebecca F.; Doherty, Melissa Louise; Lopez Marques, Rosa Laura

    2008-01-01

    and development, and transport processes play a key role in regulating their cellular levels. Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) contains four P(2A)-type ATPase genes, AtECA1 to AtECA4, which are expressed in all major organs of Arabidopsis. To elucidate the physiological role of AtECA2 and AtECA3 in Arabidopsis...... not so striking because in this case all plants were severely affected. ECA3 partially restored the growth defect on high Mn of the yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) pmr1 mutant, which is defective in a Golgi Ca/Mn pump (PMR1), and the yeast K616 mutant (Deltapmc1 Deltapmr1 Deltacnb1), defective in Golgi...

  13. Study of an alternative system for manganese bath efficiency determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leite, Sandro Passos

    2010-01-01

    An alternative irradiation system, using radioisotope neutron sources and a small MnSO 4 solution volume, was proposed m this work to determine the Manganese Bath System (MBS) efficiency. The irradiation system was characterized through simulations with the MCNP radiation transport code from the modeling of 252 Cf(f,n) and 238 PuBe(alpha,n) neutron sources in several MnSO 4 solution volumes and different neutron reflector medium for this solution. The parameter calculated in the simulations was the manganese neutron specific capture (MNSC), which is related to the MnSO 4 solution specific activity. From the proposed systems for 252 Cf (f, n) and 238 PuBe (alpha,n) the NSCM was increased hundred times, in relation with that achieved in the LN/LNMRI/IRD MBS system simulation when irradiated by each these neutron sources. During study for irradiation system characterization its concept was verified using a assemble of test irradiation (ATI), which were spherical glass cavities, with few centimeter in radius, filled with MnSO 4 solution, with and without presence of a neutron reflector medium. These TIA were used in four efficiency measurements and the average value was obtained. (author)

  14. WRAP Module 1 sampling strategy and waste characterization alternatives study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergeson, C.L.

    1994-09-30

    The Waste Receiving and Processing Module 1 Facility is designed to examine, process, certify, and ship drums and boxes of solid wastes that have a surface dose equivalent of less than 200 mrem/h. These wastes will include low-level and transuranic wastes that are retrievably stored in the 200 Area burial grounds and facilities in addition to newly generated wastes. Certification of retrievably stored wastes processing in WRAP 1 is required to meet the waste acceptance criteria for onsite treatment and disposal of low-level waste and mixed low-level waste and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Waste Acceptance Criteria for the disposal of TRU waste. In addition, these wastes will need to be certified for packaging in TRUPACT-II shipping containers. Characterization of the retrievably stored waste is needed to support the certification process. Characterization data will be obtained from historical records, process knowledge, nondestructive examination nondestructive assay, visual inspection of the waste, head-gas sampling, and analysis of samples taken from the waste containers. Sample characterization refers to the method or methods that are used to test waste samples for specific analytes. The focus of this study is the sample characterization needed to accurately identify the hazardous and radioactive constituents present in the retrieved wastes that will be processed in WRAP 1. In addition, some sampling and characterization will be required to support NDA calculations and to provide an over-check for the characterization of newly generated wastes. This study results in the baseline definition of WRAP 1 sampling and analysis requirements and identifies alternative methods to meet these requirements in an efficient and economical manner.

  15. WRAP Module 1 sampling strategy and waste characterization alternatives study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergeson, C.L.

    1994-01-01

    The Waste Receiving and Processing Module 1 Facility is designed to examine, process, certify, and ship drums and boxes of solid wastes that have a surface dose equivalent of less than 200 mrem/h. These wastes will include low-level and transuranic wastes that are retrievably stored in the 200 Area burial grounds and facilities in addition to newly generated wastes. Certification of retrievably stored wastes processing in WRAP 1 is required to meet the waste acceptance criteria for onsite treatment and disposal of low-level waste and mixed low-level waste and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Waste Acceptance Criteria for the disposal of TRU waste. In addition, these wastes will need to be certified for packaging in TRUPACT-II shipping containers. Characterization of the retrievably stored waste is needed to support the certification process. Characterization data will be obtained from historical records, process knowledge, nondestructive examination nondestructive assay, visual inspection of the waste, head-gas sampling, and analysis of samples taken from the waste containers. Sample characterization refers to the method or methods that are used to test waste samples for specific analytes. The focus of this study is the sample characterization needed to accurately identify the hazardous and radioactive constituents present in the retrieved wastes that will be processed in WRAP 1. In addition, some sampling and characterization will be required to support NDA calculations and to provide an over-check for the characterization of newly generated wastes. This study results in the baseline definition of WRAP 1 sampling and analysis requirements and identifies alternative methods to meet these requirements in an efficient and economical manner

  16. A study on the alternative option for nuclear policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, J. W.; Choi, H. J.; Lee, J. Y.; Cho, D. K.; Jeon, K. S.; Park, S. W.; Hahn, D. H.; Yoon, J. S.; Lee, K. S. [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-02-15

    Since a decision-making by intuitive judgement under uncertain future conditions can not select an optimum alternative, reaching an agreement for alternatives between experts requires a development of several scientific opinion collection methodologies and performing these methodologies. Therefore, opinion collection for all points related to the nuclear energy, public hearing induction related researches and the acts, procedure, etc. performed in developed countries such as U.S, U.K, France, etc. are reviewed and analyzed in this research. And after the analysis of domestic spent nuclear fuel management plan, Task Force Team composed of experts in several related areas is organized to suggest strategies and directions which are necessary for making a national policy. Beside, Task Force Team selects an optimum technical alternative by the analysis and comparison in depth between these technical alternatives to establish the policy direction. They also established the procedures such as opinion collecting, etc. through policy conference and forum and suggested the technical data related nuclear policy which supports the nuclear policy conference. Results from this research are expected to decrease the trial and error that has been occurred in the present policy-making procedure such as radioactive waste repository related procedure and contribute for socio-cultural stability. Moreover, opinion collection plan for developing a nuclear policy alternative is expected to contribute for making a nuclear policy in the nuclear policy conference so that the nuclear technology will be enhanced more.

  17. A study on the alternative option for nuclear policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, J. W.; Choi, H. J.; Lee, J. Y.; Cho, D. K.; Jeon, K. S.; Park, S. W.; Hahn, D. H.; Yoon, J. S.; Lee, K. S.

    2008-02-01

    Since a decision-making by intuitive judgement under uncertain future conditions can not select an optimum alternative, reaching an agreement for alternatives between experts requires a development of several scientific opinion collection methodologies and performing these methodologies. Therefore, opinion collection for all points related to the nuclear energy, public hearing induction related researches and the acts, procedure, etc. performed in developed countries such as U.S, U.K, France, etc. are reviewed and analyzed in this research. And after the analysis of domestic spent nuclear fuel management plan, Task Force Team composed of experts in several related areas is organized to suggest strategies and directions which are necessary for making a national policy. Beside, Task Force Team selects an optimum technical alternative by the analysis and comparison in depth between these technical alternatives to establish the policy direction. They also established the procedures such as opinion collecting, etc. through policy conference and forum and suggested the technical data related nuclear policy which supports the nuclear policy conference. Results from this research are expected to decrease the trial and error that has been occurred in the present policy-making procedure such as radioactive waste repository related procedure and contribute for socio-cultural stability. Moreover, opinion collection plan for developing a nuclear policy alternative is expected to contribute for making a nuclear policy in the nuclear policy conference so that the nuclear technology will be enhanced more

  18. Technology Overview Using Case Studies of Alternative Landfill Technologies and Associated Regulatory Topics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2003-01-01

    ... alternative landfill cover projects. The purpose of the case studies is to present examples of the flexibility used in the regulatory framework for approving alternative landfill cover designs, current research information about the use...

  19. System study of alternative waste management techniques: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This report summarizes the important results achieved in conjunction with the Research and Development Priority ''Alternative Waste Management Techniques'' sponsored by the Federal Ministry of Research and Technology from 1981 to 1984. The subject of these studies was solely ''direct disposal'' of spent fuel elements. For this purpose a reference concept was selected from a variety of possible processes and engineered in detailed form by firms in the nuclear industry. Those who worked on the engineering concepts consider this waste management method technically feasible. Several disposal casks have been fabricated. The basic licensability of direct disposal can be evaluated on the basis of the documentation developed by the companies. The direct disposal method was compared with the ''integrated waste management concept'' using reference fuel cycles with respect to the following criteria: radiological safety and nuclear material safeguards and, in addition, economic and energy-policy aspects. It was found that with respect to radiological safety, including the long-term safety of the final repository, there are no significant differences between the two fuel cycles with and without reprocessing. With respect to the nuclear material safeguards of a final repository containing spent fuel elements, there are still a number of unanswered questions. From an economic standpoint, direct disposal will be more economical in the foreseeable future than integrated waste management. Quantification of the effects of one or the other waste management method on the national economy is not necessarily possible. Reprocessing is supported primarily by technological and energy-policy considerations. On the basis of the results, the conclusion is reached that reprocessing should be pursued further, but that at the same time direct disposal should be developed to the point of practical maturity

  20. Alternate Communications Spectrum Study (ACSS) for Aviation Data Links (ADL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matolak, David W.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the work was to identify the key factors involved in the use of alternate spectrum in various bands for a future integrated CNS data link. The study focused on systems and spectral bands that can deliver VDL-or-higher data rates in a two-way communication setting (including air-ground, ground-air, and air-air modes of operation), with multiple platforms (aircraft) operating in the same local environment. We begin with a review of the initial task list, and the final task list. The final task list contained a focus upon spectral availability and related systems that could be affected by the deployment of a new aviation data link (ADL) system. Most of this addresses the lower few layers of the communications protocol stack. A brief review of current related efforts in the aeronautical community is then provided, in which we describe several systems and programs of interest. Participation in some of these efforts is recommended. We also delineate several of the advantages and disadvantages of these system/efforts, in view of anticipated requirements of a new ADL. Desired attributes of a new ADL system are then discussed, and a connection with existing systems is made. The need to consider a wider set of alternative systems and technologies is described, and the beneficial aspects of a particular transmission technique- spread spectrum-are discussed. We then discuss in more detail several potential spectral regions, in terms of propagation conditions, available technology, spectrum availability, and waveform selection. Some comments on the need for standardization are also provided. We note that none of the existing systems described will likely meet the full range of desired features of a new ADL, but that several systems and spectral regions offer promise in terms of one or more characteristics. A system design and analysis approach is then provided. In this, we again focus on the lower few layers of the protocol stack, and aim to capture the main features

  1. Study on Alternative Cargo Launch Options from the Lunar Surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheryl A. Blomberg; Zamir A. Zulkefli; Spencer W. Rich; Steven D. Howe

    2013-07-01

    In the future, there will be a need for constant cargo launches from Earth to Mars in order to build, and then sustain, a Martian base. Currently, chemical rockets are used for space launches. These are expensive and heavy due to the amount of necessary propellant. Nuclear thermal rockets (NTRs) are the next step in rocket design. Another alternative is to create a launcher on the lunar surface that uses magnetic levitation to launch cargo to Mars in order to minimize the amount of necessary propellant per mission. This paper investigates using nuclear power for six different cargo launching alternatives, as well as the orbital mechanics involved in launching cargo to a Martian base from the moon. Each alternative is compared to the other alternative launchers, as well as compared to using an NTR instead. This comparison is done on the basis of mass that must be shipped from Earth, the amount of necessary propellant, and the number of equivalent NTR launches. Of the options, a lunar coil launcher had a ship mass that is 12.7% less than the next best option and 17 NTR equivalent launches, making it the best of the presented six options.

  2. 40 CFR 80.510 - What are the standards and marker requirements for NRLM diesel fuel and ECA marine fuel?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel General... of marker solvent yellow 124. (2) All motor vehicle and NRLM diesel fuel shall be free of solvent... yellow 124 shall be considered motor vehicle diesel fuel or NRLM diesel fuel, as appropriate. (5) Any...

  3. 40 CFR 80.608 - What requirements apply to diesel fuel and ECA marine fuel for use in the Territories?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel Exemptions... sulfur standards of § 80.520(a)(1) and (c) related to motor vehicle diesel fuel, of § 80.510(a), (b), and... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What requirements apply to diesel fuel...

  4. Function and expression of the epithelial Ca(2+) channel family: comparison of mammalian ECaC1 and 2.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoenderop, J.G.J.; Vennekens, R.; Müller, D.G.; Prenen, J.; Droogmans, G.; Bindels, R.J.M.; Nilius, B.

    2001-01-01

    1. The epithelial Ca(2+) channel (ECaC) family represents a unique group of Ca(2+)-selective channels that share limited homology to the ligand-gated capsaicin receptors, the osmolarity-sensitive channel OTRPC4, as well as the transient receptor potential family. Southern blot analysis demonstrated

  5. 40 CFR 80.574 - What labeling requirements apply to retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers of ECA marine...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What labeling requirements apply to retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers of ECA marine fuel beginning June 1, 2014? 80.574 Section 80.574 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF...

  6. Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment Alternatives Implementation Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles M. Barnes; James B. Bosley; Clifford W. Olsen

    2004-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to discuss issues related to the implementation of each of the five down-selected INEEL/INTEC radioactive liquid waste (sodium-bearing waste - SBW) treatment alternatives and summarize information in three main areas of concern: process/technical, environmental permitting, and schedule. Major implementation options for each treatment alternative are also identified and briefly discussed. This report may touch upon, but purposely does not address in detail, issues that are programmatic in nature. Examples of these include how the SBW will be classified with respect to the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA), status of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) permits and waste storage availability, available funding for implementation, stakeholder issues, and State of Idaho Settlement Agreement milestones. It is assumed in this report that the SBW would be classified as a transuranic (TRU) waste suitable for disposal at WIPP, located in New Mexico, after appropriate treatment to meet transportation requirements and waste acceptance criteria (WAC).

  7. Alternative Forms of Energy Production and Political Reconfigurations: The Sociology of Alternative Energies as a Study of Collective Reorganization Potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rumpala, Yannick

    2013-01-01

    Energy choices that are made in a society are also political choices. This article aims to study the extent to which these choices can be reoriented by technological developments related to renewable energies, thus contributing to a redistribution of possibilities and to social reorganization. Three steps are proposed to show that while the development of alternative energies depends on technological advances, it can, in this process, also reveal political potentials: 1) the first step clarifies the theoretical arguments that can be deployed in favour of an approach in terms of 'technological potentialism'; 2) the second step extends this approach by identifying a set of potentials linked to renewable energies and the model that could take shape through these alternative forms; 3) the third step examines how these potentials could find ways of being updated

  8. Illustrative Case Study: Life Cycle Assessment of Four Window Alternatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owsianiak, Mikołaj; Bjørn, Anders; Bugge, Heidi

    2018-01-01

    This report serves as an example report on how to perform an LCA according to the guidance given in Chap. 37 and how to structure the report according to the reporting template in Chap. 38. The goals of the LCA were (i) to perform a benchmarking of a prototype wood/composite (W/C) window made out...... of glass fibre against three alternative window types currently offered in the market (made of wood (W), wood/aluminium (W/ALU), and PVC) and (ii) to identify environmental hotspots for each window system....

  9. Greenfield Alternative Study LEU-Mo Fuel Fabrication Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington Division of URS

    2008-07-01

    This report provides the initial “first look” of the design of the Greenfield Alternative of the Fuel Fabrication Capability (FFC); a facility to be built at a Greenfield DOE National Laboratory site. The FFC is designed to fabricate LEU-Mo monolithic fuel for the 5 US High Performance Research Reactors (HPRRs). This report provides a pre-conceptual design of the site, facility, process and equipment systems of the FFC; along with a preliminary hazards evaluation, risk assessment as well as the ROM cost and schedule estimate.

  10. MUJERES BRAVAS: REPRESENTACIONES DE LA VIOLENCIA EN MUÑECA BRAVA DE LUCÍA GUERRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Daniela Bianchi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este texto es explorar algunas representaciones de cuerpos muertos de prostitutas que responden a diversas articulaciones —discursivas, sexuales y políticas— en la novela de Lucía Guerra Muñeca brava (1993. Para abordar este análisis se teje una cartografía textual vinculada con distintos modos de producción que atraviesan escenas simbólicas con nociones de rituales funerarios y “usos” de estos cuerpos en relación con diferentes representaciones de la violencia. El cuerpo de las prostitutas resignifica el espacio de la calle como lugar de lucha política invisibilizado por la dictadura chilena.

  11. The Design and Simulation of the Modular Vehicle Air Suspension Height Control System Based on ECAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Peigang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Based on ECAS, this paper intended to develop a modular air suspension height control system with WABCO4728800010 two-position three way solenoid valves and Free scale MC9S12D64 microprocessor as its core components. And a simulation test was conducted in MATLAB/Simulink environment. The air suspension height control strategy of this system was divided into four modules: start control module, dynamic adjustment module, manual adjustment module and errors adjustment module, which were controlled by module select switch. Simulation tests indicated that the air suspension height control strategy is featured by its logical control accuracy and debug convenience, and the modular design greatly reduced the system complexity and software development cycle and costs as well.

  12. Inspection of welded zone and flat plate using flexible ECA probe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Jun; Lee, Kyu Sung; Shin, Chung Ho; Lee, Kyoung Jun; Jang, Yoon Young [ANSCO Inc., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    This paper aims to compare the ability to detect notch defects existing in the plate and welded area using a flexible ECA (eddy current array) probe with OmniScan MX and MS-5800E. The characteristics of signals with various frequencies and lift-offs were also compared. As a result, when signals of frequencies 500, 1000, and 1500 kHz were used, the amplitude of the signal increased, as the depth of the notch increased, but reduced linearly in accordance with the lift-off variation. In addition, the detection sensitivity of the weld defect was found to be closely related to the contact surface of the probe and specimen. In this paper, it was demonstrated that the detection sensitivity was excellent when the contact surface of the probe and the specimen was sufficient, but it was poor when the contact surface was insufficient.

  13. Using biofuel tracers to study alternative combustion regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mack, J.H.; Flowers, D.L.; Buchholz, B.A.; Dibble, R.W.

    2007-01-01

    Interest in the use of alternative fuels and engines is increasing as the price of petroleum climbs. The inherently higher efficiency of Diesel engines has led to increased adoption of Diesels in Europe, capturing approximately 40% of the new passenger car market. Unfortunately, lower CO 2 emissions are countered with higher nitrogen oxides (NO x ) and particulate matter (PM) emissions and higher noise. Adding oxygenated compounds to the fuel helps reduce PM emissions. However, relying on fuel alone to reduce PM is unrealistic due to economic constraints and difficult due to the emerging PM standards. Keeping peak combustion temperature below 1700 K inhibits NO x formation. Altering the combustion regime to burn at temperatures below the NO x threshold and accept a wide variety of fuels seems like a promising alternative for future engines. Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) is a possible solution. Fuel and air are well mixed prior to intake into a cylinder (homogeneous charge) and ignition occurs by compression of the fuel-air mixture by the piston. HCCI is rapid and relatively cool, producing little NO x and PM. Unfortunately, it is hard to control since HCCI is initiated by temperature and pressure instead of a spark or direct fuel injection. We investigate biofuel HCCI combustion, and use intrinsically labeled biofuels as tracers of HCCI combustion. Data from tracer experiments are used to improve our combustion modeling

  14. 40 CFR 80.583 - What alternative sampling and testing requirements apply to importers who transport motor vehicle...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements apply to importers who transport motor vehicle diesel fuel, NRLM diesel fuel, or ECA marine fuel... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel... alternative sampling and testing requirements apply to importers who transport motor vehicle diesel fuel, NRLM...

  15. Extracurricular Activities and Their Effect on the Student's Grade Point Average: Statistical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakoban, R. A.; Aljarallah, S. A.

    2015-01-01

    Extracurricular activities (ECA) are part of students' everyday life; they play important roles in students' lives. Few studies have addressed the question of how student engagements to ECA affect student's grade point average (GPA). This research was conducted to know whether the students' grade point average in King Abdulaziz University,…

  16. The Prevailing Weather and Traffic Conditions in the Evaluation of a Future ECA in the Mediterranean Sea. A view into the Western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella Castells i Sanabra

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Appendix III of MARPOL's Annex VI sets out the criteria and procedures for designating an emission control area (ECA.These criteria includes: a clear delineation of the proposed ECA; types of emissions proposed for control, land and sea areas at risk; emission quantification and impact assessment; prevailing weather conditions; data and quality on marine traffic; land based measures concurrent with the ECA adoption and the relative costs of reducing emissions from ships. This paper analyses the climate parameter together with traffic conditions: prevailing weather conditions as a parameter to be kept in mind for the adoption of a future ECA in the Mediterranean Sea. Preliminary results would show how marine emissions coming from existing traffic will impact the sea and land ecology in the Mediterranean area.

  17. Alternative kynurenic acid synthesis routes studied in the rat cerebellum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonali eBlanco Ayala

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Kynurenic acid (KYNA, an astrocyte-derived, endogenous antagonist of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine and excitatory amino acid receptors, regulates glutamatergic, GABAergic, cholinergic and dopaminergic neurotransmission in several regions of the rodent brain. Synthesis of KYNA in the brain and elsewhere is generally attributed to the enzymatic conversion of L-kynurenine (L-KYN by kynurenine aminotransferases (KATs. However, alternative routes, including KYNA formation from D-kynurenine (D-KYN by D-amino acid oxidase (DAAO and the direct transformation of kynurenine to KYNA by reactive oxygen species (ROS, have been demonstrated in the rat brain. Using the rat cerebellum, a region of low KAT activity and high DAAO activity, the present experiments were designed to examine KYNA production from L-KYN or D-KYN by KAT and DAAO, respectively, and to investigate the effect of ROS on KYNA synthesis. In chemical combinatorial systems, both L-KYN and D-KYN interacted directly with peroxynitrite (ONOO- and hydroxyl radicals (OH•, resulting in the formation of KYNA. In tissue homogenates, the non-specific KAT inhibitor aminooxyacetic acid (AOAA; 1 mM reduced KYNA production from L-KYN and D-KYN by 85.1 ± 1.7% and 27.1 ± 4.5%, respectively. Addition of DAAO inhibitors (benzoic acid, kojic acid or 3-methylpyrazole-5-carboxylic acid; 5 µM each attenuated KYNA formation from L-KYN and D-KYN by ~35% and ~66%, respectively. ONOO- (25 µM potentiated KYNA production from both L-KYN and D-KYN, and these effects were reduced by DAAO inhibition. AOAA attenuated KYNA production from L-KYN + ONOO- but not from D-KYN + ONOO-. In vivo, extracellular KYNA levels increased rapidly after perfusion of ONOO- and, more prominently, after subsequent perfusion with L-KYN or D-KYN (100 µM. Taken together, these results suggest that different mechanisms are involved in KYNA production in the rat cerebellum, and that, specifically, DAAO and ROS can function as alternative routes

  18. Supplementary study about the ATC generic project. Alternative storage for encapsulated fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canadas Martinez, I.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study is to present the alternatives for a complementary installation and facilitate the decision making on the best solution, keeping many determining factors in mind. Two are the alternatives studied: supplementary storage, similar to the Trillo Nuclear Power Plant, and outdoor storage, similar to the Asco and Jose Cabrera Nuclear Power Plants.

  19. Enhancing Science Education through Extracurricular Activities: A Retrospective Study of "Suzy Science and the Whiz Kids[C]"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kralina, Linda M.

    2009-01-01

    Extracurricular activities (ECA) are informal settings offering free-choice experiences that are generally voluntary, open-ended, non-sequential, self-directed, hands-on, and evaluation-free. This mixed methods study investigates participation in a high school science ECA by collecting the memories of former student members for their perceptions…

  20. Alternative policy study. Environment and energy in Europe and Central Asia 1990-2010. Energy-related environmental impacts of policy scenarios. GEO 2000 alternative policy study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Vuuren, D.P.; Bakkes, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    The GEO-2000 study into alternative policy options for Europe and Central Asia focuses on energy use as an important driver for environmental problems across the region. The problems analyzed are climate change, acidification, summer smog, urban air pollution and risks of reactor accidents associated with nuclear power generation. The analysis includes the effects on biodiversity and population health. It considers the question of what can be achieved by moderate measures, and whether this will be enough. Similar Geo-2000 region-specific studies on alternative policies have been compiled other world regions. This report outliners the general methodology for these reports

  1. Can Alternative Education Increase Children's Early School Engagement? A Longitudinal Study from Kindergarten to Third Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bilde, Jerissa; Van Damme, Jan; Lamote, Carl; De Fraine, Bieke

    2013-01-01

    The current study examines the impact of alternative education on children's early school engagement in terms of school enjoyment and independent participation. A sample of 2,776 children from traditional (e.g., mainstream) and alternative (Freinet and Waldorf) Flemish schools was followed from their 3rd year of kindergarten until 3rd grade. The…

  2. Generating alternative alignments in terrain suitability studies for environmental impact assessments of linear developments

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Deventer, Heidi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available (EIA). Though legislation requires a screening or scoping of alternative options prior to the EIA, the use of Geographical Information Systems (GIS) is seldom used in generating alternatives through a Terrain Suitability Study (TSS). The inclusion of a...

  3. Study of Effective Alternative Education Programs: Final Grant Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Mary Magee; Poirier, Jeffrey M.

    2007-01-01

    This report presents findings of a study conducted to identify the components of systems that effectively meet the diverse, ever changing needs of children with disabilities for whom traditional school settings do not work. A secondary goal of this study was to develop a conceptually clear and empirically grounded definition of alternative…

  4. Alternative Policy Study: Environment and energy in Europe and Central Asia 1990-2010. Energy-related environmental impacts of policy scenarios GEO-2000 alternative policy study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vuuren DP van; Bakkes JA; United Nations Environment; MNV

    2000-01-01

    The GEO-2000 study into alternative policy options for Europe and Central Asia focuses on energy use as an important driver for environmental problems across the region. The problems analyzed are climate change, acidification, summer smog, urban air pollution and risks of reactor accidents

  5. Comparative study of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) transportation alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    WIPP transportation studies in the Final Supplement Environmental Impact Statement for WIPP are the baseline for this report. In an attempt to present the most current analysis, this study incorporates the most relevant data available. The following three transportation options are evaluated for the Disposal Phase, which is assumed to be 20 years: Truck shipments, consisting of a tractor and trailer, with three TRUPACT-IIs or one RH-72B; Regular commercial train shipments consisting of up to three railcars carrying up to 18 TRUPACT-IIs or up to six RH-72Bs; Dedicated train shipments consisting of a locomotive, an idle car, railcars carrying 18 TRUPACT-IIs or six RH-72Bs, another idle car, and a caboose or passenger car with an emergency response specialist. No other cargo is carried. This report includes: A consideration of occupational and public risks and exposures, and other environmental impacts; A consideration of emergency response capabilities; and An extimation of comparative costs

  6. Comparative study of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) transportation alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    WIPP transportation studies in the Final Supplement Environmental Impact Statement for WIPP are the baseline for this report. In an attempt to present the most current analysis, this study incorporates the most relevant data available. The following three transportation options are evaluated for the Disposal Phase, which is assumed to be 20 years: Truck shipments, consisting of a tractor and trailer, with three TRUPACT-IIs or one RH-72B; Regular commercial train shipments consisting of up to three railcars carrying up to 18 TRUPACT-IIs or up to six RH-72Bs; Dedicated train shipments consisting of a locomotive, an idle car, railcars carrying 18 TRUPACT-IIs or six RH-72Bs, another idle car, and a caboose or passenger car with an emergency response specialist. No other cargo is carried. This report includes: A consideration of occupational and public risks and exposures, and other environmental impacts; A consideration of emergency response capabilities; and An extimation of comparative costs.

  7. Study on storage energy devices: supercapacitors, a green alternative

    OpenAIRE

    Rancaño Fernandez, Ariadna

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays, it is increasingly common to hear about environmental issues. This fact keep us to continually try to improve energy optimization, either through new storage devices that pollute less or improvements in the environmental energy generation systems. Recent new types of devices under study are those called supercapacitors. Supercapacitors are electronic devices able to store charge in form of electrical energy. This energy is stored as an electric field, so supercapacitors are less pol...

  8. Numerical study of canister filters with alternatives filter cap configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, A. N.; Daud, A. R.; Abdullah, K.; Seri, S. M.; Razali, M. A.; Hushim, M. F.; Khalid, A.

    2017-09-01

    Air filtration system and filter play an important role in getting a good quality air into turbo machinery such as gas turbine. The filtration system and filter has improved the quality of air and protect the gas turbine part from contaminants which could bring damage. During separation of contaminants from the air, pressure drop cannot be avoided but it can be minimized thus helps to reduce the intake losses of the engine [1]. This study is focused on the configuration of the filter in order to obtain the minimal pressure drop along the filter. The configuration used is the basic filter geometry provided by Salutary Avenue Manufacturing Sdn Bhd. and two modified canister filter cap which is designed based on the basic filter model. The geometries of the filter are generated by using SOLIDWORKS software and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software is used to analyse and simulates the flow through the filter. In this study, the parameters of the inlet velocity are 0.032 m/s, 0.063 m/s, 0.094 m/s and 0.126 m/s. The total pressure drop produce by basic, modified filter 1 and 2 is 292.3 Pa, 251.11 Pa and 274.7 Pa. The pressure drop reduction for the modified filter 1 is 41.19 Pa and 14.1% lower compared to basic filter and the pressure drop reduction for modified filter 2 is 17.6 Pa and 6.02% lower compared to the basic filter. The pressure drops for the basic filter are slightly different with the Salutary Avenue filter due to limited data and experiment details. CFD software are very reliable in running a simulation rather than produces the prototypes and conduct the experiment thus reducing overall time and cost in this study.

  9. Cogeneration technology alternatives study. Volume 1: Summary report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Data and information in the area of advanced energy conversion systems for industrial congeneration applications in the 1985-2000 time period was studied. Six current and thirty-one advanced energy conversion systems were defined and combined with appropriate balance-of-plant equipment. Twenty-six industrial processes were selected from among the high energy consuming industries to serve as a framework for the study. Each conversion system was analyzed as a cogenerator with each industrial plant. Fuel consumption, costs, and environmental intrusion were evaluated and compared to corresponding traditional values. Various cogeneration strategies were analyzed and both topping and bottoming (using industrial by-product heat) applications were included. The advanced energy conversion technologies indicated reduced fuel consumption, costs, and emissions. Typically fuel energy savings of 10 to 25 percent were predicted compared to traditional on-site furnaces and utility electricity. With the variety of industrial requirements, each advanced technology had attractive applications. Overall, fuel cells indicated the greatest fuel energy savings and emission reductions. Gas turbines and combined cycles indicated high overall annual cost savings. Steam turbines and gas turbines produced high estimated returns. In some applications, diesels were most efficient. The advanced technologies used coal-derived fuels, or coal with advanced fluid bed combustion or on-site gasification systems.

  10. Complementary and Alternative Medicine: A Cross-Sectional Observational Study in Pediatric Inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhankar, Mukesh

    2018-01-01

    The aim was to study the prevalence of complementary and alternative medicine use in acutely sick hospitalized children and factors associated with it. This is a cross-sectional, hospital-based study in a tertiary care center of Delhi, India. Children admitted to a pediatric unit during the study period were assessed using a specially designed questionnaire. Out of the total 887 admitted children, 161 (18.1%) were using complementary and alternate medicine in one form or another. Of these, 113 (70.2%) were using complementary and alternate medicine for the current illness directly leading to admission and the remaining 48 (29.8%) had used complementary and alternate medicine in past. The common complementary and alternate medicine use observed in our study was combined ayurveda and spiritual approach (25.5%), ayurveda (24.8%), spiritual (21.7%), homeopathic (13%), and 47.2% of children were using spiritual approach in form of Jhada (tying piece of cloth on arm or leg or keeping a knife by the side of child). The significant factors associated with complementary and alternate medicine use were younger age, female gender, and father being employed. Complementary and alternate medicine is commonly used even in acutely sick children.

  11. Un héroe fragmentado. El cura muñecas y la historiografia andina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Miguel Glave

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available La naturaleza nacional de las historiografías es una limitación a la hora de comprender realidades múltiples, que anteceden a la creación de los estados nacionales y de los discursos historiográficos que también surgen y se justifican con ellos. Una muestra de ello es la biografía de un presonaje que resultó central en la historia popular de la revolución andina por la Independencia, Ildefonso de las Muñecas. De origen vasco, nacido en Tucumán, se hizo jefe revolucionario en Cuzco en 1814 y mantuvo luego alzada la provincia de Larecaja, llamada “republiqueta”, por un largo año después de la derrota de la revolución, influyendo casi míticamente en el imaginario popular del altiplano por mucho tiempo después. Su lucha y su biografía no pueden ser tenidas ni por “argentina”, “boliviana” o “peruana” pues ambas rebasan la limitación impuesta por esa parcelación ideológica de la realidad. La biografía del personaje sirve para revisar la perspectiva que sobre la revolución de la independencia podemos tener en el mundo andino, discutiendo también los discursos nacionalistas.

  12. ALTERNATIVE AND ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING: BASIC STUDIES RESULTS FY2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, W.; Hay, M.

    2011-01-24

    In an effort to develop and optimize chemical cleaning methods for the removal of sludge heels from High Level Waste tanks, solubility tests have been conducted using nonradioactive, pure metal phases. The metal phases studied included the aluminum phase gibbsite and the iron phases hematite, maghemite, goethite, lepidocrocite, magnetite, and wustite. Many of these mineral phases have been identified in radioactive, High Level Waste sludge at the Savannah River and Hanford Sites. Acids evaluated for dissolution included oxalic, nitric, and sulfuric acids and a variety of other complexing organic acids. The results of the solubility tests indicate that mixtures of oxalic acid with either nitric or sulfuric acid are the most effective cleaning solutions for the dissolution of the primary metal phases in sludge waste. Based on the results, optimized conditions for hematite dissolution in oxalic acid were selected using nitric or sulfuric acid as a supplemental proton source. Electrochemical corrosion studies were also conducted (reported separately; Wiersma, 2010) with oxalic/mineral acid mixtures to evaluate the effects of these solutions on waste tank integrity. The following specific conclusions can be drawn from the test results: (1) Oxalic acid was shown to be superior to all of the other organic acids evaluated in promoting the dissolution of the primary sludge phases. (2) All iron phases showed similar solubility trends in oxalic acid versus pH, with hematite exhibiting the lowest solubility and the slowest dissolution. (3) Greater than 90% hematite dissolution occurred in oxalic/nitric acid mixtures within one week for two hematite sources and within three weeks for a third hematite sample with a larger average particle size. This dissolution rate appears acceptable for waste tank cleaning applications. (4) Stoichiometric dissolution of iron phases in oxalic acid (based on the oxalate concentration) and the formation of the preferred 1:1 Fe to oxalate complex

  13. Alternative Enhanced Chemical Cleaning Basic Studies Results FY09

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hay, M.; King, W.

    2010-05-05

    Due to the need to close waste storage tanks, chemical cleaning methods are needed for the effective removal of the heels. Oxalic acid is the preferred cleaning reagent for sludge heel dissolution, particularly for iron-based sludge, due to the strong complexing strength of the oxalate. However, the large quantity of oxalate added to the tank farm from oxalic acid based chemical cleaning has significant downstream impacts. Optimization of the oxalic acid cleaning process can potentially reduce the downstream impacts from chemical cleaning. To optimize oxalic acid usage, a detailed understanding of the chemistry of oxalic acid based sludge dissolution is required. Additionally, other acid systems may be required for specific waste components with low solubility in oxalic acid and as a means to reduce oxalic acid usage in general. Solubility tests were conducted using non-radioactive, pure metal phases known to be the primary phases present in High Level Waste sludge. The metal phases studied included the aluminum phases gibbsite and boehmite and the iron phases magnetite and hematite. Hematite and boehmite are expected to be the most difficult iron and aluminum phases to dissolve. These mineral phases have been identified in both SRS and Hanford High Level Waste sludge. Acids evaluated for dissolution included oxalic, nitric, and sulfuric acids. The results of the solubility tests indicate that oxalic and sulfuric acids are more effective for the dissolution of the primary sludge phases. For boehmite, elevated temperature will be required to promote effective phase dissolution in the acids studied. Literature reviews, thermodynamic modeling, and experimental results have all confirmed that pH control using a supplemental proton source (additional acid) is critical for minimization of oxalic acid usage during the dissolution of hematite. These results emphasize the importance of pH control in optimizing hematite dissolution in oxalic acid and may explain the somewhat

  14. Alternative Enhanced Chemical Cleaning Basic Studies Results FY09

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hay, M.; King, W.

    2010-01-01

    Due to the need to close waste storage tanks, chemical cleaning methods are needed for the effective removal of the heels. Oxalic acid is the preferred cleaning reagent for sludge heel dissolution, particularly for iron-based sludge, due to the strong complexing strength of the oxalate. However, the large quantity of oxalate added to the tank farm from oxalic acid based chemical cleaning has significant downstream impacts. Optimization of the oxalic acid cleaning process can potentially reduce the downstream impacts from chemical cleaning. To optimize oxalic acid usage, a detailed understanding of the chemistry of oxalic acid based sludge dissolution is required. Additionally, other acid systems may be required for specific waste components with low solubility in oxalic acid and as a means to reduce oxalic acid usage in general. Solubility tests were conducted using non-radioactive, pure metal phases known to be the primary phases present in High Level Waste sludge. The metal phases studied included the aluminum phases gibbsite and boehmite and the iron phases magnetite and hematite. Hematite and boehmite are expected to be the most difficult iron and aluminum phases to dissolve. These mineral phases have been identified in both SRS and Hanford High Level Waste sludge. Acids evaluated for dissolution included oxalic, nitric, and sulfuric acids. The results of the solubility tests indicate that oxalic and sulfuric acids are more effective for the dissolution of the primary sludge phases. For boehmite, elevated temperature will be required to promote effective phase dissolution in the acids studied. Literature reviews, thermodynamic modeling, and experimental results have all confirmed that pH control using a supplemental proton source (additional acid) is critical for minimization of oxalic acid usage during the dissolution of hematite. These results emphasize the importance of pH control in optimizing hematite dissolution in oxalic acid and may explain the somewhat

  15. Newly Generated Liquid Waste Processing Alternatives Study, Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landman, William Henry; Bates, Steven Odum; Bonnema, Bruce Edward; Palmer, Stanley Leland; Podgorney, Anna Kristine; Walsh, Stephanie

    2002-09-01

    This report identifies and evaluates three options for treating newly generated liquid waste at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The three options are: (a) treat the waste using processing facilities designed for treating sodium-bearing waste, (b) treat the waste using subcontractor-supplied mobile systems, or (c) treat the waste using a special facility designed and constructed for that purpose. In studying these options, engineers concluded that the best approach is to store the newly generated liquid waste until a sodium-bearing waste treatment facility is available and then to co-process the stored inventory of the newly generated waste with the sodium-bearing waste. After the sodium-bearing waste facility completes its mission, two paths are available. The newly generated liquid waste could be treated using the subcontractor-supplied system or the sodium-bearing waste facility or a portion of it. The final decision depends on the design of the sodium-bearing waste treatment facility, which will be completed in coming years.

  16. Feasibility study for an alternative PWR-containment. Stage 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eibl, J.

    1994-08-01

    The following report deals with a feasibility study on a lightwater reactor containment which is oriented at the German 1300 MW Convoy Type reactor. It was the aim of this containment development for a future nuclear ractor to restrict all consequences of an extreme reactor failure exclusively to the interior of the containment. Also the decay heat of the relevant core catchers is provided to be removed by passive means. This containment development was a common project with the Nuclear Research Centre at Karlsruhe (KFK). As a consequence of this intention the concept started from upper physical limits, such as a maximum static pressure of 1,5 MPa at 200 , a global and local detonation pressure of 8,4 MPa at an impulse of 5,0 kPas, an upward directed force exerted by the pressure vessel of 300 MN, a horizontal force exerted by the moving pressure vessel onto its environment of 70 MN, a cavern pressure around the core catcher of 3,0 resp., 2,0 MPa and a steam explosion-energy of 300 MJ. Such a contaiment concept is presented and inverstigated with respect to its feasibility, statically and dynamically in all relevant details including earthquake actions. (orig.) [de

  17. Study on alternatives of inertisation of nuclear power plant containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baron, J.H.; Zarate, S.M.

    1998-01-01

    In the course of a severe accident in a nuclear power plant, the hydrogen generation and other flammable gases, during the core degradation phase and the interaction corium-concrete, could produce the failure of the containment by overpressure of by combustion. According to the analysis of the potential effects of hydrogen evolution, following accidents inside the containment trough a Defense-in depth principle, which attempts to assure that the containment must not fail catastrophically, two techniques have been evaluated: a: Inertisation pre-accident and b: Inertisation post-accident. The technique of inertisation pre-accident consists in replacing the air of the containment with inert-gas like nitrogen (N 2 ) or carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) during the normal operation. The inertisation post-accident in combination with early venting system consists in replacing the air of the containment with inert-gas like nitrogen (N 2 ) or carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), immediately after the beginning of the accident, while the radioactivity is still negligible inside the containment. A system of inertisation pre-accident with nitrogen is used on BWR Mark I and Mark II. Investigations on the inertisation post-accident of the containment atmosphere during severe accidents have been carried out with different objectives from principles of the decade of 1980. Studies concerning hydrogen problem for the nuclear power plants Atucha I and CAREM-25 have permitted to know that the hydrogen generation during an accidental sequence with core degradation, would result important, being able to arrive to form explosive mixtures. In the present work, the applicability of the techniques of inertisation is analyzed for the containment of the Atucha I and CAREM-25, considering the particular design characteristics of these plants. (author) [es

  18. Variability of LD50 Values from Rat Oral Acute Toxicity Studies: Implications for Alternative Model Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternative models developed for estimating acute systemic toxicity are generally evaluated using in vivo LD50 values. However, in vivo acute systemic toxicity studies can produce variable results, even when conducted according to accepted test guidelines. This variability can ma...

  19. Comparative Theology: An Alternative to Religious Studies or Theology of Religions?

    OpenAIRE

    Betül AVCI

    2018-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between Comparative Theology, Religious Studies and Theology of Religions and questions whether Comparative Theology is an alternative to the last two. Comparative Theology, a faith seeking understanding practice, may be viewed as an alternative to the Enlightenment ideal of Religious Studies, which seeks “impartiality” and “scientific objectivity” in contrast to Comparative Theology’s enquiry into “truth” and “meaning.” I suggest, however, that the compar...

  20. Alternative medicine in Paris and Rio de Janeiro: a study on transformative health experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Eglem

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to explore the practice of alternative medicine as an experience capable of modifying the very perception of the body and body feeling, based in a two-field research in France (Paris and Brazil (Rio de Janeiro. In this research, the resort to alternative medicines was considered as urban practice and a possible response to emotional needs, beyond the curative specificities of these medicines. The two countries were chosen for their supposed complementarity concerning the perception of spirituality and therefore, the perception of holistic health concepts. The study relies on an inductive approach and a qualitative methodology: introspective interviews with consumers and professionals, as well as participant observations. After a review of the theoretical aspects on the subject — concepts related to health, alternative medicine, transformative experience —, empirical results are presented. They show that the experience of alternative medicine tends to modify body perception, understood as how individuals define their own body. It also tends to modify body internal feeling, literally how people feel their body. The second conclusion that can be drawn from our study is that, beyond cultural specificities, some similarities appear in the way the practice of alternative medicine impacts on body perception and individual values. In that sense, alternative medicine practices in big urban centers appear to be related to a global consumer culture. However, alternative health behaviors rely on a subjective quest of sense which can be expressed through a variety of practices related to better health, not necessarily involving consumption.

  1. A Correlation Study on Attachment Style and GPA of Students at an Alternative Education Center

    OpenAIRE

    Cindy L. Burdick

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents in America are dropping out of school in alarming rates. In the school year 2009- 2010, 514,238 adolescents dropped out of high school. While alternative education centers have been created to meet the needs of these individuals, they are not always successful as evidenced by a graduation rate below 5% in several alternative centers in Florida. Previous studies have shown that students with a positive attachment style have higher grade point averages (GPA) and perform better in sc...

  2. A influência do genótipo da ECA sobre a aptidão cardiovascular de jovens do sexo masculino moderadamente ativos The influence of ACE genotype on cardiovascular fitness of moderately active young men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeeser Alves Almeida

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: O gene da enzima conversora de angiotensina (gene ECA tem sido amplamente estudado em relação a fenótipos de aptidão cardiorrespiratória, contudo a associação do genótipo da ECA com corridas de meia-distância tem sido pouco investigada. OBJETIVO: O presente estudo investigou a possível influência da enzima conversora de angiotensina (ECA (I/D sobre a aptidão cardiovascular e o desempenho em corridas de meia-distância por parte de brasileiros jovens do sexo masculino. A validade da previsão de VO2max em relação ao genótipo da ECA também foi analisada. MÉTODOS: Um grupo homogêneo de homens jovens moderadamente ativos foi avaliado em um teste de corrida (V1600 m; m.min-1 e em um teste adicional em esteira ergométrica para a determinação de VO2max. Posteriormente, o [(0,177*V1600m + 8.101] VO2max real e previsto foi comparado com os genótipos da ECA. RESULTADOS: O VO2max e V1600m registrados para os genótipos DD, ID e II foram 45,6 (1,8; 51,9 (0,8 e 54,4 (1,0 mL.kg-1.min-1 e 211,2 (8,3; 249,1 (4,3 e 258,6 (5,4 m.min-1, respectivamente e foram significativamente mais baixos para os genótipos DD (p BACKGROUND: The angiotensin I-converting enzyme gene (ACE gene has been broadly studied as for cardiorespiratory fitness phenotypes, but the association of the ACE genotype to middle-distance running has been poorly investigated. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the possible influence of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE genotype (I/D on cardiovascular fitness and middle-distance running performance of Brazilian young males. The validity of VO2max to predict the ACE genotype was also analyzed. METHODS: A homogeneous group of moderately active young males were evaluated in a 1,600 m running track test (V1600m; m.min-1 and in an incremental treadmill test for VO2max determination. Subsequently, the actual and the predicted [(0.177*V1600m + 8.101] VO2max were compared to ACE genotypes. RESULTS: The VO2max and V1600m

  3. El aumento de la expresión del ARNm de la enzima convertidora de angiotensina I homóloga (ECA-2 inducido por atorvastatina se asocia a menor fibrosis e hipertrofia ventricular izquierda en un modelo de cardiomiopatía diabética Atorvastatin induced increase in homologous angiotensin i converting enzyme (ACE2 mRNA is associated to decreased fibrosis and decreased left ventricular hypertrophy in a rat model of diabetic cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Aguilar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Evaluar el efecto de atorvastatina sobre la progresión del remodelado cardiaco y la expresión de ECA-2 en el miocardio de ratas diabéticas. Materiales y métodos. La diabetes fue inducida en ratas Holtzman con una inyección intraperitoneal de estreptozotocina. Los animales fueron divididos en tres grupos: (1 ratas control, (2 ratas diabéticas y (3 ratas diabéticas tratadas con atorvastatina (50 mg/kg/día. Después de ocho semanas de tratamiento, los corazones fueron extraídos para el análisis morfométrico, la cuantificación de colágeno y la determinación de los niveles de ARNm de ECA y ECA-2. Resultados. El índice de hipertrofia ventricular y el depósito de colágeno se incrementaron significativamente en las ratas diabéticas. La administración de atorvastatina previno estos cambios sin modificar los niveles de colesterol. La hiperglicemia produjo un incremento significativo en los niveles del ARNm de ECA y una marcada disminución en la expresión de ECA-2 en el miocardio de ratas diabéticas. La administración de atorvastatina indujo la expresión del ARNm de ECA-2 e inhibió la sobreexpresión del ARNm de ECA en el miocardio de las ratas diabéticas. Conclusiones. Nuestros resultados indican que la atorvastatina, independientemente de su capacidad para disminuir el colesterol, normaliza la relación de la expresión de ECA/ECA-2 y atenúa el desarrollo del remodelado adverso en el corazón diabético.Objectives. This study has investigated the effect of atorvastatin on the progression of cardiac remodelling and ACE- 2 expression in diabetic myocardium in rats. Materials and Methods. Diabetes was induced in Holtzman rats with an intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. The animals were divided into 3 groups: (1 normal control rats, (2 diabetic rats and (3 diabetic rats treated orally with atorvastatin (50 mg/kg/day. After eight weeks of treatment, the hearts were removed for morphometric studies, collagen

  4. Comparative Theology: An Alternative to Religious Studies or Theology of Religions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betül AVCI

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the relationship between Comparative Theology, Religious Studies and Theology of Religions and questions whether Comparative Theology is an alternative to the last two. Comparative Theology, a faith seeking understanding practice, may be viewed as an alternative to the Enlightenment ideal of Religious Studies, which seeks “impartiality” and “scientific objectivity” in contrast to Comparative Theology’s enquiry into “truth” and “meaning.” I suggest, however, that the comparative method employed by both Religious Studies and Comparative Theology is not a neutral space. Hence, the new comparativism in Religious Studies reinstates its search for understanding and its political stand, which blurs the boundaries between Comparative Theology and Religious Studies. Likewise, while Comparative Theology is distinct from the Theology of Religions, it does not pose an alternative to it because Comparative Theology, too, often embodies either a pluralist or an inclusivist approach.

  5. Imagenología y distribución de cargas en la muñeca normal y postquirúrgica

    OpenAIRE

    Márquez Flórez, Kalenia María

    2014-01-01

    En este trabajo se determinó la distribución de cargas en la articulación radio-carpiana en la muñeca, bajo condiciones de carga y geometría, asociadas a tratamientos de artrodesis en estado estático. Para esto, se empleó el método discreto Rigid Body Spring Model (RBSM) en un modelo tridimensional de una muñeca sana. El método RBSM también se aplicó a modelos en los cuales se simularon condiciones de la muñeca luego de algún tratamiento de artrodesis, y los resultados obtenido...

  6. A influência do genótipo da ECA sobre a aptidão cardiovascular de jovens do sexo masculino moderadamente ativos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeeser Alves Almeida

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: O gene da enzima conversora de angiotensina (gene ECA tem sido amplamente estudado em relação a fenótipos de aptidão cardiorrespiratória, contudo a associação do genótipo da ECA com corridas de meia-distância tem sido pouco investigada. OBJETIVO: O presente estudo investigou a possível influência da enzima conversora de angiotensina (ECA (I/D sobre a aptidão cardiovascular e o desempenho em corridas de meia-distância por parte de brasileiros jovens do sexo masculino. A validade da previsão de VO2max em relação ao genótipo da ECA também foi analisada. MÉTODOS: Um grupo homogêneo de homens jovens moderadamente ativos foi avaliado em um teste de corrida (V1600 m; m.min-1 e em um teste adicional em esteira ergométrica para a determinação de VO2max. Posteriormente, o [(0,177*V1600m + 8.101] VO2max real e previsto foi comparado com os genótipos da ECA. RESULTADOS: O VO2max e V1600m registrados para os genótipos DD, ID e II foram 45,6 (1,8; 51,9 (0,8 e 54,4 (1,0 mL.kg-1.min-1 e 211,2 (8,3; 249,1 (4,3 e 258,6 (5,4 m.min-1, respectivamente e foram significativamente mais baixos para os genótipos DD (p < 0,05. O VO2max real e previsto não diferiram entre si, apesar do genótipo da ECA, mas o nível de concordância entre os métodos de VO2max real e estimado foi menor para o genótipo DD. CONCLUSÃO: Concluiu-se que existe uma possível associação entre o genótipo da ECA, a aptidão cardiovascular e o desempenho em corridas de média distância de jovens do sexo masculino moderadamente ativos e que a precisão da previsão do VO2max também pode ser dependente do genótipo da ECA dos participantes.

  7. A Study on Becoming an Alternatively Certified Career and Technical Educator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton-Flanagan, Kymberli A.

    2011-01-01

    This mixed method study examined the perspectives of twelve practicing high school CTE teachers engaged in a newly approved university model for alternative certification. Using Creswell's (2008) Sequential Exploratory Design and the lens of adult learning theory as established in Knowles' (1970) Theory of Andragogy, this study examines how…

  8. Using an Empirical Binomial Hierarchical Bayesian Model as an Alternative to Analyzing Data from Multisite Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardin, J. Michael; Anderson, Billie S.; Woodby, Lesa L.; Crawford, Myra A.; Russell, Toya V.

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the statistical methodologies used in demonstration and effectiveness studies when the treatments are applied across multiple settings. The importance of evaluating and how to evaluate these types of studies are discussed. As an alternative to standard methodology, the authors of this article offer an empirical binomial…

  9. Why We Teach: Autobiographies of Traditionally and Alternatively Certified Pre-Service Social Studies Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoli, Susan

    2009-01-01

    This study describes the analysis of the social studies autobiographies of 46 students compiled over a 15 month period. Two major questions were addressed: (1) what motivational patterns are revealed in these autobiographies and (2) what differences and similarities exist in the autobiographies of students seeking alternative and traditional…

  10. Comparative theology: an alternative to religious studies or theology of religions?

    OpenAIRE

    Avcı, Betül

    2018-01-01

    Avcı, Betül (IHU Author) This paper examines the relationship between Comparative Theology, Religious Studies and Theology of Religions and questions whether Comparative Theology is an alternative to the last two. Comparative Theology, a faith seeking understanding practice, may be viewed as an alternative to the Enlightenment ideal of Religious Studies, which seeks “impartiality” and “scientific objectivity” in contrast to Comparative Theology’s enquiry into “truth” and “meaning.” I sugge...

  11. Análisis de la influencia del tratamiento térmico de envejecimiento en la modificación de las propiedades mecánicas de la aleación AA6060 procesada por ECAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez, I.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, a study on the modification of the mechanical properties of the aluminium alloy AA6060 F has been made when severe plastic deformation is applied to it through Equal Channel Angular Extrusion (ECAE. Moreover, a study about the effect of the artificial aging on the modification of such mechanical properties has been carried out after having processed the material by ECAE. In order to do this, thermal treatments at different values of temperature and holding time have been performed. Hardness, tensile tests and Charpy impact test, along with metallographic techniques, have been carried out in order to analyse the mechanical behaviour and the state of the material. In spite of the existence of several studies that have analysed the effect of aging thermal treatments on 6000 aluminium alloys, such studies are focused on laboratory alloys with industrial compositions not very usual. Therefore, in the present work, the employed starting material is a commercial alloy as-cast, which has not been studied up to now.

    En el presente trabajo se ha realizado un estudio de la modificación de las propiedades mecánicas de la aleación de aluminio AA6060 F, al ser deformada mediante deformación plástica severa empleando el proceso de extrusión en canal angular (ECAE. Asimismo, se ha efectuado un estudio del efecto del envejecimiento artificial sobre la modificación de dichas propiedades mecánicas. Para ello, se han realizado tratamientos térmicos a diferentes temperaturas y tiempos de permanencia, efectuando mediciones de dureza, ensayos de tracción, ensayos con péndulo Charpy y técnicas de revelado metalográfico, para conocer los comportamientos mecánicos y el estado del material. Existe un elevado número de publicaciones, que han analizado el efecto de tratamientos térmicos de envejecimiento en aleaciones de la serie 6000. Sin embargo, la aleación AA6060 no ha sido tan ampliamente estudiada. Por ello, en este trabajo

  12. Experimental Study of Heat Transfer Enhancements from Array of Alternate Rectangular Dwarf Fins at Different Inclinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasarmol, Umesh Vandeorao; Pise, Ashok T.

