WorldWideScience

Sample records for alternative thrombopoietic agents

  1. Thrombospondins deployed by thrombopoietic cells determine angiogenic switch and extent of revascularization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Hans-Georg; Hooper, Andrea T.; Broekman, M. Johan; Avecilla, Scott T.; Petit, Isabelle; Luo, Min; Milde, Till; Ramos, Carlos A.; Zhang, Fan; Kopp, Tabitha; Bornstein, Paul; Jin, David K.; Marcus, Aaron J.; Rafii, Shahin

    2006-01-01

    Thrombopoietic cells may differentially promote or inhibit tissue vascularization by releasing both pro- and antiangiogenic factors. However, the molecular determinants controlling the angiogenic phenotype of thrombopoietic cells remain unknown. Here, we show that expression and release of thrombospondins (TSPs) by megakaryocytes and platelets function as a major antiangiogenic switch. TSPs inhibited thrombopoiesis, diminished bone marrow microvascular reconstruction following myelosuppression, and limited the extent of revascularization in a model of hind limb ischemia. We demonstrate that thrombopoietic recovery following myelosuppression was significantly enhanced in mice deficient in both TSP1 and TSP2 (TSP-DKO mice) in comparison with WT mice. Megakaryocyte and platelet levels in TSP-DKO mice were rapidly restored, thereby accelerating revascularization of myelosuppressed bone marrow and ischemic hind limbs. In addition, thrombopoietic cells derived from TSP-DKO mice were more effective in supporting neoangiogenesis in Matrigel plugs. The proangiogenic activity of TSP-DKO thrombopoietic cells was mediated through activation of MMP-9 and enhanced release of stromal cell–derived factor 1. Thus, TSP-deficient thrombopoietic cells function as proangiogenic agents, accelerating hemangiogenesis within the marrow and revascularization of ischemic hind limbs. As such, interference with the release of cellular stores of TSPs may be clinically effective in augmenting neoangiogenesis. PMID:17143334

  2. Alternative inerting agents

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Du

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available Final Project Report ALTERNATIVE INERTING AGENTS Author/s: J J L DU PLESSIS Research Agency: OSIR MINING TECHNOLOGY Project No: Date: 3 2 7 2 COL 443 APRIL 1999 N’ ) ( G~6~ I Title: 9 / The results show...

  3. F104S c-Mpl responds to a transmembrane domain-binding thrombopoietin receptor agonist: proof of concept that selected receptor mutations in congenital amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia can be stimulated with alternative thrombopoietic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Norma E; Lim, Jihyang; Chen, Rose; Geddis, Amy E

    2010-05-01

    To determine whether specific c-Mpl mutations might respond to thrombopoietin receptor agonists. We created cell line models of type II c-Mpl mutations identified in congenital amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia. We selected F104S c-Mpl for further study because it exhibited surface expression of the receptor. We measured proliferation of cell lines expressing wild-type or F104S c-Mpl in response to thrombopoietin receptor agonists targeting the extracellular (m-AMP4) or transmembrane (LGD-4665) domains of the receptor by 1-methyltetrazole-5-thiol assay. We measured thrombopoietin binding to the mutant receptor using an in vitro thrombopoietin uptake assay and identified F104 as a potentially critical residue for the interaction between the receptor and its ligand by aligning thrombopoietin and erythropoietin receptors from multiple species. Cells expressing F104S c-Mpl proliferated in response to LGD-4665, but not thrombopoietin or m-AMP4. Compared to thrombopoietin, LGD-4665 stimulates signaling with delayed kinetics in both wild-type and F104S c-Mpl-expressing cells. Although F104S c-Mpl is expressed on the cell surface in our BaF3 cell line model, the mutant receptor does not bind thrombopoietin. Comparison to the erythropoietin receptor suggests that F104 engages in hydrogen-bonding interactions that are critical for binding to thrombopoietin. These findings suggest that a small subset of patients with congenital amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia might respond to treatment with thrombopoietin receptor agonists, but that responsiveness will depend on the type of mutation and agonist used. We postulate that F104 is critical for thrombopoietin binding. The kinetics of signaling in response to a transmembrane domain-binding agonist are delayed in comparison to thrombopoietin. 2010 ISEH Society for Hematology and Stem Cells. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Alternative chemotherapeutic agents: nitrosoureas, cisplatin, irinotecan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, Jose A; Munoz, Claudia A

    2012-04-01

    Irinotecan, cisplatin, and nitrosoureas have a long history of use in brain tumors, with demonstrated efficacy in the adjuvant treatment of malignant gliomas. In the era of temozolomide with concurrent radiotherapy given as the standard of care, their use has shifted to treatment at progression or recurrence. Now with the widespread use of bevacizumab in the recurrent setting, irinotecan and other chemotherapies are seeing increased use in combination with bevacizumab and alone in the recurrent setting. The activity of these chemotherapeutic agents in brain tumors will likely ensure a place in the armamentarium of neuro-oncologists for many years. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Fibroproliferative activity in patients with immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) treated with thrombopoietic agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghanima, Waleed; Junker, Peter; Hasselbalch, Hans Carl

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed the grade of bone marrow (BM) fibrosis and its association with a seromarker for collagen-III formation and fibrosis-related cytokines in 25 immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) patients treated with thrombopoietin receptor agonists (Tpo-RA) who had at least one BM biopsy. Assessment...

  6. Alternate Energy Sources for Thermalplastic Binding Agent Consolidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frame, B.J.

    1999-01-01

    A study was conducted to investigate microwave and electron beam technologies as alternate energy sources to consolidate fiber coated with a thermoplastic binding agent into preforms for composite molding applications. Bench experiments showed that both microwave and electron beam energy can produce heat sufficient to melt and consolidate a thermoplastic binding agent applied to fiberglass mat, and several two- and three-dimensional fiberglass preforms were produced with each method. In both cases, it is postulated that the heating was accomplished by the effective interaction of the microwave or electron beam energy with the combination of the mat preform and the tooling used to shape the preform. Both methods contrast with conventional thermal energy applied via infrared heaters or from a heated tool in which the heat to melt the thermoplastic binding agent must diffuse over time from the outer surface of the preform toward its center under a thermal gradient. For these reasons, the microwave and electron beam energy techniques have the potential to rapidly consolidate thick fiber preforms more efficiently than the thermal process. With further development, both technologies have the potential to make preform production more cost effective by decreasing cycle time in the preform tool, reducing energy costs, and by enabling the use of less expensive tooling materials. Descriptions of the microwave and electron beam consolidation experiments and a summary of the results are presented in this report.

  7. Alternative Agents to Prevent Fogging in Head and Neck Endoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patorn Piromchai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background The essential factor for diagnosis and treatment of diseases in head and neck endoscopy is the visibility of the image. An anti-fogging agent can reduce this problem by minimizing surface tension to prevent the condensation of water in the form of small droplets on a surface. There is no report on the use of hibiscrub ® or baby shampoo to reduce fogging in the literature. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy between commercial anti-fogging agent, hibiscrub ® and baby shampoo to reduce fogging for the use in head and neck endoscopy. Methods The study was conducted at the Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University in August 2010. Commercial anti-fogging agent, baby shampoo and hibiscrub ® were applied on rigid endoscope lens before putting them into a mist generator. The images were taken at baseline, 15 seconds, 30 seconds and 1 minute. The images' identifiers were removed before they were sent to two evaluators. A visual analogue scale (VAS was used to rate the image quality from 0 to 10. Results The difference in mean VAS score between anti-fogging agent, baby shampoo and hibiscrub ® versus no agent were 5.46, 4.45 and 2.1 respectively. The commercial anti-fogging agent and baby shampoo had most protective benefit and performed significantly better than no agent ( P < 0.05. Conclusions Baby shampoo is an effective agent to prevent fogging during head and neck endoscopy and compares favourably with commercial anti-fogging agent.

  8. Multi-agent simulation of adoption of alternative fuels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vliet, Oscar; de Vries, Bert; Faaij, Andre; Turkenburg, Wim; Jager, Wander

    We have formalized and parameterized a model for the production of six transport fuels and six fuels blends from six feedstocks through 13 different production chains, and their adoption of by 11 distinct subpopulations of motorists. The motorists are represented by agents that use heuristics to

  9. Determination of Five Alternative Antifouling Agents Found Along the Korean Coasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seongeon; Lee, Dongsup; Lee, Yong-Woo

    2017-07-01

      Since the ban of tri-butyl tin, other various alternative antifouling agents have been used. In this study, the contamination levels from these antifouling agents were examined in the main harbors in Korea. The sampled harbors were classified into four types and the levels of contamination from the antifouling agents were analyzed. The highest degree of contamination was found in the big harbors, followed by the fishing harbors, harbors near agricultural areas, and military and coast guard harbors. In addition, an increase in the number of ships that entered the ports significantly influenced the contamination by the antifouling agents. Correlation analysis was conducted to characterize the alternative antifouling agents. The results revealed strong correlations between the dichlofluanid and chlorothalonil, and between the chlorothalonil and TCMTB, because unlike Irgarol 1051 and SEA-NINE 211, which are used only as antifouling agents, chlorothalonil, dichlofluanid, and TCMTB are also used in agriculture.

  10. Plant-Derived Urease Inhibitors as Alternative Chemotherapeutic Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Sherif T S; Žemlička, Milan

    2016-07-01

    Inhibition of the metalloenzyme urease has important pharmacologic applications in the field of antiulcer and antigastric cancer agents. Urease is involved in many serious infections caused by Helicobacter pylori in the gastric tract as well as by Proteus and related species in the urinary tract. Although numerous studies have described several novel urease inhibitors (UIs) used for the treatment of gastric and urinary infections, all these compounds have exhibited severe side effects, toxicity, and instability. Therefore, to overcome such problems, it is necessary to search for new sources of UIs, such as natural products, that provide reduced side effects, low toxicity, greater stability, and bioavailability. As limited studies have been conducted on plant-derived UIs, this paper aims to highlight and summarize the most promising compounds isolated and identified from plants, such as terpenoids, phenolic compounds, alkaloids, and other substances with inhibitory activities against plant and bacterial ureases; these are in vitro and in vivo studies with an emphasis on structure-activity relationship studies and types of inhibition that show high and promising levels of anti-urease activity. This will aid medicinal chemists in the design and synthesis of novel and pharmacologically potent UIs useful for the development of antiulcer drugs. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Substances used as gelling agent alternative to the agar in culture media for in vitro propagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darío Alonso Martin Gordo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The cultivation of plant fibers is achieved through the implementation of a group of techniques widely used for the propagation of plants in vitro. However, one disadvantage of these techniques is the high cost of components used for the crop’s medium, among these, the agar (primary gelling agent, has seen a price increase due to high demand. This article consults several studies regarding substances that have been utilized as alternative gelling agents, among which highlight starches (native or modified and several plant gums and bacterial excretions that have been used in processes of organogenesis, embryogenesis and vegetative proliferation. The starches and gums studied showed favorable results in the in vitro cultivation of some plant species. The study demonstrates that both gums and starches may be potential substitutes (either partial or total for agar, achieve a decrease in costs associated with starches, and have an ability to be chemically modified to improve gelling capacity.

  12. Investigations into Alternative Desorption Agents for Amidoxime-Based Polymeric Uranium Adsorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gill, Gary A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kuo, Li-Jung [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Strivens, Jonathan E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wood, Jordana R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wai, Chien [LCW Supercritical Technologies, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States); Pan, Horng-Bin [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Amidoxime-based polymeric braid adsorbents that can extract uranium (U) from seawater are being developed to provide a sustainable supply of fuel for nuclear reactors. A critical step in the development of the technology is to develop elution procedures to selectively remove U from the adsorbents and to do so in a manner that allows the adsorbent material to be reused. This study investigates use of high concentrations of bicarbonate along with targeted chelating agents as an alternative means to the mild acid elution procedures currently in use for selectively eluting uranium from amidoxime-based polymeric adsorbents.

  13. Evaluation of Alternative Killing Agents for Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in the Gravid Aedes Trap (GAT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heringer, Laila; Johnson, Brian J; Fikrig, Kara; Oliveira, Bruna A; Silva, Richard D; Townsend, Michael; Barrera, Roberto; Eiras, Álvaro E; Ritchie, Scott A

    2016-07-01

    The Gravid Aedes Trap (GAT) uses visual and olfactory cues to attract gravid Aedes aegypti (L.) that are then captured when knocked down by a residual pyrethroid surface spray. However, the use of surface sprays can be compromised by poor availability of the spray and pesticide resistance in the target mosquito. We investigated several "alternative" insecticide and insecticide-free killing agents for use in the GAT. This included long-lasting insecticide-impregnated nets (LLINs), vapor-active synthetic pyrethroids (metofluthrin), canola oil, and two types of dry adhesive sticky card. During bench top assays LLINs, metofluthrin, and dry sticky cards had 24-h knockdown (KD) percentages >80% (91.2 ± 7.2%, 84.2 ± 6.8%, and 83.4 ± 6.1%, respectively), whereas the 24-h KD for canola oil was 70 ± 7.7%, which improved to 90.0 ± 3.7% over 48 h. Importantly, there were no significant differences in the number of Ae. aegypti collected per week or the number of traps positive for Ae. aegypti between the sticky card and canola oil treatments compared with the surface spray and LLIN treatments in semifield and field trials. These results demonstrate that the use of inexpensive and widely available insecticide-free agents such as those described in this study are effective alternatives to pyrethroids in regions with insecticide-resistant populations. The use of such environmentally friendly insecticide-free alternatives will also be attractive in areas where there is substantial resistance to insecticide use due to environmental and public health concerns. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. In vitro evaluation of alternative oral contrast agents for MRI of the gastrointestinal tract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babos, Magor [University of Szeged, Faculty of Science (Hungary); Euromedic Diagnostics Szeged, 6720 Szeged, Semmelweiss u. 6 (Hungary)], E-mail: babosmagor@yahoo.com; Schwarcz, Attila [University of Pecs, Department of Neurosurgery, Pecs Diagnostic Institute, 7624 Pecs, Retu. 2 (Hungary)], E-mail: attila.schwarcz@aok.pte.hu; Randhawa, Manjit Singh [University of Szeged, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, 6720 Szeged, Semmelweiss u. 6 (Hungary)], E-mail: majyaal@hotmail.com; Marton, Balazs [University of Szeged, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, 6720 Szeged, Semmelweiss u. 6 (Hungary)], E-mail: balazsmarton@freemail.hu; Kardos, Lilla [Euromedic Diagnostics Szeged, 6720 Szeged, Semmelweiss u. 6 (Hungary)], E-mail: medlis@tiszanet.hu; Palko, Andras [Euromedic Diagnostics Szeged, 6720 Szeged, Semmelweiss u. 6 (Hungary); University of Szeged, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, 6720 Szeged, Semmelweiss u. 6 (Hungary)], E-mail: palko@radio.szote.u-szeged.hu

    2008-01-15

    Purpose: In vitro evaluation of different materials as potential alternative oral contrast agents for small bowel MRI. Materials and methods: The T1 and T2 relaxation times of rose hip syrup, black currant extract, cocoa, iron-deferoxamine solution and a commonly used oral contrast material (1 mM Gd-DTPA) were determined in vitro at different concentrations on a 1.0 T clinical MR scanner. T1 values were obtained with an inversion prepared spoiled gradient echo sequence. T2 values were obtained using multiple echo sequences. Finally the materials were visualized on T1-, T2- and T2*-weighted MR images. Results: The relaxation times of the undiluted rose hip syrup (T1 = 110 {+-} 5 ms, T2 = 86 {+-} 3 ms), black currant extract (T1 = 55 {+-} 3 ms, T2 = 39 {+-} 2 ms) and 5 mM iron-deferoxamine solution (T1 = 104 {+-} 4 ms, T2 = 87 {+-} 2 ms) were much shorter than for a 1 mM Gd-DTPA solution (T1 = 180 {+-} 8 ms, T2 = 168 {+-} 5 ms). Dilution of black currant extract to 30% or a 3 mM iron-deferoxamine solution conducted to T1 relaxation times which are quite comparable to a 1 mM Gd-DTPA solution. Despite its much lower metal content an aqueous cocoa suspension (100 g/L) produced T2 relaxation times (T1 = 360 {+-} 21 ms, T2 = 81 {+-} 3 ms) more or less in the same range like the 5 mM iron-deferoxamine solution. Imaging of our in vitro model using clinical sequences allowed to anticipate the T1-, T2- and T2*-depiction of all used substances. Cocoa differed from all other materials with its low to moderate signal intensity on T1- and T2-weighted sequences. While all substances presented a linear 1/T1 and 1/T2 relationship towards concentration, rose hip syrup broke ranks with a disproportionately high increase of relaxation at higher concentrations. Conclusions: Rose hip syrup, black currant extract and iron-deferoxamine solution due to their positive T1 enhancement characteristics and drinkability appear to be valuable oral contrast agents for T1-weighted small bowel MRI

  15. In vitro evaluation of alternative oral contrast agents for MRI of the gastrointestinal tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babos, Magor; Schwarcz, Attila; Randhawa, Manjit Singh; Marton, Balazs; Kardos, Lilla; Palko, Andras

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: In vitro evaluation of different materials as potential alternative oral contrast agents for small bowel MRI. Materials and methods: The T1 and T2 relaxation times of rose hip syrup, black currant extract, cocoa, iron-deferoxamine solution and a commonly used oral contrast material (1 mM Gd-DTPA) were determined in vitro at different concentrations on a 1.0 T clinical MR scanner. T1 values were obtained with an inversion prepared spoiled gradient echo sequence. T2 values were obtained using multiple echo sequences. Finally the materials were visualized on T1-, T2- and T2*-weighted MR images. Results: The relaxation times of the undiluted rose hip syrup (T1 = 110 ± 5 ms, T2 = 86 ± 3 ms), black currant extract (T1 = 55 ± 3 ms, T2 = 39 ± 2 ms) and 5 mM iron-deferoxamine solution (T1 = 104 ± 4 ms, T2 = 87 ± 2 ms) were much shorter than for a 1 mM Gd-DTPA solution (T1 = 180 ± 8 ms, T2 = 168 ± 5 ms). Dilution of black currant extract to 30% or a 3 mM iron-deferoxamine solution conducted to T1 relaxation times which are quite comparable to a 1 mM Gd-DTPA solution. Despite its much lower metal content an aqueous cocoa suspension (100 g/L) produced T2 relaxation times (T1 = 360 ± 21 ms, T2 = 81 ± 3 ms) more or less in the same range like the 5 mM iron-deferoxamine solution. Imaging of our in vitro model using clinical sequences allowed to anticipate the T1-, T2- and T2*-depiction of all used substances. Cocoa differed from all other materials with its low to moderate signal intensity on T1- and T2-weighted sequences. While all substances presented a linear 1/T1 and 1/T2 relationship towards concentration, rose hip syrup broke ranks with a disproportionately high increase of relaxation at higher concentrations. Conclusions: Rose hip syrup, black currant extract and iron-deferoxamine solution due to their positive T1 enhancement characteristics and drinkability appear to be valuable oral contrast agents for T1-weighted small bowel MRI. Cocoa with its

  16. Novel glyceryl glucoside is a low toxic alternative for cryopreservation agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Cathy; Allum, Allison J. [Department of Environmental & Radiological Health Sciences, Colorado State University, 1618 Campus Delivery, Fort Collins, CO 80523 (United States); Aizawa, Yasushi [Research and Development Group, Toyo Sugar Refining Co. Ltd., Tokyo 103-0046 (Japan); Kato, Takamitsu A., E-mail: Takamitsu.Kato@Colostate.edu [Department of Environmental & Radiological Health Sciences, Colorado State University, 1618 Campus Delivery, Fort Collins, CO 80523 (United States)

    2016-08-05

    Glyceryl glucoside (GG, α-D-glucosyglycerol) is a natural glycerol derivative found in alcoholic drinks. Recently GG has been used as an alternative for glycerol in cosmetic products. However, the safety of using GG is still unclear. Currently, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and glycerol are wildly used in cryopreservation. Despite GG being a derivative of glycerol, the ability of GG in cryopreservation is still unknown. By using a system of Chinese Hamster Ovary cells (CHO), A549 cells and AG1522 cells, the study examined the cryoprotective effects of DMSO, glycerol and GG. Cytotoxic and genotoxic responses induced by the three chemicals were also investigated with CHO to determine the safety of GG for cosmetic products. Our data suggests that GG has great cryopresearvation ability in the concentration of 30%–40% (v/v). For cytotoxic studies, DMSO showed the highest cytotoxicity above 3% (v/v) in cell doubling time delay among three chemicals. For the acute cytotoxicity with trypan blue dye exclusion assay, GG showed stronger cell killing effect within 24 h above 4% (v/v). For the continuous cytotoxicity with colony formation assay for 7 days, DMSO showed significantly reduced clonogenic ability above 2%. In genotoxicity studies, CHO treated with glycerol at 2% concentration induced three times higher frequencies of sister chromatid exchange (SCE) than background levels. GG did not induce significant amounts of SCE compared to background. Micronuclei formation was equally observed in the 2% and above concentrations of glycerol and GG. Our data showed that GG has significant effects on cryopreservation compared to DMSO. Glycerol and GG have similar cytotoxicity effects to CHO, but glycerol induced genotoxic responses in the same concentration. Therefore, we conclude that GG may be a safer alternative compound to glycerol in cosmetic products and safer alternative to DMSO in cryopreservation. -- Highlights: •Glyceryl Glucoside is low cytotoxicity and genotoxicity

  17. Sensitivity of Candida albicans to essential oils: are they an alternative to antifungal agents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bona, E; Cantamessa, S; Pavan, M; Novello, G; Massa, N; Rocchetti, A; Berta, G; Gamalero, E

    2016-12-01

    Candida albicans is an important opportunistic pathogen, responsible for the majority of yeast infections in humans. Essential oils, extracted from aromatic plants, are well-known antimicrobial agents, characterized by a broad spectrum of activities, including antifungal properties. The aim of this work was to assess the sensitivity of 30 different vaginal isolated strains of C. albicans to 12 essential oils, compared to the three main used drugs (clotrimazole, fluconazole and itraconazole). Thirty strains of C. albicans were isolated from vaginal swab on CHROMagar ™ Candida. The agar disc diffusion method was employed to determine the sensitivity to the essential oils. The antifungal activity of the essential oils and antifungal drugs (clotrimazole, itraconazole and fluconazole) were investigated using a microdilution method. Transmission and scanning electron microscopy analyses were performed to get a deep inside on cellular damages. Mint, basil, lavender, tea tree oil, winter savory and oregano essential oils inhibited both the growth and the activity of C. albicans more efficiently than clotrimazole. Damages induced by essential oils at the cellular level were stronger than those caused by clotrimazole. Candida albicans is more sensitive to different essential oils compared to the main used drugs. Moreover, the essential oil affected mainly the cell wall and the membranes of the yeast. The results of this work support the research for new alternatives or complementary therapies against vaginal candidiasis. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  18. Dispersiones acuosas de poliuretano bloqueado: una alternativa como agente curtiente Aqueous dispersions of blocked polyurethane: an alternative as tanning agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Mata-Mata

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Se sintetizaron y se evaluaron como agentes curtientes de pieles vacunas dos tipos de agentes de reticulación base poliuretano bloqueado. Se presentan los resultados de la síntesis de dispersiones acuosas de poliuretano bloqueado (DPU’s, basadas en prepolímeros a partir de la reacción de los diisocianatos alifáticos H12MDI (4,4’ metilenbis-ciclohexilisocianato y HDI (hexametilendiisocianato con polioles base poliéter óxido de etileno de peso molecular 1 y 2 KDa, en una relación molar isocianato/oxhidrilo (NCO/OH de 4:1 y 6:1 a 100 °C por 2 y 4 horas. En una segunda reacción, los grupos isocianato (NCO libres del prepolímero se bloquearon con una solución acuosa de NaHSO3 ó Na2S2O5 al 40%p/p. Los prepolímeros se caracterizaron mediante espectroscopia IR y RMN de ¹H. El tanto por ciento de isocianato libre en el prepolímero, así como el bloqueo de dichos grupos, se determinaron por espectroscopía IR. La evaluación de la capacidad curtiente de las DPU’s se determinó de acuerdo a la estabilidad térmica de la piel (temperatura de desnaturalización, mediante Calorimetría Diferencial de Barrido (DSC y a la determinación del índice de reticulación de las DPU’s con la colágena de la piel mediante un ensayo con ninhidrina.Two types of crosslinking agents blocked polyurethanes were synthesized and evaluated as tanning agents of bovine skins. The results of the synthesis of aqueous dispersions of blocked polyurethane (DPU’s are presented. They were based on prepolymers from the reaction of the aliphatic diisocyanates H12MDI 4,4’-methylenebis(cyclohexyl isocyanate and HDI (hexamethylene diisocyanate with HO-polyols such as polyethylene oxide of molecular weight 1 and 2 kDa. The molar NCO/OH ratio was fixed in 4:1 or 6:1, at 100 °C and 2 or 4 hours for the reaction time. In a second reaction, the prepolymer containing terminal NCO groups were blocked by reaction with an aqueous NaHSO3 or Na2S2O5 solution to 40% w/w. The

  19. Preliminary screening of alternative technologies to incineration for treatment of chemical-agent-contaminated soil, Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shem, L.M.; Rosenblatt, D.H.; Smits, M.P.; Wilkey, P.L.; Ballou, S.W.

    1995-12-01

    In support of the U.S. Army`s efforts to determine the best technologies for remediation of soils, water, and structures contaminated with pesticides and chemical agents, Argonne National Laboratory has reviewed technologies for treating soils contaminated with mustard, lewisite, sarin, o-ethyl s-(2- (diisopropylamino)ethyl)methyl-phosphonothioate (VX), and their breakdown products. This report focuses on assessing alternatives to incineration for dealing with these contaminants. For each technology, a brief description is provided, its suitability and constraints on its use are identified, and its overall applicability for treating the agents of concern is summarized. Technologies that merit further investigation are identified.

  20. The technical viability of alternative blowing agents in polyisocyanurate roof insulation: A cooperative industry/government project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, J.E.; Courville, G.E.; Desjarlais, A.O.; Graves, R.S.; Linkous, R.L.; McElroy, D.L.; Weaver, F.J.; Wendt, R.L.; Yarbrough, D.W.

    1993-06-01

    This report is a summary of the cooperative industry/government program to establish the viability of alternative blowing agents to chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). The project was initiated in 1989 following two workshops that focused on needed research on thermal insulation blown with substitutes for CFC-11 and CFC-12. The project is directed by a steering committee of representatives of the sponsors and of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The purpose of the project is to determine if the performance of polyisocyanurate (PIR) roof insulation foam boards blown with alternate agents differs from the performance of boards blown with CFC-1. This report describes apparent thermal conductivity (k) results obtained from field and laboratory tests from 1989 to 1992 on a set of experimental PIR laminate boardstock produced to evaluate the viability of alternative hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) as blowing agents. All boardstock was manufactured from similar formulations that were not optimized for thermal performance. Commercial broadstock made in the future may differ in performance from this set. The PIR boards were prepared with CFC-11, HCFC-123, HCFC-141b, and 50/50 and 65/35 blends of HCFC-123/HCFC-141b.

  1. The role of alternative and natural agents, cryotherapy, and/or laser for management of alimentary mucositis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliorati, Cesar A; Oberle-Edwards, Loree; Schubert, Mark

    2006-06-01

    To review the literature and update the current guidelines of alternative/natural agents, cryotherapy, and/or laser therapy in the management of alimentary mucositis (AM). The original guidelines developed by the Multinational Association for Supportive Care in Cancer (MASCC)/International Society for Oral Oncology (ISOO) mucositis study group were the basis for this study. A medical librarian conducted an initial Medline search to identify research articles published between 2002 and 2005 in English language. A search term combination that included stomatitis, mucositis, mucous membrane, neoplasm, lasers, complimentary therapies, amino acids, antioxidants, vitamins, minerals, plant extracts, and cryotherapy was conducted. This initial search identified articles with a strong scientific methodology that included both preclinical and clinical research. Using standardized scoring forms, authors reviewed and scored individual articles. A consensus result of the review was achieved in a meeting of reviewers in June of 2005. The initial search identified a total of 167 new articles. Of these, 14 were selected and reviewed: alternative/natural therapy (one preclinical study); cryotherapy (four clinical studies); lasers (two clinical studies); and alternative/natural agents (seven clinical studies). A new guideline could be established for the use of cryotherapy in the management of AM in hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) patients receiving melphalan in the conditioning phase. The rapid progress in the understanding of AM created a need for new prevention and management protocols. Frequent literature review is now necessary to identify agents and protocols being developed in this important area of supportive care in cancer.

  2. Multifunctional Peroxidegas Alternative Crosslink Agents for Dynamically Vulcanized Expoxidized Natural Rubber/Polypropylene Blends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thitithammawong, A.; Thitithammawong, A.; Sahakaro, Kannika; Noordermeer, Jacobus W.M.

    2009-01-01

    Commonly used dicumyl peroxide (DCP) in combination with coagent, triallyl cyanurate (TAC), as a crosslinking agent is well acceptable for dynamically vulcanized rubber phase of thermoplastic vulcanizates (TPVs). However, it generally produces volatile decomposition products, which cause a typical

  3. Use of psyllium (isubgol) husk as an alternative gelling agent for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-04-17

    Apr 17, 2008 ... of gelling agents including carrageenans (Liners et al.,. 2005), alginates .... uronic acid 3%) is soluble in hot water, forming a highly viscous solution .... Evidence for the recognition of a secondary structure of carrageenan.

  4. Importance of the Alternative Five and Trait Emotional Intelligence for Agentic and Communal Domains of Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreja Avsec

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Many studies supported the importance of trait emotional intelligence (EI for subjective well-being but specific domains of life-satisfaction were rarely of interest. Our study investigated whether emotional intelligence is more important for interpersonal or communal-related domains (e.g. satisfaction with friends, intimate partners than for agentic domains of satisfaction (e.g. satisfaction with finances, work. Due to the problematic differential validity of trait EI from personality, the relationship between trait EI and domains of satisfaction was controlled for by personality. Slovene students and young adults (N=442 completed the Emotional Skills and Competence Questionnaire and the Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire, and rated their satisfaction with 12 aspects of life. Principal component analysis of these domains revealed three components, explaining 62% of total variance. The communal domains included self-reported satisfaction with popularity, respect, influence on others, family relationships, and intimate relationship. The agentic domains included satisfaction with professional carrier, financial situation, academic education, and achieved goals. The physical domains component was comprised of satisfaction with appearance, fitness, and health. After accounting for personality, trait EI explained 16% of variance in communal domain and 10% of variance in agentic domain, thus suggesting greater importance of trait EI for interpersonal domains. However, trait EI seems to play an important role for satisfaction in the agentic domains also, as successful management of our emotions can help us reach our goals and thus be more satisfied.

  5. Ensete ventricosum (WELW. CHEESMAN: A CHEAP AND ALTERNATIVE GELLING AGENT FOR PINEAPPLE (Ananas comosus VAR. SMOOTH CAYENNE IN VITRO PROPAGATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biruk Ayenew

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Different mechanisms are tried so far to reduce the production cost of plant tissue culture through increasing multiplication rate and/or substituting expensive components for wider usage of the technology. Subsequently, replacing the most common gelling agent, agar, took an attention since higher proportion of media cost comes from it. Up to now different alternatives were tried though they have drawbacks due to their inherent chemical characteristics. Therefore the search for new alternatives like Enset ventricosum is important. Enset flour, ‘Bulla’, has been tried in this study for the first time to substitute agar and showed no significant difference for shoots number, root number, shoot height, leaf number and an associated fresh weight of the plantlets besides good gelling ability than Agar. Subsequently, ‘Bulla’ at 80g L-1 gelled well and gave 11.8 shoots with 0.95g and 13.33 roots having 1.37 cm length. This rate can also save up to 76 % cost of gelling though significant difference was found for root length of 3.23 cm with Agar, 8 g L-1. This indicates further study on biochemical and/ or hormonal activity and across crop genotypes to use ‘Bulla’ as a cheap alternative commercial gelling agent.

  6. Searching for an alternative oral contrast agent for GI tract MR imaging; in vitro phase, initial report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okla, W.; Szeszkowski, W.; Cieszanowski, A.; Golebiowski, M.

    2002-01-01

    MR has been recently considered to be suitable method for detection GI tract pathologies. A few substances (some of a natural origin) seem to act as an efficient oral MR contrast agents. The aim of this study is to find an alternative substance, which can be administrated orally to patients in order to enhance signal intensity (SI). The ideal agent should have a biphase pattern (high SI in T1 and low in T2), and should be nontoxic and cost effective. Phantom experiments were conducted with 1.5 T MR scanner. T1W and T2W sequences were used for initial estimation. Number of different agents such as: water, Gd-DTPA, barium sulfate, green tea, blueberry juice, cranberry juice, blackcurrant juice, and some more were evaluated. Signal intensity was measured by using elliptical region of interest (ROI). MR imaging in one patient with stomach cancer was also performed. In T1W-FFE sequence cranberry juice reached satisfactorily high signal (SI=1760.14). In T2W-TSE sequence this substance reduced signal intensity (SI=23.10) almost to background level. Blueberry juice appear to be the next substance capable to generate high signal (SI=1558.31) in T1W sequence (T1-TSE). MR examination of a patient with stomach adenocarcinoma (using blueberry juice as an oral contrast agent) satisfactorily depicted and delineated tumor mass on both: T1W and T2W images. Cranberry juice and blueberry juice seemed to act effectively as oral contrast agents for gastrointestinal MR imaging. Thus they need further exploration and trials. (author)

  7. Study of Oxidizing Agents for Tritium Removal in ITER -Compatible Conditions: Alternatives to Oxygen and Ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabares, F. L.; Tafalla, D.; Ferreira, J. A.; Gomez-Aleixandre, C.; Maria Albella, J.; Soria, J.; Rodriguez-Ramos, I.

    2007-01-01

    In the present report, the studies of tritiated carbon-film removal by oxidizing agents other than Oxygen and Ozone in ITER are described. Exposure of laboratory produced a-C:H/D films and tokamak flakes (Asdex Upgrade and Textor) to nitric oxide, water and hydrogen peroxide has been carried out. Temperatures of exposure up to 350 degree centigree were used, and thermal desorption of the samples at temperatures up to 750 degree centigree was performed for sample characterization prior to and after the treatment. Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis (ERDA), Infrared Spectroscopy, XPS and Nano indentation hardness analysis were applied to the characterization of the physical and chemical changes of the samples. This work was done under the EFDA Task 04-1175. (Author) 8 refs

  8. Study of Oxidizing Agents for Tritium Removal in ITER -Compatible Conditions: Alternatives to Oxygen and Ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabares, F. L.; Tafalla, D.; Ferreira, J. A.; Gomez-Aleixandre, C.; Maria Albella, J.; Soria, J.; Rodriguez-Ramos, I.

    2007-07-20

    In the present report, the studies of tritiated carbon-film removal by oxidizing agents other than Oxygen and Ozone in ITER are described. Exposure of laboratory produced a-C:H/D films and tokamak flakes (Asdex Upgrade and Textor) to nitric oxide, water and hydrogen peroxide has been carried out. Temperatures of exposure up to 350 degree centigree were used, and thermal desorption of the samples at temperatures up to 750 degree centigree was performed for sample characterization prior to and after the treatment. Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis (ERDA), Infrared Spectroscopy, XPS and Nano indentation hardness analysis were applied to the characterization of the physical and chemical changes of the samples. This work was done under the EFDA Task 04-1175. (Author) 8 refs.

  9. The technical viability of using compost as an alternative sponging agent in the Manresa composting plant; Viabilidad tecnica de la utilizacion del compost como agent esponjante alternative en la planta de compostaje de Manresa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vila Punzano, M.; Serra Dubany, X.

    2001-07-01

    The composting plant in Manresa/San Joan de Vilatorrda (Barcelona-1994) operates with sludges from waste water treatment plants or bio solids to which it adds pine bark as a sponging agent. However the high cost of this material has led it to look for substitutes. The plant has eight windrow tuners with a staying time of 15 days and subsequent maturation in static piles for several months. A trial was carried out replacing the pine bark with compost obtained in the plant. The process functioned normally when the proportion used maintained a 30% porosity. Operating in this way reduces the consumption of bark by 29%, the compost obtained by 52% and the capacity for treating sludge in the plant by 6%. An economic analysis of these factors shows that this alternative is economically viable. (Author) 12 refs.

  10. The distribution of alternative agents for targeted radiotherapy within human neuroblastoma spheroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mairs, R.J.; Gaze, M.N.; Murray, T.; Reid, R.; McSharry, C.; Babich, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    This study aims to select the radiopharmaceutical vehicle for targeted radiotherapy of neuroblastoma which is most likely to penetrate readily the centre of micrometastases in vivo. The human neuroblastoma cell line NB1-G, grown as multicellular spheroids provided an in vitro model for micrometastases. The radiopharmaceuticals studied were the catecholamine analogue metaiodobenzyl guanidine (mIBG), a specific neuroectodermal monoclonal antibody (UJ13A) and β nerve growth factor (βNGF). Following incubation of each drug with neuroblastoma spheroids, autoradiographs of frozen sections were prepared to demonstrate their relative distributions. mIBG and βNGF were found to penetrate the centre of spheroids readily although the concentration of mIBG greatly exceeded that of βNGF. In contrast, UJ13A was only bound peripherally. We conclude that mIBG is the best available vehicle for targeted radiotherapy of neuroblastoma cells with active uptake mechanisms for catecholimines. It is suggested that radionuclides with a shorter range of emissions than 131 I may be conjugated to benzyl guanidine to constitute more effective targeting agents with potentially less toxicity to adjacent normal tissues. (author)

  11. The essential oil of Allium sativum as an alternative agent against Candida isolated from dental prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Juache, Alejandro; Aranda-Romo, Saray; Bermeo-Escalona, Josué R; Gómez-Hernández, Araceli; Pozos-Guillén, Amaury; Sánchez-Vargas, Luis Octavio

    The colonization of the surfaces of dental prostheses by Candida albicans is associated with the development of denture stomatitis. In this context, the use of fluconazole has been proposed, but its disadvantage is microbial resistance. Meanwhile, the oil of Allium sativum has shown an effect in controlling biofilm formation by C. albicans. The objective of this study was to determine the antifungal activities of the essential oil of A. sativum and fluconazole against clinical isolates of Candida species obtained from rigid, acrylic-based partial or total dentures and to compare these agents' effects on both biofilm and planktonic cells. A total of 48 clinical isolates obtained from the acrylic surface of partial or complete dentures were examined, and the following species were identified: C. albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis, and Candida krusei. For each isolate, the antifungal activities of the essential oil of A. sativum and fluconazole against both biofilm and planktonic cells were evaluated using the Clinical & Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) M27-A3 method. The isolates were also evaluated by semiquantitative XTT reduction. All planktonic Candida isolates were susceptible to the essential oil of A. sativum, whereas 4.2% were resistant to fluconazole. Regarding susceptibilities in biofilms, 43.8% of biofilms were resistant to A. sativum oil, and 91.7% were resistant to fluconazole. All planktonic cells of the different Candida species tested are susceptible to sativum oil, and the majority are susceptible to fluconazole. Susceptibility decreases in biofilm cells, with increased resistance to fluconazole compared with A. sativum oil. The essential oil of A. sativum is thus active against clinical isolates of Candida species obtained from dentures, with effects on both biofilm and planktonic cells in vitro. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Española de Micología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Design of Two Alternative Routes for the Synthesis of Naftifine and Analogues as Potential Antifungal Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Abonia

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Two practical and efficient approaches have been implemented as alternative procedures for the synthesis of naftifine and novel diversely substituted analogues 16 and 20 in good to excellent yields, mediated by Mannich-type reactions as the key step of the processes. In these approaches, the γ-aminoalcohols 15 and 19 were obtained as the key intermediates and their subsequent dehydration catalyzed either by Brønsted acids like H2SO4 and HCl or Lewis acid like AlCl3, respectively, led to naftifine, along with the target allylamines 16 and 20. The antifungal assay results showed that intermediates 18 (bearing both a β-aminoketo- and N-methyl functionalities in their structures and products 20 were the most active. Particularly, structures 18b, 18c, and the allylamine 20c showed the lowest MIC values, in the 0.5–7.8 µg/mL range, against the dermatophytes Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Interesting enough, compound 18b bearing a 4-Br as the substituent of the phenyl ring, also displayed high activity against Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans with MIC80 = 7.8 µg/mL, being fungicide rather than fungistatic with a relevant MFC value = 15.6 µg/mL against C. neoformans.

  13. Investigating Impacts of Alternative Crop Market Scenarios on Land Use Change with an Agent-Based Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng Ding

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We developed an agent-based model (ABM to simulate farmers’ decisions on crop type and fertilizer application in response to commodity and biofuel crop prices. Farm profit maximization constrained by farmers’ profit expectations for land committed to biofuel crop production was used as the decision rule. Empirical parameters characterizing farmers’ profit expectations were derived from an agricultural landowners and operators survey and integrated in the ABM. The integration of crop production cost models and the survey information in the ABM is critical to producing simulations that can provide realistic insights into agricultural land use planning and policy making. Model simulations were run with historical market prices and alternative market scenarios for corn price, soybean to corn price ratio, switchgrass price, and switchgrass to corn stover ratio. The results of the comparison between simulated cropland percentage and crop rotations with satellite-based land cover data suggest that farmers may be underestimating the effects that continuous corn production has on yields. The simulation results for alternative market scenarios based on a survey of agricultural land owners and operators in the Clear Creek Watershed in eastern Iowa show that farmers see cellulosic biofuel feedstock production in the form of perennial grasses or corn stover as a more risky enterprise than their current crop production systems, likely because of market and production risks and lock in effects. As a result farmers do not follow a simple farm-profit maximization rule.

  14. Response of Syngonium podophyllum L. ‘White Butterfly’ shoot cultures to alternative media additives and gelling agents, and flow cytometric analysis of regenerants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAIME A. TEIXEIRA DA SILVA

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Teixeira da Silva JA. 2015. Response of Syngonium podophyllum L. ‘White Butterfly’ shoot cultures to alternative media additives and gelling agents, and flow cytometric analysis of regenerants. Nusantara Bioscience 7: 26-32. Syngonium podophyllum L. (arrowhead vine is a popular leafy indoor pot plant whose tissue culture has been established, primarily through in vitro shoot culture, but several interesting aspects have not yet been explored. In this study, cv. ‘White Butterfly’ was used to investigate the response of shoot formation to alternative gelling agents and media additives. Gellan gum (Gelrite® at 2 g/L resulted in greater leaf production, plantlet fresh weight and higher chlorophyll content (SPAD value than all other gelling agents tested, including agar, Bacto agar, phytagel, oatmeal agar, potato dextrose agar, barley starch and corn starch, when on a basal Hyponex® (NPK = 6.5: 6: 19; 3 g/L medium. Several alternative liquid medium additives tested (low and full fat milk, Coca-Cola®, coffee, Japanese green, Oolong and Darjeeling teas negatively impacted plant growth, stunted roots and decreased chlorophyll content (SPAD value of leaves. Plant growth on medium with refined sucrose or table sugar responded similarly. Poor growth was observed when crude extract from a high rebaudioside-containing stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni line - an artificial sweetener - was used. Leaf tissue from the control did not show any endopolyploidy but low levels of endopolyploidy (8C were detected in some treatments.

  15. EFFECTS OF ALTERNATE ANTIFOAM AGENTS, NOBLE METALS, MIXING SYSTEMS AND MASS TRANSFER ON GAS HOLDUP AND RELEASE FROM NONNEWTONIAN SLURRIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerrero, H; Mark Fowley, M; Charles Crawford, C; Michael Restivo, M; Robert Leishear, R

    2007-12-24

    Gas holdup tests performed in a small-scale mechanically-agitated mixing system at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) were reported in 2006. The tests were for a simulant of waste from the Hanford Tank 241-AZ-101 and featured additions of DOW Corning Q2-3183A Antifoam agent. Results indicated that this antifoam agent (AFA) increased gas holdup in the waste simulant by about a factor of four and, counter intuitively, that the holdup increased as the simulant shear strength decreased (apparent viscosity decreased). These results raised questions about how the AFA might affect gas holdup in Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) vessels mixed by air sparging and pulse-jet mixers (PJMs). And whether the WTP air supply system being designed would have the capacity to handle a demand for increased airflow to operate the sparger-PJM mixing systems should the AFA increase retention of the radiochemically generated flammable gases in the waste by making the gas bubbles smaller and less mobile, or decrease the size of sparger bubbles making them mix less effectively for a given airflow rate. A new testing program was developed to assess the potential effects of adding the DOW Corning Q2-3183A AFA to WTP waste streams by first confirming the results of the work reported in 2006 by Stewart et al. and then determining if the AFA in fact causes such increased gas holdup in a prototypic sparger-PJM mixing system, or if the increased holdup is just a feature of the small-scale agitation system. Other elements of the new program include evaluating effects other variables could have on gas holdup in systems with AFA additions such as catalysis from trace noble metals in the waste, determining mass transfer coefficients for the AZ-101 waste simulant, and determining whether other AFA compositions such as Dow Corning 1520-US could also increase gas holdup in Hanford waste. This new testing program was split into two investigations, prototypic sparger

  16. Alternative Sources Of Protein And Bulking Agent For Mass Rearing Of The Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis Capitata (WIED.), For The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SHOMAN, A.A.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop suitable and economic diets for mass rearing of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) (Diptera: Tephritidae), larvae by testing alternative sources of protein and bulking agent. Two larval diet groups for laboratory rearing of the medfly were conducted in addition to the control diet. The first group kept the sources of bulking agent constant (wheat bran) while the kind and the ratio of sources of protein were changed (brewer's yeast, soybean, schemed milk and agar). In the second group, the fiber (used for filling the pillows) and a paste of cardboard eggs box trays were used instead of wheat bran as bulking agent against the yeast and soybean as protein sources. To investigate the effect of the new sources of bulking agent and the kind or the ratio of the protein sources on the development and viability of the medfly, larval duration, pupal recovery, pupal weight, adult emergence, and flight ability were checked. The larval duration, pupal weight, adult recovery and flight ability were unaffected when soybean or a mixture from yeast, soybean, schemed milk and agar as protein sources for larval diet were used. The larvae reared on diets based on schemed milk or agar as sources of protein did not complete their life cycle. The percent of pupal recovery of larvae reread on diets of soybean or a mixture of protein sources were not affected except when larvae were reared on diets based on a mixture of soybean and schemed milk or schemed milk and agar. Larval duration was extended by one to two days more than the control when the fiber or a mixture of it with bran or paste of cardboard of eggs box was used as bulking agent. A paste of cardboard eggs box as bulking agent led to the extension of the larval duration by more than four days than in control. Pupal recovery was significantly decreased at all diets of the second group except the diet containing a mixture of 4 % fiber and 10 % bran as bulking agent

  17. DNA-Destabilizing Agents as an Alternative Approach for Targeting DNA: Mechanisms of Action and Cellular Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaëlle Lenglet

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available DNA targeting drugs represent a large proportion of the actual anticancer drug pharmacopeia, both in terms of drug brands and prescription volumes. Small DNA-interacting molecules share the ability of certain proteins to change the DNA helix's overall organization and geometrical orientation via tilt, roll, twist, slip, and flip effects. In this ocean of DNA-interacting compounds, most stabilize both DNA strands and very few display helix-destabilizing properties. These types of DNA-destabilizing effect are observed with certain mono- or bis-intercalators and DNA alkylating agents (some of which have been or are being developed as cancer drugs. The formation of locally destabilized DNA portions could interfere with protein/DNA recognition and potentially affect several crucial cellular processes, such as DNA repair, replication, and transcription. The present paper describes the molecular basis of DNA destabilization, the cellular impact on protein recognition, and DNA repair processes and the latter's relationships with antitumour efficacy.

