WorldWideScience

Sample records for alternative tobacco products

  1. High-Intensity Sweeteners in Alternative Tobacco Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Shida; Beach, Evan S.; Sommer, Toby J.; Zimmerman, Julie B.

    2016-01-01

    toxicants. This study is the first to quantify high intensity sweeteners in snus and dissolvable products. Snus and dissolvables contain the high intensity sweetener, sucralose, at levels higher than in confectionary products. The high sweetness of alternative tobacco products makes these products attractive to adolescents. Regulation of sweetener content in non-cigarette products is suggested as an efficient means to control product palatability and to reduce initiation in adolescents. PMID:27217475

  2. High-Intensity Sweeteners in Alternative Tobacco Products

    OpenAIRE

    Miao, Shida; Beach, Evan S.; Sommer, Toby J.; Zimmerman, Julie B.; Jordt, Sven-Eric

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Sweeteners in tobacco products may influence use initiation and reinforcement, with special appeal to adolescents. Recent analytical studies of smokeless tobacco products (snuff, snus, dissolvables) detected flavorants identical to those added to confectionary products such as hard candy and chewing gum. However, these studies did not determine the levels of sweeteners. The objective of the present study was to quantify added sweeteners in smokeless tobacco products, a dissolvab...

  3. Comparison of Profitableness between Tobacco and Some Products in Scope of Alternative Product Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Sivuk

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco is fairly contributed Turkish economy through mainly export and tax revenues. It has been applied restriction policies of tobacco planting areas with “Tobacco Law” which was passed an act in 2002. Therefore, it has been given promotions to producers who produce loss of production instead of tobacco with Alternative Product Project which has been applied since 2002. It has been saw not enough to be adopted by producers in 11 provinces in 2002-2007. The big number of the producers which used project support by abandoning tobacco production have tended cereal cultivation. In fact, this information is clearly indicator at indecision for producers to product which is chosen instead of tobacco. The project will continue with 3 years by chancing supporting amount and limiting its scope with 9 provinces from 2008. It has been intended with this work to direct to producers which are seeking alternative products instead of tobacco. Therefore, profitableness levels of wheat, aspir and canola which will be alternative for tobacco has been analyzed. It has been used Absolute Profit and Relative Profit at the analyze phase. It has been found that the best alternative for tobacco is canola as a result of the study.

  4. Primary Healthcare Provider Knowledge, Beliefs and Clinic-Based Practices Regarding Alternative Tobacco Products and Marijuana: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bascombe, Ta Misha S.; Scott, Kimberly N.; Ballard, Denise; Smith, Samantha A.; Thompson, Winifred; Berg, Carla J.

    2016-01-01

    Use prevalence of alternative tobacco products and marijuana has increased dramatically. Unfortunately, clinical guidelines have focused on traditional cigarettes with limited attention regarding these emerging public health issues. Thus, it is critical to understand how healthcare professionals view this issue and are responding to it. This…

  5. FUELS IN TOBACCO PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Čavlek

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Energy production from biomass can reduce „greenhouse effect” and contribute to solving energy security especially in the agricultural households which rely on energy from fossil fuels. In Croatia fuel-cured tobacco is produced on about 5000 ha. Gross income for the whole production is about 180 000 000 kn/year. Flue-cured tobacco is a high energy consuming crop. There are two parts of energy consumption, for mechanization used for the field production (11% and, energy for bulk-curing (89%. In each case, presently used fuels of fossil origin need to be substituted by an alternative energy source of organic origin. Hereafter attention is paid to finding a more economic and ecologically acceptable fuel for curing tobacco. Curing flue-cured tobacco is done by heated air in curing burns. Various sources of heat have been used; wood, coal, oil and gas. In each case different burning facilities of different efficiency have been used. This has had an impact on curing costs and ecology. Recently, mostly used fuel has been natural gas. However, gas is getting expensive. Consequently, an alternative fuel for curing tobacco is sought for. According to literature, agricultural crops suitable for the latter purpose could be wheat, barley, maize, sorghum, sugar beet and some other annual and perennial plant species. Wooden pellets (by-products are suitable for combustion too. Ligno-cellulose fuels have been used for heating since long time. However, not sufficient research has been done from an applied point of view (Venturi and Venturi, 2003. Fuel combustion is getting more efficient with developing technological innovations. The curing barn manufacturers are offering technology for combusting wooden pellets (by-products for curing tobacco. The pellets are available on domestic market. The same technology can be used for combustion of maize grain. Within “Hrvatski duhani” research on suitability of using wooden pellets and maize grain and whole

  6. Changing smokeless tobacco products new tobacco-delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatsukami, Dorothy K; Ebbert, Jon O; Feuer, Rachel M; Stepanov, Irina; Hecht, Stephen S

    2007-12-01

    Smokeless or noncombusted oral tobacco use as a substitute for cigarette smoking has been gaining greater interest and attention by the public health community and the tobacco industry. In order for the product to appeal to smokers, tobacco companies have been manufacturing new noncombusted oral tobacco (i.e., moist snuff) that is lower in moisture content and nitrosamine levels, packaged in small sachets and "spitless." While the primary motives of the major tobacco companies are to maintain or increase tobacco use, some members of the public health community perceive the use of noncombusted oral tobacco products as a harm reduction tool. Because cigarette smoking is associated with greater toxicant exposure compared to noncombusted oral tobacco, reduced mortality and morbidity are hypothesized to ensue, if cigarette smokers switched completely to these products. However, variability exists in levels of nicotine and toxicants and potential health consequences from use within and across countries. Therefore, promulgating noncombusted oral tobacco products as a safer alternative to smoking or as a substitute for smoking may engender more rather than less harm. To date, limited research is available on the effects of marketing noncombusted oral tobacco products to smokers, to support the use of these products as a harm reduction tool, and to determine the effects of varying levels of tobacco toxicants including nicotine on health. The need exists for manufacturing standards to lower toxicant levels of all noncombusted oral tobacco products, for the formulation of appropriate tobacco-product regulations and for the development of a strategic plan by the public health community to address this controversial topic.

  7. Tobacco Products Production and Operations Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Treasury — Monthly statistical reports on tobacco products production and operations. Data for Tobacco Statistical Release is derived directly from the Report – Manufacturer of...

  8. FUELS IN TOBACCO PRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Čavlek, M.; Boić, M.; Kristina Gršić; V. Kozumplik

    2008-01-01

    Energy production from biomass can reduce „greenhouse effect” and contribute to solving energy security especially in the agricultural households which rely on energy from fossil fuels. In Croatia fuel-cured tobacco is produced on about 5000 ha. Gross income for the whole production is about 180 000 000 kn/year. Flue-cured tobacco is a high energy consuming crop. There are two parts of energy consumption, for mechanization used for the field production (11%) and, energy for bulk-curing (89%)....

  9. Project Cerberus: tobacco industry strategy to create an alternative to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamudu, Hadii M; Hammond, Ross; Glantz, Stanton A

    2008-09-01

    Between 1999 and 2001, British American Tobacco, Philip Morris, and Japan Tobacco International executed Project Cerberus to develop a global voluntary regulatory regime as an alternative to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). They aimed to develop a global voluntary regulatory code to be overseen by an independent audit body and to focus attention on youth smoking prevention. The International Tobacco Products Marketing Standards announced in September 2001, however, did not have the independent audit body. Although the companies did not stop the FCTC, they continue to promote the International Tobacco Products Marketing Standards youth smoking prevention as an alternative to the FCTC. Public health civil society groups should help policymakers and governments understand the importance of not working with the tobacco industry.

  10. Recycling of tobacco wastes after tobacco products manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Don

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Utilizing tobacco wastes is one of the important problems for tobacco industry. They can be divided into easy recycled which can be returned into technological process without special treatment, and irretrievable which can be recycled only after special treatment. Easy recycled wastes consist of leaf parts and large tobacco scraps, which are cleaned from the dust and then returned into manufacturing process. Irretrievable wastes consist of small tobacco scraps which use for reconstituted tobacco production and midrib parts which used for expanded stem manufacturing and added into cigarette for nicotine decreasing. Little tobacco scraps is not used for recycling and thus utilized. In the laboratory of technologies for tobacco products manufacturing possibility for utilizing little tobacco scraps for manufacturing new tobacco products: hookah blends and non-smoking products has been studied. Fractional composition of little tobacco scraps from cigarette industry has been defined. Samples of hookah blends and non-smoking products have been manufactured. New tobacco products manufactured from burley leaves were used as comparison. Tasting of these products has been done, utilizing methods developed in the laboratory. As the result, it has been found that samples made of wastes have better tasting score because of rich taste and tobacco aroma. Utilizing wastes instead of expensive leaf tobacco greatly decreases final cost of the product. As the result possibility and expediency of utilizing cigarette’s manufacturing wastes for hookah blends and non-smoking products manufacturing has been proved.

  11. Smoked Tobacco Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... United States from India and other Southeast Asian countries. They are tobacco wrapped in a tendu or temburni leaf—plants native to Asia—that may be tied with colorful string at one or both ends. Bidis can be flavored—such as chocolate, cherry, or mango—or unflavored. Flavored bidis, however, ...

  12. Tobacco harm reduction: an alternative cessation strategy for inveterate smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godshall William T

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, about 45 million Americans continue to smoke, even after one of the most intense public health campaigns in history, now over 40 years old. Each year some 438,000 smokers die from smoking-related diseases, including lung and other cancers, cardiovascular disorders and pulmonary diseases. Many smokers are unable – or at least unwilling – to achieve cessation through complete nicotine and tobacco abstinence; they continue smoking despite the very real and obvious adverse health consequences. Conventional smoking cessation policies and programs generally present smokers with two unpleasant alternatives: quit, or die. A third approach to smoking cessation, tobacco harm reduction, involves the use of alternative sources of nicotine, including modern smokeless tobacco products. A substantial body of research, much of it produced over the past decade, establishes the scientific and medical foundation for tobacco harm reduction using smokeless tobacco products. This report provides a description of traditional and modern smokeless tobacco products, and of the prevalence of their use in the United States and Sweden. It reviews the epidemiologic evidence for low health risks associated with smokeless use, both in absolute terms and in comparison to the much higher risks of smoking. The report also describes evidence that smokeless tobacco has served as an effective substitute for cigarettes among Swedish men, who consequently have among the lowest smoking-related mortality rates in the developed world. The report documents the fact that extensive misinformation about ST products is widely available from ostensibly reputable sources, including governmental health agencies and major health organizations. The American Council on Science and Health believes that strong support of tobacco harm reduction is fully consistent with its mission to promote sound science in regulation and in

  13. Tobacco-specific nitrosamines in new tobacco products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanov, Irina; Jensen, Joni; Hatsukami, Dorothy; Hecht, Stephen S

    2006-04-01

    New tobacco products, designed to attract consumers who are concerned about the health effects of tobacco, have been appearing on the market. Objective evaluation of these products requires, as a first step, data on their potentially toxic constituents. Tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs) are an important class of carcinogens in tobacco products, but virtually no data were available on their levels in these products. In the present study, we analyzed several new products-Ariva, Stonewall, Exalt, Revel, Smokey Mountain, and Quest-for TSNAs and compared their TSNA levels with those in nicotine replacement products and conventional smokeless tobacco and cigarette brands. TSNAs were not detected in Smokey Mountain, which is a tobacco-free snuff product. The lowest levels among the new products containing tobacco were in Ariva and Stonewall (0.26-0.28 microg/g wet weight of product). The highest levels in the new products were found in Exalt (3.3 microg/g tobacco), whereas Revel and Quest had intermediate amounts. Only trace amounts were found in nicotine replacement products, and conventional brands had levels consistent with those reported in the literature. These results demonstrate that TSNA levels in new tobacco products range from relatively low to comparable with those found in some conventional brands.

  14. 76 FR 50226 - Harmful and Potentially Harmful Constituents in Tobacco Products and Tobacco Smoke; Request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... Tobacco Products and Tobacco Smoke Carcinogen (CA), respiratory toxicant (RT), cardiovascular toxicant (CT... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Harmful and Potentially Harmful Constituents in Tobacco Products and Tobacco Smoke; Request for Comments AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION:...

  15. 75 FR 33814 - Tobacco Product Constituents Subcommittee of the Tobacco Products Scientific Advisory Committee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Tobacco Product Constituents Subcommittee of the Tobacco... Administration (FDA). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: Tobacco Product Constituents Subcommittee of the Tobacco Products Scientific Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee:...

  16. 27 CFR 40.1 - Manufacture of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manufacture of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. 40.1 Section 40.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED)...

  17. 27 CFR 41.1 - Importation of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Importation of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. 41.1 Section 41.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED)...

  18. "Light" Tobacco Products Pose Heavy Health Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates "Light" Tobacco Products Pose Heavy Health Risks Share Tweet ... Feed A federal law is restricting the words “light,” “low,” and “mild” from tobacco products now on ...

  19. Tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... countries. Picture warnings work Hard-hitting anti-tobacco advertisements and graphic pack warnings – especially those that include ... in tobacco products poses major health, economic and security concerns around the world. It is estimated that ...

  20. Evidence supporting product standards for carcinogens in smokeless tobacco products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatsukami, Dorothy K; Stepanov, Irina; Severson, Herb; Jensen, Joni A; Lindgren, Bruce R; Horn, Kimberly; Khariwala, Samir S; Martin, Julia; Carmella, Steven G; Murphy, Sharon E; Hecht, Stephen S

    2015-01-01

    Smokeless tobacco products sold in the United States vary significantly in yields of nicotine and tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNA). With the passage of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act, the Food and Drug Administration now has the authority to establish product standards. However, limited data exist determining the relative roles of pattern of smokeless tobacco use versus constituent levels in the smokeless tobacco product in exposure of users to carcinogens. In this study, smokeless tobacco users of brands varying in nicotine and TSNA content were recruited from three different regions in the U.S. Participants underwent two assessment sessions. During these sessions, demographic and smokeless tobacco use history information along with urine samples to assess biomarkers of exposure and effect were collected. During the time between data collection, smokeless tobacco users recorded the amount and duration of smokeless tobacco use on a daily basis using their diary cards. Results showed that independent of pattern of smokeless tobacco use and nicotine yields, levels of TSNA in smokeless tobacco products played a significant role in carcinogen exposure levels. Product standards for reducing levels of TSNA in smokeless tobacco products are necessary to decrease exposure to these toxicants and potentially to reduce risk for cancer.

  1. Agrochemical Management in Production of Tobacco

    OpenAIRE

    Miceski, Trajko; Taskoski, Petre

    2006-01-01

    Environment protection requires from tobacco growers to secure a good quality and economically justified tobacco production. With respect to this, application of agrochemicals plays a particularly important role. The agrochemicals should be applied in the lowest possible rate, in compliance with the Integral Protection Management(IPM), paying great attention to the use of adequate working clothes and equipment during their use.

  2. Smokeless tobacco: challenges, products and, cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, K Vendrell; Jones, Daniel L; Benton, Elain

    2010-06-01

    Tobacco companies continue to develop and aggressively market new products for oral use. Most new products are intended to dissolve in the mouth and swallow rather than spit out the juices. These products effectively circumvent smoke-free policies, decrease tobacco cessation efforts, and create individuals who use both smokeless tobacco (ST) and cigarettes. All ST products contain nicotine, carcinogens, and pose multiple health risks. The cancer and health risks associated with ST use extend well beyond the changes in the oral cavity and the risk of oral cancer. Unlike cigarettes, the contents of ST vary widely by brand and product posing difficulty in the use of the available pharmacotherapy for cessation. Although no uniform guidelines exist for the use of pharmacotherapy for smokeless tobacco cessation, research suggests that use of these drugs is effective. The most important motivator for quitting ST cessation remains in the hands of the dentist.

  3. Tobacco Product Waste: An Environmental Approach to Reduce Tobacco Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotny, Thomas E; Slaughter, Elli

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette butts and other tobacco product wastes (TPW) are the most common items picked up in urban and beach cleanups worldwide. TPW contains all the toxins, nicotine, and carcinogens found in tobacco products, along with the plastic nonbiodegradable filter attached to almost all cigarettes sold in the United States and in most countries worldwide. Toxicity studies suggest that compounds leached from cigarette butts in salt and fresh water are toxic to aquatic micro-organisms and test fish. Toxic chemicals have also been identified in roadside TPW. With as much as two-thirds of all smoked cigarettes (numbering in the trillions globally) being discarded into the environment each year, it is critical to consider the potential toxicity and remediation of these waste products. This article reviews reports on the toxicity of TPW and recommends several policy approaches to mitigation of this ubiquitous environmental blight.

  4. Ending tobacco-caused mortality and morbidity: the case for performance standards for tobacco products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatsukami, Dorothy K

    2013-05-01

    The US Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act and WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control provide us with powerful tools to reduce the death and disease caused by the use of tobacco products. One tool that can contribute substantially toward this goal is the authority to establish performance standards for tobacco products. Conjointly with reducing levels of nicotine in cigarettes, performance and quality control standards need to be established for non-combusted tobacco products. Performance standards and incentives should be provided so that tobacco companies are compelled to manufacture and market products with very low or almost non-existent toxicity (eg, nicotine-only products).

  5. Ending tobacco-caused mortality and morbidity: the case for performance standards for tobacco products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatsukami, Dorothy K

    2013-01-01

    The US Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act and WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control provide us with powerful tools to reduce the death and disease caused by the use of tobacco products. One tool that can contribute substantially toward this goal is the authority to establish performance standards for tobacco products. Conjointly with reducing levels of nicotine in cigarettes, performance and quality control standards need to be established for non-combusted tobacco products. Performance standards and incentives should be provided so that tobacco companies are compelled to manufacture and market products with very low or almost non-existent toxicity (eg, nicotine-only products). PMID:23591505

  6. Recycling of tobacco wastes after tobacco products manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    T. A. Don; A. G. Mirgorodskaya; O. K. Bedritskaya

    2016-01-01

    Utilizing tobacco wastes is one of the important problems for tobacco industry. They can be divided into easy recycled which can be returned into technological process without special treatment, and irretrievable which can be recycled only after special treatment. Easy recycled wastes consist of leaf parts and large tobacco scraps, which are cleaned from the dust and then returned into manufacturing process. Irretrievable wastes consist of small tobacco scraps which use for reconstituted toba...

  7. New Product Marketing Blurs the Line Between Nicotine Replacement Therapy and Smokeless Tobacco Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostygina, Ganna; England, Lucinda; Ling, Pamela

    2016-07-01

    Tobacco companies have begun to acquire pharmaceutical subsidiaries and recently started to market nicotine replacement therapies, such as Zonnic nicotine gum, in convenience stores. Conversely, tobacco companies are producing tobacco products such as tobacco chewing gum and lozenges that resemble pharmaceutical nicotine replacement products, including a nicotine pouch product that resembles snus pouches. This convergence of nicotine and tobacco product marketing has implications for regulation and tobacco cessation.

  8. Levels of toxins in oral tobacco products in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    McNeill, A; Bedi, R; Islam, S.; Alkhatib, M N; West, R.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the constituents of smokeless tobacco products available in the UK and compared them with products available in India, Sweden, and the USA Methods: Seven UK brands of smokeless tobacco, including a tooth cleaning powder, and four international brands of smokeless tobacco were tested for a range of toxins and known carcinogens, such as tobacco specific N-nitrosamines (TSNA), as well as nicotine availability. Results: Ten of the 11 brands tested had detectable lev...

  9. Demarketing of Tobacco Products and Consumers Behavior Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Jacennik

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Demarketing of tobacco products includes methods aimed at changing the consumer behavior and the marketing environment. The main strategies consist of price manipulation, anti-smoking advertising, regulations restricting or banning tobacco advertising, limitations of distribution or consumption of tobacco products, and warning messages on packages and advertisements. These measures influence either directly or indirectly the following psychosocial and environmental variables: health beliefs, social attractiveness of smoking, accessibility of tobacco products and associated behaviors. The article presents a review of international research on the demarketing of tobacco and its effects for the formation and change of health behavior.

  10. Smokeless tobacco product prices and taxation in Bangladesh: Findings from the International Tobacco Control Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Nargis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Smokeless tobacco use occupies a significant portion of overall tobacco consumption in Bangladesh. Yet very little is known about the effectiveness of tax and price policy in controlling the use of smokeless tobacco use in the country. Methods: The paper examines the price distribution of various smoked (cigarette, bidi and smokeless tobacco products (zarda, gul using the univariate Epanechnikov kernel density function. It estimates the own and cross price elasticity of demand for the most widely used smokeless tobacco product zarda using two-step regression analysis. The analysis is based on data from the ITC Bangladesh Wave 3 Survey which is a nationally representative cohort survey of tobacco users and nonusers conducted in in Bangladesh during 2011-12. Results: The price elasticity of lower price brands of zarda is estimated at −0.64 and of higher priced brands at −0.39, and the cross price elasticity of zarda with respect to cigarette price at 0.35. The tax increase on smokeless tobacco needs to be greater than the tax increase on smoked tobacco to bridge the wide price differential between the two types of products that currently encourages downward substitution from smoked to smokeless tobacco and discourages quitting behavior. Conclusions: This paper argues that increasing tax on smokeless tobacco simultaneously with the tax increase on smoked tobacco can have significant negative impact on the prevalence of smokeless tobacco use in Bangladesh. Finally, a specific excise system replacing the existing ad valorem excise tax can substantially contribute to the revenue collection performance from smokeless tobacco products.

  11. Point-of-sale tobacco marketing in rural and urban Ohio: Could the new landscape of Tobacco products widen inequalities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Megan E; Berman, Micah L; Slater, Michael D; Hinton, Alice; Ferketich, Amy K

    2015-12-01

    Considerable research has examined how cigarette point-of-sale advertising is closely related to smoking-related disparities across communities. Yet few studies have examined marketing of alternative tobacco products (e.g., e-cigarettes). The goal of the present study was to examine external point-of-sale marketing of various tobacco products and determine its association with community-level demographics (population density, economic-disadvantage, race/ethnicity) in urban and rural regions of Ohio. During the summer of 2014, fieldworkers collected comprehensive tobacco marketing data from 199 stores in Ohio (99 in Appalachia, 100 in Columbus), including information on external features. The address of each store was geocoded to its census tract, providing information about the community in which the store was located. Results indicated that promotions for e-cigarettes and advertising for menthol cigarettes, cigarillos, and cigars were more prevalent in communities with a higher percentage of African Americans. Cigarillos advertising was more likely in high-disadvantage and urban communities. A greater variety of products were also advertised outside retailers in urban, high-disadvantage, African American communities. Findings provide evidence of differential tobacco marketing at the external point-of-sale, which disproportionately targets urban, economically-disadvantaged, and African American communities. There is a need for tobacco control policies that will help improve equity and reduce health disparities.

  12. Price elasticity estimates for tobacco products in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Rijo M

    2008-05-01

    The tax base of tobacco in India is heavily dependent on about 14% of tobacco users, who smoke cigarettes. Non-cigarette tobacco products accounting for 85% of the tobacco consumption contributes only 15% of the total tobacco taxes. Though taxation is an important tool to regulate consumption of tobacco, there have been no estimates of price elasticities for different tobacco products in India to date, which can guide tax policy on tobacco. This paper, for the first time in India, examines the price elasticity of demand for bidis, cigarettes and leaf tobacco at the national level using a representative cross-section of households. This study found that own-price elasticity estimates of different tobacco products in India ranged between -0.4 to -0.9, with bidis (an indigenous hand-rolled smoked tobacco preparation in India) and leaf tobacco having elasticities close to unity. Cigarettes were the least price elastic of all. With some assumptions, it is shown that the tax on bidis can be increased to Rs. 100 per 1000 sticks compared with the current Rs. 14 and the tax on an average cigarette can be increased to Rs. 3.5 per stick without any fear of losing revenue. The paper argues that the current system of taxing cigarettes in India based on the presence of filters and the length of cigarettes has no justification on health grounds, and should be abolished, if reducing tobacco consumption and the consequent disease burden is one of the objectives of tobacco taxation policy. It also argues that attempts to regulate tobacco use without effecting significant tax increases on bidis may not produce desired results.

  13. Assessment of the carcinogenic N-nitrosodiethanolamine in tobacco products and tobacco smoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunnemann, K.D.; Hoffmann, D.

    1981-01-01

    A simple, reproducible gas chromatography-thermal energy analyzer (g.c.-TEA) method has been developed for the analysis of N-nitrosodiethanolamine (NDELA) in tobacco and tobacco smoke. The extract of tobacco or the trapped particulates of tobacco smoke are chromatographed on silica gel. The NDELA containing fractions are concentrated, silylated and analyzed with a modified g.c.-TEA system. (/sup 14/C)NDELA serves as internal standard for the quantitative analysis. Experimental cigarettes made from tobaccos which were treated with the sucker growth inhibitor maleic hydrazidediethanolamine (MH-DELA) contained 115--420 p.p.b. of NDELA and their smoke contained 20--290 ng/cigarette, whereas hand-suckered tobacco and its smoke were free of NDELA. The tobacco of US smoking products contained 115--420 p.p.b. of NDELA and the mainstream smoke from such products yielded 10--68 ng/cigar or cigarette. NDELA levels in chewing tobacco ranged from 220--280 p.p.b. and in two commercial snuff products were 3,200 and 6,800 p.p.b. Although the five analyzed MH-DELA preparations contained between 0.6--1.9 p.p.m. NDELA it is evident that the major portion of NDELA in tobacco is formed from the DELA residue during the tobacco processing. Based on bioassay data from various laboratories which have shown that NDELA is a relatively strong carcinogen and based on the results of this study the use of MH-DELA for the cultivation of tobacco is questioned.

  14. [The plain packaging of tobacco products: a new strategy for tobacco control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey-Pino, Juan Miguel; Nerín, Isabel; Lacave-García, Ma Blanca

    There is evidence that global tobacco smoking control policies contribute to decrease the prevalence of smoking among populations, so there is a need to effectively implement different measures in a coordinated way. The plain packaging and labelling of tobacco products is one of the measures proposed by the World Health Organisation Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. At the moment, leading countries are implementing this tobacco control measure, which involves a plain packaging for all tobacco products, i.e., the absence of any promotional or communication tool in the packaging, except the name of the brand, appearing with a standardised font, size, colour and placing in the pack. Australia was the first country to implement this measure in 2012 and recently other countries are legislating and approving it. In Spain, tobacco legislation (2005 and 2010), was an important advance in tobacco control policies. The introduction of plain packaging in Spain would mean the next step in the development of a global strategy for fighting this significant health problem. The aim of this article is to synthesise in a structured manner the role that the packaging of tobacco products has within marketing and communication strategies, as well as to describe the potential effects that the plain packaging has on some aspects of smoking behaviour, according to current literature.

  15. Smokeless Tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... toothpick-sized sticks. Some of these also contain sweeteners or flavoring and look a lot like candy. ... Still, tobacco companies often market these products as alternatives to smoking in places where smoking isn’t ...

  16. Quantifying the influence of tobacco industry on EU governance: automated content analysis of the EU Tobacco Products Directive.

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, H.(Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique, IRFU, Saclay, France); Gilmore, AB; Peeters, S; McKee, M; Stuckler, D

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The tobacco industry spends large sums lobbying the European Union (EU) institutions, yet whether such lobbying significantly affects tobacco policy is not well understood. We used novel quantitative text mining techniques to evaluate the impact of industry pressure on the contested EU Tobacco Products Directive revision. DESIGN: Policy positions of 18 stakeholders including the tobacco industry, health NGOs and tobacco retailers were evaluated using their text submissions to EU co...

  17. How to Conduct Store Observations of Tobacco Marketing and Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feld, Ashley L; Johnson, Trent O; Byerly, Katherine W; Ribisl, Kurt M

    2016-02-18

    As tobacco companies continue to heavily market their products at the point of sale, tobacco control groups seek strategies to combat the negative effects of this marketing. Store observations, which have been widely used by researchers and practitioners alike, are an excellent surveillance tool. This article provides a guide for public health practitioners interested in working in the tobacco retail environment by detailing the steps involved in conducting store observations of tobacco marketing and products including 1) obtaining tobacco product retailer lists, 2) creating measures, 3) selecting a mode of data collection, 4) training data collectors, and 5) analyzing data. We also highlight issues that may arise while in the field and provide information on disseminating results of store observations, including the potential policy implications.

  18. Changes in retail tobacco promotions in a cohort of stores before, during, and after a tobacco product display ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Joanna E; Planinac, Lynn; Lavack, Anne; Robinson, Daniel; O'Connor, Shawn; DiNardo, Joanne

    2011-10-01

    We used a longitudinal design to investigate the impact of a government policy banning the display of tobacco products at the point of sale. The extent of tobacco promotions in 481 randomly selected stores was documented at 4 points in time (2005-2009). Tobacco promotions were greatly reduced after implementation of the display ban. A ban on the display of tobacco products and other signage and promotions at retail is a critical tobacco-control policy to reduce people's exposure to tobacco marketing.

  19. Alternative Fuels in Cement Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Morten Boberg

    for the most significant alternative fuel energy contributors in the German cement industry. Solid alternative fuels are typically high in volatile content and they may differ significantly in physical and chemical properties compared to traditional solid fossil fuels. From the process point of view......The substitution of alternative for fossil fuels in cement production has increased significantly in the last decade. Of these new alternative fuels, solid state fuels presently account for the largest part, and in particular, meat and bone meal, plastics and tyre derived fuels (TDF) accounted......, considering a modern kiln system for cement production, the use of alternative fuels mainly influences 1) kiln process stability (may accelerate build up of blockages preventing gas and/or solids flow), 2) cement clinker quality, 3) emissions, and 4) decreased production capacity. Kiln process stability...

  20. Deeming Tobacco Products To Be Subject to the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, as Amended by the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act; Restrictions on the Sale and Distribution of Tobacco Products and Required Warning Statements for Tobacco Products. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-10

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is issuing this final rule to deem products meeting the statutory definition of "tobacco product,'' except accessories of the newly deemed tobacco products, to be subject to the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the FD&C Act), as amended by the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (Tobacco Control Act). The Tobacco Control Act provides FDA authority to regulate cigarettes, cigarette tobacco, roll-your-own tobacco, smokeless tobacco, and any other tobacco products that the Agency by regulation deems to be subject to the law. With this final rule, FDA is extending the Agency's "tobacco product'' authorities in the FD&C Act to all other categories of products that meet the statutory definition of "tobacco product" in the FD&C Act, except accessories of such newly deemed tobacco products. This final rule also prohibits the sale of "covered tobacco products" to individuals under the age of 18 and requires the display of health warnings on cigarette tobacco, roll-your own tobacco, and covered tobacco product packages and in advertisements. FDA is taking this action to reduce the death and disease from tobacco products. In accordance with the Tobacco Control Act, we consider and intend the extension of our authorities over tobacco products and the various requirements and prohibitions established by this rule to be severable.

  1. Principles and Ways of Innovation on Organizational Model of Tobacco Production in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liming; LU; Qiang; LEI; Jianxin; HU; Huizhan; GU; Yong; WANG; Jinyou; XIANG; Dingqi; LUO; Xingyou; YANG; Jun; LUO

    2013-01-01

    The innovation of organizational model of tobacco production is the key to realization of sustainable development of tobacco production in China. From the perspective of sustainable development, we analyze the necessity of innovation of organizational model of tobacco production, put forward the principles on innovation of organizational model of tobacco production, and offer corresponding recommendations for the ways of innovation of organizational model of tobacco production.

  2. Tobacco industry consumer research on smokeless tobacco users and product development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia, Adrienne B; Ling, Pamela M

    2010-01-01

    Since 2006, RJ Reynolds (RJR) and Philip Morris have both introduced new smokeless "snus" tobacco products. We analyzed previously secret tobacco industry documents describing the history of RJR and Philip Morris's consumer research, smokeless product development, and marketing strategies. We found that RJR had invested in smokeless research, development, and marketing since 1968. RJR first targeted low-income males through sampling and sponsorship at fishing, rodeo, and baseball events, and through advertising portraying the user as "hard working." In the early 1990s, Philip Morris and RJR hoped to attract more urban, female smokeless users. The current "snus" campaigns appear to appeal to these targeted consumers and smokers in smoke-free environments. These efforts may expand the tobacco market and undermine smoking cessation.

  3. 78 FR 38646 - Importer Permit Requirements for Tobacco Products and Processed Tobacco, and Other Requirements...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-27

    ... technical corrections by amending the definition of ``Manufacturer of tobacco products'' to reflect a recent statutory change, and by amending a reference to the sale price of large cigars to incorporate a..., the temporary rule makes several technical corrections by amending the definition of ``Manufacturer...

  4. 77 FR 20026 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Modified Risk Tobacco Product Applications; Availability; Agency...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-03

    ... grants FDA authority to regulate the manufacture, marketing, and distribution of tobacco products to protect public health generally and to reduce tobacco use by minors. Congress found that it is essential that, prior to marketing tobacco products for use to reduce harm or the risk of tobacco-related...

  5. [Effects of menthol as an additive in tobacco products and the need for regulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahnert, S; Nair, U; Mons, U; Pötschke-Langer, M

    2012-03-01

    Menthol is the most widely used and the most prominent tobacco additive in tobacco products advertised and marketed by the tobacco industry. Besides its characteristic flavor, it possesses a variety of pharmacological properties facilitating tobacco smoke inhalation and potentiating dependence. These properties of menthol not only favor tobacco initiation and consumption but can also prevent smoking cessation. This article summarizes the effect of menthol as an additive in tobacco products and its effect on tobacco consumption that causes a number of chronic diseases and premature death and, therefore, counteracts tobacco control measures. Currently, there is no legislative regulation in Germany that considers the health hazard, addiction-enhancing and attractiveness-increasing properties of additives permitted in tobacco products. Effective regulation or even a ban could contribute to a reduction of tobacco consumption and, hence, save many people from a long-lasting tobacco dependence.

  6. Surveillance methods for identifying, characterizing, and monitoring tobacco products: potential reduced exposure products as an example

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Connor, Richard J.; Cummings, K. Michael; Rees, Vaughan W.; Connolly, Gregory N.; Norton, Kaila J.; Sweanor, David; Parascandola, Mark; Hatsukami, Dorothy K.; Shields, Peter G.

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco products are widely sold and marketed, yet integrated data systems for identifying, tracking, and characterizing products are lacking. Tobacco manufacturers recently have developed potential reduction exposure products (PREPs) with implied or explicit health claims. Currently, a systematic approach for identifying, defining, and evaluating PREPs sold at the local, state or national levels in the US has not been developed. Identifying, characterizing, and monitoring new tobacco products could be greatly enhanced with a responsive surveillance system. This paper critically reviews available surveillance data sources for identifying and tracking tobacco products, including PREPs, evaluating strengths and weaknesses of potential data sources in light of their reliability and validity. Absent regulations mandating disclosure of product-specific information, it is likely that public health officials will need to rely on a variety of imperfect data sources to help identify, characterize, and monitor tobacco products, including PREPs. PMID:19959680

  7. Consumer and health literacy: The need to better design tobacco-cessation product packaging, labels, and inserts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Stephanie M; Smith-Simone, Stephanie Y

    2010-03-01

    Tobacco-cessation product packaging and instruction materials may not be appropriate for some smokers and may contribute to the underuse and misuse of evidence-based treatments. The dual goals of this project are to analyze literacy levels of Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved and non-approved tobacco-cessation product packaging, directions, and claims, and to identify and categorize claims found on product packaging. The Campaign for Tobacco Free Kids (CTFK) maintains the Quitting and Reducing Tobacco Use Inventory of Products (QuiTIP) database, which catalogs products marketed and sold to consumers to reduce or quit use of tobacco products. It also includes all medications approved by the FDA for tobacco cessation as well as a sample of non-approved products such as homeopathic, herbal, nutritional, or dietary supplements commonly marketed as either cessation aids or alternative tobacco/nicotine products. This paper assesses the reading levels required to understand product packaging, labeling, and instructions using the Simple Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG) and identifies claims on the product package labels using standard qualitative methods. Key findings show that the average reading levels needed to understand instructions for both FDA-approved and non-approved cessation products are above the reading levels recommended to ensure maximum comprehension. Improving the packaging and directions of evidence-based tobacco-cessation products so that they are preferably at or below a fifth-grade reading level, along with using consumer-based design principles to develop packaging, may help smokers take advantage of and correctly use products that will greatly increase their chances of successful quitting.

  8. Pan masala advertisements are surrogate for tobacco products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushma C

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pan masala is a comparatively recent habit in India and is marketed with and without tobacco. Advertisements of tobacco products have been banned in India since 1st May 2004. The advertisements of plain pan masala, which continue in Indian media, have been suspected to be surrogate for tobacco products bearing the same name. The study was carried out to assess whether these advertisements were for the intended product, or for tobacco products with same brand name. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The programme of a popular television Hindi news channel was watched for a 24-h period. Programmes on the same channel and its English counterpart were watched on different days to assess whether the advertisements were repeated. The total duration of telecast of a popular brand of plain pan masala (Pan Parag was multiplied by the rate charged by the channel to provide the cost of advertisement of this product. The total sale value of the company was multiplied by the proportion of usage of plain pan masala out of gutka plus pan masala habit as observed from a different study, to provide the annual sale value of plain pan masala product under reference. RESULTS: The annual sale value of plain Pan Parag was estimated to be Rs. 67.1 million. The annual cost of the advertisement of the same product on two television channels was estimated at Rs. 244.6 million. CONCLUSION: The advertisements of plain pan masala seen on Indian television are a surrogate for the tobacco products bearing the same name.

  9. Structure and Change of Costs for Flue-cured Tobacco Production:A Case Study of Liuyang Tobacco Growing Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiafeng; CHEN; Kun; CHEN; Jianyong; LI; Liangjiao; LIU

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of consulting related information and data,costs for flue-cured tobacco production were surveyed and analyzed with Liuyang tobacco growing areas as an example.Results showed that there is rise and fall in fertilizer cost for flue-cured tobacco production;change in pesticide and agricultural plastic film is little;other costs for flue-cured tobacco production rise rapidly in recent years.Besides,there is certain reduction in labor units per mu for flue-cured tobacco production;labor price has an annual growth rate of 15%-25%.The proportion of labor cost to total cost for flue-cured tobacco production is increasing,thus rise of labor cost is the major factor promoting rise of costs for flue-cured tobacco production.Through adjustment of purchasing price and various subsidies,the change of per mu yield is a decisive factor influencing benefits of flue-cured tobacco production.

  10. Alternative Crops and Biofuel Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenkel, Philip [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States); Holcomb, Rodney B. [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States)

    2013-03-01

    In order for the biofuel industry to meet the RFS benchmarks for biofuels, new feedstock sources and production systems will have to be identified and evaluated. The Southern Plains has the potential to produce over a billion gallons of biofuels from regionally produced alternative crops, agricultural residues, and animal fats. While information on biofuel conversion processes is available, it is difficult for entrepreneurs, community planners and other interested individuals to determine the feasibility of biofuel processes or to match production alternatives with feed stock availability and community infrastructure. This project facilitates the development of biofuel production from these regionally available feed stocks. Project activities are concentrated in five major areas. The first component focused on demonstrating the supply of biofuel feedstocks. This involves modeling the yield and cost of production of dedicated energy crops at the county level. In 1991 the DOE selected switchgrass as a renewable source to produce transportation fuel after extensive evaluations of many plant species in multiple location (Caddel et al,. 2010). However, data on the yield and cost of production of switchgrass are limited. This deficiency in demonstrating the supply of biofuel feedstocks was addressed by modeling the potential supply and geographic variability of switchgrass yields based on relationship of available switchgrass yields to the yields of other forage crops. This model made it possible to create a database of projected switchgrass yields for five different soil types at the county level. A major advantage of this methodology is that the supply projections can be easily updated as improved varieties of switchgrass are developed and additional yield data becomes available. The modeling techniques are illustrated using the geographic area of Oklahoma. A summary of the regional supply is then provided.

  11. Flavored Tobacco Product Use Among Middle and High School Students--United States, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corey, Catherine G; Ambrose, Bridget K; Apelberg, Benjamin J; King, Brian A

    2015-10-02

    The 2009 Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act prohibits "characterizing flavors" (e.g., candy, fruit, and chocolate) other than tobacco and menthol in cigarettes; however, characterizing flavors are not currently prohibited in other tobacco products. Analyses of retail sales data suggest that U.S. consumption of flavored noncigarette tobacco products, including flavored cigars and flavored e-cigarettes, has increased in recent years. There is growing concern that widely marketed varieties of new and existing flavored tobacco products might appeal to youths (2) and could be contributing to recent increases in the use of tobacco products, including e-cigarettes and hookah, among youths. CDC and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) analyzed data from the 2014 National Youth Tobacco Survey (NYTS) to determine the prevalence of past 30 day use (current use) of flavored e-cigarette, hookah tobacco, cigar, pipe tobacco or smokeless tobacco products, and menthol cigarettes among middle and high school students, and the proportion of current tobacco product users who have used flavored products. An estimated 70.0% (3.26 million) of all current youth tobacco users had used at least one flavored tobacco product in the past 30 days. Among current users, 63.3%, (1.58 million) had used a flavored e-cigarette, 60.6%, (1.02 million) had used flavored hookah tobacco, and 63.5% (910,000) had used a flavored cigar in the past 30 days. Given the millions of current youth tobacco users, it is important for comprehensive tobacco prevention and control strategies to address all forms of tobacco use, including flavored tobacco products, among U.S. youths.

  12. A tobacco-free world: a call to action to phase out the sale of tobacco products by 2040.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaglehole, Robert; Bonita, Ruth; Yach, Derek; Mackay, Judith; Reddy, K Srinath

    2015-03-14

    The time has come for the world to acknowledge the unacceptability of the damage being done by the tobacco industry and work towards a world essentially free from the sale (legal and illegal) of tobacco products. A tobacco-free world by 2040, where less than 5% of the world's adult population use tobacco, is socially desirable, technically feasible, and could become politically practical. Three possible ways forward exist: so-called business-as-usual, with most countries steadily implementing the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) provisions; accelerated implementation of the FCTC by all countries; and a so-called turbo-charged approach that complements FCTC actions with strengthened UN leadership, full engagement of all sectors, and increased investment in tobacco control. Only the turbo-charged approach will achieve a tobacco-free world by 2040 where tobacco is out of sight, out of mind, and out of fashion--yet not prohibited. The first and most urgent priority is the inclusion of an ambitious tobacco target in the post-2015 sustainable development health goal. The second priority is accelerated implementation of the FCTC policies in all countries, with full engagement from all sectors including the private sector--from workplaces to pharmacies--and with increased national and global investment. The third priority is an amendment of the FCTC to include an ambitious global tobacco reduction goal. The fourth priority is a UN high-level meeting on tobacco use to galvanise global action towards the 2040 tobacco-free world goal on the basis of new strategies, new resources, and new players. Decisive and strategic action on this bold vision will prevent hundreds of millions of unnecessary deaths during the remainder of this century and safeguard future generations from the ravages of tobacco use.

  13. Research gaps related to tobacco product marketing and sales in the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribisl, Kurt M

    2012-01-01

    This paper is part of a collection that identifies research priorities that will help guide the efforts of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as it regulates tobacco products. This paper examines the major provisions related to tobacco product advertising, marketing, sales, and distribution included in Public Law 111-31, the "Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act". This paper covers 5 areas related to (a) marketing regulations (e.g., ban on color and imagery in ads, ban on nontobacco gifts with purchase); (b) granting FDA authority over the sale, distribution, accessibility, advertising, and promotion of tobacco and lifting state preemption over advertising; (c) remote tobacco sales (mail order and Internet); (d) prevention of illicit and cross-border trade; and (e) noncompliant export products. Each of the 5 sections of this paper provides a description and brief history of regulation, what is known about this regulatory strategy, and research opportunities.

  14. Sustainable tobacco productions starting from the environmental education.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Hernández Almanza

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The tobacco is criticized by its negative incidence in the human health, although it understands each other the importance it has for the economy of the country and for the consumer's preferences, because of it, it is not suspend from the national production but we are conscious of the necessity to develop a less aggressive product to the environment. It was carried out an investigation in the central region of Cuba, in the period of the 2002-2009, with the purpose of promoting the environmental education in the tobacco sector, by means of the training and the agricultural extension, to contribute to obtain the sustainable productions. Theoretical and empiric methods were used, with them a diagnosis of the learning necessities was obtained on the topic and a program of pertinent training was applied through the agricultural extension. The obtained results indicated advances in the environmental education that were evidenced in the academic preparation of the professionals, the participation in events and development of projects referred to the environmental topic. Also the technical attendance to producers, the introduction and extension of scientific achievements, they propitiated the application of agroecological practices in the tobacco production with the purpose of obtaining high yield and quality with less noxious effects to the environment.

  15. 76 FR 76096 - Non-Face-to-Face Sale and Distribution of Tobacco Products and Advertising, Promotion, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-06

    ... Distribution of Tobacco Products and Advertising, Promotion, and Marketing of Tobacco Products; Extension of... advertising, promotion, and marketing of such products; and the advertising of tobacco products via the... advertising, promotion, and marketing of tobacco products. FDA took this action as part of its...

  16. Supping with the devil? The role of law in promoting tobacco harm reduction using low nitrosamine smokeless tobacco products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, W; Gartner, C

    2009-03-01

    In Sweden, male cigarette smoking has declined as snus, a smokeless tobacco product which is low in carcinogenic nitrosamines, has gained popularity among male tobacco users. Epidemiological modelling based on the Swedish experience indicates that there would be major public health gains if a substantial number of current smokers in other countries could also be persuaded to switch to this product. This form of 'tobacco harm reduction' is very controversial in the public health community for many reasons. These include: objections in principle to the use of less harmful but still addictive nicotine products; uncertainties about the long-term effects of these products on health; doubts about the likely interest in and uptake of these products among existing smokers; concerns that increasing the availability of these products will increase the number of new tobacco users and eventually the number of smokers in the population; and anxiety about how the tobacco industry may use these products to undermine current tobacco control policies. This paper concludes with suggestions for a graduated series of policies that may allow exploration of the public health costs and benefits of encouraging smokers to switch to snus.

  17. Exploring perception of Indians about plain packaging of tobacco products: a mixed method research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika eArora

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed perceptions and support among the Indian populace about plain packaging for all tobacco products.12 focus group discussions (n=124, stakeholder analysis with 24 officials and an opinion poll with 346 participants were conducted between December 2011 - May 2012 , Delhi. Plain packages for tobacco products were favoured by majority of participants (69% and key stakeholders (92%. The majority of participants perceived that plain packaging would reduce the appeal and promotional value of the tobacco pack (>80%, prevent initiation of tobacco use among children and youth (>60%, motivate tobacco users to quit (>80%, increase noticeability and effectiveness of pictorial health warnings on tobacco packs (>90%,reduce tobacco usage (75% of key stakeholders. Majority of participants favoured light grey colour for plain packaging. This study provides key evidence to advocate with Indian Government and other countries in South Asia region to introduce plain packaging legislation for all tobacco products.

  18. 76 FR 55835 - Non-Face-to-Face Sale and Distribution of Tobacco Products and Advertising, Promotion, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-09

    ... media (e.g., Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, etc.), how can minors' exposure to tobacco product advertising... Distribution of Tobacco Products and Advertising, Promotion, and Marketing of Tobacco Products AGENCY: Food and... to the regulation of non-face-to-face sale and distribution of tobacco products and the...

  19. Applying tobacco carcinogen and toxicant biomarkers in product regulation and cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Stephen S; Yuan, Jian-Min; Hatsukami, Dorothy

    2010-06-21

    Tobacco carcinogen and toxicant biomarkers are metabolites or protein or DNA adducts of specific compounds in tobacco products. Highly reliable analytical methods, based mainly on mass spectrometry, have been developed and applied in large studies of many of these biomarkers. A panel of tobacco carcinogen and toxicant biomarkers is suggested here, and typical values for smokers and nonsmokers are summarized. This panel of biomarkers has potential applications in the new and challenging area of tobacco product regulation and in the development of rational approaches to cancer prevention by establishing carcinogen and toxicant uptake and excretion in people exposed to tobacco products.

  20. Awareness and Use of South Asian Tobacco Products Among South Asians in New Jersey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrywna, Mary; Jane Lewis, M; Mukherjea, Arnab; Banerjee, Smita C; Steinberg, Michael B; Delnevo, Cristine D

    2016-12-01

    South Asians are the third largest Asian group in the US and among the fastest growing racial groups in New Jersey. Tobacco consumption among South Asians is characterized by several smoked and smokeless tobacco products indigenous to the Indian subcontinent. However, there is a paucity of research on tobacco use behaviors among South Asians in the US. The goal of this study was to examine the awareness and use of South Asian tobacco products such as bidis, gutkha, paan, paan masala, and zarda as well as other potentially carcinogenic products such as supari, their context of use, and their cultural significance among South Asians living in the US. Eight focus groups were conducted with South Asian adults living in Central New Jersey. Overall, participants were aware of a wide variety of foreign and American tobacco products with older South Asians identifying a greater variety of indigenous products compared to younger South Asians. Hookah was consistently recognized as popular among the younger generation while products such as paan or paan masala were more commonly identified with elders. Use of tobacco-related products such as paan and supari were described as common at social gatherings or after meals. In addition, light or social users of South Asian tobacco products, including products not consistently defined as tobacco, may not report tobacco use on a survey. Better understanding of the use of these products among South Asians and how some may classify tobacco usage can inform future research and public health interventions in these communities.

  1. Urinary biomarkers of smokers' exposure to tobacco smoke constituents in tobacco products assessment: a fit for purpose approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Evan O; Minet, Emmanuel; McEwan, Michael

    2013-09-01

    There are established guidelines for bioanalytical assay validation and qualification of biomarkers. In this review, they were applied to a panel of urinary biomarkers of tobacco smoke exposure as part of a "fit for purpose" approach to the assessment of smoke constituents exposure in groups of tobacco product smokers. Clinical studies have allowed the identification of a group of tobacco exposure biomarkers demonstrating a good doseresponse relationship whilst others such as dihydroxybutyl mercapturic acid and 2-carboxy-1-methylethylmercapturic acid - did not reproducibly discriminate smokers and non-smokers. Furthermore, there are currently no agreed common reference standards to measure absolute concentrations and few inter-laboratory trials have been performed to establish consensus values for interim standards. Thus, we also discuss in this review additional requirements for the generation of robust data on urinary biomarkers, including toxicant metabolism and disposition, method validation and qualification for use in tobacco products comparison studies.

  2. Alternative Fuels in Cement Production

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Substitutionen af fossilt med alternativt brændsel i cement produktionen er steget betydeligt i den sidste dekade. Af disse nye alternative brændsler, udgør de faste brændsler p.t. den største andel, hvor kød- og benmel, plastic og dæk i særdeleshed har været de alternative brændsler der har bidraget med mest alternativ brændsels energi til den tyske cement industri. De nye alternative brændsler er typisk karakteriseret ved et højt indhold af flygtige bestanddele og adskiller sig typisk fra t...

  3. Study on the Production Benefit of Large-scale Tobacco Growers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shunyou; LU; Qinggao; CHEN; Ting; LEI; Yuanhui; WANG; Huizhong; LIU

    2014-01-01

    The tobacco growers with the growing area of greater than or equal to 100 mu,have become an important subject of tobacco production in Weng’an County of Guizhou Province. Regulating and developing the production and business activities of large-scale tobacco growers, plays an important role in stabilizing tobacco production,reducing costs and increasing efficiency in Weng’an County. Through the field survey of large-scale growers’ production activities,this article analyzes the input and output levels,and explores the key factors influencing benefit, in order to provide a basis for further regulating the tobacco growing practices and improving the flue-cured tobacco production benefit.

  4. 78 FR 64505 - Request for Nominations for Voting Members on a Public Advisory Committee; Tobacco Products...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-29

    ... responsibilities as they relate to the regulation of tobacco products. The Committee reviews and evaluates safety... professionals practicing in the area of oncology, pulmonology, cardiology, ] toxicology, pharmacology,...

  5. Tobacco regulatory science: research to inform regulatory action at the Food and Drug Administration's Center for Tobacco Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, David L; Backinger, Cathy L; van Bemmel, Dana M; Neveleff, Deborah J

    2014-08-01

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) promotes the development of regulatory science to ensure that a strong evidence base informs all of its regulatory activities related to the manufacture, marketing, and distribution of tobacco products as well as public education about tobacco product constituents and effects. Toward that end, the FDA's Center for Tobacco Products (CTP) provides funding for research studies with scientific aims that fall within its defined regulatory authority. However, given their traditional biomedical focus on basic and applied research, some researchers may not understand the principles of regulatory science or the types of studies CTP funds. The purpose of this paper is (1) to clarify the definition of regulatory science as a distinct scientific discipline, (2) to explore the role of tobacco regulatory science in order to help researchers understand the parameters and types of research that can be funded by CTP, and (3) to describe the types of research efforts that will inform the FDA's public health framework for tobacco product regulation.

  6. Growing Trend of Alternative Tobacco Use Among the Nation’s Youth: A New Generation of Addicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. Marshall, MD

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC has published significant data and trends related to the rising epidemic of usage of alternate forms of tobacco among the nation’s youth. For the first time ever, the use of the electronic cigarette (e-cigarrette has surpassed traditional cigarette usage in adolescents. E-cigarettes are battery-operated products designed to deliver aerosolized nicotine and other flavors to the consumer. Most look like conventional cigarettes but some resemble everyday items such as pens, USB drives, and memory sticks.1 In the following article, we present findings from the CDC’s Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report with commentary on the state of this growing epidemic and barriers to effective screening methods.

  7. Detection of Nicotiana DNA in Tobacco Products Using a Novel Multiplex Real-Time PCR Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korchinski, Katie L; Land, Adrian D; Craft, David L; Brzezinski, Jennifer L

    2016-07-01

    Establishing that a product contains tobacco is a requirement for the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's regulation and/or prosecution of tobacco products. Therefore, a multiplex real-time PCR method was designed to determine if Nicotiana (tobacco) DNA is present in tobacco products. The PCR method simultaneously amplifies a 73 bp fragment of the cytochrome P450 monoxygenase CYP82E4 gene and 66 bp fragment in the nia-1 gene for nitrate reductase, which are detected using dual-labeled TaqMan probes. The assay is capable of detecting approximately 7.8 pg purified tobacco DNA, with a similar sensitivity for either gene target while incorporating an internal positive control (IPC). DNA was extracted from prepared tobacco products-including chewing tobacco, pipe tobacco, and snuff-or from the cut fill (no wrapper) of cigarettes and cigars. Of the 13 products analyzed, 12 were positive for both tobacco-specific markers and the IPC. DNA was also extracted from the fill of five varieties of herbal cigarettes, which were negative for both tobacco-specific gene targets and positive for the IPC. Our method expands on current assays by introducing a multiplex reaction, targeting two sequences in two different genes of interest, incorporating an IPC into the reaction, and lowering the LOD and LOQ while increasing the efficiency of the PCR.

  8. Software product lines : Organizational alternatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, J

    2001-01-01

    Software product lines enjoy increasingly wide adoption in the software industry. Most authors focus on the technical and process aspects and assume an organizational model consisting of a domain engineering unit and several application engineering units. In our cooperation with several software dev

  9. The Case for Requiring Graphic Warning Labels on Smokeless Tobacco Product Packages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakhale, Smita; Samet, Jonathan; Folan, Patricia; Leone, Frank; White, Alexander

    2016-03-01

    On November 10, 2015, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved, for the first time, the sale of smokeless tobacco products authorized under the new premarket tobacco application pathway. This Food and Drug Administration regulatory decision draws attention to the growing worldwide use of smokeless tobacco products in general. Use of these tobacco products is particularly popular in low- and middle-income countries of Asia. Due to aggressive and strategic marketing to children, young adults, and current smokers, rates of smokeless tobacco use in men of all ages are on the rise in United States and elsewhere. The tobacco industry also continues to market these products to current cigarette smokers for use in the growing number of "smoke-free environments." Smokeless tobacco products are associated with cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract, particularly the oral cavity, esophagus, and pancreas; cardiovascular diseases; small-for-gestational-age infants; premature births; increased risk of apnea; and stillbirth. There is no convincing evidence regarding the efficacy of smokeless tobacco, including snus, to promote smoking cessation. Rather, studies from Europe and the United States demonstrate that smokeless tobacco use may facilitate regular cigarette smoking by acting as a gateway drug, especially for children. Caution is warranted before proposing smokeless tobacco as a harm-reduction strategy, in part because of the potential for further promoting smokeless tobacco in low- and middle-income countries where use is already widespread. Continued vigilance through comprehensive surveillance is warranted. We strongly recommend the use of graphic warning labels as a "no regrets" strategy for all smokeless tobacco products marketed globally.

  10. Smokers' reactions to FDA regulation of tobacco products: Findings from the 2009 ITC United States survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fix Brian V

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background On June 22, 2009, the US FDA was granted the authority to regulate tobacco products through the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (FSPTCA. The intent is to improve public health through regulations on tobacco product marketing and tobacco products themselves. This manuscript reports baseline data on smokers' attitudes and beliefs on specific issues relevant to the FSPTCA. Method Between November 2009 and January 2010, a telephone survey among a nationally representative sample of n = 678 smokers in the US was performed as part of the International Tobacco Control (ITC United States Survey. Participants answered a battery of questions on their attitudes and beliefs about aspects of the FSPTCA. Results Most smokers were unaware of the new FDA tobacco regulations. Smokers indicated support for banning cigarette promotion and nearly a quarter supported requiring tobacco companies to sell cigarettes in plain packaging. Seventy two percent of smokers supported reducing nicotine levels to make cigarettes less addictive if nicotine was made easily available in non-cigarette form. Conclusion Most smokers were limited in their understanding of efforts to regulate tobacco products in general. Smokers were supportive of efforts to better inform the public about health risks, restrict advertising, and make tobacco products less addictive.

  11. 76 FR 36544 - Scientific Evaluation of Modified Risk Tobacco Product Applications; Public Workshop; Request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-22

    ... produced by the consumption of that tobacco product, that may affect a disease or health-related condition... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Scientific Evaluation of Modified Risk Tobacco Product... of public workshop; request for comments. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Center for...

  12. 78 FR 38055 - Building Research Capacity in Global Tobacco Product Regulation Program (U18)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ... authority to regulate the manufacture, distribution, marketing, and sale of tobacco products in the United... and CTP's mission by utilizing WHO Member States' expertise and extensive international contacts in...)); section 102 of the Tobacco Control Act)). Establishing product standards to regulate the contents,...

  13. 75 FR 29776 - Tobacco Product Advertising and Promotion to Youth and Racial and Ethnic Minority Populations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Tobacco Product Advertising and Promotion to Youth and... tobacco product advertising and promotion that is designed to appeal to specific racial and ethnic... information about the advertising and promotion of menthol and other cigarettes to youth in general, and...

  14. 77 FR 14814 - Tobacco Product Analysis; Scientific Workshop; Request for Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-13

    ... to Attend the Workshop and Requests for Oral Presentations: If you wish to attend the workshop or make an oral presentation at the workshop, please email your registration to workshop.CTPOS@fda.hhs.gov... workshop to solicit feedback on analysis of tobacco products. The analyses of tobacco products...

  15. Survey of alternative feedstocks for biodiesel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summarized will be results obtained from the production of biodiesel from several alternative feedstocks with promising agronomic characteristics. Such feedstocks include camelina (Camelina sativa L.), coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.), and meadowfoam (Limnanth...

  16. Point-of-sale marketing of tobacco products: taking advantage of the socially disadvantaged?

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Robert; Cheney, Marshall K; Azad, M Raihan

    2009-05-01

    With increasing regulation of tobacco industry marketing practices, point-of-sale advertising has become an important channel for promoting tobacco products. One hundred and ten convenience stores in Oklahoma County were surveyed for tobacco-related advertising. There were significantly more point-of-sale tobacco advertisements in low-income and minority neighborhoods than in better educated, higher-income, predominantly White neighborhoods. Storeowners or managers were also interviewed to determine who has decision-making power regarding store signage and placement, and to elicit perceptions of industry tactics. Contracts with tobacco companies leave storeowners with little or no control over promotion of tobacco products within their store, and many are unaware of the implications of the tobacco industry point-of-sale practices. Local ordinances that regulated outdoor signage reduced outdoor tobacco advertisements, as well as tobacco signage and promotions within the store. Policy change, rather than education targeting storeowners, is recommended as the most effective strategy for reducing point-of-sale tobacco advertising.

  17. Conference on abuse liability and appeal of tobacco products: conclusions and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henningfield, Jack E; Hatsukami, Dorothy K; Zeller, Mitch; Peters, Ellen

    2011-07-01

    The rate of initiation and progression to dependence and premature mortality are higher for tobacco products than for any other dependence producing substance. This is not explained simply by the addictiveness ("abuse liability") or by enticing product designs ("product appeal") alone, but rather by both of these factors in combination with marketing and social influences that also influence "product appeal". A working meeting of leading experts in abuse liability (AL) and product appeal was convened to examine how these disciplines could be more effectively applied to the evaluation of tobacco products for the purposes of regulation that would include setting standards for designs and contents intended to reduce the risk of initiation and dependence. It was concluded that abuse liability assessment (ALA) is a validated approach to testing pharmaceutical products but has not been extensively applied to tobacco products: such application has demonstrated feasibility, but special challenges include the diverse range of products, product complexity, and the absence of satisfactory placebo products. Consumer testing for product appeal is widely used by consumer product marketers as well as by researchers in their efforts to understand consumer product preferences and use but has not been extensively applied to tobacco products except by the tobacco industry. Recommendations for testing, methods development, and research were developed. A major recommendation was that tobacco products should be tested for AL and product appeal, and the results integrated and evaluated so as to more accurately predict risk of initiation, dependence, and persistence of use.

