WorldWideScience

Sample records for alternative technology assessment

  1. Innovative and Alternative Technology Assessment Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-02-01

    This four chapter, six appendix manual presents the procedures and methodology as well as the baseline costs and energy information necessary for the analysis and evaluation of innovative and alternative technology applications submitted for federal grant assistance under the innovative and alternative technology provisions of the Clean Water Act of 1977. The manual clarifies and interprets the intent of Congress and the Environmental Protection Agency in carrying out the mandates of the innovative and alternative provisions of the Clean Water Act of 1977. [DJE 2005

  2. Technology-Based Classroom Assessments: Alternatives to Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salend, Spencer J.

    2009-01-01

    Although many teachers are using new technologies to differentiate instruction and administer tests, educators are also employing a range of technology-based resources and strategies to implement a variety of classroom assessments as alternatives to standardized and teacher-made testing. Technology-based classroom assessments focus on the use of…

  3. Assessment of a satellite power system and six alternative technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolsko, T.; Whitfield, R.; Samsa, M.; Habegger, L.S.; Levine, E.; Tanzman, E.

    1981-04-01

    The satellite power system is assessed in comparison to six alternative technologies. The alternatives are: central-station terrestrial photovoltaic systems, conventional coal-fired power plants, coal-gasification/combined-cycle power plants, light water reactor power plants, liquid-metal fast-breeder reactors, and fusion. The comparison is made regarding issues of cost and performance, health and safety, environmental effects, resources, socio-economic factors, and insitutional issues. The criteria for selecting the issues and the alternative technologies are given, and the methodology of the comparison is discussed. Brief descriptions of each of the technologies considered are included. (LEW)

  4. Hydrogen storage alternatives - a technological and economic assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersson, Joakim; Hjortsberg, Ove [Volvo Teknisk Utveckling AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    1999-12-01

    This study reviews state-of-the-art of hydrogen storage alternatives for vehicles. We will also discuss the prospects and estimated cost for industrial production. The study is based on published literature and interviews with active researchers. Among the alternatives commercially available today, we suggest using a moderate-pressure chamber for seasonal stationary energy storage; metal hydride vessels for small stationary units; a roof of high-pressure cylinders for buses, trucks and ferries; cryogenic high-pressure vessels or methanol reformers for cars and tractors; and cryogenic moderate-pressure vessels for aeroplanes. Initial fuel dispensing systems should be designed to offer hydrogen in pressurised form for good fuel economy, but also as cryogenic liquid for occasional needs of extended driving range and as methanol for reformer-equipped vehicles. It is probable that hydrogen can be stored efficiently in adsorbents for use in recyclable hydrogen fuel containers or rechargeable hydrogen vessels operating at ambient temperature and possibly ambient pressure by year 2004, and at reasonable or even low cost by 2010. The most promising alternatives involve various forms of activated graphite nanostructures. Recommendations for further research and standardisation activities are given.

  5. Technology assessment of disposal alternatives to determine a reference geological repository system for HLW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study is to determine the most promising alternative, that will be developed further as a reference HLW repository system, by comparing the 7 alternatives that were proposed based on the spent fuel packaging options concerning the characteristics of spent PWR and CANDU fuel generated from the domestic NPP and the waste package arrangements and repository layout options. It should be determined by comparing the proposed alternatives from the aspects of technology, safety and economics. In this study, however, the comparison of alternatives was just based on the technology assessment because of the lack of the relevant information. The comparison criteria includes the degree of difficulty, development and maturity of the technology to be applied in repository system construction, operation, retrieval, etc. and the safety during the repository construction and operation. Based on such comparison criteria, the alternative comparison study was performed by a typical pair-wise comparison method. The result showed that, from the aspect of the construction, vertical emplacement options ranked high so that HSA and HCop ranked first and second, respectively. On the other hand, from the aspect of operation, the vertical emplacement options ranked high and VSA and VAT were ranked first and second. Depending upon the degree of importance of construction and operation of the repository, the final results of the alternatives comparison could be changed. (author). 19 refs., 6 tabs., 13 figs

  6. Characterization of alternative electric generation technologies for the SPS comparative assessment: volume 2, central-station technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The SPS Concept Development and Evaluation Program includes a comparative assessment. An early first step in the assessment process is the selection and characterization of alternative technologies. This document describes the cost and performance (i.e., technical and environmental) characteristics of six central station energy alternatives: (1) conventional coal-fired powerplant; (2) conventional light water reactor (LWR); (3) combined cycle powerplant with low-Btu gasifiers; (4) liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR); (5) photovoltaic system without storage; and (6) fusion reactor

  7. Technology assessment of alternative fuels for the transportation sector. Fact sheets on technology elements and system calculations for technology tracks; Teknologivurdering af alternative drivmidler til transportsektoren. Fakta-ark for teknologi-elementer og systemberegninger for teknologi-spor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-05-15

    The report documents an analysis, which aims at evaluating technologies in connection with alternative fuels for the transportation sector. During the analysis process a method has been developed for consistent evaluation of alternative transportation fuels with the largest technological and economic potential. This appendix presents key fact sheets which substantiate the analysis presented in the report 'Technology assessment of alternative fuels for the transportation sector'. (BA)

  8. Benefits and risks of emerging technologies: integrating life cycle assessment and decision analysis to assess lumber treatment alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Michael P; Bates, Matthew E; Madison, Marcus; Linkov, Igor

    2014-10-01

    Assessing the best options among emerging technologies (e.g., new chemicals, nanotechnologies) is complicated because of trade-offs across benefits and risks that are difficult to quantify given limited and fragmented availability of information. This study demonstrates the integration of multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) and life cycle assessment (LCA) to address technology alternative selection decisions. As a case study, prioritization of six lumber treatment alternatives [micronized copper quaternary (MCQ); alkaline copper quaternary (ACQ); water-borne copper naphthenate (CN); oil-borne copper naphthenate (CNo); water-borne copper quinolate (CQ); and water-borne zinc naphthenate (ZN)] for military use are considered. Multiattribute value theory (MAVT) is used to derive risk and benefit scores. Risk scores are calculated using a cradle-to-gate LCA. Benefit scores are calculated by scoring of cost, durability, and corrosiveness criteria. Three weighting schemes are used, representing Environmental, Military and Balanced stakeholder perspectives. Aggregated scores from all three perspectives show CQ to be the least favorable alterative. MCQ is identified as the most favorable alternative from the Environmental stakeholder perspective. From the Military stakeholder perspective, ZN is determined to be the most favorable alternative, followed closely by MCQ. This type of scoring and ranking of multiple heterogeneous criteria in a systematic and transparent way facilitates better justification of technology selection and regulation. PMID:25209330

  9. Assessment of 25 kW free-piston Stirling technology alternatives for solar applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbeznik, Raymond M.; White, Maurice A.; Penswick, L. B.; Neely, Ronald E.; Ritter, Darren C.; Wallace, David A.

    The final design, construction, and testing of a 25-kW free-piston advanced Stirling conversion system (ASCS) are examined. The final design of the free-piston hydraulic ASCS consists of five subsystems: heat transport subsystem (solar receiver and pool boiler), free-piston hydraulic Stirling engine, hydraulic subsystem, cooling subsystem, and electrical and control subsystem. Advantages and disadvantages are identified for each technology alternative. Technology alternatives considered are gas bearings vs flexure bearings, stationary magnet linear alternator vs moving magnetic linear alternator, and seven different control options. Component designs are generated using available in-house procedures to meet the requirements of the free-piston Stirling convertor configurations.

  10. Environmental assessment of gasification technology for biomass conversion to energy in comparison with other alternatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, T Lan T; Hermansen, John Erik; Nielsen, Rasmus Glar

    2013-01-01

    that the combustion of biomass and fossil fuel references for electricity production takes place in a combined heat and power plant, but as a sensitivity analysis, we also consider combustion in a condensing mode power plant where only electricity is produced. Our results show that the production of 1 k......This paper assesses the environmental performance of biomass gasification for electricity production based on wheat straw and compares it with that of alternatives such as straw-fired electricity production and fossil fuel-fired electricity production. In the baseline simulation, we assume...... on gasification technology appears to be more environmentally friendly than straw direct combustion in all impact categories considered. The comparison with coal results in the same conclusion as that reached in the comparison with straw direct combustion. The comparison with natural gas shows that using straw...

  11. A TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT AND FEASIBILITY EVALUATION OF NATURAL GAS ENERGY FLOW MEASUREMENT ALTERNATIVES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kendricks A. Behring II; Eric Kelner; Ali Minachi; Cecil R. Sparks; Thomas B. Morrow; Steven J. Svedeman

    1999-01-01

    Deregulation and open access in the natural gas pipeline industry has changed the gas business environment towards greater reliance on local energy flow rate measurement. What was once a large, stable, and well-defined source of natural gas is now a composite from many small suppliers with greatly varying gas compositions. Unfortunately, the traditional approach to energy flow measurement [using a gas chromatograph (GC) for composition assay in conjunction with a flow meter] is only cost effective for large capacity supplies (typically greater than 1 to 30 million scfd). A less costly approach will encourage more widespread use of energy measurement technology. In turn, the US will benefit from tighter gas inventory control, more efficient pipeline and industrial plant operations, and ultimately lower costs to the consumer. An assessment of the state and direction of technology for natural gas energy flow rate measurement is presented. The alternative technologies were ranked according to their potential to dramatically reduce capital and operating and maintenance (O and M) costs, while improving reliability and accuracy. The top-ranked technologies take an unconventional inference approach to the energy measurement problem. Because of that approach, they will not satisfy the fundamental need for composition assay, but have great potential to reduce industry reliance on the GC. Technological feasibility of the inference approach was demonstrated through the successful development of data correlations that relate energy measurement properties (molecular weight, mass-based heating value, standard density, molar ideal gross heating value, standard volumetric heating value, density, and volume-based heating value) to three inferential properties: standard sound speed, carbon dioxide concentration, and nitrogen concentration (temperature and pressure are also required for the last two). The key advantage of this approach is that inexpensive on-line sensors may be used

  12. An Assessment Of The Life Cycle Costs And GHG Emissions For Alternative Generation Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donnelly, C. Richard; Carias, Anibal; Ali, Mohammad; Wood, Nicholas; Morgenroth, Michael; Bridgeman, Andrew

    2010-09-15

    The best choices for supplying energy in a manner that can reduce emissions at a reasonable cost while still ensuring grid stability and reliability of supply is a matter of some debate. In this paper, a first principles analysis is performed to look at life-cycle costs and emissions as well as the amount of energy that is provided to the system from various low-emission alternatives, including wind, water, solar and nuclear power. These low-emission sources are then benchmarked against coal-fired energy production to establish a normalized assessment of the clean energy alternatives currently available.

  13. Rural energy assessment and potential alternative energy resources & technologies in rural areas of Abbottabad, Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Irfan, Mohsin

    2012-01-01

    This report provides an in-depth review and critical analysis of the various rural energy resources and their socio-economic, health and indoor environmental impacts on rural people and their livelihoods in Abbottabad, Pakistan. It also explores the potential alternative energy resources and affordable technologies for rural people and as well as their potential socio-economic, health and indoor environmental impacts on rural people and their livelihoods. The review of the consumption aspect ...

  14. Air pollution control residues from waste incineration: Current UK situation and assessment of alternative technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current disposal options for APC residues in the UK and alternative treatment technologies developed world-wide have been reviewed. APC residues are currently landfilled in the UK where they undergo in situ solidification, although the future acceptability of this option is uncertain because the EU waste acceptance criteria (WAC) introduce strict limits on leaching that are difficult to achieve. Other APC residue treatment processes have been developed which are reported to reduce leaching to below relevant regulatory limits. The Ferrox process, the VKI process, the WES-PHix process, stabilisation/solidification using cementitious binders and a range of thermal treatment processes are reviewed. Thermal treatment technologies convert APC residues combined with other wastes into inert glass or glass-ceramics that encapsulate heavy metals. The waste management industry will inevitably use the cheapest available option for treating APC residues and strict interpretation and enforcement of waste legislation is required if new, potentially more sustainable technologies are to become commercially viable

  15. Impact of alternate fusion fuels on fusion reactor technology: an initial assessment study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The initial results of a study carried out to assess some of the technology implications of non-D-T fusion fuel cycles are presented. The primary emphasis in this report is on D-D, catalyzed-D and D-3He fuel cycles. Tokamaks and field-reversed mirrors have been selected as sample confinement concepts. A new technique of employing neutronic computer codes to study the transport of cyclotron radiation for cases of non-uniform density and temperature profiles is described. The technology areas considered include first wall design considerations, shielding requirements, fuel cycle requirements and some safety and environmental considerations. Conclusions resulting from the study are also presented

  16. Alcohol-fueled vehicles: An alternative fuels vehicle, emissions, and refueling infrastructure technology assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCoy, G.A.; Kerstetter, J.; Lyons, J.K. [and others

    1993-06-01

    Interest in alternative motor vehicle fuels has grown tremendously over the last few years. The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, the National Energy Policy Act of 1992 and the California Clean Air Act are primarily responsible for this resurgence and have spurred both the motor fuels and vehicle manufacturing industries into action. For the first time, all three U.S. auto manufacturers are offering alternative fuel vehicles to the motoring public. At the same time, a small but growing alternative fuels refueling infrastructure is beginning to develop across the country. Although the recent growth in alternative motor fuels use is impressive, their market niche is still being defined. Environmental regulations, a key driver behind alternative fuel use, is forcing both car makers and the petroleum industry to clean up their products. As a result, alternative fuels no longer have a lock on the clean air market and will have to compete with conventional vehicles in meeting stringent future vehicle emission standards. The development of cleaner burning gasoline powered vehicles has signaled a shift in the marketing of alternative fuels. While they will continue to play a major part in the clean vehicle market, alternative fuels are increasingly recognized as a means to reduce oil imports. This new role is clearly defined in the National Energy Policy Act of 1992. The Act identifies alternative fuels as a key strategy for reducing imports of foreign oil and mandates their use for federal and state fleets, while reserving the right to require private and municipal fleet use as well.

  17. Alternative Fuels for Transportation : A Sustainability Assessment of Technologies within an International Energy Agency Scenario

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Shehzad; Conradt, Marcos H. K.; Pereira, Valeria De Fusco

    2009-01-01

    Transport sector is an essential driver of economic development and growth, and at the same time, one of the biggest contributors to climate change, responsible for almost a quarter of the global carbon dioxide emissions. The sector is 95 percent dependent on fossil fuels. International Energy Agency (IEA) scenarios present different mixes of fuels to decrease both dependence on fossil fuels and emissions, leading to a more sustainable future. The main alternative fuels proposed in the Blue m...

  18. System analysis and assessment of technological alternatives for Nordic H{sub 2} energy foresight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koljonen, T.; Pursiheimo, E. [VTT, Espoo (Finland); Gether, K. [NTNU, Trondheim (Norway); Joergensen, K. [Risoe National Lab. (Denmark)

    2004-12-01

    The hydrogen scenarios developed during the Nordic Hydrogen Foresight project was analysed using a energy system model, which was developed during the project. The aim of the systems analysis was to analyse the technical and economical potential of hydrogen society in the Nordic countries in quantitative terms as well as the competitiveness of the selected hydrogen based systems. Visions and scenarios of the future energy systems in the Nordic area were defined in the workshops of the project. As a result of these workshops three scenarios were selected to outline the future of Nordic energy. The scenarios included different energy policies; scenarios for fossil fuel prices; and hydrogen energy demands, which varied from 6% to 18% of the total energy demand in 2030 for transport sector, and from 3% to 9% in heat and power production. In the roadmap workshops, the most important hydrogen based systems were selected, which were also included in the model. These include steam reforming of natural gas, electrolysis with renewable electricity, and biomass gasification for hydrogen production. For stationary applications, fuel cells and gas engines were selected for power and heat production. In our scenario calculations, biomass gasification and steam reforming seem to be the most competitive technologies for hydrogen production. The competitiveness of biomass gasification is greatly affected by the biomass fuel price, which is a local energy source. Electrolysis seems to be most competitive in decentralized systems, if the electricity price is low enough. For stationary applications, CHP fuel cells seem to be the most competitive in the long term, if the technological development and the decrease in investment costs follow the assumed scenario. The approximated Nordic market sizes in 2030 for the base scenarios varied from 1000 ME to 3000 MEuro for hydrogen production, from 1000 to 4000 MEuro for stationary applications and 4000 MEuro to 12.000 MEuro for hydrogen

  19. Alternative food safety intervention technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternative nonthermal and thermal food safety interventions are gaining acceptance by the food processing industry and consumers. These technologies include high pressure processing, ultraviolet and pulsed light, ionizing radiation, pulsed and radiofrequency electric fields, cold atmospheric plasm...

  20. Technology assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theoretical studies in assessment methodology have concentrated in the past year on computerization of state-of-the-art models for internal radiation dosimetry and development and evaluation of environmental transport models. Methodology applications continued to cover a broad spectrum of radiation exposure scenarios. Potential exposure situations requiring assessment arise from assorted deployments of all parts of nuclear fuel cycles, including comparisons of alternative uranium and thorium based cycles, and preliminary evaluations of advanced reactor fuel concepts. Measurements and samples were collected characterizing and documenting the current radiological status of formerly used Manhattan Engineer District/Atomic Energy Commission (MED/AEC) sites. This survey program encompasses research activities in the areas of survey design, instrumentation development, sample analysis, and data reduction and analysis. Other laboratory activities within TAS center around the unique capabilities of the Health Physics Research Reactor (HPRR) as an irradiation source. Typically the HPRR was involved in testing and intercomparison of dosimetry and criticality alarm systems and in exposure of physical and biological experiments

  1. The Supply of Medical Isotopes - An Assessment of the Market Economics, Alternative Technologies and Proposed Policy Approach to Achieving Sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the request of its member countries, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) has become involved in global efforts to ensure a reliable supply of molybdenum-99 (99Mo) and its decay product, technetium-99m (99mTc), the most widely used medical radioisotope. The NEA established the High-level Group on the Security of Supply of Medical Radioisotopes (HLG-MR). The main objective of the HLG-MR is to strengthen the reliability of 99Mo and 99mTc supply in the short, medium and long term. In order to reach this objective, the group has been reviewing the 99Mo supply chain, working to identify the key areas of vulnerability, the issues that need to be addressed and the mechanisms that could be used to help resolve them. The collective efforts of HLG-MR members and nuclear medicine stakeholders have allowed for a comprehensive assessment of the key areas of vulnerability in the supply chain and an identification of the issues that need to be addressed. As a result of the work undertaken to date, the NEA has released three reports under the new The Supply of Medical Radioisotopes series. These reports discuss the uneconomical situation of the supply chain, other vulnerabilities within the supply chain and alternative technologies to produce 99Mo/99mTc. From this work, the NEA Secretariat and the HLG-MR have started to develop the policy approach and recommendations for governments, industry and other stakeholders that will outline the foundation for ensuring the long-term supply of 99Mo/99mTc. (author)

  2. Using Alternative Assessments in Business and Foreign Language Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Deborah; Lucas, Diane

    2013-01-01

    The present study will be divided in three parts: (1) a discussion of authentic alternative assessments vs. traditional assessments in language and business classes; (2) an explanation on how to create authentic alternative assessments using technology-based and non-technology-based materials; and (3) tools to evaluate these authentic assessments.…

  3. The Architecture of Chemical Alternatives Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiser, Kenneth; Tickner, Joel; Edwards, Sally; Rossi, Mark

    2015-12-01

    Chemical alternatives assessment is a method rapidly developing for use by businesses, governments, and nongovernment organizations seeking to substitute chemicals of concern in production processes and products. Chemical alternatives assessment is defined as a process for identifying, comparing, and selecting safer alternatives to chemicals of concern (including those in materials, processes, or technologies) on the basis of their hazards, performance, and economic viability. The process is intended to provide guidance for assuring that chemicals of concern are replaced with safer alternatives that are not likely to be later regretted. Conceptually, the assessment methods are developed from a set of three foundational pillars and five common principles. Based on a number of emerging alternatives assessment initiatives, in this commentary, we outline a chemical alternatives assessment blueprint structured around three broad steps: Scope, Assessment, and Selection and Implementation. Specific tasks and tools are identified for each of these three steps. While it is recognized that on-going practice will further refine and develop the method and tools, it is important that the structure of the assessment process remain flexible, adaptive, and focused on the substitution of chemicals of concern with safer alternatives. PMID:26630442

  4. Competitive Cost Analysis of Alternative Powertrain Technologies.

    OpenAIRE

    Redelbach, Martin; Propfe, Bernd; Friedrich, Horst E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the cost competitiveness of different electrified propulsion technologies from hybrid cars to full battery electric vehicles in the time horizon 2010 to 2020. The assessment shows that the current TCO gaps for alternative drivetrains will increasingly converge over time mainly driven by decreasing production cost. However, the cost-efficiency of different powertrain architectures depends highly on the mileage a user expects to drive per year. In the mid-run, hybrid elec...

  5. Lean systems approaches to health technology assessment: a patient-focused alternative to cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, John F P

    2006-12-01

    Many countries now use health technology assessment (HTA) to review new and emerging technologies, especially with regard to reimbursement, pricing and/or clinical guidelines. One of the common, but not universal, features of these systems is the use of economic evaluation, normally cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA), to confirm that new technologies offer value for money. Many have criticised these systems as primarily being concerned with cost containment, rather than advancing the interests of patients or innovators. This paper calls into question the underlying principles of CEA by arguing that value in the healthcare system may in fact be unconstrained. It is suggested that 'lean management principles' can be used not only to trim waste from the health system, but as a method of creating real incentives for innovation and value creation. Following the lean paradigm, this value must be defined purely from the patients' perspective, and the entire health system needs to work towards the creation of such value. This paper offers as a practical example a lean approach to HTA, arguing that such an approach would lead to better incentives for innovation in health, as well as more patient-friendly outcomes in the long run. PMID:23389493

  6. Healthcare technology and technology assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Herndon, James H.; Hwang, Raymond; Bozic, K. H.

    2007-01-01

    New technology is one of the primary drivers for increased healthcare costs in the United States. Both physician and industry play important roles in the development, adoption, utilization and choice of new technologies. The Federal Drug Administration regulates new drugs and new medical devices, but healthcare technology assessment remains limited. Healthcare technology assessment originated in federal agencies; today it is decentralized with increasing private sector efforts. Innovation is ...

  7. Technology choice and development in Brazil: An assessment of Brazil's alternative fuel program and the agriculture, manufacturing, energy, and service sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Lucy A.

    Technology choice profoundly affects a country's development process because capital-intensive and labor-intensive technologies have different socioeconomic linkages within the economy. This research examines the impacts of technology choice through the use of a social accounting matrix (SAM) framework. SAM-based modeling determines the direct and indirect effects of technology choice on development, particularly poverty alleviation in Brazil. Brazil's alternative fuel program was analyzed as a special example of technology choice. Two ethanol production technologies and the gasoline sector were compared; to make the study more robust, labor and capital intensive technologies were evaluated in the production of agriculture, manufacturing, energy, and services. Growth in these economic sectors was examined to assess the effects on employment, factor and household income, energy intensity, and carbon dioxide costs. Poverty alleviation was a focus, so income to unskilled agriculture labor, unskilled non-agriculture labor, and income to rural and urban households in poverty was also analyzed. The major research finding is that overall, labor-intensive technologies generate more employment, factor and household income, environmental and energy benefits to Brazil's economy than capital-intensive technologies. In addition, labor-intensive technologies make a particular contribution to poverty alleviation. The results suggest that policies to encourage the adoption of these technologies, especially in the agriculture and renewable energy sectors, are important because of their intersectoral linkages within the economy. Many studies have shown that Brazil's fuel ethanol program has helped to realize multiple macroeconomic objectives. However, this is the first empirical study to quantify its household income effects. The ethanol industry generated the most household income of the energy sectors. The research confirms a key finding of the appropriate technology literature

  8. Assessment of alternative disposal concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four alternative repository designs for the disposal of spent nuclear in the Finnish crystalline bedrock were assessed in the study. The alternatives were: (1) the basic KBS-3 design in which copper canisters are emplaced in vertical deposition holes bored in the floors of horizontal tunnels, (2) the KBS-3-2C design with two canisters in a deposition hole, (3) Short Horizontal Holes (SHH) in the side walls of the tunnels, and (4) the Medium Long Holes (MLH) concept in which approximately 25 canisters are emplaced in a horizontal deposition hole about 200 metres in length bored between central and side tunnels. In all the alternatives considered, the thickness of the layer of compacted bentonite between copper canister and bedrock is 35 cm. Two different copper canister designs were also assessed. Technical feasibility and flexibility, post-closure safety and repository cost were assessed for each of the alternative canister and repository designs. On the basis of this assessment it is recommended that further development and studies should focus on the vacuum- or inert gas-filled cast insert type copper canister and the basic KBS-3 type repository design with a single canister in a vertical deposition hole. The KBS-3 design is robust and flexible and provides excellent post-closure safety. The transfer, emplacement and sealing operations are technically uncomplicated. The alternative options assessed do not offer any significant benefits in safety or cost over the basic design, but they are technically more complex and also in some respects more vulnerable to malfunction during the emplacement of canisters and buffer, as well as common mode failures. (60 refs.)

  9. Multicriteria cost–benefit assessment of tannery production: The need for breakthrough process alternatives beyond conventional technology optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The worldwide use of chromium-based processes in tanneries generates increased concerns about their related environmental burdens. Cleaner production alternatives for leather production are being proposed, based on the optimization of specific aspects or criteria, for instance, reducing demand for specific materials and energy, or reducing local toxicological emissions. While improvement on individual characteristics of the process is certainly to be favored, a more comprehensive evaluation of alternatives is also needed to prevent the risk of shifting the burden to increase global load while addressing one specific critical factor of production. This work aims to discuss the importance of a multicriteria, multiscale approach to address cleaner production strategy costs and benefits. For this, materials balance, an economic approach, and emergy (with an “m”) accounting methods are applied to selected unhairing/liming, pickling/tanning and wastewater treatment steps in a tannery process, which was chosen as a case study. Results show that the assessed recycling cleaner production strategies assessed allow the manufacturer to reduce by one half the amount of water used and the demand for chemicals up to 4% with respect to the business-as-usual process, at the expense of increasing electricity demand by 10%. Economic cost-to-benefit ratio was 25$ benefits per 1$ invested, as well as an emergy-based cost-to-benefit of 33Em$ per 1Em$ invested, of course these improvements were limited to the three investigated process steps. The improvement in cost/benefit ratios indicates that converting scenario #0 into #1 is favorable under economic and emergy views. However, when the two scenarios are investigated from the point of view of the imbalance in local and renewable resource use versus imported and nonrenewable use, the emergy method shows a small overall increase in renewability (from 3.51% to 3.85%), a low, but expected, emergy yield ratio equal to 1, and a high

  10. Multicriteria cost–benefit assessment of tannery production: The need for breakthrough process alternatives beyond conventional technology optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giannetti, Biagio F. [Paulista University (UNIP) (Brazil); Agostinho, Feni, E-mail: feni@unip.br [Paulista University (UNIP) (Brazil); Moraes, Luciano C.; Almeida, Cecília M.V.B. [Paulista University (UNIP) (Brazil); Ulgiati, Sergio, E-mail: sergio.ulgiati@uniparthenope.it [Università degli studi di Napoli, Parthenope (Italy)

    2015-09-15

    The worldwide use of chromium-based processes in tanneries generates increased concerns about their related environmental burdens. Cleaner production alternatives for leather production are being proposed, based on the optimization of specific aspects or criteria, for instance, reducing demand for specific materials and energy, or reducing local toxicological emissions. While improvement on individual characteristics of the process is certainly to be favored, a more comprehensive evaluation of alternatives is also needed to prevent the risk of shifting the burden to increase global load while addressing one specific critical factor of production. This work aims to discuss the importance of a multicriteria, multiscale approach to address cleaner production strategy costs and benefits. For this, materials balance, an economic approach, and emergy (with an “m”) accounting methods are applied to selected unhairing/liming, pickling/tanning and wastewater treatment steps in a tannery process, which was chosen as a case study. Results show that the assessed recycling cleaner production strategies assessed allow the manufacturer to reduce by one half the amount of water used and the demand for chemicals up to 4% with respect to the business-as-usual process, at the expense of increasing electricity demand by 10%. Economic cost-to-benefit ratio was 25$ benefits per 1$ invested, as well as an emergy-based cost-to-benefit of 33Em$ per 1Em$ invested, of course these improvements were limited to the three investigated process steps. The improvement in cost/benefit ratios indicates that converting scenario #0 into #1 is favorable under economic and emergy views. However, when the two scenarios are investigated from the point of view of the imbalance in local and renewable resource use versus imported and nonrenewable use, the emergy method shows a small overall increase in renewability (from 3.51% to 3.85%), a low, but expected, emergy yield ratio equal to 1, and a high

  11. ALTERNATIVE TECHNOLOGIES FOR REFRIGERATION AND AIR-CONDITIONING APPLICATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of an assessment of refrigeration technologies that are alternatives to vapor compression refrigeration for use in five application categories: domestic air conditioning, commercial air conditioning, mobile air conditioning, domestic refrigeration, and co...