    2018-02-01

    The main objective of this experimental work is to investigate and compare heat transfer enhancement of alternate dwarf fin array at different angles of inclination. In this study, the steady state heat transfer from the full length fin arrays and alternate dwarf fin arrays are measured in natural convection and radiation environment. Largest increase in the Nusselt number was achieved with alternate dwarf fin at angle of orientation 90°, which shows about 28% enhanced heat transfer coefficient as opposed to the full-length fin array with 25% saving in material. In case of non-black FAB, contribution of radiation heat transfer is found to be very small nearly within 1% of the heater input. After coating lamp black contribution of radiation heat transfer is found to increase to about 3-4% of the heater input in the range of temperatures considered in this study.

  13. An Interpretive Study of Yosemite National Park Visitors' Perspectives Toward Alternative Transportation in Yosemite Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Dave D.

    2007-01-01

    The National Park Service (NPS) is increasingly focusing on alternative transportation systems in national parks to address environmental and social problems arising from a historical reliance on personal automobiles as the primary means of visitor access. Despite the potential advantages, alternative transportation may require a reorientation in the way that Americans have experienced national parks since the advent of auto-tourism in the early twentieth century. Little research exists, however, on visitor perspectives towards alternative transportation or the rationale underlying their perspectives. It remains unclear how transportation systems affect visitors’ experiences of the park landscape or the factors influencing their travel behavior in the parks. This report presents an interpretive study of visitor perspectives toward transportation management in the Yosemite Valley area of Yosemite National Park, California. Qualitative analysis of 160 semi-structured interviews identified individual psychological factors as well as situational influences that affect visitors’ behavior and perspectives. Individual psychological factors include perceived freedom, environmental values and beliefs, prior experience with Yosemite National Park and other national parks, prior experience with alternative transportation in national parks, and sensitivity to subjective perceptions of crowding. Situational factors included convenience, access, and flexibility of travel modes, as well as type of visit, type of group, and park use level. Interpretive communication designed to encourage voluntary visitor use of alternative transportation should focus on these psychological and situational factors. Although challenges remain, the results of this study suggest approaches for shaping the way Americans visit and experience their national parks to encourage environmental sustainability.

  14. A Study of the Effect of Alternative Programs on the Potential Dropout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloria, Cyril; Karr-Kidwell, PJ

    Educators are very concerned about the problem of students dropping out of school. The reasons for students dropping out vary from social to economic causes. Alternative programs or schools have been used since the 1960s to try to keep students in school. This study involved a literature review of research on the identification and remediation of…

  15. Fourth "R" in Analytic Mode: A Study of Alternatives to Religious Instruction in the Public Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Noel W.

    This doctoral dissertation examines alternatives for public-school religious education which stress spiritual values but do not conflict with legal restrictions. The study is divided into four parts. Part one is an historical survey of religious education in public schools that includes an interpretation of the legal restrictions and the…

  16. FOCUSED FEASIBILITY STUDY OF PHYTOREMEDIATION ALTERNATIVE FOR THE INDUSTRIAL EXCESS LANDFILL SITE IN STARK COUNTY, OHIO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focused feasibility study of phytoremediation alternative for the Industrial Excess Landfill site in Stark County, Ohio. More information can be found on the NPL Fact Sheet for this site at www.epa.gov/region5/superfund/npl/ohio/OHD000377971.htm

  17. Coupling Cover Crops with Alternative Swine Manure Application Strategies: Manure-15N Tracer Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Integration of rye cover crops with alternative liquid swine (Sus scrofa L.) manure application strategies may enhance retention of manure N in corn (Zea mays L.) - soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr] cropping systems. The objective of this study was to quantify uptake of manure derived-N by a rye (Seca...

  18. Alternative Conceptions in Animal Classification Focusing on Amphibians and Reptiles: A Cross-Age Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Chiung-Fen; Yao, Tsung-Wei; Chiu, Yu-Chih

    2004-01-01

    This study examined students' alternative conceptions of reptiles and amphibians and the extent to which these conceptions remain intact through the elementary (grades 4 and 6), junior, and senior high school years. We administered multiple-choice and free-response instruments to a total of 513 students and interviewed at least 20 students at each…

  19. Final cost reduction study for the Geysers Recharge Alternative. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether or not cost reduction opportunities exist for the Geysers Recharge Alternative as defined in the Santa Rosa Subregional Long-Term Wastewater Project EIR/EIS. The City of Santa Rosa has been directed to have a plan for reclaimed water disposal in place by 1999 which will meet future capacity needs under all weather conditions. A Draft EIR/EIS released in July 1996 and a Final EIR certified in June 1997 examine four primary alternatives plus the No Action Alternative. Two of the primary alternatives involve agricultural irrigation with reclaimed water, either in western or southern Sonoma County. Another involves increased discharge of reclaimed water into the Russian River. The fourth involves using reclaimed water to replenish the geothermal reservoir at the Geysers. The addition of this water source would enable the Geysers operators to produce more steam from the geothermal area and thereby prolong the life and economic production level of the steamfield and the geothermal power plants supplied by the steamfield. This study provides additional refined cost estimates for new scenarios which utilize an alternative pipeline alignment and a range of reclaimed water flows, which deliver less water to the Geysers than proposed in the EIR/EIS (by distributing flow to other project components). Also, electrical power rates were revised to reflect the recent changes in costs associated with deregulation of the power industry. In addition, this report provides information on sources of potential public and private funding available and future environmental documentation required if the cost reduction scenarios were to be selected by the City as part of their preferred alternative.

  20. Alternative Education: A Comparative Case Study of the Behavior Modification Programs of Two Upstate South Carolina Alternative Schools for Youth Who Exhibit Behavior That Is Disruptive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scipio, Timothy Lamont

    2013-01-01

    This study examined behavior modification programs in schools designed to focus on discipline and that aim to reform disruptive behavior in students, usually over a limited period of time. This was a comparative case study of two type II alternative schools in the Upstate of South Carolina. The findings contributed to the research base regarding…

  1. ALTERNATIVE DISPUTE RESOLUTION IN BANYUMAS REGENCY: IN THE PERSPECTIVE OF CULTURAL STUDIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singkir Hudijono

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study discusses about an Alternative Dispute Resolution in BanyumasRegency as a non-litigation dispute resolution. The problem observed was a breakthroughtaken by the Society in Banyumas Regency in overcoming the so far deadlock of lawenforcement and the attitude of not trusting the justice enforcement. It has been a publicsecret that the dispute resolutions employing the legal centralism paradigm have beendominated by the judicial network. This has caused the acknowledgement of the state lawto decrease, being a commodity that can be traded. The research aims at finding out anddescribing how the alternative dispute resolution (ADR emerges as an alternativemechanism in deconstructing the legal centralism; interpreting and describing what ismeant by the alternative dispute resolution (ADR in the development of progressive law.This research was conducted employing qualitative method. In this context, theresearcher explored various pieces of related information with the reason that the societyin Banyumas Regency has chosen the alternative dispute resolution mechanism as themechanism in deconstructing the legal centralism. The research was conducted asfollows: the problems were identified, the theories for analyzing the data were selected,the primary and secondary data were collected, the collected data were analyzed andinterpreted, and finally, the results of the research were written and constructed. Thetheories employed were critical legal studies, deconstruction, and large narration criticismtheories.The results of the research show that: firstly, the alternative dispute resolution hasemerged because of the awakened local knowledge, as the form of anticipation to theineffective formal law domination. With regard to the effect of global intercourse, thealternative dispute resolution has emerged because of the refusal against the culturalhomogeneity. Secondly, the implementation of the alternative dispute resolution hasbecome the preferred

  2. 40 CFR 80.607 - What are the requirements for obtaining an exemption for diesel fuel or ECA marine fuel used for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive... fuel will be segregated from motor vehicle diesel fuel, NRLM diesel fuel, or ECA marine fuel, as... documents associated with research and development motor vehicle diesel fuel must comply with requirements...

  3. Report on the Savannah River Site aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel alternatives cost study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-12-01

    Initial estimates of costs for the interim management and disposal of aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel (SNF) were developed during preparation of the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) on the Nuclear Weapons Nonproliferation Policy Concerning Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel. The Task Team evaluated multiple alternatives, assessing programmatic, technical, and schedule risks, and generated life-cycle cost projections for each alternative. The eight technology alternatives evaluated were: direct co-disposal; melt and dilute; reprocessing; press and dilute; glass material oxidation dissolution system (GMODS); electrometallurgical treatment; dissolve and vitrify; and plasma arc. In followup to the Business Plan that was developed to look at SNF dry storage, WSRC prepared an addendum to the cost study. This addendum estimated the costs for the modification and use of an existing (105L) reactor facility versus a greenfield approach for new facilities (for the Direct Co-Disposal and Melt and Dilute alternatives). WSRC assessed the impacts of a delay in reprocessing due to the potential reservation of H-Canyon for other missions (i.e., down blending HEU for commercial use or the conversion of plutonium to either MOX fuel or an immobilized repository disposal form). This report presents the relevant results from these WSRC cost studies, consistent with the most recent project policy, technology implementation, canyon utilization, and inventory assumptions. As this is a summary report, detailed information on the technical alternatives or the cost assumptions raised in each of the above-mentioned cost studies is not provided. A comparison table that briefly describes the bases used for the WSRC analyses is included as Appendix A

  4. Use of alternative medicine for hypertension in Buikwe and Mukono districts of Uganda: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuwaha, Fred; Musinguzi, Geofrey

    2013-11-04

    Use of alternative medicine for chronic diseases such as hypertension is common in low as well as high income countries. This study estimated the proportion of people who were aware of their hypertension that use alternative medicine and identified factors predicting the use of alternative medicine. In a community based cross sectional survey among people ≥ 15 years in Buikwe and Mukono districts of Uganda 258 people aware of their hypertension were questioned about use of alternative medicine for hypertension, advice about uptake of life style intervention for hypertension control such as reduction of salt intake and about their attitude towards use of alternative medicine. Proportions of people who used alternative medicine and adopt life style interventions and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. Predictors of using alternative medicine were identified using logistic binary regression analysis. More than a half 144 (56.2%) had ever used alternative medicine whereas more than one in four 74 (28.6%) were currently using alternative medicine alone or in combination with modern medicine (50%). People who were using alternative medicine alone (29.7% CI 17.5-45.9) were less likely to have received advice on reduction of salt intake compared to those using modern medicine alone or in combination with traditional medicine (56.6%, CI 47.7-65.0). The only independent predictor for using alternative medicine was agreeing that alternative medicine is effective for treatment of hypertension (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.6; 95% CI 1.40-4.82). The use of alternative medicine was common among patients with hypertension and usage was underpinned by the belief that alternative medicine is effective. As patients with hypertension use alternative medicine and modern medicine concurrently, there is need for open communication between health workers and patients regarding use of alternative medicine.

  5. Alternatives to the face-to-face consultation in general practice: focused ethnographic case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atherton, Helen; Brant, Heather; Ziebland, Sue; Bikker, Annemieke; Campbell, John; Gibson, Andy; McKinstry, Brian; Porqueddu, Tania; Salisbury, Chris

    2018-04-01

    NHS policy encourages general practices to introduce alternatives to the face-to-face consultation, such as telephone, email, e-consultation systems, or internet video. Most have been slow to adopt these, citing concerns about workload. This project builds on previous research by focusing on the experiences of patients and practitioners who have used one or more of these alternatives. To understand how, under what conditions, for which patients, and in what ways, alternatives to face-to-face consultations present benefits and challenges to patients and practitioners in general practice. Focused ethnographic case studies took place in eight UK general practices between June 2015 and March 2016. Non-participant observation, informal conversations with staff, and semi-structured interviews with staff and patients were conducted. Practice documents and protocols were reviewed. Data were analysed through charting and the 'one sheet of paper' mind-map method to identify the line of argument in each thematic report. Case study practices had different rationales for offering alternatives to the face-to-face consultation. Beliefs varied about which patients and health issues were suitable. Co-workers were often unaware of each other's practice; for example, practice policies for use of e-consultations systems with patients were not known about or followed. Patients reported benefits including convenience and access. Staff and some patients regarded the face-to-face consultation as the ideal. Experience of implementing alternatives to the face-to-face consultation suggests that changes in patient access and staff workload may be both modest and gradual. Practices planning to implement them should consider carefully their reasons for doing so and involve the whole practice team. © British Journal of General Practice 2018.

  6. Life cycle assessment of the use of alternative fuels in cement kilns: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiopoulou, Martha; Lyberatos, Gerasimos

    2018-06-15

    The benefits of using alternative fuels (AFs) in the cement industry include reduction of the use of non-renewable fossil fuels and lower emissions of greenhouse gases, since fossil fuels are replaced with materials that would otherwise be degraded or incinerated with corresponding emissions and final residues. Furthermore, the use of alternative fuels maximizes the recovery of energy. Seven different scenaria were developed for the production of 1 ton of clinker in a rotary cement kiln. Each of these scenaria includes the use of alternative fuels such as RDF (Refuse derived fuel), TDF (Tire derived fuel) and BS (Biological sludge) or a mixture of them, in partial replacement of conventional fuels such as coal and pet coke. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the environmental impacts of the use of alternative fuels in relation to conventional fuels in the kiln operation. The Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology is used to quantify the potential environmental impacts in each scenario. The interpretation of the results provides the conclusion that the most environmentally friendly prospect is the scenario based on RDF while the less preferable scenario is the scenario based on BS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. B cell remote-handled waste shipment cask alternatives study; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RIDDELLE, J.G.

    1999-01-01

    The decommissioning of the 324 Facility B Cell includes the onsite transport of grouted remote-handled radioactive waste from the 324 Facility to the 200 Areas for disposal. The grouted waste has been transported in the leased ATG Nuclear Services 3-82B Radioactive Waste Shipping Cask (3-82B cask). Because the 3-82B cask is a U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)-certified Type B shipping cask, the lease cost is high, and the cask operations in the onsite environment may not be optimal. An alternatives study has been performed to develop cost and schedule information on alternative waste transportation systems to assist in determining which system should be used in the future. Five alternatives were identified for evaluation. These included continued lease of the 3-82B cask, fabrication of a new 3-82B cask, development and fabrication of an onsite cask, modification of the existing U.S. Department of Energy-owned cask (OH-142), and the lease of a different commercially available cask. Each alternative was compared to acceptance criteria for use in the B Cell as an initial screening. Only continued leasing of the 3-82B cask, fabrication of a new 3-82B cask, and the development and fabrication of an onsite cask were found to meet all of the B Cell acceptance criteria

  8. Influência do polimorfismo I/D do gene da eca na HPE de jovens normotensos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuella de Oliveira Fernandes

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A hipotensão pós-exercício (HPE é considerada uma estratégia não farmacológica adotada para redução da pressão arterial (PA. Ademais, sabe-se que a presença de alguns polimorfismos genéticos influencia a resposta pressórica, como o I/D do gene da enzima conversora da angiotensina (ECA. Objetivo: Analisar a influência do polimorfismo I/D da ECA sobre a HPE após três diferentes intensidades de exercício em jovens normotensos e fisicamente ativos.MÉTODOS: Vinte e seis jovens saudáveis (DD = 11; ID/II = 15 realizaram uma sessão máxima de 1.600 metros, na pista de atletismo e outras três sessões experimentais (Sessão Moderada: 6% abaixo do limiar anaeróbio, Sessão Intensa: 6% acima do limiar anaeróbio e Sessão de Controle, com aferições prévias da PA, por 20 minutos e posteriores ao exercício por 60 minutos.RESULTADOS: Observou-se que o exercício moderado ocasionou HPE independentemente do grupo genotípico, sendo mais evidente para a pressão arterial sistólica nos momentos 45 minutos e 60 minutos (p ≤ 0,05. Verificou-se também que a característica gênica exerceu influência sobre a área abaixo da curva pressórica (p ≤ 0,005 sobre a pressão arterial diastólica, formada 1 hora após o exercício.CONCLUSÃO: Conclui-se que o exercício moderado ocasiona HPE em jovens normotensos e fisicamente ativos, independentemente do polimorfismo I/D no gene da ECA, sendo que esse polimorfismo exerce influência sobre a hipotensão diastólica, e os indivíduos portadores do alelo I apresentam maior decaimento da PA diastólica (PAD.

  9. Techno-economic investigation of alternative propulsion plants for Ferries and RoRo ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livanos, George A.; Theotokatos, Gerasimos; Pagonis, Dimitrios-Nikolaos

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Alternative Diesel and Gas engine propulsion plants of Ferries and RoRos were studied. • Special focus on marine Natural Gas burning engines and ship waste heat recovery systems. • Significant savings in annual operating costs were predicted in the case of Natural Gas engines. • Environmental and economic optimum propulsion plant alternative was proposed in a specific case study. - Abstract: In this paper, the main alternative propulsion plants based on reciprocating internal combustion engines of a ferry or RoRo ship operating in routes that include Emission Control Areas (ECAs) are comparatively assessed. Specifically, a dual fuel engine propulsion plant is compared with a conventional Diesel engine plant. For both cases, the installation of a waste heat recovery system, which covers a part of the ship electric energy demand, is also considered. The ship main DF engines are assumed to operate using LNG and a small amount of MDO for initiating combustion, whereas low sulphur MDO was regarded as the fuel for the case of the Diesel engine plant. The installation of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) after-treatment unit for reducing the NOx emissions for the case of Diesel engines plant is also taken into account. The propulsion plants were modelled under steady state conditions, and the simulation results were analysed in order to compare the alternative configurations. Furthermore, the Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI) values were calculated and the two examined propulsion system cases were compared on EEDI basis. Finally, the Life Cycle Cost for each alternative propulsion plant was calculated and used for completing an economic evaluation of the Dual fuel propulsion plant versus the conventional designs applied in ferries

  10. An Independent Evaluation of the FMEA/CIL Hazard Analysis Alternative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Paul S.

    1996-01-01

    The present instruments of safety and reliability risk control for a majority of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) programs/projects consist of Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA), Hazard Analysis (HA), Critical Items List (CIL), and Hazard Report (HR). This extensive analytical approach was introduced in the early 1970's and was implemented for the Space Shuttle Program by NHB 5300.4 (1D-2. Since the Challenger accident in 1986, the process has been expanded considerably and resulted in introduction of similar and/or duplicated activities in the safety/reliability risk analysis. A study initiated in 1995, to search for an alternative to the current FMEA/CIL Hazard Analysis methodology generated a proposed method on April 30, 1996. The objective of this Summer Faculty Study was to participate in and conduct an independent evaluation of the proposed alternative to simplify the present safety and reliability risk control procedure.

  11. Substance use and dietary practices among students attending alternative high schools: results from a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Arcan, Chrisa; Kubik, Martha Y; Fulkerson, Jayne A; Hannan, Peter J; Story, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Substance use and poor dietary practices are prevalent among adolescents. The purpose of this study was to examine frequency of substance use and associations between cigarette, alcohol and marijuana use and selected dietary practices, such as sugar-sweetened beverages, high-fat foods, fruits and vegetables, and frequency of fast food restaurant use among alternative high school students. Associations between multi-substance use and the same dietary practices were also exa...

  12. Collaborative study for the validation of alternative in vitro potency assays for human tetanus immunoglobulins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, S; Janssen, S W J; de Vries, B; Terao, E; Daas, A; Buchheit, K-H

    2010-07-01

    An international collaborative study to validate 2 alternative in vitro methods for the potency testing of human tetanus immunoglobulin products was organised by the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines & HealthCare (EDQM). The study, run in the framework of the Biological Standardisation Programme (BSP) under the aegis of the European Commission and the Council of Europe, involved 21 official medicines control and industry laboratories from 15 countries. Both methods, an enzyme-linked immunoassay (EIA) and a toxoid inhibition assay (TIA), showed good reproducibility, repeatability and precision. EIA and TIA discriminated between low, medium and high potency samples. Potency estimates correlated well and both values were in close agreement with those obtained by in vivo methods. Moreover, these alternative methods allowed to resolve discrepant results between laboratories that were due to product potency loss and reporting errors. The study demonstrated that EIA and TIA are suitable quality control methods for tetanus immunoglobulin, which can be standardised in a control laboratory using a quality assurance system. Consequently, the Group of Experts on Human Blood and Blood Products of the European Pharmacopoeia revised the monograph on human tetanus immunoglobulins to include both the methods as compendial alternatives to the in vivo mouse challenge assay. 2010 The International Association for Biologicals. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. 77 FR 14801 - Request for Information (RFI) on Design of a Pilot Operational Study To Assess Alternative Blood...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-13

    ... permitted to donate under revised selection criteria. A study funded by the Food and Drug Administration... Operational Study To Assess Alternative Blood Donor Deferral Criteria for Men Who Have Had Sex With Other Men... (or studies) on alternative donor deferral criteria that would permit blood and plasma donations...

  14. Engineering study: disposition of terminal liquors for interim storage. [Eight alternative processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metz, W.P.; Ogren, W.E.

    1975-02-01

    Eight alternative processes were chosen as being technologically feasible within the time frame dictated by budgeting procedures and terminal liquor availability. Solidified waste products acceptable for single-shell tank storage were assumed to be placed in available single-shell tanks. Double-shell tanks were used only for the more mobile terminal liquors or semi-solid mush products. The mush, chemical neutralization, and clay in-tank processes offer potential savings of tens of millions of dollars over double-shell tank storage of terminal liquors. In order to achieve this cost savings, the process development and demonstration must be completed prior to the beginning of double-shell tank construction (Dec. 1976) expected to be funded from a fiscal year 1977 line item. Budgeting for these additional double-shell tanks must proceed since the processing options discussed here are not yet available and may not prove to be available at the required time. This study indicates the following topics for additional study: Process technology development to achieve interim storage of terminal liquor products receives the greatest emphasis as a means of reducing capital expenditures. Interim storage product criteria, waste inventory, and conversion to final form require definition to allow comparison of the alternatives for disposition of terminal liquors. The pseudotechnical nature of product acceptability criteria is important to the evaluation of the partial neutralization and aluminum removal alternatives. More accurate estimates of terminal liquor quantity and composition are required to give a sound technical basis for choosing the appropriate processing alternative. Retrieval and reprocessing operations may affect the comparisons presented by this study. (DLC)

  15. Substance use and dietary practices among students attending alternative high schools: results from a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannan Peter J

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Substance use and poor dietary practices are prevalent among adolescents. The purpose of this study was to examine frequency of substance use and associations between cigarette, alcohol and marijuana use and selected dietary practices, such as sugar-sweetened beverages, high-fat foods, fruits and vegetables, and frequency of fast food restaurant use among alternative high school students. Associations between multi-substance use and the same dietary practices were also examined. Methods A convenience sample of adolescents (n = 145; 61% minority, 52% male attending six alternative high schools in the St Paul/Minneapolis metropolitan area completed baseline surveys. Students were participants in the Team COOL (Controlling Overweight and Obesity for Life pilot study, a group randomized obesity prevention pilot trial. Mixed model multivariate analyses procedures were used to assess associations of interest. Results Daily cigarette smoking was reported by 36% of students. Cigarette smoking was positively associated with consumption of regular soda (p = 0.019, high-fat foods (p = 0.037, and fast food restaurant use (p = 0.002. Alcohol (p = 0.005 and marijuana use (p = 0.035 were positively associated with high-fat food intake. With increasing numbers of substances, a positive trend was observed in high-fat food intake (p = 0.0003. There were no significant associations between substance use and fruit and vegetable intake. Conclusions Alternative high school students who use individual substances as well as multiple substances may be at high risk of unhealthful dietary practices. Comprehensive health interventions in alternative high schools have the potential of reducing health-compromising behaviors that are prevalent among this group of students. This study adds to the limited research examining substance use and diet among at-risk youth. Trial registration number ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01315743

  16. Advanced transportation system studies technical area 3: Alternate propulsion subsystem concepts, volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levak, Daniel

    1993-01-01

    The Alternate Propulsion Subsystem Concepts contract had five tasks defined for the first year. The tasks were: F-1A Restart Study, J-2S Restart Study, Propulsion Database Development, Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) Upper Stage Use, and CER's for Liquid Propellant Rocket Engines. The detailed study results, with the data to support the conclusions from various analyses, are being reported as a series of five separate Final Task Reports. Consequently, this volume only reports the required programmatic information concerning Computer Aided Design Documentation, and New Technology Reports. A detailed Executive Summary, covering all the tasks, is also available as Volume 1.

  17. Complementary and Alternative Medicine in the Pediatrics with Leukemia: A Narrative Review Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Miladinia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundFor using of complementary and alternative medicine methods (CAM in the leukemia pediatrics than other types of cancer, we have two great challenges; first challenge is their safety and risks and second challenge is study gaps in this field. Regarding to these challenges, this study is a narrative review of some CAM methods in the leukemia pediatrics from the perspective of their safety, risks and study gaps.Materials and MethodsIn this narrative review study searched both international electronic databases including ISI Web of science, PubMed, PsycINFO, CINAHL, ISC, Embase, Scopus, Google Scholar and also, Iranian electronic databases including Magiran, Medlib and SID. Also, searches were performed separately in the specialized journals in the field of leukemia pediatrics and complementary and alternative medicine research.ResultsMusic therapy, gentle yoga movements, gentle massage types are quite safe for leukemia pediatrics. But, use of heavy yoga movements, massages with deep pressure, acupressure and acupuncture can be dangerous for leukemia pediatrics (risks of bleeding and or infection. Also, this study showed that, the number of investigations about the use of CAM in the leukemia pediatrics is very limited; especially in the field of yoga and acupuncture.ConclusionThe results of this study can be a basis both for chose of safe CAM method in these children and a basis for future studies on the basis of identified study gaps in this review study.

  18. Theoretical study of OCCHCN as a potential alternative insulation gas for SF6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiguo Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyanoketene (OCCHCN has been reported as a potential alternative insulation gas for SF6 in Patent US0135817. Stationary point equilibrium geometries on the ground state have been optimized at the B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p level, and the harmonic vibration frequencies are calculated at the same level. The HOMO-LUMO energy gaps (Eg, ionization potentials (IP, and electron affinities (EA of the studied molecules are obtained. The minimum energy path (MEP is obtained by the intrinsic reaction coordinate (IRC theory, and the energetic information is further refined by QCISD(T (single-point method. The results show that OCCHCN can be used as SF6 alternative insulation gas in high voltage equipment according to potential energy surface analysis. As the isomerization and the cleavage reactions potential barriers are lower than the Eg and IP values, resulting in OCCHCN is not easy to be ionized and excited.

  19. Full-scale experimentations on alternative materials in roads: analysis of study practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, D; Jullien, A; Kerzreho, J P; Chateau, L

    2009-03-01

    In France beginning in the 1990s, the topic of road construction using various alternative materials has given rise to several studies aimed at clarifying the technical and environmental feasibility of such an option. Although crucial to understanding and forecasting their behaviour in the field, an analysis of feedback from onsite experiences (back analysis) of roads built with alternative materials has not yet been carried out. The aim of the CAREX project (2003-2005) has been to fill this gap at the national scale. Based on a stress-response approach applied to both the alternative material and the road structure and including the description of external factors, a dedicated standardised framework for field data classification and analysis was adopted. To carry out this analysis, a set of 17 documented field experiments was identified through a specific national survey. It appears that a great heterogeneity exists in data processing procedures among studies. The description of material is acceptable while it is generally poor regarding external factors and structure responses. Structure monitoring is usually brief and mechanical loads too weak, which limits the significance of field testing. For future full-scale experiments, strengthening the realism within the testing conditions would be appropriate.

  20. Value engineering study report on Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Project. Alternative No. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    The project under study is Alternative No. 3 as identified in the Feasibility Study dated August 1994. This alternative is identified as Excavation and Disposal of Commercial/DOE, Other, and Residential Remedial Unit Soil. The assumptions used for generating baseline costs are discussed in site associated costs. It is further described as follows: Soils with mercury concentrations greater than 200 ppM in the Commercial/DOE and Other Remedial Units and greater than 180 ppM in the Residential Remedial Unit [41,300m 3 (54,000yd 3 a volume equivalent to approximately 6,750 dump truck loads)] would be excavated and disposed of in an approved, lined landfill at Y-12 with leachate collection and possible pretreatment of the leachate before discharge. Because 0.6 ha (1.5 acres) of wetland would be destroyed, wetlands banking would occur, whereby a 1.8-ha (4.5-acre) wetland would be constructed on DOE-owned land near K-25. Borrow soil would be obtained from the Y-12 West End Borrow Area or from excess soil located at Y-12 landfills to fill the excavation. It is estimated that 7.3 ha (18.2 acres, and area about the size of 17 football fields) of habitat would be adversely affected. This alternative would use BMPs to minimize any adverse affects and to comply substantively with regulatory requirements

  1. Alternating ibuprofen and acetaminophen in the treatment of febrile children: a pilot study [ISRCTN30487061

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabra Ramzi

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alternating ibuprofen and acetaminophen for the treatment of febrile children is a prevalent practice among physicians and parents, despite the lack of evidence on effectiveness or safety. This randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled clinical trial aims at comparing the antipyretic effectiveness and safety of a single administration of alternating ibuprofen and acetaminophen doses to that of ibuprofen mono-therapy in febrile children. Methods Seventy febrile children were randomly allocated to receive either a single oral dose of 10 mg/kg ibuprofen and 15 mg/kg oral acetaminophen after 4 hours, or a similar dose of ibuprofen and placebo at 4 hours. Rectal temperature was measured at baseline, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 hours later. Endpoints included proportions of afebrile children at 6, 7 and 8 hours, maximum decline in temperature, time to recurrence of fever, and change in temperature from baseline at each time point. Intent-to-treat analysis was planned with statistical significance set at P Results A higher proportion of subjects in the intervention group (83.3% became afebrile at 6 hours than in the control group (57.6%; P = 0.018. This difference was accentuated at 7 and 8 hours (P Conclusion A single dose of alternating ibuprofen and acetaminophen appears to be a superior antipyretic regimen than ibuprofen mono-therapy. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings.

  2. Coping behavior in multiple sclerosis-complementary and alternative medicine: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rommer, Paulus S; König, Nicolaus; Sühnel, Annett; Zettl, Uwe K

    2018-04-10

    Treatment options for multiple sclerosis (MS) have enlarged tremendously over the last years. Nonetheless, lots of patients look for alternative treatment options. The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is widespread in MS, however, its scientific investigation is limited so far. The aim of the study is to analyse clinical and demographical differences of MS patients in dependency of their CAM utilization as coping strategy. A total of 254 patients with a clinically definite MS were examined in a semistructured interview. Additional standardized questionnaires were used to measure different aspects of coping with illness. All patients underwent neurological examination. About 206 of all enrolled patients are CAM users (81.1%). They have a longer disease duration (8.3 years vs 7.3 years, P = 0.028) and show higher disability (median EDSS 4.0 vs 2.0, P alternative or complementary methods. CAM utilization may mirror unmet needs in the treatment of MS. © 2018 The Authors. CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. An Experimental Study of Surfactant Alternating CO2 Injection for Enhanced Oil Recovery of Carbonated Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asghar Gandomkar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Core flooding experiments were conducted with the objective of evaluating near miscible surfactant alternating CO2 injection and the effect of surfactant concentrations on gas-oil and water displacements in porous media. The core samples were provided from a low permeability mixed wet oil reservoir at 156 °F and 1900 psia. In addition, very few studies of surfactant adsorption on carbonate minerals have been conducted. Hence, the surfactant adsorption on carbonate rock was determined by core flooding and crushed tests. It was found that for the crushed rock, the required equilibrium time is approximately five hours, while it is more than four days for the flow-through tests. Hysteresis effects demonstrated that the irreducible water saturations were 5 to 10% higher than the initial connate water saturation after drainage cycles during 5000 ppm surfactant solution. Furthermore, near-miscible surfactant alternating CO2 injection process led to a 4-17% increase in the recovery factor in comparison to water alternating gas process.

  4. Theoretical and NMR conformational studies of β-proline oligopeptides with alternating chirality of pyrrolidine units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantsyzov, Alexey B.; Savelyev, Oleg Y.; Ivantcova, Polina M.; Bräse, Stefan; Kudryavtsev, Konstantin V.; Polshakov, Vladimir I.

    2018-03-01

    Synthetic β-peptides are potential functional mimetics of native α-proteins. A recently developed, novel, synthetic approach provides an effective route to the broad group of β-proline oligomers with alternating patterns of stereogenic centers. Conformation of the pyrrolidine ring, Z/E isomerism of β-peptide bonds, and hindered rotation of the neighboring monomers determine the spatial structure of this group of β-proline oligopeptides. Preferences in structural organization and corresponding thermodynamic properties are determined by NMR spectroscopy, restrained molecular dynamics and quantum mechanics. The studied β-proline oligopeptides exist in dimethyl sulfoxide solution in a limited number of conformers, with compatible energy of formation and different spatial organization. In the β-proline tetrapeptide with alternating chirality of composing pyrrolidine units, one of three peptide bonds may exist in an E configuration. For the alternating β-proline pentapeptide, the presence of an E configuration for at least of one β-peptide bond is mandatory. In this case, three peptide bonds synchronously change their configurations. Larger polypeptides may only exist in the presence of several E configurations of β-peptide bonds forming a wave-like extended structure.

  5. Theoretical and NMR Conformational Studies of β-Proline Oligopeptides With Alternating Chirality of Pyrrolidine Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey B. Mantsyzov

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic β-peptides are potential functional mimetics of native α-proteins. A recently developed, novel, synthetic approach provides an effective route to the broad group of β-proline oligomers with alternating patterns of stereogenic centers. Conformation of the pyrrolidine ring, Z/E isomerism of β-peptide bonds, and hindered rotation of the neighboring monomers determine the spatial structure of this group of β-proline oligopeptides. Preferences in their structural organization and corresponding thermodynamic properties are determined by NMR spectroscopy, restrained molecular dynamics and quantum mechanics. The studied β-proline oligopeptides exist in dimethyl sulfoxide solution in a limited number of conformers, with compatible energy of formation and different spatial organization. In the β-proline tetrapeptide with alternating chirality of composing pyrrolidine units, one of three peptide bonds may exist in an E configuration. For the alternating β-proline pentapeptide, the presence of an E configuration for at least of one β-peptide bond is mandatory. In this case, three peptide bonds synchronously change their configurations. Larger polypeptides may only exist in the presence of several E configurations of β-peptide bonds forming a wave-like extended structure.

  6. Experimental study of the effects of alternating fields on HTS coils according to the winding insulation conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Y J; Lee, T S; Lee, W S; Ko, T K; Ahn, M C

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of alternating fields on high-temperature superconducting (HTS) coils according to the winding insulation condition. Alternating fields can occur in synchronous machines (armature reaction, faults) and other devices. In superconducting synchronous machines, alternating fields affect the operational characteristics of the machine and the superconducting field coil. Therefore, a method of reducing the effects of alternating fields is necessary in superconducting synchronous design. In this study, the effects of alternating fields on the HTS field coil according to the winding insulation condition were experimentally evaluated. The experimental results show that HTS coils made using the no-insulation technique can be a solution for reducing the effects of the alternating field. These results are expected to suggest useful data for applications of HTS field coils in superconducting synchronous machines. (paper)

  7. The fission-track analysis: An alternative technique for provenance studies of prehistoric obsidian artefacts

    CERN Document Server

    Bellot-Gurlet, L; Dorighel, O; Oddone, M; Poupeau, G; Yegingil, Z

    1999-01-01

    Comparison of fission-track parameters - age and track densities - is an alternative tool for correlating obsidian artefacts with their potential natural sources. This method was applied by different fission-track groups in various regions and results were compared with those obtained using the more popular provenance identification techniques based on chemical composition studies. Hundreds of analyses prove that fission-track dating is a complementary technique which turns out to be very useful, specially when the chemical composition does not fully discriminate different sources. Archaeologically significant results were obtained applying the fission-track analysis in various regions of earth.

  8. Use of alternative sources of energy: design study of photovoltaic based parking area lighting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perraki, V.; Loucas, G.

    2000-01-01

    This study proposes the lighting of the parking area and the surrounding streets of the north west part of the University Campus of Patras, using an alternative source of energy, the photovoltaic energy. The sizing of the proposed system results to a reliable, autonomous system which covers the total of the energy needs without any maintenance. Although the energy produced is more expensive compared to the grid electricity nowadays, such solutions seem necessary and well promising for the future as the fuel reserves are limited. (authors)

  9. The fission-track analysis: An alternative technique for provenance studies of prehistoric obsidian artefacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellot-Gurlet, L.; Bigazzi, G.; Dorighel, O.; Oddone, M.; Poupeau, G.; Yegingil, Z.

    1999-01-01

    Comparison of fission-track parameters - age and track densities - is an alternative tool for correlating obsidian artefacts with their potential natural sources. This method was applied by different fission-track groups in various regions and results were compared with those obtained using the more popular provenance identification techniques based on chemical composition studies. Hundreds of analyses prove that fission-track dating is a complementary technique which turns out to be very useful, specially when the chemical composition does not fully discriminate different sources. Archaeologically significant results were obtained applying the fission-track analysis in various regions of earth

  10. Treatability studies of alternative wastewaters for Metal Finishing Effluent Treatment Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wittry, D.M.; Martin, H.L.

    1994-01-01

    The 300-M Area Liquid Effluent Treatment Facility (LETF) of the Savannah River Site (SRS) is an end-of-pipe industrial wastewater treatment facility that uses precipitation and filtration, which is the EPA Best Available Technology economically achievable for a Metal Finishing and Aluminum Form Industries. Upon the completion of stored waste treatment, the LETF will be shut down, because production of nuclear materials for reactors stopped at the end of the Cold War. The economic use of the LETF for the treatment of alternative wastewater streams is being evaluated through laboratory bench-scale treatability studies

  11. Alternative dispute resolution programs in health care: a study of organizational utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotarius, T M; Liberman, A; Osterman, K C; Putnam, P

    1999-03-01

    The hyperturbulence in today's health care environment acts as a primer that escalates the frequency and severity of business conflicts. Several alternative dispute resolution (ADR) programs are described, with ADR suggested as a viable approach in assisting organizations in resolving conflicts. The data indicate that all of the health care organizations surveyed utilize some form of ADR to resolve conflict. The most common conflict resolution objective found is win/win, and respondents felt that ADR effectively met intended objectives. While the data gathered for this study are from a limited geographic region in Central Florida, the results can likely be generalized to many socially and ethnically diverse regions of the country.

  12. School Process and Teacher Job Satisfaction at Alternative Schools: A Multilevel Study Using SASS 2007-08 Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jiangang; Izumi, Masashi; Gao, Xingyuan

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the associations between public alternative schools' teacher job satisfaction and school processes. Based on a multilevel analysis of the national School and Staffing Survey 2007-08 data, we found that among the seven school processes, public alternative schools' administrative support, staff collegiality, career and working…

  13. Life Cycle Costing in Sustainability Assessment—A Case Study of Remanufactured Alternators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annekatrin Lehmann

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability is on the international agenda, and is a driver for industry in international competition. Sustainability encompasses the three pillars: environment, society and economy. To prevent shifting of burden, the whole life cycle needs to be taken into account. For the environmental dimension of sustainability, life cycle assessment (LCA has been practiced for a while and is a standardized method. A life cycle approach for the social and economic pillars of sustainability needs to be further developed. This paper investigates the application of life cycle costing (LCC as part of a wider sustainability assessment where also social life cycle assessment (SLCA and LCA are combined. LCA-type LCC is applied on a case study of remanufactured alternators. Remanufacturing of automobile parts is a fast growing important business with large potential for cost and resource savings. Three design alternatives for the alternator and three locations for the remanufacturing plant are evaluated. The remanufacturer perspective and the user perspective are investigated. The results for the LCA-type LCC show that the largest cost for the remanufacturer is the new parts replacing old warn parts. However, the user cost, and therein especially, cost for fuel used for the alternator’s power production dominates and should be the focus for further improvement. In conducting the case study, it was revealed that the connection between the LCA-type LCC results and the economic dimension of sustainability needs to be further investigated and defined. For this purpose, areas of protection for life cycle sustainability assessment and LCA-type LCC in particular need further development.

  14. Study on the alternative mitigation of cement dust spread by capturing the dust with fogging method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwanta, Jaka; Marnoto, Tjukup; Setyono, Prabang; Handono Ramelan, Ari

    2017-12-01

    The existence of a cement plant impact the lives of people around the factory site. For example the air quality, which is polluted by dust. Cement plant has made various efforts to mitigate the generated dust, but there are still alot of dust fly inground either from the cement factory chimneys or transportation. The purpose of this study was to conduct a review of alternative mitigation of the spread of dust around the cement plant. This study uses research methods such as collecting secondary data which includes data of rain density, the average rains duration, wind speed and direction as well as data of dust intensity quality around PT. Semen Gresik (Persero) Tbk.Tuban plant. A soft Wind rose file is used To determine the wind direction propensity models. The impact on the spread of dust into the environment is determined using secondary data monitoring air quality. Results of the study is that the mitigation of dust around the cement plant is influenced by natural factors, such as the tendency of wind direction, rain fall and rainy days, and the rate of dust emission from the chimney. The alternative means proposed is an environmental friendly fogging dust catcher.

  15. Energy and cost saving results for advanced technology systems from the Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagerman, G. D.; Barna, G. J.; Burns, R. K.

    1979-01-01

    An overview of the organization and methodology of the Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study is presented. The objectives of the study were to identify the most attractive advanced energy conversion systems for industrial cogeneration applications in the future and to assess the advantages of advanced technology systems compared to those systems commercially available today. Advanced systems studied include steam turbines, open and closed cycle gas turbines, combined cycles, diesel engines, Stirling engines, phosphoric acid and molten carbonate fuel cells and thermionics. Steam turbines, open cycle gas turbines, combined cycles, and diesel engines were also analyzed in versions typical of today's commercially available technology to provide a base against which to measure the advanced systems. Cogeneration applications in the major energy consuming manufacturing industries were considered. Results of the study in terms of plant level energy savings, annual energy cost savings and economic attractiveness are presented for the various energy conversion systems considered.

  16. Parametric and alternative studies for fusion experimental reactor (FER) (FY 1984)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    Since 1980 the design study has been conducted at JAERI for the Fusion Experimental Reactor (FER) which has been proposed to be the next machine to JT-60 in the Japanese long term program of fusion reactor development. Starting from 1984 FER design is being reviewed and redesigned. This report is a part of the interim report which describes the results obtained in the review and redesign activities in FY 1984. This report includes the following parametric and alternative studies for the FER reference design: 1) parametric studies concerning with core plasma magnets, and operation scenario and power supply, 2) tritium breeding blanket, 3) the study for the steady state operation FER, 4) OTHERS. (AUTHOR)

  17. MeCaSDa and ECaSDa: Methane and ethene calculated spectroscopic databases for the virtual atomic and molecular data centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ba, Yaye Awa; Wenger, Christian; Surleau, Romain; Boudon, Vincent; Rotger, Maud; Daumont, Ludovic; Bonhommeau, David A.; Tyuterev, Vladimir G.; Dubernet, Marie-Lise

    2013-01-01

    Two spectroscopic relational databases, denoted MeCaSDa and ECaSDa, have been implemented for methane and ethene, and included in VAMDC (Virtual Atomic and Molecular Data Centre, (http://portal.vamdc.eu/vamdc_portal/home.seam)). These databases collect calculated spectroscopic data from the accurate analyses previously performed for the electronic ground state of methane, ethene, and some of their isotopologues: 12 CH 4 , 13 CH 4 , and 12 C 2 H 4 . Both infrared absorption and Raman scattering lines are included. The polyad structures are reported and the transitions are precisely described by their energy, their intensity and the full description of the lower and upper states involved in the transitions. The relational schemas of ECaSDa and MeCaSDa databases are equivalent and optimised to enable the better compromise between data retrieval and compatibility with the XSAMS (XML Schema for Atoms, Molecules, and Solids) format adopted within the VAMDC European project. -- Highlights: • We present two new spectroscopic databases, MeCaSDa and ECaSDa. • They contain calculated line lists for methane and ethene, respectively. • They collect data from accurate analyses previously preformed. • They are included in the Virtual Atomic and Molecular Data Centre (VAMDC)

  18. Advanced Transportation System Studies. Technical Area 3: Alternate Propulsion Subsystem Concepts. Volume 1; Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levack, Daniel J. H.

    2000-01-01

    The Alternate Propulsion Subsystem Concepts contract had seven tasks defined that are reported under this contract deliverable. The tasks were: FAA Restart Study, J-2S Restart Study, Propulsion Database Development. SSME Upper Stage Use. CERs for Liquid Propellant Rocket Engines. Advanced Low Cost Engines, and Tripropellant Comparison Study. The two restart studies, F-1A and J-2S, generated program plans for restarting production of each engine. Special emphasis was placed on determining changes to individual parts due to obsolete materials, changes in OSHA and environmental concerns, new processes available, and any configuration changes to the engines. The Propulsion Database Development task developed a database structure and format which is easy to use and modify while also being comprehensive in the level of detail available. The database structure included extensive engine information and allows for parametric data generation for conceptual engine concepts. The SSME Upper Stage Use task examined the changes needed or desirable to use the SSME as an upper stage engine both in a second stage and in a translunar injection stage. The CERs for Liquid Engines task developed qualitative parametric cost estimating relationships at the engine and major subassembly level for estimating development and production costs of chemical propulsion liquid rocket engines. The Advanced Low Cost Engines task examined propulsion systems for SSTO applications including engine concept definition, mission analysis. trade studies. operating point selection, turbomachinery alternatives, life cycle cost, weight definition. and point design conceptual drawings and component design. The task concentrated on bipropellant engines, but also examined tripropellant engines. The Tripropellant Comparison Study task provided an unambiguous comparison among various tripropellant implementation approaches and cycle choices, and then compared them to similarly designed bipropellant engines in the

  19. Environmental conflict analysis using an integrated grey clustering and entropy-weight method: A case study of a mining project in Peru.

    OpenAIRE

    Delgado-Villanueva, Kiko Alexi; Romero Gil, Inmaculada

    2016-01-01

    [EN] Environmental conflict analysis (henceforth ECA) has become a key factor for the viability of projects and welfare of affected populations. In this study, we propose an approach for ECA using an integrated grey clustering and entropy-weight method (The IGCEW method). The case study considered a mining project in northern Peru. Three stakeholder groups and seven criteria were identified. The data were gathered by conducting field interviews. The results revealed that for the groups urban ...

  20. Study of the standard direct costs of various techniques of advanced endoscopy. Comparison with surgical alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loras, Carme; Mayor, Vicenç; Fernández-Bañares, Fernando; Esteve, Maria

    2018-03-12

    The complexity of endoscopy has carried out an increase in cost that has a direct effect on the healthcare systems. However, few studies have analyzed the cost of advanced endoscopic procedures (AEP). To carry out a calculation of the standard direct costs of AEP, and to make a financial comparison with their surgical alternatives. Calculation of the standard direct cost in carrying out each procedure. An endoscopist detailed the time, personnel, materials, consumables, recovery room time, stents, pathology and medication used. The cost of surgical procedures was the average cost recorded in the hospital. Thirty-eight AEP were analyzed. The technique showing lowest cost was gastroscopy + APC (€116.57), while that with greatest cost was ERCP with cholangioscopy + stent placement (€5083.65). Some 34.2% of the procedures registered average costs of €1000-2000. In 57% of cases, the endoscopic alternative was 2-5 times more cost-efficient than surgery, in 31% of cases indistinguishable or up to 1.4 times more costly. Standard direct cost of the majority of AEP is reported using a methodology that enables easy application in other centers. For the most part, endoscopic procedures are more cost-efficient than the corresponding surgical procedure. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. A First Case Study of a Life Cycle-Based Alternatives Assessment (LCAA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantke, Peter; Huang, L.; Overcash, Michael

    2017-01-01

    cycle impacts. Our approach is evaluated in a case study, through which we outline future research needs to fully operationalize a consistent and Life Cycle-based Alternatives Assessment (LCAA). We build on a flexible mass balance-based modeling system yielding cumulative multimedia transfer fractions...... and exposure pathway-specific Product Intake Fractions defined as chemical mass taken in by humans per unit mass of chemical in a product. When combined with chemical masses in products and further with toxicity information, this approach is a resourceful way to inform AA. Our case study reveals that replacing...... various population groups including workers, consumers and the general public, while life cycle impacts need to focus on categories relevant for a given AA chemical-product application. We systematically define the scope of AA and identify key elements for quantitatively considering exposure and life...

  2. Carbon offsets as an economic alternative to large-scale logging: a case study in Guyana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborne, T. [Energy and Resources Group, University of California Berkeley, 310 Barrows Hall, Berkeley CA 94720 (United States); Kiker, C. [Food and Resource Economics Department, University of Florida, PO Box 110240, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2005-03-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the economic viability of carbon-offset projects that avoid logging in Guyana's forests. The results of this case study illustrate the cost effectiveness of alternative land-use options that reduce deforestation and associated greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This analysis demonstrates that using Guyana's rainforests for climate change mitigation can generate equivalent revenue to that of conventional large-scale logging without detrimental environmental impacts. At a 12% discount rate, the break-even price for carbon is estimated to be about US$ 0.20/tC. This estimate falls toward the low range of carbon prices for existing carbon offset projects that avoid deforestation.

  3. Experimental studies on the elimination of minimal residual leukemia in vivo by alternate half body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu Jianxin

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a new way for leukemia patients to tolerate an ablative chemoradiotherapy without BMT. Previous studies had demonstrated that only a few leukemia cells remained in the body during remission phase following chemotherapy and did not migrate to distant organs via the circulation until they had given rise to 3 ∼ 4 x 10 5 new cells. The period required for such growth was about 20 days. However, hematopoietic stem cells migrate earlier than do leukemia cells. Therefore, alternate half body irradiation (HBI) within this period would kill the residual leukemia cells, but hematopoietic stem cells would migrate from shielded marrow to irradiated marrow and reconstruct hematopoiesis

  4. Alternate superior Julia sets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadav, Anju; Rani, Mamta

    2015-01-01

    Alternate Julia sets have been studied in Picard iterative procedures. The purpose of this paper is to study the quadratic and cubic maps using superior iterates to obtain Julia sets with different alternate structures. Analytically, graphically and computationally it has been shown that alternate superior Julia sets can be connected, disconnected and totally disconnected, and also fattier than the corresponding alternate Julia sets. A few examples have been studied by applying different type of alternate structures

  5. Project Alternative Systems Study - PASS. Analysis of performance and long-term safety of repository concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birgersson, L.; Skagius, K.; Wiborgh, M.; Widen, H.

    1992-09-01

    This study is part of the Project on Alternative Systems Study, PASS, with the overall aim to perform a technical/economical ranking of alternative repository concepts and canisters for the final storage of spent nuclear fuel. The comparison should in the first stage separately assess technology in construction and operation, long-term performance and safety, and costs. Three of the repository concepts are assumed to be located at a depth of approximately 500 m in the host rock, KBS-3, Very Long Holes (VLH) and Medium Long Holes (MLH). In the KBS-3 concept the canisters are deposited in vertical deposition holes in a system of parallel storage tunnels. In the VLH concept larger canisters are deposited in long horizontal tunnels. The MLH concept, is an evolution of the two other concepts, with KBS-3 type canisters deposited in horizontal tunnels. Smaller canisters are to be deposited in deep bore holes at a depth between 2000 to 4000 m in the Very Deep Holes (VDH) concept. In all concepts the canisters will be surrounded by a bentonite buffer. The aim of the present study is to analyze and compare the performance and long-term safety of the repository concepts. Only a qualitative comparison of the concepts is made as no calculations of radionuclide releases or dose to man have been performed. The ranking of the repository concepts was carried out by comparing the VDH, VLH and MLH concept with the KBS-3 concept. The performance and long-term safety of the repositories located at 500 m level will be based on a multiple barrier system and the predictions for the concepts will involve similar uncertainties. (54 refs.)

  6. Alternative security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weston, B.H.

    1990-01-01

    This book contains the following chapters: The Military and Alternative Security: New Missions for Stable Conventional Security; Technology and Alternative Security: A Cherished Myth Expires; Law and Alternative Security: Toward a Just World Peace; Politics and Alternative Security: Toward a More Democratic, Therefore More Peaceful, World; Economics and Alternative Security: Toward a Peacekeeping International Economy; Psychology and Alternative Security: Needs, Perceptions, and Misperceptions; Religion and Alternative Security: A Prophetic Vision; and Toward Post-Nuclear Global Security: An Overview

  7. Selection of the Best Alternative of Heating System by Environmental Impact Assessment—Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlasta Ondrejka Harbulakova

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Framework Directive 2009/28/EC on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources aims at developing the local and regional electricity market in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. A comparison study of the proposed activities of construction of a new biomass-fired power plant or reconstruction of an old one-gas power plant in town located in eastern Slovakia is presented in this paper. The method of the index coefficient was used for choosing the best alternatives. Multicriteria analysis proved that the construction of biomass-fired power plant is the most suitable solution chosen from three assessed variants (no activity is implemented, biomass power plant and modernized gas boiler.

  8. Preliminary design study of an alternate heat source assembly for a Brayton isotope power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strumpf, H. J.

    1978-01-01

    Results are presented for a study of the preliminary design of an alternate heat source assembly (HSA) intended for use in the Brayton isotope power system (BIPS). The BIPS converts thermal energy emitted by a radioactive heat source into electrical energy by means of a closed Brayton cycle. A heat source heat exchanger configuration was selected and optimized. The design consists of a 10 turn helically wound Hastelloy X tube. Thermal analyses were performed for various operating conditions to ensure that post impact containment shell (PICS) temperatures remain within specified limits. These limits are essentially satisfied for all modes of operation except for the emergency cooling system for which the PICS temperatures are too high. Neon was found to be the best choice for a fill gas for auxiliary cooling system operation. Low cycle fatigue life, natural frequency, and dynamic loading requirements can be met with minor modifications to the existing HSA.

  9. Taking a case study approach to assessing alternative leadership models in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jonathan; Mayo, Paula

    2018-06-14

    Good leadership is essential to patient-centred care and staff satisfaction in the healthcare environment. All members of the healthcare team can be leaders and evidence-based theory should inform their leadership practice. This article uses a case study approach to critically evaluate leadership as exercised by a charge nurse and a student nurse in a clinical scenario. Ineffective leadership styles are identified and alternatives proposed; considerable attention is given to critiquing both 'heroic' and 'post-heroic' transformational leadership theories. The concept of power will also be discussed, as power and leadership are closely related, and the importance of empowering members of the healthcare team through altering organisational structure is emphasised. This article advocates leadership that encourages innovation, enhances patient-centred care, encourages excellence and has ethical integrity. Recommendations of appropriate models of leadership are provided, while existing gaps in the healthcare leadership literature are highlighted.