  18. Tobacco product use among middle and high school students--United States, 2011 and 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    Nearly 90% of adult smokers in the United States began smoking by age 18 years. To assess current tobacco product use among youths, CDC analyzed data from the 2012 National Youth Tobacco Survey (NYTS). This report describes the results of that analysis, which found that, in 2012, the prevalence of current tobacco product use among middle and high school students was 6.7% and 23.3%, respectively. After cigarettes, cigars were the second most commonly used tobacco product, with prevalence of use at 2.8% and 12.6%, respectively. From 2011 to 2012, electronic cigarette use increased significantly among middle school (0.6% to 1.1%) and high school (1.5% to 2.8%) students, and hookah use increased among high school students (4.1% to 5.4%). During the same period, significant decreases occurred in bidi and kretek use among middle and high school students, and in dissolvable tobacco use among high school students. A substantial proportion of youth tobacco use occurs with products other than cigarettes, so monitoring and prevention of youth tobacco use needs to incorporate other products, including new and emerging products. Implementing evidence-based interventions can prevent and reduce tobacco use among youths as part of comprehensive tobacco control programs. In addition, implementation of the 2009 Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act, which granted the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) the authority to regulate the manufacture, distribution, and marketing of tobacco products, also is critical to addressing this health risk behavior.

  19. Do state expenditures on tobacco control programs decrease use of tobacco products among college students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciecierski, Christina Czart; Chatterji, Pinka; Chaloupka, Frank J; Wechsler, Henry

    2011-03-01

    The objective of this paper is to investigate the effects of state tobacco control program expenditures on individual-level tobacco use behaviors among young adults. Data come from the 1997, 1999 and 2001 waves of the Harvard School of Public Health College Alcohol Study (CAS). Our findings indicate that a higher level of state spending on tobacco control programs in the prior year is associated with a statistically significant increase in the probability that current daily smokers report at least one attempt to quit smoking in the past year. We also find evidence that higher state expenditures on tobacco control programs in the prior year are associated with reductions in the prevalence of daily smoking and 30-day cigar use among college students. We do not find any statistically significant association between state tobacco control program expenditures and the number of attempts to quit smoking among those with at least one attempt, or on the prevalence of smokeless tobacco use in the past month.

  20. 75 FR 22147 - Tobacco Product Constituents Subcommittee of the Tobacco Products Scientific Advisory Committee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-27

    .... Location: Holiday Inn, The Ballrooms, 2 Montgomery Village Ave., Gaithersburg, MD 20879. The hotel phone... Products, Food and Drug Administration, 9200 Corporate Blvd., Rockville, MD 20850, 1-877-287-1373 (choose... background material available to the public no later than 2 business days before the meeting. If FDA...

  1. Paan (pan) and paan (pan) masala should be considered tobacco products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjea, Arnab; Modayil, Mary V; Tong, Elisa K

    2015-12-01

    Two products indigenous to the Indian subcontinent and popular among South Asians globally - paan and paan masala - are inconsistently categorised as tobacco by researchers, clinicians, program planners and policymakers. This article calls for a universally standard classification of these smokeless carcinogenic products as tobacco products and thus, subject to the same public health and clinical protections applied to other forms of tobacco. This recommendation is guided by scientific evidence strongly indicating the common presence of tobacco in paan and paan masala. Inclusion of these two products in population-level surveillance, clinical screening, as well as public health program planning and policy interventions may have considerable impact on preventing and reducing tobacco-related disparities among South Asians around the world.

  2. [Advertising and promotion of tobacco products and electronic cigarettes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canevascini, Michela; Kuendig Hervé; Véron, Claudia; Pasche, Myriam

    2015-06-10

    Switzerland is one of the least restrictive countries in Europe in terms of tobacco advertising. A study conducted between 2013 and 2014 documented the presence of tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship in western Switzerland. The first part of this article presents the results of the observations realized in points of sale, in private events sponsored by the tobacco industry and during daily itineraries of young people. The results show that tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship are omnipresent and mainly target young people. The second part of the article analyses the presence of electronic cigarette advertising and promotion, observed in points of sale and on online stores.

  3. Young Adults' Risk Perceptions of Various Tobacco Products Relative to Cigarettes: Results from the National Young Adult Health Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wackowski, Olivia A.; Delnevo, Cristine D.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Tobacco product risk perceptions may influence whether individuals use those products instead of or in addition to regular cigarettes. This study aimed to explore risk perceptions of various tobacco products relative to traditional cigarettes with young adults, a group with higher rates of tobacco use. Method: We examined risk…

  4. 78 FR 32581 - Tobacco Products, User Fees, Requirements for the Submission of Data Needed To Calculate User...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-31

    ... any product made or derived from tobacco that is intended for human consumption, including any... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 1150 RIN 0910-AG81 Tobacco Products, User Fees... of Tobacco Products AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY:...

  5. Regulating Tobacco Product Advertising and Promotions in the Retail Environment: A Roadmap for States and Localities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Tamara; Hoefges, Michael; Ribisl, Kurt M

    2015-01-01

    Recent amendments to federal law and a burgeoning body of research have intensified public health officials' interest in reducing youth initiation of tobacco use, including by regulating the time, place, or manner of tobacco product advertising at the point of sale. This article analyzes legal obstacles to various strategies for reducing youth initiation.

  6. Tools Related to the Federal Tobacco Products Regulations: What Retailers Need to Know PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-09-16

    PSA to announce a new mobile text message program that will help raise retailers' awareness of the new federal tobacco regulations.  Created: 9/16/2010 by The CDC Division of News and Electronic Media and the FDA Center for Tobacco Products.   Date Released: 9/16/2010.

  7. Measured moisture properties for alternative insulation products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan De Place; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard; Padfield, Tim

    1999-01-01

    During the past few years there has been a growing interest in using alternative insulation products in buildings. Among these products are the organic materials cellulose fibre, flax and sheep's wool as well as the inorganic perlite. The organic materials are regarded with some suspicion, because...... of their hygroscopicity. This paper describes two of the moisture-related properties of these materials: the water sorption and the water vapour transmission. For reference, some mineral fibre products are studied as well....

  8. 27 CFR 45.43 - Notice for smokeless tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... for smokeless tobacco. (a) Product designation. Every package of chewing tobacco or snuff shall..., the designation “chewing tobacco” or “snuff.” As an alternative, packages of chewing tobacco may be designated “Tax Class C,” and packages of snuff may be designated “Tax Class M.” (b) Product weight....

  9. 27 CFR 40.216 - Notice for smokeless tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Notice for smokeless tobacco. (a) Product designation. Every package of chewing tobacco or snuff shall..., the designation “chewing tobacco” or “snuff.” As an alternative, packages of chewing tobacco may be designated “Tax Class C”, and packages of snuff may be designated “Tax Class M”. (b) Product weight....

  10. A history of tobacco production and marketing in Malawi, 1890-2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prowse, Martin Philip

    2013-01-01

    During the past century tobacco production and marketing in Nyasaland/Malawi has undergone periods of dynamism similar to changes since the early 1990s. This article highlights three recurrent patterns. First, estate owners have fostered or constrained peasant/smallholder production dependent...... on complementarities or competition with estates. Second, the rapid expansion of peasant/smallholder production has led to large multiplier effects in tobacco-rich districts. Third, such expansion has also led to re-regulation of the marketing of peasant/smallholder tobacco by the (colonial) state. The article...

  11. Exploring Use of Nontraditional Tobacco Products Through Focus Groups with Young Adult Smokers, 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda L. Pederson, PhD

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionIn 2002, 16 focus groups with young adult smokers who used or had tried nontraditional tobacco products (e.g., bidis, shisha, herbal cigarettes, kreteks, cigars, herbal smokeless products were conducted in Dallas, Texas, and Chattanooga, Tennessee, to gain an understanding of the appeal of these products. MethodsIn each city, groups were segmented by race or ethnicity and by educational status. ResultsMany consistent themes emerged across the groups. Nontraditional tobacco use is not common among young adult smokers. Although some products such as Black & Mild and Swisher Sweets cigars are used frequently by some groups, other products such as shisha, kreteks, and herbal cigarettes are less well known and infrequently used. Among focus group participants, use of nontraditional tobacco products tends to occur in clubs, during social gatherings, or at times when cigarettes are unavailable. More college students than those who were not in college cited cost and inconvenience of purchasing nontraditional tobacco products as reasons for not using them. All focus group participants agreed that African Americans use cigars more than any other racial or ethnic group. ConclusionOverall, findings suggest that the reasons for trying nontraditional tobacco products did not differ by race or ethnicity. Family members and peers were mentioned as the source of nontraditional tobacco products when first used. Cost, convenience, taste, smell, and strength were given as reasons both for using these products and for discontinuing their use.

  12. 78 FR 38555 - Importer Permit Requirements for Tobacco Products and Processed Tobacco, and Other Requirements...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-27

    ... decade, TTB believes that it can gain administrative efficiencies and reduce the burden on industry... processed tobacco and export warehouse proprietors must apply for and possess a permit in order to engage in... and tubes or to the proprietor of an export warehouse, in accordance with such regulations and...

  13. A survey of alternative oxygen production technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueck, Dale E.; Parrish, Clyde F.; Buttner, William J.; Surma, Jan M.

    2001-02-01

    Utilization of the Martian atmosphere for the production of fuel and oxygen has been extensively studied. The baseline fuel production process is a Sabatier reactor, which produces methane and water from carbon dioxide and hydrogen. The oxygen produced from the electrolysis of the water is only half of that needed for methane-based rocket propellant, and additional oxygen is needed for breathing air, fuel cells and other energy sources. Zirconia electrolysis cells for the direct reduction of CO2 are being developed as an alternative means of producing oxygen, but present many challenges for a large-scale oxygen production system. The very high operating temperatures and fragile nature of the cells coupled with fairly high operating voltages leave room for improvement. This paper will survey alternative oxygen production technologies, present data on operating characteristics, materials of construction, and some preliminary laboratory results on attempts to implement each. .

  14. Use of cigarettes and other tobacco products among students aged 13-15 years--worldwide, 1999-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-26

    The use of tobacco in any form is a major preventable cause of premature death and disease. Globally, nearly 5 million persons die every year from tobacco-related illnesses, with disproportionately higher mortality occurring in developing countries. The Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS), initiated in 1999 by the World Health Organization (WHO), CDC, and the Canadian Public Health Association, is a school-based survey that includes questions on prevalence of cigarette and other tobacco use; attitudes toward tobacco; access to tobacco products; exposure to secondhand smoke, school curricula on tobacco, media, and advertising; and smoking cessation. This report presents estimates of self-reported cigarette and other tobacco-product use during 1999-2005 in 132 different countries and the Gaza Strip/West Bank. The data are aggregated within each of the six WHO regions. GYTS data indicate that nearly two of every 10 students reported currently using a tobacco product, with no statistically significant difference between the proportion of those reporting cigarette smoking (8.9%) and other tobacco use (11.2%). Use of tobacco by adolescents is a major public health problem in all six WHO regions. Worldwide, more countries need to develop, implement, and evaluate their tobacco-control programs to address the use of all types of tobacco products, especially among girls.

  15. A century of growth? A history of tobacco production and marketing in Malawi, 1890-2005

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prowse, Martin

    2011-01-01

    During the past century tobacco production and marketing in Nyasaland/Malawi has undergone periods of dynamism similar to changes since the early 1990s. This article highlights four recurrent patterns. First, estate owners have either fostered or constrained peasant/smallholder production dependent...... on complementarities or competition with their estates. Second, rapid expansion of peasant/smallholder production has led to three recurrent outcomes: a large multiplier effect in tobacco-rich districts; re-regulation of the marketing of peasant/smallholder tobacco by the (colonial) state; and, lastly, concerns over...... the supply of food crops. The article concludes by arguing that whilst the reform of burley tobacco production and marketing in the 1990s engaged with the first two issues, it may have benefitted from paying greater attention to the latter two issues as well....

  16. Alternative indicators for measuring hospital productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serway, G D; Strum, D W; Haug, W F

    1987-08-01

    This article explores the premise that the appropriateness and usefulness of typical hospital productivity measures have been affected by three changes in delivery: Organizational restructuring and other definition and data source changes that make full-time equivalent employee (FTE) measurements ambiguous. Transition to prospective payment (diagnosis-related groups). Increase in capitation (prepaid, at risk) programs. The effects of these changes on productivity management indicate the need for alternative productivity indicators. Several productivity measures that complement these changes in internal operations and the external hospital business environment are presented. These are based on an analysis of four hospitals within a multihospital system, and an illustration and interpretation of an array of measures, based on ten months of actual data, is provided. In conclusion, the recommendation is made for hospital management to collect an expanded set of productivity measures and review them in light of changing expense and revenue management schemes inherent in new payment modes.

  17. Regulation of gene expression by tobacco product preparations in cultured human dermal fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malpass, Gloria E., E-mail: gloria.malpass@gmail.com [Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Wake Forest University Health Sciences, Winston-Salem, NC 27157 (United States); Arimilli, Subhashini, E-mail: sarimill@wakehealth.edu [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Wake Forest University Health Sciences, Winston-Salem, NC 27157 (United States); Prasad, G.L., E-mail: prasadg@rjrt.com [R and D Department, R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company, Winston-Salem, NC 27102 (United States); Howlett, Allyn C., E-mail: ahowlett@wakehealth.edu [Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Wake Forest University Health Sciences, Winston-Salem, NC 27157 (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Skin fibroblasts comprise the first barrier of defense against wounds, and tobacco products directly contact the oral cavity. Cultured human dermal fibroblasts were exposed to smokeless tobacco extract (STE), total particulate matter (TPM) from tobacco smoke, or nicotine at concentrations comparable to those found in these extracts for 1 h or 5 h. Differences were identified in pathway-specific genes between treatments and vehicle using qRT-PCR. At 1 h, IL1α was suppressed significantly by TPM and less significantly by STE. Neither FOS nor JUN was suppressed at 1 h by tobacco products. IL8, TNFα, VCAM1, and NFκB1 were suppressed after 5 h with STE, whereas only TNFα and NFκB1 were suppressed by TPM. At 1 h with TPM, secreted levels of IL10 and TNFα were increased. Potentially confounding effects of nicotine were exemplified by genes such as ATF3 (5 h), which was increased by nicotine but suppressed by other components of STE. Within 2 h, TPM stimulated nitric oxide production, and both STE and TPM increased reactive oxygen species. The biological significance of these findings and utilization of the gene expression changes reported herein regarding effects of the tobacco product preparations on dermal fibroblasts will require additional research. - Highlights: • Tobacco product preparations (TPPs) alter gene expression in dermal fibroblasts. • Some immediate early genes critical to the inflammatory process are affected. • Different TPPs produce differential responses in certain pro-inflammatory genes.

  18. [Fiscal policy, affordability and cross effects in the demand for tobacco products: the case of Uruguay].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbajales, Alejandro Ramos; Curti, Dardo

    2010-01-01

    Uruguay, a country with a solid tobacco control policy since 2005 shows, contrary to expectations, an insignificant decrease in total tobacco products' sales in the last five years. The hypothesis is that on one side, changes in household income and the income elasticity of the demand for cigarettes were important countervailing factors in the demand of both products. The period 2005-2009 shows a large increase of 36% in household real income in Uruguay due to fast economic recovery after the 2002 crisis. The second factor is the interchangeability of roll your own and cigarettes and the impact on the demand of each product as a reaction to tax and price changes. The tax and price of roll your own tobacco remains substantially lower than that of cigarettes. This fact, and the increased substitution of roll your own for cigarettes seems to be the main reasons for the low impact of the policy of tobacco tax and price increases. This paper then consists of a revision of a 2004 study to estimate separate demands for both main tobacco products and obtain estimates for own price, cross price and income elasticities. Then, a simulation study was performed using the elasticities found and two scenarios of increases in household income: moderate (2.5% per year) and high (5% per year) confirming that countries where income is growing fast and with a potential for substitution towards cheaper products require substantial cigarette tax and price increases for a fiscal tobacco control policy to become effective.

  19. U.S. Demand for Tobacco Products in a System Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yuqing; Zhen, Chen; Dench, Daniel; Nonnemaker, James M

    2016-07-11

    This study estimated a system of demand for cigarettes, little cigars/cigarillos, large cigars, e-cigarettes, smokeless tobacco, and loose smoking tobacco using market-level scanner data for convenience stores. We found that the unconditional own-price elasticities for the six categories are -1.188, -1.428, -1.501, -2.054, -0.532, and -1.678, respectively. Several price substitute (e.g., cigarettes and e-cigarettes) and complement (e.g., cigarettes and smokeless tobacco) relationships were identified. Magazine and television advertising increased demand for e-cigarettes, and magazine advertising increased demand for smokeless tobacco and had spillover effects on demand for other tobacco products. We also reported the elasticities by U.S. census regions and market size. These results may have important policy implications, especially viewed in the context of the rise of electronic cigarettes and the potential for harm reduction if combustible tobacco users switch to non-combustible tobacco products. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Toward the stereochemical identification of prohibited characterizing flavors in tobacco products: the case of strawberry flavor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschke, Meike; Hutzler, Christoph; Henkler, Frank; Luch, Andreas

    2015-08-01

    With the revision of the European Tobacco Products Directive (2014/40/EU), characterizing flavors such as strawberry, candy, vanillin or chocolate will be prohibited in cigarettes and fine-cut tobacco. Product surveillance will therefore require analytical means to define and subsequently detect selected characterizing flavors that are formed by supplemented flavors within the complex matrix tobacco. We have analyzed strawberry-flavored tobacco products as an example for characterizing fruit-like aroma. Using this approach, we looked into aroma components to find indicative patterns or features that can be used to satisfy obligatory product information as requested by the European Directive. Accordingly, a headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) technique was developed and coupled to subsequent gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to characterize different strawberry-flavored tobacco products (cigarettes, fine-cut tobacco, liquids for electronic cigarettes, snus, shisha tobacco) for their volatile additives. The results were compared with non-flavored, blend characteristic flavored and other fruity-flavored cigarettes, as well as fresh and dried strawberries. Besides different esters and aldehydes, the terpenes linalool, α-terpineol, nerolidol and limonene as well as the lactones γ-decalactone, γ-dodecalactone and γ-undecalactone could be verified as compounds sufficient to convey some sort of strawberry flavor to tobacco. Selected flavors, i.e., limonene, linalool, α-terpineol, citronellol, carvone and γ-decalactone, were analyzed further with respect to their stereoisomeric composition by using enantioselective HS-SPME-GC/MS. These experiments confirmed that individual enantiomers that differ in taste or physiological properties can be distinguished within the tobacco matrix. By comparing the enantiomeric composition of these compounds in the tobacco with that of fresh and dried strawberries, it can be concluded that non-natural strawberry

  1. Community-based advocacy opportunities for tobacco control: experience from Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagaruki, Lutgard K

    2010-06-01

    Tanzania is third in Africa in tobacco production after Malawi and Zimbabwe. In spite of increased production, Tanzania remains a poor country, with tobacco farmers getting poorer and the country losing more than 16,500 hectares of forests annually from tobacco curing alone. Tanzania grows fire-cured and air-cured tobacco. Regarding tobacco use, 35% of Tanzanians smoke tobacco regularly and about 32% of all cancers at Ocean Road Cancer Institute are attributed to tobacco use, with the country spending more than $30m annually to treat tobacco-related cancers. Unfortunately, knowledge on tobacco-related hazards is limited even among policy/decision makers. However, surveys indicate that more than 65% of resource-poor tobacco farmers favour alternative livelihoods when assured of sustainable markets. There is need of intensifying advocacy campaigns against tobacco, in order to improve the socio-economic status of tobacco farmers, enhance public health and sustain the environment in Tanzania.

  2. 27 CFR 41.72 - Notice for smokeless tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... designation. Every package of chewing tobacco or snuff shall, before removal subject to internal revenue tax... tobacco” or “snuff.” As an alternative, packages of chewing tobacco may be designated “Tax Class C,” and packages of snuff may be designated “Tax Class M.” (b) Product weight. Every package of chewing tobacco...

  3. Non-cigarette tobacco products: what have we learnt and where are we headed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Richard J

    2012-03-01

    A wide variety of non-cigarette forms of tobacco and nicotine exist, and their use varies regionally and globally. Smoked forms of tobacco such as cigars, bidis, kreteks and waterpipes have high popularity and are often perceived erroneously as less hazardous than cigarettes, when in fact their health burden is similar. Smokeless tobacco products vary widely around the world in form and the health hazards they present, with some clearly toxic forms (eg, in South Asia) and some forms with far fewer hazards (eg, in Sweden). Nicotine delivery systems not directly reliant on tobacco are also emerging (eg, electronic nicotine delivery systems). The presence of such products presents challenges and opportunities for public health. Future regulatory actions such as expansion of smoke-free environments, product health warnings and taxation may serve to increase or decrease the use of non-cigarette forms of tobacco. These regulations may also bring about changes in non-cigarette tobacco products themselves that could impact public health by affecting attractiveness and/or toxicity.

  4. Preliminary investigation of the advertising and availability of PREPs, the new "safe" tobacco products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickman, Norval; Klonoff, Elizabeth A; Landrine, Hope; Kashima, Kennon; Parekh, Bina; Fernandez, Senaida; Thomas, Kamala; Brouillard, Catherine; Zolezzi, Michele; Jensen, Jennifer; Weslowski, Zorahna

    2004-08-01

    The tobacco industry recently introduced a new set of "safe" cigarettes and nicotine delivery devices that purportedly entail reduced tobacco-related disease risk due to their lower level of some carcinogens and toxins. Little is know about the biological impact of these potential reduced exposure products (PREPs) and nothing is known about their advertising and availability. Hence, two pilot studies were conducted to examine the latter issues for the first time. In Study 1, we examined tobacco ads in 10 popular magazines 1998--2002 and found that only 1% of ads were for PREPs. In Study 2, we attempted to purchase PREPs in a random sample of 113 small stores and found that only 4.4% sold any PREP. These preliminary findings tentatively suggest that the industry might not yet be heavily invested in products that have the potential to increase tobacco use by decreasing its perceived harm. Studies with larger samples are recommended.

  5. What Are Tobacco, Nicotine, and E-Cigarette Products?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... e-cigarettes by the time they start 9th grade are more likely than others to start smoking traditional cigarettes ... now, smokers who want to quit have other good options with proven effectiveness. Find out more at teen.smokefree.gov and cdc.gov/tobacco/ ...

  6. Mixed Culture PHA Production With Alternating Feedstocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira, C.S.S.; Duque, A.F.; Carvalho, Gilda

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) are a sustainable alternative to conventional plastics that can be obtained from industrial wastes/by-products using mixed microbial cultures (MMC). MMC PHA production is commonly carried out in a 3-stage process consisting of an acidogenic stage, a PHA producing culture...... selection stage, and a PHA production phase. This work investigated the performance robustness and microbial population dynamics of a PHA producing MMC when subjected to a feedstock shift, mimicking a seasonal feedstock scenario, from cheese whey to sugar cane molasses. Research was focused...... on the possibility of tailoring PHA through the selection of feedstock: either using feedstocks with different compositions or mixing two or more fermented substrates with different organic acid profiles. This knowledge is expected to contribute to the extended application of this promising process for resource...

  7. Financial products as alternatives to traditional deposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Lidia MANEA

    2016-05-01

    In this context, increasing the safety of depositors appears as an undisputed necessity, which translates to our approach in the development of a constructive type applied research that takes into account the following stages: short description of risks and uncertainties characterizing the economic environment with emphasis on the importance of the financial instruments; analysis of empirical data on deposits in lei and euro at national level, identifying possible causes which led to one preference or another and finding the causes underlying the different options manifested in the capital, as compared to other counties; identifying the products that offer a dangerous alternative to traditional deposits from the Romanian banking market and describing these products and their related risks; the proposal of a new product, demonstrating its effectiveness by testing and confirmation of two hypotheses.

  8. A Survey of Alternative Oxygen Production Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueck, Dale E.; Parrish, Clyde F.; Buttner, William J.; Surma, Jan M.; Delgado, H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Utilization of the Martian atmosphere for the production of fuel and oxygen has been extensively studied. The baseline fuel production process is a Sabatier reactor, which produces methane and water from carbon dioxide and hydrogen. The oxygen produced from the electrolysis of the water is only half of that needed for methane-based rocket propellant, and additional oxygen is needed for breathing air, fuel cells and other energy sources. Zirconia electrolysis cells for the direct reduction of CO2 arc being developed as an alternative means of producing oxygen, but present many challenges for a large-scale oxygen production system. The very high operating temperatures and fragile nature of the cells coupled with fairly high operating voltages leave room for improvement. This paper will survey alternative oxygen production technologies, present data on operating characteristics, materials of construction, and some preliminary laboratory results on attempts to implement each. Our goal is to significantly improve upon the characteristics of proposed zirconia cells for oxygen production. To achieve that goal we are looking at electrolytic systems that operate at significantly lower temperatures, preferably below 31C to allow the incorporation of liquid CO2 in the electrolyte. Our preliminary results indicate that such a system will have much higher current densities and have simpler cathode construction than a porous gas feed electrode system. Such a system could be achieved based on nonaqueous electrolytes or ionic liquids. We are focusing our research on the anode reaction that will produce oxygen from a product generated at the cathode using CO2 as the feed. Operation at low temperatures also will open up the full range of polymer and metal materials, allowing a more robust system design to withstand the rigors of flight, landing, and long term unattended operation on the surface of Mars.

  9. Problems in the Innovation of Tobacco Production Organization Mode in Sichuan Province and Recommendations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Li-ming; LEI Qiang; HU Jian-xin; GU Hui-zhan; WANG Yong; XIANG Jin-you; LUO Ding-qi; YANG Xing-you

    2012-01-01

    We summarize the main forms of tobacco production organization in Sichuan Province,including traditional peasant households,large scale growers,family farms,tobacco farmers’ associations,and specialized tobacco cooperatives.In the process of innovation of production organization mode,some problems are pointed out,such as lack of management talents and long-term incentive mechanism,lack of standardization in operation,bottleneck in land and financing,low economic benefits of cooperatives,and difficulty in protecting farmers’ interests and rights.We put forth the following recommendations for advancing the innovation of tobacco production organization mode in Sichuan Province:forming the longterm mechanism for supporting the innovation of production organization forms;standardizing the operation of the specialized cooperative organizations;strengthening personnel training,and establishing tobacco farmers’ principal position;expanding cooperative economic production organizations,and achieving moderate concentration of land size;strengthening information services,to boost the development of cooperative production organizations.

  10. A century of growth? A history of tobacco production and marketing in Malawi, 1890-2005

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prowse, Martin

    2011-01-01

    During the past century tobacco production and marketing in Nyasaland/Malawi has undergone periods of dynamism similar to changes since the early 1990s. This article highlights four recurrent patterns. First, estate owners have either fostered or constrained peasant/smallholder production depende...... the supply of food crops. The article concludes by arguing that whilst the reform of burley tobacco production and marketing in the 1990s engaged with the first two issues, it may have benefitted from paying greater attention to the latter two issues as well.......During the past century tobacco production and marketing in Nyasaland/Malawi has undergone periods of dynamism similar to changes since the early 1990s. This article highlights four recurrent patterns. First, estate owners have either fostered or constrained peasant/smallholder production dependent...... on complementarities or competition with their estates. Second, rapid expansion of peasant/smallholder production has led to three recurrent outcomes: a large multiplier effect in tobacco-rich districts; re-regulation of the marketing of peasant/smallholder tobacco by the (colonial) state; and, lastly, concerns over...

  11. Scope of illegal tobacco products sales in Kazan city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananjeva, G.A.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Pilot assessment of illegal tobacco sales was conducted in Kazan city. The revealed law violations include placement of tobacco sales points within 100 meters around educational institutions, single cigarette sales and cigarette sales to minors. Single cigarettes were more likely to be sold in two of five types of sales outlets – pavilions and kiosks, those placed closer to educational institutions, and where larger part of the storefront was dedicated to cigarette packs. Points of sales with similar characteristics were more likely to sell to minors as well. Placement of notes regarding ban of cigarette sales to minors does not influence the levels of illegal sales. Measures to curb the levels of illegal cigarette sales were recommended. (Full text is in Russian

  12. Production of spider silk proteins in tobacco and potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheller, J; Gührs, K H; Grosse, F; Conrad, U

    2001-06-01

    Spider dragline silk is a proteinaceous fiber with remarkable mechanical properties that make it attractive for technical applications. Unfortunately, the material cannot be obtained in large quantities from spiders. We have therefore generated transgenic tobacco and potato plants that express remarkable amounts of recombinant Nephila clavipes dragline proteins. Using a gene synthesis approach, the recombinant proteins exhibit homologies of >90% compared to their native models. Here, we demonstrate the accumulation of recombinant silk proteins, which are encoded by synthetic genes of 420-3,600 base pairs, up to a level of at least 2% of total soluble protein in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of tobacco and potato leaves and potato tubers, respectively. Using the present expression system, spider silk proteins up to 100 kDa could be detected in plant tissues. When produced in plants, the recombinant spidroins exhibit extreme heat stability-a property that is used to purify the spidroins by a simple and efficient procedure.

  13. A test strategy for the assessment of additive attributed toxicity of tobacco products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kienhuis, Anne S; Staal, Yvonne C M; Soeteman-Hernández, Lya G; van de Nobelen, Suzanne; Talhout, Reinskje

    2016-08-01

    The new EU Tobacco Product Directive (TPD) prohibits tobacco products containing additives that are toxic in unburnt form or that increase overall toxicity of the product. This paper proposes a strategy to assess additive attributed toxicity in the context of the TPD. Literature was searched on toxicity testing strategies for regulatory purposes from tobacco industry and governmental institutes. Although mainly traditional in vivo testing strategies have been applied to assess toxicity of unburnt additives and increases in overall toxicity of tobacco products due to additives, in vitro tests combined with toxicogenomics and validated using biomarkers of exposure and disease are most promising in this respect. As such, tests are needed that are sensitive enough to assess additive attributed toxicity above the overall toxicity of tobacco products, which can associate assay outcomes to human risk and exposure. In conclusion, new, sensitive in vitro assays are needed to conclude whether comparable testing allows for assessment of small changes in overall toxicity attributed to additives. A more pragmatic approach for implementation on a short-term is mandated lowering of toxic emission components. Combined with risk assessment, this approach allows assessment of effectiveness of harm reduction strategies, including banning or reducing of additives.

  14. Evidence brief – Plain packaging of tobacco products: measures to decrease smoking initiation and increase cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Céline E J L Brassart

    2015-01-01

    to women and young people. They also show that, when combined with large pictorial health warnings, plain-packaging measures increase awareness about the risks related to tobacco consumption, encouraging more people to quit and fewer to start. In that these measures merely regulate the use of logos......Evidence shows that the packaging of tobacco products is designed for badge products targetting specific groups, particularly women and young people, and that attractive packaging tends to weaken warnings about the harmful health effects of the products. To preserve the effectiveness of the health...... warnings – a requirement under Articles 11 and 13 of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco - the guidelines on the implementation of these articles recommend the adoption of plain-packaging measures. Studies have revealed that plain packaging reduces the attractiveness of the product, particularly...

  15. Price elasticity of tobacco products among economic classes in India, 2011–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaraj, Sakthivel; Srivastava, Swati; Karan, Anup

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The objectives of this study are to: (1) examine the pattern of price elasticity of three major tobacco products (bidi, cigarette and leaf tobacco) by economic groups of population based on household monthly per capita consumption expenditure in India and (2) assess the effect of tax increases on tobacco consumption and revenue across expenditure groups. Setting Data from the 2011–2012 nationally representative Consumer Expenditure Survey from 101 662 Indian households were used. Participants Households which consumed any tobacco or alcohol product were retained in final models. Primary outcome measures The study draws theoretical frameworks from a model using the augmented utility function of consumer behaviour, with a two-stage two-equation system of unit values and budget shares. Primary outcome measures were price elasticity of demand for different tobacco products for three hierarchical economic groups of population and change in tax revenue due to changes in tax structure. We finally estimated price elasticity of demand for bidi, cigarette and leaf tobacco and effects of changes in their tax rates on demand for these tobacco products and tax revenue. Results Own price elasticities for bidi were highest in the poorest group (−0.4328) and lowest in the richest group (−0.0815). Cigarette own price elasticities were −0.832 in the poorest group and −0.2645 in the richest group. Leaf tobacco elasticities were highest in the poorest (−0.557) and middle (−0.4537) groups. Conclusions Poorer group elasticities were the highest, indicating that poorer consumers are more price responsive. Elasticity estimates show positive distributional effects of uniform bidi and cigarette taxation on the poorest consumers, as their consumption is affected the most due to increases in taxation. Leaf tobacco also displayed moderate elasticities in poor and middle tertiles, suggesting that tax increases may result in a trade-off between consumption decline and

  16. Expression of the major mugwort pollen allergen Art v 1 in tobacco plants and cell cultures: problems and perspectives for allergen production in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegert, Marc; Pertl-Obermeyer, Heidi; Gadermaier, Gabriele; Ferreira, Fatima; Obermeyer, Gerhard

    2012-03-01

    An economic and cheap production of large amounts of recombinant allergenic proteins might become a prerequisite for the common use of microarray-based diagnostic allergy assays which allow a component-specific diagnosis. A molecular pharming strategy was applied to express the major allergen of Artemisia vulgaris pollen, Art v 1, in tobacco plants and tobacco cell cultures. The original Art v 1 with its endogenous signal peptide which directs Art v 1 to the secretory pathway, was expressed in transiently transformed tobacco leaves but was lost in stable transformed tobacco plants during the alternation of generations. Using a light-regulated promoter and "hiding" the recombinant Art v 1 in the ER succeeded in expression of Art v 1 over three generations of tobacco plants and in cell cultures generated from stable transformed plants. However, the amounts of the recombinant allergen were sufficient for analysis but not high enough to allow an economic production. Although molecular pharming has been shown to work well for the production of non-plant therapeutic proteins, it might be less efficient for closely related plant proteins.

  17. Trace metal concentration in different Indian tobacco products and related health implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, S; Yadav, S; Singh, I

    2010-01-01

    Concentrations of seven heavy metals, viz. Cd, Ni, Pb, Cr, Cu, Fe and Zn were determined in 30 samples of various brands of five different tobacco product types easily available in Indian markets. Three product types cigarettes, cigars and biri (tobacco rolled in dry leaf and smoked without filter) are consumed by smoking while chewing tobacco and snuff are consumed by chewing and sniffing, respectively. The metal content showed smoking and non-smoking type, brand and element specific variations. In the non-smoking type, chewing tobacco samples contained more heavy metals compared to snuff samples. Biri showed minimum metal content compared to cigarettes and cigars among the smoking types. This could be due to the metal enrichment during both chemical and physical processing in finished product; biri being the most raw and cheap product. The intra brand variations also indicate the same as the processing technologies are exclusive and different for each brand. The results are nearly comparable to the existing data with limited exceptions. We suggest that the smoke and ash produced could be significant contributor to metal load in the soil, air and water systems in addition to the adverse human health effects via direct tobacco consumption.

  18. 77 FR 61007 - Request for Nominations for Voting Members on a Public Advisory Committee; Tobacco Products...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-05

    ... Products Scientific Advisory Committee. Nominations received after December 4, 2012, will be considered for nomination to the committee as later vacancies occur. ADDRESSES: All nominations for membership should be... nomination for voting members on the Tobacco Products Scientific Advisory Committee. Elsewhere in this...

  19. Combating counterfeit medicines and illicit trade in tobacco products: minefields in global health governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberman, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    This article examines two spheres of global governance in which the World Health Organization (WHO) has sought to exercise international leadership - combating "counterfeit" medicines and illicit trade in tobacco products. Medicines and tobacco products lie at polar opposite ends of the health spectrum, and are regulated for vastly different reasons and through different tools and approaches. Nevertheless, attempts to govern counterfeit trade in each of these products raise a host of somewhat similar challenges, involving normative and operational conflicts that cut across the crowded intersection of health protection and promotion, intellectual property protection, and activity to combat transnational organized crime. As negotiations of an illicit trade protocol to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control enter their final stages, lessons learned from counterfeit medicines governance need to be applied to ensure that the most appropriate governance arrangements are adopted.

  20. [The new directive on tobacco products: "(a Battle) ended, (Battle) is just beginning"!].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciobanu, Magdalena; Postolache, Paraschiva

    2014-01-01

    As tobacco products are sold in all the 28 member states of the European Union, they are subject of regulation of the internal common market. Thus, the Directive 2001/37/EC lays down rules at Union level concerning the manufacture, presentation and sale of tobacco products. In order to reflect scientific, market and international developments, substantial changes have to be made and the Directive was replaced by a new Directive. The process has begun in 2009 and was finished in December 2013, with a political agreement regarding the new provisions. The final vote in the European Parliament (expected for February 2014) will mark the end of a long and difficult legislative process. The article presents the main changes of the regulation of tobacco products from the point of view of health professionals, closer to their expectations and understandings. The complete text in Romanian and English language of the new directive will be available on: www.stopfumat.eu.

  1. Correlation between pH and nicotine content in extract of nonsmoking tobacco product – snus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Don

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available All tobacco products even non-smoking contain nicotine, which has special effect on consumer’s organism and causes addiction. Necessity of nicotine content in tobacco products regulation inspires researches in this field. Popularity of non-smoking product snus is growing. Main advantage of this product is absence of smoke formation and as the result its consumption is possible in any place where smoking is prohibited. Snus contains tobacco, salt (NaCl for aroma stabilization and preservation, sodium carbonate (Na2CO3 for acidity regulation, propylene glycol for water retaining, flavoring and water. Physiological effect on consumer’s organism has only nicotine which is present in unbound form. Unbound nicotine content can be regulated by changing acidity of the product. For research samples of snus with the same ingredients content but different sodium carbonate content have been prepared. It has been discovered that changing sodium carbonate content leads to altering of unbound nicotine content in extract. Sample of snus with 6 % of sodium carbonate contained 0.51 % of unbound nicotine. Maximum score after tasting had sample with 6 % of sodium carbonate. It has been discovered that maximum content of sodium carbonate in the product should be 6 %. As the result recipes and technological instructions for manufacturing non-smoking tobacco product with altering nicotine content have been developed.

  2. The ban on smokeless tobacco products is systematically violated in Chennai, India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidhubala, E; Pisinger, C; Basumallik, B

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: India is the world's third largest consumer of tobacco. There are twice as many users of smokeless tobacco products (STPs) as cigarette smokers. The Government of Tamil Nadu has banned the sale of gutkha and pan masala in 2013. Our aim was to identify the varieties of illegal STP...... not have a pictorial warning; a text warning was printed on 80.8%, but only two products had the messages in Tamil; 70% had promotional messages printed, and 57% had their registration numbers printed. CONCLUSION: The ban on STP is being systematically violated in Chennai. STP are cheap and easily...

  3. Genetic Algorithm Based Production Planning for Alternative Process Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Fa-ping; SUN Hou-fang; SHAHID I. Butt

    2009-01-01

    Production planning under flexible job shop environment is studied. A mathematic model is formulated to help improve alternative process production. This model, in which genetic algorithm is used, is expected to result in better production planning, hence towards the aim of minimizing production cost under the constraints of delivery time and other scheduling conditions. By means of this algorithm, all planning schemes which could meet all requirements of the constraints within the whole solution space are exhaustively searched so as to find the optimal one. Also, a case study is given in the end to support and validate this model. Our results show that genetic algorithm is capable of locating feasible process routes to reduce production cost for certain tasks.

  4. Production of jet fuel from alternative source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eller, Zoltan; Papp, Anita; Hancsok, Jenoe [Pannonia Univ., Veszprem (Hungary). MOL Dept. of Hydrocarbon and Coal Processing

    2013-06-01

    Recent demands for low aromatic content jet fuels have shown significant increase in the last 20 years. This was generated by the growing of aviation. Furthermore, the quality requirements have become more aggravated for jet fuels. Nowadays reduced aromatic hydrocarbon fractions are necessary for the production of jet fuels with good burning properties, which contribute to less harmful material emission. In the recent past the properties of gasolines and diesel gas oils were continuously severed, and the properties of jet fuels will be more severe, too. Furthermore, it can become obligatory to blend alternative components into jet fuels. With the aromatic content reduction there is a possibility to produce high energy content jet fuels with the desirable properties. One of the possibilities is the blending of biocomponents from catalytic hydrogenation of triglycerides. Our aim was to study the possibilities of producing low sulphur and aromatic content jet fuels in a catalytic way. On a CoMo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst we studied the possibilities of quality improving of a kerosene fraction and coconut oil mixture depending on the change of the process parameters (temperature, pressure, liquid hourly space velocity, volume ratio). Based on the quality parameters of the liquid products we found that we made from the feedstock in the adequate technological conditions products which have a high smoke point (> 35 mm) and which have reduced aromatic content and high paraffin content (90%), so these are excellent jet fuels, and their stack gases damage the environment less. (orig.)

  5. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Use of Cigarettes and Smokeless Tobacco Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcalá, Héctor E; von Ehrenstein, Ondine S; Tomiyama, A Janet

    2016-10-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have been linked to increased use of tobacco products later in life. However, studies to date have ignored smokeless tobacco products. To address this, data from the 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, which interviewed adults 18 years and over (N = 102,716) were analyzed. Logistic regression models were fit to estimate odds ratios of ever smoking, current smoking and current smokeless tobacco use in relation to ACEs. Results showed that less than 4 % of respondents currently used smokeless tobacco products, while 44.95 and 18.57 % reported ever and current smoking, respectively. Physical abuse (OR 1.40; 95 % CI 1.14, 1.72), emotional abuse (OR 1.41; 95 % CI 1.19, 1.67), sexual abuse (OR 0.70; 95 % CI 0.51, 0.95), living with a drug user (OR 1.50; 95 % CI 1.17, 1.93), living with someone who was jailed (OR 1.50; 95 % CI 1.11, 2.02) and having parents who were separated or divorced (OR 1.31; 95 % CI 1.09, 1.57) were associated with smokeless tobacco use in unadjusted models. After accounting for confounders, physical abuse (OR 1.43; 95 % CI 1.16, 1.78), emotional abuse (OR 1.32; 95 % CI 1.10, 1.57), living with a problem drinker (OR 1.30; 95 % CI 1.08, 1.58), living with a drug user (OR 1.31; 95 % CI 1.00, 1.72) and living with adults who treated each other violently (OR 1.30; 95 % CI 1.05, 1.62) were associated with smokeless tobacco use. Living with someone who was mentally ill (OR 0.70; 95 % CI 0.53, 0.92) was associated with smokeless tobacco use after accounting for confounders and all ACEs. Results indicated that some childhood adversities are associated with use of smokeless tobacco products. Special attention is needed to prevent tobacco use of different types among those experiencing ACEs.

  6. From Pandemic Preparedness to Biofuel Production: Tobacco Finds Its Biotechnology Niche in North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua D. Powell

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In 2012 scientists funded by the United States Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA produced 10 million doses of influenza vaccine in tobacco in a milestone deadline of one month. Recently the experimental antibody cocktail Zmapp™, also produced in tobacco, has shown promise as an emergency intervention therapeutic against Ebola virus. These two examples showcase how collaborative efforts between government, private industry and academia are applying plant biotechnology to combat pathogenic agents. Opportunities now exist repurposing tobacco expression systems for exciting new applications in synthetic biology, biofuels production and industrial enzyme production. As plant-produced biotherapeutics become more mainstream, government funding agencies need to be cognizant of the idea that many plant-produced biologicals are often safer, cheaper, and just as efficacious as traditionally used expression systems.

  7. Determination of Aflatoxin B1 in Smokeless Tobacco Products by Use of UHPLC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zitomer, Nicholas; Rybak, Michael E; Li, Zhong; Walters, Matthew J; Holman, Matthew R

    2015-10-21

    This work developed a UHPLC-MS/MS method for the detection and quantitation of aflatoxins in smokeless tobacco products, which was then used to determine aflatoxin B1 concentrations in 32 smokeless tobacco products commercially available in the United States. Smokeless tobacco products were dried, milled, and amended with (13)C17-labeled internal standards, extracted in water/methanol solution in the presence of a surfactant, isolated through use of immunoaffinity column chromatography, and reconstituted in mobile phase prior to UHPLC-MS/MS analysis. The method was capable of baseline separation of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 in a 2.5 min run by use of a fused core C18 column and a water/methanol gradient. MS/MS transition (m/z) 313.3 → 241.2 was used for aflatoxin B1 quantitation, with 313.3 → 285.1 used for confirmation. The limit of detection (LOD) for aflatoxin B1 was 0.007 parts per billion (ppb). Method imprecision for aflatoxin B1 (expressed as coefficient of variation) ranged from 5.5 to 9.4%. Spike recoveries were 105-111%. Aflatoxin B1 concentrations in the smokeless tobacco products analyzed ranged from snuffs and chews, whereas all moist snuff products tested were below LOD. The amounts of aflatoxin B1 detected were low relative to the 20 ppb regulatory limit established by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for foods and feeds.

  8. A history of tobacco production and marketing in Malawi, 1890-2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prowse, Martin Philip

    2013-01-01

    During the past century tobacco production and marketing in Nyasaland/Malawi has undergone periods of dynamism similar to changes since the early 1990s. This article highlights three recurrent patterns. First, estate owners have fostered or constrained peasant/smallholder production dependent on ...... concludes by assessing whether recent changes in the industry such as district markets, contract farming with smallholders, and the importance of credence factors have historical precedents, or are new developments in the industry.......During the past century tobacco production and marketing in Nyasaland/Malawi has undergone periods of dynamism similar to changes since the early 1990s. This article highlights three recurrent patterns. First, estate owners have fostered or constrained peasant/smallholder production dependent...... on complementarities or competition with estates. Second, the rapid expansion of peasant/smallholder production has led to large multiplier effects in tobacco-rich districts. Third, such expansion has also led to re-regulation of the marketing of peasant/smallholder tobacco by the (colonial) state. The article...

  9. The chemical composition of smokeless tobacco: a survey of products sold in the United States in 2006 and 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgerding, M F; Bodnar, J A; Curtin, G M; Swauger, J E

    2012-12-01

    Selected toxicant concentrations and other chemical measures have been determined for 43 U.S. smokeless tobacco products sold in 2006 and 2007. Products evaluated included moist snuff, dry snuff, loose leaf, plug, dissolvable and snus tobacco brands. Reference products available for scientific research purposes and eleven Swedish products were also evaluated and compared to the commercial products studied. Chemical endpoints determined included benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN), N'-nitrosoanatabine (NAT), N'-nitrosoanabasine (NAB), 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), nitrite, cadmium, lead, arsenic, nickel, chromium, chloride, water, pH and nicotine. Different toxicant profiles were observed for the products studied, with snus tobacco brands generally containing relatively low concentrations of B[a]P and tobacco specific nitrosamines (TSNAs) compared to other moist snuffs. Smokeless tobacco reference product toxicant profiles were similar to corresponding commercial products, with the exception of the TSNA content of the dry snuff reference material. TSNA concentrations observed for all commercial products were lower than historically reported values, likely reflecting changes in product shelf life, tobacco curing practices and, possibly, product blend formulations during the last 20-30 years. The survey results summarized provide a temporal point of comparison with future data anticipated from FDA "harmful and potentially harmful constituents in tobacco products" reporting.

  10. The Development of DNA Based Methods for the Reliable and Efficient Identification of Nicotiana tabacum in Tobacco and Its Derived Products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biswas, Sukumar; Fan, Wei; Li, Rong; Li, Sifan; Ping, Wenli; Li, Shujun; Naumova, Alexandra; Peelen, Tamara; Kok, Esther; Yuan, Zheng; Zhang, Dabing; Shi, Jianxin

    2016-01-01

    Reliable methods are needed to detect the presence of tobacco components in tobacco products to effectively control smuggling and classify tariff and excise in tobacco industry to control illegal tobacco trade. In this study, two sensitive and specific DNA based methods, one quantitative real-tim

  11. Tax Policy Impact on Consumption of Tobacco Products in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Zelenka

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the influence of excises increase and various non-price related measures on tobacco consumption. Therefore various regression models with different dependent and independent variables will be built, with the purpose of showing both their individual and cumulative impact. In all the models the price is definitely the most significant variable, but there are differences in price influence on consumption, depending on which series of cigarettes it relates to. That is logical because of the large difference in excises on different series of cigarettes. From other countries’ experience and the results of regression models used in this paper the most important conclusion is that the impact of excise duty is significant, however for building more representative models detailed data over a longer period of time is needed. Unfortunately in Croatia such data are not collected systematically.

  12. Chemical and toxicological characteristics of conventional and low-TSNA moist snuff tobacco products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Min-Ae; Marian, Catalin; Brasky, Theodore M; Reisinger, Sarah; Djordjevic, Mirjana; Shields, Peter G

    2016-03-14

    Use of smokeless tobacco products (STPs) is associated with oral cavity cancer and other health risks. Comprehensive analysis for chemical composition and toxicity is needed to compare conventional and newer STPs with lower tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs) yields. Seven conventional and 12 low-TSNA moist snuff products purchased in the U.S., Sweden, and South Africa were analyzed for 18 chemical constituents (International Agency for Research on Cancer classified carcinogens), pH, nicotine, and free nicotine. Chemicals were compared in each product using Wilcoxon rank-sum test and principle component analysis (PCA). Conventional compared to low-TSNA moist snuff products had higher ammonia, benzo[a]pyrene, cadmium, nickel, nicotine, nitrate, and TSNAs and had lower arsenic in dry weight content and per mg nicotine. Lead and chromium were significantly higher in low-TSNA moist snuff products. PCA showed a clear difference for constituents between conventional and low-TSNA moist snuff products. Differences among products were reduced when considered on a per mg nicotine basis. As one way to contextualize differences in constituent levels, probabilistic lifetime cancer risk was estimated for chemicals included in The University of California's carcinogenic potency database (CPDB). Estimated probabilistic cancer risks were 3.77-fold or 3-fold higher in conventional compared to low-TSNA moist snuff products under dry weight or under per mg nicotine content, respectively. In vitro testing for the STPs indicated low level toxicity and no substantial differences. The comprehensive chemical characterization of both conventional and low-TSNA moist snuff products from this study provides a broader assessment of understanding differences in carcinogenic potential of the products. In addition, the high levels and probabilistic cancer risk estimates for certain chemical constituents of smokeless tobacco products will further inform regulatory decision makers and aid them in

  13. 76 FR 54777 - Request for Nominations for Voting Members on a Public Advisory Committee; Tobacco Products...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-02

    ... adequately represented on advisory committees and, therefore, encourages nominations of qualified candidates... consideration for membership on the Tobacco Products Scientific Advisory Committee. Nominations received after November 1, 2011 will be considered for nomination to the committee if nominees are still needed....

  14. 78 FR 16824 - Tobacco Product Manufacturing Practice; Establishment of a Public Docket

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-19

    ... between 9 a.m. and 4 p.m., Monday through Friday, and will be posted to the docket at http://www... Management (see ADDRESSES) and may be seen by interested persons between 9 a.m. and 4 p.m., Monday through... authority to regulate tobacco product manufacturing, distribution, and marketing. The new provisions...

  15. 77 FR 7589 - Tobacco Products Scientific Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-13

    .... to 5 p.m., and on March 2, 2012, from 8 a.m. to 1 p.m. Location: Center for Tobacco Products, Food..., MD 20850, 1-877- 287-1373 (choose option 4), email: TPSAC@fda.hhs.gov , or FDA Advisory Committee... marketing. FDA intends to make background material available to the public no later than 2 business...

  16. 78 FR 55671 - Menthol in Cigarettes, Tobacco Products; Request for Comments; Extension of Comment Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 1140 Menthol in Cigarettes, Tobacco Products... regulatory actions that FDA might take with respect to menthol in cigarettes. The Agency is taking this... other information that may inform regulatory actions FDA might take with respect to menthol...

  17. 75 FR 52008 - Menthol Report Subcommittee of the Tobacco Products Scientific Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Menthol Report Subcommittee of the Tobacco Products... Administration (FDA). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: Menthol Report Subcommittee of... Secretary of Health and Human Services regarding the impact of use of menthol in cigarettes on the...

  18. 78 FR 44484 - Menthol in Cigarettes, Tobacco Products; Request for Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 1140 Menthol in Cigarettes, Tobacco Products... rulemaking (ANPRM) to obtain information related to the potential regulation of menthol in cigarettes. FDA is... of menthol in cigarettes. The preliminary scientific evaluation indicates there is likely a...

  19. 76 FR 2397 - Menthol Report Subcommittee of the Tobacco Products Scientific Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-13

    ... held on February 11, 2011, from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. Location: Center for Tobacco Products, 9200 Corporate..., MD 20850, 1-877-287-1373 (choose Option 4), e-mail: TPSAC@fda.hhs.gov or FDA Advisory Committee... background material available to the public no later than 2 business days before the meeting. If FDA...

  20. 76 FR 2398 - Tobacco Products Scientific Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-13

    .... Location: Center for Tobacco Products, 9200 Corporate Blvd., Rockville, MD 20850. The phone number is 1-877... Administration, 9200 Corporate Blvd., Rockville, MD 20850, 1-877-287-1373 (choose Option 4), e-mail: TPSAC@fda... 2 business days before the meeting. If FDA is unable to post the background material on its Web...

  1. Lung cancer biomarkers for the assessment of modified risk tobacco products: an oxidative stress perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Frazer J; Luettich, Karsta; Gregg, Evan O

    2013-05-01

    Manufacturers have developed prototype cigarettes yielding reduced levels of some tobacco smoke toxicants, when tested using laboratory machine smoking under standardised conditions. For the scientific assessment of modified risk tobacco products, tests that offer objective, reproducible data, which can be obtained in a much shorter time than the requirements of conventional epidemiology are needed. In this review, we consider whether biomarkers of biological effect related to oxidative stress can be used in this role. Based on published data, urinary 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2-deoxyguanosine, thymidine glycol, F2-isoprostanes, serum dehydroascorbic acid to ascorbic acid ratio and carotenoid concentrations show promise, while 4-hydroxynonenal requires further qualification.

  2. 论烟叶精益生产%On lean management in tobacco leaf production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冰火; 建利; 江洪东

    2014-01-01

    现代烟草农业的实施,推进了烟叶生产方式的转变,提升了烟叶生产力水平,但我国烟叶生产仍存在不平衡、不协调、不可持续的矛盾和问题,需要引入精益生产的理念,推行烟叶精益生产。烟叶精益生产是现代烟草农业建设的延伸与拓展,基地单元作为现代烟草农业建设的载体,要按照精益生产理念,打造基地单元升级版,实现烟叶生产的升级转型。烟叶精益生产主要包括精确信息、精良技术、精准作业、精细管理、精干队伍5个方面内容。烟叶精益生产的实施过程应先加强育苗、烘烤、分级三个工场的精准作业;烟叶田间重点突破土、肥、水、药精准施用;合理利用光温水气等自然资源,科学延长大田生育期;提高田间机械研发、配置、使用、管理水平,推进精良技术与精准作业。优化烟叶基层站与烟农专业合作社的组织架构,推进工序化生产、工位化作业、班组制管理与精细化考核,实现精益管理。%The construction of modern tobacco agriculture promoted transformation of tobacco leaf production and enhanced tobacco leaf productivity. However, tobacco leaf production still suffers from a series of problems such as lack of balance, co-ordination and sustainability. It is necessary to introduce the concept of lean management into tobacco leaf production. Lean management in tobacco leaf production can be considered as extension and expansion of modern tobacco agriculture construction. Tobacco leaf production lean management falls into five parts including accurate information, sophisticated technology, precise operation, fine management, and capable team. Lean management in implementation focuses on precise operation in seedling, curing and grading, on precise application of fertilizer, water and plant medicine, on extending growing period in field through rational use of natural resources such as light

  3. Perspectives on Tobacco Product Waste: A Survey of Framework Convention Alliance Members' Knowledge, Attitudes, and Beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javadian, Sanas; Stigler-Granados, Paula; Curtis, Clifton; Thompson, Francis; Huber, Laurent; Novotny, Thomas E

    2015-08-18

    Cigarette butts (tobacco product waste (TPW)) are the single most collected item in environmental trash cleanups worldwide. This brief descriptive study used an online survey tool (Survey Monkey) to assess knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs among individuals representing the Framework Convention Alliance (FCA) about this issue. The FCA has about 350 members, including mainly non-governmental tobacco control advocacy groups that support implementation of the World Health Organization's (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). Although the response rate (28%) was low, respondents represented countries from all six WHO regions. The majority (62%) have heard the term TPW, and nearly all (99%) considered TPW as an environmental harm. Most (77%) indicated that the tobacco industry should be responsible for TPW mitigation, and 72% felt that smokers should also be held responsible. This baseline information may inform future international discussions by the FCTC Conference of the Parties (COP) regarding environmental policies that may be addressed within FCTC obligations. Additional research is planned regarding the entire lifecycle of tobacco's impact on the environment.

  4. Use of alternative product in patients with chronic viral hepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmut Dulger

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Some of the patients with chronic hepatitis use both alternative product and/or antiviral treatment. These herbal products sometimes lead to clinical deterioration. In this study we aimed to determine the purpose of alternative product utilization and rate among the chronic hepatitis B (CHB and C (CHC patients. Methods: This prospective cohort study included 200 consecutive adult patients with chronic hepatitis B and C at the Department of Infectious Diseases, Ondokuz Mayis University, between 1 March 2012 and 30 July 2012. At enrollment, clinical information, demographics, laboratory variables and knowledge about alternative products were recorded. Results: Of the patients 150 had CHB, 50 had CHC. 54% of patients were male. Use of alternative products was 26%. Antiviral treatment rate was 48.5% for all patients. The most used alternative products were artichoke extract and honey. 67.3% of patients were using single alternative product whereas the others were using two or more alternative products. 46.2% of patients who use alternative product provided information about the alternative product usage, but the others did not. Conclusions: Majority of patients used alternative products. More than half of these patients did not give information to their physicians about their use of alternative medicine. Use of alternative product should be asked in all patients with chronic hepatitis. Herbal product usage was detected in majority of patients and also approximately half of these patients did not give information to their doctors about taking alternative medicine. In conclusion, it is necessary to take detailed information about herbal product usage in patients with chronic hepatitis. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2014; 4(3: 102-106

  5. 27 CFR 24.22 - Alternate method or procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alternate method or procedure. 24.22 Section 24.22 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions...

  6. Smokers' responses to advertisements for regular and light cigarettes and potential reduced-exposure tobacco products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, William L; Norton, Giulia diStefano; Ouellette, Tammy K; Rhodes, Wiliam M; Kling, Ryan; Connolly, Gregory N

    2004-12-01

    This study examines smokers' responses to advertisements for potentially reduced exposure tobacco products (PREP), light cigarettes, and regular cigarettes. A convenience sample of 600 adult smokers reviewed one actual advertisement for each type of product. Smokers ranked the products on health risk, amount of tar, and carcinogenicity, and identified the messages they perceived the advertisements to convey. Smokers perceived PREP products as having lower health risks (mean = 5.4 on a scale of 1-10) and carcinogens (6.6) than light cigarettes (5.8 and 6.9, respectively, p carcinogen levels than regular cigarettes (8.2 and 8.8, respectively, p tobacco products that are contrary to the scientific evidence. Explicit and implicit advertising messages may be strengthened by the perceived government endorsement. This supports the Institute of Medicine's recommendation to regulate the promotion, advertising, and labeling of PREP tobacco products and light cigarettes. Effective regulation may need to focus on consumer perceptions resulting from advertisements rather than the explicit content of advertising text.

  7. Surveillance of tobacco industry retail marketing activities of reduced harm products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Sandy; Giovino, Gary; Chaloupka, Frank

    2008-01-01

    With the introduction of potential reduced exposure products (PREPs) and the interest in studying tobacco harm reduction, sound research and surveillance are needed to examine and understand the distribution and availability of PREPs in communities, as well as the tobacco industry's marketing practices surrounding these products. We examined the availability and marketing of PREPs in a national sample of tobacco retail stores. We also compared the price of PREPs to those of premium brand cigarettes and examined the distribution of PREPs in comparison with premium brand cigarettes by store type, urbanization, region, and race/ethnicity. We found that PREPs are not widely available, are priced similarly to leading cigarette brands, and have few promotional offers. We also found some significant differences in the distribution of PREPs and cigarettes, as well as in the distribution of Ariva and Omni, by store type and community demographics. The fact that this study used data collected nationally emphasizes the importance of these findings and helps shed some light on the tobacco industry's PREP marketing strategies. This study's national sample provides a unique perspective that needs to be replicated if and when other PREPs are widely marketed.

  8. A Control System for Tobacco Shred Production Line Based on Industrial Ethernet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Zheng, Guang; Zhang, Xinfeng; Liu, Lei; Xi, Lei

    The Industrial Ethernet based on IP realizes interconnection of industrial network and information network, and it is the most potential technology in the new industrial net products. In this paper, the defects of the original control system for tobacco shred production line are analyzed, and the new design plan of control system based on EtherNet/IP is presented. The control net adopts redundant 1000M fiber optic ring network that consists of six managed Industrial Ethernet Switches, and they are distributed to the central control room, leaf processing line, shred processing line, mixed stem shred processing line, online mositure regain processing line and cut tobacco dryer control cabinet. The switch in the central control room works in the pattern of redundancy management, which can switch the link in the event of the failure in link of ring net, the recovery time of link line is less than 500ms, and each main PLC of control section has dual Network Adapters. The plan has been applied for reform of 5000kg/h Tobacco Primary Processing Line in Nanyang Cigarette Factory of China Tobacco Henan Industrial Corporation, and the configurable software and Industry Ethernet network which has been used promots the capability of automatic control system fundamentally, showing much better transmission efficiency and reliability, realizing the goal of high cost performance and making equipment's ability of handling grow fast.

  9. Popular perceptions of tobacco products and patterns of use among male college students in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichter, Mimi; Nichter, Mark; Van Sickle, David

    2004-07-01

    This paper examines popular perceptions of tobacco products and describes patterns of use among college youth in Karnataka, India. Data are drawn from 25 key informant interviews and six focus groups with male and female college students, interviews with shopkeepers, observational data on youth tobacco consumption, and a college-based survey. The survey was administered to 1587 males attending eleven colleges. Forty-five percent (n = 716) of college students surveyed had used tobacco products. Thirty-six percent (n = 573) had tried cigarettes, 10% (n = 157) had tried bidis, and 18% (n = 290) had tried gutkha. Tobacco consumption among smokers was low; for daily smokers, the mean number of cigarettes smoked was 6 per day. Students attending professional colleges, including engineering, medicine, and law were significantly more likely to have ever smoked and to be daily smokers when compared to students enrolled in other courses of study. In interviews, male students noted that smoking a cigarette enhanced one's manliness, relieved boredom, and eased tension. Although female students interviewed were non-smokers, several suggested that in the future, smoking might be an acceptable behavior among college-going females. When asked about their perceptions of smoking among youth in Western countries, the majority of students believed that three-quarters of male and female youth in the West smoked. This perception has been largely formed through media images, including satellite television and films. With regard to addiction, it was widely believed that filter-tipped cigarettes were one of the most addictive products because they are made of better quality tobacco, and are milder and smoother to smoke. Therefore, a person could easily smoke more of them, which would lead to addiction. Another widely held belief was that the more expensive the cigarette, the less harmful it was for one's health.