  12. Alternative Assessment of Glycemic Control

    OpenAIRE

    Greven, W.L.

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease associated with development of microvascular and macrovascular complications. Optimal glycemic control, usually measured by HbA1c is the cornerstone for prevention of complications. In this thesis glycemic variability (which resembles actual glucose levels, glucose peaks and nadirs) and advanced glycation end products (AGEs) (a more long-term reflection of hyperglycemia and tissue glycation) are investigated as alternative assessment of glycemic control....

  13. Analysis of technological alternatives and energy to the Metroplus system under an integrated assessment, Energy, Environment, Economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using a multi-period optimization model based on lineal programming, which integrates energy, economy and environment dimensions (MARKAL - Standard version), some economic and environmental impacts due to five different technological choices for the omnibus fleet of the Rapid Bus Transit (Metroplus System) which will operate at the metropolitan area of the Aburra Valley (Medellin - Colombia) were estimated. The technological choices compared are: (1) a fleet powered by compressed natural gas, (2) powered by diesel, (3) powered by Euro diesel III imported from the Mexican Gulf, (4) powered by a mixed fleet 50% compressed natural gas and 50% diesel, and (5) a fleet powered by hybrid diesel vehicles. Results out stand the economic and environmental benefits associated to the use of an omnibus fleet powered by compressed natural gas

  14. Ion exchange technology assessment report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the execution of its charter, the SRS Ion Exchange Technology Assessment Team has determined that ion exchange (IX) technology has evolved to the point where it should now be considered as a viable alternative to the SRS reference ITP/LW/PH process. The ion exchange media available today offer the ability to design ion exchange processing systems tailored to the unique physical and chemical properties of SRS soluble HLW's. The technical assessment of IX technology and its applicability to the processing of SRS soluble HLW has demonstrated that IX is unquestionably a viable technology. A task team was chartered to evaluate the technology of ion exchange and its potential for replacing the present In-Tank Precipitation and proposed Late Wash processes to remove Cs, Sr, and Pu from soluble salt solutions at the Savannah River Site. This report documents the ion exchange technology assessment and conclusions of the task team

  15. Assessment of the contaminants level in recycled aggregates and alternative new technologies for contaminants recognition and removal

    OpenAIRE

    S. Lotfi; Di Maio, F.; Xia, H; Serranti, S.; Palmieri, R.; Bonifazi, G.

    2015-01-01

    One of the main challenging problems associated with the use of Recycled Aggregates (RA) is the level of mixed contaminants. For utilizing RA in high-grade applications, it is essential to monitor and minimise the content of the pollutants. To this extent the C2CA concrete recycling process investigates a combination of smart demolition, followed by new innovative technologies to produce high-grade secondary aggregates with low amount of contaminants. This paper firstly reports the level of co...

  16. Comparative Studies of Alternative Anaerobic Digestion Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Inman, David C.

    2004-01-01

    Washington D.C. Water and Sewage Authority is planning to construct a new anaerobic digestion facility at its Blue Plains WWTP by 2008. The research conducted in this study is to aid the designers of this facility by evaluating alternative digestion technologies. Alternative anaerobic digestion technologies include thermophilic, acid/gas phased, and temperature phased digestion. In order to evaluate the relative merits of each, a year long study evaluated the performance of bench scale dig...

  17. Spent Nuclear Fuel Alternative Technology Decision Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) made a FY98 commitment to the Department of Energy (DOE) to recommend a technology for the disposal of aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The two technologies being considered, direct co-disposal and melt and dilute, had been previously selected from a group of eleven potential SNF management technologies by the Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel Task Team chartered by the DOE''s Office of Spent Fuel Management. To meet this commitment, WSRC organized the SNF Alternative Technology Program to further develop the direct co-disposal and melt and dilute technologies and ultimately provide a WSRC recommendation to DOE on a preferred SNF alternative management technology

  18. Spent Nuclear Fuel Alternative Technology Decision Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shedrow, C.B.

    1999-11-29

    The Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) made a FY98 commitment to the Department of Energy (DOE) to recommend a technology for the disposal of aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The two technologies being considered, direct co-disposal and melt and dilute, had been previously selected from a group of eleven potential SNF management technologies by the Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel Task Team chartered by the DOE''s Office of Spent Fuel Management. To meet this commitment, WSRC organized the SNF Alternative Technology Program to further develop the direct co-disposal and melt and dilute technologies and ultimately provide a WSRC recommendation to DOE on a preferred SNF alternative management technology.

  19. Assessing for Technological Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engstrom, Daniel E.

    2004-01-01

    Designing standards-based assessment is a key component of a quality technology education program. For students to become technologically literate, it is important that the teacher understands how to measure student understandings and abilities in the study of technology. This article is written to help teachers and teacher educators recognize the…

  20. 40 CFR 35.2032 - Innovative and alternative technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Innovative and alternative technologies... Innovative and alternative technologies. (a) Funding for innovative and alternative technologies. Projects or... innovative or alternative technology shall receive increased grants under § 35.2152. (1) Only funds from...

  1. Current Status of Helium-3 Alternative Technologies for Nuclear Safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henzlova, Daniela [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kouzes, R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McElroy, R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Peerani, P. [European Commission, Ispra (Italy). Joint Research Centre; Aspinall, M. [Hybrid Instruments Ltd., Birmingham (United Kingdom); Baird, K. [Intl Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna (Austria); Bakel, A. [National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Washington, DC (United States); Borella, M. [SCK.CEN, Mol (Belgium); Bourne, M. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Bourva, L. [Canberra Ltd., Oxford (United Kingdom); Cave, F. [Hybrid Instruments Ltd., Birmingham (United Kingdom); Chandra, R. [Arktis Radiation Detectors Ltd., Zurich (Sweden); Chernikova, D. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology (Sweden); Croft, S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dermody, G. [Symetrica Inc., Maynard, MA (United States); Dougan, A. [National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Washington, DC (United States); Ely, J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fanchini, E. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Milano (Italy); Finocchiaro, P. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Milano (Italy); Gavron, Victor [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kureta, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Tokai (Japan); Ianakiev, Kiril Dimitrov [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ishiyama, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Tokai (Japan); Lee, T. [Intl Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna (Austria); Martin, Ch. [Symetrica Inc., Maynard, MA (United States); McKinny, K. [GE Reuter-Stokes, Twinsburg, OH (United States); Menlove, Howard Olsen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Orton, Ch. [National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Washington, DC (United States); Pappalardo, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Milano (Italy); Pedersen, B. [European Commission, Ispra (Italy). Joint Research Centre; Peranteau, D. [National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Washington, DC (United States); Plenteda, R. [Intl Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna (Austria); Pozzi, S. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Schear, M. [Symetrica Inc., Maynard, MA (United States); Seya, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Tokai (Japan); Siciliano, E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stave, S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sun, L. [Proportional Technologies Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Swinhoe, Martyn Thomas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Tagziria, H. [European Commission, Ispra (Italy). Joint Research Centre; Vaccaro, S. [DG Energy (Luxembourg); Takamine, J. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Tokai (Japan); Weber, A. -L. [Inst. for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN), Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Yamaguchi, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Tokai (Japan); Zhu, H. [National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-12-01

    International safeguards inspectorates (e.g., International Atomic Energy Agency {IAEA}, or Euratom) rely heavily on neutron assay techniques, and in particular, on coincidence counters for the verification of declared nuclear materials under safeguards and for monitoring purposes. While 3He was readily available, the reliability, safety, ease of use, gamma-ray insensitivity, and high intrinsic thermal neutron detection efficiency of 3He-based detectors obviated the need for alternative detector technologies. However, the recent decline of the 3He gas supply has triggered international efforts to develop and field neutron detectors that make use of alternative materials. In response to this global effort, the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and Euratom launched a joint effort aimed at bringing together international experts, technology users and developers in the field of nuclear safeguards to discuss and evaluate the proposed 3He alternative materials and technologies. The effort involved a series of two workshops focused on detailed overviews and viability assessments of various 3He alternative technologies for use in nuclear safeguards applications. The key objective was to provide a platform for collaborative discussions and technical presentations organized in a compact, workshop-like format to stimulate interactions among the participants. The meetings culminated in a benchmark exercise providing a unique opportunity for the first inter-comparison of several available alternative technologies. This report provides an overview of the alternative technology efforts presented during the two workshops along with a summary of the benchmarking activities and results. The workshop recommendations and key consensus observations are discussed in the report, and used to outline a proposed path forward and future needs foreseeable in the area of 3He-alternative

  2. Current Status of Helium-3 Alternative Technologies for Nuclear Safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    International safeguards inspectorates (e.g., International Atomic Energy Agency, or Euratom) rely heavily on neutron assay techniques, and in particular, on coincidence counters for the verification of declared nuclear materials under safeguards and for monitoring purposes. While 3He was readily available, the reliability, safety, ease of use, gamma-ray insensitivity, and high intrinsic thermal neutron detection efficiency of 3He-based detectors obviated the need for alternative detector technologies. However, the recent decline of the 3He gas supply has triggered international efforts to develop and field neutron detectors that make use of alternative materials. In response to this global effort, the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and Euratom launched a joint effort aimed at bringing together international experts, technology users and developers in the field of nuclear safeguards to discuss and evaluate the proposed 3He alternative materials and technologies. The effort involved a series of two workshops focused on detailed overviews and viability assessments of various 3He alternative technologies for use in nuclear safeguards applications. The key objective was to provide a platform for collaborative discussions and technical presentations organized in a compact, workshop-like format to stimulate interactions among the participants. The meetings culminated in a benchmark exercise providing a unique opportunity for the first inter-comparison of several available alternative technologies. This report provides an overview of the alternative technology efforts presented during the two workshops along with a summary of the benchmarking activities and results. The workshop recommendations and key consensus observations are discussed in the report, and used to outline a proposed path forward and future needs foreseeable in the area of 3He-alternative technologies.

  3. Information technology resources assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, D.F. [ed.

    1992-01-01

    This year`s Information Technology Resources Assessment (ITRA) is something of a departure from traditional practice. Past assessments have concentrated on developments in fundamental technology, particularly with respect to hardware. They form an impressive chronicle of decreasing cycle times, increasing densities, decreasing costs (or, equivalently, increasing capacity and capability per dollar spent), and new system architectures, with a leavening of operating systems and languages. Past assessments have aimed -- and succeeded -- at putting information technology squarely in the spotlight; by contrast, in the first part of this assessment, we would like to move it to the background, and encourage the reader to reflect less on the continuing technological miracles of miniaturization in space and time and more on the second- and third-order implications of some possible workplace applications of these miracles. This Information Technology Resources Assessment is intended to provide a sense of technological direction for planners in projecting the hardware, software, and human resources necessary to support the diverse IT requirements of the various components of the DOE community. It is also intended to provide a sense of our new understanding of the place of IT in our organizations.

  4. Information technology resources assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, D.F. (ed.)

    1992-01-01

    This year's Information Technology Resources Assessment (ITRA) is something of a departure from traditional practice. Past assessments have concentrated on developments in fundamental technology, particularly with respect to hardware. They form an impressive chronicle of decreasing cycle times, increasing densities, decreasing costs (or, equivalently, increasing capacity and capability per dollar spent), and new system architectures, with a leavening of operating systems and languages. Past assessments have aimed -- and succeeded -- at putting information technology squarely in the spotlight; by contrast, in the first part of this assessment, we would like to move it to the background, and encourage the reader to reflect less on the continuing technological miracles of miniaturization in space and time and more on the second- and third-order implications of some possible workplace applications of these miracles. This Information Technology Resources Assessment is intended to provide a sense of technological direction for planners in projecting the hardware, software, and human resources necessary to support the diverse IT requirements of the various components of the DOE community. It is also intended to provide a sense of our new understanding of the place of IT in our organizations.

  5. Assessment of Alternative RF Linac Structures for APT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The APT program has been examining both normal and superconducting variants of the APT linac for the past two years. A decision on which of the two will be the selected technology will depend upon several considerations including the results of ongoing feasibility experiments, the performance and overall attractiveness of each of the design concepts, and an assessment of the system-level features of both alternatives. The primary objective of the Assessment of Alternative RF Linac Structures for APT study reported herein was to assess and compare, at the system-level, the performance, capital and life cycle costs, reliability/availability/maintainability (RAM) and manufacturing schedules of APT RF linear accelerators based upon both superconducting and normal conducting technologies. A secondary objective was to perform trade studies to explore opportunities for system optimization, technology substitution and alternative growth pathways and to identify sensitivities to design uncertainties

  6. Health care technology assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Clifford

    1994-12-01

    The role of technology in the cost of health care is a primary issue in current debates concerning national health care reform. The broad scope of studies for understanding technological impacts is known as technology assessment. Technology policy makers can improve their decision making by becoming more aware, and taking greater advantage, of key trends in health care technology assessment (HCTA). HCTA is the systematic evaluation of the properties, impacts, and other attributes of health care technologies, including: technical performance; clinical safety and efficacy/effectiveness; cost-effectiveness and other economic attributes; appropriate circumstances/indications for use; and social, legal, ethical, and political impacts. The main purpose of HCTA is to inform technology-related policy making in health care. Among the important trends in HCTA are: (1) proliferation of HCTA groups in the public and private sectors; (2) higher standards for scientific evidence concerning technologies; (3) methodological development in cost analyses, health-related quality of life measurement, and consolidation of available scientific evidence (e.g., meta-analysis); (4) emphasis on improved data on how well technologies work in routine practice and for traditionally under-represented patient groups; (5) development of priority-setting methods; (6) greater reliance on medical informatics to support and disseminate HCTA findings.

  7. Information Technology Resources Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-04-01

    The Information Technology Resources Assessment (ITRA) is being published as a companion document to the Department of Energy (DOE) FY 1994--FY 1998 Information Resources Management Long-Range Plan. This document represents a collaborative effort between the Office of Information Resources Management and the Office of Energy Research that was undertaken to achieve, in part, the Technology Strategic Objective of IRM Vision 21. An integral part of this objective, technology forecasting provides an understanding of the information technology horizon and presents a perspective and focus on technologies of particular interest to DOE program activities. Specifically, this document provides site planners with an overview of the status and use of new information technology for their planning consideration.

  8. Assessment of Alternative Financial Theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Sarah

    This publication presents an assessment of various methods applicable for measurement of lender profitability with particular emphasis on net present value (NPV) in order to determine whether the Department of Education's current method for determining lender profitability within the Stafford Student Loan program is the best. The introduction…

  9. Treatment Technology and Alternative Water Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    At this point in our settlement of the planet Earth, with over seven billion human inhabitants, there are very few unallocated sources of fresh water. We are turning slowly toward "alternatives" such as municipal and industrial wastewater, saline groundwater, the sea, irrigation return flow, and produced water that comes up with oil and gas deposits from deep beneath the surface of the earth. Slowly turning, not because of a lack in technological ability, but because it takes a large capital investment to acquire and treat these sources to a level at which they can be used. The regulatory system is not geared up for alternative sources and treatment processes. Permitting can be circular, contradictory, time consuming, and very expensive. The purpose for the water, or the value of the product obtained using the water, must be such that the capital and ongoing expense seem reasonable. There are so many technological solutions for recovering water quality that choosing the most reliable, economical, and environmentally sound technology involves unraveling the "best" weave of treatment processes from a tangled knot of alternatives. Aside from permitting issues, which are beyond the topic for this presentation, the "best" weave of processes will be composed of four strands specifically fitted to the local situation: energy, pretreatment, driving force for separation processes, and waste management. A range of treatment technologies will be examined in this presentation with a focus on how the quality of the feed water, available power sources, materials, and waste management opportunities aid in choosing the best weave of treatment technologies, and how innovative use of a wide variety of driving forces are increasing the efficiency of treatment processes.

  10. Evaluation of the efficiency of alternative enzyme production technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albæk, Mads Orla

    for industrial production of cellulases and hemi-cellulases. The aim of the thesiswas to use modeling tools to identify alternative technologies that have higher energy or raw material efficiency than the current technology. The enzyme production by T. reesei was conducted as an aerobic fed...... their energy efficiencies were evaluated by use of the process model. For each technology the scale-up enzyme production was simulated at industrial scale based on equal mass transfer. The technical feasibility of each technology was assessed based on prior knowledge of successful implementation at...... industrial scale and mechanical complexity of the fermentation vessel. The airlift reactor was identified as a potential high energy efficiency technology for enzyme production with excellent chances for success. Two different pilot plant configurations of the airlift reactor technology were tested in nine...

  11. Mixed waste focus area alternative technologies workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA)-sponsored Alternative Technology Workshop held in Salt Lake City, Utah, from January 24--27, 1995. The primary workshop goal was identifying potential applications for emerging technologies within the Options Analysis Team (OAT) ''wise'' configuration. Consistent with the scope of the OAT analysis, the review was limited to the Mixed Low-Level Waste (MLLW) fraction of DOE's mixed waste inventory. The Los Alamos team prepared workshop materials (databases and compilations) to be used as bases for participant review and recommendations. These materials derived from the Mixed Waste Inventory Report (MWIR) data base (May 1994), the Draft Site Treatment Plan (DSTP) data base, and the OAT treatment facility configuration of December 7, 1994. In reviewing workshop results, the reader should note several caveats regarding data limitations. Link-up of the MWIR and DSTP data bases, while representing the most comprehensive array of mixed waste information available at the time of the workshop, requires additional data to completely characterize all waste streams. A number of changes in waste identification (new and redefined streams) occurred during the interval from compilation of the data base to compilation of the DSTP data base with the end result that precise identification of radiological and contaminant characteristics was not possible for these streams. To a degree, these shortcomings compromise the workshop results; however, the preponderance of waste data was linked adequately, and therefore, these analyses should provide useful insight into potential applications of alternative technologies to DOE MLLW treatment facilities

  12. Alternative oxidation technologies for organic mixed waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borduin, L.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Fewell, T. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1998-07-01

    The Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) is currently supporting the development and demonstration of several alternative oxidation technology (AOT) processes for treatment of combustible mixed low-level wastes. AOTs have been defined as technologies that destroy organic material without using open-flame reactions. AOTs include both thermal and nonthermal processes that oxidize organic wastes but operate under significantly different physical and chemical conditions than incinerators. Nonthermal processes currently being studied include Delphi DETOX and acid digestion at the Savannah River Site (SRS), and direct chemical oxidation at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). All three technologies are at advanced stages of development or are entering the demonstration phase. Nonflame thermal processes include catalytic chemical oxidation, which is being developed and deployed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), and steam reforming, a commercial process being supported by the Department of Energy (DOE). Although testing is complete on some AOT technologies, most require additional support to complete some or all of the identified development objectives. Brief descriptions, status, and planned paths forward for each of the technologies are presented.

  13. Decontamination technology assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to identify and technically assess foreign decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) technology developments that may represent significant improvements over D and D technology currently available or under development in the United States. Technology need areas for nuclear power reactor decommissioning operations were identified and prioritized using the results of past light water rector (LWR) decommissioning studies to quantitatively evaluate the potential for reducing cost and decommissioning worker radiation dose for each major decommissioning activity. Based on these identified needs, current foreign D and D technologies of potential interest to the U.S. were identified through personal contacts and the collection and review of an extensive body of D and D literature. These technologies were then assessed qualitatively to evaluate their uniqueness, potential for a significant reduction in D and D costs and/or worker radiation dose, development status, and other factors affecting their value and applicability to U.S. needs

  14. Technology assessment. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During its international winter meeting in Duesseldorf on 9th and 10th February, 1981, the Deutsches Atom-Forum tried to present a programme which did not only reflect the negative but also the positive aspects of the technology assessment. Acutally the Atom-Forum had intended to practice 'nuclear abstinence'. But since nuclear energy is a synonym for the risks of technology in public discussion this intention could not be fulfilled. Much too often the general topic of the meeting was shifted towards the discussion of nuclear energy. (orig.)

  15. Information technology resources assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loken, S.C. [ed.

    1993-01-01

    The emphasis in Information Technology (IT) development has shifted from technology management to information management, and the tools of information management are increasingly at the disposal of end-users, people who deal with information. Moreover, the interactive capabilities of technologies such as hypertext, scientific visualization, virtual reality, video conferencing, and even database management systems have placed in the hands of users a significant amount of discretion over how these resources will be used. The emergence of high-performance networks, as well as network operating systems, improved interoperability, and platform independence of applications will eliminate technical barriers to the use of data, increase the power and range of resources that can be used cooperatively, and open up a wealth of possibilities for new applications. The very scope of these prospects for the immediate future is a problem for the IT planner or administrator. Technology procurement and implementation, integration of new technologies into the existing infrastructure, cost recovery and usage of networks and networked resources, training issues, and security concerns such as data protection and access to experiments are just some of the issues that need to be considered in the emerging IT environment. As managers we must use technology to improve competitiveness. When procuring new systems, we must take advantage of scalable resources. New resources such as distributed file systems can improve access to and efficiency of existing operating systems. In addition, we must assess opportunities to improve information worker productivity and information management through tedmologies such as distributed computational visualization and teleseminar applications.

  16. Technology, risks and insurance of alternative energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The discussion of conversion scenarios from nuclear energy to alternative energy sources has taken up a central position in the field of electrical and environmental policy. The possibilities of using solar energy and its conversion forms of hydroelectric power, wind energy, biomass, environmental heat and solar hydrogen (as a secondary energy carrier) are presented, using typical pilot projects. The analysis of the technological status, the main centres of development interest and the operating and damage experience demonstrates the risks involved in these energy technologies. The investigation of the technical and economic development potential leads to an assessment of the position of the alternative energy sources in the electricity supply market. This leads to a survey of their importance in the future insurance market. (orig.)

  17. Workshop on power conditioning for alternative energy technologies. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D. R.

    1979-01-01

    As various alternative energy technologies such as photovoltaics, wind, fuel cells, and batteries are emerging as potential sources of energy for the future, the need arises for development of suitable power-conditioning systems to interface these sources to their respective loads. Since most of these sources produce dc electricity and most electrical loads require ac, an important component of the required power-conditioning units is a dc-to-ac inverter. The discussions deal with the development of power conditioners for each alternative energy technology. Discussion topics include assessments of current technology, identification of operational requirements with a comparison of requirements for each source technology, the identification of future technology trends, the determination of mass production and marketing requirements, and recommendations for program direction. Specifically, one working group dealt with source technology: photovoltaics, fuel cells and batteries, and wind followed by sessions discussing system size and application: large grid-connected systems, small grid-connected systems, and stand alone and dc applications. A combined group session provided an opportunity to discuss problems common to power conditioning development.

  18. Assessment of Peruvian biofuel resources and alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harper, J.P.; Smith, W.; Mariani, E.

    1979-08-01

    Comprehensive assessment of the biofuel potential of Peru is based on: determination of current biofuel utilization practices, evauation of Peruvian biomass productivity, identification of Peruvian agricultural and forestry resources, assessment of resource development and management concerns, identification of market considerations, description of biofuel technological options, and identification of regional biofuel technology applications. Discussion of current biofuel utilization centers on a qualitative description of the main conversion approaches currently being practiced in Peru. Biomass productivity evaluations consider the terrain and soil, and climatic conditions found in Peru. The potential energy from Peruvian agricultural and forestry resources is described quantitatively. Potental regional production of agricultural residues and forest resources that could supply energy are identified. Assessment of resource development and management concerns focuses on harvesting, reforestation, training, and environmental consequences of utilization of forest resources. Market factors assessed include: importation, internal market development, external market development, energy policy and pricing, and transportation. Nine biofuel technology options for Peru are identified: (1) small-to-medium-scale gasification, (2) a wood waste inventory, (3) stationary and mobile charcoal production systems, (4) wood distillation, (5) forest resource development and management, (6) electrical cogeneration, (7) anaerobic digestion technology, (8) development of ethanol production capabilities, and (9) agricultural strategies for fuel production. Applications of these biofuel options are identified for each of the three major regions - nine applications for the Costa Region, eight for the Sierra Region, and ten for the Selva Region.

  19. Approaches to Assessing Technological Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Greg

    2006-01-01

    It is the conclusion of the Committee on Assessing Technological Literacy, a study panel appointed by the National Academy of Engineering and the National Research Council, that very little is known about what children or adults know, can do, and believe about technology. This is because the state of assessment related to technology--or, …

  20. Self-assessment: an alternative method of assessing speaking skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterini Chalkia

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study focuses on self-assessment as an alternative method of assessing the speaking skills of a group of sixth graders of a Greek State Primary School. The paper consists of two parts. In the first part, traditional and alternative assessment approaches are compared and a literature review on self-assessment is presented. In the second part the methodology and the findings of the study are presented. The study was carried out by means of a questionnaire and observation notes. This was done in order to draw conclusions on the benefits of self-assessment, the difficulties students faced while carrying out self-assessment as well as to reveal the extent to which students improved their speaking skills after being involved in self-assessment. The findings revealed that the students were positive towards self-assessment. Although self-assessment was of limited duration, it turned out to be a worthwhile activity as it fostered motivation and sensitized the students to take a more active role in the learning process. It also enabled them to notice their strengths and weaknesses and improve their speaking skills. The study also revealed the practical difficulties the students faced in carrying out their self-assessment. Finally, the study concludes with recommendations for further research into this specific assessment method.

  1. Health technology assessment in Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mäkelä, Marjukka; Roine, Risto P

    2010-01-01

    Since the 1990s, health policy makers in Finland have been supportive of evidence-based medicine and approaches to implement its results. The Finnish Office for Health Technology Assessment (Finohta) has grown from a small start in 1995 to a medium-sized health technology assessment (HTA) agency,...... HTA findings. The Managed Uptake of Medical Methods program links the hospital districts to agree on introduction of technologies. The Ohtanen database provides Finnish-language summaries of major assessments made in other countries....

  2. 78 FR 31535 - Assistive Technology Alternative Financing Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-24

    ... On August 8, 2012, we published a notice in the Federal Register (77 FR 47375) inviting applications... Assistive Technology Alternative Financing Program AGENCY: Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative... Technology (AT) Alternative Financing Program (AFP) in fiscal year (FY) 2012 to make new grant awards in...

  3. The power of alternative assessments (AAs)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张千茜

    2013-01-01

    This article starts by discussing the potential disadvantages of traditional assessment towards young English as a Second Language (ESL) learners within the American public school education system. In response to such disadvantages, researchers ’call for the implementation of alternative assessments (AAs) is therefore introduced along with the various benefits of AAs. However, the current mainstream education policy in the US, namely No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Policy, is still largely based on the tra-ditional ways of testing, making policy-oriented implementation of AAs on large scales remarkably difficult. After careful analysis, the author points out several implications concerning how, under such an existing policy of NCLB, can practitioners effectively accommodate young ESL learners by applying the power of AAs.