  18. Bioethanol Production From Cellulose by Candida tropicalis, as An Alternative Microbial Agent to Produce Ethanol from Lignocellulosic Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermansyah

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Candida tropicalis isolated from Tuak is a potentially useful microorganism for the ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass and it can be alterbative agent replacing Saccharomyces cerevisae for fermentation process. Although C.tropicalis could not convert all carbohydrates content of lignocellulosic into bioethanol, however it is able to grow on medium in the presence of either xylose or arabinose as carbon source. Our result showed that fermentation of 10 % (w/v cellulosic as sole carbon source produced 2.88% (v/v ethanol by C.tropicalis. This ethanol production was lower than usage of 10% (w/v dextrose as sole carbon source medium which producing 5.51% (v/v ethanol. Based upon our expreiment indicated that C.tropicalis is able to conduct two main process in converting of cellulosic material- to ethanol which is hydrolysis the degradation of cellulose into glucose, and fermentation the process the conversion glucose into bioethanol. Keywords : Candida tropicalis, bioethanol, fermentation, cellulosic Abstrak (Indonesian: Candida tropicalis yang diisiolasi dari Tuak adalah agen yang berpotensi dalam produksi etanol dari biomasa lignoselulosa dan dapat dijadikan agen alternatif menggantikan Saccharomyces cerevisiae pada proses fernentasi. Walaupun C.tropicalis tidak dapat mengkonversi semua kandungan karbohidrat lignoselulosamenjadi etanol, akan tetapi C.tropicalis mampu tumbuh pada media dengan xilosa atau arabinosa sebagaisumber karbon. Hasil kami menunjukkan bahwa dengan mengguankan C.tropicalis fermentasi 10% (w/v selulosa sebagai satu-satunya sumber karbon menghasilkan 2,88% (v/v etanol, Produksi etanol ini lebih rendah jika menggunakan 10% (w/v dekstrosa sebagai satu satunya sumber karbon yang menghasilkan 5,51% (v/v etanol. Berdasarkan percobaan menunjukkan bahwa C.tropicalis mampu melakukan dua proses utama dalam mengkonversi material selulosa menjadi etanol yaitu hidrolisis degradasi selulosa menjadi glukosa, dan

  19. Alternative Oral Agents in Prophylaxis and Therapy of Uterine Fibroids—An Up-to-Date Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Ciebiera

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Uterine fibroids (UFs are the most common tumors of the female genital tract. The effect of UFs on the quality of life and the overall cost of treatment are significant issues worldwide. Tumor size and location are the two specific factors which influence the occurrence of symptoms, the need for, and method of, treatment (some tumors require surgery while some can be treated with selected drugs. Primary prevention and treatment of early UF disease are worthy goals that might have a great impact on health care systems. Several treatments and prophylactic methods can be used in this endeavor. This publication presents current data about lesser-known substances which may have a beneficial effect on the treatment or prophylaxis of UFs and can be administered orally, serving as an alternative to (or complement of surgery or selective progesterone receptor modulators (SPRMs. Early prevention and treatment of UFs in women from high-risk groups should be our priority. Innovative forms of UF management are under intensive investigation and may be promising options in the near future. Many of them evaluated vitamin D, paricalcitol, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG, elagolix, aromatase inhibitors (AIs, and cabergoline and deemed them to be safe and effective. The next step in such projects should be properly constructed randomized control trials (RCTs, carried out by successive phases.

  20. The Usability of Boric Acid as an Alternative Foaming Agent on the Fabrication of Al/Al2O3 Composite Foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaman, Bilge; Onuklu, Eren; Korpe, Nese O.

    2017-09-01

    Pure Al and alumina (2, 5, 10 wt.% Al2O3)-added Al composite foams were fabricated through powder metallurgy technique, where boric acid (H3BO3) is employed as a new alternative foaming agent. It is aimed to determine the effects of boric acid on the foaming behavior and cellular structure and also purposed to develop the mechanical properties of Al foams by addition of Al2O3. Al and Al composite foams with porosity fraction in the range of 46-53% were achieved by sintering at 620 °C for 2 h. Cell morphology was characterized using a combination of stereomicroscope equipped with image analyzer and scanning electron microscopy. Microhardness values were measured via using Vickers indentation technique. Quasi-static compression tests were performed at strain rate of 10-3 s-1. Compressive strength and energy absorption of the composite foams enhanced not only by the increasing weight fraction of alumina, but also by the usage of boric acid which leads to formation of boron oxide (B2O3) acting as a binder in obtaining dense cell walls. The results revealed that the boric acid has outstanding potential as foaming agent in the fabrication of Al and Al composite foams by providing improved mechanical properties.

  1. Cost effectiveness of long-acting risperidone injection versus alternative antipsychotic agents in patients with schizophrenia in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Natalie C; Locklear, Julie C; Rupnow, Marcia F T; Diamond, Ronald J

    2005-01-01

    The availability of long-acting risperidone injection may increase adherence and lead to improved clinical and economic outcomes for individuals with schizophrenia. The objective of this study was to assess the cost effectiveness of long-acting risperidone, oral risperidone, olanzapine, quetiapine, ziprasidone, aripiprazole, and haloperidol depot in patients with schizophrenia over 1 year from a healthcare system perspective. Published medical literature, unpublished data from clinical trials and a consumer health database, and a clinical expert panel were utilized to populate a decision analytical model comparing the seven treatment alternatives. The model captured rates of patient compliance, the rates, frequency and duration of relapse, incidence of adverse events, and healthcare resource utilization and associated costs. Primary outcomes were expressed in terms of percentage of patients relapsing per year, number of relapse days per year (number and duration of relapses per patient per year), and total direct 2003 medical cost per patient per year. On the basis of model projections, the proportions of patients experiencing a relapse requiring hospitalization in 1 year were 66% for haloperidol depot, 41% for oral risperidone, olanzapine, quetiapine, ziprasidone, and aripiprazole, and 26% for long-acting risperidone, whereas the proportions of patients with an exacerbation not requiring hospitalization were 60% for haloperidol depot, 37% for oral risperidone, olanzapine, quetiapine, ziprasidone, and aripiprazole, and 24% for long-acting risperidone. The mean number of days of relapse requiring hospitalization per patient per year were 28 for haloperidol depot, 18 for oral risperidone, olanzapine, quetiapine, ziprasidone, and aripiprazole, and 11 for long-acting risperidone, whereas the mean number of days of exacerbation not requiring hospitalization were eight for haloperidol depot, five for oral risperidone, olanzapine, quetiapine, ziprasidone, and aripiprazole

  2. [Alkylating agents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourquier, Philippe

    2011-11-01

    With the approval of mechlorethamine by the FDA in 1949 for the treatment of hematologic malignancies, alkylating agents are the oldest class of anticancer agents. Even though their clinical use is far beyond the use of new targeted therapies, they still occupy a major place in specific indications and sometimes represent the unique option for the treatment of refractory diseases. Here, we are reviewing the major classes of alkylating agents and their mechanism of action, with a particular emphasis for the new generations of alkylating agents. As for most of the chemotherapeutic agents used in the clinic, these compounds are derived from natural sources. With a complex but original mechanism of action, they represent new interesting alternatives for the clinicians, especially for tumors that are resistant to conventional DNA damaging agents. We also briefly describe the different strategies that have been or are currently developed to potentiate the use of classical alkylating agents, especially the inhibition of pathways that are involved in the repair of DNA lesions induced by these agents. In this line, the development of PARP inhibitors is a striking example of the recent regain of interest towards the "old" alkylating agents.

  3. Results and Lessons Learned from a Coupled Social and Physical Hydrology Model: Testing Alternative Water Management Policies and Institutional Structures Using Agent-Based Modeling and Regional Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, J.; Lammers, R. B.; Prousevitch, A.; Ozik, J.; Altaweel, M.; Collier, N. T.; Kliskey, A. D.; Alessa, L.

    2015-12-01

    Water Management in the U.S. Southwest is under increasing scrutiny as many areas endure persistent drought. The impact of these prolonged dry conditions is a product of regional climate and hydrological conditions, but also of a highly engineered water management infrastructure and a complex web of social arrangements whereby water is allocated, shared, exchanged, used, re-used, and finally consumed. We coupled an agent-based model with a regional hydrological model to understand the dynamics in one richly studied and highly populous area: southern Arizona, U.S.A., including metropolitan Phoenix and Tucson. There, multiple management entities representing an array of municipalities and other water providers and customers, including private companies and Native American tribes are enmeshed in a complex legal and economic context in which water is bought, leased, banked, and exchanged in a variety of ways and on multiple temporal and physical scales. A recurrent question in the literature of adaptive management is the impact of management structure on overall system performance. To explore this, we constructed an agent-based model to capture this social complexity, and coupled this with a physical hydrological model that we used to drive the system under a variety of water stress scenarios and to assess the regional impact of the social system's performance. We report the outcomes of ensembles of runs in which varieties of alternative policy constraints and management strategies are considered. We hope to contribute to policy discussions in this area and connected and legislatively similar areas (such as California) as current conditions change and existing legal and policy structures are revised. Additionally, we comment on the challenges of integrating models that ostensibly are in different domains (physical and social) but that independently represent a system in which physical processes and human actions are closely intertwined and difficult to disentangle.

  4. Low-Molecular-Weight Iron Chelates May Be an Alternative to Gadolinium-based Contrast Agents for T1-weighted Contrast-enhanced MR Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm-Sturm, Philipp; Haeckel, Akvile; Hauptmann, Ralf; Mueller, Susanne; Kuhl, Christiane K; Schellenberger, Eyk A

    2018-02-01

    = .003). Conclusion Iron-based contrast agents are promising as alternatives for contrast enhancement at T1-weighted MR imaging and have the potential to contribute to the safety of MR imaging. © RSNA, 2017 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  5. Combining Remote Sensing and Multi-Agent Simulation to Assess Alternative Water Management Policies in Conflict-Prone Areas - The Case of the Yarmouk River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avisse, N.; Tilmant, A.; Zhang, H.; Talozi, S.; Muller, M. F.; Rajsekhar, D.; Yoon, J.; Gorelick, S.

    2016-12-01

    The Yarmouk River, the main tributary to the Jordan River, is shared but not jointly managed by three countries: Syria, Jordan and Israel. Political distrust and conflicts mean that the equitable sharing of its waters has never materialized despite the signature of bilateral agreements. This state of affairs culminated in the 90ies and led to a rapid change in the flow regime of the Yarmouk River, where both peak and base flows almost disappeared at the turn of the millennium. Jordan blames Syria for building more dams than agreed on in 1987, while Syria blames Israel for doing the same in the Golan Heights. Even though less water is available for downstream Jordan and Israel, these two countries keep exchanging water, following updated rules since the 1994 Peace Treaty. While both literature and stakeholders in the region concur that most freshwater resources are consumed in Syria, there is actually no study that tracks agricultural and storage changes, both legal and illegal, in the Yarmouk basin in relation to the flow regime. This exercise is compounded by unavailability of information on water uses due to the long-standing lack of cooperation in the region, an issue exacerbated more recently by the ongoing civil war in Syria. Using a modeling framework based on remote sensing and a multi-agent simulation model, changes in the Yarmouk River flow regime are explained for three different development stages corresponding to the years 1984, 1998 and 2014. Landsat images, coupled with the analysis of land surface temperature, made possible the distinction of rainfed and irrigated crops, as well as the estimation of reservoirs' storage. For each stage, the impact on downstream riparian countries is assessed using a simulation model of the Israel-Jordan Peace Treaty. Other scenarios are also analyzed to assess the effectiveness of alternative policy and cooperation scenarios including water demand management measures in Syria, the reoperation of illegal reservoirs and

  6. Controle alternativo de Colletotrichum acutatum agente causal da queda prematura dos frutos cítricos Alternative control of Colletotrichum acutatum, causal agent of postbloom fruit drop of citrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Cristina Kupper

    2009-12-01

    , verificou-se que, onde foram aplicados os ACBs 69; 76; 74 e 77, as porcentagens de pétalas sem sintomas de infecção por C. acutatum foram de 83; 92; 92 e 97%, respectivamente. Mediante avaliações a campo, verificou-se a potencialidade de B. subtilis e de biofertilizantes em controlar a doença.Postbloom Fruit Drop of Citrus (PDF, caused by Colletotrichum acutatum, has caused losses to citrus producers and therefore it is economically very important. This disease is generally controlled by fungicide sprayings, which increase the production cost, and affects the environment. Thus, this work aimed at developing an alternative control method through the use of biocontrol agents, or biofertilizers. Different concentrations of biofertilizers (from two distinct sources and named Bio1 and Bio2, three strains of Bacillus subitlis (BCA-69, 72 and 77 and three isolates of Trichoderma spp. (BCA-14, 37 and 39 were tested, in vitro, alone or in combination, for the inhibitory capacity of conidia germination of C. acutatum. It was studied the production of thermo-stable metabolites by B. subtilis and their effect on the germination of C. acutatum conidia. Under in vivo conditions, 15 isolates of B. subtilis were tested for the ability to prevent C. acutatum infection on 'Tahiti' lime detached flowers and in the field, where two experiments were installed, for testing the BCA and biofertilizers in the control of the disease. It was found that the isolate BCA-72 (B. subtilis and BCA-37 (T. pseudokoningii were the most efficient in inhibiting conidia germination. BCA69 and BCA-77 were the most effective in producing anti-fungal substances, and in quantities sufficient to inhibit the germination of C. acutatum. The mixture of four strains of Bacillus (BCA: 69, 72, 77 and AP3 presented the highest percentage of inhibition (73%. Regarding the use of biofertilizers (Bio1 and Bio2, it was observed that concentrations above 10% of the product, when combined with the strains of Trichoderma spp

  7. Polymeric Sorbent with Controlled Surface Polarity: An Alternate for Solid-Phase Extraction of Nerve Agents and Their Markers from Organic Matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Kanchan Sinha; Purohit, Ajay Kumar; Chandra, Buddhadeb; Goud, D Raghavender; Pardasani, Deepak; Dubey, Devendra Kumar

    2018-06-05

    Extraction and identification of lethal nerve agents and their markers in complex organic background have a prime importance from the forensic and verification viewpoint of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC). Liquid-liquid extraction with acetonitrile and commercially available solid phase silica cartridges are extensively used for this purpose. Silica cartridges exhibit limited applicability for relatively polar analytes, and acetonitrile extraction shows limited efficacy toward relatively nonpolar analytes. The present study describes the synthesis of polymeric sorbents with tunable surface polarity, their application as a solid-phase extraction (SPE) material against nerve agents and their polar as well as nonpolar markers from nonpolar organic matrices. In comparison with the acetonitrile extraction and commercial silica cartridges, the new sorbent showed better extraction efficiency toward analytes of varying polarity. The extraction parameters were optimized for the proposed method, which included ethyl acetate as an extraction solvent and n-hexane as a washing solvent. Under optimized conditions, method linearity ranged from 0.10 to 10 μg mL -1 ( r 2 = 0.9327-0.9988) for organophosphorus esters and 0.05-20 μg mL -1 ( r 2 = 0.9976-0.9991) for nerve agents. Limits of detection (S:N = 3:1) in the SIM mode were found in the range of 0.03-0.075 μg mL -1 for organophosphorus esters and 0.015-0.025 μg mL -1 for nerve agents. Limits of quantification (S:N = 10:1) were found in the range of 0.100-0.25 μg mL -1 for organophosphorus esters and 0.05-0.100 μg mL -1 for nerve agents in the SIM mode. The recoveries of the nerve agents and their markers ranged from 90.0 to 98.0% and 75.0 to 95.0% respectively. The repeatability and reproducibility (with relative standard deviations (RSDs) %) for organophosphorus esters were found in the range of 1.35-8.61% and 2.30-9.25% respectively. For nerve agents, the repeatability range from 1.00 to 7.75% and reproducibility

  8. Alternative drugs of abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, M E; Chenoweth, J; Albertson, T E

    2014-02-01

    The incidence of drug abuse with alternative agents is increasing. The term "alternative drugs of abuse" is a catch-all term for abused chemicals that do not fit into one of the classic categories of drugs of abuse. The most common age group abusing these agents range from 17 to 25 years old and are often associated with group settings. Due to their diverse pharmacological nature, legislative efforts to classify these chemicals as a schedule I drug have lagged behind the development of new alternative agents. The potential reason for abuse of these agents is their hallucinogenic, dissociative, stimulant, anti-muscarinic, or sedative properties. Some of these drugs are easily obtainable such as Datura stramonium (Jimson Weed) or Lophophora williamsii (Peyote) because they are natural plants indigenous to certain regions. The diverse pharmacology and clinical effects of these agents are so broad that they do not produce a universal constellation of signs and symptoms. Detailed physical exams are essential for identifying clues leading one to suspect an alternative drug of abuse. Testing for the presence of these agents is often limited, and even when available, the results do not return in a timely fashion. Intoxications from these agents pose unique challenges for health care providers. Physician knowledge of the physiological effects of these alternative agents and the local patterns of drug of abuse are important for the accurate diagnosis and optimal care of poisoned patients. This review summarizes the current knowledge of alternative drugs of abuse and highlights their clinical presentations.

  9. The combination of reducing agents/iron as environmentally friendlier alternatives for Co-based driers in the drying of alkyd paints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Micciche, F.; Oostveen, E.A.; Haveren, van J.; Linde, van der R.

    2005-01-01

    In answer to the increased demand for Co-free driers for alkyd based paints, a biomimetic approach has been used to find suitable and environmentally friendly alternatives for Co-based driers for alkyd paints. This approach was chosen due to the resemblance between the mechanisms by which alkyd

  10. Liquid chromatography and supercritical fluid chromatography as alternative techniques to gas chromatography for the rapid screening of anabolic agents in urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desfontaine, Vincent; Nováková, Lucie; Ponzetto, Federico; Nicoli, Raul; Saugy, Martial; Veuthey, Jean-Luc; Guillarme, Davy

    2016-06-17

    This work describes the development of two methods involving supported liquid extraction (SLE) sample treatment followed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography or ultra-high performance supercritical fluid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS and UHPSFC-MS/MS) for the screening of 43 anabolic agents in human urine. After evaluating different stationary phases, a polar-embedded C18 and a diol columns were selected for UHPLC-MS/MS and UHPSFC-MS/MS, respectively. Sample preparation, mobile phases and MS conditions were also finely tuned to achieve highest selectivity, chromatographic resolution and sensitivity. Then, the performance of these two methods was compared to the reference routine procedure for steroid analyses in anti-doping laboratories, which combines liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) followed by gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). For this purpose, urine samples spiked with the compounds of interest at five different concentrations were analyzed using the three analytical platforms. The retention and selectivity of the three techniques were very different, ensuring a good complementarity. However, the two new methods displayed numerous advantages. The overall procedure was much faster thanks to high throughput SLE sample treatment using 48-well plates and faster chromatographic analysis. Moreover, the highest sensitivity was attained using UHPLC-MS/MS with 98% of the doping agents detected at the lowest concentration level (0.1ng/mL), against 76% for UHPSFC-MS/MS and only 14% for GC-MS/MS. Finally, the weakest matrix effects were obtained with UHPSFC-MS/MS with 76% of the analytes displaying relative matrix effect between -20 and 20%, while the GC-MS/MS reference method displayed very strong matrix effects (over 100%) for all of the anabolic agents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Exploration of alternative test methods to evaluate phototoxicity of ophthalmic agents by using Statens Seruminstitut Rabbit Cornea cell lines and 3D human reconstituted cornea models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soyoung Kim

    Full Text Available Many chemicals have been reported to induce phototoxicity. The absorbance of light energy within the sunlight range is a common characteristic of phototoxicity. The 3T3 NRU phototoxicity test (PT in 3T3 mouse skin fibroblasts has been used to identify the phototoxic potential induced by excited chemicals after exposure to ultra violet (UV. However, as phototoxicity may occur in ocular cells, it is necessary to develop a more suitable test for cornea-derived cells. In this study, we attempted to establish a new in vitro PT method in rabbit corneal cell lines (SIRC. We evaluated five ophthalmic agents, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, lomefloxacin, norfloxacin, and tetracycline, for their cytotoxic potential and in vitro phototoxicity. The results obtained using 3D human corneal models revealed that the UV-induced eye tissue toxicity by the test substances showed good correlation with those obtained using the in vitro phototoxicity test. However, the results from the 3D PT for ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, and tetracycline in the 3D human cornea model were only partially comparable. Therefore, we suggest the SIRC cell line as a new phototoxicity test model; however, a sequential testing strategy, such as 3D PT, was also proposed to obtain relevant information for topical eye agents.

  12. Radioprotective Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilker Kelle

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Since1949, a great deal of research has been carried out on the radioprotective activity of various chemical substances. Thiol compounds, compounds which contain –SH radical, different classes of pharmacological agents and other compounds such as vitamine C and WR-2721 have been shown to reduce mortality when administered prior to exposure to a lethal dose of radiation. Recently, honey bee venom as well as that of its components melittin and histamine have shown to be valuable in reduction of radiation-induced damage and also provide prophylactic alternative treatment for serious side effects related with radiotherapy. It has been suggested that the radioprotective activity of bee venom components is related with the stimulation of the hematopoetic system.

  13. Remarkable proanthocyanidin adsorption properties of monastrell pomace cell wall material highlight its potential use as an alternative fining agent in red wine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista-Ortín, Ana Belén; Ruiz-García, Yolanda; Marín, Fátima; Molero, Noelia; Apolinar-Valiente, Rafael; Gómez-Plaza, Encarna

    2015-01-21

    The existence of interactions between the polysaccharides of vegetal cell walls and proanthocyanins makes this cell wall material an interesting option for its use as a fining agent to reduce the level of proanthocyanins in wines. Pomace wastes from the winery are widely available and a source of cell wall material, and the identification of varieties whose pomace cell walls present high proanthocyanin binding capacity and of processing methods that could enhance their adsorption properties could be of great interest. This study compared the proanthocyanin adsorption properties of pomace cell wall material from three different grape varieties (Monastrell, Cabernet Sauvignon, and Syrah), and the results were compared with those obtained using fresh grape cell walls. Also, the effect of the vinification method has been studied. Analysis of the proanthocyanidins in the solution after reaction with the cell wall material, using phloroglucinolysis and size exclusion chromatography, provided quantitative and qualitative information on the adsorbed and nonadsorbed compounds. A highlight of this study was the observation that Monastrell pomace cell wall material showed a strong affinity for proanthocyanidins, with values similar to that obtained for fresh grapes cell walls, and a preferential binding of high molecular mass proanthocyanidins, so these pomace cell walls could be used in wines to reduce astringency. The use of maceration enzymes during vinification had little effect on the retention capacity of the pomace cell walls obtained from this vinification, although an increase in the retention of low molecular mass proanthocyanidins was observed, and this might have implications for wine sensory properties.

  14. A New Bis(aquated) High Relaxivity Mn(II) Complex as an Alternative to Gd(III)-Based MRI Contrast Agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phukan, Bedika; Mukherjee, Chandan; Goswami, Upashi; Sarmah, Amrit; Mukherjee, Subhajit; Sahoo, Suban K; Moi, Sankar Ch

    2018-03-05

    Disclosed here are a piperazine, a pyridine, and two carboxylate groups containing pentadentate ligand H 2 pmpa and its corresponding water-soluble Mn(II) complex (1). DFT-based structural optimization implied that the complex had pentagonal bipyramidal geometry where the axial positions were occupied by two water molecules, and the equatorial plane was constituted by the ligand ON 3 O donor set. Thus, a bis(aquated) disc-like Mn(II) complex has been synthesized. The complex showed higher stability compared with Mn(II)-EDTA complex [log K MnL = 14.29(3)] and showed a very high r 1 relaxivity value of 5.88 mM -1 s -1 at 1.41 T, 25 °C, and pH = 7.4. The relaxivity value remained almost unaffected by the pH of the medium in the range of 6-10. Although the presence of 200 equiv of fluoride and bicarbonate anions did not affect the relaxivity value appreciably, an increase in the value was noticed in the presence of phosphate anion due to slow tumbling of the complex. Cell viability measurements, as well as phantom MR images using clinical MRI imager, consolidated the possible candidature of complex 1 as a positive contrast agent.

  15. Biological Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... E-Tools Safety and Health Topics / Biological Agents Biological Agents This page requires that javascript be enabled ... 202) 693-2300 if additional assistance is required. Biological Agents Menu Overview In Focus: Ebola Frederick A. ...

  16. Structural studies of alternative oxidase (AOX) from moniliophthora perniciosa, the causal agent of witches' broom disease in cacao: a membrane-associated protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, J.F.; Prado, P.F.V.; Tiezzi, H.O.; Dias, S.M.G.; Ambrosio, A.L.B.; Thomazella, D.P.T.; Teixeira, P.J.P.L.; Pereira, G.A.G.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Alternative oxidase (AOX) is a protein attached to the inner mitochondrial membrane that receives electrons directly from reduced ubiquinone and catalyzes the reduction of oxygen to water. AOX is a non-proton motive terminal quinol oxidase that enables cell respiration to continue even in the presence of inhibitors targeting the complexes of the respiratory chain. This protein is present in higher plants, pathogenic fungi and some parasites. The structural characterization of AOX becomes interesting due to its potential as a fungicide target. AOX is predicted to be a monotopic interfacial membrane protein interacting with a single leaflet of the lipid bilayer, rather than transmembrane. Amino acid sequence analysis reveals the presence of two conserved glutamate-histidine motifs, identifying it as a member of the diiron carboxylate protein family. The AOX model is defined by two pairs of helices forming a four helix bundle and an additional hydrophobic connecting sequence between the two helical pairs is proposed to act as the membrane anchoring region. In this work we aim at production, purification and crystallization of the AOX protein from M. perniciosa for further structural studies of this membrane-associated protein, by X-ray protein crystallography (author)

  17. Structural studies of alternative oxidase (AOX) from moniliophthora perniciosa, the causal agent of witches' broom disease in cacao: a membrane-associated protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, J.F.; Prado, P.F.V.; Tiezzi, H.O.; Dias, S.M.G.; Ambrosio, A.L.B. [Laboratorio Nacional de Biociencias - LNBIO, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Thomazella, D.P.T.; Teixeira, P.J.P.L.; Pereira, G.A.G. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Full text: Alternative oxidase (AOX) is a protein attached to the inner mitochondrial membrane that receives electrons directly from reduced ubiquinone and catalyzes the reduction of oxygen to water. AOX is a non-proton motive terminal quinol oxidase that enables cell respiration to continue even in the presence of inhibitors targeting the complexes of the respiratory chain. This protein is present in higher plants, pathogenic fungi and some parasites. The structural characterization of AOX becomes interesting due to its potential as a fungicide target. AOX is predicted to be a monotopic interfacial membrane protein interacting with a single leaflet of the lipid bilayer, rather than transmembrane. Amino acid sequence analysis reveals the presence of two conserved glutamate-histidine motifs, identifying it as a member of the diiron carboxylate protein family. The AOX model is defined by two pairs of helices forming a four helix bundle and an additional hydrophobic connecting sequence between the two helical pairs is proposed to act as the membrane anchoring region. In this work we aim at production, purification and crystallization of the AOX protein from M. perniciosa for further structural studies of this membrane-associated protein, by X-ray protein crystallography (author)

  18. Alternative security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weston, B.H.

    1990-01-01

    This book contains the following chapters: The Military and Alternative Security: New Missions for Stable Conventional Security; Technology and Alternative Security: A Cherished Myth Expires; Law and Alternative Security: Toward a Just World Peace; Politics and Alternative Security: Toward a More Democratic, Therefore More Peaceful, World; Economics and Alternative Security: Toward a Peacekeeping International Economy; Psychology and Alternative Security: Needs, Perceptions, and Misperceptions; Religion and Alternative Security: A Prophetic Vision; and Toward Post-Nuclear Global Security: An Overview

  19. Comparison of Alternative Androgen Receptor-axis-targeted Agent (ARATA) and Docetaxel as Second-line Therapy for Patients With Metastatic Castration-resistant Prostate Cancer With Progression After Initial ARATA in Real-world Clinical Practice in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Hideaki; Sugiyama, Takayuki; Aki, Ryota; Matsushita, Yuto; Tamura, Keita; Motoyama, Daisuke; Ito, Toshiki; Otsuka, Atsushi

    2018-06-01

    The objective of the present study was to assess the oncologic outcomes of patients receiving second-line therapy against metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). The present study included 222 consecutive mCRPC patients with progression during initial androgen receptor-axis-targeted agent (ARATA) therapy with either abiraterone acetate (AA) or enzalutamide (Enz). Of these 222 patients, 108 subsequently received an alternative ARATA (AA-to-Enz, n = 49; Enz-to-AA, n = 59) and 114 received docetaxel (DTX; AA-to-DTX, n = 54; Enz-to-DTX, n = 60). The prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level in the 114 patients receiving DTX was significantly greater than that in the 108 patients receiving ARATA. However, no significant differences were found in the remaining parameters between the 2 groups. The PSA response rate, PSA progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) during second-line therapy in the DTX group (n = 114) were significantly superior to those for the ARATA group (n = 108; PSA response rate, 42.1% vs. 21.3%; median PSA PFS, 7.2 vs. 4.2 months; median OS, 17.5 vs. 14.5 months). Similar trends were confirmed by comparing these outcomes among 4 therapy groups, with significant differences (PSA response rate, Enz-to-AA vs. AA-to-DTX and Enz-to-AA vs. Enz-to-DTX; PSA PFS, AA-to-Enz vs. Enz-to-AA, AA-to-Enz vs. AA-to-DTX, Enz-to-AA vs. AA-to-DTX, and Enz-to-AA vs. Enz-to-DTX; and OS, Enz-to-AA vs. AA-to-DTX and Enz-to-AA vs. Enz-to-DTX). Furthermore, the introduction of DTX was independently associated with improved PSA PFS, but not OS, on multivariate analysis. Favorable oncologic outcomes can be expected with DTX treatment, rather than with alternative ARATA, for mCRPC patients after failure of an initial ARATA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Alternative additives; Alternative additiver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-08-15

    In this project a number of industrial and agricultural waste products have been characterised and evaluated in terms of alkali-getter performance. The intended use is for biomass-fired power stations aiming at reducing corrosion or slagging related problems. The following products have been obtained, characterised and evaluated: 1) Brewery draff 2) Danish de-gassed manure 3) Paper sludge 4) Moulding sand 5) Spent bleaching earth 6) Anorthosite 7) Sand 8) Clay-sludge. Most of the above alternative additive candidates are deemed unsuitable due to insufficient chemical effect and/or expensive requirements for pre-treatment (such as drying and transportation). 3 products were selected for full-scale testing: de-gassed manure, spent bleaching earth and clay slugde. The full scale tests were undertaken at the biomass-fired power stations in Koege, Slagelse and Ensted. Spent bleaching earth (SBE) and clay sludge were the only tested additive candidates that had a proven ability to react with KCl, to thereby reduce Cl-concentrations in deposits, and reduce the deposit flux to superheater tubes. Their performance was shown to nearly as good as commercial additives. De-gassed manure, however, did not evaluate positively due to inhibiting effects of Ca in the manure. Furthermore, de-gassed manure has a high concentration of heavy metals, which imposes a financial burden with regard to proper disposal of the ash by-products. Clay-sludge is a wet clay slurring, and drying and transportation of this product entails substantial costs. Spent bleaching does not require much pre-treatment and is therefore the most promising alternative additive. On the other hand, bleaching earth contains residual plant oil which means that a range of legislation relating to waste combustion comes into play. Not least a waste combustion fee of 330 DKK/tonne. For all alternative (and commercial) additives disposal costs of the increase ash by-products represents a significant cost. This is

  1. Halon firefighting agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pope, P.R.; Dalzell, G.A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper examines the current state of the International agreements on the use of halons and the subsequent National and industry approaches to the subject. It examines the definition of Essential Use and gives particular examples to clarify its interpretation. Alternative methods of loss control are reviewed. It does not address alternative active firefighting agents but examines the need for protection in particular areas. It addresses reduction of the hazards and consequences so that the need for protection can be minimized. Practical measures to minimize the installed quantities of halon are described. This covers specifications for new, essential, systems and the short term reduction of inventories in existing systems. The causes of leakage and accidental releases are studied and preventive measures are proposed. The paper concludes with an overview of the current research into replacement agents and the future outlook

  2. Chemical Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CR) see Riot Control Agents Digitalis Distilled mustard (HD) see Sulfur mustard E Ethylene glycol F Fentanyls and other opioids H Hydrazine Hydrofluoric acid (hydrogen fluoride) Hydrogen chloride Hydrogen cyanide (AC) Hydrogen ...

  3. Anticipatory vehicle routing using delegate multi-agent systems

    OpenAIRE

    Weyns, Danny; Holvoet, Tom; Helleboogh, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an agent-based approach, called delegate multi-agent systems, for anticipatory vehicle routing to avoid traffic congestion. In this approach, individual vehicles are represented by agents, which themselves issue light-weight agents that explore alternative routes in the environment on behalf of the vehicles. Based on the evaluation of the alternatives, the vehicles then issue light-weight agents for allocating road segments, spreading the vehicles’ intentions and coordi...

  4. Alternative Remedies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home › Aging & Health A to Z › Alternative Remedies Font ... medical treatment prescribed by their healthcare provider. Using this type of alternative therapy along with traditional treatments is ...

  5. Alternative Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternative fuels include gaseous fuels such as hydrogen, natural gas, and propane; alcohols such as ethanol, methanol, and butanol; vegetable and waste-derived oils; and electricity. Overview of alternative fuels is here.

  6. Alternating Hemiplegia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to the symptoms of the disorder. View Full Definition Treatment Drug therapy including verapamil may help to reduce the ... the more serious form of alternating hemiplegia × ... Definition Alternating hemiplegia is a rare neurological disorder that ...

  7. Requirements Modeling with Agent Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Aniruddha; Krishna, Aneesh; Ghose, Aditya K.

    Agent-oriented conceptual modeling notations are highly effective in representing requirements from an intentional stance and answering questions such as what goals exist, how key actors depend on each other, and what alternatives must be considered. In this chapter, we review an approach to executing i* models by translating these into set of interacting agents implemented in the CASO language and suggest how we can perform reasoning with requirements modeled (both functional and non-functional) using i* models. In this chapter we particularly incorporate deliberation into the agent design. This allows us to benefit from the complementary representational capabilities of the two frameworks.

  8. Radiopharmaceutical agents for skeletal scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, S.E.; Van Aswegen, A.; Loetter, M.G.; Minnaar, P.C.; Otto, A.C.; Goedhals, L.; Dedekind, P.S.

    1987-01-01

    The quality of bone scan images obtained with a locally produced and with an imported radiopharmaceutical bone agent, methylene diphosphonate (MDP), was compared visually. Standard skeletal imaging was carried out on 10 patients using both agents, with a period of 2 to 7 days between studies with alternate agents. Equal amounts of activity were administered for both agents. All images were acquired on Polaroid film for subsequent evaluation. The acquisition time for standard amount of counts per study was recorded. Three physicians with applicable experience evaluated image quality (on a 4 point scale) and detectability of metastasis (on a 3 point scale). There was no statistically significant difference (p 0,05) between the two agents by paired t-test of Hotelling's T 2 analysis. It is concluded that the imaging properties of the locally produced and the imported MDP are similar

  9. [Biological agents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Koichi

    2009-03-01

    There are two types of biological agents for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA); monoclonal antibodies and recombinant proteins. Among the latter, etanercept, a recombinant fusion protein of soluble TNF receptor and IgG was approved in 2005 in Japan. The post-marketing surveillance of 13,894 RA patients revealed the efficacy and safety profiles of etanercept in the Japanese population, as well as overseas studies. Abatacept, a recombinant fusion protein of CTLA4 and IgG, is another biological agent for RA. Two clinical trials disclosed the efficacy of abatacept for difficult-to-treat patients: the AIM for MTX-resistant cases and the ATTAIN for patients who are resistant to anti-TNF. The ATTEST trial suggested abatacept might have more acceptable safety profile than infliximab. These biologics are also promising for the treatment of RA for not only relieving clinical symptoms and signs but retarding structural damage.

  10. Alternative wastewatersystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyck-Madsen, Søren; Hoffmann, Birgitte; Gabriel, Søren

    1999-01-01

    The report:-  Communicates experiences from Swedish buildings from the establishment and running of alternative wastewater systems. Communicates pictures of alternative buildings and wastewater systems in Sweden. Gives a short evaluation of the performance and the sustainability of the systems....

  11. Trading Agents

    CERN Document Server

    Wellman, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Automated trading in electronic markets is one of the most common and consequential applications of autonomous software agents. Design of effective trading strategies requires thorough understanding of how market mechanisms operate, and appreciation of strategic issues that commonly manifest in trading scenarios. Drawing on research in auction theory and artificial intelligence, this book presents core principles of strategic reasoning that apply to market situations. The author illustrates trading strategy choices through examples of concrete market environments, such as eBay, as well as abst

  12. How alternative are alternative fuels?

    OpenAIRE

    Soffritti, Tiziana; Danielis, Romeo

    1998-01-01

    Could alternative fuel vehicles contribute to a substantial reduction of air pollution? Is there a market for alternative fuel vehicles? Could a market be created via a pollution tax? The article answers these questions on the basis of the available estimates.

  13. Alternative detox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, E

    2012-01-01

    The concept that alternative therapies can eliminate toxins and toxicants from the body, i.e. 'alternative detox' (AD) is popular. Selected textbooks and articles on the subject of AD. The principles of AD make no sense from a scientific perspective and there is no clinical evidence to support them. The promotion of AD treatments provides income for some entrepreneurs but has the potential to cause harm to patients and consumers. In alternative medicine, simplistic but incorrect concepts such as AD abound. AREAS TIMELY FOR RESEARCH: All therapeutic claims should be scientifically tested before being advertised-and AD cannot be an exception.

  14. Cosmic alternatives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Ruth

    2009-04-01

    "Cosmologists are often in error but never in doubt." This pithy characterization by the Soviet physicist Lev Landau sums up the raison d'être of Facts and Speculations in Cosmology. Authors Jayant Narlikar and Geoffrey Burbidge are proponents of a "steady state" theory of cosmology, and they argue that the cosmological community has become fixated on a "Big Bang" dogma, suppressing alternative viewpoints. This book very much does what it says on the tin: it sets out what is known in cosmology, and puts forward the authors' point of view on an alternative to the Big Bang.

  15. Growing Alternatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger-Petersen, Mai Corlin

    2014-01-01

    From 2014, Anhui Province will pilot a reform of the residential land market in China, thus integrating rural Anhui in the national housing market. In contrast, artist and activist Ou Ning has proposed the Bishan time money currency, intending to establish an alternative economic circuit in Bishan...

  16. Alternative Veier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Tove Elisabeth; Salamonsen, Anita

    reflektioner omkring patienters brug af og erfaringer med alternativ behandling. Patientorganisationer, organisatoner for alternative behandlere og organisationer for læger og medicinstuderende har læst bogens patienthistorier og deres perspektiver lægges frem. Til slut i bogen diskuteres betydningen af de...

  17. Energy alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweet, C.

    1987-01-01

    The designated successor to fossil fuels is nuclear fission/fusion and that turns out to be problematic. Alternative Energy Systems have great potential but political forces seem to be hampering their development and introduction. The technologies are flexible in their use and scale of operation. The learning curve will not be short but neither will it be as long and as costly as nuclear power. It is time that this is recognised and some serious rethinking takes place in what presently passes for energy policies both in the industrialised countries and in the Third World. Alternative energy systems are defined and some of them which are relevant to the United Kingdom are discussed. (author)

  18. Alternative detente

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soper, K.; Ryle, M.

    1988-01-01

    The influence of the Chernobyl accident on the disarmament and anti-nuclear movements is discussed. The accident directed attention towards the areas in common rather than the areas of disagreement. It also demonstrated the environmental impact of radioactivity, strengthening the ecological case of the anti-nuclear movement. The issues are discussed for the Western and Eastern bloc countries and the relationship between the two. Sections focus on the Eco-protest, Green politics and economics and on the politics of minority protest and the Green alternative. (U.K.)

  19. Alternative crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreasen, L.M.; Boon, A.D.

    1992-01-01

    Surplus cereal production in the EEC and decreasing product prices, mainly for cereals, has prompted considerable interest for new earnings in arable farming. The objective was to examine whether suggested new crops (fibre, oil, medicinal and alternative grains crops) could be considered as real alternatives. Whether a specific crop can compete economically with cereals and whether there is a market demand for the crop is analyzed. The described possibilities will result in ca. 50,000 hectares of new crops. It is expected that they would not immediately provide increased earnings, but in the long run expected price developments are more positive than for cereals. The area for new crops will not solve the current surplus cereal problem as the area used for new crops is only 3% of that used for cereals. Preconditions for many new crops is further research activities and development work as well as the establishment of processing units and organizational initiatives. Presumably, it is stated, there will then be a basis for a profitable production of new crops for some farmers. (AB) (47 refs.)

  20. Interacting agents in finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hommes, C.; Durlauf, S.N.; Blume, L.E.

    2008-01-01

    Interacting agents in finance represent a behavioural, agent-based approach in which financial markets are viewed as complex adaptive systems consisting of many boundedly rational agents interacting through simple heterogeneous investment strategies, constantly adapting their behaviour in response

  1. Riot Control Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit What's this? Submit Button Facts About Riot Control Agents Interim document Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir What riot control agents are Riot control agents (sometimes referred to ...

  2. Energy alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    English. A special committe of the Canadian House of Commons was established on 23 May 1980 to investigate the use of alternative energy sources such as 'gasohol', liquified coal, solar energy, methanol, wind and tidal power, biomass, and propane. In its final report, the committee envisions an energy system for Canada based on hydrogen and electricity, using solar and geothermal energy for low-grade heat. The committe was not able to say which method of generating electricty would dominate in the next century, although it recommends that fossil fuels should not be used. The fission process is not specifically discussed, but the outlook for fusion was investigated, and continued governmental support of fusion research is recommended. The report proposes some improvements in governmental energy organizations and programs

  3. Reasoning about emotional agents

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, J.-J.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the role of emotions in artificial agent design, and the use of logic in reasoning about the emotional or affective states an agent can reside in. We do so by extending the KARO framework for reasoning about rational agents appropriately. In particular we formalize in this framework how emotions are related to the action monitoring capabilities of an agent.

  4. Complementary and Alternative Therapies in ALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedlack, Richard S.; Joyce, Nanette; Carter, Gregory T.; Pagononi, Sabrina; Karam, Chafic

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis Given the severity of their illness and lack of effective disease modifying agents, it is not surprising that most patients with ALS consider trying complementary and alternative therapies. Some of the most commonly considered alternative therapies include special diets, nutritional supplements, cannabis, acupuncture, chelation and energy healing. This chapter reviews these in detail. We also describe 3 models by which physicians may frame discussions about alternative therapies: paternalism, autonomy and shared decision making. Finally, we review a program called ALSUntangled which using shared shared decision making to review alternative therapies for ALS. PMID:26515629

  5. Chemical warfare agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuca, Kamil; Pohanka, Miroslav

    2010-01-01

    Chemical warfare agents are compounds of different chemical structures. Simple molecules such as chlorine as well as complex structures such as ricin belong to this group. Nerve agents, vesicants, incapacitating agents, blood agents, lung-damaging agents, riot-control agents and several toxins are among chemical warfare agents. Although the use of these compounds is strictly prohibited, the possible misuse by terrorist groups is a reality nowadays. Owing to this fact, knowledge of the basic properties of these substances is of a high importance. This chapter briefly introduces the separate groups of chemical warfare agents together with their members and the potential therapy that should be applied in case someone is intoxicated by these agents.

  6. Radiopharmaceutical scanning agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    This invention is directed to dispersions useful in preparing radiopharmaceutical scanning agents, to technetium labelled dispersions, to methods for preparing such dispersions and to their use as scanning agents

  7. Taskable Reactive Agent Communities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Myers, Karen

    2002-01-01

    The focus of Taskable Reactive Agent Communities (TRAC) project was to develop mixed-initiative technology to enable humans to supervise and manage teams of agents as they perform tasks in dynamic environments...

  8. Semiotics, Multi-Agent Systems and Organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gazendam, H.W.M.; Jorna, René J.

    1998-01-01

    Multi-agent systems are promising as models of organization because they are based on the idea that most work in human organizations is done based on intelligence, communication, cooperation, and massive parallel processing. They offer an alternative for system theories of organization, which are

  9. Why Multilingual Matters : Alternative Change Agents in Language Education Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Küeppers, Almut; Yagmur, K.

    Languages are powerful tools for change and have ceased to be only national symbols. In this focus paper, the overall question to be tackled is why and how the multilingual paradigm challenges nation-states and its institutions with a special focus on the domain of state education. While the former

  10. Users, Bystanders and Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krummheuer, Antonia Lina

    2015-01-01

    Human-agent interaction (HAI), especially in the field of embodied conversational agents (ECA), is mainly construed as dyadic communication between a human user and a virtual agent. This is despite the fact that many application scenarios for future ECAs involve the presence of others. This paper...

  11. Asymptotically Optimal Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Lattimore, Tor; Hutter, Marcus

    2011-01-01

    Artificial general intelligence aims to create agents capable of learning to solve arbitrary interesting problems. We define two versions of asymptotic optimality and prove that no agent can satisfy the strong version while in some cases, depending on discounting, there does exist a non-computable weak asymptotically optimal agent.

  12. Reasoning about emotional agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyer, J.-J.

    In this paper we discuss the role of emotions in artificial agent design, and the use of logic in reasoning about the emotional or affective states an agent can reside in. We do so by extending the KARO framework for reasoning about rational agents appropriately. In particular we formalize in

  13. On the efficiency of decentralised monitoring using mobile agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liotta, A.; Knight, G.; Pavlou, G.

    1999-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of improving the efficiency and scalability of current monitoring systems, which generally follow a centralised and static management model. Several alternative solutions based on Mobile Agents (MAs), specifically tailored to network monitoring are described. In

  14. Radiographic scanning agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bevan, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    This invention relates to radiodiagnostic agents and more particularly to a composition and method for preparing a highly effective technetium-99m-based bone scanning agent. One deficiency of x-ray examination is the inability of that technique to detect skeletal metastases in their incipient stages. It has been discovered that the methanehydroxydiphosphonate bone mineral-seeking agent is unique in that it provides the dual benefits of sharp radiographic imaging and excellent lesion detection when used with technetium-99m. This agent can also be used with technetium-99m for detecting soft tissue calcification in the manner of the inorganic phosphate radiodiagnostic agents

  15. Agente adaptable y aprendizaje

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Angel Lara Rivero

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se contrasta el concepto de agente programado con el de agente complejo adaptable, se presenta una nueva visión ligada al aprendizaje y la estructura del agente. La imagen del agente se analiza considerando los modelos internos, la práctica, el concepto de rutina y la influencia en su comportamiento, y la importancia del aprendizaje ex ante y ex post. Por último se muestra que la resolución de problemas está sujeta a restricciones del agente y se describen las formas de explorar el espacio de soluciones mediante tres tipos de exploración: exhaustiva, aleatoria y selectiva.