  10. Caregivers' interest in using smokeless tobacco products: Novel methods that may reduce children's exposure to secondhand smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagener, Theodore L; Tackett, Alayna P; Borrelli, Belinda

    2016-10-01

    The study examined caregivers' interest in using potentially reduced exposure tobacco products for smoking cessation, reduction, and to help them not smoke in places such as around their child, as all three methods would potentially lead to reduced secondhand smoke exposure for their children. A sample of 136 caregivers completed carbon monoxide testing to assess smoking status and a brief survey. Few caregivers had ever used potentially reduced exposure tobacco products (tobacco products to help them quit/stay quit from smoking (p < .05).

  11. Comprehensive chemical characterization of Rapé tobacco products: Nicotine, un-ionized nicotine, tobacco-specific N'-nitrosamines, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and flavor constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanfill, Stephen B; Oliveira da Silva, André Luiz; Lisko, Joseph G; Lawler, Tameka S; Kuklenyik, Peter; Tyx, Robert E; Peuchen, Elizabeth H; Richter, Patricia; Watson, Clifford H

    2015-08-01

    Rapé, a diverse group of smokeless tobacco products indigenous to South America, is generally used as a nasal snuff and contains substantial amount of plant material with or without tobacco. Previously uncharacterized, rapé contains addictive and harmful chemicals that may have public health implications for users. Here we report % moisture, pH, and the levels of total nicotine, un-ionized nicotine, flavor-related compounds, tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines (TSNAs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) for manufactured and hand-made rapé. Most rapé products were mildly acidic (pH 5.17-6.23) with total nicotine ranging from 6.32 to 47.6 milligram per gram of sample (mg/g). Calculated un-ionized nicotine ranged from 0.03 to 18.5 mg/g with the highest values associated with hand-made rapés (pH 9.75-10.2), which contain alkaline ashes. In tobacco-containing rapés, minor alkaloid levels and Fourier transform infrared spectra were used to confirm the presence of Nicotiana rustica, a high nicotine tobacco species. There was a wide concentration range of TSNAs and PAHs among the rapés analyzed. Several TSNAs and PAHs identified in the products are known or probable carcinogens according to the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Milligram quantities of some non-tobacco constituents, such as camphor, coumarin, and eugenol, warrant additional evaluation.

  12. Comparative In Vitro Toxicity Profile of Electronic and Tobacco Cigarettes, Smokeless Tobacco and Nicotine Replacement Therapy Products: E-Liquids, Extracts and Collected Aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Misra

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigs continues to increase worldwide in parallel with accumulating information on their potential toxicity and safety. In this study, an in vitro battery of established assays was used to examine the cytotoxicity, mutagenicity, genotoxicity and inflammatory responses of certain commercial e-cigs and compared to tobacco burning cigarettes, smokeless tobacco (SLT products and a nicotine replacement therapy (NRT product. The toxicity evaluation was performed on e-liquids and pad-collected aerosols of e-cigs, pad-collected smoke condensates of tobacco cigarettes and extracts of SLT and NRT products. In all assays, exposures with e-cig liquids and collected aerosols, at the doses tested, showed no significant activity when compared to tobacco burning cigarettes. Results for the e-cigs, with and without nicotine in two evaluated flavor variants, were very similar in all assays, indicating that the presence of nicotine and flavors, at the levels tested, did not induce any cytotoxic, genotoxic or inflammatory effects. The present findings indicate that neither the e-cig liquids and collected aerosols, nor the extracts of the SLT and NRT products produce any meaningful toxic effects in four widely-applied in vitro test systems, in which the conventional cigarette smoke preparations, at comparable exposures, are markedly cytotoxic and genotoxic.

  13. Comparative in vitro toxicity profile of electronic and tobacco cigarettes, smokeless tobacco and nicotine replacement therapy products: e-liquids, extracts and collected aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Manoj; Leverette, Robert D; Cooper, Bethany T; Bennett, Melanee B; Brown, Steven E

    2014-10-30

    The use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) continues to increase worldwide in parallel with accumulating information on their potential toxicity and safety. In this study, an in vitro battery of established assays was used to examine the cytotoxicity, mutagenicity, genotoxicity and inflammatory responses of certain commercial e-cigs and compared to tobacco burning cigarettes, smokeless tobacco (SLT) products and a nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) product. The toxicity evaluation was performed on e-liquids and pad-collected aerosols of e-cigs, pad-collected smoke condensates of tobacco cigarettes and extracts of SLT and NRT products. In all assays, exposures with e-cig liquids and collected aerosols, at the doses tested, showed no significant activity when compared to tobacco burning cigarettes. Results for the e-cigs, with and without nicotine in two evaluated flavor variants, were very similar in all assays, indicating that the presence of nicotine and flavors, at the levels tested, did not induce any cytotoxic, genotoxic or inflammatory effects. The present findings indicate that neither the e-cig liquids and collected aerosols, nor the extracts of the SLT and NRT products produce any meaningful toxic effects in four widely-applied in vitro test systems, in which the conventional cigarette smoke preparations, at comparable exposures, are markedly cytotoxic and genotoxic.

  14. Perspectives on Tobacco Product Waste: A Survey of Framework Convention Alliance Members’ Knowledge, Attitudes, and Beliefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanas Javadian

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette butts (tobacco product waste (TPW are the single most collected item in environmental trash cleanups worldwide. This brief descriptive study used an online survey tool (Survey Monkey to assess knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs among individuals representing the Framework Convention Alliance (FCA about this issue. The FCA has about 350 members, including mainly non-governmental tobacco control advocacy groups that support implementation of the World Health Organization’s (WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC. Although the response rate (28% was low, respondents represented countries from all six WHO regions. The majority (62% have heard the term TPW, and nearly all (99% considered TPW as an environmental harm. Most (77% indicated that the tobacco industry should be responsible for TPW mitigation, and 72% felt that smokers should also be held responsible. This baseline information may inform future international discussions by the FCTC Conference of the Parties (COP regarding environmental policies that may be addressed within FCTC obligations. Additional research is planned regarding the entire lifecycle of tobacco’s impact on the environment.

  15. Perspectives on Tobacco Product Waste: A Survey of Framework Convention Alliance Members’ Knowledge, Attitudes, and Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javadian, Sanas; Stigler-Granados, Paula; Curtis, Clifton; Thompson, Francis; Huber, Laurent; Novotny, Thomas E.

    2015-01-01

    Cigarette butts (tobacco product waste (TPW)) are the single most collected item in environmental trash cleanups worldwide. This brief descriptive study used an online survey tool (Survey Monkey) to assess knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs among individuals representing the Framework Convention Alliance (FCA) about this issue. The FCA has about 350 members, including mainly non-governmental tobacco control advocacy groups that support implementation of the World Health Organization’s (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). Although the response rate (28%) was low, respondents represented countries from all six WHO regions. The majority (62%) have heard the term TPW, and nearly all (99%) considered TPW as an environmental harm. Most (77%) indicated that the tobacco industry should be responsible for TPW mitigation, and 72% felt that smokers should also be held responsible. This baseline information may inform future international discussions by the FCTC Conference of the Parties (COP) regarding environmental policies that may be addressed within FCTC obligations. Additional research is planned regarding the entire lifecycle of tobacco’s impact on the environment. PMID:26295244

  16. Toxicity of Gutkha, a Smokeless Tobacco Product Gone Global: Is There More to the Toxicity than Nicotine?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel N. Willis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The popularity of smokeless tobacco (ST is growing rapidly and its prevalence of use is rising globally. Consumption of Gutkha, an addictive form of ST, is particularly common amongst South Asian communities throughout the World. This includes within the US, following large-scale immigration into the country. However, there exists a lack of knowledge concerning these alternative tobacco products. To this end, a study was carried out to determine the toxicity of gutkha, and what role, if any, nicotine contributes to the effects. Adult male mice were treated daily for 3-week (5 day/week, once/day, via the oral mucosa, with equal volumes (50 μL of either sterile water (control, a solution of nicotine dissolved in water (0.24 mg of nicotine, or a solution of lyophilized guthka dissolved in water (21 mg lyophilized gutkha. Serum cotinine, measured weekly, was 36 and 48 ng/mL in gutkha- and nicotine-treated mice, respectively. Results demonstrated that exposure to nicotine and gutkha reduced heart weight, while exposure to gutkha, but not nicotine, decreased liver weight, body weight, and serum testosterone levels (compared to controls. These findings suggest that short-term guhtka use adversely impacts growth and circulating testosterone levels, and that gutkha toxicity may be driven by components other than nicotine. As use of guthka increases worldwide, future studies are needed to further delineate toxicological implications such that appropriate policy decisions can be made.

  17. Monopole star products are non-alternative

    CERN Document Server

    Bojowald, Martin; Buyukcam, Umut; Strobl, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Non-associative algebras appear in some quantum-mechanical systems, for instance if a charged particle in a distribution of magnetic monopoles is considered. Using methods of deformation quantization it is shown here, that algebras for such systems cannot be alternative, i.e. their associator cannot be completely anti-symmetric.

  18. Policy alternatives for reducing tobacco sales to minors: results from a national survey of retail chain and franchise stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altman, D G; Linzer, J; Kropp, R; Descheemaeker, N; Feighery, E; Fortmann, S P

    1992-01-01

    Minors' access to tobacco has become an important public health issue. Little is known, however, about the knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behavior toward access among executives from businesses that sell tobacco. This study examined access from the perspective of corporate and regional headquarters of retail chains and franchises that sell tobacco. A total of 148 U.S. companies with the largest overall retail sales volume that sold tobacco were asked to participate; 91 agreed. The sample included grocery stores, convenience stores, gas station mini-marts, liquor stores, and drug stores. Data revealed at least moderate support for policies limiting youth tobacco access. Although most companies reported having in place policies to prevent minors from purchasing tobacco, these policies did not seem intensive. In addition, executives underestimated the extent of youth access. We conclude that the time is right for passage of bold policies to protect young people from tobacco.

  19. Association of Tobacco Products Use and Diabetes Mellitus-Results of a National Survey Among Adults in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Abdalla Abdelwahid Saeed

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To compare the tobacco products use patterns of known diabetics and non diabetics. Material and Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study using STEPwise approach among adults using a multistage, stratified, cluster random sample. Data was collected using a questionnaire which included sociodemographics; tobacco products use habits, history of diabetes, biochemical and anthropometric measurements.Results: Of the total of 4654 subjects who participated in the study, 1016 (21.8...

  20. 27 CFR 40.257 - Processed tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Processed tobacco. 40.257 Section 40.257 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES,...

  1. Evaluation of Measurement Tools for Tobacco Product Displays: Is there an App for that?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd B. Combs

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco product displays are a pervasive presence in convenience stores, supermarkets, pharmacies, and other retailers nationwide. The influence that tobacco product displays have on purchases and tobacco product initiation, particularly on young people and other vulnerable populations, is well known. An objective measurement tool that is valid, reliable, and feasible to use is needed to assess product displays in the retail setting. This study reports on the relative accuracy of various tools that measure area and/or distance in photos and thus could be applied to product displays. We compare results of repeated trials using five tools. Three tools are smartphone apps that measure objects in photos taken on the device; these are narrowed down from a list of 284 candidate apps. Another tool uses photos taken with any device and calculates relative area via a built-in function in the Microsoft Office Suite. The fifth uses photos taken with the Narrative Clip, a “life-logging” wearable camera. To evaluate validity and reliability, we assess each instrument's measurements and calculate intra-class correlation coefficients. Mean differences between observed measurements (via tape measure and those from the five tools range from just over one square foot to just over two square feet. Most instruments produce reliable estimates though some are sensitive to the size of the display. Results of this study indicate need for future research to test innovative measurement tools. This paper also solicits further discussion on how best to transform anecdotal knowledge of product displays as targeted and disproportionate marketing tactics into a scientific evidence base for public policy change.

  2. Characterization of Bacterial Communities in Selected Smokeless Tobacco Products Using 16S rDNA Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert E Tyx

    Full Text Available The bacterial communities present in smokeless tobacco (ST products have not previously reported. In this study, we used Next Generation Sequencing to study the bacteria present in U.S.-made dry snuff, moist snuff and Sudanese toombak. Sample diversity and taxonomic abundances were investigated in these products. A total of 33 bacterial families from four phyla, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes, were identified. U.S.-produced dry snuff products contained a diverse distribution of all four phyla. Moist snuff products were dominated by Firmicutes. Toombak samples contained mainly Actinobacteria and Firmicutes (Aerococcaceae, Enterococcaceae, and Staphylococcaceae. The program PICRUSt (Phylogenetic Investigation of Communities by Reconstruction of Unobserved States was used to impute the prevalence of genes encoding selected bacterial toxins, antibiotic resistance genes and other pro-inflammatory molecules. PICRUSt also predicted the presence of specific nitrate reductase genes, whose products can contribute to the formation of carcinogenic nitrosamines. Characterization of microbial community abundances and their associated genomes gives us an indication of the presence or absence of pathways of interest and can be used as a foundation for further investigation into the unique microbiological and chemical environments of smokeless tobacco products.

  3. Characterization of Bacterial Communities in Selected Smokeless Tobacco Products Using 16S rDNA Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyx, Robert E; Stanfill, Stephen B; Keong, Lisa M; Rivera, Angel J; Satten, Glen A; Watson, Clifford H

    2016-01-01

    The bacterial communities present in smokeless tobacco (ST) products have not previously reported. In this study, we used Next Generation Sequencing to study the bacteria present in U.S.-made dry snuff, moist snuff and Sudanese toombak. Sample diversity and taxonomic abundances were investigated in these products. A total of 33 bacterial families from four phyla, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes, were identified. U.S.-produced dry snuff products contained a diverse distribution of all four phyla. Moist snuff products were dominated by Firmicutes. Toombak samples contained mainly Actinobacteria and Firmicutes (Aerococcaceae, Enterococcaceae, and Staphylococcaceae). The program PICRUSt (Phylogenetic Investigation of Communities by Reconstruction of Unobserved States) was used to impute the prevalence of genes encoding selected bacterial toxins, antibiotic resistance genes and other pro-inflammatory molecules. PICRUSt also predicted the presence of specific nitrate reductase genes, whose products can contribute to the formation of carcinogenic nitrosamines. Characterization of microbial community abundances and their associated genomes gives us an indication of the presence or absence of pathways of interest and can be used as a foundation for further investigation into the unique microbiological and chemical environments of smokeless tobacco products.

  4. Non-cigarette tobacco and the lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schivo, Michael; Avdalovic, Mark V; Murin, Susan

    2014-02-01

    Cigarette smoking is known to cause a wide range of damaging health outcomes; however, the effects of non-cigarette tobacco products are either unknown or perceived as less harmful than cigarettes. Smokeless tobacco, cigar smoking, and waterpipe smoking have increased in usage over the past few decades. Some experts believe that their use is reaching epidemic proportions. Factors such as a perception of harm reduction, targeted advertising, and unrecognized addiction may drive the increased consumption of non-cigarette tobacco products. In particular, the need for social acceptance, enjoyment of communal smoking activities, and exotic nature of waterpipe smoking fuels, in part, its popularity. The public is looking for "safer" alternatives to smoking cigarettes, and some groups advertise products such as smokeless tobacco and electronic cigarettes as the alternatives they seek. Though it is clear that cigar and waterpipe tobacco smoking are probably as dangerous to health as cigarette smoking, there is an opinion among users that the health risks are less compared to cigarette smoking. This is particularly true in younger age groups. In the cases of smokeless tobacco and electronic cigarettes, the risks to health are less clear and there may be evidence of a harm reduction compared to cigarettes. In this article, we discuss commonly used forms of non-cigarette tobacco products, their impacts on lung health, and relevant controversies surrounding their use.

  5. [Smoking of non-cigarette tobacco products by students in three Brazilian cities: should we be worried?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szklo, André Salem; Sampaio, Mariana Miranda Autran; Fernandes, Elaine Masson; Almeida, Liz Maria de

    2011-11-01

    Smoking of non-cigarette tobacco products is increasing worldwide because of their high social acceptability, misperceptions about their purported harmlessness, and globalization of the tobacco industry. In Brazil, tobacco control experts have recently focused their attention on the importance of monitoring the use of such products. We analyzed data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (2009) in three cities. Prevalence rates of non-cigarette tobacco smoking in the previous 30 days among students 13 to 15 years of age were high in Campo Grande (18.3%; 95%CI: 14.4%-22.9%) and São Paulo (22.1%; 95%CI: 19.0%-25.6%), while Vitória showed comparatively lower prevalence (4.3%; 95%CI: 3.1%-5.7%). No statistical differences were observed in prevalence rates according to gender. Water pipes were the most frequent form of non-cigarette tobacco smoking. The decline in cigarette smoking in Brazil in recent years may have contributed to other forms of tobacco smoking, especially among students.

  6. Ethnic Variation in Consumption of Traditional Tobacco Products and Lung Cancer Risk in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raspanti, Greg A; Hashibe, Mia; Siwakoti, Bhola; Wei, Mei; Thakur, Binay Kumar; Pun, Chin Bahadur; Milrod, Charles; Adhikari, Subodh; Lee, Yuan-Chin Amy; Sapkota, Amir

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading contributor to cancer deaths in the developing world. Within countries, significant variability exists in the prevalence of lung cancer risk, yet limited information is available whether some of the observed variability is associated with differences in the consumption pattern of local tobacco products with differing potency. We recruited 606 lung cancer cases and 606 controls from the B.P. Koirala Memorial Cancer Hospital in Nepal from 2009-2012. We estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for lung cancer risk associated with different tobacco products, using unconditional logistic regression. Unfiltered cigarettes tended to be the most frequently used products across ethnic subgroup with about 53.7% of Brahmins, 60.1% of Chettris, and 52.3% of Rai/Limbu/Magar/others. In contrast, about 39.9% of Madishe/Tharu smokers reported using bidi compared with only 27.7% who smoked unfiltered cigarettes. Among those who only smoked one type of product, choor/kankat smokers had the highest lung cancer risk (OR 10.2; 95% CI 6.2-16.6), followed by bidi smokers (OR 5.6; 95% CI 3.6-8.7), unfiltered cigarettes (OR 4.9; 95% CI 3.4-7.2), and filtered cigarettes (OR 3.4; 95% CI 2.2-5.3). A clear dose-response relationship was observed between increased frequency of smoking and lung cancer risk across all ethnic subgroups. These results highlight the important role of traditional tobacco products on lung cancer risk in the low income countries.

  7. Relationship Between Stimulated Ethylene Production and Alternative Respiration Pathway in "Royal Gala" Apple Fruit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEI Xiaoyong(雷晓勇); TIAN M.S.; HU Xiaosong(胡小松); DAI Yaoren(戴尧仁)

    2003-01-01

    Endogenous ethylene production and alternative oxidase (AOX) protein expression in "Royal Gala" apple fruits were investigated after treatments with cold (0℃ for 1 week) and heat (38℃ for 1 h).A monoclonal antibody to the terminal oxidase of the alternative pathway from Sauromatum guttatum was used to identify the AOX protein in apple fruits.The molecular mass of AOX in "Royal Gala" apple fruits is approximately 38 kDa, similar to those reported in tobacco and tomato.The cold treatment depressed the release of endogenous ethylene production before the climacteric ethylene production and obviously induced the expression of AOX protein expression.The heat treatment had the opposite effects on the ethylene production and AOX protein expression.In addition, the climax of endogenous ethylene production preceded the maximum AOX expression after the cold temperature treatment.It is therefore proposed that in climacteric fruits the production of induced ethylene is not coordinated with the level of AOX protein.

  8. Tobacco and alcohol billboards in 50 Chicago neighborhoods: market segmentation to sell dangerous products to the poor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackbarth, D P; Silvestri, B; Cosper, W

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes a study of billboard advertising of tobacco and alcohol products in the city of Chicago. All billboards were counted and their advertising themes noted. These data were matched with information on population and race from the 1990 census in order to document which geographic areas of the city, if any, had excess tobacco or alcohol billboards. The data revealed that minority wards were burdened with three times as many tobacco billboards and five times as many alcohol billboards when compared to white wards. The findings are congruent with studies conducted in other urban areas, which demonstrate a consistent pattern of tobacco and alcohol advertisers targeting poor and minority neighborhoods for outdoor advertising of their dangerous products. Chicago legislative initiatives based on the billboard study are described.

  9. Target marketing of tobacco and alcohol-related products to ethnic minority groups in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, D J; Williams, J D; Qualls, W J

    1996-01-01

    This paper examines whether increased consumption of tobacco and alcohol products by minority groups is a function of the target marketing campaigns directed at these groups by marketers, and whether such contributes to the perpetuation of racism. First, a description of the tobacco and alcohol consumption rates of blacks and Hispanics compared to whites is presented, including a comparative analysis of the health effects and mortality rates resulting from the consumption of tobacco and alcohol. Second, the paper examines specific marketing strategies of targeting tobacco and alcohol products to ethnic minority consumers. This is followed by a discussion of whether these practices are a deliberate strategy driven by racism or just the pursuit of profit. A framework for answering the question is provided. Finally, the paper assesses the prospects for change in the future, and analyzes specific needs for future research.

  10. Pretreatment with alternation of light/dark periods improves the tolerance of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) to clomazone herbicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwish, Majd; Lopez-Lauri, Félicie; El Maataoui, Mohamed; Urban, Laurent; Sallanon, Huguette

    2014-05-01

    This work analyses the effects of alternation of light/dark periods pretreatment (AL) in tobacco plantlets (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv.Virginie vk51) growing in solution with low concentration of the clomazone herbicide. The experimentation has been carried out by exposing the plantlets to successive and regulated periods of light (16min light/8min dark cycles, PAR 50μmolm(-2)s(-1)) for three days. The photosynthesis efficiency was determined by mean of the chlorophyll fluorescence and JIP-test. The AL pretreatment improved the clomazone tolerance; this has been observed by the increase in the leaf area of the plant, the maximal photochemical quantum efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm), the actual PSII efficiency (ФPSII), the performance index (PIabs), the electron flux beyond Quinone A (1-VJ), and also by the diminution of the energy dissipating into heat (DI0/RC). Furthermore, AL pretreatment led to low accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) which proves that the scavenging enzymatic system have been activated before clomazone treatment. In the plantlets pretreated with AL, with regard to the ascorbate content, some of antioxidant enzyme whose function is associated with it have continued to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by clomazone, such as ascorbate peroxidase (APX), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR) and glutathione reductase (GR). So, the observed photooxidative damages induced by clomazone herbicide were noticeably reduced.

  11. Medical Countermeasure Product Development - Alternatives Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Health Departments of Australia, Canada, the United Kingdom and the United States. The Consortium seeks to develop MedCM including drugs, vaccines...Australia, Canada, the United Kingdom and the United States. The Consortium seeks to develop MedCM including drugs, vaccines and diagnostics to assist...been very little incentive for the biotechnology /medical technology community to focus on MedCM product development. This was because the focus of

  12. The role of alternative oxidase in modulating carbon use efficiency and growth during macronutrient stress in tobacco cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieger, Stephen M; Kristensen, Brian K; Robson, Christine A; Amirsadeghi, Sasan; Eng, Edward W Y; Abdel-Mesih, Amal; Møller, Ian M; Vanlerberghe, Greg C

    2005-06-01

    When wild-type (wt) tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv. Petit Havana SR1) cells are grown under macronutrient (P or N) limitation, they induce large amounts of alternative oxidase (AOX), which constitutes a non-energy-conserving branch of the respiratory electron transport chain. To investigate the significance of AOX induction, wt cells were compared with transgenic (AS8) cells lacking AOX. Under nutrient limitation, growth of wt cell cultures was dramatically reduced and carbon use efficiency (g cell dry weight gain g(-1) sugar consumed) decreased by 42-63%. However, the growth of AS8 was only moderately reduced by the nutrient deficiencies and carbon use efficiency values remained the same as under nutrient-sufficient conditions. As a result, the nutrient limitations more severely compromised the tissue nutrient status (P or N) of AS8 than wt cells. Northern analyses and a comparison of the mitochondrial protein profiles of wt and AS8 cells indicated that the lack of AOX in AS8 under P limitation was associated with increased levels of proteins commonly associated with oxidative stress and/or stress injury. Also, the level of electron transport chain components was consistently reduced in AS8 while tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes did not show a universal trend in abundance in comparison to the wt. Alternatively, the lack of AOX in AS8 cells under N limitation resulted in enhanced carbohydrate accumulation. It is concluded that AOX respiration provides an important general mechanism by which plant cells can modulate their growth in response to nutrient availability and that AOX also has nutrient-specific roles in maintaining cellular redox and carbon balance.

  13. A Survey of N'-Nitrosonornicotine (NNN) and Total Water Content in Select Smokeless Tobacco Products Purchased in the United States in 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammann, Jeffrey R; Lovejoy, Katherine S; Walters, Matthew J; Holman, Matthew R

    2016-06-01

    This investigation provides an updated survey measuring the levels of N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) and water content of a select number of smokeless tobacco products sold in the United States in 2015. A total of 34 smokeless tobacco products were collected and analyzed for NNN and water content using LC-MS/MS and GC-TCD, respectively. Smokeless tobacco products were chosen to obtain a representative sample of the different types of products on the U.S. market. These smokeless products represent 12 of the 25 top-selling smokeless tobacco products according to 2013 Nielsen net sales data while five of the smokeless tobacco products are of lower selling smokeless tobacco products. The NNN levels and the water content of the smokeless tobacco products were determined and compared to previous studies. Although the range of NNN levels found was broad for the examined smokeless tobacco products (0.64-12.0 μg/g dry weight), dry snuff had the highest levels of NNN observed (>5 μg/g dry weight). We observed a general decrease in NNN levels for the same six moist snuff products that were analyzed in 2004 compared to our current 2015 study. The water content of the smokeless tobacco products surveyed ranged from 3.92 to 54.8%.

  14. An alternative resource for biogas production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrabansh, S. [Tribhuvan Univ., Research Center for Applied Science and Technology, Kirtipur, Kathmandu (Nepal); Madan, M. [Indian Inst. of Technology, Center for Rural Development and Technology, New Delhi (India)

    2000-09-01

    Three different biomasses, namely, sericulture waste, Populus deltoides, and Eupatorium adenophorum, were studied for biogas production. It was found that these wastes produced biogas in reasonably good quantity of gas (259 l/kg of total solid in sericulture waste to 519 l/kg of total solid in E. adenophorum). The substrates were subjected to anaerobic digestion directly, without any pre-treatment, and a batch with biological treatment in triplicate set. Among the two sets, the biologically pretreated digesters gave higher yield of biogas. Chemical analysis for nitrogen content, cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin content before and after digestion was carried out. (Author)

  15. Cultural conditions on the production of extracellular enzymes by Trichoderma isolates from tobacco rhizosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallikharjuna Rao, K L N; Siva Raju, K; Ravisankar, H

    2016-01-01

    Twelve isolates of Trichoderma spp. isolated from tobacco rhizosphere were evaluated for their ability to produce chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase extracellular hydrolytic enzymes. Isolates ThJt1 and TvHt2, out of 12 isolates, produced maximum activities of chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase, respectively. In vitro production of chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase by isolates ThJt1 and TvHt2 was tested under different cultural conditions. The enzyme activities were significantly influenced by acidic pH and the optimum temperature was 30°C. The chitin and cell walls of Sclerotium rolfsii, as carbon sources, supported the maximum and significantly higher chitinase activity by both isolates. The chitinase activity of isolate ThJt1 was suppressed significantly by fructose (80.28%), followed by glucose (77.42%), whereas the β-1,3-glucanase activity of ThJt1 and both enzymes of isolate TvHt2 were significantly suppressed by fructose, followed by sucrose. Ammonium nitrate as nitrogen source supported the maximum activity of chitinase in both isolates, whereas urea was a poor nitrogen source. Production of both enzymes by the isolates was significantly influenced by the cultural conditions. Thus, the isolates ThJt1 and TvHt2 showed higher levels of chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase activities and were capable of hydrolyzing the mycelium of S. rolfsii infecting tobacco. These organisms can be used therefore for assessment of their synergism in biomass production and biocontrol efficacy and for their field biocontrol ability against S. rolfsii and Pythium aphanidermatum infecting tobacco.

  16. Alternative respiration and fumaric acid production of Rhizopus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Shuai; Xu, Qing; Huang, He; Li, Shuang

    2014-06-01

    Under the conditions of fumaric acid fermentation, Rhizopus oryzae ME-F14 possessed at least two respiratory systems. The respiration of mycelia was partially inhibited by the cytochrome respiration inhibitor antimycin A or the alternative respiration inhibitor salicylhydroxamic acid and was completely inhibited in the presence of both antimycin A and salicylhydroxamic acid. During fumaric acid fermentation process, the activity of alternative respiration had a great correlation with fumaric acid productivity; both of them reached peak at the same time. The alternative oxidase gene, which encoded the mitochondrial alternative oxidase responsible for alternative respiration in R. oryzae ME-F14, was cloned and characterized in Escherichia coli. The activity of alternative respiration, the alternative oxidase gene transcription level, as well as the fumaric acid titer were measured under different carbon sources and different carbon-nitrogen ratios. The activity of alternative respiration was found to be comparable to the transcription level of the alternative oxidase gene and the fumaric acid titer. These results indicated that the activity of the alternative oxidase was regulated at the transcription stage under the conditions tested for R. oryzae ME-F14.

  17. Spider dragline silk proteins in transgenic tobacco leaves: accumulation and field production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menassa, Rima; Zhu, Hong; Karatzas, Costas N; Lazaris, Anthoula; Richman, Alex; Brandle, Jim

    2004-09-01

    Spider dragline silk is a unique biomaterial and represents nature's strongest known fibre. As it is almost as strong as many commercial synthetic fibres, it is suitable for use in many industrial and medical applications. The prerequisite for such a widespread use is the cost-effective production in sufficient quantities for commercial fibre manufacturing. Agricultural biotechnology and the production of recombinant dragline silk proteins in transgenic plants offer the potential for low-cost, large-scale production. The purpose of this work was to examine the feasibility of producing the two protein components of dragline silk (MaSp1 and MaSp2) from Nephila clavipes in transgenic tobacco. Two different promoters, the enhanced CaMV 35S promoter (Kay et al., 1987) and a new tobacco cryptic constitutive promoter, tCUP (Foster et al., 1999) were used, in conjunction with a plant secretory signal (PR1b), a translational enhancer (alfalfa mosaic virus, AMV) and an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retention signal (KDEL), to express the MaSp1 and MaSp2 genes in the leaves of transgenic plants. Both genes expressed successfully and recombinant protein accumulated in transgenic plants grown in both greenhouse and field trials.

  18. Perceptions of emerging tobacco products and nicotine replacement therapy among pregnant women and women planning a pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, Lucinda J; Tong, Van T; Koblitz, Amber; Kish-Doto, Julia; Lynch, Molly M; Southwell, Brian G

    2016-12-01

    The increasing availability of emerging non-combusted tobacco products (snus, dissolvables, and electronic nicotine delivery systems or ENDS) may have implications for pregnant women and women of reproductive age. We conducted 15 focus groups to explore how women perceive emerging non-combusted tobacco products and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) in general, and during pregnancy. Sessions were held in 2013 in four U.S. cities. Participants were 18-40 years old and were pregnant smokers, pregnant quitters, or smokers planning a pregnancy. Responses were coded and analyzed to identify key themes using NVivo 10.0 qualitative software (QSR). Several themes emerged from focus groups. Participants generally found snus unappealing, but viewed dissolvables as a discreet and stigma-free way to use tobacco during pregnancy. Participants perceived NRT as ineffective and having undesired side effects. ENDS were thought to offer advantages over cigarettes, including use in smoke-free areas, lower cost, appealing flavors, and fewer health effects, and were seen by some as a potential quit aid. Some participants, however, worried that the lack of natural stopping point could lead to excessive use. Many participants felt that the use of any tobacco or NRT product is harmful during pregnancy. Women seeking to reduce health risks or stigma related to smoking during pregnancy may perceive advantages of using some emerging products over cigarettes. These findings can inform future public health efforts to reduce risks associated with tobacco product use among women of reproductive age.

  19. Oil from Tobacco Leaves: FOLIUM - Installation of Hydrocarbon Accumulating Pathways in Tobacco Leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-01-01

    PETRO Project: LBNL is modifying tobacco to enable it to directly produce fuel molecules in its leaves for use as a biofuel. Tobacco is a good crop for biofuels production because it is an outstanding biomass crop, has a long history of cultivation, does not compete with the national food supply, and is highly responsive to genetic manipulation. LBNL will incorporate traits for hydrocarbon biosynthesis from cyanobacteria and algae, and enhance light utilization and carbon uptake in tobacco, improving the efficiency of photosynthesis so more fuel can be produced in the leaves. The tobacco-generated biofuels can be processed for gasoline, jet fuel or diesel alternatives. LBNL is also working to optimize methods for planting, cultivating and harvesting tobacco to increase biomass production several-fold over the level of traditional growing techniques.

  20. Tobacco harm reduction: the need for new products that can compete with cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagerström, Karl Olov; Bridgman, Kevin

    2014-03-01

    Over the last 50 years, the concept of tobacco harm reduction has been well established. It is now understood that nicotine itself is not very harmful and nicotine replacement therapy products have been widely used as an aid to quit, reduce to quit or temporarily abstain from smoking for many years. The popularity of the unlicensed electronic cigarette has increased despite an unknown risk profile and sinus use in Sweden provides strong evidence in support of a harm reduction strategy. The regulatory environment around harm reduction has changed in the UK and is continuing to evolve across the globe. The need for more appealing, licensed nicotine products capable of competing with cigarettes sensorially, pharmacologically and behaviourally is considered by many to be the way forward. The significant positive impact on public health that could be gained from encouraging people to switch from cigarettes to licensed medicinal nicotine products cannot be ignored.

  1. Is web interviewing a good alternative to telephone interviewing? Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC Netherlands Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thompson Mary E

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Web interviewing is becoming increasingly popular worldwide, because it has several advantages over telephone interviewing such as lower costs and shorter fieldwork periods. However, there are also concerns about data quality of web surveys. The aim of this study was to compare the International Tobacco Control (ITC Netherlands web and telephone samples on demographic and smoking related variables to assess differences in data quality. Methods Wave 1 of the ITC Netherlands Survey was completed by 1,668 web respondents and 404 telephone respondents of 18 years and older. The two surveys were conducted in parallel among adults who reported smoking at least monthly and had smoked at least 100 cigarettes over their lifetime. Results Both the web and telephone survey had a cooperation rate of 78%. Web respondents with a fixed line telephone were significantly more often married, had a lower educational level, and were older than web respondents without a fixed line telephone. Telephone respondents with internet access were significantly more often married, had a higher educational level, and were younger than telephone respondents without internet. Web respondents were significantly less often married and lower educated than the Dutch population of smokers. Telephone respondents were significantly less often married and higher educated than the Dutch population of smokers. Web respondents used the "don't know" options more often than telephone respondents. Telephone respondents were somewhat more negative about smoking, had less intention to quit smoking, and had more self efficacy for quitting. The known association between educational level and self efficacy was present only in the web survey. Conclusions Differences between the web and telephone sample were present, but the differences were small and not consistently favourable for either web or telephone interviewing. Our study findings suggested sometimes a better data

  2. 75 FR 42605 - Increase in Tax Rates on Tobacco Products and Cigarette Papers and Tubes; Floor Stocks Tax on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-22

    ... Part 41 Cigars and cigarettes, Claims, Customs duties and inspection, Electronic funds transfers... Products and Cigarette Papers and Tubes; Floor Stocks Tax on Certain Tobacco Products, Cigarette Papers, and Cigarette Tubes; and Changes to Basis for Denial, Suspension, or Revocation of Permits...

  3. Airports offer unrealized potential for alternative energy production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVault, Travis L; Belant, Jerrold L; Blackwell, Bradley F; Martin, James A; Schmidt, Jason A; Wes Burger, L; Patterson, James W

    2012-03-01

    Scaling up for alternative energy such as solar, wind, and biofuel raises a number of environmental issues, notably changes in land use and adverse effects on wildlife. Airports offer one of the few land uses where reductions in wildlife abundance and habitat quality are necessary and socially acceptable, due to risk of wildlife collisions with aircraft. There are several uncertainties and limitations to establishing alternative energy production at airports, such as ensuring these facilities do not create wildlife attractants or other hazards. However, with careful planning, locating alternative energy projects at airports could help mitigate many of the challenges currently facing policy makers, developers, and conservationists.

  4. Views and Preferences for Nicotine Products as an Alternative to Smoking: A Focus Group Study of People Living with Mental Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Meurk

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Background: People living with mental disorders experience a disproportionately higher burden of tobacco-related disease than the general population. Long-term substitution with less harmful nicotine products could reduce the tobacco-related harm among this population. This study investigated the views and preferences of people with mental health disorders about different nicotine products and their use as long-term substitutes for cigarettes. Methods: Semi-structured focus group discussion followed by a brief questionnaire. The discussion transcripts were analysed for content and themes and quantitative data summarised with descriptive statistics. Results: Twenty-nine participants took part in four focus groups. Vaping devices were the most acceptable nicotine products discussed; however preferences for nicotine products were individual and varied along aesthetic, pragmatic, sensory and symbolic dimensions. The concept of tobacco harm reduction was unfamiliar to participants, however they generally agreed with the logic of replacing cigarettes with less harmful nicotine products. Barriers to activating tobacco harm reduction included the symbolism of smoking and quitting; the importance placed on health; the consumer appeal of alternatives; and cost implications. Discussion and Conclusions: Engaging this population in tobacco harm reduction options will require communication that challenges black and white thinking (a conceptual framework in which smoking cigarettes or quitting all nicotine are the only legitimate options as in practice this serves to support the continuance of smoking. Consumers should be encouraged to trial a range of nicotine products to find the most acceptable alternative to smoking that reduces health harms. Providing incentives to switch to nicotine products could help overcome barriers to using less harmful nicotine products among mental health consumers.

  5. Views and Preferences for Nicotine Products as an Alternative to Smoking: A Focus Group Study of People Living with Mental Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meurk, Carla; Ford, Pauline; Sharma, Ratika; Fitzgerald, Lisa; Gartner, Coral

    2016-11-23

    Aims and Background: People living with mental disorders experience a disproportionately higher burden of tobacco-related disease than the general population. Long-term substitution with less harmful nicotine products could reduce the tobacco-related harm among this population. This study investigated the views and preferences of people with mental health disorders about different nicotine products and their use as long-term substitutes for cigarettes. Methods: Semi-structured focus group discussion followed by a brief questionnaire. The discussion transcripts were analysed for content and themes and quantitative data summarised with descriptive statistics. Results: Twenty-nine participants took part in four focus groups. Vaping devices were the most acceptable nicotine products discussed; however preferences for nicotine products were individual and varied along aesthetic, pragmatic, sensory and symbolic dimensions. The concept of tobacco harm reduction was unfamiliar to participants, however they generally agreed with the logic of replacing cigarettes with less harmful nicotine products. Barriers to activating tobacco harm reduction included the symbolism of smoking and quitting; the importance placed on health; the consumer appeal of alternatives; and cost implications. Discussion and Conclusions: Engaging this population in tobacco harm reduction options will require communication that challenges black and white thinking (a conceptual framework in which smoking cigarettes or quitting all nicotine are the only legitimate options) as in practice this serves to support the continuance of smoking. Consumers should be encouraged to trial a range of nicotine products to find the most acceptable alternative to smoking that reduces health harms. Providing incentives to switch to nicotine products could help overcome barriers to using less harmful nicotine products among mental health consumers.

  6. Consumption patterns and biomarkers of exposure in cigarette smokers switched to Snus, various dissolvable tobacco products, Dual use, or tobacco abstinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krautter, George R; Chen, Peter X; Borgerding, Michael F

    2015-03-01

    The objectives of this clinical study were to evaluate changes in tobacco product use behavior and levels of selected biomarkers of exposure (BOEs) for smokers who switched to one of six conditions during clinical confinement: exclusive use of; Camel Snus, Sticks, Strips or Orbs, controlled Dual use of cigarettes and Camel Snus, or tobacco abstinence. The controlled Dual use (DU) condition mandated a 60% reduction in cigarettes smoked per day (CPD). 167 healthy U.S. male and female smokers were randomized to the six groups (n=25-30/group). Subjects smoked their usual brand of cigarette for 1 day prior to switching to their designated intervention condition. Levels of thirty-two BOEs in plasma, whole blood, urine and feces were determined before and after switching. Questionnaires that scored nicotine dependence and withdrawal discomfort were also administered. After 5 days, exclusive Snus, Sticks, Strips, or Orbs use averaged 6.1, 5.9, 13.5, and 8.5 units/day, respectively. DU subjects smoked 7.6 CPD and used 3.2 Snus pouches/day, on average. After 5 days, substantial reductions of most biomarkers, including nicotine, were observed in all groups. Toxicant exposures were similar to being tobacco abstinent after switching exclusively to Camel Snus, Sticks, Strips or Orbs. DU reductions were more modest.

  7. Identification, Characterization and Down-Regulation of Cysteine Protease Genes in Tobacco for Use in Recombinant Protein Production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishor Duwadi

    Full Text Available Plants are an attractive host system for pharmaceutical protein production. Many therapeutic proteins have been produced and scaled up in plants at a low cost compared to the conventional microbial and animal-based systems. The main technical challenge during this process is to produce sufficient levels of recombinant proteins in plants. Low yield is generally caused by proteolytic degradation during expression and downstream processing of recombinant proteins. The yield of human therapeutic interleukin (IL-10 produced in transgenic tobacco leaves was found to be below the critical level, and may be due to degradation by tobacco proteases. Here, we identified a total of 60 putative cysteine protease genes (CysP in tobacco. Based on their predicted expression in leaf tissue, 10 candidate CysPs (CysP1-CysP10 were selected for further characterization. The effect of CysP gene silencing on IL-10 accumulation was examined in tobacco. It was found that the recombinant protein yield in tobacco could be increased by silencing CysP6. Transient expression of CysP6 silencing construct also showed an increase in IL-10 accumulation in comparison to the control. Moreover, CysP6 localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER, suggesting that ER may be the site of IL-10 degradation. Overall results suggest that CysP6 is important in determining the yield of recombinant IL-10 in tobacco leaves.

  8. [Cancer prevention and tobacco control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Gonghuan

    2015-04-01

    The paper summarized briefly the evidences for tobacco use as a cause of cancer based on hundreds of epidemiologic and biomedical studies carried out over the past 50-60 years, as well as overviewed the carcinogens in tobacco products and mechanisms of neoplasm induction by tobacco products. So, tobacco control is the important measure for cancer prevention.

  9. Acceptability of genetically modified cheese presented as real product alternative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lähteenmäki, Liisa; Grunert, Klaus G.; Ueland, Øydis

    2002-01-01

    alternatives. Consumers in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden (n=738) assessed two cheeses: one was labelled as genetically modified (preferred in an earlier product test) and the other as conventional (neutral in an ealier product test). A smaller control group received two cheeses with blind codes......European consumers, in general, have negative attitudes towards the use of gene technology in food production. The objective of this study was to examine whether taste and health benefits influence the acceptability of genetically modified (gm) products when they are presented as real product...

  10. Determination of trace metals, moisture, pH and assessment of potential toxicity of selected smokeless tobacco products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Prabhakar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The characterization and classification of smokeless tobacco products has been a continuously evolving process. This is based on a number of different parameters like nicotine content, moisture content, amount of heavy metals, pH, and in vitro cytotoxicity assays. Their contexts often vary between countries, research institutions, and legal requirements. The categorisation of these products is quite challenging due to the diffused sample sizes, diverse array of branded products on offer, and the absence of a centralized manufacturing facility. This study aims at a systematic classification of 10 smokeless tobacco product samples from the retail market based on their potential toxicity upon long-term use. The estimation of potential toxicity follows a well-established method that employs the concentration of toxic metals in the different samples. The potential toxicity as well as heavy metal concentrations of the smokeless tobacco products analysed was found to be much higher than acceptable limits. For instance, the levels of lead, cadmium, copper and zinc of 2.5, 1, 4 and 23 ppm, respectively, are well above their recommended limits. The results from the study indicate that chronic use of smokeless tobacco products is a significant health risk, especially in the vulnerable population. Further studies of this nature will help establish a toxicological fingerprint on the diverse class of products that floods the market now.

  11. Expression of a coriander desaturase results in petroselinic acid production in transgenic tobacco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cahoon, E.B.; Shanklin, J.; Ohlrogge, J.B. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (United States))

    1992-12-01

    Little is known about the metabolic origin of petroselinic acid (18:1[Delta][sup 6cis]), the principal fatty acid of the seed oil of most Umbelliferae, Araliaceae, and Garryaceae species. To examine the possibility that petroselinic acid is the product of an acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) desaturase, Western blots of coriander and other Umbelliferae seed extracts were probed with antibodies against the [Delta][sup 9]-stearoyl-ACP desaturase of avocado. In these extracts, proteins of 39 and 36 kDa were detected. Of these, only the 36-kDa peptide was specific to tissues which synthesize petroselinic acid. A cDNA encoding the 36-kDa peptide was isolated from a coriander endosperm cDNA library, placed under control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter, and introduced into tobacco by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Expression of this cDNA in transgenic tobacco callus was accompanied by the accumulation of petroselinic acid and [Delta][sup 4]-hexadecenoic acid, both of which were absent from control callus. These results demonstrate the involvement of a 36-kDa putative acyl-ACP desaturase in the biosynthetic pathway of petroselinic acid and the ability to produce fatty acids of unusual structure in transgenic plants by the expression of the gene for this desaturase. 27 refs., 5 figs.

  12. Expression of a coriander desaturase results in petroselinic acid production in transgenic tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahoon, E B; Shanklin, J; Ohlrogge, J B

    1992-12-01

    Little is known about the metabolic origin of petroselinic acid (18:1 delta 6cis), the principal fatty acid of the seed oil of most Umbelliferae, Araliaceae, and Garryaceae species. To examine the possibility that petroselinic acid is the product of an acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) desaturase, Western blots of coriander and other Umbelliferae seed extracts were probed with antibodies against the delta 9-stearoyl-ACP desaturase of avocado. In these extracts, proteins of 39 and 36 kDa were detected. Of these, only the 36-kDa peptide was specific to tissues which synthesize petroselinic acid. A cDNA encoding the 36-kDa peptide was isolated from a coriander endosperm cDNA library, placed under control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter, and introduced into tobacco by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Expression of this cDNA in transgenic tobacco callus was accompanied by the accumulation of petroselinic acid and delta 4-hexadecenoic acid, both of which were absent from control callus. These results demonstrate the involvement of a 36-kDa putative acyl-ACP desaturase in the biosynthetic pathway of petroselinic acid and the ability to produce fatty acids of unusual structure in transgenic plants by the expression of the gene for this desaturase.

  13. Chromium Exposure in the Adult Population, Consuming Different Types of Smokeless Tobacco Products in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Asma; Afridi, Hasan Imran; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Talpur, Farah Naz; Arain, Sadaf Sadia; Baig, Jameel Ahmed; Khan, Noman; Khan, Mustafa; Bilal, Muhammad

    2017-02-01

    The pervasive smokeless tobacco (SLT) consumption and diseases related to its use is a hot topic for the public discussion. In this study, concentrations of chromium (Cr) were measured in different SLT products [snuff (dry and moist), mainpuri, and gutkha] offered and used in Pakistan. The current study was also designed to assess the Cr levels in the biological (scalp hair and blood) samples of male and female subjects, age ranged from 25 to 60 years, chewing different SLT products. For comparative purpose, the healthy persons of the same age group, who did not consume any SLT products, were selected as referents. The concentrations of Cr in SLT products and biological samples were measured by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrophotometer after microwave-assisted acid digestion. The validity and accuracy of the methodology were checked by certified reference materials (CRMs). The resulted data indicated that the adult persons, who consumed different SLT products, have 2-3 fold higher levels of Cr in biological samples as compared to referent subjects (p consumption of various kinds of SLT products (snuff, mainpuri, and gutkha) may subsidize 21.2-220, 17.7-122, and 18.4-273 % of the recommended daily intake of Cr, respectively.

  14. The Development of DNA Based Methods for the Reliable and Efficient Identification of Nicotiana tabacum in Tobacco and Its Derived Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukumar Biswas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reliable methods are needed to detect the presence of tobacco components in tobacco products to effectively control smuggling and classify tariff and excise in tobacco industry to control illegal tobacco trade. In this study, two sensitive and specific DNA based methods, one quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR assay and the other loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP assay, were developed for the reliable and efficient detection of the presence of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum in various tobacco samples and commodities. Both assays targeted the same sequence of the uridine 5′-monophosphate synthase (UMPS, and their specificities and sensitivities were determined with various plant materials. Both qPCR and LAMP methods were reliable and accurate in the rapid detection of tobacco components in various practical samples, including customs samples, reconstituted tobacco samples, and locally purchased cigarettes, showing high potential for their application in tobacco identification, particularly in the special cases where the morphology or chemical compositions of tobacco have been disrupted. Therefore, combining both methods would facilitate not only the detection of tobacco smuggling control, but also the detection of tariff classification and of excise.

  15. Tackling the Use of Supari (Areca Nut) and Smokeless Tobacco Products in the South Asian Community in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chande, Milan; Suba, Krishna

    2016-06-01

    The use of supari (areca nut) and smokeless tobacco products are seen as a major risk factor for oral cancer. There are increasing rates of oral cancer across the United Kingdom, along with the increase of the use of these products. This article examines the uses of such products amongst the South Asian Community and explores sensitive issues associated with the cessation of their use. Evidence-based recommendations are provided on how to provide advice and treatment to patients that regularly use these products. A rethink is also suggested on the policy of taxation of such products. CPD/Clinical Relevance: With the rates of oral cancer increasing across the United Kingdom, it is important for us as dental professionals to tackle the use of areca nut and smokeless tobacco products.

  16. N-nitrosodiethanolamine: analysis, formation in tobacco products and carcinogenicity in Syrian golden hamsters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, D.; Brunnemann, K.D.; Rivenson, A.; Hecht, S.S.

    1982-01-01

    An analytical GC-TEA method has been developed for the quantitative determination of N-nitrosodiethanolamine (NDELA) in tobacco and tobacco smoke. US smoking and chewing tobaccos and experimental cigarette tobaccos contained between 80 and 420 micrograms/kg of NDELA. Two snuff samples contained 3200 and 6800 micrograms/kg of NDELA. NDELA in mainstream smoke of US cigarettes amounted to 10 - 68 ng per cigarette. Evidence was presented which incriminates diethanolamine as a major precursor for NDELA in tobacco and tobacco smoke. Diethanolamine is used as a solubilizing agent for maleic hydrazide, the major sucker-growth inhibitor for US tobacco crops. NDELA was bioassayed in Syrian golden hamsters by skin painting, swabbing of the oral cavity and by subcutaneous injection. Independently of the form of application, NDELA at the higher dose (500 mg/kg) induced carcinomas of the nasal cavity, papillomas of the trachea and tumours of the larynx in some animals. NDELA uptake through the oral cavity in hamsters is presumably greater than through the skin, judging by the higher tumour yield induced by painting of the oral cavity, compared to skin painting. Studies with 14C-labeled NDELA are currently underway to document this observation quantitiatively. The present analytical data for NDELA in tobacco and tobacco smoke, together with the carcinogenicity data reported here and elsewhere, strongly suggest a review of the use of maleic hydrazide-diethanolamine as sucker-growth inhibitor in the cultivation of tobacco and other crops.

  17. 45 CFR 96.130 - State law regarding sale of tobacco products to individuals under age of 18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... State for enforcing such law during the fiscal year for which the grant is sought; and (5) the identity... toward reducing use of tobacco products by children and youth, data showing that the State has... requirements such as the development of the sample design and the conducting of the inspections....

  18. [Smokeless tobacco].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underner, M; Perriot, J

    2011-10-01

    Use of smokeless tobacco (ST) (chewing tobacco and snuff) can lead to a number of consequences detrimental to health. ST rapidly delivers high doses of nicotine, which can lead to dependence and is also a source of carcinogenic nitrosamines. Changes usually develop in the mouth area where the ST is most often placed. Non-malignant oral lesions include leuko-oedema, hyperkeratotic lesions of the oral mucosa and localised periodontal disease. Oral premalignant lesions are leukoplakia, erythroplakia, submucosal fibrosis and lichen planus. Betel chewing, with or without tobacco, may increase the incidence of oral cancer. There is conflicting evidence with regard to snuff users about the risk of oral and gastro-oesophageal cancer. ST use is a risk factor for pancreatic cancer and may increase the risk of fatal myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke. During pregnancy, ST is associated with an increase in pre-eclampsia, preterm delivery and stillbirth. Nicotine replacement therapy and bupropion reduce withdrawal symptoms and tobacco craving during ST cessation. However, they have not been shown to help long-term abstinence. Information concerning the potential hazards of ST products should be incorporated into educational programmes to discourage its use and to help users to quit. Smokeless tobacco is not recommended to help smoking cessation.

  19. Hydrogen peroxide production and mitochondrial dysfunction contribute to the fusaric acid-induced programmed cell death in tobacco cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Jiao; Sun, Ling; Zhou, Benguo; Gao, Zhengliang; Hao, Yu; Zhu, Xiaoping; Liang, Yuancun

    2014-08-15

    Fusaric acid (FA), a non-specific toxin produced mainly by Fusarium spp., can cause programmed cell death (PCD) in tobacco suspension cells. The mechanism underlying the FA-induced PCD was not well understood. In this study, we analyzed the roles of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and mitochondrial function in the FA-induced PCD. Tobacco suspension cells were treated with 100 μM FA and then analyzed for H2O2 accumulation and mitochondrial functions. Here we demonstrate that cells undergoing FA-induced PCD exhibited H2O2 production, lipid peroxidation, and a decrease of the catalase and ascorbate peroxidase activities. Pre-treatment of tobacco suspension cells with antioxidant ascorbic acid and NADPH oxidase inhibitor diphenyl iodonium significantly reduced the rate of FA-induced cell death as well as the caspase-3-like protease activity. Moreover, FA treatment of tobacco cells decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP content. Oligomycin and cyclosporine A, inhibitors of the mitochondrial ATP synthase and the mitochondrial permeability transition pore, respectively, could also reduce the rate of FA-induced cell death significantly. Taken together, the results presented in this paper demonstrate that H2O2 accumulation and mitochondrial dysfunction are the crucial events during the FA-induced PCD in tobacco suspension cells.

  20. Effect of smokeless tobacco products on human oral bacteria growth and viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Min; Jin, Jinshan; Pan, Hongmiao; Feng, Jinhui; Cerniglia, Carl E; Yang, Maocheng; Chen, Huizhong

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate the toxicity of smokeless tobacco products (STPs) on oral bacteria, seven smokeless tobacco aqueous extracts (STAEs) from major brands of STPs and three tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines (TSNAs) were used in a growth and viability test against 38 oral bacterial species or subspecies. All seven STAEs showed concentration-dependent effects on the growth and viability of tested oral bacteria under anaerobic culture conditions, although there were strain-to-strain variations. In the presence of 1 mg/ml STAEs, the growth of 4 strains decreased over 0.32-2.14 log10 fold, while 14 strains demonstrated enhanced growth of 0.3-1.76 log10 fold, and the growth of 21 strains was not significantly affected. In the presence of 10 mg/ml STAEs, the growth of 17 strains was inhibited 0.3-2.11 log10 fold, 18 strains showed enhanced growth of 0.3-0.97 log10 fold, and 4 strains were not significantly affected. In the presence of 50 mg/ml STAEs, the growth of 32 strains was inhibited 0.3-2.96 log10 fold, 8 strains showed enhanced growth of 0.3-1.0 log10 fold, and 2 strains were not significantly affected. All seven STAEs could promote the growth of 4 bacterial strains, including Eubacterium nodatum, Peptostreptococcus micros, Streptococcus anginosus, and Streptococcus constellatus. Exposure to STAEs modulated the viability of some bacterial strains, with 21.1-66.5% decrease for 4 strains at 1 mg/ml, 20.3-85.7% decrease for 10 strains at 10 mg/ml, 20.0-93.3% decrease for 27 strains at 50 mg/ml, and no significant effect for 11 strains at up to 50 mg/ml. STAEs from snuffs inhibited more tested bacterial strains than those from snus indicating that the snuffs may be more toxic to the oral bacteria than snus. For TSNAs, cell growth and viability of 34 tested strains were not significantly affected at up to 100 μg/ml; while the growth of P. micros was enhanced 0.31-0.54 log10 fold; the growth of Veillonella parvula was repressed 0.33-0.36 log10 fold; and the cell

  1. Smokeless Tobacco and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... range of risks, including nicotine addiction, from smokeless tobacco products may vary extensively because of differing levels of nicotine, carcinogens, and other toxins in different products” ( 6 ). Should ...

  2. Biotechnological processes for biodiesel production using alternative oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azócar, Laura; Ciudad, Gustavo; Heipieper, Hermann J; Navia, Rodrigo

    2010-10-01

    As biodiesel (fatty acid methyl ester (FAME)) is mainly produced from edible vegetable oils, crop soils are used for its production, increasing deforestation and producing a fuel more expensive than diesel. The use of waste lipids such as waste frying oils, waste fats, and soapstock has been proposed as low-cost alternative feedstocks. Non-edible oils such as jatropha, pongamia, and rubber seed oil are also economically attractive. In addition, microalgae, bacteria, yeast, and fungi with 20% or higher lipid content are oleaginous microorganisms known as single cell oil and have been proposed as feedstocks for FAME production. Alternative feedstocks are characterized by their elevated acid value due to the high level of free fatty acid (FFA) content, causing undesirable saponification reactions when an alkaline catalyst is used in the transesterification reaction. The production of soap consumes the conventional catalyst, diminishing FAME production yield and simultaneously preventing the effective separation of the produced FAME from the glycerin phase. These problems could be solved using biological catalysts, such as lipases or whole-cell catalysts, avoiding soap production as the FFAs are esterified to FAME. In addition, by-product glycerol can be easily recovered, and the purification of FAME is simplified using biological catalysts.

  3. Biotechnological processes for biodiesel production using alternative oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azocar, Laura; Ciudad, Gustavo [La Frontera Univ., Temuco (Chile). Nucleo Cietifico Tecnologico en Biorrecursos; Heipieper, Hermann J. [Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research-UFZ, Leipzig (Germany). Dept. of Environmental Biotechnology; Navia, Rodrigo [La Frontera Univ., Temuco (Chile). Nucleo Cietifico Tecnologico en Biorrecursos; La Frontera Univ., Temuco (Chile). Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica

    2010-10-15

    As biodiesel (fatty acid methyl ester (FAME)) is mainly produced from edible vegetable oils, crop soils are used for its production, increasing deforestation and producing a fuel more expensive than diesel. The use of waste lipids such as waste frying oils, waste fats, and soapstock has been proposed as low-cost alternative feedstocks. Non-edible oils such as jatropha, pongamia, and rubber seed oil are also economically attractive. In addition, microalgae, bacteria, yeast, and fungi with 20% or higher lipid content are oleaginous microorganisms known as single cell oil and have been proposed as feedstocks for FAME production. Alternative feedstocks are characterized by their elevated acid value due to the high level of free fatty acid (FFA) content, causing undesirable saponification reactions when an alkaline catalyst is used in the transesterification reaction. The production of soap consumes the conventional catalyst, diminishing FAME production yield and simultaneously preventing the effective separation of the produced FAME from the glycerin phase. These problems could be solved using biological catalysts, such as lipases or whole-cell catalysts, avoiding soap production as the FFAs are esterified to FAME. In addition, by-product glycerol can be easily recovered, and the purification of FAME is simplified using biological catalysts. (orig.)

  4. 27 CFR 40.216a - Notice for pipe tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice for pipe tobacco. 40.216a Section 40.216a Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE...

  5. 27 CFR 40.182 - Record of processed tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Record of processed tobacco. 40.182 Section 40.182 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE...

  6. 27 CFR 41.72a - Notice for pipe tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice for pipe tobacco. 41.72a Section 41.72a Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND...

  7. 27 CFR 40.521 - Record of processed tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Record of processed tobacco. 40.521 Section 40.521 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE...

  8. 27 CFR 45.45a - Notice for pipe tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice for pipe tobacco. 45.45a Section 45.45a Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO REMOVAL OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND...

  9. 27 CFR 40.527 - Authorization to package processed tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Authorization to package processed tobacco. 40.527 Section 40.527 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS,...

  10. Production by Tobacco Transplastomic Plants of Recombinant Fungal and Bacterial Cell-Wall Degrading Enzymes to Be Used for Cellulosic Biomass Saccharification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longoni, Paolo; Leelavathi, Sadhu; Doria, Enrico; Reddy, Vanga Siva; Cella, Rino

    2015-01-01

    Biofuels from renewable plant biomass are gaining momentum due to climate change related to atmospheric CO2 increase. However, the production cost of enzymes required for cellulosic biomass saccharification is a major limiting step in this process. Low-cost production of large amounts of recombinant enzymes by transgenic plants was proposed as an alternative to the conventional microbial based fermentation. A number of studies have shown that chloroplast-based gene expression offers several advantages over nuclear transformation due to efficient transcription and translation systems and high copy number of the transgene. In this study, we expressed in tobacco chloroplasts microbial genes encoding five cellulases and a polygalacturonase. Leaf extracts containing the recombinant enzymes showed the ability to degrade various cell-wall components under different conditions, singly and in combinations. In addition, our group also tested a previously described thermostable xylanase in combination with a cellulase and a polygalacturonase to study the cumulative effect on the depolymerization of a complex plant substrate. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of using transplastomic tobacco leaf extracts to convert cell-wall polysaccharides into reducing sugars, fulfilling a major prerequisite of large scale availability of a variety of cell-wall degrading enzymes for biofuel industry.