  10. Study of greenhouse gases reduction alternatives for the exploitation of non conventional oil sands in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouchonneau, Deborah [Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), Paris (France)

    2008-07-01

    High energy prices and greenhouse gases reduction represent the main challenges the current worldwide energetic situation has to face. As a consequence, paradox strategies can be highlighted: oil prices are sufficiently high to exploit non conventional oil resources, like extra heavy oils and oil sands. But the production of these resources emits larger GHG than the conventional oil path and implies other major environmental issues (water management, risks of soil pollution, destruction of the boreal forest), incompatible with the rules validated by the protocol of Kyoto. At the light of the new greenhouse gases reduction regulation framework announced by the Canadian Federal government, this work focuses on the study of greenhouse gases reduction alternatives applied to the non conventional oil sands exploitation in Canada. (author)

  11. Environmental assessment of alternative municipal solid waste management strategies. A Spanish case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovea, M D; Ibáñez-Forés, V; Gallardo, A; Colomer-Mendoza, F J

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study is to compare, from an environmental point of view, different alternatives for the management of municipal solid waste generated in the town of Castellón de la Plana (Spain). This town currently produces 207 ton of waste per day and the waste management system employed today involves the collection of paper/cardboard, glass and light packaging from materials banks and of rest waste at street-side containers. The proposed alternative scenarios were based on a combination of the following elements: selective collection targets to be accomplished by the year 2015 as specified in the Spanish National Waste Plan (assuming they are reached to an extent of 50% and 100%), different collection models implemented nationally, and diverse treatments of both the separated biodegradable fraction and the rest waste to be disposed of on landfills. This resulted in 24 scenarios, whose environmental behaviour was studied by applying the life cycle assessment methodology. In accordance with the ISO 14040-44 (2006) standard, an inventory model was developed for the following stages of the waste management life cycle: pre-collection (bags and containers), collection, transport, pre-treatment (waste separation) and treatment/disposal (recycling, composting, biogasification+composting, landfill with/without energy recovery). Environmental indicators were obtained for different impact categories, which made it possible to identify the key variables in the waste management system and the scenario that offers the best environmental behaviour. Finally, a sensitivity analysis was used to test some of the assumptions made in the initial life cycle inventory model. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Oxidative degradation of alternative gasoline oxygenates in aqueous solution by ultrasonic irradiation: Mechanistic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Duk Kyung, E-mail: dkim@aum.edu [Department of Physical Science, Auburn University Montgomery, Montgomery, AL 36117 (United States); O' Shea, Kevin E., E-mail: osheak@fiu.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Florida International University, University Park, Miami, FL 33199 (United States); Cooper, William J. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Urban Water Research Center, University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697-2175 (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Widespread pollution has been associated with gasoline oxygenates of branched ethers methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), di-isopropyl ether (DIPE), ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE), and tert-amyl ether (TAME) which enter groundwater. The contaminated plume develops rapidly and treatment for the removal/destruction of these ethers is difficult when using conventional methods. Degradation of MTBE, with biological methods and advanced oxidation processes, are rather well known; however, fewer studies have been reported for degradation of alternative oxygenates. Degradation of alternative gasoline oxygenates (DIPE, ETBE, and TAME) by ultrasonic irradiation in aqueous oxygen saturation was investigated to elucidate degradation pathways. Detailed degradation mechanisms are proposed for each gasoline oxygenate. The common major degradation pathways are proposed to involve abstraction of {alpha}-hydrogen atoms by hydroxyl radicals generated during ultrasound cavitation and low temperature pyrolytic degradation of ETBE and TAME. Even some of the products from {beta}-H abstraction overlap with those from high temperature pyrolysis, the effect of {beta}-H abstraction was not shown clearly from product study because of possible 1,5 H-transfer inside cavitating bubbles. Formation of hydrogen peroxide and organic peroxides was also determined during sonolysis. These data provide a better understanding of the degradation pathways of gasoline oxygenates by sonolysis in aqueous solutions. The approach may also serve as a model for others interested in the details of sonolysis. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gasoline oxygenates (ETBE, TAME, DIPE) were completely degraded after 6 hours under ultrasonic irradiation in O{sub 2} saturation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The major degradation pathways were proposed to involve abstraction of {alpha}-hydrogen atoms by hydroxyl radicals and low temperature pyrolytic degradation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of {beta

  13. Cheese is a reliable alternative meal for solid-phase gastric emptying study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drubach, Laura A; Kourmouzi, Vasiliki; Fahey, Frederic H

    2010-05-01

    We evaluated the labeling stability of several alternative meals that could be used to perform solid-phase gastric emptying study. Cooked egg whites labeled with technetium-99m sulfur colloid served as a control. Packaged instant oatmeal and instant mashed potatoes were prepared by adding hot water. Cheddar cheese was melted. Peanut butter was added to bread. The different meals were mixed with technetium-99m sulfur colloid (2.2-3.7 MBq), chopped into small pieces and placed in a glass tube containing gastric juice. Four samples of each meal were analyzed after 1 and 4 h of agitation with a 3-D rotator (two samples per time point). The meal samples were washed with 2 ml of saline and filtered using a blood transfusion filter. The activity in each sample before and after filtering was assayed in a dose calibrator. The percentage of initial radioactivity remaining with the meal of admixture with gastric juice was measured and the average of the two samples was taken. The percentage of activity bound to the solid phase was 98.2+/-1.9, 95.6+/-1.1, 62.1+/-1.7, 41.8+/-0.6, and 74.5+/-3.8% at 1 h and 98.5+/-1.0, 95.8+/-2.6, 77.2+/-6.8, 55.5+/-3.4 and 40.2+/-22.1 at 4 h for egg whites, cheese, oatmeal, mashed potatoes and peanut butter respectively. For egg whites and cheese, there was no significant difference between the values at 1 and 4 h (P>0.8). Cheddar cheese provides an alternative meal for assessing solid gastric emptying in children comparable to egg whites. Oatmeal and mashed potatoes had low and variable labeling stability and are not recommended. In view of the significant proportion of pediatric patients who refuse to eat scrambled eggs or have allergy to eggs, the availability of other meal choices is essential. The versatility of cheddar cheese, which can be added to macaroni or as a topping on pizza, makes it a useful alternative to labeled eggs.

  14. Provider and patient perspectives on opioids and alternative treatments for managing chronic pain: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penney, Lauren S; Ritenbaugh, Cheryl; DeBar, Lynn L; Elder, Charles; Deyo, Richard A

    2017-03-24

    Current literature describes the limits and pitfalls of using opioid pharmacotherapy for chronic pain and the importance of identifying alternatives. The objective of this study was to identify the practical issues patients and providers face when accessing alternatives to opioids, and how multiple parties view these issues. Qualitative data were gathered to evaluate the outcomes of acupuncture and chiropractic (A/C) services for chronic musculoskeletal pain (CMP) using structured interview guides among patients with CMP (n = 90) and primary care providers (PCPs) (n = 25) purposively sampled from a managed care health care system as well as from contracted community A/C providers (n = 14). Focus groups and interviews were conducted patients with CMP with varying histories of A/C use. Plan PCPs and contracted A/C providers took part in individual interviews. All participants were asked about their experiences managing chronic pain and experience with and/or attitudes about A/C treatment. Audio recordings were transcribed and thematically coded. A summarized version of the focus group/interview guides is included in the Additional file 1. We identified four themes around opioid use: (1) attitudes toward use of opioids to manage chronic pain; (2) the limited alternative options for chronic pain management; (3) the potential of A/C care as a tool to help manage pain; and (4) the complex system around chronic pain management. Despite widespread dissatisfaction with opioid medications for pain management, many practical barriers challenged access to other options. Most of the participants' perceived A/C care as helpful for short term pain relief. We identified that problems with timing, expectations, and plan coverage limited A/C care potential for pain relief treatment. These results suggest that education about realistic expectations for chronic pain management and therapy options, as well as making A/C care more easily accessible, might lead to more

  15. Preventing long-lasting fear recovery using bilateral alternating sensory stimulation: A translational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurtz, H; El-Khoury-Malhame, M; Wilhelm, F H; Michael, T; Beetz, E M; Roques, J; Reynaud, E; Courtin, J; Khalfa, S; Herry, C

    2016-05-03

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a highly debilitating and prevalent psychological disorder. It is characterized by highly distressing intrusive trauma memories that are partly explained by fear conditioning. Despite efficient therapeutic approaches, a subset of PTSD patients displays spontaneous recurrence of traumatic memories after successful treatment. The development of animal behavioral models mimicking the individual variability in treatment outcome for PTSD patients represent therefore an important challenge as it allows for the identification of predicting factors of resilience or susceptibility to relapse. However, to date, only few animal behavioral models of long-lasting fear recovery have been developed and their predictive validity has not been tested directly. The objectives of this study were twofold. First we aimed to develop a simple animal behavioral model of long-lasting fear recovery based on auditory cued fear conditioning and extinction learning, which recapitulates the heterogeneity of fear responses observed in PTSD patients after successful treatment. Second we aimed at testing the predictive validity of our behavioral model and used to this purpose a translational approach based (i) on the demonstration of the efficiency of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) therapy to reduce conditioned fear responses in PTSD patients and (ii) on the implementation in our behavioral model of an electrical bilateral alternating stimulation of the eyelid which mimics the core feature of EMDR. Our data indicate that electrical bilateral alternating stimulation of the eyelid during extinction learning alleviates long-lasting fear recovery of conditioned fear responses and dramatically reduces inter-individual variability. These results demonstrate the face and predictive validity of our animal behavioral model and provide an interesting tool to understand the neurobiological underpinnings of long-lasting fear recovery. Copyright

  16. Barnwell Nuclear Fuels Plant applicability study. Volume II. BNFP: utilization alternatives, evaluations, and conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-04-01

    Descriptions and status of the Barnwell separations facility and related fuel cycle facilities are given. Alternative uses other than reprocessing, evaluation of uses for reprocessing alternatives, resource utilization and its relationship to U.S. security objectives, and evaluation of ownership-management options are discussed

  17. Advanced transportation system studies, technical area 3. Alternate propulsion subsystem concepts: J-2S restart study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilja, John; Levack, Daniel

    1993-04-01

    The objectives were to assess what design changes would be required to remit late production of the J-2S engine for use as a large high energy upper stage engine. The study assessed design changes required to perform per the J-2S model specification, manufacturing changes required due to obsolescence or improvements in state-of-the-practice, availability issues for supplier provided items, and provided cost and schedule estimates for this configuration. The confidence that J-2S production could be reinitiated within reasonable costs and schedules was provided. No significant technical issues were identified in either the producibility study or in the review of previous technical data. Areas of potential cost reduction were identified which could be quantified to a greater extent with further manufacturing planning. The proposed schedule can be met with no foreseeable impacts. The results of the study provided the necessary foundation for the detailed manufacturing and test plans and non-recurring and recurring cost estimates that are needed to complete the effort to reinitiate production of the J-2S engine system.

  18. Theoretical and experimental studies on combustion of alternative fuels in cement kilns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axelsen, Ernst Petter

    2002-01-01

    In this thesis, the utilization of alternative fuels for NOx reduction by means of reburning and advanced reburning is considered. Laboratory experiments, full-scale experiments and computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations are the basis of the thesis. The goal of the work was to characterize alternative fuels used in cement kilns, with focus on the processes taking place in the precalciner of the cement kiln. To facilitate testing under controlled process conditions, a lab-scale circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) reactor was designed and constructed. A co prehensive study on the fluidization regime in CFBC reactors and precalciners was required to ensure and verify that the operational regime in the CFBC reactor was similar to the regime in a precalciner. Different alternative fuels, such as refuse derived fuel, animal meal and solid hazardous waste, were tested in the CFBC reactor, which proved well suited for characterization of alternative fuels and investigations of NOx reduction, even though the operation of a CFBC reactor is quite complex and gives a certain variation in stability. Experiments with and without circulating mass in the CFBC reactor demonstrated the importance of executing the laboratory combustion experiments in an environment similar to that in the full-scale process, i.e. in the precalciner. Animal meal is believed to follow the reduction route of selective non-catalytic r duction or advanced reburning and to have a special capability of reducing NOx during increased NOx concentrations at the reactor inlet. The increased CO emissions during advanced reburning and reburning with animal meal are most likely to be due to the competition for the OH radical during oxidation of CO and of NH 3 . Furthermore, it was shown, for all fuels, that an increased concentration of NOx at the reactor inlet increases the ratio of NOx at the exit and NOx supplied. Full-scale experiments were executed at Norcem's kiln 6 in Brevik, using solid

  19. Theoretical and experimental studies on combustion of alternative fuels in cement kilns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Axelsen, Ernst Petter

    2002-07-01

    In this thesis, the utilization of alternative fuels for NOx reduction by means of reburning and advanced reburning is considered. Laboratory experiments, full-scale experiments and computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations are the basis of the thesis. The goal of the work was to characterize alternative fuels used in cement kilns, with focus on the processes taking place in the precalciner of the cement kiln. To facilitate testing under controlled process conditions, a lab-scale circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) reactor was designed and constructed. A co prehensive study on the fluidization regime in CFBC reactors and precalciners was required to ensure and verify that the operational regime in the CFBC reactor was similar to the regime in a precalciner. Different alternative fuels, such as refuse derived fuel, animal meal and solid hazardous waste, were tested in the CFBC reactor, which proved well suited for characterization of alternative fuels and investigations of NOx reduction, even though the operation of a CFBC reactor is quite complex and gives a certain variation in stability. Experiments with and without circulating mass in the CFBC reactor demonstrated the importance of executing the laboratory combustion experiments in an environment similar to that in the full-scale process, i.e. in the precalciner. Animal meal is believed to follow the reduction route of selective non-catalytic r duction or advanced reburning and to have a special capability of reducing NOx during increased NOx concentrations at the reactor inlet. The increased CO emissions during advanced reburning and reburning with animal meal are most likely to be due to the competition for the OH radical during oxidation of CO and of NH{sub 3}. Furthermore, it was shown, for all fuels, that an increased concentration of NOx at the reactor inlet increases the ratio of NOx at the exit and NOx supplied. Full-scale experiments were executed at Norcem's kiln 6 in Brevik, using solid

  20. Theoretical and experimental studies on combustion of alternative fuels in cement kilns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Axelsen, Ernst Petter

    2002-07-01

    In this thesis, the utilization of alternative fuels for NOx reduction by means of reburning and advanced reburning is considered. Laboratory experiments, full-scale experiments and computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations are the basis of the thesis. The goal of the work was to characterize alternative fuels used in cement kilns, with focus on the processes taking place in the precalciner of the cement kiln. To facilitate testing under controlled process conditions, a lab-scale circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) reactor was designed and constructed. A co prehensive study on the fluidization regime in CFBC reactors and precalciners was required to ensure and verify that the operational regime in the CFBC reactor was similar to the regime in a precalciner. Different alternative fuels, such as refuse derived fuel, animal meal and solid hazardous waste, were tested in the CFBC reactor, which proved well suited for characterization of alternative fuels and investigations of NOx reduction, even though the operation of a CFBC reactor is quite complex and gives a certain variation in stability. Experiments with and without circulating mass in the CFBC reactor demonstrated the importance of executing the laboratory combustion experiments in an environment similar to that in the full-scale process, i.e. in the precalciner. Animal meal is believed to follow the reduction route of selective non-catalytic r duction or advanced reburning and to have a special capability of reducing NOx during increased NOx concentrations at the reactor inlet. The increased CO emissions during advanced reburning and reburning with animal meal are most likely to be due to the competition for the OH radical during oxidation of CO and of NH{sub 3}. Furthermore, it was shown, for all fuels, that an increased concentration of NOx at the reactor inlet increases the ratio of NOx at the exit and NOx supplied. Full-scale experiments were executed at Norcem's kiln 6 in Brevik, using

  1. PEEK-OPTIMA? as an alternative to cobalt chrome in the femoral component of total knee replacement: A preliminary study

    OpenAIRE

    Cowie, Raelene M; Briscoe, Adam; Fisher, John; Jennings, Louise M

    2016-01-01

    PEEK-OPTIMA™ (Invibio Ltd, UK) has been considered as an alternative joint arthroplasty bearing material due to its favourable mechanical properties and the biocompatibility of its wear debris. In this study, the potential to use injection moulded PEEK-OPTIMA™ as an alternative to cobalt chrome in the femoral component of a total knee replacement was investigated in terms of its wear performance. Experimental wear simulation of three cobalt chrome and three PEEK-OPTIMA™ femoral components art...

  2. Alternative Exercise Technologies to Fight against Sarcopenia at Old Age: A Series of Studies and Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Kemmler

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The most effective physiologic mean to prevent sarcopenia and related muscle malfunction is a physically active lifestyle, or even better, physical exercise. However, due to time constraints, lack of motivation, or physical limitations, a large number of elderly subjects are either unwilling or unable to perform conventional workouts. In this context, two new exercise technologies, whole-body vibration (WBV and whole-body electromyostimulation (WB-EMS, may exhibit a save, autonomous, and efficient alternative to increase or maintain muscle mass and function. Regarding WB-EMS, the few recent studies indeed demonstrated highly relevant effects of this technology on muscle mass, strength, and power parameters at least in the elderly, with equal or even higher effects compared with conventional resistance exercise. On the contrary, although the majority of studies with elderly subjects confirmed the positive effect of WBV on strength and power parameters, a corresponding relevant effect on muscle mass was not reported. However, well-designed studies with adequate statistical power should focus more intensely on this issue.

  3. Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) as an alternative host to study fungal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Patrícia Canteri; Morey, Alexandre Tadachi; Castanheira, Gabriel Marcondes; Bocate, Karla Paiva; Panagio, Luciano Aparecido; Ito, Fabio Augusto; Furlaneto, Márcia Cristina; Yamada-Ogatta, Sueli Fumie; Costa, Idessânia Nazareth; Mora-Montes, Hector Manuel; Almeida, Ricardo Sergio

    2015-11-01

    Models of host–pathogen interactions are crucial for the analysis of microbial pathogenesis. In this context, invertebrate hosts, including Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly), Caenorhabditis elegans (nematode) and Galleria mellonella (moth), have been used to study the pathogenesis of fungi and bacteria. Each of these organisms offers distinct benefits in elucidating host–pathogen interactions. In this study,we present a newinvertebrate infection model to study fungal infections: the Tenebrio molitor (beetle) larvae. Here we performed T. molitor larvae infection with one of two important fungal human pathogens, Candida albicans or Cryptococcus neoformans, and analyzed survival curves and larva infected tissues.We showed that increasing concentrations of inoculum of both fungi resulted in increased mortality rates, demonstrating the efficiency of the method to evaluate the virulence of pathogenic yeasts. Additionally, following 12 h post-infection, C. albicans formsmycelia, spreading its hyphae through the larva tissue,whilst GMS stain enabled the visualization of C. neoformans yeast and theirmelanin capsule. These larvae are easier to cultivate in the laboratory than G. mellonella larvae, and offer the same benefits. Therefore, this insect model could be a useful alternative tool to screen clinical pathogenic yeast strainswith distinct virulence traits or different mutant strains.

  4. A STUDY ON LIMITATION OF GOVERNMENT INITIATIVE MODEL FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL VEHICLE (AFV PROMOTION IN CHINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byunghun Choi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Chinese responsibility for reducing Greenhouse Gas or carbon dioxide emission increases continuously. Chinese government suggested two targets; Alternative Fuel Vehicle output volume 500 thousand and AFV market share 5% by the end of 2011. However any of two targets did not come true. Therefore this study accessed the question, ‘why Chinese government initiative model for AFV promotion has been so poor?’ This study reviewed the transition process for AFV policies in China and made a structural analysis for three key policies since 2009. As a result the number of articles for related industries or factor endowments was relatively more than firm strategy or demand conditions. Also this study accessed the AFV strategy of Six SOEs from the perspective of social responsibility. Six SOEs have more concentrated on electric vehicle rather than hybrid vehicle with following the government leadership. However major EV or HEV models of them mostly were made by Joint Ventures being under control of foreign makers and the JVs have actually controlled over AFV business. So the limitation of Chinese government initiative model resulted from supplier-centric approach with targeting for public transportation and institution consumer, and it caused a failure to create the demand conditions of general customers.

  5. LCA to choose among alternative design solutions: The case study of a new Italian incineration line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scipioni, A.; Mazzi, A.; Niero, M.; Boatto, T.

    2009-01-01

    At international level LCA is being increasingly used to objectively evaluate the performances of different Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) management solutions. One of the more important waste management options concerns MSW incineration. LCA is usually applied to existing incineration plants. In this study LCA methodology was applied to a new Italian incineration line, to facilitate the prediction, during the design phase, of its potential environmental impacts in terms of damage to human health, ecosystem quality and consumption of resources. The aim of the study was to analyse three different design alternatives: an incineration system with dry flue gas cleaning (without- and with-energy recovery) and one with wet flue gas cleaning. The last two technological solutions both incorporating facilities for energy recovery were compared. From the results of the study, the system with energy recovery and dry flue gas cleaning revealed lower environmental impacts in relation to the ecosystem quality. As LCA results are greatly affected by uncertainties of different types, the second part of the work provides for an uncertainty analysis aimed at detecting the extent output data from life cycle analysis are influenced by uncertainty of input data, and employs both qualitative (pedigree matrix) and quantitative methods (Monte Carlo analysis).

  6. ALTERNATIVE REMEDIATION TECHNOLOGY STUDY FOR GROUNDWATER TREATMENT AT 200-PO-1 OPERABLE UNIT AT HANFORD SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DADO MA

    2008-07-31

    This study focuses on the remediation methods and technologies applicable for use at 200-PO-I Groundwater Operable Unit (OU) at the Hanford Site. The 200-PO-I Groundwater au requires groundwater remediation because of the existence of contaminants of potential concern (COPC). A screening was conducted on alternative technologies and methods of remediation to determine which show the most potential for remediation of groundwater contaminants. The possible technologies were screened to determine which would be suggested for further study and which were not applicable for groundwater remediation. COPCs determined by the Hanford Site groundwater monitoring were grouped into categories based on properties linking them by remediation methods applicable to each COPC group. The screening considered the following criteria. (1) Determine if the suggested method or technology can be used for the specific contaminants found in groundwater and if the technology can be applied at the 200-PO-I Groundwater au, based on physical characteristics such as geology and depth to groundwater. (2) Evaluate screened technologies based on testing and development stages, effectiveness, implementability, cost, and time. This report documents the results of an intern research project conducted by Mathew Dado for Central Plateau Remediation in the Soil and Groundwater Remediation Project. The study was conducted under the technical supervision of Gloria Cummins and management supervision of Theresa Bergman and Becky Austin.

  7. AN EMPIRICAL STUDY OF ECONOMIC ALTERNATIVES FOR THE ELDERLY IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Podoabă Lucia

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is part of an applied, broad, based popular empirical procedures (such as natural observation scientific research. The positivist research methodology used was based on consensual-inductive system (Locke, which is why we studied different specialists’ opinions on the use of EU funds for the elderly in Romania or employer contributions to voluntary private funds, necessary to formulate the problem of generating relevant information. The used research strategies were the comparative and longitudinal ones, as we analyzed the time evolution in time of the number of pensioners and employees in Romania, in the main time with the EU funding for the elderly, to determine Romania's concrete economic alternatives to support this category of populations. Causality assumptions about the relationship efficient use of EU funds-beneficiaries was inductively built in this paper (by analyzing the European funds management issue in Romania, causally (by cause and effect explanation of the studied phenomenon, deductively, logically and subjectively (on the basis of existence and perpetuation of fund premise conflict between strategic absorption of European funds and regional development. The qualitative approach of the phenomenon studied was made by collecting information (using the mediate data collection technique has allowed relevant findings and practical solutions necessary for all those involved in this concerted action for the elderly, which affects us all.

  8. An alternative methodology for the analysis of electrical resistivity data from a soil gas study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Sara; Rosqvist, Hâkan; Svensson, Mats; Dahlin, Torleif; Leroux, Virginie

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this paper is to present an alternative method for the analysis of resistivity data. The methodology was developed during a study to evaluate if electrical resistivity can be used as a tool for analysing subsurface gas dynamics and gas emissions from landfills. The main assumption of this study was that variations in time of resistivity data correspond to variations in the relative amount of gas and water in the soil pores. Field measurements of electrical resistivity, static chamber gas flux and weather data were collected at a landfill in Helsingborg, Sweden. The resistivity survey arrangement consisted of nine lines each with 21 electrodes in an investigation area of 16 ×20 m. The ABEM Lund Imaging System provided vertical and horizontal resistivity profiles every second hour. The data were inverted in Res3Dinv using L1-norm-based optimization method with a standard least-squares formulation. Each horizontal soil layer was then represented as a linear interpolated raster model. Different areas underneath the gas flux measurement points were defined in the resistivity model of the uppermost soil layer, and the vertical extension of the zones could be followed at greater depths in deeper layer models. The average resistivity values of the defined areas were calculated and plotted on a time axis, to provide graphs of the variation in resistivity with time in a specific section of the ground. Residual variation of resistivity was calculated by subtracting the resistivity variations caused by the diurnal temperature variations from the measured resistivity data. The resulting residual resistivity graphs were compared with field data of soil moisture, precipitation, soil temperature and methane flux. The results of the study were qualitative, but promising indications of relationships between electrical resistivity and variations in the relative amount of gas and water in the soil pores were found. Even though more research and better data quality is

  9. Alternative additives; Alternative additiver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-08-15

    In this project a number of industrial and agricultural waste products have been characterised and evaluated in terms of alkali-getter performance. The intended use is for biomass-fired power stations aiming at reducing corrosion or slagging related problems. The following products have been obtained, characterised and evaluated: 1) Brewery draff 2) Danish de-gassed manure 3) Paper sludge 4) Moulding sand 5) Spent bleaching earth 6) Anorthosite 7) Sand 8) Clay-sludge. Most of the above alternative additive candidates are deemed unsuitable due to insufficient chemical effect and/or expensive requirements for pre-treatment (such as drying and transportation). 3 products were selected for full-scale testing: de-gassed manure, spent bleaching earth and clay slugde. The full scale tests were undertaken at the biomass-fired power stations in Koege, Slagelse and Ensted. Spent bleaching earth (SBE) and clay sludge were the only tested additive candidates that had a proven ability to react with KCl, to thereby reduce Cl-concentrations in deposits, and reduce the deposit flux to superheater tubes. Their performance was shown to nearly as good as commercial additives. De-gassed manure, however, did not evaluate positively due to inhibiting effects of Ca in the manure. Furthermore, de-gassed manure has a high concentration of heavy metals, which imposes a financial burden with regard to proper disposal of the ash by-products. Clay-sludge is a wet clay slurring, and drying and transportation of this product entails substantial costs. Spent bleaching does not require much pre-treatment and is therefore the most promising alternative additive. On the other hand, bleaching earth contains residual plant oil which means that a range of legislation relating to waste combustion comes into play. Not least a waste combustion fee of 330 DKK/tonne. For all alternative (and commercial) additives disposal costs of the increase ash by-products represents a significant cost. This is

  10. Study of alternative routes for the production of innovative radionuclides for medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchemin, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear medicine is a specialty that uses radioactive nuclei for therapy or diagnosis of diseases such as different types of cancer. These radionuclides are coupled to carrier molecules to target sick cells. Currently, only few isotopes are used in clinical practice. However, many others may be of medical interest due to their emitted radiation and/or their half-life that can be adapted to the carrier molecule transit time and to the pathology. The aim of this PhD thesis is to study the production of innovative radionuclides for therapy and diagnosis applications in collaboration with the GIP ARRONAX, which possesses a multi-particle high energy cyclotron. A fundamental physical parameter to access the production rate of a radionuclide is the production cross section. Experimental data were measured for a selection of radionuclides: photon emitter (Tc-99m) and positron emitter (Sc-44g) for diagnosis, as well as electron emitters (Re-186, Tb-155 and Sn-117m) and α particles emitters (Th-226, Ra-223 and Bi-213) for therapeutic applications. These acquired data are obtained using alternative production routes compared to the commonly used. Data related to the contaminants produced during the irradiations were also extracted. The experimental cross section values are compared with theoretical model predictions. The large set of data obtained contributes to the theoretical physicist studies allowing to constrain their models to improve and/or validate them. (author)

  11. Evaluation of Skin Surface as an Alternative Source of Reference DNA Samples: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albujja, Mohammed H; Bin Dukhyil, Abdul Aziz; Chaudhary, Abdul Rauf; Kassab, Ahmed Ch; Refaat, Ahmed M; Babu, Saranya Ramesh; Okla, Mohammad K; Kumar, Sachil

    2018-01-01

    An acceptable area for collecting DNA reference sample is a part of the forensic DNA analysis development. The aim of this study was to evaluate skin surface cells (SSC) as an alternate source of reference DNA sample. From each volunteer (n = 10), six samples from skin surface areas (forearm and fingertips) and two traditional samples (blood and buccal cells) were collected. Genomic DNA was extracted and quantified then genotyped using standard techniques. The highest DNA concentration of SSC samples was collected using the tape/forearm method of collection (2.1 ng/μL). Cotton swabs moistened with ethanol yielded higher quantities of DNA than swabs moistened with salicylic acid, and it gave the highest percentage of full STR profiles (97%). This study supports the use of SSC as a noninvasive sampling technique and as a extremely useful source of DNA reference samples among certain cultures where the use of buccal swabs can be considered socially unacceptable. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  12. Effective Alternative to Constipation Medication in Nursing Home Residents: Libera Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael Sobrón Monge

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study is to ascertain the impact of administering a dessert rich in fibre and sorbitol on the prescription of laxatives in nursing home residents with constipation. Material and methods: Single-centre, interventional prospective study in elderly nursing home residents diagnosed with constipation and treated with laxatives, in which each patient is his/her own comparator. A dessert rich in fibre and sorbitol (high-fibre Resource® Fruit Purée was given for 7 weeks. The main variable was the difference in days of pharmacological treatment with laxatives between the week before the start of the study and the last week of the study. Results: 40 patients were studied with a median age of 88.5 years (range: 72–101. After 7 weeks, the residents required a mean of 3.5 fewer days per week of treatment with laxatives. Patients receiving pharmacological medication decreased by 40%. Weekly bowel movements increased by a mean of 2 while gastrointestinal discomfort decreased. The intervention did not change previous intake. Adherence to the prescribed regimen was over 94%. A decrease in the number of days with laxative therapy was associated with: consuming 5 or more desserts a week, being over 85, having poor oral health and not suffering from malnutrition or food disorders. Conclusions: Dispensing a dessert rich in fibre and sorbitol may be an effective and safe alternative to laxatives in elderly nursing home residents with constipation, and may help to reduce polymedication in these patients.

  13. Atmospheric Photochemistry Studies of Pollutant Emissions from Transportation Vehicles Operating on Alternative Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffries, H.; Sexton, K.; Yu, J.

    1998-07-01

    This project was undertaken with the goal of improving our ability to predict the changes in urban ozone resulting from the widespread use of alternative fuels in automobiles. This report presents the results in detail.

  14. Clinical study of intramedullary route as an alternative for fluid administration in young dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Luiz de Camargo

    1996-12-01

    accomplished and rapidly performed. Our results show that intramedullary route is safe and may be of great value as an alternative on the treatment of young dogs with critical hemodynamic alterations when the intravenous route is not accessible.

  15. A nested case-control study of influenza vaccination was a cost-effective alternative to a full cohort analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hak, E; Wei, F; Grobbee, D E; Nichol, K L

    OBJECTIVE: In the absence of trial results that are applicable to the target population, nested case-control studies might be an alternative to full-cohort analysis. We compared relative and absolute estimates of associations in an influenza vaccine study using both designs. STUDY DESIGN AND

  16. Alternatives to neonicotinoid insecticides for pest control: case studies in agriculture and forestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlan, Lorenzo; Kreutzweiser, David

    2015-01-01

    Neonicotinoid insecticides are widely used for control of insect pests around the world and are especially pervasive in agricultural pest management. There is a growing body of evidence indicating that the broad-scale and prophylactic uses of neonicotinoids pose serious risks of harm to beneficial organisms and their ecological function. This provides the impetus for exploring alternatives to neonicotinoid insecticides for controlling insect pests. We draw from examples of alternative pest control options in Italian maize production and Canadian forestry to illustrate the principles of applying alternatives to neonicotinoids under an integrated pest management (IPM) strategy. An IPM approach considers all relevant and available information to make informed management decisions, providing pest control options based on actual need. We explore the benefits and challenges of several options for management of three insect pests in maize crops and an invasive insect pest in forests, including diversifying crop rotations, altering the timing of planting, tillage and irrigation, using less sensitive crops in infested areas, applying biological control agents, and turning to alternative reduced risk insecticides. Continued research into alternatives is warranted, but equally pressing is the need for information transfer and training for farmers and pest managers and the need for policies and regulations to encourage the adoption of IPM strategies and their alternative pest control options.

  17. 2D CFD description of the kinematic effects of movable inlet and outlet die wall transport motion and punch shape geometry on the dynamics of viscous flow during ECAE through Segal 2θ-dies for a range of channel angles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander V. Perig

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Minimization of the dead zone (DZA in the process of material forming is a materials science problem. Geometric and kinematic approaches to the minimization of the DZA during Equal Channel Angular Extrusion (ECAE have been proposed, developed, analyzed, and documented. The present article is focused on a 2D Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD description of the kinematic effects of punch shape geometry and inlet (IDW and outlet (ODW die wall motion on the DZA during ECAE of Viscous Incompressible Continuum (VIC through a Segal 2θ-die for a range of channel angles 60° ≤ 2θ ≤ 135°. Due attention has been given to the independent alternating transport motions of the IDW and ODW. Punch shape geometry and the kinematic modes of IDW and ODW motions for DZA minimization have been determined with a numerical solution of the boundary value problem for the Navier-Stokes equations in curl transfer form for VIC. Experimental verification was accomplished with an introduction of initial circular gridlines-based physical simulation techniques. For the first time, experimental verification of CFD-derived results was made through an additional superposition of empirically-derived digital photos with deformed elliptical gridlines in the channel intersection deformation zones and correspondent 2D numerical plots with CFD-derived flow lines and full flow velocities. An empirical DZA localization was experimentally determined as the location of minimally-deformed near circular markers. The computational DZA localization was numerically determined as a flow-lines-free zone (the first hypothesis or as a zone with near-zero values of full flow velocities (the second hypothesis. The relative DZA was estimated as a ratio of the measured DZA with respect to the area of the deformation zone in the channel intersection region. A good agreement was obtained between DZA values obtained with the first hypothesis and experimental results.

  18. Study of surface potential contamination in radioisotope and radiopharmaceutical production facilities and alternative solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suhaedi Muhammad; Rimin Sumantri; Farida Tusafariah; Djarwanti Rahayu Pipin Soedjarwo

    2013-01-01

    Radioisotope and radiopharmaceutical production facilities that exist in their operations around the world in the form of radiological impacts of radiation exposure, contamination of surface and air contamination. Given the number of existing open source in radioisotope and radiopharmaceutical production facility, then the possibility of surface contamination in the work area is quite high. For that to protect the safety and health of both workers, the public and the environment, then the licensee must conduct an inventory of some of the potential that could result in contamination of surfaces in radioisotope and radiopharmaceutical production facilities. Several potential to cause surface contamination in radioisotope and radiopharmaceutical production facilities consist of loss of resources, the VAC system disorders, impaired production facilities, limited resources and lack of work discipline and radioactive waste handling activities. From the study of some potential, there are several alternative solutions that can be implemented by the licensee to address the contamination of the surface so as not to cause adverse radiological impacts for both radiation workers, the public or the environment. (author)

  19. Compartmental modeling alternatives for kinetic analysis of pet neurotransmitter receptor studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koeppe, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    With the increased interest in studying neurotransmitter and receptor function in vivo, imaging procedures using positron emission tomography have presented new challenges for kinetic modeling and analysis of data. The in vivo behavior of radiolabeled markers for examining these neurotransmitter systems can be quite complex and, therefore, the implementation of compartmental models for data analysis is similarly complex. Often, the variability in the estimates of model parameters representing neurotransmitter or receptor densities, association and dissociation rates, or rates of incorporation or turnover does not permit reliable interpretation of the data. When less complex analyses are used, these model parameters may be biased and thus also do not yield the information being sought. Examination of trade-offs between uncertainty and bias in the parameters of interest may be used to select a compartmental model configuration with an appropriate level of complexity. Modeling alternatives will be discussed for radioligands with varying kinetic properties, such as those that bind reversibly and rapidly and others that bind nearly irreversibly. Specific problems, such as those occurring when a radioligand is open-quotes flow limitedclose quotes also will be discussed

  20. Energy and cost savings results for advanced technology systems from the Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study /CTAS/

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagerman, G. D.; Barna, G. J.; Burns, R. K.

    1979-01-01

    The Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS), a program undertaken to identify the most attractive advanced energy conversion systems for industrial cogeneration applications in the 1985-2000 time period, is described, and preliminary results are presented. Two cogeneration options are included in the analysis: a topping application, in which fuel is input to the energy conversion system which generates electricity and waste heat from the conversion system is used to provide heat to the process, and a bottoming application, in which fuel is burned to provide high temperature process heat and waste heat from the process is used as thermal input to the energy conversion system which generates energy. Steam turbines, open and closed cycle gas turbines, combined cycles, diesel engines, Stirling engines, phosphoric acid and molten carbonate fuel cells and thermionics are examined. Expected plant level energy savings, annual energy cost savings, and other results of the economic analysis are given, and the sensitivity of these results to the assumptions concerning fuel prices, price of purchased electricity and the potential effects of regional energy use characteristics is discussed.

  1. Systematic study of the structure of alternate pyromellitimide-PEO copolymers: Influence of the chain flexibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djurado, David; Curtet, Jean Pierre; Bee, Marc; Michot, Christophe; Armand, Michel

    2007-01-01

    The structure of a family of copolyimides in which are alternating stiff/redox pyromellitimide units and flexible/solvating polyethyleneoxide (PEO) strands were studied by using wide angle and small angle X-ray scattering techniques and is fully discussed. It is shown that the rich variety of structures exhibited by these compounds can be understood by considering the dramatic change of flexibility of the chain induced by the variation of the length of the PEO strand compared to that of the pyromellimide segment. In this respect, concerning the compounds which exhibit fully amorphous structures a better understanding of their structural behavior can be obtained in the framework of Flory's theory of semi-rigid polymers. In this approach, the degree of flexibility of the chain is mainly resulting from the relative amount of flexible units constituting the repetition unit of the polymer chain. The final structural mode adopted by each compound in the solid state is then directly a consequence of this intrinsic property of the chain. The introduction of a lithium salt in contact with the copolymer chains induces some structure changes which can also be explained by the modification of the degree of flexibility of the chain. It is found that the best performances in terms of electroactivity and mixed conduction are precisely obtained with the only compound which keeps full amorphicity in absence and in presence of the lithium salt

  2. Alternative Chemical Cleaning Methods for High Level Waste Tanks: Simulant Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudisill, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); King, W. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hay, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jones, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-11-19

    Solubility testing with simulated High Level Waste tank heel solids has been conducted in order to evaluate two alternative chemical cleaning technologies for the dissolution of sludge residuals remaining in the tanks after the exhaustion of mechanical cleaning and sludge washing efforts. Tests were conducted with non-radioactive pure phase metal reagents, binary mixtures of reagents, and a Savannah River Site PUREX heel simulant to determine the effectiveness of an optimized, dilute oxalic/nitric acid cleaning reagent and pure, dilute nitric acid toward dissolving the bulk non-radioactive waste components. A focus of this testing was on minimization of oxalic acid additions during tank cleaning. For comparison purposes, separate samples were also contacted with pure, concentrated oxalic acid which is the current baseline chemical cleaning reagent. In a separate study, solubility tests were conducted with radioactive tank heel simulants using acidic and caustic permanganate-based methods focused on the “targeted” dissolution of actinide species known to be drivers for Savannah River Site tank closure Performance Assessments. Permanganate-based cleaning methods were evaluated prior to and after oxalic acid contact.

  3. The MAX Statistic is Less Powerful for Genome Wide Association Studies Under Most Alternative Hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shifflett, Benjamin; Huang, Rong; Edland, Steven D

    2017-01-01

    Genotypic association studies are prone to inflated type I error rates if multiple hypothesis testing is performed, e.g., sequentially testing for recessive, multiplicative, and dominant risk. Alternatives to multiple hypothesis testing include the model independent genotypic χ 2 test, the efficiency robust MAX statistic, which corrects for multiple comparisons but with some loss of power, or a single Armitage test for multiplicative trend, which has optimal power when the multiplicative model holds but with some loss of power when dominant or recessive models underlie the genetic association. We used Monte Carlo simulations to describe the relative performance of these three approaches under a range of scenarios. All three approaches maintained their nominal type I error rates. The genotypic χ 2 and MAX statistics were more powerful when testing a strictly recessive genetic effect or when testing a dominant effect when the allele frequency was high. The Armitage test for multiplicative trend was most powerful for the broad range of scenarios where heterozygote risk is intermediate between recessive and dominant risk. Moreover, all tests had limited power to detect recessive genetic risk unless the sample size was large, and conversely all tests were relatively well powered to detect dominant risk. Taken together, these results suggest the general utility of the multiplicative trend test when the underlying genetic model is unknown.

  4. Hypersensitivity reaction studies of a polyethoxylated castor oil-free, liposome-based alternative paclitaxel formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongbo; Cheng, Guang; Du, Yuan; Ye, Liang; Chen, Wenzhong; Zhang, Leiming; Wang, Tian; Tian, Jingwei; Fu, Fenghua

    2013-03-01

    The commercial drug paclitaxel (Taxol) may introduce hypersensitivity reactions associated with the polyethoxylated castor oil-ethanol solvent. To overcome these problems, we developed a polyethoxylated castor oil-free, liposome-based alternative paclitaxel formulation, known as Lipusu. In this study, we performed in vitro and in vivo experiments to compare the safety profiles of Lipusu and Taxol, with special regard to hypersensitivity reactions. First, Swiss mice were used to determine the lethal dosages, and then to evaluate hypersensitivity reactions, followed by histopathological examination and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) of serum SC5b-9 and lung histamine. Additionally, healthy human serum was used to analyze in vitro complement activation. Finally, an MTT assay was used to determine the in vitro anti-proliferation activity. Our data clearly showed that Lipusu displayed a much higher safety margin and did not induce hypersensitivity or hypersensitivity-related lung lesions, which may be associated with the fact that Lipusu did not activate complement or increase histamine release in vivo. Moreover, Lipusu did not promote complement activation in healthy human serum in vitro, and demonstrated anti-proliferative activity against human cancer cells, similar to that of Taxol. Therefore, the improved formulation of paclitaxel, which exhibited a much better safety profile and comparable cytotoxic activity to Taxol, may bring a number of benefits to cancer patients.

  5. Use of complementary alternative medicine for low back pain consulting in general practice: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenot, Jean-François; Becker, Annette; Leonhardt, Corinna; Keller, Stefan; Donner-Banzhoff, Norbert; Baum, Erika; Pfingsten, Michael; Hildebrandt, Jan; Basler, Heinz-Dieter; Kochen, Michael M

    2007-12-18

    Although back pain is considered one of the most frequent reasons why patients seek complementary and alternative medical (CAM) therapies little is known on the extent patients are actually using CAM for back pain. This is a post hoc analysis of a longitudinal prospective cohort study embedded in a RCT. General practitioners (GPs) recruited consecutively adult patients presenting with LBP. Data on physical function, on subjective mood, and on utilization of health services was collected at the first consultation and at follow-up telephone interviews for a period of twelve months A total of 691 (51%) respectively 928 (69%) out of 1,342 patients received one form of CAM depending on the definition. Local heat, massage, and spinal manipulation were the forms of CAM most commonly offered. Using CAM was associated with specialist care, chronic LBP and treatment in a rehabilitation facility. Receiving spinal manipulation, acupuncture or TENS was associated with consulting a GP providing these services. Apart from chronicity disease related factors like functional capacity or pain only showed weak or no association with receiving CAM. The frequent use of CAM for LBP demonstrates that CAM is popular in patients and doctors alike. The observed association with a treatment in a rehabilitation facility or with specialist consultations rather reflects professional preferences of the physicians than a clear medical indication. The observed dependence on providers and provider related services, as well as a significant proportion receiving CAM that did not meet the so far established selection criteria suggests some arbitrary use of CAM.

  6. Evaluation of complementary-alternative medicine (CAM) questionnaire development for Indonesian clinical psychologists: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liem, Andrian; Newcombe, Peter A; Pohlman, Annie

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate questionnaire development to measure the knowledge of Complementary-Alternative Medicine (CAM), attitudes towards CAM, CAM experiences, and CAM educational needs of clinical psychologists in Indonesia. A 26-item questionnaire was developed through an extensive literature search. Data was obtained from provisional psychologists from the Master of Professional Clinical Psychology programs at two established public universities in urban areas of Indonesia. To validate the questionnaire, panel reviews by executive members of the Indonesian Clinical Psychology Association (ICPA), experts in health psychology, and experts in public health and CAM provided their professional judgements. The self-reporting questionnaire consisted of four scales including: knowledge of CAM (6 items), attitudes towards CAM (10 items), CAM experiences (4 items), and CAM educational needs (6 items). All scales, except CAM Experiences, were assessed on a 7-point Likert scale. Sixty provisional psychologists were eligible to complete the questionnaire with a response rate of 73% (N=44). The results showed that the CAM questionnaire was reliable (Cronbach's coefficient alpha range=0.62-0.96; item-total correlation range=0.14-0.92) and demonstrated content validity. Following further psychometric evaluation, the CAM questionnaire may provide the evidence-based information to inform the education and practice of Indonesian clinical psychologists. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A comparative study of the application of alternative risk transfer methods of insurance in South Africa and Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athenia Bongani Sibindi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Alternative risk transfer techniques represent the crown jewels in the risk management arena. This non-traditional method of insurance has gained prominence over the last few decades. Against this backdrop, the present study seeks to unravel the development of the alternative risk financing insurance segment within a developing country setting. The study specifically sets out to compare and contrast the ART insurance market segments of South Africa and Zimbabwe. The study is documents that the Zimbabwean market is at a nascent stage of development, whilst the South African market is fully developed. Notwithstanding the prospects for the development of this sector looks bright

  8. Rural Australian community pharmacists' views on complementary and alternative medicine: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willis Jon A

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complementary and alternative medicines (CAMs are being used increasingly across the world. In Australia, community pharmacists are a major supplier of these products but knowledge of the products and interactions with other medicines is poor. Information regarding the use of CAMs by metropolitan pharmacists has been documented by the National Prescribing Service (NPS in Australia but the views of rural/regional community pharmacists have not been explored. The aim of this pilot study was to explore the knowledge, attitudes and information seeking of a cohort of rural community pharmacists towards CAMs and to compare the findings to the larger NPS study. Methods A cross sectional self-administered postal questionnaire was mailed to all community pharmacists in one rural/regional area of Australia. Using a range of scales, data was collected regarding attitudes, knowledge, information seeking behaviour and demographics. Results Eighty eligible questionnaires were returned. Most pharmacists reported knowing that they should regularly ask consumers if they are using CAMs but many lacked the confidence to do so. Pharmacists surveyed for this study were more knowledgeable in regards to side effects and interactions of CAMs than those in the NPS survey. Over three quarters of pharmacists surveyed reported sourcing CAM information at least several times a month. The most frequently sought information was drug interactions, dose, contraindications and adverse effects. A variety of resources were used to source information, the most popular source was the internet but the most useful resource was CAM text books. Conclusions Pharmacists have varied opinions on the use of CAMs and many lack awareness of or access to good quality CAMs information. Therefore, there is a need to provide pharmacists with opportunities for further education. The data is valuable in assisting interested stakeholders with the development of initiatives to

  9. Study of Gasohol as Alternative Fuel for Gasoline Substitution: Characteristics and Performances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bardi Murachman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Gasohol is a mixture of premium petrol (gasoline with alcohol, in this case ethanol. The use of gasohol can reduce fuel consumption without having to modify the existing engine. Therefore, this research is conducted to study the characteristics and performance of gasohol in various mixing ratios, which includes analysis of physical properties and the use of gasohol in the machine. Results show that the addition of technical ethanol at 7.0169%v increases the value of gasohol vapor pressure on the value of 8.6682 psi (7.7 psi for regular gasoline. Gasohol with technical ethanol content above 30%v decreases vapor pressure, promotes phase separation, and causes a sharp drop in temperature from 40%v distillation. In term of corrosivity, gasohol with up to 50%v ethanol content has the same corrosion level with regular gasoline, which is corrosion level 1A. Based on gasohol characteristics test, it is known that gasohol with technical ethanol content below 20%v can be used as a fuel substitute for gasoline. Real-time performance test of gasohol in engines has shown that the addition of ethanol content in gasohol tend to increase the engine power at a certain compression ratio, but it also increases fuel consumption because the heat value of ethanol is lower than gasoline. Machine in gasohol with ethanol content below 20%v can operate smoothly without having to modify the engine. Based on the studies that have been done, gasohol in the range of 10%v ethanol content is well-functioned as a substitute for gasoline fuel and meets fuel specifications required by the General Director of Oil and Gas. The feasibility of using gasohol as an alternative fuel can be studied further.

  10. Monte Carlo study of alternate mixed spin-5/2 and spin-2 Ising ferrimagnetic system on the Bethe lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jabar, A. [Laboratoire de Magnétisme et Physique des Hautes Energies L.M.P.H.E.URAC 12, Université Mohammed V, Faculté des Sciences, B.P. 1014 Rabat (Morocco); Masrour, R., E-mail: rachidmasrour@hotmail.com [Laboratoire de Magnétisme et Physique des Hautes Energies L.M.P.H.E.URAC 12, Université Mohammed V, Faculté des Sciences, B.P. 1014 Rabat (Morocco); Laboratory of Materials, Processes, Environment and Quality, Cady Ayyed University, National School of Applied Sciences, PB 63 46000 Safi (Morocco); Benyoussef, A. [Laboratoire de Magnétisme et Physique des Hautes Energies L.M.P.H.E.URAC 12, Université Mohammed V, Faculté des Sciences, B.P. 1014 Rabat (Morocco); Institute of Nanomaterials and Nanotechnologies, MAScIR, Rabat (Morocco); Hassan II Academy of Science and Technology, Rabat (Morocco); Hamedoun, M. [Institute of Nanomaterials and Nanotechnologies, MAScIR, Rabat (Morocco)

    2016-01-01

    The magnetic properties of alternate mixed spin-5/2 and spin-2 Ising model on the Bethe lattice have been studied by using the Monte Carlo simulations. The ground state phase diagrams of alternate mixed spin-5/2 and spin-2 Ising model on the Bethe lattice has been obtained. The thermal total magnetization and magnetization of spins-5/2 and spin-2 with the different exchange interactions, external magnetic field and temperatures have been studied. The critical temperature have been deduced. The magnetic hysteresis cycle on the Bethe lattice has been deduced for different values of exchange interactions, for different values of crystal field and for different sizes. The magnetic coercive field has been deduced. - Highlights: • The alternate mixed spin-5/2 and -2 on the Bethe lattice is studied. • The critical temperature has been deduced. • The magnetic coercive filed has been deduced.

  11. Monoartritis gotosa de muñeca asociada a necrosis del semilunar: a propósito de un caso clínico

    OpenAIRE

    Olmedo García, N.; Mackenney Carrasco, Enrique

    1994-01-01

    Se presenta un caso de monoartritis de muñeca asociada a imágenes radiológicas de necrosis avascular del semilunar que, tras biopsia de la sinovial, se diagnostica de artritis gotosa. Esta asociación es rara. La alteración metabólica que se produce en la gota da lugar a una sinovitis, que provoca un aumento de presión intraarticular. Esta hiperpresión en el carpo podría determinar una necrosis isquémica del semilunar, pero con una evolución diferente a la enfermedad de Kienböck...

  12. Conceptual design report: Nuclear materials storage facility renovation. Part 6, Alternatives study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Nuclear Materials Storage Facility (NMSF) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) was a Fiscal Year (FY) 1984 line-item project completed in 1987 that has never been operated because of major design and construction deficiencies. This renovation project, which will correct those deficiencies and allow operation of the facility, is proposed as an FY 97 line item. The mission of the project is to provide centralized intermediate and long-term storage of special nuclear materials (SNM) associated with defined LANL programmatic missions and to establish a centralized SNM shipping and receiving location for Technical Area (TA)-55 at LANL. Based on current projections, existing storage space for SNM at other locations at LANL will be loaded to capacity by approximately 2002. This will adversely affect LANUs ability to meet its mission requirements in the future. The affected missions include LANL's weapons research, development, and testing (WRD ampersand T) program; special materials recovery; stockpile survelliance/evaluation; advanced fuels and heat sources development and production; and safe, secure storage of existing nuclear materials inventories. The problem is further exacerbated by LANL's inability to ship any materials offsite because of the lack of receiver sites for material and regulatory issues. Correction of the current deficiencies and enhancement of the facility will provide centralized storage close to a nuclear materials processing facility. The project will enable long-term, cost-effective storage in a secure environment with reduced radiation exposure to workers, and eliminate potential exposures to the public. This report is organized according to the sections and subsections outlined by Attachment 111-2 of DOE Document AL 4700.1, Project Management System. It is organized into seven parts. This document, Part VI - Alternatives Study, presents a study of the different storage/containment options considered for NMSF

  13. A study of alternative refrigerants for the refrigeration and air conditioning sector in Mauritius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreepaul, R. K.

    2017-11-01

    The most frequently used refrigerants in the refrigeration and air conditioning (RAC) sector in Mauritius are currently hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFC) and hydrofluorocarbons (HFC). However, because of their strong influence on global warming and the impact of HCFCs on the ozone layer, refrigerants such as ammonia (NH3), carbon dioxide (CO2) and Hydrocarbons (HC), having minimal impact on the environment, are being considered. So far, HCs have only been safely used in domestic refrigeration. Ammonia has been used mainly for industrial refrigeration whereas CO2 is still under study. In this paper, a comparative study of the various feasible alternatives is presented in a survey that was undertaken with major stake holders in the field. The retrofitting possibility of existing equipment was assessed and safety issues associated with each refrigerant were analysed. The major setback of hydrocarbons as a widely accepted refrigerant is its flammability which was considered as a major safety hazard by the majority of respondents in the survey and the main advantages are the improved equipment coefficient of performance (COP) and better TEWI factor. This resulted in a 12 % drop in energy consumption. Despite the excellent thermodynamic properties of ammonia, its use has mainly been confined to industrial refrigeration due to its toxicity. In Mauritius, the performance of ammonia in air conditioning is being evaluated on a pilot basis. The major setback of carbon dioxide as a refrigerant is the high operating pressure which is considered a safety hazard. The high initial investment cost and the lack of qualified maintenance technician is also an issue. The use of CO2 is mainly being considered in the commercial refrigeration sector.