  16. Alternative Fuel Guidelines for Alternative Transportation Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-31

    The Volpe Center documented the increased use of alternative fuels on vehicles owned and operated by federal land management agencies. For each alternative fuel type, the Volpe Center documented the availability of vehicles, fueling mechanisms and pr...

  17. Agent-Based Modeling: A Powerful Tool for Tourism Researchers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nicholls, Sarah; Amelung, B.; Student, Jillian

    2017-01-01

    Agent-based modeling (ABM) is a way of representing complex systems of autonomous agents or actors, and of simulating the multiple potential outcomes of these agents’ behaviors and interactions in the form of a range of alternatives or futures. Despite the complexity of the tourism system, and the

  18. Preponderant agent, what is that?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Luz Álvarez

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – Preponderant agent is a new instrument for preventing and reverting adverse impact in competition due to highly concentrated markets. Therefore, this paper's objective is to present and analyze the preponderant agent concept in Mexico with emphasis on the broadcast sector, the telecommunication regulator decisions and the courts' interpretation. Methodology/approach/design – The objectives were achieved by researching and analyzing the main legal documents, the Congress reports and debates, the regulator's decisions and other relevant regulator's documents, as well as final decisions by the courts in connection with broadcast sector. Findings – Among the findings are that certain topics were not duly addressed by the Mexican regulator, or by the Congress, whereas the courts were more willing to hold decisions in favor of public interest based on constitutional intent and deference to the regulator's decision. Originality/value – This paper will be valuable for persons interested in telecommunications, broadcast and antitrust. Although the preponderant agent concept created in Mexico is not necessarily a “best practice”, it does provide an alternative instrument in antitrust. Moreover, the courts decisions also provide criteria regarding regulatory deference for the regulator.

  19. Institutions, Behavior of Agents and Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukharev Oleg, S.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We study the efficiency criterion, describing the behavior and choices of agents, the influence of moral norms on the model of behavior, as well as the criterion of efficiency as an institution to assess the behavior and development of the economic system. Curve proposed institutional compromise that allows to determine the possibility of changes in the welfare of interacting agents and their compliance with ethical standards when welfare increases due to violation or compliance with these standards. For the purposes of this demonstration of the influence of the model of chart-based dilemmas Holmes-Moriarty. Incentives in determining the agents behaviors play a key role in their formation due to the moral principles of behavior. However, in economics there are situations when moral principles are derived certain behaviors or interactions agents. Holmes and Moriarty there is an alternative interaction, which they can not take advantage of, and there is a full range of alternatives that actually programs the strategic outcomes of interactions that reflect the curves of "institutional compromise." Choosing an agent of moral standards as a potential model determines its behavior and, most importantly, interaction with other agents, adhering to certain moral principles. Assess the condition and the possibility of using a static criterion of Pareto efficiency for the analysis of situations where it is important to measure the economic efficiency. Showing institutional aspects that must be considered in the application or formulation of new performance criteria. It is proved that there is a connection microeconomic efficiency / inefficiency and parameters of behavior of agents that actualizes the need to impact on the behavior of agents incentives to solve the task of changing the structure.

  20. Developing Agent-Oriented Video Surveillance System through Agent-Oriented Methodology (AOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheah Wai Shiang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Agent-oriented methodology (AOM is a comprehensive and unified agent methodology for agent-oriented software development. Although AOM is claimed to be able to cope with a complex system development, it is still not yet determined up to what extent this may be true. Therefore, it is vital to conduct an investigation to validate this methodology. This paper presents the adoption of AOM in developing an agent-oriented video surveillance system (VSS. An intruder handling scenario is designed and implemented through AOM. AOM provides an alternative method to engineer a distributed security system in a systematic manner. It presents the security system at a holistic view; provides a better conceptualization of agent-oriented security system and supports rapid prototyping as well as simulation of video surveillance system.

  1. Moral actor, selfish agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frimer, Jeremy A; Schaefer, Nicola K; Oakes, Harrison

    2014-05-01

    People are motivated to behave selfishly while appearing moral. This tension gives rise to 2 divergently motivated selves. The actor-the watched self-tends to be moral; the agent-the self as executor-tends to be selfish. Three studies present direct evidence of the actor's and agent's distinct motives. To recruit the self-as-actor, we asked people to rate the importance of various goals. To recruit the self-as-agent, we asked people to describe their goals verbally. In Study 1, actors claimed their goals were equally about helping the self and others (viz., moral); agents claimed their goals were primarily about helping the self (viz., selfish). This disparity was evident in both individualist and collectivist cultures, attesting to the universality of the selfish agent. Study 2 compared actors' and agents' motives to those of people role-playing highly prosocial or selfish exemplars. In content (Study 2a) and in the impressions they made on an outside observer (Study 2b), actors' motives were similar to those of the prosocial role-players, whereas agents' motives were similar to those of the selfish role-players. Study 3 accounted for the difference between the actor and agent: Participants claimed that their agent's motives were the more realistic and that their actor's motives were the more idealistic. The selfish agent/moral actor duality may account for why implicit and explicit measures of the same construct diverge, and why feeling watched brings out the better angels of human nature.

  2. Allergic Contact Dermatitis to Ophthalmic Medications: Relevant Allergens and Alternative Testing Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grey, Katherine R; Warshaw, Erin M

    Allergic contact dermatitis is an important cause of periorbital dermatitis. Topical ophthalmic agents are relevant sensitizers. Contact dermatitis to ophthalmic medications can be challenging to diagnose and manage given the numerous possible offending agents, including both active and inactive ingredients. Furthermore, a substantial body of literature reports false-negative patch test results to ophthalmic agents. Subsequently, numerous alternative testing methods have been described. This review outlines the periorbital manifestations, causative agents, and alternative testing methods of allergic contact dermatitis to ophthalmic medications.

  3. Why an alternative to blood transfusion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shander, Aryeh; Goodnough, Lawrence Tim

    2009-04-01

    Allogeneic blood transfusions have been associated with several risks and complications and with worse outcomes in a substantial number of patient populations and clinical scenarios. Allogeneic blood is costly and difficult to procure, transport, and store. Global and local shortages are imminent. Alternatives to transfusion provide many advantages, and their use is likely to improve outcomes as safer and more effective agents are developed.

  4. Agent Architectures for Compliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgemeestre, Brigitte; Hulstijn, Joris; Tan, Yao-Hua

    A Normative Multi-Agent System consists of autonomous agents who must comply with social norms. Different kinds of norms make different assumptions about the cognitive architecture of the agents. For example, a principle-based norm assumes that agents can reflect upon the consequences of their actions; a rule-based formulation only assumes that agents can avoid violations. In this paper we present several cognitive agent architectures for self-monitoring and compliance. We show how different assumptions about the cognitive architecture lead to different information needs when assessing compliance. The approach is validated with a case study of horizontal monitoring, an approach to corporate tax auditing recently introduced by the Dutch Customs and Tax Authority.

  5. Stabilized radiographic scanning agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fawzi, M.B.

    1982-01-01

    Stable compositions useful as technetium 99m-based scintigraphic agents comprise gentisic acid or a pharmaceutically-acceptable salt or ester thereof in combination with a pertechnetate reducing agent or dissolved in pertechnetate-99m (sup(99m)TcOsub(4)sup(-)) solution. The compositions are especially useful in combination with a phosphate or phosphonate material that carries the radionuclide to bone, thus providing a skeletal imaging agent

  6. Contrast agents for MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnemain, B.

    1994-01-01

    Contrast agents MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) have been developed to improve the diagnostic information obtained by this technic. They mainly interact on T1 and T2 parameters and increase consequently normal to abnormal tissues contrast. The paramagnetic agents which mainly act on longitudinal relaxation rate (T1) are gadolinium complexes for which stability is the main parameter to avoid any release of free gadolinium. The superparamagnetic agents that decrease signal intensity by an effect on transversal relaxation rate (T2) are developed for liver, digestive and lymph node imaging. Many area of research are now opened for optimal use of present and future contrast agents in MRI. (author). 28 refs., 4 tabs

  7. Decontamination Data - Blister Agents

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Decontamination efficacy data for blister agents on various building materials using various decontamination solutions. This dataset is associated with the following...

  8. Alternatives to allogeneic platelet transfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desborough, Michael J R; Smethurst, Peter A; Estcourt, Lise J; Stanworth, Simon J

    2016-11-01

    Allogeneic platelet transfusions are widely used for the prevention and treatment of bleeding in thrombocytopenia. Recent evidence suggests platelet transfusions have limited efficacy and are associated with uncertain immunomodulatory risks and concerns about viral or bacterial transmission. Alternatives to transfusion are a well-recognised tenet of Patient Blood Management, but there has been less focus on different strategies to reduce bleeding risk by comparison to platelet transfusion. Direct alternatives to platelet transfusion include agents to stimulate endogenous platelet production (thrombopoietin mimetics), optimising platelet adhesion to endothelium by treating anaemia or increasing von Willebrand factor levels (desmopressin), increasing formation of cross-linked fibrinogen (activated recombinant factor VII, fibrinogen concentrate or recombinant factor XIII), decreasing fibrinolysis (tranexamic acid or epsilon aminocaproic acid) or using artificial or modified platelets (cryopreserved platelets, lyophilised platelets, haemostatic particles, liposomes, engineered nanoparticles or infusible platelet membranes). The evidence base to support the use of these alternatives is variable, but an area of active research. Much of the current randomised controlled trial focus is on evaluation of the use of thrombopoietin mimetics and anti-fibrinolytics. It is also recognised that one alternative strategy to platelet transfusion is choosing not to transfuse at all. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. CFC alternatives for thermal insulation foams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shankland, I.R. (Allied-Signal Inc., Buffalo, NY (US))

    1990-03-01

    Low density polymeric foam materials expanded with chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) blowing agents have found widespread use as highly efficient thermal insulation materials in the construction, refrigeration appliance and transportation industries. The advent of regulations which are reducing the production and consumption of the fully halogenated CFCs for environmental reasons has prompted the development of environmentally acceptable substitutes for the CFC blowing agents. This paper summarizes the physical properties and performance of the leading alternatives for CFC-11, which is used to expand rigid polyurethane and polyisocyanurate foams, and the leading alternatives for CFC-12 which is used to expand extruded polystyrene board foam. Although the alternatives, HCFC-123 and HCFC-14lb for CFC-11 and HCFC142b and HCFC-124 for CFC-12, are not perfect matches from the performance viewpoint, they represent the optimum choice given the constraints on environmental acceptability, toxicity, flammability and performance. (author).

  10. Change Agent Survival Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Folwell L.

    2011-01-01

    Consulting is a rough racket. Only a tarantula hair above IRS agents, meter maids and used car sales people, the profession is a prickly burr for slings and arrows. Throw in education, focus on dysfunctional schools and call oneself a "change agent," and this bad rap all but disappears. Unfortunately, though, consulting/coaching/mentoring in…

  11. Teaching Tourism Change Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stilling Blichfeldt, Bodil; Kvistgaard, Hans-Peter; Hird, John

    2017-01-01

    course that is part of a Tourism Master’s program, where a major challenge is not only to teach students about change and change agents, but to teach them how change feels and ho w to become change agents. The c hange management course contains an experiment inspired by experiential teaching literature...... change in tourism in the future....

  12. Travel Agent Course Outline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria.

    Written for college entry-level travel agent training courses, this course outline can also be used for inservice training programs offered by travel agencies. The outline provides information on the work of a travel agent and gives clear statements on what learners must be able to do by the end of their training. Material is divided into eight…

  13. Radiographic scintiscanning agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bevan, J.A.

    1979-01-01

    A new technetium-based scintiscanning agent has been prepared comprising a water soluble sup(99m)Tc-methanehydroxydiphosphonate in combination with a reducing agent selected from stannous, ferrous, chromous and titanous salts. As an additional stabilizer salts and esters of gentisic or ascorbic acids have been used. (E.G.)

  14. Radiographic scanning agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tofe, A.J.

    1976-01-01

    A stable radiographic scanning agent on a sup(99m)Tc basis has been developed. The substance contains a pertechnetate reduction agent, tin(II)-chloride, chromium(II)-chloride, or iron(II)-sulphate, as well as an organospecific carrier and ascorbic acid or a pharmacologically admissible salt or ester of ascorbic acid. (VJ) [de

  15. Stable radiographic scanning agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Stable compositions which are useful in the preparation of Technetium-99m-based scintigraphic agents are discussed. They are comprised of ascorbic acid or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or ester thereof in combination with a pertechnetate reducing agent or dissolved in oxidized pertechnetate-99m (sup(99m)TcO 4 - ) solution

  16. Hyperthermia and chemotherapy agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roizin-Towle, L.; Hall, E.J.

    1981-01-01

    The use of chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of cancer dates back to the late 19th century, but the modern era of chemotherapy drugs was ushered in during the 1940's with the development of the polyfunctional alkylating agent. Since then, numerous classes of drugs have evolved and the combined use of antineoplastic agents with other treatment modalities such as radiation or heat, remains a large relatively unexplored area. This approach, combining local hyperthermia with chemotherapy agents affords a measure of targeting and selective toxicity not previously available for drugs. In this paper, the effects of adriamycin, bleomycin and cis-platinum are examined. The adjuvant use of heat may also reverse the resistance of hypoxic cells noted for some chemotherapy agents

  17. Alternate superior Julia sets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadav, Anju; Rani, Mamta

    2015-01-01

    Alternate Julia sets have been studied in Picard iterative procedures. The purpose of this paper is to study the quadratic and cubic maps using superior iterates to obtain Julia sets with different alternate structures. Analytically, graphically and computationally it has been shown that alternate superior Julia sets can be connected, disconnected and totally disconnected, and also fattier than the corresponding alternate Julia sets. A few examples have been studied by applying different type of alternate structures

  18. Agent-based modeling and network dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Namatame, Akira

    2016-01-01

    The book integrates agent-based modeling and network science. It is divided into three parts, namely, foundations, primary dynamics on and of social networks, and applications. The book begins with the network origin of agent-based models, known as cellular automata, and introduce a number of classic models, such as Schelling’s segregation model and Axelrod’s spatial game. The essence of the foundation part is the network-based agent-based models in which agents follow network-based decision rules. Under the influence of the substantial progress in network science in late 1990s, these models have been extended from using lattices into using small-world networks, scale-free networks, etc. The book also shows that the modern network science mainly driven by game-theorists and sociophysicists has inspired agent-based social scientists to develop alternative formation algorithms, known as agent-based social networks. The book reviews a number of pioneering and representative models in this family. Upon the gi...

  19. Blasting agents and initiation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiscor, S.

    2000-01-01

    Although blasting differs between and within each industry, as a whole, the mines and quarries are making a shift from a purely ammonium nitrate/fuel oil (ANFO) mixture to a blend of emulsion and ANFO on a straight emulsion. Non-electric (shock tube) initiation systems have provided a viable alternative to the electric detonator (blasting cap). Explosives manufacturers are seeing their roles changes to being blasting contractors or consultants rather than just suppliers. The article discusses these trends and gives examples of typical blasting techniques and amounts of blasting agent used at large USA surface coal mines. Electric caps are still used in blasting underground coal. The Ensign Bickford Co. (EBCo) is developing electronic detonators and has been field testing an electronic initiator, the DIGIDET detonator, for the last four years. When commercially available, electronic detonators will be accurate but will come with a hefty price tag. 2 photos.

  20. Agent Programming Languages and Logics in Agent-Based Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John

    2018-01-01

    and social behavior, and work on verification. Agent-based simulation is an approach for simulation that also uses the notion of agents. Although agent programming languages and logics are much less used in agent-based simulation, there are successful examples with agents designed according to the BDI...

  1. Biological warfare agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duraipandian Thavaselvam

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent bioterrorist attacks using anthrax spores have emphasized the need to detect and decontaminate critical facilities in the shortest possible time. There has been a remarkable progress in the detection, protection and decontamination of biological warfare agents as many instrumentation platforms and detection methodologies are developed and commissioned. Even then the threat of biological warfare agents and their use in bioterrorist attacks still remain a leading cause of global concern. Furthermore in the past decade there have been threats due to the emerging new diseases and also the re-emergence of old diseases and development of antimicrobial resistance and spread to new geographical regions. The preparedness against these agents need complete knowledge about the disease, better research and training facilities, diagnostic facilities and improved public health system. This review on the biological warfare agents will provide information on the biological warfare agents, their mode of transmission and spread and also the detection systems available to detect them. In addition the current information on the availability of commercially available and developing technologies against biological warfare agents has also been discussed. The risk that arise due to the use of these agents in warfare or bioterrorism related scenario can be mitigated with the availability of improved detection technologies.

  2. Biological warfare agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thavaselvam, Duraipandian; Vijayaraghavan, Rajagopalan

    2010-01-01

    The recent bioterrorist attacks using anthrax spores have emphasized the need to detect and decontaminate critical facilities in the shortest possible time. There has been a remarkable progress in the detection, protection and decontamination of biological warfare agents as many instrumentation platforms and detection methodologies are developed and commissioned. Even then the threat of biological warfare agents and their use in bioterrorist attacks still remain a leading cause of global concern. Furthermore in the past decade there have been threats due to the emerging new diseases and also the re-emergence of old diseases and development of antimicrobial resistance and spread to new geographical regions. The preparedness against these agents need complete knowledge about the disease, better research and training facilities, diagnostic facilities and improved public health system. This review on the biological warfare agents will provide information on the biological warfare agents, their mode of transmission and spread and also the detection systems available to detect them. In addition the current information on the availability of commercially available and developing technologies against biological warfare agents has also been discussed. The risk that arise due to the use of these agents in warfare or bioterrorism related scenario can be mitigated with the availability of improved detection technologies. PMID:21829313

  3. Culturally Aware Agent Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehm, Matthias; Nakano, Yukiko; Koda, Tomoko

    2012-01-01

    Agent based interaction in the form of Embodied Conversational Agents (ECAs) has matured over the last decade and agents have become more and more sophisticated in terms of their verbal and nonverbal behavior like facial expressions or gestures. Having such “natural” communication channels...... available for expressing not only task-relevant but also socially and psychologically relevant information makes it necessary to take influences into account that are not readily implemented like emotions or cultural heuristics. These influences have a huge impact on the success of an interaction...

  4. Agent-Based Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Jędrzejowicz, Piotr; Kacprzyk, Janusz

    2013-01-01

    This volume presents a collection of original research works by leading specialists focusing on novel and promising approaches in which the multi-agent system paradigm is used to support, enhance or replace traditional approaches to solving difficult optimization problems. The editors have invited several well-known specialists to present their solutions, tools, and models falling under the common denominator of the agent-based optimization. The book consists of eight chapters covering examples of application of the multi-agent paradigm and respective customized tools to solve  difficult optimization problems arising in different areas such as machine learning, scheduling, transportation and, more generally, distributed and cooperative problem solving.

  5. Using Mobile Agents to Implement Workflow System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jie; LIU Xian-xing; GUO Zheng-wei

    2004-01-01

    Current workflow management systems usually adopt the existing technologies such as TCP/IP-based Web technologies and CORBA as well to fulfill the bottom communications.Very often it has been considered only from a theoretical point of view, mainly for the lack of concrete possibilities to execute with elasticity.MAT (Mobile Agent Technology) represents a very attractive approach to the distributed control of computer networks and a valid alternative to the implementation of strategies for workflow system.This paper mainly focuses on improving the performance of workflow system by using MAT.Firstly, the performances of workflow systems based on both CORBA and mobile agent are summarized and analyzed; Secondly, the performance contrast is presented by introducing the mathematic model of each kind of data interaction process respectively.Last, a mobile agent-based workflow system named MAWMS is presented and described in detail.

  6. Planning of Autonomous Multi-agent Intersection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viksnin Ilya I.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a traffic management system with agents acting on behalf autonomous vehicle at the crossroads. Alternatively to existing solutions based on usage of semiautonomous control systems with the control unit, proposed in this paper algorithm apply the principles of decentralized multi-agent control. Agents during their collaboration generate intersection plan and determinate the optimal order of road intersection for a given criterion based on the exchange of information about them and their environment. The paper contains optimization criteria for possible routes selection and experiments that perform in order to estimate the proposed model. Experiment results show that this model can significantly reduce traffic density compared to the traditional traffic management systems. Moreover, the proposed algorithm efficiency increases with road traffic density. Furthermore, the availability of control unit in the system significantly reduces the negative impact of possible failures and hacker attacks.

  7. Mobile Agent Data Integrity Using Multi-Agent Architecture

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McDonald, Jeffrey

    2004-01-01

    .... Security issues for mobile agents continue to produce research interest, particularly in developing mechanisms that guarantee protection of agent data and agent computations in the presence of malicious hosts...

  8. Delta agent (Hepatitis D)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000216.htm Hepatitis D (Delta agent) To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hepatitis D is a viral infection caused by the ...

  9. Agents Within our Midst

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-14

    agents; and the development of bio -monitoring protocols for civilian and service personnel during a chemical attack. These efforts have resulted in greater...produced by staphylococcal bacteria that is and is classified as a CDC select agent which has the potential to be used as a biological weapon .1...NMR chemical shift perturbation titrations with Fab (fragment, antigen binding regions) domains of 20B1, 14G8, and 6D3 using deuterated (2H) SEB

  10. Adrenal imaging agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, M.A.; Hanson, R.N.; Holman, B.L.

    1980-01-01

    The goals of this proposal are the development of selenium-containing analogs of the aromatic amino acids as imaging agents for the pancreas and of the adrenal cortex enzyme inhibitors as imaging agents for adrenal pathology. The objects for this year include (a) the synthesis of methylseleno derivatives of phenylalanine and tryptophan, and (b) the preparation and evaluation of radiolabeled iodobenzoyl derivatives of the selenazole and thiazole analogs of metyrapone and SU-9055

  11. Fusion of multiagent preference orderings with information on agent's importance being incomplete certain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jianqiang

    2007-01-01

    The problem of fusing multiagent preference orderings, with information on agent's importance being incomplete certain with respect to a set of possible courses of action, is described. The approach is developed for dealing with the fusion problem described in the following sections and requires that each agent provides a preference ordering over the different alternatives completely independent of the other agents, and the information on agent's importance is incomplete certain. In this approach, the ternary comparison matrix of the alternatives is constructed, the eigenvector associated with the maximum eigenvalue of the ternary comparison matrix is attained so as to normalize priority vector of the alternatives. The interval number of the alternatives is then obtained by solving two sorts of linear programming problems. By comparing the interval numbers of the alternatives, the ranking of alternatives can be generated. Finally, some examples are given to show the feasibility and effectiveness of the method.

  12. Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Educators Search English Español Complementary and Alternative Medicine KidsHealth / For Teens / Complementary and Alternative Medicine What's ... a replacement. How Is CAM Different From Conventional Medicine? Conventional medicine is based on scientific knowledge of ...

  13. Alternative way of life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, C.

    1980-01-01

    The volume describes the reasons why more and more people seek alternative ways of life, the theoretical background and what alternative life means in practice as well as the sociological significance and history of the alternative movement. It also contains statements of persons who have 'got out' and advice on energy-saving. (HSCH) [de

  14. inventory management, VMI, software agents, MDV model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Wieczerzycki

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: As it is well know, the implementation of instruments of logistics management is only possible with the use of the latest information technology. So-called agent technology is one of the most promising solutions in this area. Its essence consists in an entirely new way of software distribution on the computer network platform, in which computer exchange among themselves not only data, but also software modules, called just agents. The first aim is to propose the alternative method of the implementation of the concept of the inventory management by the supplier with the use of intelligent software agents, which are able not only to transfer the information but also to make the autonomous decisions based on the privileges given to them. The second aim of this research was to propose a new model of a software agent, which will be both of a high mobility and a high intelligence. Methods: After a brief discussion of the nature of agent technology, the most important benefits of using it to build platforms to support business are given. Then the original model of polymorphic software agent, called Multi-Dimensionally Versioned Software Agent (MDV is presented, which is oriented on the specificity of IT applications in business. MDV agent is polymorphic, which allows the transmission through the network only the most relevant parts of its code, and only when necessary. Consequently, the network nodes exchange small amounts of software code, which ensures high mobility of software agents, and thus highly efficient operation of IT platforms built on the proposed model. Next, the adaptation of MDV software agents to implementation of well-known logistics management instrument - VMI (Vendor Managed Inventory is illustrated. Results: The key benefits of this approach are identified, among which one can distinguish: reduced costs, higher flexibility and efficiency, new functionality - especially addressed to business negotiation, full automation

  15. Monitoring volatile anaesthetic agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, W.J.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: The methods that have been used for monitoring volatile anaesthetic agents depend on some physical property such as Density, Refractometry, Mass, Solubility, Raman scattering, or Infra-red absorption. Today, refractometry and infra-red techniques are the most common. Refractometry is used for the calibration of vaporizers. All anaesthetic agents increase the refractive index of the carrier gas. Provided the mixture is known then the refractive change measures the concentration of the volatile anaesthetic agent. Raman Scattering is when energy hits a molecule a very small fraction of the energy is absorbed and re-emitted at one or more lower frequencies. The shift in frequency is a function of the chemical bonds and is a fingerprint of the substance irradiated. Electromagnetic (Infra-red) has been the commonest method of detection of volatile agents. Most systems use a subtractive system, i.e. the agent in the sampling cell absorbed some of the infrared energy and the photo-detector therefore received less energy. A different approach is where the absorbed energy is converted into a pressure change and detected as sound (Acoustic monitor). This gives a more stable zero reference. More recently, the detector systems have used multiple narrow-band wavelengths in the infrared bands and by shape matching or matrix computing specific agent identification is achieved and the concentration calculated. In the early Datex AS3 monitors, a spectral sweep across the 3 micron infrared band was used to create spectral fingerprints. The recently released AS3 monitors use a different system with five very narrow band filters in the 8-10 micron region. The transmission through each of these filters is a value in a matrix which is solved by a micro computer to identify the agent and its concentration. These monitors can assist in improving the safety and efficiency of our anaesthetics but do not ensure that the patient is completely anaesthetized. Copyright (2000

  16. Monitoring volatile anaesthetic agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, W J [Royal Adelaide Hospital, SA (Australia). Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care

    2000-12-01

    Full text: The methods that have been used for monitoring volatile anaesthetic agents depend on some physical property such as Density, Refractometry, Mass, Solubility, Raman scattering, or Infra-red absorption. Today, refractometry and infra-red techniques are the most common. Refractometry is used for the calibration of vaporizers. All anaesthetic agents increase the refractive index of the carrier gas. Provided the mixture is known then the refractive change measures the concentration of the volatile anaesthetic agent. Raman Scattering is when energy hits a molecule a very small fraction of the energy is absorbed and re-emitted at one or more lower frequencies. The shift in frequency is a function of the chemical bonds and is a fingerprint of the substance irradiated. Electromagnetic (Infra-red) has been the commonest method of detection of volatile agents. Most systems use a subtractive system, i.e. the agent in the sampling cell absorbed some of the infrared energy and the photo-detector therefore received less energy. A different approach is where the absorbed energy is converted into a pressure change and detected as sound (Acoustic monitor). This gives a more stable zero reference. More recently, the detector systems have used multiple narrow-band wavelengths in the infrared bands and by shape matching or matrix computing specific agent identification is achieved and the concentration calculated. In the early Datex AS3 monitors, a spectral sweep across the 3 micron infrared band was used to create spectral fingerprints. The recently released AS3 monitors use a different system with five very narrow band filters in the 8-10 micron region. The transmission through each of these filters is a value in a matrix which is solved by a micro computer to identify the agent and its concentration. These monitors can assist in improving the safety and efficiency of our anaesthetics but do not ensure that the patient is completely anaesthetized. Copyright (2000

  17. Depleted uranium management alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertzler, T.J.; Nishimoto, D.D.

    1994-08-01

    This report evaluates two management alternatives for Department of Energy depleted uranium: continued storage as uranium hexafluoride, and conversion to uranium metal and fabrication to shielding for spent nuclear fuel containers. The results will be used to compare the costs with other alternatives, such as disposal. Cost estimates for the continued storage alternative are based on a life-cycle of 27 years through the year 2020. Cost estimates for the recycle alternative are based on existing conversion process costs and Capital costs for fabricating the containers. Additionally, the recycle alternative accounts for costs associated with intermediate product resale and secondary waste disposal for materials generated during the conversion process.

  18. Depleted uranium management alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hertzler, T.J.; Nishimoto, D.D.

    1994-08-01

    This report evaluates two management alternatives for Department of Energy depleted uranium: continued storage as uranium hexafluoride, and conversion to uranium metal and fabrication to shielding for spent nuclear fuel containers. The results will be used to compare the costs with other alternatives, such as disposal. Cost estimates for the continued storage alternative are based on a life-cycle of 27 years through the year 2020. Cost estimates for the recycle alternative are based on existing conversion process costs and Capital costs for fabricating the containers. Additionally, the recycle alternative accounts for costs associated with intermediate product resale and secondary waste disposal for materials generated during the conversion process

  19. Agent independent task planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, William S.

    1990-01-01

    Agent-Independent Planning is a technique that allows the construction of activity plans without regard to the agent that will perform them. Once generated, a plan is then validated and translated into instructions for a particular agent, whether a robot, crewmember, or software-based control system. Because Space Station Freedom (SSF) is planned for orbital operations for approximately thirty years, it will almost certainly experience numerous enhancements and upgrades, including upgrades in robotic manipulators. Agent-Independent Planning provides the capability to construct plans for SSF operations, independent of specific robotic systems, by combining techniques of object oriented modeling, nonlinear planning and temporal logic. Since a plan is validated using the physical and functional models of a particular agent, new robotic systems can be developed and integrated with existing operations in a robust manner. This technique also provides the capability to generate plans for crewmembers with varying skill levels, and later apply these same plans to more sophisticated robotic manipulators made available by evolutions in technology.

  20. Organic molecule-based photothermal agents: an expanding photothermal therapy universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hyo Sung; Verwilst, Peter; Sharma, Amit; Shin, Jinwoo; Sessler, Jonathan L; Kim, Jong Seung

    2018-04-03

    Over the last decade, organic photothermal therapy (PTT) agents have attracted increasing attention as a potential complement for, or alternative to, classical drugs and sensitizers involving inorganic nanomaterials. In this tutorial review, we provide a structured description of the main classes of organic photothermal agents and their characteristics. Representative agents that have been studied in the context of photothermal therapy since 2000 are summarized and recent advances in using PTT agents to address various cancers indications are highlighted.

  1. Perspectives in the development of hybrid bifunctional antitumour agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musso, Loana; Dallavalle, Sabrina; Zunino, Franco

    2015-08-15

    In spite of the development of a large number of novel target-specific antitumour agents, the single-agent therapy is in general not able to provide an effective durable control of the malignant process. The limited efficacy of the available agents (both conventional cytotoxic and novel target-specific) reflects not only the expression of defence mechanisms, but also the complexity of tumour cell alterations and the redundancy of survival pathways, thus resulting in tumour cell ability to survive under stress conditions. A well-established strategy to improve the efficacy of antitumour therapy is the rational design of drug combinations aimed at achieving synergistic effects and overcoming drug resistance. An alternative strategy could be the use of agents designed to inhibit simultaneously multiple cellular targets relevant to tumour growth/survival. Among these novel agents are hybrid bifunctional drugs, i.e. compounds resulting by conjugation of different drugs or containing the pharmocophores of different drugs. This strategy has been pursued using various conventional or target-specific agents (with DNA damaging agents and histone deacetylase inhibitors as the most exploited compounds). A critical overview of the most representative compounds is provided with emphasis on the HDAC inhibitor-based hybrid agents. In spite of some promising results, the actual pharmacological advantages of the hybrid agents remain to be defined. This commentary summarizes the recent advances in this field and highlights the pharmacological basis for a rational design of hybrid bifunctional agents. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. [Supramolecular Agents for Theranostics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deyev, S M; Lebedenko, E N

    2015-01-01

    This mini-review summarizes recent data obtained in the process of creation of a versatile module platform suitable for construction of supramolecular theranostic agents. As an example, we consider multifunctional hybrid agents for imaging and elimination of cancer cells. The use of an adapter protein system barnase:barstar for producing targeted multifunctional hybrid structures on the basis of highly specific peptides and mini-antibodies as addressing modules and recombinant proteins and/or nanoparticles of different nature (quantum dots, nanogold, magnetic nanoparticles, nanodiamonds, upconverting nanophosphores, polymer nanoparticles) as agents visualizing and damaging cancer cells is described. New perspectives for creation of selective and highly effective compounds for theranostics and personified medicine are contemplated.

  3. Teaching tourism change agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blichfeldt, Bodil Stilling; Kvistgaard, Hans-Peter; Hird, John

    2017-01-01

    This article discuss es know ledge, competencies and skills Master’s students should obtain during their academic studies and particularly, the differences between teaching about a topic and teaching to do. This is ex emplified by experiential learning theory and the case of a change management...... course that is part of a Tourism Master’s program, where a major challenge is not only to teach students about change and change agents, but to teach them how change feels and ho w to become change agents. The c hange management course contains an experiment inspired by experiential teaching literature...... and methods. The experiment seeks to make students not only hear/learn about change agency and management, but to make them feel cha nge, hereby enabling them to develop the skills and competencies necessary for them to take on the role as change agent s and thus enable them to play key role s in implementing...

  4. Agents unleashed a public domain look at agent technology

    CERN Document Server

    Wayner, Peter

    1995-01-01

    Agents Unleashed: A Public Domain Look at Agent Technology covers details of building a secure agent realm. The book discusses the technology for creating seamlessly integrated networks that allow programs to move from machine to machine without leaving a trail of havoc; as well as the technical details of how an agent will move through the network, prove its identity, and execute its code without endangering the host. The text also describes the organization of the host's work processing an agent; error messages, bad agent expulsion, and errors in XLISP-agents; and the simulators of errors, f

  5. Agent Persuasion Mechanism of Acquaintance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinghua, Wu; Wenguang, Lu; Hailiang, Meng

    Agent persuasion can improve negotiation efficiency in dynamic environment based on its initiative and autonomy, and etc., which is being affected much more by acquaintance. Classification of acquaintance on agent persuasion is illustrated, and the agent persuasion model of acquaintance is also illustrated. Then the concept of agent persuasion degree of acquaintance is given. Finally, relative interactive mechanism is elaborated.

  6. SECOND BUYING AGENT

    CERN Multimedia

    SPL - SERVICES ACHATS

    2000-01-01

    Last year the buying agent LOGITRADE started operations on the CERN site, processing purchasing requests for well-defined families of products up to a certain value. It was planned from the outset that a second buying agent would be brought in to handle the remaining product families. So, according to that plan, the company CHARLES KENDALL will be commencing operations at CERN on 8 May 2000 in Building 73, 1st floor, offices 31 and 35 (phone and fax numbers to be announced).Each buying agent will have its own specific list of product families and will handle purchasing requests up to 10'000 CHF.Whenever possible they will provide the requested supplies at a price (including the cost of their own services) which must be equivalent to or lower than the price mentioned on the purchasing request, changing the supplier if necessary. If a lower price cannot be obtained, agents will provide the necessary administrative support free of charge.To ensure that all orders are processed in the best possible conditions, us...

  7. Socially Intelligent Tutor Agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Nijholt, Antinus; op den Akker, Hendrikus J.A.; Vissers, M.; Aylett, R.; Ballin, D.; Rist, T.

    2003-01-01

    Emotions and personality have received quite a lot of attention the last few years in research on embodied conversational agents. Attention is also increasingly being paid to matters of social psychology and interpersonal aspects, for work of our group). Given the nature of an embodied

  8. Multimodal training between agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehm, Matthias

    2003-01-01

    In the system Locator1, agents are treated as individual and autonomous subjects that are able to adapt to heterogenous user groups. Applying multimodal information from their surroundings (visual and linguistic), they acquire the necessary concepts for a successful interaction. This approach has...

  9. Stabilized radiographic scanning agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fawzi, M.B.

    1979-01-01

    A stable composition useful in preparation of technetium-99m-based radiographic scanning agents has been developed. The composition contains a stabilizing amount of gentisate stabilizer selected from gentisic acid and its soluble pharmaceutically-acceptable salts and esthers. (E.G.)

  10. A waterproofing agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shchipanov, A.I.; Bass, U.M.; Belousov, E.D.; Chernova, S.P.; Gioev, K.A.; Perlin, L.M.; Shapiro, B.O.; Silantev, U.R.

    1979-12-25

    A waterproofing agent is proposed with improved physiomechanical properties. The agent contains (by parts): bitumens: 100; emulsifier: .6-5; polyvinylpyrrolidone: .4-8; synthetic latex: 5.24; a corrosion inhibitor: .2-10; SPL methyl methacrylate with chloroprene: 2.24; hydrochlorinated amine of adduct diethylene triamine with diglycidyl diamine: 2-10, water: 118-220. The agent is prepared using either periodic or continuous action in emulsifying dispersion machines. The bitumen is dispersed in the machine in an aqueous emulsifying solution in which polyvinylpyrrolidone and the corrosion inihibitor are first introduced. Then a synthetic latex solution is introduced into the bitumen emulsion while being mixed in rotor-type turbulent mixers; a solution and a hydrochlorinated amine of adduct diethylene triamine with diglycidyl diamine solution until a homogeneous mixture is obtained. Example: a waterproofing agent is obtained in parts: bitumen 100, emulsifyer (oxidized petrolatum): .6; polyvinylpyrrolidone: .4; synthetic latex (nitrile): 5; corrosion inhibitor (guanidine chromate): .2, SPL:2; and water 118. The properties of the proposed composition are better than the properties of the composition currently used.

  11. Product and Agent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montecino, Alex; Valero, Paola

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we will explore how the “mathematics teacher” becomes a subject and, at the same time, is subjected as part of diverse dispositive of power. We argue that the mathematics teacher becomes both a product and a social agent, which has been set, within current societies, from the ideas...

  12. E-Learning Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Dawn G.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the advantages of using intelligent agents to facilitate the location and customization of appropriate e-learning resources and to foster collaboration in e-learning environments. Design/methodology/approach: This paper proposes an e-learning environment that can be used to provide customized…

  13. Alternative Auditing Approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandt, Alicen J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-15

    This presentation for the 2017 Energy Exchange in Tampa, Florida, offers information about advanced auditing technologies and techniques including alternative auditing approaches and considerations and caveats.

  14. QoS Negotiation and Renegotiation Based on Mobile Agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Shi-bing; ZHANG Deng-yin

    2006-01-01

    The Quality of Service (QoS) has received more and more attention since QoS becomes increasingly important in the Internet development. Mobile software agents represent a valid alternative to the implementation of strategies for the negotiation. In this paper, a QoS negotiation and renegotiation system architecture based on mobile agents is proposed. The agents perform the task in the whole process. Therefore, such a system can reduce the network load, overcome latency, and avoid frequent exchange information between clients and server. The simulation results show that the proposed system could improve the network resource utility about 10%.

  15. Laser-based instrumentation for the detection of chemical agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartford, A. Jr.; Sander, R.K.; Quigley, G.P.; Radziemski, L.J.; Cremers, D.A.

    1982-01-01

    Several laser-based techniques are being evaluated for the remote, point, and surface detection of chemical agents. Among the methods under investigation are optoacoustic spectroscopy, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), and synchronous detection of laser-induced fluorescence (SDLIF). Optoacoustic detection has already been shown to be capable of extremely sensitive point detection. Its application to remote sensing of chemical agents is currently being evaluated. Atomic emission from the region of a laser-generated plasma has been used to identify the characteristic elements contained in nerve (P and F) and blister (S and Cl) agents. Employing this LIBS approach, detection of chemical agent simulants dispersed in air and adsorbed on a variety of surfaces has been achieved. Synchronous detection of laser-induced fluorescence provides an attractive alternative to conventional LIF, in that an artificial narrowing of the fluorescence emission is obtained. The application of this technique to chemical agent simulants has been successfully demonstrated. 19 figures

  16. Agentes hemostáticos locais e adesivos teciduais Topical haemostatic agents and tissue adhesives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Vinicius H. de Carvalho

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Nos últimos dez anos os agentes hemostáticos e os adesivos teciduais têm sido usados frequentemente e são uma alternativa positiva para evitar a perda sanguínea excessiva. O objetivo dessa revisão é discutir as características de cada um desses agentes para facilitar a decisão do cirurgião na escolha do produto mais adequado para cada tipo de sangramento e natureza da hemorragia. Uma pesquisa da literatura sobre o assunto, nas línguas inglesa e portuguesa, foi conduzida usando o PubMed (www.pubmed.com e Google (www.google.com.br para encontrar artigos recentes sobre o tema. Com base nestes estudos, os autores fizeram uma revisão didática sobre os agentes hemostáticos e adesivos teciduais e concluem que existe um agente hemostático a ser usado em cada cenário específico.In the last ten years the hemostatic agents and tissue adhesives have been frequently used and they are positive alternatives to prevent excessive blood loss. The objective of this review is to discuss the characteristics of each of these agents to facilitate the surgeon's decision when choosing the most suitable product for every type of bleeding and nature of hemorrhage. A survey of the literature on the subject, in English and in Portuguese, was conducted using PubMed (www.pubmed.com and Google (www.google.com.br to find recent articles on the topic. Based on these studies, the authors conducted a didactic review on the hemostatic agents and tissue adhesives and concluded that there is a hemostatic agent to be used in each specific scenario.

  17. Brandmodstandsbidrag for alternative isoleringsmaterialer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place

    2001-01-01

    Resume af rapport om alternative isoleringsmaterialers brandmodstandsbidrag, udarbejdet af Dansk Brandteknisk Institut under Energistyrelsens udviklingsprogram "Miljø- og arbejdsmiljøvenlig isolering"......Resume af rapport om alternative isoleringsmaterialers brandmodstandsbidrag, udarbejdet af Dansk Brandteknisk Institut under Energistyrelsens udviklingsprogram "Miljø- og arbejdsmiljøvenlig isolering"...

  18. Anvendelse af alternative isoleringsmaterialer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place

    2003-01-01

    Resume af By og Byg Anvisning 207 om anvendelse af alternative isoleringsmaterialer, udarbejdet af Statens Byggeforskningsinstitut under udviklingsprogrammet "Miljø- og arbejdsmiljøvenlig isolering"......Resume af By og Byg Anvisning 207 om anvendelse af alternative isoleringsmaterialer, udarbejdet af Statens Byggeforskningsinstitut under udviklingsprogrammet "Miljø- og arbejdsmiljøvenlig isolering"...

  19. Acquisition of Voicing Alternations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhoff, Annemarie

    "Morpho-phonological alternations are central to phonological theory, but little is known about how they are acquired. Acquiring alternations amounts to dealing with variation in a morpheme’s shape depending on its morphological context. It is generally assumed that children start with an initial

  20. Alternative health insurance schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Hans; Hansen, Bodil O.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we present a simple model of health insurance with asymmetric information, where we compare two alternative ways of organizing the insurance market. Either as a competitive insurance market, where some risks remain uninsured, or as a compulsory scheme, where however, the level...... competitive insurance; this situation turns out to be at least as good as either of the alternatives...

  1. Fuzzy Constraint-Based Agent Negotiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Menq-Wen Lin; K. Robert Lai; Ting-Jung Yu

    2005-01-01

    Conflicts between two or more parties arise for various reasons and perspectives. Thus, resolution of conflicts frequently relies on some form of negotiation. This paper presents a general problem-solving framework for modeling multi-issue multilateral negotiation using fuzzy constraints. Agent negotiation is formulated as a distributed fuzzy constraint satisfaction problem (DFCSP). Fuzzy constrains are thus used to naturally represent each agent's desires involving imprecision and human conceptualization, particularly when lexical imprecision and subjective matters are concerned. On the other hand, based on fuzzy constraint-based problem-solving, our approach enables an agent not only to systematically relax fuzzy constraints to generate a proposal, but also to employ fuzzy similarity to select the alternative that is subject to its acceptability by the opponents. This task of problem-solving is to reach an agreement that benefits all agents with a high satisfaction degree of fuzzy constraints, and move towards the deal more quickly since their search focuses only on the feasible solution space. An application to multilateral negotiation of a travel planning is provided to demonstrate the usefulness and effectiveness of our framework.

  2. Topical antifungal agents: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, K B

    1996-10-01

    So many topical antifungal agents have been introduced that it has become very difficult to select the proper agent for a given infection. Nonspecific agents have been available for many years, and they are still effective in many situations. These agents include Whitfield's ointment, Castellani paint, gentian violet, potassium permanganate, undecylenic acid and selenium sulfide. Specific antifungal agents include, among others, the polyenes (nystatin, amphotericin B), the imidazoles (metronidazole, clotrimazole) and the allylamines (terbinafine, naftifine). Although the choice of an antifungal agent should be based on an accurate diagnosis, many clinicians believe that topical miconazole is a relatively effective agent for the treatment of most mycotic infections. Terbinafine and other newer drugs have primary fungicidal effects. Compared with older antifungal agents, these newer drugs can be used in lower concentrations and shorter therapeutic courses. Studies are needed to evaluate the clinical efficacies and cost advantages of both newer and traditional agents.

  3. Nutraceuticals as therapeutic agents for atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Joe W E; Williams, Jessica O; Ramji, Dipak P

    2018-05-01

    Atherosclerosis, a chronic inflammatory disorder of medium and large arteries and an underlying cause of cardiovascular disease (CVD), is responsible for a third of all global deaths. Current treatments for CVD, such as optimized statin therapy, are associated with considerable residual risk and several side effects in some patients. The outcome of research on the identification of alternative pharmaceutical agents for the treatment of CVD has been relatively disappointing with many promising leads failing at the clinical level. Nutraceuticals, products from food sources with health benefits beyond their nutritional value, represent promising agents in the prevention of CVD or as an add-on therapy with current treatments. This review will highlight the potential of several nutraceuticals, including polyunsaturated fatty acids, flavonoids and other polyphenols, as anti-CVD therapies based on clinical and pre-clinical mechanism-based studies. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Modern antiplatelet agents in coronary artery disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Power, Rachel F

    2012-10-01

    Dual antiplatelet therapy is well recognized in the prevention of thrombotic complications of acute coronary syndrome and percutaneous coronary interventions. Despite clinical benefits of aspirin and clopidogrel therapy, a number of limitations curtail their efficacy: slow onset of action, variability in platelet inhibitory response and potential drug-drug interactions. Furthermore, the single platelet-activation pathway targeted by these agents allows continued platelet activation via other pathways, ensuring incomplete protection against ischemic events, thus, underscoring the need for alternate antiplatelet treatment strategies. A number of novel antiplatelet agents are currently in advance development and many have established superior effects on platelet inhibition, clinical outcomes and safety profile than clopidogrel in high-risk patients. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the current status of P2Y12 receptor inhibition and PAR-1 antagonists in determining a future strategy for individualized antiplatelet therapy.