  11. Production by Tobacco Transplastomic Plants of Recombinant Fungal and Bacterial Cell-Wall Degrading Enzymes to Be Used for Cellulosic Biomass Saccharification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Longoni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Biofuels from renewable plant biomass are gaining momentum due to climate change related to atmospheric CO2 increase. However, the production cost of enzymes required for cellulosic biomass saccharification is a major limiting step in this process. Low-cost production of large amounts of recombinant enzymes by transgenic plants was proposed as an alternative to the conventional microbial based fermentation. A number of studies have shown that chloroplast-based gene expression offers several advantages over nuclear transformation due to efficient transcription and translation systems and high copy number of the transgene. In this study, we expressed in tobacco chloroplasts microbial genes encoding five cellulases and a polygalacturonase. Leaf extracts containing the recombinant enzymes showed the ability to degrade various cell-wall components under different conditions, singly and in combinations. In addition, our group also tested a previously described thermostable xylanase in combination with a cellulase and a polygalacturonase to study the cumulative effect on the depolymerization of a complex plant substrate. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of using transplastomic tobacco leaf extracts to convert cell-wall polysaccharides into reducing sugars, fulfilling a major prerequisite of large scale availability of a variety of cell-wall degrading enzymes for biofuel industry.

  12. Fatty acid alkyl esters: perspectives for production of alternative biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röttig, Annika; Wenning, Leonie; Bröker, Daniel; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2010-02-01

    The global economy heads for a severe energy crisis: whereas the energy demand is going to rise, easily accessible sources of crude oil are expected to be depleted in only 10-20 years. Since a serious decline of oil supply and an associated collapse of the economy might be reality very soon, alternative energies and also biofuels that replace fossil fuels must be established. In addition, these alternatives should not further impair the environment and climate. About 90% of the biofuel market is currently captured by bioethanol and biodiesel. Biodiesel is composed of fatty acid alkyl esters (FAAE) and can be synthesized by chemical, enzymatic, or in vivo catalysis mainly from renewable resources. Biodiesel is already established as it is compatible with the existing fuel infrastructure, non-toxic, and has superior combustion characteristics than fossil diesel; and in 2008, the global production was 12.2 million tons. The biotechnological production of FAAE from low cost and abundant feedstocks like biomass will enable an appreciable substitution of petroleum diesel. To overcome high costs for immobilized enzymes, the in vivo synthesis of FAAE using bacteria represents a promising approach. This article points to the potential of different FAAE as alternative biofuels, e.g., by comparing their fuel properties. In addition to conventional production processes, this review presents natural and genetically engineered biological systems capable of in vivo FAAE synthesis.

  13. Movement of rhizobia inside tobacco and lifestyle alternation from endophytes to free-living rhizobia on leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Kui-Xian; Chi, Feng; Yang, Ming-Feng; Shen, Shi-Hua; Jing, Yu-Xiang; Dazzo, Frank B; Cheng, Hai-Ping

    2010-02-01

    Rhizobia are well-known for their ability to infect and nodulate legume roots, forming a nitrogen-fixing symbiosis of agricultural importance. In addition, recent studies have shown that rhizobia can colonize roots and aerial plant tissues of rice as a model plant of the Graminaceae family. Here we show that rhizobia can invade tobacco, a model plant belonging to the Solanaceae family. Inoculation of seedling roots with five GFP-tagged rhizobial species followed by microscopy and viable plating analyses indicated their colonization of the surface and interior of the whole vegetative plant. Blockage of ascending epiphytic migration by coating the hypocotyls with Vaseline showed that the endophytic rhizobia can exit the leaf interior through stomata and colonize the external phyllosphere habitat. These studies indicate rhizobia can colonize both below and above-ground tissues of tobacco using a dynamic invasion process that involves both epiphytic and endophytic lifestyles.

  14. [Analysis of alkaline CuO degradation products of acid detergent fiber from tobacco leaves by using liquid chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Weiqiang; Wang, Leijun; Wu, Shun; Yue, Bangyi; Chen, Qiang; Zhang, Peipei

    2015-07-01

    The acid detergent fiber (ADF) from tobacco leaves was obtained by treating the sample with petroleum ether-ethanol (6:4, v/v), 30 g/L sodium dodecylsulfate and 0.5 mol/L sulphuric acid containing 20 g/L hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide successively. The ADF was degraded by the alkaline CuO oxidation procedure. In this work, six samples of ADF degradation products from tobacco leaves were prepared. The samples were analyzed by using gradient liquid chromatography (LC) where an Ultimate XB C18 column was used as stationary phase, with a mixture of methanol and water as mobile phase, at a column temperature of 35 °C and a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min. Dual wavelengths of 280 nm and 320 nm were chosen for the detection. It was found that there were four characteristic peaks for the ADF degradation products. By taking these peaks as research object, the optimum time for the degradation was found to be 5 h and the sample solution could be kept stable within 7 days. The established method may provide a new approach for the studies of the differences between lignin composition in different tobacco leaves and the relationship between lignin content and the smoking quality of tobacco leaves.

  15. Noncigarette forms of tobacco use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viegas, Carlos Alberto de Assis

    2008-12-01

    There are many preparations for tobacco use, which can be classified as smoking or smokeless tobacco. Among the noncigarette preparations that produce smoke, we cite cigars, pipes and narghiles. Smokeless tobacco can be found in preparations for chewing or for being absorbed by nasal and oral mucosae (snuff). However, all tobacco products deliver nicotine to the central nervous system and there is a confirmed risk of dependence. In addition, there is no safe form of tobacco use, and tobacco users have a significantly increased risk of morbidity and premature mortality due to tobacco-related diseases.

  16. Peat gasification and new alternatives of electricity production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solantaus, Y.

    1986-01-01

    Electricity, chemicals and liquid fuels can be produced from peat by gasification. If the product gas is used in a gas turbine, the efficiency of electricity production is higher in a combined gasification-gas turbine plant than in a conventional condensation power plant. If the gas is first led to chemical conversion and the unreacted gas is then burnt in a gas turbine, for example, octane boosters for liquid fuels and electricity can be produced in the same plant. Experimental knowhow of gasification and new syntheses have been critically evaluated in a work carried out at the Laboratory of Fuel Processing Technology of VTT. Concepts have been developed for processes, and then the actual techno-economic evaluations have been carried out. THe gasification-gas turbine plant may in the future offer a competitive alternative to the present energy production methods. Combined process alternatives based on gasification are fairly attractive also with regard to environmental protection. The feasibility of the production of chemicals and liquid fuel blend components is hihgly dependent on the prices of other raw materials.

  17. Alternate economical starchy substrates for the production of 70% sorbitol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upadhyay, C.M. (Sarabhai Research Centre, Baroda (India). Industrial Enzymes Dept.); Nehete, P.N. (Sarabhai Research Centre, Baroda (India). Industrial Fermentation Div.); Shah, D.N. (GSFC Research and Development Centre, Fertilizernagar (India). Biotechnology Dept.); Shah, N.K. (Armour Chemicals Pvt. Ltd., Ankleshwar (India)); Shankar, V. (National Chemical Lab., Pune (India). Biochemistry Div.); Kothari, R.M. (Thapar Corporate Research and Development Centre, Patiala (India). Biotechnology Div.)

    1991-03-01

    In view of the soaring prices of corn and tapioca starch, use of their hydrolysate in the production of 70% sorbitol became less remunerative. Therefore, an economical alternative is explored by using hydrolysates of cereal flours, namely, rice (Oryzae sativa), wheat (Triticum aestivum), jowar (Sorghum vulgare) and bajra (Pennisetum typhoideum). A protocol is devised to (a) prepare their high DE hydrolysates, (b) purify it after saccharification, (c) monitor the chemical chracteristics of concentrated hydrolysate, as feedstock for Raney nickel catalyzed pressure hydrogenation and (d) finally prepare 70% sorbital. Merits and demerits of hydrolysates of these cereal flours are discussed in terms of operational limitations and percentage recovery, the governing factors for their industrial acceptability. Rice flour hydrolysate appears to be an alternative substrate, operationally and economically. (orig.).

  18. Inter-esterified palm products as alternatives to hydrogenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, Nor Aini; Dian, Noor Lida Habi Mat

    2005-01-01

    Inter-esterification is one of the processes used to modify the physico-chemical characteristics of oils and fats. Inter-esterification is an acyl-rearrangement reaction on the glycerol molecule. On the other hand, hydrogenation involves addition of hydrogen to the double bonds of unsaturated fatty acids. Due to health implications of trans fatty acids, which are formed during hydrogenation, the industry needs to find alternatives to hydrogenated fats. This paper discusses some applications of inter-esterified fats, with particular reference to inter-esterified palm products, as alternatives to hydrogenation. Some physico-chemical properties of inter-esterified fats used in shortenings are discussed. With inter-esterification, more palm stearin can be incorporated in vanaspati. For confectionary fats and infant formulations, enzymatic inter-esterification has been employed.

  19. 27 CFR 24.135 - Wine premises alternation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wine premises alternation..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Establishment and Operations Alternation § 24.135 Wine premises alternation. (a) General. The proprietor of a bonded winery or bonded wine cellar may alternate all or...

  20. Coding potential of the products of alternative splicing in human.

    KAUST Repository

    Leoni, Guido

    2011-01-20

    BACKGROUND: Analysis of the human genome has revealed that as much as an order of magnitude more of the genomic sequence is transcribed than accounted for by the predicted and characterized genes. A number of these transcripts are alternatively spliced forms of known protein coding genes; however, it is becoming clear that many of them do not necessarily correspond to a functional protein. RESULTS: In this study we analyze alternative splicing isoforms of human gene products that are unambiguously identified by mass spectrometry and compare their properties with those of isoforms of the same genes for which no peptide was found in publicly available mass spectrometry datasets. We analyze them in detail for the presence of uninterrupted functional domains, active sites as well as the plausibility of their predicted structure. We report how well each of these strategies and their combination can correctly identify translated isoforms and derive a lower limit for their specificity, that is, their ability to correctly identify non-translated products. CONCLUSIONS: The most effective strategy for correctly identifying translated products relies on the conservation of active sites, but it can only be applied to a small fraction of isoforms, while a reasonably high coverage, sensitivity and specificity can be achieved by analyzing the presence of non-truncated functional domains. Combining the latter with an assessment of the plausibility of the modeled structure of the isoform increases both coverage and specificity with a moderate cost in terms of sensitivity.

  1. Assessment of cultivation factors that affect biomass and geraniol production in transgenic tobacco cell suspension cultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay Vasilev

    Full Text Available A large-scale statistical experimental design was used to determine essential cultivation parameters that affect biomass accumulation and geraniol production in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv. Samsun NN cell suspension cultures. The carbohydrate source played a major role in determining the geraniol yield and factors such as filling volume, inoculum size and light were less important. Sucrose, filling volume and inoculum size had a positive effect on geraniol yield by boosting growth of plant cell cultures whereas illumination of the cultures stimulated the geraniol biosynthesis. We also found that the carbohydrates sucrose and mannitol showed polarizing effects on biomass and geraniol accumulation. Factors such as shaking frequency, the presence of conditioned medium and solubilizers had minor influence on both plant cell growth and geraniol content. When cells were cultivated under the screened conditions for all the investigated factors, the cultures produced ∼ 5.2 mg/l geraniol after 12 days of cultivation in shaking flasks which is comparable to the yield obtained in microbial expression systems. Our data suggest that industrial experimental designs based on orthogonal arrays are suitable for the selection of initial cultivation parameters prior to the essential medium optimization steps. Such designs are particularly beneficial in the early optimization steps when many factors must be screened, increasing the statistical power of the experiments without increasing the demand on time and resources.

  2. 27 CFR 71.46 - Suspension and revocation of tobacco permits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... felony violation of any other provision of Federal criminal law relating to tobacco products, processed... criminal law relating to tobacco products, processed tobacco, cigarette paper, or cigarette tubes,...

  3. Perceived Relative Harm of Selected Cigarettes and Non-Cigarette Tobacco Products-A Study of Young People from a Socio-Economically Disadvantaged Rural Area in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaleta, Dorota; Polanska, Kinga; Bak-Romaniszyn, Leokadia; Wojtysiak, Piotr

    2016-09-06

    The perceived health risk of recently introduced nicotine and tobacco products may influence both their uptake and continued use. The aim of the study was to assess how adolescents rate relative harmfulness of slim and menthol cigarettes, water pipes, e-cigarettes, and smokeless tobacco compared to regular cigarettes. Cross-sectional survey data from students aged 13-19 years from Piotrkowski district, Poland were analyzed. Among the sample of 4050 students, 3552 respondents completed anonymous, confidential, self-administered questionnaire adapted from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS). The study results indicate that the students perceived slim cigarettes and menthol cigarettes as less harmful, which is in line with the message created by tobacco companies. On the other hand, less popular products such as water pipes and smokeless tobacco were considered as more harmful. The current study indicates insufficient and misleading perception of harmfulness of different tobacco/nicotine products available on the Polish market. Simultaneously, there is insufficient countrywide public health education in this matter. Preventive measures are necessary to discourage young people from smoking uptake and to ensure that potential consumers can, based on objective data, make informed decisions about cigarettes and non-cigarette tobacco products.

  4. Compliance assessment of cigarette and other tobacco products act in public places of Alwar district of Rajasthan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M L Jain

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Government of India has taken various initiatives for tobacco control by enacting comprehensive tobacco control legislation (Cigarette and Other Tobacco Products Act [COTPA], 2003. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the level of compliance of Sections 4, 5, 6-a, and 6-b, and 7, 8, and 9 of COTPA with respect to public places, educational institutes, point of sale (PoS, and warning on packaging (COTPA in public places of Alwar District of Rajasthan. Methods: A cross-sectional observational study was conducted in 2014 in Alwar city and four blocks of the district. The study was done around 365 public places for observing the compliance of Section 4 of COTPA, 357 educational institutions for observing the compliance of Section 6-b of COTPA, and 357 tobacco retailers for observing the compliance of Sections 5 and 6-a of COTPA. Results: The criteria for the evaluation (the core indicators and decision criteria for a district to qualify for the "Smoke free" status include six parameters. From the total of 365 places visited, 90% places displayed the "No-smoking" signage and out of total 328 places, 99% were as per the COTPA specification. Alwar city, Ramgarh, Thanagaji, and Alwar rural block followed the compliance of Section 4. The PoS visited Alwar district displayed 93% (332 signage and all the displayed signage followed the COTPA compliance. In Alwar city, Thanagaji, Ramgarh, and Alwar rural block, the compliance of Section 6-a was above 90%. The compliance of Section 6-b was above 90% in Alwar city, Ramgarh, Thanagaji, and Alwar rural block. Ninety-three percent (332 of the PoS did not display tobacco advertisement in Alwar district, which is a positive sign of COTPA compliance. Conclusion: This finding suggest a high level of compliance of Section 4, Section 5, Section 6-a, and Section 6-b of COTPA at Alwar district.

  5. MICROALGAE AS AN ALTERNATIVE TO BIOFUELS PRODUCTION. PART 1: BIOETHANOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maiara Priscilla de Souza

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The demand from the energy sector is one of the culminating factors to do researches that enable innovations in the biotechnology sector and to boost biofuel production. The variability of the existing feedstocks provides benefits to energy production, however, we must choose the ones that present plausible characteristics depending on the type of product that we want to obtained. In this context, it is noted that the microalgae have suitable characteristics to producing different types of fuels, depending on the type of treatment are subjected, the species being analyzed as well as the biochemical composition of the biomass. Bioethanol production from microalgae is a promising and growing energy alternative under a view that biomass of these microorganisms has an enormous biodiversity and contain high levels of carbohydrates, an indispensable factor for the bioconversion of microalgae in ethanol. Due to these factors, there is a constant search for more viable methods for pretreatment of biomass, hydrolysis and fermentation, having as one of the major aspects the approach of effectives methodologies in the ambit of quality and yield of ethanol. Therefore, we have to search to increase the interest in the developing of biofuels reconciling with the importance of using microalgae, analyzing whether these micro-organisms are capable of being used in bioethanol production.

  6. Antibiotics in Canadian poultry productions and anticipated alternatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moussa Sory Diarra

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of antibiotics in food-producing animals has significantly increased animal health by lowering mortality and the incidence of diseases. Antibiotics also have largely contributed to increase productivity of farms. However, antibiotic usage in general and relevance of non-therapeutic antibiotics in feed (growth promoters need to be reevaluated especially because bacterial pathogens of humans and animals have developed and shared a variety of antibiotic resistance mechanisms that can easily spread within microbial communities. In Canada, poultry production involves more than 2,600 regulated chicken producers. There are several antibiotics approved as feed additives available for poultry farmers. Feed recipes and mixtures greatly vary geographically and from one farm to another, making links between use of a specific antibiotic feed additive and production yields or selection of specific antibiotic-resistant bacteria difficult to establish. Many on-farm studies have revealed the widespread presence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in broiler chickens. While sporadic reports linked the presence of antibiotic-resistant organisms to the use of feed supplemented with antibiotics, no recent studies could clearly demonstrate the benefit of antimicrobial growth promoters on performance and production yields. With modern biosecurity and hygienic practices, there is a genuine concern that intensive utilization of antibiotics or use of antimicrobial growth promoters in feed might no longer be useful. Public pressure and concerns about food and environmental safety (antibiotic residues, antibiotic-resistant pathogens have driven researchers to actively look for alternatives to antibiotics. Some of the alternatives include pre- and probiotics, organic acids and essential oils. We will describe here the properties of some bioactive molecules, like those found in cranberry, which have shown interesting polyvalent antibacterial and immuno

  7. Clarification of When Products Made or Derived From Tobacco Are Regulated as Drugs, Devices, or Combination Products; Amendments to Regulations Regarding "Intended Uses." Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-09

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is issuing this final rule to describe the circumstances in which a product made or derived from tobacco that is intended for human consumption will be subject to regulation as a drug, device, or a combination product under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the FD&C Act). This action is intended to provide direction to regulated industry and to help avoid consumer confusion.

  8. Functionality of alternative protein in gluten-free product development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deora, Navneet Singh; Deswal, Aastha; Mishra, Hari Niwas

    2015-07-01

    Celiac disease is an immune-mediated disease triggered in genetically susceptible individuals by ingested gluten from wheat, rye, barley, and other closely related cereal grains. The current treatment for celiac disease is life-long adherence to a strict gluten-exclusion diet. The replacement of gluten presents a significant technological challenge, as it is an essential structure-building protein, which is necessary for formulating high-quality baked goods. A major limitation in the production of gluten-free products is the lack of protein functionality in non-wheat cereals. Additionally, commercial gluten-free mixes usually contain only carbohydrates, which may significantly limit the amount of protein in the diet. In the recent past, various approaches are attempted to incorporate protein-based ingredients and to modify the functional properties for gluten-free product development. This review aims to the highlight functionality of the alternative protein-based ingredients, which can be utilized for gluten-free product development both functionally as well as nutritionally.

  9. [Smokeless tobacco].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underner, Michel; Perriot, Jean; Peiffer, Gérard

    2012-01-01

    The use of snus (smokeless tobacco) can be detrimental to health. Containing carcinogenic nitrosamines (Swedish snus do not contain nitrosamine). Snus delivers rapidly high doses of nicotine which can lead to dependence. It do not induce bronchial carcinoma differently smoked tobacco. Lesions usually develop in the area of the mouth where the snus is placed. Non-malignant oral lesions include leukoedema, hyperkeratotic lesions of the oral mucosa and localised periodontal disease. The most frequently occurring premalignant lesion is leukoplakia. Studies reveal conflicting evidence about the risk of oral and gastroesophageal cancer with regard to snus users. However, the use of snus has proved to be a risk factor in developing pancreatic cancer and increases the risk of fatal myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke. During pregnancy, snus is associated with an increased risk of pre-eclampsia and premature delivery. Nicotine substitution therapy and bupropion and varenicline reduce withdrawal symptoms and tobacco craving during snus cessation. However, they have not been shown to assist in long-term abstinence. Information concerning potential hazards of using snus products must be incorporated into health educational programmes in order to discourage its use. Snus is not a recommended product to help in stopping to smoke.

  10. Price and consumption of tobacco

    OpenAIRE

    Virendra Singh; Bharat Bhushan Sharma; Puneet Saxena; Hardayal Meena; Daya Krishan Mangal

    2012-01-01

    Background: It is thought that price increase in tobacco products leads to reduced consumption. Though many studies have substantiated this concept, it has not been well studied in India. Recently, price of tobacco products was increased due to ban on plastic sachets of chewing tobacco and increased tax in Rajasthan. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of price rise on overall consumption of tobacco in Jaipur city, Rajasthan. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out in Jai...

  11. Health warnings on tobacco products: international practices Advertencias sanitarias en los productos de tabaco: prácticas internacionales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Hammond

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Health warnings on tobacco products have emerged as a prominent area of tobacco control policy. Regulatory practice has rapidly evolved over the past decade to the point where health warnings on tobacco products continue to set international precedents for their size and comprehensiveness. The current paper provides a general review of current regulatory practices, including physical design features (such as size and location, message content (pictorial vs. text and content "themes, and regulatory considerations such as rotation period and other novel practices.Las advertencias sanitarias en los productos de tabaco han llegado a ser una de las políticas públicas principales para el control del tabaco. A través de la última década las prácticas regulatorias han evolucionado mucho y varios países siguen impulsado cambios regulatorios importantes en términos del tamaño y carácter de las advertencias sanitarias que han implementado. Este ensayo resume las prácticas regulatorias actuales alrededor del mundo, incluyendo las características del diseño físico de la advertencia (es decir, tamaño y ubicación, sus contenidos (temas, pictogramas, textos y otros factores regulatorios importantes (frecuencia de rotación y otras prácticas innovadoras.

  12. Strategies for tobacco control in India: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailsa J McKay

    Full Text Available Tobacco control needs in India are large and complex. Evaluation of outcomes to date has been limited.To review the extent of tobacco control measures, and the outcomes of associated trialled interventions, in India.Information was identified via database searches, journal hand-searches, reference and citation searching, and contact with experts. Studies of any population resident in India were included. Studies where outcomes were not yet available, not directly related to tobacco use, or not specific to India, were excluded. Pre-tested proformas were used for data extraction and quality assessment. Studies with reliability concerns were excluded from some aspects of analysis. The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC was use as a framework for synthesis. Heterogeneity limited meta-analysis options. Synthesis was therefore predominantly narrative.Additional to the Global Tobacco Surveillance System data, 80 studies were identified, 45 without reliability concerns. Most related to education (FCTC Article 12 and tobacco-use cessation (Article 14. They indicated widespread understanding of tobacco-related harm, but less knowledge about specific consequences of use. Healthcare professionals reported low confidence in cessation assistance, in keeping with low levels of training. Training for schoolteachers also appeared suboptimal. Educational and cessation assistance interventions demonstrated positive impact on tobacco use. Studies relating to smoke-free policies (Article 8, tobacco advertisements and availability (Articles 13 and 16 indicated increasingly widespread smoke-free policies, but persistence of high levels of SHS exposure, tobacco promotions and availability-including to minors. Data relating to taxation/pricing and packaging (Articles 6 and 11 were limited. We did not identify any studies of product regulation, alternative employment strategies, or illicit trade (Articles 9, 10, 15 and 17.Tobacco-use outcomes could be improved

  13. Labels Impact Index (LII: an Italian version of a tool to assess the impact of advertisement on tobacco products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Mannocci

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Labels Impact Index (LII score is a tool to evaluate the impact of health warnings of tobacco products. This score was tested in France, Germany, the Netherlands and UK to measure the effectiveness of the text-only health warnings. The present study aims to propose an Italian version of this tool to support future researches on the health warning and to facilitate the comparison using the same questions. Four items are translated in Italian: salience, harm, quitting and forgo. The questionnaire includes one question for each item and a multiple-choice answer, to correspond a four/five-point scales, is available for each question. The LII score can vary from 0 to 28. An international standardized tool, as the LII score, is fundamental to compare the impact of health warnings in different countries and to enforce policies to oppose the tobacco epidemic.

  14. Clean Hydrogen Production. Carbon Dioxide Free Alternatives. Project Phisico2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Fierro, J. L.; Gonzalez, C.; Serrano, D.; Penelas, G.; Romero, M.; Marcos, M. J.; Rodriguez, C.

    2006-07-01

    The main goal of the PHISICO2 project, funded and promoted by Comunidad de Madrid, is the evaluation and optimisation of three different processes for the clean hydrogen production without carbon dioxide emission. Solar energy and associated Technologies are proposed to be jointly employed with the aim of improving the process efficiency and reducing the production costs. As a transition to the non-fossil fuel hydrogen economy, the thermocatalytic CO2-free production of hydrogen from natural gas will be considered. One of the most promising alternatives of this process is to develop a cheap and stable carbon-based catalyst able to efficiently decompose methane into a CO2-free hydrogen stream and solid carbon. Thus, not only pure hydrogen can be obtained through but also carbon with specific properties and commercial value can be produced. Another option to be explored is the splitting of water by means of solar light by means of two different approaches: (i) photodissociation promoted by semiconductor catalysts and (ii) thermochemical cycles in which a specific mixed oxide is first thermally reduced by sunlight and then reoxidized by steam in a second step with the parallel production of hydrogen. Indeed, option (i) implies necessarily the development of semiconductors with appropriate band-gap able to decompose water into hydrogen and oxygen in an efficient manner. Another critical issue will be the development of a strategy/concept that allows efficient separation of hydrogen and oxygen within the cell. In option (ii), the development of stable ferrites which act as the redox element of the cycle is also an important challenge. Finally, a 5 kW prototype solar engine water splitting, based on the mentioned thermochemical cycle, will developed and tested using concentrated solar light as an energy source. Moreover, thermodynamic and kinetic studies, reactor design, process optimisation, economical studies and comparison with conventional hydrogen production systems

  15. Alternative production methods to face global molybdenum-99 supply shortage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyra, Maria; Charalambatou, Paraskevi; Roussou, Eirini; Fytros, Stavros; Baka, Irini

    2011-01-01

    The sleeping giant of molybdenum-99 ((99)Mo) production is grinding to a halt and the world is wondering how this happened. Fewer than 10 reactors in the world are capable of producing radio nuclides for medicine; approximately 50% of the world's supply of raw material comes from National Research Universal (NRU) reactor in Canada. Many of these reactors, like the NRU, are old and aging. No one of these reactors, and probably not even all of them in combination, can replace the production of NRU. As the healthcare industry faces an aging population and the demand for diagnostic services using (99m)Tc continues to rise, the need for a consistent, reliable supply of (99)Mo has become increasingly important, so alternative methods to produce (99)Mo or even directly (99m)Tc had to be considered to avoid a supply shortage in the coming years. This need guides to the production of (99)Mo by replacing the Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) target in a nuclear reactor with Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) and furthermore to the use of accelerators for manufacturing (99)Mo or for directly producing (99m)Tc.

  16. Wet Oxidation Pretreatment of Tobacco Stalks and Orange Waste for Bioethanol Production. Preliminary results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin, Carlos; Fernandez, Teresa; Garcia, Ariel

    2009-01-01

    Wet oxidation (WO) was used as a pretreatment method prior to enzymatic hydrolysis of tobacco stalks and orange waste. The pretreatment, performed at 195 degrees C and an oxygen pressure of 1.2 MPa, for 15 min, in the presence of Na2CO3, increased the cellulose content of the materials and gave...... cellulose recoveries of approximately 90%. The pretreatment enhanced the susceptibility of cellulose to enzymatic hydrolysis. The highest enzymatic convertibility, that of 64.9%, was achieved for pretreated tobacco stalks. The ethanolic fermentation of the WO filtrates, using Saccharomyces cerevisiae...

  17. WHO Technical Manual on Tobacco Tax Administration

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    This technical manual aims to help governments maximize the benefits that they can receive from higher tobacco taxes by identifying a set of best practices for tobacco taxation. This is one of several available or forthcoming products that focus on tobacco taxation, including: the forthcoming monograph on the economics of tobacco and tobacco control being jointly produced by WHO and the US National Cancer Institute (NCI); the handbook on the effectiveness of tobacco tax and price policies for...

  18. Waste Cooking Oil as an Alternate Feedstock for Biodiesel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rafiqul Islam

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available As crude oil price reach a new high, the need for developing alternate fuels has become acute. Alternate fuels should be economically attractive in order to compete with currently used fossil fuels. In this work, biodiesel (ethyl ester was prepared from waste cooking oil collected from a local restaurant in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. Ethyl alcohol with sodium hydroxide as a catalyst was used for the transesterification process. The fatty acid composition of the final biodiesel esters was determined by gas chromatography. The biodiesel was characterized by its physical and fuel properties including density, viscosity, acid value, flash point, cloud point, pour point, cetane index, water and sediment content, total and free glycerin content, diglycerides and monoglycerides, phosphorus content and sulfur content according to ASTM standards. The viscosity of the biodiesel ethyl ester was found to be 5.03 mm2/sec at 40oC. The viscosity of waste cooking oil measured in room temperature (at 21° C was 72 mm2/sec. From the tests, the flash point was found to be 164oC, the phosphorous content was 2 ppm, those of calcium and magnesium were 1 ppm combined, water and sediment was 0 %, sulfur content was 2 ppm, total acid number was 0.29 mgKOH/g, cetane index was 61, cloud point was -1oC and pour point was -16oC. Production of biodiesel from waste cooking oils for diesel substitute is particularly important because of the decreasing trend of economical oil reserves, environmental problems caused due to fossil fuel use and the high price of petroleum products in the international market.

  19. Waste cooking oil as an alternate feedstock for biodiesel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chhetri, A. B.; Rafiqul Islam, M. [Civil and Resources Engineering Dalhousie University, Room D510, 1360 Barrington St., Box 1000, Halifax, N.S. B3J 2X4 (Canada); Watts, K. Ch. [Process Engineering, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, Box 1000, Halifax, N.S. B3J 2X4 (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    As crude oil price reach a new high, the need for developing alternate fuels has become acute. Alternate fuels should be economically attractive in order to compete with currently used fossil fuels. In this work, biodiesel (ethyl ester) was prepared from waste cooking oil collected from a local restaurant in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. Ethyl alcohol with sodium hydroxide as a catalyst was used for the transesterification process. The fatty acid composition of the final biodiesel esters was determined by gas chromatography. The biodiesel was characterized by its physical and fuel properties including density, viscosity, acid value, flash point, cloud point, pour point, cetane index, water and sediment content, total and free glycerin content, diglycerides and monoglycerides, phosphorus content and sulfur content according to ASTM standards. The viscosity of the biodiesel ethyl ester was found to be 5.03 mm{sup 2}/sec at 40 {sup o}C. The viscosity of waste cooking oil measured in room temperature (at 21 {sup o}C) was 72 mm{sup 2}/sec. From the tests, the flash point was found to be 164 {sup o}C, the phosphorous content was 2 ppm, those of calcium and magnesium were 1 ppm combined, water and sediment was 0 %, sulfur content was 2 ppm, total acid number was 0.29 mg KOH/g, cetane index was 61, cloud point was -1 {sup o}C and pour point was -16 {sup o}C. Production of biodiesel from waste cooking oils for diesel substitute is particularly important because of the decreasing trend of economical oil reserves, environmental problems caused due to fossil fuel use and the high price of petroleum products in the international market. (author)

  20. Why California retailers stop selling tobacco products, and what their customers and employees think about it when they do: case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McDaniel Patricia A

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In California, some 40, 000 retailers sell tobacco products. Tobacco's ubiquitousness in retail settings normalizes use and cues smoking urges among former smokers and those attempting cessation. Thus, limiting the number of retailers is regarded as key to ending the tobacco epidemic. In the past decade, independent pharmacies and local grocery chains in California and elsewhere have voluntarily abandoned tobacco sales. No previous studies have examined the reasons for this emerging phenomenon. We sought to learn what motivated retailers to discontinue tobacco sales and what employees and customers thought about their decision. Methods We conducted case studies of seven California retailers (three grocery stores, four pharmacies that had voluntarily ceased tobacco sales within the past 7 years. We interviewed owners, managers, and employees, conducted consumer focus groups, unobtrusively observed businesses and the surrounding environment, and examined any media coverage of each retailer's decision. We analyzed data using qualitative content analysis. Results For independent pharmacies, the only reason given for the decision to end tobacco sales was that tobacco caused disease and death. Grocers listed health among several factors, including regulatory pressures and wanting to be seen as "making a difference." Media coverage of stores' new policies was limited, and only three retailers alerted customers. Management reported few or no customer complaints and supportive or indifferent employees. Pharmacy employees were pleased to no longer be selling a deadly product. Grocery store management saw the decision to end tobacco sales as enhancing the stores' image and consistent with their inventory of healthy foods. Focus group participants (smokers and nonsmokers were largely unaware that retailers had stopped selling tobacco; however, almost all supported the decision, viewing it as promoting public health. Many said knowing

  1. Simultaneous preconcentration of toxic elements in artificial saliva extract of smokeless tobacco product, mainpuri by cloud point extraction method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arain, Sadaf Sadia; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Arain, Jamshed Bashir; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Brahman, Kapil Dev; Shah, Faheem; Naeemullah; Arain, Salma; Panhwar, Abdul Haleem

    2013-06-01

    It has been extensively investigated that smokeless tobacco chewing can lead mainly to inflammation of oral cavity. In present study, the total and artificial saliva extracted toxic elements, arsenic, cadmium, nickel and lead were estimated in smokeless tobacco product, mainpuri. Cloud point extraction has been used for the preconcentration of arsenic, cadmium, nickel and lead in artificial saliva extract, using complexing reagent, ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate. Total and extractable toxic elements were measured by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The chemical variables of cloud point extraction were optimized. The validity of methodology was tested by simultaneously analyzing certified reference material (Virginia tobacco leaves) and spike recovery test. The artificial saliva extractable levels of arsenic, cadmium, nickel and lead ranged from 15-22, 45-70, 35-58, and 18-32%, respectively, of total elemental contents in mainpuri samples. It was estimated that intake of 10g of different brands of mainpuri contributing the 5.88, 55.0, 45.0 and 40.3% of the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake for arsenic, cadmium, nickel and lead, respectively for adults of ~60kg.

  2. Evaluation of deoxynivalenol production in dsRNA Carrying and Cured Fusarium graminearum isolates by AYT1 expressing transformed tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hasan shahhosseiny

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fusarium head blight (FHB, is the most destructive disease of wheat, producing the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol, a protein synthesis inhibitor, which is harmful to humans and livestock. dsRNAmycoviruses-infected-isolates of Fusariumgraminearum, showed changes in morphological and pathogenicity phenotypes including reduced virulence towards wheat and decreased production of trichothecene mycotoxin (deoxynivalenol: DON. Materials and methods: Previous studies indicated that over expression of yeast acetyl transferase gene (ScAYT1 encoding a 3-O trichothecene acetyl transferase that converts deoxynivalenol to a less toxic acetylated form, leads to suppression of the deoxynivalenol sensitivity in pdr5 yeast mutants. To identify whether ScAYT1 over-expression in transgenic tobacco plants can deal with mycotoxin (deoxynivalenol in fungal extract and studying the effect of dsRNA contamination on detoxification and resistance level, we have treated T1 AYT1 transgenic tobacco seedlings with complete extraction of normal F. graminearum isolate carrying dsRNA metabolites. First, we introduced AYT1into the model tobacco plants through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation in an attempt to detoxify deoxynivalenol. Results: In vitro tests with extraction of dsRNA carrying and cured isolates of F. graminearum and 10 ppm of deoxynivalenol indicated variable resistance levels in transgenic plants. Discussion and conclusion: The results of this study indicate that the transgene expression AYT1 and Fusarium infection to dsRNA can induce tolerance to deoxynivalenol, followed by increased resistance to Fusarium head blight disease of wheat.

  3. 中国烟草及烟草制品的国际竞争力及影响因素分析%Analysis on International Competitiveness of Chinese Tobacco and Tobacco Products and Its Influencing Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖翼; 周发明

    2012-01-01

    Based on the analysis of tobacco and tobacco products’ trade characteristics,this paper employs the international market share,trade competitiveness index and revealed comparative advantage index to determine the international competitiveness of Chinese tobacco and tobacco products,and empirically analyzes its influencing factors by building econometric model.The results show that the international competitiveness of Chinese tobacco and tobacco products is weak,and becomes less competitive.The output,export price,exchange rate,WTO,brand and technology all have appreciable impacts on the international competitiveness of Chinese tobacco and tobacco products.Some measures should be taken,such as improving the product quality and strengthening the brand building,promoting technological innovation,etc.%本文在分析我国烟草及烟草制品贸易特点的基础上,运用国际市场占有率、贸易竞争力指数和显示性比较优势指数等三个指标对中国烟草及烟草制品的国际竞争力进行了测定,并通过建立计量经济学模型对其国际竞争力的影响因素进行了实证分析。结果表明:中国烟草及其制品的国际竞争力整体处于弱势状态,并且呈现波动下降的趋势。国内产量、出口价格、人民币汇率的变化、加入世贸组织、品牌和技术等对我国烟草及其制品的国际竞争力具有显著影响。为此,必须着力改善产品质量、大力加强品牌建设、努力推动技术创新等。

  4. Stable production of thermotolerant xylanase B of Clostridium stercorarium in transgenic tobacco and rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Tetsuya; Mizutani, Tomomi; Sun, Jia-Lin; Kawazu, Tetsu; Karita, Shuichi; Sakka, Makiko; Kobayashi, Yasuo; Ohmiya, Kunio; Sakka, Kazuo

    2010-01-01

    The xylanase B gene encoding a thermostable family 10 xylanase of Clostridium stercorarium was expressed in plants under the control of a constitutive promoter. Two forms of the xylanase B gene, the xynB gene encoding the full length of the xylanase B gene including the bacterial signal sequence and the xynBM gene without the signal sequence region, were introduced into tobacco BY-2 cells and tobacco plants respectively under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. Transgenic BY-2 cells and tobacco plants showed xylanase activity and normal growth. The recombinant enzyme produced in transgenic BY-2 cells harboring the xynB gene was secreted into the culture supernatant, and the recombinant enzyme produced in transgenic BY-2 cells harboring the xynBM gene was localized in the cells. In contrast to tobacco plants, expression of the xynB gene under the control of the rice actin promoter in rice plants was toxic to host cells. However, the recombinant XynBM accumulated in leaf cells, and no phenotypic effect of expression of the xynBM gene was observed. Enzyme activity was maintained in cell-free extracts of transgenic rice leaves at 60 degrees C for 72 h, and the recombinant XynBM degraded hemicellulosic polymers in cell-free extracts of transgenic rice leaves.

  5. Production of Active Bacillus licheniformis Alpha-Amylase in Tobacco and its Application in Starch Liquefaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pen, J; MOLENDIJK, L; Quax, Wim J.; SIJMONS, PC; VANOOYEN, AJJ; VANDENELZEN, PJM; RIETVELD, K; HOEKEMA, A

    1992-01-01

    As a first example of the feasibility of producing industrial bulk enzymes in plants, we have expressed Bacillus licheniformis alpha-amylase in transgenic tobacco, and applied the seeds directly in starch liquification. The enzyme was properly secreted into the intercellular space, and maximum expre

  6. Metabolic engineering of monoterpende biosysnthesis: two step production of (+)-trans-Isopiperitenol by tobacco

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lücker, J.; Schwab, W.; Franssen, M.C.R.; Plas, van der L.H.W.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Verhoeven, H.A.

    2004-01-01

    Monoterpenoid biosynthesis in tobacco was modified by introducing two subsequent enzymatic activities targeted to different cell compartments. A limonene-3-hydroxylase (lim3h) cDNA was isolated from Mentha spicata L. 'Crispa'. This cDNA was used to re-transform a transgenic Nicotiana tabacum'Petit H

  7. Metabolic flux phenotype of tobacco hairy roots engineered for increased geraniol production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masakapalli, S.K.; Ritala, A.; Dong, L.M.; Krol, van der A.R.; Oksman-Caldentey, K.M.; Ratcliffe, R.G.; Sweetlove, L.J.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to characterise the metabolic flux phenotype of transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) hairy roots engineered for increased biosynthesis of geraniol, an intermediate of the terpenoid indole alkaloid pathway. Steady state, stable isotope labelling was used to determine flux

  8. Alternation of light/dark period priming enhances clomazone tolerance by increasing the levels of ascorbate and phenolic compounds and ROS detoxification in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) plantlets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwish, Majd; Lopez-Lauri, Félicie; Vidal, Véronique; El Maâtaoui, Mohamed; Sallanon, Huguette

    2015-07-01

    The effect of the alternation of light/dark periods (AL) (16/8 min light/dark cycles and a photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) of 50 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1) for three days) to clarify the mechanisms involved in the clomazone tolerance of tobacco plantlets primed with AL was studied. Clomazone decreased PSII activity, the net photosynthetic rate (Pn), and the ascorbate and total polyphenol contents and increased H2O2 and starch grain accumulation and the number of the cells that underwent programmed cell death (PCD). The pretreatment with AL reduced the inhibitory effect of clomazone on the PSII activity and photosynthesis, as indicated by the decreases in the H2O2 and starch grain accumulation and the PCD levels, and increased the content of ascorbate and certain phenolic compounds, such as chlorogenic acid, neochlorogenic acid and rutin. The AL treatment could promote photorespiration via post-illumination burst (PIB) effects. This alternative photorespiratory electron pathway may reduce H2O2 generation via the consumption of photochemical energy, such as NADH+H(+). At 10 days (D10) of AL treatment, this process induced moderate stress which stimulates H2O2 detoxification systems by increasing the activity of antioxidant enzymes and the biosynthesis of antioxidant components. Therefore, the PCD levels provoked by clomazone were noticeably decreased.

  9. Evaluation of the efficiency of alternative enzyme production technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albaek, M.O.

    2012-03-15

    Enzymes are used in an increasing number of industries. The application of enzymes is extending into the production of lignocellulosic ethanol in processes that economically can compete with fossil fuels. Since lignocellulosic ethanol is based on renewable resources it will have a positive impact on for example the emission of green house gasses. Cellulases and hemi-cellulases are used for enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated lignocellulosic biomass, and fermentable sugars are released upon the enzymatic process. Even though many years of research has decreased the amount of enzyme needed in the process, the cost of enzymes is still considered a bottleneck in the economic feasibility of lignocellulose utilization. The purpose of this project was to investigate and compare different technologies for production of these enzymes. The filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei is currently used for industrial production of cellulases and hemi-cellulases. The aim of the thesis was to use modeling tools to identify alternative technologies that have higher energy or raw material efficiency than the current technology. The enzyme production by T. reesei was conducted as an aerobic fed-batch fermentation. The process was carried out in pilot scale stirred tank reactors and based on a range of different process conditions, a process model was constructed which satisfactory described the course of fermentation. The process was governed by the rate limiting mass transfer of oxygen from the gas to the liquid phase. During fermentation, filamentous growth of the fungus lead to increased viscosity which hindered mass transfer. These mechanisms were described by a viscosity model based on the biomass concentration of the fermentation broth and a mass transfer correlation that incorporated a viscosity term. An analysis of the uncertainty and sensitivity of the model indicated the biological parameters to be responsible for most of the model uncertainty. A number of alternative

  10. [Evaluating tobacco dependance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etter, Jean-François

    2006-11-29

    Good science needs good measurement instruments, and this is also true for the study of tobacco dependence. In this paper, we present and criticize the most frequently used instrument, the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence. This test, published 28 years ago, does not reflect current definitions of dependence. Several alternative approaches to the measurement of tobacco dependence are discussed, and more recent instruments are presented.

  11. Summary of Plutonium-238 Production Alternatives Analysis Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James Werner; Wade E. Bickford; David B. Lord; Chadwick D. Barklay

    2013-03-01

    The Team implemented a two-phase evaluation process. During the first phase, a wide variety of past and new candidate facilities and processing methods were assessed against the criteria established by DOE for this assessment. Any system or system element selected for consideration as an alternative within the project to reestablish domestic production of Pu-238 must meet the following minimum criteria: Any required source material must be readily available in the United States, without requiring the development of reprocessing technologies or investments in systems to separate material from identified sources. It must be cost, schedule, and risk competitive with existing baseline technology. Any identified facilities required to support the concept must be available to the program for the entire project life cycle (notionally 35 years, unless the concept is so novel as to require a shorter duration). It must present a solution that can generate at least 1.5 Kg of Pu-238 oxide per year, for at least 35 years. It must present a low-risk, near-term solution to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s urgent mission need. DOE has implemented this requirement by eliminating from project consideration any alternative with key technologies at less than Technology Readiness Level 5. The Team evaluated the options meeting these criteria using a more detailed assessment of the reasonable facility variations and compared them to the preferred option, which consists of target irradiation at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) and the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR), target fabrication and chemical separations processing at the ORNL Radiochemical Engineering Development Center, and neptunium 237 storage at the Materials and Fuels Complex at INL. This preferred option is consistent with the Records of Decision from the earlier National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documentation

  12. Price and consumption of tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virendra Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is thought that price increase in tobacco products leads to reduced consumption. Though many studies have substantiated this concept, it has not been well studied in India. Recently, price of tobacco products was increased due to ban on plastic sachets of chewing tobacco and increased tax in Rajasthan. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of price rise on overall consumption of tobacco in Jaipur city, Rajasthan. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out in Jaipur city. Two-staged stratified sampling was used. In the first phase of study, cost and consumption of various tobacco products in the months of February and April were enquired from 25 retail tobacco shops. In the second phase, tobacco consumption was enquired from 20 consecutive consumers purchasing any tobacco product from all the above retail tobacco shops. The data were statistically analyzed using descriptive statistics and paired "t" test. Results: The comparison of prices of tobacco products between February and April revealed that the price of cigarette, bidi, and chewing tobacco has increased by 19%, 21%, and 68%, respectively. Average decrease in sales of cigarettes, bidi, and chewing tobacco at shops included in the study were 14%, 23%, and 38%, respectively. The consumers purchasing tobacco also reported decreased consumption. Chewing tobacco showed the maximum reduction (21%. Consumption of cigarette and bidi has also reduced by 15% and 13%, respectively. Conclusion: It may be concluded that reduction in consumption is associated with increased price of tobacco products. Reduced consumption is comparative to the magnitude of price increase.

  13. Enhanced production of resveratrol derivatives in tobacco plants by improving the metabolic flux of intermediates in the phenylpropanoid pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Yu Jeong; An, Chul Han; Woo, Su Gyeong; Park, Ji Hye; Lee, Ki-Won; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Rim, Yeonggil; Jeong, Hyung Jae; Ryu, Young Bae; Kim, Cha Young

    2016-09-01

    The biosynthesis of flavonoids such as anthocyanin and stilbenes has attracted increasing attention because of their potential health benefits. Anthocyanins and stilbenes share common phenylpropanoid precursor pathways. We previously reported that the overexpression of sweetpotato IbMYB1a induced anthocyanin pigmentation in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants. In the present study, transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum SR1) plants (STS-OX and ROST-OX) expressing the RpSTS gene encoding stilbene synthase from rhubarb (Rheum palmatum L. cv. Jangyeop) and the RpSTS and VrROMT genes encoding resveratrol O-methyltransferase from frost grape (Vitis riparia) were generated under the control of 35S promoter. Phenotypic alterations in floral organs, such as a reduction in floral pigments and male sterility, were observed in STS-OX transgenic tobacco plants. However, we failed to obtain STS-OX and ROST-OX plants with high levels of resveratrol compounds. Therefore, to improve the production of resveratrol derivatives in plants, we cross-pollinated flowers of STS-OX or ROST-OX and IbMYB1a-OX transgenic lines (SM and RSM). Phenotypic changes in vegetative and reproductive development of SM and RSM plants were observed. Furthermore, by HPLC and LC-MS analyses, we found enhanced production of resveratrol derivatives such as piceid, piceid methyl ether, resveratrol methyl ether O-hexoside, and 5-methyl resveratrol-3,4'-O-β-D-diglucopyranoside in SM and RSM cross-pollinated lines. Here, total contents of trans- and cis-piceids ranged from approximately 104-240 µg/g fresh weight in SM (F2). Collectively, we suggest that coexpression of RpSTS and IbMYB1a via cross-pollination can induce enhanced production of resveratrol compounds in plants by increasing metabolic flux into stilbenoid biosynthesis.

  14. On the Hybrid F1 Characteristics of Physiology, Biochemistry, Product Quality and Resistance to Black Shank in Oriental Tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen X

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were conducted from 1996 to 1998 at the Hefei Institute of Economics and Technology and at the Oriental Experimental Station of the Zhejiang Province (China. Seven F1 hybrids and three parental varieties of Oriental tobaccos were evaluated for the characteristics of photosynthetic and transpiration rates, esterase isozymes, resistance to black shank, quality and product potential from the 1996-1998 growing seasons. Tobacco leaves had higher photosynthetic rates and many differences among genotypes in the early stage of plant vigorous growth compared with more mature leaves. However, transpiration rates were lower in the younger leaves and greater in the more mature leaves. All the entries had four common bands (B1, B3, B4 and B6 of the esterase isoenzymes. Differences between entries resulted from in having or not having the B2 and B5 bands and color intensity differences of all the bands. These differences could be used to identify individual entries. The F1hybrids Samsun X Toy and Samsun X Argjiro, compared with the CK Samsun control, had obvious heterotic vigor in the characteristics of product, for yield, quality and resistance to black shank. The F1 hybrid Samsun X Toy maintained higher photosynthetic and transpiration rates in the two growth stages compared to other entries. However, the F1hybrid Samsun X Argjiro had higher photosynthetic rates and lower transpiration rates in the early growth stage and the two rates were lower in the later stage, but it maintained higher photosynthetic rates for the whole growth stage. Net photosynthetic rates had a significant positive correlation with yield product, quality and resistance to black shank of the Oriental tobacco F1hybrids.

  15. Tobacco as biofactory for biologically active hPL production: a human hormone with potential applications in type-1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urreta, Iratxe; Oyanguren, Iñigo; Castañón, Sonia

    2011-08-01

    Human placental lactogen (hPL) is a peptidic hormone that belongs to the short list of growth factors that could treat type-1 diabetes through pancreatic islet transplantation. Placental lactogen has the capacity to improve islet survival and function before or after transplantation. In this study, transgenic tobacco plants were used as a novel expression system for the production of recombinant hPL protein (rhPL). The expression vector pNEKhPL2 containing hPL cDNA was introduced into tobacco plants; the transcriptional activity was confirmed by real-time PCR, and the rhPL levels reached 1% of the total soluble protein (TSP) content in plants cultivated in the greenhouse. In vitro bioassays using the rat insulinoma (INS-1) cell line showed that recombinant protein was able to induce cell proliferation and activate the JAK-2/STAT-5 signal transduction pathway, demonstrating that plant cells can produce the biologically active hPL protein. To further characterize the plant expression system for hPL production, we analyzed the stability of the protein during the life cycle of tobacco plants as well as the transmission of the transgenic trait to the progeny. The recombinant protein was stably accumulated in young leaves, reaching the maximum level in the first month (6.51 μg/g of fresh weight), but showing a decreasing trend of 26% from the initial sampling time until the end of plant's life cycle. The progeny of the selected pNEKhPL2 plant showed in vitro expression levels of up to 1.1% of TSP. Our results therefore indicate that transgenic plants are a suitable expression system for hPL production.

  16. Recommendations for Sustainable Development of Ankang Tobacco Growing Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hatao; YANG; Ke; SUN; Feng; ZHU

    2015-01-01

    Sustainable development of high quality characteristic tobacco is the only path for future development of China’s tobacco industry.In combination with realities of tobacco development in Ankang tobacco growing area,this paper made analysis on factors restricting sustainable development of Ankang tobacco growing area.On the basis of actual situations,it came up with recommendations including establishing scientific basic tobacco field protection system,gradually cultivating professional tobacco farmers and strengthening tobacco technician team construction,improving scientific and technological innovation,implementing standardized technologies,improving tobacco production organization mode,and improving tobacco production security mechanism.

  17. Banana production systems: identification of alternative systems for more sustainable production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellamy, Angelina Sanderson

    2013-04-01

    Large-scale, monoculture production systems dependent on synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, increase yields, but are costly and have deleterious impacts on human health and the environment. This research investigates variations in banana production practices in Costa Rica, to identify alternative systems that combine high productivity and profitability, with reduced reliance on agrochemicals. Farm workers were observed during daily production activities; 39 banana producers and 8 extension workers/researchers were interviewed; and a review of field experiments conducted by the National Banana Corporation between 1997 and 2002 was made. Correspondence analysis showed that there is no structured variation in large-scale banana producers' practices, but two other banana production systems were identified: a small-scale organic system and a small-scale conventional coffee-banana intercropped system. Field-scale research may reveal ways that these practices can be scaled up to achieve a productive and profitable system producing high-quality export bananas with fewer or no pesticides.

  18. Alternative substrates in the production of lettuce seedlings and their productivity in the field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Castoldi

    Full Text Available Based on the hypothesis that alternative substrates should improve the yield of lettuce crops by producing better quality seedlings, the objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of different substrates on the production of seedlings of this species, and their growth in the field. The study was in two stages. The first consisted of the production of lettuce seedlings, and the second assessed their development in the field. Four alternative substrates were tested, obtained by mixing together a sieved vermicompost from which all clumps had been removed, sterilized sand, charred rice husks and basalt powder. The commercial substrate, Plantmax HA®, was also tested. In the first phase, which was conducted in a completely randomised design with four replications, the height, root length, number of leaves, leaf area and dry weight of the seedlings were all evaluated 28 days after sowing. In the second phase, which was carried out in the field in a randomised block design with four replications, the plants were harvested 50 days after transplanting and the head diameter, fresh weight, number of leaves and leaf and stem dry weight were evaluated. The alternative substrates produced larger seedlings in less time than the commercial substrate, resulting in a reduction of 10 days in the total crop cycle. The reduction in the time between sowing and harvesting, together with those aspects relating to sustainability, are the main advantages of the use of alternative substrates, since in the field crop production did not differ between treatments.

  19. Tobacco use by Indian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chadda RK

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Adolescents are the most vulnerable population to initiate tobacco use. It is now well established that most of the adult users of tobacco start tobacco use in childhood or adolescence. There has been a perceptible fall in smoking in the developed countries after realization of harmful effects of tobacco. The tobacco companies are now aggressively targeting their advertising strategies in the developing countries like India. Adolescents often get attracted to tobacco products because of such propaganda. There has been a rapid increase in trade and use of smokeless tobacco products in recent years in the country, which is a matter of serious concern to the health planners. It is important to understand various factors that influence and encourage young teenagers to start smoking or to use other tobacco products. The age at first use of tobacco has been reduced considerably. However, law enforcing agencies have also taken some punitive measures in recent years to curtail the use of tobacco products. This paper focuses on various tobacco products available in India, the extent of their use in adolescents, factors leading to initiation of their use, and the preventive strategies, which could be used to deal with this menace.

  20. Advanced Electrochemical Technologies for Hydrogen Production by Alternative Thermochemical Cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lvov, Serguei; Chung, Mike; Fedkin, Mark; Lewis, Michele; Balashov, Victor; Chalkova, Elena; Akinfiev, Nikolay; Stork, Carol; Davis, Thomas; Gadala-Maria, Francis; Stanford, Thomas; Weidner, John; Law, Victor; Prindle, John

    2011-01-06

    Hydrogen fuel is a potentially major solution to the problem of climate change, as well as addressing urban air pollution issues. But a key future challenge for hydrogen as a clean energy carrier is a sustainable, low-cost method of producing it in large capacities. Most of the world's hydrogen is currently derived from fossil fuels through some type of reforming processes. Nuclear hydrogen production is an emerging and promising alternative to the reforming processes for carbon-free hydrogen production in the future. This report presents the main results of a research program carried out by a NERI Consortium, which consisted of Penn State University (PSU) (lead), University of South Carolina (USC), Tulane University (TU), and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). Thermochemical water decomposition is an emerging technology for large-scale production of hydrogen. Typically using two or more intermediate compounds, a sequence of chemical and physical processes split water into hydrogen and oxygen, without releasing any pollutants externally to the atmosphere. These intermediate compounds are recycled internally within a closed loop. While previous studies have identified over 200 possible thermochemical cycles, only a few have progressed beyond theoretical calculations to working experimental demonstrations that establish scientific and practical feasibility of the thermochemical processes. The Cu-Cl cycle has a significant advantage over other cycles due to lower temperature requirements – around 530 °C and below. As a result, it can be eventually linked with the Generation IV thermal power stations. Advantages of the Cu-Cl cycle over others include lower operating temperatures, ability to utilize low-grade waste heat to improve energy efficiency, and potentially lower cost materials. Another significant advantage is a relatively low voltage required for the electrochemical step (thus low electricity input). Other advantages include common chemical agents and

  1. Involvement of NADPH oxidase NtrbohD in the rapid production of H2O2 induced by ABA in cultured tobacco cell line BY-2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fushun Hao; Jinguang Zhang; Zhonglian Yu; Jia Chen

    2008-01-01

    The mechanisms for the production of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) induced by abscisic acid (ABA) were investigated in suspension culture cells of tobacco BY-2 cells. The results showed that the immediate generation of H2O2, which was mainly derived from super-oxide dismutase-catalyzed dismutation of superoxide radical, was significantly induced by ABA. Furthermore, treatment of the cultured tobacco cells with ABA resulted in a time-dependent quick increase in plasma membrane (PM) NADPH oxidase activity, which coincided on time and magnitude with the elevation in ABA-induced accumulation of H2O2. Moreover, these enhanced effects were pronouncedly inhibited by two NADPH oxidase inhibitors, diphenylene iodonium and imidazole, suggesting that PM NADPH oxidase is involved in the rapid accumulation of H2O2 in cultured tobacco cells. In addition, analysis of the expression level of NtrbohD, a PM NADPH oxidase gene in tobacco, by RT-PCR and protein gel blot revealed that the gene at both mRNA and protein levels was upregulated by ABA, indicating that NtrbohD participates in the ABA-stimulated rapid production of H2O2 in tobacco culture cells. Taken together, these findings suggest that ABA induces the rapid accumulation of reactive oxygen species via NADPH oxidase in suspension culture cells of tobacco, and that NADPH oxidase and H2O2 appear to be important components in ABA signal transduction pathway in plants.

  2. Tobacco alkaloids and tobacco-specific nitrosamines in dust from homes of smokeless tobacco users, active smokers, and nontobacco users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Todd P; Havel, Christopher; Metayer, Catherine; Benowitz, Neal L; Jacob, Peyton

    2015-05-18

    Smokeless tobacco products, such as moist snuff or chewing tobacco, contain many of the same carcinogens as tobacco smoke; however, the impact on children of indirect exposure to tobacco constituents via parental smokeless tobacco use is unknown. As part of the California Childhood Leukemia Study, dust samples were collected from 6 homes occupied by smokeless tobacco users, 6 homes occupied by active smokers, and 20 tobacco-free homes. To assess children's potential for exposure to tobacco constituents, vacuum-dust concentrations of five tobacco-specific nitrosamines, including N'-nitrosonornicotine [NNN] and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone [NNK], as well as six tobacco alkaloids, including nicotine and myosmine, were quantified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). We used generalized estimating equations derived from a multivariable marginal model to compare levels of tobacco constituents between groups, after adjusting for a history of parental smoking, income, home construction date, and mother's age and race/ethnicity. The ratio of myosmine/nicotine was used as a novel indicator of the source of tobacco contamination, distinguishing between smokeless tobacco products and tobacco smoke. Median dust concentrations of NNN and NNK were significantly greater in homes with smokeless tobacco users compared to tobacco-free homes. In multivariable models, concentrations of NNN and NNK were 4.8- and 6.9-fold higher, respectively, in homes with smokeless tobacco users compared to tobacco-free homes. Median myosmine/nicotine ratios were lower in homes with smokeless tobacco users (1.8%) compared to homes of active smokers (7.7%), confirming that cigarette smoke was not the predominant source of tobacco constituents in homes with smokeless tobacco users. Children living with smokeless tobacco users may be exposed to carcinogenic tobacco-specific nitrosamines via contact with contaminated dust and household surfaces.

  3. Use of MRF residue as alternative fuel in cement production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyffe, John R; Breckel, Alex C; Townsend, Aaron K; Webber, Michael E

    2016-01-01

    Single-stream recycling has helped divert millions of metric tons of waste from landfills in the U.S., where recycling rates for municipal solid waste are currently over 30%. However, material recovery facilities (MRFs) that sort the municipal recycled streams do not recover 100% of the incoming material. Consequently, they landfill between 5% and 15% of total processed material as residue. This residue is primarily composed of high-energy-content non-recycled plastics and fiber. One possible end-of-life solution for these energy-dense materials is to process the residue into Solid Recovered Fuel (SRF) that can be used as an alternative energy resource capable of replacing or supplementing fuel resources such as coal, natural gas, petroleum coke, or biomass in many industrial and power production processes. This report addresses the energetic and environmental benefits and trade-offs of converting non-recycled post-consumer plastics and fiber derived from MRF residue streams into SRF for use in a cement kiln. An experimental test burn of 118 Mg of SRF in the precalciner portion of the cement kiln was conducted. The SRF was a blend of 60% MRF residue and 40% post-industrial waste products producing an estimated 60% plastic and 40% fibrous material mixture. The SRF was fed into the kiln at 0.9 Mg/h for 24h and then 1.8 Mg/h for the following 48 h. The emissions data recorded in the experimental test burn were used to perform the life-cycle analysis portion of this study. The analysis included the following steps: transportation, landfill, processing and fuel combustion at the cement kiln. The energy use and emissions at each step is tracked for the two cases: (1) The Reference Case, where MRF residue is disposed of in a landfill and the cement kiln uses coal as its fuel source, and (2) The SRF Case, in which MRF residue is processed into SRF and used to offset some portion of coal use at the cement kiln. The experimental test burn and accompanying analysis indicate

  4. Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking in Turkey: Policy Implications and Trends from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdöl, Cevdet; Ergüder, Toker; Morton, Jeremy; Palipudi, Krishna; Gupta, Prakash; Asma, Samira

    2015-12-08

    Waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS) is an emerging tobacco product globally, especially among adolescents and young adults who may perceive WTS as a safe alternative to smoking cigarettes. Monitoring the use of WTS in Turkey in relation to the tobacco control policy context is important to ensure that WTS does not become a major public health issue in Turkey. The Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) was conducted in Turkey in 2008 and was repeated in 2012. GATS provided prevalence estimates on current WTS and change over time. Other indicators of WTS were also obtained, such as age of initiation and location of use. Among persons aged 15 and older in Turkey, the current prevalence of WTS decreased from 2.3% in 2008 to 0.8% in 2012, representing a 65% relative decline. Among males, WTS decreased from 4.0% to 1.1% (72% relative decline). While the overall smoking prevalence decreased among females, there was no change in the rate of WTS (0.7% in 2008 vs. 0.5% in 2012), though the WTS prevalence rate was already low in 2008. Comprehensive tobacco control efforts have been successful in reducing the overall smoking prevalence in Turkey, which includes the reduction of cigarette smoking and WTS. However, it is important to continue monitoring the use of waterpipes in Turkey and targeting tobacco control efforts to certain groups that may be vulnerable to future WTS marketing (e.g., youth, women).