  14. Consumers' experiences and values in conventional and alternative medicine paradigms: a problem detection study (PDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmerton Lynne

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study explored consumer perceptions of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM and relationships with CAM and conventional medicine practitioners. A problem detection study (PDS was used. The qualitative component to develop the questionnaire used a CAM consumer focus group to explore conventional and CAM paradigms in healthcare. 32 key issues, seven main themes, informed the questionnaire (the quantitative PDS component - 36 statements explored using five-point Likert scales. Results Of 300 questionnaires distributed (Brisbane, Australia, 83 consumers responded. Results indicated that consumers felt empowered by using CAM and they reported positive relationships with CAM practitioners. The perception was that CAM were used most effectively as long-term therapy (63% agreement, but that conventional medicines would be the best choice for emergency treatment (81% agreement. A majority (65% reported that doctors appeared uncomfortable about consumers' visits to CAM practitioners. Most consumers (72% believed that relationships with and between health practitioners could be enhanced by improved communication. It was agreed that information sharing between consumers and healthcare practitioners is important, and reported that "enough" information is shared between CAM practitioners and consumers. Consumers felt comfortable discussing their medicines with pharmacists, general practitioners and CAM practitioners, but felt most comfortable with their CAM practitioners. Conclusions This PDS has emphasized the perceived importance of open communication between consumers, CAM and conventional providers, and has exposed areas where CAM consumers perceive that issues exist across the CAM and conventional medicine paradigms. There is a lot of information which is perceived as not being shared at present and there are issues of discomfort and distrust which require resolution to develop concordant relationships in healthcare

  15. Alternative perspectives of safety in home delivered health care: a sequential exploratory mixed method study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sarahjane

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to discover and describe how patients, carers and case management nurses define safety and compare it to the traditional risk reduction and harm avoidance definition of safety. Care services are increasingly being delivered in the home for patients with complex long-term conditions. However, the concept of safety remains largely unexplored. A sequential, exploratory mixed method design. A qualitative case study of the UK National Health Service case management programme in the English UK National Health Service was deployed during 2012. Thirteen interviews were conducted with patients (n = 9) and carers (n = 6) and three focus groups with nurses (n = 17) from three community care providers. The qualitative element explored the definition of safety. Data were subjected to framework analysis and themes were identified by participant group. Sequentially, a cross-sectional survey was conducted during 2013 in a fourth community care provider (patient n = 35, carer n = 19, nurse n = 26) as a form of triangulation. Patients and carers describe safety differently to case management nurses, choosing to focus on meeting needs. They use more positive language and recognize the role they have in safety in home-delivered health care. In comparison, case management nurses described safety similarly to the definitions found in the literature. However, when offered the patient and carer definition of safety, they preferentially selected this definition to their own or the literature definition. Patients and carers offer an alternative perspective on patient safety in home-delivered health care that identifies their role in ensuring safety and is more closely aligned with the empowerment philosophy of case management. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Flagellar Synchronization Is a Simple Alternative to Cell Cycle Synchronization for Ciliary and Flagellar Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Soumita; Avasthi, Prachee

    2017-01-01

    The unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is an ideal model organism for studies of ciliary function and assembly. In assays for biological and biochemical effects of various factors on flagellar structure and function, synchronous culture is advantageous for minimizing variability. Here, we have characterized a method in which 100% synchronization is achieved with respect to flagellar length but not with respect to the cell cycle. The method requires inducing flagellar regeneration by amputation of the entire cell population and limiting regeneration time. This results in a maximally homogeneous distribution of flagellar lengths at 3 h postamputation. We found that time-limiting new protein synthesis during flagellar synchronization limits variability in the unassembled pool of limiting flagellar protein and variability in flagellar length without affecting the range of cell volumes. We also found that long- and short-flagella mutants that regenerate normally require longer and shorter synchronization times, respectively. By minimizing flagellar length variability using a simple method requiring only hours and no changes in media, flagellar synchronization facilitates the detection of small changes in flagellar length resulting from both chemical and genetic perturbations in Chlamydomonas . This method increases our ability to probe the basic biology of ciliary size regulation and related disease etiologies. IMPORTANCE Cilia and flagella are highly conserved antenna-like organelles that found in nearly all mammalian cell types. They perform sensory and motile functions contributing to numerous physiological and developmental processes. Defects in their assembly and function are implicated in a wide range of human diseases ranging from retinal degeneration to cancer. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is an algal model system for studying mammalian cilium formation and function. Here, we report a simple synchronization method that allows detection of small

  17. Final Technical Report for Alternative Fuel Source Study-An Energy Efficient and Environmentally Friendly Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zee, Ralph [Auburn University, AL (United States); Schindler, Anton [Auburn University, AL (United States); Duke, Steve [Auburn University, AL (United States); Burch, Thom [Auburn University, AL (United States); Bransby, David [Auburn University, AL (United States); Stafford, Don [Lafarge North America, Inc., Alpharetta, GA (United States)

    2010-08-31

    The objective of this project is to conduct research to determine the feasibility of using alternate fuel sources for the production of cement. Successful completion of this project will also be beneficial to other commercial processes that are highly energy intensive. During this report period, we have completed all the subtasks in the preliminary survey. Literature searches focused on the types of alternative fuels currently used in the cement industry around the world. Information was obtained on the effects of particular alternative fuels on the clinker/cement product and on cement plant emissions. Federal regulations involving use of waste fuels were examined. Information was also obtained about the trace elements likely to be found in alternative fuels, coal, and raw feeds, as well as the effects of various trace elements introduced into system at the feed or fuel stage on the kiln process, the clinker/cement product, and concrete made from the cement. The experimental part of this project involves the feasibility of a variety of alternative materials mainly commercial wastes to substitute for coal in an industrial cement kiln in Lafarge NA and validation of the experimental results with energy conversion consideration.

  18. The Ypresian clays as alternative host rock for radioactive waste disposal in Belgium. A transferability study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Baelen, Herve; Wouters, Laurent; Brassinnes, Stephane; Van Geet, Maarten; Vandenberghe, Noel

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. For the long-term management of high-level and/or long-lived radioactive waste, ONDRAF/NIRAS advises deep geological repository in a plastic clay host rock. Since the seventies, Oligocene Boom Clay has been extensively studied for this purpose and is, in the Belgian context, considered as the reference host rock with Mol as the reference site for the RD and D. The alternative host rock, the Ypresian clays, has been studied for their basic properties, from the late nineties onwards, with Doel as reference site. This study aims at determining to which extent methodologies, knowledge and know-how can be transferred from Boom Clay to the Ypresian clays, in order to enhance the knowledge of this alternative without excessive research efforts. It evaluates the present knowledge of the Ypresian clays and figures out which elements are sufficiently known and understood, which elements of the Boom Clay can be reused and which need additional research. The Ypresian clays refer to a nearly continuous sequence of non-indurated, clayey layers, deposited early in the Eocene, in an open marine basin. It has a total thickness of 100 m or more and, in the area of interest, it occurs at a few hundreds of meters depth. Apart from a very slight tilt to the north, no major structures are known to affect the Ypresian clays in the investigated area. The lateral continuity inside the Ypresian clays might, however, be compromised by the potential occurrence of small-scale intra-formational faults. Two drilling campaigns, carried out in the framework of potential radioactive waste disposal, allowed to collect new data and describe and compare the Ypresian clays relative to Boom Clay. The grain size distribution of both clays is comparable. Although the minerals they are composed of are the same, the relative proportions within the clay fraction are significantly different, the Ypresian clays containing more smectite and swelling mixed

  19. Collaborative Learning with Screen-Based Simulation in Health Care Education: An Empirical Study of Collaborative Patterns and Proficiency Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, L. O.; Soderstrom, T.; Ahlqvist, J.; Nilsson, T.

    2011-01-01

    This article is about collaborative learning with educational computer-assisted simulation (ECAS) in health care education. Previous research on training with a radiological virtual reality simulator has indicated positive effects on learning when compared to a more conventional alternative. Drawing upon the field of Computer-Supported…

  20. An Explorative Study Examining Augmentative and Alternative Communication Training in the Field of Music Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadberry, Anita L; Sweeney, Alison

    2017-07-01

    Music therapists work with many people who require Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC). As communication goals are central to music therapy practice, many music therapists would benefit from training in AAC. The purpose of this survey study was to determine the state of AAC education for music therapists at the university level, how AAC is being used in music therapy sessions, and how practicing music therapists are trained in AAC. Music therapy faculty and credentialed music therapists in North America and Europe were invited to complete an online survey. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze survey data from each group of respondents. With regard to training in AAC at the university level, results indicate that almost half of music therapy faculty (44.66%) provided some training. The primary reason given for not providing training was a lack of educator knowledge in this area. Results indicate that a majority (81.77%) of music therapy clinicians are familiar with AAC and slightly over half (55.08%) reported that they work with clients who use AAC. Sixty-two percent of music therapists reported using AAC to promote expressive language, and 49% to increase receptive language. Over 80% of clinicians stated they would benefit from additional AAC training. Although a majority of music therapists are familiar with ACC, results indicate that ACC competency could be enhanced through university-level instruction and continuing professional development courses. © the American Music Therapy Association 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  1. Jatropha waste meal as an alternative energy source via pressurized pyrolysis: A study on temperature effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kongkasawan, Jinjuta; Nam, Hyungseok; Capareda, Sergio C.

    2016-01-01

    As an alternative energy source, Jatropha is a promising biomass resource due to its high content of oil contained in the seed. However, after the oil extraction process, more than 50% of initial weight remained as residue. This Jatropha de-oiled cake was considered a valuable feedstock for thermochemical conversion process due to its high volatile matter (73%) and energy content (20.5 MJ/kg). Pyrolysis turned biomass into solid product of biochar, liquid product (bio-oil and aqueous phase), and pyrolysis gas. The effects of pyrolysis temperature under the pressure of 0.69 MPa on the product yields and characteristics were investigated using a bench-scale batch reactor. The gross calorific value of pyrolytic oil was measured to be 35 MJ/kg with high carbon content (71%) and low oxygen content (10%). Phenols and hydrocarbons were the main compounds present in the pyrolytic oil. The heating value of the biochar was also high (28 MJ/kg), which was comparable to the fuel coke. More combustible gases were released at high pyrolysis temperature with methane as a main constituent. Pyrolysis temperature of 500 °C, was determined to be an optimum condition for the mass and energy conversions with 89% of the mass and 77% of the energy recovered. - Highlights: • Pressurized pyrolysis of Jatropha wastes at different temperatures was studied. • Full analysis of biochar, bio-oil and pyro gas at different temperatures were done. • Highest aromatics (32%) and HHV (35 MJ/kg) found in bio-oil at 500 °C. • Large amount of paraffins (C 13 –C 16 range) was found in bio-oil.

  2. Use of complementary alternative medicine for low back pain consulting in general practice: a cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenot, Jean-François; Becker, Annette; Leonhardt, Corinna; Keller, Stefan; Donner-Banzhoff, Norbert; Baum, Erika; Pfingsten, Michael; Hildebrandt, Jan; Basler, Heinz-Dieter; Kochen, Michael M

    2007-01-01

    Background Although back pain is considered one of the most frequent reasons why patients seek complementary and alternative medical (CAM) therapies little is known on the extent patients are actually using CAM for back pain. Methods This is a post hoc analysis of a longitudinal prospective cohort study embedded in a RCT. General practitioners (GPs) recruited consecutively adult patients presenting with LBP. Data on physical function, on subjective mood, and on utilization of health services was collected at the first consultation and at follow-up telephone interviews for a period of twelve months Results A total of 691 (51%) respectively 928 (69%) out of 1,342 patients received one form of CAM depending on the definition. Local heat, massage, and spinal manipulation were the forms of CAM most commonly offered. Using CAM was associated with specialist care, chronic LBP and treatment in a rehabilitation facility. Receiving spinal manipulation, acupuncture or TENS was associated with consulting a GP providing these services. Apart from chronicity disease related factors like functional capacity or pain only showed weak or no association with receiving CAM. Conclusion The frequent use of CAM for LBP demonstrates that CAM is popular in patients and doctors alike. The observed association with a treatment in a rehabilitation facility or with specialist consultations rather reflects professional preferences of the physicians than a clear medical indication. The observed dependence on providers and provider related services, as well as a significant proportion receiving CAM that did not meet the so far established selection criteria suggests some arbitrary use of CAM. PMID:18088435

  3. Methodologies for extraction of dissolved inorganic carbon for stable carbon isotope studies : evaluation and alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Afifa Afifi

    1982-01-01

    The gas evolution and the strontium carbonate precipitation techniques to extract dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) for stable carbon isotope analysis were investigated. Theoretical considerations, involving thermodynamic calculations and computer simulation pointed out several possible sources of error in delta carbon-13 measurements of the DIC and demonstrated the need for experimental evaluation of the magnitude of the error. An alternative analytical technique, equilibration with out-gassed vapor phase, is proposed. The experimental studies revealed that delta carbon-13 of the DIC extracted from a 0.01 molar NaHC03 solution by both techniques agreed within 0.1 per mil with the delta carbon-13 of the DIC extracted by the precipitation technique, and an increase of only 0.27 per mil in that extracted by the gas evolution technique. The efficiency of extraction of DIC decreased with sulfate concentration in the precipitation technique but was independent of sulfate concentration in the gas evolution technique. Both the precipitation and gas evolution technique were found to be satisfactory for extraction of DIC from different kinds of natural water for stable carbon isotope analysis, provided appropriate precautions are observed in handling the samples. For example, it was found that diffusion of atmospheric carbon dioxide does alter the delta carbon-13 of the samples contained in polyethylene bottles; filtration and drying in the air change the delta carbon-13 of the samples contained in polyethylene bottles; filtration and drying in the air change the delta carbon-13 of the precipitation technique; hot manganese dioxide purification changes the delta carbon-13 of carbon dioxide. (USGS)

  4. Use of complementary alternative medicine for low back pain consulting in general practice: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baum Erika

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although back pain is considered one of the most frequent reasons why patients seek complementary and alternative medical (CAM therapies little is known on the extent patients are actually using CAM for back pain. Methods This is a post hoc analysis of a longitudinal prospective cohort study embedded in a RCT. General practitioners (GPs recruited consecutively adult patients presenting with LBP. Data on physical function, on subjective mood, and on utilization of health services was collected at the first consultation and at follow-up telephone interviews for a period of twelve months Results A total of 691 (51% respectively 928 (69% out of 1,342 patients received one form of CAM depending on the definition. Local heat, massage, and spinal manipulation were the forms of CAM most commonly offered. Using CAM was associated with specialist care, chronic LBP and treatment in a rehabilitation facility. Receiving spinal manipulation, acupuncture or TENS was associated with consulting a GP providing these services. Apart from chronicity disease related factors like functional capacity or pain only showed weak or no association with receiving CAM. Conclusion The frequent use of CAM for LBP demonstrates that CAM is popular in patients and doctors alike. The observed association with a treatment in a rehabilitation facility or with specialist consultations rather reflects professional preferences of the physicians than a clear medical indication. The observed dependence on providers and provider related services, as well as a significant proportion receiving CAM that did not meet the so far established selection criteria suggests some arbitrary use of CAM.

  5. A study of feasible smart tariff alternatives for smart grid integrated solar panels in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thakur, Jagruti; Chakraborty, Basab

    2015-01-01

    With the advent of grid connected solar panels in India, the requirement of a separate mechanism for metering and billing is foreseen. The policy framework for addressing this need is under process in various states of India. In the smart grid pilot project at Puducherry, India, a simple net metering mechanism has been incorporated to evaluate and understand the performance of green energy generation through solar panels. The present paper draws a comparison between net metering and gross metering mechanisms, through the analysis of net meter data collected for three different types of consumers from the pilot project at Puducherry. Different scenarios have been evaluated to infer the impacts of specialized billing mechanisms as well as the payback periods on investment made for solar energy systems and the savings that is reflected in the monthly bills. Feed in tariff renders full credit to the renewable energy customers on their electricity bills for the amount of green power, which is sent back to the main grid. This simple mechanism of a credit system would prove to be the most important energy policy for a nation to encourage sustainable energy generation. Due to wide variations in tariffs, requirements and efficiency of utilities across the different states in India, a policy which can accommodate mechanisms of community net metering and aggregate net metering had become a necessity. The paper signifies the crucial and immediate necessity for a feasible and acceptable energy policy so as to realize the benefits of power from the sun. - Highlights: • Study of net metering data in smart grid pilot project in India. • Scenario analysis for savings in electricity under different cases. • Comparison of net metering and gross metering mechanisms. • Net metering is found to be more beneficial than gross metering. • Suggestions for alternative net metering techniques for developing countries.

  6. A pilot study of complementary and alternative medicine use in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wall GC

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS is a complex disorder, with primary symptoms of sleep disturbances, pain, and fatigue. FMS is one of the most common reasons for patient visits to a rheumatologist. Previous studies have suggested that complementary and alternative medicine (CAM use in patients with rheumatic diseases is common, but such data specific to FMS patients is limited. Objective: The following study sought to describe the prevalence of CAM use in a primary care practice of patients with FMS and assess whether these patients discuss CAM use with their physician, physician-extender, and/or pharmacist. Methods: A one-group cross-sectional survey design was implemented in a large, community-based, private physician practice of patients diagnosed with FMS. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed during clinic visits. It solicited information related to demographic characteristics; FMS-specific health background; whether CAM use had been discussed with a health care provider; and the “ever-use” of common types of CAM. Respondents returned the questionnaire via US mail in a postage-paid, self-addressed envelope. Results: A total of 115 surveys were distributed with 54 returned for analysis (47% completion rate. The sample was predominantly female, well educated and had a mean age of 55.6 years. All respondents were White. Most respondents (92.6% reported using some type of CAM. Exercise (92.2%, chiropractic treatment (48.1%, lifestyle and diet (45.8%, relaxation therapy (44.9%, and dietary and herbal supplements (36.5% were most commonly reported CAM therapies “ever-used” by respondents. Dietary and herbal supplements with the highest prevalence of “ever-use” were magnesium (19.2%, guaifenesin (11.5%, and methylsulfonylmethane (MSM (9.6%. Respondents most commonly discussed CAM with the clinic rheumatologist and the primary care physician (53.7% and 38.9%, respectively. Only 14.8% of respondents discussed CAM with a pharmacist

  7. A BETTER INDICATOR STUDY EXAMINES ALTERNATIVE BIOLOGICAL INDICATORS OF DISINFECTION IN LIME-TREATED BIOSOLIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under the current regulations (CFR 503), Class B biosolids may be land applied with certain site restrictions. One method for achieving Class B status is to raise the pH of the sludge to >12 for a minimum of 2 hours with an alkaline material (normally lime). Alternately, a Clas...

  8. Technology mix alternatives with high shares of wind power and photovoltaics—case study for Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubi, Ghassan

    2011-01-01

    The shift to a low carbon society is an issue of highest priority in the EU. For electricity generation, such a target counts with three main alternatives: renewable energies, nuclear power and carbon capture and storage. This paper focuses on the renewables’ alternative. Due to resource availability, a technology mix with a high share of PV and wind power is gaining increasing interest as a major solution for several EU member states and in part for the EU collectively to achieve decarbonization and energy security with acceptable costs. Due to their intermittency, the integration of high shares of PV and wind power in the electricity supply is challenging. This paper presents a techno-economic assessment of technology mix alternatives with a high share of PV and wind power in Spain, as an example. Thereby, the focus is on the option of increasing wind curtailment versus substituting rigid baseload generation in favor of the more flexible gas turbines and combined cycle gas turbines. - Highlights: ► The potential of power generation from renewable energy resources in the EU is illustrated. ► The LEC of the different technologies considered is calculated for today and future scenarios. ► An excel-based model for the technology mix assessment is applied using Spanish data. ► Technology mix alternatives with a high share of PV and wind power are assessed. ► The focus is on increasing wind curtailment vs. relying on more flexible power generation units.

  9. Study of alternative methods for the management of liquid scintillation counting wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche-Farmer, L.

    1980-02-01

    The Nuclear Engineering Waste Disposal Site in Richland, Washington, is the only radioactive waste disposal facility that will accept liquid scintillation counting wastes (LSCW) for disposal. That site is scheduled to discontinue receiving LSCW by the end of 1982. This document explores alternatives presently available for management of LSCW: evaporation, distillation, solidification, conversion, and combustion

  10. Study of the optimal reaction conditions for assay of the mouse alternative complement pathway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, H. van; Rademaker, P.M.; Klerx, J.P.A.M.; Willers, J.M.M.

    1985-01-01

    The optimal reaction conditions for hemolytic assay of alternative complement pathway activity in mouse serum were investigated. A microtiter system was used, in which a number of 7.5×106 rabbit erythrocytes per test well appeared to be optimal. Rabbit erythrocytes were superior as target cells over

  11. MODELING AND DESIGN STUDY USING HFC-236EA AS AN ALTERNATIVE REFRIGERANT IN A CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of an investigation of the operation of a centrifugal compressor--part of a chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)-114 chiller installation--with the new refrigerant hydrofluorocarbon (HFC)-236ea, a proposed alternative to CFC-114. A large set of CFC-236ea operating da...

  12. An alternative transportation fuels update : a case study of the developing E85 industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    As the United States imports more than half of its oil and overall consumption continues to climb, : the 1992 Energy Policy Act established the goal of having alternative fuels replace at least ten : percent of petroleum fuels used in the trans...

  13. Alternative Policy Study: Environment and energy in Europe and Central Asia 1990-2010. Energy-related environmental impacts of policy scenarios GEO-2000 alternative policy study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vuuren DP van; Bakkes JA; MNV

    2000-01-01

    Deze GEO-2000 studie naar alternatief beleid voor Europa en Centraal Azie is gericht op energie als een belangrijke kracht achter milieuproblemen in de hele regio. De studie heeft betrekking op klimaatverandering, verzuring, zomersmog, stedelijke luchtverontreiniging en het risico op dodelijke

  14. Alternative Remedies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home › Aging & Health A to Z › Alternative Remedies Font ... medical treatment prescribed by their healthcare provider. Using this type of alternative therapy along with traditional treatments is ...

  15. Alternative Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternative fuels include gaseous fuels such as hydrogen, natural gas, and propane; alcohols such as ethanol, methanol, and butanol; vegetable and waste-derived oils; and electricity. Overview of alternative fuels is here.

  16. Alternating Hemiplegia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to the symptoms of the disorder. View Full Definition Treatment Drug therapy including verapamil may help to reduce the ... the more serious form of alternating hemiplegia × ... Definition Alternating hemiplegia is a rare neurological disorder that ...

  17. Limestone and Zeolite as Alternative Media in Horizontal Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetlands: Laboratory-Scale Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizama, K.; Jaque, I.; Ayala, J.

    2016-12-01

    Arsenic is well known for its chronic toxicity. Millions of people around the world are currently at risk, drinking water with As concentrations above 10 ppb, the WHO drinking water guideline. Although different treatment options exist, they are often limited by elevated costs and maintenance requirements. Constructed wetlands are a natural water treatment system, capable to remove metals and metalloids -including As- via different physical, chemical and biological processes. The use of alternative supporting media to enhance As removal in subsurface flow wetlands has been recommended, but not sufficiently studied. Limestone and zeolite have been identified as effective supporting media in subsurface flow wetlands aiming As removal. However, there are still key aspects to be addressed, such as the implications of using these media, the speciation in the solid phase, the role of vegetation, etc. This study investigated the performance of limestone and zeolite in three types of experiments: batch, column and as main supporting media in a bench scale horizontal subsurface flow wetland system. Synthetic water resembling a contaminated river in Chile (As concentration=3 mg/L, Fe concentration= 100 mg/L, pH=2) was used in all experiments. In the batch experiments, the As concentration, the mass of media and the contact time were varied. The column system consisted of three limestone columns and three zeolite columns, operated under a hydraulic loading of 20 mm/d. The wetland system consisted of twelve PVC cells: six filled with zeolite and six with limestone. Phragmites australis were planted in three cells of each media type, as control cells. From the batch experiments, maximum As sorption capacities as indicated by Langmuir model were 1.3 mg/g for limestone and 0.17 mg/g for zeolite, at 18 h contact time and 6.3 g/L medium concentration. EDS and XPS analyses revealed that As and Fe were retained in zeolite at the end of the batch experiments. Zeolite and limestone

  18. Prevalence, patterns, and perceived value of complementary and alternative medicine among HIV patients: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahall, Mandreker

    2017-08-23

    Use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is widespread among different patient populations despite the availability of evidence-based conventional medicine and lack of supporting evidence for the claims of most CAM types. This study explored the prevalence, patterns, and perceived value of CAM among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients. This quantitative descriptive study was conducted between November 1, 2014 and March 31, 2015 among a cross-sectional, convenience sample of attendees of the HIV clinic of a public tertiary health care institution. Face-to-face interviews using a 34-item questionnaire were conducted. Data analysis included descriptive statistics, chi-square tests, and binary logistic regression analysis. CAM was used by 113 (32.8%) of a total of 343 HIV patients, but Medicinal herbs were the most common type of CAM used (n = 110, 97.3%) followed by spiritual therapy (n = 56, 49.6%), including faith healing/prayer and meditation. The most used medicinal herbs were Aloe vera (n = 54, 49.1%), ginger (n = 33, 30.0%), and garlic (n = 23, 20.9%). The most used vitamins were complex B vitamins (n = 70, 61.9%), followed by vitamin A (n = 58, 51.3%), vitamin E (n = 51, 45.1%), and vitamin D (n = 42, 37.1%). Most CAM users continued using conventional medicine in addition to CAM and were willing to use CAM without supervision and without informing their health care provider. Patients were generally satisfied with CAM therapy (n = 91, 80.5%). The main reasons for CAM use were the desire to take control of their treatment (8.8%) or just trying anything that could help (18.8%). Main influences were the mass media (32.7%) and non-hospital health personnel (19.5%). Predictors of CAM use were being 30-50 years, married and having a secondary school education. About one-third of HIV patients used CAM, but virtually none informed their healthcare provider. Medicinal herbs were the most common type of CAM, followed by spiritual

  19. Prisoner's Dogmatism Scores and Creative Alternative Game Behavior under Full Communication and Real Reward Conditions: A Correlational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibold, David R.; Steinfatt, Thomas M.

    To extend information on communication to game theory, a study was conducted (1) to determine whether there was a relationship between dogmatism of players in a creative alternative game and their game behavior, and (2) to compare the behavior of federal prison inmates playing a game under conditions of real rewards and full communication…

  20. Ecological effects of alternative fuel-reduction treatments: highlights of the National Fire and Fire Surrogate study (FFS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    James D. McIver; Scott L. Stephens; James K. Agee; Jamie Barbour; Ralph E. J. Boerner; Carl B. Edminster; Karen L. Erickson; Kerry L. Farris; Christopher J. Fettig; Carl E. Fiedler; Sally Haase; Stephen C. Hart; Jon E. Keeley; Eric E. Knapp; John F. Lehmkuhl; Jason J. Moghaddas; William Otrosina; Kenneth W. Outcalt; Dylan W. Schwilk; Carl N. Skinner; Thomas A. Waldrop; C. Phillip Weatherspoon; Daniel A. Yaussy; Andrew Youngblood; Steve Zack

    2012-01-01

    The 12-site National Fire and Fire Surrogate study (FFS) was a multivariate experiment that evaluated ecological consequences of alternative fuel-reduction treatments in seasonally dry forests of the US. Each site was a replicated experiment with a common design that compared an un-manipulated control, prescribed fire, mechanical and mechanical + fire treatments....

  1. Parametric Optimization of Some Critical Operating System Functions--An Alternative Approach to the Study of Operating Systems Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobh, Tarek M.; Tibrewal, Abhilasha

    2006-01-01

    Operating systems theory primarily concentrates on the optimal use of computing resources. This paper presents an alternative approach to teaching and studying operating systems design and concepts by way of parametrically optimizing critical operating system functions. Detailed examples of two critical operating systems functions using the…

  2. Effects of alternating and direct electrical current application on the odontoblastic layer in human teeth : an in vitro study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alwas-Danowska, HM; Huysmans, MCDNJM; Verdonschot, EH

    Aim The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of a low intensity alternating current on the odontoblasts and odontoblast layer and compare this with the effects of a direct current. Methodology Teeth extracted for orthodontic were immersed in physiological saline stabilized with thymol

  3. Alternative medicines for AIDS in resource-poor settings: Insights from exploratory anthropological studies in Asia and Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Emmanuelle

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The emergence of alternative medicines for AIDS in Asia and Africa was discussed at a satellite symposium and the parallel session on alternative and traditional treatments of the AIDSImpact meeting, held in Marseille, in July 2007. These medicines are heterogeneous, both in their presentation and in their geographic and cultural origin. The sessions focused on the role of these medications in selected resource poor settings in Africa and Asia now that access to anti-retroviral therapy is increasing. The aims of the sessions were to (1 identify the actors involved in the diffusion of these alternative medicines for HIV/AIDS, (2 explore uses and forms, and the way these medicines are given legitimacy, (3 reflect on underlying processes of globalisation and cultural differentiation, and (4 define priority questions for future research in this area. This article presents the insights generated at the meeting, illustrated with some findings from the case studies (Uganda, Senegal, Benin, Burkina Faso, China and Indonesia that were presented. These case studies reveal the wide range of actors who are involved in the marketing and supply of alternative medicines. Regulatory mechanisms are weak. The efficacy claims of alternative medicines often reinforce a biomedical paradigm for HIV/AIDS, and fit with a healthy living ideology promoted by AIDS care programs and support groups. The AIDSImpact session concluded that more interdisciplinary research is needed on the experience of people living with HIV/AIDS with these alternative medicines, and on the ways in which these products interact (or not with anti-retroviral therapy at pharmacological as well as psychosocial levels.

  4. Alternative medicines for AIDS in resource-poor settings: insights from exploratory anthropological studies in Asia and Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardon, Anita; Desclaux, Alice; Egrot, Marc; Simon, Emmanuelle; Micollier, Evelyne; Kyakuwa, Margaret

    2008-07-10

    The emergence of alternative medicines for AIDS in Asia and Africa was discussed at a satellite symposium and the parallel session on alternative and traditional treatments of the AIDSImpact meeting, held in Marseille, in July 2007. These medicines are heterogeneous, both in their presentation and in their geographic and cultural origin. The sessions focused on the role of these medications in selected resource poor settings in Africa and Asia now that access to anti-retroviral therapy is increasing. The aims of the sessions were to (1) identify the actors involved in the diffusion of these alternative medicines for HIV/AIDS, (2) explore uses and forms, and the way these medicines are given legitimacy, (3) reflect on underlying processes of globalisation and cultural differentiation, and (4) define priority questions for future research in this area. This article presents the insights generated at the meeting, illustrated with some findings from the case studies (Uganda, Senegal, Benin, Burkina Faso, China and Indonesia) that were presented. These case studies reveal the wide range of actors who are involved in the marketing and supply of alternative medicines. Regulatory mechanisms are weak. The efficacy claims of alternative medicines often reinforce a biomedical paradigm for HIV/AIDS, and fit with a healthy living ideology promoted by AIDS care programs and support groups. The AIDSImpact session concluded that more interdisciplinary research is needed on the experience of people living with HIV/AIDS with these alternative medicines, and on the ways in which these products interact (or not) with anti-retroviral therapy at pharmacological as well as psychosocial levels.

  5. ECA&D and E-OBS: High-resolution datasets for monitoring climate change and effects on viticulture in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Photiadou Christiana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change and climate variability profoundly affect the production of wine. When facing a changing climate, the characteristics of wine produced in each region will change while the natural year-to-year variations in climate will increase variability of income for wine businesses and therefore affect profitability and economic resilience. The challenge posed to the viticulture community is thus to closely monitor these changes to be able to adapt business practices. The European Climate Assessment and Dataset (ECA&D and its gridded version E-OBS are tools to monitor the changing climatic conditions over Europe, with an emphasis on changes in extreme climatic conditions. In this paper, the potential of ECA&D and E-OBS for viticulture is demonstrated by a few examples. The examples include the changing areal suitable for Chardonnay cultivation, showing an expansion to areas which have been too cold only a few decades ago and retraction of optimal conditions from areas which have been suitable in the recent past. Other examples show the change in the diurnal temperature range in the latter stages of the ripening process of grapes and the variability in heavy precipitation events. Finally, first results of a new dataset for South America are presented.

  6. Obtención de microestructuras de grano ultrafino en aleaciones de aluminio mediante extrusión en canal angular (ECAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alkorta, J.

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Al 5083 samples have been subjected to 90º equal-channel angular extrusion (ECAE at 270ºC. After ECAE, the microhardness was measured and the texture for the plane perpendicular to the extrusion direction was analysed by X-Rays and EBSD. The microstructure was characterized by optical microscopy and EBSD. As deformation accumulates the hardness increases until it reaches saturation at an effective strain of about ε∼4. With regard to the texture, it has been shown that a high density of {111} planes are oriented parallel to the shear plane of the last pass.

    Varias muestras de aluminio 5083 se han sometido a extrusiones en canal angular de 90º a 270ºC. A continuación se midieron las durezas de las muestras obtenidas y se caracterizó la textura en el plano perpendicular a la dirección de extrusión mediante Rayos-X y difracción de electrones retrodispersados (EBSD. La caracterización microestructural se hizo mediante microscopio óptico y EBSD. Se ha observado que la dureza aumenta sensiblemente con el grado de deformación y que alcanza un nivel máximo de saturación a partir de ε∼4. En cuanto a la textura, se observa que los planos {111} tienden a orientarse paralelos al plano de la última cortadura.

  7. Study of sunless tanning formulas using molted snake skin as an alternative membrane model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogh, T S; Pedriali, C A; Gama, R M; de Oliveira Pinto, C A S; Bedin, V; Villa, R T; Kaneko, T M; Consiglieri, V O; Velasco, M V R; Baby, A R

    2011-08-01

    Sunless tanning formulas have become increasingly popular in recent years for their ability to give people convincing tans without the dangers of skin cancer. Most sunless tanners currently on the market contain dihydroxyacetone (DHA), a keto sugar with three carbons. The temporary pigment provided by these formulas is designed to resemble a UV-induced tan. This study evaluated the effectiveness of carbomer gels and cold process self emulsifying bases on skin pigmentation, using different concentrations of a chemical system composed of DHA and N-acetyl tyrosine, which are found in moulted snake skins and their effectiveness was tested by Mexameter(®) MX 18. Eight different sunless tanning formulas were developed, four of which were gels and four of which were emulsions (base, base plus 4.0%, 5.0% and 6.0% (w/w) of a system of DHA and N-acetyl tyrosine). Tests to determine the extent of artificial tanning were done by applying 30 mg cm(-2) of each formula onto standard sizes of moulted snake skin (2.0 cm × 3.0 cm). A Mexameter(®) MX 18 was used to evaluate the extent of coloration in the moulted snake skin at T(0) (before the application) and after 24, 48, 72, 168, 192 and 216 h. The moulted snake skins can be used as an alternative membrane model for in vitro sunless tanning efficacy tests due to their similarity to the human stratum corneum. The DHA concentration was found to influence the initiation of the pigmentation in both sunless tanning systems (emulsion and gel) as well as the time required to increases by a given amount on the tanning index. In the emulsion system, the DHA concentration also influenced the final value on the tanning index. The type of system (emulsion or gel) has no influence on the final value in the tanning index after 216 h for samples with the same DHA concentration. © 2011 The Authors. ICS © 2011 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  8. Study of Alternative GPS Network Meteorological Sensors in Taiwan: Case Studies of the Plum Rains and Typhoon Sinlaku

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwo-Hwa Chen

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Plum rains and typhoons are important weather systems in the Taiwan region. They can cause huge economic losses, but they are also considered as important water resources as they strike Taiwan annually and fill the reservoirs around the island. There are many meteorological sensors available for investigating the characteristics of weather and climate systems. Recently, the use of GPS as an alternative meteorological sensor has become popular due to the catastrophic impact of global climate change. GPS provides meteorological parameters mainly from the atmosphere. Precise Point Positioning (PPP is a proven algorithm that has attracted attention in GPS related studies. This study uses GPS measurements collected at more than fifty reference stations of the e-GPS network in Taiwan. The first data set was collected from June 1st 2008 to June 7th 2008, which corresponds to the middle of the plum rain season in Taiwan. The second data set was collected from September 11th to September 17th 2008 during the landfall of typhoon Sinlaku. The data processing strategy is to process the measurements collected at the reference stations of the e-GPS network using the PPP technique to estimate the zenith tropospheric delay (ZTD values of the sites; thus, the correlations between the ZTD values and the variation of rainfall during the plum rains and typhoon are analyzed. In addition, several characteristics of the meteorological events are identified using spatial and temporal analyses of the ZTD values estimated with the GPS network PPP technique.

  9. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of General Practitioners toward Complementary and Alternative Medicine: a Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barikani, Ameneh; Beheshti, Akram; Javadi, Maryam; Yasi, Marzieh

    2015-08-01

    Orientation of public and physicians to the complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is one of the most prominent symbols of structural changes in the health service system. The aim of his study was a determination of knowledge, attitude, and practice of general practitioners in complementary and alternative medicine. This cross- sectional study was conducted in Qazvin, Iran in 2013. A self-administered questionnaire was used for collecting data including four information parts: population information, physicians' attitude and knowledge, methods of getting information and their function. A total of 228 physicians in Qazvin comprised the population of study according to the deputy of treatment's report of Qazvin University of Medical Sciences. A total of 150 physicians were selected randomly, and SPSS Statistical program was used to enter questionnaires' data. Results were analyzed as descriptive statistics and statistical analysis. Sixty percent of all responders were male. About sixty (59.4) percent of participating practitioners had worked less than 10 years.96.4 percent had a positive attitude towards complementary and alternative medicine. Knowledge of practitioners about traditional medicine in 11 percent was good, 36.3% and 52.7% had average and little information, respectively. 17.9% of practitioners offered their patients complementary and alternative medicine for treatment. Although there was little knowledge among practitioners about traditional medicine and complementary approaches, a significant percentage of them had attitude higher than the lower limit.

  10. A study on the equivalent electric circuit simulation model of DBD streamer and glow alternate discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, J; Zhang, Z T; Xu, S J; Yu, Q X; Yu, Z; Zhao, J S

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a dynamic simulating model of the dielectric barrier discharge (DBD), structured as an equivalent electric circuit of the streamer and glow discharge generated alternately in DBD. The main parameters of DBD have been established by means of analysing the structural characteristics of a single discharge cell. An electrical comprehensive Simulink /MATLAB model was developed in order to reveal the interaction of the adjacent two discharge cell. A series of simulations was carried out in order to estimate the key structural parameters that affect the alternate streamer and glow discharge mode. The comparison results of experimental and simulate indicate that there exists a close similarity of the current waveforms graphic. Therefore, we can grasp a deep understanding mechanism of the dielectric barrier discharge and optimize the plasma reactor.

  11. Whatever It Takes A Case Study Of Our Childs Alternative Path To Literacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelly HUGGINS

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available As public school educators, my husband and I struggled with making alternative academic choices for our child with learning differences. Choosing the alternative path was not easy or clear cut for us. This is a reflective record of the journey toward getting my son Whatever it Takes to help him learn. The article chronicles intuition about the early warning signs of learning differences. The article discusses the merits of the private school experience, the homeschooling experience and ultimately a modified and personalized learning plan that made learning natural, while preserving my sons confidence, self-esteem and integrity. Detailed in the article are the discussions concerning the many educational, instructional and sociological decisions that are necessary to individualize instruction to meet an individuals needs.

  12. Idioms of distress: alternatives in the expression of psychosocial distress: a case study from South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichter, M

    1981-12-01

    This paper focuses attention on alternative modes of expressing distress and the need to analyze particular manifestations of distress in relation to personal and cultural meaning complexes as well as the availability and social implications of coexisting idioms of expression. To illustrate this point the case of South Kanarese Havik Brahmin women is presented. These women are described as having a weak social support network and limited opportunities to ventilate feelings and seek counsel outside the household. Alternative means of expressing psychosocial distress resorted to by Havik women are discussed in relation to associated Brahminic values, norms and stereotypes. Somatization is focused upon as an important idiom through which distress is communicated. Idioms of distress more peripheral to the personal or cultural behavioral repertoire of Havik women are considered as adaptive responses in circumstances where other modes of expression fail to communicate distress adequately or provide appropriate coping strategies. The importance of an 'idioms of distress' approach to psychiatric evaluation is noted.

  13. Researchers studying alternative to bladder removal for bladder cancer patients | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new phase I clinical trial conducted by researchers at the Center for Cancer Research (CCR) is evaluating the safety and tolerability, or the degree to which any side effects can be tolerated by patients, of a two-drug combination as a potential alternative to bladder removal for bladder cancer patients. The trial targets patients with non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) whose cancers have stopped responding to traditional therapies. Read more...

  14. Feasibility studies of actinide recycle in LMFBRs as a waste management alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaman, S.L.; Aitken, E.A.

    1976-01-01

    A strategy of actinide burnup in LMFBRs is being investigated as a waste management alternative to long term storage of high level nuclear waste. This strategy is being evaluated because many of the actinides in the waste from spent-fuel reprocessing have half-lives of thousands of years and an alternative to geological storage may be desired. From a radiological viewpoint, the actinides and their daughters dominate the waste hazard for decay times beyond about 400 years. Actinide burnup in LMFBRs may be an attractive alternative to geological storage because the actinides can be effectively transmuted to fission products which have significantly shorter half-lives. Actinide burnup in LMFBRs rather than LWRs is preferred because the ratio of fission reaction rate to capture reaction rate for the actinides is higher in an LMFBR, and an LMFBR is not so sensitive to the addition of the actinide isotopes. An actinide target assembly recycle scheme is evaluated to determine the effects of the actinides on the LMFBR performance, including local power peaking, breeding ratio, and fissile material requirements. Several schemes are evaluated to identify any major problems associated with reprocessing and fabrication of recycle actinide-containing assemblies. The overall efficiency of actinide burnout in LMFBRs is evaluated, and equilibrium cycle conditions are determined. It is concluded that actinide recycle in LMFBRs offers an attractive alternative to long term storage of the actinides, and does not significantly affect the performance of the host LMFBR. Assuming a 0.1 percent or less actinide loss during reprocessing, a 0.1 percent loss of less during fabrication, and proper recycle schemes, virtually all of the actinides produced by a fission reactor economy could be transmuted in fast reactors

  15. A qualitative model for strategic analysis of organizations. Application and alternative proposal on a study case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Ferro Moreno

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The strategic analysis of organizations is based on the internal and external environments, in order to identify positive and negative variables and factors. The interrelation and timing of these strategic forces are essential to create alternative solutions that tend to achieve the organizational objectives.The normative prospective has theorical and methodological foundations to create a desired future and from it, be able to identify impelling and restraining forces that have influence on the particular problematic situation (go from the current situation to a better one in a certain time.The aim of this article is to analyze on a strategic way a real case with a normative-prospective model that considers the temporal dynamics of the factors impact and variables in time allowing to suggest alternative solutions.Semi-structured interviews were performed with all the employees of this case and structured observations and workshops with the commercial and general management.In consequence, with the results, the desired, current and improved situations were built. Additionally, forces were identified classified and appreciated and lastly solutions were suggested. With the proposed prospective method, alternative solutions could be constructed in order to settle temporary organizational objectives. No constraints were found to use the current method in other cases.Keywords: Strategic forces, Normative prospective, Problematic situations, Strategies

  16. on some properties of the alternating sylvester series and alternating

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DJFLEX

    . (iii) above is known in literature as the alternating Sylvester series while (iv) is known as the alternating Engel expansion (Kalpazidou and Ganatsiou (1991)). We are interested in studying the properties of these alternating series. Theorem 2: ...

  17. Views of practitioners of alternative medicine toward psychiatric illness and psychiatric care: a study from Solapur, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holikatti, Prabhakar C; Kar, Nilamadhab

    2015-01-01

    It is common knowledge that patients seek treatment for psychiatric illnesses from various sources including the alternative medicine. Views and attitudes of clinicians often influence the provision of appropriate mental health care for these patients. In this context, it was intended to study the views of the practitioners of alternative medicine toward psychiatric disorders, patients and interventions. The study was conducted as a questionnaire-based survey among a sample of practitioners of alternative medicine specifically Ayurveda and Homeopathy, who were practicing in Solapur and adjoining areas of Maharashtra and Karnataka states in India. A semi-structured Attitudinal Inventory for Psychiatry questionnaire was used. Demographic and professional data were collected. Out of 62 practitioners approached, 50 responded (80.6%). There were no significant differences in the views of practitioners toward psychiatry and psychiatrists based on respondents' gender, place of residence, location of practice, type of alternative medicine, exposure to psychiatric patients, or if they knew someone with psychiatric illness. Attitudes were generally positive, but variable. Among negative observations were that approximately 60% of respondents felt that a patient can be disadvantaged by being given a psychiatric label and 58% believed that emotions are difficult to handle. A considerable proportion (40%) of the respondents felt doctors other than psychiatrists were unable to identify psychiatric disorders. This study's findings suggest that practitioners of alternative medicine have mixed views about mental illness, patients and treatment. Some of their negative views and perceived inability to identify psychiatric disorders may be addressed through further training, information sharing and collaborative work.

  18. Alternative use of space in slum settlements case study: Kampong Gandekan Kampung Baru in Kali Pepe river Surakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmastuti, Amalia Ji; Wardana, Agustinus Wisnu; Eng, Ir. Maya Andria Nirawati M.

    2018-02-01

    Slum areas are heavily populated urban informal settlements characterized by substandard housing and illegal land usage (squatting). Surakarta is one of many Indonesian cities that are still entangled by this problem. One of the slum concentrations in Surakarta is the slum settlement (kampong) alongside Kali Pepe riverbank. Within these slum settlements, people survive in substandard housing by effectively using the limited space. This research aims to discover the typologies of the alternative use of space. This research takes a case study approach in a few kampongs alongside Kali Pepe riverbank, based on the types and sizes of small houses within this area, considering the number of occupants and the space required. The data for this research is categorized as primary data which was collected through a series of site observations and focus group discussions. The data will be analysed, compared, and classified to find out the typology of the alternative solutions of space requirements. This research uses mixed-method analysis to define how Kali Pepe's slum residents alternatively use the spaces within their kampongs. Based on the typologies found through multiple analyses, this research concludes that the use of space in substandard housing cannot be bound by limited spaces. Furthermore, the main strategy to solve the problem of limited space is by using alternative spaces.

  19. Graphene-Decorated Nanocomposites for Printable Electrodes in Thin Wafer Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhshizadeh, N.; Sivoththaman, S.

    2017-12-01

    Printable electrodes that induce less stress and require lower curing temperatures compared to traditional screen-printed metal pastes are needed in thin wafer devices such as future solar cells, and in flexible electronics. The synthesis of nanocomposites by incorporating graphene nanopowders as well as silver nanowires into epoxy-based electrically conductive adhesives (ECA) is examined to improve electrical conductivity and to develop alternate printable electrode materials that induce less stress on the wafer. For the synthesized graphene and Ag nanowire-decorated ECA nanocomposites, the curing kinetics were studied by dynamic and isothermal differential scanning calorimetry measurements. Thermogravimetric analysis on ECA, ECA-AG and ECA/graphene nanopowder nanocomposites showed that the temperatures for onset of decomposition are higher than their corresponding glass transition temperature ( T g) indicating an excellent thermal resistance. Printed ECA/Ag nanowire nanocomposites showed 90% higher electrical conductivity than ECA films, whereas the ECA/graphene nanocomposites increased the conductivity by over two orders of magnitude. Scanning electron microscopy results also revealed the effect of fillers morphology on the conductivity improvement and current transfer mechanisms in nanocomposites. Residual stress analysis performed on Si wafers showed that the ECA and nanocomposite printed wafers are subjected to much lower stress compared to those printed with metallic pastes. The observed parameters of low curing temperature, good thermal resistance, reasonably high conductivity, and low residual stress in the ECA/graphene nanocomposite makes this material a promising alternative in screen-printed electrode formation in thin substrates.

  20. F- and H-Area Seepage Basins Water Treatment System Process Optimization and Alternative Chemistry Ion Exchange/Sorbent Material Screening Clearwell Overflow Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serkiz, S.M.

    2000-08-30

    This study investigated alternative ion exchange/sorbent materials and polishing chemistries designed to remove specific radionuclides not removed during the neutralization/precipitation/clarification process.

  1. A Parallel World for the World Bank: A Case Study of Urgent: Evoke, An Educational Alternate Reality Game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David I. Waddington

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2010, the World Bank launched Urgent: Evoke, an alternate reality game. Conceived in response to the demands of African universities, the game was designed to promote the World Bank Institute’s vision of positive global change through social innovation, and made substantial use of Web 2.0 tools such as blogs, personal profiles, and social networks. This article offers a case study of Urgent: Evoke, divided into four sections: first, the potential to use video games as citizenship education tools is discussed; second, the unique game genre (alternate reality games into which Evoke falls is explained and some possible uses of this genre in higher education are examined; third, the functioning of the Evoke game world is explained; and fourth, the results of the Evoke educational project are assessed. The case study concludes with some commentary on Evoke’s ideological message, which those less sympathetic to capitalism may view as problematic.

  2. Developing alternative indices of reproductive potential for use in fisheries management : Case studies for stocks spanning an information gradient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marshall, C.T.; O'Brien, L.; Tomkiewicz, Jonna

    2003-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence to suggest that spawning stock biomass (SSB) may not bedirectly proportional to reproductive potential. The wide-ranging implications of this conclu-sion necessitate that it be tested for as many stocks as possible. Undertaking such tests iscomplicated by the fact...... that fish stocks vary in the amount and type of information that isavailable to estimate reproductive potential. In this review, nine stocks illustrate the range of approaches that are being taken to developing alternative indices of reproductive potential fromexisting data resources. Three stocks had...... sufficient data to reconstruct a time series of total eggproduction (TEP), whereas, the remaining stocks were limited to estimating proxies for stockreproductive potential. For some of the case studies the alternative indices explained a higheramount of recruitment variation than did SSB. Other case studies...

  3. Relationship between apparent soil electrical conductivity (ECa) and soil attributes at an experimental parcel under pasture in a region of Galicia, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinho, Mara de A.; Dafonte, Jorge D.; Armesto, Montserrat V.; Paz-González, Antonio; Raposo, Juan R.

    2013-04-01

    Spatial characterization of the variability of soil properties is a central point in site-specific agricultural management and precision agriculture. Geospatial measures of geophysical attributes are useful not only to rapidly characterize the spatial variability of soil properties but also for soil sampling optimization. This work reports partial results obtained at an experimental parcel under pasture located at Castro de Ribeira do Lea (Lugo/ Galicia/ Spain). An ECa automated survey was conducted in September 2011 employing an EM-38 DD (Geonics Ltd.) installed in a nonmetallic car, according to parallel lines spaced 10m one from each other and oriented at the east-west direction. The ECa values were recorded every second with a field computer and the locations were geo-referenced using a GPS. The entire survey was carried out in 1hour and 45 minutes and corrections due to differences in temperature were made. A total of 9.581 ECa registers were retained, configuring a sampling intensity of approximately 1 register per 1.5 m2. Employing the software ESAP 2.35 and the computational tool ESAP-RSSD, eighty positions were selected at the field to extract disturbed and undisturbed soil samples at two depths: 0.0-0.2m, 0.2-0.4m. Ten physical attributes (clay, silt, total sand, coarse sand and fine sand contents, soil bulk density, particle density, total porosity, soil water content, percentage of gravels) and 17 chemical attributes (soil organic matter-SOM, pH, P, K, Ca, Mg, Al, H+Al, Sum of bases-S, Cation exchange capacity-CEC, Base saturation-V%, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) were determined. The relationship between the geophysical variables and the soil attributes was performed using statistical and spatial analysis. There were significant correlations (pmanagement zones in the area. Acknowledgements: This work was funded in part by Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation (MICINN) in the frame of project CGL2009-13700-C02. Financial support from CAPES

  4. Clinicians’ views and experiences of offering two alternative consent pathways for participation in a preterm intrapartum trial: a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Chhoa, C. Y.; Sawyer, A.; Ayers, S.; Pushpa-Rajah, A.; Duley, L.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Cord Pilot Trial compared alternative policies for timing of cord clamping at very preterm birth at eight UK hospitals. Preterm birth can be rapid and unexpected, allowing little time for the usual consent process. Therefore, in addition to the usual procedure for written consent, a two-stage pathway for consent for use when birth was imminent was developed. The aims of this study were to explore clinicians’ views and experiences of offering two consent pathways for recruit...

  5. Clinicians? views and experiences of offering two alternative consent pathways for participation in a preterm intrapartum trial: a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Chhoa, Celine Y.; Sawyer, Alexandra; Ayers, Susan; Pushpa-Rajah, Angela; Duley, Lelia

    2017-01-01

    Background The Cord Pilot Trial compared alternative policies for timing of cord clamping at very preterm birth at eight UK hospitals. Preterm birth can be rapid and unexpected, allowing little time for the usual consent process. Therefore, in addition to the usual procedure for written consent, a two-stage pathway for consent for use when birth was imminent was developed. The aims of this study were to explore clinicians? views and experiences of offering two consent pathways for recruitment...

  6. Alternative wastewatersystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyck-Madsen, Søren; Hoffmann, Birgitte; Gabriel, Søren

    1999-01-01

    The report:-  Communicates experiences from Swedish buildings from the establishment and running of alternative wastewater systems. Communicates pictures of alternative buildings and wastewater systems in Sweden. Gives a short evaluation of the performance and the sustainability of the systems....

  7. Advanced transportation system studies technical area 3: Alternate propulsion subsystem concepts, volume 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levak, Daniel

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this contract was to provide definition of alternate propulsion systems for both earth-to-orbit (ETO) and in-space vehicles (upper stages and space transfer vehicles). For such propulsion systems, technical data to describe performance, weight, dimensions, etc. was provided along with programmatic information such as cost, schedule, needed facilities, etc. Advanced technology and advanced development needs were determined and provided. This volume separately presents the various program cost estimates that were generated under three tasks: the F-1A Restart Task, the J-2S Restart Task, and the SSME Upper Stage Use Task. The conclusions, technical results, and the program cost estimates are described in more detail in Volume 1 - Executive Summary and in individual Final Task Reports.

  8. Advanced Transportation System Studies. Technical Area 3: Alternate Propulsion Subsystems Concepts. Volume 3; Program Cost Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levack, Daniel J. H.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this contract was to provide definition of alternate propulsion systems for both earth-to-orbit (ETO) and in-space vehicles (upper stages and space transfer vehicles). For such propulsion systems, technical data to describe performance, weight, dimensions, etc. was provided along with programmatic information such as cost, schedule, needed facilities, etc. Advanced technology and advanced development needs were determined and provided. This volume separately presents the various program cost estimates that were generated under three tasks: the F- IA Restart Task, the J-2S Restart Task, and the SSME Upper Stage Use Task. The conclusions, technical results , and the program cost estimates are described in more detail in Volume I - Executive Summary and in individual Final Task Reports.

  9. Feasibility studies of actinide recycle in LMFBRs as a waste management alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaman, S.L.; Aitken, E.A.