  5. Blasting agent package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, R.

    1971-03-17

    A protected preassembled package for blasting agents susceptible to desensitization by water consists of, in combination: (1) an inner rigid and self-supporting tube, the upper end of which is suited to be connected, or attached, to the discharge end of a loading hose for a blasting agent and the lower end of which is open; and (2) a flexible tubular liner made of water-resistant film, having a diameter greater than that of the inner tube and a length at least equal to the desired depth of its insertion into the borehole, the liner being sleeved over the length of the inner tube, the upper end of the liner being attached to the inner tube and the lower end of the liner being closed so as to prevent substantial discharge of the explosive mixture therefrom when the latter is pumped into it. (24 claims)

  6. Constructing Secure Mobile Agent Systems Using the Agent Operating System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van t Noordende, G.J.; Overeinder, B.J.; Timmer, R.J.; Brazier, F.M.; Tanenbaum, A.S.

    2009-01-01

    Designing a secure and reliable mobile agent system is a difficult task. The agent operating system (AOS) is a building block that simplifies this task. AOS provides common primitives required by most mobile agent middleware systems, such as primitives for secure communication, secure and

  7. Logics for Intelligent Agents and Multi-Agent Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyer, John-Jules Charles

    2014-01-01

    This chapter presents the history of the application of logic in a quite popular paradigm in contemporary computer science and artificial intelligence, viz. the area of intelligent agents and multi-agent systems. In particular we discuss the logics that have been used to specify single agents, the

  8. Organizations as Socially Constructed Agents in the Agent Oriented Paradigm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Boella (Guido); L.W.N. van der Torre (Leon)

    2005-01-01

    htmlabstractIn this paper we propose a new role for the agent metaphor in the definition of the organizational structure of multiagent systems. The agent metaphor is extended to consider as agents also social entities like organizations, groups and normative systems, so that mental attitudes can

  9. HL-LHC alternatives

    CERN Document Server

    Tomás, R; White, S

    2014-01-01

    The HL-LHC parameters assume unexplored regimes for hadron colliders in various aspects of accelerator beam dynamics and technology. This paper reviews three alternatives that could potentially improve the LHC performance: (i) the alternative filling scheme 8b+4e, (ii) the use of a 200 MHz RF system in the LHC and (iii) the use of proton cooling methods to reduce the beam emittance (at top energy and at injection). The alternatives are assessed in terms of feasibility, pros and cons, risks versus benefits and the impact on beam availability.

  10. Alternative loop rings

    CERN Document Server

    Goodaire, EG; Polcino Milies, C

    1996-01-01

    For the past ten years, alternative loop rings have intrigued mathematicians from a wide cross-section of modern algebra. As a consequence, the theory of alternative loop rings has grown tremendously. One of the main developments is the complete characterization of loops which have an alternative but not associative, loop ring. Furthermore, there is a very close relationship between the algebraic structures of loop rings and of group rings over 2-groups. Another major topic of research is the study of the unit loop of the integral loop ring. Here the interaction between loop rings and group ri

  11. Dynamic Allocation of a Domestic Heating Task to Gas-Based and Heatpump-Based Heating Agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Treur, J.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper a multi-agent model for a domestic heating task is introduced and analysed. The model includes two alternative heating agents (for gas-based heating and for heatpump-based heating), and a third allocation agent which determines the most economic allocation of the heating task to these

  12. 75 FR 28233 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment for a Biological Control Agent for Asian Citrus Psyllid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-20

    ...] Availability of an Environmental Assessment for a Biological Control Agent for Asian Citrus Psyllid AGENCY... radiata, into the continental United States for use as a biological control agent to reduce the severity... of an alternative biological control agent, an encyrtid wasp, (Diaphorencyrtus aligarhensis). However...

  13. Theories about architecture and performance of multi-agent systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gazendam, Henk W.M.; Jorna, René J.

    1998-01-01

    Multi-agent systems are promising as models of organization because they are based on the idea that most work in human organizations is done based on intelligence, communication, cooperation, and massive parallel processing. They offer an alternative for system theories of organization, which are

  14. Three-agent Peer Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Vicki Knoblauch

    2008-01-01

    I show that every rule for dividing a dollar among three agents impartially (so that each agent's share depends only on her evaluation by her associates) underpays some agent by at least one-third of a dollar for some consistent profile of evaluations. I then produce an impartial division rule that never underpays or overpays any agent by more than one-third of a dollar, and for most consistent evaluation profiles does much better.

  15. Agent control of cooperating satellites

    OpenAIRE

    Lincoln, N.K.; Veres, S.M.; Dennis, Louise; Fisher, Michael; Lisitsa, Alexei

    2011-01-01

    A novel, hybrid, agent architecture for (small)swarms of satellites has been developed. The software architecture for each satellite comprises ahigh-level rational agent linked to a low-level control system. The rational agent forms dynamicgoals, decides how to tackle them and passes theactual implementation of these plans to the control layer. The rational agent also has access to aMatLabmodel of the satellite dynamics, thus allowing it to carry out selective hypothetical reasoningabout pote...

  16. Believable Social and Emotional Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-05-01

    While building tools to support the creation of believable emotional agents, I had to make a number of important design decisions . Before describing...processing systems, it is difficult to give an artist direct control over the emotion - al aspects of the character. By making these decisions explicit, I hope...Woody on “Cheers”). Believable Agents BELIEVABLE SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL AGENTS 11 Lesson: We don’t want agent architectures that enforce rationality and

  17. Alternative gravity theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francaviglia, M.

    1990-01-01

    Although general relativity is a well-established discipline the theory deserves efforts aimed at producing alternative or more general frameworks for investigating the classical properties of gravity. These are either devoted to producing alternative viewpoints or interpretations of standard general relativity, or at constructing, discussing and proposing experimental tests for alternative descriptions of the dynamics of the gravitational field and its interaction (or unification) with external matter fields. Classical alternative theories of gravitation can roughly classified as follows; theories based on a still 4-dimensional picture, under the assumption that the dynamics of the gravitational field is more complicated than Einstein's and theories based on higher-dimensional pictures. This leads to supergravity and strings which are not included here. Theories based on higher-dimensional pictures on the assumption that space-time is replaced by a higher-dimensional manifold. Papers on these classifications are reviewed. (author)

  18. Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... therapies are often lacking; therefore, the safety and effectiveness of many CAM therapies are uncertain. The National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) is sponsoring research designed to fill this ...

  19. Alternative Menopause Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... menopausal symptoms. These include estrogen—still the most effective treatment for many menopausal symptoms—non-estrogen prescription drugs, and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). What is CAM? CAM refers to practices ...

  20. Seal design alternatives study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Sambeek, L.L.; Luo, D.D.; Lin, M.S.; Ostrowski, W.; Oyenuga, D.

    1993-06-01

    This report presents the results from a study of various sealing alternatives for the WIPP sealing system. Overall, the sealing system has the purpose of reducing to the extent possible the potential for fluids (either gas or liquid) from entering or leaving the repository. The sealing system is divided into three subsystems: drift and panel seals within the repository horizon, shaft seals in each of the four shafts, and borehole seals. Alternatives to the baseline configuration for the WIPP seal system design included evaluating different geometries and schedules for seal component installations and the use of different materials for seal components. Order-of-magnitude costs for the various alternatives were prepared as part of the study. Firm recommendations are not presented, but the advantages and disadvantages of the alternatives are discussed. Technical information deficiencies are identified and studies are outlined which can provide required information

  1. Bone Graft Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spine Treatment Spondylolisthesis BLOG FIND A SPECIALIST Treatments Bone Graft Alternatives Patient Education Committee Patient Education Committee ... procedure such as spinal fusion. What Types of Bone Grafts are There? Bone grafts that are transplanted ...

  2. Alternative Assessment Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenthal, Barbara

    1988-01-01

    Maintaining the precision necessary for administering norm referenced tests can be a problem for the special education teacher who is trained to assist the student. Criterion-referenced tests, observations, and interviews are presented as effective alternative assessment techniques. (JDD)

  3. Evaluation of Expenditure Alternates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poehlein, Gary W.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Illustrates a system of calculating dollar expenditures over periods of time in terms of present value. The system enables planners, school boards, and administrators to compare expenditure alternatives as a decisionmaking factor. (Author)

  4. Alternative fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penn, W.J.

    1979-05-01

    Uranium resource utilization and economic considerations provide incentives to study alternative fuel cycles as future options to the PHWR natural uranium cycle. Preliminary studies to define the most favourable alternatives and their possible introduction dates are discussed. The important and uncertain components which influence option selection are reviewed, including nuclear capacity growth, uranium availability and demand, economic potential, and required technological developments. Finally, a summary of Ontario Hydro's program to further assess cycle selection and define development needs is given. (auth)

  5. The alternative library

    OpenAIRE

    Collinson, Timothy; Williams, A.

    2004-01-01

    Much time and effort has been devoted to designing and developing library Web sites that are easy to navigate by both new students and experienced researchers. In a review of the Southampton Institute Library it was decided that in addition to updating the existing homepage an alternative would be offered. Drawing on theory relating to user interface design, learning styles and creative thinking, an Alternative Library navigation system was added to the more traditional library homepage. The ...

  6. Chemical warfare agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayaraghavan R

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the Weapons of Mass Destruction, chemical warfare (CW is probably one of the most brutal created by mankind in comparison with biological and nuclear warfare. Chemical weapons are inexpensive and are relatively easy to produce, even by small terrorist groups, to create mass casualties with small quantities. The characteristics of various CW agents, general information relevant to current physical as well as medical protection methods, detection equipment available and decontamination techniques are discussed in this review article. A brief note on Chemical Weapons Convention is also provided.

  7. Chemical warfare agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, K.; Raza, S. K.; Vijayaraghavan, R.

    2010-01-01

    Among the Weapons of Mass Destruction, chemical warfare (CW) is probably one of the most brutal created by mankind in comparison with biological and nuclear warfare. Chemical weapons are inexpensive and are relatively easy to produce, even by small terrorist groups, to create mass casualties with small quantities. The characteristics of various CW agents, general information relevant to current physical as well as medical protection methods, detection equipment available and decontamination techniques are discussed in this review article. A brief note on Chemical Weapons Convention is also provided. PMID:21829312

  8. Alternative Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, M.; Duckers, L.; Lockett, P.; Loughridge, B.; Peatfield, T.; White, P.

    1984-01-01

    The Coventry (Lanchester) Polytechnic Wave Energy Group has been involved in the United Kingdom wave energy research programme since its inception in 1975. Whilst the work of the group is mainly concerned with wave energy, and currently is directed towards the design of a wave energy device tailored to the needs of isolated/island communities, it has some involvement with other aspects of the alternatives. This conference, dealing with alternative energy systems and their electrical integration and utilisation was engendered by the general interest which the Polytechnic group members have in the alternatives and their use. The scope for electrical integration and utilisation is very broad. Energy for family groups may be provided in a relatively unsophisticated way which is acceptable to them. Small population centres, for example island communities relying upon diesel equipment, can reap the benefits of the alternatives through their ability to accept novel integration schemes and a flexible approach to the use of the energy available. Consumers already enjoying the benefits of a 'firm' electricity grid supply can use energy from a variety of alternative systems, via the grid, without having to modify their energy consumption habits. In addition to the domestic and industrial applications and coastal possibilities, specialist applications in isolated environments have also emerged. The Proceedings detail practical, technical and economic aspects of the alternatives and their electrical integration and utilisation.

  9. Use of carbon dioxide as an intravascular contrast agent: A review of current literature

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Fahad; Mangi, Muhammad Asif; Rehman, Hiba; Kaluski, Edo

    2017-01-01

    Use of X-ray contrast allows us to differentiate between two or more adjacent structures on radiographic studies. The X-ray contrast agent can be the one with increase X-ray absorption, like iodine and a barium X-ray contrast agent or the one with decrease X-ray absorption like air and carbon dioxide contrast agent. Each contrast agent possesses different risks and benefits in various ways. Carbon dioxide as an intravascular contrast agent can be used as an alternative intravascular contrast ...

  10. Ultrasound contrast agents: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgrove, David

    2006-12-01

    With the introduction of microbubble contrast agents, diagnostic ultrasound has entered a new era that allows the dynamic detection of tissue flow of both the macro and microvasculature. Underpinning this development is the fact that gases are compressible, and thus the microbubbles expand and contract in the alternating pressure waves of the ultrasound beam, while tissue is almost incompressible. Special software using multiple pulse sequences separates these signals from those of tissue and displays them as an overlay or on a split screen. This can be done at low acoustic pressures (MIdeveloped for myocardial perfusion. In radiology, the most important application is the liver, especially for focal disease. The approach parallels that of dynamic CT or MRI but ultrasound has the advantages of high spatial and temporal resolution. Thus, small lesions that can be indeterminate on CT can often be studied with ultrasound, and situations where the flow is very rapid (e.g., focal nodular hyperplasia where the first few seconds of arterial perfusion may be critical to making the diagnosis) are readily studied. Microbubbles linger in the extensive sinusoidal space of normal liver for several minutes whereas they wash out rapidly from metastases, which have a low vascular volume and thus appear as filling defects. The method has been shown to be as sensitive as three-phase CT. Microbubbles have clinical uses in many other applications where knowledge of the microcirculation is important (the macrocirculation can usually be assessed adequately using conventional Doppler though there are a few important situations where the signal boost given by microbubbles is useful, e.g., transcranial Doppler for evaluating vasospasm after subarachnoid haemorrhage). An important situation where demonstrating tissue devitalisation is important is in interstitial ablation of focal liver lesions: using microbubble contrast agents at the end of a procedure allows immediate evaluation of the

  11. Holograms as Teaching Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Robin A.

    2013-02-01

    Hungarian physicist Dennis Gabor won the Pulitzer Prize for his 1947 introduction of basic holographic principles, but it was not until the invention of the laser in 1960 that research scientists, physicians, technologists and the general public began to seriously consider the interdisciplinary potentiality of holography. Questions around whether and when Three-Dimensional (3-D) images and systems would impact American entertainment and the arts would be answered before educators, instructional designers and students would discover how much Three-Dimensional Hologram Technology (3DHT) would affect teaching practices and learning environments. In the following International Symposium on Display Holograms (ISDH) poster presentation, the author features a traditional board game as well as a reflection hologram to illustrate conventional and evolving Three-Dimensional representations and technology for education. Using elements from the American children's toy Operation® (Hasbro, 2005) as well as a reflection hologram of a human brain (Ko, 1998), this poster design highlights the pedagogical effects of 3-D images, games and systems on learning science. As teaching agents, holograms can be considered substitutes for real objects, (human beings, organs, and animated characters) as well as agents (pedagogical, avatars, reflective) in various learning environments using many systems (direct, emergent, augmented reality) and electronic tools (cellphones, computers, tablets, television). In order to understand the particular importance of utilizing holography in school, clinical and public settings, the author identifies advantages and benefits of using 3-D images and technology as instructional tools.

  12. Amphoteric surface active agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eissa, A.M. F.

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available 2-[trimethyl ammonium, triethyl ammonium, pyridinium and 2-amino pyridinium] alkanoates, four series of surface active agents containing carbon chain C12, C14, C16 and C18carbon atoms, were prepared. Their structures were characterized by microanalysis, infrared (IR and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR. Surface and interfacial tension, Krafft point, wetting time, emulsification power, foaming height and critical micelle concentration (cmc were determined and a comparative study was made between their chemical structure and surface active properties. Antimicrobial activity of these surfactants was also determined.

    Se prepararon cuatro series de agentes tensioactivos del tipo 2-[trimetil amonio, trietil amonio, piridinio y 2-amino piridinio] alcanoatos, que contienen cadenas carbonadas con C12, C14, C16 y C18 átomos de carbono.
    Se determinaron la tensión superficial e interfacial, el punto de Krafft, el tiempo humectante, el poder de emulsionamiento, la altura espumante y la concentración critica de miscela (cmc y se hizo un estudio comparativo entre la estructura química y sus propiedades tensioactivas. Se determinó también la actividad antimicrobiana de estos tensioactivos. Estas estructuras se caracterizaron por microanálisis, infrarrojo (IR y resonancia magnética nuclear (RMN.

  13. [New agents for hypercholesterolemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintó, Xavier; García Gómez, María Carmen

    2016-02-19

    An elevated proportion of high cardiovascular risk patients do not achieve the therapeutic c-LDL goals. This owes to physicians' inappropriate or insufficient use of cholesterol lowering medications or to patients' bad tolerance or therapeutic compliance. Another cause is an insufficient efficacy of current cholesterol lowering drugs including statins and ezetimibe. In addition, proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9 inhibitors are a new cholesterol lowering medications showing safety and high efficacy to reduce c-LDL in numerous already performed or underway clinical trials, potentially allowing an optimal control of hypercholesterolemia in most patients. Agents inhibiting apolipoprotein B synthesis and microsomal transfer protein are also providing a new potential to decrease cholesterol in patients with severe hypercholesterolemia and in particular in homozygote familial hypercholesterolemia. Last, cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitors have shown powerful effects on c-HDL and c-LDL, although their efficacy in cardiovascular prevention and safety has not been demonstrated yet. We provide in this article an overview of the main characteristics of therapeutic agents for hypercholesterolemia, which have been recently approved or in an advanced research stage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Alternative fuels for vehicles; Alternative drivmidler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-02-15

    Up until 2020 and onwards the analysis indicates that especially electricity, biogas and natural gas as propellants is economically attractive compared to conventional gasoline and diesel while other fuels have the same or higher costs for petrol and diesel. Especially biogas and electricity will also offer significant reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions, but also hydrogen, methanol, DME and to a lesser extent the second generation bioethanol and most of the other alternative fuels reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. Use of the traditional food-based first generation biofuels involves, at best, only modest climate benefits if land use changes are counted, and at worst, significant negative climate effects. Natural gas as a propellant involves a moderate climate gain, but may play a role for building infrastructure and market for gaseous fuels in large fleets, thereby contributing to the phasing in of biogas for transport. The electric-based automotive fuels are the most effective due to a high efficiency of the engine and an increasing proportion of wind energy in the electricity supply. The methanol track also has a relatively high efficiency. Among the others, the track based on diesel engines (biodiesel) is more effective than the track based on gasoline/Otto engines (gas and ethanol) as a result of the diesel engine's better efficiency. For the heavy vehicles all the selected alternative fuels to varying degrees reduce emissions of CO{sub 2}, particularly DME based on wood. The only exception to this is - as for passenger cars - the propellant synthetic diesel based on coal. (LN).

  15. on some properties of the alternating sylvester series and alternating

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DJFLEX

    . (iii) above is known in literature as the alternating Sylvester series while (iv) is known as the alternating Engel expansion (Kalpazidou and Ganatsiou (1991)). We are interested in studying the properties of these alternating series. Theorem 2: ...

  16. Multi-Agent Modeling in Managing Six Sigma Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Y. Chau

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a multi-agent model is proposed for considering the human resources factor in decision making in relation to the six sigma project. The proposed multi-agent system is expected to increase the acccuracy of project prioritization and to stabilize the human resources service level. A simulation of the proposed multiagent model is conducted. The results show that a multi-agent model which takes into consideration human resources when making decisions about project selection and project team formation is important in enabling efficient and effective project management. The multi-agent modeling approach provides an alternative approach for improving communication and the autonomy of six sigma projects in business organizations.

  17. A strategy learning model for autonomous agents based on classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Śnieżyński Bartłomiej

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a strategy learning model for autonomous agents based on classification. In the literature, the most commonly used learning method in agent-based systems is reinforcement learning. In our opinion, classification can be considered a good alternative. This type of supervised learning can be used to generate a classifier that allows the agent to choose an appropriate action for execution. Experimental results show that this model can be successfully applied for strategy generation even if rewards are delayed. We compare the efficiency of the proposed model and reinforcement learning using the farmer-pest domain and configurations of various complexity. In complex environments, supervised learning can improve the performance of agents much faster that reinforcement learning. If an appropriate knowledge representation is used, the learned knowledge may be analyzed by humans, which allows tracking the learning process

  18. Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Management with Oral Hypoglycemic Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Rachel J.; Hays, Karen E.; Hebert, Mary F.

    2014-01-01

    Oral hypoglycemic agents such as glyburide (second generation sulfonylurea) and metformin (biguanide) are attractive alternatives to insulin due to lower cost, ease of administration, and better patient adherence. The majority of evidence from retrospective and prospective studies suggests comparable efficacy and safety of oral hypoglycemic agents such as glyburide and metformin as compared to insulin when used in the treatment of women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Glyburide and metformin have altered pharmacokinetics during pregnancy and both agents cross the placenta. In this article, we review the efficacy, safety and dosage of oral hypoglycemic agents for the treatment of gestational diabetes mellitus. Additional research is needed to evaluate optimal dosage for glyburide and metformin during pregnancy. Comparative studies evaluating the effects of glyburide and metformin on long-term maternal and fetal outcomes are also needed. PMID:25315294

  19. 75 FR 69396 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment for a Biological Control Agent for Arundo donax

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-12

    ... Biological Control Agent for Arundo donax AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION... alternatives to, the release of Arundo scale into the continental United States for use as a biological control... a biological control agent to reduce the severity of Arundo donax infestations. A. donax is a highly...

  20. Microencapsulation of chemotherapeutic agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, Hong Sik

    1993-01-01

    Mixing various amounts of chemotherapeutic agents such as cisplatinum, 5-fluorouracil, mitomycin-C, and adriamycin with polymers such as poly-d, 1-lactide, ethylhydroxyethylcellulose, and polycaprolactone, several kinds of microcapsules were made. Among them, microcapsule made from ethylhydroxyethylcellulose showed best yield. Under light microscopy, the capsules were observed as particles with refractive properties. For the basic toxicity test, intraarterial administration of cisplatinum was done in 6 adult mongrel dogs. Follow-up angiography was accomplished in 2 wk intervals for 6 wks. Despite no significant difference in the histopathological examination between the embolized and normal kidneys, follow-up angiogram showed atrophy of renal cortex and diminished numbers of arterial branches in the embolized kidneys. In order to identify the structural properties of microcapsules, and to determine the drug content and the rate of release, further experiment is thought to be necessary. (Author)

  1. New MR contrast agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossman, C.D.; Subramanian, G.; Schneider, R.; Szeverenyi, N.E.; Rosenbaum, A.M.; Gagne, G.; Tillapaugh-Fay, G.; Berlin, R.; Ritter-Hrncirik, C.; Yu, S.

    1990-01-01

    This paper evaluates an MR contrast agent-meglumine tris-(2,6-dicarboxypyridine) gadolinium (III) or gadolinium dipicolinate (Gd-DPC)-produced in-house. Rats were anesthetized with pentobarbital. For renal imaging, bowel motion artifact was minimized with glucagon (0.014 mg/kg, intravenous (IV)). Enhanced images were generated on a 2-T chemical shift imaging system with a 31-cm horizontal bore magnet after IV injection of Gd-DPC (100 μM/kg). Coronal sections of the kidneys and sagittal sections of the brain, 2 mm thick, were made. Six to eight excitations and 128 or 356 phase-encoding steps were used for each image. Control animals were injected with equivalent doses of gadopentetate dimeglumine

  2. Catalysis for alternative energy generation

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Summarizes recent problems in using catalysts in alternative energy generation and proposes novel solutions  Reconsiders the role of catalysis in alternative energy generation  Contributors include catalysis and alternative energy experts from across the globe

  3. A Composite Agent Architecture for Multi-Agent Simulations

    OpenAIRE

    VanPutte, Michael; Osborn, Brian; Hiles, John

    2002-01-01

    CGF Computer Generated Forces and Behavioral Representation The MOVES Institute’s Computer-Generated Autonomy Group has focused on a research goal of modeling complex and adaptive behavior while at the same time making the behavior easier to create and control. This research has led to several techniques for agent construction, that includes a social and organization relationship management engine, a composite agent architecture, an agent goal apparatus, a structure for capturi...

  4. Alternative pricing methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    With the increased interest in competitive market forces and growing recognition of the deficiencies in current practices, FERC and others are exploring alternatives to embedded cost pricing. A number of these alternatives are discussed in this chapter. Marketplace pricing, discussed briefly here, is the subject of the next chapter. Obviously, the pricing formula may combine several of these methodologies. One utility of which the authors are aware is seeking a price equal to the sum of embedded costs, opportunity costs, line losses, value of service, FERC's percentage adder formula and a contract service charge

  5. Local Sugars Alternatives for Tissue Culture of Dendrobium Hybrid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nafiisah

    local growers are unable to meet the hotel demands (The president of the Republic of Mauritius, 2008). ..... actual price in the Mauritian local market. Mauritius is one of the .... Cassava starch as an alternative cheap gelling agent for the in vitro.

  6. Agar alternatives for micropropagation of African violet ( Saintpaulia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agar is one of the most popular solidifying agents in plant tissue culture. High price of pure grade agar and fear of over exploitation of its resources caused searching for low cost alternatives. In this study, liquid medium with cotton substratum and different combinations of starch, semolina, potato powder and agar in two ...

  7. Alternative methods for chlorination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiessinger, F; Rook, J J; Duguet, J P

    1985-12-01

    Existing disinfectants are oxidative agents which all present negative effects on subsequent treatment processes. None of them has decisive advantages over chlorine, although chlorine-dioxide and chloramines might at times be preferable. Optimum treatment practices will improve the removal of organic precursors before final disinfection which could then consist in a light chlorine addition. A philosophy of radical change in water treatment technology encompassing physical treatment without chemicals such as membrane filtration, solid disinfectants is presented.

  8. Odor Classification using Agent Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigeru OMATU

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to measure and classify odors, Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM can be used. In the present study, seven QCM sensors and three different odors are used. The system has been developed as a virtual organization of agents using an agent platform called PANGEA (Platform for Automatic coNstruction of orGanizations of intElligent Agents. This is a platform for developing open multi-agent systems, specifically those including organizational aspects. The main reason for the use of agents is the scalability of the platform, i.e. the way in which it models the services. The system models functionalities as services inside the agents, or as Service Oriented Approach (SOA architecture compliant services using Web Services. This way the adaptation of the odor classification systems with new algorithms, tools and classification techniques is allowed.

  9. Agent-based enterprise integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N. M. Berry; C. M. Pancerella

    1998-12-01

    The authors are developing and deploying software agents in an enterprise information architecture such that the agents manage enterprise resources and facilitate user interaction with these resources. The enterprise agents are built on top of a robust software architecture for data exchange and tool integration across heterogeneous hardware and software. The resulting distributed multi-agent system serves as a method of enhancing enterprises in the following ways: providing users with knowledge about enterprise resources and applications; accessing the dynamically changing enterprise; locating enterprise applications and services; and improving search capabilities for applications and data. Furthermore, agents can access non-agents (i.e., databases and tools) through the enterprise framework. The ultimate target of the effort is the user; they are attempting to increase user productivity in the enterprise. This paper describes their design and early implementation and discusses the planned future work.

  10. Flued head replacement alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smetters, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses flued head replacement options. Section 2 discusses complete flued head replacement with a design that eliminates the inaccessible welds. Section 3 discusses alternate flued head support designs that can drastically reduce flued head installation costs. Section 4 describes partial flued head replacement designs. Finally, Section 5 discusses flued head analysis methods. (orig./GL)

  11. Alternate energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens-Guille, P.D.

    1975-01-01

    The author highlights the interesting points made by the speeches during the conference on Energy and its Future in Southern Africa. He also draws attention to potential alternate energy sources such as power from tides, ocean waves, ocean temperature differences and geothermal power

  12. Phrasal alternation in Kerinci

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ernanda, N.

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation is a descriptive study of a linguistic phenomenon known as phrasal alternation, focusing on the Pondok Tinggi (PT) dialect of Kerinci, spoken in Indonesia. In essence, almost every Kerinci word displays two forms, labeled absolute and oblique. These forms differ in the shape of

  13. Alternative Energy Busing

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaFee, Scott

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, school districts have converted portions of their bus fleets to cleaner-burning, sometimes cheaper, alternative fossil fuels, such as compressed natural gas or propane. Others have adopted biodiesel, which combines regular diesel with fuel derived from organic sources, usually vegetable oils or animal fats. The number of biodiesel…

  14. Energy conversion alternatives study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shure, L. T.

    1979-01-01

    Comparison of coal based energy systems is given. Study identifies and compares various advanced energy conversion systems using coal or coal derived fuels for baselaoad electric power generation. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS) reports provede government, industry, and general public with technically consistent basis for comparison of system's options of interest for fossilfired electric-utility application.

  15. Alternatives in solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schueler, D. G.

    1978-01-01

    Although solar energy has the potential of providing a significant source of clean and renewable energy for a variety of applications, it is expected to penetrate the nation's energy economy very slowly. The alternative solar energy technologies which employ direct collection and conversion of solar radiation as briefly described.

  16. Alternative Work Schedules: Definitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of the College and University Personnel Association, 1977

    1977-01-01

    The term "alternative work schedules" encompasses any variation of the requirement that all permanent employees in an organization or one shift of employees adhere to the same five-day, seven-to-eight-hour schedule. This article defines staggered hours, flexible working hours (flexitour and gliding time), compressed work week, the task system, and…

  17. Alternatives to Traditional Notation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaare, Mark

    1997-01-01

    Provides a introduction and overview to alternative music notation systems. Describes guitar tablature, accordion tablature, klavarskribo (a keyboard notational system developed by Cornelius Pot, a Dutch engineer), and the digital piano roll. Briefly discusses the history of notation reform and current efforts. Includes examples from scores. (MJP)

  18. Compensated pulsed alternator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weldon, W.F.; Driga, M.D.; Woodson, H.H.

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to an electromechanical energy converter with inertial energy storage. The device, a single phase, two or multi-pole alternator with stationary field coils, and a rotating armature is provided. The rotor itself may be of laminated steel for slower pulses or for faster pulses should be nonmagnetic and electrically nonconductive in order to allow rapid penetration of the field as the armature coil rotates. The armature coil comprises a plurality of power generating conductors mounted on the rotor. The alternator may also include a stationary or counterrotating compensating coil to increase the output voltage thereof and to reduce the internal impedance of the alternator at the moment of peak output. As the machine voltage rises sinusoidally, an external trigger switch is adapted to be closed at the appropriate time to create the desired output current from said alternator to an external load circuit, and as the output current passes through zero a self-commutating effect is provided to allow the switch to disconnect the generator from the external circuit

  19. TWTF design alternates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayers, A.L. Sr.

    1982-03-01

    The Transuranic Waste Treatment Facility (TWTF) will process transuranic (TRU) waste in retrievable storage at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The costs for a TWTF concept using a slagging pyrolysis incinerator were excessive. Alternate concepts using a slow speed shredder, a rotary kiln incinerator, and concrete immobilization should result in significant cost reductions. These will be included in future TWTF considerations

  20. Alternatives to Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Children Today, 1994

    1994-01-01

    Notes that our capacity to diffuse conflict rests in our ability to recognize and verbalize feelings, develop empathy, and think of alternatives to violence. Explores the influence of role models and culture on violence and how the media can use violent images effectively in helping us confront a culture of violence. (HTH)

  1. Publishing: Alternatives and Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penchansky, Mimi; And Others

    The Library Association of the City University of New York presents an annotated bibliography on the subject of small and alternative publishing. In the first section directories, indexes, catalogs, and reviews are briefly described. Book distributors for small publishers are listed next. The major portion of the bibliography is a listing of books…

  2. The Alternative to Occupy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Emil; Hansen, Allan Dreyer

    2017-01-01

    the institutionalization of radical politics (as carried out by The Alternative) entails a move from universality towards particularity. This move, however, comes with the risk of cutting-off supporters who no longer feel represented by the project. We refer to this problem as ‘the problem of particularization...

  3. Radioactive scanning agents with stabilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fawzi, M.B.

    1982-01-01

    Stable compositions useful as technetium 99-based scintigraphic agents comprise gentisyl alcohol or a pharmaceutically-acceptable salt or ester thereof in combination with a pertechnetate reducing agent or dissolved in pertechnetate-99m (sup(99m)TcOsub(4)sup(-)) solution. The compositions are especially useful in combination with a phosphate or phosphonate material that carries the radionuclide to bone, thus providing a skeletal imaging agent

  4. Principals, agents and research programmes

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth Shove

    2003-01-01

    Research programmes appear to represent one of the more powerful instruments through which research funders (principals) steer and shape what researchers (agents) do. The fact that agents navigate between different sources and styles of programme funding and that they use programmes to their own ends is readily accommodated within principal-agent theory with the help of concepts such as shirking and defection. Taking a different route, I use three examples of research programming (by the UK, ...

  5. Business Intelligence using Software Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Ramona BOLOGA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents some ideas about business intelligence today and the importance of developing real time business solutions. The authors make an exploration of links between business intelligence and artificial intelligence and focuses specifically on the implementation of software agents-based systems in business intelligence. There are briefly presented some of the few solutions proposed so far that use software agents properties for the benefit of business intelligence. The authors then propose some basic ideas for developing real-time agent-based software system for business intelligence in supply chain management, using Case Base Reasoning Agents.

  6. GOAL Agents Instantiate Intention Logic

    OpenAIRE

    Hindriks, Koen; van der Hoek, Wiebe

    2008-01-01

    It is commonly believed there is a big gap between agent logics and computational agent frameworks. In this paper, we show that this gap is not as big as believed by showing that GOAL agents instantiate Intention Logic of Cohen and Levesque. That is, we show that GOAL agent programs can be formally related to Intention Logic.We do so by proving that the GOAL Verification Logic can be embedded into Intention Logic. It follows that (a fragment of) Intention Logic can be used t...

  7. Aspects of agents for safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotte, U.

    1999-01-01

    With the development of the Internet and the WWW, information treatment has gained a new dimension. (Intelligent) software agents are one of the means expected to relieve human staff of the burden of information overload, and in the future to contribute to safeguards data acquisition, data evaluation and decision-making. An overview is given for the categories of Internet, intranet and desktop agents. Aspects of the potential application of agents are described in three fields: information access and delivery, collaboration and workflow management, adaptive interfaces and learning assistants. Routine application of agents is not yet in sight, but the scientific and technical progress seems to be encouraging. (author)

  8. Stable agents for imaging investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tofe, A.J.

    1976-01-01

    This invention concerns highly stable compounds useful in preparing technetium 99m based scintiscanning exploration agents. The compounds of this invention include a pertechnetate reducing agent or a solution of oxidized pertechnetate and an efficient proportion, sufficient to stabilize the compounds in the presence of oxygen and of radiolysis products, of ascorbic acid or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or ester of this acid. The invention also concerns a perfected process for preparing a technetium based exploration agent, consisting in codissolving the ascorbic acid or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or ester of such an acid and a pertechnetate reducing agent in a solution of oxidized pertechnetate [fr

  9. Incorporating BDI Agents into Human-Agent Decision Making Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamphorst, Bart; van Wissen, Arlette; Dignum, Virginia

    Artificial agents, people, institutes and societies all have the ability to make decisions. Decision making as a research area therefore involves a broad spectrum of sciences, ranging from Artificial Intelligence to economics to psychology. The Colored Trails (CT) framework is designed to aid researchers in all fields in examining decision making processes. It is developed both to study interaction between multiple actors (humans or software agents) in a dynamic environment, and to study and model the decision making of these actors. However, agents in the current implementation of CT lack the explanatory power to help understand the reasoning processes involved in decision making. The BDI paradigm that has been proposed in the agent research area to describe rational agents, enables the specification of agents that reason in abstract concepts such as beliefs, goals, plans and events. In this paper, we present CTAPL: an extension to CT that allows BDI software agents that are written in the practical agent programming language 2APL to reason about and interact with a CT environment.

  10. The Agent of Change: The Agent of Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, C. R., Jr.

    This speech examines the role of change agents in third world societies and indicates that the change agent must, to some extent, manipulate the social situation, even if his view of society is a more optimistic one than he finds in reality. If he considers strains and stresses to be the lubricants of change, then his focus on conflict as a…

  11. Gastrointestinal scanning agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, M.D.

    1980-01-01

    An easily prepared radiolabeled gastrointestinal scanning agent is described. Technetium-99m has ideal characteristics for imaging the upper and lower GI tract and determining stomach emptying and intestinal transit time when used with an insoluble particulate material. For example, crystalline and amorphous calcium phosphate particles can be effectively labeled in a one-step process using sup(99m)TcO 4 and SnCl 2 . These labeled particles have insignificant mass and when administered orally pass through the GI tract unchanged, without affecting the handling and density of the intestinal contents. Visualization of the esophageal entry into the stomach, the greater and lesser curvatures of the stomach, ejection into the duodenum, and rates of passage through the upper and lower GI tract are obtained. The slurry of sup(99m)TC particulate can be given rectally by enema. Good images of the cecum and the ascending, transverse, and descending colon are obtained. Mucosal folds and the splenic and hepatic flexures are visualized. The resilience of the large intestine is also readily visualized by pneumocolonographic techniques. (author)

  12. TACtic- A Multi Behavioral Agent for Trading Agent Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravi, Hassan; Shiri, Mohammad E.; Khosravi, Hamid; Iranmanesh, Ehsan; Davoodi, Alireza

    Software agents are increasingly being used to represent humans in online auctions. Such agents have the advantages of being able to systematically monitor a wide variety of auctions and then make rapid decisions about what bids to place in what auctions. They can do this continuously and repetitively without losing concentration. To provide a means of evaluating and comparing (benchmarking) research methods in this area the trading agent competition (TAC) was established. This paper describes the design, of TACtic. Our agent uses multi behavioral techniques at the heart of its decision making to make bidding decisions in the face of uncertainty, to make predictions about the likely outcomes of auctions, and to alter the agent's bidding strategy in response to the prevailing market conditions.

  13. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center : Biodiesel to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel on

  14. Alternative propulsion for automobiles

    CERN Document Server

    Stan, Cornel

    2017-01-01

    The book presents – based on the most recent research and development results worldwide - the perspectives of new propulsion concepts such as electric cars with batteries and fuel cells, and furthermore plug in hybrids with conventional and alternative fuels. The propulsion concepts are evaluated based on specific power, torque characteristic, acceleration behaviour, specific fuel consumption and pollutant emissions. The alternative fuels are discussed in terms of availability, production, technical complexity of the storage on board, costs, safety and infrastructure. The book presents summarized data about vehicles with electric and hybrid propulsion. The propulsion of future cars will be marked by diversity – from compact electric city cars and range extender vehicles for suburban and rural areas up to hybrid or plug in SUV´s, Pick up´s and luxury class automobiles.

  15. Alternative international currencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozhentsova Vladimirovna Elena

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The modern international monetary system has a number of flaws and therefore needs cardinal change. Hence, economists from all over the world are suggesting alternative international currencies that would make the international monetary system more efficient. However, it is essential when approaching the creation of a new international currency to analyze and take into account the experience of all the past international currencies. Therefore this paper begins with an exploration of the drawbacks of each of the past and present international currencies. Drawing on this analysis a justification will be made for the necessity of introducing a new international currency, pointing to the requirements it should meet. Further on, this paper proposes an alternative theoretically possible variant of the international currency, with a fixed value relative to a commodity basket. An abstract example is used to demonstrate its composition and circulation mechanism.

  16. Radioactive waste management alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranowski, F.P.

    1976-01-01

    The information in the US ERDA ''Technical Alternatives Document'' is summarized. The first two points show that waste treatment, interim storage and transportation technologies for all wastes are currently available. Third, an assessment of integrated waste management systems is needed. One such assessment will be provided in our expanded waste management environmental statement currently planned for release in about one year. Fourth, geologies expected to be suitable for final geologic storage are known. Fifth, repository system assessment methods, that is a means to determine and assess the acceptability of a terminal storage facility for nonretrievable storage, must and will be prepared. Sixth, alternatives to geologic storage are not now available. Seventh, waste quantities and characteristics are sensitive to technologies and fuel-cycle modes, and therefore an assessment of these technologies and modes is important. Eighth, and most important, it is felt that the LWR fuel cycle can be closed with current technologies

  17. Alternative Immune Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fernando Cadavid Gutierrez

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The immune system in animals is a complex network of molecules, cells and tissues that coordinately maintain the physiological and genetic integrity of the organism. Traditionally, two classes of immunity have been considered, the innate immunity and the adaptive immunity. The former is ancestral, with limited variability and low discrimination. The latter is highly variable, specific and limited to jawed vertebrates. Adaptive immunity is based on antigen receptors that rearrange somatically to generate a nearly unlimited diversity of molecules. Likely, this mechanism of somatic recombination arose as a consequence of a horizontal transfer of transposons and transposases from bacterial genomes in the ancestor of jawed vertebrates. The recent discovery in jawless vertebrates and invertebrates of alternative adaptive immune mechanisms, suggests during evolution different animal groups have found alternative solutions to the problem of immune recognition.

  18. [Alternatives to animal testing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabre, Isabelle

    2009-11-01

    The use of alternative methods to animal testing are an integral part of the 3Rs concept (refine, reduce, replace) defined by Russel & Burch in 1959. These approaches include in silico methods (databases and computer models), in vitro physicochemical analysis, biological methods using bacteria or isolated cells, reconstructed enzyme systems, and reconstructed tissues. Emerging "omic" methods used in integrated approaches further help to reduce animal use, while stem cells offer promising approaches to toxicologic and pathophysiologic studies, along with organotypic cultures and bio-artificial organs. Only a few alternative methods can so far be used in stand-alone tests as substitutes for animal testing. The best way to use these methods is to integrate them in tiered testing strategies (ITS), in which animals are only used as a last resort.

  19. Alternative nuclear fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Till, C.E.

    1979-01-01

    This diffuse subject involves value judgments that are political as well as technical, and is best understood in that context. The four questions raised here, however, are mostly from the technical viewpoints: (1) what are alternative nuclear fuel cycles; (2) what generalizations are possible about their characteristics; (3) what are the major practical considerations; and (4) what is the present situation and what can be said about the outlook for the future

  20. Alternative REST Splicing Underappreciated

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Guo-Lin; Miller, Gregory

    2017-01-01

    As a major orchestrator of the cellular epigenome, the repressor element-1 silencing transcription factor (REST) can either repress or activate thousands of genes depending on cellular context, suggesting a highly context-dependent REST function tuned by environmental cues. While REST shows cell-type non-selective active transcription, an N-terminal REST4 isoform caused by alternative splicing - inclusion of an extra exon (N3c) which introduces a pre-mature stop codon - has been implicated in...

  1. The renewable alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This chapter discusses renewable energy sources as an alternative to a fossil fuel based economy. The topics discussed in the chapter include the historic aspects and current status of use of renewable energy, status of the renewable energy industry, market barriers to renewable energy, research and development and commercialization of renewable energy, the environmental and social costs associated with renewable energy, valuing future costs and benefits of energy use, and the potential market of renewable energy

  2. Metamaterials critique and alternatives

    CERN Document Server

    Munk, Ben A

    2009-01-01

    A Convincing and Controversial Alternative Explanation of Metamaterials with a Negative Index of Refraction In a book that will generate both support and controversy, one of the world's foremost authorities on periodic structures addresses several of the current fashions in antenna design-most specifically, the popular subject of double negative metamaterials. Professor Munk provides a comprehensive theoretical electromagnetic investigation of the issues and concludes that many of the phenomena claimed by researchers may be impossible. While denying the existence of negative refractio

  3. ALTERNATIVE DISPUTE RESOLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Irina IONESCU

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Alternative dispute resolution (ADR includes dispute resolution processes and techniques that act as a means for disagreeing parties to come to an agreement short of litigation. It is a collective term for the ways that parties can settle disputes, with (or without the help of a third party. Despite historic resistance to ADR by many popular parties and their advocates, ADR has gained widespread acceptance among both the general public and the legal profession in recent years. In fact, some courts now require some parties to resort to ADR of some type, before permitting the parties' cases to be tried. The rising popularity of ADR can be explained by the increasing caseload of traditional courts, the perception that ADR imposes fewer costs than litigation, a preference for confidentiality, and the desire of some parties to have greater control over the selection of the individual or individuals who will decide their dispute. Directive 2013/11/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council on alternative dispute resolution for consumer disputes and amending Regulation (EC No 2006/2004 and Directive 2009/22/EC (hereinafter „Directive 2013/11/EU” aims to ensure a high level of consumer protection and the proper functioning of the internal market by ensuring that complaints against traders can be submitted by consumers on a voluntary basis, to entities of alternative disputes which are independent, impartial, transparent, effective, simple,quick and fair. Directive 2013/11/EU establishes harmonized quality requirements for entities applying alternative dispute resolution procedure (hereinafter "ADR entity" to provide the same protection and the same rights of consumers in all Member States. Besides this, the present study is trying to present broadly how are all this trasposed in the romanian legislation.

  4. Ultrasound contrast agents: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosgrove, David

    2006-01-01

    With the introduction of microbubble contrast agents, diagnostic ultrasound has entered a new era that allows the dynamic detection of tissue flow of both the macro and microvasculature. Underpinning this development is the fact that gases are compressible, and thus the microbubbles expand and contract in the alternating pressure waves of the ultrasound beam, while tissue is almost incompressible. Special software using multiple pulse sequences separates these signals from those of tissue and displays them as an overlay or on a split screen. This can be done at low acoustic pressures (MI < 0.3) so that the microbubbles are not destroyed and scanning can continue in real time. The clinical roles of contrast enhanced ultrasound scanning are expanding rapidly. They are established in echocardiography to improve endocardial border detection and are being developed for myocardial perfusion. In radiology, the most important application is the liver, especially for focal disease. The approach parallels that of dynamic CT or MRI but ultrasound has the advantages of high spatial and temporal resolution. Thus, small lesions that can be indeterminate on CT can often be studied with ultrasound, and situations where the flow is very rapid (e.g., focal nodular hyperplasia where the first few seconds of arterial perfusion may be critical to making the diagnosis) are readily studied. Microbubbles linger in the extensive sinusoidal space of normal liver for several minutes whereas they wash out rapidly from metastases, which have a low vascular volume and thus appear as filling defects. The method has been shown to be as sensitive as three-phase CT. Microbubbles have clinical uses in many other applications where knowledge of the microcirculation is important (the macrocirculation can usually be assessed adequately using conventional Doppler though there are a few important situations where the signal boost given by microbubbles is useful, e.g., transcranial Doppler for evaluating

  5. Alternative Energy Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Michaelides, Efstathios E (Stathis)

    2012-01-01

    Alternative Energy Sources is designed to give the reader, a clear view of the role each form of alternative energy may play in supplying the energy needs of the human society in the near and intermediate future (20-50 years).   The two first chapters on energy demand and supply and environmental effects, set the tone as to why the widespread use of alternative energy is essential for the future of human society. The third chapter exposes the reader to the laws of energy conversion processes, as well as the limitations of converting one energy form to another. The sections on exergy give a succinct, quantitative background on the capability/potential of each energy source to produce power on a global scale. The fourth, fifth and sixth chapters are expositions of fission and fusion nuclear energy. The following five chapters (seventh to eleventh) include detailed descriptions of the most common renewable energy sources – wind, solar, geothermal, biomass, hydroelectric – and some of the less common sources...