  5. Tobacco control in Nigeria- policy recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agaku Israel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Major strides towards national tobacco control have been made since Nigeria became signatory to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC in June 2004. The Nigerian senate passed a bill on March 15, 2011 which is expected to be signed into law shortly, to regulate and control production, manufacture, sale, advertising, promotion and sponsorship of tobacco or tobacco products. This paper highlights how the proposed tobacco control law provides a unique opportunity to domesticate the WHO FCTC, expand on smokeless tobacco regulation and develop a science base to improve tobacco control measures in Nigeria.

  6. (S)-N'-Nitrosonornicotine, a constituent of smokeless tobacco, is a powerful oral cavity carcinogen in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbo, Silvia; James-Yi, Sandra; Johnson, Charles S; O'Sullivan, Michael G; Stepanov, Irina; Wang, Mingyao; Bandyopadhyay, Dipankar; Kassie, Fekadu; Carmella, Steven; Upadhyaya, Pramod; Hecht, Stephen S

    2013-09-01

    Currently, smokeless tobacco products are being proposed as an alternative mode of tobacco use associated with less harm. All of these products contain the tobacco-specific carcinogen N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN). The major form of NNN in tobacco products is (S)-NNN, shown in this study to induce a total of 89 benign and malignant oral cavity tumors in a group of 20 male F-344 rats treated chronically with 14 p.p.m. in the drinking water. The opposite enantiomer (R)-NNN was weakly active, but synergistically enhanced the carcinogenicity of (S)-NNN. Thus, (S)-NNN is identified for the first time as a strong oral cavity carcinogen in smokeless tobacco products and should be significantly reduced or removed from these products without delay in order to prevent debilitating and deadly oral cavity cancer in people who use them.

  7. Systematic screening and characterization of glycosides in tobacco leaves by liquid chromatography with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry using neutral loss scan and product ion scan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Li; Wang, Xiaoyu; Wang, Sheng; Yu, Jingjing; Qin, Yaqiong; Zhang, Xiaobing; Xie, Fuwei

    2015-12-01

    Glycosides in tobacco leaves are highly important aromatic precursors. It is necessary to reveal glycosides in tobacco leaves to improve tobacco planting and processing. This study describes a method for the systematic screening of glycosides in tobacco leaves by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. Although glycosides contain numerous aglycones, the number of glycans is limited. Based on a screening table of glycans designed for neutral loss scan, glycosides with different aglycones were systematically screened out. Then, the MS(2) fragment spectra of scanned glycosides were further obtained using product ion scan. By comparison with the spectra in online tandem mass spectral databases, reported references, and verification by commercial standards, 64 glycosides were detected, including 39 glycosides linked with monosaccharides, 18 glycosides linked with disaccharides and 7 glycosides linked with trisaccharides. It is noteworthy that glycosides linked with trisaccharides have previously been rarely reported in tobacco. This method appears to be a useful tool for the systematic screening and characterization of glycosides in tobacco and can potentially be applied to other plants.

  8. 27 CFR 41.72b - Notice for roll-your-own tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice for roll-your-own tobacco. 41.72b Section 41.72b Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE...

  9. 27 CFR 40.216b - Notice for roll-your-own tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice for roll-your-own tobacco. 40.216b Section 40.216b Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE...

  10. 27 CFR 45.45b - Notice for roll-your-own tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice for roll-your-own tobacco. 45.45b Section 45.45b Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO REMOVAL OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE...

  11. Alternative Oxidase Activity in Tobacco Leaf Mitochondria (Dependence on Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle-Mediated Redox Regulation and Pyruvate Activation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanlerberghe, G. C.; Day, D. A.; Wiskich, J. T.; Vanlerberghe, A. E.; McIntosh, L.

    1995-10-01

    Transgenic Nicotiana tabacum (cv Petit Havana SR1) containing high levels of mitochondrial alternative oxidase (AOX) protein due to the introduction of a sense transgene(s) of Aox1, the nuclear gene encoding AOX, were used to investigate mechanisms regulating AOX activity. After purification of leaf mitochondria, a large proportion of the AOX protein was present as the oxidized (covalently associated and less active) dimer. High AOX activity in these mitochondria was dependent on both reduction of the protein by DTT (to the noncovalently associated and more active dimer) and its subsequent activation by certain [alpha]-keto acids, particularly pyruvate. Reduction of AOX to its more active form could also be mediated by intramitochondrial reducing power generated by the oxidation of certain tricarboxylic acid cycle substrates, most notably isocitrate and malate. Our evidence suggests that NADPH may be specifically required for AOX reduction. All of the above regulatory mechanisms applied to AOX in wild-type mitochondria as well. Transgenic leaves lacking AOX due to the introduction of an Aox1 antisense transgene or multiple sense transgenes were used to investigate the potential physiological significance of the AOX-regulatory mechanisms. Under conditions in which respiratory carbon metabolism is restricted by the capacity of mitochondrial electron transport, feed-forward activation of AOX by mitochondrial reducing power and pyruvate may act to prevent redirection of carbon metabolism, such as to fermentative pathways.

  12. The use of tobacco mosaic virus and cowpea mosaic virus for the production of novel metal nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Andrew J; Makarov, Valentine; Yaminsky, Igor; Kalinina, Natalia O; Taliansky, Michael E

    2014-01-20

    Due to the nanoscale size and the strictly controlled and consistent morphologies of viruses, there has been a recent interest in utilizing them in nanotechnology. The structure, surface chemistries and physical properties of many viruses have been well elucidated, which have allowed identification of regions of their capsids which can be modified either chemically or genetically for nanotechnological uses. In this review we focus on the use of such modifications for the functionalization and production of viruses and empty viral capsids that can be readily decorated with metals in a highly tuned manner. In particular, we discuss the use of two plant viruses (Cowpea mosaic virus and Tobacco mosaic virus) which have been extensively used for production of novel metal nanoparticles (<100nm), composites and building blocks for 2D and 3D materials, and illustrate their applications.

  13. Production and secretion of a heterologous protein by turnip hairy roots with superiority over tobacco hairy roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huet, Yoann; Ekouna, Jean-Pierre Ele; Caron, Aurore; Mezreb, Katiba; Boitel-Conti, Michèle; Guerineau, François

    2014-01-01

    A fully contained and efficient heterologous protein production system was designed using Brassica rapa rapa (turnip) hairy roots. Two expression cassettes containing a cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter with a duplicated enhancer region, an Arabidopsis thaliana sequence encoding a signal peptide and the CaMV polyadenylation signal were constructed. One cassette was used to express the green fluorescent protein (GFP)-encoding gene in hairy roots grown in flasks. A stable and fast-growing hairy root line secreted GFP at >120 mg/l culture medium. GFP represented 60 % of the total soluble proteins in the culture medium. Turnip hairy roots retained sustainable growth and stable GFP production over 3 years. These results were superior to those obtained using tobacco hairy roots.

  14. Biodiesel From Alternative Oilseed Feedstocks: Production and Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatty acid methyl esters were prepared and evaluated as potential biodiesel fuels from several alternative oilseed feedstocks, which included camelina (Camelina sativa L.), coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), field mustard (Brassica juncea L.), field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.), and meadowfoam (L...

  15. Alternative mitochondrial functions in cell physiopathology: beyond ATP production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kowaltowski A.J.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that mitochondria are the main site for ATP generation within most tissues. However, mitochondria also participate in a surprising number of alternative activities, including intracellular Ca2+ regulation, thermogenesis and the control of apoptosis. In addition, mitochondria are the main cellular generators of reactive oxygen species, and may trigger necrotic cell death under conditions of oxidative stress. This review concentrates on these alternative mitochondrial functions, and their role in cell physiopathology.

  16. Análisis comparado del impacto de las políticas impositivas vía precio en el consumo de tabaco Tobacco taxes, prices and demand for tobacco products: a comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Pinilla

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se analiza cómo el aumento de los impuestos afecta a la demanda de productos derivados del tabaco, en especial a la demanda de cigarrillos. El análisis comparado de los estudios revisados demuestra que las subidas en los impuestos sobre el tabaco se traducen en un aumento de los precios de estos productos. La elasticidad precio de la demanda de cigarrillos en países de ingreso medio y bajo resulta el doble que la de los países de ingresos altos, alrededor de -0,4. Además, y como señal de la naturaleza adictiva de este tipo de consumo, esta demanda se presenta más elástica en el largo que en el corto plazo. El efecto de una subida en los impuestos del tabaco es mayor en los jóvenes, más sensibles a los precios que los fumadores adultos. La evidencia empírica para el caso español sitúa la elasticidad precio de la demanda de cigarrillos a corto plazo en un intervalo que oscila entre -0,5 y -0,3, similar a los encontrados en la bibliografía internacional. Estos datos no ofrecen perspectivas optimistas sobre la potencialidad de las medidas fiscales como herramienta de control del tabaquismo, más allá de sus efectos recaudatorios y compensadores de externalidades. Además, si se consideran las posibilidades de sustituciones entre marcas y el margen estratégico de la industria para compensar los efectos de los impuestos, reducir las demandas y alentar el contrabando, el panorama se presenta todavía más pesimista.This paper analyzes the extent to which an increase in tobacco taxes affects the demand for tobacco products, especially for cigarettes. Comparison of the studies reviewed revealed that higher tobacco taxes result in higher tobacco prices. The price-elasticity of cigarette demand in low- and middle-income countries is about double that in high-income countries, about -0.4. Furthermore, because of the addictive nature of tobacco use, demand for tobacco products is more elastic in the long run than in the short

  17. 氯化钾施用量在烤烟生产上研究%Study on Consumption of KCl in Flue-Cured Tobacco Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘坤华; 谭雪庆; 张文建; 谢孔华

    2012-01-01

    2010年余庆县开展了氯化钾肥料施用量的田间试验工作,结果表明:氯化钾施用量为45.0~60.0 kg/hm2范围内,能显著提高烟叶产量和经济效益,烟叶外观质量、内在质量明显改善,化学成分较为协调,评吸质量较优。%The work of consumption of KCl in flue-cured tobacco production in Yuqing county in 2010 was carried out.The result showed that when fertilizing amount of KCl was 45.0~60.0 kg/hm2,it could increase tobacco production and economic benefits,improve appearance and quality of tobacco leaves,make chemical composition more harmonious and smoking quality more excellent

  18. Tobacco point-of-purchase promotion: examining tobacco industry documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavack, Anne M; Toth, Graham

    2006-10-01

    In the face of increasing media restrictions around the world, point-of-purchase promotion (also called point-of-sale merchandising, and frequently abbreviated as POP or POS) is now one of the most important tools that tobacco companies have for promoting tobacco products. Using tobacco industry documents, this paper demonstrates that tobacco companies have used point-of-purchase promotion in response to real or anticipated advertising restrictions. Their goal was to secure dominance in the retail setting, and this was achieved through well-trained sales representatives who offered contracts for promotional incentive programmes to retailers, which included the use of point-of-sale displays and merchandising fixtures. Audit programmes played an important role in ensuring contract enforcement and compliance with a variety of tobacco company incentive programmes. Tobacco companies celebrated their merchandising successes, in recognition of the stiff competition that existed among tobacco companies for valuable retail display space.

  19. Estimation of Nickel in Different Smokeless Tobacco Products and Their Impact on Human Health of Oral Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arain, Sadaf S; Kazi, Tasneem G; Afridi, Hassan I; Talpur, Farah N; Kazi, Atif G; Brahman, Kapil D; Naeemullah; Arain, Mariam S; Sahito, Oan M

    2015-01-01

    It has been extensively investigated that the chewing of smokeless tobacco (SLT) products may enhance the inflammation of the oral cavity. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the relationship between nickel (Ni) exposure via different SLT products with oral cancer (different sites) incidence in the population of Sindh, Pakistan. The different brands of SLT products (mainpuri, gutkha, and moist snuff) commonly consumed by the studied population were analyzed for Ni contents. The biological samples of oral cancer patients and noncancerous control subjects of both genders, who have or have not consumed SLT products, were collected. The concentration of Ni in biological samples and SLT products were measured by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrophotometer after microwave-assisted acid digestion. The validity and accuracy of the methodology were checked by using certified reference materials. The results of this study showed that the Ni level was significantly higher in scalp hair and blood samples of oral cancer patients compared to controls (P < 0.01). The study suggested that exposure of Ni as a result of chewing different SLT products may be synergistic with risk factors associated with oral cancer.

  20. Biological impact of cigarette smoke compared to an aerosol produced from a prototypic modified risk tobacco product on normal human bronchial epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogel, U; Gonzalez Suarez, I; Xiang, Y; Dossin, E; Guy, P A; Mathis, C; Marescotti, D; Goedertier, D; Martin, F; Peitsch, M C; Hoeng, J

    2015-12-01

    Cigarette smoking causes serious and fatal diseases. The best way for smokers to avoid health risks is to quit smoking. Using modified risk tobacco products (MRTPs) may be an alternative to reduce the harm caused for those who are unwilling to quit smoking, but little is known about the toxic effects of MRTPs, nor were the molecular mechanisms of toxicity investigated in detail. The toxicity of an MRTP and the potential molecular mechanisms involved were investigated in high-content screening tests and whole genome transcriptomics analyses using human bronchial epithelial cells. The prototypic (p)MRTP that was tested had less impact than reference cigarette 3R4F on the cellular oxidative stress response and cell death pathways. Higher pMRTP aerosol extract concentrations had impact on pathways associated with the detoxification of xenobiotics and the reduction of oxidative damage. A pMRTP aerosol concentration up to 18 times higher than the 3R4F caused similar perturbation effects in biological networks and led to the perturbation of networks related to cell stress, and proliferation biology. These results may further facilitate the development of a systems toxicology-based impact assessment for use in future risk assessments in line with the 21st century toxicology paradigm, as shown here for an MRTP.

  1. Production of Recombinant Cholera Toxin B Subunit in Nicotiana benthamiana Using GENEWARE® Tobacco Mosaic Virus Vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Lauren; Hamorsky, Krystal; Matoba, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Here, we describe a method to produce a recombinant cholera toxin B subunit in Nicotiana benthamiana plants (CTBp) using the GENEWARE(®) tobacco mosaic virus vector system. Infectious transcripts of the vector RNA are generated in vitro and inoculated on N. benthamiana seedlings. After 11 days, CTBp is extracted in a simple tris buffer at room temperature. No protease inhibitor is required. The leaf homogenate is treated with mild heat and a pH shift to selectively precipitate host-derived proteins. CTBp is purified to >95 % homogeneity by two-step chromatography using immobilized metal affinity and ceramic hydroxyapatite resins. This procedure yields on average 400 mg of low-endotoxin CTBp from 1 kg of fresh leaf material.

  2. Malmquist Index, an Alternative Technique for Measuring Credit Institutions Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae Dardac

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study tackles the banking system’s productivity in a more complex manner, that integrates multiple input, multiple output variables, abdicating from the reductionist perspective of clasical methods, which imposed limits in the number of variables, in the process of productivity measurement and interpretation. The advantage of Malmquist productivity indexes consists both in a quantitative evaluation of the global productivity of a credit institution over a specified period of time, and in the decomposition of productivity, in order to underline how much of its change is due to the catch-up effect, and, respectively, to the implementation of new technologies. The results obtained revealed that credit institutions placed on the first three places in the banking system, according to assets value, maintained constant their productivity level during the analysed period, meanwhile the other institutions in our sample registered a slowly improvement in productivity, determined, mainly, by technological changes.

  3. A NOVEL OLEAGINOUS YEAST STRAIN WITH HIGH LIPID PRODUCTIVITY AND ITS APPLICATION TO ALTERNATIVE BIODIESEL PRODUCTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areesirisuk, A; Chiu, C H; Yen, T B; Liu, C H; Guo, J H

    2015-01-01

    Five lipid-producing yeast strains, CHC08, CHC11, CHC28, CHC34, and CHC35, were revealed by Sudan Black B staining to contain lipid droplets within cells. Molecular analysis demonstrated that they were 2 strains of Candida parapsilosis, Pseudozyma parantarctica, Pichia manshurica, and Pichia occidentalis. Following batch fermentation, P. parantarctica CHC28 was found to have the highest biomass concentration, total lipids and lipid content levels. The major fatty acids in the lipids of this yeast strain were C16 and C18. Predictions of the properties of yeast biodiesel using linear equations resulted in values similar to biodiesel made from plant oils. Preliminary production of yeast biodiesel from P. parantarctica CHC28 was accomplished through esterification and transesterification reactions. It was found that yeast lipids with high acid value are easily converted to biodiesel at an approximately 90% yield. Therefore, it is possible to use crude lipids as alternative raw materials for biodiesel production.

  4. Correlation of Arsenic Levels in Smokeless Tobacco Products and Biological Samples of Oral Cancer Patients and Control Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arain, Sadaf S; Kazi, Tasneem G; Afridi, Hassan I; Talpur, Farah N; Kazi, Atif G; Brahman, Kapil D; Naeemullah; Panhwar, Abdul H; Kamboh, Muhammad A

    2015-12-01

    It has been extensively reported that chewing of smokeless tobacco (SLT) can lead to cancers of oral cavity. In present study, the relationship between arsenic (As) exposure via chewing/inhaling different SLT products in oral cancer patients have or/not consumed SLT products was studied. The As in different types of SLT products (gutkha, mainpuri, and snuff) and biological (scalp hair and blood) samples of different types of oral cancer patients and controls were analyzed. Both controls and oral cancer patients have same age group (ranged 30-60 years), socio-economic status, localities, and dietary habits. The concentrations of As in SLT products and biological samples were measured by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrophotometer after microwave-assisted acid digestion. The validity and accuracy of the methodology were checked by certified reference materials. The resulted data of present study indicates that the concentration of As was significantly higher in scalp hair and blood samples of oral cancer patients than those of controls (p0.01). The intake of As via consuming different SLT may have synergistic effects, in addition to other risk factors associated with oral cancer.

  5. Dihydrosphingosine-Induced Programmed Cell Death in Tobacco BY-2 Cells Is Independent of H2O2 Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christophe Lachaud; Patrice Thuleau; Daniel Da Silva; Nicolas Amelot; Chloé Béziat; Christian Brière; Valérie Cotelle; Annick Graziana; Sabine Grat; Christian Mazars

    2011-01-01

    Sphinganine or dihydrosphingosine (d18:0,DHS),one of the most abundant free sphingoid Long Chain Base (LCB) in plants,has been recently shown to induce both cytosolic and nuclear calcium transient increases and a correlated Programmed Cell Death (PCD) in tobacco BY-2 cells. In this study,in order to get deeper insight into the LCB signaling pathway leading to cell death,the putative role of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) has been investigated. We show that DHS triggers a rapid dose-dependent production of H2O2 that is blocked by diphenyleniodonium (DPI),indicating the involvement of NADPH oxidase(s) in the process. In addition,while DPI does not block DHS-induced calcium increases,the ROS production is inhibited by the broad spectrum calcium channel blocker lanthanum (La3+). Therefore,ROS production occurs downstream of DHS-induced Ca2+ transients. Interestingly,DHS activates expression of defense-related genes that is inhibited by both La3+ and DPI. Since DPI does not prevent DHS-induced cell death,these results strongly indicate that DHS-induced H2O2 production is not implicated in PCD mechanisms but rather would be associated to basal cell defense mechanisms.

  6. Tobacco advertising in retail stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, K M; Sciandra, R; Lawrence, J

    1991-01-01

    Recent studies have described tobacco advertising in the print media, on billboards, and through sponsorship of cultural and sporting events. However, little attention has been given to another common and unavoidable source of tobacco advertising, that which is encountered in retail stores. In July 1987, we conducted a survey of 61 packaged goods retail stores in Buffalo, NY, to assess the prevalence and type of point-of-sale tobacco advertising. In addition, store owners or managers were surveyed to determine their store's policy regarding tobacco advertising, receipt of monetary incentives from distributors for displaying tobacco ads, and willingness to display antitobacco ads. Six types of stores were involved in the study: 10 supermarkets, 10 privately owned grocery stores, 9 chain convenience food stores that do not sell gasoline, 11 chain convenience food stores that sell gasoline, 11 chain pharmacies, and 10 private pharmacies. Two-thirds of the stores displayed tobacco posters, and 87 percent had promotional items advertising tobacco products, primarily cigarettes. Larger stores, and those that were privately owned, tended to display more posters and promotional items. Eighty percent of tobacco product displays were for cigarettes, 16 percent for smokeless tobacco products, and 4 percent for cigars and pipe tobacco. Convenience stores selling gasoline had the most separate tobacco product displays. Of tobacco product displays, 24 percent were located adjacent to candy and snack displays. Twenty-nine of the 61 store owners or managers indicated that their store had a policy regulating the display of tobacco ads and tobacco product displays. Policies dealt primarily with the location of tobacco posters (for example, no ads in the window) and number of product displays. Only 14 shop owners or managers indicated that they had previously displayed antitobacco information; more than half (31 of 61) said that they would be willing to display antitobaccoads.In many

  7. How effective has tobacco tax increase been in the Gambia? A case study of tobacco control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nargis, Nigar; Manneh, Yahya; Krubally, Bakary; Jobe, Baboucarr; Ouma, Ahmed E Ogwell; Tcha-Kondor, Noureiny; Blecher, Evan H

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The objective of the present study was to evaluate how effective tobacco tax increase has been in increasing price of tobacco products and reducing tobacco consumption in the Gambia. In addition, it tests the hypothesis that tobacco tax revenue grows while tobacco consumption decreases as a result of tax and price increase. Setting The study is designed at the macroeconomic level to examine the import of tobacco products and revenue collected from tobacco taxation in a low-income setting. Participants The participants of this study are the government officials employed in the Ministry of Finance and Economic Affairs (MoFEA), the Gambia and the Gambia Revenue Authority, who are in charge of planning and implementing the tobacco tax policy in the Gambia. Interventions The study includes 2 consecutive interventions in tobacco tax policy in the Gambia. The first intervention was moving the tax base for the uniform specific excise tax on cigarettes from weight to pack of cigarettes in 2013. The second intervention involved increasing the excise and the environmental tax on tobacco products in 2014. Primary and secondary outcome measures The primary outcome measures were the cost, insurance and freight value and the price of tobacco products. The secondary outcome measures included the import of tobacco products and tobacco tax revenue. Results In 2013–2014, the Gambia MoFEA raised the specific excise rate, which increased price, reduced consumption and generated significantly more government revenue from tobacco products. This is a clear evidence of the win-win outcome of raising tobacco tax. In addition, the Gambia has set the example of harmonising tax rates between tobacco products that reduces the substitution between tobacco products. Conclusions The Gambia presents the best practice in tobacco taxation. There is need for documenting more country-specific evidence on the win-win outcome of raising tobacco tax. PMID:27566626

  8. 山东烟叶精益生产的探索与思考%Exploration on Lean Production of Flue-cured Tobacco Leaves in Shandong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴开成; 王暖春; 刘中庆

    2014-01-01

    During the process of advancing modern tobacco agriculture, some related measures for developing were proposed, such as changing operation ideas, innovating production mode, strengthening the guidance, exploring lean production and so on. After a few year exploration, the lean production mode for flue-cured tobacco leaves has been roughly developed, which includes accurate information, sophisticated technology, precision operation, and fine management. The application of this mode increased land output rate, resource utilization rate and labor productivity, improved the quality and profit of flue-cured tobacco leaves, promoted the development of modern tobacco agriculture in Shandong. The strategy and issues on lean production for flue-cured tobacco leaves were evaluated and summarized in this paper.%在推进现代烟草农业深化提升的过程中,山东烟区切实转变思想观念,创新生产方式,加强示范引导,积极探索烟叶精益生产。通过实践,初步形成了以信息精确化、技术精良化、作业精准化、管理精细化为主要内容的烟叶精益生产模式,提高了土地产出率、资源利用率和劳动生产率,提升了烟叶品质,较好地推动了山东现代烟草农业发展,促进了烟农持续增收和原料保障上水平,并对山东今后推进烟叶精益生产的思路进行了探讨。

  9. Systems Toxicology Assessment of the Biological Impact of a Candidate Modified Risk Tobacco Product on Human Organotypic Oral Epithelial Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanetti, Filippo; Sewer, Alain; Mathis, Carole; Iskandar, Anita R; Kostadinova, Radina; Schlage, Walter K; Leroy, Patrice; Majeed, Shoaib; Guedj, Emmanuel; Trivedi, Keyur; Martin, Florian; Elamin, Ashraf; Merg, Céline; Ivanov, Nikolai V; Frentzel, Stefan; Peitsch, Manuel C; Hoeng, Julia

    2016-08-15

    Cigarette smoke (CS) has been reported to increase predisposition to oral cancer and is also recognized as a risk factor for many conditions including periodontal diseases, gingivitis, and other benign mucosal disorders. Smoking cessation remains the most effective approach for minimizing the risk of smoking-related diseases. However, reduction of harmful constituents by heating rather than combusting tobacco, without modifying the amount of nicotine, is a promising new paradigm in harm reduction. In this study, we compared effects of exposure to aerosol derived from a candidate modified risk tobacco product, the tobacco heating system (THS) 2.2, with those of CS generated from the 3R4F reference cigarette. Human organotypic oral epithelial tissue cultures (EpiOral, MatTek Corporation) were exposed for 28 min to 3R4F CS or THS2.2 aerosol, both diluted with air to comparable nicotine concentrations (0.32 or 0.51 mg nicotine/L aerosol/CS for 3R4F and 0.31 or 0.46 mg/L for THS2.2). We also tested one higher concentration (1.09 mg/L) of THS2.2. A systems toxicology approach was employed combining cellular assays (i.e., cytotoxicity and cytochrome P450 activity assays), comprehensive molecular investigations of the buccal epithelial transcriptome (mRNA and miRNA) by means of computational network biology, measurements of secreted proinflammatory markers, and histopathological analysis. We observed that the impact of 3R4F CS was greater than THS2.2 aerosol in terms of cytotoxicity, morphological tissue alterations, and secretion of inflammatory mediators. Analysis of the transcriptomic changes in the exposed oral cultures revealed significant perturbations in various network models such as apoptosis, necroptosis, senescence, xenobiotic metabolism, oxidative stress, and nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (NFE2L2) signaling. The stress responses following THS2.2 aerosol exposure were markedly decreased, and the exposed cultures recovered more completely compared

  10. Determination of alternative fuels combustion products: Phase 1 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitney, K.A. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States)

    1997-09-01

    This report describes the laboratory effort to identify and quantify organic exhaust species generated from alternative-fueled light-duty vehicles operating over the Federal Test Procedure on compressed natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, methanol, ethanol, and reformulated gasoline. The exhaust species from these vehicles were identified and quantified for fuel/air equivalence ratios of 0.8, 1.0, and 1.2, nominally, and were analyzed with and without a vehicle catalyst in place to determine the influence of a catalytic converter on species formation.

  11. Public Health and Increased Tobacco Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI’s Dr. Robert Croyle discusses the Food and Drug Administration’s release of a rule that extends its regulatory authority over tobacco products to include cigars, e-cigarettes, hookah tobacco, and others.

  12. Process Alternatives for Second Generation Ethanol Production from Sugarcane Bagasse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    F. Furlan, Felipe; Giordano, Roberto C.; Costa, Caliane B. B.

    2015-01-01

    includes the enzymatic hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse pretreated with liquid hot water, and the analyzed parameters were the solid consistency in the hydrolysis and pretreatment reactors and the hydrolysis reaction time. The solid consistency in the hydrolysis reactor had the highest influence...... on the economic feasibility of the process. For the economic scenario considered in this study, using bagasse to increase ethanol production yielded higher ethanol production costs compared to using bagasse for electric energy production, showing that further improvements in the process are still necessary....

  13. Marine organisms: an alternative source of potentially valuable natural products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alphonse Kelecom

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper recalls the outcoming of marine natural products research and reviews a selection of marirne bioactive metabolites in current use together with promising trends in marine pharmacology.

  14. TOBACCO TIGHTROPE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    China's monopoly tobacco industry is trying to maintain revenue levels while adjusting to stricter policies aimed at curbing smoking While China is increasingly opening the doors to its booming economy, reducing the number of state-owned enterprises and welcoming foreign businesses, when it comes to tobacco, the government is still screening out the smoke. A major source of government tax rev-

  15. Determination of Major Soluble Sugars in Tobacco and Tobacco Products by High Performance Liquid Chromatography%高效液相色谱法测定烟草及烟草制品中的三种水溶性糖

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄菲; 黄翼飞

    2012-01-01

    建立了高效液相色谱( HPLC)/示差折光检测器(RID)测定烟草和烟草制品中葡萄耱、果糖和蔗糖的方法.样品用0.01mol/L氢氧化钠溶液振荡提取60 min,以高度交联的铅型磺化苯乙烯-二乙烯苯(SDVB)树脂为填料的阳离子交换色谱柱为分离柱,用纯水作流动相进行等梯度洗脱,外标法定量.方法线性良好,相关系数均大于0.999.方法回收率98.9%~101.8%,精密度0.44%~0.90%.方法测定值与离子色谱法的检定结果一致.方法适用于各种烟草和烟草制品中葡萄耱、果糖和蔗糖的分析测定.%The method of determination of glucose, fructose and sucrose in tobacco and tobacco products was developed by high performance liquid chromatography with a refractive index detector. Tobacco samples were extracted for 60 min by shaking with 0.01 mol/L sodium hydroxide solution. The chromatographic separation was conducted on a cation-exchange column packed with highly cross-linked sulfbnated styrenedivinylbenzene resin in the Pb2+ ionic form. The eluent was pure water in isocratic gradient. The external standard method was applied in quantitation. The linearity of the method was good with correlation coefficients above 0.999 in all cases. The recoveries were between 98.9 %-101.8 % and the precision was between 0.44 %-0.90 %. The results determined by the developed method were consistent with those determined by the ion chromatography method. The method is applicable to the determination of fructose, glucose and sucrose in various tobacco and tobacco product samples.

  16. The Nuclear Alternative: Energy Production within Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liodakis, Emmanouel Georgiou

    2011-06-01

    Over ninety percent of Mongolia's energy load is run through the Central Energy System. This primary grid provides Mongolia's capital, Ulaanbaatar, with the power it uses to function. In the first half of 2010 the Central Energy System managed 1739.45 million kWhs, a 4.6 percent increase from 2009. If this growth rate continues, by 2015 Ulaanbaatar's three power plants will be unable to generate enough heat and electricity to meet the city's needs. Currently, plans have been proposed to rehabilitate the aging coal power plants. However, rising maintenance costs and growing emission levels make the long-term sustainability of this solution uncertain. The following paper analyzes the capital, maintenance, and decommissioning costs associated with the current rehabilitation plans and compares them with a nuclear alternative.

  17. Komagataeibacter rhaeticus as an alternative bacteria for cellulose production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Rachel T A; Gutierrez, Junkal; Tercjak, Agnieszka; Trovatti, Eliane; Uahib, Fernanda G M; Moreno, Gabriela de Padua; Nascimento, Andresa P; Berreta, Andresa A; Ribeiro, Sidney J L; Barud, Hernane S

    2016-11-01

    A strain isolated from Kombucha tea was isolated and used as an alternative bacterium for the biosynthesis of bacterial cellulose (BC). In this study, BC generated by this novel bacterium was compared to Gluconacetobacter xylinus biosynthesized BC. Kinetic studies reveal that Komagataeibacter rhaeticus was a viable bacterium to produce BC according to yield, thickness and water holding capacity data. Physicochemical properties of BC membranes were investigated by UV-vis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopies (FTIR), thermogravimetrical analysis (TGA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Additionally, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were also used for morphological characterization. Mechanical properties at nano and macroscale were studied employing PeakForce quantitative nanomechanical property mapping (QNM) and dynamic mechanical analyzer (DMA), respectively. Results confirmed that BC membrane biosynthesized by Komagataeibacter rhaeticus had similar physicochemical, morphological and mechanical properties than BC membrane produced by Gluconacetobacter xylinus and can be widely used for the same applications.

  18. Microalgae: a new alternative raw material for biodiesel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gouveia, L.; Rosa, F. [Instituto Nacional de Engenharia, Tecnologia e Inovacao -INETI-DER- Unidade Biomassa. Estrada do Paco do Lumiar, 1649-038 Lisboa (Portugal); Melo, A. [Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade de Lisboa, 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal); Medeiros, R. [Universidade Lusofona de Humanidades e Tecnologias, Campo Grande, n. 376, Lisboa (Portugal); Oliveira, A. [Extensao da Escola Superior de Biotecnologia em Caldas da Rainha, Universidade Catolica Portuguesa, Rua Mestre Mateus Fernandes, 2500-237 Caldas da Rainha (Portugal)

    2008-07-01

    Biofuels will play an increasingly important role in diversifying energy supplies to meet the world's growing energy needs. Algae are considered a promising potential feedstock for next-generation biofuels because certain species contain high amounts of oil, which could be extracted, processed and refined into transportation fuels using currently available technology. Other benefits of algae as a potential feedstock are their abundance and fast growth rates. Key technical challenges include identifying the strains with the highest oil content and growth rates and developing cost-effective growing and harvesting methods. In this work, a microalgae screening in terms of oil quantity and composition were done in order to choose the best one as oil source for biodiesel production. Oil extraction procedure was optimized and the oil obtained from each microalgae analyzed in terms of fatty acid profile and of some parameters that can influenced the biodiesel production process and the final product quality.

  19. Metabolic flux phenotype of tobacco hairy roots engineered for increased geraniol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masakapalli, Shyam K; Ritala, Anneli; Dong, Lemeng; van der Krol, Alexander R; Oksman-Caldentey, Kirsi-Marja; Ratcliffe, R George; Sweetlove, Lee J

    2014-03-01

    The goal of this study was to characterise the metabolic flux phenotype of transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) hairy roots engineered for increased biosynthesis of geraniol, an intermediate of the terpenoid indole alkaloid pathway. Steady state, stable isotope labelling was used to determine flux maps of central carbon metabolism for transgenic lines over-expressing (i) plastid-targeted geraniol synthase (pGES) from Valeriana officinalis, and (ii) pGES in combination with plastid-targeted geranyl pyrophosphate synthase from Arabidopsis thaliana (pGES+pGPPS), as well as for wild type and control-vector-transformed roots. Fluxes were constrained by the redistribution of label from [1-¹³C]-, [2-¹³C]- or [¹³C6]glucose into amino acids, sugars and organic acids at isotopic steady state, and by biomass output fluxes determined from the fractionation of [U-¹⁴C]glucose into insoluble polymers. No significant differences in growth and biomass composition were observed between the lines. The pGES line accumulated significant amounts of geraniol/geraniol glycosides (151±24 ng/mg dry weight) and the de novo synthesis of geraniol in pGES was confirmed by ¹³C labelling analysis. The pGES+pGPPS also accumulated geraniol and geraniol glycosides, but to lower levels than the pGES line. Although there was a distinct impact of the transgenes at the level of geraniol synthesis, other network fluxes were unaffected, reflecting the capacity of central metabolism to meet the relatively modest demand for increased precursors in the transgenic lines. It is concluded that re-engineering of the terpenoid indole alkaloid pathway will only require simultaneous manipulation of the steps producing the pathway precursors that originate in central metabolism in tissues engineered to produce at least an order of magnitude more geraniol than has been achieved so far.

  20. "Plain packaging" regulations for tobacco products: the impact of standardizing the color and design of cigarette packs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, David

    2010-01-01

    Tobacco packaging and labeling policies have emerged as prominent and cost-effective tobacco control measures. Although packaging policies have primarily focused on health warnings, there is growing recognition of the importance of packaging as a marketing tool for the tobacco industry. The current paper reviews evidence on the potential impact of standardizing the color and design of tobacco packages -so called "plain" packaging. The evidence indicates three primary benefits of plain packaging: increasing the effectiveness of health warnings, reducing false health beliefs about cigarettes, and reducing brand appeal especially among youth and young adults. Overall, the research to date suggests that "plain" packaging regulations would be an effective tobacco control measure, particularly in jurisdictions with comprehensive restrictions on other forms of marketing.

  1. Horticulture in Argentina: a productive alternative with great potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Castagnino

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Horticulture in Argentina is an activity with great potential whose history has mainly been driven by Italian immigrants who arrived during the last two centuries. It is a valuable complement for traditional primary productions on which the country is focused with more than 30 millions of cultivated hectares and different agro-climatic conditions that characterize the different horticultural regions distributed throughout the country. The aim of this article is to give a panorama of the history, reality and perspectives in Argentina of an activity that is an opportunity for producers and entrepreneurs interested in it. Due to its characteristics, horticulture generates and dynamizes employment with great importance for regional economies. The proportion between vegetables and fruit produced and commercialized in Argentina is 63 and 34% respectively. Horticultural products for exportation largely are garlic, onion and beans. Concerning the most commercialized vegetables in Argentina, potato, tomato, onion, squash, lettuce, pepper, marrow and sweet potato stand out, whereas orange, tangerine, apple, banana, lemon, pear, grape and grapefruit may be highlighted among fruit. At present, the main challenge of the Argentinian horticultural sector is given not only by the possibilities of productive diversification and the expansion of the productive area but also of the technological level optimization, the application of quality norms and the agro-industry growth.

  2. Alternatives to animal testing in the safety evaluation of products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Derek J; Breheny, Damien

    2002-01-01

    The conventional method for assessing the safety of products, ranging from pharmaceuticals to agrochemicals, biocides and industrial and household chemicals - including cosmetics - involves determining their toxicological properties by using experimental animals. The aim is to identify any possible adverse effects in humans by using these animal models. Providing safe products is undoubtedly of the utmost importance but, over the last decade or so, this aim has come into conflict with strong public opinion, especially in Europe, against animal testing. Industry, academia and the regulators have worked in partnership to find other ways of evaluating the safety of products, by non-animal testing, or at least by reducing the numbers of animals required and the severity of the tests in which they are used. There is a long way to go before products can be evaluated without any animal studies, and it may be that this laudable aim is an impossible dream. Nevertheless, considerable progress has been made by using a combination of in vitro tests and the prediction of properties based on chemical structure. The aim of this review is to describe these important and worthwhile developments in various areas of toxicological testing, with a focus on the European regulatory framework for general industrial and household chemicals.

  3. Optimization of Acidothermus Celluloyticus Endoglucanase (E1) Production in Transgenic Tobacco Plants by Transcriptional, Post-transcription and Post-Translational Modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Ziyu; Hooker, Brian S.; Quesenberry, Ryan D.; Thomas, S. R.

    2005-10-01

    Biochemical characteristics of Acidothermus cellulolyticus endoglucanase (E1) and its physiological effects in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) has been studied previously. In an attempt to obtain a high level of production of intact E1 in transgenic plants, the E1 gene was expressed under the control of strong Mac promoter (a hybrid promoter of manopine synthase promoter and cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter enhancer region) or tomato Rubisco small subunit (RbcS-3C) promoter with different 5’ untranslated leader (UTL) sequence and targeted to different subcellular comartmentations with various transit peptides. The expression of E1 protein in transgenic tobacco plants was determined via E1 activity, protein immunobloting, and RNA gel-blotting analyses. Effects of different transit peptides on E1 protein production and its stability were examined in transgenic tobacco plants carrying one of six transgene expression vectors with the same (Mac) promoter and transcription terminator (Tmas). Transgenic tobacco plants with apoplast transit peptide (Mm-apo) had the highest average E1 activity and protein accumulation , while E1 protein was more stable in transgenic plants with no transit peptide (Mm) than others. The E1 expression under tomato RbcS-3C promoter was higher than that under Mac promoter based on the average E1 activity, E1 protein accumulation, and RNA gel-blotting. The E1 expression was increased more than two fold when the 5’-UTL of alfalfa mosaic virus RNA4 gene replaced the UTL of RbcS-3C promoter, while the UTL of alfalfa mosaic virus RNA4 gene was less effective than the UTL of Mac promoter. The optimal combination of promoter, 5’-UTL, and subcellular compartmentation (transit peptide) for E1 protein production in transgenic tobacco plants are discussed.

  4. 7 CFR 58.149 - Alternate quality control programs for dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Alternate quality control programs for dairy products... FOR GRADES OF DAIRY PRODUCTS 1 General Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection... for dairy products. (a) When a plant has in operation an acceptable quality control program which...

  5. Determination of nicotine in tobacco products based on mussel-inspired reduced graphene oxide-supported gold nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Yanqiu; Yuan, Xiuxiu; Yuan, Qiu; He, Kuanxin; Liu, Yingjie; Lu, Ping; Li, Huaiqi; Li, Bin; Zhan, Hui; Li, Guangliang

    2016-07-01

    Polydopamine functionalized reduced graphene oxide-gold nanoparticle (PDA-RGO/Au) nanocomposites were successfully prepared by a simple and mild procedure. The PDA-RGO/Au nanocomposite is successfully formed in an aqueous buffer solution (pH 8.5) without using any reducing agent. FTIR confirmed the successful coating of PDA and informed the reduction of the surface functional groups of GO. The formation of reduced GO and Au NPs was further evidenced by UV-Vis and X-ray diffraction spectroscopy. This method is environmentally friendly and highly beneficial for the mass production of graphene-noble metal based nanocomposite. The as prepared PDA-RGO/Au nanocomposite could greatly enhance the electrochemical oxidation of nicotine. We fabricated an electrochemical nicotine sensor based on the prepared PDA-RGO/Au nanocomposite. The proposed nicotine sensor showed a wide detection range from 0.05 to 500 μM with a low detection limit of 0.015 μM. Moreover, the proposed nicotine sensor was also successfully applied for determination nicotine content in tobacco products.

  6. Associations between Schools' Tobacco Restrictions and Adolescents' Use of Tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oslash-Verland, Simon; Aaro, Leif Edvard; Lindbak, Rita Lill

    2010-01-01

    Schools are an important arena for smoking prevention. In many countries, smoking rates have been reduced among adolescents, but the use of smokeless tobacco is on the rise in some of these countries. We aimed to study the associations between schools' restrictions on smoking and snus and on the use of these tobacco products among students in…

  7. Book Review: The Chemical Components of Tobacco and Tobacco Smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Green CR

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This book is highly recommended as an indispensable reference source for tobacco and smoke chemists as well as other scientists involved in the study of tobacco and its products. The compilation of proper chemical names, common names, Chemical Abstract Service numbers (CAS No., and structures is alone worth the purchase price.

  8. Determination of alternative fuels combustion products: Phase 3 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitney, K.A. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States)

    1997-12-01

    This report describes the laboratory efforts to characterize particulate and gaseous exhaust emissions from a passenger vehicle operating on alternative fuels. Tests were conducted at room temperature (nominally 72 F) and 20 F utilizing the chassis dynamometer portion of the FTP for light-duty vehicles. Fuels evaluated include Federal RFG, LPG meeting HD-5 specifications, a national average blend of CNG, E85, and M85. Exhaust particulate generated at room temperature was further characterized to determine polynuclear aromatic content, trace element content, and trace organic constituents. For all fuels except M85, the room temperature particulate emission rate from this vehicle was about 2 to 3 mg/mile. On M85, the particulate emission rate was more than 6 mg/mile. In addition, elemental analysis of particulate revealed an order of magnitude more sulfur and calcium from M85 than any other fuel. The sulfur and calcium indicate that these higher emissions might be due to engine lubricating oil in the exhaust. For RFG, particulate emissions at 20 F were more than six times higher than at room temperature. For alcohol fuels, particulate emissions at 20 F were two to three times higher than at room temperature. For CNG and LPG, particulate emissions were virtually the same at 72 F and 20 F. However, PAH emissions from CNG and LPG were higher than expected. Both gaseous fuels had larger amounts of pyrene, 1-nitropyrene, and benzo(g,h,i)perylene in their emissions than the other fuels.

  9. Alternate Tritium Production Methods Using A Liquid Lithium Target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-10-08

    For over 60 years, the Savannah River Site’s primary mission has been the production of tritium. From the beginning, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has provided the technical foundation to ensure the successful execution of this critical defense mission. SRNL has developed most of the processes used in the tritium mission and provides the research and development necessary to supply this critical component. This project was executed by first developing reactor models that could be used as a neutron source. In parallel to this development calculations were carried out testing the feasibility of accelerator technologies that could also be used for tritium production. Targets were designed with internal moderating material and optimized target was calculated to be capable of 3000 grams using a 1400 MWt sodium fast reactor, 850 grams using a 400 MWt sodium fast reactor, and 100 grams using a 62 MWt reactor, annually.

  10. Horticulture in Argentina: a productive alternative with great potential

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Maria Castagnino; María Belén Rosini; Silvia Benson

    2011-01-01

    Horticulture in Argentina is an activity with great potential whose history has mainly been driven by Italian immigrants who arrived during the last two centuries. It is a valuable complement for traditional primary productions on which the country is focused with more than 30 millions of cultivated hectares and different agro-climatic conditions that characterize the different horticultural regions distributed throughout the country. The aim of this article is to give a panorama of the histo...

  11. Alternative products in the "in vitro" inhibition of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mello Alexandre Furtado Silveira

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The white mold, caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, is a very important disease in tomato crops. The objective of this work was to study the effect of plant extracts, animal residues and industrial by-products extracts on the fungus in vitro growth. Treatments consisted of different concentrations of pyrolignous oil, neem oil, monosodium glutamate, sewage sludge and organic compost [coffee residue (50% coal residue (10%, maize residue (25%, poultry waste (12.5%, poultry meal (2.5%]. Positive control consisted of Petri dishes with PDA medium and negative control treatment consisted of PDA medium with procymidone. Fungus colonies were incubated at 22ºC and light intensity of 260 lux. Variables such as mycelium growth rate, sclerotia production, and viability 7 and 17 days after the transfer of mycelium disc to neon media were assessed. The extract of organic compost at 30% was effective in controlling mycelial growth and sclerotia production. This treatment, as well as neem oil at 0.5% increased soil respiration.

  12. Biodiesel production by biocatalysis using alternative method for lipase immobilization in hydrogel

    OpenAIRE

    Fernanda Marder; Mariéli Milanesi Ceolin; Mariele da Silva Mazuim; Rosana de Cassia de Souza Schneider; Marilda Teixeira Macagnan; Valeriano Antonio Corbellini

    2009-01-01

    The society has been looking for alternatives in order to stop the process of environmental destruction installed in the world, however, starting from last century, a new vision on the indiscriminate use of the environmental resources started to be discussed leading to the use of new technologies of production of cleaner fuel, as the biodiesel, produced from vegetable oils. The enzymatic processes are a production alternative, for they are methods with losses reduction and larger efficiency, ...

  13. Palm Ash as an Alternative Source for Silica Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pa Faizul Che

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural wastes such as palm ash and rice husk have a possibility to be used as a useful renewable source for the production of silica (SiO2. Extensive researches have been carried out to extract silica from agricultural wastes such as rice husk, due to silica as a useful raw material for industrial application. In this study, the environmentally benign and economically effective process to produce SiO2 materials from palm ash has been established by using citric acid leaching, not the conventional strong acids. Results showed that silica can be extracted from palm ash using the citric acid leaching method under the optimum extracting conditions with 700 °C of solution temperature, 60 minutes of reaction time and concentration of citric acid of more than 2 %. The purity of silica extracted is more than 90 %.

  14. Tobacco carcinogens, their biomarkers and tobacco-induced cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Stephen S

    2003-10-01

    The devastating link between tobacco products and human cancers results from a powerful alliance of two factors - nicotine and carcinogens. Without either one of these, tobacco would be just another commodity, instead of being the single greatest cause of death due to preventable cancer. Nicotine is addictive and toxic, but it is not carcinogenic. This addiction, however, causes people to use tobacco products continually, and these products contain many carcinogens. What are the mechanisms by which this deadly combination leads to 30% of cancer-related deaths in developed countries, and how can carcinogen biomarkers help to reveal these mechanisms?

  15. Human cell lines: A promising alternative for recombinant FIX production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa Bomfim, Aline; Cristina Corrêa de Freitas, Marcela; Picanço-Castro, Virgínia; de Abreu Soares Neto, Mário; Swiech, Kamilla; Tadeu Covas, Dimas; Maria de Sousa Russo, Elisa

    2016-05-01

    Factor IX (FIX) is a vitamin K-dependent protein, and it has become a valuable pharmaceutical in the Hemophilia B treatment. We evaluated the potential of recombinant human FIX (rhFIX) expression in 293T and SK-Hep-1 human cell lines. SK-Hep-1-FIX cells produced higher levels of biologically active protein. The growth profile of 293T-FIX cells was not influenced by lentiviral integration number into the cellular genome. SK-Hep-1-FIX cells showed a significantly lower growth rate than SK-Hep-1 cells. γ-carboxylation process is significant to FIX biological activity, thus we performed a expression analysis of genes involved in this process. The 293T gene expression suggests that this cell line could efficiently carboxylate FIX, however only 28% of the total secreted protein is active. SK-Hep-1 cells did not express high amounts of VKORC1 and carboxylase, but this cell line secreted large amounts of active protein. Enrichment of culture medium with Ca(+2) and Mg(+2) ions did not affect positively rhFIX expression in SK-Hep-1 cells. In 293T cells, the addition of 0.5 mM Ca(+2) and 1 mM Mg(+2) resulted in higher rhFIX concentration. SK-Hep-1 cell line proved to be very effective in rhFIX production, and it can be used as a novel biotechnological platform for the production of recombinant proteins.

  16. Risk for oral cancer from smokeless tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janbaz, Khalid Hussain; Qadir, M Imran; Basser, Hibba Tul; Bokhari, Tanveer Hussain; Ahmad, Bashir

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco products which are used in a way other than smoking are known as smokeless tobacco. The most common smokeless tobaccos are chewing tobacco, naswar, snuff, snus, gutka, and topical tobacco paste. Any product which contains tobacco is not safe for human health. There are more than twenty-five compounds in smokeless tobacco which have cancer causing activity. Use of smokeless tobacco has been linked with risk of oral cancer. Smokeless tobacco contains tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs), polonium, formaldehyde, cadmium, lead, and benzo[a]pyrene, which are carcinogenic agents. Although there is presence of some compounds, carotenoids and phenolic compounds, that have cancer inhibiting properties, they are in low concentrations. Dry snuff use is linked with higher relative risks, while the use of other smokeless tobacco is of intermediate risk. Moist snuff and chewing tobacco have a very low risk for oral cancer. Therefore, from this review article, it was concluded that smokeless tobacco has risk for oral cancer - either low, medium or high depending on the balance between cancer causing agents and cancer inhibiting agents.

  17. Tobacco Dilemma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Although a major fiscal revenue source, the tobacco industry is always under a watchful eye while many industries continue to suffer negative growth, even with economic recovery efforts in full swing, profits from Chinese tobacco companies allowed the industry to pay 513.11 billion yuan ($75.13 billion) in taxes in 2009, a year-on-year increase of 12.2 percent.

  18. Determination of Total Nitrogen in Tobacco and Tobacco Products by Automatic Kjeldahl Nitrogen Analyzer%自动凯氏定氮仪测定烟草及其制品中的总氮

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章平泉; 金殿明; 杜秀敏; 韩志强

    2011-01-01

    The influences of amount of digesting agents, including CuSO4, K2SO4, and concentrated H2SO4, on the results in determining total nitrogen content in tobacco and tobacco product were investigated.The total nitrogen content in the samples was determined by an automatic steam distillation and titration device ( automatic Kjeldahl nitrogen analyzer).The results showed that the average recoveries of nitrogen ranged from 97.90% to 103.85% with the coefficient of variation below 2% when the sample was digested by 0.4 g CuSO4, 6.0 g K2SO4, and 12 mL concentrated H2SO4.There is no significant difference between the test results of the mentioned method and YC/T161-2002 standard method.The proposed method is suitable to the rapid analysis of total nitrogen in tobacco and tobacco products.%为了替代烟草及其制品中总氮含量测定过程中使用的有毒消解剂氧化汞,考察了消解剂用量对烟草及其制品中总氮含量测定结果的影响,并采用自动水蒸气蒸馏滴定仪测定样品中的总氮含量.结果表明,用硫酸铜替代氧化汞,当用0.4 g硫酸铜、6.0 g硫酸钾和12 mL浓硫酸消解烟草样品时,总氮含量测试变异系数小于2%,回收率在97.90%~103.85%之问.该法的测试结果与YC/T161-2002规定的方法无显著性差异.该法适合烟草及其制品中总氮含量的快速分析.

  19. Alternative endocytosis pathway for productive entry of hepatitis C virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Mami; Suzuki, Ryosuke; Kataoka, Chikako; Watashi, Koichi; Aizaki, Hideki; Kato, Nobuyuki; Matsuura, Yoshiharu; Suzuki, Tetsuro; Wakita, Takaji

    2014-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that hepatitis C virus (HCV) enters human hepatic cells through interaction with a series of cellular receptors, followed by clathrin-mediated, pH-dependent endocytosis. Here, we investigated the mechanisms of HCV entry into multiple HCV-permissive human hepatocyte-derived cells using trans-complemented HCV particles (HCVtcp). Knockdown of CD81 and claudin-1, or treatment with bafilomycin A1, reduced infection in Huh-7 and Huh7.5.1 cells, suggesting that HCV entered both cell types via receptor-mediated, pH-dependent endocytosis. Interestingly, knockdown of the clathrin heavy chain or dynamin-2 (Dyn2), as well as expression of the dominant-negative form of Dyn2, reduced infection of Huh-7 cells with HCVtcp, whereas infectious entry of HCVtcp into Huh7.5.1 cells was not impaired. Infection of Huh7.5.1 cells with culture-derived HCV (HCVcc) via a clathrin-independent pathway was also observed. Knockdown of caveolin-1, ADP-ribosylation factor 6 (Arf6), flotillin, p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1) and the PAK1 effector C-terminal binding protein 1 of E1A had no inhibitory effects on HCVtcp infection into Huh7.5.1 cells, thus suggesting that the infectious entry pathway of HCV into Huh7.5.1 cells was not caveolae-mediated, or Arf6- and flotillin-mediated endocytosis and macropinocytosis, but rather may have occurred via an undefined endocytic pathway. Further analysis revealed that HCV entry was clathrin- and dynamin-dependent in ORL8c and HepCD81/miR122 cells, but productive entry of HCV was clathrin- and dynamin-independent in Hep3B/miR122 cells. Collectively, these data indicated that HCV entered different target cells through different entry routes.

  20. Experimentation and use of cigarette and other tobacco products among adolescents in the Brazilian state capitals (PeNSE 2012)

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Nicotine dependence establishes itself more rapidly among adolescents than among adults. Tobacco occupies the fourth place in the rank of main risk factors for non-communicable diseases in the continent. Studies reveal that other forms of tobacco use have increased among adolescents. METHODS: Were included the 9th grade students from the 26 State Capitals and the Federal District. who were participants of the National Adolescent School-based Health Survey (PeNSE), in 2012. ...

  1. 76 FR 52333 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Tobacco Product...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-22

    ... Reporting Violation Form. DATES: Submit either electronic or written comments on the collection of information by October 21, 2011. ADDRESSES: Submit electronic comments on the collection of information to..., including: The date the potential violation happened, the product type (e.g., cigarette, smokeless,...

  2. Application of Maillard reaction products in tobacco industry%美拉德反应产物在烟草工业中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程传玲; 杨艳勤; 刘仕民; 宋辉; 李瑞丽; 杨若嵩

    2014-01-01

    综述了美拉德反应产物在卷烟加香、烟草薄片、烟草生物技术等方面的应用,指出:应提高美拉德反应产物的质量,开发出色泽与烟叶颜色相近,香味与天然烟香接近,而且在抽吸时能裂解成与烟香谐调的香味物质,既能掩盖杂气,又能使人抽吸时感到愉快的、能替代尼古丁的、无害的美拉德反应产物。%The application of Maillard reaction products in tobacco flavoring,tobacco sheet,tobacco biologi-cal technology etc.were reviewed.It was pointed out:the quality of Maillard reaction products should be improved,flavor substance should be developed similar to leaf color,fragrance and natural aroma,cracking and flavor aroma of coordination in the suction,which could cover the miscellaneous gas,and make people feel happy in aspiration in order to produce nicotine,replacing harmless Maillard reaction products.

  3. LCA of pork products & evaluation of alternative super-chilling techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonou, Alexandra; Birkved, Morten

    This LCA study has two aims: 1) The environmental assessment of Danish pork products (Danish Landrace breed): The purpose is to put the pork production system into perspective and to identify the relative contribution of different life cycle stages; 2) The comparative assessment of alternative...

  4. Energy consumption in the food chain - Comparing alternative options in food production and consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dutilh, CE; Kramer, KJ

    2000-01-01

    Energy consumption in the various stages of the food chain, provides a reasonable indicator for the environmental impact in the production of food. This paper provides specific information on the energy requirement for the main alternatives in each production stage, which should allow the identifica

  5. Fat reduction and alternatives for its substitution un emulsified meat products, a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Natalia Rivera Ruiz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Animal fat employed in emulsified meat products elaboration is important for the flavor and texture characteristics. Nonetheless, the association of this kind of saturated fats with cardiovascular disease is a negative factor against their consumption. Different alternatives had been studied to reduce their content, replacing the fat with water, hydrocolloids, gums, proteins and/or vegetable oils. This modifies the meat products functional properties like yield, cocking stability and water retention, affecting moisture content and oxidative rancidity, texture and color. All these alternatives had advantages and disadvantages in their use and application, but the particular needs will determinate the optimum formulation for healthier meat products.

  6. 27 CFR 71.49b - Denial of application for tobacco permit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... criminal law relating to tobacco products, processed tobacco, cigarette paper, or cigarette tubes, not... violation of any provision of Federal or State criminal law relating to tobacco products, processed...

  7. Direct coupling: a possible strategy to control fruit production in alternate bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Awadhesh; Sakai, Kenshi; Hoshino, Yoshinobu

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the theoretical possibility of applying phenomenon of synchronization of coupled nonlinear oscillators to control alternate bearing in citrus. The alternate bearing of fruit crops is a phenomenon in which a year of heavy yield is followed by an extremely light one. This phenomenon has been modeled previously by the resource budget model, which describes a typical nonlinear oscillator of the tent map type. We have demonstrated how direct coupling, which could be practically realized through grafting, contributes to the nonlinear dynamics of alternate bearing, especially phase synchronization. Our results show enhancement of out-of-phase synchronization in production, which depends on initial conditions obtained under the given system parameters. Based on these numerical experiments, we propose a new method to control alternate bearing, say in citrus, thereby enabling stable fruit production. The feasibility of validating the current results through field experimentation is also discussed. PMID:28051141

  8. Direct coupling: a possible strategy to control fruit production in alternate bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Awadhesh; Sakai, Kenshi; Hoshino, Yoshinobu

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the theoretical possibility of applying phenomenon of synchronization of coupled nonlinear oscillators to control alternate bearing in citrus. The alternate bearing of fruit crops is a phenomenon in which a year of heavy yield is followed by an extremely light one. This phenomenon has been modeled previously by the resource budget model, which describes a typical nonlinear oscillator of the tent map type. We have demonstrated how direct coupling, which could be practically realized through grafting, contributes to the nonlinear dynamics of alternate bearing, especially phase synchronization. Our results show enhancement of out-of-phase synchronization in production, which depends on initial conditions obtained under the given system parameters. Based on these numerical experiments, we propose a new method to control alternate bearing, say in citrus, thereby enabling stable fruit production. The feasibility of validating the current results through field experimentation is also discussed.

  9. On the way of tobacco quitting: A VAR approach

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolas Gérard Vaillant; Christian Ben lakhdar; Thérèse Lebrun

    2011-01-01

    In order to describe the process of tobacco quitting, we perform a VAR model and causality tests both on the monthly sales of tobacco products and nicotine dependence drugs in France, for the period going from February 2004 to April 2009. According to the path of tobacco quitting found out, it results that an upward harmonization of tax policy on the different tobacco products could accelerate the tobacco quitting process.

  10. The cost of ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass -- A comparison of selected alternative processes. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grethlein, H.E.; Dill, T.

    1993-04-30

    The purpose of this report is to compare the cost of selected alternative processes for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol. In turn, this information will be used by the ARS/USDA to guide the management of research and development programs in biomass conversion. The report will identify where the cost leverages are for the selected alternatives and what performance parameters need to be achieved to improve the economics. The process alternatives considered here are not exhaustive, but are selected on the basis of having a reasonable potential in improving the economics of producing ethanol from biomass. When other alternatives come under consideration, they should be evaluated by the same methodology used in this report to give fair comparisons of opportunities. A generic plant design is developed for an annual production of 25 million gallons of anhydrous ethanol using corn stover as the model substrate at $30/dry ton. Standard chemical engineering techniques are used to give first order estimates of the capital and operating costs. Following the format of the corn to ethanol plant, there are nine sections to the plant; feed preparation, pretreatment, hydrolysis, fermentation, distillation and dehydration, stillage evaporation, storage and denaturation, utilities, and enzyme production. There are three pretreatment alternatives considered: the AFEX process, the modified AFEX process (which is abbreviated as MAFEX), and the STAKETECH process. These all use enzymatic hydrolysis and so an enzyme production section is included in the plant. The STAKETECH is the only commercially available process among the alternative processes.