  4. Metal oxide electrocatalysts for alternative energy technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacquette, Adele Lawren

    This dissertation focuses on the development of metal oxide electrocatalysts with varying applications for alternative energy technologies. Interest in utilizing clean, renewable and sustainable sources of energy for powering the planet in the future has received much attention. This will address the growing concern of the need to reduce our dependence on fossil fuels. The facile synthesis of metal oxides from earth abundant metals was explored in this work. The electrocatalysts can be incorporated into photoelectrochemical devices, fuel cells, and other energy storage devices. The first section addresses the utilization of semiconductors that can harness solar energy for water splitting to generate hydrogen. An oxysulfide was studied in order to combine the advantageous properties of the stability of metal oxides and the visible light absorbance of metal chalcogenides. Bi 2O2S was synthesized under facile hydrothermal conditions. The band gap of Bi2O2S was smaller than that of its oxide counterpart, Bi2O3. Light absorption by Bi 2O2S was extended to the visible region (>600 nm) in comparison to Bi2O3. The formation of a composite with In 2O3 was formed in order to create a UV irradiation protective coating of the Bi2O2S. The Bi2O2S/In 2O3 composite coupled with a dye CrTPP(Cl) and cocatalysts Pt and Co3O4 was utilized for water splitting under light irradiation to generate hydrogen and oxygen. The second section focuses on improving the stability and light absorption of semiconductors by changing the shapes and morphologies. One of the limitations of semiconductor materials is that recombination of electron-hole pairs occur within the bulk of the materials instead of migration to the surface. Three-dimensional shapes, such as nanorods, can prevent this recombination in comparison to spherical particles. Hierarchical structures, such as dendrites, cubes, and multipods, were synthesized under hydrothermal conditions, in order to reduce recombination and improve

  5. Promotional issues on alternative energy technologies in Nepal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alternative energy technologies are being disseminated in many countries with an objective to reduce the uses of traditional and commercial energy sources. These technologies convert local resources to usable energy forms. Since the scale of these technologies is small, their implementation is targeted mainly to individual households or small communities. However, due to various constraints, these implementation programmes have not been very successful. In this paper, the author introduces the main characteristics of alternative energy technologies used in Nepal and discusses promotional barriers for their implementation. It is hoped that this paper would help energy policy makers to devise better alternative energy programmes

  6. Melter Technologies Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, J.M. Jr. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Schumacher, R.F. [Savannah River Technology Center, Aiken, SC (United States); Forsberg, C.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-05-01

    The problem of controlling and disposing of surplus fissile material, in particular plutonium, is being addressed by the US Department of Energy (DOE). Immobilization of plutonium by vitrification has been identified as a promising solution. The Melter Evaluation Activity of DOE`s Plutonium Immobilization Task is responsible for evaluating and selecting the preferred melter technologies for vitrification for each of three immobilization options: Greenfield Facility, Adjunct Melter Facility, and Can-In-Canister. A significant number of melter technologies are available for evaluation as a result of vitrification research and development throughout the international communities for over 20 years. This paper describes an evaluation process which will establish the specific requirements of performance against which candidate melter technologies can be carefully evaluated. Melter technologies that have been identified are also described.

  7. Turbine imaging technology assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moursund, R. A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Carlson, T. J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2004-12-01

    The goal of this project was to identify and evaluate imaging technologies for observing juvenile fish within a Kaplan turbine, and specifically that would enable scientists to determine mechanisms of fish injury within an operating turbine unit. This report documents the opportunities and constraints for observing juvenile fish at specific locations during turbine passage. These observations were used to make modifications to dam structures and operations to improve conditions for fish passage while maintaining or improving hydropower production. The physical and hydraulic environment that fish experience as they pass through the hydroelectric plants were studied and the regions with the greatest potential for injury were defined. Biological response data were also studied to determine the probable types of injuries sustained in the turbine intake and what types of injuries are detectable with imaging technologies. The study grouped injury-causing mechanisms into two categories: fluid (pressure/cavitation, shear, turbulence) and mechanical (strike/collision, grinding/pinching, scraping). The physical constraints of the environment, together with the likely types of injuries to fish, provided the parameters needed for a rigorous imaging technology evaluation. Types of technology evaluated included both tracking and imaging systems using acoustic technologies (such as sonar and acoustic tags) and optic technologies (such as pulsed-laser videography, which is high-speed videography using a laser as the flash). Criteria for determining image data quality such as frame rate, target detectability, and resolution were used to quantify the minimum requirements of an imaging sensor.

  8. Technology as an Assessment Tool in Language Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Taher Bahrani

    2011-01-01

    The present paper examines the employment of different technology-based tools such as computer, podcast, and chat for assessing language proficiency in EFL classrooms. These methods which are referred to as alternative assessments differ from traditional paper-and–pencil assessments. The technology-based assessment incorporates innovative methods and techniques to measure language proficiency improvement. This kind of assessment is effective when it gives the language learners a chance to use...

  9. The Prospects of Alternatives to Vapor Compression Technology for Space Cooling and Food Refrigeration Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Daryl R.; Dirks, James A.; Fernandez, Nicholas; Stout, Tyson E.

    2010-03-31

    Five alternatives to vapor compression technology were qualitatively evaluated to determine their prospects for being better than vapor compression for space cooling and food refrigeration applications. The results of the assessment are summarized in the report. Overall, thermoacoustic and magnetic technologies were judged to have the best prospects for competing with vapor compression technology, with thermotunneling, thermoelectric, and thermionic technologies trailing behind in that order.

  10. Sludge technology assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The retrieval, processing, and generation of final waste forms from radioactive tank waste sludges present some of the most challenging technical problems confronting scientists and engineers responsible for the waste management programs at the various Department of Energy laboratories and production facilities. Currently, the Department of Energy is developing a strategy to retrieve, process, and generate a final waste form for the sludge that meets the acceptance criteria for the final disposition. An integral part of this strategy will be use of separation processes that treat the sludge; the goal is to meet feed criteria for the various processes that will generate the final waste form, such as vitrification or grouting. This document is intended to (1) identify separation technologies which are being considered for sludge treatment at various DOE sites, (2) define the current state of sludge treatment technology, (3) identify what research and development is required, (4) identify current research programs within either DOE or academia developing sludge treatment technology, and (5) identify commercial separation technologies which may be applicable. Due to the limited scope of this document, technical evaluations regarding the need for a particular separations technology, the current state of development, or the research required for implementation, are not provided

  11. Inquiries and technological assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors examine six Canadian inquiries to determine their values as scientific assessments, their ability to combine scientific data with policy considerations, and their effectiveness in extending public debate on scientific issues. Among the inquiries examined are the environmental assessment hearings into the Point Lepreau nuclear generating station, the Bayda inquiry into the Cluff Lake uranium mine, and the Porter commission on electric power planning in Ontario

  12. Turbine Imaging Technology Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moursund, Russell A.; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2004-12-31

    The goal of this project was to identify and evaluate imaging alternatives for observing the behavior of juvenile fish within an operating Kaplan turbine unit with a focus on methods to quantify fish injury mechanisms inside an operating turbine unit. Imaging methods are particularly needed to observe the approach and interaction of fish with turbine structural elements. This evaluation documents both the opportunities and constraints for observing juvenile fish at specific locations during turbine passage. The information may be used to acquire the scientific knowledge to make structural improvements and create opportunities for industry to modify turbines and improve fish passage conditions.

  13. Reactor physics assessment of alternate cladding materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A preliminary reactor physics assessment has been performed for candidate alternate cladding materials to replace zirconium alloys in enhanced accident tolerant fuel (ATF) concepts for light water reactors. Proposed ATF concepts seek to reduce severe accident risks by increasing the coping time available to operators for accident response and reducing the extent and rate of heat and hydrogen production from steam oxidation. Candidate materials in this neutronics-focused study included austenitic stainless steel 310SS, alumina-forming ferritic alloys (FeCrAl), and silicon carbide (SiC). Historic 304SS cladding and Zircaloy were considered as reference points. Initial results indicate that the metallic options require increased uranium enrichments and/or decreased cladding thicknesses to match the operating cycle lengths achieved with Zircaloy; FeCrAl offered the smallest reactivity penalty, whereas 310SS showed large negative impacts. Ceramic SiC cladding performed well if cladding thicknesses remained similar to those for Zircaloy, but large clad thickness increases led to negative impacts. Fuel pellet relative radial power distributions were similar for all clad materials analyzed. Finally, an economic assessment found that 310SS or FeCrAl could increase fuel pellet costs by 15–36%, while SiC fuel pellet costs were very similar to Zircaloy. (author)

  14. Assessment of Watershed Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Lim Suan, Medel P.

    1999-01-01

    Dealing with various topics such as watershed classification, computer simulation and modeling and computer application in watershed research, this paper assembles and summarizes technologies that are currently being used or have potential for application in the Philippines. This is in the hope of helping watershed managers, planners and researchers.

  15. INDOT Fleet Management Strategies: Implementing Alternative Fuel Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Rudolph, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    This session will discuss INDOT’s initiative to introduce vechicles fueled by propane and compressed natural gas (CNG) to their fleet. Successes to date will be shared as well as recommendations for fleet managers considering these alternative technologies.

  16. Alternative energy technologies: integrated energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the smart energy technology which refers to fully integrated energy systems from generation through distribution and consumption. The main thrust of this approach is to make energy systems more reliable, intelligent and more eco-friendly. Population growth will increase the demand for energy. Climate change is driving the need for carbon dioxide reduction and increase demand for renewable energy sources. Canada's electricity infrastructure deficit is significant and there is a need to replace outdate infrastructure.

  17. Energy and cost saving results for advanced technology systems from the Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagerman, G. D.; Barna, G. J.; Burns, R. K.

    1979-01-01

    An overview of the organization and methodology of the Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study is presented. The objectives of the study were to identify the most attractive advanced energy conversion systems for industrial cogeneration applications in the future and to assess the advantages of advanced technology systems compared to those systems commercially available today. Advanced systems studied include steam turbines, open and closed cycle gas turbines, combined cycles, diesel engines, Stirling engines, phosphoric acid and molten carbonate fuel cells and thermionics. Steam turbines, open cycle gas turbines, combined cycles, and diesel engines were also analyzed in versions typical of today's commercially available technology to provide a base against which to measure the advanced systems. Cogeneration applications in the major energy consuming manufacturing industries were considered. Results of the study in terms of plant level energy savings, annual energy cost savings and economic attractiveness are presented for the various energy conversion systems considered.

  18. New sterilization technologies alternative to ethylene oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabrizian, Maryam; Lerouge, Sophie; Debrie, Anne; Yahia, L'Hocine

    1997-06-01

    Sterilization of biomedical devices may induce bulk and surface modification, responsible for the decrease or loss of their biofunctionality. Pure ethylene oxide (EO) at low temperature and new alternative techniques such as cold gas plasma sterilization have been developed for heat-sensitive polymers. There is a lack of the knowledge concerning their safety in terms of materials damage and consequences on the biofunctionality of sterilized devices. The objective of our work consists in studying bulk and surface changes in biomedical devices induced by these two sterilization techniques. Samples from PVC, Polyurethane, Polyacrylate and Polyethylene-based medical devices are subjected to 1, 5, and 10 sterilization cycles by Steri-Vac-3M (pure EO), Sterrad-100$TM, J&J (gas plasma + H2O2), and studied by X-rays photoelectron spectroscopy. Preliminary results show an increasing in Oxygen/Carbon ratio by a factor of 1.3 to 4.4 between the first and tenth cycle indicating the surface oxidation by gas plasma sterilization processes. Some changes in C-C chemical bounding are associated with EO sterilization.

  19. Technology readiness assessments: A retrospective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankins, John C.

    2009-11-01

    The development of new system capabilities typically depends upon the prior success of advanced technology research and development efforts. These systems developments inevitably face the three major challenges of any project: performance, schedule and budget. Done well, advanced technology programs can substantially reduce the uncertainty in all three of these dimensions of project management. Done poorly, or not at all, and new system developments suffer from cost overruns, schedule delays and the steady erosion of initial performance objectives. It is often critical for senior management to be able to determine which of these two paths is more likely—and to respond accordingly. The challenge for system and technology managers is to be able to make clear, well-documented assessments of technology readiness and risks, and to do so at key points in the life cycle of the program. In the mid 1970s, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) introduced the concept of "technology readiness levels" (TRLs) as a discipline-independent, programmatic figure of merit (FOM) to allow more effective assessment of, and communication regarding the maturity of new technologies. In 1995, the TRL scale was further strengthened by the articulation of the first definitions of each level, along with examples (J. Mankins, Technology readiness levels, A White Paper, NASA, Washington, DC, 1995. [1]). Since then, TRLs have been embraced by the U.S. Congress' General Accountability Office (GAO), adopted by the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD), and are being considered for use by numerous other organizations. Overall, the TRLs have proved to be highly effective in communicating the status of new technologies among sometimes diverse organizations. This paper will review the concept of "technology readiness assessments", and provide a retrospective on the history of "TRLs" during the past 30 years. The paper will conclude with observations concerning prospective future

  20. Online kiosks: the alternative to mobile technologies for mobile users

    OpenAIRE

    Slack, Frances; Rowley, J.

    2002-01-01

    Online kiosks have the potential to be a significant alternative to mobile technologies in retailing, information provision and service delivery. This article describes the development and use of different types of online kiosk in contexts where users are on the move and away from fixed technologies. A case study of a major UK airport terminal is used to illustrate different types of kiosk applications. Comparisons are made with mobile phone technologies. Online kiosks have a niche in allowin...

  1. Play Hard, Work Harder. Alternative Reality Game and Scenario Based Assessments for Learning.

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan, Barry

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, an evaluative case study is detailed as an example of alternative reality game and scenario based assessments for learning. This pedagogic approach is evaluated and recommendations for practice offered. Integrating technology into the assessment process, and final student product, influenced the chosen pedagogy. The use of technology permitted this assessment approach to be adopted for a medium sized (n=40) student cohort. The use of wikis, eportfolios and digital reflective di...

  2. Potential alternative energy technologies on the Outer Continental Shelf.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elcock, D.; Environmental Assessment

    2007-04-20

    This technical memorandum (TM) describes the technology requirements for three alternative energy technologies for which pilot and/or commercial projects on the U.S. Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) are likely to be proposed within the next five to seven years. For each of the alternative technologies--wind, wave, and ocean current--the TM first presents an overview. After each technology-specific overview, it describes the technology requirements for four development phases: site monitoring and testing, construction, operation, and decommissioning. For each phase, the report covers the following topics (where data are available): facility description, electricity generated, ocean area (surface and bottom) occupied, resource requirements, emissions and noise sources, hazardous materials stored or used, transportation requirements, and accident potential. Where appropriate, the TM distinguishes between pilot-scale (or demonstration-scale) facilities and commercial-scale facilities.

  3. Alternative technology for arsenic removal from drinking water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purenović Milovan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic is a naturally occurring element in water, food and air. It is known as a poison, but in very small quantities it is showed to be an essential element. Actual problem in the world is arsenic removal from drinking water using modern and alternative technology, especially because EPA's and other international standards have reduced MCL from 50 to 10 ug/1. Because of rivers and lakes pollution, in a number of plants for natural water purification, average concentrations of arsenic in water are up to 100 ug/1. According to MCL, present technologies are unadjusted for safely arsenic removal for concentrations below of 10 ug/1. This fact has inspired many companies to solve this problem adequately, by using an alternative technologies and new process able materials. In this paper the observation of conventional and the alternative technologies will be given, bearing in mind complex chemistry and electrochemistry of arsenic, formation of colloidal arsenic, which causes the biggest problems in water purification technologies. In this paper many results will be presented, which are obtained using the alternative technologies, as well as the newest results of original author's investigations. Using new nanomaterials, on Pilot plant "VALETA H2O-92", concentration of arsenic was removed far below MLC value.

  4. Technology assessment of RDX production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coburn, M.D. [New Mexico Inst. of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM (United States)

    1995-04-01

    The known processes for producing RDX were assessed with the goal of identifying the process that would generate the least waste and pollution. It was concluded that the Bachman process employed at Holston AAP is the most economical process for producing RDX and that it probably produces less waste than any other process. It was generally agreed that the entire Holston operation is a very clean one that complies with all federal and state emission standards. In addition, a number of opportunities in which Holston could reduce their wastes were identified. Preliminary assessments of waste and pollution profiles for alternate materials, with emphasis on dual-use materials, were performed.

  5. Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Commercial Lawn Equipment (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program produced this guide to help inform the commercial mowing industry about product options and potential benefits. This guide provides information about equipment powered by propane, ethanol, compressed natural gas, biodiesel, and electricity, as well as advanced engine technology. In addition to providing an overview for organizations considering alternative fuel lawn equipment, this guide may also be helpful for organizations that want to consider using additional alternative fueled equipment.

  6. Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Commercial Lawn Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-10-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program produced this guide to help inform the commercial mowing industry about product options and potential benefits. This guide provides information about equipment powered by propane, ethanol, compressed natural gas, biodiesel, and electricity, as well as advanced engine technology. In addition to providing an overview for organizations considering alternative fuel lawn equipment, this guide may also be helpful for organizations that want to consider using additional alternative fueled equipment.

  7. Forest Technology Program Outcome Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Bartholomay, G. Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Course grades are the norm for reporting a student’s overall proficiency. However, the one dimensional nature of grades implies that all individual course components have been equally mastered. The Pennsylvania College of Technology employs an institution wide program of Quality Through Assessment to aid in evaluating the institutional mission to, “provide students with quality academic programs that respond to economic and employment realities” (www.pct.edu/assessment/). The initiative emplo...

  8. Foreshore Assessment using Space Technology

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    FORESHORE ASSESSMENT USING SPACE TECHNOLOGY. Vegetated foreshores and floodplains provide important ecosystem services. These include benefits for coastal defence: the foreshores attenuate waves, enhance sedimentation and reduce erosion, mitigating flood risk. At present, this function of wetland ecosystems is hardly incorporated in coastal defence schemes. Yet considering foreshores and floodplains in water safety assessments and in levee design can result in considerable cost reductions for...

  9. Evaluation of the efficiency of alternative enzyme production technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albaek, M.O.

    2012-03-15

    Enzymes are used in an increasing number of industries. The application of enzymes is extending into the production of lignocellulosic ethanol in processes that economically can compete with fossil fuels. Since lignocellulosic ethanol is based on renewable resources it will have a positive impact on for example the emission of green house gasses. Cellulases and hemi-cellulases are used for enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated lignocellulosic biomass, and fermentable sugars are released upon the enzymatic process. Even though many years of research has decreased the amount of enzyme needed in the process, the cost of enzymes is still considered a bottleneck in the economic feasibility of lignocellulose utilization. The purpose of this project was to investigate and compare different technologies for production of these enzymes. The filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei is currently used for industrial production of cellulases and hemi-cellulases. The aim of the thesis was to use modeling tools to identify alternative technologies that have higher energy or raw material efficiency than the current technology. The enzyme production by T. reesei was conducted as an aerobic fed-batch fermentation. The process was carried out in pilot scale stirred tank reactors and based on a range of different process conditions, a process model was constructed which satisfactory described the course of fermentation. The process was governed by the rate limiting mass transfer of oxygen from the gas to the liquid phase. During fermentation, filamentous growth of the fungus lead to increased viscosity which hindered mass transfer. These mechanisms were described by a viscosity model based on the biomass concentration of the fermentation broth and a mass transfer correlation that incorporated a viscosity term. An analysis of the uncertainty and sensitivity of the model indicated the biological parameters to be responsible for most of the model uncertainty. A number of alternative

  10. Assessment Benchmarks for an Alternative Certification Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denton, Jon; Davis, Trina; Smith, Ben; Beason, Lynn; Graham, Diane; Strader, Arlen

    2008-01-01

    The Accelerate Online/OPTIONS alternative certification program provides those possessing a degree an option leading to certification that can be completed in 18 months. The program consists of an online curriculum, an early field experience, and a year-long paid internship. To determine program effectiveness across five years, five benchmark…

  11. DUPIC technology as an alternative for closing nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of DUPIC technology as an alternative for closing nuclear fuel cycle has been carried out. The goal of this study is to understand the DUPIC technology and its possibility as an alternative technology for closing nuclear fuel cycle. DUPIC (Direct Use of PWR spent fuel In CANDU) is a utilization of PWR spent fuel to reprocess and fabricate become DUPIC fuel as nuclear fuel of Candu reactor. The synergy utilization is based on the fact that fissile materials contained in the PWR spent fuel is about twice as much as that in Candu fuel. Result of the study indicates that DUPIC is an alternative promising technology for closing nuclear fuel cycle. The DUPIC fuel fabrication technology of which the major process is the OREOX dry processing, is better than the conventional reprocessing technology of PUREX. The OREOX dry processing has no capability to separate fissile plutonium, thus give the impact of high nuclear proliferation resistance. When compared to once through cycle, it gives advantages of uranium saving of about 20% and spent fuel accumulation reduction of about 65%. Economic analysis indicates that the levelized cost of DUPIC cycle is cheaper by 0.073 mill$/kwh than that of once through cycle. (author)

  12. 40 CFR 35.908 - Innovative and alternative technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... grant. (v) Only if sewer related costs qualify as alternatives to conventional treatment works for small... FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act... waste water treatment works. Such technologies may be used in the construction of waste water...

  13. Technology mix alternatives with high shares of wind power and photovoltaics—case study for Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The shift to a low carbon society is an issue of highest priority in the EU. For electricity generation, such a target counts with three main alternatives: renewable energies, nuclear power and carbon capture and storage. This paper focuses on the renewables’ alternative. Due to resource availability, a technology mix with a high share of PV and wind power is gaining increasing interest as a major solution for several EU member states and in part for the EU collectively to achieve decarbonization and energy security with acceptable costs. Due to their intermittency, the integration of high shares of PV and wind power in the electricity supply is challenging. This paper presents a techno-economic assessment of technology mix alternatives with a high share of PV and wind power in Spain, as an example. Thereby, the focus is on the option of increasing wind curtailment versus substituting rigid baseload generation in favor of the more flexible gas turbines and combined cycle gas turbines. - Highlights: ► The potential of power generation from renewable energy resources in the EU is illustrated. ► The LEC of the different technologies considered is calculated for today and future scenarios. ► An excel-based model for the technology mix assessment is applied using Spanish data. ► Technology mix alternatives with a high share of PV and wind power are assessed. ► The focus is on increasing wind curtailment vs. relying on more flexible power generation units.

  14. Knowledge in health technology assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine; Hansen, Helle Ploug

    2011-01-01

    Health systems are placing more and more emphasis on designing and delivering services that are focused on the patient, and there is a growing interest in patient aspects of health policy research and health technology assessment (HTA). Only a few HTA agencies use and invest in scientific methods...... to generate knowledge and evidence about the patient aspects of a given technology. This raises questions about how knowledge is produced in HTA reports and what kind of knowledge is considered relevant. This article uses a Danish HTA on patient education from 2009 as empirical material for a...

  15. Augmented Reality Tower Technology Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisman, Ronald J.; Brown, David M.

    2009-01-01

    Augmented Reality technology may help improve Air Traffic Control Tower efficiency and safety during low-visibility conditions. This paper presents the assessments of five off-duty controllers who shadow-controlled' with an augmented reality prototype in their own facility. Initial studies indicated unanimous agreement that this technology is potentially beneficial, though the prototype used in the study was not adequate for operational use. Some controllers agreed that augmented reality technology improved situational awareness, had potential to benefit clearance, control, and coordination tasks and duties and could be very useful for acquiring aircraft and weather information, particularly aircraft location, heading, and identification. The strongest objections to the prototype used in this study were directed at aircraft registration errors, unacceptable optical transparency, insufficient display performance in sunlight, inadequate representation of the static environment and insufficient symbology.

  16. Center for Renewable Energy and Alternative Transportation Technologies (CREATT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackin, Thomas

    2012-06-30

    The Center for Renewable Energy and Alternative Transportation Technologies (CREATT) was established to advance the state of the art in knowledge and education on critical technologies that support a renewable energy future. Our research and education efforts have focused on alternative energy systems, energy storage systems, and research on battery and hybrid energy storage systems.This report details the Center's progress in the following specific areas: Development of a battery laboratory; Development of a demonstration system for compressed air energy storage; Development of electric propulsion test systems; Battery storage systems; Thermal management of battery packs; and Construction of a micro-grid to support real-world performance monitoring of a renewable energy system.

  17. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power. Report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume V. Economics and systems analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This NASAP assessment considers the economics of alternative nuclear reactor and fuel-cycle systems in the light of possible patterns of uranium supply and energy demand, as well as the economic implications of improvng the proliferation resistance of the various systems. The assessment focuses on the costs of alternative nuclear technologies and the possible timing of their implementation, based on their economic attractiveness

  18. Alternative technology for arsenic removal from drinking water

    OpenAIRE

    Purenović Milovan

    2007-01-01

    Arsenic is a naturally occurring element in water, food and air. It is known as a poison, but in very small quantities it is showed to be an essential element. Actual problem in the world is arsenic removal from drinking water using modern and alternative technology, especially because EPA's and other international standards have reduced MCL from 50 to 10 ug/1. Because of rivers and lakes pollution, in a number of plants for natural water purification, average concentrations of arsenic in wat...

  19. Ranking of sabotage/tampering avoidance technology alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, W.B.; Tabatabai, A.S.; Powers, T.B.; Daling, P.M.; Fecht, B.A.; Gore, B.F.; Overcast, T.D.; Rankin, W.R.; Schreiber, R.E.; Tawil, J.J.

    1986-01-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a study to evaluate alternatives to the design and operation of nuclear power plants, emphasizing a reduction of their vulnerability to sabotage. Estimates of core melt accident frequency during normal operations and from sabotage/tampering events were used to rank the alternatives. Core melt frequency for normal operations was estimated using sensitivity analysis of results of probabilistic risk assessments. Core melt frequency for sabotage/tampering was estimated by developing a model based on probabilistic risk analyses, historic data, engineering judgment, and safeguards analyses of plant locations where core melt events could be initiated. Results indicate the most effective alternatives focus on large areas of the plant, increase safety system redundancy, and reduce reliance on single locations for mitigation of transients. Less effective options focus on specific areas of the plant, reduce reliance on some plant areas for safe shutdown, and focus on less vulnerable targets.

  20. Ranking of sabotage/tampering avoidance technology alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a study to evaluate alternatives to the design and operation of nuclear power plants, emphasizing a reduction of their vulnerability to sabotage. Estimates of core melt accident frequency during normal operations and from sabotage/tampering events were used to rank the alternatives. Core melt frequency for normal operations was estimated using sensitivity analysis of results of probabilistic risk assessments. Core melt frequency for sabotage/tampering was estimated by developing a model based on probabilistic risk analyses, historic data, engineering judgment, and safeguards analyses of plant locations where core melt events could be initiated. Results indicate the most effective alternatives focus on large areas of the plant, increase safety system redundancy, and reduce reliance on single locations for mitigation of transients. Less effective options focus on specific areas of the plant, reduce reliance on some plant areas for safe shutdown, and focus on less vulnerable targets

  1. HVDC power transmission technology assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauth, R.L.; Tatro, P.J.; Railing, B.D. [New England Power Service Co., Westborough, MA (United States); Johnson, B.K.; Stewart, J.R. [Power Technologies, Inc., Schenectady, NY (United States); Fink, J.L.