  6. Alternative energy review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    A review is presented of electricity generation technologies which are considered to be alternatives to more conventional technologies. The review is limited to those technologies which have application in Ontario, and provides descriptions, technical and economic assessments, environmental information, and forecasts of potential use of solar energy, wind energy, fuel cells, biomass energy, peat, and municipal solid wastes. Of these technologies, only municipal solid waste combustion is economically viable under current conditions, but government policies prohibit the implementation of new facilities. Certain photovoltaic and wind energy technologies are being found viable for remote sites unconnected to the power grid. Wood waste combustion is viable in the forest products industry. The total potential contribution of these six alternative technologies to Ontario's energy production is forecast at under 190 MW to a range of 685-1,465 MW by the year 2005, according to three different scenarios. The technologies showing the greatest future promise are fuel cells, photovoltaics, and biomass. Except for municipal waste combustion, cost continues to be a significant barrier to utility-scale application of alternative generation technologies in Ontario. However, private individuals and corporations (non-utility generators) may adopt some of these technologies in the absence of access to the power grid, in cogeneration applications, or for demonstration purposes. 120 refs., 79 figs., 93 tabs

  7. State alternative route designations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-07-01

    Pursuant to the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act (HMTA), the Department of Transportation (DOT) has promulgated a comprehensive set of regulations regarding the highway transportation of high-level radioactive materials. These regulations, under HM-164 and HM-164A, establish interstate highways as the preferred routes for the transportation of radioactive materials within and through the states. The regulations also provide a methodology by which a state may select alternative routes. First,the state must establish a ''state routing agency,'' defined as an entity authorized to use the state legal process to impose routing requirements on carriers of radioactive material (49 CFR 171.8). Once identified, the state routing agency must select routes in accordance with Large Quantity Shipments of Radioactive Materials or an equivalent routing analysis. Adjoining states and localities should be consulted on the impact of proposed alternative routes as a prerequisite of final route selection. Lastly, the states must provide written notice of DOT of any alternative route designation before the routes are deemed effective

  8. Artificial agents learning human fairness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de S.; Tuyls, K.P.; Verbeeck, K.; Padgham, xx; Parkes, xx

    2008-01-01

    Recent advances in technology allow multi-agent systems to be deployed in cooperation with or as a service for humans. Typically, those systems are designed assuming individually rational agents, according to the principles of classical game theory. However, research in the field of behavioral

  9. Overview of shoreline cleaning agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clayton, J.

    1992-01-01

    Chemical cleaning agents may be used to promote release of stranded oil from shorelines for reasons including biological sensitivity of indigenous fauna and flora to the oil, amenity considerations of the shoreline, or concern about refloating of the oil and subsequent stranding on adjacent shorelines. While use of chemical cleaning agents may be appropriate under proper toxic responses in circumstances, certain limitations should be recognized. The potential for toxic responses in indigenous fauna and flora to the cleaning agents must be considered. Enhanced penetration of oil into permeable shorelines following treatment with chemical cleaning agents also is not desirable. However, if conditions related to toxicity and substrate permeability are determined to be acceptable, the use of chemical cleaning agents for treatment of stranded oil can be considered. Chemical agents for cleaning oiled shorelines can be grouped into three categories: (1) non-surfactant-based solvents, (2) chemical dispersants, and (3) formulations especially designed to release stranded oil from shoreline substrates (i.e., shoreline-cleaning-agents). Depending on the specific circumstances present on an oiled shoreline, it is generally desirable that chemical agents used for cleaning will release oil from shoreline substrate(s) to surface waters. Recovery of the oil can then be accomplished by mechanical procedures such as booming and skimming operations

  10. Reactive agents and perceptual ambiguity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dartel, M. van; Sprinkhuizen-Kuyper, I.G.; Postma, E.O.; Herik, H.J. van den

    2005-01-01

    Reactive agents are generally believed to be incapable of coping with perceptual ambiguity (i.e., identical sensory states that require different responses). However, a recent finding suggests that reactive agents can cope with perceptual ambiguity in a simple model (Nolfi, 2002). This paper

  11. A Verification Logic for GOAL Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindriks, K. V.

    Although there has been a growing body of literature on verification of agents programs, it has been difficult to design a verification logic for agent programs that fully characterizes such programs and to connect agent programs to agent theory. The challenge is to define an agent programming language that defines a computational framework but also allows for a logical characterization useful for verification. The agent programming language GOAL has been originally designed to connect agent programming to agent theory and we present additional results here that GOAL agents can be fully represented by a logical theory. GOAL agents can thus be said to execute the corresponding logical theory.

  12. Smart Agents and Sentiment in the Heterogeneous Agent Model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vácha, Lukáš; Baruník, Jozef; Vošvrda, Miloslav

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 3 (2009), s. 209-219 ISSN 1210-0455 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06075; GA ČR GP402/08/P207; GA ČR(CZ) GA402/09/0965 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : heterogeneous agent model * market structure * smart traders * Hurst exponent Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2009/E/vacha- smart agent s and sentiment in the heterogeneous agent model.pdf

  13. Wealth distribution across communities of adaptive financial agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLellis, Pietro; Garofalo, Franco; Lo Iudice, Francesco; Napoletano, Elena

    2015-08-01

    This paper studies the trading volumes and wealth distribution of a novel agent-based model of an artificial financial market. In this model, heterogeneous agents, behaving according to the Von Neumann and Morgenstern utility theory, may mutually interact. A Tobin-like tax (TT) on successful investments and a flat tax are compared to assess the effects on the agents’ wealth distribution. We carry out extensive numerical simulations in two alternative scenarios: (i) a reference scenario, where the agents keep their utility function fixed, and (ii) a focal scenario, where the agents are adaptive and self-organize in communities, emulating their neighbours by updating their own utility function. Specifically, the interactions among the agents are modelled through a directed scale-free network to account for the presence of community leaders, and the herding-like effect is tested against the reference scenario. We observe that our model is capable of replicating the benefits and drawbacks of the two taxation systems and that the interactions among the agents strongly affect the wealth distribution across the communities. Remarkably, the communities benefit from the presence of leaders with successful trading strategies, and are more likely to increase their average wealth. Moreover, this emulation mechanism mitigates the decrease in trading volumes, which is a typical drawback of TTs.

  14. Environmental Knowledge as Design Development Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buthayna Hasan Eilouti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Linking knowledge learnt from nature with concepts of man-made product generation, Biomimetics represents an application of environmental knowledge on engineering design. In this paper, an exploratory approach that is based on the concepts of Biomimetics and their potential transformations into design processing agents is introduced. The approach is tested as a project that applies knowledge inspired by organisms in their natural biomes for the derivation of architectural designs. The project is implemented in a digital architectural design studio in order to model metamorphosis and simulate adaptations of products. The results of the project implementation seem to encourage adopting its associative environmental problem-solving techniques and inter-disciplinary methods as alternatives or complementary to conventional functional- or formal-oriented problem-solving approaches.

  15. Antiadhesion agents against Gram-positive pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cascioferro, Stella; Cusimano, Maria Grazia; Schillaci, Domenico

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental step of Gram-positive pathogenesis is the bacterial adhesion to the host tissue involving interaction between bacterial surface molecules and host ligands. This review is focused on antivirulence compounds that target Gram-positive adhesins and on their potential development as therapeutic agents alternative or complementary to conventional antibiotics in the contrast of pathogens. In particular, compounds that target the sortase A, wall theicoic acid inhibitors, carbohydrates able to bind bacterial proteins and proteins capable of influencing the bacterial adhesion, were described. We further discuss the advantages and disadvantages of this strategy in the development of novel antimicrobials and the future perspective of this research field still at its first steps.

  16. From actors to agents in socio-ecological systems models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rounsevell, M D A; Robinson, D T; Murray-Rust, D

    2012-01-19

    The ecosystem service concept has emphasized the role of people within socio-ecological systems (SESs). In this paper, we review and discuss alternative ways of representing people, their behaviour and decision-making processes in SES models using an agent-based modelling (ABM) approach. We also explore how ABM can be empirically grounded using information from social survey. The capacity for ABM to be generalized beyond case studies represents a crucial next step in modelling SESs, although this comes with considerable intellectual challenges. We propose the notion of human functional types, as an analogy of plant functional types, to support the expansion (scaling) of ABM to larger areas. The expansion of scope also implies the need to represent institutional agents in SES models in order to account for alternative governance structures and policy feedbacks. Further development in the coupling of human-environment systems would contribute considerably to better application and use of the ecosystem service concept.

  17. Contrast agents for cardiac angiography: effects of a nonionic agent vs. a standard ionic agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bettmann, M.A.; Bourdillon, P.D.; Barry, W.H.; Brush, K.A.; Levin, D.C.

    1984-01-01

    The effects on cardiac hemodynamics and of a standard contrast agent, sodium methylglucamine diatrizoate [Renografin 76] were compared with the effects of a new nonionic agent (iohexol) in a double-blind study in 51 patietns undergoing coronary angiography and left ventriculography. No significant alteration in measured blood parameters occurred with either contrast agent. Hemodynamic changes occurred with both, but were significantly greater with the standard renografin than with the low-osmolality, nonionic iohexol. After left ventriculography, heart rate increased and peripheral arterial pressure fell with both agents, but less with iohexol. It is concluded that iohexol causes less alteration in cardiac function than does the agent currently most widely used. Nonionic contrast material is likely to improve the safety of coronary angiography, particularly in those patients at greatest risk

  18. Euthanasia using gaseous agents in laboratory rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentim, A M; Guedes, S R; Pereira, A M; Antunes, L M

    2016-08-01

    Several questions have been raised in recent years about the euthanasia of laboratory rodents. Euthanasia using inhaled agents is considered to be a suitable aesthetic method for use with a large number of animals simultaneously. Nevertheless, its aversive potential has been criticized in terms of animal welfare. The data available regarding the use of carbon dioxide (CO2), inhaled anaesthetics (such as isoflurane, sevoflurane, halothane and enflurane), as well as carbon monoxide and inert gases are discussed throughout this review. Euthanasia of fetuses and neonates is also addressed. A table listing currently available information to ease access to data regarding euthanasia techniques using gaseous agents in laboratory rodents was compiled. Regarding better animal welfare, there is currently insufficient evidence to advocate banning or replacing CO2 in the euthanasia of rodents; however, there are hints that alternative gases are more humane. The exposure to a volatile anaesthetic gas before loss of consciousness has been proposed by some scientific studies to minimize distress; however, the impact of such a measure is not clear. Areas of inconsistency within the euthanasia literature have been highlighted recently and stem from insufficient knowledge, especially regarding the advantages of the administration of isoflurane or sevoflurane over CO2, or other methods, before loss of consciousness. Alternative methods to minimize distress may include the development of techniques aimed at inducing death in the home cage of animals. Scientific outcomes have to be considered before choosing the most suitable euthanasia method to obtain the best results and accomplish the 3Rs (replacement, reduction and refinement). © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Alternatives to nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terrado, E.N.

    1981-01-01

    This article discusses several possibilities as alternatives to nuclear energy and their relevance to the Philippine case. The major present and future fuel alternatives to petroleum and nuclear energy are coal, geothermal heat, solar energy and hydrogen, the first two of which are being used. Different conversion technologies are also discussed for large scale electricity production namely solar thermal electric conversion (STC), photovoltaic electric power system (PEPS) and ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC). Major environmental considerations affect the choice of energy sources and technologies. We have the problem of long term accumulation of radioactive waste in the case of nuclear energy; in geothermal and fossil-fuels carbon dioxide uranium and accumulation may cause disastrous consequences. With regard to Philippine option, the greatest considerations in selecting alternative energy options would be resources availability - both energy and financial and technology status. For the country's energy plan, coal and geothermal energy are expected to play a significant role. The country's coal resources are 1.4 billion metric tons. For geothermal energy, 25 volcanic centers were identified and has a potential equivalent to 2.5 x 10 6 million barrels of oil. Solar energy if harnessed, being in the sunbelt, averaging some 2000 hours a year could be an energy source. The present dilemma of the policy maker is whether national resources are better spent on large scale urban-based energy projects or whether those should be focused on small scale, rural oriented installations which produced benefits to the more numerous and poorer members of the population. (RTD)

  20. Agents Play Mix-game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Chengling

    In recent years, economics and finance see the shift of paradigm from representative agent models to heterogeneous agent models [1, 2]. More and more economists and physicists made efforts in research on heterogeneous agent models for financial markets. Minority game (MG) proposed by D. Challet, and Y. C. Zhang [3] is an example among such efforts. Challet and Zhang's MG model, together with the original bar model of Arthur, attracts a lot of following studies [4-6]. Given MG's richness and yet underlying simplicity, MG has also received much attention as a financial market model [4]. MG comprises an odd number of agents choosing repeatedly between the options of buying (1) and selling (0) a quantity of a risky asset. The agents continually try to make the minority decision, i.e. buy assets when the majority of other agents are selling, and sell when the majority of other agents are buying. Neil F. Johnson [4, 5] and coworkers extended MG by allowing a variable number of active traders at each timestep— they called their modified game as the Grand Canonical Minority Game (GCMG). GCMG, and to a lesser extent the basic MG itself, can reproduce the stylized facts of financial markets, such as volatility clustering and fat-tail distributions.

  1. Agent Communications using Distributed Metaobjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldsmith, Steven Y.; Spires, Shannon V.

    1999-06-10

    There are currently two proposed standards for agent communication languages, namely, KQML (Finin, Lobrou, and Mayfield 1994) and the FIPA ACL. Neither standard has yet achieved primacy, and neither has been evaluated extensively in an open environment such as the Internet. It seems prudent therefore to design a general-purpose agent communications facility for new agent architectures that is flexible yet provides an architecture that accepts many different specializations. In this paper we exhibit the salient features of an agent communications architecture based on distributed metaobjects. This architecture captures design commitments at a metaobject level, leaving the base-level design and implementation up to the agent developer. The scope of the metamodel is broad enough to accommodate many different communication protocols, interaction protocols, and knowledge sharing regimes through extensions to the metaobject framework. We conclude that with a powerful distributed object substrate that supports metaobject communications, a general framework can be developed that will effectively enable different approaches to agent communications in the same agent system. We have implemented a KQML-based communications protocol and have several special-purpose interaction protocols under development.

  2. Immunological effects of hypomethylating agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindblad, Katherine E; Goswami, Meghali; Hourigan, Christopher S; Oetjen, Karolyn A

    2017-08-01

    Epigenetic changes resulting from aberrant methylation patterns are a recurrent observation in hematologic malignancies. Hypomethylating agents have a well-established role in the management of patients with high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome or acute myeloid leukemia. In addition to the direct effects of hypomethylating agents on cancer cells, there are several lines of evidence indicating a role for immune-mediated anti-tumor benefits from hypomethylating therapy. Areas covered: We reviewed the clinical and basic science literature for the effects of hypomethylating agents, including the most commonly utilized therapeutics azacitidine and decitabine, on immune cell subsets. We summarized the effects of hypomethylating agents on the frequency and function of natural killer cells, T cells, and dendritic cells. In particular, we highlight the effects of hypomethylating agents on expression of immune checkpoint inhibitors, leukemia-associated antigens, and endogenous retroviral elements. Expert commentary: In vitro and ex vivo studies indicate mixed effects on the function of natural killer, dendritic cells and T cells following treatment with hypomethylating agents. Clinical correlates of immune function have suggested that hypomethylating agents have immunomodulatory functions with the potential to synergize with immune checkpoint therapy for the treatment of hematologic malignancy, and has become an active area of clinical research.

  3. Energy and power alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messerle, H.K.

    1992-01-01

    Taking into consideration the need for a safe energy supply, rising demand for energy worldwide and limited oil reserves, alternative energy resources for bulk power are discussed. They are nuclear fuel, fluidized bed combustion of coal, coal gasification with combined cycle process, coal-oil mixture combustion and MHD power generation process. It is pointed out that the major environmental impact of fossil fuels is in accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and air pollution due to sulphur emission. (M.G.B.)

  4. Alternate fusion fuels workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-06-01

    The workshop was organized to focus on a specific confinement scheme: the tokamak. The workshop was divided into two parts: systems and physics. The topics discussed in the systems session were narrowly focused on systems and engineering considerations in the tokamak geometry. The workshop participants reviewed the status of system studies, trade-offs between d-t and d-d based reactors and engineering problems associated with the design of a high-temperature, high-field reactor utilizing advanced fuels. In the physics session issues were discussed dealing with high-beta stability, synchrotron losses and transport in alternate fuel systems. The agenda for the workshop is attached

  5. Alternate fuels; Combustibles alternos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero Paredes R, Hernando; Ambriz G, Juan Jose [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana. Iztapalapa (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    In the definition and description of alternate fuels we must center ourselves in those technological alternatives that allow to obtain compounds that differ from the traditional ones, in their forms to be obtained. In this article it is tried to give an overview of alternate fuels to the conventional derivatives of petroleum and that allow to have a clear idea on the tendencies of modern investigation and the technological developments that can be implemented in the short term. It is not pretended to include all the tendencies and developments of the present world, but those that can hit in a relatively short term, in accordance with agreed with the average life of conventional fuels. Nevertheless, most of the conversion principles are applicable to the spectrum of carbonaceous or cellulosic materials which are in nature, are cultivated or wastes of organic origin. Thus one will approach them in a successive way, the physical, chemical and biological conversions that can take place in a production process of an alternate fuel or the same direct use of the fuel such as burning the sweepings derived from the forests. [Spanish] En la definicion y descripcion de combustibles alternos nos debemos centrar en aquellas alternativas tecnologicas que permitan obtener compuestos que difieren de los tradicionales, al menos en sus formas de ser obtenidos. En este articulo se pretende dar un panorama de los combustibles alternos a los convencionales derivados del petroleo y que permita tener una idea clara sobre las tendencias de la investigacion moderna y los desarrollos tecnologicos que puedan ser implementados en el corto plazo. No se pretende abarcar todas las tendencias y desarrollos del mundo actual, sino aquellas que pueden impactar en un plazo relativamente corto, acordes con la vida media de los combustibles convencionales. Sin embargo, la mayor parte de los principios de conversion son aplicables al espectro de materiales carbonaceos o celulosicos los cuales se

  6. Alternatives to Seesaw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murayama, Hitoshi

    2004-01-01

    The seesaw mechanism is attractive not only because it 'explains' small neutrino mass, but also because of its packaging with the SUSY-GUT, leptogenesis, Dark Matter, and electroweak symmetry breaking. However, this package has the flavor, CP, and gravitino problems. I discuss two alternatives to the seesaw mechanism. In one of them, the anomaly-mediated supersymmetry breaking solves these problems, while predicts naturally light Dirac neutrinos. In the other, the light Majorana neutrinos arise from supersymmetry breaking with right-handed neutrinos below TeV, and the Dark Matter and collider phenomenology are significantly different.

  7. Alternatives to OPEC oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, C.

    1981-01-01

    This paper starts from the assumption that, for various reasons, the supply of OPEC oil required to meet a rising world energy demand will continue to be limited. Its purpose is to present a synoptic look at the various sources of energy which are alternatives to OPEC oil, with an economic commentary on the prospects for each source. A wide variety of projects are going forward for the development of non-OPEC oil, gas, coal, and nuclear power, as well as renewable energy resources. Special attention is devoted to questions of energy pricing, investment costs, and sources of finance. (author)

  8. Alternative energy options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, K.F.

    1983-01-01

    It is accepted that coal will continue to play the major role in the supply of energy to the country for the remainder of the century. In this paper, however, emphasis has been directed to those options which could supplement coal in an economic and technically sound manner. The general conclusion is that certain forms of solar energy hold the most promise and it is in this direction that research, development and implementation programmes should be directed. Tidal energy, fusion energy, geothermal energy, hydrogen energy and fuel cells are also discussed as alternative energy options

  9. Niobium technological alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinatti, D.G.; Dainesi, C.R.

    1981-01-01

    The process-product matrix of Niobium is presented, through which the technological alternatives for Niobium are identified. It is shown that the three axes of Niobium application, steels, superalloys and metallic Niobium have a tendency to be economical by equivalent. The critical points where technological development of Niobium is needed are analyzed and results are presented on the following products: Nb 2 O 5 by volatilization, metalic Niobium, Niobium powder, bars and sheets, NbTi alloy, corrosion resistent Niobium alloys and superconductor cable and wires. (Author) [pt

  10. Alternative energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, P.

    1978-01-01

    It is suggested that the development of alternative energy sources has made them more attractive than nuclear power, due to their characteristics, such as small scale and short lead times, moderate costs and minimal environmental impact. The objectives of energy policy are discussed in relation to forecasts of energy demand. Tables show (a) projected useful energy demands UK; (b) patterns of end-use of energy; (c) costs of heating fuels; (d) net present value of gas purchases; (e) useful-energy by end-use analysis; and (f) primary fuel summary 2025. The contributions of hydro, nuclear, waves, solar, oil, gas and coal are estimated to 2025. (U.K.)

  11. Dounreay: an alternative development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low, K.

    1990-01-01

    With the Government decision to phase out the Fast Reactor at Dounreay there is a need to find alternative employment in the area. Traditionally Caithness is an area of farming, fishing and tourism which could be damaged if Dounreay were to be made a nuclear waste repository. The suggestion is that Dounreay should become a centre for research, development and subsequent manufacture of renewable energy sources and devices to harness renewable energy. The Scottish coastline has potential for wind and wave power developments and this could lead to a whole industry in the future. (UK)

  12. Alternate cover materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-09-01

    As an effort to enhance compliance with the proposed US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) groundwater standards, several special studies are being performed by the Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) to identify and evaluate various design features that may reduce groundwater-related releases from tailings piles. The objective of this special study is to assess the suitability of using alternate cover materials (other than geomembranes) as infiltration barriers in Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project piles to minimize leachate generation. The materials evaluated in this study include various types of asphalts, concretes, and a sodium bentonite clay/polypropylene liner system

  13. Complex responses to alkylating agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samson, L.D.

    2003-01-01

    Using Affymetrix oligonucleotide GeneChip analysis, we previously found that, upon exposure to the simple alkylating agent methylmethane sulfonate, the transcript levels for about one third of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome (∼2,000 transcripts) are induced or repressed during the first hour or two after exposure. In order to determine whether the responsiveness of these genes has any relevance to the protection of cells against alkylating agents we have undertaken several follow-up studies. First, we explored the specificity of this global transcriptional response to MMS by measuring the global response of S. cerevisiae to a broad range of agents that are known to induce DNA damage. We found that each agent produced a very different mRNA transcript profile, even though the exposure doses produced similar levels of toxicity. We also found that the selection of genes that respond to MMS is highly dependent upon what cell cycle phase the cells are in at the time of exposure. Computational clustering analysis of the dataset derived from a large number of exposures identified several promoter motifs that are likely to control some of the regulons that comprise this large set of genes that are responsive to DNA damaging agents. However, it should be noted that these agents damage cellular components other than DNA, and that the responsiveness of each gene need not be in response to DNA damage per se. We have also begun to study the response of other organisms to alkylating agents, and these include E. coli, cultured mouse and human cells, and mice. Finally, we have developed a high throughput phenotypic screening method to interrogate the role of all non-essential S. cerevisiae genes (about 4,800) in protecting S. cerevisiae against the deleterious effects of alkylating agents; we have termed this analysis 'genomic phenotyping'. This study has uncovered a plethora of new pathways that play a role in the recovery of eukaryotic cells after exposure to toxic

  14. Environmental impact assessment of genetically modified biocontrol agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migheli, Q.

    2001-01-01

    This review summarises the theoretical basis of risk analysis, and the political and social implications of introducing new biotechnology products in agricultural environments. The main factors to be considered under the present European regulation in the environmental impact assessment of genetically modified biocontrol agents are briefly discussed. Finally, an alternative risk assessment paradigm is proposed for genetically modified microorganisms, which shall consider the intrinsic properties of each antagonist, rather than the method used for generating it [it

  15. Dreams as a source of supernatural agent concepts

    OpenAIRE

    McNamara, Patrick; Bulkeley, Kelly

    2015-01-01

    We present a theory of the creativity of dreams as well as psychopathology of religious delusions with respect to production of fundamental forms of religious cognition—specifically supernatural agent (SA) cognitions. We suggest that dream cognitions are particularly efficient at producing highly memorable and impactful experiences with SAs because dreams involve three processes that are prerequisites for the generation of god concepts: (1) mental simulations of alternative realities, (2) the...

  16. Dynamics of Three Agent Games

    OpenAIRE

    Rador, Tonguc; Mungan, Muhittin

    2007-01-01

    We study the dynamics and resulting score distribution of three-agent games where after each competition a single agent wins and scores a point. A single competition is described by a triplet of numbers $p$, $t$ and $q$ denoting the probabilities that the team with the highest, middle or lowest accumulated score wins. We study the full family of solutions in the regime, where the number of agents and competitions is large, which can be regarded as a hydrodynamic limit. Depending on the parame...

  17. Podophyllotoxin: a novel potential natural anticancer agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Ardalani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the present review is to give an overview about the role, biosynthesis, and characteristics of Podophyllotoxin (PTOX as a potential antitumor agent with particular emphasis on key biosynthesis processes, function of related enzymes and characterization of genes encoding the enzymes. Materials and Methods: Google scholar, PubMed and Scopus were searched for literatures which have studied identification, characterization, fermentation and therapeutic effects of PTOX and published in English language until end of 2016. Results: PTOX is an important plant-derived natural product, has derivatives such as etoposide and teniposide, which have been used as therapies for cancers and venereal wart. PTOX structure is closely related to the aryltetralin lactone lignans that have antineoplastic and antiviral activities. Podophyllum emodi Wall. (syn. P. hexandrum and Podophyllum peltatum L. (Berberidaceae are the major sources of PTOX. It has been shown that ferulic acid and methylenedioxy substituted cinnamic acid are the enzymes involved in PTOX synthesis. PTOX prevents cell growth via polymerization of tubulin, leading to cell cycle arrest and suppression of the formation of the mitotic-spindles microtubules.   Conclusion: Several investigations have been performed in biosynthesis of PTOX such as cultivation of these plants, though they were unsuccessful. Thus, it is important to find alternative sources to satisfy the pharmaceutical demand for PTOX. Moreover, further preclinical studies are warranted to explore the molecular mechanisms of these agents in treatment of cancer and their possible potential to overcome chemoresistance of tumor cells.

  18. Beyond Alkylating Agents for Gliomas: Quo Vadimus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puduvalli, Vinay K; Chaudhary, Rekha; McClugage, Samuel G; Markert, James

    2017-01-01

    Recent advances in therapies have yielded notable success in terms of improved survival in several cancers. However, such treatments have failed to improve outcome in patients with gliomas for whom surgery followed by radiation therapy and chemotherapy with alkylating agents remain the standard of care. Genetic and epigenetic studies have helped identify several alterations specific to gliomas. Attempts to target these altered pathways have been unsuccessful due to various factors, including tumor heterogeneity, adaptive resistance of tumor cells, and limitations of access across the blood-brain barrier. Novel therapies that circumvent such limitations have been the focus of intense study and include approaches such as immunotherapy, targeting of signaling hubs and metabolic pathways, and use of biologic agents. Immunotherapeutic approaches including tumor-targeted vaccines, immune checkpoint blockade, antibody-drug conjugates, and chimeric antigen receptor-expressing cell therapies are in various stages of clinical trials. Similarly, identification of key metabolic pathways or converging hubs of signaling pathways that are tumor specific have yielded novel targets for therapy of gliomas. In addition, the failure of conventional therapies against gliomas has led to a growing interest among patients in the use of alternative therapies, which in turn has necessitated developing evidence-based approaches to the application of such therapies in clinical studies. The development of these novel approaches bears potential for providing breakthroughs in treatment of more meaningful and improved outcomes for patients with gliomas.

  19. Probiotics as Antiviral Agents in Shrimp Aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bestha Lakshmi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Shrimp farming is an aquaculture business for the cultivation of marine shrimps or prawns for human consumption and is now considered as a major economic and food production sector as it is an increasingly important source of protein available for human consumption. Intensification of shrimp farming had led to the development of a number of diseases, which resulted in the excessive use of antimicrobial agents, which is finally responsible for many adverse effects. Currently, probiotics are chosen as the best alternatives to these antimicrobial agents and they act as natural immune enhancers, which provoke the disease resistance in shrimp farm. Viral diseases stand as the major constraint causing an enormous loss in the production in shrimp farms. Probiotics besides being beneficial bacteria also possess antiviral activity. Exploitation of these probiotics in treatment and prevention of viral diseases in shrimp aquaculture is a novel and efficient method. This review discusses the benefits of probiotics and their criteria for selection in shrimp aquaculture and their role in immune power enhancement towards viral diseases.

  20. Antimicrobial peptides: Possible anti-infective agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmaiah Narayana, Jayaram; Chen, Jyh-Yih

    2015-10-01

    Multidrug-resistant bacterial, fungal, viral, and parasitic infections are major health threats. The Infectious Diseases Society of America has expressed concern on the decrease of pharmaceutical companies working on antibiotic research and development. However, small companies, along with academic research institutes, are stepping forward to develop novel therapeutic methods to overcome the present healthcare situation. Among the leading alternatives to current drugs are antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), which are abundantly distributed in nature. AMPs exhibit broad-spectrum activity against a wide variety of bacteria, fungi, viruses, and parasites, and even cancerous cells. They also show potential immunomodulatory properties, and are highly responsive to infectious agents and innate immuno-stimulatory molecules. In recent years, many AMPs have undergone or are undergoing clinical development, and a few are commercially available for topical and other applications. In this review, we outline selected anion and cationic AMPs which are at various stages of development, from preliminary analysis to clinical drug development. Moreover, we also consider current production methods and delivery tools for AMPs, which must be improved for the effective use of these agents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Podophyllotoxin: a novel potential natural anticancer agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardalani, Hamidreza; Avan, Amir; Ghayour-Mobarhan, Majid

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present review is to give an overview about the role, biosynthesis, and characteristics of Podophyllotoxin (PTOX) as a potential antitumor agent with particular emphasis on key biosynthesis processes, function of related enzymes and characterization of genes encoding the enzymes. Materials and Methods: Google scholar, PubMed and Scopus were searched for literatures which have studied identification, characterization, fermentation and therapeutic effects of PTOX and published in English language until end of 2016. Results: PTOX is an important plant-derived natural product, has derivatives such as etoposide and teniposide, which have been used as therapies for cancers and venereal wart. PTOX structure is closely related to the aryltetralin lactone lignans that have antineoplastic and antiviral activities. Podophyllum emodi Wall. (syn. P. hexandrum) and Podophyllum peltatum L. (Berberidaceae) are the major sources of PTOX. It has been shown that ferulic acid and methylenedioxy substituted cinnamic acid are the enzymes involved in PTOX synthesis. PTOX prevents cell growth via polymerization of tubulin, leading to cell cycle arrest and suppression of the formation of the mitotic-spindles microtubules. Conclusion: Several investigations have been performed in biosynthesis of PTOX such as cultivation of these plants, though they were unsuccessful. Thus, it is important to find alternative sources to satisfy the pharmaceutical demand for PTOX. Moreover, further preclinical studies are warranted to explore the molecular mechanisms of these agents in treatment of cancer and their possible potential to overcome chemoresistance of tumor cells. PMID:28884079

  2. Review of new insights into antimicrobial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghan Esmatabadi, M J; Bozorgmehr, A; Hajjari, S N; Sadat Sombolestani, A; Malekshahi, Z V; Sadeghizadeh, M

    2017-02-28

    People have known the bacteria and have used various ways to deal with them, from a long time ago. Perhaps, natural antibiotics with have been the first step in fighting against pathogens. However, several factors, such as dealing with unfamiliar bacteria or emergence of drug-resistant species, have motivated us to discover new antibiotics or  even change previous types. In this regard, a variety of natural and synthetic antibiotics with different origins, mechanism of action, structures and functional spectrum, have been developed and used. Some impact on the synthesis of nucleic acids and some affect protein synthesis so destroy bacteria. There is a ring in the structure of most of the antibiotics which gives them special properties. However, despite their numerous advantages, antibiotics also have drawbacks ehich limit their use in all situations. Therefore, other approaches such as photodynamic therapy (PDT) and antibacterial peptides were considered as alternatives. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a treatment that uses photosensitizing agents, along with light, to kill bacteria. The photosensitizing agents only work after they have been activated by certain kinds of light. Antibacterial peptides are a unique and diverse group of molecules which have  between 12 and 50 amino acids in general.  In this paper, will reviewt hree mentioned topics, namely antibiotics, photodynamic therapy and antibacterial peptides and will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each approach briefly.

  3. Quorum Quenching Agents: Resources for Antivirulence Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaihao Tang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The continuing emergence of antibiotic-resistant pathogens is a concern to human health and highlights the urgent need for the development of alternative therapeutic strategies. Quorum sensing (QS regulates virulence in many bacterial pathogens, and thus, is a promising target for antivirulence therapy which may inhibit virulence instead of cell growth and division. This means that there is little selective pressure for the evolution of resistance. Many natural quorum quenching (QQ agents have been identified. Moreover, it has been shown that many microorganisms are capable of producing small molecular QS inhibitors and/or macromolecular QQ enzymes, which could be regarded as a strategy for bacteria to gain benefits in competitive environments. More than 30 species of marine QQ bacteria have been identified thus far, but only a few of them have been intensively studied. Recent studies indicate that an enormous number of QQ microorganisms are undiscovered in the highly diverse marine environments, and these marine microorganism-derived QQ agents may be valuable resources for antivirulence therapy.

  4. E-learning paradigms and applications agent-based approach

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, Lakhmi

    2014-01-01

    Teaching and learning paradigms have attracted increased attention especially in the last decade. Immense developments of different ICT technologies and services have paved the way for alternative but effective approaches in educational processes. Many concepts of the agent technology, such as intelligence, autonomy, and cooperation, have had a direct positive impact on many of the requests imposed on modern e-learning systems and educational processes. This book presents the state-of-the-art of e-learning and tutoring systems, and discusses their capabilities and benefits that stem from integrating software agents. We hope that the presented work will be of a great use to our colleagues and researchers interested in the e-learning and agent technology.    

  5. Interactive macroeconomics stochastic aggregate dynamics with heterogeneous and interacting agents

    CERN Document Server

    Di Guilmi, Corrado

    2017-01-01

    One of the major problems of macroeconomic theory is the way in which the people exchange goods in decentralized market economies. There are major disagreements among macroeconomists regarding tools to influence required outcomes. Since the mainstream efficient market theory fails to provide an internal coherent framework, there is a need for an alternative theory. The book provides an innovative approach for the analysis of agent based models, populated by the heterogeneous and interacting agents in the field of financial fragility. The text is divided in two parts; the first presents analytical developments of stochastic aggregation and macro-dynamics inference methods. The second part introduces macroeconomic models of financial fragility for complex systems populated by heterogeneous and interacting agents. The concepts of financial fragility and macroeconomic dynamics are explained in detail in separate chapters. The statistical physics approach is applied to explain theories of macroeconomic modelling a...

  6. Alternative Therapies for PKU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Spécola MD

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The phenylalanine (PHE-restricted diet has improved in quality and diversity over time and has proven to be effective in all patients. Nevertheless, this treatment imposes a heavy social and economic burden to patient and family and impacts quality of life. Sustained adherence to PHE restriction is difficult to maintain. Moreover, even patients with phenylketonuria (PKU with normal intelligence quotient (IQ have lower IQ than matched individuals without PKU and can have deficits in multiple other aspects of neuropsychological function, including cognitive and executive function, working memory. They can also have behavior problems, depression, and low self-esteem. In recent years, alternative treatments for PKU have been developed and their use has been indicated for some patients who are candidates for options besides traditional treatment. Sapropterindihydrochloride, large neutral amino acids, and glycomacropeptide are alternative treatment options in use for selected patients. The aim of this article is to review the current knowledge of these new approaches to PKU treatment.

  7. Ignition experiment - alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knobloch, A.F.

    1979-10-01

    This report comprises three short papers on cost estimates, integral burn time and alternative versions of Tokamak ignition experiments. These papers were discussed at the ZEPHYR workshop with participants from IPP Garching, MIT Cambridge and PPPL Princeton (Garching July 30 - August 2 1979) (Chapters A, B, C). It is shown, that starting from a practical parameter independent minimum integral burn time of Tokamak ignition experiments (some 10 3 s) by adding a shield for protection of the magnet insulation (permitted neutron dose 10 9 rad) an integral burn time of some 10 4 s can be achieved for only about 30% more outlay. For a substantially longer integral burn time the outlay approaches rather quickly that for a Tokamak reactor. Some examples for alternatives to ZEPHYR are being given, including some with low or no compression. In a further chapter D some early results of evaluating an ignition experiment on the basis of the energy confinement scaling put forward by Coppi and Mazzucato are presented. As opposed to the case of the Alcator scaling used in chapters A through C the minimum integral burn time of Tokamak ignition experiments here depends on the plasma current. Provided neutral injectors up to about 160 keV are available compression boosting is not required with this scaling. The results presented have been obtained neglecting the effects of the toroidal field ripple. (orig.) 891 HT/orig. 892 RKD [de

  8. Adaptive, Distributed Control of Constrained Multi-Agent Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieniawski, Stefan; Wolpert, David H.

    2004-01-01

    Product Distribution (PO) theory was recently developed as a broad framework for analyzing and optimizing distributed systems. Here we demonstrate its use for adaptive distributed control of Multi-Agent Systems (MASS), i.e., for distributed stochastic optimization using MAS s. First we review one motivation of PD theory, as the information-theoretic extension of conventional full-rationality game theory to the case of bounded rational agents. In this extension the equilibrium of the game is the optimizer of a Lagrangian of the (Probability dist&&on on the joint state of the agents. When the game in question is a team game with constraints, that equilibrium optimizes the expected value of the team game utility, subject to those constraints. One common way to find that equilibrium is to have each agent run a Reinforcement Learning (E) algorithm. PD theory reveals this to be a particular type of search algorithm for minimizing the Lagrangian. Typically that algorithm i s quite inefficient. A more principled alternative is to use a variant of Newton's method to minimize the Lagrangian. Here we compare this alternative to RL-based search in three sets of computer experiments. These are the N Queen s problem and bin-packing problem from the optimization literature, and the Bar problem from the distributed RL literature. Our results confirm that the PD-theory-based approach outperforms the RL-based scheme in all three domains.

  9. Herbs, Supplements and Alternative Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A A Listen En Español Herbs, Supplements and Alternative Medicines It is best to get vitamins and minerals ... this section Medication Other Treatments Herbs, Supplements, and Alternative Medicines Types of Dietary Supplements Side Effects and Drug ...

  10. Noncontraceptive use of contraceptive agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickles, Monique Collier; Alderman, Elizabeth

    2014-06-01

    • On the basis of strong research evidence, there are many noncontraceptive advantages to use of hormonal contraceptive agents in adolescent girls. (3) (4)(5)(7)(10)(11)(12)(13)(14). • On the basis of research evidence and consensus, most of these agents are safe with minor adverse effects. (2)(3)(4)(5)(7)(10)(11)(12)(13)(14). • On the basis of research evidence and consensus, through application of evidence-based approaches and proper counseling, pediatricians can use various contraceptive agents to treat several medical conditions and to help alleviate many of the undesired symptoms and complications associated with menstrual periods. (2)(3)(4)(5)(7)(10)(11)(12)(13) (14). • On the basis of research evidence and consensus, these agents may be used in sexually active adolescents to simultaneously help prevent unintended adolescent pregnancies. (2)(3)(4)(5)(7)(10)(11)(12)(13)(14).

  11. Chemical Agents: Facts about Evacuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What CDC is Doing Blog: Public Health Matters Chemical Agents: Facts About Evacuation Format: Select One PDF [ ... on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Some kinds of chemical accidents or attacks, such as a train derailment ...

  12. Peripheral Neuropathy and Agent Orange

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Enter ZIP code here Enter ZIP code here Peripheral Neuropathy and Agent Orange VA presumes Veterans' early-onset ... 10 percent disabling by VA's rating regulations. About peripheral neuropathy Peripheral neuropathy is a condition of the peripheral ...

  13. Antisense Treatments for Biothreat Agents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Warfield, Kelly L; Panchal, Rekha G; Aman, M J; Bavari, Sina

    2006-01-01

    ... a variety of pathogens in cell culture studies and nonhuman primate models of infection. For these reasons, antisense technologies are being pursued as treatments against biothreat agents such as Ebola virus, dengue virus and Bacillus anthracis...

  14. Macroeconomic Policies and Agent Heterogeneity

    OpenAIRE

    GOTTLIEB, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Defence date: 24 February 2012 Examining Board: Giancarlo Corsetti, Arpad Abraham, Juan Carlos Conesa, Jonathan Heathcote. This thesis contributes to the understanding of macroeconomic policies’ impact on the distribution of wealth. It belongs to the strand of literature that departs from the representative agent assumption and perceives agent heterogeneity and the induced disparities in wealth accumulation, as an important dimension of economic policy-making. Within such economic envir...

  15. Agents in E-learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mencke

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a framework to describe thecrossover domain of e-learning and agent technology.Furthermore it is used to classify existing work and possiblestarting points for the future development of agenttechniques and technologies order to enhance theperformance and the effectiveness of several aspects of elearningsystems. Agents are not a new concept but their usein the field of e-learning constitutes a basis for consequentialadvances.

  16. Building Agents to Serve Customers

    OpenAIRE

    Barbuceanu, Mihai; Fox, Mark S.; Hong, Lei; Lallement, Yannick; Zhang, Zhongdong

    2004-01-01

    AI agents combining natural language interaction, task planning, and business ontologies can help companies provide better-quality and more costeffective customer service. Our customer-service agents use natural language to interact with customers, enabling customers to state their intentions directly instead of searching for the places on the Web site that may address their concern. We use planning methods to search systematically for the solution to the customer's problem, ensuring that a r...

  17. Business Intelligence using Software Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Ana-Ramona BOLOGA; Razvan BOLOGA

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents some ideas about business intelligence today and the importance of developing real time business solutions. The authors make an exploration of links between business intelligence and artificial intelligence and focuses specifically on the implementation of software agents-based systems in business intelligence. There are briefly presented some of the few solutions proposed so far that use software agents properties for the benefit of business intelligence. The authors then...

  18. What makes virtual agents believable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanovych, Anton; Trescak, Tomas; Simoff, Simeon

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the concept of believability and make an attempt to isolate individual characteristics (features) that contribute to making virtual characters believable. As the result of this investigation we have produced a formalisation of believability and based on this formalisation built a computational framework focused on simulation of believable virtual agents that possess the identified features. In order to test whether the identified features are, in fact, responsible for agents being perceived as more believable, we have conducted a user study. In this study we tested user reactions towards the virtual characters that were created for a simulation of aboriginal inhabitants of a particular area of Sydney, Australia in 1770 A.D. The participants of our user study were exposed to short simulated scenes, in which virtual agents performed some behaviour in two different ways (while possessing a certain aspect of believability vs. not possessing it). The results of the study indicate that virtual agents that appear resource bounded, are aware of their environment, own interaction capabilities and their state in the world, agents that can adapt to changes in the environment and exist in correct social context are those that are being perceived as more believable. Further in the paper we discuss these and other believability features and provide a quantitative analysis of the level of contribution for each such feature to the overall perceived believability of a virtual agent.

  19. ALTERNATIVE FUELS FOR DIESEL ENGINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Caban

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development and genesis of the use of alternative fuels in internal combustion ignition engines. Based on the analysis of the literature, this article shows various alternative fuels used in Poland and all over the world. Furthermore, this article describes the research directions for alternative fuels use in road transport powered by diesel engines.

  20. Multi-agent Water Resources Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelletti, A.; Giuliani, M.

    2011-12-01

    Increasing environmental awareness and emerging trends such as water trading, energy market, deregulation and democratization of water-related services are challenging integrated water resources planning and management worldwide. The traditional approach to water management design based on sector-by-sector optimization has to be reshaped to account for multiple interrelated decision-makers and many stakeholders with increasing decision power. Centralized management, though interesting from a conceptual point of view, is unfeasible in most of the modern social and institutional contexts, and often economically inefficient. Coordinated management, where different actors interact within a full open trust exchange paradigm under some institutional supervision is a promising alternative to the ideal centralized solution and the actual uncoordinated practices. This is a significant issue in most of the Southern Alps regulated lakes, where upstream hydropower reservoirs maximize their benefit independently form downstream users; it becomes even more relevant in the case of transboundary systems, where water management upstream affects water availability downstream (e.g. the River Zambesi flowing through Zambia, Zimbabwe and Mozambique or the Red River flowing from South-Western China through Northern Vietnam. In this study we apply Multi-Agent Systems (MAS) theory to design an optimal management in a decentralized way, considering a set of multiple autonomous agents acting in the same environment and taking into account the pay-off of individual water users, which are inherently distributed along the river and need to coordinate to jointly reach their objectives. In this way each real-world actor, representing the decision-making entity (e.g. the operator of a reservoir or a diversion dam) can be represented one-to-one by a computer agent, defined as a computer system that is situated in some environment and that is capable of autonomous action in this environment in

  1. Comparing solar energy alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, J R

    1984-01-01

    The paper outlines a computational procedure for comparing the merits of alternative processes to convert solar radiation to heat, electrical power, or chemical energy. The procedure uses the ratio of equipment investment to useful work as an index. Comparisons with conversion counterparts based on conventional fuels are also facilitated by examining this index. The procedure is illustrated by comparisons of (1) photovoltaic converters of differing efficiencies; (2) photovoltaic converters with and without focusing concentrators; (3) photovoltaic conversion plus electrolysis vs photocatalysis for the production of hydrogen; (4) photovoltaic conversion plus plasma arcs vs photocatalysis for nitrogen fixation. Estimates for conventionally-fuelled processes are included for comparison. The reasons why solar-based concepts fare poorly in such comparisons are traced to the low energy density of solar radiation and its low stream time factor resulting from the limited number of daylight hours available and clouds obscuring the sun.

  2. Comparing solar energy alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, J R

    1984-01-01

    This paper outlines a computational procedure for comparing the merits of alternative processes to convert solar radiation to heat, electrical power, or chemical energy. The procedure uses the ratio of equipment investment to useful work as an index. Comparisons with conversion counterparts based on conventional fuels are also facilitated by examining this index. The procedure is illustrated by comparisons of (1) photovoltaic converters of differing efficiencies; (2) photovoltaic converters with and without focusing concentrators; (3) photovoltaic conversion plus electrolysis vs photocatalysis for the production of hydrogen; (4) photovoltaic conversion plus plasma arcs vs photocatalysis for nitrogen fixation. Estimates for conventionally-fuelled processes are included for comparison. The reasons why solar-based concepts fare poorly in such comparisons are traced to the low energy density of solar radiation and its low stream time factor resulting from the limited number of daylight hours available and clouds obscuring the sun. 11 references.