  11. Part 2 of a 4-part series Hair Products: Trends and Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Sharon; Katta, Rajani; Nedorost, Susan; Warshaw, Erin; Zirwas, Matt; Bhinder, Manpreet

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To provide updated data on usage of ingredients that are common potential contact allergens in several categories of hair products. To identify useful alternative products with few or no common contact allergens. Design: In November 2009, the full ingredient lists of 5,416 skin, hair, and cosmetic products marketed by the CVS pharmacy chain was copied from CVS.com into Microsoft Word format for analysis. Computer searches were made in Microsoft Word using search/replace and sorting functions to accurately identify the presence of specific allergens in each website product. Measurements: Percentages of American Contact Dermatitis Society core series allergens (and other common preservatives and sunblocks) were calculated. Results: The usage of American Contact Dermatitis Society core series allergens (and other preservatives and sunblocks) in hair products is reported. Conclusion: Data on allergens and alternatives for hair products is not widely published. This article reviews some of the common potential allergens in hair products, including shampoos, conditioners, and styling products. Suitable available alternative products for patients with contact allergy are listed. PMID:21779419

  12. High levels of bioplastic are produced in fertile transplastomic tobacco plants engineered with a synthetic operon for the production of polyhydroxybutyrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohmert-Tatarev, Karen; McAvoy, Susan; Daughtry, Sean; Peoples, Oliver P; Snell, Kristi D

    2011-04-01

    An optimized genetic construct for plastid transformation of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) for the production of the renewable, biodegradable plastic polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) was designed using an operon extension strategy. Bacterial genes encoding the PHB pathway enzymes were selected for use in this construct based on their similarity to the codon usage and GC content of the tobacco plastome. Regulatory elements with limited homology to the host plastome yet known to yield high levels of plastidial recombinant protein production were used to enhance the expression of the transgenes. A partial transcriptional unit, containing genes of the PHB pathway and a selectable marker gene encoding spectinomycin resistance, was flanked at the 5' end by the host plant's psbA coding sequence and at the 3' end by the host plant's 3' psbA untranslated region. This design allowed insertion of the transgenes into the plastome as an extension of the psbA operon, rendering the addition of a promoter to drive the expression of the transgenes unnecessary. Transformation of the optimized construct into tobacco and subsequent spectinomycin selection of transgenic plants yielded T0 plants that were capable of producing up to 18.8% dry weight PHB in samples of leaf tissue. These plants were fertile and produced viable seed. T1 plants producing up to 17.3% dry weight PHB in samples of leaf tissue and 8.8% dry weight PHB in the total biomass of the plant were also isolated.

  13. Tobacco, Alcohol, Drugs, and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... these products. Smokeless tobacco, electronic cigarettes, and nicotine gel strips are not safe substitutes for cigarettes. Why ... during pregnancy? Medicines sold over the counter, including herbal supplements and vitamins, can cause problems during pregnancy. ...

  14. An evaluation of alternate production methods for Pu-238 general purpose heat source pellets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Borland; Steve Frank

    2009-06-01

    For the past half century, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has used Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG) to power deep space satellites. Fabricating heat sources for RTGs, specifically General Purpose Heat Sources (GPHSs), has remained essentially unchanged since their development in the 1970s. Meanwhile, 30 years of technological advancements have been made in the applicable fields of chemistry, manufacturing and control systems. This paper evaluates alternative processes that could be used to produce Pu 238 fueled heat sources. Specifically, this paper discusses the production of the plutonium-oxide granules, which are the input stream to the ceramic pressing and sintering processes. Alternate chemical processes are compared to current methods to determine if alternative fabrication processes could reduce the hazards, especially the production of respirable fines, while producing an equivalent GPHS product.

  15. Selection of process alternatives for lignocellulosic bioethanol production using a MILP approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Felipe; Venturini, Fabrizio; Aroca, Germán; Conejeros, Raúl

    2013-11-01

    This work proposes a decision-making framework for the selection of processes and unit operations for lignocellulosic bioethanol production. Process alternatives are described by its capital and operating expenditures, its contribution to process yield and technological availability information. A case study in second generation ethanol production using Eucalyptus globulus as raw material is presented to test the developed process synthesis tool. Results indicate that production cost does not necessarily decrease when yield increases. Hence, optimal processes can be found at the inflexion point of total costs and yield. The developed process synthesis tool provides results with an affordable computational cost, existing optimization tools and an easy-to-upgrade description of the process alternatives. These features made this tool suitable for process screening when incomplete information regarding process alternatives is available.

  16. Assessing Jatropha Crop Production Alternatives in Abandoned Agricultural Arid Soils Using MCA and GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serafin Corral

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the assessment of various biofuel crop production alternatives on the island of Fuerteventura using Jatropha crops. It adopts an integrated approach by carrying out a multi-criteria assessment with the support of participatory techniques and geographical information systems. Sixteen production alternatives were analyzed for growing Jatropha, and the results suggest that the best alternative involves using typical torrifluvent soils irrigated with recycled urban wastewater using surface drip irrigation covering 100% evapotranspiration. It was also determined that a potential area of 2546 ha could be used for cultivation within a radius of 10 km from a wastewater treatment plant. This level of production would supply 27.56% of the biofuel needs of Fuerteventura, thereby contributing to the 2020 target of the European Commission regarding biofuels for land transport.

  17. A Product Review of Alternative Oil-Based Intravenous Fat Emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biesboer, Ann N; Stoehr, Nancy A

    2016-10-01

    Soybean oil-based intravenous fat emulsions have long been used as the primary product for delivery of lipid-based calories in parenteral nutrition formulations in the United States. Proinflammatory properties of these products may be related with poor clinical outcomes and have led investigators to develop newer generations of intravenous fat emulsions. These alternative formulations are derivatives of medium-chain triglycerides, olive oil, and fish oil in hopes to reduce the inflammatory response and potentially produce a clinically beneficial anti-inflammatory response. Although surrogate markers support this reduction in inflammatory response, clinical data and outcomes are still limited but potentially promising in the literature. This product review provides a general overview of the alternative-generation intravenous fat emulsion products and the literature supporting the potential transition to such products.

  18. Alternatives to antibiotics: a symposium on the challenges and solutions for animal production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seal, Bruce S; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Donovan, David M; Gay, Cyril G

    2013-06-01

    Antibiotics are one of the most important medical discoveries of the 20th century and will remain an essential tool for treating animal and human diseases in the 21st century. However, antibiotic resistance among bacterial pathogens and concerns over their extensive use in food animals has garnered global interest in limiting antibiotic use in animal agriculture. Yet, limiting the availability of medical interventions to prevent and control animal diseases on the farm will directly impact global food security and safety as well as animal and human health. Insufficient attention has been given to the scientific breakthroughs and novel technologies that provide alternatives to antibiotics. The objectives of the symposium 'Alternatives to Antibiotics' were to highlight promising research results and novel technologies that could potentially lead to alternatives to conventional antibiotics, and assess challenges associated with their commercialization, and provide actionable strategies to support development of alternative antimicrobials. The symposium focused on the latest scientific breakthroughs and technologies that could provide new options and alternative strategies for preventing and treating diseases of animals. Some of these new technologies have direct applications as medical interventions for human health, but the focus of the symposium was animal production, animal health and food safety during food-animal production. Five subject areas were explored in detail through scientific presentations and expert panel discussions, including: (1) alternatives to antibiotics, lessons from nature; (2) immune modulation approaches to enhance disease resistance and to treat animal diseases; (3) gut microbiome and immune development, health and diseases; (4) alternatives to antibiotics for animal production; and (5) regulatory pathways to enable the licensure of alternatives to antibiotics.

  19. Study on Tobacco Leave Lean Production Management System%论烟叶精益生产管理体系建设

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷庭; 左业华; 石银梅; 王远辉; 刘会忠

    2014-01-01

    当前,烟叶生产的基础设施已基本完善,专业化服务范围逐步扩大,现代烟草农业的发展重点已由完善硬件设施向精益管理、精准作业的软件升级跨越。国家局、贵州省局亦相继出台了相关文件,要求建设精益管理体系、产生管理效益,全面实现精益管理或将成为烟草商业未来发展的关键目标之一。烟叶精益生产管理体系的建设目标,就是要将技术、信息、人力、物资等生产要素内化为烤烟生产中的价值流,并严格控制价值流的投入成本与产出效益,创造管理利润,提升企业核心竞争力。烟叶精益生产管理作为现代烟草农业建设的延伸和拓展,与标准化、GAP管理的关系密不可分,需要以开展专业化服务培训和生产机械升级为基础,以推行小组制管理、工位化作业为载体,以过程信息反馈、关键质量监控、末端效益评价为考核依据。%ln recent years, tobacco lean production infrastructure is almost ful-fledged through development, and professional service scope expands accordingly. Hence, the developing emphasis has transformed from hardware facilities improvement to software updating of lean management and precise work. With related documents released by China Tobacco and Guizhou Tobacco, the achievement of comprehen-sive lean management probably becomes one of the key goals for the future devel-opment of tobacco business. The construction goal of tobacco leaves lean produc-tion management system is to internalize technology, information, human resources, material and other production elements into value stream of flue-cured tobacco pro-duction, and strict control value stream of input costs and output benefits, and then create management profit, promote enterprise core competitiveness. The lean pro-duction management is both extension and expansion of modern tobacco agriculture, closely related to agricultural standardization and

  20. Production of pectinase from tobacco stem by solid state fermentation%烟梗为原料固态发酵生产果胶酶

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨慧芳; 许赣荣; 汤朝起

    2012-01-01

    Production of pectinase from tobacco stem by a fungus strain JXY-17 in solid state fermentation was carried out. Single factor and orthogonal experiments were adopted for the optimization of culture media. The results indicated that the influential extent of factors affecting enzyme production by the fungus strain JXY-17 in order was the ratio of the tobacco stem to water (A) > (NH4)2SO4( B) >KH2PO4(D) > Tween-80 (C). The optimum combination for enzyme production was A3B2C2D1, I. E. Ratio of tobacco stem to water was 1:1.5, (NH4)2SO4 5. 0% , Tween-80 0. 10% , KH2PO40. 03% , KH2PO4 0.2%. The optimized fermentation and recovery conditions were the following: the suitable culture medium with the inoculum size of 25 mL, nature pH, 50 g of tobacco stem in 1000 mL triangle flask, fermented at 30 ℃ for 6 days. Under the above conditions, the highest enzyme activity of pectinase reached 8171. 35U/g, a 3. 8-fold increase compared with that of the original conditions. After recovery of pectinase, the residue tobacco stem and the composition of the crude enzyme solution were analyzed. The residue of the fermented tobacco stem could be recovered as cellulose materials. The pectin was reduced by 45% compared with that of the control (tobacco stem). The recovery of the residue tobacco stem was about 50%.%以烟梗为主要原料,采用单因素和正交实验对筛选到的丝状菌JXY-17固态发酵产果胶酶的培养基进行了优化,正交实验结果表明,影响该菌株产果胶酶的因素依次为含水量(料水比)(A)>(NH4)2SO4(B)>KH2PO4(D)>吐温-80(C),产酶培养基组成为A3B2C2D1,即固液比1∶1.5,(NH4)2SO4 5.0%,吐温-80 0.10%,KH2 PO40.20%.采用该固态发酵培养基,自然pH,接种量25 mL,装料量为50 g(干基)/1000 mL三角瓶,30℃恒温培养6d,产酶最高达8171.35U/g干曲,为初始酶活的3.8倍.提取酶液后的残余烟梗还可用于提取烟梗纤维类物质.残余烟梗的化学成分检测结果表明,与原始烟梗(

  1. A Preliminary Study on Effects of Biogas Slurry on Tobacco Production%沼液在烟叶生产上的应用研究初报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜传印; 杨晓东; 赵振宇; 白化军; 高政绪; 王德权; 马强; 褚建忠; 张勇

    2015-01-01

    在中式浓香特色烟叶生产中,为替代化学肥料和农药,在潍坊市的诸城、安丘和高密3个产烟县(市)进行了沼液在烟叶生产上的使用效果试验。初步结果表明,沼液能够促进烟苗生长,提高烟苗茎高、茎围和根重,同时可以改善烤烟株高、叶数和腰叶面积等农艺性状;沼液处理能较好地改善烟叶等级结构,提高烟叶产量、产值、均价和上等烟比例,平均分别提高了4.02%、8.59%、4.38%和8.15%;沼液对烟草病毒病、黑胫病和赤星病有较好的防治效果,病害发病率分别降低了59.96%、55.56%和19.05%,对烟蚜也有一定的防治效果,沼液处理后,烟蚜虫口数量明显下降。综合分析,沼液对促进烟草生长、防治烟草病虫害、提高烟草质量有积极作用,具有一定应用前景。%To search for substitutes of chemical fertilizers and chemical pesticides in the production of strong flavor type tobacco, biogas slurry was applied in Zhu Cheng. An Qiu and Gao Mi. The results showed that biogas slurry can promote the growth of tobacco seedlings, enhance the stem height, stem diameter and root weight. The biogas slurry also can improve the agronomic characters of tobacco. The yield, market value, average price and proportion of superior tobacco were increased by 4.02%, 8.59%, 4.38% and 8.15% respectively by biogas slurry application compared with the control. The appearance quality of tobacco however, was not changed. Biogas slurry showed good control effect on Myzus persicae as well as tobacco virus disease, black shank and brown spot, with the incidence rates of the 3 diseases were reduced by 59.96%, 55.56% and 19.05% respectively. In conclusion, biogas slurry can promote the growth of tobacco, control tobacco diseases and pests, and improve tobacco quality.

  2. A comparative value chain analysis of smallholder burley tobacco production in Malawi – 2003/4 and 2009/10

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prowse, Martin Philip; Moyer-Lee, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Smallholders grow the majority of Malawi’s main export crop – burley tobacco. We analyse this value chain segment for the 2003/4 and 2009/10 seasons. The comparison shows smallholder profits in 2003/4 were limited by two main factors: a cartel of leaf merchants at auction and inefficient marketing...... arrangements. In 2009/10, there was greater competition at auction, improvements in marketing, tighter state regulation (including minimum prices) and much more contract farming.The paper concludes by reflecting on aspects of the political economy of the tobacco industry at national and global levels....

  3. Integrated Pest Management Practices Reduce Insecticide Applications, Preserve Beneficial Insects, and Decrease Pesticide Residues in Flue-Cured Tobacco Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slone, Jeremy D; Burrack, Hannah J

    2016-09-22

    Integrated pest management (IPM) recommendations, including scouting and economic thresholds (ETs), are available for North Carolina flue-cured tobacco growers, although ETs for key pests have not been updated in several decades. Moreover, reported IPM adoption rates by flue-cured tobacco growers remain low, at pests reached ET (IPM), while the other field was managed per grower discretion (Grower Standard). IPM fields received an average of two fewer insecticide applications without compromising yield. More insecticide applications resulted in higher pesticide residues in cured leaf samples from Grower Standard fields than those from IPM fields. Reductions in insecticides and management intensity also resulted in larger beneficial insect populations in IPM fields.

  4. Tobacco Dilemma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAN XINZHEN

    2010-01-01

    @@ While many industries continue to suffer negative growth, even with economic recovery efforts in full swing, profits from Chinese tobacco companies allowed the industry to pay 513.11 billion yuan ($75.13 billion) in taxes in 2009, a year-on-year increase of 12.2 percent.

  5. It is time to regulate carcinogenic tobacco-specific nitrosamines in cigarette tobacco

    OpenAIRE

    Hecht, Stephen S.

    2014-01-01

    The Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act gives the Food and Drug Administration power to regulate tobacco products. This commentary calls for immediate regulation of the carcinogenic tobacco-specific nitrosamines 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) and N’-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) in cigarette tobacco as a logical path to cancer prevention. NNK and NNN, powerful carcinogens in laboratory animals, have been evaluated as “carcinogenic to humans” by the International...

  6. Community-based tobacco cessation program among women in Mumbai, India

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background: Globally tobacco epidemic kills nearly six million people annually. Consumption of tobacco products is on the rise in low- and middle-income countries. Tobacco is addictive; hence, tobacco users need support in quitting. Aims: Providing tobacco cessation services to women in community enabling them to quit tobacco, identifying factors associated with quitting and documenting the processes involved to establish a replicable "model tobacco cessation program." Settings and Design: Th...

  7. KAJIAN CIDER SEBAGAI ALTERNATIF PENGANEKARAGAMAN PRODUK KOPI Study of Cider as Alternative Product Diversivication from Coffee

    OpenAIRE

    Suharyono Apno Sugito

    2012-01-01

    Coffee is an important export commodity from Indonesia. There are not many processed product from coffee, and sincecoffee is a delightful refreshing beverage, it is interesting to make product diversivication from coffee. An alternative processing could be a cider. Coffee used in this research were decaffeinated, Robusta and Arabica coffee. The amount of added sugar were 15 %, 20 %, and 25 %. Natural cultures, combination of Sacharomyces cerevisiae and Acetobacter xylinum, combination of Sach...

  8. The environmental and health impacts of tobacco agriculture, cigarette manufacture and consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas E Novotny; Bialous, Stella Aguinaga; Burt, Lindsay; Curtis, Clifton; Luiza da Costa, Vera; Iqtidar, Silvae Usman; Liu, Yuchen; Pujari, Sameer; Tursan d'Espaignet, Edouard

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The health consequences of tobacco use are well known, but less recognized are the significant environmental impacts of tobacco production and use. The environmental impacts of tobacco include tobacco growing and curing; product manufacturing and distribution; product consumption; and post-consumption waste. The World Health Organization’s Framework Convention on Tobacco Control addresses environmental concerns in Articles 17 and 18, which primarily apply to tobacco agriculture. Arti...

  9. Smokeless tobacco use in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L C Somatunga

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To comprehensively review the issues of smokeless tobacco use in Sri Lanka . This review paper is based on a variety of sources including Medline, WHO documents, Ministry of Health and Nutrition, Colombo and from other sources. Results: The prevalence of smokeless tobacco (SLT use in Sri Lanka has been reported high, especially among rural and disadvantaged groups. Different smokeless tobacco products were not only widely available but also very affordable. An increasing popularity of SLT use among the youth and adolescents is a cause for concern in Sri Lanka. There were evidences of diverse benign, premalignant, and malignant oral diseases due to smokeless tobacco use in the country. The level of awareness about health risks related to the consumption of smokeless tobacco products was low, particularly among the people with low socio-economic status. In Sri Lanka various forms of smokeless tobacco products, some of them imported, are used. At the national level, 15.8% used smokeless tobacco products and its use is three-fold higher among men compared to women. Betel quid is by far the traditional form in which tobacco is a general component. Other manufactured tobacco products include pan parag/pan masala, Mawa, Red tooth powder, Khaini, tobacco powder, and Zarda. Some 8.6% of the youth are current users of smokeless tobacco. There are studies demonstrating the harmful effects of smokeless tobacco use, especially on the oral mucosa, however, the level of awareness of this aspect is low. The highest mean expenditure on betel quid alone in rural areas for those earning Rs. 5,000/month was Rs. 952. The core issue is the easy availability of these products. To combat the smokeless tobacco problem, public health programs need to be intensified and targeted to vulnerable younger age groups. Another vital approach should be to levy higher taxation.

  10. A comparative value chain analysis of smallholder burley tobacco production in Malawi – 2003/4 and 2009/10

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prowse, Martin Philip; Moyer-Lee, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Smallholders grow the majority of Malawi’s main export crop – burley tobacco. We analyse this value chain segment for the 2003/4 and 2009/10 seasons. The comparison shows smallholder profits in 2003/4 were limited by two main factors: a cartel of leaf merchants at auction and inefficient marketing...

  11. Biodiesel production by biocatalysis using alternative method for lipase immobilization in hydrogel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Marder

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The society has been looking for alternatives in order to stop the process of environmental destruction installed in the world, however, starting from last century, a new vision on the indiscriminate use of the environmental resources started to be discussed leading to the use of new technologies of production of cleaner fuel, as the biodiesel, produced from vegetable oils. The enzymatic processes are a production alternative, for they are methods with losses reduction and larger efficiency, presenting however, high production cost. With the objective of reducing costs and increasing the efficiency we have searched the enzymes immobilization through alternative method and to use them as biocatalysts in the biodiesel production. The immobilization of the lipase PS Amano was accomplished in spheres formed by the hydration of commercial hydrogel in aqueous solution containing the enzyme. With the immobilized enzyme it was accomplished the transesterification, in which it was obtained conversions in methyl esters of up to 70%, in organic solvent, with 24h, 55°C, 100 rpm and 40 hydrogel spheres with immobilized enzyme. The method comes as a promising alternative technology for the biodiesel obtaining.

  12. Life Cycle Assessment of Miscanthus as a Fuel Alternative in District Heat Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parajuli, Ranjan; Dalgaard, Tommy; Nguyen, T Lan T

    2013-01-01

    ) plant. Alternatively, we have simulated the combustion process of Miscanthus in a boiler, where only heat is produced. For NG similar scenarios are examined. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) in relation to 1 MJ of heat production with Miscanthus fired in a CHP would lead to a Global Warming Potential (GWP...

  13. Tobacco and the European common agricultural policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joossens, L; Raw, M

    1991-10-01

    The common agricultural policy of the European Community subsidizes tobacco production to the tune of 1,300 million ecu a year (US$ 1,500 million, UK pounds 900 million). This amounts to 2,500 ecu ($3,100, pounds 1,700) per minute, and is more in one year than the total amount spent on tobacco subsidies by the US in the last 50 years. The purpose of this policy was to maintain farmers' incomes and adapt community production to demand. Demand for the dark tobaccos which dominate EC production has fallen, while demand for light flue cured tobacco like Virginia has risen. A complex system of production subsidies and quotas was intended to discourage production of the dark tobaccos, for which there is virtually no market, and lead to more Virginia production. The policy has failed. Expenditure has spiralled out of control, production of unmarketable tobacco varieties has risen enormously, and the EC is the world's largest importer of raw tobacco. As a result tobacco is being bought by the community for intervention storage and surpluses of the dark high tar varieties are being 'exported' to eastern Europe and north Africa at giveaway prices. There has been no effective monitoring or control of this policy. This paper explains how this has happened and argues that, in view of the health risks attached to tobacco, these subsidies should be abolished.

  14. Countermeasures for Tobacco Branding and Industrial Development in Enshi Prefecture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guangzhong; DAI

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural branding is an important mark of agricultural modernization. Enshi Prefecture of Hubei Province is reputed as " Tobacco Kingdom" and " World Capital of Selenium". It is also the key production area of flue-cured tobacco,burley tobacco and selenium-enriched tobacco. The tobacco industry has become a pillar industry of Enshi Prefecture. This paper firstly introduces tobacco resource and industry of Enshi Prefecture. Then,it analyzes countermeasures for tobacco branding and industrial development. Finally,it comes up with several constructive recommendations.

  15. Chewing tobacco use: perceptions and knowledge in rural adolescent youths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell-Grossman, Christie; Hudson, Diane Brage; Fleck, Margaret Ofe

    2003-01-01

    The purposes of this pilot study were to describe the incidence of chewing tobacco use among rural midwestern adolescents and to describe rural midwestern adolescents' perceptions and knowledge about chewing tobacco use. A Smokeless Tobacco Use Survey was administered to 34 adolescent subjects who attended 5th-8th grades in two rural towns. None of the subjects reported trying chewing tobacco products. However, a group of male subjects who stated they may chew tobacco sometime in the future, performed less well on the test about chewing tobacco facts and perceptions of use, indicating some education needs are warranted. Risk factors and deterrent factors to using chewing tobacco are reported.

  16. 27 CFR 25.81 - Alternation of brewery and bonded or taxpaid wine premises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... bonded or taxpaid wine premises. 25.81 Section 25.81 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... Alternation of Operations § 25.81 Alternation of brewery and bonded or taxpaid wine premises. (a) General. A brewer operating a contiguous bonded winery or taxpaid wine bottling house may, as provided in...

  17. Evaluation of New Product Development Alternatives Considering Interrelationships among Decision Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Chieh Fang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In electronic industry, technologies are progressing rapidly nowadays. To maintain market competition with comparative advantages, an enterprise must continuously develop various new products. This research focuses on the initial stages of the new product development (NPD, which involves generating and screening NPD alternatives. A multiple criteria decision making (MCDM model considering interrelations among selection criteria is developed. The proposed MCDM model employs the fuzzy Delphi method to filter the performance evaluation criteria. Since the criteria are considered to be interdependent by decision-makers, the gray relation analysis (GRA is applied to identify the interactive relationships among criteria within each aspect. Two methods are used to calculate the synthetic utility score for each alternative. The first method evaluates the alternatives using an ANP model with relation-structure derived from GRA, whereas the second method rates the alternatives using non-additive fuzzy integral. An empirical example of the medical display monitor industry is provided to show the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed model. The two evaluation methods achieve the same ranking of the alternatives

  18. Biodiesel and bioethanol production: A sustainable alternative for the energy crisis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Castro Martínez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The present contribution intends to give an overview of the current -status of the energy crisis and suggest some sustainable alternatives for energy production. In first place, a brief summary of the history about resources for energy production is presented. The high dependency of fossil combustibles it is well known and has been estimated that more than 90% of the used energy comes from non-renewable resources such as oil, gas and carbon. In the same way, here, it is described that oil is, by far, the main source of energy used to date and as a consequence, this resource is, unavoidably,coming to an end and at the same time is causing and increasing environmental pollution problems. Later in this work, it is suggested that in order to achieve the energetic sustainability, the development of alternative sources that will allow the reduction of toxic greenhouse gas (GHG emissions as well as a decrease of water usage along with a decrease in the energy production costs are needed. One of the alternatives that have been proposed is the production of biofuels, such as biodiesel and bioethanol. Here, some of the main properties at the level of the employed raw materials and production systems are cited. Finally, this work suggests some solutions that are under development worldwide in order to face thiscurrent energy situation.

  19. Post-Tobacco Master Settlement Agreement: Policy and Practice Implications for Social Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Trenette T.; Sparks, Michele Jones; McDonald, Theresa M.; Dickerson, Janet D.

    2011-01-01

    The 1998 Tobacco Master Settlement Agreement (MSA) was developed between states and tobacco manufacturers to settle the states' lawsuits against tobacco manufacturers and recover tobacco health-related costs. States won billions of dollars and concessions regarding how tobacco products could be advertised. The purpose of the MSA was to prevent…

  20. Water consumption footprint and land requirements of large-scale alternative diesel and jet fuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staples, Mark D; Olcay, Hakan; Malina, Robert; Trivedi, Parthsarathi; Pearlson, Matthew N; Strzepek, Kenneth; Paltsev, Sergey V; Wollersheim, Christoph; Barrett, Steven R H

    2013-01-01

    Middle distillate (MD) transportation fuels, including diesel and jet fuel, make up almost 30% of liquid fuel consumption in the United States. Alternative drop-in MD and biodiesel could potentially reduce dependence on crude oil and the greenhouse gas intensity of transportation. However, the water and land resource requirements of these novel fuel production technologies must be better understood. This analysis quantifies the lifecycle green and blue water consumption footprints of producing: MD from conventional crude oil; Fischer-Tropsch MD from natural gas and coal; fermentation and advanced fermentation MD from biomass; and hydroprocessed esters and fatty acids MD and biodiesel from oilseed crops, throughout the contiguous United States. We find that FT MD and alternative MD derived from rainfed biomass have lifecycle blue water consumption footprints of 1.6 to 20.1 Lwater/LMD, comparable to conventional MD, which ranges between 4.1 and 7.4 Lwater/LMD. Alternative MD derived from irrigated biomass has a lifecycle blue water consumption footprint potentially several orders of magnitude larger, between 2.7 and 22 600 Lwater/LMD. Alternative MD derived from biomass has a lifecycle green water consumption footprint between 1.1 and 19 200 Lwater/LMD. Results are disaggregated to characterize the relationship between geo-spatial location and lifecycle water consumption footprint. We also quantify the trade-offs between blue water consumption footprint and areal MD productivity, which ranges from 490 to 4200 LMD/ha, under assumptions of rainfed and irrigated biomass cultivation. Finally, we show that if biomass cultivation for alternative MD is irrigated, the ratio of the increase in areal MD productivity to the increase in blue water consumption footprint is a function of geo-spatial location and feedstock-to-fuel production pathway.

  1. Enriching Production: Perspectives on Volvo's Uddevalla plant as an alternative to lean production

    OpenAIRE

    Sandberg, Åke

    1995-01-01

    Enriching Production was first published by Avebury in 1995. The book was quickly sold out and is now made available again. Enriching Production was edited by professor Åke Sandberg, Arbetslivsinstitutet/ National Institute for Working Life and KTH The Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm. Enriching Production was followed up by a symposium on the general theme of ‘Good work and productivity’. The papers were collected in a special issue of Economic and Industrial Democracy, Vol. 19, ...

  2. Using tobacco waste extract in pre-culture medium to improve xylose utilization for l-lactic acid production from cellulosic waste by Rhizopus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yuxi; Wang, Yuanliang; Zhang, Jianrong; Pan, Jun

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this work was to study the high-titer l-lactic acid production from cellulosic waste using Rhizopus oryzae. The tobacco waste water-extract (TWE) added with 5g/L glucose and 0.1g/L vitamin C was optimized as pre-culture medium for R. oryzae. Results found that compared to traditional pre-culture medium, it improved xylose consumption rate up to 2.12-fold and enhanced l-lactic acid yield up to 1.73-fold. The highest l-lactic acid concentration achieved was 173.5g/L, corresponding to volumetric productivity of 1.45g/Lh and yield of 0.860g/g total reducing sugar in fed-batch fermentation. This process achieves efficient production of polymer-grade l-lactic acid from cellulosic feedstocks, lowers the cost of fungal cell pre-culture and provides a novel way for re-utilization of tobacco waste.

  3. 新型烟草制品毒理学评价研究进展%Recent advances in toxicological evaluation of novel tobacco products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李翔; 谢复炜; 刘惠民

    2016-01-01

    In order to examine the recent advances in health risk evaluation on novel tobacco products, the published researches on toxicological evaluation of heat-not-burn tobacco products, smokeless tobacco products and electronic cigarettes were reviewed. Preclinical toxicological evaluation is an important part of the health risk assessment procedures for novel tobacco products. 1) The toxicological assays employed in the evaluation of carbon-tipped heating cigarettes and electrically heated cigarettes includes in vitro toxicity assays (such as bacterial mutagenicity assay, chromosome aberration, sister chromatid exchange, cytotoxicity assay, DNA damage and intracellular enzyme analysis) and also the tests based on animal models (such as dermal tumor promotion assay and aerosol inhalation studies). According to the literatures, the aerosol from heat-not-burn cigarettes possessed lower toxicity than those did from traditional cigarettes. 2) The toxicological assays applied to the evaluation of smokeless tobacco products includes Ames, cytotoxicity assay, cell proliferation assays, cell apoptosis assay, chromosome aberration, sister chromatid exchange, micronucleus assay and animal models. Research results indicated that smokeless tobacco products adversely impacted on human health. 3) The published information on the preclinical toxicology evaluation on electronic cigarettes is less up-to-date so far. Few studies have been published that systematically conducted cross-category risk assessments. Therefore, a series of in vitro toxicity assays and in vivo models should be developed to access the effects of different categories of tobacco products on disease risks and health outcomes, and they should be conducted scientifically, objectively and comprehensively, which would become an important part of tobacco-related health risk evaluation for Chinese tobacco industry.%为了解新型烟草制品的健康风险评估进展,对加热非燃烧型烟草制品、无烟气烟

  4. From gene to harvest: insights into upstream process development for the GMP production of a monoclonal antibody in transgenic tobacco plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sack, Markus; Rademacher, Thomas; Spiegel, Holger; Boes, Alexander; Hellwig, Stephan; Drossard, Juergen; Stoger, Eva; Fischer, Rainer

    2015-10-01

    The EU Sixth Framework Programme Integrated Project 'Pharma-Planta' developed an approved manufacturing process for recombinant plant-made pharmaceutical proteins (PMPs) using the human HIV-neutralizing monoclonal antibody 2G12 as a case study. In contrast to the well-established Chinese hamster ovary platform, which has been used for the production of therapeutic antibodies for nearly 30 years, only draft regulations were initially available covering the production of recombinant proteins in transgenic tobacco plants. Whereas recombinant proteins produced in animal cells are secreted into the culture medium during fermentation in bioreactors, intact plants grown under nonsterile conditions in a glasshouse environment provide various 'plant-specific' regulatory and technical challenges for the development of a process suitable for the acquisition of a manufacturing licence for clinical phase I trials. During upstream process development, several generic steps were addressed (e.g. plant transformation and screening, seed bank generation, genetic stability, host plant uniformity) as well as product-specific aspects (e.g. product quantity). This report summarizes the efforts undertaken to analyse and define the procedures for the GMP/GACP-compliant upstream production of 2G12 in transgenic tobacco plants from gene to harvest, including the design of expression constructs, plant transformation, the generation of production lines, master and working seed banks and the detailed investigation of cultivation and harvesting parameters and their impact on biomass, product yield and intra/interbatch variability. The resulting procedures were successfully translated into a prototypic manufacturing process that has been approved by the German competent authority.

  5. Green Alternatives to Nitrates and Nitrites in Meat-based Products-A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassara, Fatma; Kouassi, Anne Patricia; Brar, Satinder Kaur; Belkacemi, Khaled

    2016-10-02

    Several food additives are added in food for their preservation to maintain the freshness of food (antioxidants) or to slow down or stop the growth of microorganisms (preservative agents). Nitrites and nitrates are used as preservative agents in meat. Nitrites give a smoked taste, a pinkish color in the meat and protect the consumers against the risk of bacterial deterioration. Their addition is however very limited as, in high dose, it can have risks on human health and the environment. Nitrites may also combine with secondary or tertiary amines to form N-nitroso derivatives. Certain N-nitroso compounds have been shown to produce cancers in a wide range of laboratory animals. Thus, alternatives of nitrates and nitrites are the object of numerous research studies. Alternatives, such as the addition of vitamins, fruits, chemicals products, natural products containing nitrite or spices, which have similar properties of nitrites, are in evaluation. In fact, spices are considered to have several organoleptic and anti-microbial properties which would be interesting to study. Several spices and combinations of spices are being progressively evaluated. This review discusses the sources of nitrites and nitrates, their use as additives in food products, their physicochemical properties, their negatives effects and the use of alternatives of nitrites and nitrates in preserving meat products.

  6. Cheese whey: A cost-effective alternative for hyaluronic acid production by Streptococcus zooepidemicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amado, Isabel R; Vázquez, José A; Pastrana, Lorenzo; Teixeira, José A

    2016-05-01

    This study focuses on the optimisation of cheese whey formulated media for the production of hyaluronic acid (HA) by Streptococcus zooepidemicus. Culture media containing whey (W; 2.1g/L) or whey hydrolysate (WH; 2.4 g/L) gave the highest HA productions. Both W and WH produced high yields on protein consumed, suggesting cheese whey is a good nitrogen source for S. zooepidemicus production of HA. Polysaccharide concentrations of 4.0 g/L and 3.2g/L were produced in W and WH in a further scale-up to 5L bioreactors, confirming the suitability of the low-cost nitrogen source. Cheese whey culture media provided high molecular weight (>3000 kDa) HA products. This study revealed replacing the commercial peptone by the low-cost alternative could reduce HA production costs by up to a 70% compared to synthetic media.

  7. Awareness of pro-tobacco advertising and promotion and beliefs about tobacco use: findings from the Tobacco Control Policy (TCP) India Pilot Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Fong, Geoffrey T; Quah, Anne C K; Sansone, Genevieve; Pednekar, Mangesh S; Gupta, Prakash C; Sinha, Dhirendra N

    2014-12-01

    Tobacco companies are utilizing similar strategies to advertise and promote their products in developing countries as they have used successfully for over 50 years in developed countries. The present study describes how adult smokers, smokeless tobacco users, and non-users of tobacco from the Tobacco Control Project (TCP) India Pilot Survey, conducted in 2006, responded to questions regarding their perceptions and observations of pro-tobacco advertising and promotion and beliefs about tobacco use. Analyses found that 74% (n=562) of respondents reported seeing some form of pro-tobacco advertising in the last six months, with no differences observed between smokers (74%), smokeless tobacco users (74%), and nonsmokers (73%). More than half of respondents reported seeing pro-tobacco advertising on store windows or inside shops. Overall, this study found that a significant percentage of tobacco users and non-users in India report seeing some form of pro-tobacco advertising and promotion messages. Additional analyses found that smokers were more likely to perceive tobacco use as harmful to their health compared with smokeless tobacco users and non-users (padvertising and promotion of tobacco products in India.

  8. [Etiology, epidemiology, biology. Tobacco use and smoking in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, G

    2008-10-01

    Since 1976, France improved its anti tobacco legislation and regulation with the help of the Non-governmental organizations under the umbrella of the Alliance Against Tobacco. Since then were implemented a total ban of tobacco advertising (1991), a total ban of smoking in enclosed public and work places (2006), a high taxation of tobacco products, strong media campaigns to de normalize smoking and tobacco products, improved availability, accessibility and affordability of treatments of tobacco dependence. Since 1991, the number of cigarettes smoked per adult was halved.

  9. Green Tobacco Sickness among Thai Traditional Tobacco Farmers, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Saleeon

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Traditional Thai tobacco (Nicotiana abacus L. is known as a non-Virginia type whose mature leaf contains three to four times more nicotine than that of a Virginia type. As such, the process of Thai traditional tobacco production may lead to adverse health effects such as green tobacco sickness (GTS.Objective: To investigate the prevalence of GTS and risk factors related to GTS among Thai traditional tobacco farmers in Nan province, northern Thailand.Methods: 473 Thai traditional tobacco farmers from rural areas in Nan province were randomly selected and interviewed in person by means of questionnaires and environmental survey. Statistical analyses were used to identify potential risk factors for GTS.Results: The prevalence of GTS was 22.6% (95% CI 19.1% to 26.6%. Multivariate analysis showed various risk factors associated with GTS including gender of the farmer (ORadj 0.44, 95% CI 0.26 to 0.73, smoking (ORadj 4.36, 95% CI 1.41 to 13.47, skin rash (ORadj 0.36, 95% CI 0.19 to 0.68, wearing a wet suit (ORadj 1.91, 95% CI 1.12 to 3.23, process of curing tobacco leaves (ORadj 0.06, 95% CI 0.02 to 0.16, and watering tobacco plants (ORadj 0.42, 95% CI 0.25 to 0.72.Conclusion: The process of traditional Thai tobacco production can result in increased dermal exposure and can be considered a major risk factor for GTS. Body soaking during watering may further increase adverse health effects related to GTS.

  10. A Comparative Evaluation of the Physical and Chemical Characteristics of Composted Tea Tree (Melaleuca alternifolia L. with Pine Bark Growing Media in Tobacco (Nicotiana tabucum L. Seedling Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Masaka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The search for suitable organic growing media substitutes for pine bark based media combinations has been prompted by concerns over high costs and lack of availability to smallholder farmers coupled with increasing demand for soilless media in Zimbabwe. A trial was conducted for 12 weeks to investigate the suitability of tea tree compost-based substrates for tobacco seedling production as a substitute of the traditional pine bark growing media. The use of composted tea tree growing media in float trays significantly (p<0.05 increases the bulk density of the media by 23–59% when compared with pine bark media. The cation exchange capacity of the native pine bark growing media was 14 to 95% lower than that for the composted tea tree media. The use of the composted tea as media for tobacco seedling nursery reduced seed germination by 10–37%, seedling stem height by 4–34%, and seedling stem girth by 6–175%. While the nutrient holding and supplying potential of the growing media in seedling production is important for normal seedling growth, its effect on seedling growth vigor is less important than that exerted by the presence of suitable physical conditions in the media.

  11. Overexpression of a tobacco small G protein gene NtRop1 causes salt sensitivity and hydrogen peroxide production in transgenic plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO YangRong; LI ZhiGang; CHEN Tao; ZHANG ZhiGang; ZHANG JinSong; CHEN ShouYi

    2008-01-01

    The small GTPases of Rop/Rho family is central regulators of important cellular processes in plants.Tobacco small G protein gene NtRop1 has been isolated; however, its roles in stress responses were unknown. In the present study, the genomic sequence of NtRop1 was cloned, which has seven exons and six introns, similar to the Rop gene structure from Arabidopsis. The NtRopl gene was constitutively expressed in the different organs whereas the other six Rop genes from tobacco had differential expression patterns. The expression of the NtRop1 gene was moderately induced by methyl viologen,NaCl, and ACC treatments, but slightly inhibited by ABA treatment, with no significant induction by NAA treatment. The trsnsgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing the NtRop1 showed increased salt sensitivity as can be seen from the reduced root growth and elevated relative electrolyte leakage. The hydrogen peroxide production was also promoted in the NtRop1-trangenic plants in comparison with wild type plants. These results imply that the NtRopl may confer salt sensitivity through activation of H2O2 production during plant response to salt stress.

  12. Overexpression of a tobacco small G protein gene NtRop1 causes salt sensitivity and hydrogen peroxide production in transgenic plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The small GTPases of Rop/Rho family is central regulators of important cellular processes in plants. Tobacco small G protein gene NtRop1 has been isolated; however, its roles in stress responses were unknown. In the present study, the genomic sequence of NtRop1 was cloned, which has seven exons and six introns, similar to the Rop gene structure from Arabidopsis. The NtRop1 gene was constitutively expressed in the different organs whereas the other six Rop genes from tobacco had differential expression patterns. The expression of the NtRop1 gene was moderately induced by methyl viologen, NaCl, and ACC treatments, but slightly inhibited by ABA treatment, with no significant induction by NAA treatment. The transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing the NtRop1 showed increased salt sensitivity as can be seen from the reduced root growth and elevated relative electrolyte leakage. The hydrogen peroxide production was also promoted in the NtRop1-trangenic plants in comparison with wild type plants. These results imply that the NtRop1 may confer salt sensitivity through activation of H2O2 production during plant response to salt stress.

  13. DECOMPOSTION OF GENETICALLY ENGINEERED TOBACCO UNDER FIELD CONDITIONS: PERSISTENCE OF THE PROTEINASE INHIBITOR I PRODUCT AND EFFECTS OF SOIL MICROBIAL RESPIRATION AND PROTOZOA, NEMATODE AND MICROARTHR

    Science.gov (United States)

    1. To evaluate the potential effects of genetically engineered (transgenic) plants on soil ecosystems, litterbags containing leaves of non-engineered (parental) and transgenic tobacco plants were buried in field plots. The transgenic tobacco plants were genetically engineered to ...

  14. Analysis of the Appearance Quality of Tobacco Leaves in the Tobacco-growing Areas of Qujing City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhijuan; BAO; Folin; LI; Jun; WANG; Jiahe; JIANG; Binjie; DAI

    2014-01-01

    In order to set up the digitization indices system of appearance quality of flue-cured tobacco leaves in Qujing. According to the relevant standards,the quantitative analysis on appearance quality of 39 cutter and upper tobacco leaf samples which were collected from eight fluecured tobacco production regions of Qujing City,Yunnan Province were carried out in 2011,respectively. The results showed that the difference in evaluation score of appearance quality of flue-cured tobacco in eight regions was not significant. The tobacco leaves had high maturity,high oil content,loose structure and good appearance quality. The scores of appearance quality of flue-cured tobacco in Shizong County and Malong County are higher than other regions. The two regions are suitable for tobacco plantation. The preliminary digitization indices provide reference and guidance to tobacco production and standards system of tobacco leaves base.

  15. An alternative feedstock of corn meal for industrial fuel ethanol production: delignified corncob residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Cheng; Zhang, Jian; Xiao, Lin; Bao, Jie

    2014-09-01

    Delignified corncob residue is an industrial solid waste from xylose production using corncob as feedstock. In this study, delignified corncob residue was used as the feedstock of ethanol production by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) and the optimal fermentation performance was investigated under various operation conditions. The ethanol titer and yield reached 75.07 g/L and 89.38%, respectively, using a regular industrial yeast strain at moderate cellulase dosage and high solids loading. A uniform SSF temperature of 37°C at both prehydrolysis and SSF stages was tested. The fermentation performance and cost of delignified corncob residue and corn meal was compared as feedstock of ethanol fermentation. The result shows that the delignified corncob residue is competitive to corn meal as ethanol production feedstock. The study gives a typical case to demonstrate the potential of intensively processed lignocellulose as the alternative feedstock of corn meal for industrial fuel ethanol production.

  16. Heat reduces nitric oxide production required for auxin-mediated gene expression and fate determination in tree tobacco guard cell protoplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, Robert A; Anderson, David J; Bufford, Jennifer L; Tallman, Gary

    2012-08-01

    Tree tobacco (Nicotiana glauca) is an equatorial perennial with a high basal thermotolerance. Cultured tree tobacco guard cell protoplasts (GCPs) are useful for studying the effects of heat stress on fate-determining hormonal signaling. At lower temperatures (32°C or less), exogenous auxin (1-naphthalene acetic acid) and cytokinin (6-benzylaminopurine) cause GCPs to expand 20- to 30-fold, regenerate cell walls, dedifferentiate, reenter the cell cycle, and divide. At higher temperatures (34°C or greater), GCPs expand only 5- to 6-fold; they do not regenerate walls, dedifferentiate, reenter the cell cycle, or divide. Heat (38°C) suppresses activation of the BA auxin-responsive transgene promoter in tree tobacco GCPs, suggesting that inhibition of cell expansion and cell cycle reentry at high temperatures is due to suppressed auxin signaling. Nitric oxide (NO) has been implicated in auxin signaling in other plant systems. Here, we show that heat inhibits NO accumulation by GCPs and that L-N(G)-monomethyl arginine, an inhibitor of NO production in animals and plants, mimics the effects of heat by limiting cell expansion and preventing cell wall regeneration; inhibiting cell cycle reentry, dedifferentiation, and cell division; and suppressing activation of the BA auxin-responsive promoter. We also show that heat and L-N(G)-monomethyl arginine reduce the mitotic indices of primary root meristems and inhibit lateral root elongation similarly. These data link reduced NO levels to suppressed auxin signaling in heat-stressed cells and seedlings of thermotolerant plants and suggest that even plants that have evolved to withstand sustained high temperatures may still be negatively impacted by heat stress.

  17. Effects of cigarette smoke, cessation and switching to a candidate modified risk tobacco product on the liver in Apoe -/- mice--a systems toxicology analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Sasso, Giuseppe; Titz, Bjoern; Nury, Catherine; Boué, Stéphanie; Phillips, Blaine; Belcastro, Vincenzo; Schneider, Thomas; Dijon, Sophie; Baumer, Karine; Peric, Daruisz; Dulize, Remi; Elamin, Ashraf; Guedj, Emmanuel; Buettner, Ansgar; Leroy, Patrice; Kleinhans, Samuel; Vuillaume, Gregory; Veljkovic, Emilija; Ivanov, Nikolai V; Martin, Florian; Vanscheeuwijck, Patrick; Peitsch, Manuel C; Hoeng, Julia

    2016-04-01

    The liver is one of the most important organs involved in elimination of xenobiotic and potentially toxic substances. Cigarette smoke (CS) contains more than 7000 chemicals, including those that exert biological effects and cause smoking-related diseases. Though CS is not directly hepatotoxic, a growing body of evidence suggests that it may exacerbate pre-existing chronic liver disease. In this study, we integrated toxicological endpoints with molecular measurements and computational analyses to investigate effects of exposures on the livers of Apoe(-/- )mice. Mice were exposed to 3R4F reference CS, to an aerosol from the Tobacco Heating System (THS) 2.2, a candidate modified risk tobacco product (MRTP) or to filtered air (Sham) for up to 8 months. THS2.2 takes advantage of a "heat-not-burn" technology that, by heating tobacco, avoids pyrogenesis and pyrosynthesis. After CS exposure for 2 months, some groups were either switched to the MRTP or filtered air. While no group showed clear signs of hepatotoxicity, integrative analysis of proteomics and transcriptomics data showed a CS-dependent impairment of specific biological networks. These networks included lipid and xenobiotic metabolism and iron homeostasis that likely contributed synergistically to exacerbating oxidative stress. In contrast, most proteomic and transcriptomic changes were lower in mice exposed to THS2.2 and in the cessation and switching groups compared to the CS group. Our findings elucidate the complex biological responses of the liver to CS exposure. Furthermore, they provide evidence that THS2.2 aerosol has reduced biological effects, as compared with CS, on the livers of Apoe(-/- )mice.

  18. 生物有机无机烟草专用肥生产技术总结%Sum-Up of Production Technology of Biological Organic Inorganic Fertilizer for Tobacco

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张从军; 曹少秋

    2016-01-01

    根据土壤养分状况并结合烟草需肥规律,开发出生物有机无机烟草专用肥,简要介绍了其生产方法。经大田试验、示范,结果表明生物有机无机烟草专用肥对提高烟叶产量、质量和增强烟草抗逆性均具有明显的效果,具有改土、抗逆、增产和提高烟草品质的综合优势。%Based on soil nutrient condition and in connection with nutrient uptake pattern of tobacco , a biological organic inorganic fertilizer for tobacco has been developed , and its production method is introduced briefly .Field experiment and demonstration are carried out , results show that the biological organic inorganic fertilizer for tobacco has significant effects on promoting yield and quality of tobacco leaves and increasing stress resistance of tobacco , having comprehensive advantages of improving the soil , enhancing adverse resistance ability , increasing yield and improving the quality of tobacco .

  19. Transnational tobacco company interests in smokeless tobacco in Europe: analysis of internal industry documents and contemporary industry materials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvy Peeters

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: European Union (EU legislation bans the sale of snus, a smokeless tobacco (SLT which is considerably less harmful than smoking, in all EU countries other than Sweden. To inform the current review of this legislation, this paper aims to explore transnational tobacco company (TTC interests in SLT and pure nicotine in Europe from the 1970s to the present, comparing them with TTCs' public claims of support for harm reduction. METHODS AND RESULTS: Internal tobacco industry documents (in total 416 documents dating from 1971 to 2009, obtained via searching the online Legacy Tobacco Documents Library, were analysed using a hermeneutic approach. This library comprises documents obtained via litigation in the US and does not include documents from Imperial Tobacco, Japan Tobacco International, or Swedish Match. To help overcome this limitation and provide more recent data, we triangulated our documentary findings with contemporary documentation including TTC investor presentations. The analysis demonstrates that British American Tobacco explored SLT opportunities in Europe from 1971 driven by regulatory threats and health concerns, both likely to impact cigarette sales negatively, and the potential to create a new form of tobacco use among those no longer interested in taking up smoking. Young people were a key target. TTCs did not, however, make SLT investments until 2002, a time when EU cigarette volumes started declining, smoke-free legislation was being introduced, and public health became interested in harm reduction. All TTCs have now invested in snus (and recently in pure nicotine, yet both early and recent snus test markets appear to have failed, and little evidence was found in TTCs' corporate materials that snus is central to their business strategy. CONCLUSIONS: There is clear evidence that BAT's early interest in introducing SLT in Europe was based on the potential for creating an alternative form of tobacco use in light of

  20. Systematic review of the relation between smokeless tobacco and cancer in Europe and North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Peter N

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interest is rising in smokeless tobacco as a safer alternative to smoking, but published reviews on smokeless tobacco and cancer are limited. We review North American and European studies and compare effects of smokeless tobacco and smoking. Methods We obtained papers from MEDLINE searches, published reviews and secondary references describing epidemiological cohort and case-control studies relating any form of cancer to smokeless tobacco use. For each study, details were abstracted on design, smokeless tobacco exposure, cancers studied, analysis methods and adjustment for smoking and other factors. For each cancer, relative risks or odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were tabulated. Overall, and also for USA and Scandinavia separately, meta-analyses were conducted using all available estimates, smoking-adjusted estimates, or estimates for never smokers. For seven cancers, smoking-attributable deaths in US men in 2005 were compared with deaths attributable to introducing smokeless tobacco into a population of never-smoking men. Results Eighty-nine studies were identified; 62 US and 18 Scandinavian. Forty-six (52% controlled for smoking. Random-effects meta-analysis estimates for most sites showed little association. Smoking-adjusted estimates were only significant for oropharyngeal cancer (1.36, CI 1.04–1.77, n = 19 and prostate cancer (1.29, 1.07–1.55, n = 4. The oropharyngeal association disappeared for estimates published since 1990 (1.00, 0.83–1.20, n = 14, for Scandinavia (0.97, 0.68–1.37, n = 7, and for alcohol-adjusted estimates (1.07, 0.84–1.37, n = 10. Any effect of current US products or Scandinavian snuff seems very limited. The prostate cancer data are inadequate for a clear conclusion. Some meta-analyses suggest a possible effect for oesophagus, pancreas, larynx and kidney cancer, but other cancers show no effect of smokeless tobacco. Any possible effects are not evident in Scandinavia. Of 142

  1. 我国烟叶生产组织模式创新的原则与途径%Principles and Approaches to the Innovation of Organizational Model for China Tobacco Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁黎明; 雷强; 罗君

    2012-01-01

    从可持续发展的角度,分析了创新烟叶生产组织模式的必要性,提出了烟叶生产组织模式创新的原则,并对烟叶生产组织模式创新的途径给出了相应的建议.%The paper analyzed the necessity of the innovative organizational model for tobacco production from the perspective of sustainable development, and then proposed the principles of organizational model innovation,finally proposed related suggestions on the approaches to the innovation of organization model for tobacco production.

  2. Effects of alternative promoters of growth on the performance and cost of production of broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Tomazini Medeiros

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics and prebiotics were compared to antimicrobials as alternative growth promoters in male broilers grown from 1 to 42 days of age. Eight treatments were evaluated: a control feed without antimicrobials or alternative growth promoters, a control feed with antimicrobials, a control feed with the antimicrobials colistine and avilamicine, three rations with probiotic Bacillus subtilis in different concentrations and/or under recommended usage, one ration with probiotic Saccharomyces cerevisiae in addition to a mixture of probiotic Bacillus subtilis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Aspergillus oryzae, and one ration with mananoligossacarids (MOS plus betaglutanes. Antimicrobials and alternative growth promoters were added to an initial feed and to a growth feed common to all birds. Thirteen to 17 replicates of 50 birds of a Cobb line were utilized per treatment in a completely randomized design. Feed consumption, feed conversion and production costs did not significantly differ among treatments. The weights of 42-day-old birds fed on Bacillus subtilis (1,6 x 109CFU/g or the mixture of probiotics were higher or similar to the weights of birds fed on ration with antimicrobials. It was concluded that probiotics can replace antimicrobials as growth promoters for broilers up to 42 days of age without negative effects on growth performance and production cost.

  3. The role of phonological alternation in speech production: evidence from Mandarin tone sandhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politzer-Ahles, Stephen; Zhang, Jie

    2014-05-01

    We investigate the role of phonological alternation during speech production in Mandarin using implicit priming, a paradigm in which participants respond faster to words in sets that are phonologically homogeneous than in sets that are phonologically heterogeneous. We test whether priming is obtained when words in a set share the same tones at the underlying level but have different tones at the surface level-i.e., when the set includes a word that undergoes a phonological alternation which changes the tone. Sets that are heterogeneous at the surface level (in which the heterogeneity is due to a phonological operation) failed to elicit priming, as did sets that are heterogeneous at the underlying and surface levels (in which the heterogeneity is due to the lexical representations). This finding suggests that the phonological alternation was computed before the initiation of articulation, offering evidence that the progression from underlying phonological representations to articulatory execution may be mediated online by phonological input-to-output mapping. Furthermore, sets of words that are heterogeneous only at the surface level showed a different trend than sets of words that are heterogeneous at both levels, suggesting that both the surface and underlying levels of representation play a role during speech production.

  4. Fermentative production of L-pipecolic acid from glucose and alternative carbon sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-García, Fernando; Max Risse, Joe; Friehs, Karl; Wendisch, Volker F

    2017-02-07

    Corynebacterium glutamicum is used for the million-ton scale production of amino acids and has recently been engineered for production of the cyclic non-proteinogenic amino acid L-pipecolic acid (L-PA). In this synthetic pathway L-lysine was converted to L-PA by oxidative deamination, dehydration and reduction by L-lysine 6-dehydrogenase (deaminating) from Silicibacter pomeroyi and pyrroline 5-carboxylate reductase from C. glutamicum. However, production of L-PA occurred as by-product of L-lysine production only. Here, the author show that abolishing L-lysine export by the respective gene deletion resulted in production of L-PA as major product without concomitant lysine production while the specific growth rate was reduced due to accumulation of high intracellular lysine concentrations. Increasing expression of the genes encoding L-lysine 6-dehydrogenase and pyrroline 5-carboxylate reductase in C. glutamicum strain PIPE4 increased the L-PA titer to 3.9 g L(-1) , and allowed faster growth and, thus, a higher volumetric productivity of 0.08 ± 0.00 g L(-1) h(-1) respectively. Secondly, expression of heterologous genes for utilization of glycerol, xylose, glucosamine, and starch in strain PIPE4 enabled L-PA production from these alternative carbon sources. Third, in a glucose/sucrose-based fed-batch fermentation with C. glutamicum PIPE4 L-PA was produced to a titer of 14.4 g L(-1) with a volumetric productivity of 0.21 g L(-1) h(-1) and an overall yield of 0.20 g g(-1) .

  5. Complementary or alternative? The use of homeopathic products and antibiotics amongst pre-school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bishop Jackie

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Any intervention to reduce the inappropriate use of antibiotics for infections in children has the potential to reduce the selective pressure on antimicrobial resistance and minimise the medicalisation of self-limiting illness. Little is known about whether homeopathic products might be used by some families as an alternative to antibiotics or the characteristics of such families. We used the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC observational dataset to explore the hypothesis that the use of homeopathic products is associated with reduced antibiotic use in pre-school children and to identify characteristics of the families of pre-school children given homeopathic products. Methods Questionnaires data were completed by the parents of 9723 children while aged between 3–4.5 years in Bristol UK. Univariable and multivariable analyses were used to explore the relationships between antibiotic and homeopathic product use. Results Six percent of children had received one or more homeopathic products and 62% one or more antibiotics between the ages of 3 and 4.5 years. After adjustment for factors associated with antibiotic use, there was no association between homeopathic product and antibiotic use (adjusted OR = 1.02, 95% CI 0.84, 1.24. Factors independently associated with child homeopathic product use were: higher maternal education, maternal use of homeopathic products, maternal lack of confidence in doctors, mothers reporting that they were less likely to see doctor when the child was ill, children being given vitamins, watching less television and suffering from wheeze and food allergies. Conclusion In this observational study, the use of homeopathic products was not associated with decreased antibiotic consumption, suggesting the use of homeopathic product complements rather than competes with the use of antibiotics in pre-school children. The characteristics of mothers giving homeopathic products to their

  6. Bacterial cellulose production by Gluconacetobacter xylinus by employing alternative culture media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jozala, Angela Faustino; Pértile, Renata Aparecida Nedel; dos Santos, Carolina Alves; de Carvalho Santos-Ebinuma, Valéria; Seckler, Marcelo Martins; Gama, Francisco Miguel; Pessoa, Adalberto

    2015-02-01

    Bacterial cellulose (BC) is used in different fields as a biological material due to its unique properties. Despite there being many BC applications, there still remain many problems associated with bioprocess technology, such as increasing productivity and decreasing production cost. New technologies that use waste from the food industry as raw materials for culture media promote economic advantages because they reduce environmental pollution and stimulate new research for science sustainability. For this reason, BC production requires optimized conditions to increase its application. The main objective of this study was to evaluate BC production by Gluconacetobacter xylinus using industry waste, namely, rotten fruits and milk whey, as culture media. Furthermore, the structure of BC produced at different conditions was also determined. The culture media employed in this study were composed of rotten fruit collected from the disposal of free markets, milk whey from a local industrial disposal, and their combination, and Hestrin and Schramm media was used as standard culture media. Although all culture media studied produced BC, the highest BC yield-60 mg/mL-was achieved with the rotten fruit culture. Thus, the results showed that rotten fruit can be used for BC production. This culture media can be considered as a profitable alternative to generate high-value products. In addition, it combines environmental concern with sustainable processes that can promote also the reduction of production cost.

  7. Listening to Puns Elicits the Co-Activation of Alternative Homophone Meanings during Language Production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Benjamin Rose

    Full Text Available Recent evidence suggests that lexical-semantic activation spread during language production can be dynamically shaped by contextual factors. In this study we investigated whether semantic processing modes can also affect lexical-semantic activation during word production. Specifically, we tested whether the processing of linguistic ambiguities, presented in the form of puns, has an influence on the co-activation of unrelated meanings of homophones in a subsequent language production task. In a picture-word interference paradigm with word distractors that were semantically related or unrelated to the non-depicted meanings of homophones we found facilitation induced by related words only when participants listened to puns before object naming, but not when they heard jokes with unambiguous linguistic stimuli. This finding suggests that a semantic processing mode of ambiguity perception can induce the co-activation of alternative homophone meanings during speech planning.

  8. Effects of alternating magnetic field on the corrosion rate and corrosion products of copper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Bin; ZHANG Peng; JIN Yongping; CHENG Shukang

    2008-01-01

    The effects of alternating magnetic field on the corrosion morphologies, corrosion rate, and corrosion products of copper in 3.5% NaCl solution, sea water, and magnetized sea water were investigated using electrochemical test, scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive analysis system of X-ray (SEM/EDAX), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results show that the corrosion rate of copper in magnetized sea water is minimal. Moreover, the surface of the specimen in magnetized sea water is uniform and compact as compared with those in 3.5% NaCl solution and sea water. The corrosion products of copper in magnetized sea water are mainly Cu2O and CuCl2. However, the corrosion products in sea water are CuCl, Cu2Cl(OH)3, and FeCl3·6H2O. The electrochemical corrosion mechanisms of copper in the three media were also discussed.

  9. Alternative Technologies for Biofuels Production in Kraft Pulp Mills—Potential and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esa Vakkilainen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The current global conditions provide the pulp mill new opportunities beyond the traditional production of cellulose. Due to stricter environmental regulations, volatility of oil price, energy policies and also the global competitiveness, the challenges for the pulp industry are many. They range from replacing fossil fuels with renewable energy sources to the export of biofuels, chemicals and biomaterials through the implementation of biorefineries. In spite of the enhanced maturity of various bio and thermo-chemical conversion processes, the economic viability becomes an impediment when considering the effective implementation on an industrial scale. In the case of kraft pulp mills, favorable conditions for biofuels production can be created due to the availability of wood residues and generation of black liquor. The objective of this article is to give an overview of the technologies related to the production of alternative biofuels in the kraft pulp mills and discuss their potential and prospects in the present and future scenario.