    1976-01-01

    Actinide recycle in LMFBRs offers an attractive alternative on long-term storage of the actinides. The concept will not significantly affect the performance of the LMFBR, but will affect other parts of the nuclear fuel cycle. Assuming that hands-on maintenance will be allowed for Pu-recycle fuel fabrication facilities, the transplutonium actinides should be kept separate from the PuO 2 --UO 2 fuel. Thus, the ''reference'' recycle scheme should be defined as a scheme in which the actinides are recycled in target assemblies. The target assemblies should be reprocessed either in batches separate from spent-fuel batches or in a separate, relatively small, special purpose reprocessing plant. The target assemblies should be fabricated in a special purpose, remotely maintained facility

  10. Variance component estimation with longitudinal data: a simulation study with alternative methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Inoe Araujo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A pedigree structure distributed in three different places was generated. For each offspring, phenotypicinformation was generated for five different ages (12, 30, 48, 66 and 84 months. The data file was simulated allowing someinformation to be lost (10, 20, 30 and 40% by a random process and by selecting the ones with lower phenotypic values,representing the selection effect. Three alternative analysis were used, the repeatability model, random regression model andmultiple-trait model. Random regression showed to be more adequate to continually describe the covariance structure ofgrowth over time than single-trait and repeatability models, when the assumption of a correlation between successivemeasurements in the same individual was different from one another. Without selection, random regression and multiple-traitmodels were very similar.

  11. Self-reported efficacy of complementary and alternative medicine: the Akershus study of chronic headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristoffersen, Espen Saxhaug; Aaseth, Kjersti; Grande, Ragnhild Berling; Lundqvist, Christofer; Russell, Michael Bjørn

    2013-04-18

    Chronic headache is associated with disability and high utilisation of health care including complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). We investigated self-reported efficacy of CAM in people with chronic headache from the general population. Respondents with possible self-reported chronic headache were interviewed by physicians experienced in headache diagnostics. CAM queried included acupuncture, chiropractic, homeopathy, naprapathy, physiotherapy, psychological treatment, and psychomotor physiotherapy. Sixty-two % and 73% of those with primary and secondary chronic headache had used CAM.Self-reported efficacy of CAM ranged from 0-43% without significant differences between gender, headache diagnoses, co-occurrence of migraine, medication use or physician contact. CAM is widely used, despite self-reported efficacy of different CAM modalities is modest in the management of chronic headache.

  12. Is complementary and alternative medicine effective in job satisfaction among dentists with musculoskeletal disorders? A cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Devanand; Bhaskar, Dara John; Gupta, Rajendra Kumar; Jain, Ankita; Yadav, Priyanka; Dalai, Deepak Ranjan; Singh, Rajeshwar; Singh, Nisha; Chaudhary, Varunjeet; Singh, Ankit; Yadav, Ankit; Karim, Bushra

    2014-01-01

    Musculoskeletal disorders have serious impact on the profession of dentistry. There is common occurrence of pain due to incorrect posture in dental professionals. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies may cast a new light on preventing and intercepting musculoskeletal disorders (MSD). An epidemiological study was conducted in an effort to contribute to the prevention of musculoskeletal disorders in dentistry. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of MSD at dentists using CAM as a treatment and preventive modality for MSD and to compare job/career satisfaction between dentists who use CAM and conventional therapy (CT). Dentists registered in Uttrakhand state, India, under the Dental Council of India and registered members of the Indian Dental Association, Uttrakhand branch (N = 1496) were surveyed. Statistical analysis was conducted using SPSS 17. A response rate of 84% (N = 1257) was obtained, revealing that 90% (N = 1131) had the problem of MSD. Seventy three percentage (N = 826) of dentists with MSD reported the use of CAM and CT. Complementary and alternative medicine users reported greater overall health (72.7% vs. 51%, p alternative medicine therapies may improve quality of life, reduce work interruption and enhance job satisfaction for dentists who suffers from MSD. Through the course of their studies, dentists should be equipped with knowledge on ergonomics and CAM therapies, such as yoga and others, to help them prevent musculoskeletal disorders more effectively.

  13. Searching for Methods on Evaluation Alternatives and Studying Decision Making System Regarding Enhancing Publicity of Nuclear Spent Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Seongkyung; Choi, Seungho; Kim, Hyerim; Song, Jiyeon; Lee, Yoonsup; Sohn, Seohyun

    2013-01-01

    This study was done in order to anticipate the aspect of publicity enhancement on nuclear spent fuel so that it can find the evaluation methods of alternative ways of management which could applied actually and make the decision making system of Publicity Enhancement Committee in advance. In Korea, the nuclear spent fuel is temporarily stored inside of the nuclear facility field, and it is expected that Gori nuclear facility is going to be saturated since 2016 but the solutions are still incomplete. The problem of management of nuclear spent fuel is an important issue in terms of not only the nuclear power policy but also of safe management of the already made nuclear spent fuel. This study has its meaning to draw the evaluation criteria of the management alternatives on nuclear spent fuel which can be applied in Korean case, and to find the necessity of verifying the evaluation of management alternatives through Publicity Enhancement because of different stands according to the interests. As a result, rather than technological engineering safety evaluation, qualitative analysis in terms of social costs, quantitative evaluation in terms of economic costs, this study advises the methods of public hearings and citizen juries which are effective, which makes it meaningful

  14. The Effect of the Japan 2011 Disaster on Nuclear and Alternative Energy Stocks Worldwide: An Event Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Ferstl

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This event study investigates the impact of the Japanese nuclear disaster in Fukushima-Daiichi on the daily stock prices of French, German, Japanese, and U.S. nuclear utility and alternative energy firms. Hypotheses regarding the (cumulative abnormal returns based on a three-factor model are analyzed through joint tests by multivariate regression models and bootstrapping. Our results show significant abnormal returns for Japanese nuclear utility firms during the one-week event window and the subsequent four-week post-event window. Furthermore, while French and German nuclear utility and alternative energy stocks exhibit significant abnormal returns during the event window, we cannot confirm abnormal returns for U.S. stocks.

  15. Numerical study on the effects of the alternative structure geometries on the groundwater flow at the Romuvaara site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koskinen, L.; Meling, K.

    1994-11-01

    The work has two aims. Firstly, it completes the numerical modelling work for the groundwater flow at the Romuvaara site in Finland performed during the preliminary site investigations by varying geometries of the most significant fracture zones. The modified fracture zone geometries are selected within the uncertainties of the structure of the bedrock model. Secondly, the work studies the effects of several potential fracture zones. The locations and geometries of these zones are decided in such a way that either they offer potential or alternative hydrogeologic connections that would explain the anomalies in the results of the earlier field investigations or their existence has been implied by geophysical studies. The field results comprise the measured hydraulic head values under the natural conditions in boreholes KR1 -KRS, and the hydraulic head responses in the pumping test. The work employs the calibrated flow model developed in the preliminary site investigations as the base case, that is modified to correspond to the alternative geometries. Before the simulations with the alternative geometries, the boundary condition for the top of the flow model is partly changed in this work in order to revoke the modification motivated by incorrect field data that were used in the calibration of the flow model. (25 refs., 27 figs., 1 tab.)

  16. Alternative Forms of Resilience. A typology of approaches for the study of Citizen Collective Responses in Hard Economic Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Kousis

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A variety of theoretical and conceptual perspectives have been applied to studying collective citizen initiatives arising in response to hard economic times, such as solidarity-based exchanges and networks, cooperative structures, barter clubs, credit unions, ethical banks, time banks, alternative social currency, citizens' self-help groups, neighbourhood assemblies and social enterprises. Since the global financial crisis of 2008, scholarly attention on novel, alternative, resilient structures has increased, especially in regions that have been most affected. A comprehensive literature review is therefore needed on these initiatives which usually aim to meet basic needs such as food, shelter, health and education at the community level, or build and envision autonomous communities. This paper has four aims. First, it proposes a new, all-encompassing conceptual framework, alternative forms of resilience, to embrace all issues and groups related to such initiatives, during the new millennium and its economic and political challenges, while taking into account the impact of the 2008 crisis. Secondly, it offers a comprehensive literature review on collective citizen initiatives studied through different theoretical, methodological and conceptual understandings. Thirdly, it provides a new typology of several approaches on novel, collective and solidarity-oriented critical resilience initiatives which take into account political issues, be they policy or social-movement related. Finally, it points to future research areas which would aim to systematically address the political and non-political features of citizen-collective responses.

  17. Análisis de los resultados ECAES del Programa de Economía de la Universidad Militar Nueva Granada (2004-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Eduardo Sandoval

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente documento realiza un análisis comparativo entre los resultados obtenidos por las Universidades Privadas con Jornada Diurna y Nocturna, así como en las Universidades Públicas para luego analizar estos resultados en términos de la población evaluada en el programa de economía de la Universidad Militar Nueva Granada en la prueba ECAES realizada en el periodo comprendido entre 2004-2006, con esto se busca conocer el comportamiento de la población de estudiantes en cada uno de los componentes de manera que se puedan analizar las diferencias según el tipo de jornada y de institución.

  18. Identificación de desperdicios y mejoramiento del proceso de fabricación de piezas de muñecas de plastisol

    OpenAIRE

    Apupalo, Lissette; Barcia Villacreses, Kleber F.

    2009-01-01

    La empresa XY es una de las empresas ecuatorianas más importante dentro del área andina, dedicada a la elaboración de artículos plásticos para el hogar, línea de calzado de lona y PVC (tipo tenis), además del área de juguetería y viniles, con una trayectoria de casi cincuenta años. La presente tesis se enfoca dentro del área de juguetes, específicamente en el proceso de rotomoldeo, el objetivo principal de este estudio es mejorar el proceso de fabricación de piezas de muñecas de plastisol, us...

  19. How alternative are alternative fuels?

    OpenAIRE

    Soffritti, Tiziana; Danielis, Romeo

    1998-01-01

    Could alternative fuel vehicles contribute to a substantial reduction of air pollution? Is there a market for alternative fuel vehicles? Could a market be created via a pollution tax? The article answers these questions on the basis of the available estimates.

  20. Alternative detox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, E

    2012-01-01

    The concept that alternative therapies can eliminate toxins and toxicants from the body, i.e. 'alternative detox' (AD) is popular. Selected textbooks and articles on the subject of AD. The principles of AD make no sense from a scientific perspective and there is no clinical evidence to support them. The promotion of AD treatments provides income for some entrepreneurs but has the potential to cause harm to patients and consumers. In alternative medicine, simplistic but incorrect concepts such as AD abound. AREAS TIMELY FOR RESEARCH: All therapeutic claims should be scientifically tested before being advertised-and AD cannot be an exception.

  1. Transcranial Alternating Current Stimulation: A potential risk for genetic generalized epilepsy patients (Study Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel San Juan Orta

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS is a re-emergent neuromodulation technique that consists in the external application of oscillating electrical currents that induces changes in cortical excitability. We present the case of a 16-year-old female with pharmaco-resistant juvenile myoclonic epilepsy to three antiepileptic’s drugs characterized by four myoclonic and 20 absence seizures monthly. She received tACS at 1mA@3Hz pulse train during 60 minutes over Fp1-Fp2 (10-20 EEG international system position during 4 consecutive days using an Endeavor™ IOM Systems device® (Natus Medical Incorporated, Middleton, WI, USA. At the one-month follow-up, she reported a 75% increase in seizures frequency (only myoclonic and tonic-clonic events and developed a 24h myoclonic status epilepticus that resolved with oral clonazepam and intravenous valproate. At the two-month follow-up, the patient reported a 15-day seizure-free period.

  2. Study on Plastic Coated Overburnt Brick Aggregate as an Alternative Material for Bituminous Road Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipankar Sarkar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There are different places in India where natural stone aggregates are not available for constructional work. Plastic coated OBBA can solve the problem of shortage of stone aggregate to some extent. The engineers are always encouraged to use locally available materials. The present investigation is carried out to evaluate the plastic coated OBBA as an alternative material for bituminous road construction. Shredded waste plastics are mixed with OBBA in different percentages as 0.38, 0.42, 0.46, 0.50, 0.54, and 0.60 of the weight of brick aggregates. Marshall Method of mix design is carried out to find the optimum bitumen content of such bituminous concrete mix prepared by plastic coated OBBA. Bulk density, Marshall Stability, flow, Marshall Quotient, ITS, TSR, stripping, fatigue life, and deformations have been determined accordingly. Marshall Stability value of 0.54 percent of plastic mix is comparatively higher than the other mixes except 0.60 percent of plastic mix. Test results are within the prescribed limit for 0.54 percent of plastic mix. There is a significant reduction in rutting characteristics of the same plastic mix. The fatigue life of the mix is also significantly higher. Thus plastic coated OBBA is found suitable in construction of bituminous concrete road.

  3. Comparative studies of liquid metals for an alternative divertor target in a fusion reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabarés, F. L.; Oyarzabal, E.; Tafalla, D.; Martin-Rojo, A. B.; Pastor, I.; Ochando, M. A.; Medina, F.; Zurro, B.; McCarthy, K. J.; the TJ-II Team

    2017-12-01

    Two liquid metals (LM), Li and LiSn (20:80 at), presently considered as alternative materials for the divertor target of a fusion reactor, have been exposed to the plasma in a capillary porous system (CPS) arrangement in TJ-II. A negligible perturbation of the plasma has been recorded in both cases, even when stellarator plasmas are particularly sensitive to high Z elements due to the tendency to central impurity accumulation. The surface temperature of the LM CPS samples (made of a tungsten mesh impregnated in SnLi or Li) has been measured during the plasma pulse with ms resolution by pyrometry and the thermal balance during heating and cooling has been used to obtain the thermal parameters of the SnLi and Li CPS arrangements. Temperatures as high as 1150 K during TJ-II plasma exposure were observed for the LiSn solid case. Strong changes in the thermal conductivity of the alloy were recorded in the cooling phase at temperatures close to the nominal melting point. The deduced values for the thermal conductivity of the LiSn alloy/CPS sample were significantly lower than those predicted from their individual components.

  4. Transcranial Alternating Current Stimulation: A Potential Risk for Genetic Generalized Epilepsy Patients (Study Case)

    Science.gov (United States)

    San-Juan, Daniel; Sarmiento, Carlos Ignacio; Hernandez-Ruiz, Axel; Elizondo-Zepeda, Ernesto; Santos-Vázquez, Gabriel; Reyes-Acevedo, Gerardo; Zúñiga-Gazcón, Héctor; Zamora-Jarquín, Carol Marina

    2016-01-01

    Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) is a re-emergent neuromodulation technique that consists in the external application of oscillating electrical currents that induces changes in cortical excitability. We present the case of a 16-year-old female with pharmaco-resistant juvenile myoclonic epilepsy to 3 antiepileptic’s drugs characterized by 4 myoclonic and 20 absence seizures monthly. She received tACS at 1 mA at 3 Hz pulse train during 60 min over Fp1–Fp2 (10–20 EEG international system position) during 4 consecutive days using an Endeavor™ IOM Systems device® (Natus Medical Incorporated, Middleton, WI, USA). At the 1-month follow-up, she reported a 75% increase in seizures frequency (only myoclonic and tonic–clonic events) and developed a 24-h myoclonic status epilepticus that resolved with oral clonazepam and intravenous valproate. At the 2-month follow-up, the patient reported a 15-day seizure-free period. PMID:27965623

  5. [Uniqueness seeking behavior as a self-verification: an alternative approach to the study of uniqueness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaoka, S

    1995-06-01

    Uniqueness theory explains that extremely high perceived similarity between self and others evokes negative emotional reactions and causes uniqueness seeking behavior. However, the theory conceptualizes similarity so ambiguously that it appears to suffer from low predictive validity. The purpose of the current article is to propose an alternative explanation of uniqueness seeking behavior. It posits that perceived uniqueness deprivation is a threat to self-concepts, and therefore causes self-verification behavior. Two levels of self verification are conceived: one based on personal categorization and the other on social categorization. The present approach regards uniqueness seeking behavior as the personal-level self verification. To test these propositions, a 2 (very high or moderate similarity information) x 2 (with or without outgroup information) x 2 (high or low need for uniqueness) between-subject factorial-design experiment was conducted with 95 university students. Results supported the self-verification approach, and were discussed in terms of effects of uniqueness deprivation, levels of self-categorization, and individual differences in need for uniqueness.

  6. Complementary and Alternative Medicine: A Clinical Study in 1,016 Hematology/Oncology Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hierl, Marina; Pfirstinger, Jochen; Andreesen, Reinhard; Holler, Ernst; Mayer, Stephanie; Wolff, Daniel; Vogelhuber, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Surveys state a widespread use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in patients with malignant diseases. CAM methods might potentially interfere with the metabolization of tumor-specific therapy. However, there is little communication about CAM use in hematology/oncology patients between patients, CAM providers, and oncologists. A self-administered questionnaire was handed out to all patients attending to the hematology/oncology outpatient clinic of Regensburg University Hospital. Subsequently, a chart review of all CAM users was performed. Questionnaires of 1,016 patients were analyzed. Of these patients, 30% used CAM, preferably vitamins and micronutrients. Main information sources for CAM methods were physicians/nonmedical practitioners and friends/relatives. CAM therapies were provided mainly by licensed physicians (29%), followed by nonmedical practitioners (14%) and the patients themselves (13%). Although 62% of the CAM users agreed that the oncologist may know about their CAM therapy, a chart entry about CAM use was found only in 41%. CAM is frequently used by hematology/oncology patients. Systematic communication about CAM is essential to avoid possible drug interactions. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Anuvasan Basti in escalating dose is an alternative for Snehapana before Vamana and Virechana: Trends from a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyadarshani Arvind Kadus

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral administration of medicated fats (oil or ghee is termed as Snehapana. It is an essential step before Vamana (therapeutic emesis and Virechana (therapeutic purgation. Ayurveda physicians often experience a poor compliance in 10-15% patients for oral administration of medicated fats especially in escalating doses. Incomplete Snehapana sometimes creates a problem for a physician to prepare the patient for these processes. These inconveniences made us think about effective alternatives to counter drawbacks and improve acceptance of Snehapana. The present study was planned to assess the efficacy of Anuvasana Basti (oil enema in escalating doses as an alternative for Snehapana. Anuvasana Basti of medicated sesame oil with rock salt was administered in 10 patients for three to seven days till they showed signs and symptoms of complete Snehana. The symptoms of Snehana like semisolid or loose stools, feeling exhausted without much exertion, lightness of body and oiliness of skin were observed. Though the Snehana symptoms varied in intensity, they were similar as they are produced after oral administration of fats. This trend suggests Anuvasana Basti in escalating dose is an alternative for Snehapana before administration of Shodhana therapy like Vamana or Virechana.

  8. Anuvasan Basti in escalating dose is an alternative for Snehapana before Vamana and Virechana: Trends from a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadus, Priyadarshani Arvind; Vedpathak, Surendra M

    2014-01-01

    Oral administration of medicated fats (oil or ghee) is termed as Snehapana. It is an essential step before Vamana (therapeutic emesis) and Virechana (therapeutic purgation). Ayurveda physicians often experience a poor compliance in 10-15% patients for oral administration of medicated fats especially in escalating doses. Incomplete Snehapana sometimes creates a problem for a physician to prepare the patient for these processes. These inconveniences made us think about effective alternatives to counter drawbacks and improve acceptance of Snehapana. The present study was planned to assess the efficacy of Anuvasana Basti (oil enema) in escalating doses as an alternative for Snehapana. Anuvasana Basti of medicated sesame oil with rock salt was administered in 10 patients for three to seven days till they showed signs and symptoms of complete Snehana. The symptoms of Snehana like semisolid or loose stools, feeling exhausted without much exertion, lightness of body and oiliness of skin were observed. Though the Snehana symptoms varied in intensity, they were similar as they are produced after oral administration of fats. This trend suggests Anuvasana Basti in escalating dose is an alternative for Snehapana before administration of Shodhana therapy like Vamana or Virechana.

  9. What to provide and how to provide it? : - a study on small companies' demand for audit and alternative services

    OpenAIRE

    Franzén, Liza

    2010-01-01

    The 1st of July 2010 is the statutory audit going to be abolished in Sweden. After the abolition 96 % of the limited companies do not have to conduct an audit.  This research will therefore study the small companies’ demand for audit and alternative services, and how the services shall be provided to best align with the clients’ demands. This study will be conducted with a positivistic perception of knowledge, since the aim is to explain what factors that affect the companies’ demand. With st...

  10. Integrated Experimental and Computational Study of Hydraulic Fracturing and the Use of Alternative Fracking Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, H.; Carey, J. W.; Karra, S.; Porter, M. L.; Rougier, E.; Zhang, D.; Makedonska, N.; Middleton, R. S.; Currier, R.; Gupta, R.; Lei, Z.; Kang, Q.; O'Malley, D.; Hyman, J.

    2014-12-01

    Shale gas is an unconventional fossil energy resource that is already having a profound impact on US energy independence and is projected to last for at least 100 years. Production of methane and other hydrocarbons from low permeability shale involves hydrofracturing of rock, establishing fracture connectivity, and multiphase fluid-flow and reaction processes all of which are poorly understood. The result is inefficient extraction with many environmental concerns. A science-based capability is required to quantify the governing mesoscale fluid-solid interactions, including microstructural control of fracture patterns and the interaction of engineered fluids with hydrocarbon flow. These interactions depend on coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical (THMC) processes over scales from microns to tens of meters. Determining the key mechanisms in subsurface THMC systems has been impeded due to the lack of sophisticated experimental methods to measure fracture aperture and connectivity, multiphase permeability, and chemical exchange capacities at the high temperature, pressure, and stresses present in the subsurface. This project uses innovative high-pressure microfluidic and triaxial core flood experiments on shale to explore fracture-permeability relations and the extraction of hydrocarbon. These data are integrated with simulations including lattice Boltzmann modeling of pore-scale processes, finite-element/discrete element models of fracture development in the near-well environment, discrete-fracture modeling of the reservoir, and system-scale models to assess the economics of alternative fracturing fluids. The ultimate goal is to make the necessary measurements to develop models that can be used to determine the reservoir operating conditions necessary to gain a degree of control over fracture generation, fluid flow, and interfacial processes over a range of subsurface conditions.

  11. Evaluation and Optimization Study on a Hybrid EOR Technique Named as Chemical-Alternating-Foam Floods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Xingguang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a novel Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR method called Chemical-Alternating-Foam (CAF floods in order to overcome the drawbacks of the conventional foam flooding such as insufficient amount of in-situ foams, severe foam collapse and surfactant retention. The first part of this research focused on the comparison of conventional foam floods and CAF floods both of which had the same amount of gas and chemicals. It showed that: (1 CAF floods possessed the much greater Residual Resistance Factor (RRF at elevated temperature; (2 the accumulative oil recovery of the CAF floods was 10%-15% higher than that of the conventional foam flooding. After 1.8 Pore Volume (PV injection, the oil recovery reached the plateau for both methods; (3 CAF floods yielded the most amount of incremental oil at the 98% water cut (water content in the effluent, while the continuous foam floods achieved the best performance at 60% water cut. The second part of this work determined the optimal foam quality (gas/liquid ratio or the volume percent gas within foam, chemical/foam slug size ratio, cycle number and injection sequence for the CAF floods. It was found that the CAF was endowed with the peak performance if the foam quality, chemical/foam slug size ratio, cycle number was fixed at 80%, 1:1 and 3 respectively with the chemical slug being introduced ahead of the foam slug. Through systematic and thorough research, the proposed hybrid process has been approved to be a viable and effective method significantly strengthening the conventional foam flooding.

  12. A case study of small hydro and grid extension for rural electrification alternatives and complementarities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tebicke, H.L.; Mariam, H.G.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that rural electrification in Eastern and Southern African Countries (ESAC) has so far been based largely on stand-alone diesel electric generating plant or on the extension of high-voltage transmission grids fed by large hydro and/or thermal electric generating stations. The alternative of furnishing supply at modest investment and competitive cost from a nearby small- hydro plant has rarely been considered in those countries of the sub-region that have ample hydro-power resources. All countries in the sub-region (except Angola) import petroleum and/or petroleum product supplies, as well as all hardware for electricity supply and utilization. As a result, in most countries an acute shortage of foreign exchange severely hampers implementation of rural electrification schemes. This should turn attention increasingly to strategies which are less capital-intensive and less dependent on foreign exchange, such as small-hydro plants, where the resource is located near to rural demand. Increasing the local content of small-hydro project implementation has paid off in recent years, considerably reducing costs in a number of Asian and Latin American projects. Local contributions have taken the form of resource assessment at a particular site, design, construction works, and fabrication of relatively simple components of power plant such as hydraulic equipment, low pressure penstocks and gates, as well as simpler types of turbines (e.g., the Banki type). Inadequacy of indigenous technical capacity to make similar local contributions in the ESAC has meant that the few recent small-hydro projects have relied on importing both expertise and equipment. The high costs resulting have frequently fueled arguments against pursuit of small-hydro projects

  13. Renewable energy alternatives to mega hydropower: a case study of Inga 3 for Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, R.; Mileva, A.; Wu, G. C.

    2018-06-01

    We assess the feasibility and cost-effectiveness of renewable energy alternatives to Inga 3, a 4.8-GW hydropower project on the Congo River, to serve the energy needs of the host country, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), and the main buyer, South Africa. To account for a key uncertainty in the literature regarding the additional economic impacts of managing variable wind and solar electricity, we built a spatially and temporally detailed power system investment model for South Africa. We find that a mix of wind, solar photovoltaics, and some natural gas is more cost-effective than Inga 3 to meet future demand except in scenarios with pessimistic assumptions about wind technology performance. If a low load growth forecast is used, including Inga 3 in the power mix results in higher system cost across all sensitivities. In our scenarios, the effect of Inga 3 deployment on South African power system cost ranges from an increase of ZAR 4300 (US 330) million annually to savings of ZAR 1600 (US 120) million annually by 2035. A cost overrun as low as 20% makes the Inga 3 scenarios more expensive in all sensitivity cases. Including time and cost overruns and losses in transmission from DRC to South Africa make Inga 3 an even less attractive investment. For DRC, through analysis of spatial datasets representing technical, physical, and environmental constraints, we find abundant renewable energy potential: 60 GW of solar photovoltaic and 0.6–2.3 GW of wind located close to transmission infrastructure have levelized costs less than US 0.07 per kWh, or the anticipated cost of Inga 3 to residential consumers.

  14. 75 FR 21126 - Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs (ECA) Request for Grant Proposals: Study of the U.S...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-22

    .... IV.3d.2 Diversity, Freedom, and Democracy Guidelines Pursuant to the Bureau's authorizing legislation... sense and encompass differences including, but not limited to ethnicity, race, gender, religion... educational and cultural exchange in countries whose people do not fully enjoy freedom and democracy,'' the...

  15. 76 FR 49826 - Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs (ECA) Request for Grant Proposals: Study of the United...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-11

    ... proficient in the English language. Fulbright Commissions and U.S. Embassies abroad will nominate candidates.... Proposals may also be reviewed by the Office of the Legal Adviser or by other Department elements. Final...

  16. 76 FR 68250 - Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs (ECA) Request for Grant Proposals: Study of the U.S...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-03

    ... Participants will be identified and nominated by the U.S. Embassies and Consulates and/or Fulbright Commissions... Adviser or by other Department of State elements. Final funding decisions are at the discretion of the...

  17. 75 FR 56645 - Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs (ECA) Request for Grant Proposals: Study of the United...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-16

    ... and other experts throughout the United States. Participants: Participants will be nominated by U.S... Office of the Legal Adviser or by other Department elements. Final funding decisions are at the...

  18. 75 FR 62169 - Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs (ECA) Request for Grant Proposals: Study of the United...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-07

    ... Solicitation Package for complete budget guidelines and formatting instructions. The POGI document includes a.../USS-11-10. Methods of Submission: Applications may be submitted in one of two ways: (1) In hard-copy... hard copy original and an electronic copy of the following reports: (1.) A final program and financial...

  19. KAJIAN CIDER SEBAGAI ALTERNATIF PENGANEKARAGAMAN PRODUK KOPI Study of Cider as Alternative Product Diversivication from Coffee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suharyono Apno Sugito

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Coffee is an important export commodity from Indonesia. There are not many processed product from coffee, and sincecoffee is a delightful refreshing beverage, it is interesting to make product diversivication from coffee. An alternative processing could be a cider. Coffee used in this research were decaffeinated, Robusta and Arabica coffee. The amount of added sugar were 15 %, 20 %, and 25 %. Natural cultures, combination of Sacharomyces cerevisiae and Acetobacter xylinum, combination of Sacharomyces ludwigii and Acetobacter xylinum, combination of  S. cerevisiae, S. ludwigii, and A. xylinum were used as starters. The parameters observed included: reducing sugar content, alcohol, total tertitrasi acid, pH and Organoleptic Test (color, aroma, taste, clarity, and general acceptance. Coffee cider with the highest overall acceptance score was made from decaffeinated coffee, with 20 % sugar addition and combination of S. ludwigii and A. xylinum as starter.The result of correlation analysis showed a negative significant correlation between reducing sugar content and aroma of coffee cider. Positive significant correlation were found between total titrable acidity and aroma, taste and overall acceptance of coffee cider. ABSTRAK Kopi merupakan komoditas ekspor penting   Indonesia. Tidak banyak produk olahan dari kopi, yang lebih dikenalsebagai minuman menyegarkan dan menyenangkan, sehingga menarik untuk membuat diversifikasi produk kopi. Salah satu alternatif adalah pengolahan cider. Kopi yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah kopi tanpa kafein, Robusta dan Arabika. Jumlah gula yang ditambahkan adalah 15 %, 20 %, dan 25 %. Kultur alami, kombinasi Sacharomyces cerevisea dan Acetobacter xylinum, kombinasi Sacharomyces Ludwigii dan Acetobacter xylinum, kombinasi S. cerevisiae, S.Ludwigii , dan A.xylinum digunakan sebagai starter. Parameter yang diamati meliputi: kadar gula pereduksi, alkohol, total asam tertitrasi, pH dan Uji Organoleptik (warna

  20. Direct Marketing Alternatives in an Urban Setting: A Case Study of Seattle Youth Garden Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Mykel; Young, Doug; Miles, Carol

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this study is direct marketing of produce from an urban market garden. Rather than discussing broad issues of direct marketing, we use a case study to frame the decisions a market gardener is likely to face in developing both production and marketing plans. The garden featured in this study is located in Seattle, Washington, a city…

  1. Lifeline electric rates and alternative approaches to the problems of low-income ratepayers. Ten case studies of implemented programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-07-01

    Program summaries, issue developments, governmental processes, and impacts are discussed for 10 case studies dealing with lifeline electric rates and alternative approaches to the problems of low-income ratepayers, namely; the Boston Edison rate freeze; the California lifeline; Florida Power and Light conservation rate; the Iowa-Illinois Gas and Electric small-use rate; the Maine demonstration lifeline program; the Massachusetts Electric Company A-65 rate; the Michigan optional senior citizen rate; the Narragansett Electric Company A-65 SSI rate; the Northern States Power Company conservation rate break; and the Potomac Electric Power Company rate freeze. (MCW)

  2. An alternative method to record rising temperatures during dental implant site preparation: a preliminary study using bovine bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenica Laurito

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Overheating is constantly mentioned as a risk factor for bone necrosis that could compromise the dental implant primary stability. Uncontrolled thermal injury can result in a fibrous tissue, interpositioned at the implant-bone interface, compromising the long-term prognosis. The methods used to record temperature rise include either direct recording by thermocouple instruments or indirect estimating by infrared thermography. This preliminary study was carried out using bovine bone and a different method of temperatures rising estimation is presented. Two different types of drills were tested using fluoroptic thermometer and the effectiveness of this alternative temperature recording method was evaluated.

  3. Alternative and augmentative communication systems (AACS as an instrument for decreasing challenging behaviour to students with ASD: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Mira Pastor

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available An intervention based on the Benson Schaeffer’s Speak Signal Program, to provide an eight years old girl with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD with the Alternative and Augmentative Communication System (AACS is described. The intervention aims at promoting the use of signs to express her needs and through this achieve a decrease in challenging behaviors, mostly produced when trying to communicate. A qualitative single case study by objective methodology was used. The program was developed in the communication and language classroom of a public school for children in nursery and primary education in Valencia. Eight signs worked functionally in different contexts. Likewise, reduction of challenging behavior was evident.

  4. Philippine survey of public attitudes towards alternative energy systems (Pilot Study)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savellano, R.A.; Leonin, T.V. Jr.; Bulaon, C.A.; Leon, G.C. de.

    1980-01-01

    The methodology designed by the Joint IAEA/IIASA Project Team on Risk Assessment based on the work of Fishbein and his associates is utilized in this study, in order to determine its applicability in measuring of attitudes of Philippine sample groups. This pilot study was conducted on a group composed of individuals affiliated with a government agency engaged in nuclear energy research. The study demonstrates the applicability and usefulness of the model for attitude measurement under Philippine conditions. (author)

  5. Racial and Ethnic Profiles of Complementary and Alternative Medicine Use Among Young Adults in the United States: Findings From the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upchurch, Dawn M; Wexler Rainisch, Bethany K

    2012-10-01

    This study describes complementary and alternative medicine use among a national sample of young adults, with an emphasis on characterizing racial and ethnic differences, highlighting variation across subgroups of Hispanics. The authors examined young adults ages 18 to 27 years (n = 14 128) from wave III (2001-2002) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Prevalence estimates and logistic regression results were weighted and adjusted for complex sample design. The study examined recent complementary and alternative medicine use in the past 12 months, recent use for each of 15 specific complementary and alternative medicine modalities, and the 5 most commonly used modalities (herbs, massage, chiropractic, relaxation, and vitamins). Results showed that 29% of young adults aged 18 to 27 years recently used complementary and alternative medicine. Prevalence was highest among Cuban Americans (42%) and lowest among blacks (22%). Young adults used a diversity of complementary and alternative medicine modalities and there were substantial differences in use across racial and ethnic groups.

  6. Student midwives' perceptions on the organisation of maternity care and alternative maternity care models in the Netherlands - a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warmelink, J Catja; de Cock, T Paul; Combee, Yvonne; Rongen, Marloes; Wiegers, Therese A; Hutton, Eileen K

    2017-01-11

    A major change in the organisation of maternity care in the Netherlands is under consideration, going from an echelon system where midwives provide primary care in the community and refer to obstetricians for secondary and tertiary care, to a more integrated maternity care system involving midwives and obstetricians at all care levels. Student midwives are the future maternity care providers and they may be entering into a changing maternity care system, so inclusion of their views in the discussion is relevant. This study aimed to explore student midwives' perceptions on the current organisation of maternity care and alternative maternity care models, including integrated care. This qualitative study was based on the interpretivist/constructivist paradigm, using a grounded theory design. Interviews and focus groups with 18 female final year student midwives of the Midwifery Academy Amsterdam Groningen (AVAG) were held on the basis of a topic list, then later transcribed, coded and analysed. Students felt that inevitably there will be a change in the organisation of maternity care, and they were open to change. Participants indicated that good collaboration between professions, including a shared system of maternity notes and guidelines, and mutual trust and respect were important aspects of any alternative model. The students indicated that client-centered care and the safeguarding of the physiological, normalcy approach to pregnancy and birth should be maintained in any alternative model. Students expressed worries that the role of midwives in intrapartum care could become redundant, and thus they are motivated to take on new roles and competencies, so they can ensure their own role in intrapartum care. Final year student midwives recognise that change in the organisation of maternity care is inevitable and have an open attitude towards changes if they include good collaboration, client-centred care and safeguards for normal physiological birth. The graduating

  7. Occupational exposures to emissions from combustion of diesel and alternative fuels in underground mining--a simulated pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Eric A; Reed, Rustin J; Lee, Vivien S T; Burgess, Jefferey L

    2015-01-01

    Diesel fuel is commonly used for underground mining equipment, yet diesel engine exhaust is a known human carcinogen. Alternative fuels, including biodiesel, and a natural gas/diesel blend, offer the potential to reduce engine emissions and associated health effects. For this pilot study, exposure monitoring was performed in an underground mine during operation of a load-haul-dump vehicle. Use of low-sulfur diesel, 75% biodiesel/25% diesel blend (B75), and natural gas/diesel blend (GD) fuels were compared. Personal samples were collected for total and respirable diesel particulate matter (tDPM and rDPM, respectively) and total and respirable elemental and organic carbon (tEC, rEC, tOC, rOC, respectively), as well as carbon monoxide (CO), formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, naphthalene, nitric oxide (NO), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Compared to diesel, B75 use was associated with a 33% reduction in rDPM, reductions in rEC, tEC, and naphthalene, increased tDPM, tOC, and NO, and no change in rOC, CO, and NO2. Compared to diesel, GD was associated with a 66% reduction in rDPM and a reduction in all other exposures except CO. The alternative fuels tested both resulted in reduced rDPM, which is the basis for the current Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) occupational exposure standard. Although additional study is needed with a wider variety of equipment, use of alternative fuels have the promise of reducing exposures from vehicular exhaust in underground mining settings.

  8. Challenges and potentials in using alternative landscape futures during climate change: A literature review and survey study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Rastandeh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the feasibility of applying alternative futures and scenario analysis in landscape planning during climate change to provide a wider perspective and deeper understanding of this approach for better use and more effective application in the future. The study consists of a literature review and an analysis of recent applied projects carried out worldwide. In addition, an electronic survey was conducted from March to September 2014 to examine viewpoints on the use and application of this approach with reference to climate-change impacts. The survey participants were a group of highly experienced researchers from eighteen countries involved in at least one applied project since 2000 relating to this topic. After analysis of more than forty applied projects, the survey results were incorporated into the analysis to create a comprehensive picture regarding the potentials and limitations of alternative futures and scenario analysis in landscape planning with particular attention to climate change. The findings show that this method is one of the most effective decision-making approaches for adopting landscape policies where landscapes change rapidly under the pressure of urbanisation and climate change. Nevertheless, there is a gap between the advances offered by the approach in various dimensions and the complexity of patterns, uncertainties and upheavals in landscapes due to climate-change impacts in the urbanising world. The research indicates that the approach opens up a great opportunity for decision-makers to expand their perspective and adopt appropriate landscape policies before reaching a point of no return from the sustainability point of view. Meanwhile, there are challenges and barriers in the application of alternative futures and scenario analysis for envisioning the landscapes influenced by climate change and urbanisation that should be pushed back. Although informative, this research raises new questions about this

  9. Oxidising alternative species to chromium VI in zinc-galvanised steel surface treatment. Part 2. An electrochemical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, E.; Fedrizzi, L.; Diamantinio, T.C.

    1998-01-01

    In the first part of this work, the authors present the main results and conclusions of a morphological and chemical study carried out on zinc conversion layers (ZCLs) obtained with oxidising alternative passivation baths, that includes molybdates, permanganates, van[ates and tungstates. A good chromate-based bath was used as reference. In this second part of the work, the authors present the main results obtained on selected zinc conversion layers (ZCLs), using a.c. electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The results obtained were correlated with the morphological and chemical data obtained with the same ZCLs in the first part of this work. Finally, it is concluded that the alternative ZCLs studied, does not seem to be as efficient as that obtained with a chromate-based passivation bath used as reference. It is believed that a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in the ZCL's formation, can be useful for studying, in the very near future, possible synergetic effects between molybdates and other chemical species. (orig.)

  10. The Transitive-Unaccusative Alternation: A Cross-Modal Priming Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadlon, Julie

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between different linguistic manifestations of an eventuality-denoting concept, referred to in the literature as diatheses or voices, is well-studied in theoretical linguistics. Among researchers studying this phenomenon, it is widely agreed that there is a systematic relationship between the various diatheses of a concept.…

  11. Time and motion study for alternative mixed low-level waste treatment systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biagi, C.; Vetromile, J.; Teheranian, B.

    1997-02-01

    The time and motion study was developed to look at time-related aspects of the technologies and systems studied in the Integrated Thermal Treatment Systems (ITTS) and Integrated Nonthermal Treatment Systems (INTS) studies. The INTS and ITTS studies combined technologies into systems and subsystems for evaluation. The system approach provides DOE a method of measuring advantages and disadvantages of the many technologies currently being researched. For example, technologies which are more likely to create secondary waste or require extensive pretreatment handling may be less desirable than technologies which require less support from other processes. The time and motion study was designed to address the time element in the INTS and ITTS systems studies. Previous studies have focused on material balance, cost, technical effectiveness, regulatory issues, community acceptance, and operability. This study looks at system dynamics by estimating the treatment time required for a unit of waste, from receipt to certification for shipping. Labor estimates are also developed, based on the time required to do each task for each process. This focus on time highlights critical path processes and potential bottlenecks in the INTS and ITTS systems

  12. Study on the dimensional instability of metallic uranium subject to thermal alternation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentile, E.F.

    1976-01-01

    Methalographic properties of metallic uranium submitted to a thermal cycle are studied. Microstructures heat treatment and methods utilized are presented. Dimensional instability of uranium is the main subject of the study and it is seen that it is strongly reduced in the presence of molybdenum [pt

  13. Cosmic alternatives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Ruth

    2009-04-01

    "Cosmologists are often in error but never in doubt." This pithy characterization by the Soviet physicist Lev Landau sums up the raison d'être of Facts and Speculations in Cosmology. Authors Jayant Narlikar and Geoffrey Burbidge are proponents of a "steady state" theory of cosmology, and they argue that the cosmological community has become fixated on a "Big Bang" dogma, suppressing alternative viewpoints. This book very much does what it says on the tin: it sets out what is known in cosmology, and puts forward the authors' point of view on an alternative to the Big Bang.

  14. An alternative approach to treating lateral epicondylitis. A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nourbakhsh, Mohammad Reza; Fearon, Frank J.

    Objective: To investigate the effect of noxious level electrical stimulation on pain, grip strength and functional abilities in subjects with chronic lateral epicondylitis. Design: Randomized, placebo-control, double-blinded study. Setting: Physical Therapy Department, North Georgia College and

  15. Study of the liquid-film-forming apparatus as an alternative aeration system: design criteria and operating condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongprasith, Narapong; Imai, Tsuyoshi; Painmanakul, Pisut

    2017-06-01

    Aeration is an important factor in aquaculture systems because it is a vital condition for all organisms that live in water and respire aerobically. Generally, mechanical surface aerators are widely used in Thailand due to their advantage for increasing dissolved oxygen (DO) and for their horizontal mixing of aquaculture ponds with large surface areas. However, these systems still have some drawbacks, primarily the low oxygen transfer efficiency (OTE) and energy. Regarding this issue, alternative aeration systems should be studied and applied. Therefore, this research aims to study the aeration mechanism obtained by the diffused-air aeration combined with a liquid-film-forming apparatus (LFFA). The effect of gas flow rates, types, and patterns of aerator installation were investigated in an aquaculture pond of 10 m × 10 m × 1.5 m. The analytical parameters were volumetric mass transfer coefficient (k L a), OTE, and aeration efficiency (AE). From the results, the '4-D' with partitions was proposed as the suitable pattern for the LFFA installation. The advantage could be obtained from high energy performance with 1.2 kg/kW h of AE. Then, the operation conditions can be applied as a design guideline for this alternative aeration system in the aquaculture ponds.

  16. Clinical outcome of an alternative fotemustine schedule in elderly patients with recurrent glioblastoma: a mono-institutional retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, Giuseppe; Bellu, Luisa; Pambuku, Ardi; Della Puppa, Alessandro; Fiduccia, Pasquale; Farina, Miriam; D'Avella, Domenico; Zagonel, Vittorina

    2016-07-01

    The optimal treatment of recurrent glioblastoma (GBM) in elderly patients is unclear. Fotemustine (FTM) is a third-generation nitrosourea showing efficacy in gliomas and it has been used with different schedules in adult patients. We performed, for the first time anywhere, a mono-institutional retrospective study to analyze the clinical outcome of an alternative fotemustine schedule in elderly patients with recurrent GBM. Retrospectively, we analyzed all GBM patients 65 years or older previously treated with the combination of radiation therapy and temozolomide (TMZ), receiving an alternative FTM schedule as second-line treatment at our Oncological Center from October 2011 to October 2014 with an ECOG PS ≤ 2. FTM was administrated at 80 mg/m(2) every 2 weeks for five consecutive administrations (induction phase), and then every 4 weeks at 80 mg/m(2) as maintenance. We enrolled 44 patients, 33 males and 11 females; average age was 70 years. ECOG PS was 0-1 in 80 % of the patients. 38 patients relapsed during temozolomide (TMZ) therapy. MGMT methylation status was analyzed in 34 patients and MGMT was methylated in 53 % of the patients. The median progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) from FTM treatment was 4.1 months (95 % CI 3.1-5.2) and 7 months (95 % CI 5.2-8.4), respectively. Patients with MGMT methylated status and patients who relapsed after completing TMZ therapy had a longer PFS and OS from the beginning of FTM. Thrombocytopenia was the most frequent grade 3-4 haematological toxicity (9 %). The alternative schedule of FTM may be an active and safe treatment for elderly patients with recurrent glioblastoma, especially patients with methylated MGMT and who relapsed after completing temozolomide therapy.

  17. Comparison of two alternative study designs in assessment of medicines utilisation in neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nellis, Georgi; Lutsar, Irja; Varendi, Heili; Toompere, Karolin; Turner, Mark A; Duncan, Jennifer; Metsvaht, Tuuli

    2014-07-16

    Estimates of prevalence are known to be affected by the design of cross-sectional studies. A pan-European study provided an opportunity to compare the effect of two cross-sectional study designs on estimates of medicines use. A Service evaluation survey (SES) and a web-based point-prevalence study (PPS) were conducted as part of a European study of neonatal exposure to excipients. Neonatal units from all European Union countries plus Iceland, Norway, Switzerland and Serbia were invited to participate. All medicines prescribed to neonates were recorded during three-day and one-day study periods in the SES and PPS, respectively. In the PPS individual demographic and prescription data were also collected.To compare the probabilities that a particular medicine would be reported by each study multilevel mixed effects logistic regression models with crossed random effects were applied. The relationship between medicines exposure at the unit and individual levels in the PPS data was assessed using polynomial regression with square root transformation. Of 31 invited countries 20 and 21 with 115 and 89 units joined the SES and PPS, respectively. Out of 5,572,859 live births in invited countries in 2010 a higher proportion was covered by units participating in the SES compared to the PPS (11% vs 6%, respectively; OR 1.89; 95% CI 1.87-1.89). A greater number of active pharmaceutical ingredients (API), manufacturers and trade names were registered in the SES compared to the PPS. High correlation between the two studies in frequency of use for each specified API was seen (R2 = 0.86). The average probability of a department to use a given API was greater in the SES compared to the PPS (OR 2.36; 95% CI 2.05-2.73) with higher frequency of use and longer average duration of prescription further increasing the difference. The polynomial regression model described the correlation between APIs exposure on unit and individual level well (R2 = 0.93). The simple data structure and longer

  18. Growing Alternatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger-Petersen, Mai Corlin

    2014-01-01

    From 2014, Anhui Province will pilot a reform of the residential land market in China, thus integrating rural Anhui in the national housing market. In contrast, artist and activist Ou Ning has proposed the Bishan time money currency, intending to establish an alternative economic circuit in Bishan...

  19. Alternative Veier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Tove Elisabeth; Salamonsen, Anita

    reflektioner omkring patienters brug af og erfaringer med alternativ behandling. Patientorganisationer, organisatoner for alternative behandlere og organisationer for læger og medicinstuderende har læst bogens patienthistorier og deres perspektiver lægges frem. Til slut i bogen diskuteres betydningen af de...

  20. Studies of transformational leadership: evaluating two alternative models of trust and satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi-Feng

    2014-06-01

    This study evaluates the influence of leadership style and employee trust in their leaders on job satisfaction. 341 personnel (164 men, 177 women; M age = 33.5 yr., SD = 5.1) from four large insurance companies in Taiwan completed the transformational leadership behavior inventory, the leadership trust scale and a short version of the Minnesota (Job) Satisfaction Questionnaire. A bootstrapping mediation and structural equation modeling revealed that the effect of transformational leadership on job satisfaction was mediated by leadership trust. This study highlights the importance of leadership trust in leadership-satisfaction relationships, and provides managers with practical ways to enhance job satisfaction.

  1. Second Chance or No Chance? A Case Study of One Urban Alternative Middle School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy-Lewis, Brianna L.

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative case study focuses on a school created to educate expelled students, specifically examining the relationships between educators' beliefs and philosophies and daily school life. At this school, Kelly's ("Last chance high." Yale University Press, New Haven, 1993) competing philosophies of "traditionalism" and…

  2. Alternative, indirect measures of ballast water treatment efficacy during a shipboard trial: a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wright, D.A.; Welschmeyer, N.A.; Peperzak, L.

    2015-01-01

    A shipboard study was conducted aboard the cruise ship Coral Princess during a scheduled cruise from San Pedro, CA, USA to Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. The investigation involved three members of the global TestNet group, with experience in certification testing of ballast water treatment

  3. Anti-cancer, pharmacokinetic and biodistribution studies of cremophor el free alternative paclitaxel formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Subheet K; Utreja, Puneet; Tiwary, Ashok K; Mahajan, Mohit; Kumar, Nikhil; Roy, Partha

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation is to determine the in vivo potential of previously developed and optimized Cremophor EL free paclitaxel (CF-PTX) formulation consisting of soya phosphatidylcholine and biosurfactant sodium deoxycholate. CF-PTX was found to have drug loading of 6 mg/ml similar to Cremophor EL based marketed paclitaxel formulation. In the present study, intracellular uptake, repeated dose 28 days sub-acute toxicity, anti-cancer activity, biodistribution and pharmacokinetic studies were conducted to determine in vivo performance of CF-PTX formulation in comparison to marketed paclitaxel formulation. Intracellular uptake of CF-PTX was studied using A549 cells by fluorescence activated cell sorting assay (FACS) and fluorescence microscopy. In vivo anti-cancer activity of CF-PTX was evaluated using Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) model in mice followed by biodistribution and pharmacokinetic studies. FACS investigation showed that fluorescence marker acridine orange (AO) solution showed only 19.8±1.1% intracellular uptake where as significantly higher uptake was observed in the case of AO loaded CF-PTX formulation (85.4±2.3%). The percentage reduction in tumor volume for CF-PTX (72.5±2.3%) in EAC bearing mice was found to be significantly (p<0.05) higher than marketed formulation (58.6±2.8%) on 14th day of treatment. Pharmacokinetic and biodistribution studies showed sustained plasma concentration of paclitaxel depicted by higher mean residence time (MRT; 18.2±1.8 h) and elimination half life (12.8±0.6 h) with CF-PTX formulation as compared to marketed formulation which showed 4.4±0.2 h MRT and 3.6±0.4 h half life. The results of the present study demonstrated better in vivo performance of CF-PTX and this formulation appears to be a promising carrier for sustained and targeted delivery of paclitaxel.

  4. Assessment of management alternatives for LWR wastes. Volume 1. Main achievements of the joint study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glibert, R.C.

    1993-01-01

    This report deals with the main achievements of a joint theoretical study aimed at evaluating a selection of management routes for LWR wastes, relying to a certain extent on national practices in this particular area, on the basis of economical and radiological criteria. All individual intermediate steps entering a management route, from radioactive-wastes production up to their disposal in near-surface sites or in a deep repository, have been identified, described and cost-evaluated throughout the study. The radiological impact assessment comprises estimates of both individual and collective doses resulting from normal discharges of radioactive effluents and from disposal of radioactive waste products in near-surfaces sites. All specific data concerning the description of the different management routes considered as well as the methodology applied to evaluate cost and radiological impact are detailed in the subsequent volumes of the series (Volumes 2 to 8)

  5. Experimental Study of Dowel Bar Alternatives Based on Similarity Model Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chichun Hu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a small-scaled accelerated loading test based on similarity theory and Accelerated Pavement Analyzer was developed to evaluate dowel bars with different materials and cross-sections. Jointed concrete specimen consisting of one dowel was designed as scaled model for the test, and each specimen was subjected to 864 thousand loading cycles. Deflections between jointed slabs were measured with dial indicators, and strains of the dowel bars were monitored with strain gauges. The load transfer efficiency, differential deflection, and dowel-concrete bearing stress for each case were calculated from these measurements. The test results indicated that the effect of the dowel modulus on load transfer efficiency can be characterized based on the similarity model test developed in the study. Moreover, round steel dowel was found to have similar performance to larger FRP dowel, and elliptical dowel can be preferentially considered in practice.

  6. Pilot study on using an alternative method of estimating emission of heavy metals from wood combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszowski, Tomasz; Bożym, Marta

    2014-09-01

    This thesis presents pilot studies concerning the assessment of the possibility of using organic materials of vegetative origin as indices of heavy metals emissions (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) from domestic wood-fired fireplaces. Mosses of the Pleurozium schreberi species as well as cellulose and cotton wool were used during the study as the potential indices for the elements emission. It was proved that mosses are more reliable as indices of metals emissions than cellulose or cotton wool. It was found that the quantity of Ni accumulated in the moss tissue is comparable with the concentration of this compound in the dust assessed with the reference method. A correlation between the Ni, Cr, Zn and Pb concentrations defined in the mosses and dust filter was found. It was proved that mosses as adsorbers, more clearly than in the case of cellulose and cotton, react to the change of the size of the particulates emitted.

  7. Use of orthogonal field alternational gel electrophoresis (OFAGE) for studying DNA double strand breakage and repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contopoulou, C.R.; Cook, V.; Mortimer, R.K.

    1987-01-01

    The study of DNA double strand breakage and repair has normally been carried by using neutral sucrose gradient or neutral elution techniques. The authors have applied OFAGE procedures to study x-ray induced double strand breaks and repair. Breakage of chromosomes is seen by a decrease in intensity of individual chromosome bands; as expected, this decrease becomes more pronounced as chromosome size increases. The fragments of broken chromosomes appears as a broad smear in the size range 100 kb to 1000 kb. Following repair, these fragments partially disappear and the chromosomal bands increase in intensity. In four repair deficient mutants, rad51, rad52, rad54, rad55, no increase in chromosomal band intensity was seen. These results have been confirmed by blotting for a specific chromosome

  8. Space shuttle/food system study. Volume 2, appendix E: Alternate flight systems analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    The functional requirements of stowage, preparation, serving, consumption, and cleanup were applied to each of the five food mixes selected for study in terms of the overall design of the space shuttle food system. The analysis led to a definition of performance requirements for each food mix, along with a definition of equipment to meet those requirements. Weight and volume data for all five systems, in terms of food and packaging, support equipment, and galley installation penalties, are presented.

  9. The Communicability of Graphical Alternatives to Tabular Displays of Statistical Simulation Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Alex R.; Teo, Shanice W. L.