    1997-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an assessment of the national utility system`s needs for electric transmission during the period 1995-2020 that could be met by future reduced-cost HVDC systems. The assessment was to include an economic evaluation of HVDC as a means for meeting those needs as well as a comparison with competing technologies such as ac transmission with and without Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) controllers. The role of force commutated dc converters was to be assumed where appropriate. The assessment begins by identifying the general needs for transmission in the U.S. in the context of a future deregulated power industry. The possible roles for direct current transmission are then postulated in terms of representative scenarios. A few of the scenarios are illustrated with the help of actual U.S. system examples. non-traditional applications as well as traditional applications such as long lines and asynchronous interconnections are discussed. The classical ``break-even distance`` concept for comparing HVDC and ac lines is used to assess the selected scenarios. The impact of reduced-cost converters is reflected in terms of the break-even distance. This report presents a comprehensive review of the functional benefits of HVDC transmission and updated cost data for both ac and dc system components. It also provides some provocative thoughts on how direct current transmission might be applied to better utilize and expand our nation`s increasingly stressed transmission assets.

  2. Alternative Assessment in Higher Education: An Experience in Descriptive Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libman, Zipora

    2010-01-01

    Assessment-led reform is now one of the most widely favored strategies to promote higher standards of teaching, more powerful learning and more credible forms of public accountability. Within this context of change, higher education in many countries is increasingly subjected to demands to implement alternative assessment strategies that provide…

  3. Assessment of alternatives to correct inventory difference statistical treatment deficiencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents an analysis of alternatives to correct deficiencies in the statistical treatment of inventory differences in the NRC guidance documents and licensee practice. Pacific Northwest Laboratory's objective for this study was to assess alternatives developed by the NRC and a panel of safeguards statistical experts. Criteria were developed for the evaluation and the assessment was made considering the criteria. The results of this assessment are PNL recommendations, which are intended to provide NRC decision makers with a logical and statistically sound basis for correcting the deficiencies

  4. Energy and global warming impacts of CFC alternative technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary objective of this study is to develop representative indications of the relative energy use, associated CO2 emissions, and total equivalent warming impact (TEWI) of viable options to replace CFCs in their major energy-related application areas. It was motivated, in part, by a concern that most attention to date has focused on the DIRECT global warming effect of CFC's and their alternatives, with adequate attention being paid to the INDIRECT effect of the CO2 emissions arising from the differences in energy consumption by systems using different alternatives. The DIRECT and INDIRECT contributions are combined in this analysis to determine the TEWI of the various technical options. The study is international in scope and takes into account significant differences in present CFC end-use practices, sources of energy, and other societal factors between Europe, Japan, and North America. This study should be considered an overview of key issues. The analysis addressed CFCs as well as alternative chemicals and technology alternatives in uses such as refrigeration, foam insulation, and metal and electronic cleaning and drying processes

  5. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power: report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume V. Economics and systems analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This assessment considers the economics of alternative nuclear reactor and fuel-cycle systems in the light of possible patterns of uranium supply and energy demand, as well as the economic implications of improving the proliferation resistance of the various systems. The assessment focuses on the costs of alternative nuclear technologies and the possible timing of their implementation, based on their economic attractiveness. The objectives of this assessment are to identify when economic incentives to deploy advanced nuclear power systems might exist, to estimate the costs of using technologies that would reduce the risk of proliferation, to assess the impact of major economic uncertainties on the transition to new technologies, and to compare the investments required for alternative systems. This information can then be used to assess the potential economic benefits of alternative research, development, and demonstration programs and the timing of those programs

  6. Towards Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment of Alternative Passenger Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Nuri Cihat Onat; Murat Kucukvar; Omer Tatari

    2014-01-01

    Sustainable transportation and mobility are key components and central to sustainable development. This research aims to reveal the macro-level social, economic, and environmental impacts of alternative vehicle technologies in the U.S. The studied vehicle technologies are conventional gasoline, hybrid, plug-in hybrid with four different all-electric ranges, and full battery electric vehicles (BEV). In total, 19 macro level sustainability indicators are quantified for a scenario in which elect...

  7. Systems Dynamics Use for Technologies Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Ginters, Egils; Barkane, Zane; Vincent, Hugues

    2010-01-01

    International audience Elaboration and introduction of a new technology is a complex and expensive task therefore it is necessary to assess the set of factors influencing the future of technology during the stages of technology emergence and development. The most important parameters of assessment are acceptance and sustainability of technology. Different models exist, but mostly they are static and do not offer possibilities for dynamic assessment in real time and do not forecast the sust...

  8. Technology-assisted dietary assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fengqing; Mariappan, Anand; Boushey, Carol J.; Kerr, Deb; Lutes, Kyle D.; Ebert, David S.; Delp, Edward J.

    2008-02-01

    Dietary intake provides valuable insights for mounting intervention programs for prevention of disease. With growing concern for adolescent obesity, the need to accurately measure diet becomes imperative. Assessment among adolescents is problematic as this group has irregular eating patterns and have less enthusiasm for recording food intake. Preliminary studies among adolescents suggest that innovative use of technology may improve the accuracy of diet information from young people. In this paper, we propose a novel food record method using a mobile device that will provide an accurate account of daily food and nutrient intake among adolescents. Our approach includes the use of image analysis tools for identification and quantification of food consumption. Images obtained before and after food is consumed can be used to estimate the diet of an individual. In this paper we describe our initial results and indicate the potential of the proposed system.

  9. Technology assessment using NBIC convergence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technologies' has considerably influenced scientific and social thinking about the future, there are several active debates in progress. The first being about the future of technologies and their relations to humans as nanoscale materials and systems provide the means to probe cells and provide basis for human performance augmentation - hence contributing to the formation of political and public opinion on societal aspects of science and technology. Such debates have lead to socio-political and ethical issues that transcend academic disciplinary borders that are rooted outside of the scientific arena. Thus it necessitates, inter- and often trans-disciplinary research to contribute effectively to these formative process. Such concerns are independently addressed using studies relating to toxicology, fate, transport, and bioavailability of nanomaterials, as well as human exposures to these materials. On another front, the debate is on the future of the scientific disciplines and visions about technological developments. Such predictions often relate to human way of life, environmental and international security, and are used by scientists, engineers, managers, policymakers, media, philosophers and authors - all with different interpretations. We present balanced, yet strategic assessments and recommendations of revolutionary scientific breakthroughs in multidisciplinary environments based on the NBIC convergence approach. Technology roadmaps are cautiously formulated based on extensive research, expert elicitation, and networking approaches to project 'future scenarios' realistically and epistemologically. Such roadmaps enable development of transformative tools and methodologies that fill fundamental knowledge gaps, and change culture in academia to foster collaboration, thus providing unique solutions. It is expected that the synergy arising from converging technologies and research methodologies at the IASC will leverage emerging and potentially transformative studies. The

  10. Comparative evaluation of energy efficiency and GHG emissions for alternate iron- and steelmaking process technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Gordon, Y.; Kumar, S; Freislich, M.; Yaroshenko, Yu.

    2014-01-01

    In the changing global market scenario for raw materials for the steel industry, a number of novel iron- and steelmaking process technologies are being developed to provide the steel companies with economically-sustainable alternatives for iron- and steel-making. In addition, the steel industry is also focusing on reduction of energy consumption as well as green-house gas (GHG) emissions to address the crucial subject of climate change. In this context, it is important to assess these critica...

  11. Ethical perspectives on health technology assessment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Have, H.A.M.J. ten

    2004-01-01

    This study analyses why ethical aspects play a minor role in health technology assessment (HTA) studies, even when comprehensive approaches of technology assessment are advocated. Technology is often regarded as a value-neutral tool. At the same time, bioethics is dominated by an engineering model.

  12. Usefulness of alternative integrative assessment methodologies in public decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many diverse social, economic, and environmental effects are associated with each of the available energy development alternatives. The assessment of the costs, risks, and benefits of these energy development options is an important function of the U. S. Department of Energy. This task is more difficult when no single alternative is better than the others in all respects. This paper compares benefit-cost and multi-attribute utility analysis as decision aids for these more difficult and more common assessment cases. PNL has developed expertise in making these assessments through its involvement since the Calvert Cliffs decision in both the preparation of Environmental Impact Statements and the development of methods to make these statements more thorough and responsive to the spirit of the National Environmental Protection Act (NEPA). Since 1973 PNL has had continuing efforts to quantify, value, and compare all of the major factors which influence the overall impacts of energy development options. An important part of this work has been the measurement and incorporation of the relative values which community groups place on these conflicting factors. Such difficult assessment problems could be approached in many ways including the use of benefit-cost or multi-attribute utility analysis. This paper addresses the following questions: (1) Should an integrative assessment methodology be used for the overall assessment of these costs, risks, and benefits. (2) If an integrative assessment methodology is to be used, what alternative methods are available and what should be the basis for selecting a method. (3) Is it possible to use one of the available alternatives for one portion of the assessment and another for another portion of the assessment. The answers to these questions presented in this report are applicable to most public decision problems

  13. Fusion reactor technology impact of alternate fusion fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The initial results of a study carried out to assess some of the technology implications of non-D-T fusion fuel cycles are presented. The primary emphasis in this paper is on D-D, catalyzed-D and D-3He fuel cycles. Tokamaks and field-reversed mirrors have been selected as sample confinement concepts. The technology areas considered include first wall design considerations, shielding requirements, fuel cycle requirements and some safety and environmental considerations. Conclusions resulting from the study are also presented

  14. Assessing Elementary Pupils' Attitudes Toward Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Holter, Charlotte Ann

    2016-01-01

    Making all US citizens technologically literate necessitates investigation into how to achieve this literacy. The Standards for Technological Literacy: Content for the Study of Technology (STL) is intentional about ensuring technological literacy in all students. Instilling this knowledge in elementary students is an emerging field that requires assessment tools that conveys understanding into what student attitudes are about technology and technological concepts. Developing appropriate techn...

  15. Technology Development on Alternate Source Term Analysis and Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Source term presented in TID-14844 and Regulatory Guide 1.4 has been used to estimate radiation dose from design basis accidents. However, a more realistic and physically-based source term, alternate source term, has been developed and presented in NUREG-1465 and Regulatory Guide 1.183. In addition, the concept and criteria of radiological dose estimation has been changed through the serial publications of ICRP-9, 26, and 60. In ICRP-60, ICRP introduced effective dose concept in stead of dose concept based on critical organ and whole body since the publication of ICRP-9. Korean regulatory authority is planning to issue the new regulation to adopt the alternate source term and the effective dose concept to radiation dose analysis for design basis accidents. As a measure for the issuance of the new regulation, the application methodology of alternate source term and effective dose for design basis accidents was established and merged to the computer program called DBADOSE. This program was verified in accordance with the verification procedure. The result of calculation by DBADOSE showed small difference of less than 5% in comparison with the result of STARDOSE which was developed by Polestar Applied Technology, Inc. Kori Units 3,4 was selected as a pilot plant to apply the alternate source term and the effective dose. The margins to licensing criteria were reanalyzed for design basis accidents. As a result of this application, it was assured that current design of Kori Units 3,4 has enough margins and design simplification were proposed. (authors)

  16. Issues in health technology assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In general, the main justification for the provision of health services is to improve the health of individuals and populations. Some experts focus on other goals for the health care systems, such as promoting health care innovation and increasing employment. Information on the efficacy of a diagnostic or therapeutic procedure has become more widely available during the last 25 years, both through increased research and increased availability of data based on, e.g. the Cochrane Collaboration and the Health Technology Assessment Database (INAHTA). At the same time, the most relevant information is often in proprietary hands, that is, in private organizations such as the manufacturing industry or in organizations that collect health information. The American Food and Drug Administration routinely assesses efficacy of devices and makes this information openly accessible. Unfortunately, the European Union focuses on trade issues, including innovation, and does not have a strong focus on public health. Competition for health care resources is a major concern even in segments of the population living in the richest countries. The problem of limited resources is, of course, much more pronounced in poor countries, in particular in the poorest countries. Although cost effectiveness of health care is very important conceptually, data are often not available. Cost effectiveness is often developed within the context of national needs and is very difficult to transfer to other jurisdictions. In addition, data on cost effectiveness are often not available to compare different options in health care. There is thus enormous scope for such studies in the future. Broader issues, such as health care organization and morals and ethics are also important. For example, is it ethical to promote advanced technology in poor countries that cannot provide even basic health care services? Is it ethical for researchers to overlook the basic needs of poor countries when working on

  17. Alternative Assessment Techniques for Blended and Online Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litchfield, Brenda C.; Dempsey, John V.

    2013-01-01

    Alternative assessment techniques are essential for increasing student learning in blended and online courses. Rather than simply answer multiple-choice questions, students can choose activities in an academic contract. By using a contract, students will be active participants in their own learning. Contracts add a dimension of authenticity to…

  18. Alternative Assessment: Directed Creative Writing for Intermediate Level Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidalgo, Reyes I.

    Use of a directed creative writing exercise to assess intermediate language students' skills is discussed. The technique was developed for second-year college Spanish instruction as an alternative to conventional writing tests in which anxiety or lack of motivation may inhibit performance. Differences in the nature of language skills (listening,…

  19. Building Information Modelling Incorporating Technology Based Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Maurice; Scott, Lloyd

    2011-01-01

    Building Information Modelling (BIM) is currently being developed as a virtual learning tool for construction and surveying students in the Dublin Institute of Technology. This advanced technology is also used to develop a technology based assessment practice for enhancing the learning environment of construction and surveying students. A theoretical design framework is presented in this paper, which combines advanced technology and assessment theory to create a virtual learning environment. ...

  20. Alternative alkali resistant deNO{sub x} technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buus Kristensen, S.; Due-Hansen, J.; Putluru, S.S.R.; Kunov-Kruse, A.; Fehrmann, R.; Degn Jensen, A.

    2011-04-15

    The aim of the project is to identify, make and test possible alkali resistant deNO{sub x} catalysts for use in biomass, waste or fossil fuelled power plants, where the flue gas typically has a high level of potassium compounds, which rapidly de-activate the traditional V{sub 2}O{sub 5}/TiO{sub 2} catalyst. Furthermore, new technologies are investigated based on a protective coating of the catalyst elements and selective reversible absorption of NO{sub x} with ionic liquids. Several promising alternative deNO{sub x} catalyst types have been made during the project: 1) V, Fe, CU based nano-TiO{sub 2} and nano-TiO{sub 2}-SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} catalysts; 2) V/ZrO{sub 2}-SO{sub 2}- and V/ZrO{sub 2}-CeO{sub 2} catalysts; V, Fe, Cu based Zeolite catalysts; 4) V, Fe, Cu based Heteropoly acid catalysts. Several of these are promising alternatives to the state-of the art industrial reference catalyst. All catalysts prepared in the present project exhibit higher to much higher alkali resistance compared to the commercial reference. Furthermore, two catalysts, i.e. 20 wt% V{sub 2}O-3-TiO{sub 2} nano-catalyst and the 4 wt% CuO-Mordenite zeolite based catalyst have also a higher initial SCR activity compared to the commercial one before alkali poisoning. Thus, those two catalysts might be attractive for SCR deNO{sub x} purposes even under ''normal'' fuel conditions in power plants and elsewhere making them strong candidates for further development. These efforts regarding all the promising catalysts will be pursued after this project has expired through a one year Proof of Concept project granted by the Danish Agency for Science, Technology and Innovation. Also the severe rate of deactivation due to alkali poisons can be avoided by coating the vanadium catalyst with Mg. Overall, the protective coating of SCR catalysts developed in the project seems promising and a patent application has been filed for this technology. Finally, a completely different approach to

  1. OUTCOMES OF ALTERNATIVE ASSESSMENT IN ADULT LANGUAGE TRAINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brândușa Elena Octavia ȚEICAN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to highlight the switch from traditional assessment to alternative, formative assessment, in other words assessment for learning, in adult language training. We focused on two aspects of formative assessment: self-assessment and peer-assessment, methods that can be used as teaching tools in communicative language teaching in adult English classes. Reportedly, these methods lead to improved results in language learning and production, as well as in motivation and self-esteem. Based on previous studies, our aim is to present how frequent employment of formative feedback based on adult opinions and perceptions – obtained via informal interviews – and tailored to their needs, result in improved learner outcome.

  2. Establishment of Health Technology Assessment in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shila Doaee

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Health Technology Assessment (HTA aims at informing healthcare policymakers, managers and practitioners of the "clinical consequences, but also the economic, ethical, and other social implications of the diffusion and use of a specific procedure or technique on medical practice". So considering the policy-oriented nature of HTA that calls for a close integration into the functioning and governance of health systems the present study focuses on executive processes and function of the HTA office of Iran.Materials and methods: Data of this review study were collected through documented sources and observations from 2007 to 2010.Results: Health Technology Assessment began its activities as a secretariat in the Deputy of Health in 2007 and it continues as a Health Technology Assessment Office at the Management of Health Technology Assessment, Standardization, and Tariff at the Deputy of curative affairs of MOHME in the beginning of 2010.14 Technology of modern medical equipment and 8 pharmaceutical medicine are assessed, Now many of measures for HTA establishment  such as cooperation National Institute of Health Research (NIHR, Holding scientific committee meetings, Establishing  the  Master's degree of  health technology assessment ,Building capacities for health technology assessment through education in major universities of the country.Conclusion: pay attention to health technology assessment, selection and application of proper technologies in the frameworks of policy-making and managerial strategies and make efforts to develop it with the support of the governmental in Iran is necessary.

  3. Electric car batteries: Avoiding the environmental drawbacks via alternative technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warlimont, Hans; Olper, Marco

    1996-07-01

    In this article, we address the question of whether air pollution resulting from the pyrometallurgical winning, recycling, and casting of lead for car batteries is a serious threat to the environmental acceptability of introducing electric cars. Specifically, we describe an alternative to pyrometallurgical processes—an electrochemical process called CX-EWS that can be used for the winning and recycling of lead. Also presented is a new manufacturing route for battery grids; it employs a combination of electroforming, the codeposition of dispersoids, and the electrowinning of spent batteries. The technology cannot only eliminate the casting of conventional or expanded metal grids but can also serve to reduce battery weight and, thus, increase energy density.

  4. Assessment of the impacts of spent fuel disassembly alternatives on the Nuclear Waste Isolation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this report was to evaluate four possible alternative methods of preparing and packaging spent fuel assemblies for geologic disposal against the Reference Process of unmodified spent fuel. The four alternative processes were: (1) End fitting removal, (2) Fission gas venting and resealing, (3) Fuel bundle disassembly and close packing of fuel pins, and (4) Fuel shearing and immobilization. Systems analysis was used to develop a basis of comparison of the alternatives. Conceptual processes and facility layouts were devised for each of the alternatives, based on technology deemed feasible for the purpose. Assessments were made of 15 principal attributes from the technical, operational, safety/risk, and economic considerations related to each of the alternatives, including both the surface packaging and underground repository operations. Specific attributes of the alternative processes were evaluated by assigning a number for each that expressed its merit relative to the corresponding attribute of the Reference Process. Each alternative process was then ranked by summing the numbers for attributes in each of the four assessment areas and collectively. Fuel bundle disassembly and close packing of fuel pins was ranked the preferred method of disposal of spent fuel. 63 references, 46 figures, 46 tables

  5. National Environmental Policy Act Hazards Assessment for the TREAT Alternative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd D. Christensen; Annette L. Schafer

    2013-11-01

    This document provides an assessment of hazards as required by the National Environmental Policy Act for the alternative of restarting the reactor at the Transient Reactor Test (TREAT) facility by the Resumption of Transient Testing Program. Potential hazards have been identified and screening level calculations have been conducted to provide estimates of unmitigated dose consequences that could be incurred through this alternative. Consequences considered include those related to use of the TREAT Reactor, experiment assembly handling, and combined events involving both the reactor and experiments. In addition, potential safety structures, systems, and components for processes associated with operating TREAT and onsite handling of nuclear fuels and experiments are listed. If this alternative is selected, a safety basis will be prepared in accordance with 10 CFR 830, “Nuclear Safety Management,” Subpart B, “Safety Basis Requirements.”

  6. National Environmental Policy Act Hazards Assessment for the TREAT Alternative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd D. Christensen; Annette L. Schafer

    2014-02-01

    This document provides an assessment of hazards as required by the National Environmental Policy Act for the alternative of restarting the reactor at the Transient Reactor Test (TREAT) facility by the Resumption of Transient Testing Program. Potential hazards have been identified and screening level calculations have been conducted to provide estimates of unmitigated dose consequences that could be incurred through this alternative. Consequences considered include those related to use of the TREAT Reactor, experiment assembly handling, and combined events involving both the reactor and experiments. In addition, potential safety structures, systems, and components for processes associated with operating TREAT and onsite handling of nuclear fuels and experiments are listed. If this alternative is selected, a safety basis will be prepared in accordance with 10 CFR 830, “Nuclear Safety Management,” Subpart B, “Safety Basis Requirements.”

  7. Evaluating sub-national building-energy efficiency policy options under uncertainty: Efficient sensitivity testing of alternative climate, technological, and socioeconomic futures in a regional integrated-assessment model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Improving the energy efficiency of building stock, commercial equipment, and household appliances can have a major positive impact on energy use, carbon emissions, and building services. Sub-national regions such as the U.S. states wish to increase energy efficiency, reduce carbon emissions, or adapt to climate change. Evaluating sub-national policies to reduce energy use and emissions is difficult because of the large uncertainties in socioeconomic factors, technology performance and cost, and energy and climate policies. Climate change itself may undercut such policies. However, assessing all of the uncertainties of large-scale energy and climate models by performing thousands of model runs can be a significant modeling effort with its accompanying computational burden. By applying fractional–factorial methods to the GCAM-USA 50-state integrated-assessment model in the context of a particular policy question, this paper demonstrates how a decision-focused sensitivity analysis strategy can greatly reduce computational burden in the presence of uncertainty and reveal the important drivers for decisions and more detailed uncertainty analysis. - Highlights: • We evaluate building energy codes and standards for climate mitigation. • We use an integrated assessment model and fractional factorial methods. • Decision criteria are energy use, CO2 emitted, and building service cost. • We demonstrate sensitivity analysis for three states. • We identify key variables to propagate with Monte Carlo or surrogate models

  8. The Alternative Investment Market and the Financing of Technological Innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Visconti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Alternative Investment Market (AIM is characterized by the presence of numerous firms operating in sectors with a high rate of technological innovation. In this research we will deal with IPOs about companies active in the sector of Information Technology and Software & Computer Services. The purpose of the research is testing the market’s ability to attract the listing of new companies in these sectors and to examine the following questions: 1 Have the IPOs about economic sectors examined a concentration in specific periods? 2 Have firms’ average size, the average capital raised on the market and the share of capital on average placed with the initial offer, at the time of listing, changed during the analysed periods? We consider three periods. The first, from the birth of the market (1995 until the speculative bubble (2001, which follows the so-called dot.com boom. The second, from 2002 to 2007, beginning of the severe economic and financial crisis, and the third from 2008 until June 2013.

  9. Testing and assessment strategies, including alternative and new approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Otto A.

    2003-01-01

    ethical concern. However, irrespective of animal welfare it is an important aspect of the discipline of toxicology that the primary object is human health. The ideal testing and assessment strategy is simple to use all the available test methods and preferably more in laboratory animal species from which...... there are more than 100000 chemicals which are potential for human exposure, so the development of alternative testing and assessment strategies has taken place in the recent years. The toxicological evaluation should enable the society to cope with the simultaneous requirement of many chemicals for...

  10. Assessment of recycling or disposal alternatives for radioactive scrap metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, is participating with the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) is an evaluation of management alternatives for radioactive scarp metals. For this purpose, Argonne National Laboratory is assessing alternatives for radioactive scrap metals. For this purpose, Argonne National Laboratory is assessing environmental and societal implications of recycling and/or disposal process alternatives (with metal replacement). Findings will be presented in a report from the OECD Task Group. This paper focuses on the radiological risk assessment and dose estimate sensitivity analysis. A ''tiered'' concept for release categories, with and without use restrictions, is being developed. Within the tiers, different release limits may be indicated for specific groupings of radionuclides. Depending on the spectrum of radionuclides that are present and the level of residual activity after decontamination and/or smelting, the scrap may be released for unrestricted public use or for specified public uses, or it may be recycled within the nuclear industry. The conversatism of baseline dose estimates is examined, and both more realistic parameter values and protective measures for workers are suggested

  11. Development of other oil-alternative energy technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    Development efforts are being given on a large wind power generation system which has high reliability and economy and suits the actual situations in Japan. Verification tests will be conducted to establish control systems to realize load leveling against the increase in maximum power demand and the differences in demands between seasons, days and nights. Development will also be made on technologies for systems to operate devices optimally using nighttime power for household use. Solar light and heat energies will be introduced and used widely in housing to achieve efficient comprehensive energy utilization. Wastes, waste heat and unused energies locally available will be utilized to promote forming environment harmonious type energy communities. Photovoltaic and fuel cell power generation facilities will be installed on a trial basis to promote building a groundwork for full-scale installations. Photovoltaic power generation systems will be installed on actual houses to establish technologies to assess and optimize the load leveling effect. Attempts will be made on practical application of high-efficiency regional heat supply systems which utilize such unutilized energies as those from sea water and river water. Assistance will be given through preparing manuals on introduction of wastes power generation systems by local governments, and introduction of regional energy systems by using new discrete type power generation technologies and consumer-use cogeneration systems. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  12. Life Cycle Assessment of Slurry Management Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wesnæs, Marianne; Wenzel, Henrik; Petersen, Bjørn Molt

    This report contains the results of Life Cycle Assessments of two slurry management technologies - acidification and decentred incineration. The LCA foundation can be used by the contributing companies for evaluating the environmental sustainability of a specific technology from a holistic Life...... Cycle perspective. Through this the companies can evaluate the environmental benefits and disadvantages of introducing a specific technology for slurry management. From a societal perspective the results can contribute to a clarification of which slurry management technologies (or combination of...

  13. Health Technology Assessment and patient safety

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Mulcahy; Tom Walley

    2005-01-01

    Health Technology Assessment (HTA) is a process used to evaluate the clinical effectiveness and costeffectiveness of health technologies by a systematic review of clinical, economic, and utilization research.

    Despite widespread investment in patient safety technologies in the U.K., U.S., and elsewhere, little HTA has been done to establish the clinical or cost-effectiveness of these technologies. The HTA and patient safety literature suggests there are four categori...

  14. Technological risks - assessment and management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technological reliability of products, equipment and processes plays an ever increasing role in political motivation - and not only with respect to environmental questions. Present day hazard potential, risk acceptance and the estimation of the consequences of technical risks are dealt with on the basis of the past history of technological risks. The mechanisms for coping with these risks and the unavoidable ethical implications are then considered. (orig.)

  15. Independent Assessment of the Savannah River Site High-Level Waste Salt Disposition Alternatives Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of the Independent Project Evaluation (IPE) Team assessment of the Westinghouse Savannah River Company High-Level Waste Salt Disposition Systems Engineering (SE) Team's deliberations, evaluations, and selections. The Westinghouse Savannah River Company concluded in early 1998 that production goals and safety requirements for processing SRS HLW salt to remove Cs-137 could not be met in the existing In-Tank Precipitation Facility as currently configured for precipitation of cesium tetraphenylborate. The SE Team was chartered to evaluate and recommend an alternative(s) for processing the existing HLW salt to remove Cs-137. To replace the In-Tank Precipitation process, the Savannah River Site HLW Salt Disposition SE Team down-selected (October 1998) 140 candidate separation technologies to two alternatives: Small-Tank Tetraphenylborate (TPB) Precipitation (primary alternative) and Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) Nonelutable Ion Exchange (backup alternative). The IPE Team, commissioned by the Department of Energy, concurs that both alternatives are technically feasible and should meet all salt disposition requirements. But the IPE Team judges that the SE Team's qualitative criteria and judgments used in their down-selection to a primary and a backup alternative do not clearly discriminate between the two alternatives. To properly choose between Small-Tank TPB and CST Ion Exchange for the primary alternative, the IPE Team suggests the following path forward: Complete all essential R and D activities for both alternatives and formulate an appropriate set of quantitative decision criteria that will be rigorously applied at the end of the R and D activities. Concurrent conceptual design activities should be limited to common elements of the alternatives

  16. Independent Assessment of the Savannah River Site High-Level Waste Salt Disposition Alternatives Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. T. Case (DOE-ID); M. L. Renfro (INEEL)

    1998-12-01

    This report presents the results of the Independent Project Evaluation (IPE) Team assessment of the Westinghouse Savannah River Company High-Level Waste Salt Disposition Systems Engineering (SE) Team's deliberations, evaluations, and selections. The Westinghouse Savannah River Company concluded in early 1998 that production goals and safety requirements for processing SRS HLW salt to remove Cs-137 could not be met in the existing In-Tank Precipitation Facility as currently configured for precipitation of cesium tetraphenylborate. The SE Team was chartered to evaluate and recommend an alternative(s) for processing the existing HLW salt to remove Cs-137. To replace the In-Tank Precipitation process, the Savannah River Site HLW Salt Disposition SE Team downselected (October 1998) 140 candidate separation technologies to two alternatives: Small-Tank Tetraphenylborate (TPB) Precipitation (primary alternative) and Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) Nonelutable Ion Exchange (backup alternative). The IPE Team, commissioned by the Department of Energy, concurs that both alternatives are technically feasible and should meet all salt disposition requirements. But the IPE Team judges that the SE Team's qualitative criteria and judgments used in their downselection to a primary and a backup alternative do not clearly discriminate between the two alternatives. To properly choose between Small-Tank TPB and CST Ion Exchange for the primary alternative, the IPE Team suggests the following path forward: Complete all essential R and D activities for both alternatives and formulate an appropriate set of quantitative decision criteria that will be rigorously applied at the end of the R and D activities. Concurrent conceptual design activities should be limited to common elements of the alternatives.