  10. A critical assessment of the scientific basis, and implementation, of regulations for the safety assessment and marketing of innovative tobacco-related products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combes, Robert D; Balls, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Our scientific, logistical, ethical and animal welfare-related concerns about the latest US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations for existing and so-called 'new' tobacco products, aimed at reducing harmful exposures, are explained. Such claims for sales in the USA now have to be based on a wide range of information, a key part of which will increasingly be data on safety and risk. One of the pathways to achieve marketing authorisation is to demonstrate substantial equivalence (SE) with benchmark products, called predicates. However, the regulations are insufficiently transparent with regard to: a) a rationale for the cut-off date for 'old' and 'new' products, and for exempting the former from regulation; b) the scientific validity and operation of SE; c) options for product labelling to circumvent SE; d) the experimental data required to support, and criteria to judge, a claim; and e) a strategy for risk assessment/management. Scientific problems related to the traditional animal methods used in respiratory disease and inhalation toxicology, and the use of quantitative comparators of toxicity, such as the No Observed Adverse Effect Level, are discussed. We review the advantages of relevant in vitro, mechanism-based, target tissue-oriented technologies, which an advisory report of the Institute of Medicine of the US National Academy of Sciences largely overlooked. These benefits include: a) the availability, for every major site in the respiratory tract, of organotypic human cell-based tissue culture systems, many of which are already being used by the industry; b) the accurate determination of concentrations of test materials received by target cells; c) methods for exposure to particulate and vapour phases of smoke, separately or combined; d) the ability to study tissue-specific biotransformation; and e) the use of modern, human-focused methodologies, unaffected by species differences. How data extrapolation, for risk assessment, from tissue culture to

  11. Biohydrogen and biomethane production sustained by untreated matrices and alternative application of compost waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arizzi, Mariaconcetta; Morra, Simone; Pugliese, Massimo; Gullino, Maria Lodovica; Gilardi, Gianfranco; Valetti, Francesca

    2016-10-01

    Biohydrogen and biomethane production offers many advantages for environmental protection over the fossil fuels or the existing physical-chemical methods for hydrogen and methane synthesis. The aim of this study is focused on the exploitation of several samples from the composting process: (1) a mixture of waste vegetable materials ("Mix"); (2) an unmatured compost sample (ACV15); and (3) three types of green compost with different properties and soil improver quality (ACV1, ACV2 and ACV3). These samples were tested for biohydrogen and biomethane production, thus obtaining second generation biofuels and resulting in a novel possibility to manage renewable waste biomasses. The ability of these substrates as original feed during dark fermentation was assayed anaerobically in batch, in glass bottles, in order to determine the optimal operating conditions for hydrogen and/or methane production using "Mix" or ACV1, ACV2 or ACV3 green compost and a limited amount of water. Hydrogen could be produced with a fast kinetic in the range 0.02-2.45mLH2g(-1)VS, while methane was produced with a slower kinetic in the range 0.5-8mLCH4g(-1)VS. It was observed that the composition of each sample influenced significantly the gas production. It was also observed that the addition of different water amounts play a crucial role in the development of hydrogen or methane. This parameter can be used to push towards the alternative production of one or another gas. Hydrogen and methane production was detected spontaneously from these matrices, without additional sources of nutrients or any pre-treatment, suggesting that they can be used as an additional inoculum or feed into single or two-stage plants. This might allow the use of compost with low quality as soil improver for alternative and further applications.

  12. Thoughts and Exploration on Transformation and Upgrading of Tobacco Production Promoted by Lean Management%精益管理促进烟叶生产转型升级的思考与探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张忠新; 秦铁伟; 张勇

    2015-01-01

    烟叶产区要在烟叶质量水平提升、烟叶风格相对稳定、烟叶生产效益相对增加的前提下,依据实际,围绕技术精、作业流程精、效果好开展研究,狠抓精益管理宣传培训、优化烟叶生产技术、人员及资源的配制,强化科技研究及机械研发,引导合作社切实突出服务功能,促进产区长远发展。%Tobacco-producing field should carry out research oriented by fined tech-nology, fluent work procedure and satisfied effect, reinforce lean management pro-motion, optimize al ocation of tobacco production technologies, employees and re-sources, and improve science and technology research and development in a premise of improving tobacco quality, stable tobacco texture, and increasing tobacco production profit, in order to highlight service function of cooperatives and advance sustainable development.

  13. Lambda Station: Alternate network path forwarding for production SciDAC applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoriev, Maxim; Bobyshev, Andrey; Crawford, Matt; DeMar, Phil; Grigaliunas, Vyto; Moibenko, Alexander; Petravick, Don; /Fermilab; Newman, Harvey; Steenberg, Conrad; Thomas, Michael; /Caltech

    2007-09-01

    The LHC era will start very soon, creating immense data volumes capable of demanding allocation of an entire network circuit for task-driven applications. Circuit-based alternate network paths are one solution to meeting the LHC high bandwidth network requirements. The Lambda Station project is aimed at addressing growing requirements for dynamic allocation of alternate network paths. Lambda Station facilitates the rerouting of designated traffic through site LAN infrastructure onto so-called 'high-impact' wide-area networks. The prototype Lambda Station developed with Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) approach in mind will be presented. Lambda Station has been successfully integrated into the production version of the Storage Resource Manager (SRM), and deployed at US CMS Tier1 center at Fermilab, as well as at US-CMS Tier-2 site at Caltech. This paper will discuss experiences using the prototype system with production SciDAC applications for data movement between Fermilab and Caltech. The architecture and design principles of the production version Lambda Station software, currently being implemented as Java based web services, will also be presented in this paper.

  14. Alternating minimal energy approach to ODEs and conservation laws in tensor product formats

    CERN Document Server

    Dolgov, Sergey V

    2014-01-01

    We propose an algorithm for solution of high-dimensional evolutionary equations (ODEs and discretized time-dependent PDEs) in tensor product formats. The solution must admit an approximation in a low-rank separation of variables framework, and the right-hand side of the ODE (for example, a matrix) must be computable in the same low-rank format at a given time point. The time derivative is discretized via the Chebyshev spectral scheme, and the solution is sought simultaneously for all time points from the global space-time linear system. To compute the solution adaptively in the tensor format, we employ the Alternating Minimal Energy algorithm, the DMRG-flavored alternating iterative technique. Besides, we address the problem of maintaining system invariants inside the approximate tensor product scheme. We show how the conservation of a linear function, defined by a vector given in the low-rank format, or the second norm of the solution may be accurately and elegantly incorporated into the tensor product metho...

  15. Metabolic engineering of the ethanol fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae away from glycerol formation towards alternative products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar Jain, V.; Divol, B.; Prior, B.; Franz Bauer, F. [Stellenbosch Univ., (South Africa). Inst. for Wine Biotechnology

    2009-07-01

    This study investigated the commercial advantage of eliminating glycerol from the ethanol fermentation process and possible replacement with other value products. Under fermentative conditions yeast re-oxidizes excess NADH through glycerol production which involves NADH-dependent glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. Deletion of these two genes renders the cells incapable of maintaining fermentative activity under anaerobic conditions due to accumulation of NADH. This study examined the feasibility of converting this excess NADH to Nad by transforming a glycerol synthesizing double mutant with genes that could restore the redox balance in the yeast. The study showed that although glycerol formation can be eliminated during fermentation, no alternative redox balancing pathway is as efficient at the glycerol pathway in maintaining fermentation. Alternative products such as sorbitol and 1,2propanediol can be produced instead of glycerol, but these genetic manipulations were shown to have negative effects on fermentative ability. Ethanol yields, but not concentrations, were improved in mutants. Significant amounts of acetate were also produced. This paper discussed the metabolic and biotechnological implications of these findings. tabs., figs.

  16. MAG4 Versus Alternative Techniques for Forecasting Active-Region Flare Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falconer, David A.; Moore, Ronald L.; Barghouty, Abdulnasser F.; Khazanov, Igor

    2014-01-01

    MAG4 is a technique of forecasting an active region's rate of production of major flares in the coming few days from a free-magnetic-energy proxy. We present a statistical method of measuring the difference in performance between MAG4 and comparable alternative techniques that forecast an active region's major-flare productivity from alternative observed aspects of the active region. We demonstrate the method by measuring the difference in performance between the "Present MAG4" technique and each of three alternative techniques, called "McIntosh Active-Region Class," "Total Magnetic Flux," and "Next MAG4." We do this by using (1) the MAG4 database of magnetograms and major-flare histories of sunspot active regions, (2) the NOAA table of the major-flare productivity of each of 60 McIntosh active-region classes of sunspot active regions, and (3) five technique-performance metrics (Heidke Skill Score, True Skill Score, Percent Correct, Probability of Detection, and False Alarm Rate) evaluated from 2000 random two-by-two contingency tables obtained from the databases. We find that (1) Present MAG4 far outperforms both McIntosh Active-Region Class and Total Magnetic Flux, (2) Next MAG4 significantly outperforms Present MAG4, (3) the performance of Next MAG4 is insensitive to the forward and backward temporal windows used, in the range of one to a few days, and (4) forecasting from the free-energy proxy in combination with either any broad category of McIntosh active-region classes or any Mount Wilson active-region class gives no significant performance improvement over forecasting from the free-energy proxy alone (Present MAG4).

  17. Evaluation of the environmental performance of alternatives for polystyrene production in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Adriana Petrella; da Silva, Gil Anderi; Kulay, Luiz

    2015-11-01

    The global demand for polystyrene is supposed to reach an overall baseline of 23.5 million tons by 2020. The market has experienced the effects of such growth, especially regarding the environmental performance of the production processes. In Brazil, renewable assets have been used to overcome the adverse consequences of this expansion. This study evaluates this issue for the production of Brazilian polystyrene resins, general-purpose polystyrene (GPPS) and high-impact polystyrene (HIPS). The effects of replacing fossil ethylene with a biobased alternative are also investigated. Life Cycle Assessment is applied for ten scenarios, with different technological approaches for renewable ethylene production and an alternative for obtaining bioethanol, which considers the export of electricity. The fossil GPPS and HIPS show a better performance than the partially renewable sources in terms of Climate Change (CC), Terrestrial Acidification (TA), Photochemical Oxidant Formation (POF), and Water Depletion (WD). The exception is Fossil Depletion (FD), a somewhat predictable result. The main environmental loads associated with the renewable options are related to the sugarcane production. Polybutadiene fails to provide greater additional impact to HIPS when compared to GPPS. With regard to obtaining ethylene from ethanol, Adiabatic Dehydration (AD) technology consumes less sugarcane than Adiabatic Dehydration at High Pressure (ADHP), which leads to gains in TA and POF. In contrast, ADHP was more eco-friendly for WD because of its lower water losses and in terms of CC because of the advantageous balance of fossil CO2(eq) at the agricultural stage and the lower consumption of natural gas in ethylene production. The electricity export is an auspicious environmental opportunity because it can counterbalance some of the negative impacts associated with the renewable route. According to a "cradle-to-grave" perspective, the partially renewable resins show a more favorable balance of

  18. 75 FR 41498 - Draft Guidance for Tobacco Retailers on Tobacco Retailer Training Programs; Availability; Agency...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-16

    ... does provide for lower civil money penalties for violations of access, advertising, and promotion... distribution of a tobacco product, including restrictions on the access to, and the advertising and promotion... to cigarettes and smokeless tobacco products, as well as restrictions on advertising and promotion...

  19. Corporate speech and the Constitution: the deregulation of tobacco advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gostin, Lawrence O

    2002-03-01

    In a series of recent cases, the Supreme Court has given businesses powerful new First Amendment rights to advertise hazardous products. Most recently, in Lorillard Tobacco Co v Reilly (121 SCt 2404 [2001]), the court invalidated Massachusetts regulations intended to reduce underage smoking. The future prospects for commercial speech regulation appear dim, but the reasoning in commercial speech cases is supported by only a plurality of the court. A different First Amendment theory should recognize the importance of population health and the low value of corporate speech. In particular, a future court should consider the low informational value of tobacco advertising, the availability of alternative channels of communication, the unlawful practice of targeting minors, and the magnitude of the social harms.

  20. Creolina effect on the parasitic nematodes on tobacco crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Bemfica Steffen

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco is a culture with great economic importance in the Rio Grande do Sul State, It is usually cultivated in small areas using family work force. The nematodes are organisms that cause damages to the tobacco and limit the development and production. The aim of this work was to evaluate the use of the creolina as measure alternative of nematofauna control. In controlled conditions, the creolina applications solutions at 10 and 20% presented efficiency of 74 and 85% in the nematodes inactivation, respectively. In field conditions, the application of the creolina solution at 10% in revolved soil provided decrease of 50% in the total number of nematodes in the soil and it presented efficiency of 45% in the present nematodes inactivation, showed a great potential in the integrated handling of nematodes in small cultivated areas with tabacum.

  1. The Use of Alternative Raw Material in Production of Pastry Products as a Progressive Direction in Creating the Products of High Biological Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janа Bachinska

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the impact of the use of alternative vegetable raw materials in the manufacture of pastry products with high biological value; it presents the results of evaluation of commodity of the developed products and compares them with the main samples presented in Kharkiv trade network. The feasibility of using a mixture of fiber and pumpkin seeds in the technology of pastry production to extend the range of confectionery products of high biological value and products with reduced calories has been proved. Adding the mixture of fiber and pumpkin seeds to biscuits and cakes positively affected the chemical composition of the ready-made product, saturating it with useful and necessary to human body mineral elements, vitamins, dietary fiber.

  2. Advancing alternatives analysis: The role of predictive toxicology in selecting safer chemical products and processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloy, Timothy; Zaunbrecher, Virginia; Beryt, Elizabeth; Judson, Richard; Tice, Raymond; Allard, Patrick; Blake, Ann; Cote, Ila; Godwin, Hilary; Heine, Lauren; Kerzic, Patrick; Kostal, Jakub; Marchant, Gary; McPartland, Jennifer; Moran, Kelly; Nel, Andre; Oguseitan, Oladele; Rossi, Mark; Thayer, Kristina; Tickner, Joel; Whittaker, Margaret; Zarker, Ken

    2017-03-01

    Alternatives analysis (AA) is a method used in regulation and product design to identify, assess, and evaluate the safety and viability of potential substitutes for hazardous chemicals. It requires toxicological data for the existing chemical and potential alternatives. Predictive toxicology uses in silico and in vitro approaches, computational models, and other tools to expedite toxicological data generation in more cost-effective manner than traditional approaches. This article briefly reviews the challenges associated with using predictive toxicology in regulatory AA, then presents four recommendations for its advancement. It recommends using case studies to advance the integration of predictive toxicology into AA; adopting a stepwise process to employing predicative toxicology in AA beginning with prioritization of chemicals of concern; leveraging existing resources to advance the integration of predictive toxicology into the practice of AA, and supporting trans-disciplinary efforts. The further incorporation of predictive toxicology into AA would advance the ability of companies and regulators to select alternatives to harmful ingredients, and potentially increase the use of predictive toxicology in regulation more broadly. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  3. 基于Google Maps的大理烟叶原料基地管理系统设计与实现%Design and Implementation of Tobacco Leaf Production Management System in Dali Using Google Maps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王洪云; 张久权; 杨德海; 杨玉标; 陈刚; 陈爱国

    2012-01-01

    为了加快烟叶生产信息化和品牌导向型建设,提高烟叶原料基地管理效率,通过收集整理云南省大理州气候、土壤、烟叶质量等信息,采用Google Maps和数据库等技术,在红塔集团大理卷烟厂建立了原料基地信息管理系统.该系统可以将多年的历史数据,经过综合分析后以各种统计图表的形式展示出来,也可以根据地点在Google map上进行查询和实时显示.该系统运行稳定、操作简单、扩展性好,能通过手机进行操作,是烟区工作人员和烟农非常有用的决策辅助工具.%In order to reinforce the informatization and brand orientation construction of tobacco production, and increase tobacco raw material efficiency, a web based tobacco production leaf information system was designed and implemented by using Google Maps API and database management system in Dali, Hongta Tobacco Group. The system integrated the historical climate, soil, tobacco leaf and other data, which can be displayed in various forms of statistical charts and Google maps. The system is stable, easy to use, and extendible, and contains mobile phone module, which is great software for tobacco production management.

  4. 安徽省烟草产量影响因子的灰色关联分析%Gray Relational Analysis of the Impact Factors of Tobacco Production in Anhui Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱兴; 赵虎

    2012-01-01

    利用灰色关联分析,可以挑选出与安徽省烟草产量关系密切的影响因子.选取年降水量、年烟草播种面积、年化肥使用量、年烟草单位面积产量、年农业受灾面积、上一年烟草商品零售价格分类指数、上一年城镇居民家庭年人均烟草消费性支出、当年农业受污染次数8个因子与烟草产量进行灰色关联分析,结果表明,与安徽省烟草产量关联度最大的因子为年降水量,与上一年城镇居民家庭年人均烟草类消费性支出关联度最低.%The impact factors of tobacco production in Anhui province could be picked out by grey interrelation analysis. Eight factors, annual precipitation, annual tobacco plantings, annual fertilizer using, yield per unit area, agricultural disaster area, tobacco retail price index of the previous year, urban households per capita tobacco consumption expenditure in the previous year, agriculture number of contaminated that year were selected for gray relational malysis with tobacco production. The result showed that the factor associated the tightest with tobacco production in Anhui province was the annual fertilizer usage, while the the minimum factor was annual number of agricultural pollution.

  5. New Biofuel Alternatives: Integrating Waste Management and Single Cell Oil Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elia Judith Martínez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Concerns about greenhouse gas emissions have increased research efforts into alternatives in bio-based processes. With regard to transport fuel, bioethanol and biodiesel are still the main biofuels used. It is expected that future production of these biofuels will be based on processes using either non-food competing biomasses, or characterised by low CO2 emissions. Many microorganisms, such as microalgae, yeast, bacteria and fungi, have the ability to accumulate oils under special culture conditions. Microbial oils might become one of the potential feed-stocks for biodiesel production in the near future. The use of these oils is currently under extensive research in order to reduce production costs associated with the fermentation process, which is a crucial factor to increase economic feasibility. An important way to reduce processing costs is the use of wastes as carbon sources. The aim of the present review is to describe the main aspects related to the use of different oleaginous microorganisms for lipid production and their performance when using bio-wastes. The possibilities for combining hydrogen (H2 and lipid production are also explored in an attempt for improving the economic feasibility of the process.

  6. First Nations Communities and Tobacco Taxation: A Commentary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samji, Hasina; Wardman, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    Taxation of tobacco is a widely used strategy that promotes smoking cessation among adults and reduces cigarette consumption among continuing smokers. First Nations (FN) populations' tobacco use is estimated to be 2-3 times that of other Canadians and, in part, a reflection that tobacco products purchased on reserve by FN people are tax exempt.…

  7. Biosurfactant Production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Burkholderia gladioli Isolated from Mangrove Sediments Using Alternative Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Maria Catter

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Biosurfactants are surface-active agents produced by a variety of microorganisms. To make biosurfactant production economically feasible, several alternative carbon sources have been proposed. This study describes biosurfactant production by strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Burkholderia gladioli isolated from mangrove sediments in Northeastern Brazil and cultured in mineral media enriched with waste cooking oil. The biosurfactants were tested for drop collapse, emulsion formation and stability and surface tension. P. aeruginosa performed better both at lowering the surface tension (from 69 to 28 mN/m and at forming stable emulsions (approximately 80% at 48 hours of culture. The strains tested in this study were found to be efficient biosurfactant producers when cultured on substrates enriched with vegetable oil. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17807/orbital.v8i5.771

  8. Xylanase Production from Trichoderma harzianum 1073 D3 with Alternative Carbon and Nitrogen Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isil Seyis

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of some natural wastes (orange pomace, orange peel, lemon pomace, lemon peel, apple pomace, pear peel, banana peel, melon peel and hazelnut shell on the production of xylanase from Trichoderma harzianum 1073 D3 has been studied and maximum activity has been observed on melon peel (26.5 U/mg of protein followed by apple pomace and hazelnut shell. Also, molasses could be used as an additional carbon source as it decreased the production time approximately by 50 %. Finally, potential alternatives of organic nitrogen source (cotton leaf and soybean residue wastes were analyzed and it was concluded that peptone could be replaced with these residues especially when economics of the process is the major objective.

  9. 21 CFR 610.68 - Exceptions or alternatives to labeling requirements for biological products held by the Strategic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... requirements for biological products held by the Strategic National Stockpile. 610.68 Section 610.68 Food and... GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS Labeling Standards § 610.68 Exceptions or alternatives to labeling requirements for biological products held by the Strategic National Stockpile. (a) The appropriate FDA...

  10. Dietary Supplementation of Alternative Methionine and Choline Sources in the Organic Broiler Production in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LC Demattê Filho

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of natural and alternative sources of methionine and choline which can be allowed to use in organic livestock systems to feed broilers produced in Brazil. Seven hundred and twenty one-d-old male Cobb broilers were randomly allocated to four treatments with six replicates of 24 birds each. The treatments consisted in substituting the commonly used DL-methionine 99% by a vegetable source of methionine and cholinechloride 60% by alternative source of choline in the form of phosphatidylcholine. The following treatments were evaluated: I feed with DL-methionine 99% and choline chloride 60%, II feed with an vegetable methionine source and choline chloride 60%, III feed with DL-methionine 99% and choline as phosphatidylcholine, and IV feed with vegetable methionine source and choline as phosphatidylcholine. Daily weight gain, body weight, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, and mortality were evaluated for the periods of 1 to 21 and 1 to 42 days of age. During both periods, broilers fed the vegetable methionine source presented lower daily gain and lower body weight. When only choline chloride was substituted by the alternative choline source, broiler performance was not different compared with that of the control group. The group fed the diet with substitution of both DL-methionine 99% and choline chloride 60% by natural sources presented lower daily weight gain, final body weight, and feed intake. Further research on alternative nutrient sources are required for the development of the organic production chain.

  11. MSWT-01, an alternative in combining Production Based Education (PBE) and student CSR program in Polman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananto, Gamawan; Setiawan, Albertus B.; Z, Darman M.

    2014-06-01

    MSWT-01, Mobile Surface Water Treatment, producing 1m3 per hour, is an alternative for providing clean water in flood disaster areas, and was developed at Bandung State Polytechnic for Manufacturing (Polman) as a part of institution research project. The combination of cartridge or membrane technology such as carbon block, MF, UF and filtration media is used for this machine, instead of coagulation-flocculation with chemical addition, due to emergency purposes related with its treatment processing time. The idea is that MSWT could be combined with Production Based Education (PBE) concept in Polman as a vocational education institution and students 'CSR', students social activities. With the number of implementation trials in real flood area condition, MSWT will be developed further based on the technical output result. The manufacturing process for improving or adding necessary features could be implemented as a student's project in PBE system. This might be an ideal combination alternative for such vocational institution that students get the product media for their PBE program and implement their work as a defined social activity. They will learn and experience related technical matters and more social interactions with the people and other disaster stakeholder as well.

  12. Biogas production: new trends for alternative energy sources in rural and Urban zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins das Neves, L.C.; Vessoni Penna, T.C. [Department of Biochemical and Pharmaceutical Technology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Sao Paulo (Brazil); Converti, A. [Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, University of Genoa (Italy)

    2009-08-15

    Biogas is a biofuel with a high energy value and basically consisting of methane, which can be used as a renewable energy source as a substitute for natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas. It can be produced by anaerobic digestion of agricultural organic waste or manure in rural areas, where it can be used to generate electric, thermal or mechanical energy. It can also be generated in landfills from the organic fraction of municipal solid wastes and used as an alternative energy source in urban areas. Industrialized and urbanized areas are afflicted by serious environmental problems associated with the generation of organic residues. Anaerobic microorganisms can degrade pollutants resulting in two kinds of products, i.e., digested sludge and biogas, which can be exploited as a soil fertilizer and a renewable energy source, respectively. The correct management of residual waste involves high costs, and inadequate treatment and storage can compromise its quality. Environmental agencies have been encouraging the dissemination of anaerobic digesters to produce biogas from organic residues and the use of the resulting sludge as fertilizer since it is able to destroy pathogenic agents and reduce the humidity level. This review aims to evaluate the production capability of biogas and its application as an alternative energy source in rural and urban areas. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  13. China Says No to New Tobacco Joint Ventures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    China will not launch any more tobacco joint ventures with foreign investors,according to Zhang Benfu,general manager of the China Tobacco lmport and Export(Group)Corp.Zhang states that China will not build any more joint venture cigarette manufacturing,tobacco processing or filter making facilities because the Chinese tobacco market is saturated and its cigarette production capacity is far in excess of demand.

  14. Sweet sorghum. An alternative for ethanol production in Germany?; Zuckerhirse. Eine Alternative fuer die Ethanolherstellung in Deutschland?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witzelsperger, J.; Hartmann, A.; Fritz, M.; Haselbeck, S.; Remmele, E.; Turowski, P. [Kompetenzzentrum fuer Nachwachsende Rohstoffe, Straubing (Germany). Technologie- und Foerderzentrum (TFZ); Schieder, D.; Haessler, T.; Rohowsky, B.; Faulstich, M. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Straubing (Germany). Wissenschaftszentrum Straubing

    2009-07-01

    The Technology and Support Centre (TFZ) and the Straubing-based Chair for Resource and Energy Technology of Muenchen University of Technology are currently investigating suitable fuel crop supply and utilisation chains which would permit the production of bioethanol from sweet sorghum in Germany. The goal of the project is to explore possibilities for the sustainable use of sweet sorghum for bioethanol production in Southern Germany giving due consideration to suitably adapted cultivation and harvesting techniques, the supply of crop material and the conversion and utilisation of by-products (especially bagasse).

  15. 密集烤房在烤烟生产中的优势及效益分析%Advantage and Benefit Analysis of Bulk Curing Barn in Production of Flue-cured Tobacco

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗元雄; 蔡坤伦; 龚德勇

    2012-01-01

    The article introduces the baking technologies and main operating points of bulk curing barn in the production of flue -cured tobacco. The bulk curing barn possesses the advantages of less labor cost, lower energy consumption, better quality, higher economic benefit and so on. The author puts forward the following suggestions: expediting the construction of bulk curing barn in Anlong county of Guizhou province, enhancing the study on the curing technologies of tobacco leaf, and gradually completing the operational mode of tobacco leaf specialization baking.%介绍了密集式烤房的烘烤工艺、操作要点比较优势和应用效益,提出了加快贵州安龙县密集烤房建设,加大对烟叶烘烤的技术工艺研究,逐步完善烟叶专业化烘烤运行模式的建议.

  16. Perception of the environmental impacts of current and alternative modes of pig production by stakeholder groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Jean; van der Werf, Hayo M G

    2003-08-01

    The current industrial pig production model is in crisis, due to its association with environmental pollution, doubtful product quality and lack of animal well-being. In Bretagne (France), a region of intensive pig production, a survey of seven stakeholder groups concerned with pig production was conducted, as part of a research programme dedicated to the assessment of the environmental impact of different modes of pig production. A very large majority of pig producers (93%) and their suppliers (100%) considers pig farms as an asset for the region, whereas a majority of scientists (58%), activists (78%) and consumers (54%) sees it as a handicap. Differences among stakeholder groups are minor with respect to the perceived importance of environmental and social issues. Stakeholders agree on the relative level of responsibility of pig farms with respect to specific problems. For all groups unpleasant odours and water quality come first with respect to responsibility, for most groups soil quality comes second, followed by product safety and air quality. For a future improved mode of pig production, 76% of pig producers and their suppliers prefer to adapt the current model, for all other groups the majority prefers an alternative model. While pig producers and their suppliers prefer a slurry-based housing system, all other groups prefer a straw-based system. Pig producers see the slurry-based system as technically superior and associate the straw-based system with poor working conditions, whereas consumers associate the slurry-based system in the first place with poor water quality and associate the straw-based system with less pollution. These results will be of use in the research programme on the environmental impact of modes of pig production, as they indicate the environmental impacts to be considered and their relative importance. The results will also help in deciding which options should be assessed. It is concluded that the poor image of the current pig

  17. Expression of the alternative oxidase mitigates beta-amyloid production and toxicity in model systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Khoury, Riyad; Kaulio, Eveliina; Lassila, Katariina A; Crowther, Damian C; Jacobs, Howard T; Rustin, Pierre

    2016-07-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction has been widely associated with the pathology of Alzheimer's disease, but there is no consensus on whether it is a cause or consequence of disease, nor on the precise mechanism(s). We addressed these issues by testing the effects of expressing the alternative oxidase AOX from Ciona intestinalis, in different models of AD pathology. AOX can restore respiratory electron flow when the cytochrome segment of the mitochondrial respiratory chain is inhibited, supporting ATP synthesis, maintaining cellular redox homeostasis and mitigating excess superoxide production at respiratory complexes I and III. In human HEK293-derived cells, AOX expression decreased the production of beta-amyloid peptide resulting from antimycin inhibition of respiratory complex III. Because hydrogen peroxide was neither a direct product nor substrate of AOX, the ability of AOX to mimic antioxidants in this assay must be indirect. In addition, AOX expression was able to partially alleviate the short lifespan of Drosophila models neuronally expressing human beta-amyloid peptides, whilst abrogating the induction of markers of oxidative stress. Our findings support the idea of respiratory chain dysfunction and excess ROS production as both an early step and as a pathologically meaningful target in Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis, supporting the concept of a mitochondrial vicious cycle underlying the disease.

  18. Role of Oxides of Nitrogen in Tobacco-Specific Nitrosamine Formation in Flue-Cured Tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nestor TB

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco is known to contain a class of nitrosamines known as tobacco-specific nitrosamines or TSNA. Nitrosation of naturally occurring tobacco alkaloids is commonly accepted as the mechanism of TSNA formation in tobacco. Because green and freshly harvested tobaccos are virtually free of TSNA, formation and accumulation of TSNA are generally considered to occur during the curing process. Most recent hypotheses have focused on microbial reduction of nitrate to nitrite and other oxides of nitrogen (NOcompounds that react with tobacco alkaloids to form TSNA during curing. This natural microbial process remains the prevalent hypothesis for TSNA formation in burley and other air-cured tobaccos. However, a different mechanism for the formation of TSNA in flue-cured tobacco, independent of microbial activity, is documented in this paper. It is common practice to flue-cure Virginia or blonde tobacco in bulk barns that incorporate forced air ventilation and temperature control. For the last thirty-five years, many modern bulk barns in North America generally have used liquid propane gas (LPG with direct-fired burners that exhaust combustion gases directly into the barn where the tobacco is exposed to those gases. Our studies indicate that LPG combustion by-products in the exhaust stream, namely NO, react with naturally occurring tobacco alkaloids to form TSNA. Heat exchange curing methods preclude exposure of the tobacco to combustion gases and by-products, thereby eliminating this significant source of TSNA formation, without degrading leaf quality or smoking character. Research findings from 1998 and 1999 are presented to demonstrate the role of NOgases in TSNA formation and the significance of direct-fired curing as a primary source of TSNA formation in flue-cured tobacco. Also, data from an extensive barn conversion program in 2000, which resulted in a 94% average reduction in TSNA levels in cured flue-cured leaf, are presented.

  19. Becoming a bwana and burley tobacco in the Central Region of Malawi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prowse, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Smallholders now grow most of Malawi’s main export crop – burley tobacco. Based on nineteen months’ fieldwork in the Central Region, this article offers a sociological interpretation of why some smallholder growers spend a proportion of burley income on conspicuous consumption in rural towns...... and trading centres. This practice can be seen as a form of inculcated behaviour whereby smallholders reproduce elements of one model of success in this region: that of the Malawian tobacco bwana (boss/master). The article discusses implications from this form of potlatch behaviour by describing...... the contrasting fortunes of two non-farm rural enterprises, examining data on how tobacco production and ‘cooling off’ is viewed by wives, and comparing the crop preferences of husbands and wives. It concludes by suggesting that the concept of conspicuous consumption may provide an alternative prism...

  20. Becoming a bwana and burley tobacco in the Central Region of Malawi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prowse, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Smallholders now grow most of Malawi’s main export crop – burley tobacco. Based on nineteen months’ fieldwork in the Central Region, this article offers a sociological interpretation of why some smallholder growers spend a proportion of burley income on conspicuous consumption in rural towns...... and trading centres. This practice can be seen as a form of inculcated behaviour whereby smallholders reproduce elements of one model of success in this region: that of the Malawian tobacco bwana (boss/master). The article discusses implications from this form of potlatch behaviour by describing...... the contrasting fortunes of two non-farm rural enterprises, examining data on how tobacco production and ‘cooling off’ is viewed by wives, and comparing the crop preferences of husbands and wives. It concludes by suggesting that the concept of conspicuous consumption may provide an alternative prism through which...

  1. Becoming a bwana and burley tobacco in the Central Region of Malawi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prowse, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Smallholders now grow most of Malawi’s main export crop – burley tobacco. Based on nineteen months’ fieldwork in the Central Region, this article offers a sociological interpretation of why some smallholder growers spend a proportion of burley income on conspicuous consumption in rural towns...... the contrasting fortunes of two non-farm rural enterprises, examining data on how tobacco production and ‘cooling off’ is viewed by wives, and comparing the crop preferences of husbands and wives. It concludes by suggesting that the concept of conspicuous consumption may provide an alternative prism...... and trading centres. This practice can be seen as a form of inculcated behaviour whereby smallholders reproduce elements of one model of success in this region: that of the Malawian tobacco bwana (boss/master). The article discusses implications from this form of potlatch behaviour by describing...

  2. Becoming a bwana and burley tobacco in the Central Region of Malawi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prowse, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Smallholders now grow most of Malawi’s main export crop – burley tobacco. Based on nineteen months’ fieldwork in the Central Region, this article offers a sociological interpretation of why some smallholder growers spend a proportion of burley income on conspicuous consumption in rural towns...... the contrasting fortunes of two non-farm rural enterprises, examining data on how tobacco production and ‘cooling off’ is viewed by wives, and comparing the crop preferences of husbands and wives. It concludes by suggesting that the concept of conspicuous consumption may provide an alternative prism through which...... and trading centres. This practice can be seen as a form of inculcated behaviour whereby smallholders reproduce elements of one model of success in this region: that of the Malawian tobacco bwana (boss/master). The article discusses implications from this form of potlatch behaviour by describing...

  3. Ethical considerations of e-cigarette use for tobacco harm reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franck, Caroline; Filion, Kristian B; Kimmelman, Jonathan; Grad, Roland; Eisenberg, Mark J

    2016-05-17

    Due to their similarity to tobacco cigarettes, electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) could play an important role in tobacco harm reduction. However, the public health community remains divided concerning the appropriateness of endorsing a device whose safety and efficacy for smoking cessation remain unclear. We identified the major ethical considerations surrounding the use of e-cigarettes for tobacco harm reduction, including product safety, efficacy for smoking cessation and reduction, use among non-smokers, use among youth, marketing and advertisement, use in public places, renormalization of a smoking culture, and market ownership. Overall, the safety profile of e-cigarettes is unlikely to warrant serious public health concerns, particularly given the known adverse health effects associated with tobacco cigarettes. As a result, it is unlikely that the population-level harms resulting from e-cigarette uptake among non-smokers would overshadow the public health gains obtained from tobacco harm reduction among current smokers. While the existence of a gateway effect for youth remains uncertain, e-cigarette use in this population should be discouraged. Similarly, marketing and advertisement should remain aligned with the degree of known product risk and should be targeted to current smokers. Overall, the available evidence supports the cautionary implementation of harm reduction interventions aimed at promoting e-cigarettes as attractive and competitive alternatives to cigarette smoking, while taking measures to protect vulnerable groups and individuals.

  4. Poly-Tobacco Use among High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowitt, Sarah D; Patel, Tanha; Ranney, Leah M; Huang, Li-Ling; Sutfin, Erin L; Goldstein, Adam O

    2015-11-13

    Although cigarette use by adolescents is declining, emerging tobacco products are becoming increasingly popular and youth may use more than one type of tobacco product. The purposes of this study were: (1) to assess patterns of poly-tobacco use among a representative sample of high school students and (2) to determine how beliefs correlate with poly-tobacco use. Data came from the 2013 North Carolina Youth Tobacco Survey (n = 4092). SAS logistic regression survey procedures were used to account for the complex survey design and sampling weights. Among all high school students in NC in 2013, 29.7% reported current any tobacco use, with 19.1% reporting current poly-tobacco use, and 10.6% reporting current use of only one product. Among poly-tobacco users, 59.3% reported that one of the products they currently used was cigarettes. Positive tobacco product beliefs were found to be significantly associated with poly-tobacco use. Communication campaigns, policy efforts, and future research are needed for prevention, regulation, and control of poly-tobacco use among adolescents, which represents a significant public health problem.

  5. The Development and Piloting of a Mobile Data Collection Protocol to Assess Compliance With a National Tobacco Advertising, Promotion, and Product Display Ban at Retail Venues in the Russian Federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Ashley S; Spires, Mark H; Cohen, Joanna E

    2016-01-01

    Background Tobacco control policies that lead to a significant reduction in tobacco industry marketing can improve public health by reducing consumption of tobacco and preventing initiation of tobacco use. Laws that ban or restrict advertising and promotion in point-of-sale (POS) environments, in the moment when consumers decide whether or not to purchase a tobacco product, must be correctly implemented to achieve the desired public health benefits. POS policy compliance assessments can support implementation; however, there are challenges to conducting evaluations that are rigorous, cost-effective, and timely. Data collection must be discreet, accurate, and systematic, and ideally collected both before and after policies take effect. The use of mobile phones and other mobile technology provide opportunities to efficiently collect data and support effective tobacco control policies. The Russian Federation (Russia) passed a comprehensive national tobacco control law that included a ban on most forms of tobacco advertising and promotion, effective November 15, 2013. The legislation further prohibited the display of tobacco products at retail trade sites and eliminated kiosks as a legal trade site, effective June 1, 2014. Objective The objective of the study was to develop and test a mobile data collection protocol including: (1) retailer sampling, (2) adaptation of survey instruments for mobile phones, and (3) data management protocols. Methods Two waves of observations were conducted; wave 1 took place during April-May 2014, after the advertising and promotion bans were effective, and again in August-September 2014, after the product display ban and elimination of tobacco sales in kiosks came into effect. Sampling took place in 5 Russian cities: Moscow, St. Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg, and Kazan. Lack of access to a comprehensive list of licensed tobacco retailers necessitated a sampling approach that included the development of a walking protocol to

  6. 烟草赤星病菌代谢产物诱导的烟草BY-2细胞ROS爆发和ATP损耗%ROS Burst and ATP Depletion in Tobacco BY-2 Cells Induced by Metabolic Products of Alternaria alternata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程丹丹; 孙学娟; 高辉远; 杨程; 张立涛; 孟庆伟

    2011-01-01

    [目的]探讨赤星病菌代谢产物(metabolic product s of AIternaria alternata,MP)对烟草BY-2细胞活性氧(reactive oxygen species,ROS)产生和ATP含量的影响以及产生这种影响的原因.[方法]用10%MP处理烟草BY-2细胞,用氧电极检测不同MP处理时间后,烟草BY-2细胞呼吸速率和呼吸途径的变化,同时分析BY-2细胞内BO产生和ATP含量等的变化.[结果]MP处理导致了烟草BY-2细胞HO爆发和ATP含量下降,此外,MP处理也导致了烟草BY-2细胞总呼吸速率、细胞色素途径(cytochrome pathway)和交替氧化酶途径(AOX)的下降,并且造成线粒体通透转换孔道(permeability transition pore,PTP)开放和细胞色素c释放.[结论]MP对BY-2细胞呼吸速率和细胞色素途径的抑制不可避免地导致胞内ATP含量下降,此外MP诱导的烟草BY-2细胞氧化磷酸化的解偶联作用是MP导致胞内ATP含量下降的另一重要原因.而MP对AOX途径的抑制则是诱导胞内ROS爆发的重要原因.%[Objective] The objective of this study is to explore the effect of the Alternaria alternata metabolic products (MP) on changes of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and ATP content in the tobacco BY-2 cells. [ Method] 10% MP was used to treat tobacco BY-2 cells, and Oxytherm oxygen electrode was used to study the effects of MP on the reparation rate and reparation pathway in the tobacco BY-2 cells. The changes of ROS production and ATP content in tobacco BY-2 cells was also studied. [ Result] Treatment with the MP led to remarkable overproduction of ROS, rapid depletion of ATP, significant declines in respiration, in cytochrome pathway and in alternative oxidase pathway (AOX). The treatment with MP also resulted in uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation, opening of the permeability transition pore (PTP) and release of cytochrome c from mitochondria to cytoplasm in tobacco BY-2 cells. [Conclusion] The inhibition of respiration and cytochrome pathway inevitably result in ATP

  7. 基于规则的烟草计划与排产系统①%Design of Production and Scheduling System for Tobacco

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐屹秦; 张盛山; 吕希胜

    2013-01-01

    To improve the real-time scheduling of the tobacco industry plans, a system that complies with the characteristics of cigarette production planning and scheduling system is proposed, and described the architecture, functional modules and rule scheduling algorithm of the production and scheduling system. The designed system could run continuously and stably, and corporate customers can use the system software to develop the scientific and reasonable production scheduling plan quickly and accurately according to the sales contract and scheduling plans, and realize the operation of the management and control integration.%  为提高烟草行业计划排产的实时性,提出了符合卷烟生产特点的生产计划与调度系统,并阐述了生产计划与调度系统的体系结构、功能模块、系统工作流程,设计了基于规则的调度算法。所设计的系统能够持续稳定的运行,企业客户可应用本系统软件快速准确地根据销售合同和调度计划制定科学合理的生产调度计划,真正实现管理与控制一体化操作。

  8. Evaluation of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Petit Havana SR1) hairy roots for the production of geraniol, the first committed step in terpenoid indole alkaloid pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritala, Anneli; Dong, Lemeng; Imseng, Nicole; Seppänen-Laakso, Tuulikki; Vasilev, Nikolay; van der Krol, Sander; Rischer, Heiko; Maaheimo, Hannu; Virkki, Arho; Brändli, Johanna; Schillberg, Stefan; Eibl, Regine; Bouwmeester, Harro; Oksman-Caldentey, Kirsi-Marja

    2014-04-20

    The terpenoid indole alkaloids are one of the major classes of plant-derived natural products and are well known for their many applications in the pharmaceutical, fragrance and cosmetics industries. Hairy root cultures are useful for the production of plant secondary metabolites because of their genetic and biochemical stability and their rapid growth in hormone-free media. Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Petit Havana SR1) hairy roots, which do not produce geraniol naturally, were engineered to express a plastid-targeted geraniol synthase gene originally isolated from Valeriana officinalis L. (VoGES). A SPME-GC-MS screening tool was developed for the rapid evaluation of production clones. The GC-MS analysis revealed that the free geraniol content in 20 hairy root clones expressing VoGES was an average of 13.7 μg/g dry weight (DW) and a maximum of 31.3 μg/g DW. More detailed metabolic analysis revealed that geraniol derivatives were present in six major glycoside forms, namely the hexose and/or pentose conjugates of geraniol and hydroxygeraniol, resulting in total geraniol levels of up to 204.3 μg/g DW following deglycosylation. A benchtop-scale process was developed in a 20-L wave-mixed bioreactor eventually yielding hundreds of grams of biomass and milligram quantities of geraniol per cultivation bag.

  9. Effectiveness Comparative Study of Tobacco Curing on Different Alternative Energy Intensive Barn%不同替代能源密集烤房烟叶烘烤效能对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭大仰; 刘尚钱; 肖志新; 刘芮; 彭坚强; 胡志明; 曹娜; 李丽

    2016-01-01

    [目的]探索烟叶烘烤燃煤的替代能源。[方法]对生物质压块、生物质颗粒和醇基3类燃料与常规燃料(褐煤)的烟叶烘烤效能进行对比研究。[结果]3种替代能源在燃烧烟气中主要污染物的排放明显低于常规燃料,烘烤过程中升温速度、稳温性能明显提高(除生物质压块外),整个烘烤工艺时间可缩短6~14 h,对初烤烟叶外观质量无明显影响;醇基燃料成本较高,烘烤综合成本约是褐煤成本的2.4倍,经济效益较差。[结论]生物质颗粒燃料可作为常规燃料(褐煤)的替代能源应用于烟叶实际烘烤工艺中。%Objective] The aim was to explore alternative energy of coal for baking.[Method] The baking efficiency of biomass briquetting, biomass particles, alcohol and conventional fuel (lignite) was comparatively studied.[Result] The results showed that alternative energy dur-ing combustion flue gas emissions of major pollutants were significantly lower than conventional fuel, heating speed, stable temperature per-formance was improved significantly (except fot biomass briquetting), baking process could be shorten 6-14 hours, no significant effect on the appearance quality of cured tobacco leaves, alcohol baking overall costs were increased by approximately 2.4-fold compared with lignite. [Conclusion] Biomass particles can be used as alternative energy of conventional fuel(lignite).

  10. Production Status Quo of Ecological Organic Tobacco and Its Developing Strategies%我国生态有机烟叶生产现状及发展对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁伟; 齐永杰; 邓宾玲; 韦建玉; 孙建生

    2013-01-01

    介绍了生态有机烟叶的概念和国内外生产概况,在分析生态有机烟叶具有外观质量、化学成分的协调性、评吸质量和安全性等优势的前提下,针对我国目前生态有机烟叶生产中存在的烟叶质量安全意识不高、生产技术标准不规范、商品有机肥成本较高、烟叶产量不高等问题,提出了开发生态有机烟叶要选择优良的生态环境、加大科技投入、实行标准化生产、提高产量等对策。%The concept of ecological organic tobacco and its production status quo in China and abroad were reviewed at first. Then, the advantages of ecological organic tobacco were analyzed, including appearance quality, coordination of chemical components, smoking quality and safety. But there were also some problems in production, such as weak safety awareness in tobacco quality, no standardized production techniques, relatively high cost of commercial organic fertilizer, and low tobacco yield. In the end, the developing strategies for ecological organic tobacco were put forward, including choosing great ecological environment, increasing technical input, applying standardized production, and increasing yield.

  11. Alginate Production from Alternative Carbon Sources and Use of Polymer Based Adsorbent in Heavy Metal Removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çiğdem Kıvılcımdan Moral

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Alginate is a biopolymer composed of mannuronic and guluronic acids. It is harvested from marine brown algae; however, alginate can also be synthesized by some bacterial species, namely, Azotobacter and Pseudomonas. Use of pure carbohydrate sources for bacterial alginate production increases its cost and limits the chance of the polymer in the industrial market. In order to reduce the cost of bacterial alginate production, molasses, maltose, and starch were utilized as alternative low cost carbon sources in this study. Results were promising in the case of molasses with the maximum 4.67 g/L of alginate production. Alginates were rich in mannuronic acid during early fermentation independent of the carbon sources while the highest guluronic acid content was obtained as 68% in the case of maltose. The polymer was then combined with clinoptilolite, which is a natural zeolite, to remove copper from a synthetic wastewater. Alginate-clinoptilolite beads were efficiently adsorbed copper up to 131.6 mg Cu2+/g adsorbent at pH 4.5 according to the Langmuir isotherm model.

  12. Production Costs of Alternative Transportation Fuels. Influence of Crude Oil Price and Technology Maturity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazzola, Pierpaolo; Morrison, Geoff; Kaneko, Hiroyuki; Cuenot, Francois; Ghandi, Abbas; Fulton, Lewis

    2013-07-01

    This study examines the production costs of a range of transport fuels and energy carriers under varying crude oil price assumptions and technology market maturation levels. An engineering ''bottom-up'' approach is used to estimate the effect of the input cost of oil and of various technological assumptions on the finished price of these fuels. In total, the production costs of 20 fuels are examined for crude oil prices between USD 60 and USD 150 per barrel. Some fuel pathways can be competitive with oil as their production, transport and storage technology matures, and as oil price increases. Rising oil prices will offer new opportunities to switch to alternative fuels for transport, to diversify the energy mix of the transport sector, and to reduce the exposure of the whole system to price volatility and potential distuption of supply. In a time of uncertainty about the leading vehicle technology to decarbonize the transport sector, looking at the fuel cost brings key information to be considered to keep mobility affordable yet sustainable.

  13. Effects of Processing Parameters for Cut Tobacco Productions on the Tobacco Structure and Cigarette Smoking Quality%制丝工艺参数对烟丝结构和卷烟感官质量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王旭锋; 刘蒙蒙; 李向阳; 刘国栋

    2016-01-01

    [Objective] To optimize the tobacco structure and to enhance the cigarette smoking quality. [Method] Primary processing parameters having relatively great impacts on tobacco structure were selected, which were the hot air temperature of the loosening and conditioning, cut width, moisture content of cut tobacco resurgence, and material flow of drying machine. Orthogonal test was used to research the effects on tobac-co structure and cigarette smoking quality. [Result] In the test range, the hot air temperature of the loosening and conditioning and the moisture content of cut tobacco resurgence had significant influence on the tobacco whole silk rate. Cut width had significant influence on tobacco broken wire rate. And the material flow of drying machine, the moisture content of cut tobacco resurgence, the hot air temperature of the loosening and conditioning showed significant effects on the cigarette smoking quality. By optimizing technical parameters, the appropriate parameters were de-signed as follows:65℃ hot air temperature of the loosening and conditioning, 1. 00 mm cut width, 18. 5% moisture content of cut tobacco resur-gence, and 2 400 kg/h material flow of drying machine. [Conclusion] This research provides references for the optimization of tobacco processing parameters and for the enhancement of cigarette quality.%[目的]优化卷烟生产中的烟丝结构,提高卷烟感官质量。[方法]选取制丝工艺参数中对烟丝结构和卷烟感官质量影响较大的参数:松散回潮热风温度、切丝宽度、叶丝回潮出口含水率、烘丝机物料流量,采用正交试验研究了其对烟丝结构和卷烟感官质量的影响。[结果]在试验范围内,松散回潮热风温度和叶丝回潮出口含水率对烟丝整丝率的影响显著;切丝宽度对烟丝碎丝率的影响显著;松散回潮热风温度、烘丝机物料流量和叶丝回潮出口含水率均对评吸质量产生显著影响。通过对工艺技术参数

  14. Tobacco smoking – popularity and main trends on research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Bartoń

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Each year smoking leads to the premature death of over 5 million people around the world. However, the tobacco industry took actions like introducing cigarettes which contain less nicotine and tar aimed at not only maintaining the old clientele, but also attracting a new one. The knowledge of the adverse health effects of smoking became widespread in the second half of the 20th century and changed attitudes towards smoking. In recent years, in many markets in the world a new device representing an alternative to tobacco products was introduced. Electronic cigarettes are designed to deliver nicotine into the respiratory system in the form of an aerosol. They have been gaining more and more popularity, as evidenced by the increase in the percentage of users as well as in the numbers of publications about them. Currently, opinions are divided and the e-cigarette has almost as many supporters as opponents. All this resembles the situation concerning conventional cigarettes in the 20th century. The aim of the study is to gather the most significant information concerning, on the one hand, the spreading popularity of tobacco smoking and, on the other, the research topics undertaken by contemporary scientists, as well as the government actions meant to protect from dangers of nicotine addiction in the 20th and 21st century. New developments of products containing this highly addictive substance call for systematic research in the interest of public health.

  15. Enabling Passive Immunization as an Alternative to Antibiotics for Controlling Enteric Infections in Production Animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Hald, Birthe; Madsen, M.

    massive use of antibiotics in food animals. Thus there is a pressing need for economically feasible, efficient, non-antibiotics based means for controlling the problem. Passive immunization has been known for decades as an efficient way of endowing humans or animals with short-term (weeks) immunity....... To control enteric infections by passive immunization a bolus of immunoglobulin may simply be administered orally. For this to work, large amounts of active immunoglobulins are needed. To be a real alternative to antibiotics the price of the immunoglobulin product needs to be low. We combined an efficient...... administered bovine immunoglobulin is currently being tested in a calf herd with persistent diarrhea problems. Furthermore, it was shown in a Campylobacter challenge model in chickens that caecal and faecal counts of Campylobacter were between 0.5 and 1.0 logs lower in birds when given 200 mg avian...

  16. Fuel cells are a commercially viable alternative for the production of "clean" energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niakolas, Dimitris K; Daletou, Maria; Neophytides, Stylianos G; Vayenas, Constantinos G

    2016-01-01

    Fuel cells present a highly efficient and environmentally friendly alternative technology for decentralized energy production. The scope of the present study is to provide an overview of the technological and commercialization readiness level of fuel cells. Specifically, there is a brief description of their general advantages and weaknesses in correlation with various technological actions and political strategies, which are adopted towards their proper positioning in the global market. Some of the most important key performance indicators are also discussed, alongside with a few examples of broad commercialization. It is concluded that the increasing number of companies which utilize and invest on this technology, in combination with the supply chain improvements and the concomitant technological maturity and recognition, reinforce the fuel cell industry so as to become well-aligned for global success.

  17. Biomass pyrolysis: use of some agricultural wastes for alternative fuel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, Lygia Maestri; Santos, Larissa Cardoso; Vieira, Paula Fraga; Parreira, Priciane Martins; Henrique, Humberto Molinar, E-mail: lygiamk@gmail.com, E-mail: larinha_cardoso@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: paulavieira88@gmail.com, E-mail: priciane.mp@bol.com.br, E-mail: humberto@ufu.br [Universidade Federal de Uberlandia (UFU), MG (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Quimica

    2009-07-01

    The use of biomass for energy generation has aroused great attention and interest because of the global climate changes, environmental pollution and reduction of availability of fossil energy. This study deals with pyrolysis of four agricultural wastes (sawdust, sugarcane straw, chicken litter and cashew nut shell) in a fixed bed pyrolytic reactor. The yields of char, liquid and gas were quantified at 300, 400, 500, 600 and 700 deg C and the temperature and pressure effects were investigated. Pyrolytic liquids produced were separated into aqueous and oil phases. XRF spectroscopy was used for qualitative and quantitative elemental analysis of the liquids and solids produced at whole temperature range. Calorific value analysis of liquids and solids were also performed for energy content evaluation. Experimental results showed sawdust, sugarcane straw and cashew nut waste have very good potential for using in pyrolysis process for alternative fuel production. (author)

  18. Alternatives to methyl bromide treatments for stored-product and quarantine insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Paul G; White, Noel D G

    2002-01-01

    Methyl bromide is used to control insects as a space fumigant in flour and feed mills and ship holds, as a product fumigant for some fruit and cereals, and for general quarantine purposes. Methyl bromide acts rapidly, controlling insects in less than 48 h in space fumigations, and it has a wide spectrum of activity, controlling not only insects but also nematodes and plant-pathogenic microbes. This chemical will be banned in 2005 in developed countries, except for exceptional quarantine purposes, because it depletes ozone in the atmosphere. Many alternatives have been tested as replacements for methyl bromide, from physical control methods such as heat, cold, and sanitation to fumigant replacements such as phosphine, sulfuryl fluoride, and carbonyl sulfide, among others. Individual situations will require their own type of pest control techniques, but the most promising include integrated pest management tactics and combinations of treatments such as phosphine, carbon dioxide, and heat.

  19. Study on the Sustainable Development of the Tobacco-growing Area in South Anhui

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun; JIANG; Jingjing; TIAN; Chengqing; ZONG

    2015-01-01

    Based on the actual situation of tobacco production in South Anhui tobacco-growing area,the paper analyzes several major constraints,and discusses several aspects such as tobacco production human resources,production of large-scale cultivation,science and technology service providers,the standardized production management and production security system. The countermeasures and suggestions for sustainable development are also put forward to provide a reference for the sustainable development of tobacco-growing area in South Anhui.

  20. Nationwide tobacco surveys and sales data in Denmark from 1920 to 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Kim K B; Lynge, Elsebeth; Clemmensen, Inge H

    2012-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is an important cause of premature death and morbidity in Denmark. It is therefore important to monitor tobacco consumption. In this paper, tobacco consumption in Denmark is illustrated by two methods: sale of tobacco products and smoking habit surveys....

  1. [Legal framework and strategy of the tobacco industry in relation to tobacco advertising in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, J; Cortés Blanco, M; Sarriá Santamera, A

    2000-01-01

    Publicity is legally regulated in Spain, in order to avoid its misuse. Tobacco publicity is also under those regulation, having had the companies operating in this sector to adapt themselves through new strategies. In this work, the legal restrictions existing in Spain regarding publicity are analyzed, together with some of the strategies developed by tobacco companies in order to elude them. In this sense, and despite of the existing legal framework, it should be noticed that tobacco companies are cleverly taking advantage of the existence of legal loopholes in tobacco publicity to promote their products.

  2. MAISTAS: a tool for automatic structural evaluation of alternative splicing products.

    KAUST Repository

    Floris, Matteo

    2011-04-15

    MOTIVATION: Analysis of the human genome revealed that the amount of transcribed sequence is an order of magnitude greater than the number of predicted and well-characterized genes. A sizeable fraction of these transcripts is related to alternatively spliced forms of known protein coding genes. Inspection of the alternatively spliced transcripts identified in the pilot phase of the ENCODE project has clearly shown that often their structure might substantially differ from that of other isoforms of the same gene, and therefore that they might perform unrelated functions, or that they might even not correspond to a functional protein. Identifying these cases is obviously relevant for the functional assignment of gene products and for the interpretation of the effect of variations in the corresponding proteins. RESULTS: Here we describe a publicly available tool that, given a gene or a protein, retrieves and analyses all its annotated isoforms, provides users with three-dimensional models of the isoform(s) of his/her interest whenever possible and automatically assesses whether homology derived structural models correspond to plausible structures. This information is clearly relevant. When the homology model of some isoforms of a gene does not seem structurally plausible, the implications are that either they assume a structure unrelated to that of the other isoforms of the same gene with presumably significant functional differences, or do not correspond to functional products. We provide indications that the second hypothesis is likely to be true for a substantial fraction of the cases. AVAILABILITY: http://maistas.bioinformatica.crs4.it/.

  3. Smokeless Tobacco May Contain Potentially Harmful Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 160769.html Smokeless Tobacco May Contain Potentially Harmful Bacteria Infections, diarrhea and vomiting are possible consequences, FDA ... products can harbor several species of potentially harmful bacteria, researchers warn. Two types in particular -- Bacillus licheniformis ...

  4. Chemistry and toxicology of smokeless tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhisey, R A

    2012-01-01

    In most parts of the world, tobacco is used for smoking, whereas, in India, tobacco is used for smoking as well as in diverse smokeless forms. Absorption of toxic and carcinogenic chemicals in tobacco and other ingredients added to various products are causally associated with several non-communicable diseases including cancer, especially oral cancer, which is the leading cancer among men and the third most common cancer among women in India. This article highlights the toxicity, mutagenecity and carcinogenic effects of hazardous chemicals present in smokeless tobacco products. This endeavor was based on the extensive review of literature from various sources. The SLT products have influence on cellular metabolism, ability to cause DNA damage, and cancer in experimental animals. It is, therefore, essential to consider the collective role of chemical constituents of SLT products in the causation of adverse effect on human health.

  5. Economic Study of Global Tobacco Burden

    Science.gov (United States)

    In an interview on Cancer Currents, Dr. Mark Parascandola discusses findings from an economics study showing that, globally, tobacco use burdens economies with more than US $1 trillion annually in health care costs and lost productivity.

  6. Historical cohort study of US man-made vitreous fiber production workers: V. Tobacco-smoking habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanich, J M; Marsh, G M; Youk, A O

    2001-09-01

    As part of our ongoing mortality surveillance program for the US man-made vitreous fiber industry, we surveyed a random sample of study members to estimate tobacco-smoking habits for the total cohort. Separate sampling frames were constructed for four study groups: male and female workers within the fiberglass and rock/slag wool subcohorts. The frames included all persons who had worked a year or more between 1945 and 1986 (with some exceptions), and who were alive as adults (18+ years) on January 1, 1980, the year the age distribution of the cohort most resembled the US comparison population. Subjects were randomly selected from the frames, and a structured telephone interview was administered to the subject or a proxy respondent between January 1995 and December 1997. Using survey data, we estimated the point prevalence of ever and current cigarette smoking on January 1, 1980, and made comparisons with other occupational groups and general populations. Overall response rates (interviews/targeted sample) were greater than 78% for each of the four study groups. From our estimates, we infer that male workers from both the fiberglass and rock/slag wool cohorts and female rock/slag wool workers had higher rates of ever smoking than the corresponding general populations of the United States and most of the states where the study plants were located. These findings suggest that at least part of the elevated externally standardized mortality ratios (US and regional rate-based) for respiratory system cancer noted among male subjects and the male-dominated total cohort in our previous cohort analyses were due to uncontrolled positive confounding by smoking.

  7. Factors affecting tobacco use among middle school students in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, H K; Al Agili, D E; Bartolucci, A

    2012-12-01

    A rapid rise in the number of tobacco users in Saudi Arabia has occurred in the past decade, particularly among the youth. This study identified socio-cultural determinants of tobacco use and explored possible approaches to prevent adolescents' tobacco use in Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional survey was administered using a self-administered questionnaire for collecting information on risk and protective factors for tobacco use among middle school students. School selection was stratified by region, gender, and type (public or private). Of 1,186 7-9th grade students, 1,019 questionnaires were analyzed. Risk factors affecting tobacco use included all important others' perceptions; mother, sister, friend, teacher and important person's tobacco use; pressure to use tobacco from brother, sister, friend and important persons; easy access to tobacco and frequent skipping of classes. Protective factors for tobacco use included family's perception; friend, teacher and important person's tobacco use; parents' help; support from family, friends, and teachers; accessibility to tobacco; school performance and family income, father's education, and district of residence. The findings of this study show clear gender differences in social influences and attitudes towards tobacco use. Religious beliefs and access to tobacco products were significantly associated with attitudes towards tobacco use and future intention of use. Developing and implementing effective gender specific school-based tobacco prevention programs, strict reinforcement of tobacco control policies, and a focus on the overall social context of tobacco use are crucial for developing successful long-term tobacco prevention programs for adolescents.