    2011-01-01

    Simulation studies are often used to assess the frequency properties and optimality of statistical methods. They are typically reported in tables, which may contain hundreds of figures to be contrasted over multiple dimensions. To assess the degree to which these tables are fit for purpose, we performed a randomised cross-over experiment in which statisticians were asked to extract information from (i) such a table sourced from the literature and (ii) a graphical adaptation designed by the authors, and were timed and assessed for accuracy. We developed hierarchical models accounting for differences between individuals of different experience levels (under- and post-graduate), within experience levels, and between different table-graph pairs. In our experiment, information could be extracted quicker and, for less experienced participants, more accurately from graphical presentations than tabular displays. We also performed a literature review to assess the prevalence of hard-to-interpret design features in tables of simulation studies in three popular statistics journals, finding that many are presented innumerately. We recommend simulation studies be presented in graphical form. PMID:22132184

  10. A pilot study of rivastigmine in the treatment of delirium after stroke: A safe alternative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansen Ben PW

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Delirium is a common disorder in the early phase of stroke. Given the presumed cholinergic deficiency in delirium, we tested treatment with the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor rivastigmine. Methods This pilot study was performed within an epidemiological study. In 527 consecutive stroke patients presence of delirium was assessed during the first week with the confusion assessment method. Severity was scored with the delirium rating scale (DRS. Sixty-two patients developed a delirium in the acute phase of stroke. Only patients with a severe and persistent delirium (defined as a DRS of 12 or more for more than 24 hours were enrolled in the present study. In total 26 fulfilled these criteria of whom 17 were treated with orally administered rivastigmine with a total dose between 3 and 12 mg a day. Eight patients could not be treated because of dysphagia and one because of early discharge. Results No major side effects were recorded. In 16 patients there was a considerable decrease in severity of delirium. The mean DRS declined from 14.8 on day one to 8.5 after therapy and 5.6 after tapering. The mean duration of delirium was 6.7 days (range; 2–17. Conclusion Rivastigmine is safe in stroke patients with delirium even after rapid titration. In the majority of patients the delirium improved after treatment. A randomized controlled trial is needed to establish the usefulness of rivastigmine in delirium after stroke. Trial registration Nederlands Trial Register NTR1395

  11. STUDY OF ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND EFFECTS OF COMPRESSION RATIO ON THERMAL EFFICIENCY AND ENGINE POWER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarjito Sarjito

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper was a case study during the sabatical program at Kingston University London in February 2007. It has been studied by team of motorsport automotive department Kingston University London and it has been elaborated as a final project on Master Program. This study takes into account some of the issues surrounding the debate about alcohol fuels in Motorsport and the wider automotive sector and is primarily concerned to add data where there seems to be little existing research since Motorsport is a secretive business. Motorsport plays an important part in the automotive industry and is a sport enjoyed worldwide. Racing practice is regarded as using the best available resources and technology as it requires optimal performance. The racing arena gives engineers the opportunity to test valuable technological solutions to prove their merits. Therefore, racing is the natural starting point for introducing new technological solutions to the public and could lead to the wholesale conversion to renewable fuels to meet our automotive energy needs. Alcohol has unique properties that make superior in many ways to ordinary gasoline. The higher knock resistance allows for higher compression ratios to be utilized resulting in higher power outputs and thermal efficiency. The efficient use of energy is of growing concern in all spheres of life and the automotive sector needs to be front runner in these efforts.

  12. Investigation of potential alternate study areas in the Paradox Basin region, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, T.A.

    1984-03-01

    The Paradox Basin was re-evaluated to determine if any parts of the Basin that had not been identified in previous studies might be suitable for a more detailed evaluation as a nuclear waste repository site. The factors used in this re-evaluation were depth to salt and dedicated lands, because these factors directly address the engineering and environmental feasibility of a repository. Six areas (Happy Canyon, Green River, Dolores River, Expectation Mountain, Dark Canyon, and Kane Springs Canyon) were identified on this basis as potentially suitable areas for further study. These areas were assessed in more detail to review the feasibility of siting a repository. None of the six areas was recommended for further study as a repository site because the size of the areas, thickness of the salt beds, topography, and engineering factors resulting from the loading of nearby mesas generally did not allow the construction of a feasible repository. The content of this report was effective as of May 1983. 41 references, 17 figures

  13. Herbal and Alternative Medicine Use in Tanzanian Adults Admitted with Hypertension-Related Diseases: A Mixed-Methods Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Liwa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hypertension is increasingly common in sub-Saharan Africa where traditional medicine use is also common. We conducted a hospital-based, mixed-methods study to determine prevalence, pattern, and correlates of herbal and alternative medicine use in Tanzanian adults hospitalized with hypertension. Methods. A standardized questionnaire was administered. In-depth interviews were performed on a subset of participants. Factors associated with herbal medicine use were determined by logistic regression. The association between traditional medicine uses and allopathic medication adherence was determined using ordinal logistic regression. Qualitative data were analyzed according to grounded theory. Results. Of 213 adults enrolled, 52 (24.4% reported using herbs during the previous month and 47 (22.1% reported concurrent use of herbs and allopathic medicines. Lower educational level, nonprofessional employment, and lack of health insurance were significantly associated with herbal medicine use. Alternative medicines use was not associated with lower medication adherence. Qualitative interviews identified several important themes including reasons for herbal medicine use. Conclusion. The use of traditional medicines is very common among patients with hypertension. Adults from low socioeconomic status, those with misunderstandings about hypertension, and those without health insurance were more likely to take herbs. Open, nonjudgmental communication between healthcare workers and patients regarding use of traditional medicines must be encouraged in Africa.

  14. Herbal and Alternative Medicine Use in Tanzanian Adults Admitted with Hypertension-Related Diseases: A Mixed-Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roediger, Rebecca; Jaka, Hyasinta; Bougaila, Amina; Smart, Luke; Langwick, Stacey

    2017-01-01

    Background Hypertension is increasingly common in sub-Saharan Africa where traditional medicine use is also common. We conducted a hospital-based, mixed-methods study to determine prevalence, pattern, and correlates of herbal and alternative medicine use in Tanzanian adults hospitalized with hypertension. Methods A standardized questionnaire was administered. In-depth interviews were performed on a subset of participants. Factors associated with herbal medicine use were determined by logistic regression. The association between traditional medicine uses and allopathic medication adherence was determined using ordinal logistic regression. Qualitative data were analyzed according to grounded theory. Results Of 213 adults enrolled, 52 (24.4%) reported using herbs during the previous month and 47 (22.1%) reported concurrent use of herbs and allopathic medicines. Lower educational level, nonprofessional employment, and lack of health insurance were significantly associated with herbal medicine use. Alternative medicines use was not associated with lower medication adherence. Qualitative interviews identified several important themes including reasons for herbal medicine use. Conclusion The use of traditional medicines is very common among patients with hypertension. Adults from low socioeconomic status, those with misunderstandings about hypertension, and those without health insurance were more likely to take herbs. Open, nonjudgmental communication between healthcare workers and patients regarding use of traditional medicines must be encouraged in Africa. PMID:28634545

  15. The effect of alternative seismotectonic models on PSHA results - a sensitivity study for two sites in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avital, Matan; Kamai, Ronnie; Davis, Michael; Dor, Ory

    2018-02-01

    We present a full probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) sensitivity analysis for two sites in southern Israel - one in the near field of a major fault system and one farther away. The PSHA analysis is conducted for alternative source representations, using alternative model parameters for the main seismic sources, such as slip rate and Mmax, among others. The analysis also considers the effect of the ground motion prediction equation (GMPE) on the hazard results. In this way, the two types of epistemic uncertainty - modelling uncertainty and parametric uncertainty - are treated and addressed. We quantify the uncertainty propagation by testing its influence on the final calculated hazard, such that the controlling knowledge gaps are identified and can be treated in future studies. We find that current practice in Israel, as represented by the current version of the building code, grossly underestimates the hazard, by approximately 40 % in short return periods (e.g. 10 % in 50 years) and by as much as 150 % in long return periods (e.g. 10E-5). The analysis shows that this underestimation is most probably due to a combination of factors, including source definitions as well as the GMPE used for analysis.

  16. Evaluation of Microbiological and Physicochemical Parameters of Alternative Source of Drinking Water: A Case Study of Nzhelele River, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edokpayi, Joshua N; Odiyo, John O; Popoola, Elizabeth O; Msagati, Titus A M

    2018-01-01

    Access to clean and safe drinking water is still a problem in developing countries and more pronounced in rural areas. Due to erratic supply of potable, rural dwellers often seek for an alternative source of water to meet their basic water needs. The objective of this study is to monitor the microbiological and physicochemical water quality parameters of Nzhelele River which is a major alternative source of drinking water to villages along its course in Limpopo province of South Africa. Membrane filtration method was employed in evaluating the levels of E. coli and Enterococci in the river water from January-June, 2014. Specialized multimeter was used to measure the pH, electrical conductivity and turbidity of the river water. Ion Chromatograph was used to measure major anions such as fluoride, chloride, nitrate and sulphate in the water. High levels of E. coli (1 x 10 2 - 8 x 10 4 cfu/100 mL) and enterococci (1 x 10 2 - 5.7 x 10 3 cfu/100 mL) were found in the river water and exceeded their permissible limits of 0 cfu/100 mL for drinking water. Turbidity values ranged from 1.12-739.9 NTU. The pH, electrical conductivity, chloride, fluoride, nitrate and sulphate levels were below their permissible limits for drinking water. The river water is contaminated with faecal organisms and is unfit for drinking purposes. However, the levels of the major anions accessed were within the permissible limits of drinking water.

  17. Simulation Study Using an Injection Phase-locked Magnetron as an Alternative Source for SRF Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Haipeng [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Plawski, Tomasz E. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Rimmer, Robert A. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    As a drop-in replacement for the CEBAF CW klystron system, a 1497 MHz, CW-type high-efficiency magnetron using injection phase lock and amplitude variation is attractive. Amplitude control using magnetic field trimming and anode voltage modulation has been studied using analytical models and MATLAB/Simulink simulations. Since the 1497 MHz magnetron has not been built yet, previously measured characteristics of a 2.45GHz cooker magnetron are used as reference. The results of linear responses to the amplitude and phase control of a superconducting RF (SRF) cavity, and the expected overall benefit for the current CEBAF and future MEIC RF systems are presented in this paper.

  18. An alternative time marker for the study of the uniform and uniformly accelerated movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmar Henrique Moura da Silva

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a type of time marker set up with materials of low cost for the study of uniform movements as well as those accelerated by gravitacional force. A mechanism used to measure its frequency is coupled to it in order to find the approximate value of the acceleration of the local gravity. The experiment, that is adapted to be used during a kinematics class, can also be presented by the students at a science fair, for being a stimulating factor as it involves the students’ participation in its construction.

  19. E-cigarettes, a safer alternative for teenagers? A UK focus group study of teenagers' views

    OpenAIRE

    Hilton, Shona; Weishaar, Heide; Sweeting, Helen; Trevisan, Filippo; Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vital

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Concerns exist that e-cigarettes may be a gateway to traditional cigarettes and/or (re)normalise teenage smoking. This qualitative study explores how teenagers in the UK currently perceive e-cigarettes and how and why they do or do not use them.\\ud \\ud Design: 16 focus groups were conducted across the UK between November 2014 and February 2015, with 83 teenagers aged 14–17. All discussions were digitally recorded, transcribed verbatim, imported into NVivo 10 and thematically analys...

  20. Technical Approach and Results from the Fuels Pathway on an Alternative Selection Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bob Youngblood; Curtis Smith

    2013-09-01

    The report presents a detailed plan for conducting case studies to characterize probabilistic safety margins associated with different fuel cladding types in a way that supports a valid comparison of different fuels' performance. Recent work performed in other programs is described briefly and used to illustrate the challenges posed by characterization of margin in a probabilistic way. It is additionally pointed out that consistency of evaluation of performance across different cladding types is not easy to assure; a process for achieving the needed consistency is described.

  1. Alternative global goodness metrics and sensitivity analysis: heuristics to check the robustness of conclusions from studies comparing virtual screening methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Robert P

    2008-02-01

    We introduce two ways of testing the robustness of conclusions from studies comparing virtual screening methods: alternative "global goodness" metrics and sensitivity analysis. While the robustness tests cannot eliminate all biases in virtual screening comparisons, they are useful as a "reality check" for any given study. To illustrate this, we apply them to a set of enrichments published in McGaughey et al. (J. Chem. Inf. Model. 2007, 47, 1504-1519) where 11 target protein/ligand combinations are tested on 2D and 3D similarity methods, plus docking. The major conclusions in that paper, for instance, that ligand-based methods are better than docking methods, hold up. However, some minor conclusions, such as Glide being the best docking method, do not.

  2. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF PALM OIL MILL EFFLUENT AND OIL PALM FROND WASTE MIXTURE AS AN ALTERNATIVE BIOMASS FUEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. HASSAN, L. S. KEE

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil mill effluent (POME sludge generated from palm oil mill industry and oil palm frond (OPF from oil palm plantation are considered biomass wastes that can be fully utilized as a renewable energy sources. In this study, an attempt has been made to convert these residues into solid biomass fuel. The study was conducted by developing experimental testing on the POME and OPF mixture. The performance of each sample with different weight percentage was investigated using standard tests. The biomass mixture was converted into compressed form of briquette through a simple process. The properties of the briquettes were observed and compared at different weight percentage following standard testing methods included ultimate and proximate analyses, burning characteristics, dimensional stability and crack analysis. Experimental results showed that POME sludge and OPF mixture is feasible as an alternative biomass fuel, with briquette of 90:10 POME sludge to OPF ratio has a good combination of properties as an overall.

  3. Pressure ulcers prevention efficacy of an alternating pressure air mattress in elderly patients: E²MAO a randomised study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvage, P; Touflet, M; Pradere, C; Portalier, F; Michel, J-M; Charru, P; Passadori, Y; Fevrier, R; Hallet-Lezy, A-M; Beauchêne, F; Scherrer, B

    2017-06-02

    Our aim was to compare Axtair One, an alternating pressure air mattress (APAM), with a viscoelastic foam mattress (VFM) in elderly patients at moderate to high risk of developing pressure ulcers (PUs). A randomised, controlled, superiority, parallel-group, open-label, multicentre study, was conducted, between February 2012 and March 2015, in nine French, medium- and long-term stay facilities. Eligible patients were aged 70 and over, had no PUs on enrolment, were bedridden for at least 15 hours per day, had reduced mobility, an absent or minimal positioning capability, a Braden score 12 and a Karnofsky score elderly patients, bedridden for more than 15 hours per day, severely dependent, at moderate-to high-risk of PUs, with an instantaneous risk for the appearance of PUs 7.57 times greater in the VFM group than in the APAM group. This study provides descriptive information and evidence for practice.

  4. Study on Investor-State Dispute Settlement (‘ISDS’) and Alternatives of Dispute Resolution in International Investment Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hindelang, Steffen

    aken the public concerns about current developments in the area of the European International Investment Policy, the European Parliament’s INTA Committee launched a study on Investor-State Dispute Settlement and Possible Alternatives of Dispute Resolution in International Investment Law....... In a nutshell, the study suggests that ISDS is a useful means of enforcing substantive investment protection standards contained in international investment agreements. The mechanism should therefore continue to form part of European international investment policy. However, the EU has to address four major...... challenges tied to this dispute settlement tool, i.e. (1) mitigating inconsistency, (2) securing the right balance between private and public interests, (3) establishing integrity of arbitral proceedings and (4) preventing misuse, allowing for error-correction and managing financial risk associated with ISDS...

  5. Alternatives for solid waste management in Isfahan, Iran: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abduli, Mohammed A; Tavakolli, Hossein; Azari, Ariandokht

    2013-05-01

    This articles presents the status of municipal solid waste (MSW) management practices in the city of Isfahan, Iran. It provides an overview of the generation, collection, separation, recycling and disposal of MSW. Field studies were carried out from 2009 to 2010. According to this study, the city generates about 399,000 metric tons of MSW per year, of which 72.5% is organic matter. In Isfahan more than 90% of the MSW is collected by official municipal forces and the other 10% is collected by informal collectors. About 70% of the MSW in Isfahan is composted to produce a humus material, 5% is rejected and 25% is stockpiled for future use as fuel in a waste-to-energy incineration plant. Non-compostable waste and other residues are landfilled. This investigation also includes an analysis of economic benefits that could be realized by implementing incineration and a discussion of the challenges confronted in Isfahan for implementing changes to the city's existing MSW management system. This article concludes with recommendations for improving the city's MSW management system.

  6. Experimental study on spray characteristics of alternate jet fuels using Phase Doppler Anemometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannaiyan, Kumaran; Sadr, Reza

    2013-11-01

    Gas-to-Liquid (GTL) fuels have gained global attention due to their cleaner combustion characteristics. The chemical and physical properties of GTL jet fuels are different from conventional jet fuels owing to the difference in their production methodology. It is important to study the spray characteristics of GTL jet fuels as the change of physical properties can affect atomization, mixing, evaporation and combustion process, ultimately affecting emission process. In this work, spray characteristics of two GTL synthetic jet fuels are studied using a pressure-swirl nozzle at different injection pressures and atmospheric ambient condition. Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA) measurements of droplet size and velocity are compared with those of regular Jet A-1 fuel at several axial and radial locations downstream of the nozzle exit. Experimental results show that although the GTL fuels have different physical properties such as viscosity, density, and surface tension, among each other the resultant change in the spray characteristics is insignificant. Furthermore, the presented results show that GTL fuel spray characteristics exhibit close similarity to those of Jet A-1 fuel. Funded by Qatar Science and Technology Park.

  7. Study on interfacial reaction between lead-free solders and alternative surface finishes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siti Rabiatul Aisha; Ourdjini, A.; Saliza Osman

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the interfacial reactions occurring during reflow soldering between Sn-Ag-Cu lead-free solder and two surface finishes: electroless nickel/ immersion gold (ENIG) and immersion silver (IAg). The study focuses on interfacial reactions evolution and growth kinetics of intermetallic compounds (IMC) formed during soldering and isothermal ageing at 150 degree Celsius for up to 2000 hours. Optical and scanning electron microscopy were used to measure IMC thickness and examine the morphology of IMC respectively, whereas the IMC phases were identified by energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). The results showed that the IMC formed on ENIG finish is thinner compared to that formed on IAg finish. For IAg surface finish, Cu 6 Sn 5 IMCs with scallop morphology are formed at the solder/ surface finish interface after reflow while a second IMC, Cu 3 Sn was formed between the copper and Cu 6 Sn 5 IMC after the isothermal ageing treatment. For ENIG surface finish both (Cu,Ni) 6 Sn 5 and (Ni,Cu) 3 Sn 4 are formed after soldering. Isothermal aging of the solder joints formed on ENIG finish was found to have a significant effect on the morphology of the intermetallics by transforming to more spherical and denser morphology in addition to increase i their thickness with increased ageing time. (author)

  8. Alternations of functional connectivity in amblyopia patients: a resting-state fMRI study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jieqiong; Hu, Ling; Li, Wenjing; Xian, Junfang; Ai, Likun; He, Huiguang

    2014-03-01

    Amblyopia is a common yet hard-to-cure disease in children and results in poor or blurred vision. Some efforts such as voxel-based analysis, cortical thickness analysis have been tried to reveal the pathogenesis of amblyopia. However, few studies focused on alterations of the functional connectivity (FC) in amblyopia. In this study, we analyzed the abnormalities of amblyopia patients by both the seed-based FC with the left/right primary visual cortex and the network constructed throughout the whole brain. Experiments showed the following results: (1)As for the seed-based FC analysis, FC between superior occipital gyrus and the primary visual cortex was found to significantly decrease in both sides. The abnormalities were also found in lingual gyrus. The results may reflect functional deficits both in dorsal stream and ventral stream. (2)Two increased functional connectivities and 64 decreased functional connectivities were found in the whole brain network analysis. The decreased functional connectivities most concentrate in the temporal cortex. The results suggest that amblyopia may be caused by the deficits in the visual information transmission.

  9. Comparison of early surgical alternatives in the management of open abdomen: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rencüzoğulları, Ahmet; Dalcı, Kubilay; Eray, İsmail Cem; Yalav, Orçun; Okoh, Alexis Kofi; Akcam, Tolga; Ülkü, Abdullah; Sakman, Gürhan; Parsak, Cem P

    2015-05-01

    Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) is a clinical syndrome characterized by progressive intraabdominal organ dysfunction resulting from an acute increase in intra-abdominal pressure (IAP). In the absence of prompt treatment, ACS can lead to lethal organ failure. Treatment of ACS is achieved by immediate decompression of the abdominal cavity. As to how and when decompression laparotomy should be performed depends on the clinical condition of the patients. There is limited data regarding outcomes of abdominal closure techiques. The present study aimed to investigate two different temporary closure methods, the vacuum assisted closure (VAC) and Bogota bag techniques, in 40 patients who underwent decompressive laparotomy as part of the management of ACS. The study included 40 patients who developed ACS during follow-up or following trauma and abdominal surgery. As part of the treatment for ACS, these patients underwent decompressive laparotomy at the Cukurova University Medical Faculty, General Surgery Department and followed up in the Intensive Care Unit of the same hospital. VAC and Bogota bag procedures were performed as temporary closure methods for the treatment of ACS. Patients were randomly assigned to each of the two groups according to the temporary closure method performed. Clinical, laboratory, mortality and morbidity results of the patients in both groups were compared. Demographic features of the patients (age, sex, body mass index, co-morbidities) were similar between the two groups. The most common reason of ACS was gastrointestinal perforation in 12 (30%) patients. Decrease in incision width was significantly faster in the VAC group than in the Bogota group. Primary closure of fascia was considered appropriate in 16.9 days in the VAC group and 20.5 days in the Bogota bag group. The decrease in abdominal pressure was similar between the two groups on days 1, 4 and 7 but appeared to be significantly lower on day 14 in the VAC group. 12 patients (30

  10. Gas power plant with CO2 handling. A study of alternative technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolland, Olav; Hagen, Roger I.; Maurstad, Ola; Tangen, Grethe; Juliussen, Olav; Svendsen, Hallvard

    2002-01-01

    The report documents a study which compares 12 different technologies for gas power plants with CO 2 handling. The additional costs in removing the CO 2 in connection with electricity production is calculated to at least 18-19 oere /kWh compared to conventional gas power production without CO 2 capture. The calculated extra costs are somewhat higher than previously published figures. The difference is mainly due to that the estimated costs for pipelines and injection system for CO 2 are higher than in other studies. The removal of CO 2 in connection with gas power production implies increased use of natural gas. The most developed technologies would lead to a procentual increase in the gas consumption per kWh electricity of 18-25%. Gas power plants based on the present technologies would have efficiencies in the size of 46-49%. The efficiency of power plants without CO 2 handling is supposed to be 58%. There is no foundation for pointing out a ''winner's' among the compared technologies in the study. The present available technologies excepted, there are no technology which stands out as better than the others from an economic viewpoint. Gas turbine with membrane based separation of oxygen from air (AZEP) has a potential for lower costs but implies challenging technological development and thence considerable technological risks. Two technologies, capture of carbon from natural gas previous to combustion and exhaust gas purification based on absorption, may be employed in 3 - 4 years. The other technologies require more development and maturing. Three of the technologies may be particularly interesting because hydrogen may be produced as a byproduct. Demonstration plant and choice of technology: 1) There is a limited need for demonstration plants with respect to technology development. 2) It is important for the technology development to be able to test various technologies in a laboratory or in a flexible pilot plant. 3) Many technologies and components may be

  11. Physicians' perception of alternative displays of clinical research evidence for clinical decision support - A study with case vignettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slager, Stacey L; Weir, Charlene R; Kim, Heejun; Mostafa, Javed; Del Fiol, Guilherme

    2017-07-01

    To design alternate information displays that present summaries of clinical trial results to clinicians to support decision-making; and to compare the displays according to efficacy and acceptability. A 6-between (information display presentation order) by 3-within (display type) factorial design. Two alternate displays were designed based on Information Foraging theory: a narrative summary that reduces the content to a few sentences; and a table format that structures the display according to the PICO (Population, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome) framework. The designs were compared with the summary display format available in PubMed. Physicians were asked to review five clinical studies retrieved for a case vignette; and were presented with the three display formats. Participants were asked to rate their experience with each of the information displays according to a Likert scale questionnaire. Twenty physicians completed the study. Overall, participants rated the table display more highly than either the text summary or PubMed's summary format (5.9vs. 5.4vs. 3.9 on a scale between 1 [strongly disagree] and 7 [strongly agree]). Usefulness ratings of seven pieces of information, i.e. patient population, patient age range, sample size, study arm, primary outcome, results of primary outcome, and conclusion, were high (average across all items=4.71 on a 1 to 5 scale, with 1=not at all useful and 5=very useful). Study arm, primary outcome, and conclusion scored the highest (4.9, 4.85, and 4.85 respectively). Participants suggested additional details such as rate of adverse effects. The table format reduced physicians' perceived cognitive effort when quickly reviewing clinical trial information and was more favorably received by physicians than the narrative summary or PubMed's summary format display. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. ZIP13: A Study of Drosophila Offers an Alternative Explanation for the Corresponding Human Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiran Xiao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has become an important model organism to investigate metal homeostasis and human diseases. Previously we identified dZIP13 (CG7816, a member of the ZIP transporter family (SLC39A and presumably a zinc importer, is in fact physiologically primarily responsible to move iron from the cytosol into the secretory compartments in the fly. This review will discuss the implication of this finding for the etiology of Spondylocheirodysplasia-Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome (SCD–EDS, a human disease defective in ZIP13. We propose an entirely different model in that lack of iron in the secretory compartment may underlie SCD-EDS. Altogether three different working models are discussed, supported by relevant findings made in different studies, with uncertainties, and questions remained to be solved. We speculate that the distinct ZIP13 sequence features, different from those of all other ZIP family members, may confer it special transport properties.

  13. Study of Oxidizing Agents for Tritium Removal in ITER -Compatible Conditions: Alternatives to Oxygen and Ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabares, F. L.; Tafalla, D.; Ferreira, J. A.; Gomez-Aleixandre, C.; Maria Albella, J.; Soria, J.; Rodriguez-Ramos, I.

    2007-01-01

    In the present report, the studies of tritiated carbon-film removal by oxidizing agents other than Oxygen and Ozone in ITER are described. Exposure of laboratory produced a-C:H/D films and tokamak flakes (Asdex Upgrade and Textor) to nitric oxide, water and hydrogen peroxide has been carried out. Temperatures of exposure up to 350 degree centigree were used, and thermal desorption of the samples at temperatures up to 750 degree centigree was performed for sample characterization prior to and after the treatment. Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis (ERDA), Infrared Spectroscopy, XPS and Nano indentation hardness analysis were applied to the characterization of the physical and chemical changes of the samples. This work was done under the EFDA Task 04-1175. (Author) 8 refs

  14. Study of Oxidizing Agents for Tritium Removal in ITER -Compatible Conditions: Alternatives to Oxygen and Ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabares, F. L.; Tafalla, D.; Ferreira, J. A.; Gomez-Aleixandre, C.; Maria Albella, J.; Soria, J.; Rodriguez-Ramos, I.

    2007-07-20

    In the present report, the studies of tritiated carbon-film removal by oxidizing agents other than Oxygen and Ozone in ITER are described. Exposure of laboratory produced a-C:H/D films and tokamak flakes (Asdex Upgrade and Textor) to nitric oxide, water and hydrogen peroxide has been carried out. Temperatures of exposure up to 350 degree centigree were used, and thermal desorption of the samples at temperatures up to 750 degree centigree was performed for sample characterization prior to and after the treatment. Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis (ERDA), Infrared Spectroscopy, XPS and Nano indentation hardness analysis were applied to the characterization of the physical and chemical changes of the samples. This work was done under the EFDA Task 04-1175. (Author) 8 refs.

  15. Preliminary study of used cooking oil methyl ester as an alternative fuel for diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roseli, A.; El-Awad, M.M.; Yusoff, M.Z.

    2006-01-01

    An experimental work has been carried out to compare the power performance and exhaust emissions of UCOME with OD on unmodified direct injection, four stroke single cylinder and stationary Robin diesel engine. Used cooking oil was transesterified by using methanol that yields immiscible fraction of glycerol and methyl ester (biodiesel). UCOME was separated by gravity before conducting further testing on its physical, chemical and thermal properties in the laboratory. For fuel power performance analysis, fuel consumption, gross energy input, torque, brake power, BMEP and SFC of the engine were measured and calculated. The analysis showed that at high engine speeds, the engine performances with UCOME are comparable to that of OD. However, UCOME increases specific fuel consumption due to its high specific density. In term of exhaust emissions UCOME showed a net reduction in exhaust emissions of NO x as compared with those of OD. This study has given optimistic information to pave the direction for further research on diesel engine

  16. Feasibility study of an alternating schedule of radiotherapy and chemotherapy in advanced uterine cervical carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haie, C.; Chassagne, D.; Gerbaulet, A.; George, M.; Pejovic, M.H.; Horiot, J.C.; Fenton, J.; Le Floch, O.; Heron, J.F.

    1988-01-01

    36 patients with advanced cervical carcinoma stage III (24 patients) and stage IV (12 patients) entered a feasibility study of a radiotherapy and chemotherapy combination. The first three chemotherapy courses consisted of cis-platinum alone and were interdigitated with radiotherapy. Six more courses composed of an association of cis-platinum and cyclophosphamide were given after the completion of radiotherapy. Radiotherapy was delivered in two courses of 25 Gy separated by a gap of 2 weeks. The overall 4-year survival rate, cumulative loco-regional failure rate, and cumulative meatstasis rate were respectively 44%, 56% and 30% in stage III and 28%, 83% and 74% in stage IV. The incidence of immediate and late complications was low: no patient had her radiotherapy stopped because of an intolerance and two patients had their chemotherapy stopped because of an haematological intolerance. Only one patient presented a severe late clinical complication (small bowel injury). 29 refs.; 2 figs.; 4 tabs

  17. An alternative method for quantifying coronary artery calcification: the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis (MESA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, C Jason; Budoff, Matthew J; Kaufman, Joel D; Kronmal, Richard A; Brown, Elizabeth R

    2012-07-02

    Extent of atherosclerosis measured by amount of coronary artery calcium (CAC) in computed tomography (CT) has been traditionally assessed using thresholded scoring methods, such as the Agatston score (AS). These thresholded scores have value in clinical prediction, but important information might exist below the threshold, which would have important advantages for understanding genetic, environmental, and other risk factors in atherosclerosis. We developed a semi-automated threshold-free scoring method, the spatially weighted calcium score (SWCS) for CAC in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Chest CT scans were obtained from 6814 participants in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). The SWCS and the AS were calculated for each of the scans. Cox proportional hazards models and linear regression models were used to evaluate the associations of the scores with CHD events and CHD risk factors. CHD risk factors were summarized using a linear predictor. Among all participants and participants with AS > 0, the SWCS and AS both showed similar strongly significant associations with CHD events (hazard ratios, 1.23 and 1.19 per doubling of SWCS and AS; 95% CI, 1.16 to 1.30 and 1.14 to 1.26) and CHD risk factors (slopes, 0.178 and 0.164; 95% CI, 0.162 to 0.195 and 0.149 to 0.179). Even among participants with AS = 0, an increase in the SWCS was still significantly associated with established CHD risk factors (slope, 0.181; 95% CI, 0.138 to 0.224). The SWCS appeared to be predictive of CHD events even in participants with AS = 0, though those events were rare as expected. The SWCS provides a valid, continuous measure of CAC suitable for quantifying the extent of atherosclerosis without a threshold, which will be useful for examining novel genetic and environmental risk factors for atherosclerosis.

  18. An alternative method for quantifying coronary artery calcification: the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis (MESA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang C

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extent of atherosclerosis measured by amount of coronary artery calcium (CAC in computed tomography (CT has been traditionally assessed using thresholded scoring methods, such as the Agatston score (AS. These thresholded scores have value in clinical prediction, but important information might exist below the threshold, which would have important advantages for understanding genetic, environmental, and other risk factors in atherosclerosis. We developed a semi-automated threshold-free scoring method, the spatially weighted calcium score (SWCS for CAC in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA. Methods Chest CT scans were obtained from 6814 participants in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA. The SWCS and the AS were calculated for each of the scans. Cox proportional hazards models and linear regression models were used to evaluate the associations of the scores with CHD events and CHD risk factors. CHD risk factors were summarized using a linear predictor. Results Among all participants and participants with AS > 0, the SWCS and AS both showed similar strongly significant associations with CHD events (hazard ratios, 1.23 and 1.19 per doubling of SWCS and AS; 95% CI, 1.16 to 1.30 and 1.14 to 1.26 and CHD risk factors (slopes, 0.178 and 0.164; 95% CI, 0.162 to 0.195 and 0.149 to 0.179. Even among participants with AS = 0, an increase in the SWCS was still significantly associated with established CHD risk factors (slope, 0.181; 95% CI, 0.138 to 0.224. The SWCS appeared to be predictive of CHD events even in participants with AS = 0, though those events were rare as expected. Conclusions The SWCS provides a valid, continuous measure of CAC suitable for quantifying the extent of atherosclerosis without a threshold, which will be useful for examining novel genetic and environmental risk factors for atherosclerosis.

  19. Efficacy and toxicological studies of cremophor EL free alternative paclitaxel formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utreja, Puneet; Jain, Subheet; Yadav, Subodh; Khandhuja, K L; Tiwary, A K

    2011-11-01

    In the present study, Cremophor EL free paclitaxel elastic liposomal formulation consisting of soya phosphatidylcholine and biosurfactant sodium deoxycholate was developed and optimized. The toxicological profile, antitumor efficacy and hemolytic toxicity of paclitaxel elastic liposomal formulation in comparison to Cremophor EL based marketed formulation were evaluated. Paclitaxel elastic liposomal formulations were prepared and characterized in vitro, ex-vivo and in vivo. Single dose toxicity study of paclitaxel elastic liposomal and marketed formulation was carried out in dose range of 10, 20, 40, 80, 120, 160 and 200 mg/kg. Cytotoxicity of developed formulation was evaluated using small cell lung cancer cell line (A549). Antitumor activity of developed formulation was compared with the marketed formulation using Cytoselect™ 96-well cell transformation assay. In vivo administration of paclitaxel elastic liposomal formulation into mice showed 6 fold increase in Maximum Tolerated Dose (MTD) in comparison to the marketed formulation. Similarly, LD50 (141.6 mg/kg) was also found to increase significantly than the marketed formulation (16.7 mg/kg). Result of antitumor assay revealed a high reduction of tumor density with paclitaxel elastic liposomal formulation. Reduction in hemolytic toxicity was also observed with paclitaxel elastic liposomal formulation in comparison to the marketed formulation. The carrier based approach for paclitaxel delivery demonstrated significant reduction in toxicity as compared to the Cremophor EL based marketed formulation following intra-peritoneal administration in mice model. The reduced toxicity and enhanced anti-cancer activity of elastic liposomal formulation strongly indicate its potential for safe and effective delivery of paclitaxel.

  20. Utilization of Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Multiethnic Population: The Malaysian Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Noraidatulakma; Borhanuddin, Boekhtiar; Patah, Afzan Effiza Abdul; Abdullah, Mohd Shaharom; Dauni, Andri; Kamaruddin, Mohd Arman; Shah, Shamsul Azhar; Jamal, Rahman

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the factors of CAM usage for general health and to determine the factors associated with the usage of different types of CAM after the diagnosis of chronic diseases among The Malaysian Cohort participants. This was a cross-sectional study derived from The Malaysian Cohort (TMC) project, a prospective population-based cohort aged between 35 to 65 years old that recruited from April 2006 to September 2012. Association between the CAM usage and contributing factors were determined via logistic regression. The sample were mostly female (58.1%), Malays (43.1%), came from urban (71.9%), aged 44 years and below (26.8%) and had secondary education (45.9%). The prevalence of CAM usage varied across diseases; 62.8% in cancer patients, 53.3% in hypercholesterolemia, 49.4% in hypertensives and 48.6% in diabetics. General CAM usage was greater among female (OR: 1.54, 95% CI: 1.49, 1.59), Chinese (OR: 1.15, 95% CI: 1.12, 1.19), those with higher education (OR: 3.12, 95% CI: 3.00, 3.25), urban residents (OR: 1.55, 95% CI: 1.50, 1.61) and older people (OR ranging from 1.15 to 1.75) while for post-diagnosis of chronic diseases usage, the odds were higher among those with lower education and living in rural areas. Health status, educational level, age, living location and types of chronic diseases were significant factors that influence CAM usage for the intent of either health maintenance or disease treatment. Further exploration on CAM safety and benefit are crucial to minimize the adverse effect and to ensure the efficacy of CAM product.

  1. Utilization of Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Multiethnic Population: The Malaysian Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Noraidatulakma; Borhanuddin, Boekhtiar; Patah, Afzan Effiza Abdul; Abdullah, Mohd Shaharom; Dauni, Andri; Kamaruddin, Mohd Arman; Shah, Shamsul Azhar

    2018-01-01

    Background. This study aimed to identify the factors of CAM usage for general health and to determine the factors associated with the usage of different types of CAM after the diagnosis of chronic diseases among The Malaysian Cohort participants. Methods. This was a cross-sectional study derived from The Malaysian Cohort (TMC) project, a prospective population-based cohort aged between 35 to 65 years old that recruited from April 2006 to September 2012. Association between the CAM usage and contributing factors were determined via logistic regression. Results. The sample were mostly female (58.1%), Malays (43.1%), came from urban (71.9%), aged 44 years and below (26.8%) and had secondary education (45.9%). The prevalence of CAM usage varied across diseases; 62.8% in cancer patients, 53.3% in hypercholesterolemia, 49.4% in hypertensives and 48.6% in diabetics. General CAM usage was greater among female (OR: 1.54, 95% CI: 1.49, 1.59), Chinese (OR: 1.15, 95% CI: 1.12, 1.19), those with higher education (OR: 3.12, 95% CI: 3.00, 3.25), urban residents (OR: 1.55, 95% CI: 1.50, 1.61) and older people (OR ranging from 1.15 to 1.75) while for post-diagnosis of chronic diseases usage, the odds were higher among those with lower education and living in rural areas. Conclusion. Health status, educational level, age, living location and types of chronic diseases were significant factors that influence CAM usage for the intent of either health maintenance or disease treatment. Further exploration on CAM safety and benefit are crucial to minimize the adverse effect and to ensure the efficacy of CAM product. PMID:29651870

  2. Wood product industry - present state and studies of the development alternatives; Puuteollisuuden nykytilan ja haasteiden arviointia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmijoki, O.; Paajanen, T.; Kairi, M.

    2007-07-01

    In this research project the development of the wood products industry and its operating environment in Finland was studied using statistical data mainly from years 1995 - 2003. In this context, the wood products industry includes the sawmilling industry, the plywood and other wood panel industry, prefabricated wooden housing and the building joinery industry, wood packing manufacture and the manufacture of other wooden products. The development of the wood products industry and its operating environment has been estimated by combining statistical data about the business economy, production economy and the national economy from the Central Statistical Office of Finland together with data from the Finnish Forest Research Institute. Based on statistical data, the wood product markets, profitability and cost structure of branches, input market, use of labour force and investments have been studied. The economic importance of the wood products industry has been estimated at a national and a local level. Challenges facing wood products industry branches have been analysed using example calculations based on input-output theory. In the evaluation method, the business environment of the wood products industry branches and related branches, have been described with a use table at basic prices commonly using in the national economy. This method has enabled the direct and indirect effects of simultaneous quantity and price changes occurring in the wood product markets and markets related to the wood product industry, to be analysed. In the example calculations, variation of sawn timber production and log import, as well as the increments of sawn timber upgrading, wood product usage in building, wood panel production and purchase energy price, were reviewed

  3. Energy alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweet, C.

    1987-01-01

    The designated successor to fossil fuels is nuclear fission/fusion and that turns out to be problematic. Alternative Energy Systems have great potential but political forces seem to be hampering their development and introduction. The technologies are flexible in their use and scale of operation. The learning curve will not be short but neither will it be as long and as costly as nuclear power. It is time that this is recognised and some serious rethinking takes place in what presently passes for energy policies both in the industrialised countries and in the Third World. Alternative energy systems are defined and some of them which are relevant to the United Kingdom are discussed. (author)

  4. Miscanthus plants used as an alternative biofuel material. The basic studies on ecology and molecular evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, Chang-Hung [Graduate Institute of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, College of Life Sciences, China Medical University, Taichung 404 (China)

    2009-08-15

    Miscanthus Anderss, widely distributed in Asia and Pacific Islands, possesses 20 species. Of which 8 species and 1 variety were recorded in Chinese Mainland; 6 species and 1 variety found in Japan; 5 species and 3 varieties distributed in Taiwan; 3 species documented in the Philippines; and rest of species have been recorded in Jawa, eastern Himalaya, and Sikkim. The plant is a C{sub 4} perennial grass with high productivity of biomass. In the 19th and early 20th centuries in Taiwan, Miscanthus was a very important crop used for forage grass, clothing, and shelter, etc. The relatively high germination, and high yield of biomass made the plant available for people of Taiwan including aboriginal. The taxonomic study of Miscanthus plants was much done by several scientists, and its ecological study has been only taken by the present author since 1972. Chou and his associates paid a great attention to elucidate the mechanism of dominance of Miscanthus vegetation and found that allelopathy plays an important role. In addition, the population biology of Miscanthus taxa by using polyacrylamide gel electrophoreses technique to examine the patterns of peroxidase and esterase among populations (over 100) of Miscanthus in Taiwan were conducted. They also elucidated the phylogenetic relationship among species and varieties in Taiwan. Chou and Ueng proposed an evolutionary trend of Miscanthus species, indicating that the Miscanthus sinensis was assumed to be the origin of Miscanthus Anderss, which evolved to M. sinensis var. formosana, and M. sinensis var. flavidus, and M. sinensis var. transmorrisonensis, and Miscanthus floridulus was thought to be an out group of M. sinensis complex. Moreover, molecular phylogeny was attempted to clarify the population heterogeneity of M. sinensis complex, resulting in a substantial information. It would be available for making hybridization between Miscanthus species and its related species, such as Saccharum (sugar cane) spp. which is a

  5. Castor oil as a natural alternative to labor induction: A retrospective descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMaria, Andrea L; Sundstrom, Beth; Moxley, Grace E; Banks, Kendall; Bishop, Ashlan; Rathbun, Lesley

    2018-04-01

    To describe birthing outcomes among women who consumed castor oil cocktail as part of a freestanding birth center labor induction protocol. De-identified data from birth logs and electronic medical records were entered into SPSS Statistics 22.0 for analysis for all women who received the castor oil cocktail (n=323) to induce labor between January 2008 and May 2015 at a birth center in the United States. Descriptive statistics were analyzed for trends in safety and birthing outcomes. Of the women who utilized the castor oil cocktail to stimulate labor, 293 (90.7%) birthed vaginally at the birth center or hospital. The incidence of maternal adverse effects (e.g., nausea, vomiting, extreme diarrhea) was less than 7%, and adverse effects of any kind were reported in less than 15% of births. An independent sample t-test revealed that parous women were more likely to birth vaginally at the birth center after using the castor oil cocktail than their nulliparous counterparts (poil cocktail to induce labor were able to give birth vaginally with little to no maternal or fetal complications. Findings indicate further research is needed to compare the safety and effectiveness of natural labor induction methodologies, including castor oil, to commonly used labor induction techniques in a prospective study or clinical trial. Copyright © 2017 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Preliminary formulation studies for a ''hydroceramic'' alternative waste form for INEEL HLW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siemer, D.D.; Gougar, M.L.D.; Grutzeck, M.W.; Scheetz, B.E.

    1999-01-01

    Herein the authors discuss scoping studies performed to develop an efficient way to prepare the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) nominally high-level (∼40 W/m 3 ) calcined radioactive waste (HLW) and liquid metal (sodium) reactor coolants for disposal. The investigated approach implements the chemistry of Hanford's cancrinite-making clay reaction process via Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL's) formed-under-elevated-temperatures-and-pressures concrete monolith-making technology to make hydroceramics (HCs). The HCs differ from conventional Portland cement/blast furnace slag (PC/BFS) grouts in that the binder minerals formed during the curing process are hydrated alkali-aluminosilicates (feldspathoids-sodalites, cancrinites, and zeolites) rather than hydrated calcium silicates (CSH). This is desirable because (a) US defense-type radioactive wastes generally contain much more sodium and aluminum than calcium; (b) sodalites/cancrinites do a much better job of retaining the anionic components of real radioactive waste (e.g., nitrate) than do calcium silicates; (c) natural feldspathoids form from glasses (and therefore are more stable) in that region of the United States where a repository for this sort of waste could be sited; and (d) if eventually deemed necessary, feldspathoid-type concrete wasteforms could be hot-isostatically-pressed into even more durable materials without removing them from their original canisters

  7. Alternative fiducial markers for Vero real-time tumor tracking radiotherapy: A phantom study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Shin-Hyung; Kim, Jae-Chul; Kim, Sung Joon

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of potential fiducial markers consisting of various materials in a Vero real-time tumor-tracking (RTTT) system. In order to determine the applicability of fiducial markers for the Vero RTTT system, we tested various markers consisting of 8 kinds of material (titanium, stainless steel, high-carbon steel, pure steel, copper, silver, tantalum, and gold) with various diameters ranging from 0.3 mm to 1.6 mm and a length of 5 mm. Additionally, a commercial gold coil marker (Visicoil™, IBA dosimetry, Schwarzenbruck, Germany) of diameter 0.5 mm and length 1 cm was included for evaluation. The radiologic visibility on kV fluoroscopy/kV CT scan images of the fiducial markers was evaluated. The detectability on the RTTT system was tested using a two-dimensional moving phantom (Brainlab AG, Feldkirchen, Germany), producing sinusoidal motion. The target center's accuracy was evaluated by calculating the deviation of the position of a metal sphere from the center on the dose profile. Dose profiles were measured using Gafchromic EBT2 films (International Specialty Products, NJ, USA). All markers were visible on kV fluoroscopy/kV CT while markers with atomic number ≥ 25.7 were detectable on the Vero RTTT system. All the detected markers showed excellent geometric accuracy.

  8. Assessing mouse alternatives to access to computer: a case study of a user with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pousada, Thais; Pareira, Javier; Groba, Betania; Nieto, Laura; Pazos, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the process of assessment of three assistive devices to meet the needs of a woman with cerebral palsy (CP) in order to provide her with computer access and use. The user has quadriplegic CP, with anarthria, using a syllabic keyboard. Devices were evaluated through a three-step approach: (a) use of a questionnaire to preselect potential assistive technologies, (b) use of an eTAO tool to determine the effectiveness of each devised, and (c) a conducting semi-structured interview to obtain qualitative data. Touch screen, joystick, and trackball were the preselected devices. The best device that met the user's needs and priorities was joystick. The finding was corroborated by both the eTAO tool and the semi-structured interview. Computers are a basic form of social participation. It is important to consider the special needs and priorities of users and to try different devices when undertaking a device-selection process. Environmental and personal factors have to be considered, as well. This leads to a need to evaluate new tools in order to provide the appropriate support. The eTAO could be a suitable instrument for this purpose. Additional research is also needed to understand how to better match devices with different user populations and how to comprehensively evaluate emerging technologies relative to users with disabilities.

  9. Hanford waste vitrification plant hydrogen generation study: Preliminary evaluation of alternatives to formic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, R.B.; Bhattacharyya, N.K.; Kumar, V.

    1996-02-01

    Oxalic, glyoxylic, glycolic, malonic, pyruvic, lactic, levulinic, and citric acids as well as glycine have been evaluated as possible substitutes for formic acid in the preparation of feed for the Hanford waste vitrification plant using a non-radioactive feed stimulant UGA-12M1 containing substantial amounts of aluminum and iron oxides as well as nitrate and nitrite at 90C in the presence of hydrated rhodium trichloride. Unlike formic acid none of these carboxylic acids liberate hydrogen under these conditions and only malonic and citric acids form ammonia. Glyoxylic, glycolic, malonic, pyruvic, lactic, levulinic, and citric acids all appear to have significant reducing properties under the reaction conditions of interest as indicated by the observation of appreciable amounts of N 2 O as a reduction product of,nitrite or, less likely, nitrate at 90C. Glyoxylic, pyruvic, and malonic acids all appear to be unstable towards decarboxylation at 90C in the presence of Al(OH) 3 . Among the carboxylic acids investigated in this study the α-hydroxycarboxylic acids glycolic and lactic acids appear to be the most interesting potential substitutes for formic acid in the feed preparation for the vitrification plant because of their failure to produce hydrogen or ammonia or to undergo decarboxylation under the reaction conditions although they exhibit some reducing properties in feed stimulant experiments

  10. Study for effective use of fishery byproducts as alternative earth materials focusing on their water retention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Kaoru; Nakafusa, Satoru; Nishimura, Tomoyoshi; Morii, Toshihiro

    2011-01-01

    Capillary barriers have been known and widely used in geoenvironmental engineering applications as soil cover for typical rainfall infiltration control systems. The capillary barrier is consisting of a fine-grained soil layer placed over a coarse-grained soil layer. The applications of capillary barriers are significantly useful to preventing infiltration into waste materials. Natural gravel or coarse-grained soil material had a exhaustion problems in practices. On the contrary, shells a kind of fishery byproduct, are classified as industrial waste in laws concerning waste disposal. The majority of shells are piled and left near the fishing port without controlling system. Therefore, it is proposed that the crushed shells are available to layer material instead of natural coarse-grained soil. This solution is considered to great contribute developing of recycle for fisher byproduct shells and is related to environment conservation. Water retention for crushed shells, however, never been fully investigate. This study focuses on the ability of crushed shells to capillary barrier applications. The soil-water characteristic curve for crushed shells with three different grain size distributions was determined using the modified SWCC testing apparatus. Also, it is observed using a conventional model equipment that the getting of fine sand into crushed shell layer is prevented. (author)

  11. Management functions, issues, and configuration alternatives: TO support a transportation management configuration study: [Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) of the Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for the safe transporation and disposal of spent nuclear fuel from utility-owned nuclear power generation reactors and high-level radioactive waste from both defense and civilian generators to long-term storage repositories. Given the volume, duration, and sensitivity of the operation, DOE is seeking not only the safest and best transportation system but also the most effective and resource-efficient management concept. Within the general guidelines of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) of 1982 calling for the fullest possible use of private industry contracts, this study examines the technical and administrative functions as well as the key issues to be addressed in the formation of a management structure. In order to stand alone as a comprehensive treatment of the total requirement, the material contained in many seperate and sometimes divergent DOE/OCRWM documents was evaluated and is compiled here. An attempt was made to succinctly define the nature of the problem, the objectives and scope of both the operating and management systems, and then to dissect the functions required in order to meet the objectives and operating functions are listed and described

  12. Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS). Volume 3: Energy conversion system characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Six current and thirty-six advanced energy conversion systems were defined and combined with appropriate balance of plant equipment. Twenty-six industrial processes were selected from among the high energy consuming industries to serve as a frame work for the study. Each conversion system was analyzed as a cogenerator with each industrial plant. Fuel consumption, costs, and environmental intrusion were evaluated and compared to corresponding traditional values. The advanced energy conversion technologies indicated reduced fuel consumption, costs, and emissions. Fuel energy savings of 10 to 25 percent were predicted compared to traditional on site furnaces and utility electricity. With the variety of industrial requirements, each advanced technology had attractive applications. Fuel cells indicated the greatest fuel energy savings and emission reductions. Gas turbines and combined cycles indicated high overall annual savings. Steam turbines and gas turbines produced high estimated returns. In some applications, diesels were most efficient. The advanced technologies used coal derived fuels, or coal with advanced fluid bed combustion or on site gasifications. Data and information for both current and advanced energy conversion technology are presented. Schematic and physical descriptions, performance data, equipment cost estimates, and predicted emissions are included. Technical developments which are needed to achieve commercialization in the 1985-2000 period are identified.

  13. Study of energy recovery and power generation from alternative energy source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulhakim Amer A. Agll

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The energy requirement pattern of world is growing up and developing technology. The available sources, while exhausting and not friendly to the environment, are highly used. Looking at partial supply and different options of environment problems associated with usage, renewable energy sources are getting attention. MSW (Municipal solid waste composition data had been collected from 1997 to 2009, in Benghazi Libya, to evaluate the waste enthalpy. An incinerator with capacity of 47,250 kg/h was confirmed to burn all the quantity of waste generated by the city through the next 15 years. Initial study was performed to investigate energy flow and resource availability to insure sustainable MSW required by the incinerator to work at its maximum capacity during the designated period. The primary purpose of the paper is to discuss the design of Rankin steam cycle for the generation of both power (PG and combined heat power (CHP. In the power generation case, the system was found to be able to generate electrical power of 13.1 MW. Including the combined heat power case, the results showed that the system was able to produce 6.8 million m3/year of desalinated water and generate 11.33 MW of electricity. In conclusion, the CHP designed system has the greatest potential to maximize energy saving, due to the optimal combination of heat production and electricity generation.

  14. Study on an alternating current electrothermal micropump for microneedle-based fluid delivery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rumi; Jullien, Graham A.; Dalton, Colin

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, we report on a modeling study of an AC electrothermal (ACET) micropump with high operating pressures as well as fast flow rates. One specific application area is for fluid delivery using microneedle arrays which require higher pressures and faster flow rates than have been previously reported with ACET devices. ACET is very suitable for accurate actuation and control of fluid flow, since the technique has been shown to be very effective in high conductivity fluids and has the ability to create a pulsation free flow. However, AC electrokinetic pumps usually can only generate low operating pressures of 1 to 100 Pa, where flow reversal is likely to occur with an external load. In order to realize a high performance ACET micropump for continuous fluid delivery, applying relatively high AC operating voltages (20 to 36 Vrms) to silicon substrate ACET actuators and using long serpentine channel allows the boosting of operating pressure as well as increasing the flow rates. Fast pumping flow rates (102-103 nl/s) and high operating pressures (1-12 kPa) can be achieved by applying both methods, making them of significant importance for continuous fluid delivery applications using microneedle arrays and other such biomedical devices.

  15. Study of a new alternative antioxidant in soybean plants subjected to abiotic stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zilli, C.; Santa Cruz, D.; Caggiano, E.; Romanello, M.; Tomaro, M.; Balestrasse, K.