  17. Health and safety implications of alternative energy technologies. II. Solar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etnier, E. L.; Watson, A. P.

    1981-09-01

    No energy technology is risk free when all aspects of its utilization are taken into account. Every energy technology has some attendant direct and indirect health and safety concerns. Solar technologies examined in this paper are wind, ocean thermal energy gradients, passive, photovoltaic, satellite power systems, low- and high-temperature collectors, and central power stations, as well as tidal power. For many of these technologies, insufficient historical data are available from which to assess the health risks and environmental impacts. However, their similarities to other projects make certain predictions possible. For example, anticipated problems in worker safety in constructing ocean thermal energy conversion systems will be similar to those associated with other large-scale construction projects, like deep-sea oil drilling platforms. Occupational hazards associated with photovoltaic plant operation would be those associated with normal electricity generation, although for workers involved in the actual production of photovoltaic materials, there is some concern for the toxic effects of the materials used, including silicon, cadmium, and gallium arsenide. Satellite power systems have several unique risks. These include the effects of long-term space travel for construction workers, effects on the ozone layer and the attendant risk of skin cancer in the general public, and the as-yet-undetermined effects of long-term, low-level microwave exposure. Hazards may arise from three sources in solar heating and cooling systems: water contamination from corrosion inhibitors, heat transfer fluids, and bactericides; collector over-heating, fires, and “out-gassing” and handling and disposal of system fluids and wastes. Similar concerns exist for solar thermal power systems. Even passive solar systems may increase indoor exposure levels to various air pollutants and toxic substances, eitherdirectly from the solar system itself or indirectly by trapping released

  18. Bioleaching - an alternate uranium ore processing technology for India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meeting the feed supply of uranium fuel in the present and planned nuclear reactors calls for huge demand of uranium, which at the current rate of production, shows a mismatch. The processing methods at UCIL (DAE) needs to be modified/changed or re-looked into because of its very suitability in near future for low-index raw materials which are either unmined or stacked around if mined. There is practically no way to process tailings with still some values. Efforts were made to utilize such resources (low-index ore of Turamdih mines, containing 0.03% U3O8) by NML in association with UCIL as a national endeavor. In this area, the R and D work showed the successful development of a bioleaching process from bench scale to lab scale columns and then finally to the India's first ever large scale column, from the view point of harnessing such a processing technology as an alternative for the uranium industry and nuclear sector in the country. The efforts culminated into the successful operation of large scale trials at the 2 ton level column uranium bioleaching that was carried out at the site of UCIL, Jaduguda yielding a maximum recovery of 69% in 60 days. This achievement is expected to pave the way for scaling up the activity to a 100T or even more heap bioleaching trials for realization of this technology, which needs to be carried out with the support of the nuclear sector in the country keeping in mind the national interest. (author)

  19. The California Multimedia Risk Assessment Protocol for Alternative Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, T.; Ginn, T. R.; McKone, T. E.; Rice, D. W.

    2013-12-01

    Any new fuel in California requires approval by the state agencies overseeing human and environmental health. In order to provide a systematic evaluation of new fuel impacts, California now requires a multimedia risk assessment (MMRA) for fuel approval. The fuel MMRA involves all relevant state agencies including: the California Air Resources Board (CARB), the State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB), the Office of Environmental Health Hazards Assessment (OEHHA), and the Department of Toxic Substances Control (DTSC) overseen by the California Environmental Protection Agency (CalEPA). The lead agency for MMRAs is the CARB. The original law requiring a multimedia assessment is California Health and Safety Code 43830.8. In addition, the low carbon fuel standard (LCFS), the Global Warming Solutions Act (AB32), and the Verified Diesel Emission Control Strategy (VDECS) have provisions that can require a multimedia assessment. In this presentation, I give an overview of the California multimedia risk assessment (MMRA) for new fuels that has been recently developed and applied to several alternative fuels. The objective of the California MMRA is to assess risk of potential impacts of new fuels to multiple environmental media including: air, water, and soil. Attainment of this objective involves many challenges, including varying levels of uncertainty, relative comparison of incommensurate risk factors, and differing levels of priority assigned to risk factors. The MMRA is based on a strategy of relative risk assessment and flexible accommodation of distinct and diverse fuel formulations. The approach is tiered by design, in order to allow for sequentially more sophisticated investigations as knowledge gaps are identified and re-prioritized by the ongoing research. The assessment also involves peer review in order to provide coupling between risk assessment and stakeholder investment, as well as constructive or confrontational feedback. The multimedia assessment

  20. 1991-92 Canadian directory of efficiency and alternative energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1991-1992 Canadian Directory of efficiency and alternative energy technologies. The three main sections cover Alternative Energy Companies, Energy Efficiency Companies and Energy Service Companies. Contact and company information is provided

  1. Assessment of recycling or disposal alternatives for radioactive scrap metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, Oak Ridge Programs Division, is participating with the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development in providing analytical support for evaluation of management alternatives for radioactive scrap metals. For this purpose, Argonne National Laboratory is assessing environmental and societal implications of recycling and/or disposal process alternatives. This effort includes development of inventory estimates for contaminated metals; investigation of scrap metal market structure, processes, and trends; assessment of radiological and nonradiological effects of recycling; and investigation of social and political factors that are likely to either facilitate or constrain recycling opportunities. In addition, the option of scrap metal disposal is being assessed, especially with regard to the environmental and health impacts of replacing these metals if they are withdrawn from use. This paper focuses on the radiological risk assessment and dose estimate sensitivity analysis. A open-quotes tieredclose quotes concept for release categories, with and without use restrictions, is being developed. Within the tiers, different release limits may be indicated for specific groupings of radionuclides. Depending on the spectrum of radionuclides that are present and the level of residual activity after decontamination and/or smelting, the scrap may be released for unrestricted public use or for specified public uses, or it may be recycled within the nuclear industry. The conservatism of baseline dose estimates is examined, and both more realistic parameter values and protective measures for workers are suggested

  2. Social Shaping in Danish Technology Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Grethe; Clausen, Christian

    2003-01-01

    The term ‘social shaping of technology’ has been used broadly as a response to techno-economic deterministic understandings of the relations between technology and society. Social shaping has brought together analysts from different backgrounds who share a common interest in the role of social and...... these projects contributed to new insights into the processes of technological change and thus to policy formulation. The social shaping perspective and technology assessment experiences are suggested as important guides to future technology strategies....... political action for technology change. The authors of this article suggest that the social shaping perspective draws on lessons from technology assessments of earlier decades, lessons about the role of technology debate, participation and democratic control. We suggest that these are important for...

  3. Total System Performance Assessment: Enhanced Design Alternative IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P.D. Mattie

    1999-06-23

    The purpose of this calculation is to document total system performance assessment modeling of Enhanced Design Alternative (EDA) Feature IV. Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) calculations for EDA IV are based on the TSPA-VA Base Case which has been modified with a quartz sand invert, quartz sand backfill, line loading and 21 PWR waste packages that have 2-cm thick titanium grade 7 corrosion resistant material (CRM) drip shields that are placed over a 30 cm thick carbon steel (A5 16) waste package with an integral filler material (CRWMS M&O 1999a & 1999b). This document details the changes and assumptions made to the VA reference Performance Assessment Model (CRWMS M&O 1998a) to incorporate the design changes detailed for EDA IV. The performance measure for this evaluation is the expected value dose-rate history at 20 km from the repository boundary.

  4. Civil Engineering Technology Needs Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakland Community Coll., Farmington, MI. Office of Institutional Planning and Analysis.

    In 1991, a study was conducted by Oakland Community College (OCC) to evaluate the need for a proposed Civil Engineering Technology program. An initial examination of the literature focused on industry needs and the job market for civil engineering technicians. In order to gather information on local area employers' hiring practices and needs, a…

  5. Advanced Electrochemical Technologies for Hydrogen Production by Alternative Thermochemical Cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lvov, Serguei; Chung, Mike; Fedkin, Mark; Lewis, Michele; Balashov, Victor; Chalkova, Elena; Akinfiev, Nikolay; Stork, Carol; Davis, Thomas; Gadala-Maria, Francis; Stanford, Thomas; Weidner, John; Law, Victor; Prindle, John

    2011-01-06

    Hydrogen fuel is a potentially major solution to the problem of climate change, as well as addressing urban air pollution issues. But a key future challenge for hydrogen as a clean energy carrier is a sustainable, low-cost method of producing it in large capacities. Most of the world's hydrogen is currently derived from fossil fuels through some type of reforming processes. Nuclear hydrogen production is an emerging and promising alternative to the reforming processes for carbon-free hydrogen production in the future. This report presents the main results of a research program carried out by a NERI Consortium, which consisted of Penn State University (PSU) (lead), University of South Carolina (USC), Tulane University (TU), and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). Thermochemical water decomposition is an emerging technology for large-scale production of hydrogen. Typically using two or more intermediate compounds, a sequence of chemical and physical processes split water into hydrogen and oxygen, without releasing any pollutants externally to the atmosphere. These intermediate compounds are recycled internally within a closed loop. While previous studies have identified over 200 possible thermochemical cycles, only a few have progressed beyond theoretical calculations to working experimental demonstrations that establish scientific and practical feasibility of the thermochemical processes. The Cu-Cl cycle has a significant advantage over other cycles due to lower temperature requirements – around 530 °C and below. As a result, it can be eventually linked with the Generation IV thermal power stations. Advantages of the Cu-Cl cycle over others include lower operating temperatures, ability to utilize low-grade waste heat to improve energy efficiency, and potentially lower cost materials. Another significant advantage is a relatively low voltage required for the electrochemical step (thus low electricity input). Other advantages include common chemical agents and

  6. Reactor technology assessment and selection utilizing systems engineering approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full-text: The first Nuclear power plant (NPP) deployment in a country is a complex process that needs to consider technical, economic and financial aspects along with other aspects like public acceptance. Increased interest in the deployment of new NPPs, both among newcomer countries and those with expanding programs, necessitates the selection of reactor technology among commercially available technologies. This paper reviews the Systems Decision Process (SDP) of Systems Engineering and applies it in selecting the most appropriate reactor technology for the deployment in Malaysia. The integrated qualitative and quantitative analyses employed in the SDP are explored to perform reactor technology assessment and to select the most feasible technology whose design has also to comply with the IAEA standard requirements and other relevant requirements that have been established in this study. A quick Malaysian case study result suggests that the country reside with PWR (pressurized water reactor) technologies with more detailed study to be performed in the future for the selection of the most appropriate reactor technology for Malaysia. The demonstrated technology assessment also proposes an alternative method to systematically and quantitatively select the most appropriate reactor technology. (author)

  7. Assessing medical technologies in development - A new paradigm of medical technology assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hummel, MJM; van Rossum, W; Verkerke, GJ; Rakhorst, G

    2000-01-01

    Objective: Our study aims to provide a practical contribution to the field of medical technology assessment within a new paradigm. This paradigm indicates the need for more comprehensive technology assessments in the development stage of a new technology. Method: We introduce a method, based on Saat

  8. Seeing Technology Assessment with New Eyes

    OpenAIRE

    Krom, André; Ganzevles, Jurgen; Nentwich, Michael; van Est, Rinie

    2015-01-01

    In: Klüver/Nielsen/Jørgensen (Eds.), 2015, Policy-Oriented Technology Assessment Across Europe. Expanding Capacities; London: Palgrave Pivot; 18-36.Van Est et al. present a 'relational' model for analysing technology assessment (TA) institutions. Expanding on metaphor of TA as a bridge between science, society and policy, the authors describe how such bridges are established in terms of network relations. European TA institutions in various ways link parliaments and governments with civil soc...

  9. Strategic technology assessment of organic photovoltaics

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastien, Lizin

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation aims at answering the question: “Are organic photovoltaics in its current state a way to pursue for public institutes targeting technology transfer?”. To this end, a strategic technology assessment approach has been applied to gain insights from the supply side (chapter 2), the social desirability (chapter 3), and the demand side of technology creation (chapters 4 – 5). This dissertation, for the first time, combines insights from these three angles to provide an answer on o...

  10. Preliminary screening of alternative technologies to incineration for treatment of chemical-agent-contaminated soil, Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shem, L.M.; Rosenblatt, D.H.; Smits, M.P.; Wilkey, P.L.; Ballou, S.W.

    1995-12-01

    In support of the U.S. Army`s efforts to determine the best technologies for remediation of soils, water, and structures contaminated with pesticides and chemical agents, Argonne National Laboratory has reviewed technologies for treating soils contaminated with mustard, lewisite, sarin, o-ethyl s-(2- (diisopropylamino)ethyl)methyl-phosphonothioate (VX), and their breakdown products. This report focuses on assessing alternatives to incineration for dealing with these contaminants. For each technology, a brief description is provided, its suitability and constraints on its use are identified, and its overall applicability for treating the agents of concern is summarized. Technologies that merit further investigation are identified.

  11. Small Wind Turbine Technology Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The result of the study carried out under the scope of the ATYCA project Test Plant of Wind Systems for Isolated Applications, about the state of art of the small wind turbine technology (wind turbines with swept area smaller than 40 m2) is presented. The study analyzes the collected information on 60 models of wind turbines from 23 manufacturers in the worldwide market. Data from Chinese manufacturers, that have a large participation in the total number of small wind turbines in operation, are not included, due to the unavailability of the technical information. (Author) 15 refs

  12. The Expert Panel's Framework for Assessing the Quality of Educational Technology Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Marshall S.; Casserly, Catherine M.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the framework developed by the Expert Panel on Educational Technology, considers the tradeoffs of its broad-based approach, and presents an alternative model for assessing educational technology programs. Discusses what can be expected from educational technology programs; how educational change occurs; barriers to effective technology…

  13. An environmental assessment system for environmental technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clavreul, Julie; Baumeister, Hubert; Christensen, Thomas Højlund;

    2014-01-01

    A new model for the environmental assessment of environmental technologies, EASETECH, has been developed. The primary aim of EASETECH is to perform life-cycle assessment (LCA) of complex systems handling heterogeneous material flows. The objectives of this paper are to describe the EASETECH...

  14. Assessment and Learning Technologies: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Treasa; Rushby, Nick

    2016-01-01

    Assessment pervades the learning process. This paper provides an overview of the application of technology to support and enhance diagnostic, formative and summative assessment. The focus is on examining how it can replace what already exists, improve the functionality, catalyse a redesign of the process and in some circumstances, make possible…

  15. A research needs assessment: Energy efficient alternatives to chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). Final reprot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-01

    An assessment of the state of the art in refrigeration and insulation technologies is carried out to evaluate the potential for efficient substitutes for CFCs and HCFCs to facilitate the transition to a CFC-free environment. Opportunities for improved efficiency in domestic refrigeration, building chillers, commercial refrigeration and industrial refrigeration are evaluated. Needs for alternate refrigerants, improved components, and/or alternate cycles are identified. A summary of on-going research is presented in each area, and the potential roles of industry and government are considered. The most promising approaches for refrigeration technology fall into these categories: (1) improved vapor compressor cycles with alternate fluids, (2) Stirling cycle development and (3) advances in absorption technology. A summary of on-going research into advanced insulation, focused on vacuum -- based insulation technology refrigeration is developed. Insulation applications considered include appliances, transport refrigeration, and buildings. Specific recommendations for a long-term R&D agenda are present. The potential benefits, research, general approach, and probability of success are addressed.

  16. Information Technology Assessment Study: Full Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, John (Editor)

    2002-01-01

    A team was formed to assess NASA Office of Space Science (OSS) information technology research and development activities. These activities were reviewed for their relevance to OSS missions, for their potential for using products better supplied by industry or other government agencies, and for recommending an information technology (IT) infusion strategy for appropriate products for OSS missions. Assessment scope and methodology are presented. IT needs and interests for future OSS missions and current NASA IT research and development (R&D) are discussed. Non-NASA participants provide overviews of some of their IT R&D programs. Implementation and infusion issues and the findings and recommendations of the assessment team are presented.

  17. Health technology assessment. Evaluation of biomedical innovative technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchetti, Giuseppe; Spadoni, Enza; Geisler, Eliezer Elie

    2010-01-01

    This article describes health technology assessment (HTA) as an evaluation tool that applies systematic methods of inquiry to the generation and use of health technologies and new products. The focus of this article is on the contributions of HTA to the management of the new product development effort in the biomedical organization. Critical success factors (CSFs) are listed, and their role in assessing success is defined and explained. One of the conclusions of this article is that HTA is a powerful tool for managers in the biomedical sector, allowing them to better manage their innovation effort in their continuing struggle for competitiveness and survival. PMID:20659860

  18. Testing and assessment strategies, including alternative and new approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Otto

    2003-04-11

    The object of toxicological testing is to predict possible adverse effect in humans when exposed to chemicals whether used as industrial chemicals, pharmaceuticals or pesticides. Animal models are predominantly used in identifying potential hazards of chemicals. The use of laboratory animals raises ethical concern. However, irrespective of animal welfare it is an important aspect of the discipline of toxicology that the primary object is human health. The ideal testing and assessment strategy is simple to use all the available test methods and preferably more in laboratory animal species from which we get as many data as possible in order to obtain the most extensive database for the toxicological evaluation of a chemical. Consequently, the society has decided that certain group of chemicals should be tested accordingly. However, realising that, this idea is not obtainable in practice because there are more than 100000 chemicals which are potential for human exposure, so the development of alternative testing and assessment strategies has taken place in the recent years. The toxicological evaluation should enable the society to cope with the simultaneous requirement of many chemicals for different uses and of the absence of health problems involved with their use. Thus, the regulatory toxicology is a cocktail of science and pragmatism added a crucial concern for animal welfare. Test methods are most often used in a testing sequence as bricks in a testing strategy. The main key driving forces for introducing assessment and testing strategies e.g. using a limited number of tests and/or alternative test methods are: (a) animal welfare considerations; (b) new scientific knowledge i.e. introducing tests for new endpoints and tests for better understanding of mode of action; and (c) lack of testing capacity/reduction of required resources economically as well as time wise. PMID:12676447

  19. Assessment of Alternative Funding Mechanisms for the IAEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toomey, Christopher; Wyse, Evan T.; Kurzrok, Andrew J.; Ford, Benjamin E.

    2012-06-15

    While the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has enjoyed substantial success and prestige in the international community, there is growing concern that global demographic trends, advances in technology and the trend towards austerity in Member State budgets will stretch the Agency’s resources to a point where it may no longer be possible to execute its multifaceted mission in its entirety. As part of an ongoing effort by the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative to evaluate the IAEA’s long-term budgetary concerns , this paper proposes a series of alternate funding mechanisms that have the potential to sustain the IAEA in the long-term, including endowment, charity, and fee-for-service funding models.

  20. Towards Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment of Alternative Passenger Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuri Cihat Onat

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable transportation and mobility are key components and central to sustainable development. This research aims to reveal the macro-level social, economic, and environmental impacts of alternative vehicle technologies in the U.S. The studied vehicle technologies are conventional gasoline, hybrid, plug-in hybrid with four different all-electric ranges, and full battery electric vehicles (BEV. In total, 19 macro level sustainability indicators are quantified for a scenario in which electric vehicles are charged through the existing U.S. power grid with no additional infrastructure, and an extreme scenario in which electric vehicles are fully charged with solar charging stations. The analysis covers all life cycle phases from the material extraction, processing, manufacturing, and operation phases to the end-of-life phases of vehicles and batteries. Results of this analysis revealed that the manufacturing phase is the most influential phase in terms of socio-economic impacts compared to other life cycle phases, whereas operation phase is the most dominant phase in the terms of environmental impacts and some of the socio-economic impacts such as human health and economic cost of emissions. Electric vehicles have less air pollution cost and human health impacts compared to conventional gasoline vehicles. The economic cost of emissions and human health impact reduction potential can be up to 45% and 35%, respectively, if electric vehicles are charged through solar charging stations. Electric vehicles have potential to generate income for low and medium skilled workers in the U.S. In addition to quantified sustainability indicators, some sustainability metrics were developed to compare relative sustainability performance alternative passenger vehicles. BEV has the lowest greenhouse gas emissions and ecological land footprint per $ of its contribution to the U.S. GDP, and has the lowest ecological footprint per unit of its energy consumption. The

  1. Alternative Focal Spot Geometry for More Efficient HIFU Treatment Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, Elena; Chen, Jing; Medan, Yoav; Pauly, Kim Butts

    2010-03-01

    In this work a more time efficient approach for tissue assessment with MR-ARFI is proposed. During HIFU treatments gadolinium-free assessment of treated tissue is highly desirable. MR-ARFI allows measuring tissue displacement in the focal spot. Therefore raster-scanning the ultrasound focal spot through the tissue of interest can give information about tissue stiffness in the "probed" area. To enhance efficiency of such ultrasound "probing," we replaced a conventional point focus with a line focus that allows greater area coverage during MR-ARFI acquisitions. This approach was tested in a phantom and in ex vivo bovine muscle. The results of the study showed that the line focus produces a fairly uniform line shape focal spot in both temperature and displacement maps. Using one line focus position, the displacement maps obtained in the muscle tissue well depicted the difference in displacement in the area where lesion was created. This shows great potential for line focus geometry combined with MR-ARFI as an alternative treatment assessment technique.

  2. Assessing Students' Skills in Science & Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Orpwood, G

    2006-01-01

    This seminar is co-organised by the Centre for Information Technology in Education (CITE) and The Office of Research, Faculty of Education, HKU. The seminar will describe work in the Canadian province of Ontario to assess students skills in science and technology through a systematically constructed series of performance tasks. In addition, sets of "exemplars" of student performance were developed and are aviable in an on-line multi-media archive that will be shared with participants.

  3. Health-Care Technology Assessment in Radiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Deljou

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Health-care service provision and procurement is increasingly subject to policy decisions, managed more than ever before. Becoming more international, collaboration is increasing as the health professions, research and industry all work across borders. Differing health-care systems across the countries result from national and regional policy developments and priorities."nIn health-care, all interventions and procedures are basically technologies-including radiology and sur-gery, and technology assessment is mandatory to meet the national and professional goals in this sec-tor. "nHealth-care technology assessment (HTA is a systematic, broad-ranging evaluation of the implications of using technologies within a particular health-care system. Structured and evidence-based input are its aim for policymaking in order to inform the formulation of safe and effective health policies that are patient-focused and seek to achieve the best value in all health-care sectors, more specifically in the radiology department. The following headlines are the topics in our study:"n•Decisions Related to Health Technologies"n•Appraisal Entities and Corresponding As-sessment Units"n•Assessment, Appraisal and Decision-Making Institutions"n•HTA Agencies and Units in Radiology"n•Model of a Policy Process in Radiology"n•Factors that Influence Radiology Policy-Making"n•HTA Process"n•Different Levels of Health-Care Technolo-gies/Intervention

  4. Alternative deNO{sub x} catalysts and technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Due-Hansen, J.

    2010-06-15

    produced to evaluate the optimum mixing ratio. Based on these results, a monolith containing V{sub 2}O{sub 5}-SO{sub 4}2-ZrO{sub 2} in 25 wt% sepiolite was produced, and evaluated with respect to the influence of space velocity, reaction temperature, and NH{sub 3}/NO feed ratio on the NO reduction efficiency. The last part of this thesis deals with the non-catalytic sorption of NO{sub x} in ionic liquids, collected in chapter 5. Since no previous studies of the absorption of NO in ionic liquids have been reported, a preliminary study was conducted to identify suitable solvents. Two resulting imidazolium-based candidates, namely [BMIM]OAc and [BMIM]OTf, were selected due to their impressively high sorption capacities. Both solvents examined here revealed solubilities about twofold higher than those previously reported for e.g. CO{sub 2}-capture in ionic liquids. Especially the [BMIM]OAc demonstrated extraordinary absorption capabilities, being able to retain around four NO molecules per molecule ionic liquid. However, [BMIM]OTf exhibited promising behavior due to its reversible absorption/desorption properties. This in principle allows recycling of the ionic liquid as well as harvesting the NO. The accumulated NO could hereby be used in e.g. the synthesis of nitric acid allowing production of value-added chemicals from waste flue gas effluent. Although additional understanding of the mechanisms of the presented system is required, the perspective of a selective NO stripping technology is a very interesting alternative to the catalytic removal of NO from industrial flue gases. (Author)

  5. Independent Assessment of Technology Characterizations to Support the Biomass Program Annual State-of-Technology Assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, B.

    2011-03-01

    This report discusses an investigation that addressed two thermochemical conversion pathways for the production of liquid fuels and addressed the steps to the process, the technology providers, a method for determining the state of technology and a tool to continuously assess the state of technology. This report summarizes the findings of the investigation as well as recommendations for improvements for future studies.

  6. Information Technology Assessment Study: Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, John (Editor)

    2002-01-01

    A team was formed to assess NASA Office of Space Science (OSS) information technology research and development activities. These activities were reviewed for their relevance to OSS missions, for their potential for using products better supplied by industry or other government agencies, and for recommending an IT infusion strategy for appropriate products for OSS missions. Assessment scope and methodology and the findings and recommendations of OSS IT users and providers are presented.

  7. An environmental assessment system for environmental technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Clavreul, Julie; Baumeister, Hubert; Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Damgaard, Anders

    2014-01-01

    A new model for the environmental assessment of environmental technologies, EASETECH, has been developed. The primary aim of EASETECH is to perform life-cycle assessment (LCA) of complex systems handling heterogeneous material flows. The objectives of this paper are to describe the EASETECH framework and the calculation structure. The main novelties compared to other LCA software are as follows. First, the focus is put on material flow modelling, as each flow is characterised as a mix of mate...

  8. Sustainability assessment of advanced wastewater treatment technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høibye, Linda; Clauson-Kaas, Jes; Wenzel, Henrik;

    2008-01-01

    As a consequence of the EU Water Framework Directive more focus is now on discharges of hazardous substances from wastewater treatment plants and sewers. Thus, many municipalities in Denmark may have to adopt to future advanced treatment technologies. This paper describes a holistic assessment...... with advanced oxidation. The technical assessment is based on 12 hazardous substances comprising heavy metals, organic pollutants, endocrine disruptors as well as pathogenic microorganisms. The environmental assessment is performed by life cycle assessment (LCA) comprising 9 of the specific hazardous substances...... of sustainability, sand filtration is the most advantageous method based on the technical and environmental assessment due to the low energy consumption and high efficiency with regards to removal of heavy metals. Key words | advanced wastewater treatment, life cycle assessment, MBR, ozone treatment, sand...