  3. Alternative to BGO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.F.

    1982-01-01

    For some applications, the scintillating crystal RaF 2 may be preferable to BGO. When coupled to a liquid TMAE photocathode and wire chamber, RaF 2 offers the possibility of an order of magnitude better timing resolution, ease of operating in strong magnetic fields, greater flexibility of design, and more information. For BGO its main advantage is its radiation length and its disadvantages are cost, timing, and difficulty of use in a magnetic field. The main advantages of RaF 2 are its timing, the ease of working in a magnetic field with a wire chamber, the flexibility of design, and greater information out. Its disadvantages are cost and its radiation length. Although BaF 2 has its own shortcomings, coupled to a LPC it has some unique strengths that make it a viable alternative to BGO in some applications of calorimetry in high energy physics

  4. Alternatives to neoliberalism?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warring, Niels; Ahrenkiel, Annegrethe; Nielsen, Birger Steen

    This paper will discuss the consequences of neoliberal governance in Danish day care centres, the social educators’ response, and the possible development of alternatives based on collective participation of social educators and union representatives. We will show how important and unnoticed...... professional competencies come under pressure, and how collective interest representation is challenged. We will discuss how concepts of “gestural knowledge”, “coherence” and “rhythm” open for a new understanding of professional competence. And we will conclude that the social educators and their unions have...... the possibility to contribute to the development of a new welfare paradigm. The paper is based on material from two research projects (Ahrenkiel et al. 2009, 2011) involving social educators and union representatives in day care institutions. We have observed everyday work activities in day care centres...

  5. Alternate laser fusion drivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pleasance, L.D.

    1979-11-01

    One objective of research on inertial confinement fusion is the development of a power generating system based on this concept. Realization of this goal will depend on the availability of a suitable laser or other system to drive the power plant. The primary laser systems used for laser fusion research, Nd 3+ : Glass and CO 2 , have characteristics which may preclude their use for this application. Glass lasers are presently perceived to be incapable of sufficiently high average power operation and the CO 2 laser may be limited by and issues associated with target coupling. These general perceptions have encouraged a search for alternatives to the present systems. The search for new lasers has been directed generally towards shorter wavelengths; most of the new lasers discovered in the past few years have been in the visible and ultraviolet region of the spectrum. Virtually all of them have been advocated as the most promising candidate for a fusion driver at one time or another

  6. The alternative energy future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spitzley, H.

    1989-02-01

    The alternative energy future can be achieved only by making energy conservation programmes successful, and by fully committing to the utilization of soft energy sources. This is the perspective drawn by the author who in this book investigates the fundamentals of an ecologically and socially sound energy policy for the future. Looking at California, USA, where completely near concepts have been put to work in the energy sector since the mid-seventies, the author shows how it can be done, by rewarding energy conserving activities, using available energy sources more efficiently, developing the means for renewable energy exploitation wherever appropriate. A turn in energy policy is feasible also in West Germany, both in technical and political terms. Starting from the experience gained in the USA, the author presents an outline of options and potentials of a new energy strategy for the Federal Republic of Germany. (orig./HP) [de

  7. Interactions of ionic and nonionic contrast agents with thrombolytic agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fareed, J.; Moncada, R.; Scanlon, P.; Hoppensteadt, D.; Huan, X.; Walenga, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Both the ionic and nonionic intravascular contrast media have been used before and after the administration of thrombolytic agents to evaluate clot lysis during angioplasty and the treatment of myocardial infarction. In experimental animal models, the authors found that the clot lytic efficacy of streptokinase, streptokinase-plasminogen complex, and tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) is markedly augmented if these agents are administered within 1 hour after the angiographic producers. Furthermore, contrast agents injected after the administration of t-Pa exhibit a synergistic action. In stimulated models administration of one ionic contrast medium (Angiovist, Berlex, Wayne, NJ) and two nonionic contrast agents (Isovue-370, Squibb Diagnostics, New Brunswick, NJ; Omnipaque-350, Winthrop, NY) 15 minutes before the administration of t-PA resulted in marked enhancement of the lytic activity. Although the mechanism of this interaction is unknown at this time, it should be taken into consideration in the treatment of patients with myocardial infarction, in whom contrast agents are continually used to evaluate the therapeutic lysis. Furthermore, this interaction may be partly related to the therapeutic efficacy and/or hemorrhagic actions observed

  8. Subsurface barrier design alternatives for confinement and controlled advection flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, S.J.; Stewart, W.E.; Alexander, R.G.; Cantrell, K.J.; McLaughlin, T.J.

    1994-02-01

    Various technologies and designs are being considered to serve as subsurface barriers to confine or control contaminant migration from underground waste storage or disposal structures containing radioactive and hazardous wastes. Alternatives including direct-coupled flood and controlled advection designs are described as preconceptual examples. Prototype geotechnical equipment for testing and demonstration of these alternative designs tested at the Hanford Geotechnical Development and Test Facility and the Hanford Small-Tube Lysimeter Facility include mobile high-pressure injectors and pumps, mobile transport and pumping units, vibratory and impact pile drivers, and mobile batching systems. Preliminary laboratory testing of barrier materials and additive sequestering agents have been completed and are described

  9. Bacteriocins: exploring alternatives to antibiotics in mastitis treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reneé Pieterse

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Mastitis is considered to be the most costly disease affecting the dairy industry. Management strategies involve the extensive use of antibiotics to treat and prevent this disease. Prophylactic dosages of antibiotics used in mastitis control programmes could select for strains with resistance to antibiotics. In addition, a strong drive towards reducing antibiotic residues in animal food products has lead to research in finding alternative antimicrobial agents. In this review we have focus on the pathogenesis of the mastitis in dairy cows, existing antibiotic treatments and possible alternative for application of bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria in the treatment and prevention of this disease.

  10. Bacteriocins - exploring alternatives to antibiotics in mastitis treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieterse, Reneé; Todorov, Svetoslav D

    2010-07-01

    Mastitis is considered to be the most costly disease affecting the dairy industry. Management strategies involve the extensive use of antibiotics to treat and prevent this disease. Prophylactic dosages of antibiotics used in mastitis control programmes could select for strains with resistance to antibiotics. In addition, a strong drive towards reducing antibiotic residues in animal food products has lead to research in finding alternative antimicrobial agents. In this review we have focus on the pathogenesis of the mastitis in dairy cows, existing antibiotic treatments and possible alternative for application of bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria in the treatment and prevention of this disease.

  11. Bacteriocins – Exploring Alternatives to Antibiotics in Mastitis Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieterse, Reneé; Todorov, Svetoslav D.

    2010-01-01

    Mastitis is considered to be the most costly disease affecting the dairy industry. Management strategies involve the extensive use of antibiotics to treat and prevent this disease. Prophylactic dosages of antibiotics used in mastitis control programmes could select for strains with resistance to antibiotics. In addition, a strong drive towards reducing antibiotic residues in animal food products has lead to research in finding alternative antimicrobial agents. In this review we have focus on the pathogenesis of the mastitis in dairy cows, existing antibiotic treatments and possible alternative for application of bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria in the treatment and prevention of this disease. PMID:24031528

  12. Ordering alternatives in MCDM problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Baets, B.

    1994-01-01

    A new approach to the study of a set of alternatives in a multi-criteria decision making problem is presented. Alternatives are described by means of fuzzy sets in the set of criteria, expressing the degrees to which they fulfill the different criteria. The concept of a fuzzy inclusion is introduced and is discussed from an axiomatic point of view. To each implication operator corresponds a fuzzy inclusion. The fuzzy inclusion corresponding to the Goedel operator is used to measure the degree to which the scores of one alternative are contained in the scores of another one. Repeating this for all couples of alternatives yields a fuzzy quasi-order relation in a set of alternatives. The cuts of this fuzzy relation are then classical quasi-order relations: they express orderings of the alternatives, allowing alternatives to be indifferent or incomparable, corresponding to different degrees of confidence

  13. Product Distribution Theory for Control of Multi-Agent Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chia Fan; Wolpert, David H.

    2004-01-01

    Product Distribution (PD) theory is a new framework for controlling Multi-Agent Systems (MAS's). First we review one motivation of PD theory, as the information-theoretic extension of conventional full-rationality game theory to the case of bounded rational agents. In this extension the equilibrium of the game is the optimizer of a Lagrangian of the (probability distribution of) the joint stare of the agents. Accordingly we can consider a team game in which the shared utility is a performance measure of the behavior of the MAS. For such a scenario the game is at equilibrium - the Lagrangian is optimized - when the joint distribution of the agents optimizes the system's expected performance. One common way to find that equilibrium is to have each agent run a reinforcement learning algorithm. Here we investigate the alternative of exploiting PD theory to run gradient descent on the Lagrangian. We present computer experiments validating some of the predictions of PD theory for how best to do that gradient descent. We also demonstrate how PD theory can improve performance even when we are not allowed to rerun the MAS from different initial conditions, a requirement implicit in some previous work.

  14. Optimal Wonderful Life Utility Functions in Multi-Agent Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolpert, David H.; Tumer, Kagan; Swanson, Keith (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The mathematics of Collective Intelligence (COINs) is concerned with the design of multi-agent systems so as to optimize an overall global utility function when those systems lack centralized communication and control. Typically in COINs each agent runs a distinct Reinforcement Learning (RL) algorithm, so that much of the design problem reduces to how best to initialize/update each agent's private utility function, as far as the ensuing value of the global utility is concerned. Traditional team game solutions to this problem assign to each agent the global utility as its private utility function. In previous work we used the COIN framework to derive the alternative Wonderful Life Utility (WLU), and experimentally established that having the agents use it induces global utility performance up to orders of magnitude superior to that induced by use of the team game utility. The WLU has a free parameter (the clamping parameter) which we simply set to zero in that previous work. Here we derive the optimal value of the clamping parameter, and demonstrate experimentally that using that optimal value can result in significantly improved performance over that of clamping to zero, over and above the improvement beyond traditional approaches.

  15. Smart Agents and Sentiment in the Heterogeneous Agent Model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vácha, Lukáš; Baruník, Jozef; Vošvrda, Miloslav

    -, č. 81 (2010), s. 39-40 ISSN 0926-4981 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA402/09/0965; GA ČR GP402/08/P207 Grant - others:GAUK(CZ) GAUK 46108 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Smart traders * price movements * smart traders concept Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2010/E/vacha- smart agent s and sentiment in the heterogeneous agent model.pdf

  16. Alternative Solvents through Green Chemistry Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintze, Paul E.; Quinn, Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    Components in the aerospace industry must perform with accuracy and precision under extreme conditions, and surface contamination can be detrimental to the desired performance, especially in cases when the components come into contact with strong oxidizers such as liquid oxygen. Therefore, precision cleaning is an important part of a components preparation prior to utilization in aerospace applications. Current cleaning technologies employ a variety of cleaning agents, many of which are halogenated solvents that are either toxic or cause environmental damage. Thus, this project seeks to identify alternative precision cleaning solvents and technologies, including use of less harmful cleaning solvents, ultrasonic and megasonic agitation, low-pressure plasma cleaning techniques, and supercritical carbon dioxide extraction. Please review all data content found in the Public Data tab located at: https:techport.nasa.govview11697public

  17. Citric Acid Alternative to Nitric Acid Passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Pattie L. (Compiler)

    2013-01-01

    The Ground Systems Development and Operations GSDO) Program at NASA John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has the primary objective of modernizing and transforming the launch and range complex at KSC to benefit current and future NASA programs along with other emerging users. Described as the launch support and infrastructure modernization program in the NASA Authorization Act of 2010, the GSDO Program will develop and implement shared infrastructure and process improvements to provide more flexible, affordable, and responsive capabilities to a multi-user community. In support of the GSDO Program, the purpose of this project is to demonstratevalidate citric acid as a passivation agent for stainless steel. Successful completion of this project will result in citric acid being qualified for use as an environmentally preferable alternative to nitric acid for passivation of stainless steel alloys in NASA and DoD applications.

  18. Homeostatic Agent for General Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Naoto

    2018-03-01

    One of the essential aspect in biological agents is dynamic stability. This aspect, called homeostasis, is widely discussed in ethology, neuroscience and during the early stages of artificial intelligence. Ashby's homeostats are general-purpose learning machines for stabilizing essential variables of the agent in the face of general environments. However, despite their generality, the original homeostats couldn't be scaled because they searched their parameters randomly. In this paper, first we re-define the objective of homeostats as the maximization of a multi-step survival probability from the view point of sequential decision theory and probabilistic theory. Then we show that this optimization problem can be treated by using reinforcement learning algorithms with special agent architectures and theoretically-derived intrinsic reward functions. Finally we empirically demonstrate that agents with our architecture automatically learn to survive in a given environment, including environments with visual stimuli. Our survival agents can learn to eat food, avoid poison and stabilize essential variables through theoretically-derived single intrinsic reward formulations.

  19. The nuclear power alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blix, H.

    1989-04-01

    The Director General of the IAEA stressed the need for energy policies and other measures which would help to slow and eventually halt the present build-up of carbon dioxide, methane and other so-called greenhouse gases, which are held to cause global warming. He urged that nuclear power and various other sources of energy, none of which contribute to global warming, should not be seen as alternatives, but should all be used to counteract the greenhouse effect. He pointed out that the commercially used renewable energies, apart from hydropower, currently represent only 0.3% of the world's energy consumption and, by contrast, the 5% of the world's energy consumption coming from nuclear power is not insignificant. Dr. Blix noted that opposition for nuclear power stems from fear of accidents and concern about the nuclear wastes. But no generation of electricity, whether by coal, hydro, gas or nuclear power, is without some risk. He emphasized that safety can never be a static concept, and that many new measures are being taken by governments and by the IAEA to further strengthen the safety of nuclear power

  20. Lightweight superconducting alternators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keim, T.A.

    1988-01-01

    One of the most efficient and most lightweight means of converting high-temperature heat energy to electricity is a turboalternator set. Turboalternators are potentially important components of burst-mode power systems, either chemical or nuclear powered. Also, they are probable key components in future electric propulsion systems. Existing examples of multimegawatt turbomachines have been optimized for a variety of aerospace uses, ranging from aircraft propulsion to rocket engine fuel pump drives. There is no corresponding history of multimegawatt alternators built to aerospace standards of mass, performance, and reliability. This paper discusses one of the few such development efforts presently in progress, and gives an indication of possible future potential. In large power ratings, superconducting generators offer substantial power density, specific weight, and efficiency advantages over competing technologies. A program at GE has led to the construction of a lightweight high-voltage 20-MW generator with a superconducting field winding. The first part of this paper describes the design of the generator. The second projects the capabilities of the generator to other ratings

  1. Alternative energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiter, J P [N. V. Kema te Arnhem, NL

    1975-01-01

    A review of alternative energy sources is presented. Solar energy may be used by collecting the heat for direct use or by converting it to electricity. Flat-plate and concentrating collectors are described. Wind energy is an indirect form of solar energy, and has been used for many years in the Netherlands. Calculations of the efficiency of windmills, and of the useful available wind energy along the Netherlands' coastline, are provided. The conversion of organic waste to useable energy is described, including techniques of pyrolysis, combustion, and biological conversion. Tidal energy and ocean-thermal-gradient power plants are briefly described. Geothermal energy is a particularly attractive resource. The average temperature gradient is about 30/sup 0/C/km, ranging from 10/sup 0/C/km in South Africa to 150/sup 0/C/km in Italy. In the Netherlands it ranges from 20-50/sup 0/C/km. The various types of geothermal systems (steam, water, geopressured) are reviewed, and presently operating geothermal power plants are described. A comparison is made of the costs of various energy sources, and 27 references are provided.

  2. Alternative cover design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-11-01

    The special study on Alternative Cover Designs is one of several studies initiated by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in response to the proposed US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) groundwater standards. The objective of this study is to investigate the possibility of minimizing the infiltration of precipitation through stabilized tailings piles by altering the standard design of covers currently used on the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. Prior. to the issuance of the proposed standards, UMTRA Project piles had common design elements to meet the required criteria, the most important of which were for radon diffusion, long-term stability, erosion protection, and groundwater protection. The standard pile covers consisted of three distinct layers. From top to bottom they were: rock for erosion protection; a sand bedding layer; and the radon barrier, usually consisting of a clayey sand material, which also functioned to limit infiltration into the tailings. The piles generally had topslopes from 2 to 4 percent and sideslopes of 20 percent

  3. Multi-Agent Software Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, A.H.

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposed an alarm-monitoring system for people based on multi-agent using maps. The system monitors the users physical context using their mobile phone. The agents on the mobile phones are responsible for collecting, processing and sending data to the server. They can determine the parameters of their environment by sensors. The data are processed and sent to the server. On the other side, a set of agents on server can store this data and check the preconditions of the restrictions associated with the user, in order to trigger the appropriate alarms. These alarms are sent not only to the user who is alarmed to avoid the appeared restriction, but also to his supervisor. The proposed system is a general purpose alarm system that can be used in different critical application areas. It has been applied for monitoring the workers of radiation sites. However, these workers can do their activity tasks in the radiation environments safely

  4. Agent review phase one report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zubelewicz, Alex Tadeusz; Davis, Christopher Edward; Bauer, Travis LaDell

    2009-12-01

    This report summarizes the findings for phase one of the agent review and discusses the review methods and results. The phase one review identified a short list of agent systems that would prove most useful in the service architecture of an information management, analysis, and retrieval system. Reviewers evaluated open-source and commercial multi-agent systems and scored them based upon viability, uniqueness, ease of development, ease of deployment, and ease of integration with other products. Based on these criteria, reviewers identified the ten most appropriate systems. The report also mentions several systems that reviewers deemed noteworthy for the ideas they implement, even if those systems are not the best choices for information management purposes.

  5. Monitoring presence of chemical agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preston, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    The specification describes a case for use with a hand-portable chemical agent detector for continuously monitoring an atmosphere for the presence of predetermined chemical agents. The detector having means for ionizing air samples and providing at an output terminal electrical signals representative of the mobility spectrum of ionized chemical vapours produced by the ionizing means. The case comprises means for defining a chamber in the case for supporting and removably enclosing the detector, means for communicating ambient atmosphere to the chamber, electrical circuit means in the case, the circuit means being adapted to be detachably connected to the detector output terminal when the detector is positioned in the chamber and being responsive to the electrical signals for producing an alarm signal when the signals detect a chemical agent concentration in the atmosphere exceeding a predetermined concentration level, and alarm means responsive to the alarm signal. (author)

  6. Alkylating agents for Waldenstrom's macroglobulinaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kun; Tan, Jianlong; Wu, Taixiang

    2009-01-21

    Waldenstrom's macroglobulinaemia (WM) is an uncommon B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder characterized by bone marrow infiltration and production of monoclonal immunoglobulin. Uncertainty remains if alkylating agents, such as chlorambucil, melphalan or cyclophosphamide, are an effective form of management. To assess the effects and safety of the alkylating agents on Waldenstrom's macroglobulinaemia (WM). We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (Issue 1, 2008), MEDLINE (1966 to 2008), EMBASE (1980 to 2008), the Chinese Biomedical Base (1982 to 2008) and reference lists of articles.We also handsearched relevant conference proceedings from 1990 to 2008. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing alkylating agents given concomitantly with radiotherapy, splenectomy, plasmapheresis, stem-cell transplantation in patients with a confirmed diagnosis of WM. Two authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. We contacted study authors for additional information. We collected adverse effects information from the trials. One trial involving 92 participants with pretreated/relapsed WM compared the effect of fludarabine versus the combination of cyclophosphamide (the alkylating agent), doxorubicin and prednisone (CAP). Compared to CAP, the Hazard ratio (HR) for deaths of treatment with fludarabine was estimated to be 1.04, with a standard error of 0.30 (95% CI 0.58 to 1.48) and it indicated that the mean difference of median survival time was -4.00 months, and 16.00 months for response duration. The relative risks (RR) of response rate was 2.80 (95% CI 1.10 to 7.12). There were no statistically difference in overall survival rate and median survival months, while on the basis of response rate and response duration, fludarabine seemed to be superior to CAP for pretreated/relapsed patients with macroglobulinaemia. Although alkylating agents have been used for decades they have never actually been tested in a proper randomised trial. This

  7. Autonomous sensor manager agents (ASMA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osadciw, Lisa A.

    2004-04-01

    Autonomous sensor manager agents are presented as an algorithm to perform sensor management within a multisensor fusion network. The design of the hybrid ant system/particle swarm agents is described in detail with some insight into their performance. Although the algorithm is designed for the general sensor management problem, a simulation example involving 2 radar systems is presented. Algorithmic parameters are determined by the size of the region covered by the sensor network, the number of sensors, and the number of parameters to be selected. With straight forward modifications, this algorithm can be adapted for most sensor management problems.

  8. Enhanced Design Alternative IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, N.E.

    1999-01-01

    This report evaluates Enhanced Design Alternative (EDA) IV as part of the second phase of the License Application Design Selection (LADS) effort. The EDA IV concept was compared to the VA reference design using criteria from the Design Input Request for LADS Phase II EDA Evaluations (CRWMS M and O 1999b) and (CRWMS M and O 1999f). Briefly, the EDA IV concept arranges the waste packages close together in an emplacement configuration known as line load. Continuous pre-closure ventilation keeps the waste packages from exceeding their 350 C cladding and 200 C (4.3.6) drift wall temperature limits. This EDA concept keeps relatively high, uniform emplacement drift temperatures (post-closure) to drive water away from the repository and thus dry out the pillars between emplacement drifts. The waste package is shielded to permit human access to emplacement drifts and includes an integral filler inside the package to reduce the amount of water that can contact the waste form. Closure of the repository is desired 50 years after first waste is emplaced. Both backfill and drip shields will be emplaced at closure to improve post-closure performance. The EDA IV concept includes more defense-in-depth layers than the VA reference design because of its backfill, drip shield, waste package shielding, and integral filler features. These features contribute to the low dose-rate to the public achieved during the first 10,000 years of repository life as shown in Figure 3. Investigation of the EDA IV concept has led to the following general conclusions: (1) The total life cycle cost for EDA IV is about $21.7 billion which equates to a $11.3 billion net present value (both figures rounded up). (2) The incidence of design basis events for EDA IV is similar to the VA reference design. (3) The emplacement of the waste packages in drifts will be similar to the VA reference design. However, heavier equipment may be required because the shielded waste package will be heavier. (4) The heavier

  9. Evolution of natural agents: preservation, advance, and emergence of functional information

    OpenAIRE

    Sharov, Alexei A.

    2016-01-01

    Biological evolution is often viewed narrowly as a change of morphology or allele frequency in a sequence of generations. Here I pursue an alternative informational concept of evolution, as preservation, advance, and emergence of functional information in natural agents. Functional information is a network of signs (e.g., memory, transient messengers, and external signs) that are used by agents to preserve and regulate their functions. Functional information is preserved in evolution via comp...

  10. Imprecise Beliefs in a Principal Agent Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rigotti, L.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a principal-agent model where the agent has multiple, or imprecise, beliefs. We model this situation formally by assuming the agent's preferences are incomplete. One can interpret this multiplicity as an agent's limited knowledge of the surrounding environment. In this setting,

  11. 2APL: a practical agent programming language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dastani, M.M.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a BDI-based agent-oriented programming language, called 2APL (A Practical Agent Programming Language). This programming language facilitates the implementation ofmulti-agent systems consisting of individual agents thatmay share and access external environments. It realizes

  12. Clustering recommendations to compute agent reputation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedi, Punam; Kaur, Harmeet

    2005-03-01

    Traditional centralized approaches to security are difficult to apply to multi-agent systems which are used nowadays in e-commerce applications. Developing a notion of trust that is based on the reputation of an agent can provide a softer notion of security that is sufficient for many multi-agent applications. Our paper proposes a mechanism for computing reputation of the trustee agent for use by the trustier agent. The trustier agent computes the reputation based on its own experience as well as the experience the peer agents have with the trustee agents. The trustier agents intentionally interact with the peer agents to get their experience information in the form of recommendations. We have also considered the case of unintentional encounters between the referee agents and the trustee agent, which can be directly between them or indirectly through a set of interacting agents. The clustering is done to filter off the noise in the recommendations in the form of outliers. The trustier agent clusters the recommendations received from referee agents on the basis of the distances between recommendations using the hierarchical agglomerative method. The dendogram hence obtained is cut at the required similarity level which restricts the maximum distance between any two recommendations within a cluster. The cluster with maximum number of elements denotes the views of the majority of recommenders. The center of this cluster represents the reputation of the trustee agent which can be computed using c-means algorithm.

  13. Prospects for alternative Fusion Fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glancy, J.

    1986-01-01

    The author has worked on three different magnetic confinement concepts for alternate fusion fueled reactors: tokamaks; tanden mirrors, and reversed field pinches. The focus of this article is on prospects for alternate fusion fuels as the author sees them relative to the other choices: increased numbers of coal plants, fission reactors, renewables, and D-T fusion. Discussion is limited on the consideration of alternate fusion fuels to the catalyzed deuterium-deuterium fuel cycle. Reasons for seeking an alternate energy source are cost, a more secure fuel supply, environmental impact and safety. The technical risks associated with development of fusion are examined briefly

  14. Alternative fuelds in urban fleets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsay, T.

    1994-12-31

    In this presentation the author addresses four main objectives. They are to: discuss programs that are driving the introduction of alternative fuels into fleet operations in urban areas around the country; define alternative fuels; quantify the present use and future projections on alternative fuel vehicles (AVFs) in the Chicago metropolitan statistical area; and discuss benefits of increased use of alternative fuels in urban areas. Factors which touch on these points include: present domestic dependence on petroleum for autos, with usage exceeding production; the large populations in urban areas which do not meet Clean Air Standards; recent legislative initiatives which give guidance and aid in the adoption of such strategies.

  15. Alternative fuelds in urban fleets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindsay, T.

    1994-01-01

    In this presentation the author addresses four main objectives. They are to: discuss programs that are driving the introduction of alternative fuels into fleet operations in urban areas around the country; define alternative fuels; quantify the present use and future projections on alternative fuel vehicles (AVFs) in the Chicago metropolitan statistical area; and discuss benefits of increased use of alternative fuels in urban areas. Factors which touch on these points include: present domestic dependence on petroleum for autos, with usage exceeding production; the large populations in urban areas which do not meet Clean Air Standards; recent legislative initiatives which give guidance and aid in the adoption of such strategies

  16. Alternative RNA splicing and cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sali; Cheng, Chonghui

    2015-01-01

    Alternative splicing of pre-messenger RNA (mRNA) is a fundamental mechanism by which a gene can give rise to multiple distinct mRNA transcripts, yielding protein isoforms with different, even opposing, functions. With the recognition that alternative splicing occurs in nearly all human genes, its relationship with cancer-associated pathways has emerged as a rapidly growing field. In this review, we summarize recent findings that have implicated the critical role of alternative splicing in cancer and discuss current understandings of the mechanisms underlying dysregulated alternative splicing in cancer cells. PMID:23765697

  17. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Indiana Transportation Data for Alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    (nameplate, MW) 1,430 Source: BioFuels Atlas from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory Case Studies Video Alternative Fuels Save Money in Indy April 1, 2012 More Case Studies Videos Text Version More Indiana Videos on YouTube Video thumbnail for Indiana Beverage Company Invests in Alternative Fuels Indiana Beverage

  18. Fundamental studies of oral contrast agents for MR. Comparison of manganese agent and iron agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Osamu; Hiraishi, Kumiko; Suginobu, Yoshito; Takeuchi, Masayasu; Narabayashi, Isamu

    1996-01-01

    We investigated and compared signal intensity and the effect of imaging the upper abdomen with blueberry juice (B.J.), a Mn agent utilizing the properties of paramagnetic metals, and FerriSeltz (F.S.), an iron agent. Since the relaxation effect was much stronger with B.J. than with F.S., the signal intensity required of a peroral contrast agent was able to be obtained at a much lower concentration of B.J. In imaging the upper abdomen, B.J. had a positive effect on imaging in T1-weighted images, and a negative effect in T2-weighted images. F.S. had a positive imaging effect in both, and because it showed extremely high signals in T2-weighted images, motion artifact arose. (author)

  19. Raspberry Pi for secret agents

    CERN Document Server

    Sjogelid, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    This book is an easy-to-follow guide with practical examples in each chapter. Suitable for the novice and expert alike, each topic provides a fast and easy way to get started with exciting applications and also guides you through setting up the Raspberry Pi as a secret agent toolbox.

  20. Real Estate Agent Commission Disputes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anida Duarte

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship among Procuring Cause Law, real estate agent years of experience, and real estate commission disputes. A pilot survey was conducted in the southwestern United States among real estate agents, realtor(s, and brokers. After testing the hypothesis, the decision was made to fail to reject the hypothesis and conclude that real estate agent experience and not Procuring Cause Law produced favorable outcomes in disputes. As a result, the following recommendations were made: (a Agency seller and buyer’s agreements should be used in each transaction to avoid disputes, (b proper expectations and guidelines should be reviewed prior to starting any real estate transaction, (c a checklist may assist in the assurance that all valuable information is reviewed, (d agents could benefit from fully understanding Procuring Cause Law and sharing this information with their clients, (e state and national regulatory requirements of the law could be modified for easier understanding and use, and (f consumers who willfully violate the law could be subject to monetary penalties.

  1. Ultrasound Contrast Agent Microbubble Dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overvelde, M.L.J.; Vos, Henk; de Jong, N.; Versluis, Michel; Paradossi, Gaio; Pellegretti, Paolo; Trucco, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    Ultrasound contrast agents are traditionally used in ultrasound-assisted organ perfusion imaging. Recently the use of coated microbubbles has been proposed for molecular imaging applications where the bubbles are covered with a layer of targeting ligands to bind specifically to their target cells.

  2. Travel Agent. Occupational Simulation Kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Wayne

    This career exploration instructional booklet on the travel agent's occupation is one of several resulting from the rural southwestern Colorado CEPAC Project (Career Education Process of Attitude Change). Based on a job analysis and utilizing a programed instructional format, the following content is included: A brief description of what a travel…

  3. Why Do Extension Agents Resign?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manton, Linda Nunes; van Es, J. C.

    1985-01-01

    Past and current Illinois extension agents were surveyed via mail questionnaires as to reasons for staying or leaving extension programs. Reasons for leaving included family changes, family moves, opportunity to advance, better salary/benefits, dissatisfaction with administration, and too much time away from family. (CT)

  4. The Power Trading Agent Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketter, W.; Collins, J.; Reddy, P.; Flath, C.; De Weerdt, M.M.

    2011-01-01

    This is the specification for the Power Trading Agent Competition for 2012 (Power TAC 2012). Power TAC is a competitive simulation that models a “liberalized” retail electrical energy market, where competing business entities or “brokers” offer energy services to customers through tariff contracts,

  5. The Power Trading Agent Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Ketter (Wolfgang); J. Collins (John); P. Reddy (Prashant); C. Flath (Christoph); M.M. de Weerdt (Mathijs)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis is the specification for the Power Trading Agent Competition for 2012 (Power TAC 2012). Power TAC is a competitive simulation that models a “liberalized” retail electrical energy market, where competing business entities or “brokers” offer energy services to customers through tariff

  6. Design of Collaborative Information Agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, C.M.; Klusch, M.; Treur, J.; Klusch, M.; Kerschberg, L.

    2000-01-01

    Effective development of nontrivial systems of collaborative information agents requires that an in-depth analysis is made resulting in (1) specification of requirements at different levels of the system, (2) specification of design structures, and (3) a systematic verification. To support a

  7. FACT : forgiving agent comfort technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeiler, W.; Wortel, W.; Kamphuis, I.G.; Akkermans, Hans; Jelsma, J.; Bakker, L.

    2005-01-01

    To further reduce energy consumption of office buildings, a new control technology is needed in which the end-user behaviour is integrated. Improvement of the energy consumption is offered by agent-based systems for energy management in buildings, as well as possibilities for enhancing the comfort

  8. Tc-99m imaging agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weininger, J.; Trumper, J.

    1984-01-01

    A wide range of pharmaceuticals for labeling with Tc-99m, developed by the Soreq Radiopharmaceuticals Department, is described. Details of the production and quality control of 13 kits are given, as well as the range of results required for consistently high quality imaging agents

  9. Kriitikute lemmikfilm on "Agent Sinikael"

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    Eesti Filmiajakirjanike Ühing andis kümnendat korda välja auhinda Aasta film 2002. Parimaks filmiks tunnistati mängufilm "Agent Sinikael" : režissöör Marko Raat. Viimane sai preemiaks Neitsi Maali kuju ja 12 000 krooni

  10. SEM: A Cultural Change Agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Bradley; Bourke, Brian

    2015-01-01

    The authors advance the concept that institutional culture is a purposeful framework by which to view SEM's utility, particularly as a cultural change agent. Through the connection of seemingly independent functions of performance and behavior, implications emerge that deepen the understanding of the influence of culture on performance outcomes…

  11. Agent Supported Serious Game Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzidou, Theodouli; Tsiatsos, Thrasyvoulos; Miliou, Christina; Sourvinou, Athanasia

    2016-01-01

    This study proposes and applies a novel concept for an AI enhanced serious game collaborative environment as a supplementary learning tool in tertiary education. It is based on previous research that investigated pedagogical agents for a serious game in the OpenSim environment. The proposed AI features to support the serious game are the…

  12. Sophisticated Players and Sophisticated Agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rustichini, A.

    1998-01-01

    A sophisticated player is an individual who takes the action of the opponents, in a strategic situation, as determined by decision of rational opponents, and acts accordingly. A sophisticated agent is rational in the choice of his action, but ignores the fact that he is part of a strategic

  13. Humor and Embodied Conversational Agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus

    This report surveys the role of humor in human-to-human interaction and the possible role of humor in human-computer interaction. The aim is to see whether it is useful for embodied conversational agents to integrate humor capabilities in their internal model of intelligence, emotions and

  14. Bridging humans via agent networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Toru

    1994-01-01

    Recent drastic advance in telecommunication networks enabled the human organization of new class, teleorganization, which differ from any existing organization in that the organization which is easy to create by using telecommunication networks is virtual and remote, that people can join multiple organizations simultaneously, and that the organization can involve people who may not know each other. In order to enjoy the recent advance in telecommunication, the agent networks to help people organize themselves are needed. In this paper, an architecture of agent networks, in which each agent learns the preference or the utility functioin of the owner, and acts on behalf of the owner in maintaining the organization, is proposed. When an agent networks supports a human organization, the conventional human interface is divided into personal and social interfaces. The functionalities of the social interface in teleconferencing and telelearning were investigated. In both cases, the existence of B-ISDN is assumed, and the extension to the business meeting scheduling using personal handy phone (PHS) networks with personal digital assistant (PDA) terminals is expected. These circumstances are described. Mutual selection protocols (MSP) and their dynamic properties are explained. (K.I.)

  15. Alternative energy in Nepal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiwari, H.B.; Bhandari, K.P.

    2011-05-15

    Renewable energy Technology (RET) becomes the mainstream option for rural Nepal to access modern source of energy. It focuses on the trend of RET applications consisting of biogas technology, solar thermal, micro and Pico hydropower, biomass technology bio fuel technology, wind power technology etc. The RET's which provide both electricity based as well as non electricity based services, have been shown to most immediately meet the needs of a cleaner indoor environment, better quality lightning for education and income generating, activities, alternative cooking fuels and agro processing as well as rural industries. Improved cooking stoves and much more beneficial than other technologies. Wind energy utilization is still not popular. Solar thermal to generate thermal energy to cook, warm and dry, biogas for lighting and cooking services. Micro hydropower for electric as well as mechanical use and solar PV mainly for domestic lighting may become choice. The most important Renewable Energy Technology (RET's) in Nepal are related to Pico hydropower and micro-hydropower, biomass energy (biogas, briquettes, gasifies, improved cooking stoves, bio-fuels etc.) solar photovoltaic energy, solar PV water pumping, solar thermal energy (solar heater, solar dryers, solar cookers etc.) and wind energy (such as wind generators, wind mills etc.). One renowned Non-governmental organization has been established in the Jhapa and Mornag Bhutanese refugee camp. Two families from all the seven camps in Nepal received one solar cooker, one hay box and two cooking posts to each family. Under this programme, a total of 6,850 solar cookers, 12600 hay boxes and 25,200 cooking pots have been distributed 2009. The number of beneficiaries from this program has reached 85,000. Before the distribution of the cookers and the utensils, the instruction and orientation training for the maintenance and repair and operation method was improved. The refugees were divided in 315 groups of 40

  16. Normetex Pump Alternatives Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, Elliot A.

    2013-01-01

    A mainstay pump for tritium systems, the Normetex scroll pump, is currently unavailable because the Normetex company went out of business. This pump was an all-metal scroll pump that served tritium processing facilities very well. Current tritium system operators are evaluating replacement pumps for the Normetex pump and for general used in tritium service. An all-metal equivalent alternative to the Normetex pump has not yet been identified. 1. The ideal replacement tritium pump would be hermetically sealed and contain no polymer components or oils. Polymers and oils degrade over time when they contact ionizing radiation. 2. Halogenated polymers (containing fluorine, chlorine, or both) and oils are commonly found in pumps. These materials have many properties that surpass those of hydrocarbon-based polymers and oils, including thermal stability (higher operating temperature) and better chemical resistance. Unfortunately, they are less resistant to degradation from ionizing radiation than hydrocarbon-based materials (in general). 3. Polymers and oils can form gaseous, condensable (HF, TF), liquid, and solid species when exposed to ionizing radiation. For example, halogenated polymers form HF and HCl, which are extremely corrosive upon reaction with water. If a pump containing polymers or oils must be used in a tritium system, the system must be designed to be able to process the unwanted by-products. Design features to mitigate degradation products include filters and chemical or physical traps (eg. cold traps, oil traps). 4. Polymer components can work in tritium systems, but must be replaced regularly. Polymer components performance should be monitored or be regularly tested, and regular replacement of components should be viewed as an expected normal event. A radioactive waste stream must be established to dispose of used polymer components and oil with an approved disposal plan developed based on the facility location and its regulators. Polymers have varying

  17. Security Infrastructure and Applicationsfor Mobile Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Shibli, Awais

    2010-01-01

    Research areas of this dissertation are security for mobile agents, for applications based on mobile agents, and for distributed network environments in which mobile agents execute. Mobile agents paradigm has captured researchers’ and industry’s interests long time ago because of its innovative capabilities and attractive applications. The ability of mobile agents to autonomously migrate from host to host, transferring their code and internal state, enables them to accomplish tasks in network...

  18. From SMART to agent systems development

    OpenAIRE

    Ashri, R; Luck, M; d'Inverno, M

    2005-01-01

    In order for agent-oriented software engineering to prove effective it must use principled notions of agents and enabling specification and reasoning, while still considering routes to practical implementation. This paper deals with the issue of individual agent specification and construction, departing from the conceptual basis provided by the smart agent framework. smart offers a descriptive specification of an agent architecture but omits consideration of issues relating to\\ud construction...

  19. Limonene and tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol cleaning agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert, George W.; Carter, Richard D.; Hand, Thomas E.; Powers, Michael T.

    1996-05-07

    The present invention is a tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol and limonene or terpineol cleaning agent and method for formulating and/or using the cleaning agent. This cleaning agent effectively removes both polar and nonpolar contaminants from various electrical and mechanical parts and is readily used without surfactants, thereby reducing the need for additional cleaning operations. The cleaning agent is warm water rinsable without the use of surfactants. The cleaning agent can be azeotropic, enhancing ease of use in cleaning operations and ease of recycling.

  20. Limonene and tetrahydrofurfurly alcohol cleaning agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert, George W.; Carter, Richard D.; Hand, Thomas E.; Powers, Michael T.

    1997-10-21

    The present invention is a tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol and limonene cleaning agent and method for formulating and/or using the cleaning agent. This cleaning agent effectively removes both polar and nonpolar contaminants from various electrical and mechanical parts and is readily used without surfactants, thereby reducing the need for additional cleaning operations. The cleaning agent is warm water rinsable without the use of surfactants. The cleaning agent can be azeotropic, enhancing ease of use in cleaning operations and ease of recycling.

  1. Blaptica dubia as sentinels for exposure to chemical warfare agents - a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worek, Franz; Seeger, Thomas; Neumaier, Katharina; Wille, Timo; Thiermann, Horst

    2016-11-16

    The increased interest of terrorist groups in toxic chemicals and chemical warfare agents presents a continuing threat to our societies. Early warning and detection is a key component for effective countermeasures against such deadly agents. Presently available and near term solutions have a number of major drawbacks, e.g. lack of automated, remote warning and detection of primarily low volatile chemical warfare agents. An alternative approach is the use of animals as sentinels for exposure to toxic chemicals. To overcome disadvantages of vertebrates the present pilot study was initiated to investigate the suitability of South American cockroaches (Blaptica dubia) as warning system for exposure to chemical warfare nerve and blister agents. Initial in vitro experiments with nerve agents showed an increasing inhibitory potency in the order tabun - cyclosarin - sarin - soman - VX of cockroach cholinesterase. Exposure of cockroaches to chemical warfare agents resulted in clearly visible and reproducible reactions, the onset being dependent on the agent and dose. With nerve agents the onset was related to the volatility of the agents. The blister agent lewisite induced signs largely comparable to those of nerve agents while sulfur mustard exposed animals exhibited a different sequence of events. In conclusion, this first pilot study indicates that Blaptica dubia could serve as a warning system to exposure of chemical warfare agents. A cockroach-based system will not detect or identify a particular chemical warfare agent but could trigger further actions, e.g. specific detection and increased protective status. By designing appropriate boxes with (IR) motion sensors and remote control (IR) camera automated off-site warning systems could be realized. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Halide test agent replacement study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, E.M.; Freeman, W.P.; Kovach, B.J. [and others

    1995-02-01

    The intended phaseout of the chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) from commercial use required the evaluation of substitute materials for the testing for leak paths through both individual adsorbers and installed adsorbent banks. The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Committee on Nuclear Air and Gas Treatment (CONAGT) is in charge of maintaining the standards and codes specifying adsorbent leak test methods for the nuclear safety related air cleaning systems. The currently published standards and codes cite the use of R-11, R-12 and R-112 for leak path test agents. All of these compounds are CFCs. There are other agencies and organizations (USDOE, USDOD and USNRC) also specifying testing for leak paths or in some cases for special life tests using the above compounds. The CONAGT has recently developed criteria for the suitability evaluation of substitute test agents. On the basis of these criteria, several compounds were evaluated for their acceptability as adsorbent bed leak and life test agents. The ASME CONAGT Test Agent Qualification Criteria. The test agent qualification is based on the following parameters: (1) Similar retention times on activated carbons at the same concentration levels as one of the following: R-11, R-12, R-112 or R-112a. (2) Similar lower detection limit sensitivity and precision in the concentration range of use as R-11, R-12, R-112 and R-112a. (3) Gives the same in-place leak test results as R-11, R-12, R-112, or R-112a. (4) Chemical and radiological stability under the use conditions. (5) Causes no degradation of the carbon and its impregnant or of the other NATS components under the use conditions. (6) Is listed in the USEPA Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) inventory for commercial use.

  3. Developing multimodal conversational agents for an enhanced e-learning experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David GRIOL

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Conversational agents have become a strong alternative to enhance educational systems with intelligent communicative capabilities, provide motivation and engagement, and increment significant learning and helping in the acquisition of meta-cognitive skills. In this paper, we present Geranium, a multimodal conversational agent that helps children to appreciate and protect their environment. The system, which integrates an interactive chatbot, has been developed by means of a modular and scalable framework that eases building pedagogic conversational agents that can interact with the students using speech and natural language.

  4. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Publications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windstars; 14) and the use of alternative fuel vehicles at the Olympics. Alternative Fuels In Trucking, Vol and their economic and environmental benefits. This report is designed to share the experiences and National Academy of Engineering suggested that 'DOE might have its greatest impact by leading the private

  5. Catching lightning for alternative energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helman, D.S. [California State University, Long Beach, 1250 Bellflower Blvd., Long Beach, CA 90840 (United States)

    2011-05-15

    The article reviews the current literature related to lightning and makes a case for using lightning as an alternative source of energy. Objections to using lightning as an alternative source of energy are listed. Current literature is reviewed and articles are suggested as useful for building a tower, or using rockets or lasers to target a strike, or for quantifying a lightning strike. (author)

  6. Difficulties of Alternatively Certified Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonfeld, Irvin Sam; Feinman, Samantha J.

    2012-01-01

    This daily diary study followed, over a 2-week period, 252 beginning New York City public school teachers. Seventy percent were alternatively certified (New York City Teaching Fellows) and the rest, traditionally certified teachers. Alternatively certified teachers were more likely to experience stressors such as violent incidents and classroom…

  7. [Alternative approaches in thyroid surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, E; Wächter, S; Bartsch, D K

    2017-08-01

    In thyroid surgery multiple different cervical minimally invasive (partly endoscopically assisted) and extracervical endoscopic (partly robot-assisted) approaches have been developed in the last 20 years. The aim of all these alternative approaches to the thyroid gland is optimization of the cosmetic result. The indications for the use of alternative and conventional approaches are principally the same. Important requirements for the use of alternative methods are nevertheless a broad experience in conventional thyroid operations of the thyroid and adequate patient selection under consideration of the size of the thyroid and the underlying pathology. Contraindications for the use of alternative approaches are a large size of the thyroid gland including local symptoms, advanced carcinomas, reoperations and previous radiations of the anterior neck. The current article gives an overview of the clinically implemented alternative approaches for thyroid surgery. Of those the majority must still be considered as experimental. The alternative approaches to the thyroid gland can be divided in cervical minimally invasive, extracervical endosopic (robot-assisted) and transoral operations (natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery, NOTES). Since conventional thyroid operations are standardized procedures with low complication rates, alternative approaches to the thyroid gland are considered critically in Germany. The request for a perfect cosmetic result should not overweigh patients' safety. Only a few alternative approaches (e. g. MIVAT, RAT) can yet be considered as a safe addition in experienced hands in highly selected patients.

  8. Marital Alternatives and Marital Disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udry, J. Richard

    1981-01-01

    Explores the usefulness of "marital alternatives" as a dimension in explaining marital stability, using longitudinal data from a panel of married, White, urban couples from 16 urban areas. Results indicated the dimension of marital alternatives appeared to be a better predictor of marital disruption than marital satisfaction. (Author/RC)

  9. Alternative Genres of IS Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avital, Michel; Mathiassen, Lars; Crowston, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    The potential value of alternative genres in IS research is the core question that drives this panel discussion. The term “Alternative Genres” refers to unconventional forms of thinking, doing, and communicating scholarship and practice. It relates to innovation with respect to epistemological pe...

  10. Self-interested agents create, maintain, and modify group-functional culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Manvir; Glowacki, Luke; Wrangham, Richard W

    2016-01-01

    We agree that institutions and rules are crucial for explaining human sociality, but we question the claim of there not being "alternatives to CGS [that] can easily account for the institutionalized cooperation that characterizes human societies" (target article, sect. 7). Hypothesizing that self-interested individuals coercively and collaboratively create rules, we propose that agent-based hypotheses offer viable alternatives to cultural group selection (CGS).