    2010-01-01

    We have recently, demonstrated that the induction of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) plays a protective role for soybean plants against oxidative stress produced by cadmium and UV-B radiation. At this moment we propose to investigate if the enzyme has the same capacity against another type of abiotic stress, such as drought, for to demonstrate that heme oxygenase acts as an enzyme of plant antioxidant defense system under several different stress situations, as occur in mammalian tissues. To carry out this objective we propose to study, in leaf, root and nodule of soybean plants, the oxidative stress generation; the behavior of classical antioxidant system; the behavior of HO-1 activity and protein and gene expression; the effect of its reaction products and inhibitors on the oxidative stress parameters; the signaling mechanism that produce HO-1 induction and the immunohistochemistry localization of the enzyme in the different plant tissues. The results obtained let us undoubtedly demonstrate the involvement of HO-1 in the antioxidant defense system in plants. This finding will allow the increase in the knowledge of the defense mechanisms in interesting economic plants for our country, such as soybean, and against drought, an abiotic stress considered one of the most important factors limiting plant performance and yield worldwide. (authors)

  16. E-cigarettes, a safer alternative for teenagers? A UK focus group study of teenagers' views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Shona; Weishaar, Heide; Sweeting, Helen; Trevisan, Filippo; Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal

    2016-11-16

    Concerns exist that e-cigarettes may be a gateway to traditional cigarettes and/or (re)normalise teenage smoking. This qualitative study explores how teenagers in the UK currently perceive e-cigarettes and how and why they do or do not use them. 16 focus groups were conducted across the UK between November 2014 and February 2015, with 83 teenagers aged 14-17. All discussions were digitally recorded, transcribed verbatim, imported into NVivo 10 and thematically analysed. Teenagers generally agreed that e-cigarettes are useful products for smokers, including teenage smokers, to quit or reduce traditional cigarette use. Concerns were expressed about lack of information on their precise ingredients and any unknown risks for users and bystanders. However, teenagers typically viewed e-cigarettes as substantially less harmful than traditional cigarettes. They perceived e-cigarettes as attractive, with products described as 'fun' and having 'great flavourings'. Seeing websites or social media featuring e-cigarettes, especially YouTube 'vaping tricks', prompted some experimentation and imitation. E-cigarettes were used in a variety of situations, including at parties or when they could not smoke traditional cigarettes. A very few participants suggested covert use was a possibility and that e-cigarettes might help maintain a fledgling nicotine habit. Teenagers support the use of e-cigarettes as smoking cessation aids for established adult smokers. However, they engage with these products differently from adults, with the novel hypothesis that covert use could potentially reinforce traditional cigarette smoking requiring further investigation. Policy responses should more clearly meet the needs of young people, as well as helping established adult smokers. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  17. Comparative study of alternative ORC-based combined power systems to exploit high temperature waste heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Chengyu; Shu, Gequn; Tian, Hua; Wei, Haiqiao; Liang, Xingyu

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Three ORC-based combined systems for ICE exhaust waste heat recovery are studied. • A parametric investigation is conducted under several typical engine conditions. • Performance is evaluated considering six thermodynamic, techno-economic indexes. • DORC distinguishes among other solutions for its highest energy recovery capacity. • TEG–ORC system becomes attractive when exhaust temperature is relatively low. - Abstract: In this paper, various combined power systems which regard organic Rankine cycle (ORC) as bottoming cycle to recover engine’s high temperature exhaust heat are proposed. The topping recovery cycle includes steam Rankine cycle (RC), Brayton cycle (BC) and thermoelectric generator (TEG). Comprehensive evaluations are conducted under five typical engine conditions, ranging from high load to low load, and system performance is assessed in terms of many thermodynamic indexes, such as net output power, thermal efficiency, recovery efficiency and exergy efficiency. Besides that, the irreversibility of each component is also discussed in detail. R123, R245fa and R600a for ORC system are considered to analyze the influence of working fluids. Considering the system techno-economy, the turbine size parameter (SP) and heat transfer capacity (UA) are chosen as key indicators. The results show that compared with the other two investigated approaches, dual-loop ORC (DORC) possesses the highest energy exploitation capacity under the whole operating region, with a 5.57% increase of fuel economy under the rated condition, but its values of SP and UA are large as well. TEG–ORC becomes appealing while under the relatively low load

  18. Complementary alternative medicine use among patients with dengue fever in the hospital setting: a cross-sectional study in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching, SiewMooi; Ramachandran, Vasudevan; Gew, Lai Teck; Lim, Sazlyna Mohd Sazlly; Sulaiman, Wan Aliaa Wan; Foo, Yoke Loong; Zakaria, Zainul Amiruddin; Samsudin, Nurul Huda; Lau, Paul Chih Ming Chih; Veettil, Sajesh K; Hoo, Fankee

    2016-01-29

    In Malaysia, the number of reported cases of dengue fever demonstrates an increasing trend. Since dengue fever has no vaccine or antiviral treatment available, it has become a burden. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has become one of the good alternatives to treat the patients with dengue fever. There is limited study on the use of CAM among patients with dengue fever, particularly in hospital settings. This study aims to determine the prevalence, types, reasons, expenditure, and resource of information on CAM use among patients with dengue fever. This is a descriptive, cross-sectional study of 306 patients with dengue fever, which was carried out at the dengue clinic of three hospitals. Data were analysed using IBM SPSS Statistics version 21.0 and logistic regression analysis was used to determine the factors associated with CAM use. The prevalence of CAM use was 85.3% among patients with dengue fever. The most popular CAMs were isotonic drinks (85.8%), crab soup (46.7%) and papaya leaf extract (22.2%). The most common reason for CAM use was a good impression of CAM from other CAM users (33.3%). The main resource of information on CAM use among patients with dengue fever was family (54.8%). In multiple logistic regression analysis, dengue fever patients with a tertiary level are more likely to use CAM 5.8 (95% confidence interval (CI 1.62-20.45) and 3.8 (95% CI 1.12-12.93) times than secondary level and primary and below respectively. CAM was commonly used by patients with dengue fever. The predictor of CAM use was a higher level of education.

  19. Why Do Irrelevant Alternatives Matter? An fMRI-TMS Study of Context-Dependent Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hui-Kuan; Sjöström, Tomas; Lee, Hsin-Ju; Lu, Yi-Ta; Tsuo, Fu-Yun; Chen, Tzai-Shuen; Chang, Chi-Fu; Juan, Chi-Hung; Kuo, Wen-Jui; Huang, Chen-Ying

    2017-11-29

    Both humans and animals are known to exhibit a violation of rationality known as "decoy effect": introducing an irrelevant option (a decoy) can influence choices among other (relevant) options. Exactly how and why decoys trigger this effect is not known. It may be an example of fast heuristic decision-making, which is adaptive in natural environments, but may lead to biased choices in certain markets or experiments. We used fMRI and transcranial magnetic stimulation to investigate the neural underpinning of the decoy effect of both sexes. The left ventral striatum was more active when the chosen option dominated the decoy. This is consistent with the hypothesis that the presence of a decoy option influences the valuation of other options, making valuation context-dependent even when choices appear fully rational. Consistent with the idea that control is recruited to prevent heuristics from producing biased choices, the right inferior frontal gyrus, often implicated in inhibiting prepotent responses, connected more strongly with the striatum when subjects successfully overrode the decoy effect and made unbiased choices. This is further supported by our transcranial magnetic stimulation experiment: subjects whose right inferior frontal gyrus was temporarily disrupted made biased choices more often than a control group. Our results suggest that the neural basis of the decoy effect could be the context-dependent activation of the valuation area. But the differential connectivity from the frontal area may indicate how deliberate control monitors and corrects errors and biases in decision-making. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Standard theories of rational decision-making assume context-independent valuations of available options. Motivated by the importance of this basic assumption, we used fMRI to study how the human brain assigns values to available options. We found activity in the valuation area to be consistent with the hypothesis that values depend on irrelevant aspects

  20. Study of alternative materials to minimize erosion in heat exchanger tubes used in thermoelectric generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnt, A.B.C.; Paula, M.M. da S. Paula; Rocha, M.R. da; Angioletto, E.; Zanini, L.C.; Miranda, R.; Zanelatto, C.C. [Universidade do Extremo Sul Catarinense (UNESC), Criciuma, SC (Brazil)], e-mails: anb@unesc.net, mms@unesc.net, marcio2r@terra.com.br, an@unesc.net, elucaslcz@yahoo.com.br, frdgmiranda@hotmail.com, gcrisrincao20@yahoo.com.br; Felippe, L. [Universidade do Extremo Sul Catarinense (UNESC), Capivari de Baixo, SC (Brazil)], e-mail: hlfelippe@tractebelenergia.com.br

    2007-07-01

    comparison with the uncoated pipes located at the same heat exchanger. The real operation conditions of the coated pipes will be estimated from the field life cycle analysis, and after all the cost-benefit of the studied coating. (author)

  1. PEEK-OPTIMA™ as an alternative to cobalt chrome in the femoral component of total knee replacement: A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowie, Raelene M; Briscoe, Adam; Fisher, John; Jennings, Louise M

    2016-11-01

    PEEK-OPTIMA ™ (Invibio Ltd, UK) has been considered as an alternative joint arthroplasty bearing material due to its favourable mechanical properties and the biocompatibility of its wear debris. In this study, the potential to use injection moulded PEEK-OPTIMA ™ as an alternative to cobalt chrome in the femoral component of a total knee replacement was investigated in terms of its wear performance. Experimental wear simulation of three cobalt chrome and three PEEK-OPTIMA ™ femoral components articulating against all-polyethylene tibial components was carried out under two kinematic conditions: 3 million cycles under intermediate kinematics (maximum anterior-posterior displacement of 5 mm) followed by 3 million cycles under high kinematic conditions (anterior-posterior displacement 10 mm). The wear of the GUR1020 ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene tibial components was assessed by gravimetric analysis; for both material combinations under each kinematic condition, the mean wear rates were low, that is, below 5 mm 3 /million cycles. Specifically, under intermediate kinematic conditions, the wear rate of the ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene tibial components was 0.96 ± 2.26 mm 3 /million cycles and 2.44 ± 0.78 mm 3 /million cycle against cobalt chrome and PEEK-OPTIMA ™ implants, respectively (p = 0.06); under high kinematic conditions, the wear rates were 2.23 ± 1.85 mm 3 /million cycles and 4.44 ± 2.35 mm 3 /million cycles, respectively (p = 0.03). Following wear simulation, scratches were apparent on the surface of the PEEK-OPTIMA ™ femoral components. The surface topography of the femoral components was assessed using contacting profilometry and showed a statistically significant increase in measured surface roughness of the PEEK-OPTIMA ™ femoral components compared to the cobalt chrome implants. However, this did not appear to influence the wear rate, which remained linear over the duration of

  2. PEEK-OPTIMA™ as an alternative to cobalt chrome in the femoral component of total knee replacement: A preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowie, Raelene M; Briscoe, Adam; Fisher, John; Jennings, Louise M

    2016-01-01

    PEEK-OPTIMA™ (Invibio Ltd, UK) has been considered as an alternative joint arthroplasty bearing material due to its favourable mechanical properties and the biocompatibility of its wear debris. In this study, the potential to use injection moulded PEEK-OPTIMA™ as an alternative to cobalt chrome in the femoral component of a total knee replacement was investigated in terms of its wear performance. Experimental wear simulation of three cobalt chrome and three PEEK-OPTIMA™ femoral components articulating against all-polyethylene tibial components was carried out under two kinematic conditions: 3 million cycles under intermediate kinematics (maximum anterior-posterior displacement of 5 mm) followed by 3 million cycles under high kinematic conditions (anterior-posterior displacement 10 mm). The wear of the GUR1020 ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene tibial components was assessed by gravimetric analysis; for both material combinations under each kinematic condition, the mean wear rates were low, that is, below 5 mm3/million cycles. Specifically, under intermediate kinematic conditions, the wear rate of the ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene tibial components was 0.96 ± 2.26 mm3/million cycles and 2.44 ± 0.78 mm3/million cycle against cobalt chrome and PEEK-OPTIMA™ implants, respectively (p = 0.06); under high kinematic conditions, the wear rates were 2.23 ± 1.85 mm3/million cycles and 4.44 ± 2.35 mm3/million cycles, respectively (p = 0.03). Following wear simulation, scratches were apparent on the surface of the PEEK-OPTIMA™ femoral components. The surface topography of the femoral components was assessed using contacting profilometry and showed a statistically significant increase in measured surface roughness of the PEEK-OPTIMA™ femoral components compared to the cobalt chrome implants. However, this did not appear to influence the wear rate, which remained linear over the duration of the study. These

  3. A retrospective study to determine the incidence of pressure ulcers in burn patients using an alternating pressure mattress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Still, Joseph M; Wilson, Joan; Rinker, Connie; Law, Edward; Craft-Coffman, Beretta

    2003-08-01

    In immobilized patients, unrelieved pressure can create decubitus ulcers over bony prominences. Those burn patients who require prolonged bed rest, are prone to the development of such problems. Various methods of reducing pressure on these areas, including frequent turning and the use of air fluidized and low air loss beds, have been adopted to attempt to prevent the development of this complication. The Pegasus Renaissance alternating pressure mattress is such a device, intended to reduce the incidence of decubitus ulcers. It was introduced at our burn unit and evaluated over a 29-month period. During the study period, 186 (13.4%) of 1390 acutely burned patients, believed to be at high risk for the development of decubiti, were placed on this mattress. Other patients were treated in the standard hospital bed. Care was otherwise the same. No decubitus ulcers developed in any of the patients treated on the Pegasus Renaissance mattress.

  4. Application of wavelet and Fuorier transforms as powerful alternatives for derivative spectrophotometry in analysis of binary mixtures: A comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Said A.; Abdel-Gawad, Sherif A.

    2018-02-01

    Two signal processing methods, namely, Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT) and the second was Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) were introduced as alternatives to the classical Derivative Spectrophotometry (DS) in analysis of binary mixtures. To show the advantages of these methods, a comparative study was performed on a binary mixture of Naltrexone (NTX) and Bupropion (BUP). The methods were compared by analyzing laboratory prepared mixtures of the two drugs. By comparing performance of the three methods, it was proved that CWT and DFT methods are more efficient and advantageous in analysis of mixtures with overlapped spectra than DS. The three signal processing methods were adopted for the quantification of NTX and BUP in pure and tablet forms. The adopted methods were validated according to the ICH guideline where accuracy, precision and specificity were found to be within appropriate limits.

  5. Women's views and experiences of two alternative consent pathways for participation in a preterm intrapartum trial: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Alexandra; Chhoa, Celine; Ayers, Susan; Pushpa-Rajah, Angela; Duley, Lelia

    2017-09-09

    The Cord Pilot Trial compared alternative policies for timing of cord clamping at very preterm birth at eight UK hospitals. In addition to standard written consent, an oral assent pathway was developed for use when birth was imminent. The aim of this study was to explore women's views and experiences of two alternative consent pathways to participate in the Cord Pilot Trial. We conducted a qualitative study using semi-structured interviews. A total of 179 participants in the Cord Pilot Trial were sent a postal invitation to take part in interviews. Women who agreed were interviewed in person or by telephone to explore their experiences of two consent pathways for a preterm intrapartum trial. Data were analysed using inductive systematic thematic analysis. Twenty-three women who gave either written consent (n = 18) or oral assent followed by written consent (n = 5) to participate in the trial were interviewed. Five themes were identified: (1) understanding of the implications of randomisation, (2) importance of staff offering participation, (3) information about the trial and time to consider participation, (4) trial secondary in women's minds and (5) reasons for agreeing to take part in the trial. Experiences were similar for the two consent pathways. Women recruited by the oral assent pathway reported being given less information about the trial but felt it was sufficient to make a decision regarding participation. There were gaps in women's understanding of the trial and intervention, regardless of the consent pathway. Overall, women were positive about their experiences of being invited to participate in the trial. The oral assent pathway seems an acceptable option for women if the intervention is low-risk and time is limited. ISRCTN Registry, ISRCTN21456601 . Registered on 28 February 2013.

  6. Analysis of an alternative method for the study of bromeliad-associated fauna in plants with different foliar organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerson A. Müller

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of an alternative method of collection (by suction of water for the study of Culicidae and Chironomidae (Diptera, Scirtidae (Coleoptera and Coenagrionidae (Odonata in bromeliads with different foliar architecture in a restinga at Florianópolis, SC, Brazil, was studied. The alternative method was less efficient to collect Culicidae and Chironomidae (Wilcoxon test p 0.05 from Aechmea lindenii. This method was less efficient to collect insects of all groups from Vriesea friburgensis (Wilcoxon test p A eficiência do método alternativo de coleta (por sucção da água para o estudo de Culicidae e Chironomidae (Diptera, Scirtidae (Coleoptera e Coenagrionidae (Odonata em bromélias com diferentes estruturas foliares de restinga em Florianópolis, SC, Brasil, foi estudada. O método alternativo foi menos eficiente para coletar Culicidae e Chironomidae (teste de Wilcoxon p 0, 05 a partir de Aechmea lindenii. Esse foi menos eficiente para coletar insetos de todos os grupos a partir de Vriesea friburgensis (teste de Wilcoxon p < 0,05. O método alternativo se mostrou eficiente em estimar a diversidade desses insetos nas duas espécies de bromélias. A alta mobilidade das formas imaturas dos coleópteros e libélulas e a disponibilidade de apenas um tanque em Aechea lindenii, em contraste com as várias axilas e Vriesea friburgensis, facilitando a sucção destas formas imaturas provavelmente influenciaram os resultados. Os resultados indicam que o método de sucção não deve substituir o desmanche no estudo de Culicidae e Chironomidae; ele pode ser útil para a obtenção de formas imaturas de Scirtidae e Coenagrionidae em bromélias de um só tanque.

  7. The opinion of Turkish cardiologists on current malpractice system and an alternative patient compensation system proposal: PCS study group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olcay, Ayhan; Emren, Sadık Volkan; Babür Güler, Gamze; Güler, Ekrem; Ertunç, Vedat; Berilgen, Rida; Aslan, Abdullah; Şimşek, Ersin Çağrı; Gölcük, Şükriye Ebru; Yalın, Kıvanç

    2017-10-01

    Cardiologists participate in the diagnosis and interventional treatment of numerous high-risk patients. The goal of this study was to investigate how the current malpractice system in Turkey influences cardiologists' diagnostic and interventional behavior and to obtain their opinions about an alternative patient compensation system. The present cross-sectional study assessed the practice of defensive medicine among cardiologists who are actively working in various types of workplace within the Turkish healthcare system. A 24-item questionnaire was distributed to cardiology residents, specialists, and academics in Turkey in print format, by electronic mail, or via cell phone message. A total of 253 cardiologists responded to the survey. Among them, 29 (11.6%) had been sued for malpractice claims in the past. Of the cardiologists who had been sued, 2 (6.9%) had been ordered to pay financial compensation, and 1 (3.4%) was given a sentence of imprisonment due to negligence. In all, 132 (52.8%) of the surveyed cardiologists reported that they had changed their practices due to fear of litigation, and 232 (92.8%) reported that they would prefer the new proposed patient compensation system to the current malpractice system. Among the cardiologists surveyed, 78.8% indicated that malpractice fear had affected their decision-making with regard to requesting computed tomography angiography or thallium scintigraphy, 71.6% for coronary angiography, 20% for stent implantation, and 83.2% for avoiding treating high-risk patients. The results of this survey demonstrated that cardiologists may request unnecessary tests and perform unneeded interventions due to the fear of malpractice litigation fear. Many also avoid high-risk patients and interventions. The majority indicated that they would prefer the proposed alternative patient compensation system to the current malpractice system.

  8. Alternative fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penn, W.J.

    1979-05-01

    Uranium resource utilization and economic considerations provide incentives to study alternative fuel cycles as future options to the PHWR natural uranium cycle. Preliminary studies to define the most favourable alternatives and their possible introduction dates are discussed. The important and uncertain components which influence option selection are reviewed, including nuclear capacity growth, uranium availability and demand, economic potential, and required technological developments. Finally, a summary of Ontario Hydro's program to further assess cycle selection and define development needs is given. (auth)

  9. Alternative detente

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soper, K.; Ryle, M.

    1988-01-01

    The influence of the Chernobyl accident on the disarmament and anti-nuclear movements is discussed. The accident directed attention towards the areas in common rather than the areas of disagreement. It also demonstrated the environmental impact of radioactivity, strengthening the ecological case of the anti-nuclear movement. The issues are discussed for the Western and Eastern bloc countries and the relationship between the two. Sections focus on the Eco-protest, Green politics and economics and on the politics of minority protest and the Green alternative. (U.K.)

  10. From Disappointment to Holistic Ideals: A Qualitative Study on Motives and Experiences of Using Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danell, Jenny-Ann

    2015-07-16

    Recent studies indicate increased use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in western societies, to ameliorate health problems. Even if there is substantial research on general patterns of use, there is limited knowledge on individual motives. This study contributes to a qualitative understanding of experiences of choosing and using CAM. This study consists of in-depth interviews with 10 CAM users in Sweden. The participants represent different backgrounds and experiences of using CAM. The interviews have been analysed in accordance with content analysis. In analysing experiences of choosing and using CAM four main themes were identified: frustration and critique, values and ideology, individual responsibility, and combining treatments. In general, the participants were highly reflexive on issues concerning their health. They highlighted their own role and responsibility, combined a variety of treatments, and continuously dealt with questions on risks, even if they had relatively different approaches to if and when to use CAM. The results also show that motives may change over time. Even if initial choices were closely related to frustration and critique of conventional treatments (for example, by perceiving conventional health care as limited, not receiving proper diagnoses, or being critical to conventional drugs) was long-term use motivated by ideological characteristics of CAM (such as holistic and individualized treatments, and extensive interaction with practitioners). Four main themes, concerning experiences of choosing and using CAM were identified. This study also supports the idea that initial motives for choosing CAM may differ from those explaining long-term use. Significance for public healthRecent studies indicate increased use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), both in general western populations and specific patient groups. Well-documented motives for choosing CAM are related to disappointment and failure of conventional

  11. Complementary and alternative medicine use and cost in functional bowel disorders: A six month prospective study in a large HMO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drossman Douglas A

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Functional Bowel Disorders (FBD are chronic disorders that are difficult to treat and manage. Many patients and doctors are dissatisfied with the level of improvement in symptoms that can be achieved with standard medical care which may lead them to seek alternatives for care. There are currently no data on the types of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM used for FBDs other than Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS, or on the economic costs of CAM treatments. The aim of this study is to determine prevalence, types and costs of CAM in IBS, functional diarrhea, functional constipation, and functional abdominal pain. Methods 1012 Patients with FBD were recruited through a health care maintenance organization and followed for 6 months. Questionnaires were used to ascertain: Utilization and expenditures on CAM, symptom severity (IBS-SS, quality of life (IBS-QoL, psychological distress (BSI and perceived treatment effectiveness. Costs for conventional medical care were extracted from administrative claims. Results CAM was used by 35% of patients, at a median yearly cost of $200. The most common CAM types were ginger, massage therapy and yoga. CAM use was associated with female gender, higher education, and anxiety. Satisfaction with physician care and perceived effectiveness of prescription medication were not associated with CAM use. Physician referral to a CAM provider was uncommon but the majority of patients receiving this recommendation followed their physician's advice. Conclusion CAM is used by one-third of FBD patients. CAM use does not seem to be driven by dissatisfaction with conventional care. Physicians should discuss CAM use and effectiveness with their patients and refer patients if appropriate.

  12. Cardiac and vascular structure and function parameters do not improve with alternate nightly home hemodialysis: An interventional cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson David W

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nightly extended hours hemodialysis may improve left ventricular hypertrophy and function and endothelial function but presents problems of sustainability and increased cost. The effect of alternate nightly home hemodialysis (NHD on cardiovascular structure and function is not known. Methods Sixty-three patients on standard hemodialysis (SHD: 3.5-6 hours/session, 3-5 sessions weekly converted to NHD (6-10 hours/session overnight for 3-5 sessions weekly. 2Dimensional transthoracic echocardiography and ultrasound measures of brachial artery reactivity (BAR, carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT, total arterial compliance (TAC and augmentation index (AIX were performed post dialysis at baseline and 18-24 months following conversion to NHD. In 37 patients, indices of oxidative stress: plasma malonyldialdehyde (MDA and anti-oxidant enzymes: catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPX and superoxide dismutase (SOD activity and total antioxidant status (TAS were measured at baseline, 3 and 6 months. Results Left ventricular mass index (LVMI remained stable. Despite significant derangement at baseline, there were no changes in diastolic function measures, CIMT, BAR and TAC. AIX increased. Conversion to NHD improved bone mineral metabolism parameters and blood pressure control. Interdialytic weight gains increased. No definite improvements in measures of oxidative stress were demonstrated. Conclusions Despite improvement in uremic toxin levels and some cardiovascular risk factors, conversion to an alternate nightly NHD regimen did not improve cardiovascular structure and function. Continuing suboptimal control of uremic toxins and interdialytic weight gains may be a possible explanation. This study adds to the increasing uncertainty about the nature of improvement in cardiovascular parameters with conversion to intensive hemodialysis regimens. Future randomized controlled trials will be important to determine whether increases in

  13. An interlaboratory study to find an alternative to the MPN technique for enumerating Escherichia coli in shellfish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ogden, I.D.; Brown, G.C.; Gallacher, S.

    1998-01-01

    Nine laboratories in eight countries tested 16 batches of common mussels (Mytilus edulis) over a 32 week period in order to find an alternative to the Most Probable Number (MPN) technique to enumerate E. coli. The alternatives investigated included the 3M Petrifilm system, the Merck Chromocult agar...

  14. Alternative medicines for AIDS in resource-poor settings: Insights from exploratory anthropological studies in Asia and Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hardon, A.; Desclaux, A.; Egrot, M.; Simon, E.; Micollier, E.; Kyakuwa, M.

    2008-01-01

    The emergence of alternative medicines for AIDS in Asia and Africa was discussed at a satellite symposium and the parallel session on alternative and traditional treatments of the AIDSImpact meeting, held in Marseille, in July 2007. These medicines are heterogeneous, both in their presentation and

  15. Dihydroartemisinin Accentuates the Anti-Tumor Effects of Photodynamic Therapy via Inactivation of NF-κB in Eca109 and Ec9706 Esophageal Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Jing Li

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Photodynamic therapy (PDT is a new treatment for esophageal cancer which has been shown to be effective in the elimination of tumor. However, PDT could induce the activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB in many photosensitizers based PDT, which plays a negative role in PDT. In addition, our previous results have shown that dihydroartemisinin (DHA, which was the most potent one of artemisinin derivatives, has anticancer activity in esophageal cancer cells. Methods: Cell viability was determined by MTT analysis, and apoptosis was evaluated by flow cytometry. Nuclear extract was obtained for determining NF-κB DNA-binding activity, while total protein extract obtained for downstream gene expression by western blot. Results: We demonstrated DHA enhanced PDT-induced growth inhibition and apoptosis in both human esophageal cancer cell lines Eca109 and Ec9706 in vitro. The mechanism was at least partially due to DHA deactivated PDT-induced NF-κB activation, so as to decrease tremendously the expression of its target gene Bcl-2. Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that DHA augments PDT-induced growth inhibition and apoptosis in esophageal cancer cells, and that inactivation of NF-κB activity is a potential mechanism by which DHA sensitizes esophageal cancer cells to PDT-induced growth inhibition and apoptosis.

  16. Contrastive grammar and culture: the alternation of verbal forms in the interaction of tense, mood and aspect in translation studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Maria Guimarães Savedra

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In studies based on the theme of languages in/of contact, the process of language acquisition is treated as a relative process, which involves many factors determined by the context of acquisition and of topical and dynamic uses of languages in different communicative environments. In these studies it is possible to identify that next to sociolinguistic and sociocultural factors, other factors established by structural and conceptual dimensions also emanate as relevant to the process of acquisition and use of languages. In this project we united the paradigm of the Sociolinguistics to the paradigm of the Contrastive Linguistics (Kontrastive Linguistik, more precisely of the Contrastive Grammar, in interaction with the Contrastive Culture (Kulturkontrastive Grammatik. The object of our study is the form and the functionality of verbal forms in German and Portuguese. The aim of this study is to identify and to analyze the choice of verbal forms in translations of contemporary literary texts in the pair of languages selected based on the alternation of these forms in the interaction of Tense, Mood and Aspect, with special attention to the verbal aspect and the distinction between grammatical aspect (Aspekt and lexical aspect (Aktionsart.

  17. Alternative loop rings

    CERN Document Server

    Goodaire, EG; Polcino Milies, C

    1996-01-01

    For the past ten years, alternative loop rings have intrigued mathematicians from a wide cross-section of modern algebra. As a consequence, the theory of alternative loop rings has grown tremendously. One of the main developments is the complete characterization of loops which have an alternative but not associative, loop ring. Furthermore, there is a very close relationship between the algebraic structures of loop rings and of group rings over 2-groups. Another major topic of research is the study of the unit loop of the integral loop ring. Here the interaction between loop rings and group ri

  18. Alternative crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreasen, L.M.; Boon, A.D.

    1992-01-01

    Surplus cereal production in the EEC and decreasing product prices, mainly for cereals, has prompted considerable interest for new earnings in arable farming. The objective was to examine whether suggested new crops (fibre, oil, medicinal and alternative grains crops) could be considered as real alternatives. Whether a specific crop can compete economically with cereals and whether there is a market demand for the crop is analyzed. The described possibilities will result in ca. 50,000 hectares of new crops. It is expected that they would not immediately provide increased earnings, but in the long run expected price developments are more positive than for cereals. The area for new crops will not solve the current surplus cereal problem as the area used for new crops is only 3% of that used for cereals. Preconditions for many new crops is further research activities and development work as well as the establishment of processing units and organizational initiatives. Presumably, it is stated, there will then be a basis for a profitable production of new crops for some farmers. (AB) (47 refs.)

  19. A sensitivity study of an evaluation of alternatives for disposal of INEL low-level waste and low-level mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roesener, W.S.; Smith, T.H.; Jorgenson-Waters, M.J.; Sherick, M.J.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents insights gained from an informal sensitivity study of an evaluation of disposal alternatives for Idaho National Engineering Laboratory low-level waste and low-level mixed waste. The insights relate to the sensitivity of the alternative rankings to changes in assumptions identified as open-quotes key uncertaintiesclose quotes. The result of the sensitivity study is that significant changes occur in the rankings when selected open-quotes key uncertaintiesclose quotes are varied over reasonable ranges. Three alternatives involving the use of (a) shallow land burial and boreholes or (b) greater-depth burial and boreholes rank high for all cases investigated. The other alternatives rank low in some or all cases

  20. A 4-year study on the effectiveness of alternate grazing of cattle and sheep in the control of bovine parasitic gastro-enteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bairden, K; Armour, J; Duncan, J L

    1995-11-01

    In many farming enterprises, animal management systems which could provide a practical and effective alternative to chemotherapy for the control of bovine helminthosis would be readily accepted. One system which has been proposed and shown to be effective in the short or medium term involves grazing different host species on a rotational basis. The study described here examined the effect of alternating cattle and sheep annually over an extended period of 4 years. Up to the second grazing season the system appeared to be successful, with a marked reduction in the cattle worm burdens. However, by the end of the study period the parasite burdens in calves grazed on the alternated pasture were equal to, or greater than, those of set-stocked control animals. It was thus clear that the alternate grazing strategy had failed. Data obtained from other parameters measured, i.e. faecal egg counts, pasture larval numbers and plasma pepsinogen levels, confirmed this observation.

  1. The procedure of alternative site selection within the report of the study group on the radioactive waste final repository selection process (AKEnd)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenner, M.

    2005-01-01

    The paper discusses the results of the report of the study group on the radioactive waste final repository selection process with respect to the alternative site selection procedure. Key points of the report are the long-term safety, the alternativity of sites and the concept of one repository. The critique on this report is focussed on the topics site selection and licensing procedures, civil participation, the factor time and the question of cost

  2. Use of alternative and complementary therapies in labor and delivery care: a cross-sectional study of midwives’ training in Catalan hospitals accredited as centers for normal birth

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz-Sellés, Ester; Vallès-Segalés, Antoni; Goberna-Tricas, Josefina

    2013-01-01

    Background: The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) and complementary and alternative therapies (CAT) during pregnancy is increasing. Scientific evidence for CAM and CAT in the field of obstetrics mainly covers pain relief in labor. Midwives are responsible for labor and delivery care: hence, their knowledge of CAM and CAT is important. The aims of this study are to describe the professional profile of midwives who provide care for natural childbirth in Catalan hospitals accre...

  3. Closure of the Spent Fuel Repository in Forsmark - Studies of alternative concepts for sealing of ramp, shafts and investigation boreholes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gylling, Bjoern [SKB AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Luterkort, David [SGI, Stockholm (Sweden); Johansson, Roland [Miljoe- och Energikonsult AB, Ekeroe (Sweden)

    2012-12-15

    good sealing. Such a solution, which could be based on crushed rock with the right grain size distribution, might also be more robust to control and verify with respect to long-term durability. However, relaxing the design premises in this way would require additional sensitivity analyses. Further, the assessment in SR-Site indicates that the reference design is appropriate for the purpose. However, if the the design premises are relaxed, more robust designs might be worth investigating. This has been studied and the results are presented in this report. Research and development specifically focused on technology for repository closure has not yet been carried out. On the other hand, SKB and other organisations have for many years studied and conducted considerable research on backfilling and sealing of deposition tunnels, including full-scale tests. SKB has also developed and tested technology for sealing of investigation boreholes. Experience and results from these efforts comprise an important basis for this project. The work has focused on sealing of shafts, ramp and investigation boreholes. Alternatives for top sealing and sealing of the central area have not been studied, since their impact on the flow through the repository is judged to be marginal. Nor have alternative concepts for sealing of main and transport tunnels been developed, since it is believed that filling with blocks and pellets of swelling clay is the only alternative that ensures sufficiently low hydraulic conductivity.

  4. Study of betatron oscillations in a constant field and alternating gradient accelerator; Etude des oscillations betatron dans l'accelerateur a champ fixe et a gradient alterne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauzanne, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-07-01

    The conditions for the stability of a constant energy particle beam circulating in the magnetic field of the F.F.A.G. accelerator are studied. By a mathematical study it is possible to derive the equations for the equilibrium orbit and for the low amplitude oscillations, and the expressions for the amplitude stability limits of the beam. For this, approximation methods are used, in particular the linearization of the differential equations of the movement, and the method of gradual approximation. Numerical investigations carried out with the help of the IBM 7090 computer make it possible to judge the precision of the results given by the theory. A systematic variation of the parameters makes it possible to understand more clearly the mechanism of the amplitude variations of the trajectories. Finally, for the radial sector model, the possibility of introducing zones free from the magnetic field is considered. The case of short straight sections, respecting the field periodicity, and of that of long straight sections creating super-periods are considered. For the two cases are given solutions which should lead to a practical machine. (author) [French] On etudie les conditions de stabilite d'un faisceau de particules circulant a energie constante dans le champ magnetique de l'accelerateur F.F.A.G. Une etude mathematique permet d'etablir les equations de l'orbite d'equilibre et des oscillations de faible amplitude, les expressions des limites de stabilite en amplitude du faisceau. On emploie a cet effet des methodes d'approximation, essentiellement la linearisation des equations differentielles du mouvement et la methode de l'approximation douce. Des investigations numeriques effectuees a l'aide de la calculatrice IBM 7090 permettent d'apprecier l'exactitude des resultats fournis par la theorie. Une variation systematique des parametres permet de mieux comprendre le mecanisme des variations d'amplitude des trajectoires. On etudie enfin, pour le modele a secteur radial

  5. Evaluation of biosafe alternatives as xylene substitutes in hematoxylin and eosin staining procedure: A comparative pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sravya, Taneeru; Rao, Guttikonda Venkateswara; Kumari, Masabattula Geetha; Sagar, Yerraguntla Vidya; Sivaranjani, Yeluri; Sudheerkanth, Kondamarri

    2018-01-01

    Background: Xylene is synthetic hydrocarbon produced from coal tar known for its wide usage as universal solvent which has many hazardous effects. The aim of this study is to compare the efficacy of xylene-free hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) sections with conventional H and E sections. Materials and Methods: The study included ninety paraffin-embedded tissue blocks. Of these, sixty blocks were processed with sesame oil (xylene alternative) and thirty blocks with xylene. The study sample was divided into three groups. Sixty sections which are taken from sesame oil-processed blocks were stained with xylene-free H and E staining method. In xylene-free staining method, 95% diluted lemon water (Group A) and 1.7% dish washing solution (DWS, Group B) were used as deparaffinizing agents whereas the remaining 30 sections were processed with xylene and stained with conventional H and E staining method (Group C). Slides were scored for the following parameters: (i) nuclear staining (adequate = score 1, inadequate = score 0), (ii) cytoplasmic staining (adequate = score 1, inadequate = score 0), (iii) uniformity (present = score 1, absent = score 0), (iv) clarity (present = score 1, absent = score 0) and (v) intensity (present = score 1, absent = score 0). Score ≤2 was considered inadequate for diagnosis while scores 3–5 were considered adequate for diagnosis. Results: Adequate nuclear staining was noted in 90% of sections of Group A and 100% each in Group B and Group C (P 0.05); adequate uniformity of staining in 53.3% of sections of Group A, 70% in Group B and 83.3% in Group C (P 0.05) and adequate intensity of staining in 76.7% sections of Group A, 93.3% in Group B and 100% in Group C (P < 0.05). Group C sections stained adequate for diagnosis (93.3%) followed by Group B (88.7%) and Group A (78%; P < 0.05). Conclusion: Tissues processed with sesame oil and stained using 1.7% DWS were found to be effective alternative to xylene.

  6. Energy alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    English. A special committe of the Canadian House of Commons was established on 23 May 1980 to investigate the use of alternative energy sources such as 'gasohol', liquified coal, solar energy, methanol, wind and tidal power, biomass, and propane. In its final report, the committee envisions an energy system for Canada based on hydrogen and electricity, using solar and geothermal energy for low-grade heat. The committe was not able to say which method of generating electricty would dominate in the next century, although it recommends that fossil fuels should not be used. The fission process is not specifically discussed, but the outlook for fusion was investigated, and continued governmental support of fusion research is recommended. The report proposes some improvements in governmental energy organizations and programs

  7. Alternatives evaluation and decommissioning study on shielded transfer tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeVore, J.R.; Hinton, R.R.

    1994-08-01

    The shielded transfer tanks (STTs) are five obsolete cylindrical shipping casks which were used to transport high specific activity radioactive solutions by rail during the 1960s and early 1970s. The STTs are currently stored at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory under a shed roof. This report is an evaluation to determine the preferred alternative for the final disposition of the five STTs. The decommissioning alternatives assessed include: (1) the no action alternative to leave the STTs in their present location with continued surveillance and maintenance; (2) solidification of contents within the tanks and holding the STTs in long term retrievable storage; (3) sale of one or more of the used STTs to private industry for use at their treatment facility with the remaining STTs processed as in Alternative 4; and (4) removal of tank contents for de-watering/retrievable storage, limited decontamination to meet acceptance criteria, smelting the STTs to recycle the metal through the DOE contaminated scrap metal program, and returning the shielding lead to the ORNL lead recovery program because the smelting contractor cannot reprocess the lead. To completely evaluate the alternatives for the disposition of the STTs, the contents of the tanks must be characterized. Shielding and handling requirements, risk considerations, and waste acceptance criteria all require that the radioactive inventory and free liquids residual in the STTs be known. Because characterization of the STT contents in the field was not input into a computer model to predict the probable inventory and amount of free liquid. The four alternatives considered were subjected to a numerical scoring procedure. Alternative 4, smelting the STTs to recycle the metal after removal/de-watering of the tank contents, had the highest score and is, therefore, recommended as the preferred alternative. However, if a buyer for one or more STT could be found, it is recommended that Alternative 3 be reconsidered

  8. Alternative Design Study Report: WindPACT Advanced Wind Turbine Drive Train Designs Study; November 1, 2000 -- February 28, 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poore, R.; Lettenmaier, T.

    2003-08-01

    This report presents the Phase I results of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) WindPACT (Wind Partnership for Advanced Component Technologies) Advanced Wind Turbine Drive Train Designs Study. Global Energy Concepts, LLC performed this work under a subcontract with NREL. The purpose of the WindPACT project is to identify technology improvements that will enable the cost of energy (COE) from wind turbines to be reduced. Other parts of the WindPACT project have examined blade and logistics scaling, balance-of-station costs, and rotor design. This study was designed to investigate innovative drive train designs.

  9. Alternative energy technologies as a cultural endeavor. A case study of hydrogen and fuel cell development in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galich, Ante [Luxembourg Univ., Walferdange (Luxembourg). Faculty of Language and Literature, Humanities, Arts and Education; Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin fuer Sozialforschung gGmbH, Berlin (Germany). Abt. ' ' Kulturelle Quellen von Neuheit' ' ; Marz, Lutz [Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin fuer Sozialforschung gGmbH, Berlin (Germany). Abt. ' ' Kulturelle Quellen von Neuheit' '

    2012-12-15

    The wider background to this article is the shift in the energy paradigm from fossil energy sources to renewable sources which should occur in the twenty-first century. This transformation requires the development of alternative energy technologies that enable the deployment of renewable energy sources in transportation, heating, and electricity. Among others, hydrogen and fuel cell technologies have the potential to fulfill this requirement and to contribute to a sustainable and emission-free transport and energy system. However, whether they will ever reach broad societal acceptance will not only depend on technical issues alone. The aim of our study is to reveal the importance of nontechnical issues. Therefore, the article at hand presents a case study of hydrogen and fuel cells in Germany and aims at highlighting the cultural context that affects their development. Our results were obtained from a rich pool of data generated in various research projects through more than 30 in-depth interviews, direct observations, and document analyses. We found that individual and collective actors developed five specific supportive practices which they deploy in five diverse arenas of meaning in order to attach certain values to hydrogen and fuel cell technologies. Based on the results, we drew more general conclusions and deducted an overall model for the analysis of culture in technological innovations that is outlined at the end of the article. It constitutes our contribution to the interdisciplinary collaboration required for tackling the shift in this energy paradigm.

  10. Acridine orange as an alternative to optical density to study growth kinetics of Lactobacillus bulgaricus ATCC 7517.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, Dolar; Koo, Ok Kyung; Story, Robert S; O'Bryan, Corliss A; Crandall, Philip G; Lee, Sun-Ok; Ricke, Steven C

    2013-01-01

    In this study we assessed the use of acridine orange as an alternative to optical density to quantify the growth of Lactobacillus bulgaricus ATCC 7517. The growth of bacteria in Lactobacillus de Man Rogosa Sharpe (MRS) medium was measured by both acridine orange (AO) and optical density (OD) measurements for 24 h. The relationship between both methods was compared via correlation analysis. The doubling time of bacteria based on the values of OD600 and AO obtained during 24 h growth were also calculated. The result shows strong correlation of cell growth between OD600 and AO during the first 10 hours of growth, but the correlation was less strong when analyzing the data from 0 to 24 hours. Growth rates, generation time and lag time were also similar. This study indicates that AO could be used in place of OD to prepare growth curves of Lactobacillus bulgaricus during the exponential phase of growth, and to compare growth rates, generation times or lag times.

  11. A comparative physics study of alternative long-term strategies for closure of the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cometto, M.; Wydler, P.; Chawla, R.

    2004-01-01

    The appropriate management of radioactive waste arising from the nuclear fuel cycle is considered to be a key issue in the development of future, more sustainable nuclear energy systems. In this context, the partitioning and transmutation of actinides could play an important role through the achievement of very significant reductions in the actinide content and radiotoxicity of the high-level waste requiring geological disposal. The current paper reports on the results of a detailed physics study carried out to compare the pros and cons of alternative strategies for closure of the nuclear fuel cycle. Different long-term 'steady-state' scenarios have been considered, involving the deployment, to varying degrees, of light water reactors (LWRs) and advanced fast-spectrum systems. The same nuclear data and calculation methods have been used throughout, so that a consistent and reliable comparison of the relative performance of the three basic fuel cycle options (once-through, plutonium recycle, and recycling of all actinides) has been made possible. In addition, with transmutation having been considered employing both critical and accelerator-driven fast-spectrum systems, the study has provided an evaluation of the advantages and disadvantages of these two different advanced system types

  12. The dynamics of magnetic nanoparticles exposed to non-heating alternating magnetic field in biochemical applications: theoretical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golovin, Yuri I., E-mail: nano@tsutmb.ru [Lomonosov Moscow State University, Chemistry Department (Russian Federation); Gribanovsky, Sergey L.; Golovin, Dmitry Y.; Zhigachev, Alexander O. [G.R. Derzhavin Tambov State University, Nanocenter (Russian Federation); Klyachko, Natalia L.; Majouga, Alexander G. [Lomonosov Moscow State University, Chemistry Department (Russian Federation); Sokolsky, Marina [University of North Carolina, Center for Nanotechnology in Drug Delivery, UNC Eshelman School of Pharmacy (United States); Kabanov, Alexander V. [Lomonosov Moscow State University, Chemistry Department (Russian Federation)

    2017-02-15

    In the past decade, magneto-nanomechanical approach to biochemical systems stimulation has been studied intensively. This method involves macromolecule structure local deformation via mechanical actuation of functionalized magnetic nanoparticles (f-MNPs) by non-heating low frequency (LF) alternating magnetic field (AMF). Specificity at cellular or molecular level and spatial locality in nanometer scale are its key advantages as compared to magnetic fluid hyperthermia. However, current experimental studies have weak theoretical basis. Several models of magneto-nanomechanical actuation of macromolecules and cells in non-heating uniform LF AMF are presented in the article. Single core-shell spherical, rod-like, and Janus MNPs, as well as dimers consisting of two f-MNPs with macromolecules immobilized on their surfaces are considered. AMF-induced rotational oscillations of MNPs can affect properties and functioning of macromolecules or cellular membranes attached to them via periodic deformations in nanometer scale. This could be widely used in therapy, in particular for targeted drug delivery, controlled drug release, and cancer cell killing. An aggregate composed of MNPs can affect associated macromolecules by force up to several hundreds of piconewton in the case of MNPs of tens of nanometers in diameter and LF AMF below 1 T. AMF parameters and MNP design requirements for effective in vitro and in vivo magneto-nanomechanical treatment are presented.

  13. The dynamics of magnetic nanoparticles exposed to non-heating alternating magnetic field in biochemical applications: theoretical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golovin, Yuri I.; Gribanovsky, Sergey L.; Golovin, Dmitry Y.; Zhigachev, Alexander O.; Klyachko, Natalia L.; Majouga, Alexander G.; Sokolsky, Marina; Kabanov, Alexander V.

    2017-01-01

    In the past decade, magneto-nanomechanical approach to biochemical systems stimulation has been studied intensively. This method involves macromolecule structure local deformation via mechanical actuation of functionalized magnetic nanoparticles (f-MNPs) by non-heating low frequency (LF) alternating magnetic field (AMF). Specificity at cellular or molecular level and spatial locality in nanometer scale are its key advantages as compared to magnetic fluid hyperthermia. However, current experimental studies have weak theoretical basis. Several models of magneto-nanomechanical actuation of macromolecules and cells in non-heating uniform LF AMF are presented in the article. Single core-shell spherical, rod-like, and Janus MNPs, as well as dimers consisting of two f-MNPs with macromolecules immobilized on their surfaces are considered. AMF-induced rotational oscillations of MNPs can affect properties and functioning of macromolecules or cellular membranes attached to them via periodic deformations in nanometer scale. This could be widely used in therapy, in particular for targeted drug delivery, controlled drug release, and cancer cell killing. An aggregate composed of MNPs can affect associated macromolecules by force up to several hundreds of piconewton in the case of MNPs of tens of nanometers in diameter and LF AMF below 1 T. AMF parameters and MNP design requirements for effective in vitro and in vivo magneto-nanomechanical treatment are presented.

  14. The dynamics of magnetic nanoparticles exposed to non-heating alternating magnetic field in biochemical applications: theoretical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golovin, Yuri I.; Gribanovsky, Sergey L.; Golovin, Dmitry Y.; Zhigachev, Alexander O.; Klyachko, Natalia L.; Majouga, Alexander G.; Sokolsky, Marina; Kabanov, Alexander V.

    2017-02-01

    In the past decade, magneto-nanomechanical approach to biochemical systems stimulation has been studied intensively. This method involves macromolecule structure local deformation via mechanical actuation of functionalized magnetic nanoparticles (f-MNPs) by non-heating low frequency (LF) alternating magnetic field (AMF). Specificity at cellular or molecular level and spatial locality in nanometer scale are its key advantages as compared to magnetic fluid hyperthermia. However, current experimental studies have weak theoretical basis. Several models of magneto-nanomechanical actuation of macromolecules and cells in non-heating uniform LF AMF are presented in the article. Single core-shell spherical, rod-like, and Janus MNPs, as well as dimers consisting of two f-MNPs with macromolecules immobilized on their surfaces are considered. AMF-induced rotational oscillations of MNPs can affect properties and functioning of macromolecules or cellular membranes attached to them via periodic deformations in nanometer scale. This could be widely used in therapy, in particular for targeted drug delivery, controlled drug release, and cancer cell killing. An aggregate composed of MNPs can affect associated macromolecules by force up to several hundreds of piconewton in the case of MNPs of tens of nanometers in diameter and LF AMF below 1 T. AMF parameters and MNP design requirements for effective in vitro and in vivo magneto-nanomechanical treatment are presented.

  15. Chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM): an alternative predictive model in acute toxicological studies for anti-cancer drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kue, Chin Siang; Tan, Kae Yi; Lam, May Lynn; Lee, Hong Boon

    2015-01-01

    The chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) is a preclinical model widely used for vascular and anti-vascular effects of therapeutic agents in vivo. In this study, we examine the suitability of CAM as a predictive model for acute toxicology studies of drugs by comparing it to conventional mouse and rat models for 10 FDA-approved anticancer drugs (paclitaxel, carmustine, camptothecin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, cisplatin, aloin, mitomycin C, actinomycin-D, melphalan). Suitable formulations for intravenous administration were determined before the average of median lethal dose (LD50) and median survival dose (SD(50)) in the CAM were measured and calculated for these drugs. The resultant ideal LD(50) values were correlated to those reported in the literature using Pearson's correlation test for both intravenous and intraperitoneal routes of injection in rodents. Our results showed moderate correlations (r(2)=0.42 - 0.68, PLD(50) values obtained using the CAM model with LD(50) values from mice and rats models for both intravenous and intraperitoneal administrations, suggesting that the chick embryo may be a suitable alternative model for acute drug toxicity screening before embarking on full toxicological investigations in rodents in development of anticancer drugs.

  16. Cost-benefit analysis of using sewage sludge as alternative fuel in a cement plant: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadal, Martí; Schuhmacher, Marta; Domingo, José L

    2009-05-01

    To enforce the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol targets, a number of governmental/international institutions have launched emission trade schemes as an approach to specify CO(2) caps and to regulate the emission trade in recent years. These schemes have been basically applied for large industrial sectors, including energy producers and energy-intensive users. Among them, cement plants are included among the big greenhouse gas (GHG) emitters. The use of waste as secondary fuel in clinker kilns is currently an intensive practice worldwide. However, people living in the vicinity of cement plants, where alternative fuels are being used, are frequently concerned about the potential increase in health risks. In the present study, a cost-benefit analysis was applied after substituting classical fuel for sewage sludge as an alternative fuel in a clinker kiln in Catalonia, Spain. The economical benefits resulting in the reduction of CO(2) emissions were compared with the changes in human health risks due to exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and carcinogenic metals (As, Cd, Co, and Cr) before and after using sewage sludge to generate 20% of the thermal energy needed for pyro-processing. The exposure to PCDD/Fs and metals through air inhalation, soil ingestion and dermal absorption was calculated according to the environmental levels in soil. The carcinogenic risks were assessed, and the associated cost for the population was estimated by considering the DG Environment's recommended value for preventing a statistical fatality (VPF). In turn, the amount of CO(2) emitted was calculated, and the economical saving, according to the market prices, was evaluated. The use of sewage sludge as a substitute of conventional energy meant a probability cancer decrease of 4.60 for metals and a cancer risk increase of 0.04 for PCDD/Fs. Overall, a net reduction of 4.56 cancers for one million people can be estimated. The associated economical

  17. Surveillance technology: an alternative to physical restraints? A qualitative study among professionals working in nursing homes for people with dementia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwijsen, S.A.; Depla, M.F.I.A.; Niemeijer, A.R.; Francke, A.L.; Hertogh, C.M.P.M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Working with surveillance technology as an alternative to traditional restraints creates obvious differences in the way care is organised. It is not clear whether professional caregivers find working with surveillance technology useful and workable and whether surveillance technology is

  18. Utilization of reconstructed cultured human skin models as an alternative skin for permeation studies of chemical compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Kano, Satoshi; 藤堂, 浩明; 杉江, 謙一; 藤本, 英哲; 中田, 圭一; 徳留, 嘉寛; 橋本, フミ惠; 杉林, 堅次

    2010-01-01

    Two reconstructed human skin models, EpiskinSM and EpiDermTM, have been approved as alternative membranes for skin corrosive/irritation experiments due to their close correlation with animal skin. Such reconstructed human skin models were evaluated as alternative membranes for skin permeation experiments. Seven drugs with different lipophilicities and almost the same molecular weight were used as test penetrants. Relationships were investigated between permeability coefficients (P values) of ...

  19. BLENDED LEARNING (BL AS PEDAGOGICAL ALTERNATIVE TO TEACH BUSINESS COMMUNICATION COURSE: Case Study of UUM Executive Diploma Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisham DZAKIRIA

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Globally, blended learning (BL technologies have been increasingly applied in a variety of fields, both public and private sectors. In recent years, universities, public and private businesses and organizations are among those employing blended learning methods and technologies in training and re-training of professionals in the workforce. In Malaysia, the increasing use of blended learning to enhance learning and enriching of soft skills among professionals and individuals in the work place is evident. The advancement of technology is an onset to many new avenues and tool for learning and teaching, and it is the coalescing of these various technologies with particular pedagogy or andragogy has helped to popularize BL. However, when an institution makes the critical choice of delivery methods, it is pertinent that the university needs to consider various success factors. One in particular is student-centered approach that entails the need to understand the students as the beneficiary of learning, and the support system they need to help them learn. This qualitative study reports in detail the experience of a small group of students undertaking Executive Diplomas at Executive Development Centre (EDC, Universiti Utara Malaysia as they progress through their Executive program. This paper looks at learning experiences as described by the learners- it is their story, their experience, and their perspective. This study suggests that BL offered a comfortable middle ground, and has lots of potential in higher education in Malaysia. It is a pedagogical alternative that could play a significant role not only for teaching Business Communication, but has the potential to promote lifelong learning initiatives in Malaysia in a much meaningful and inviting way. Although this study shows that BL contributed a significant and meaningful learning particularly for adult learners, it needs more definitive studies. Such information can be used to guide policy makers

  20. The role of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM in Germany – A focus group study of GPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemann Thomas

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been a marked increase in the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM in recent years worldwide. In Germany, apart from 'Heilpraktiker' (= state-licensed, non-medical CAM practitioners, some general practitioners (GPs provide CAM in their practices. This paper aims to explore the attitudes of GPs about the role of CAM in Germany, in relation to the healthcare system, quality of care, medical education and research. Furthermore, experiences of GPs integrating CAM in their daily practice were explored. Methods Using a qualitative methodological approach 3 focus groups with a convenience sample of 17 GPs were conducted. The discussions were transcribed verbatim and analysed using qualitative content analysis. Results The majority of the participating GPs had integrated one or more CAM therapies into their every-day practice. Four key themes were identified based on the topics covered in the focus groups: the role of CAM within the German healthcare system, quality of care, education and research. Within the theme 'role of CAM within the healthcare system' there were five categories: integration of CAM, CAM in the Statutory Health Insurance, modernisation of the Statutory Health Insurance Act, individual healthcare services and 'Heilpraktiker'. Regarding quality of care there were two broad groups of GPs: those who thought patients would benefit from standardizing CAM and those who feared that quality control would interfere with the individual approach of CAM. The main issues identified relating to research and education were the need for the development of alternative research strategies and the low quality of existing CAM education respectively. Conclusion The majority of the participating GPs considered CAM as a reasonable complementary approach within primary care. The study increased our understanding of GPs attitudes about the role of CAM within the German healthcare system and the use of

  1. [The thermoformable spiral metallic stents in the treatment of localized ureteral stenosis: an alternative to JJ stent? Prospective multicenter study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonniol, R; Meria, P; Safsaf, A; Albouy, B; Sibert, L

    2011-06-01

    Evaluation of the effectiveness and tolerance of thermoformable metallic spiral stents Memokath(®) 051 (Bard, Pnn Medical) in the treatment of localized ureteral stenosis in non-operable patients who have JJ ureteral stents. Prospective, descriptive and multicenter study of patients with ureteral strictures treated with metallic ureteral stents Memokath(®) 051. Assessment criteria (recurrent stenotic, permeability, tolerance) were measured by clinical, biological and radiological examination at 1 month, and then every 3 months. Fifteen stents (average length: 9.15 cm, range 6-15 cm) were implanted in 14 patients (mean age: 55 years, range: 38-72 years) with secondary suspended ureteral stenosis during 2 years in two centers. The median follow-up was 11 months (range 6 to 24 months). Technical difficulty was observed with two patients. Stents are still up in four patients. The stenosis recurred in four patients with spontaneous progression of stenosis but without endoprosthetics tissue invasion. Two and three migration were observed with spontaneous expulsions. Two lower urinary infections and one high occurred, resolved on antibiotic therapy, no inlay or hematuria, no pain (mean VAS score=3/10) or urinary disorders of the lower unit have been identified. Stents Memokath(®) 051 are well tolered and seem to position themselves as an interesting alternative to JJ ureteral stent in some frails patients. The refinement of contraindication should help to improve the stent's efficacity and to reduce the risk of migration and expulsion. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. The next $120,000: a case study to illustrate analysis of alternative farm investments in fixed assets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Pierre, N R; Shoemaker, D; Jones, L R

    2000-05-01

    Dairy scientists specializing in the area of farm management are increasingly involved in analysis of farm investments in fixed assets. There have been instances where the wrong procedures were used to assess investments in fixed assets, leading to erroneous and possibly disastrous conclusions. A detailed case study of a dairy farm facing the decision of where best to invest an unexpected $120,000 windfall is used to illustrate the various facets of financial analysis. Indicators of profitability, liquidity, solvency, repayment capacity, and financial efficiency are explained and applied to the farm case to produce a detailed analysis of the current financial position of the firm. Long-range budgets of four alternate investment options and their impact on all financial indicators are presented. The four options are: 1) to pay down debt, 2) to purchase an additional 100 cows, 3) to install automatic milk yield recording in the parlor, and 4) to build new heifer facilities. All four investments are profitable. Therefore, an analysis limited to profitability indicators would conclude that any of the four options is a good investment. However, liquidity and financial efficiency issues showed that the option of purchasing 100 cows is far superior to the three others. We conclude that a complete and thorough financial analysis is required to evaluate the impact of long-run investments in fixed assets.