  9. Cost-Benefit Analysis For Alternative Low-Emission Surface Preparation/ Depainting Technologies for Structural Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Pattie

    2007-01-01

    Stennis Space Center (SSC), Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Air Force Space Command (AFSPC) identified particulate emissions and waste generated from the depainting process of steel structures as hazardous materials to be eliminated or reduced. A Potential Alternatives Report, Potential Alternatives Report for Validation of Alternative Low Emission Surface Preparation/Depainting Technologies for Structural Steel, provided a technical analyses of identified alternatives to the current coating removal processes, criteria used to select alternatives for further analysis, and a list of those alternatives recommended for testing. The initial coating removal alternatives list was compiled using literature searches and stakeholder recommendations. The involved project participants initially considered approximately 13 alternatives. In late 2003, core project members selected the following depainting processes to be further evaluated: (1) Plastic Blast Media-Quickstrip(R)-A. (2) Hard Abrasive-Steel-Magic(R). (3) Sponge Blasting-Sponge-Jet(R). (4) Liquid Nitrogen-NItroJet(R). (5) Mechanical Removal with Vacuum Attachment-DESCO and OCM Clean-Air (6) Laser Coating Removal Alternatives were tested in accordance with the Joint Test Protocol for Validation of Alternative Low-Emission Surface Preparation/Depainting Technologies for Structural Steel, and the Field Evaluation Test Plan for Validation of Alternative Low-Emission Surface Preparation/Depainting Technologies for Structural Steel. Results of the testing are documented in the Joint Test Report. This Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) focuses on the three alternatives (Quickstrip(R)-A, SteelMagic (R), and Sponge-Jet(R)) that were considered viable alternatives for large area operations based on the results of the field demonstration and lab testing. This CBA was created to help participants determine if implementation of the candidate alternatives is economically justified. Each of the alternatives examined reduced Environmental

  10. Total System Performance Assessment: Enhanced Design Alternative V

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This calculation documents the total system performance assessment modeling of Enhanced Design Analysis (EDA) V. EDA V is based on the TSPA-VA base design which has been modified with higher thermal loading, a quartz sand invert, and line loading with 21 PWR waste packages that have 2-cm thick titanium grade 7 corrosion resistance material (CRM) drip shields placed over dual-layer waste packages composed of 'inside out' VA reference material (CRWMS M and O 1999a). This document details the changes and assumptions made to the VA reference Performance Assessment Model (CRWMS M and O 1998a) to incorporate the design changes detailed for EDA V. The performance measure for this evaluation is expected value dose-rate history. Time histories of dose rate are presented for EDA V and a Defense in Depth (DID) analysis base on EDA V. Additional details concerning the Enhanced Design Alternative II are provided in the 'LADS 3-12 Requests' interoffice correspondence (CRWMS M and O 1999a)

  11. High-level waste melter alternatives assessment report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) High-Level Waste (HLW) Program's (hereafter referred to as HLW Program) Melter Candidate Assessment Activity performed in fiscal year (FY) 1994. The mission of the TWRS Program is to store, treat, and immobilize highly radioactive Hanford Site waste (current and future tank waste and encapsulated strontium and cesium isotopic sources) in an environmentally sound, safe, and cost-effective manner. The goal of the HLW Program is to immobilize the HLW fraction of pretreated tank waste into a vitrified product suitable for interim onsite storage and eventual offsite disposal at a geologic repository. Preparation of the encapsulated strontium and cesium isotopic sources for final disposal is also included in the HLW Program. As a result of trade studies performed in 1992 and 1993, processes planned for pretreatment of tank wastes were modified substantially because of increasing estimates of the quantity of high-level and transuranic tank waste remaining after pretreatment. This resulted in substantial increases in needed vitrification plant capacity compared to the capacity of original Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP). The required capacity has not been finalized, but is expected to be four to eight times that of the HWVP design. The increased capacity requirements for the HLW vitrification plant's melter prompted the assessment of candidate high-capacity HLW melter technologies to determine the most viable candidates and the required development and testing (D and T) focus required to select the Hanford Site HLW vitrification plant melter system. An assessment process was developed in early 1994. This document describes the assessment team, roles of team members, the phased assessment process and results, resulting recommendations, and the implementation strategy

  12. Technology and assessment of neutron absorbing materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present review assesses more recent developments in the technology and application of those absorber materials which are considered to be established or to have shown potential in reactor control. Emphasis is placed on physical, chemical and metallurgical properties and upon irradiation behaviour. (author)

  13. Expanding the applicability of Heallth Technology Assessments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Draborg, Eva; Hansen, Helle Ploug

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the presentation is to expand the foundations of input into policy decision making relying on health technology assessments (HTA). HTAs are primarily based on systematic reviews (SR) and thereby mostly on randomized controlled trials (RCT). RCTs can be distinguished on a continuu...

  14. Biomass Gasification Technology Assessment: Consolidated Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worley, M.; Yale, J.

    2012-11-01

    Harris Group Inc. (HGI) was commissioned by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory to assess gasification and tar reforming technologies. Specifically, the assessments focused on gasification and tar reforming technologies that are capable of producing a syngas suitable for further treatment and conversion to liquid fuels. HGI gathered sufficient information to analyze three gasification and tar reforming systems. This report summarizes the equipment, general arrangement of the equipment, operating characteristics, and operating severity for each technology. The order of magnitude capital cost estimates are supported by a basis-of-estimate write-up, which is also included in this report. The report also includes Microsoft Excel workbook models, which can be used to design and price the systems. The models can be used to analyze various operating capacities and pressures. Each model produces a material balance, equipment list, capital cost estimate, equipment drawings and preliminary general arrangement drawings. Example outputs of each model are included in the Appendices.

  15. Environmental and economic comparisons of the satellite power system and six alternative energy technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, R. G.; Habegger, L. J.; Levine, E. P.; Tanzman, E.

    1981-04-01

    The satellite power system (SPS) was compared with alternative systems on life cycle cost and environmental impacts. Environmental and economic effects are evaluated and subdivided into the following issue areas: human health and safety, environmental welfare, resources (land, materials, energy, water, labor), macroeconomics, socioeconomics, and institutional. These evaluations are based on technology characterization data and alternative futures scenarios, developed as part of CDEP. The technologies and the scenarios are described. The cost and performance of the SPS and the alternative technologies provide the basis of the macroeconomic analyses.

  16. The Aluminum Smelting Process and Innovative Alternative Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Kvande, Halvor; Drabløs, Per Arne

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The industrial aluminum production process is addressed. The purpose is to give a short but comprehensive description of the electrolysis cell technology, the raw materials used, and the health and safety relevance of the process. Methods: This article is based on a study of the extensive chemical and medical literature on primary aluminum production. Results: At present, there are two main technological challenges for the process—to reduce energy consumption and to mitigate greenh...

  17. Assessment of Forest Road Network Alternatives for Pine Resin Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Budiaman

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Pine resin, one type of non-timber forest products (NTFPs, is important for Indonesia.   In addition to its high economic value, pine resin also has bright domestic and international market prospects.  Utilization of commercial pine resin has been carried out in Indonesia, but the forest road network required for extracting pine resin has not been specifically planned. To date, the planning and selection of forest road network  in  forest management in Indonesia are intended only for the extraction of  timber products and have not been integrated with the use of NTFPs; also,  they have not considered the economic, ecological, and social aspects a whole. Planning and selection of forest road network have focused more on economic aspects only. This study aimed at planning and assessing the forest road network for extracting pine resin by considering the economic, ecological, and social criteria.  Decision-making method used  to select the best  forest road network was utility analysis.  Indicator used  included road length, road density, a correction factor for manual carrying of pine resin, pine resin carrying distance, road construction cost, and productivity of carrying and extracting pine resin. The result of  the utility analysis indicates that an alternative of forest road network for extracting pine resin has no the whole best indicators, but it has the highest utility value.  This study suggested that the use of the utility analysis help the decision makers to selects process for forest  road network alternative easily and rapidly.Keywords: pine  resin,  forest  road network, utility analysis, non-timber  forest products  (NTFPs

  18. Alternatives to Industrial Work Placement at Dublin Institute of Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Bates, Catherine; Gamble, Elena

    2011-01-01

    In the current economic crisis, higher education graduates need transferable professional skills more than ever. They need resourcefulness, an ability to work reflectively, a sense of civic awareness and an impressive curriculum vitae. This case study analyses how Dublin Institute of Technology’s Programme for Students Learning With Communities provides cost-effective, sustainable solutions to these needs, offering an alternative to industrial work placement. Community-based learning and rese...

  19. Alternative energy technologies an introduction with computer simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Buxton, Gavin

    2014-01-01

    Introduction to Alternative Energy SourcesGlobal WarmingPollutionSolar CellsWind PowerBiofuelsHydrogen Production and Fuel CellsIntroduction to Computer ModelingBrief History of Computer SimulationsMotivation and Applications of Computer ModelsUsing Spreadsheets for SimulationsTyping Equations into SpreadsheetsFunctions Available in SpreadsheetsRandom NumbersPlotting DataMacros and ScriptsInterpolation and ExtrapolationNumerical Integration and Diffe

  20. Sustainability assessment of advanced wastewater treatment technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høibye, Linda; Clauson-Kaas, Jes; Wenzel, Henrik;

    2007-01-01

    As a consequence of the EU Water Framwork Directive, more focus is now on discharges of hazardous substances from wastewater treatment plants and sewers. Thus, many municipalities in Denmark may have to adopt to future advenced treatment technologies. This paper describes a holistic assessment...... with advanced oxidation. The technical assessment is based on 12 hazardous substances comprising heavy metals, organic pollutants, endocrine disruptors as well as pathogenic microorganisms. The environmental assessment is performed by life cycle assessment (LCA) comprising 9 of the specific hazardous substances...... of sustainability, sand filtration is the most advantageous method based on the technical and environmental assessment due to the low energy consumption and high efficiency with regard to the removal of heavy metals....

  1. Life cycle assessment of a conventional and plastic solar collector in alternative air-conditioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alternative solar systems include a large number of heat-and mass exchange apparatus (HMTA) with considerable size surfaces. Prequired for realization of the work processes. This result in the increase in the overall dimentions. and cost of the system. The possibility of using the principle of combining the working and auxiliary processes within the (HMTA) has been considred, and the calculation proving the working ability of the alternative system for solving the task of air-condition, obtaining comfort parameters by employing evaporative air-cooling methods only, and a solar system with flat solar collectors to provide for the absorbent regeneration, have been performed. The study shows the importance in using Live Cycle Assessment, study for renewable energy, technologies, where environmental performance is especially important.(Author)

  2. Economical-environmental assessment on technologies producing electric energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currently, the electric power industry is undergoing substantial regulatory and organizational change with respect to economical and environmental aspects. Under these circumstances, with utilization of analytic hierarchy process (AHP) concept, we consider the assessment of Technologies producing energy from financial and pollution viewpoint. AHP techniques is one of the efficient methods in analysis of complex and multi-criteria problems, which has plenty of applications. General pattern of this assessment has been introduced, and the main goal is determining of overall priority weights for each technology. With using this pattern, overall priority weights has been determined for thermal, combined cycle and Gas turbine plants. It has been cleared that relative priority of these plants will change, if relative priority of assessment criterions changes. For application of this approach, capital budgeting process and selection of some suitable technologies among the alternatives candidate for construction have been presented. In this process the objective is to maximize the sum of overall priority weights of technologies which have been identified from AHP. Constraints are about the construction budget and annual budget for emission allowances. This process is in the integer programming IP form an has been applied to three kind of power plants with reasonable assumptions

  3. Comparing energy technology alternatives from an environmental perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of individuals and organizations advocate the use of comparative, formal analysis to determine which are the safest methods for producing and using energy. Some have suggested that the findings of such analyses should be the basis upon which final decisions are made about whether to actually deploy energy technologies. Some of those who support formal comparative analysis are in a position to shape the policy debate on energy and environment. An opposing viewpoint is presented, arguing that for technical reasons, analysis can provide no definitive or rationally credible answers to the question of overall safety. Analysis has not and cannot determine the sum total of damage to human welfare and ecological communities from energy technologies. Analysis has produced estimates of particular types of damage; however, it is impossible to make such estimates comparable and commensurate across different classes of technologies and environmental effects. As a result of the deficiencies, comparative analysis connot form the basis of a credible, viable energy policy. Yet, without formal comparative analysis, how can health, safety, and the natural environment be protected. This paper proposes a method for improving the Nation's approach to this problem. The proposal essentially is that health and the environment should be considered as constraints on the deployment of energy technologies, constraints that are embodied in Government regulations. Whichever technologies can function within these constraints should then compete among themselves. This competition should be based on market factors like cost and efficiency and on political factors like national security and the questions of equity

  4. How to proceed with competing alternative energy technologies. A real options analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concerns about CO2 emissions create incentives for the development and deployment of energy technologies that do not use fossil fuels. Indeed, such technologies would provide tangible benefits in terms of avoided fossil-fuel costs, which are likely to increase as restrictions on CO2 emissions are imposed. However, a number of challenges need to be overcome prior to market deployment, and the commercialisation of alternative energy technologies may require a staged approach given price and technical risk. We analyse how a firm may proceed with staged commercialisation and deployment of competing alternative energy technologies. An unconventional new alternative technology is one possibility, where one could undertake cost-reducing production enhancement measures as an intermediate step prior to deployment. By contrast, the firm could choose to deploy a smaller-scale existing renewable energy technology, and, using the real options framework, we compare the two projects to provide managerial implications on how one might proceed. (author)

  5. Alternative administration routes and delivery technologies for polio vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraan, Heleen; van der Stel, Wanda; Kersten, Gideon; Amorij, Jean-Pierre

    2016-08-01

    Global polio eradication is closer than ever. Replacement of the live attenuated oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) by inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) is recommended to achieve complete eradication. Limited global production capacity and relatively high IPV costs compared to OPV spur the need for improved polio vaccines. The target product profile of these vaccines includes not only dose sparing but also high stability, which is important for stockpiling, and easy application important for (emergency) vaccination campaigns. In this review, the current status of alternative polio vaccine delivery strategies is given. Furthermore, we discuss the feasibility of these strategies by highlighting challenges, hurdles to overcome, and formulation issues relevant for optimal vaccine delivery. PMID:26912100

  6. Interim report on cold trap alternatives, sodium technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is an interim report on the modifications which are being made to an existing sodium loop so that a new method of removing hydrogen from sodium can be evaluated in a flowing sodium system. Some preliminary results on the performance of this type of cold trap alternative in a static sodium system are reported. Some tentative reactor design parameters for this type of getter device are presented based on the static test results. The life of such a unit is calculated to be substantially greater than that of a cold trap of equal volume

  7. Superfund TIO videos. Set C. Alternative Treatment Technology Information Center (ATTIC). Part 9. Audio-Visual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The videotape covers Alternative Treatment Technology Information Center (ATTIC) computer program and ways in which OSCs and RPMs can use ATTIC in their jobs. (Access to ATTIC for hands-on practice is recommended.)

  8. EMERGING TECHNOLOGY SUMMARY: ELECTRO-PURE ALTERNATING CURRENT ELECTROCOAGULATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program was authorized as part of the 1986 amendments to the Superfund legislation. It represents a joint effort between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Office of Research and Development and Office of Solid W...

  9. Knowledge Expansion in Engineering Education: Engineering Technology as an Alternative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamsiah Mohd Ismail

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The current and rising challenges in engineering education demand graduate engineers who are well-prepared to provide innovative solutions as technical specialists, system integrators and change agents. Realizing the importance of producing a highly competent manpower, the Malaysian Government has put considerable pressure to the universities to produce engineers who are competitive in the global market. Hence, this assignment of developing a highly competence engineering technologist workforce in support of the government policy highlights issues pertaining to the development and offering of practical-oriented programs as a knowledge expansion in engineering education at universities as envisioned by the Malaysian Government.  This paper evaluates the current scenario and examines the application-oriented programs of engineering technology education as practice in local institutions in Malaysia in comparisons to some universities abroad. It also investigates the challenges faced by university management in dealing with issues concerning national quality assurance and accreditation pertaining to the engineering technology education programs. Specifically, it analyzes the faculty planning of pedagogies in term of hands-on skills in teaching and learning. A key conclusion of this research is that Malaysian universities need to evaluate its engineering technology education strategies if they aim for quality assurance and accreditation to be established and aspire for successful attempts towards the creation of the requisite knowledge workers that Malaysia needs.Keywords: application-oriented, engineering education, engineering technology, hands-on skills, knowledge expansion 

  10. Technology Audit: Assessment of Innovative Portfolio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurushina Viktoria

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the features of the technological audit performing in the companies of oil and gas sector of Russian economy. To measure the innovations quality level the scale was developed based on the Theory of Inventive Problem Solving and the theory of technological structures. Figures of the innovations quantity by levels, volume and quality of the innovative portfolio are offered for assessment the innovative portfolio quality. The method was tested on an example of oil and gas transporting enterprises. The results of the comparative analysis of innovative portfolio are shown.

  11. Toward a Concept of Facilitative Theorizing: An Alternative to Prescriptive and Descriptive Theory in Educational Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanchar, Stephen C.; Faulconer, James E.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the concept of facilitative theorizing as an alternative to prescriptive and descriptive theory in educational technology. The authors contend that these traditional forms of theory do not offer sufficient assistance to practitioners as they go about everyday design work. Facilitative theorizing, as an alternative, is…

  12. INEEL Subsurface Disposal Area CERCLA-based Decision Analysis for Technology Screening and Remedial Alternative Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parnell, G. S.; Kloeber, Jr. J.; Westphal, D; Fung, V.; Richardson, John Grant

    2000-03-01

    A CERCLA-based decision analysis methodology for alternative evaluation and technology screening has been developed for application at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory WAG 7 OU13/14 Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA). Quantitative value functions derived from CERCLA balancing criteria in cooperation with State and Federal regulators are presented. A weighted criteria hierarchy is also summarized that relates individual value function numerical values to an overall score for a specific technology alternative.

  13. Guia Practica para una Evaluacion Alternativa (Practical Guide to Alternative Assessment).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Joan L.; Aschbacher, Pamela R.; Winters, Lynn

    Guidance is offered in Spanish on the creation and use of alternative assessment, and a process model is presented that links assessment with curriculum and instruction, based on contemporary theories of learning and cognition. The introductory chapter provides background on the purposes of assessment and the need for new alternatives, with an…

  14. Market Structure and the Penetration of Alternative Energy Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Tsur, Yacov; Zemel, Amos

    2009-01-01

    Energy market prices ignore external effects, hence miss-allocate energy generation between (polluting) fossil fuels and (clean) solar technologies. Correcting the failure requires understanding the market allocation forces at hand. An important feature of solar energy is that its cost of supply is predominantly due to upfront investments in capital infrastructure (rather than to the actual supply rate) and this feature has far reaching implications for the market allocation outcome. Studying...

  15. Knowledge Expansion in Engineering Education: Engineering Technology as an Alternative

    OpenAIRE

    Kamsiah Mohd Ismail; Noor Hamizah Hussain; Norhayati Mohamed Nor; Normah Mulop; Zainai Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. The current and rising challenges in engineering education demand graduate engineers who are well-prepared to provide innovative solutions as technical specialists, system integrators and change agents. Realizing the importance of producing a highly competent manpower, the Malaysian Government has put considerable pressure to the universities to produce engineers who are competitive in the global market. Hence, this assignment of developing a highly competence engineering technologi...

  16. Cogeneration technology alternatives study. Volume 6: Computer data

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The potential technical capabilities of energy conversion systems in the 1985 - 2000 time period were defined with emphasis on systems using coal, coal-derived fuels or alternate fuels. Industrial process data developed for the large energy consuming industries serve as a framework for the cogeneration applications. Ground rules for the study were established and other necessary equipment (balance-of-plant) was defined. This combination of technical information, energy conversion system data ground rules, industrial process information and balance-of-plant characteristics was analyzed to evaluate energy consumption, capital and operating costs and emissions. Data in the form of computer printouts developed for 3000 energy conversion system-industrial process combinations are presented.

  17. A methodology for assessing the market benefits of alternative motor fuels: The Alternative Fuels Trade Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leiby, P.N.

    1993-09-01

    This report describes a modeling methodology for examining the prospective economic benefits of displacing motor gasoline use by alternative fuels. The approach is based on the Alternative Fuels Trade Model (AFTM). AFTM development was undertaken by the US Department of Energy (DOE) as part of a longer term study of alternative fuels issues. The AFTM is intended to assist with evaluating how alternative fuels may be promoted effectively, and what the consequences of substantial alternative fuels use might be. Such an evaluation of policies and consequences of an alternative fuels program is being undertaken by DOE as required by Section 502(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992. Interest in alternative fuels is based on the prospective economic, environmental and energy security benefits from the substitution of these fuels for conventional transportation fuels. The transportation sector is heavily dependent on oil. Increased oil use implies increased petroleum imports, with much of the increase coming from OPEC countries. Conversely, displacement of gasoline has the potential to reduce US petroleum imports, thereby reducing reliance on OPEC oil and possibly weakening OPEC`s ability to extract monopoly profits. The magnitude of US petroleum import reduction, the attendant fuel price changes, and the resulting US benefits, depend upon the nature of oil-gas substitution and the supply and demand behavior of other world regions. The methodology applies an integrated model of fuel market interactions to characterize these effects.

  18. Gasification/combined-cycle power generation: environmental assessment of alternative systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-11-01

    This report provides a basis for the comparative assessment of the potential performance capability, technological development, and economic and environmental impact associated with the operation of integrated low-Btu coal-gasification/combined-cycle power systems. Characterization of the integrated power system in terms of fuel processing, power production, and auxiliary systems is followed up with comparisons of alternative integrated-plant-design/fuel combinations with reference to the conventional coal-fired power plant, taking into account both economic and environmental factors. The report includes an assessment of the effects of recent regulatory changes on the prospects for integrated power systems and establishes a timetable for the probable commercial development of such systems by the utilities.

  19. Natural-technological risk assessment and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burova, Valentina; Frolova, Nina

    2016-04-01

    EM-DAT statistical data on human impact and economic damages in the 1st semester 2015 are the highest since 2011: 41% of disasters were floods, responsible for 39% of economic damage and 7% of events were earthquakes responsible for 59% of total death toll. This suggests that disaster risk assessment and management still need to be improved and stay the principle issue in national and international related programs. The paper investigates the risk assessment and management practice in the Russian Federation at different levels. The method is proposed to identify the territories characterized by integrated natural-technological hazard. The maps of the Russian Federation zoning according to the integrated natural-technological hazard level are presented, as well as the procedure of updating the integrated hazard level taking into account the activity of separate processes. Special attention is paid to data bases on past natural and technological processes consequences, which are used for verification of current hazard estimation. The examples of natural-technological risk zoning for the country and some regions territory are presented. Different output risk indexes: both social and economic, are estimated taking into account requirements of end-users. In order to increase the safety of population of the Russian Federation the trans-boundaries hazards are also taken into account.

  20. Enriching stable isotopes: Alternative use for Urenco technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakhorst, H.; de Jong, P.G.T.; Dawson, P.D. [URENCO-NL, Almelo (Netherlands)

    1996-12-31

    The International Urenco Group utilizes a technologically advanced centrifuge process to enrich uranium in the fissionable isotope {sup 235}U. The group operates plants in the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, and Germany and currently holds a 10% share of the multibillion dollar world enrichment market. In the early 1990s, Urenco embarked on a strategy of building on the company`s uniquely advanced centrifuge process and laser isotope separation (LIS) experience to enrich nonradioactive isotopes colloquially known as stable isotopes. This paper summarizes the present status of Urenco`s stable isotopes business.

  1. Enriching stable isotopes: Alternative use for Urenco technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Urenco Group utilizes a technologically advanced centrifuge process to enrich uranium in the fissionable isotope 235U. The group operates plants in the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, and Germany and currently holds a 10% share of the multibillion dollar world enrichment market. In the early 1990s, Urenco embarked on a strategy of building on the company's uniquely advanced centrifuge process and laser isotope separation (LIS) experience to enrich nonradioactive isotopes colloquially known as stable isotopes. This paper summarizes the present status of Urenco's stable isotopes business

  2. Health-care technology assessment: a clinical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantler, Cyril

    2004-01-01

    Health technology assessment needs to relate to contemporary questions which concern public health-care systems: how to keep people healthy, how to focus on the needs of those with chronic disabilities and integrate care between the hospital and the community, how to encourage and audit effective teamwork, and how to establish a consensus about what is effective and affordable. Clinicians have an ethical responsibility to practice efficiently and economically, for profligacy in the care of one patient may mean that another is treated inadequately. For similar reasons, clinicians need to play a full role in the management of services. Advice from health technology assessment is vital and needs to be accurate, relevant, timely, clear, and accessible. As well as being concerned about what works, we need also to eliminate from practice what does not. Regular audit and appraisal of practice against the evidence base should be useful in this respect. Alternative approaches to management, such as the provision of care as opposed to aggressive treatments, need to be evaluated, and health technology assessment needs to consider how services are delivered, not just specific treatments. PMID:15176183

  3. Economic Impact Assessment of Alternative Climate Policy Strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper investigates the world economic implications of climate change policy strategies, especially the evaluation of impacts by an implementation of Clean Development Mechanisms, Joint Implementation and Emissions trading with a world integrated assessment model. Of special interest in this context are the welfare spill over and competitiveness effects that result from diverse climate policy strategies. In particular, this study elaborates and compares multi gas policy strategies and explores the impacts of the inclusion of sinks. Because of the recent decision of an isolated climate policy strategy by the United States of America, we examine the economic impacts of all world regions by a non cooperative and free rider position of the USA. It turns out that Clean Development Mechanisms and Joint Implementation show evidence of improvement in the economic development in the host countries and increase the share of new applied technologies. The decomposition of welfare effects demonstrates that the competitiveness effect including the spill over effects from trade have the strongest importance because of the intense trade relations between countries. Climatic effects have a significant impact within the next 50 years, cause considerable welfare losses to world regions and will intensify if some highly responsible nations like the USA do not reduce their emissions

  4. IMPLEMENTING INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY: AN ALTERNATIVE FOR URBAN RESETTLEMENT PROGRAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bauni Hamid

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Revitalizing slum-area has been recognized as one of the most complicated parts in urban resettlement program. With such a context we need a particular mode of communication to initiate and generate the project based on people's own aspiration. There are problem characteristics here, which are usually executed by Information Technology (IT. It is a potential to overcome the problem by using IT based on its ability to manage abundant information with various variables. At least there are three prospective opportunities in applying IT in this area. Firstly, it is the role of visualization, where computer can execute several visual features of the projects, which will be more representative than the previous ones. Secondly, it is the role of IT in generating the customization process to everyone involved in the projects. The last is the role of IT as executing tool for project's database management.

  5. The Alternative Way of Creating Infographics Using SVG Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Pavazza

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The article develops new ways of creating and using interactive SVG infographics. The emphasis lies on the compatibility of SVG standard with other web standards, like XML, XSL, CSS, SMIL and ECMAScript, the advantages that it brings are particularly explored. There is a XSLT template developed which transforms XML data into SVG infographic, and the way of achieving complete control over data and data visualization is tested. This enabled the achieving of dynamic control of content and its presentation, and contributed to the results in reduced developing cost and time, better flexibility and reliability of the organizational system. The paper also studied the possibility to convey infographic message by adding interactivity, and explored technologies by means of which this can be achieved. The aspects of establishing a more efficient communication with end users, such as searchability and accessibility are also considered. SVG infographics are compared with other approaches for creating infographics in raster and vector techniques.