  11. Endogenous Price Bubbles in a Multi-Agent System of the Housing Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouwenberg, Roy; Zwinkels, Remco C J

    2015-01-01

    Economic history shows a large number of boom-bust cycles, with the U.S. real estate market as one of the latest examples. Classical economic models have not been able to provide a full explanation for this type of market dynamics. Therefore, we analyze home prices in the U.S. using an alternative approach, a multi-agent complex system. Instead of the classical assumptions of agent rationality and market efficiency, agents in the model are heterogeneous, adaptive, and boundedly rational. We estimate the multi-agent system with historical house prices for the U.S. market. The model fits the data well and a deterministic version of the model can endogenously produce boom-and-bust cycles on the basis of the estimated coefficients. This implies that trading between agents themselves can create major price swings in absence of fundamental news.

  12. Endogenous Price Bubbles in a Multi-Agent System of the Housing Market.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Kouwenberg

    Full Text Available Economic history shows a large number of boom-bust cycles, with the U.S. real estate market as one of the latest examples. Classical economic models have not been able to provide a full explanation for this type of market dynamics. Therefore, we analyze home prices in the U.S. using an alternative approach, a multi-agent complex system. Instead of the classical assumptions of agent rationality and market efficiency, agents in the model are heterogeneous, adaptive, and boundedly rational. We estimate the multi-agent system with historical house prices for the U.S. market. The model fits the data well and a deterministic version of the model can endogenously produce boom-and-bust cycles on the basis of the estimated coefficients. This implies that trading between agents themselves can create major price swings in absence of fundamental news.

  13. Endogenous Price Bubbles in a Multi-Agent System of the Housing Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Economic history shows a large number of boom-bust cycles, with the U.S. real estate market as one of the latest examples. Classical economic models have not been able to provide a full explanation for this type of market dynamics. Therefore, we analyze home prices in the U.S. using an alternative approach, a multi-agent complex system. Instead of the classical assumptions of agent rationality and market efficiency, agents in the model are heterogeneous, adaptive, and boundedly rational. We estimate the multi-agent system with historical house prices for the U.S. market. The model fits the data well and a deterministic version of the model can endogenously produce boom-and-bust cycles on the basis of the estimated coefficients. This implies that trading between agents themselves can create major price swings in absence of fundamental news. PMID:26107740

  14. Alternative Fuels in Cement Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Morten Boberg

    The substitution of alternative for fossil fuels in cement production has increased significantly in the last decade. Of these new alternative fuels, solid state fuels presently account for the largest part, and in particular, meat and bone meal, plastics and tyre derived fuels (TDF) accounted...... for the most significant alternative fuel energy contributors in the German cement industry. Solid alternative fuels are typically high in volatile content and they may differ significantly in physical and chemical properties compared to traditional solid fossil fuels. From the process point of view......, considering a modern kiln system for cement production, the use of alternative fuels mainly influences 1) kiln process stability (may accelerate build up of blockages preventing gas and/or solids flow), 2) cement clinker quality, 3) emissions, and 4) decreased production capacity. Kiln process stability...

  15. Verb aspect, alternations and quantification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetla Koeva

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Verb aspect, alternations and quantification In this paper we are briefly discuss the nature of Bulgarian verb aspect and argue that the verb aspect pairs are different lexical units with different (although related meaning, different argument structure (reflecting categories, explicitness and referential status of arguments and different sets of semantic and syntactic alternations. The verb prefixes resulting in perfective verbs derivation in some cases can be interpreted as lexical quantifiers as well. Thus the Bulgarian verb aspect is related (in different way both with the potential for the generation of alternations and with the prefixal lexical quantification. It is shown that the scope of the lexical quantification by means of verbal prefixes is the quantified verb phrase and the scope remains constant in all derived alternations. The paper concerns the basic issues of these complex problems, while the detailed description of the conditions satisfying particular alternation or particular lexical quantification are subject of a more detailed study.

  16. Use of second-generation antipsychotic agents for sleep and sedation: a provider survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermes, Eric D A; Sernyak, Michael; Rosenheck, Robert

    2013-04-01

    Anecdotal evidence suggests that second-generation antipsychotic agents are increasingly used to treat sleep problems. This study sought to quantify the proportion of new prescriptions for second-generation antipsychotic agents started for sleep/sedation and the correlates of such use. A cross-sectional survey of provider decision making at the time second-generation antipsychotic agents were prescribed, documenting the reasons for the medication, patient demographics, psychiatric and medical diagnoses, patient health characteristics, and provider background. A single Veterans Affairs Medical Center over a 20-month period. Prescribers of second-generation antipsychotic agents. N/A. Seven hundred seven (32.2%) of 2,613 surveys indicated sleep/sedation was at least one reason for using a second-generation anti-psychotic agent, whereas for 266 (12.1%) it was the only reason. Quetiapine was most frequently prescribed overall as well as for sleep/sedation (47.0% and 73.6% respectively). Second-generation antipsychotic agent use for sleep/sedation was unrelated to sociodemographic characteristics, least likely in patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder, and most likely as a newly started second-generation antipsychotic agent. Sleep/sedation is a common reason given for new prescriptions of second-generation antipsychotic agents. Quetiapine is most frequently used for this purpose. A greater understanding of why providers use second-generation antipsychotic agents rather than safer and less costly alternatives for sleep problems may advance the development of interventions to reduce adverse effects.

  17. Innovative agents in cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manson, Margaret M; Farmer, Peter B; Gescher, Andreas; Steward, William P

    2005-01-01

    There are many facets to cancer prevention: a good diet, weight control and physical activity, a healthy environment, avoidance of carcinogens such as those in tobacco smoke, and screening of populations at risk to allow early detection. But there is also the possibility of using drugs or naturally occurring compounds to prevent initiation of, or to suppress, tumour growth. Only a few such agents have been used to date in the clinic with any success, and these include non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for colon, finasteride for prostate and tamoxifen or raloxifene for breast tumours. An ideal chemopreventive agent would restore normal growth control to a preneoplastic or cancerous cell population by modifying aberrant signalling pathways or inducing apoptosis (or both) in cells beyond repair. Characteristics for such an agent include selectivity for damaged or transformed cells, good bioavailability and more than one mechanism of action to foil redundancy or crosstalk in signalling pathways. As more research effort is being targeted towards this area, the distinction between chemotherapeutic and chemopreventive agents is blurring. Chemotherapeutic drugs are now being designed to target over- or under-active signalling molecules within cancer cells, a philosophy which is just as relevant in chemoprevention. Development of dietary agents is particularly attractive because of our long-standing exposure to them, their relative lack of toxicity, and encouraging indications from epidemiology. The carcinogenic process relies on the cell's ability to proliferate abnormally, evade apoptosis, induce angiogenesis and metastasise to distant sites. In vitro studies with a number of different diet-derived compounds suggest that there are molecules capable of modulating each of these aspects of tumour growth. However, on the negative side many of them have rather poor bioavailability. The challenge is to uncover their multiple mechanisms of action in order to predict their

  18. Neuroprotective "agents" in surgery. Secret "agent" man, or common "agent" machine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, R. J.

    1999-01-01

    The search for clinically-effective neuroprotective agents has received enormous support in recent years--an estimated $200 million by pharmaceutical companies on clinical trials for traumatic brain injury alone. At the same time, the pathophysiology of brain injury has proved increasingly complex, rendering the likelihood of a single agent "magic bullet" even more remote. On the other hand, great progress continues with technology that makes surgery less invasive and less risky. One example is the application of endovascular techniques to treat coronary artery stenosis, where both the invasiveness of sternotomy and the significant neurological complication rate (due to microemboli showering the cerebral vasculature) can be eliminated. In this paper we review aspects of intraoperative neuroprotection both present and future. Explanations for the slow progress on pharmacologic neuroprotection during surgery are presented. Examples of technical advances that have had great impact on neuroprotection during surgery are given both from coronary artery stenosis surgery and from surgery for Parkinson's disease. To date, the progress in neuroprotection resulting from such technical advances is an order of magnitude greater than that resulting from pharmacologic agents used during surgery. The progress over the last 20 years in guidance during surgery (CT and MRI image-guidance) and in surgical access (endoscopic and endovascular techniques) will soon be complemented by advances in our ability to evaluate biological tissue intraoperatively in real-time. As an example of such technology, the NASA Smart Probe project is considered. In the long run (i.e., in 10 years or more), pharmacologic "agents" aimed at the complex pathophysiology of nervous system injury in man will be the key to true intraoperative neuroprotection. In the near term, however, it is more likely that mundane "agents" based on computers, microsensors, and microeffectors will be the major impetus to improved

  19. Can agent based models effectively reduce fisheries management implementation uncertainty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drexler, M.

    2016-02-01

    Uncertainty is an inherent feature of fisheries management. Implementation uncertainty remains a challenge to quantify often due to unintended responses of users to management interventions. This problem will continue to plague both single species and ecosystem based fisheries management advice unless the mechanisms driving these behaviors are properly understood. Equilibrium models, where each actor in the system is treated as uniform and predictable, are not well suited to forecast the unintended behaviors of individual fishers. Alternatively, agent based models (AMBs) can simulate the behaviors of each individual actor driven by differing incentives and constraints. This study evaluated the feasibility of using AMBs to capture macro scale behaviors of the US West Coast Groundfish fleet. Agent behavior was specified at the vessel level. Agents made daily fishing decisions using knowledge of their own cost structure, catch history, and the histories of catch and quota markets. By adding only a relatively small number of incentives, the model was able to reproduce highly realistic macro patterns of expected outcomes in response to management policies (catch restrictions, MPAs, ITQs) while preserving vessel heterogeneity. These simulations indicate that agent based modeling approaches hold much promise for simulating fisher behaviors and reducing implementation uncertainty. Additional processes affecting behavior, informed by surveys, are continually being added to the fisher behavior model. Further coupling of the fisher behavior model to a spatial ecosystem model will provide a fully integrated social, ecological, and economic model capable of performing management strategy evaluations to properly consider implementation uncertainty in fisheries management.

  20. Dreams as a source of supernatural agent concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick eMcnamara

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a theory of the creativity of dreams as well as psychopathology of religious delusions with respect to production of fundamental forms of religious cognition—specifically supernatural agent cognitions. We suggest that dream cognitions are particularly efficient at producing highly memorable and impactful experiences with supernatural agents because dreams involve three processes that are prerequisites for the generation of god concepts: 1 mental simulations of alternative realities, 2 theory of mind attributions to the extra-natural dream characters and divine beings and 3 attribution of ultimate value (exemplified by ‘good spirit beings’ and dis-value (exemplified by demonic monsters to the supernatural dream characters. Because prefrontal cortex is deactivated during REM sleep agentic impulses and internally generated ideas are not reliably attributed to Self or dreamer. Instead an exaggerated degree of agency is attributed to these supernatural dream characters who are then embedded in stories in dreams and in myths of waking life which explain their supernatural abilities. These dream-based supernatural agents are salient characters that are processed in sleep-related memory systems according to rules of Lleweelyn’s AAOM model and therefore more easily remembered and reflected upon during waking life. When REM sleep intrudes into waking consciousness, as is the case with some forms of schizophrenia, religious delusions are more likely to emerge.

  1. Supercapacitive transport of pharmacologic agents using nanoporous gold electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gittard, Shaun D; Pierson, Bonnie E; Ha, Cindy M; Wu, Chung-An Max; Narayan, Roger J; Robinson, David B

    2010-02-01

    In this study, nanoporous gold supercapacitors were produced by electrochemical dealloying of gold-silver alloy. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy confirmed completion of the dealloying process and generation of a porous gold material with approximately 10 nm diameter pores. Cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry of the nanoporous gold electrodes indicated that these materials exhibited supercapacitor behavior. The storage capacity of the electrodes measured by chronoamperometry was approximately 3 mC at 200 mV. Electrochemical storage and voltage-controlled delivery of two model pharmacologic agents, benzylammonium and salicylic acid, was demonstrated. These results suggest that capacitance-based storage and delivery of pharmacologic agents may serve as an alternative to conventional drug delivery methods.

  2. Logical Theories for Agent Introspection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolander, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    Artificial intelligence systems (agents) generally have models of the environments they inhabit which they use for representing facts, for reasoning about these facts and for planning actions. Much intelligent behaviour seems to involve an ability to model not only one's external environment...... by self-reference. In the standard approach taken in artificial intelligence, the model that an agent has of its environment is represented as a set of beliefs. These beliefs are expressed as logical formulas within a formal, logical theory. When the logical theory is expressive enough to allow...... introspective reasoning, the presence of self-reference causes the theory to be prone to inconsistency. The challenge therefore becomes to construct logical theories supporting introspective reasoning while at the same time ensuring that consistency is retained. In the thesis, we meet this challenge by devising...

  3. Injectable agents affecting subcutaneous fats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, David Lk; Cohen, Joel L; Green, Jeremy B

    2015-09-01

    Mesotherapy is an intradermal or subcutaneous injection of therapeutic agents to induce local effects, and was pioneered in Europe during the 1950s. For the past 2 decades, there has been significant interest in the use of mesotherapy for minimally invasive local fat contouring. Based on the theorized lipolytic effects of the agent phosphatidylcholine, initial attempts involved its injection into subcutaneous tissue. With further studies, however, it became apparent that the activity attributed to phosphatidylcholine mesotherapy was due to the adipolytic effects of deoxycholate, a detergent used to solubilize phosphatidylcholine. Since then, clinical trials have surfaced that demonstrate the efficacy of a proprietary formulation of deoxycholate for local fat contouring. Current trials on mesotherapy with salmeterol, a b-adrenergic agonist and lipolysis stimulator, are underway-with promising preliminary results as well. ©2015 Frontline Medical Communications.

  4. Diagnostic agent for radioimmunological determinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Updike, S.J.

    1978-01-01

    The invention concerns a diagnostic agent for radioimmunological determinations. According to the invention, a binding protein (protein globulins, antibodies) of an aqueous solution specific for the substance to be determined is incorporated in gel particles of a strongly hydrophilic insoluble gel of controlled pore size. After subsequent drying of the system, a radioactively labelled form of the substance to be determined from a non-aqueous medium is included. The mixture is dried again. The diagnostic agent forred can be well stored and is very stable. There is no loss of activity of the specific bonding protein when drying according to the invented method. The described reagent can be effectively applied to the determination of many antigens and haptens: The gel is rehydrated by the sample to be investigated; as a result of this, the non-bonded tracer is set free and competes with the non-labelled substance for the bonding position. (VJ) [de

  5. Dopamine agents for hepatic encephalopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junker, Anders Ellekær; Als-Nielsen, Bodil; Gluud, Christian

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with hepatic encephalopathy may present with extrapyramidal symptoms and changes in basal ganglia. These changes are similar to those seen in patients with Parkinson's disease. Dopamine agents (such as bromocriptine and levodopa, used for patients with Parkinson's disease) have...... therefore been assessed as a potential treatment for patients with hepatic encephalopathy. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the beneficial and harmful effects of dopamine agents versus placebo or no intervention for patients with hepatic encephalopathy. SEARCH METHODS: Trials were identified through the Cochrane...... hepatic encephalopathy that were published during 1979 to 1982 were included. Three trials assessed levodopa, and two trials assessed bromocriptine. The mean daily dose was 4 grams for levodopa and 15 grams for bromocriptine. The median duration of treatment was 14 days (range seven to 56 days). None...

  6. Comparison of several potential myocardial imaging agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, E.E.; Stabin, M.G.; Goodman, M.M.; Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Srivastava, P.C.

    1985-01-01

    Although myocardial imaging is currently dominated by Tl-201, several alternative agents with improved physiologic or radionuclidic properties have been proposed. Based on human and animal studies in the literature, the metabolism of several of these compounds was studied for the purpose of generating radiation dose estimates. Dose estimates are listed for several I-123 labeled free fatty acids, an I-123 labeled phosphonium compound, Rb-82, Cu-64, F-18 FDG (all compounds which are taken up by the normal myocardium), and for Tc-99m pyrophosphate (PYP) (which localizes in myocardial infarcts). Dose estimates could not be generated for C-11 palmitate, but this compound was included in a comparison of myocardial retention times. For the I-123 labeled compounds, I-124 was included as a contaminant in generating the dose estimates. Radiation doses were lowest for Rb-82 (gonads 0.3 to 0.5 μGy/MBq, heart wall 15 μGy/MBq). Doses for the I-123 labeled fatty acids were similar to one another, with IPPA being the lowest (gonads 20 μGy/MBq, heart wall 15 μGy/MBq). Doses for Tc-99m PYP were also low (gonads 4 to 7 μGy/MBq, heart wall 4 μGy/MBq, skeleton 15 μGy/MBq). The desirability of these compounds is discussed briefly, considering half life, imaging mode and energy, and dosimetry, including a comparison of the effective whole body dose equivalents. 34 refs., 11 tabs

  7. Plants' Metabolites as Potential Antiobesity Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najla Gooda Sahib

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and obesity-related complications are on the increase both in the developed and developing world. Since existing pharmaceuticals fail to come up with long-term solutions to address this issue, there is an ever-pressing need to find and develop new drugs and alternatives. Natural products, particularly medicinal plants, are believed to harbor potential antiobesity agents that can act through various mechanisms either by preventing weight gain or promoting weight loss amongst others. The inhibition of key lipid and carbohydrate hydrolyzing and metabolizing enzymes, disruption of adipogenesis, and modulation of its factors or appetite suppression are some of the plethora of targeted approaches to probe the antiobesity potential of medicinal plants. A new technology such as metabolomics, which deals with the study of the whole metabolome, has been identified to be a promising technique to probe the progression of diseases, elucidate their pathologies, and assess the effects of natural health products on certain pathological conditions. This has been applied to drug research, bone health, and to a limited extent to obesity research. This paper thus endeavors to give an overview of those plants, which have been reported to have antiobesity effects and highlight the potential and relevance of metabolomics in obesity research.

  8. Behavior acquisition in artificial agents

    OpenAIRE

    Thurau, Christian

    2006-01-01

    Computational skill acquisition in robots and simulated agents has been a topic of increasing popularity throughout the last years. Despite impressive progress, autonomous behavior at a level of animals and humans are not yet replicated by machines. Especially when a complex environment demands versatile, goal-oriented behavior, current artificial systems show shortcomings. Consider for instance modern 3D computer games. Despite their key role for more emersive game experience, surprisingly l...

  9. Belief Change in Reasoning Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Yi

    2007-01-01

    The capability of changing beliefs upon new information in a rational and efficient way is crucial for an intelligent agent. Belief change therefore is one of the central research fields in Artificial Intelligence (AI) for over two decades. In the AI literature, two different kinds of belief change operations have been intensively investigated: belief update, which deal with situations where the new information describes changes of the world; and belief revision, which assumes the world is st...

  10. Biochemical toxicology of environmental agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruin, A. de

    1976-01-01

    A thorough and up-to-date account of the molecular-biological aspects of harmful agents - both chemical and physical - is given. This current treatise is principally intended to serve as an informative reference work for researchers in various areas of the field. In the pursuit of this aim, a devision of the entire field into 42 chapters has been made. Each chapter starts with a short introductory account dealing with the biochemical essentials of the particular subject. Radiation effects are discussed briefly at the end of each treatise. In order to make the treatise useful as a source book, a substantial collection of pertinent literature references is provided which are numbered in order of citation in the text. Initial chapters are devoted to the metabolic fate of the major classes of xenobiotic compounds. Peripheral topics, closely related to metabolism and dealing with modification of xenobiotic-metabolizing ability, as well as interaction phenomena follow (chs. 5-8). Subjects that draw heavily on the practical field of occupational hygiene are dealt with in chapters 9 and 10. The systematic treatment of how chemical and physical agents interact with the various biochemical and enzymatic systems they encounter during their passage through the organism occupies quantitatively the main part of the book (chs. 11-36). Finally, radiation biochemistry is discussed from the viewpoint of its high degree of scientific advancement, and secondly because the type of biochemical changes produced in vivo by X-rays closely parallel those evoked by chemical agents

  11. Agent planning in AgScala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tošić, Saša; Mitrović, Dejan; Ivanović, Mirjana

    2013-10-01

    Agent-oriented programming languages are designed to simplify the development of software agents, especially those that exhibit complex, intelligent behavior. This paper presents recent improvements of AgScala, an agent-oriented programming language based on Scala. AgScala includes declarative constructs for managing beliefs, actions and goals of intelligent agents. Combined with object-oriented and functional programming paradigms offered by Scala, it aims to be an efficient framework for developing both purely reactive, and more complex, deliberate agents. Instead of the Prolog back-end used initially, the new version of AgScala relies on Agent Planning Package, a more advanced system for automated planning and reasoning.

  12. A Framework for Organization-Aware Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Andreas Schmidt; Dignum, Virginia; Villadsen, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    This short paper introduces and summarizes the AORTA reasoning framework that can be integrated into BDI-agents to enable organizational decision-making. This work has recently been published in the Journal of Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems (JAAMAS), as [3].......This short paper introduces and summarizes the AORTA reasoning framework that can be integrated into BDI-agents to enable organizational decision-making. This work has recently been published in the Journal of Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems (JAAMAS), as [3]....

  13. 14th International Conference on Practical Applications of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems : Special Sessions

    CERN Document Server

    Escalona, María; Corchuelo, Rafael; Mathieu, Philippe; Vale, Zita; Campbell, Andrew; Rossi, Silvia; Adam, Emmanuel; Jiménez-López, María; Navarro, Elena; Moreno, María

    2016-01-01

    PAAMS, the International Conference on Practical Applications of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems is an evolution of the International Workshop on Practical Applications of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems. PAAMS is an international yearly tribune to present, to discuss, and to disseminate the latest developments and the most important outcomes related to real-world applications. It provides a unique opportunity to bring multi-disciplinary experts, academics and practitioners together to exchange their experience in the development of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems. This volume presents the papers that have been accepted for the 2016 in the special sessions: Agents Behaviours and Artificial Markets (ABAM); Advances on Demand Response and Renewable Energy Sources in Agent Based Smart Grids (ADRESS); Agents and Mobile Devices (AM); Agent Methodologies for Intelligent Robotics Applications (AMIRA); Learning, Agents and Formal Languages (LAFLang); Multi-Agent Systems and Ambient Intelligence (MASMAI); Web Mining and ...

  14. Pheromone based alternative route planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangbing Feng

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we propose an improved alternative route calculation based on alternative figures, which is suitable for practical environments. The improvement is based on the fact that the main traffic route is the road network skeleton in a city. Our approach using nodes may generate a higher possibility of overlapping. We employ a bidirectional Dijkstra algorithm to search the route. To measure the quality of an Alternative Figures (AG, three quotas are proposed. The experiment results indicate that the improved algorithm proposed in this paper is more effective than others.

  15. Alternative trading systems in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Mosionek-Schweda

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The first Polish alternative trading system – called NewConnect – was opened on 30 August 2007. It has the status of an organized market, but it is operated by the Warsaw Stock Exchange outside the regulated market. Two years later, on 30 September 2009, the WSE launched another market – Catalyst – which consists of four segments including: two regular markets and two alternative trading platforms. The present paper aims to describe fundamental rules of the Polish alternative trading platforms as well as to depict a short overview of their trading indicators and basic statistics.

  16. Current Research and Development of Chemotherapeutic Agents for Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyaw Minn Hsan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous malignant melanoma is the most lethal form of skin cancer and an increasingly common disease worldwide. It remains one of the most treatment-refractory malignancies. The current treatment options for patients with metastatic melanoma are limited and in most cases non-curative. This review focuses on conventional chemotherapeutic drugs for melanoma treatment, by a single or combinational agent approach, but also summarizes some potential novel phytoagents discovered from dietary vegetables or traditional herbal medicines as alternative options or future medicine for melanoma prevention. We explore the mode of actions of these natural phytoagents against metastatic melanoma.

  17. Purification and characterization of a fibrinolytic enzyme from tempeh bongkrek as an alternative of thrombolytic agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasmita, I. R. A.; Sutrisno, A.; Zubaidah, E.; Wardani, A. K.

    2018-03-01

    Tempeh is one of Indonesia’s traditional foods that contain fibrinolytic enzymes. Tempeh bongkrek shows very strong activity among various tempeh. The fibrinolytic enzymes of bongkrek tempeh are obtained by steps of purification i.e, ammonium sulphate precipitation, ion exchange chromatography and gel filtration chromatography. The fibrinolytic enzymes has been successfully purified with a yield of 4.37%, specific activity of 3,361 U / mg and purification fold of 44.02. SDS PAGE analysis showed that the enzyme was purified in to single band with estimated molecular mass of 75.82 kDa. The purified enzyme has optimum pH of 7 and optimum temperature of 50°C and pH stability between pH 4 - 7 with temperature stability from 30°-50°C. The fibrinolytic activity is increased with addition of CaCl2 but inhibited with CuSO4, phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA).

  18. Dose banding as an alternative to body surface area-based dosing of chemotherapeutic agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Chatelut (Etienne); M.L. White-Koning (M.); A.H.J. Mathijssen (Ron); F. Puisset (F.); S.D. Baker (Sharyn); A. Sparreboom (Alex)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Dose banding is a recently suggested dosing method that uses predefined ranges (bands) of body surface area (BSA) to calculate each patients dose by using a single BSA-value per band. Thus, drugs with sufficient long-term stability can be prepared in advance. The main

  19. Cassava starch as an alternative cheap gelling agent for the in vitro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-07-03

    Jul 3, 2007 ... 70% of the total production cost (Prakash, 1993). Moreover, the ... meter pots half filled with well-watered mixture of steam sterilised soil substrate ..... biodegradable and poses no threat to the environment on being properly ...

  20. Disturbance maintains alternative biome states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas, Vinícius de L; Hirota, Marina; Oliveira, Rafael S; Pausas, Juli G

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms controlling the distribution of biomes remains a challenge. Although tropical biome distribution has traditionally been explained by climate and soil, contrasting vegetation types often occur as mosaics with sharp boundaries under very similar environmental conditions. While evidence suggests that these biomes are alternative states, empirical broad-scale support to this hypothesis is still lacking. Using community-level field data and a novel resource-niche overlap approach, we show that, for a wide range of environmental conditions, fire feedbacks maintain savannas and forests as alternative biome states in both the Neotropics and the Afrotropics. In addition, wooded grasslands and savannas occurred as alternative grassy states in the Afrotropics, depending on the relative importance of fire and herbivory feedbacks. These results are consistent with landscape scale evidence and suggest that disturbance is a general factor driving and maintaining alternative biome states and vegetation mosaics in the tropics. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  1. Alternative food safety intervention technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternative nonthermal and thermal food safety interventions are gaining acceptance by the food processing industry and consumers. These technologies include high pressure processing, ultraviolet and pulsed light, ionizing radiation, pulsed and radiofrequency electric fields, cold atmospheric plasm...

  2. Alternative Hamiltonian representation for gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosas-RodrIguez, R [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Apdo. Postal J-48, 72570, Puebla, Pue. (Mexico)

    2007-11-15

    By using a Hamiltonian formalism for fields wider than the canonical one, we write the Einstein vacuum field equations in terms of alternative variables. This variables emerge from the Ashtekar's formalism for gravity.

  3. Alternative Hamiltonian representation for gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosas-RodrIguez, R

    2007-01-01

    By using a Hamiltonian formalism for fields wider than the canonical one, we write the Einstein vacuum field equations in terms of alternative variables. This variables emerge from the Ashtekar's formalism for gravity

  4. Alternative energies updates on progress

    CERN Document Server

    Ferreira, Germán

    2013-01-01

    This book examines the key pillars of alternative energy, including biomass, hydrogen, solar and geothermal. It features life cycle assessment and thermoeconomic analysis as tools for evaluating and optimising environmental and cost subjects.

  5. Alternatives for radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartlett, J.W.

    1975-10-01

    The safety aspects of waste management alternatives are emphasized. The options for waste management, their safety characteristics, and the methods that might be used to evaluate the options and their safety are outlined

  6. Alternative Medicine and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spirituality Affect Your Family's Health? Talking to Your Child's Doctor Medications: Using Them Safely Talking to the Pharmacist Complementary and Alternative Medicine View more About Us Contact Us Partners Editorial ...

  7. Commercial aviation alternative fuels initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-22

    This presentation looks at alternative fuels to enhance environmental stability, reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, air quality benefits (e.g., SOx and PM), fuel supply stability, and fuel price stability.

  8. An alternative plutonium disposition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kueppers, C.

    2002-01-01

    This paper provides a feasibility study on vitrification of plutonium with high active waste concentrate, and fabrication of MOX fuel rods for direct final disposal. These are potential alternatives to the direct use of MOX fuel in a reactor. (author)

  9. The neurogenetics of alternative splicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuong, Celine K; Black, Douglas L; Zheng, Sika

    2016-05-01

    Alternative precursor-mRNA splicing is a key mechanism for regulating gene expression in mammals and is controlled by specialized RNA-binding proteins. The misregulation of splicing is implicated in multiple neurological disorders. We describe recent mouse genetic studies of alternative splicing that reveal its critical role in both neuronal development and the function of mature neurons. We discuss the challenges in understanding the extensive genetic programmes controlled by proteins that regulate splicing, both during development and in the adult brain.

  10. Spent-fuel-storage alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The Spent Fuel Storage Alternatives meeting was a technical forum in which 37 experts from 12 states discussed storage alternatives that are available or are under development. The subject matter was divided into the following five areas: techniques for increasing fuel storage density; dry storage of spent fuel; fuel characterization and conditioning; fuel storage operating experience; and storage and transport economics. Nineteen of the 21 papers which were presented at this meeting are included in this Proceedings. These have been abstracted and indexed

  11. Validation of Agent Based Distillation Movement Algorithms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gill, Andrew

    2003-01-01

    Agent based distillations (ABD) are low-resolution abstract models, which can be used to explore questions associated with land combat operations in a short period of time Movement of agents within the EINSTein and MANA ABDs...

  12. Security Measures to Protect Mobile Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadhich, Piyanka; Govil, M. C.; Dutta, Kamlesh

    2010-11-01

    The security issues of mobile agent systems have embarrassed its widespread implementation. Mobile agents that move around the network are not safe because the remote hosts that accommodate the agents initiates all kinds of attacks. These hosts try to analyze the agent's decision logic and their accumulated data. So, mobile agent security is the most challenging unsolved problems. The paper analyzes various security measures deeply. Security especially the attacks performed by hosts to the visiting mobile agent (the malicious hosts problem) is a major obstacle that prevents mobile agent technology from being widely adopted. Being the running environment for mobile agent, the host has full control over them and could easily perform many kinds of attacks against them.

  13. Prostate Activated Prodrugs and Imaging Agents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, Graham B

    2004-01-01

    .... The substrate chosen was a 3 component system composed of a peptide sequence with affinity for PSA, an imaging agent and a deactivating bridge-linker, which electronically incapacitates the imaging agent...

  14. Comparison of Communication Models for Mobile Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xining Li

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available An agent is a self-contained process being acting on behalf of a user. A Mobile Agent is an agent roaming the internet to access data and services, and carry out its assigned task remotely. This paper will focus on the communication models for Mobile Agents. Generally speaking, communication models concern with problems of how to name Mobile Agents, how to establish communication relationships, how to trace moving agents, and how to guarantee reliable communication. Some existing MA systems are purely based on RPC-style communication, whereas some adopts asynchronous message passing, or event registration/handling. Different communication concepts suitable for Mobile Agents are well discussed in [1]. However, we will investigate these concepts and existing models from a different point view: how to track down agents and deliver messages in a dynamic, changing world.

  15. An agent-based legal knowledge acquisition methodology for agile public administration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, A.; van Engers, T.

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a knowledge elicitation method based on serious gaming for theory construction about the effects of the law on the behaviours of agents. These games provide input to simulations of business process and product design alternatives. For knowledge representation, we have combined

  16. Leveraging culture collections for the discovery and development of microbial biological control agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    The incorporation of living microbial biological control agents into integrated pest management programs is highly desirable because it reduces the use of chemical insecticides harmful to livestock, humans and the environment. In addition, it provides an alternative means to combat resistance to che...

  17. Disposal of chemical agents and munitions stored at Pine Bluff Arsenal, Pine Bluff, Arkansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ensminger, J.T.; Hillsman, E.L.; Johnson, R.D.; Morrisey, J.A.; Staub, W.P.; Boston, C.R.; Hunsaker, D.B.; Leibsch, E.; Rickert, L.W.; Tolbert, V.R.; Zimmerman, G.P.

    1991-09-01

    The Pine Bluff Arsenal (PBA) near Pine Bluff, Arkansas, is one of eight continental United States (CONUS) Army installations where lethal unitary chemical agents and munitions are stored and where destruction of agents and munitions is proposed under the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP). The chemical agent inventory at PBA consists of approximately 12%, by weight, of the total US stockpile. The destruction of the stockpile is necessary to eliminate the risk to the public from continued storage and to dispose of obsolete and leaking munitions. In 1988 the US Army issued a Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (FPEIS) for the CSDP that identified on-site disposal of agents and munitions as the environmentally preferred alternative (i.e., the alternative with the least potential to cause significant adverse impacts). The purpose of this report is to examine the proposed implementation of on-site disposal at PBA in light of more recent and more detailed data than those on which the FPEIS is based. New population data were used to compute fatalities using the same computation methods and values for all other parameters as in the FPEIS. Results indicate that all alternatives are indistinguishable when the potential health impacts to the PBA community are considered. However, risks from on-site disposal are in all cases equal to or less than risks from other alternatives. Furthermore, no unique resources with the potential to prevent or delay implementation of on-site disposal at PBA have been identified.

  18. Modelling network and system monitoring over the Internet with mobile agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liotta, A.; Knight, G.; Pavlou, G.

    1998-01-01

    Distributed Network Management is gaining importance due to the explosive growth of the size of computer networks. New management paradigms are being proposed as an alternative to the centralised one, and new technologies and programming languages are making them feasible. The use of Mobile Agents

  19. Protecting mobile agents from external replay attacks

    OpenAIRE

    Garrigues Olivella, Carles; Migas, Nikos; Buchanan, William; Robles, Sergi; Borrell Viader, Joan

    2014-01-01

    Peer-reviewed This paper presents a protocol for the protection of mobile agents against external replay attacks. This kind of attacks are performed by malicious platforms when dispatching an agent multiple times to a remote host, thus making it reexecute part of its itinerary. Current proposals aiming to address this problem are based on storing agent identifiers, or trip markers, inside agent platforms, so that future reexecutions can be detected and prevented. The problem of these solut...

  20. Extinguishing agent for combustible metal fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, John F.; Stauffer, Edgar Eugene

    1976-10-12

    A low chloride extinguishing agent for combustible metal fires comprising from substantially 75 to substantially 94 weight percent of sodium carbonate as the basic fire extinguishing material, from substantially 1 to substantially 5 weight percent of a water-repellent agent such as a metal stearate, from substantially 2 to substantially 10 weight percent of a flow promoting agent such as attapulgus clay, and from substantially 3 to substantially 15 weight percent of a polyamide resin as a crusting agent.

  1. Can human-like Bots control collective mood: agent-based simulations of online chats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadić, Bosiljka; Šuvakov, Milovan

    2013-01-01

    Using an agent-based modeling approach, in this paper, we study self-organized dynamics of interacting agents in the presence of chat Bots. Different Bots with tunable ‘human-like’ attributes, which exchange emotional messages with agents, are considered, and the collective emotional behavior of agents is quantitatively analyzed. In particular, using detrended fractal analysis we determine persistent fluctuations and temporal correlations in time series of agent activity and statistics of avalanches carrying emotional messages of agents when Bots favoring positive/negative affects are active. We determine the impact of Bots and identify parameters that can modulate that impact. Our analysis suggests that, by these measures, the emotional Bots induce collective emotion among interacting agents by suitably altering the fractal characteristics of the underlying stochastic process. Positive emotion Bots are slightly more effective than negative emotion Bots. Moreover, Bots which periodically alternate between positive and negative emotion can enhance fluctuations in the system, leading to avalanches of agent messages that are reminiscent of self-organized critical states. (paper)

  2. Can human-like Bots control collective mood: agent-based simulations of online chats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadić, Bosiljka; Šuvakov, Milovan

    2013-10-01

    Using an agent-based modeling approach, in this paper, we study self-organized dynamics of interacting agents in the presence of chat Bots. Different Bots with tunable ‘human-like’ attributes, which exchange emotional messages with agents, are considered, and the collective emotional behavior of agents is quantitatively analyzed. In particular, using detrended fractal analysis we determine persistent fluctuations and temporal correlations in time series of agent activity and statistics of avalanches carrying emotional messages of agents when Bots favoring positive/negative affects are active. We determine the impact of Bots and identify parameters that can modulate that impact. Our analysis suggests that, by these measures, the emotional Bots induce collective emotion among interacting agents by suitably altering the fractal characteristics of the underlying stochastic process. Positive emotion Bots are slightly more effective than negative emotion Bots. Moreover, Bots which periodically alternate between positive and negative emotion can enhance fluctuations in the system, leading to avalanches of agent messages that are reminiscent of self-organized critical states.

  3. Agent based energy management systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolter, Martin

    2012-07-01

    In liberalized, regulated energy markets, the different participants - namely producers and consumers of energy, transmission and distribution system operators as well as regulatory authorities - have partly divergent and partly convergent interests. Loads, power plants and grid operators try to maximize their own benefit in this highly complex environment accepting to act detrimentally to others. Although the relationship between the participants is mostly competitive, there are some fundamental shared interests, e.g. voltage stability, a constant system frequency or efficient energy production, transmission and distribution, which are endangered e.g. by increased injection of volatile sources in low and medium voltage grids, displacement of stabilizing bulk generation and the slowly progressing extension of the electric grid. There is a global consensus, that the resulting challenges can efficiently be faced using information and communication technologies to coordinate grid utilization and operation. The basic idea is to benefit from unused reserves by participating in deployment of system services e.g. reactive power supply to keep the voltage within certain bounds. The coordination can best be done by the grid operator. All activities of that kind are summarized under the umbrella term ''Smart Grid''. To simultaneously model the behavior and interests of different types of market participants and their convergent and divergent interests, multi-agent systems are used. They offer a perfectly fitting framework for this sort of game theory and can easily be adapted to all kinds of new challenges of electricity markets. In this work, multi-agent systems are used to either cooperatively or competitively solve problems in distribution and transmission systems. Therefore, conventional algorithms have to be modified to converge into multiple local optima using only small pieces of the entire system information. It is clearly stated, that personal

  4. Pathogenic agents in freshwater resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geldreich, Edwin E.

    1996-02-01

    Numerous pathogenic agents have been found in freshwaters used as sources for water supplies, recreational bathing and irrigation. These agents include bacterial pathogens, enteric viruses, several protozoans and parasitic worms more common to tropical waters. Although infected humans are a major source of pathogens, farm animals (cattle, sheep, pigs), animal pets (dogs, cats) and wildlife serve as significant reservoirs and should not be ignored. The range of infected individuals within a given warm-blooded animal group (humans included) may range from 1 to 25%. Survival times for pathogens in the water environment may range from a few days to as much as a year (Ascaris, Taenia eggs), with infective dose levels varying from one viable cell for several primary pathogenic agents to many thousands of cells for a given opportunistic pathogen.As pathogen detection in water is complex and not readily incorporated into routine monitoring, a surrogate is necessary. In general, indicators of faecal contamination provide a positive correlation with intestinal pathogen occurrences only when appropriate sample volumes are examined by sensitive methodology.Pathways by which pathogens reach susceptible water users include ingestion of contaminated water, body contact with polluted recreational waters and consumption of salad crops irrigated by polluted freshwaters. Major contributors to the spread of various water-borne pathogens are sewage, polluted surface waters and stormwater runoff. All of these contributions are intensified during periods of major floods. Several water-borne case histories are cited as examples of breakdowns in public health protection related to water supply, recreational waters and the consumption of contaminated salad crops. In the long term, water resource management must focus on pollution prevention from point sources of waste discharges and the spread of pathogens in watershed stormwater runoff.

  5. Mobile Agents in Networking and Distributed Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Jiannong

    2012-01-01

    The book focuses on mobile agents, which are computer programs that can autonomously migrate between network sites. This text introduces the concepts and principles of mobile agents, provides an overview of mobile agent technology, and focuses on applications in networking and distributed computing.

  6. On Programming Organization-Aware Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Andreas Schmidt

    2013-01-01

    Since it is difficult (or even impossible) to assume anything about the agents’ behavior and goals in an open multi-agent system, it is often suggested that an organization is imposed upon the agents, whichhich, by abstracting away from the agents, specifies boundaries and objectives that the age...

  7. Modelling an Agent's Mind and Matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, C.M.; Treur, J.; Boman, M.

    1997-01-01

    In agent models often it is assumed that the agent maintains internal representations of the material world (e.g., its beliefs). An overall model of the agent and the material world necessarily incorporates sub-models for physical simulation and symbolic simulation, and a formalisation of the

  8. Switching dynamics of multi-agent learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrancx, P.; Tuyls, K.P.; Westra, R.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the dynamics of multi-agent reinforcement learning in multiple state problems. We extend previous work that formally modelled the relation between reinforcement learning agents and replicator dynamics in stateless multi-agent games. More precisely, in this work we use a

  9. Animated BDP agents in virtual environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus; Egges, A.; op den Akker, Hendrikus J.A.; Zwiers, Jakob; Krose, B.; de Rijke, M.; Schreiber, G.; van Someren, M.

    2001-01-01

    We introduce a Believes, Desires and Plans (BDP) agent that acts in a virtual environment using multi-modal interaction with the user. The environment is our virtual theatre environment. In this environment different agents have been introduced. In order to obtain a more uniform framework for agent

  10. 21 CFR 178.3860 - Release agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Release agents. 178.3860 Section 178.3860 Food and... and Production Aids § 178.3860 Release agents. Substances listed in paragraph (b) of this section may be safely used as release agents in petroleum wax complying with § 178.3710 and in polymeric resins...

  11. 21 CFR 181.28 - Release agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Release agents. 181.28 Section 181.28 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Release agents. Substances classified as release agents, when migrating from food-packaging material shall...

  12. Cooperative heuristic multi-agent planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Weerdt, M.M.; Tonino, J.F.M.; Witteveen, C.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we will use the framework to study cooperative heuristic multi-agent planning. During the construction of their plans, the agents use a heuristic function inspired by the FF planner (l3l). At any time in the process of planning the agents may exchange available resources, or they may

  13. Fairness in multi-agent systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de S.; Tuyls, K.P.; Verbeeck, K.

    2008-01-01

    Multi-agent systems are complex systems in which multiple autonomous entities, called agents, cooperate in order to achieve a common or personal goal. These entities may be computer software, robots, and also humans. In fact, many multi-agent systems are intended to operate in cooperation with or as

  14. Radioactive scanning agents with hydroquinone stabilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitehouse, H.S.

    1982-01-01

    Stable compositions useful as technetium 99m-based scintigraphic agents comprise hydroquinone in combination with a pertechnetate reducing agent or dissolved in pertechnetate-99m (sup(99m)TcOsub(4)sup(-)) solution. The compositions are especially useful in combination with a phosphate or phosphonate material which carries the radionuclide to bone, thus providing a skeletal imaging agent

  15. Effectiveness testing of spill-treating agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fingas, M.F.; Stoodley, R.; Laroche, N.

    1990-01-01

    Laboratory effectiveness tests are described for four classes of spill-treating agents: solidifiers, demulsifying agents, surface-washing agents and dispersants. Many treating agents in these four categories have been tested for effectiveness and the results are presented. Solidifiers or gelling agents solidify oil, requiring a large amount of agent to solidify oil-ranging between 16% by weight, to over 200%. Emulsion breakers prevent or reverse the formation of water-in-oil emulsions. A newly-developed effectiveness test shows that only one product is highly effective; however, many products will work, but require large amounts of spill-treating agent. Surfactant--containing materials are of two types, surface-washing agents and dispersants. Testing has shown that an agent that is a good dispersant is conversely a poor surface-washing agent, and vice versa. Tests of surface-washing agents show that only a few agents have effectiveness of 25-40%, where this effectiveness is the percentage of heavy oil removed from a test surface. Results using the 'swirling flask' test for dispersant effectiveness are reported. Heavy oils show effectiveness values of about 1%, medium crudes of about 10%, light crude oils of about 30% and very light oils of about 90%. (author)

  16. Individualism and Collectivism in Trade Agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, G.J.; Jonker, C.M.; Verwaart, D.

    2008-01-01

    Agent-Based Modeling can contribute to the understanding of international trade processes. Models for the effects of culture and cultural differences on agent behavior are required for realistic agent-based simulation of international trade. This paper makes a step toward modeling of culture in

  17. A principal-agent Model of corruption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenendijk, Nico

    1997-01-01

    One of the new avenues in the study of political corruption is that of neo-institutional economics, of which the principal-agent theory is a part. In this article a principal-agent model of corruption is presented, in which there are two principals (one of which is corrupting), and one agent (who is

  18. Modeling culture in intelligent virtual agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mascarenhas, S.; Degens, N.; Paiva, A.; Prada, R.; Hofstede, G.J.; Beulens, A.J.M.; Aylett, R.

    2016-01-01

    This work addresses the challenge of creating virtual agents that are able to portray culturally appropriate behavior when interacting with other agents or humans. Because culture influences how people perceive their social reality it is important to have agent models that explicitly consider social

  19. Diarrhea caused by circulating agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, Elisabeth; Kump, Patrizia; Krejs, Guenter J

    2012-09-01

    Circulating agents cause intestinal secretion or changes in motility with decreased intestinal transit time, resulting in secretory-type diarrhea. Secretory diarrhea as opposed to osmotic diarrhea is characterized by large-volume, watery stools, often more than 1 L per day; by persistence of diarrhea when patients fast; and by the fact that on analysis of stool-water, measured osmolarity is identical to that calculated from the electrolytes present. Although sodium plays the main role in water and electrolyte absorption, chloride is the major ion involved in secretion. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. [Antiangiogenic agents in ARMD treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coroi, Mihaela-Cristiana; Demea, Sorina; Todor, Meda; Apopei, Emmanuela

    2012-01-01

    The aim of antiangiogenic agents in the treatment of age related senile macular degeneration is to destroy coroidian neoformation vessels by minimally affecting the central vision. We present a case of important central vision recovery after 3 intravitreal injections of Avastin. The therapeutic decision and patient monitoring have been made using imaging studies, such as OCT and AFG. A modern therapeutic approach of neovascular forms of age related macular degeneration, backed up by AFG and OCT is a modern treatment method of this disabling illness which brings patients optimal functional and structural improvement.

  1. Social Robots as Persuasive Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlachos, Evgenios; Schärfe, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Robots are more and more used in a social context, and in this paper we try to formulate a research agenda concerning ethical issues around social HRI in order to be prepared for future scenarios where robots may be a naturally integrated part of human society. We outline different paradigms to d...... to describe the role of social robots in communication processes with humans, and connect HRI with the topic of persuasive technology in health care, to critically reflect the potential benefits of using social robots as persuasive agents....