  8. It is time to regulate carcinogenic tobacco-specific nitrosamines in cigarette tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Stephen S

    2014-07-01

    The Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act gives the U.S. Food and Drug Administration power to regulate tobacco products. This commentary calls for immediate regulation of the carcinogenic tobacco-specific nitrosamines 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) and N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) in cigarette tobacco as a logical path to cancer prevention. NNK and NNN, powerful carcinogens in laboratory animals, have been evaluated as "carcinogenic to humans" by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. NNK and NNN are present in the tobacco of virtually all marketed cigarettes; levels in cigarette smoke are directly proportional to the amounts in tobacco. The NNK metabolite NNAL, itself a strong carcinogen, is present in the urine of smokers and nonsmokers exposed to secondhand smoke. Some of the highest levels of NNK and NNN are found in U.S. products. It is well established that factors such as choice of tobacco blend, agricultural conditions, and processing methods influence levels of NNK and NNN in cigarette tobacco and cigarette smoke. Therefore, it is time to control these factors and produce cigarettes with 100 ppb or less each of NNK and NNN in tobacco, which would result in an approximate 15- to 20-fold reduction of these carcinogens in the mainstream smoke of popular cigarettes sold in the United States.

  9. Risks of tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip navigation U.S. National Library of Medicine The navigation menu has been collapsed. Menu ... tobacco URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002032.htm Risks of tobacco To use the sharing features ...

  10. Linking carbon stock change from land-use change to consumption of agricultural products: Alternative perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Chun Sheng; Wicke, Birka; Faaij, André; Bird, David Neil; Schwaiger, Hannes; Junginger, Martin

    2016-11-01

    Agricultural expansion driven by growing demand has been a key driver for carbon stock change as a consequence of land-use change (CSC-LUC). However, its relative role compared to non-agricultural and non-productive drivers, as well as propagating effects were not clearly addressed. This study contributed to this subject by providing alternative perspectives in addressing these missing links. A method was developed to allocate historical CSC-LUC to agricultural expansions by land classes (products), trade, and end use. The analysis for 1995-2010 leads to three key trends: (i) agricultural land degradation and abandonment is found to be a major (albeit indirect) driver for CSC-LUC, (ii) CSC-LUC is spurred by the growth of cross-border trade, (iii) non-food use (excluding liquid biofuels) has emerged as a significant contributor of CSC-LUC in the 2000's. In addition, the study demonstrated that exact values of CSC-LUC at a single spatio-temporal point may change significantly with different methodological settings. For example, CSC-LUC allocated to 'permanent oil crops' changed from 0.53 Pg C (billion tonne C) of carbon stock gain to 0.11 Pg C of carbon stock loss when spatial boundaries were changed from global to regional. Instead of comparing exact values for accounting purpose, key messages for policymaking were drawn from the main trends. Firstly, climate change mitigation efforts pursued through a territorial perspective may ignore indirect effects elsewhere triggered through trade linkages. Policies targeting specific commodities or types of consumption are also unable to quantitatively address indirect CSC-LUC effects because the quantification changes with different arbitrary methodological settings. Instead, it is recommended that mobilising non-productive or under-utilised lands for productive use should be targeted as a key solution to avoid direct and indirect CSC-LUC.

  11. Impacts of biofuels production alternatives on water quantity and quality in the Iowa River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y.; Liu, S.

    2012-01-01

    Corn stover as well as perennial grasses like switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) and miscanthus are being considered as candidates for the second generation biofuel feedstocks. However, the challenges to biofuel development are its effects on the environment, especially water quality. This study evaluates the long-term impacts of biofuel production alternatives (e.g., elevated corn stover removal rates and the potential land cover change) on an ecosystem with a focus on biomass production, soil erosion, water quantity and quality, and soil nitrate nitrogen concentration at the watershed scale. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was modified for setting land cover change scenarios and applied to the Iowa River Basin (a tributary of the Upper Mississippi River Basin). Results show that biomass production can be sustained with an increased stover removal rate as long as the crop demand for nutrients is met with appropriate fertilization. Although a drastic increase (4.7–70.6%) in sediment yield due to erosion and a slight decrease (1.2–3.2%) in water yield were estimated with the stover removal rate ranging between 40% and 100%, the nitrate nitrogen load declined about 6–10.1%. In comparison to growing corn, growing either switchgrass or miscanthus can reduce sediment erosion greatly. However, land cover changes from native grass to switchgrass or miscanthus would lead to a decrease in water yield and an increase in nitrate nitrogen load. In contrast to growing switchgrass, growing miscanthus is more productive in generating biomass, but its higher water demand may reduce water availability in the study area.

  12. Fuel from Tobacco and Arundo Donax: Synthetic Crop for Direct Drop-in Biofuel Production through Re-routing the Photorespiration Intermediates and Engineering Terpenoid Pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-02-15

    PETRO Project: Biofuels offer renewable alternatives to petroleum-based fuels that reduce net greenhouse gas emissions to nearly zero. However, traditional biofuels production is limited not only by the small amount of solar energy that plants convert through photosynthesis into biological materials, but also by inefficient processes for converting these biological materials into fuels. Farm-ready, non-food crops are needed that produce fuels or fuel-like precursors at significantly lower costs with significantly higher productivity. To make biofuels cost-competitive with petroleum-based fuels, biofuels production costs must be cut in half.

  13. 地膜覆盖在烟叶生产中的负效应%Negative Eff ce ts of Pl astic Film Mulching in Tobacco Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    商静; 许自成

    2016-01-01

    The plastic film mulching is an important technique in modern agricultural production .Along with the populariza-tion and application of plastic film mulching technique in agricultural production , the negative effects of this technique have in-creasingly been prominent.This paper summarized the negative effects of plastic film mulching on soil , root system, and flue-cured tobacco quality, as well as the white pollution caused by long-term plastic film mulching, and offered some solution meas-ures according to these problems.%地膜覆盖是一项现代农业生产技术。随着地膜覆盖技术在农业生产中的推广应用,地膜覆盖的负效应愈加凸显。综述了地膜覆盖对土壤、根系、烟叶品质的负面影响以及长期地膜使用造成的白色污染,并且针对这些问题提出了一些解决对策。

  14. 27 CFR 19.204 - Alternation of distilled spirits plant and taxpaid wine bottling house premises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... spirits plant and taxpaid wine bottling house premises. 19.204 Section 19.204 Alcohol, Tobacco Products... distilled spirits plant and taxpaid wine bottling house premises. (a) General. A proprietor of a distilled spirits plant operating a contiguous taxpaid wine bottling house desiring to alternate the use of...

  15. 27 CFR 19.203 - Alternation of distilled spirits plant and bonded wine cellar premises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... spirits plant and bonded wine cellar premises. 19.203 Section 19.203 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... spirits plant and bonded wine cellar premises. (a) General. A proprietor of a distilled spirits plant operating a contiguous bonded wine cellar desiring to alternate the use of each premises by extension...

  16. Tobacco and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper will review the epidemiology of the impact of cigarette smoking and other forms of tobacco exposure on human development. Sources of exposure described include cigarettes and other forms of smoked tobacco, secondhand (environmental) tobacco smoke, several forms of smok...

  17. Alternative Land-Use Scenarios for Bioenergy Production in the U.S. and Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, J. E.; Spak, S.; Tsao, C. C.; Mena, M.; Chen, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Agriculture is historically a dominant form of global environmental degradation, and the potential for increased future degradation may be enhanced by growing demand for biofuels. Here, we apply high-resolution cropland inventories and agronomic models to characterize land-use impacts and mitigation scenarios for bioenergy production in the U.S. and Brazil. In the U.S., our gridded historical cropland maps show potential for production in the U.S. on 68 Mha of abandoned croplands in the U.S. which is as much as 70% larger than previous estimates due to a reduction in aggregation effects. In Brazil, a critical land-use impact is associated with non-GHG air pollutants from the management and expansion of sugarcane feedstocks. Our bottom-up estimate for these Brazilian land-use emissions is seven times larger than estimated from remote-sensing data due to the improved spatial resolution of our approach. While current land-use policies in Brazil and the U.S. seek to reduce life-cycle biofuel emissions, these policies may not support the mitigation alternatives identified here.

  18. Prospects of Biodiesel Production from Macadamia Oil as an Alternative Fuel for Diesel Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Mofijur Rahman

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated the prospects of biodiesel production from macadamia oil as an alternative fuel for diesel engine. The biodiesel was produced using conventional transesterification process using the base catalyst (KOH. A multi-cylinder diesel engine was used to evaluate the performance and emission of 5% (B5 and 20% (B20 macadamia biodiesel fuel at different engine speeds and full load condition. It was found that the characteristics of biodiesel are within the limit of specified standards American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM D6751 and comparable to diesel fuel. This study also found that the blending of macadamia biodiesel–diesel fuel significantly improves the fuel properties including viscosity, density (D, heating value and oxidation stability (OS. Engine performance results indicated that macadamia biodiesel fuel sample reduces brake power (BP and increases brake-specific fuel consumption (BSFC while emission results indicated that it reduces the average carbon monoxide (CO, hydrocarbons (HC and particulate matter (PM emissions except nitrogen oxides (NOx than diesel fuel. Finally, it can be concluded that macadamia oil can be a possible source for biodiesel production and up to 20% macadamia biodiesel can be used as a fuel in diesel engines without modifications.

  19. Infrared Drying as a Potential Alternative to Convective Drying for Biltong Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherono, Kipchumba; Mwithiga, Gikuru; Schmidt, Stefan

    2016-06-03

    Two infrared systems set at an intensity of 4777 W/m(2) with peak emission wavelengths of 2.5 and 3.5 µm were used to produce biltong by drying differently pre-treated meat. In addition to meat texture and colour, the microbial quality of the biltong produced was assessed by quantifying viable heterotrophic microorganisms using a most probable number (MPN) method and by verifying the presence of presumptive Escherichia coli in samples produced using infrared and conventional convective drying. The two infrared drying systems reduced the heterotrophic microbial burden from 5.11 log10 MPN/g to 2.89 log10 MPN/g (2.5 µm) and 3.42 log10 MPN/g (3.5 µm), respectively. The infrared systems achieved an up to one log higher MPN/g reduction than the convective system. In biltong samples produced by short wavelength (2.5 µm) infrared drying, E. coli was not detectable. This study demonstrates that the use of short wavelength infrared drying is a potential alternative to conventional convective drying by improving the microbiological quality of biltong products while at the same time delivering products of satisfactory quality.

  20. Tobacco branding, plain packaging, pictorial warnings, and symbolic consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoek, Janet; Gendall, Philip; Gifford, Heather; Pirikahu, Gill; McCool, Judith; Pene, Gina; Edwards, Richard; Thomson, George

    2012-05-01

    We use brand association and symbolic consumption theory to explore how plain cigarette packaging would influence the identities young adults cocreate with tobacco products. Group discussions and in-depth interviews with 86 young adult smokers and nonsmokers investigated how participants perceive tobacco branding and plain cigarette packaging with larger health warnings. We examined the transcript data using thematic analysis and explored how removing tobacco branding and replacing this with larger warnings would affect the symbolic status of tobacco brands and their social connotations. Smokers used tobacco brand imagery to define their social attributes and standing, and their connection with specific groups. Plain cigarette packaging usurped this process by undermining aspirational connotations and exposing tobacco products as toxic. Replacing tobacco branding with larger health warnings diminishes the cachet brand insignia creates, weakens the social benefits brands confer on users, and represents a potentially powerful policy measure.

  1. North Carolina Tobacco Farmers' Changing Perceptions of Tobacco Control and Tobacco Manufacturers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crankshaw, Erik C.; Beach, Robert H.; Austin, W. David; Altman, David G.; Jones, Alison Snow

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To examine tobacco farmers' attitudes toward tobacco control, public health, and tobacco manufacturers in order to determine the extent to which rapidly changing economic conditions have influenced North Carolina tobacco farmer attitudes in ways that may provide tobacco control advocates with new opportunities to promote tobacco control…

  2. Recovery of nicotine-free proteins from tobacco leaves using phosphate buffer system under controlled conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, H; Machado, P A; Hahm, T S; Kratochvil, R J; Wei, C I; Lo, Y M

    2010-03-01

    Establishment of an effective, high-throughput processing system to recover protein from tobacco with no nicotine contamination is essential and vital to the development of value-added, alternative applications for tobacco farmers. We have successfully developed a mechanism capable of processing up to 60 kg of tobacco leaves per hour with phosphate buffer (Na(2)HPO(4)-KH(2)PO(4)) simultaneously added to stabilize the protein as the plant was being disintegrated. The optimal processing parameters were identified, including the ratio of buffer to leaf (BLR) at 4.75 (w/w), buffer pH 7.85, and buffer concentration 0.085 mol/L, achieving a maximum yield of soluble protein at 12.85 mg/g fresh leaf. Acetone at -20 degrees C was the most effective among all methods investigated to remove nicotine from protein; however, it also drastically reduced the recovery rate of protein (63.3%). Ultrafiltration was only able to remove about 50% of the residual nicotine, although the protein recovery rate was high (94.7%). The residual nicotine content inherent in the recovered protein was completely removed by rinsing the protein with 85% phosphoric acid at pH 3.5 for three times with a protein recovery of 94.5%. The pilot-scale operation provides a solid foundation for further scale-up to industrial production of nicotine-free tobacco protein that could bring added value to tobacco for nonsmoking applications.

  3. Determination of nickel in blood and serum samples of oropharyngeal cancer patients consumed smokeless tobacco products by cloud point extraction coupled with flame atomic absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arain, Sadaf Sadia; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Arain, Jamshed Bashir; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Kazi, Atif Gul; Nasreen, Syeda; Brahman, Kapil Dev

    2014-10-01

    Oropharyngeal cancer is a significant public health issue in the world. The incidence of oropharyngeal cancer has been increased among people who have habit of chewing smokeless tobacco (SLT) in Pakistan. The aim of present study was to evaluate the concentration of nickel (Ni) in biological samples (whole blood, serum) of oral (n = 95) and pharyngeal (n = 84) male cancer patients. For comparison purposes, the biological samples of healthy age-matched referents (n = 150), who consumed and did not consumed SLT products, were also analyzed for Ni levels. As the Ni level is very low in biological samples, a preconcentration procedure has been developed, prior to analysis of analyte by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The Ni in acid-digested biological samples was complexed with ammonium pyrrolidinedithio carbamate (APDC), and a resulted complex was extracted in a surfactant Triton X-114. Acidic ethanol was added to the surfactant-rich phase prior to its analysis by FAAS. The chemical variables, such as pH, amounts of reagents (APDC, Triton X-114), temperature, incubation time, and sample volume were optimized. The resulted data indicated that concentration of Ni was higher in blood and serum samples of cancer patients as compared to that of referents who have or have not consumed different SLT products (p = 0.012-0.001). It was also observed that healthy referents who consumed SLT products have two to threefold higher levels of Ni in both biological samples as compared to those who were not chewing SLT products (p < 0.01).

  4. Nicotine Levels and Presence of Selected Tobacco-Derived Toxins in Tobacco Flavoured Electronic Cigarette Refill Liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos E. Farsalinos

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Some electronic cigarette (EC liquids of tobacco flavour contain extracts of cured tobacco leaves produced by a process of solvent extraction and steeping. These are commonly called Natural Extract of Tobacco (NET liquids. The purpose of the study was to evaluate nicotine levels and the presence of tobacco-derived toxins in tobacco-flavoured conventional and NET liquids. Methods. Twenty-one samples (10 conventional and 11 NET liquids were obtained from the US and Greek market. Nicotine levels were measured and compared with labelled values. The levels of tobacco-derived chemicals were compared with literature data on tobacco products. Results. Twelve samples had nicotine levels within 10% of the labelled value. Inconsistency ranged from −21% to 22.1%, with no difference observed between conventional and NET liquids. Tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs were present in all samples at ng/mL levels. Nitrates were present almost exclusively in NET liquids. Acetaldehyde was present predominantly in conventional liquids while formaldehyde was detected in almost all EC liquids at trace levels. Phenols were present in trace amounts, mostly in NET liquids. Total TSNAs and nitrate, which are derived from the tobacco plant, were present at levels 200–300 times lower in 1 mL of NET liquids compared to 1 gram of tobacco products. Conclusions. NET liquids contained higher levels of phenols and nitrates, but lower levels of acetaldehyde compared to conventional EC liquids. The lower levels of tobacco-derived toxins found in NET liquids compared to tobacco products indicate that the extraction process used to make these products did not transfer a significant amount of toxins to the NET. Overall, all EC liquids contained far lower (by 2–3 orders of magnitude levels of the tobacco-derived toxins compared to tobacco products.

  5. Impact of Alternative Environmental Flow Prescriptions on Hydropower Production and Fish Habitat Suitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellarin, A.; Ceola, S.; Pugliese, A.; Galeati, G. A.

    2015-12-01

    Anthropogenic activities along streams and rivers are increasingly recognized to be a major concern for fluvial ecosystems. The management of water resources, by means of e.g. flow diversions and dams, for industrial, agricultural, water-supply, hydropower production and flood protection purposes induces significant changes to the natural streamflow regime of a river. Indeed, the river flow regime is known to be a major abiotic factor influencing fluvial ecosystems. An established approach aimed at preserving the behaviour and distribution of fluvial species relies on the definition of minimum streamflow requirements (i.e., environmental flows) downstream of dams and diversion structures. Such environmental flows are normally identified through methodologies that have an empirical nature and may not be representative of local ecological and hydraulic conditions. While the effect of imposing a minimum discharge release is easily predictable in terms of e.g. loss of hydropower production, the advantages in terms of species preferences are often poorly understood and seldom assessed. To analyze the interactions between flow releases and the behaviour and distribution of fluvial species (i.e., from periphyton, to benthic invertebrate and fish), one may use a habitat suitability curve, which is a fundamental tool capable of describing species preferences influenced by any generic environmental variable. The outcomes of a real case study applied to several Italian rivers, located in the Marche administrative district in Central Italy (∽10000km2), in which we quantitatively assess the effects of alternative environmental flow scenarios on the existing hydropower network and on two fish species that are quite abundant in the study area (i.e., Leuciscus cephalus cabeda and Barbus barbus plebejus), will be presented and discussed. The proposed analysis, which can be easily adapted to different riparian habitats and hydrological contexts, is a useful tool to guide the

  6. Alternative scenarios of bioenergy crop production in an agricultural landscape and implications for bird communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Peter J; Williams, Carol L; Sample, David W; Meehan, Timothy D; Turner, Monica G

    2016-01-01

    Increased demand and government mandates for bioenergy crops in the United States could require a large allocation of agricultural land to bioenergy feedstock production and substantially alter current landscape patterns. Incorporating bioenergy landscape design into land-use decision making could help maximize benefits and minimize trade-offs among alternative land uses. We developed spatially explicit landscape scenarios of increased bioenergy crop production in an 80-km radius agricultural landscape centered on a potential biomass-processing energy facility and evaluated the consequences of each scenario for bird communities. Our scenarios included conversion of existing annual row crops to perennial bioenergy grasslands and conversion of existing grasslands to annual bioenergy row crops. The scenarios explored combinations of four biomass crop types (three potential grassland crops along a gradient of plant diversity and one annual row crop [corn]), three land conversion percentages to bioenergy crops (10%, 20%, or 30% of row crops or grasslands), and three spatial configurations of biomass crop fields (random, clustered near similar field types, or centered on the processing plant), yielding 36 scenarios. For each scenario, we predicted the impact on four bird community metrics: species richness, total bird density, species of greatest conservation need (SGCN) density, and SGCN hotspots (SGCN birds/ha ≥ 2). Bird community metrics consistently increased with conversion of row crops to bioenergy grasslands and consistently decreased with conversion of grasslands to bioenergy row crops. Spatial arrangement of bioenergy fields had strong effects on the bird community and in some cases was more influential than the amount converted to bioenergy crops. Clustering grasslands had a stronger positive influence on the bird community than locating grasslands near the central plant or at random. Expansion of bioenergy grasslands onto marginal agricultural lands will

  7. Selection and properties of alternative forming fluids for TRISO fuel kernel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, M.P. [Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois St., Golden, CO 80401 (United States); King, J.C., E-mail: kingjc@mines.edu [Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois St., Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Gorman, B.P. [Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois St., Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Marshall, D.W. [Idaho National Laboratory, 2525 N. Fremont Avenue, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Forming fluid selection criteria developed for TRISO kernel production. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ten candidates selected for further study. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Density, viscosity, and surface tension measured for first time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Settling velocity and heat transfer rates calculated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Three fluids recommended for kernel production testing. - Abstract: Current Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) designs incorporate TRi-structural ISOtropic (TRISO) fuel, which consists of a spherical fissile fuel kernel surrounded by layers of pyrolytic carbon and silicon carbide. An internal sol-gel process forms the fuel kernel using wet chemistry to produce uranium oxyhydroxide gel spheres by dropping a cold precursor solution into a hot column of trichloroethylene (TCE). Over time, gelation byproducts inhibit complete gelation, and the TCE must be purified or discarded. The resulting TCE waste stream contains both radioactive and hazardous materials and is thus considered a mixed hazardous waste. Changing the forming fluid to a non-hazardous alternative could greatly improve the economics of TRISO fuel kernel production. Selection criteria for a replacement forming fluid narrowed a list of {approx}10,800 chemicals to yield ten potential replacement forming fluids: 1-bromododecane, 1-bromotetradecane, 1-bromoundecane, 1-chlorooctadecane, 1-chlorotetradecane, 1-iododecane, 1-iodododecane, 1-iodohexadecane, 1-iodooctadecane, and squalane. The density, viscosity, and surface tension for each potential replacement forming fluid were measured as a function of temperature between 25 Degree-Sign C and 80 Degree-Sign C. Calculated settling velocities and heat transfer rates give an overall column height approximation. 1-bromotetradecane, 1-chlorooctadecane, and 1-iodododecane show the greatest promise as replacements, and future tests will verify their ability to form satisfactory

  8. How does the tobacco industry attempt to influence marketing regulations? A systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Savell

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control makes a number of recommendations aimed at restricting the marketing of tobacco products. Tobacco industry political activity has been identified as an obstacle to Parties' development and implementation of these provisions. This study systematically reviews the existing literature on tobacco industry efforts to influence marketing regulations and develops taxonomies of 1 industry strategies and tactics and 2 industry frames and arguments. METHODS: Searches were conducted between April-July 2011, and updated in March 2013. Articles were included if they made reference to tobacco industry efforts to influence marketing regulations; supported claims with verifiable evidence; were written in English; and concerned the period 1990-2013. 48 articles met the review criteria. Narrative synthesis was used to combine the evidence. RESULTS: 56% of articles focused on activity in North America, Europe or Australasia, the rest focusing on Asia (17%, South America, Africa or transnational activity. Six main political strategies and four main frames were identified. The tobacco industry frequently claims that the proposed policy will have negative unintended consequences, that there are legal barriers to regulation, and that the regulation is unnecessary because, for example, industry does not market to youth or adheres to a voluntary code. The industry primarily conveys these arguments through direct and indirect lobbying, the promotion of voluntary codes and alternative policies, and the formation of alliances with other industrial sectors. The majority of tactics and arguments were used in multiple jurisdictions. CONCLUSIONS: Tobacco industry political activity is far more diverse than suggested by existing taxonomies of corporate political activity. Tactics and arguments are repeated across jurisdictions, suggesting that the taxonomies of industry tactics and arguments developed in this paper are

  9. Challenges of smokeless tobacco use in Myanmar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Sein

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Myanmar Tobacco Control Law of 2006 covers the control of all forms of tobacco use. After 7-year, tobacco use among adults did not see a decrease. The paper aimed to study the prevalence, details of the products, trade, legislation, tax, marketing, advertising and evidence on morbidity and mortality, and to make recommendations for policy options. Personal communications by authors and colleagues, and searches by keywords in PubMed and on Google, literature review and research from published reports, and various studies and surveys conducted in Myanmar and other countries. Smokeless tobacco use in Myanmar is the highest among ASEAN countries. A variety of SLT products used together with betel chewing poses a challenge; betel quid chewing has been accepted as a cultural norm in both rural and urban areas. Betel quid chewing usually starts at younger ages. Sale, marketing, and advertising of SLT are not under control and thus, road-side kiosks selling betel quid with SLT are mushrooming. Considerable trade of SLT products by illegal and legal means created an increase in access and availability. Low cost of SLT product enables high volume of use, even for the poor families. Taxation for raw tobacco and tobacco products is half the values of the tax for cigarettes. Effective enforcement, amendment of the law, and action for social change are needed.

  10. Challenges of smokeless tobacco use in Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sein, T; Swe, T; Toe, M M; Zaw, K K; Sein, T O

    2014-12-01

    Myanmar Tobacco Control Law of 2006 covers the control of all forms of tobacco use. After 7-year, tobacco use among adults did not see a decrease. The paper aimed to study the prevalence, details of the products, trade, legislation, tax, marketing, advertising and evidence on morbidity and mortality, and to make recommendations for policy options. Personal communications by authors and colleagues, and searches by keywords in PubMed and on Google, literature review and research from published reports, and various studies and surveys conducted in Myanmar and other countries. Smokeless tobacco use in Myanmar is the highest among ASEAN countries. A variety of SLT products used together with betel chewing poses a challenge; betel quid chewing has been accepted as a cultural norm in both rural and urban areas. Betel quid chewing usually starts at younger ages. Sale, marketing, and advertising of SLT are not under control and thus, road-side kiosks selling betel quid with SLT are mushrooming. Considerable trade of SLT products by illegal and legal means created an increase in access and availability. Low cost of SLT product enables high volume of use, even for the poor families. Taxation for raw tobacco and tobacco products is half the values of the tax for cigarettes. Effective enforcement, amendment of the law, and action for social change are needed.

  11. Integrating Tobacco Control and Obesity Prevention Initiatives at Retail Outlets

    Science.gov (United States)

    D’Angelo, Heather; Evenson, Kelly R.; Fleischhacker, Sheila; Myers, Allison E.; Rose, Shyanika W.

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco products are sold in approximately 375,000 US retail outlets, including convenience stores and pharmacies, which often sell energy-dense, low-nutrient foods and beverages. The Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA’s) increased authority over tobacco product sales and marketing, combined with declining smoking rates, provides an opportunity to transition tobacco retailers toward healthier retail environments. Unfortunately, research into improving consumer retail environments is often conducted in isolation by researchers working in tobacco control, nutrition, and physical activity. Interdisciplinary efforts are needed to transform tobacco retailers from stores that are dependent on a declining product category, to the sale and promotion of healthful foods and creating environments conducive to active living. The objective of this article is to describe the potential for interdisciplinary efforts to transition retailers away from selling and promoting tobacco products and toward creating retail environments that promote healthful eating and active living. PMID:26963859

  12. Knowledge and attitude towards the health effects of tobacco and measures of tobacco control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrestha Mohan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tobacco is a major public health threat the world has ever faced. It is a risk factor for six of the eight leading causes of death in the world. Without the effective implementation of tobacco regulation policy, the risk itself cannot be minimized. The aim of this study is to provide the adolescents knowledge of the health effects of active and passive smoking, and knowledge and attitudes towards tobacco control measures. Materials and Methods: A descriptive type of study was conducted in December 2013 in one of the government school of Palpa district, one of the rural areas of the Western region. Data entry and analysis was done using SPSS 17 version. Microsoft Excel 2007 is also used for the data processing. Results: There is substantial support for the government taking measure towards tobacco control (96%. Furthermore, strong supports are there regarding ban of smoking in public places and public transport (95% followed by increasing price of tobacco products (87%, banning sales of tobacco to and by minors (82% and ban of tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship (73%. Conclusion: The study focuses the effective implementation of the Tobacco Control and Regulation Act 2011, Nepal and health education should be provided to the adolescents with the facts and skills that will enable them to protect themselves from the harmful effects of tobacco related exposure.

  13. Similar exposure to a tobacco-specific carcinogen in smokeless tobacco users and cigarette smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Stephen S; Carmella, Steven G; Murphy, Sharon E; Riley, William T; Le, Chap; Luo, Xianghua; Mooney, Marc; Hatsukami, Dorothy K

    2007-08-01

    Smokeless tobacco has been proposed as a reduced risk substitute for smoking, but no large studies have investigated exposure to the powerful carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) in smokeless tobacco users versus smokers. The purpose of this study was to carry out such a comparison. Levels of 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol and its glucuronides (total NNAL), a biomarker of NNK exposure, and cotinine, a biomarker of nicotine exposure, were quantified in the urine of 420 smokers and 182 smokeless tobacco users who were participants in studies designed to reduce their use of these products. The measurements were taken at baseline, before intervention. Levels of total NNAL per milliliter of urine were significantly higher in smokeless tobacco users than in smokers (P tobacco users than in smokers (P tobacco users than in smokers (P tobacco-specific carcinogen NNK in smokeless tobacco users and smokers. These findings do not support the use of smokeless tobacco as a safe substitute for smoking.

  14. Recent developments in microbial oils production: a possible alternative to vegetable oils for biodiesel without competition with human food?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwendoline Christophe

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Since centuries vegetable oils are consumed as human food but it also finds applications in biodiesel production which is attracting more attention. But due to being in competition with food it could not be sustainable and leads the need to search for alternative. Nowdays microbes-derived oils (single cell oils seem to be alternatives for biodiesel production due to their similar composition to that of vegetable oils. However, the cold flow properties of the biodiesel produced from microbial oils are unacceptable and have to be modified by an efficient transesterification. Glycerol which is by product of transesterification can be valorised into some more useful products so that it can also be utilised along with biodiesel to simplify the downstream processing. The review paper discusses about various potent microorganisms for biodiesel production, enzymes involved in the lipid accumulation, lipid quantification methods, catalysts used in transesterification (including enzymatic catalyst and valorisation of glycerol.

  15. Tobacco Advertising and Promotional Expenditures in Sports and Sporting Events - United States, 1992-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agaku, Israel T; Odani, Satomi; Sturgis, Stephanie; Harless, Charles; Glover-Kudon, Rebecca

    2016-08-19

    Smokeless tobacco has been actively promoted by tobacco companies using endorsements by major sport figures, and research indicates that tobacco advertising can lead to youth initiation of tobacco use (1,2). Television and radio advertisements for cigarettes and smokeless tobacco have been prohibited since 1969,* and the 1998 Master Settlement Agreement(†) further prohibited tobacco companies from targeting youths with tobacco product advertisements in specified areas. In 2010, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), under authority of the 2009 Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (FSPTCA), prohibited tobacco-brand sponsorship (i.e., sponsorship of sports and entertainment events or other social or cultural events using the tobacco brand name or anything identifiable with any brand of cigarettes or smokeless tobacco).(§) However, corporate-name tobacco sponsorship (i.e., sponsorship using the name of the corporation that manufactures regulated tobacco products) is still permitted under certain conditions.(¶) To monitor tobacco advertising and promotional activities in sports in the United States, CDC analyzed trends in sports-related marketing expenditures for cigarettes and smokeless tobacco during 1992-2013 using data from the Federal Trade Commission (FTC). During 1992-2013, sports-related marketing expenditures, adjusted by the consumer price index to constant 2013 dollars, decreased significantly for both cigarettes (from $136 million in 1992 to $0 in 2013) and smokeless tobacco (from $34.8 million in 1992 to $2.1 million in 2013). During 2010-2013, after the prohibition of tobacco-brand sponsorship in sports under the FSPTCA, cigarette manufacturers reported no spending (i.e., $0) on sports-related advertising and promotional activities; in contrast, smokeless tobacco manufacturers reported expenditures of $16.3 million on advertising and promoting smokeless tobacco in sports during 2010-2013. These findings indicate that despite prohibitions

  16. Face-to-face Tobacco Sales: What Retailers Need to Know

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-09-30

    This podcast reviews new federal tobacco product regulations that require retailers to sell cigarettes and smokeless tobacco products in a face-to-face exchange.  Created: 9/30/2010 by The CDC Division of News and Electronic Media and the FDA Center for Tobacco Products.   Date Released: 9/30/2010.

  17. Increased production of wax esters in transgenic tobacco plants by expression of a fatty acid reductase:wax synthase gene fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Selcuk; Hofvander, Per; Dutta, Paresh; Sun, Chuanxin; Sitbon, Folke

    2015-12-01

    Wax esters are hydrophobic lipids consisting of a fatty acid moiety linked to a fatty alcohol with an ester bond. Plant-derived wax esters are today of particular concern for their potential as cost-effective and sustainable sources of lubricants. However, this aspect is hampered by the fact that the level of wax esters in plants generally is too low to allow commercial exploitation. To investigate whether wax ester biosynthesis can be increased in plants using transgenic approaches, we have here exploited a fusion between two bacterial genes together encoding a single wax ester-forming enzyme, and targeted the resulting protein to chloroplasts in stably transformed tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana) plants. Compared to wild-type controls, transgenic plants showed both in leaves and stems a significant increase in the total level of wax esters, being eight-fold at the whole plant level. The profiles of fatty acid methyl ester and fatty alcohol in wax esters were related, and C16 and C18 molecules constituted predominant forms. Strong transformants displayed certain developmental aberrations, such as stunted growth and chlorotic leaves and stems. These negative effects were associated with an accumulation of fatty alcohols, suggesting that an adequate balance between formation and esterification of fatty alcohols is crucial for a high wax ester production. The results show that wax ester engineering in transgenic plants is feasible, and suggest that higher yields may become achieved in the near future.

  18. Vortex-assisted ionic liquid-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction for assessment of chromium species in artificial saliva extract of different chewing tobacco products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Asma; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Musharraf, Syed Ghulam; Talpur, Farah Naz; Khan, Noman; Bilal, Muhammad; Khan, Mustafa

    2016-12-01

    A novel dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (ILDLLμE) method using an extracting solvent (ionic liquid) and dispersant (Triton X-114) was developed for the separation and preconcentration of hexavalent chromium (Cr(6+)) in artificial saliva extract (ASE) of chewing tobacco products, gutkha, and mainpuri (n = 23). In the proposed method, the extraction of Cr(6+) was accomplished by using ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate (APDC) as complexing agent and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate [C4MIM] [PF6] as extracting solvent. The tiny droplet of metal chelate was then dispersed into TX-114 emulsion, using vortex mixer. Various parameters such as concentration of APDC, pH of the solution, volume of [C4MIM] [PF6], and TX-114 as well as extraction time were studied. Under the most favorable conditions, the limit of detection was found to be 0.068 μg/L with the relative standard deviation carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic risks. Estimated daily intake of Cr via chewing 10 g/day of gutkha and mainpuri was found to be below the maximum tolerable daily intake, whereas the calculated risk of cancer for Cr was observed in the acceptable range of 10E(-6)-10E(-4), except some brands of gutkha. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  19. Tobacco Retail Outlets and Vulnerable Populations in Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael O. Chaiton

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Interest has been increasing in regulating the location and number of tobacco vendors as part of a comprehensive tobacco control program. The objective of this paper is to examine the distribution of tobacco outlets in a large jurisdiction, to assess: (1 whether tobacco outlets are more likely to be located in vulnerable areas; and (2 what proportion of tobacco outlets are located close to schools. Retail locations across the Province of Ontario from Ministry of Health Promotion data were linked to 2006 Census data at the neighbourhood level. There was one tobacco retail outlet for every 1,000 people over age 15 in Ontario. Density of outlets varied by public health unit, and was associated with the number of smokers. Tobacco outlets were more likely to be located in areas that had high neighbourhood deprivation, in both rural and urban areas. Outlets were less likely to be located in areas with high immigrant populations in urban areas, with the reverse being true for rural areas. Overall, 65% of tobacco retailers were located within 500 m of a school. The sale of tobacco products is ubiquitous, however, neighbourhoods with lower socio-economic status are more likely to have easier availability of tobacco products and most retailers are located within walking distance of a school. The results suggest the importance of policies to regulate the location of tobacco retail outlets.

  20. Current Situations and Countermeasures of Organic Tobacco Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Current situations of organic tobacco development at both home and abroad,indicating that organic tobacco is one of the innovation directions for sustainable,healthy,environmental protection and low carbon development of modern tobacco industry.On the basis of foreign cultivation technical system for organic agriculture,the cultivation technical system for organic tobacco is summed up as follows:first,keep the diversity and continuity of space and time;second,ensure closeness of nutrient cycle;third,improve self-regulatory system and protection ability of crops.Then,the development trend of organic tobacco is analyzed and corresponding measures are put forward:establish production base and assessment system for organic tobacco;establish technical system for production of organic tobacco;establish and perfect evaluation system for management,production and supervision of organic tobacco;strengthen popularization of production and concept of organic tobacco;improve management of organic tobacco purchase,industry commerce handover,and redrying.

  1. Unpackaged Cigarettes and Smokeless Tobacco: What Retailers Need to Know

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-10-28

    This podcast helps retailers understand new federal regulations surrounding the sale of unpackaged tobacco products. To comply with the law, retailers may not break open packages of cigarettes or smokeless tobacco to sell or distribute as single or smaller quantities.  Created: 10/28/2010 by The CDC Division of News and Electronic Media and the FDA Center for Tobacco Products.   Date Released: 10/28/2010.

  2. Social, economic and legal dimensions of tobacco and its control in South-East Asia region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyaing, Nyo Nyo; Islam, Md Ashadul; Sinha, Dhirendra N; Rinchen, Sonam

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the social, cultural, economic and legal dimensions of tobacco control in the South-East Asia Region in a holistic view through the review of findings from various studies on prevalence, tobacco economics, poverty alleviation, women and tobacco and tobacco control laws and regulations. Methods were Literature review of peer reviewed publications, country reports, WHO publications, and reports of national and international meetings on tobacco and findings from national level surveys and studies. Tobacco use has been a social and cultural part of the people of South-East Asia Region. Survey findings show that 30% to 60% of men and 1.8% to 15.6% of women in the Region use one or the other forms of tobacco products. The complex nature of tobacco use with both smoking and smokeless forms is a major challenge for implementing tobacco control measures. Prevalence of tobacco use is high among the poor and the illiterate. It is higher among males than females but studies show a rising trend among girls and women due to intensive marketing of tobacco products by the tobacco industry. Tobacco users spend a huge percent of their income on tobacco which deprives them and their families of proper nutrition, good education and health care. Some studies of the Region show that cost of treatment of diseases attributable to tobacco use was more than double the revenue that governments received from tobacco taxation. Another challenge the Region faces is the application of uniform tax to all forms of tobacco, which will reduce not only the availability of tobacco products in the market but also control people switching over to cheaper tobacco products. Ten out of eleven countries are Parties to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control and nine countries have tobacco control legislation. Enforcement of control measures is weak, particularly in areas such as smoke-free environments, advertisement at the point of sale and sale of tobacco to minors. Socio

  3. Social, economic and legal dimensions of tobacco and its control in South-East Asia region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyo Nyo Kyaing

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the social, cultural, economic and legal dimensions of tobacco control in the South-East Asia Region in a holistic view through the review of findings from various studies on prevalence, tobacco economics, poverty alleviation, women and tobacco and tobacco control laws and regulations. Methods were Literature review of peer reviewed publications, country reports, WHO publications, and reports of national and international meetings on tobacco and findings from national level surveys and studies. Tobacco use has been a social and cultural part of the people of South-East Asia Region. Survey findings show that 30% to 60% of men and 1.8% to 15.6% of women in the Region use one or the other forms of tobacco products. The complex nature of tobacco use with both smoking and smokeless forms is a major challenge for implementing tobacco control measures. Prevalence of tobacco use is high among the poor and the illiterate. It is higher among males than females but studies show a rising trend among girls and women due to intensive marketing of tobacco products by the tobacco industry. Tobacco users spend a huge percent of their income on tobacco which deprives them and their families of proper nutrition, good education and health care. Some studies of the Region show that cost of treatment of diseases attributable to tobacco use was more than double the revenue that governments received from tobacco taxation. Another challenge the Region faces is the application of uniform tax to all forms of tobacco, which will reduce not only the availability of tobacco products in the market but also control people switching over to cheaper tobacco products. Ten out of eleven countries are Parties to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control and nine countries have tobacco control legislation. Enforcement of control measures is weak, particularly in areas such as smoke-free environments, advertisement at the point of sale and sale of tobacco to

  4. Tobacco and cancer: an American Association for Cancer Research policy statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanath, Kasisomayajula; Herbst, Roy S; Land, Stephanie R; Leischow, Scott J; Shields, Peter G

    2010-05-01

    The evidence against tobacco use is clear, incontrovertible, and convincing; so is the need for urgent and immediate action to stem the global tide of tobacco-related death and suffering and to improve public health. The American Association for Cancer Research makes an unequivocal call to all who are concerned about public health to take the following immediate steps:Increase the investment in tobacco-related research, commensurate with the enormous toll that tobacco use takes on human health, to provide the scientific evidence to drive the development of effective policies and treatments necessary to dramatically reduce tobacco use and attendant disease. Develop new evidence-based strategies to more effectively prevent the initiation of tobacco use, especially for youth and young adults. Promote the further development of evidence-based treatments for tobacco cessation, including individualized therapies, and ensure coverage of and access to evidence-based behavioral and pharmacological treatments. Develop evidence-based strategies for more effective public communication to prevent, reduce, and eliminate tobacco use and to guide health policies and clinical practice. Develop effective, evidence-based policies to reduce disparities across the tobacco continuum among social groups and developed and developing nations. Implement to the fullest extent existing evidence-based, systems-wide tobacco control programs to prevent initiation and foster cessation. Adapt and implement appropriate approaches to reduce the growing burden of tobacco use in the developing world. Enhance and coordinate surveillance efforts, both in the United States and globally, to monitor tobacco products, tobacco use, and tobacco-related disease, including tobacco use in oncology clinical trials. Establish a comprehensive, science-based regulatory framework to evaluate tobacco products and manufacturers' claims. Promote research that addresses the following: the potential harms of current and

  5. Tobacco industry targeting youth in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, S; Mejia, R; Ling, P M; Pérez-Stable, E J

    2013-01-01

    Background/aim Argentina has one of the highest cigarette smoking rates among both men and women in the Americas and no legislated restrictions on tobacco industry advertising. The tobacco industry has traditionally expanded markets by targeting adolescents and young adults. The objective of this study was to determine whether and how the tobacco industry promotes cigarettes to adolescents in Argentina. Methods We conducted a systematic search of tobacco industry documents available through the internet dated between 1995 and 2004 using standard search terms to identify marketing strategies in Argentina. A selected review of the four leading newspapers and nine magazines with reported high readership among adolescents was completed. The selected print media were searched for tobacco images and these were classified as advertisements if associated with a commercial product or as a story if not. Results The tobacco industry used market segmentation as a strategy to target Argentinean consumers. British American Tobacco (BAT) undertook a young adult psychographic study and classified them as “progressives”, “Jurassics” or “conservatives” and “crudos” or “spoiled brats”. BAT marketed Lucky Strike to the “progressives” using Hollywood movies as a vehicle. The tobacco industry also targeted their national brands to the conservatives and linked these brands with “nationalistic values” in advertising campaigns. Philip Morris promoted Marlboro by sponsoring activities directed at young people and they launched the 10 cigarettes packet as a starter vehicle. Conclusions The tobacco industry used psychographic segmentation of the population and developed advertising strategies focused on youth. Tobacco control researchers and advocates must be able to address these strategies in counter-marketing interventions. PMID:18299308

  6. 不同热失重阶段烟草的裂解产物%Pyrolysis Products of Tobacco Released at Different Thermogravimetric Stages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡永华; 宁敏; 张晓宇; 朱青林; 田振峰; 徐迎波; 王程辉; 徐志强

    2015-01-01

    为研究烟草样品在热重分析过程中释放出的产物,搭建了一种热重分析产物收集装置,并分别利用GC/MS和HPLC法分析了烤烟样品在不同热失重阶段释放出的焦油态产物以及甲醛、乙醛、丙酮、丙烯醛和丙醛5种挥发性羰基物。结果表明:①烤烟样品的热分解过程大致可分为吸附水散失、挥发性成分析出、烟草生物聚合物热氧化裂解、焦炭燃烧和燃尽5个热失重阶段。②在不同热失重阶段,焦油态产物的生成明显不同,其中,挥发性成分析出阶段会导致大量烟碱和许多香味成分形成;在生物聚合物的热氧化裂解阶段,焦油态产物的数量最丰富;而在焦炭燃烧阶段会产生许多芳烃类化合物。③烟草热解过程产生的挥发性羰基物主要是在烟草生物聚合物的有氧裂解及之后的焦炭燃烧过程中形成的。%In order to study the products released during the process of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) of a tobacco sample, a device for collecting TGA products was established. The tar-form product and five volatile carbonyl compounds (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, acrolein and propanal) released at different thermogravimetric stages were collected, then analyzed by GC/MS and HPLC separately. The results showed that: 1) The pyrolysis process of tobacco samples could be divided into five stages, i.e. adsorbed water dissipation, volatile component evolution, bio-polymer thermal oxidative pyrolysis, coke combustion, and burnout stages. 2) At different thermogravimetric stages, the formation of tar-form products was obviously different; large amount of nicotine and a great number of aroma compounds formed at volatile component evolution stage; abundant tar-form products formed at bio-polymer thermal oxidative pyrolysis stage; and many aromatic compounds produced at coke combustion stage. 3) The volatile carbonyl compounds mainly formed at bio-polymer oxidative

  7. Differences by sex in tobacco use and awareness of tobacco marketing -Bangladesh, Thailand, and Uruguay, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    The majority of the world's 1.3 billion tobacco users are men, but female use is increasing. To examine differences in tobacco use and awareness of tobacco marketing by sex, CDC and health officials in Bangladesh, Thailand, and Uruguay (among the first countries to report results) analyzed 2009 data from a newly instituted survey, the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS). This report summarizes the results of that analysis, which indicated wide variation among the three countries in tobacco use, product types used, and marketing awareness among males and females. In Bangladesh and Thailand, use of smoked tobacco products was far greater among males (44.7% and 45.6%, respectively) than females (1.5% and 3.1%, respectively). In Uruguay, the difference was smaller (30.7% versus 19.8%). Use of smokeless tobacco products in Bangladesh was approximately the same among males (26.4%) and females (27.9%), but females were significantly more likely to use smokeless tobacco in Thailand (6.3% versus 1.3%), and use in Uruguay by either sex was nearly nonexistent. Males in Bangladesh were twice as likely as females to notice cigarette advertising (68.0% versus 29.3%), but the difference between males and females was smaller in Thailand (17.4% versus 14.5%) and Uruguay (49.0% versus 40.0%). In all three countries, awareness of tobacco marketing was more prevalent among females aged 15--24 years than older women. Comprehensive bans on advertising, sponsorship, and promotion of tobacco products, recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO), can reduce per capita cigarette consumption if enforced.

  8. [Can tobacco companies be good corporate citizens?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazzo, G; Mena, S

    2009-07-01

    Tobacco companies have jumped on the Corporate social responsibility (CSR) bandwagon as a tentative to be societally accepted as responsible actors and good corporate citizens. This is however not possible for two reasons. First, the product they sell is lethal and thus not compatible with the precondition of doing no harm to be a good corporate citizen. Second, the behavior of tobacco firms is not responsible, being illustrated by four examples: junk science versus sound science strategy, seducing young smokers, political lobbying and getting customers on new markets. To conclude, three implications for regulating the activities of the tobacco industry are given.

  9. European Code against Cancer, 4th Edition: Tobacco and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, Maria E; Peruga, Armando; McNeill, Ann; Kralikova, Eva; Guha, Neela; Minozzi, Silvia; Espina, Carolina; Schüz, Joachim

    2015-12-01

    Tobacco use, and in particular cigarette smoking, is the single largest preventable cause of cancer in the European Union (EU). All tobacco products contain a wide range of carcinogens. The main cancer-causing agents in tobacco smoke are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines, aromatic amines, aldehydes, and certain volatile organic compounds. Tobacco consumers are also exposed to nicotine, leading to tobacco addiction in many users. Cigarette smoking causes cancer in multiple organs and is the main cause of lung cancer, responsible for approximately 82% of cases. In 2012, about 313,000 new cases of lung cancer and 268,000 lung cancer deaths were reported in the EU; 28% of adults in the EU smoked tobacco, and the overall prevalence of current use of smokeless tobacco products was almost 2%. Smokeless tobacco products, a heterogeneous category, are also carcinogenic but cause a lower burden of cancer deaths than tobacco smoking. One low-nitrosamine product, snus, is associated with much lower cancer risk than other smokeless tobacco products. Smoking generates second-hand smoke (SHS), an established cause of lung cancer, and inhalation of SHS by non-smokers is still common in indoor workplaces as well as indoor public places, and more so in the homes of smokers. Several interventions have proved effective for stopping smoking; the most effective intervention is the use of a combination of pharmacotherapy and behavioural support. Scientific evidence leads to the following two recommendations for individual action on tobacco in the 4th edition of the European Code Against Cancer: (1) "Do not smoke. Do not use any form of tobacco"; (2) "Make your home smoke-free. Support smoke-free policies in your workplace".

  10. Berry Leaves: An Alternative Source of Bioactive Natural Products of Nutritional and Medicinal Value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferlemi, Anastasia-Varvara; Lamari, Fotini N

    2016-06-01

    Berry fruits are recognized, worldwide, as "superfoods" due to the high content of bioactive natural products and the health benefits deriving from their consumption. Berry leaves are byproducts of berry cultivation; their traditional therapeutic use against several diseases, such as the common cold, inflammation, diabetes, and ocular dysfunction, has been almost forgotten nowadays. Nevertheless, the scientific interest regarding the leaf composition and beneficial properties grows, documenting that berry leaves may be considered an alternative source of bioactives. The main bioactive compounds in berry leaves are similar as in berry fruits, i.e., phenolic acids and esters, flavonols, anthocyanins, and procyanidins. The leaves are one of the richest sources of chlorogenic acid. In various studies, these secondary metabolites have demonstrated antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, and neuroprotective properties. This review focuses on the phytochemical composition of the leaves of the commonest berry species, i.e., blackcurrant, blackberry, raspberry, bilberry, blueberry, cranberry, and lingonberry leaves, and presents their traditional medicinal uses and their biological activities in vitro and in vivo.

  11. A bio-product as alternative to methyl bromide for replant disease control on strawberry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu ZHANG; Tongle HU; Lijing JI; Keqiang CAO

    2008-01-01

    Pre-plant soil fumigation with methyl bromide (MB) is a standard practice for controlling soil-borne diseases especially for strawberry diseases. However, the application of MB will be forbidden in China in the year 2015. For this reason, a bio-product named Kangdi 3 was tested as an alternative to MB in strawberry greenhouses in Mancheng (Hebei Province) and Donggang (Liaoning province), China in 2005 and 2006. Methyl bromide at a normal dosage of 500 kg/hm2 and Kangdi 3 at three dosages of 750, 1500 and 2250 kg/hm2 were tested. Plots without any treatment were used as the control. During the growing stage, assessments were made on fungal communities in rhizosphere, growth status of strawberry, the disease levels on roots as well as the yields. Results showed that Kangdi 3 significantly reduced the quantity of fungi and the disease index, while enhancing strawberry growth and the yields compared with the untreated control. Therefore, Kangdi 3 is a great potential substitute for methyl bromide to control replant diseases in strawberry.

  12. Berry Leaves: An Alternative Source of Bioactive Natural Products of Nutritional and Medicinal Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia-Varvara Ferlemi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Berry fruits are recognized, worldwide, as “superfoods” due to the high content of bioactive natural products and the health benefits deriving from their consumption. Berry leaves are byproducts of berry cultivation; their traditional therapeutic use against several diseases, such as the common cold, inflammation, diabetes, and ocular dysfunction, has been almost forgotten nowadays. Nevertheless, the scientific interest regarding the leaf composition and beneficial properties grows, documenting that berry leaves may be considered an alternative source of bioactives. The main bioactive compounds in berry leaves are similar as in berry fruits, i.e., phenolic acids and esters, flavonols, anthocyanins, and procyanidins. The leaves are one of the richest sources of chlorogenic acid. In various studies, these secondary metabolites have demonstrated antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, and neuroprotective properties. This review focuses on the phytochemical composition of the leaves of the commonest berry species, i.e., blackcurrant, blackberry, raspberry, bilberry, blueberry, cranberry, and lingonberry leaves, and presents their traditional medicinal uses and their biological activities in vitro and in vivo.

  13. Selection and properties of alternative forming fluids for TRISO fuel kernel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, M. P.; King, J. C.; Gorman, B. P.; Marshall, D. W.

    2013-01-01

    Current Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) designs incorporate TRi-structural ISOtropic (TRISO) fuel, which consists of a spherical fissile fuel kernel surrounded by layers of pyrolytic carbon and silicon carbide. An internal sol-gel process forms the fuel kernel using wet chemistry to produce uranium oxyhydroxide gel spheres by dropping a cold precursor solution into a hot column of trichloroethylene (TCE). Over time, gelation byproducts inhibit complete gelation, and the TCE must be purified or discarded. The resulting TCE waste stream contains both radioactive and hazardous materials and is thus considered a mixed hazardous waste. Changing the forming fluid to a non-hazardous alternative could greatly improve the economics of TRISO fuel kernel production. Selection criteria for a replacement forming fluid narrowed a list of ˜10,800 chemicals to yield ten potential replacement forming fluids: 1-bromododecane, 1-bromotetradecane, 1-bromoundecane, 1-chlorooctadecane, 1-chlorotetradecane, 1-iododecane, 1-iodododecane, 1-iodohexadecane, 1-iodooctadecane, and squalane. The density, viscosity, and surface tension for each potential replacement forming fluid were measured as a function of temperature between 25 °C and 80 °C. Calculated settling velocities and heat transfer rates give an overall column height approximation. 1-bromotetradecane, 1-chlorooctadecane, and 1-iodododecane show the greatest promise as replacements, and future tests will verify their ability to form satisfactory fuel kernels.

  14. Berry Leaves: An Alternative Source of Bioactive Natural Products of Nutritional and Medicinal Value†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferlemi, Anastasia-Varvara; Lamari, Fotini N.

    2016-01-01

    Berry fruits are recognized, worldwide, as “superfoods” due to the high content of bioactive natural products and the health benefits deriving from their consumption. Berry leaves are byproducts of berry cultivation; their traditional therapeutic use against several diseases, such as the common cold, inflammation, diabetes, and ocular dysfunction, has been almost forgotten nowadays. Nevertheless, the scientific interest regarding the leaf composition and beneficial properties grows, documenting that berry leaves may be considered an alternative source of bioactives. The main bioactive compounds in berry leaves are similar as in berry fruits, i.e., phenolic acids and esters, flavonols, anthocyanins, and procyanidins. The leaves are one of the richest sources of chlorogenic acid. In various studies, these secondary metabolites have demonstrated antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, and neuroprotective properties. This review focuses on the phytochemical composition of the leaves of the commonest berry species, i.e., blackcurrant, blackberry, raspberry, bilberry, blueberry, cranberry, and lingonberry leaves, and presents their traditional medicinal uses and their biological activities in vitro and in vivo. PMID:27258314

  15. Selection and properties of alternative forming fluids for TRISO fuel kernel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, M. P. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); King, J. C. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Gorman, B. P. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Marshall, Doug W. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Current Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) designs incorporate TRi-structural ISOtropic (TRISO) fuel, which consists of a spherical fissile fuel kernel surrounded by layers of pyrolytic carbon and silicon carbide. An internal sol-gel process forms the fuel kernel using wet chemistry to produce uranium oxyhydroxide gel spheres by dropping a cold precursor solution into a hot column of trichloroethylene (TCE). Over time, gelation byproducts inhibit complete gelation, and the TCE must be purified or discarded. The resulting TCE waste stream contains both radioactive and hazardous materials and is thus considered a mixed hazardous waste. Changing the forming fluid to a non-hazardous alternative could greatly improve the economics of TRISO fuel kernel production. Selection criteria for a replacement forming fluid narrowed a list of ~10,800 chemicals to yield ten potential replacement forming fluids: 1-bromododecane, 1- bromotetradecane, 1-bromoundecane, 1-chlorooctadecane, 1-chlorotetradecane, 1-iododecane, 1-iodododecane, 1-iodohexadecane, 1-iodooctadecane, and squalane. The density, viscosity, and surface tension for each potential replacement forming fluid were measured as a function of temperature between 25 °C and 80 °C. Calculated settling velocities and heat transfer rates give an overall column height approximation. 1-bromotetradecane, 1-chlorooctadecane, and 1-iodododecane show the greatest promise as replacements, and future tests will verify their ability to form satisfactory fuel kernels.

  16. Between Contemporary Art and Cultural Analysis: Alternative Methods for Knowledge Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Billy Ehn

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Artistic research suggests alternative methods for producing various kinds of knowledge, whether within or without the confines of academe. These methods may involve either the production of investigative artworks or the writing by the artist of a doctoral dissertation about his or her own work. For cultural researchers, the methods employed by artists engaged in these processes are both familiar and challenging, as conventional ethnography is mixed with more unpredictable experiments. This article presents several contemporary artworks, including sculpture, film, dance, installation and performance that explore various aspects of reality. What can be learnt from these works? And what could be achieved by an open exchange between artists and academic researchers? Four methodological approaches are highlighted as being of particular interest. The first relates to artists’ tendency to live experimentally, using themselves both as actors and as research objects. The second arises from the very tangible ways in which contemporary artworks approach the theme of materiality. The third relates to the emotional nature of much of contemporary art – even when it is categorised as conceptual – in its creation, forms of presentation, and influence on the spectator. Finally, many artists are gifted with the ability to find and communicate surprising meanings in ordinary life. How do they do this? Part of the answer seems to be that although artists are open to the implementation of “wild whims”, they exploit their spontaneity in a highly professional manner.

  17. Decreasing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons emission from bitumen using alternative bitumen production process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasoulzadeh, Y; Mortazavi, S B; Yousefi, A A; Khavanin, A

    2011-01-30

    In 1988, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) recommended that bitumen fumes should also be considered a potential occupational carcinogen and management practices such as engineering controls should be implemented. Changing the production process of bitumen, as a source control method, was investigated in our study. For the first time, a novel alternative process was used to produce paving grade bitumen with decreased PAH emissions as well as improved bitumen performance grade (PG). Post-consumer latex and natural bitumen (NB) were used as additives to obtain 60/70 modified bitumen directly from the vacuum bottom (VB) without any need for air-blowing. The emissions were produced by a laboratory fume generation rig and were sampled and analyzed by GC-Mass and GC-FID as described in NIOSH method 5515. The PG of the resulting modified 60/70 bitumen in this study covers a wider range of climatic conditions and has higher total resistance against deformation than conventional 60/70 bitumen. The total PAH emissions from modified 60/70 bitumen (100.2619 ng/g) were decreased approximately to 50% of PAHs emitted from conventional 60/70 bitumen (197.696 ng/g). Therefore, it is possible to obtain modified bitumen with lower PAH emissions and better quality than conventional bitumen via additives and without air-blowing.

  18. High-yield production of a human monoclonal IgG by rhizosecretion in hydroponic tobacco cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Madeira, L.M.; Szeto, T.H.; Henquet, Maurice; Raven, Nicole; Runions, John; Huddleston, Jon; Garrard, Ian; Drake, P.M.W.; Ma, Julian K.C.

    2016-01-01

    Rhizosecretion of recombinant pharmaceuticals from in vitro hydroponic transgenic plant cultures is a simple, low cost, reproducible and controllable production method. Here, we demonstrate the application and adaptation of this manufacturing platform to a human antivitronectin IgG1 mo

  19. Tobacco use among middle and high school students--United States, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrazola, René A; Neff, Linda J; Kennedy, Sara M; Holder-Hayes, Enver; Jones, Christopher D

    2014-11-14

    Tobacco use is the leading preventable cause of disease and death in the United States, and nearly all tobacco use begins during youth and young adulthood. Among U.S. youths, cigarette smoking has declined in recent years; however, the use of some other tobacco products has increased, and nearly half of tobacco users use two or more tobacco products. CDC analyzed data from the 2013 National Youth Tobacco Survey to determine the prevalence of ever (at least once) and current (at least 1 day in the past 30 days) use of one or more of 10 tobacco products (cigarettes, cigars, hookahs, smokeless tobacco, electronic cigarettes [e-cigarettes], pipes, snus, bidis, kreteks, and dissolvable tobacco) among U.S. middle school (grades 6-8) and high school (grades 9-12) students. In 2013, 22.9% of high school students reported current use of any tobacco product, and 12.6% reported current use of two or more tobacco products; current use of combustible products (i.e., cigarettes, cigars, pipes, bidis, kreteks, and/or hookahs) was substantially greater (20.7%) than use of other types of tobacco. Also, 46.0% of high school students reported having ever tried a tobacco product, and 31.4% reported ever trying two or more tobacco products. Among middle school students, 3.1% reported current use of cigars, and 2.9% reported current use of cigarettes, with non-Hispanic black students more than twice as likely to report current use of cigars than cigarettes. Monitoring the prevalence of the use of all available tobacco products, including new and emerging products, is critical to support effective population-based interventions to prevent and reduce tobacco use among youths as part of comprehensive tobacco prevention and control programs.

  20. Understanding the Tobacco Control Act: efforts by the US Food and Drug Administration to make tobacco-related morbidity and mortality part of the USA's past, not its future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husten, Corinne G; Deyton, Lawrence R

    2013-05-04

    The USA has a rich history of public health efforts to reduce morbidity and mortality from tobacco use. Comprehensive tobacco-prevention programmes, when robustly implemented, reduce the prevalence of youth and adult smoking, decrease cigarette consumption, accelerate declines in tobacco-related deaths, and diminish health-care costs from tobacco-related diseases. Effective public health interventions include raising the price of tobacco products, smoke-free policies, counter-marketing campaigns, advertising restrictions, augmenting access to treatment for tobacco use through insurance coverage and telephone help lines, and comprehensive approaches to prevent children and adolescents from accessing tobacco products. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has six major areas of regulatory authority: regulation of tobacco products; regulation of the advertising, marketing, and promotion of tobacco products; regulation of the distribution and sales of tobacco products; enforcement of the provisions of the Tobacco Control Act and tobacco regulations; regulatory science to support FDA authorities and activities; and public education about the harms of tobacco products and to support FDA regulatory actions. With passing of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (Tobacco Control Act) in June, 2009, important new regulatory approaches were added to the tobacco prevention and control arsenal.