  6. Energy and global warming impacts of CFC alternative technologies for foam building insulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCS) have been used as blowing agents in foam insulation, as the working fluids in cooling and refrigeration equipment, and as solvents in general and precision cleaning applications since their introduction in the 1930s. The number of applications and volumes of CFCs used grew at a tremendous pace during the 1960s and 1970s, but in the mid-1980s it was confirmed that these extremely useful chemicals contribute to the destruction of stratospheric zone and that they are the primary cause of the CFCs have also been found to be second only to carbon dioxide as a factor causing increased greenhouse warming. These chemicals are being phased out of use rapidly to protect the ozone layer and it is very important that the replacements for CFCs do not result in a net increase in global warming by introducing less efficient processes that lead to higher energy use and increased carbon dioxide emissions. A study was conducted to identify those alternative chemicals and technologies that could replace CFCs in energy related applications before the year 2000, and to assess the total potential impact of those alternatives on global warming. The analysis for this project included an estimate of the direct effects from the release of blowing agents, refrigerants, and solvents into the atmosphere and the indirect effects of carbon dioxide emissions resulting from energy use for commercial and residential building insulation, household and commercial refrigeration, building and automobile air conditioning, and general metal and electronics solvent cleaning. This paper focuses on those aspects of the study relevant to building insulation. In general the hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) and hydrochlorofluorocarbon alternatives for CFCs lead to large and sometimes dramatic reductions in total equivalent warming impact, lifetime equivalent C02 emissions (TEWI). Most of the reductions result from decreased direct effects without significant changes in energy use

  7. TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT OF WETLANDS FOR MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The innovative and alternative technology provisions of the Clean Water Act of 1977 (PL 95-217) provide financial incentives to communities that use wastewater treatment alternatives to reduce costs or energy consumption over conventional systems. Some of these technologies have ...

  8. An evaluation of a novel alternating mattress and cushion technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamanga, Edwin; Butcher, Ann

    2016-03-01

    Pressure ulcer prevention and management remain a challenge across all health-care settings, and the incidence and prevalence of pressure ulcers in nursing homes and residential homes continues to remain unknown. The use of suitable support surfaces has been found to be beneficial in the prevention and management of pressure ulcers. Carrying out a holistic assessment of the patient and recording the patient's at-risk score would help the clinician to determine the most suitable pressure-relieving surface for the patient. The clinician's clinical experience and judgment are also important. The Domus Auto (by APEX) mattress system and Dynamic Seat Cushion (by APEX) are effective dynamic, support surfaces in the prevention and management of pressure ulceration. They meet the recommendations by both national and international guidelines; they also partly fulfil the SSKIN bundle. From a four-week evaluation carried out in a nursing home, it has been demonstrated that, together with regular assessments and repositioning of the patients, these devices are useful tools in preventing patients' risk of tissue damage and improving the patients' quality of life. PMID:26940731

  9. Technology assessment of wind energy conversion systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, B. W.; Merson, T. J.

    1980-09-01

    Environmental data for wind energy conversion systems (WECSs) have been generated in support of the Technology Assessment of Solar Energy (TASE) program. Two candidates have been chosen to characterize the WECS that might be deployed if this technology makes a significant contribution to the national energy requirements. One WECS is a large machine of 1.5-MW-rated capacity that can be used by utilities. The other WECS is a small machine that is characteristic of units that might be used to meet residential or small business energy requirements. Energy storage systems are discussed for each machine to address the intermittent nature of wind power. Many types of WECSs are being studied and a brief review of the technology is included to give background for choosing horizontal axis designs for this study. Cost estimates have been made for both large and small systems as required for input to the Strategic Environmental Assessment Simulation (SEAS) computer program. Material requirements, based on current generation WECSs, are discussed and a general discussion of environmental impacts associated with WECS deployment is presented.

  10. Tiger Team Assessment, Energy Technology Engineering Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-04-01

    The Office Special Projects within the Office of Environment, Safety, and Health (EH) has the responsibility to conduct Tiger Team Assessments for the Secretary of Energy. This report presents the assessment of the buildings, facilities, and activities under the DOE/Rockwell Contract No. DE-AM03-76SF00700 for the Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC) and of other DOE-owned buildings and facilities at the Santa Susana Field Laboratory (SSFL) site in southeastern Ventura County, California, not covered under Contract No. DE-AM03-76SF00700, but constructed over the years under various other contracts between DOE and Rockwell International. ETEC is an engineering development complex operated for DOE by the Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell International Corporation. ETEC is located within SSFL on land owned by Rockwell. The balance of the SSFL complex is owned and operated by Rocketdyne, with the exception of a 42-acre parcel owned by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The primary mission of ETEC is to provide engineering, testing, and development of components related to liquid metals technology and to conduct applied engineering development of emerging energy technologies.

  11. Tiger Team Assessment, Energy Technology Engineering Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Office Special Projects within the Office of Environment, Safety, and Health (EH) has the responsibility to conduct Tiger Team Assessments for the Secretary of Energy. This report presents the assessment of the buildings, facilities, and activities under the DOE/Rockwell Contract No. DE-AM03-76SF00700 for the Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC) and of other DOE-owned buildings and facilities at the Santa Susana Field Laboratory (SSFL) site in southeastern Ventura County, California, not covered under Contract No. DE-AM03-76SF00700, but constructed over the years under various other contracts between DOE and Rockwell International. ETEC is an engineering development complex operated for DOE by the Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell International Corporation. ETEC is located within SSFL on land owned by Rockwell. The balance of the SSFL complex is owned and operated by Rocketdyne, with the exception of a 42-acre parcel owned by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The primary mission of ETEC is to provide engineering, testing, and development of components related to liquid metals technology and to conduct applied engineering development of emerging energy technologies

  12. Preliminary ecotoxicity assessment of new generation alternative fuels in seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Gunther; Dolecal, Renee E; Colvin, Marienne A; George, Robert D

    2014-06-01

    The United States Navy (USN) is currently demonstrating the viability of environmentally sustainable alternative fuels to power its fleet comprised of aircraft and ships. As with any fuel used in a maritime setting, there is potential for introduction into the environment through transport, storage, and spills. However, while alternative fuels are often presumed to be eco-friendly relative to conventional petroleum-based fuels, their environmental fate and effects on marine environments are essentially unknown. Here, standard laboratory-based toxicity experiments were conducted for two alternative fuels, jet fuel derived from Camelina sativa (wild flax) seeds (HRJ5) and diesel fuel derived from algae (HRD76), and two conventional counterparts, jet fuel (JP5) and ship diesel (F76). Initial toxicity tests performed on water-accommodated fractions (WAF) from neat fuels partitioned into seawater, using four standard marine species in acute and chronic/sublethal tests, indicate that the alternative fuels are significantly less toxic to marine organisms. PMID:24315182

  13. How to Proceed with Competing Alternative Energy Technologies: a Real Options Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Siddiqui, Afzal; Fleten, Stein-Erik

    2008-01-01

    Concerns with CO2 emissions are creating incentives for the development and deployment of energy technologies that do not use fossil fuels. Indeed, such technologies would provide tangible benefits in terms of avoided fossil-fuel costs, which are likely to increase as restrictions on CO2 emissions are imposed. However, there are a number of challenges that need to be overcome, and the current costs of developing new alternative energy technologies would be too high to be handled privately....

  14. Radiation detection technology assessment program (RADTAP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Customs Service and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) conducted a technical and operational assessment of gamma ray radiation detection equipment during the period May 5-16, 1997 at a testing facility in North Carolina. The effort was entitled, ''Radiation Detection Technology Assessment Program (RADTAP)'', and was conducted for the purpose of assessing the applicability, sensitivity and robustness of a diverse suite of gamma ray detection and identification equipment for possible use by Customs and other law enforcement agencies. Thirteen companies entered 25 instruments into the assessment program. All detection equipment entered had to exhibit a minimum sensitivity of 20 micro-R per hour (background included) from a Cesium-137 point source. Isotope identifying spectrometers entered were man portable and operable at room temperature with read-out that could be interpreted by non-technical personnel. Radioactive sources used in the assessment included special nuclear material, industrial and health isotopes. Evaluators included Customs inspectors and technical experts from DOE and Customs. No conclusions or recommendations were issued based on the quantitative and qualitative test results, however, the results of the program provided law enforcement agencies with the necessary data to select equipment that best meets their operational needs and budgets. (author)

  15. Constructive technology assessment and technology dynamics: the case of clean technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schot, Johan W.

    1992-01-01

    A synthesis of neo-Schumpeterian evolutionary, sociological, and historical coevolution ary models could be used for constructive technology assessment, aimed at the active management of the process of technological change. This article proposes a synthetic quasi-evolutionary model, in which variati

  16. Guidance for Large-scale Implementation of Alternate Wetting and Drying: A Biophysical Suitability Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, B. O.; Wassmann, R.; Nelson, A.; Palao, L.; Wollenberg, E.; Ishitani, M.

    2014-12-01

    The alternate wetting and drying (AWD) technology for rice production does not only save 15-30% of irrigation water, it also reduces methane emissions by up to 70%. AWD is defined by periodic drying and re-flooding of a rice field. Due to its high mitigation potential and its simplicity to execute this practice AWD has gained a lot of attention in recent years. The Climate and Clean Air Coalition (CCAC) has put AWD high on its agenda and funds a project to guide implementation of this technology in Vietnam, Bangladesh and Colombia. One crucial activity is a biophysical suitability assessment for AWD in the three countries. For this, we analyzed rainfall and soil data as well as potential evapotranspiration to assess if the water balance allows practicing AWD or if precipitation is too high for rice fields to fall dry. In my talk I will outline key factors for a successful large-scale implementation of AWD with a focus on the biophysical suitability assessment. The seasonal suitability maps that we generated highlight priority areas for AWD implementation and guide policy makers to informed decisions about meaningful investments in infrastructure and extension work.

  17. Constructive technology assessment and technology dynamics: the case of clean technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Schot, Johan W.

    1992-01-01

    A synthesis of neo-Schumpeterian evolutionary, sociological, and historical coevolution ary models could be used for constructive technology assessment, aimed at the active management of the process of technological change. This article proposes a synthetic quasi-evolutionary model, in which variation and selection are neither independent nor coincidental processes. Variation and selection are linked by actors, resulting in the actor role labeled technological nexus. On the basis of the quasi...

  18. ELECTRIC INFRASTRUCTURE TECHNOLOGY, TRAINING, AND ASSESSMENT PROGRAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TREMEL, CHARLES L

    2007-06-28

    The objective of this Electric Infrastructure Technology, Training and Assessment Program was to enhance the reliability of electricity delivery through engineering integration of real-time technologies for wide-area applications enabling timely monitoring and management of grid operations. The technologies developed, integrated, tested and demonstrated will be incorporated into grid operations to assist in the implementation of performance-based protection/preventive measures into the existing electric utility infrastructure. This proactive approach will provide benefits of reduced cost and improved reliability over the typical schedule-based and as needed maintenance programs currently performed by utilities. Historically, utilities have relied on maintenance and inspection programs to diagnose equipment failures and have used the limited circuit isolation devices, such as distribution main circuit breakers to identify abnormal system performance. With respect to reliable problem identification, customer calls to utility service centers are often the sole means for utilities to identify problem occurrences and determine restoration methodologies. Furthermore, monitoring and control functions of equipment and circuits are lacking; thus preventing timely detection and response to customer outages. Finally, the two-way flow of real-time system information is deficient, depriving decision makers of key information required to effectively manage and control current electric grid demands to provide reliable customer service in abnormal situations. This Program focused on advancing technologies and the engineering integration required to incorporate them into the electric grid operations to enhance electrical system reliability and reduce utility operating costs.

  19. Integrated Operations Architecture Technology Assessment Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    As part of NASA's Integrated Operations Architecture (IOA) Baseline, NASA will consolidate all communications operations. including ground-based, near-earth, and deep-space communications, into a single integrated network. This network will make maximum use of commercial equipment, services and standards. It will be an Internet Protocol (IP) based network. This study supports technology development planning for the IOA. The technical problems that may arise when LEO mission spacecraft interoperate with commercial satellite services were investigated. Commercial technology and services that could support the IOA were surveyed, and gaps in the capability of existing technology and techniques were identified. Recommendations were made on which gaps should be closed by means of NASA research and development funding. Several findings emerged from the interoperability assessment: in the NASA mission set, there is a preponderance of small. inexpensive, low data rate science missions; proposed commercial satellite communications services could potentially provide TDRSS-like data relay functions; and. IP and related protocols, such as TCP, require augmentation to operate in the mobile networking environment required by the space-to-ground portion of the IOA. Five case studies were performed in the technology assessment. Each case represented a realistic implementation of the near-earth portion of the IOA. The cases included the use of frequencies at L-band, Ka-band and the optical spectrum. The cases also represented both space relay architectures and direct-to-ground architectures. Some of the main recommendations resulting from the case studies are: select an architecture for the LEO/MEO communications network; pursue the development of a Ka-band space-qualified transmitter (and possibly a receiver), and a low-cost Ka-band ground terminal for a direct-to-ground network, pursue the development of an Inmarsat (L-band) space-qualified transceiver to implement a global, low

  20. The Impact of Alternate Assessment on Teaching and Learning for Students with Significant Cognitive Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roden, Melinda Reed

    2011-01-01

    Federal legislation mandates all students, including those with significant cognitive disabilities, participate in standards based education and in state assessments linked to those standards. To address this issue, this study used a multiple case study design in order to determine the impact alternate assessments based on alternate achievement…

  1. Market brief : The market for renewable energy and alternative fuels technologies in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of the renewable energy market and alternative fuels technologies in Mexico was presented. Mexico's environmental technologies and services market is expected to grow from $5.2 billion in 2003 to more than $26 billion in 2010. By 2015, it is estimated that technologies for renewable energy and alternative fuels such as electricity, ethanol and biodiesel technologies may be worth $2.6 billion. This market brief described the potential for Canadian suppliers to enter into joint ventures to establish local production facilities and transfer technology expertise. It described the key factors shaping market growth with particular reference opportunities with actual and planned projects. Since Mexico has been diversifying its energy sources for power generation, Canadian manufacturers of renewable energy and alternative fuels technology can find many opportunities in Canada's partner in the North American Free Trade Agreement. The main opportunity for exporters of equipment to generate renewable energy and alternative fuels come from small-scale hydro-electric projects, solar-photovoltaic systems, wind power and waste-to-energy systems such as biogas, biomass and biodiesel. The competitive environment was also discussed with reference to local capabilities, international competition, the Canadian position, and a competitive advantage through Canadian government policies and initiatives. Considerations for market-entry into Mexico were also outlined. The 3 main factors that drive the market for renewable energy and alternative fuels technologies in Mexico were presented. First, power generation from renewable energy is one of the only areas where the private sector can participate in the Mexican electricity generation, transmission and distribution market. Second, power generation from renewable energy is the only means to provide electricity to rural and off-grid areas. Last, international pressure to reduce greenhouse gas emissions plays an important role in

  2. An assessment of desiccant cooling and dehumidification technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mei, V.C.; Chen, F.C. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Lavan, Z. (Illinois Inst. of Tech., Chicago, IL (United States)); Collier, R.K. Jr. (Collier Engineering Services, Merritt Island, FL (United States)); Meckler, G. (Gershon Meckler Associates, P.C., Herndon, VA (United States))

    1992-07-01

    Desiccant systems are heat-actuated cooling and dehumidification technology. With the recent advances in this technology, desiccant systems can now achieve a primary energy coefficient of performance (COP) between 1.3 and 1.5, with potential to go to 1.7 and higher. It is becoming one of the most promising alternatives to conventional cooling systems. Two important and well-known advantages of desiccant cooling systems are that they are CFC free and they can reduce the electricity peak load. Another important but lesser-known advantage of desiccant technology is its potential for energy conservation. The energy impact study in this report indicated that a possible 13% energy saving in residential cooling and 8% in commercial cooling is possible. Great energy saving potential also exists in the industrial sector if industrial waste heat can be used for desiccant regeneration. The latest study on desiccant-integrated building heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems indicated that the initial cost for the conventional cooling equipment was greatly reduced by using desiccant technology because of downsized compressors, fans, and ductworks. This cost reduction was more than enough to offset the cost of desiccant equipment. Besides, the system operation cost was also reduced. All these indicate that desiccant systems are also cost effective. This study provides an updated state-of-the-art assessment forsiccant technology in the field of desiccant materials, systems, computer models, and theoretical analyses. From this information the technology options were derived and the future research and development needs were identified. Because desiccant technology has already been applied in the commercial building sector with very encouraging results, it is expected that future market breakthroughs will probably start in this sector. A market analysis for the commercial building application is therefore included.

  3. Assessment of alternative water management options for irrigated agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jhorar, R.K.; Smit, A.A.M.F.R.; Roest, C.W.J.

    2009-01-01

    A simulation study on alternative water management strategies was carried out for Sirsa Irrigation Circle in Haryana, covering an area of about 4800 km(2). Results showed that crop evapotranspiration and soil salinity development under reduction in canal water supply and increase in groundwater use,

  4. Implementation Benchmarks for Assessing an Alternative Certification Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denton, Jon; Davis, Trina; Smith, Ben; Beason, Lynn; Graham, Diane, Strader, Arlen

    2008-01-01

    The Accelerate Online/OPTIONS alternative certification program provides those possessing a degree an option leading to certification that can be completed in 18 months. The program consists of an online curriculum, an early field experience and a year-long paid internship. To determine program effectiveness across five years, five benchmark…

  5. Intelligence Assessment: Gardner Multiple Intelligence Theory as an Alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Leandro S.; Prieto, Maria Dolores; Ferreira, Aristides I.; Bermejo, Maria Rosario; Ferrando, Mercedes; Ferrandiz, Carmen

    2010-01-01

    In the multiple intelligence framework, newer and more contextualized cognitive tasks are suggested as alternative to more traditional psychometric tests. The purpose of this article is to examine whether or not these two types of instruments converge into a general factor of cognitive performance. Thus, the Battery of General and Differential…

  6. Identification and development of waste management alternatives for Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The European Union Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) Directive (2001/42/EC) requires the assessment of likely significant effects on the environment of implementing plans or programmes and reasonable alternatives. While SEA regulations and guidelines emphasize rigour and objectivity in the assessment of alternatives they have little to say on their actual identification. Therefore, criteria should be developed which would aid decision makers in the identification of alternatives appropriate to the tier of decision-making and which meet the objectives of SEA. A methodology is set out in this paper for identifying SEA alternatives for a proposed waste management plan/programme. Specifically, the methodology describes a set of alternatives identification criteria, which will meet the requirements and objectives of SEA and waste management legislation. The outputs from the methodology will help focus on the identification of more sustainable alternatives for waste management planning in Ireland

  7. Evaluation of alternative nonflame technologies for destruction of hazardous organic waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwinkendorf, W.E. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Musgrave, B.C. [BC Musgrave, Inc. (United States); Drake, R.N. [Drake Engineering, Inc. (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The US Department of Energy`s Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) commissioned an evaluation of mixed waste treatment technologies that are alternatives to incineration for destruction of hazardous organic wastes. The purpose of this effort is to evaluate technologies that are alternatives to open-flame, free-oxygen combustion (as exemplified by incinerators), and recommend to the Waste Type Managers and the MWFA which technologies should be considered for further development. Alternative technologies were defined as those that have the potential to: destroy organic material without use of open-flame reactions with free gas-phase oxygen as the reaction mechanism; reduce the offgas volume and associated contaminants (metals, radionuclides, and particulates) emitted under normal operating conditions; eliminate or reduce the production of dioxins and furans; and reduce the potential for excursions in the process that can lead to accidental release of harmful levels of chemical or radioactive materials. Twenty-three technologies were identified that have the potential for meeting these requirements. These technologies were rated against the categories of performance, readiness for deployment, and environment safety, and health. The top ten technologies that resulted from this evaluation are Steam Reforming, Electron Beam, UV Photo-Oxidation, Ultrasonics, Eco Logic reduction process, Supercritical Water oxidation, Cerium Mediated Electrochemical Oxidation, DETOX{sup SM}, Direct Chemical Oxidation (peroxydisulfate), and Neutralization/Hydrolysis.

  8. Evaluation of alternative nonflame technologies for destruction of hazardous organic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy's Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) commissioned an evaluation of mixed waste treatment technologies that are alternatives to incineration for destruction of hazardous organic wastes. The purpose of this effort is to evaluate technologies that are alternatives to open-flame, free-oxygen combustion (as exemplified by incinerators), and recommend to the Waste Type Managers and the MWFA which technologies should be considered for further development. Alternative technologies were defined as those that have the potential to: destroy organic material without use of open-flame reactions with free gas-phase oxygen as the reaction mechanism; reduce the offgas volume and associated contaminants (metals, radionuclides, and particulates) emitted under normal operating conditions; eliminate or reduce the production of dioxins and furans; and reduce the potential for excursions in the process that can lead to accidental release of harmful levels of chemical or radioactive materials. Twenty-three technologies were identified that have the potential for meeting these requirements. These technologies were rated against the categories of performance, readiness for deployment, and environment safety, and health. The top ten technologies that resulted from this evaluation are Steam Reforming, Electron Beam, UV Photo-Oxidation, Ultrasonics, Eco Logic reduction process, Supercritical Water oxidation, Cerium Mediated Electrochemical Oxidation, DETOXSM, Direct Chemical Oxidation (peroxydisulfate), and Neutralization/Hydrolysis

  9. Life cycle assessment of biogas upgrading technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Katherine; Gabarrell, Xavier; Villalba, Gara; Talens, Laura; Lombardi, Lidia

    2012-05-01

    This article evaluates the life cycle assessment (LCA) of three biogas upgrading technologies. An in-depth study and evaluation was conducted on high pressure water scrubbing (HPWS), as well as alkaline with regeneration (AwR) and bottom ash upgrading (BABIU), which additionally offer carbon storage. AwR and BABIU are two novel technologies that utilize waste from municipal solid waste incinerators - namely bottom ash (BA) and air pollution control residues (APC) - and are able to store CO(2) from biogas through accelerated carbonation processes. These are compared to high pressure water scrubbing (HPWS) which is a widely used technology in Europe. The AwR uses an alkaline solution to remove the CO(2) and then the solution - rich in carbonate and bicarbonate ions - is regenerated through carbonation of APC. The BABIU process directly exposes the gas to the BA to remove and immediately store the CO(2), again by carbonation. It was determined that the AwR process had an 84% higher impact in all LCA categories largely due to the energy intensive production of the alkaline reactants. The BABIU process had the lowest impact in most categories even when compared to five other CO(2) capture technologies on the market. AwR and BABIU have a particularly low impact in the global warming potential category as a result of the immediate storage of the CO(2). For AwR, it was determined that using NaOH instead of KOH improves its environmental performance by 34%. For the BABIU process the use of renewable energies would improve its impact since accounts for 55% of the impact. PMID:22230660

  10. Xurography as a Rapid Fabrication Alternative for Point-of-Care Devices: Assessment of Passive Micromixers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-López, J. Israel; Mojica, Mauricio; Rodríguez, Ciro A.; Siller, Héctor R.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the copious amount of research on the design and operation of micromixers, there are few works regarding manufacture technology aimed at implementation beyond academic environments. This work evaluates the viability of xurography as a rapid fabrication tool for the development of ultra-low cost microfluidic technology for extreme Point-of-Care (POC) micromixing devices. By eschewing photolithographic processes and the bulkiness of pumping and enclosure systems for rapid fabrication and passively driven operation, xurography is introduced as a manufacturing alternative for asymmetric split and recombine (ASAR) micromixers. A T-micromixer design was used as a reference to assess the effects of different cutting conditions and materials on the geometric features of the resulting microdevices. Inspection by stereographic and confocal microscopy showed that it is possible to manufacture devices with less than 8% absolute dimensional error. Implementation of the manufacturing methodology in modified circular shape- based SAR microdevices (balanced and unbalanced configurations) showed that, despite the precision limitations of the xurographic process, it is possible to implement this methodology to produce functional micromixing devices. Mixing efficiency was evaluated numerically and experimentally at the outlet of the microdevices with performances up to 40%. Overall, the assessment encourages further research of xurography for the development of POC micromixers. PMID:27196904

  11. New technologies - How to assess environmental effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, P. J.; Lavin, M. L.

    1981-01-01

    A method is provided for assessing the environmental effects of a room-and-pillar mining system (RP) and a new hydraulic borehole mining system (HBM). Before environmental assessment can begin, each technology is defined in terms of its engineering characteristics at both the conceptual and preliminary design stages. The mining sites are also described in order to identify the significant advantages and constraints for each system. This can be a basic physical and biological survey of the region at the conceptual stage, but a more specific representation of site characteristics is required at the preliminary stage. Assessment of potential environmental effects of each system at the conceptual design is critical to its hardware development and application. A checklist can be used to compare and identify the negative impacts of each method, outlining the resource affected, the type of impact involved, and the exact activity causing that impact. At the preliminary design stage, these impacts should be evaluated as a result of either utilization or alteration. Underground coal mining systems have three major utilization impacts - the total area disturbed, the total water resources withdrawn from other uses, and the overall energy efficiency of the process - and one major alteration impact - the degradation of water quality by sedimentation and acid contamination. A comparison of the RP and HBM systems shows the HBM to be an environmentally less desirable system for the Central Appalachia region.

  12. Economic assessment of alternatives for glyphosate application in arable farming

    OpenAIRE

    Kehlenbeck, Hella; Saltzmann, Jovanka; Schwarz, Jürgen; Zwerger, Peter; Nordmeyer, Henning

    2016-01-01

    Application and sales of herbicides with glyphosate have strongly increased in Germany during the past 10 years. This has raised a number of questions and discussions concerning glyphosate use. Therefore, this paper identifies and evaluates alternatives with an efficacy almost equivalent to glyphosate for different treatmentareas in terms of economic consequences for farms in comparison to glyphosate use by way of example. With the help of exemplary crop rotations uses in arable farming fo...

  13. Minimum wages and their alternatives: a critical assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Knabe, Andreas; Schöb, Ronnie

    2008-01-01

    Do minimum wages reduce in-work-poverty and wage inequality? Or can alternative policies do better? We evaluate theses issues for the exemplary case of Germany that suffers from high unemployment among low-skilled workers and rising wage dispersion at the bottom of the wage distribution. We analyze the impact of three different policy options, currently discussed in Germany, on employment, wage inequality, public expenditures, and incomes of poor households: 1) a statutory minimum wage, 2) a ...

  14. The science achievement of various subgroups on alternative assessment formats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrenz, Frances; Huffman, Douglas; Welch, Wayne

    2001-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the science achievement outcomes for different subgroups of students using different assessment formats. A nationally representative sample of approximately 3,500 ninth grade science students from 13 high schools throughout the United States completed a series of science assessments designed to measure their level of achievement on the national science education standards. All of the schools were using a curriculum designed to meet the standards. The assessments included a multiple-choice test, a written open-ended test, a hands-on lab skills test, and a hands-on full investigation. The results show that the student outcomes on the different assessment formats are more highly correlated for higher achieving students than for lower achieving students. Patterns for different cultural groups also vary by assessment format. There were no differences found for sex. The results support the notion that different assessment formats assess different competencies and that the achievement of students from different subgroups varies by assessment format.