  3. Medical students' attitudes to complementary and alternative medicine: further validation of the IMAQ and findings from an international longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Charlotte E; Wearn, Andy M; Dennis, Ian; Amri, Hakima; Greenfield, Sheila M

    2009-02-01

    Current research mainly employs cross-sectional designs to examine changes in medical students' attitudes towards complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). This paper reports the findings of a longitudinal study to further validate the Integrative Medicine Attitude Questionnaire (IMAQ) and examine changes in medical students' attitudes over 3 years. A total of 154 medical students from four schools in three countries completed a modified version of the IMAQ during their first (T1) and fourth year (T2). We established the validity of a three-factor model for the IMAQ: (1) attitudes towards holism; (2) attitudes towards the effectiveness of CAM therapies, and (3) attitudes towards introspection and the doctor-patient relationship. We found that IMAQ factor scores did not differ significantly from T1 to T2, emphasizing the relative stability in attitudes across time. Various student characteristics were significantly associated with IMAQ factor scores at T2: age, gender, CAM use, CAM education and school; and two variables (gender and CAM use) predicted changes in medical students' attitudes between T1 and T2. We urge medical educators to continue exploring medical students' attitude changes towards CAM and we provide examples of what further research is needed.

  4. Alternative Payment Models Should Risk-Adjust for Conversion Total Hip Arthroplasty: A Propensity Score-Matched Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLawhorn, Alexander S; Schairer, William W; Schwarzkopf, Ran; Halsey, David A; Iorio, Richard; Padgett, Douglas E

    2017-12-06

    For Medicare beneficiaries, hospital reimbursement for nonrevision hip arthroplasty is anchored to either diagnosis-related group code 469 or 470. Under alternative payment models, reimbursement for care episodes is not further risk-adjusted. This study's purpose was to compare outcomes of primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) vs conversion THA to explore the rationale for risk adjustment for conversion procedures. All primary and conversion THAs from 2007 to 2014, excluding acute hip fractures and cancer patients, were identified in the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database. Conversion and primary THA patients were matched 1:1 using propensity scores, based on preoperative covariates. Multivariable logistic regressions evaluated associations between conversion THA and 30-day outcomes. A total of 2018 conversions were matched to 2018 primaries. There were no differences in preoperative covariates. Conversions had longer operative times (148 vs 95 minutes, P reimbursement models shift toward bundled payment paradigms, conversion THA appears to be a procedure for which risk adjustment is appropriate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Changes in the use of complementary and alternative medicine in Taiwan: a comparison study of 2007 and 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Mei-Ying; Liu, Chieh-Yu; Chen, Hsiao-Yu

    2014-06-01

    In this study, we explored the differences in the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) based on data from 2007 and 2011 national surveys in Taiwan. Two cross-sectional, community-based epidemiological surveys were conducted in Taiwan. Participants 18 years and older were interviewed regarding their CAM use in the previous 12 months. Nationally representative random-household telephone surveys using a sampling method with a probability proportional to size were conducted in 2007 and 2011. The data were analysed to compare the results between surveys. We obtained a total of 1260 and 2266 valid responses in 2007 and 2011, respectively. The use of at least one or more CAM therapies during the previous year decreased from 48.9% in 2007 to 37.8% in 2011 (p herbs followed by health supplement products and tuina. We observed the greatest relative increase in CAM use between 2007 and 2011 in health supplement products (12.8% vs. 16.0%) and massage (1.3% vs. 2.9%), whereas the largest relative decrease occurred for tuina (24.4-13.4%) and Chinese medicinal herbs (31.6-25.4%). Widespread CAM use reflects a more personal orientation towards maintaining health and selecting health care support services. Thus, a set of standards should be established for the safety and effectiveness of therapies, and consensus building is required to overcome the differences among practitioners from various backgrounds and traditions. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Complementary and alternative medicine use in thalassemia patients in Shiraz, southern Iran: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadreza Bordbar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the frequency and pattern of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM use in thalassemia patients in south of Iran. The survey was done using a validated questionnaire which was distributed among 122 thalassemia patients. Only 108 questionnaires were completed and turned back (response rate 88.5%. Patients referred to an outpatient thalassemia clinic in Shiraz, southern Iran for blood transfusion. The mean age of the patients was 22.9 ± 7.9 years (range 4–45 years with female/male ratio 1.84. Seventy four (68.5% of the responders used CAM at least once during their life, and about half of them used it concurrently with their conventional treatments. The most reported CAM product was mint juice (50%. The most common reason of CAM use was increased general health. The most common information source about CAM was physicians who were the most trusted source as well. CAM is frequently being used in thalassemia patients to ensure their sense of well-being and help them overcome the complications of their illnesses.

  7. Useful Bicistronic Reporter System for Studying Poly(A Site-Defining cis Elements and Regulation of Alternative Polyadenylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongyuan Deng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The link between polyadenylation (pA and various biological, behavioral, and pathological events of eukaryotes underlines the need to develop in vivo polyadenylation assay methods for characterization of the cis-acting elements, trans-acting factors and environmental stimuli that affect polyadenylation efficiency and/or relative usage of two alternative polyadenylation (APA sites. The current protein-based CAT or luciferase reporter systems can measure the polyadenylation efficiency of a single pA site or candidate cis element but not the choice of two APA sites. To address this issue, we developed a set of four new bicistronic reporter vectors that harbor either two luciferase or fluorescence protein open reading frames connected with one Internal Ribosome Entry Site (IRES. Transfection of single or dual insertion constructs of these vectors into mammalian cells demonstrated that they could be utilized not only to quantify the strength of a single candidate pA site or cis element, but also to accurately measure the relative usage of two APA sites at both the mRNA (qRT-PCR and protein levels. This represents the first reporter system that can study polyadenylation efficiency of a single pA site or element and regulation of two APA sites at both the mRNA and protein levels.

  8. Use of complementary and alternative medicines by a sample of Turkish women for infertility enhancement: a descriptive study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolusari Ali

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infertility patients are a vulnerable group that often seeks a non-medical solution for their failure to conceive. World-wide, women use CAM for productive health, but only a limited number of studies report on CAM use to enhance fertility. Little is known about traditional and religious forms of therapies that are used in relation to conventional medicine in Turkey. We investigated the prevalence and types of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM used by infertile Turkish women for fertility enhancement. Methods A face-to-face questionnaire inquiring demographic information and types of CAM used for fertility enhancement were completed by hundred infertility patients admitted to a primary care family planning centre in Van, Turkey between January and July 2009. Results The vast majority of infertile women had used CAM at least once for infertility. CAM use included religious interventions, herbal products and recommendations of traditional "hodja's" (faith healers. Of these women, 87.8% were abused in the last 12 months, 36.6% felt not being supported by her partner and 80.5% had never spoken with a physician about CAM. Conclusions Infertile Turkish women use complementary medicine frequently for fertility enhancement and are in need of information about CAM. Religious and traditional therapies are used as an adjunct to, rather than a substitute for, conventional medical therapy. Physicians need to approach fertility patients with sensitivity and should be able to council their patients about CAM accordingly.

  9. Personality profile of binge drinking in university students is modulated by sex. A study using the Alternative Five Factor Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adan, Ana; Navarro, José Francisco; Forero, Diego A

    2016-08-01

    The prevalence of binge drinking (BD), found especially among young people, is increasing worldwide and has become an important social and health concern. We studied, for the first time, the personality profile, using the Alternative Five Factor Model, among university students with BD and healthy controls, taking into account the possible influence of sex. 70 participants with BD (30 men) and 70 healthy controls (30 men) were included, selected to control for characteristics that are known to be related to BD (physical and mental disorders, consumption of other drugs, circadian rhythms), completed the Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire (ZKPQ). The scores on Neuroticism-Anxiety and Impulsive Sensation-Seeking were higher in the BD group compared to the controls (pAnxiety are due to higher scores in the women's group (p=0.014), while those in Impulsive Sensation-Seeking are due to higher scores in the men's group (p=0.009), both in the Impulsivity and in the Sensation-Seeking subscales (p<0.045). Sex could be a factor that modulates the endophenotype of drug dependence (impulsive and anxious personality) and the prevention and/or treatment programs for BD should include not only the management of the personality risk factors but also different tailored approaches according to sex. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. New casemix classification as an alternative method for budget allocation in thai oral healthcare service: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisaijohn, Thunthita; Pimkhaokham, Atiphan; Lapying, Phenkhae; Itthichaisri, Chumpot; Pannarunothai, Supasit; Igarashi, Isao; Kawabuchi, Koichi

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a new casemix classification system as an alternative method for the budget allocation of oral healthcare service (OHCS). Initially, the International Statistical of Diseases and Related Health Problem, 10th revision, Thai Modification (ICD-10-TM) related to OHCS was used for developing the software "Grouper". This model was designed to allow the translation of dental procedures into eight-digit codes. Multiple regression analysis was used to analyze the relationship between the factors used for developing the model and the resource consumption. Furthermore, the coefficient of variance, reduction in variance, and relative weight (RW) were applied to test the validity. The results demonstrated that 1,624 OHCS classifications, according to the diagnoses and the procedures performed, showed high homogeneity within groups and heterogeneity between groups. Moreover, the RW of the OHCS could be used to predict and control the production costs. In conclusion, this new OHCS casemix classification has a potential use in a global decision making.

  11. New Casemix Classification as an Alternative Method for Budget Allocation in Thai Oral Healthcare Service: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thunthita Wisaijohn

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop a new casemix classification system as an alternative method for the budget allocation of oral healthcare service (OHCS. Initially, the International Statistical of Diseases and Related Health Problem, 10th revision, Thai Modification (ICD-10-TM related to OHCS was used for developing the software “Grouper”. This model was designed to allow the translation of dental procedures into eight-digit codes. Multiple regression analysis was used to analyze the relationship between the factors used for developing the model and the resource consumption. Furthermore, the coefficient of variance, reduction in variance, and relative weight (RW were applied to test the validity. The results demonstrated that 1,624 OHCS classifications, according to the diagnoses and the procedures performed, showed high homogeneity within groups and heterogeneity between groups. Moreover, the RW of the OHCS could be used to predict and control the production costs. In conclusion, this new OHCS casemix classification has a potential use in a global decision making.

  12. A COMPREHENSIVE STUDY OF DI DIESEL ENGINE PERFORMANCE WITHVEGETABLE OIL: AN ALTERNATIVE BIO-FUEL SOURCE OF ENERGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Azad

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study offers comprehensive details on the use of bio-fuel as a viable and alternative source of energy. The bio-fuel was prepared from vegetable oil, i.e., mustard oil and tested in a diesel engine in both pure form and as a diesel blend. The mustard oil blend proportions were 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% and named as bio-diesel blends B20, B30, B40 and B50. A fuel-testing laboratory determined the properties of the pure mustard oil fuel and its blends, i.e., density, viscosity, dynamic viscosity, carbon residue, flash point, fire point and calorific value. An assessment of engine performance, i.e., brake horsepower (bhp, brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc, brake thermal efficiency (bte and brake mean effective pressure (bmep etc., was carried out for pure diesel, pure mustard and the blends, both in laboratory conditions and under British Standard (BS conditions. Finally, an analysis and comparison was made of the effects of the various fuels on the different engine properties.

  13. Pattern of complementary and alternative medicine use among Malaysian stroke survivors: A hospital-based prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azidah Abdul Kadir

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM; 補充與替代醫學 bǔ chōng yǔ tì dài yī xué is widely practiced among stroke patients globally. We conducted a study to determine the pattern of CAM use and its associated factors in stroke survivors attending a tertiary hospital in Malaysia within 6 months after the stroke. This was a prospective cohort study that included all stroke patients who were admitted to a tertiary center in Malaysia from December 2009 to December 2010. Patients were interviewed and examined within 72 hours of admission. The sociodemographic data and medical history were collected. Clinical examinations were done to assess the stroke severity using the Scandinavian Stroke Scale and functional status based on modified Barthel index (MBI. Patients were reassessed at 6 months after the stroke on the CAM use and functional status (MBI. The response rate was 92%. The study population consisted of 52 men and 41 women with a mean age of 63.7 ± 10.3 years. Sixty-seven percent practiced CAM. Massage was the most frequently used method (63.4%, followed by vitamins (7.5%. In multiple logistic regression analysis, functional status (MBI score on discharge (p = 0.004, odds ratio 1.034, 95% confidence interval 1.01–1.06 and Scandinavian Stroke Scale score (p = 0.045, odds ratio 1.87, 95% confidence interval 1.01–3.43 were significant predictors for use of CAM. In conclusion, the use of CAM among stroke survivors is high. Patients who have better functional status on discharge and less severe stroke are more likely to use CAM.

  14. Is case-chaos methodology an appropriate alternative to conventional case-control studies for investigating outbreaks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelstein, Michael; Wallensten, Anders; Kühlmann-Berenzon, Sharon

    2014-08-15

    Case-chaos methodology is a proposed alternative to case-control studies that simulates controls by randomly reshuffling the exposures of cases. We evaluated the method using data on outbreaks in Sweden. We identified 5 case-control studies from foodborne illness outbreaks that occurred between 2005 and 2012. Using case-chaos methodology, we calculated odds ratios 1,000 times for each exposure. We used the median as the point estimate and the 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles as the confidence interval. We compared case-chaos matched odds ratios with their respective case-control odds ratios in terms of statistical significance. Using Spearman's correlation, we estimated the correlation between matched odds ratios and the proportion of cases exposed to each exposure and quantified the relationship between the 2 using a normal linear mixed model. Each case-control study identified an outbreak vehicle (odds ratios = 4.9-45). Case-chaos methodology identified the outbreak vehicle 3 out of 5 times. It identified significant associations in 22 of 113 exposures that were not associated with outcome and 5 of 18 exposures that were significantly associated with outcome. Log matched odds ratios correlated with their respective proportion of cases exposed (Spearman ρ = 0.91) and increased significantly with the proportion of cases exposed (b = 0.054). Case-chaos methodology missed the outbreak source 2 of 5 times and identified spurious associations between a number of exposures and outcome. Measures of association correlated with the proportion of cases exposed. We recommended against using case-chaos analysis during outbreak investigations. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Clinical indications and perceived effectiveness of complementary and alternative medicine in departments of obstetrics in Germany: a questionnaire study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münstedt, Karsten; Brenken, Anja; Kalder, Matthias

    2009-09-01

    Our earlier study on complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) methods showed that acupuncture, homeopathy, and aromatherapy are available in most obstetrics departments in Germany but it did not evaluate the clinical indications for using CAM. The present study aimed to explore further the effectiveness of CAM use in obstetrics. We sent all departments of obstetrics in North Rhine-Westphalia a questionnaire designed to delineate their use of acupuncture, homeopathy, and aromatherapy during childbirth. It sought details on who provided the CAM therapy (midwife or physician). We asked respondents to indicate on a five-point scale how reasonable or otherwise they would consider the provision of CAM in each of six common problem situations and to estimate for each the proportion of patients given the CAM treatment. Respondents were also asked about the rationale for offering CAM, quality assurance and side effects. Spearman's bivariate correlation, cross-tabulation and Pearson's chi(2) test were used for statistical analysis. About 73.4% (138/187) of the departments responded. Acupuncture and homoeopathy were most widely used. Although obstetricians are responsible for patient care, decisions to provide CAM were largely taken by midwives, and the midwives' belief in the methods' effectiveness and patient demand were the principle motivating factors. Rates of CAM use in the six problem scenarios evaluated were directly related to practitioners' perceptions of the methods' therapeutic effectiveness. CAM methods were widely offered despite the lack of evidence of effectiveness or information on adverse consequences. In Germany, including CAM in the mandatory national quality assurance measures and perinatal surveys would provide valuable information; CAM use elsewhere merits further study.

  16. Direct lateral approach to lumbar fusion is a biomechanically equivalent alternative to the anterior approach: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laws, Cory J; Coughlin, Dezba G; Lotz, Jeffrey C; Serhan, Hassan A; Hu, Serena S

    2012-05-01

    A human cadaveric biomechanical study of lumbar mobility before and after fusion and with or without supplemental instrumentation for 5 instrumentation configurations. To determine the biomechanical differences between anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) and direct lateral interbody fusion (DLIF) with and without supplementary instrumentation. Some prior studies have compared various surgical approaches using the same interbody device whereas others have investigated the stabilizing effect of supplemental instrumentation. No published studies have performed a side-by-side comparison of standard and minimally invasive techniques with and without supplemental instrumentation. Eight human lumbosacral specimens (16 motion segments) were tested in each of the 5 following configurations: (1) intact, (2) with ALIF or DLIF cage, (3) with cage plus stabilizing plate, (4) with cage plus unilateral pedicle screw fixation (PSF), and (5) with cage plus bilateral PSF. Pure moments were applied to induce specimen flexion, extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation. Three-dimensional kinematic responses were measured and used to calculate range of motion, stiffness, and neutral zone. Compared to the intact state, DLIF significantly reduced range of motion in flexion, extension, and lateral bending (P = 0.0117, P = 0.0015, P = 0.0031). Supplemental instrumentation significantly increased fused-specimen stiffness for both DLIF and ALIF groups. For the ALIF group, bilateral PSF increased stiffness relative to stand-alone cage by 455% in flexion and 317% in lateral bending (P = 0.0009 and P < 0.0001). The plate increased ALIF group stiffness by 211% in extension and 256% in axial rotation (P = 0.0467 and P = 0.0303). For the DLIF group, bilateral PSF increased stiffness by 350% in flexion and 222% in extension (P < 0.0001 and P = 0.0008). No differences were observed between ALIF and DLIF groups supplemented with bilateral PSF. Our data support that the direct lateral approach

  17. Predictors for adolescent visits to practitioners of complementary and alternative medicine in a total population (the Young-HUNT Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslak Steinsbekk

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the factors predicting adolescent visits to practitioners of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM. METHODS: A longitudinal cohort study conducted in an adolescent total population in Central Norway (The Nord-Trøndelag Health Studies (HUNT. In Young-HUNT 1, all inhabitants aged 13 to 19 years (N = 8944, 89% response rate were invited to participate, and the youngest group (13 to 15 year olds was surveyed again 4 years later (Young-HUNT 2, N = 2429, 82% response rate. The participants completed a comprehensive questionnaire on health and life style which included a question regarding visits to a CAM practitioner in the last 12 months. RESULTS: One in eleven (8.7%, 95%CI 7.6-9.8% had visited a CAM practitioner, an increase of 26% in 4 years (1.8% points. The final multivariable analysis predicted increased odds of an adolescent becoming a CAM visitor four years later (p<0.05 if she or he had previously visited a CAM practitioner (adjOR 3.4, had musculoskeletal pain (adjOR 1.5, had migraine (adjOR 2.3, used asthma medicines (adjOR 1.8 or suffered from another disease lasting more than three months (adjOR 2.1. Being male predicted reduced odds of visiting a CAM practitioner in the future (adjOR 0.6. CONCLUSION: We can conclude from this study that future visits to a CAM practitioner are predicted by both predisposing factors (being female, having visited a CAM practitioner previously and medical need factors (having had musculoskeletal pain, migraine, used asthma medicines or experienced another disease lasting more than three months. None of the specific variables associated with CAM visits were predictive for CAM visits four years later.

  18. A Prospective, Multicenter Study of Complementary/Alternative Medicine (CAM) Utilization During Definitive Radiation for Breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, Meena S.; Ma Shuangge; Jagsi, Reshma; Yang, Tzu-I Jonathan; Higgins, Susan A.; Weidhaas, Joanne B.; Wilson, Lynn D.; Lloyd, Shane; Peschel, Richard; Gaudreau, Bryant; Rockwell, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Although complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) utilization in breast cancer patients is reported to be high, there are few data on CAM practices in breast patients specifically during radiation. This prospective, multi-institutional study was conducted to define CAM utilization in breast cancer during definitive radiation. Materials/Methods: A validated CAM instrument with a self-skin assessment was administered to 360 Stage 0-III breast cancer patients from 5 centers during the last week of radiation. All data were analyzed to detect significant differences between users/nonusers. Results: CAM usage was reported in 54% of the study cohort (n=194/360). Of CAM users, 71% reported activity-based CAM (eg, Reiki, meditation), 26% topical CAM, and 45% oral CAM. Only 16% received advice/counseling from naturopathic/homeopathic/medical professionals before initiating CAM. CAM use significantly correlated with higher education level (P<.001), inversely correlated with concomitant hormone/radiation therapy use (P=.010), with a trend toward greater use in younger patients (P=.066). On multivariate analysis, level of education (OR: 6.821, 95% CI: 2.307-20.168, P<.001) and hormones/radiation therapy (OR: 0.573, 95% CI: 0.347-0.949, P=.031) independently predicted for CAM use. Significantly lower skin toxicity scores were reported in CAM users vs nonusers, respectively (mild: 34% vs 25%, severe: 17% vs 29%, P=.017). Conclusion: This is the first prospective study to assess CAM practices in breast patients during radiation, with definition of these practices as the first step for future investigation of CAM/radiation interactions. These results should alert radiation oncologists that a large percentage of breast cancer patients use CAM during radiation without disclosure or consideration for potential interactions, and should encourage increased awareness, communication, and documentation of CAM practices in patients undergoing radiation treatment for breast

  19. Costs for Alternatives to District Heating. A study of real costs on local heating markets; Alternativkostnad till fjaerrvaerme. En studie av verkliga kostnader paa lokala vaermemarknader

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, Annelie; Lehtmets, Marti; Andersson, Sofie

    2008-07-01

    Heating comprise the major part of the cost of supporting a building with necessities like electricity, heat, refuse collection and water and sewage. As these costs increase, it is becoming more interesting to find other solutions in order to reduce them. One alternative is to convert to another heating system. Several price analyses comparing different heating systems have been performed. Avgiftsgruppen publishes one report on a yearly basis, where the costs to support a building with necessities and how they vary between communities are listed. The latest report states that it is less expensive in 75 % of the communities in Sweden to convert from district heating to a pellets boiler or a ground-source pump. However, other studies have established that the heat market is a local market with local conditions. Therefore you need to compare alternative heating costs that are specific to the area instead of estimated average costs at a national level. The purpose of this survey is to study a local heat market in order to verify the real cost of the alternative heating systems to district heating and if these costs vary between different communities. The hypothesis is that it is not possible to generalize the heating cost on a national level. Instead, a local market should be studied to make an accurate cost comparison between heating options. Three communities are studied in order to find real and verified investment costs in pellet boilers and heat pumps. The investments that are of primary interest are those performed in buildings similar to the multi-dwelling house used in earlier price analyses. Furthermore, the building should be located within the distribution network of district heating in order to illustrate the competition between the heating alternatives. The result of the study illustrates the difficulties to find real and verified costs of completed investments in alternative heating systems in buildings that is of primary interest for this study. Contacts

  20. Prevalence and co-occurrence of addictive behaviors among former alternative high school youth: A longitudinal follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Steve; Pokhrel, Pallav; Sun, Ping; Rohrbach, Louise A; Spruijt-Metz, Donna

    2015-09-01

    Recent work has studied addictions using a matrix measure, which taps multiple addictions through single responses for each type. This is the first longitudinal study using a matrix measure. We investigated the use of this approach among former alternative high school youth (average age = 19.8 years at baseline; longitudinal n = 538) at risk for addictions. Lifetime and last 30-day prevalence of one or more of 11 addictions reviewed in other work was the primary focus (i.e., cigarettes, alcohol, hard drugs, shopping, gambling, Internet, love, sex, eating, work, and exercise). These were examined at two time-points one year apart. Latent class and latent transition analyses (LCA and LTA) were conducted in Mplus. Prevalence rates were stable across the two time-points. As in the cross-sectional baseline analysis, the 2-class model (addiction class, non-addiction class) fit the data better at follow-up than models with more classes. Item-response or conditional probabilities for each addiction type did not differ between time-points. As a result, the LTA model utilized constrained the conditional probabilities to be equal across the two time-points. In the addiction class, larger conditional probabilities (i.e., 0.40-0.49) were found for love, sex, exercise, and work addictions; medium conditional probabilities (i.e., 0.17-0.27) were found for cigarette, alcohol, other drugs, eating, Internet and shopping addiction; and a small conditional probability (0.06) was found for gambling. Persons in an addiction class tend to remain in this addiction class over a one-year period.

  1. A randomized study of raisins versus alternative snacks on glycemic control and other cardiovascular risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bays, Harold; Weiter, Kathy; Anderson, James

    2015-02-01

    Just as the type and duration of physical activity can have variable effects on the glucose levels and other cardiometabolic parameters among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), so can the types of foods have variable effects as well. This 12-week randomized study of 51 study participants evaluated the impact of routine consumption of dark raisins versus alternative processed snacks on glucose levels and other cardiovascular risk factors among patients with type T2DM. In this study, compared to alternative processed snacks, those who consumed raisins had a significant 23% reduction in postprandial glucose levels (P = 0.024). Also compared to snacks, those who consumed raisins had a 19% reduction in fasting glucose and 0.12% reduction in hemoglobin A1c, although these latter findings did not achieve statistical significance. Regarding blood pressure, compared to alternative processed snacks, those who consumed raisins had a significant 8.7 mmHg reduction in systolic blood pressure (P = 0.035) (7.5% [P = 0.031]) but did not experience a significant reduction in diastolic blood pressure. Compared to alternative processed snacks, those who consumed raisins did not have a significant improvement in body weight, body mass index, waist circumference, fasting insulin, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), triglyceride, or non-HDL cholesterol levels. Overall, these data support raisins as a healthy alternative compare to processed snacks in patients with T2DM.

  2. Youth Perspectives on Risk and Resiliency: A Case Study from Juiz De Fora, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Penelope; Nikolajski, Cara; Borrero, Sonya; Zickmund, Susan

    2014-01-01

    The present work seeks to contribute to studies of cross-cultural risk and resiliency by presenting results from qualitative research with adolescents attending programs for at-risk youth in Juiz de Fora, Brazil. In 1990, Brazil introduced the Child and Adolescent Act (ECA), a significant piece of legislation that has had a direct impact on how…

  3. Experiences of women who planned birth in a birth centre compared to alternative planned places of birth. Results of the Dutch Birth Centre Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hitzert, M.; Hermes, M.A.; Scheerhagen, M.; Boesveld, L.C.; Wiegers, T.A.; Akker-van Marle, M.E.; Dommelen, P. van; Pal-de Bruin, K.M. de; Graaf, J.P. de

    2016-01-01

    Objective to assess the experiences with maternity care of women who planned birth in a birth centre and to compare them to alternative planned places of birth, by using the responsiveness concept of the World Health Organization. Design this study is a cross-sectional study using the ReproQ

  4. Experiences of women who planned birth in a birth centre compared to alternative planned places of birth. Results of the Dutch Birth Centre Study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hitzert, M.; Hermus, M.; Scheerhagen, M.; Boesveld, I.C.; Wiegers, T.; Akker-van Marle, M.E. van den; Dommelen, P. van; Pal-de Bruin, K.M. van der; Graal, J. P. de

    2016-01-01

    Objective: to assess the experiences with maternity care of women who planned birth in a birth centre and to compare them to alternative planned places of birth, by using the responsiveness concept of the World Health Organization. Design: this study is a cross-sectional study using the ReproQ

  5. Caracterización de un Grupo de Estudiantes que Obtuvo Altos Puntajes en el Examen de Calidad de la Educación Superior, Ecaes, AÑOS 2003 - 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senior Roca , Diana Margarita

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Teniendo en cuenta el impacto que los resultados de los exámenes de calidad de la educación superior (ECAES tienen en la comunidad académica en general, se consideró importante estudiar aspectos sociodemográficos, psicol ógicos y condiciones educativas relacionadas con la vida universitaria, de estudiantes que obtuvieron puntajes en el examen ECAES, por encima de dos desviaciones estándar; calificación que supera al 97% de la poblaci ón que presenta este examen. Se pretende contribuir con este trabajo a la reflexión y análisis sobre el rendimiento académico, para incorporar los resultados encontrados, en el diseño de alternativas de trabajo que ayuden a otros estudiantes a alcanzar el éxito académico. En este estudio participaron 36 profesionales de psicología, egresados de cinco universidades colombianas. Se encontró que estos estudiantes se caracterizan porque atribuyen su alto puntaje en el ECAES a su capacidad intelectual, consideran que el éxito académico se debe a su esfuerzo personal, no tienen problemas para leer y comprender textos en inglés, tienen fácil acceso a Internet, se encuentran motivados para seguir estudiando luego de culminar su carrera universitaria, desean realizar estudios fuera del país, las actividades académicas desarrolladas en la universidad tenían sentido para ellos, no les preocupaba que los docentes fueran estrictos, se encontraban orgullosos de pertenecer a su universidad y consideraban que su opinión era tenida en cuenta al momento de tomar decisiones en su familia. Los resultados suministrados por la prueba AF-5, muestran que tienen un autoconcepto alto en la dimensión académico-laboral.

  6. FCJ-190 Building a Better Twitter: A Study of the Twitter Alternatives GNU social, Quitter, rstat.us, and Twister

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W. Gehl

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on interviews with developers and close readings of site interfaces and architectures, this essay explores four Twitter alternatives: Twister, rstat.us, GNU social (a Free Software Foundation microblogging software project and Quitter (a specific installation of GNU social. The interviews and analyses of these Twitter alternatives reveal how these developers relate their projects to mainstream social media architectures and cultures; how they conceive of Twitter’s development over time; how they think about legal issues as they make their alternatives; and whether or not they conceive of their work as activism. In sum, I explore how these developers are critically reverse engineering Twitter and how that process intersects with multiple concerns and tensions, and how these tensions are generating new ways to think about what it means to do microblogging.

  7. The cost-effectiveness of alternative vaccination strategies for polyvalent meningococcal vaccines in Burkina Faso: A transmission dynamic modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaesoubi, Reza; Trotter, Caroline; Colijn, Caroline; Yaesoubi, Maziar; Colombini, Anaïs; Resch, Stephen; Kristiansen, Paul A; LaForce, F Marc; Cohen, Ted

    2018-01-01

    The introduction of a conjugate vaccine for serogroup A Neisseria meningitidis has dramatically reduced disease in the African meningitis belt. In this context, important questions remain about the performance of different vaccine policies that target remaining serogroups. Here, we estimate the health impact and cost associated with several alternative vaccination policies in Burkina Faso. We developed and calibrated a mathematical model of meningococcal transmission to project the disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) averted and costs associated with the current Base policy (serogroup A conjugate vaccination at 9 months, as part of the Expanded Program on Immunization [EPI], plus district-specific reactive vaccination campaigns using polyvalent meningococcal polysaccharide [PMP] vaccine in response to outbreaks) and three alternative policies: (1) Base Prime: novel polyvalent meningococcal conjugate (PMC) vaccine replaces the serogroup A conjugate in EPI and is also used in reactive campaigns; (2) Prevention 1: PMC used in EPI and in a nationwide catch-up campaign for 1-18-year-olds; and (3) Prevention 2: Prevention 1, except the nationwide campaign includes individuals up to 29 years old. Over a 30-year simulation period, Prevention 2 would avert 78% of the meningococcal cases (95% prediction interval: 63%-90%) expected under the Base policy if serogroup A is not replaced by remaining serogroups after elimination, and would avert 87% (77%-93%) of meningococcal cases if complete strain replacement occurs. Compared to the Base policy and at the PMC vaccine price of US$4 per dose, strategies that use PMC vaccine (i.e., Base Prime and Preventions 1 and 2) are expected to be cost saving if strain replacement occurs, and would cost US$51 (-US$236, US$490), US$188 (-US$97, US$626), and US$246 (-US$53, US$703) per DALY averted, respectively, if strain replacement does not occur. An important potential limitation of our study is the simplifying assumption that all

  8. The use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine in pregnancy: data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, J L; Northstone, K; Green, J R; Thompson, E A

    2011-12-01

    To report the frequency of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) use by a population of pregnant women in the UK. Four postal self-completion questionnaires completed at 8, 12, 18 and 32 weeks' gestation provided the source of CAMs used. Questions asked for written descriptions about the use of any treatments, pills, medicines, ointments, homeopathic medicines, herbal medicines, supplements, drinks and herbal teas. An observational, population-based, cohort study of parents and children of 14,541 pregnant women residing within the former county of Avon in south-west England. Data was available for 14,115 women. Over a quarter (26.7%; n=3774) of women had used a CAM at least once in pregnancy, the use rising from 6% in the 1st trimester to 12.4% in the 2nd to 26.3% in the 3rd. Herbal teas were the most commonly reported CAM at any time in pregnancy (17.7%; n=2499) followed by homeopathic medicine (14.4%; n=2038) and then herbal medicine (5.8%; n=813). The most commonly used herbal product was chamomile used by 14.6% of women, the most commonly used homeopathic product was Arnica used by 3.1% of women. Other CAMs (osteopathy, aromatherapy, acupuncture/acupressure, Chinese herbal medicine, chiropractic, cranial sacral therapy, hypnosis, non-specific massage and reflexology) accounted for less than 1% of users. CAM use in pregnancy, where a wide range of CAMs has been assessed, has not been widely reported. Studies that have been conducted report varying results to this study (26.7%) by between 13.3% and 87% of pregnant women. Survey results will be affected by a number of factors namely the inclusion/exclusion of vitamins and minerals, the timing of data collection, the country of source, the number of women surveyed, and the different selection criteria of either recruiting women to the study or of categorising and identifying a CAM treatment or product. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Application of food waste disposers and alternate cycles process in small-decentralized towns: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battistoni, Paolo; Fatone, Francesco; Passacantando, Daniele; Bolzonella, David

    2007-02-01

    The use of food waste disposers (FWDs) can be an interesting option to integrate the management of municipal wastewaters and household organic waste in small towns and decentralized areas. This strategy can be even more environmentally friendly if a suitable treatment process of the resulting sewage is performed in order to control nutrients emission. However, still nowadays, part of the scientific and technical community considers the application of this technology a possible source of problems. In this study, the FWDs were applied, with a market penetration factor of 67%, in a mountain village of 250 inhabitants. Further, the existing wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) was upgraded by applying an automatically controlled alternate cycles process for the management of nutrients removal. With specific reference to the observed results, the impact of the ground food waste on the sewerage system did not show particular solids sedimentation or significant hydraulic overflows. Further, the WWTP was able to face the overloads of 11, 55 and 2g per capita per day of TSS, COD and TN, respectively. Then, the increase of the readily biodegradable COD (rbCOD/COD from 0.20 to 0.25) and the favourable COD/TN ratio (from 9.9 to 12) led to a specific denitrification rate of some 0.06kgNO(3)-N/(kg MLVSS day). Therefore, not only COD removal, but also the total nitrogen removal increased: the denitrification efficiency reached 85%. That led to a better exploitation of the nitrogen-bound oxygen and a consequent reduction of energy requirements of 39%. The final economic evaluation showed the benefits of the application of this technology with a pay back time of 4-5 years.

  10. Use of complementary and alternative medicine by patients with localized prostate carcinoma. Study at a single institute in Japan

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    Yoshimura, Koji; Ichioka, Kentaro; Terada, Naoki; Terai, Akito [Kurashiki Central Hospital, Okayama (Japan); Arai, Yoichi [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Graduate School of Medicine

    2003-02-01

    The use of complementary/alternative medicine (CAM) has recently received considerable attention throughout the world. We evaluated the prevalence and predictors of CAM use among Japanese patients with localized prostate cancer. A total of 177 patients with localized prostate carcinoma underwent radical retropubic prostatecotomy or external beam radiation therapy between January 1994 and January 2001. Of them, 138 (78%) answered a self-administered questionnaire on CAM use and were eligible for this study. The overall prevalence, types of CAM used, and costs of CAM were assessed. The effects of age, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level, clinical stage, pretreatment Gleason score, patients' income, patients' final educational status, and general health-related quality of life at baseline and 1 year after treatment, as estimated using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Prostate Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire on the prevalence of CAM use, were evaluated. Twenty-seven patients (20%) had once used or had been using some types of CAM. Herbal medicine and vitamins were the most common types of CAM used. Preoperative Gleason score was significantly associated with CAM use, as determined by the {chi}''2 test (P0.0198), and PSA level and posttreatment physical function domain were marginally associated with CAM use, as determined by the Mann-Whitney U-test (P=0.0734 and P=0.0597, respectively). Patient age, income, and final educational status had no impact on CAM use. A relatively small proportion of Japanese patients with localized prostate cancer have tried CAM compared with the proportions of patients described in previous reports from Western countries. (author)

  11. Transient exposure to ethanol during zebrafish embryogenesis results in defects in neuronal differentiation: an alternative model system to study FASD.

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    Xavier Joya

    Full Text Available The exposure of the human embryo to ethanol results in a spectrum of disorders involving multiple organ systems, including the impairment of the development of the central nervous system (CNS. In spite of the importance for human health, the molecular basis of prenatal ethanol exposure remains poorly understood, mainly to the difficulty of sample collection. Zebrafish is now emerging as a powerful organism for the modeling and the study of human diseases. In this work, we have assessed the sensitivity of specific subsets of neurons to ethanol exposure during embryogenesis and we have visualized the sensitive embryonic developmental periods for specific neuronal groups by the use of different transgenic zebrafish lines.In order to evaluate the teratogenic effects of acute ethanol exposure, we exposed zebrafish embryos to ethanol in a given time window and analyzed the effects in neurogenesis, neuronal differentiation and brain patterning. Zebrafish larvae exposed to ethanol displayed small eyes and/or a reduction of the body length, phenotypical features similar to the observed in children with prenatal exposure to ethanol. When neuronal populations were analyzed, we observed a clear reduction in the number of differentiated neurons in the spinal cord upon ethanol exposure. There was a decrease in the population of sensory neurons mainly due to a decrease in cell proliferation and subsequent apoptosis during neuronal differentiation, with no effect in motoneuron specification.Our investigation highlights that transient exposure to ethanol during early embryonic development affects neuronal differentiation although does not result in defects in early neurogenesis. These results establish the use of zebrafish embryos as an alternative research model to elucidate the molecular mechanism(s of ethanol-induced developmental toxicity at very early stages of embryonic development.

  12. Validity study of Animal-City Alternating Form Fluency Test in the identification of mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease

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    Yun-bo SHI

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To identify the sensitivity and specificity of Animal-City Alternating Form Fluency Test (ACFT differentiating mild cognitive impairment (MCI and Alzheimer's disease (AD from normal controls.  Methods A total of 121 MCI patients, 104 AD patients and 104 healthy controls, who were matched in sex, age and education level, were enrolled in this study. They performed Animal Category Verbal Fluency Test (AFT, City Category Verbal Fluency Test (CFT and ACFT. A series of standard neuropsychological tests were also administered to reflect episodic memory, verbal ability, working memory, executive function and processing speed. The validity and related influencing factors of ACFT was evaluated.  Results Compared with control group, the ACFT correct number in MCI and AD groups reduced significantly (P = 0.000, 0.000. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve revealed the sensitivity and specificity of ACFT in discriminating MCI (P = 0.012, 0.030 and AD (P = 0.004, 0.003 from normal controls were higher than those of AFT and CFT. There was no correlation of correct number in ACFT with age and education (P > 0.05, for all. The correlations of ACFT with Stroop Color-Word Test (SCWT, Digital Symbol Substitution Test (DSST, Shape Trail Test (STT and Digit Span Test (DS, all of which reflected attention and executive function, were significantly closer than those of AFT and CFT (P < 0.05, for all. Conclusions ACFT is more efficient in early cognitive impairment identification than the other traditional category verbal fluency tests. It is a new variant form of category verbal fluency test that could assess cognitive function and could be broadly applied in clinical practice. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.07.010

  13. Use of complementary and alternative medicine by patients with localized prostate carcinoma. Study at a single institute in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimura, Koji; Ichioka, Kentaro; Terada, Naoki; Terai, Akito; Arai, Yoichi

    2003-01-01

    The use of complementary/alternative medicine (CAM) has recently received considerable attention throughout the world. We evaluated the prevalence and predictors of CAM use among Japanese patients with localized prostate cancer. A total of 177 patients with localized prostate carcinoma underwent radical retropubic prostatecotomy or external beam radiation therapy between January 1994 and January 2001. Of them, 138 (78%) answered a self-administered questionnaire on CAM use and were eligible for this study. The overall prevalence, types of CAM used, and costs of CAM were assessed. The effects of age, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level, clinical stage, pretreatment Gleason score, patients' income, patients' final educational status, and general health-related quality of life at baseline and 1 year after treatment, as estimated using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Prostate Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire on the prevalence of CAM use, were evaluated. Twenty-seven patients (20%) had once used or had been using some types of CAM. Herbal medicine and vitamins were the most common types of CAM used. Preoperative Gleason score was significantly associated with CAM use, as determined by the χ''2 test (P0.0198), and PSA level and posttreatment physical function domain were marginally associated with CAM use, as determined by the Mann-Whitney U-test (P=0.0734 and P=0.0597, respectively). Patient age, income, and final educational status had no impact on CAM use. A relatively small proportion of Japanese patients with localized prostate cancer have tried CAM compared with the proportions of patients described in previous reports from Western countries. (author)

  14. Transient Exposure to Ethanol during Zebrafish Embryogenesis Results in Defects in Neuronal Differentiation: An Alternative Model System to Study FASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joya, Xavier; Garcia-Algar, Oscar; Vall, Oriol; Pujades, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Background The exposure of the human embryo to ethanol results in a spectrum of disorders involving multiple organ systems, including the impairment of the development of the central nervous system (CNS). In spite of the importance for human health, the molecular basis of prenatal ethanol exposure remains poorly understood, mainly to the difficulty of sample collection. Zebrafish is now emerging as a powerful organism for the modeling and the study of human diseases. In this work, we have assessed the sensitivity of specific subsets of neurons to ethanol exposure during embryogenesis and we have visualized the sensitive embryonic developmental periods for specific neuronal groups by the use of different transgenic zebrafish lines. Methodology/Principal Findings In order to evaluate the teratogenic effects of acute ethanol exposure, we exposed zebrafish embryos to ethanol in a given time window and analyzed the effects in neurogenesis, neuronal differentiation and brain patterning. Zebrafish larvae exposed to ethanol displayed small eyes and/or a reduction of the body length, phenotypical features similar to the observed in children with prenatal exposure to ethanol. When neuronal populations were analyzed, we observed a clear reduction in the number of differentiated neurons in the spinal cord upon ethanol exposure. There was a decrease in the population of sensory neurons mainly due to a decrease in cell proliferation and subsequent apoptosis during neuronal differentiation, with no effect in motoneuron specification. Conclusion Our investigation highlights that transient exposure to ethanol during early embryonic development affects neuronal differentiation although does not result in defects in early neurogenesis. These results establish the use of zebrafish embryos as an alternative research model to elucidate the molecular mechanism(s) of ethanol-induced developmental toxicity at very early stages of embryonic development. PMID:25383948

  15. Evaluation of dynamic infrared thermography as an alternative to CT angiography for perforator mapping in breast reconstruction: a clinical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weum, Sven; Mercer, James B.; Weerd, Louis de

    2016-01-01

    The current gold standard for preoperative perforator mapping in breast reconstruction with a DIEP flap is CT angiography (CTA). Dynamic infrared thermography (DIRT) is an imaging method that does not require ionizing radiation or contrast injection. We evaluated if DIRT could be an alternative to CTA in perforator mapping. Twenty-five patients scheduled for secondary breast reconstruction with a DIEP flap were included. Preoperatively, the lower abdomen was examined with hand-held Doppler, DIRT and CTA. Arterial Doppler sound locations were marked on the skin. DIRT examination involved rewarming of the abdominal skin after a mild cold challenge. The locations of hot spots on DIRT were compared with the arterial Doppler sound locations. The rate and pattern of rewarming of the hot spots were analyzed. Multiplanar CT reconstructions were used to see if hot spots were related to perforators on CTA. All flaps were based on the perforator selected with DIRT and the surgical outcome was analyzed. First appearing hot spots were always associated with arterial Doppler sounds and clearly visible perforators on CTA. The hot spots on DIRT images were always slightly laterally located in relation to the exit points of the associated perforators through the rectus abdominis fascia on CTA. Some periumbilical perforators were not associated with hot spots and showed communication with the superficial inferior epigastric vein on CTA. The selected perforators adequately perfused all flaps. This study confirms that perforators selected with DIRT have arterial Doppler sound, are clearly visible on CTA and provide adequate perfusion for DIEP breast reconstruction. Retrospectively registered at ClinicalTrials.gov with identifier NCT02806518

  16. Variations in superior thyroid artery: A selective angiographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Pankaj; Bhalla, Ashu Seith; Thulkar, Sanjay; Kumar, Atin; Mohanti, Bidhu Kalyan; Thakar, Alok; Sharma, Atul

    2014-01-01

    To investigate variations in superior thyroid artery (STA) based on digital subtraction angiography (DSA). Twenty five angiography studies of 15 pts performed between June 2010 and December 2012 were retrospectively evaluated. These patients underwent DSA of the head and neck region as a part of their superselective neoadjuvant intra-arterial chemotherapy protocol for treatment of laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancers. Depending upon the location of the tumor, unilateral or bilateral arteriograms of common carotid artery (CCA), external carotid artery (ECA), and STA were performed. Arteriograms were evaluated for the site of origin and branching pattern of STA. STA anatomy was ascribed to one of the three branching patterns. A total of 25 angiograms were evaluated, including 14 right and 11 left. On the right side, STA was noted to arise from ECA in 10 (71.5%), bifurcation of CCA in 3 (21.5%), and CCA in 1 (7%) patient. Left STA was seen to arise from ECA in 8 (72.5%), bifurcation of CCA in 2 (18.5%), and internal carotid artery (ICA) in 1 (9%) patient. Type III branching pattern (non-bifurcation, non-trifurcation) was found to be the most frequent (52%). Infrahyoid branch was found to be the most consistent in terms of its origin from STA. Origin of STA is predictable, arising from ECA in more than 70% cases. Branching pattern of STA, following origin from ECA, is, however, highly variable. Knowledge concerning the origin and branching pattern of STA is essential in enhancing precision and decreasing morbidity related to the surgical and interventional radiological head and neck procedures

  17. Clinicians' views and experiences of offering two alternative consent pathways for participation in a preterm intrapartum trial: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhoa, Celine Y; Sawyer, Alexandra; Ayers, Susan; Pushpa-Rajah, Angela; Duley, Lelia

    2017-04-26

    The Cord Pilot Trial compared alternative policies for timing of cord clamping at very preterm birth at eight UK hospitals. Preterm birth can be rapid and unexpected, allowing little time for the usual consent process. Therefore, in addition to the usual procedure for written consent, a two-stage pathway for consent for use when birth was imminent was developed. The aims of this study were to explore clinicians' views and experiences of offering two consent pathways for recruitment to a randomised trial of timing of cord clamping at very preterm birth. This was a qualitative study using semi-structured interviews. Clinicians from eight hospitals in the UK who had been involved in offering consent to the Cord Pilot Trial were invited to take part in an interview. Clinicians were interviewed in person or by telephone. Interviews were analysed using inductive systematic thematic analysis. Seventeen clinicians who had either offered usual written consent only (n = 6) or both the two-stage pathway (with oral assent before the birth and written consent after the birth) and usual written consent (n = 11) were interviewed. Six themes were identified: (1) team approach to offering participation; (2) consent form as a record; (3) consent and participation as a continual process; (4) different consent pathways for different trials; (5) balance between time, information, and understanding; and (6) validity of consent. Overall, clinicians were supportive of the two-stage consent pathway. Some clinicians felt that in time-critical situations oral assent presented an advantage over the usual written consent as they provided information on a "need to know" basis. However, there was some concern about how much information should be given for oral assent, and how this is understood by women when birth is imminent. The two-stage pathway for consent developed for use in the Cord Pilot Trial when birth was imminent was acceptable to clinicians for comparable low-risk studies

  18. Of woods and webs: possible alternatives to the tree of life for studying genomic fluidity in E. coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lapointe François-Joseph

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We introduce several forest-based and network-based methods for exploring microbial evolution, and apply them to the study of thousands of genes from 30 strains of E. coli. This case study illustrates how additional analyses could offer fast heuristic alternatives to standard tree of life (TOL approaches. Results We use gene networks to identify genes with atypical modes of evolution, and genome networks to characterize the evolution of genetic partnerships between E. coli and mobile genetic elements. We develop a novel polychromatic quartet method to capture patterns of recombination within E. coli, to update the clanistic toolkit, and to search for the impact of lateral gene transfer and of pathogenicity on gene evolution in two large forests of trees bearing E. coli. We unravel high rates of lateral gene transfer involving E. coli (about 40% of the trees under study, and show that both core genes and shell genes of E. coli are affected by non-tree-like evolutionary processes. We show that pathogenic lifestyle impacted the structure of 30% of the gene trees, and that pathogenic strains are more likely to transfer genes with one another than with non-pathogenic strains. In addition, we propose five groups of genes as candidate mobile modules of pathogenicity. We also present strong evidence for recent lateral gene transfer between E. coli and mobile genetic elements. Conclusions Depending on which evolutionary questions biologists want to address (i.e. the identification of modules, genetic partnerships, recombination, lateral gene transfer, or genes with atypical evolutionary modes, etc., forest-based and network-based methods are preferable to the reconstruction of a single tree, because they provide insights and produce hypotheses about the dynamics of genome evolution, rather than the relative branching order of species and lineages. Such a methodological pluralism - the use of woods and webs - is to be encouraged to

  19. Titanium mesh as a low-profile alternative for tension-band augmentation in patella fracture fixation: A biomechanical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickens, Aaron J; Salas, Christina; Rise, LeRoy; Murray-Krezan, Cristina; Taha, Mahmoud Reda; DeCoster, Thomas A; Gehlert, Rick J

    2015-01-01

    We performed a simple biomechanical study to compare the fixation strength of titanium mesh with traditional tension-band augmentation, which is a standard treatment for transverse patella fractures. We hypothesised that titanium mesh augmentation is not inferior in fixation strength to the standard treatment. Twenty-four synthetic patellae were tested. Twelve were fixed with stainless steel wire and parallel cannulated screws. Twelve were fixed with parallel cannulated screws, augmented with anterior titanium mesh and four screws. A custom test fixture was developed to simulate a knee flexed to 90°. A uniaxial force was applied to the simulated extensor mechanism at this angle. A non-inferiority study design was used to evaluate ultimate force required for failure of each construct as a measure of fixation strength. Stiffness of the bone/implant construct, fracture gap immediately prior to failure, and modes of failure are also reported. The mean difference in force at failure was -23.0 N (95% CI: -123.6 to 77.6N) between mesh and wire constructs, well within the pre-defined non-inferiority margin of -260 N. Mean stiffness of the mesh and wire constructs were 19.42 N/mm (95% CI: 18.57-20.27 N/mm) and 19.49 N/mm (95% CI: 18.64-20.35 N/mm), respectively. Mean gap distance for the mesh constructs immediately prior to failure was 2.11 mm (95% CI: 1.35-2.88 mm) and 3.87 mm (95% CI: 2.60-5.13 mm) for wire constructs. Titanium mesh augmentation is not inferior to tension-band wire augmentation when comparing ultimate force required for failure in this simplified biomechanical model. Results also indicate that stiffness of the two constructs is similar but that the mesh maintains a smaller fracture gap prior to failure. The results of this study indicate that the use of titanium mesh plating augmentation as a low-profile alternative to tension-band wiring for fixation of transverse patella fractures warrants further investigation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All

  20. Determinants of the use of alternatives to arsenic-contaminated shallow groundwater: an exploratory study in rural West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaire, Caroline; Das, Abhijit; Amrose, Susan; Gadgil, Ashok; Roy, Joyashree; Ray, Isha

    2017-10-01

    Shallow groundwater containing toxic concentrations of arsenic is the primary source of drinking water for millions of households in rural West Bengal, India. Often, this water also contains unpleasant levels of iron and non-negligible fecal contamination. Alternatives to shallow groundwater are increasingly available, including government-built deep tubewells, water purchased from independent providers, municipal piped water, and household filters. We conducted a survey of 501 households in Murshidabad district in 2014 to explore what influenced the use of available alternatives. Socioeconomic status and the perceived likelihood of gastrointestinal (GI) illness (which was associated with dissatisfaction with iron in groundwater) were the primary determinants of the use of alternatives. Arsenic knowledge was limited. The choice amongst alternatives was influenced by economic, social, and aesthetic factors, but not by health risk perceptions. The use of purchased water was rarely exclusive and was strongly associated with socioeconomic status, suggesting that this form of market-based water provision does not ensure universal access. Demand for purchased water appeared to decrease significantly shortly after free piped water became available at public taps. Our results suggest that arsenic mitigation interventions that also address co-occurring water problems (iron, GI illness) could be more effective than a focus on arsenic alone.