  2. Protein binding of psychotropic agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, H.A.

    1990-01-01

    Based upon fluorescence measurements, protein binding of some psychotropic agents (chlorpromazine, promethazine, and trifluoperazine) to human IgG and HSA was studied in aqueous cacodylate buffer, PH7. The interaction parameters determined from emission quenching of the proteins. The interaction parameters determined include the equilibrium constant (K), calculated from equations derived by Borazan and coworkers, the number of binding sites (n) available to the monomer molecules on a single protein molecule. The results revealed a high level of affinity, as reflected by high values of K, and the existence of specific binding sites, since a limited number of n values are obtained. 39 tabs.; 37 figs.; 83 refs

  3. Agent Based Individual Traffic guidance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wanscher, Jørgen Bundgaard

    2004-01-01

    When working with traffic planning or guidance it is common practice to view the vehicles as a combined mass. >From this models are employed to specify the vehicle supply and demand for each region. As the models are complex and the calculations are equally demanding the regions and the detail...... of the road network is aggregated. As a result the calculations reveal only what the mass of vehicles are doing and not what a single vehicle is doing. This is the crucial difference to ABIT (Agent Based Individual Trafficguidance). ABIT is based on the fact that information on the destination of each vehicle...

  4. Multi agent gathering waste system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro LOZANO MURCIEGO

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Along this paper, we present a new multi agent-based system to gather waste on cities and villages. We have developed a low cost wireless sensor prototype to measure the volume level of the containers. Furthermore a route system is developed to optimize the routes of the trucks and a mobile application has been developed to help drivers in their working days. In order to evaluate and validate the proposed system a practical case study in a real city environment is modeled using open data available and with the purpose of identifying limitations of the system.

  5. Alternative sources of Legionella bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Heijnsbergen, H.H.L.

    2017-01-01

    Legionella bacteria can cause Legionnaires’ disease (LD) in humans. Symptoms of LD can range from mild disease to severe pneumonia with sometimes fatal outcome. In the Netherlands, the most important infective agent is Legionella pneumophila. L. pneumophila infection is associated with aquatic

  6. Validating agent based models through virtual worlds.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakkaraju, Kiran; Whetzel, Jonathan H.; Lee, Jina; Bier, Asmeret Brooke; Cardona-Rivera, Rogelio E.; Bernstein, Jeremy Ray Rhythm

    2014-01-01

    As the US continues its vigilance against distributed, embedded threats, understanding the political and social structure of these groups becomes paramount for predicting and dis- rupting their attacks. Agent-based models (ABMs) serve as a powerful tool to study these groups. While the popularity of social network tools (e.g., Facebook, Twitter) has provided extensive communication data, there is a lack of ne-grained behavioral data with which to inform and validate existing ABMs. Virtual worlds, in particular massively multiplayer online games (MMOG), where large numbers of people interact within a complex environ- ment for long periods of time provide an alternative source of data. These environments provide a rich social environment where players engage in a variety of activities observed between real-world groups: collaborating and/or competing with other groups, conducting battles for scarce resources, and trading in a market economy. Strategies employed by player groups surprisingly re ect those seen in present-day con icts, where players use diplomacy or espionage as their means for accomplishing their goals. In this project, we propose to address the need for ne-grained behavioral data by acquiring and analyzing game data a commercial MMOG, referred to within this report as Game X. The goals of this research were: (1) devising toolsets for analyzing virtual world data to better inform the rules that govern a social ABM and (2) exploring how virtual worlds could serve as a source of data to validate ABMs established for analogous real-world phenomena. During this research, we studied certain patterns of group behavior to compliment social modeling e orts where a signi cant lack of detailed examples of observed phenomena exists. This report outlines our work examining group behaviors that underly what we have termed the Expression-To-Action (E2A) problem: determining the changes in social contact that lead individuals/groups to engage in a particular behavior

  7. Mobile agent location in distributed environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fountoukis, S. G.; Argyropoulos, I. P.

    2012-12-01

    An agent is a small program acting on behalf of a user or an application which plays the role of a user. Artificial intelligence can be encapsulated in agents so that they can be capable of both behaving autonomously and showing an elementary decision ability regarding movement and some specific actions. Therefore they are often called autonomous mobile agents. In a distributed system, they can move themselves from one processing node to another through the interconnecting network infrastructure. Their purpose is to collect useful information and to carry it back to their user. Also, agents are used to start, monitor and stop processes running on the individual interconnected processing nodes of computer cluster systems. An agent has a unique id to discriminate itself from other agents and a current position. The position can be expressed as the address of the processing node which currently hosts the agent. Very often, it is necessary for a user, a processing node or another agent to know the current position of an agent in a distributed system. Several procedures and algorithms have been proposed for the purpose of position location of mobile agents. The most basic of all employs a fixed computing node, which acts as agent position repository, receiving messages from all the moving agents and keeping records of their current positions. The fixed node, responds to position queries and informs users, other nodes and other agents about the position of an agent. Herein, a model is proposed that considers pairs and triples of agents instead of single ones. A location method, which is investigated in this paper, attempts to exploit this model.

  8. Animal venoms as antimicrobial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perumal Samy, Ramar; Stiles, Bradley G; Franco, Octavio L; Sethi, Gautam; Lim, Lina H K

    2017-06-15

    Hospitals are breeding grounds for many life-threatening bacteria worldwide. Clinically associated gram-positive bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus/methicillin-resistant S. aureus and many others increase the risk of severe mortality and morbidity. The failure of antibiotics to kill various pathogens due to bacterial resistance highlights the urgent need to develop novel, potent, and less toxic agents from natural sources against various infectious agents. Currently, several promising classes of natural molecules from snake (terrestrial and sea), scorpion, spider, honey bee and wasp venoms hold promise as rich sources of chemotherapeutics against infectious pathogens. Interestingly, snake venom-derived synthetic peptide/snake cathelicidin not only has potent antimicrobial and wound-repair activity but is highly stable and safe. Such molecules are promising candidates for novel venom-based drugs against S. aureus infections. The structure of animal venom proteins/peptides (cysteine rich) consists of hydrophobic α-helices or β-sheets that produce lethal pores and membrane-damaging effects on bacteria. All these antimicrobial peptides are under early experimental or pre-clinical stages of development. It is therefore important to employ novel tools for the design and the development of new antibiotics from the untapped animal venoms of snake, scorpion, and spider for treating resistant pathogens. To date, snail venom toxins have shown little antibiotic potency against human pathogens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Sustained release of radioprotective agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shani, J.

    1980-11-01

    New pharmaceutical formulations for the sustained release into the G.I. tract of radioprotective agents have been developed by the authors. The experimental method initially consisted in the production of methylcellulose microcapsules. This method failed apparently because of the premature ''explosion'' of the microcapsules and the consequent premature release of massive amounts of the drug. A new method has been developed which consists in drying and pulverising cysteamine and cysteine preparations, mixing them in various proportions with stearic acid and ethylcellulose as carriers. The mixture is then compressed into cylindrical tablets at several pressure values and the leaching rate of the radioprotective agents is then measured by spectrophotometry. The relation between the concentration of the active drug and its rate of release, and the effect on the release rate of the pressure applied to the tablet during its formation were also investigated. Results indicating that the release rate was linearly related to the square root of ''t'' seem to be in agreement with what is predictable, according to Higuchi's equation, save for the very initial and terminal phases. A clear correlation was also established between the stearic acid/ethylcellulose ratios and the release of 20% cysteine, namely a marked decrease in the rate of cysteine release was observed with increasing concentrations of stearic acid. Finally, it was observed that a higher formation pressure results in quicker release of the drug

  10. Preemptive mobile code protection using spy agents

    OpenAIRE

    Kalogridis, Georgios

    2011-01-01

    This thesis introduces 'spy agents' as a new security paradigm for evaluating trust in remote hosts in mobile code scenarios. In this security paradigm, a spy agent, i.e. a mobile agent which circulates amongst a number of remote hosts, can employ a variety of techniques in order to both appear 'normal' and suggest to a malicious host that it can 'misuse' the agent's data or code without being held accountable. A framework for the operation and deployment of such spy agents is described. ...

  11. Reversal agents in anaesthesia and critical care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nibedita Pani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the advent of short and ultra-short acting drugs, an in-depth knowledge of the reversal agents used is a necessity for any anaesthesiologist. Reversal agents are defined as any drug used to reverse the effects of anaesthetics, narcotics or potentially toxic agents. The controversy on the routine reversal of neuromuscular blockade still exists. The advent of newer reversal agents like sugammadex have made the use of steroidal neuromuscular blockers like rocuronium feasible in rapid sequence induction situations. We made a review of the older reversal agents and those still under investigation for drugs that are regularly used in our anaesthesia practice.

  12. Building Multi-Agent Systems Using Jason

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boss, Niklas Skamriis; Jensen, Andreas Schmidt; Villadsen, Jørgen

    2010-01-01

    We provide a detailed description of the Jason-DTU system, including the used methodology, tools as well as team strategy. We also discuss the experience gathered in the contest. In spring 2009 the course “Artificial Intelligence and Multi- Agent Systems” was held for the first time...... on the Technical University of Denmark (DTU). A part of this course was a short introduction to the multi-agent framework Jason, which is an interpreter for AgentSpeak, an agent-oriented programming language. As the final project in this course a solution to the Multi-Agent Programming Contest from 2007, the Gold...

  13. A Framework for Organization-Aware Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Andreas Schmidt; Dignum, Virginia; Villadsen, Jørgen

    2017-01-01

    boundaries and work towards the objectives of the organization. In this paper, we present the AORTA reasoning framework and show how it can be integrated into typical BDI-agents. We provide operational semantics that enables agents to make organizational decisions in order to coordinate and cooperate without......’ behavior space and describe the expected behavior of the agents. Assuming an open environment, where agents are developed independently of the Organizational structures, agents need to be able to reason about the structure, so that they can deliberate about their actions and act within the expected...

  14. Variations on agent-oriented programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalia Baziukė

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Occurrence of the agent paradigm and its further applications have stimulated the emergence of new concepts and methodologies in computer science. Today terms like multi-agent system, agent-oriented methodology, and agent-oriented programming (AOP are widely used. The aim of this paper is to clarify the validity of usage of the terms AOP and AOP language. This is disclosed in two phases of an analysis process. Determining to which concepts, terms like agent, programming, object-oriented analysis and design, object-oriented programming, and agent-oriented analysis and design correspond is accomplished in the first phase. Analysis of several known agent system engineering methodologies in terms of key concepts used, final resulting artifacts, and their relationship with known programming paradigms and modern tools for agent system development is performed in the second phase. The research shows that in most cases in the final phase of agent system design and in the coding stage, the main artifact is an object, defined according to the rules of the object-oriented paradigm. Hence, we say that the computing society still does not have AOP owing to the lack of an AOP language. Thus, the term AOP is very often incorrectly assigned to agent system development frameworks that in most cases, transform agents into objects.DOI: 10.15181/csat.v5i1.1361

  15. An Agent Framework of Tourism Recommender System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Zhi Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes the development of an Agent framework for tourism recommender system. The recommender system can be featured as an online web application which is capable of generating a personalized list of preference attractions for tourists. Traditional technologies of classical recommender system application domains, such as collaborative filtering, content-based filtering and content-based filtering are effectively adopted in the framework. In the framework they are constructed as Agents that can generate recommendations respectively. Recommender Agent can generate recommender information by integrating the recommendations of Content-based Agent, collaborative filtering-based Agent and constraint-based Agent. In order to make the performance more effective, linear combination method of data fusion is applied. User interface is provided by the tourist Agent in form of webpages and mobile app.

  16. Knowledge Management in Role Based Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kır, Hüseyin; Ekinci, Erdem Eser; Dikenelli, Oguz

    In multi-agent system literature, the role concept is getting increasingly researched to provide an abstraction to scope beliefs, norms, goals of agents and to shape relationships of the agents in the organization. In this research, we propose a knowledgebase architecture to increase applicability of roles in MAS domain by drawing inspiration from the self concept in the role theory of sociology. The proposed knowledgebase architecture has granulated structure that is dynamically organized according to the agent's identification in a social environment. Thanks to this dynamic structure, agents are enabled to work on consistent knowledge in spite of inevitable conflicts between roles and the agent. The knowledgebase architecture is also implemented and incorporated into the SEAGENT multi-agent system development framework.

  17. ALTERNATIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HUMBERTO ESCALANTE H.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En Colombia, el procesamiento agroindustrial de fique genera aproximadamente 20 800 kg de residuos/ha sembrada que corresponden a. jugo y bagazo. Estos residuos son descartados al ambiente generando problemas de contaminación. El bagazo de fique tiene un valor calorífico de 3 297.91 kcal/kg, altas concentraciones de celulosa, hemicelulosa y una relación C/N favorable para tratar este residuo mediante conversión anaerobia. Sin embargo, la presencia de lignina en el bagazo hace que se requiera un consorcio microbiano específico para llevar a cabo la degradación. En este trabajo se estudio la producción de biogás a partir del bagazo de fique, empleando como inóculo una mezcla de líquido ruminal y lodo estiércol de cerdo. Se alcanzó una producción de metano de 0.35 m3CH4/kg Sólidos Volátiles (SV adicionados durante quince días de digestión, equivalente a 1.38 kWh/kg SV adicionado, indicando que el bagazo de fique es un residuo atractivo para ser usado como fuente de energía renovable.

  18. 10th International Conference on Practical Applications of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Pérez, Javier; Golinska, Paulina; Giroux, Sylvain; Corchuelo, Rafael; Trends in Practical Applications of Agents and Multiagent Systems

    2012-01-01

    PAAMS, the International Conference on Practical Applications of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems is an evolution of the International Workshop on Practical Applications of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems. PAAMS is an international yearly tribune to present, to discuss, and to disseminate the latest developments and the most important outcomes related to real-world applications. It provides a unique opportunity to bring multi-disciplinary experts, academics and practitioners together to exchange their experience in the development of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems.   This volume presents the papers that have been accepted for the 2012 in the workshops: Workshop on Agents for Ambient Assisted Living, Workshop on Agent-Based Solutions for Manufacturing and Supply Chain and Workshop on Agents and Multi-agent systems for Enterprise Integration.

  19. Survey of agent for intelligent information retrieval; Chiteki kensaku no tame no agent no chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yazawa, T [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-09-01

    Development of agent systems has been surveyed, to classify and arrange characteristic functions of the agents, and to grasp the realization situation of these agents in their development. In addition, prospective functions of information retrieval systems using the agents at maximum and functions to be developed among these in the future are clarified. The agents are characterized by the expression function, communication function, planning function, adaptive function, and learning function. The agents are desired to be classified into interface agents whose works are to respond to individual workers, coordinator agents which conduct works with high pervasion, such as assignment of works and their control, and task agents which conduct specialized works for individual examples. Thus, design and configuration of the agent system, and improvement and expansion of system functions can be effectively and easily conducted. 52 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Advances in alternative cementitious binders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juenger, M.C.G.; Winnefeld, F.; Provis, J.L.; Ideker, J.H.

    2011-01-01

    There is a burgeoning interest in the development, characterization, and implementation of alternatives to Portland cement as a binder in concrete. The construction materials industry is under increasing pressure to reduce the energy used in production of Portland cement clinker and the associated greenhouse gas emissions. Further, Portland cement is not the ideal binder for all construction applications, as it suffers from durability problems in particularly aggressive environments. Several alternative binders have been available for almost as long as Portland cement, yet have not been extensively used, and new ones are being developed. In this paper, four promising binders available as alternatives to Portland cement are discussed, namely calcium aluminate cement, calcium sulfoaluminate cement, alkali-activated binders, and supersulfated cements. The history of the binders, their compositions and reaction mechanisms, benefits and drawbacks, unanswered questions, and primary challenges are described.

  1. DESIGN OF ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popa Stefania

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available By energy sources we understand technologies and materials used to obtain various forms of energy necessary for the development of society. These sources must be in adequate quantities and be conveniently exploited in terms of technical, economic and sustainable perspective. Alternative energy uses the inherent power of natural sources like wind, tides, the sun. Alternative energy is a term used for some energy sources and energy storage technologies. Generally it indicates energies that are nontraditional and have low impact to the environment. The alternative energy term is used in contrast with the term fossil fuel according to some sources, while other sources use it with the meaning of renewable energy purposes.

  2. [Alternative treatment methods in ENT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friese, K H

    1997-08-01

    In this review, the most important complementary und alternative therapies are discussed, focusing particularly on their use in otorhinolaryngology. These therapies include balneology, Kneipp therapy, microbiological therapy, fasting, excretion therapy, different oxygen therapies, hydro-colon therapy, urine therapy, own-blood therapy, Bach therapy, orthomolecular therapy, order therapy, environmental medicine, phytotherapy, homeopathy, complex homeopathy, anthroposophy, neural therapy, electroaccupuncture according to Voll and similar therapies, nasal reflex therapy, reflex-zone massage, manual therapy, massage, lymph drainage, aroma therapy, thermotherapy, bioresonance, kinesiology, hopi candles, and dietetics. Some of these methods and regimens can be recommended, but others should be rejected. In universities, these methods are only represented to a minor extend, but are more accepted by otorhinolaryngologists in practice. This paper provides a guide to which alternative therapies are sensible and possible in otorhinolaryngology. The aim is to stimulate interest in these methods. It is necessary to discuss these alternative methods reasonably and credibly with patients.

  3. Revisiting the solar hydrogen alternative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomkiewicz, M. [Brooklyn College of CUNY, NY (United States)

    1996-09-01

    Research aimed at the development of technology to advance the solar-hydrogen alternative is per definition mission oriented. The priority that society puts on such research rise and fall with the priorities that we associate with the mission. The mission that we associate with the hydrogen economy is to provide a technological option for an indefinitely sustainable energy and material economies in which society is in equilibrium with its environment. In this paper we try to examine some global aspects of the hydrogen alternative and recommend formulation of a {open_quotes}rational{close_quotes} tax and regulatory system that is based on efforts needed to restore the ecological balance. Such a system, once entered into the price structure of the alternative energy schemes, will be used as a standard to compare energy systems that in turn will serve as a base for prioritization of publicly supported research and development.

  4. [Alternative medicine: faith or science?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pletscher, A

    1990-04-21

    For the success of both alternative and scientific (conventional) medicine, factors such as the psychological influence of the doctor, loving care, human affection, the patient's belief in the treatment, the suggestive power of attractive (even unproven) theories, dogmas and chance events (e.g. spontaneous remissions) etc. play a major role. Some practices of alternative medicine have a particularly strong appeal to the non-rational side of the human being. Conventional medicine includes a component which is based on scientific and statistical methods. The possibility that in alternative medicine principles and effects exist which are not (yet) known to scientific medicine, but which match up to scientific criteria, cannot be excluded. However, up to now this has not been convincingly proven. The difficulties which arise in the elucidation of this problem are discussed in the light of examples from the literature and some experiments of our own.

  5. Alternatives to the Dirac equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girvin, S.M.; Brownstein, K.R.

    1975-01-01

    Recent work by Biedenharn, Han, and van Dam (BHvD) has questioned the uniqueness of the Dirac equation. BHvD have obtained a two-component equation as an alternate to the Dirac equation. Although they later show their alternative to be unitarily equivalent to the Dirac equation, certain physical differences were claimed. BHvD attribute the existence of this alternate equation to the fact that their factorizing matrices were position-dependent. To investigate this, we factor the Klein-Gordon equation in spherical coordinates allowing the factorizing matrices to depend arbitrarily upon theta and phi. It is shown that despite this additional freedom, and without involving any relativistic covariance, the conventional four-component Dirac equation is the only possibility

  6. Experiences in mainstreaming alternative energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabraal, A.

    1997-12-01

    The author discusses efforts by the Asia Alternative Energy Unit (ASTAE) of the World Bank in supporting alternative energy source projects in Asia. Energy growth rates have been as high as 18% per year, with power capacity doubling each decade in the 1960`s, 70`s and 80`s. Much of this has come from fossil fuel projects coupled with major hydroelectric projects. One consequence is developing air pollution loads originating in Asia. ASTAE has been supporting pilot programs in applying alternative energy sources. The goal has been to mainstream renewable energy sources in World Bank operations, by working with managers from different countries to: include renewable energy in country assistance strategies and sectorial development plans; provide assistance to renewable energy initiatives; expand initiatives to new countries, sectors and technologies.

  7. FMDP reactor alternative summary report: Volume 4, Evolutionary LWR alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-09-01

    Significant quantities of weapons-usable fissile materials [primarily plutonium and highly enriched uranium (HEU)] have become surplus to national defense needs both in the United States and Russia. These stocks of fissile materials pose significant dangers to national and international security. The dangers exist not only in the potential proliferation of nuclear weapons but also in the potential for environmental, safety, and health (ES ampersand H) consequences if surplus fissile materials are not properly managed. The purpose of this report is to provide schedule, cost, and technical information that will be used to support the Record of Process (ROD). Following the screening process, DOE/MD via its national laboratories initiated a more detailed analysis activity to further evaluate each of the ten plutonium disposition alternatives that survived the screening process. Three ''Alternative Teams,'' chartered by DOE and comprised of technical experts from across the DOE national laboratory complex, conducted these analyses. One team was chartered for each of the major disposition classes (borehole, immobilization, and reactors). During the last year and a half, the Fissile Materials Disposition Program (FMDP) Reactor Alternative Team (RxAT) has conducted extensive analyses of the cost, schedule, technical maturity, S ampersand S, and other characteristics of reactor-based plutonium disposition. The results of the RxAT's analyses of the existing LWR, CANDU, and partially complete LWR alternatives are documented in Volumes 1-3 of this report. This document (Volume 4) summarizes the results of these analyses for the ELWR-based plutonium disposition option

  8. FMDP reactor alternative summary report: Volume 4, Evolutionary LWR alternative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    Significant quantities of weapons-usable fissile materials [primarily plutonium and highly enriched uranium (HEU)] have become surplus to national defense needs both in the United States and Russia. These stocks of fissile materials pose significant dangers to national and international security. The dangers exist not only in the potential proliferation of nuclear weapons but also in the potential for environmental, safety, and health (ES&H) consequences if surplus fissile materials are not properly managed. The purpose of this report is to provide schedule, cost, and technical information that will be used to support the Record of Process (ROD). Following the screening process, DOE/MD via its national laboratories initiated a more detailed analysis activity to further evaluate each of the ten plutonium disposition alternatives that survived the screening process. Three ``Alternative Teams,`` chartered by DOE and comprised of technical experts from across the DOE national laboratory complex, conducted these analyses. One team was chartered for each of the major disposition classes (borehole, immobilization, and reactors). During the last year and a half, the Fissile Materials Disposition Program (FMDP) Reactor Alternative Team (RxAT) has conducted extensive analyses of the cost, schedule, technical maturity, S&S, and other characteristics of reactor-based plutonium disposition. The results of the RxAT`s analyses of the existing LWR, CANDU, and partially complete LWR alternatives are documented in Volumes 1-3 of this report. This document (Volume 4) summarizes the results of these analyses for the ELWR-based plutonium disposition option.

  9. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vermont Transportation Data for Alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    alternative fuels Fuel Public Private Biodiesel (B20 and above) 3 0 Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) 1 2 Electric Recycled Cooking Oil Powers Biodiesel Vehicles in Vermont Recycled Cooking Oil Powers Biodiesel Vehicles in sold per GGE Biodiesel (B20) $2.79/gallon $2.54/GGE $2.84/gallon $2.58/GGE Biodiesel (B99-B100) $2.47

  10. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Virginia Transportation Data for Alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    /2018 Biodiesel and Green Diesel Definitions updated 4/9/2018 Data Download Fueling Stations 706 stations in Virginia with alternative fuels Fuel Public Private Biodiesel (B20 and above) 1 9 Compressed unit sold per GGE per unit sold per GGE Biodiesel (B20) $2.47/gallon $2.25/GGE $2.84/gallon $2.58/GGE

  11. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Missouri Transportation Data for Alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    stations in Missouri with alternative fuels Fuel Public Private Biodiesel (B20 and above) 1 2 Compressed Students Get Hands-On Training With Biodiesel Missouri High School Students Get Hands-On Training With Biodiesel Feb. 5, 2016 https://youtube.com/embed/p4pVRgoWyZw Video thumbnail for AT&T Fleet Reaches

  12. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Maine Transportation Data for Alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel-Blended Diesel Documentation Requirement Data Download Fueling Stations 149 stations in Maine with alternative fuels Fuel Public Private Biodiesel (B20 and above) 2 1 Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) 0 2 Electric ://www.youtube.com/embed/jHftlruFR40 Video thumbnail for Maine's Only Biodiesel Manufacturer Powers Fleets in the

  13. Alternative Fuels Data Center: James Madison University Teaches Alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternative Fuels Sept. 16, 2017 Photo of a truck Phoenix Utility Fleet Drives Smarter with Biodiesel Aug. 26 Cooking Oil Powers Biodiesel Vehicles in Rhode Island July 14, 2017 Photo of a truck Idaho Transports Mail Home Runs on Biodiesel in North Carolina June 9, 2017 Photo of a bus New Hampshire Cleans up with

  14. Treatment Alternatives to Negotiate Peri-Implantitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eli E. Machtei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Peri-implant diseases are becoming a major health issue in dentistry. Despite the magnitude of this problem and the potential grave consequences, commonly acceptable treatment protocols are missing. Hence, the present paper reviews the literature treatment of peri-implantitis in order to explore their benefits and limitations. Treatment of peri-implantitis may include surgical and nonsurgical approaches, either individually or combined. Nonsurgical therapy is aimed at removing local irritants from the implants’ surface with or without surface decontamination and possibly some additional adjunctive therapies agents or devices. Systemic antibiotics may also be incorporated. Surgical therapy is aimed at removing any residual subgingival deposits and additionally reducing the peri-implant pockets depth. This can be done alone or in conjunction with either osseous respective approach or regenerative approach. Finally, if all fails, explantation might be the best alternative in order to arrest the destruction of the osseous structure around the implant, thus preserving whatever is left in this site for future reconstruction. The available literature is still lacking with large heterogeneity in the clinical response thus suggesting possible underlying predisposing conditions that are not all clear to us. Therefore, at present time treatment of peri-implantitis should be considered possible but not necessarily predictable.

  15. Alternative transportation fuels: Financing issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Squadron, W.F.; Ward, C.O.; Brown, M.H.

    1992-06-01

    A multitude of alternative fuels could reduce air pollution and the impact of oil price shocks. Only a few of these fuels are readily available and inexpensive enough to merit serious consideration over the coming five years. In New York City, safety regulations narrow the field still further by eliminating propane. As a result, this study focuses on the three alternative fuels readily available in New York City: compressed natural gas, methanol, and electricity. Each has significant environmental benefits and each has different cost characteristics. With the Clean Air Act and the National Energy Strategy highlighting the country's need to improve urban air quality and move away from dependence on imported fuels, fleets may soon have little choice but to convert to altemative fuels. Given the potential for large infrastructure and vehicle costs, these fleets may have difficulty finding the capital to make that conversion. Ultimately, then, it will be the involvement of the private sector that will determine the success of alternative fuels. Whether it be utilities, fuel distributors or suppliers, private financing partners or others, it is critical that altemative fuels programs be structured and planned to attract their involvement. This report examines financing methods that do not involve government subsidies. It also explores financing methods that are specific to alternative fuels. Bond issues and other mechanisms that are used for conventional vehicles are not touched upon in this report. This report explores ways to spread the high cost of alternative fuels among a number of parties within the private sector. The emphasis is on structuring partnerships that suit methanol, electric, or natural gas vehicle fleets. Through these partnerships, alternative fuels may ultimately compete effectively against conventional vehicle fuels

  16. Alternative Cancer Treatments: 10 Options to Consider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternative cancer treatments: 10 options to consider Alternative cancer treatments can't cure your cancer, but they may provide some ... that may help them, including complementary and alternative cancer treatments. If cancer makes you feel as if you ...

  17. Alternative Fuel News, Vol. 6, No. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2003-03-01

    Quarterly magazine with articles on Alternate Fuel Vehicles (AFVs) in India, alternative fuels for emergency preparedness, and testing of propane vehicles by UPS. Also an interview of author Jeremy Rifkin on how alternative fuels provide pathways to hydrogen.

  18. Bacteriophages show promise as antimicrobial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alisky, J; Iczkowski, K; Rapoport, A; Troitsky, N

    1998-01-01

    The emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria has prompted interest in alternatives to conventional drugs. One possible option is to use bacteriophages (phage) as antimicrobial agents. We have conducted a literature review of all Medline citations from 1966-1996 that dealt with the therapeutic use of phage. There were 27 papers from Poland, the Soviet Union, Britain and the U.S.A. The Polish and Soviets administered phage orally, topically or systemically to treat a wide variety of antibiotic-resistant pathogens in both adults and children. Infections included suppurative wound infections, gastroenteritis, sepsis, osteomyelitis, dermatitis, empyemas and pneumonia; pathogens included Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Klebsiella, Escherichia, Proteus, Pseudomonas, Shigella and Salmonella spp. Overall, the Polish and Soviets reported success rates of 80-95% for phage therapy, with rare, reversible gastrointestinal or allergic side effects. However, efficacy of phage was determined almost exclusively by qualitative clinical assessment of patients, and details of dosages and clinical criteria were very sketchy. There were also six British reports describing controlled trials of phage in animal models (mice, guinea pigs and livestock), measuring survival rates and other objective criteria. All of the British studies raised phage against specific pathogens then used to create experimental infections. Demonstrable efficacy against Escherichia, Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas and Staphylococcus spp. was noted in these model systems. Two U.S. papers dealt with improving the bioavailability of phage. Phage is sequestered in the spleen and removed from circulation. This can be overcome by serial passage of phage through mice to isolate mutants that resist sequestration. In conclusion, bacteriophages may show promise for treating antibiotic resistant pathogens. To facilitate further progress, directions for future research are discussed and a directory of authors from the reviewed

  19. A remedial alternative prioritization method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, S.A.; Travis, C.C.

    1987-01-01

    This study develops and tests a technique for evaluating and prioritizing alternative remedial actions for hazardous waste sites. The method is based on criteria involving risk, benefit and cost, and identifies the most cost-effective solution to a given remedial problem. Four sites on the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) property in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, were used in a case study to develop and test the method. Results of the case study indicate that even if the cap providing in situ containment must be replaced every 10 years, it is a superior alternative to total excavation of the waste sites

  20. GLOBAL TRENDS OF ALTERNATIVE INVESTMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan LUCHIAN

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available An alternative investment is an investment product other than the traditional investments of stocks, bonds, cash, or property. The term is a relatively loose one and includes tangible assets such as art, wine, antiques, coins, or stamps and some financial assets such as commodities, hedge funds, venture capital,and others. At the moment it was created a global industry opportunities for making investments in nontraditional form. The aim of this paper consists in demonstrating the possibilities of these investments. For this have been studied related main international markets, a fter then deducted world dominant trends. This article is concerned to present some details of alternative investments global market.

  1. Multipebble Simulations for Alternating Automata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente, Lorenzo; Mayr, Richard

    We study generalized simulation relations for alternating Büchi automata (ABA), as well as alternating finite automata. Having multiple pebbles allows the Duplicator to "hedge her bets" and delay decisions in the simulation game, thus yielding a coarser simulation relation. We define (k 1,k 2)-simulations, with k 1/k 2 pebbles on the left/right, respectively. This generalizes previous work on ordinary simulation (i.e., (1,1)-simulation) for nondeterministic Büchi automata (NBA)[4] in and ABA in [5], and (1,k)-simulation for NBA in [3].

  2. Bell's inequality without alternative settings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabello, Adan

    2003-01-01

    A suitable generalized measurement described by a 4-element positive operator-valued measure (POVM) on each particle of a two-qubit system in the singlet state is, from the point of view of Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen's (EPR's) criterion of elements of reality, equivalent to a random selection between two alternative projective measurements. It is shown that an EPR-experiment with a fixed POVM on each particle provides a violation of Bell's inequality without requiring local observers to choose between the alternatives. This approach could be useful for designing a loophole-free test of Bell's inequality

  3. Alternative general-aircraft engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomazic, W. A.

    1976-01-01

    The most promising alternative engine (or engines) for application to general aircraft in the post-1985 time period was defined, and the level of technology was cited to the point where confident development of a new engine can begin early in the 1980's. Low emissions, multifuel capability, and fuel economy were emphasized. Six alternative propulsion concepts were considered to be viable candidates for future general-aircraft application: the advanced spark-ignition piston, rotary combustion, two- and four-stroke diesel, Stirling, and gas turbine engines.

  4. Spent-fuel-storage alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    The Spent Fuel Storage Alternatives meeting was a technical forum in which 37 experts from 12 states discussed storage alternatives that are available or are under development. The subject matter was divided into the following five areas: techniques for increasing fuel storage density; dry storage of spent fuel; fuel characterization and conditioning; fuel storage operating experience; and storage and transport economics. Nineteen of the 21 papers which were presented at this meeting are included in this Proceedings. These have been abstracted and indexed. (ATT)

  5. Special Issue: Aviation Alternative Fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of aviation alternative fuels has increased significantly in recent years in an effort to reduce the environment and climate impact by aviation industry. Special requirements have to be met for qualifying as a suitable aviation fuel. The fuel has to be high in energy content per unit of mass and volume, thermally stable and avoiding freezing at low temperatures. There are also many other special requirements on viscosity, ignition properties and compatibility with the typical aviation materials. There are quite a few contending alternative fuels which can be derived from coal, natural gas and biomass.[...

  6. Alternative Medicine on the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muret, Marc

    2000-01-01

    If you go to a bookstore to look for information on a particular health problem you will have a choice between the "medicine" corner with scientific manuals for professionals and the "health" corner with all kinds of books about acupuncture, ayurveda, natural healing, homeopathy, nutrition, massage, and so on! How is it on the Net? Even a short tour will bring you a lot of "medical" information, but when you look for alternative approaches in the "health" corner you will be rather disappointed. Interesting sites are rare and the amount of information very sparse. In many cases the lists of therapists are seriously incomplete; professional therapists with long experience do not appear in them. Recommendations for alternative treatments are superficial and encourage the user to buy some specialties or some book. Many sites are inflated by just quoting other sites so that, in the end, the basic information is rather poor. As we know, "health" information is becoming increasingly important since patients want to take more responsibility for themselves. They look for alternative methods. Doctors too, as 46% of Swiss doctors use alternative methods in one way or another (Médecine et Hygiène, 1996). That is why we should not leave this part of the Internet in the hands of unqualified people. To some doctors, alternative medicine may seem a chaotic maelstrom of superstition and odd techniques. That is not so. Nearly every alternative therapy has a long tradition with its own rules and principles. All reliable therapists have undergone years of training and expect the same from their colleagues. Why should this search for quality not be present online? What is needed? Good quality information. The identity of the author must be clear (education, tradition, professional experience, training). As many schools claim to be "the only one", the user should be informed about the differences and conflicts between all the approaches. Ethical behavior must be encouraged: respect

  7. Bioprotective agents in safety control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrijević-Branković Suzana I.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Food poisoning is the one of the main health hazards even today. More than 200 known diseases are transmitted through food. The causes of foodborne illness include viruses, bacteria, parasites, toxins, metals, and prions and the symptoms of foodborne illness range from mild gastroenteritis to life-threatening neurological, hepatic and renal syndromes.The prevention of food poisonings represents very serious task for food manufacturers. Beside food control according to the concept "from the farm to the table" there is increased need for the development of new technology for longer shelf lifes of food. Food fermented by lactic acid bacteria (LAB and traditionally considered to be safe. There are many substances produced by LAB that affect the shelf life of fermented food, by active suppression of poisoning microorganisms growth. Because of that, the LAB is recently considered as bioprotective agents that have important role in food safety.

  8. DNA minor groove alkylating agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, W A

    2001-04-01

    Recent work on a number of different classes of anticancer agents that alkylate DNA in the minor groove is reviewed. There has been much work with nitrogen mustards, where attachment of the mustard unit to carrier molecules can change the normal patterns of both regio- and sequence-selectivity, from reaction primarily at most guanine N7 sites in the major groove to a few adenine N3 sites at the 3'-end of poly(A/T) sequences in the minor groove. Carrier molecules discussed for mustards are intercalators, polypyrroles, polyimidazoles, bis(benzimidazoles), polybenzamides and anilinoquinolinium salts. In contrast, similar targeting of pyrrolizidine alkylators by a variety of carriers has little effect of their patterns of alkylation (at the 2-amino group of guanine). Recent work on the pyrrolobenzodiazepine and cyclopropaindolone classes of natural product minor groove binders is also reviewed.

  9. Toxic agents causing cerebellar ataxias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manto, Mario

    2012-01-01

    The cerebellum is particularly vulnerable to intoxication and poisoning, especially so the cerebellar cortex and Purkinje neurons. In humans, the most common cause of a toxic lesion to the cerebellar circuitry is alcohol related, but the cerebellum is also a main target of drug exposure (such as anticonvulsants, antineoplastics, lithium salts, calcineurin inhibitors), drug abuse and addiction (such as cocaine, heroin, phencyclidine), and environmental toxins (such as mercury, lead, manganese, toluene/benzene derivatives). Although data for the prevalence and incidence of cerebellar lesions related to intoxication and poisoning are still unknown in many cases, clinicians should keep in mind the list of agents that may cause cerebellar deficits, since toxin-induced cerebellar ataxias are not rare in daily practice. Moreover, the patient's status may require immediate therapies when the intoxication is life-threatening. 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Il libro agente della socializzazione

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Sideri

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Il saggio indaga il ruolo del libro come agente di socializzazione, con particolare riferimento al pubblico dei lettori ragazzi e bambini e alle specifiche funzioni formative della “lettura della letteratura” in età pre-scolare e scolare fino ai 14 anni. La ricerca di matrice socio-culturale si è occupata per lo più del libro in qualità di prodotto eminentemente sociale (sociologia della letteratura, contenitore di testi significanti (semiotica, e bene di consumo dell’industria culturale (cultural studies: lo studio proposto richiama le conclusioni fondamentali di decenni di studi intorno al libro, con l’intento di rintracciare i criteri adeguati (tema, target, identità visiva, funzione pratica e utopica a guidare una classificazione dei generi 0-14 che evidenzi il valore socializzante di ciascuno, proponendo così una originale tipologia, che giustifica l’inserimento del libro tra quelle definite “agenzie testuali” della socializzazione.

  11. Children as digital rights agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stald, Gitte Bang

    2016-01-01

    This paper looks at children’s involvement and contribution to internet safety policy. In many respects, the research perspective on children and young people has also seen a shift towards the child as agent, as citizen (Livingstone 2002, 2009; Dahlgren 2007). With increasing attention given...... to children’s communication rights there is an acknowledgement that children’s voices should be heard in all matters that affect them (Hamelink 2008). We still, however, primarily discuss how adults could and should take responsibility in guarding children and young people from risk and harm, and what...... the role of the “adult world” is. We need to focus more on the active role that children and adolescents play, according to age, skills and various capacities, in identifying, reflecting upon and acting according to opportunities and challenges in relation to digital media and digital rights (Hartman et al...

  12. 77 FR 31756 - Energy Conservation Program: Alternative Efficiency Determination Methods and Alternative Rating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-30

    ...-AC46 Energy Conservation Program: Alternative Efficiency Determination Methods and Alternative Rating... regulations authorizing the use of alternative methods of determining energy efficiency or energy consumption... alternative methods of determining energy efficiency or energy consumption of various consumer products and...

  13. Valorization of titanium metal wastes as tanning agent used in leather industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crudu, Marian; Deselnicu, Viorica; Deselnicu, Dana Corina; Albu, Luminita

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Valorization of titanium wastes which cannot be recycled in metallurgical industry. • Transferring Ti waste into raw materials for obtaining Ti based tanning agent. • Characterization of new Ti based tanning agents and leather tanned with them. • Characterization of sewage waste water and sludge resulted from leather manufacture. • Analysis of the impact of main metal component of Ti waste. - Abstract: The development of new tanning agents and new technologies in the leather sector is required to cope with the increasingly higher environmental pressure on the current tanning materials and processes such as tanning with chromium salts. In this paper, the use of titanium wastes (cuttings) resulting from the process of obtaining highly pure titanium (ingots), for the synthesis of new tanning agent and tanning bovine hides with new tanning agent, as alternative to tanning with chromium salts are investigated. For this purpose, Ti waste and Ti-based tanning agent were characterized for metal content by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and chemical analysis; the tanned leather (wet white leather) was characterized by Scanning Electron Microscope/Energy Dispersive Using X-ray (Analysis). SEM/EDX analysis for metal content; Differential scanning calorimetric (DSC), Micro-Hot-Table and standard shrinkage temperature showing a hydrothermal stability (ranged from 75.3 to 77 °C) and chemical analysis showing the leather is tanned and can be processed through the subsequent mechanical operations (splitting, shaving). On the other hand, an analysis of major minor trace substances from Ti-end waste (especially vanadium content) in new tanning agent and wet white leather (not detected) and residue stream was performed and showed that leachability of vanadium is acceptable. The results obtained show that new tanning agent obtained from Ti end waste can be used for tanning bovine hides, as eco-friendly alternative for chrome tanning

  14. Valorization of titanium metal wastes as tanning agent used in leather industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crudu, Marian, E-mail: mariancrudu@yahoo.com [The National Research and Development Institute for Textiles and Leather – Division Leather and Footwear Research Institute, 93 Ion Minulescu Str., Bucharest (Romania); Deselnicu, Viorica, E-mail: viorica.deselnicu@icpi.ro [The National Research and Development Institute for Textiles and Leather – Division Leather and Footwear Research Institute, 93 Ion Minulescu Str., Bucharest (Romania); Deselnicu, Dana Corina, E-mail: d_deselnicu@yahoo.com [University Politehnica Bucharest, Splaiul Independentei Nr. 313, Sector 6, RO-060042 Bucharest (Romania); Albu, Luminita, E-mail: luminita.albu@gmail.com [The National Research and Development Institute for Textiles and Leather – Division Leather and Footwear Research Institute, 93 Ion Minulescu Str., Bucharest (Romania)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Valorization of titanium wastes which cannot be recycled in metallurgical industry. • Transferring Ti waste into raw materials for obtaining Ti based tanning agent. • Characterization of new Ti based tanning agents and leather tanned with them. • Characterization of sewage waste water and sludge resulted from leather manufacture. • Analysis of the impact of main metal component of Ti waste. - Abstract: The development of new tanning agents and new technologies in the leather sector is required to cope with the increasingly higher environmental pressure on the current tanning materials and processes such as tanning with chromium salts. In this paper, the use of titanium wastes (cuttings) resulting from the process of obtaining highly pure titanium (ingots), for the synthesis of new tanning agent and tanning bovine hides with new tanning agent, as alternative to tanning with chromium salts are investigated. For this purpose, Ti waste and Ti-based tanning agent were characterized for metal content by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and chemical analysis; the tanned leather (wet white leather) was characterized by Scanning Electron Microscope/Energy Dispersive Using X-ray (Analysis). SEM/EDX analysis for metal content; Differential scanning calorimetric (DSC), Micro-Hot-Table and standard shrinkage temperature showing a hydrothermal stability (ranged from 75.3 to 77 °C) and chemical analysis showing the leather is tanned and can be processed through the subsequent mechanical operations (splitting, shaving). On the other hand, an analysis of major minor trace substances from Ti-end waste (especially vanadium content) in new tanning agent and wet white leather (not detected) and residue stream was performed and showed that leachability of vanadium is acceptable. The results obtained show that new tanning agent obtained from Ti end waste can be used for tanning bovine hides, as eco-friendly alternative for chrome tanning.

  15. Sustainable Society Formed by Unselfish Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Toshiko

    It has been pointed out that if the social configuration of the three relations (market, communal and obligatory relations) is not balanced, a market based society as a total system fails. Using multi-agent simulations, this paper shows that a sustainable society is formed when all three relations are integrated and function respectively. When agent trades are based on the market mechanism (i.e., agents act in their own interest and thus only market relations exist), weak agents who cannot perform transactions die. If a compulsory tax is imposed to enable all weak agents to survive (i.e., obligatory relations exist), then the fiscal deficit increases. On the other hand, if agents who have excess income undertake the unselfish action of distributing their surplus to the weak agents (i.e., communal relations exist), then trade volume increases. It is shown that the existence of unselfish agents is necessary for the realization of a sustainable society. However, the survival of all agents is difficult in a communal society. In an artificial society, for all agents survive and fiscal balance to be maintained, all three social relations need to be fully integrated. These results show that adjusting the balance of the three social relations well lead to the realization of a sustainable society.

  16. Alternatives to overcoming bacterial resistances: State-of-the-art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Alessandra C; Moutinho, Carla G; Pinto, Flávio C; Del Fiol, Fernando S; Jozala, Angela; Chaud, Marco V; Vila, Marta M D C; Teixeira, José A; Balcão, Victor M

    2016-10-01

    Worldwide, bacterial resistance to chemical antibiotics has reached such a high level that endangers public health. Presently, the adoption of alternative strategies that promote the elimination of resistant microbial strains from the environment is of utmost importance. This review discusses and analyses several (potential) alternative strategies to current chemical antibiotics. Bacteriophage (or phage) therapy, although not new, makes use of strictly lytic phage particles as an alternative, or a complement, in the antimicrobial treatment of bacterial infections. It is being rediscovered as a safe method, because these biological entities devoid of any metabolic machinery do not possess any affinity whatsoever to eukaryotic cells. Lysin therapy is also recognized as an innovative antimicrobial therapeutic option, since the topical administration of preparations containing purified recombinant lysins with amounts in the order of nanograms, in infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria, demonstrated a high therapeutic potential by causing immediate lysis of the target bacterial cells. Additionally, this therapy exhibits the potential to act synergistically when combined with certain chemical antibiotics already available on the market. Another potential alternative antimicrobial therapy is based on the use of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), amphiphilic polypeptides that cause disruption of the bacterial membrane and can be used in the treatment of bacterial, fungal and viral infections, in the prevention of biofilm formation, and as antitumoral agents. Interestingly, bacteriocins are a common strategy of bacterial defense against other bacterial agents, eliminating the potential opponents of the former and increasing the number of available nutrients in the environment for their own growth. They can be applied in the food industry as biopreservatives and as probiotics, and also in fighting multi-resistant bacterial strains. The use of antibacterial antibodies

  17. An Alternative to Ability Grouping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Carol Ann

    2006-01-01

    Ability grouping is a common approach to dealing with student variance in learning. In general, findings suggest that such an approach to dealing with student differences is disadvantageous to students who struggle in school and advantageous to advanced learners. The concept of differentiation suggests that there is another alternative to…

  18. "Partial Vision" in Alternative Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Ron

    1997-01-01

    A comparison of the philosophies and pedagogies of Waldorf and Montessori schools points out that no single educational perspective can encompass all possibilities of human growth. Educators should attend to the "seed qualities" of alternative educational philosophies rather than their dogmas. A caring relationship between teachers and students is…

  19. DESIGN ALTERNATIVES ON THE LAMINATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökay Nemli

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Wood based panel manufacturers use increasing volumes of laminates. Laminates are resistant to the water, humidity, scratch, abrasion, burning and chemicals. These products consist of printed decor papers that have been saturated with thermosetting resin. In this study, laminate types, composition form and design alternatives were investigated.

  20. A Technique: Generating Alternative Thoughts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan AKKOYUNLU

    2013-04-01

    Conclusion: Generating alternative explanations and balanced thoughts are the end point and important part of therapy work on automatic thoughts. When applied properly and rehearsed as homework between sessions, these methods may lead to improvement in many mental disorders. [JCBPR 2013; 2(1.000: 53-59