  15. Drug delivery system innovation and Health Technology Assessment: Upgrading from Clinical to Technological Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzitta, Michele; Bruno, Giorgio; Giovagnoli, Stefano; Mendicino, Francesca R; Ricci, Maurizio

    2015-11-30

    Health Technology Assessment (HTA) is a multidisciplinary health political instrument that evaluates the consequences, mainly clinical and economical, of a health care technology; the HTA aim is to produce and spread information on scientific and technological innovation for health political decision making process. Drug delivery systems (DDS), such as nanocarriers, are technologically complex but they have pivotal relevance in therapeutic innovation. The HTA process, as commonly applied to conventional drug evaluation, should upgrade to a full pharmaceutical assessment, considering the DDS complexity. This is useful to study more in depth the clinical outcome and to broaden its critical assessment toward pharmaceutical issues affecting the patient and not measured by the current clinical evidence approach. We draw out the expertise necessary to perform the pharmaceutical assessment and we propose a format to evaluate the DDS technological topics such as formulation and mechanism of action, physicochemical characteristics, manufacturing process. We integrated the above-mentioned three points in the Evidence Based Medicine approach, which is data source for any HTA process. In this regard, the introduction of a Pharmaceutics Expert figure in the HTA could be fundamental to grant a more detailed evaluation of medicine product characteristics and performances and to help optimizing DDS features to overcome R&D drawbacks. Some aspects of product development, such as manufacturing processes, should be part of the HTA as innovative manufacturing processes allow new products to reach more effectively patient bedside. HTA so upgraded may encourage resource allocating payers to invest in innovative technologies and providers to focus on innovative material properties and manufacturing processes, thus contributing to bring more medicines in therapy in a sustainable manner. PMID:26399633

  16. Comparison of alternative flue gas dry treatment technologies in waste-to-energy processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Pozzo, Alessandro; Antonioni, Giacomo; Guglielmi, Daniele; Stramigioli, Carlo; Cozzani, Valerio

    2016-05-01

    Acid gases such as HCl and SO2 are harmful both for human health and ecosystem integrity, hence their removal is a key step of the flue gas treatment of Waste-to-Energy (WtE) plants. Methods based on the injection of dry sorbents are among the Best Available Techniques for acid gas removal. In particular, systems based on double reaction and filtration stages represent nowadays an effective technology for emission control. The aim of the present study is the simulation of a reference two-stage (2S) dry treatment system performance and its comparison to three benchmarking alternatives based on single stage sodium bicarbonate injection. A modelling procedure was applied in order to identify the optimal operating configuration of the 2S system for different reference waste compositions, and to determine the total annual cost of operation. Taking into account both operating and capital costs, the 2S system appears the most cost-effective solution for medium to high chlorine content wastes. A Monte Carlo sensitivity analysis was carried out to assess the robustness of the results. PMID:26951719

  17. Google Street View as an alternative method to car surveys in large-scale vegetation assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deus, Ernesto; Silva, Joaquim S; Catry, Filipe X; Rocha, Miguel; Moreira, Francisco

    2015-10-01

    Car surveys (CS) are a common method for assessing the distribution of alien invasive plants. Google Street View (GSV), a free-access web technology where users may experience a virtual travel along roads, has been suggested as a cost-effective alternative to car surveys. We tested if we could replicate the results from a countrywide survey conducted by car in Portugal using GSV as a remote sensing tool, aiming at assessing the distribution of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. wildlings on roadsides adjacent to eucalypt stands. Georeferenced points gathered along CS were used to create road transects visible as lines overlapping the road in GSV environment, allowing surveying the same sampling areas using both methods. This paper presents the results of the comparison between the two methods. Both methods produced similar models of plant abundance, selecting the same explanatory variables, in the same hierarchical order of importance and depicting a similar influence on plant abundance. Even though the GSV model had a lower performance and the GSV survey detected fewer plants, additional variables collected exclusively with GSV improved model performance and provided a new insight into additional factors influencing plant abundance. The survey using GSV required ca. 9 % of the funds and 62 % of the time needed to accomplish the CS. We conclude that GSV may be a cost-effective alternative to CS. We discuss some advantages and limitations of GSV as a survey method. We forecast that GSV may become a widespread tool in road ecology, particularly in large-scale vegetation assessments. PMID:27624742

  18. Preliminary assessment of alternative dry storage methods for the storage of commercial spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of an assessment of the (1) state of technology, (2) licensability, (3) implementation schedule, and (4) costs of alternative dry methods for storage of spent fuel at a reactor location when used to supplement reactor pool storage facilities. The methods of storage that were considered included storage in casks, drywells, concrete silos and air-cooled vaults. The impact of disassembly of spent fuel and storage of consolidated fuel rods was also determined. The economic assessments were made based on the current projected storage requirements of Virginia Electric and Power Company's Surry Station for the period 1985 to 2009, which has two operating pressurized water reactors (824 MWe each). It was estimated that the unit cost for storage of spent fuel in casks would amount to $117/kgU and that such costs for storage in drywells would amount to $137/kgU. However, based on the overall assessment it was concluded both storage methods were equal in merit. Modular methods of storage were generally found to be more economic than those requiring all or most of the facilities to be constructed prior to commencement of storage operations

  19. Investigation of bioaerosols released from swine farms using conventional and alternative waste treatment and management technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, G.; Simmons, O. D., III; Likirdopulos, C.A.; Worley-Davis, L.; Williams, M.; Sobsey, M.D.

    2008-01-01

    Microbial air pollution from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) has raised concerns about potential public health and environmental impacts. We investigated the levels of bioaerosols released from two swine farms using conventional lagoon-sprayfield technology and ten farms using alternative waste treatment and management technologies in the United States. In total, 424 microbial air samples taken at the 12 CAFOs were analyzed for several indicator and pathogenic microorganisms, including culturable bacteria and fungi, fecal coliform, Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens, bacteriophage, and Salmonella. At all of the investigated farms, bacterial concentrations at the downwind boundary were higher than those at the upwind boundary, suggesting that the farms are sources of microbial air contamination. In addition, fecal indicator microorganisms were found more frequently near barns and treatment technology sites than upwind or downwind of the farms. Approximately 4.5% (19/424), 1.2% (5/424), 22.2% (94/424), and 12.3% (53/424) of samples were positive for fecal coliform, E. coli, Clostridium, and total coliphage, respectively. Based on statistical comparison of airborne fecal indicator concentrations at alternative treatment technology farms compared to control farms with conventional technology, three alternative waste treatment technologies appear to perform better at reducing the airborne release of fecal indicator microorganisms during on-farm treatment and management processes. These results demonstrate that airborne microbial contaminants are released from swine farms and pose possible exposure risks to farm workers and nearby neighbors. However, the release of airborne microorganisms appears to decrease significantly through the use of certain alternative waste management and treatment technologies. ?? 2008 American Chemical Society.

  20. Technology assessment Jordan Nuclear Power Plant Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preliminary regional analysis was carried out for identification of potential sites for NPP, followed by screening of these sites and selecting candidate sites. Aqaba sites are proposed, where it can use the sea water for cooling: i.Site 1; at the sea where it can use the sea water for direct cooling. ii.Site 2; 10 km to the east of Gulf of Aqaba shoreline at the Saudi Arabia borders. iii.Site 3, 4 km to the east of Gulf of Aqaba shoreline. Only the granitic basement in the east of the 6 km²site should be considered as a potential site for a NPP. Preliminary probabilistic seismic hazard assessment gives: Operating-Basis Earthquake-OBE (475 years return period) found to be in the range of 0.163-0.182 g; Safe Shutdown Earthquake-SSE (10,000 years return period) found to be in the range of 0.333-0.502g. The process include also setting up of nuclear company and other organizational matters. Regulations in development are: Site approval; Construction permitting; Overall licensing; Safety (design, construction, training, operations, QA); Emergency planning; Decommissioning; Spent fuel and RW management. JAEC's technology assessment strategy and evaluation methodology are presented

  1. Assessing alternative options for allocating oil revenue in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper focuses on medium-term effects of alternative windfall management strategies for a resource abundant country where the resource revenues are expected to last over a prolonged period. In particular, the trade-off between spending and saving is analyzed within the framework of a recursive dynamic computable general equilibrium model. The model is further validated against historical data available for 2001–2010. The total factor productivity is calculated endogenously in the model based on a function that reflects the changes in factor productivity. The results suggest that saving oil revenues, whether in an oil fund or through physical investment in domestic sectors, leads to a higher economic growth. However, physical investment is superior in the short to medium term based on the resultant GDP while creating an oil fund might be more beneficial in the post oil era. - Highlights: • A recursive dynamic general equilibrium model is applied for Iran. • The total factor productivity is calculated endogenously. • Alternative revenue allocation options are investigated. • Physical investment of oil windfalls leads to higher economic growth in medium run. • Financial investment of oil revenues leads to higher economic growth in long run

  2. Impact of alternate fuels on industrial refractories and refractory insulation applications. An Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, G.C.; Tennery, V.J.

    1976-09-01

    The effects of use of alternate fuels such as distillate oils, residual oils, coal, producer gas, and electricity on refractory insulation are evaluated. Sections are included on alternate fuels for 1976 to 1980, assessment by industry of fuel conversion impact on industrial refractories in the period 1976 to 1980, interactions of alternate fuel combustion products with refractories and refractory insulation, and analysis of degradation mechanisms in refractories and refractory materials. (JRD)

  3. The role of utilities in enabling technology innovation: The BC hydro alternative & emerging energy strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tu, Alex; Leclair, Donna; Morrison, Allison

    2010-09-15

    In order for renewable energy to play a dominant role in the global electricity supply mix, emerging renewable energy technologies - such as wave, tidal, enhanced geothermal, and 3rd generation photovoltaic technologies - must prove their technical merits and achieve cost parity with conventional sources of supply. BC Hydro, a government-owned electric utility, launched an Alternative and Emerging Energy Strategy that describes its role as an enabler of technology innovation. This paper describes BC Hydro's goal, objectives and actions to accelerate the commercialization that will yield a diversity of supply options and a growing, local clean-tech cluster.

  4. Technological Determinism in Educational Technology Research: Some Alternative Ways of Thinking about the Relationship between Learning and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper argues that research on the educational uses of technology frequently overemphasizes the influence of technology. Research in the field is considered a form of critical perspective, and assumptions about technology are questioned. Technological determinism is introduced, and different positions on this concept are identified. These are…

  5. Assessing Alternatives for Directional Detection of a WIMP Halo

    OpenAIRE

    Copi, Craig J.; Krauss, Lawrence M.; Simmons-Duffin, David; Stroiney, Steven R.

    2005-01-01

    The future of direct terrestrial WIMP detection lies on two fronts: new, much larger low background detectors sensitive to energy deposition, and detectors with directional sensitivity. The former can large range of WIMP parameter space using well tested technology while the latter may be necessary if one is to disentangle particle physics parameters from astrophysical halo parameters. Because directional detectors will be quite difficult to construct it is worthwhile exploring in advance gen...

  6. Baseline and Feasibility Assessment for Alternative Cooking Fuels in Senegal

    OpenAIRE

    Practical Action Consulting; Enda; World Bank

    2014-01-01

    This report was prepared by Practical Action Consulting for the Africa Clean Cooking Energy Solutions (ACCES) initiative of the World Bank. Most of Sub-Saharan Africa continues to rely overwhelmingly on traditional fuels and cooking technologies, both of which are a major cause of death and illness as well as a range of socio-economic and environmental problems. More than 90 per cent of th...

  7. A New Formative Assessment Technology for Reading and Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landauer, Thomas K.; Lochbaum, Karen E.; Dooley, Scott

    2009-01-01

    Advances in assessment technologies are affording teachers and students new ways to efficiently assess and track achievement while also better promoting learning. WriteToLearn is one such technology, a Web-based tool that integrates practice and assessment in reading comprehension with writing about what is learned. Based on the principle of…

  8. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power: report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume VII. International perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this volume is to assess the proliferation vulnerabilities of the present deployment of civilian nuclear-power systems within the current nonproliferation regime and, in light of their prospective deployment, to consider technical and institutional measures and alternatives which may contribute to an improved regime in which nuclear power could play a significant part. An assessment of these measures must include consideration of their nonproliferation effectiveness as well as their bearing upon energy security, and their operational, economic, and political implications. The nature of these considerations can provide some measure of their likely acceptability to various nations. While any final assessment of such measures and alternatives would have to examine the circumstances particular to each nation, it is hoped that the more generic assessments conducted here will be useful in suggesting guidelines for developing an improved nonproliferation regime which also helps to meet nuclear-energy needs. One chapter outlines the existing nonproliferation regime, including the Treaty for the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards, bilateral and multilateral requirements for agreements of cooperation and transfers of technology, and existing provisons for sanctions for violation of nonproliferation commitments. The chapter then proceeds to an assessment of various alternatives for providing assurance of fuel supply in light of this current regime. Another chapter examines a set of technical and institutional measures and alternatives for various components of once-through and closed fuel cycles. The components of the once-through fuel cycle assessed are enrichment services and spent-fuel management; the components of closed fuel cycles assessed are reprocessing and plutonium management and fast-breeder reactor (FBR) deployment

  9. Application of 'C.A.R.B. financial methodology' analysis for alternative energy technologies into UK housing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current energy trends in UK housing are reviewed and then assessed by introducing the 'CARB financial analysis' methodology. CARB is an acronym for 'Carbon Abatement', as it evaluates the potential carbon-dioxide reduction from different technologies; 'Relative', as all the technologies examined are dependant on various primary sources; and 'Balance', as the cost of surplus CO2 is quantified. According to conventional financial analysis, most of the technologies examined have the potential to provide positive returns on the investments especially for those with an environmentally conscious agenda. Further reduction of up to 30% of most installed alternative energy systems cost is required to compete with an investment in, e.g., a UK pension scheme. Using the 'CARB financial analysis' the cost of reducing CO2 has been quantified, and compared with the potential cost of climate change impact. Conventional installed solar technologies are not financially attractive both with a pay back period calculations and 'CARB financial analysis' under current market costs and governmental subsidy regimes. Heat recovery technologies could be sensible investments, both in financial and environmental terms under particular assumptions; especially if the investment budget is small. The use of cogeneration technologies provides a financial advantage in the attempt to minimise the cost of climate change impact, as pay back period of such investment could be less than 7 yr, and the cost of CO2 saved could be two to seven times less than the global damage cost of carbon emissions. (author)

  10. Problems of method of technology assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study undertakes to analyse the theoretical and methodological structure of Technology Assessment (TA). It is based on a survey of TA studies which provided an important condition for theoreticall sound statements on methodological aspects of TA. It was established that the main basic theoretical problems of TA are in the field of dealing with complexity. This is also apparent in the constitution of problems, the most elementary and central approach of TA. Scientifically founded constitution of problems and the corresponding construction of models call for interdisciplinary scientific work. Interdisciplinarity in the TA research process is achieved at the level of virtual networks, these networks being composed of individuals suited to teamwork. The emerging network structures have an objective-organizational and an ideational basis. The objective-organizational basis is mainly the result of team composition and the external affiliations of the team members. The ideational basis of the virtual network is represented by the team members' mode of thinking, which is individually located at a multidisciplinary level. The theoretical 'skeleton' of the TA knowledge system, which is represented by process knowledge based linkage structures, can be generated and also processed in connection with the knowledge on types of problems, areas of analysis and procedures to deal with complexity. Within this process, disciplinary knowledge is a necessary but not a sufficient condition. Metatheoretical and metadisciplinary knowledge and the correspondingly processes complexity of models are the basis for the necessary methodological awareness, that allows TA to become designable as a research procedure. (orig./HP)

  11. Environmental assessment report: Nuclear Test Technology Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy (USDOE) is planning to construct and operate a structure, designated the Nuclear Test Technology Complex (NTTC), on a site located west of and adjacent to the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The NTTC is designed to house 350 nuclear test program personnel, and will accommodate the needs of the entire staff of the continuing Nuclear Test Program (NTP). The project has three phases: land acquisition, facility construction and facility operation. The purpose of this environmental assessment report is to describe the activities associated with the three phases of the NTTC project and to evaluate potential environmental disruptions. The project site is located in a rural area of southeastern Alameda County, California, where the primary land use is agriculture; however, the County has zoned the area for industrial development. The environmental impacts of the project include surface disturbance, high noise levels, possible increases in site erosion, and decreased air quality. These impacts will occur primarily during the construction phase of the NTTC project and can be mitigated in part by measures proposed in this report

  12. Alternatives of Strategic Environmental Assessment for Road Traffic Development Planning-Case of Changchun City, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Chong; XU Ye; SHANG Jincheng; Gordon HUANG

    2009-01-01

    On analyzing the achievement of the goal in the modern urban road traffic development planning, the alternative of Strategic Environmental Assessment for urban traffic planning should include the basic scheme, the extended scheme and the environmental protection scheme. This study from different perspectives designed the alternatives for Changchun's county-level road and urban road system planning, and used the method of System Dynamics to simulate, optimize and analyze those alternatives. Thereafter, some methods including the correlation function method were used to comprehensively assess and rank those alternatives for recommending two best alternatives with the consideration to the indicators, such as the total emission amount of CO, the total emission amount of nitrogen oxides, the noise value, the road construction cost, the fossil oil consumption and the traffic capacity. The result showed that the study would provide substantial supports for decision-makers to make more scientific decisions and promote the sustainable urban traffic in Changchun City.

  13. Fuel-cycle greenhouse gas emissions impacts of alternative transportation fuels and advanced vehicle technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At an international conference on global warming, held in Kyoto, Japan, in December 1997, the United States committed to reduce its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 7% over its 1990 level by the year 2012. To help achieve that goal, transportation GHG emissions need to be reduced. Using Argonne's fuel-cycle model, I estimated GHG emissions reduction potentials of various near- and long-term transportation technologies. The estimated per-mile GHG emissions results show that alternative transportation fuels and advanced vehicle technologies can help significantly reduce transportation GHG emissions. Of the near-term technologies evaluated in this study, electric vehicles; hybrid electric vehicles; compression-ignition, direct-injection vehicles; and E85 flexible fuel vehicles can reduce fuel-cycle GHG emissions by more than 25%, on the fuel-cycle basis. Electric vehicles powered by electricity generated primarily from nuclear and renewable sources can reduce GHG emissions by 80%. Other alternative fuels, such as compressed natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas, offer limited, but positive, GHG emission reduction benefits. Among the long-term technologies evaluated in this study, conventional spark ignition and compression ignition engines powered by alternative fuels and gasoline- and diesel-powered advanced vehicles can reduce GHG emissions by 10% to 30%. Ethanol dedicated vehicles, electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, and fuel-cell vehicles can reduce GHG emissions by over 40%. Spark ignition engines and fuel-cell vehicles powered by cellulosic ethanol and solar hydrogen (for fuel-cell vehicles only) can reduce GHG emissions by over 80%. In conclusion, both near- and long-term alternative fuels and advanced transportation technologies can play a role in reducing the United States GHG emissions

  14. Assessing Alternatives for Directional Detection of a WIMP Halo

    CERN Document Server

    Copi, C J; Simmons-Duffin, D; Stroiney, S R; Copi, Craig J.; Krauss, Lawrence M.; Simmons-Duffin, David; Stroiney, Steven R.

    2005-01-01

    The future of direct terrestrial WIMP detection lies on two fronts: new, much larger low background detectors sensitive to energy deposition, and detectors with directional sensitivity. The former can large range of WIMP parameter space using well tested technology while the latter may be necessary if one is to disentangle particle physics parameters from astrophysical halo parameters. Because directional detectors will be quite difficult to construct it is worthwhile exploring in advance generally which experimental features will yield the greatest benefits at the lowest costs. We examine the sensitivity of directional detectors with varying angular tracking resolution with and without the ability to distinguish forward versus backward recoils, and compare these to the sensitivity of a detector where the track is projected onto a two-dimensional plane. The latter detector regardless of where it is placed on the Earth, can be oriented to produce a significantly better discrimination signal than a 3D detector ...

  15. Assessment vs. appraisal of ethical aspects of health technology assessment: can the distinction be upheld?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandman, Lars

    2014-11-01

    of the ethical analysis on appraisal of the technology. It is considered important to uphold the distinction between assessment and appraisal, primarily to avoid the influence of preconceived values and political interests on the assessment. Hence, as long as it is not based on the subjective value judgments of the HTA-agency (or its representative, such an appraising conclusion would not seem to conflict with the rationale for the separation of these tasks. Moreover, it should be noted that if HTA agencies abstain from including full ethical analyses because of the risk of issuing an appraisal, they may fail to provide the best possible basis for decision-makers. Hence, we argue that as long as the ethical analysis and its conclusions are presented transparently, disclosing how well-founded the conclusions are and/or whether there are alternative conclusions, the HTA-agencies should not avoid taking the ethical analysis as close as possible to a definite conclusion.

  16. Alternatives to Animal Use in Research and Testing. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Science, Research and Technology of the Committee on Science and Technology. House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, Second Session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Science and Technology.

    Perspectives, policy issues, and options for Congressional action that relate most directly to the development and implementation of alternatives to animal use in research and testing are addressed in this report. Testimonies and reports include those from the Office of Technology Assessment, the National Institute of Health, and the Food and Drug…

  17. Assessment of alternative mitigation concepts for Hanford flammable gas tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides a review and assessment of four selected mitigation concepts: pump jet mixing, sonic vibration, dilution, and heating. Though the relative levels of development of these concepts are quite different, some definite conclusions are made on their comparative feasibility. Key findings of this report are as follows. A mixer pump has proven to be a safe and effective active mitigation method in Tank 241-SY-101, and the authors are confident that mixer pumps will effectively mitigate other tanks with comparable waste configurations and properties. Low-frequency sonic vibration is also predicted to be effective for mitigation. Existing data cannot prove that dilution can mitigate gas release event (GRE) behavior. However, dilution is the only concept of the four that potentially offers passive mitigation. Like dilution, heating the waste cannot be proven with available information to mitigate GRE behavior. The designs, analyses, and data from which these conclusions are derived are presented along with recommendations

  18. Assessment of alternative mitigation concepts for Hanford flammable gas tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, C.W.; Schienbein, L.A.; Hudson, J.D.; Eschbach, E.J.; Lessor, D.L.

    1994-09-01

    This report provides a review and assessment of four selected mitigation concepts: pump jet mixing, sonic vibration, dilution, and heating. Though the relative levels of development of these concepts are quite different, some definite conclusions are made on their comparative feasibility. Key findings of this report are as follows. A mixer pump has proven to be a safe and effective active mitigation method in Tank 241-SY-101, and the authors are confident that mixer pumps will effectively mitigate other tanks with comparable waste configurations and properties. Low-frequency sonic vibration is also predicted to be effective for mitigation. Existing data cannot prove that dilution can mitigate gas release event (GRE) behavior. However, dilution is the only concept of the four that potentially offers passive mitigation. Like dilution, heating the waste cannot be proven with available information to mitigate GRE behavior. The designs, analyses, and data from which these conclusions are derived are presented along with recommendations.

  19. Environmental assessments of alternative energy strategies in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Regional Issues Identification and Assessment (RIIA) program is an evaluation of the regional impacts of future energy development. These studies are conducted for the Department of Energy. The impacts described in this paper for 1990 are based on a national energy projection (scenario) that assumes medium energy demand and fuel supply through 1990, but does not incorporate the policies of the 1978 National Energy Act. The RIIA study plan uses the predicted fuel mixes derived from the PIES scenario as a starting point for its analysis. County level patterns for utility, industry and mining activities for 1990 were then developed from the federal region totals. Energy sources addressed were coal, nuclear, oil, oil shale, gas, geothermal, hydroelectric, and solar. The impact of these county-level patterns of utility, industry, and mining activities on the air, water, and land resources of the country and on the socioeconomic and health and safety aspects of the nation's welfare are analyzed

  20. Development of integrated assessment technology for risk and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main idea and contents are summarized as below - Development of new risk/performance assessment system innovating old labor-intensive risk assessment structure · New consolidated risk assessment technology from various hazard(flood, fire, seismic) in NPP Consolidated risk/performance management system for consistency and efficiency of NPP Development of the risk-informed severe accident management supporting system - Resolution technology for pending issues in Pasa Basic technology for Pasa of digital I and C system Basic technology for seismic Pasa reflecting domestic seismic characteristics and aging effect Uncertainty reduction technology for level 2 Pasa and best estimation of containment failure frequency - Assessment technology for new emerging risk/performance issues Human-induced error reduction technology for efficient operation of a NPP B/P model development for performance monitoring

  1. Development of Integrated Assessment Technology of Risk and Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main idea and contents are summarized as below 1) Development of new risk/performance assessment system innovating old labor-intensive risk assessment structure - New consolidated risk assessment technology from various hazard(flood, fire, seismic in NPP) - BOP model development for performance monitoring - Consolidated risk/performance management system for consistency and efficiency of NPP 2) Resolution technology for pending issues in PSA - Base technology for PSA of digital I and C system - Base technology for seismic PSA reflecting domestic seismic characteristics and aging effect - Uncertainty reduction technology for level 2 PSA and best estimation of containment failure frequency 3) Next generation risk/performance assessment technology - Human-induced error reduction technology for efficient operation of a NPP

  2. Alternative response technology program for the Deepwater Horizon in the Gulf of Mexico - an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The innovative approach utilized by the Alternative Response Technology (ART) Program for the MC252 Deepwater Horizon response in the Gulf of Mexico during 2010 was presented in this paper. The ART program is authorized by the Unified Area Command. This paper focuses on the spill response technologies that were implemented offshore, near shore and on-shore, and covers technologies related to booming, skimming, separation, sand cleaning, surveillance and detection. A process was designed and implemented for capturing ideas real time, which leveraged the public's ingenuity and entrepreneurial spirit. About 120,000 individual ideas were submitted by the public globally from more than 100 countries. About 40,000 of these ideas were related to addressing the spill response. There are about 100 new technologies related to spill response that were formally evaluated and/or field tested, and approximately 25 of those tested were successfully implemented across the spill response area.

  3. Desalination with thermal solar systems: technology assessment and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solar desalination is among the most promising alternatives to apply solar energy as solar availability and the load requirements use to be matched. Solar thermal energy offers a full set of alternatives to desalt water, being the main difference among them the temperature range at which the load has to be fed. Solar technologies for the low temperature range (solar stills, plastic collectors,...) are quite suited for small loads in isolated placed or whenever the main constrain is to indigenize technology and to perform the operation and maintenance work with low qualified local labor, such as in less developed countries. The main drawback of this low temperature use of solar energy is that it is not possible to recover neither the heat of condensation of the water vapor, nor from the reject brine, to warm up the feed saline water. Higher temperature collectors, such as flat plate collectors with transparent insulation material and evacuated tubes, allow to work with conventional desalination units fed at 60-90C, as Multiple Effect Units or Multistage Flash Units, which get a performance ratio (quotient between heat required without recovery and with heat recovery) between 5 and 10. To further increase the performance ratio it is necessary to work with vapor in the 200C range. To attain this temperature range the solar option is based on the Parabolic Trough collector. This has been the line we have followed in our STD project in the Plataforma Solar in Almeria (Spain) when we have run a Multiple Effect Unit with an Absorption Heat Pump able to attain a performance ratio of 20. In this report, included within the STD project activities, we assess the potential of the solar thermal technology to desalt water in all the above mentioned temperature ranges. Beside the technology description and some characteristics results, we present a set of tool that, as the final result is dramatically dependent on the technical and economical scenario selected, will allow to

  4. Environmental aspects of alternative wet technologies for producing energy/fuel from peat. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.T.

    1981-05-01

    Peat in situ contains up to 90% moisture, with about 50% of this moisture trapped as a colloidal gel. This colloidal moisture cannot be removed by conventional dewatering methods (filter presses, etc.) and must be removed by thermal drying, solvent extraction, or solar drying before the peat can be utilized as a fuel feedstock for direct combustion or gasification. To circumvent the drying problem, alternative technologies such as wet oxidation, wet carbonization, and biogasification are possible for producing energy or enhanced fuel from peat. This report describes these three alternative technologies, calculates material balances for given raw peat feed rates of 1000 tph, and evaluates the environmental consequences of all process effluent discharges. Wastewater discharges represent the most significant effluent due to the relatively large quantities of water removed during processing. Treated process water returned to the harvested bog may force in situ, acidic bog water into recieving streams, disrupting local aquatic ecosystems.

  5. Alternate particle removal technologies for the Airborne Activity Confinement System at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brockmann, J.E.; Adkins, C.L.J.; Gelbard, F. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1991-09-01

    This report presents a review of the filtration technologies available for the removal of particulate material from a gas stream. It was undertaken to identify alternate filtration technologies that may be employed in the Airborne Activity Confinement System (AACS) at the Savannah River Plant. This report is organized into six sections: (1) a discussion of the aerosol source term and its definition, (2) a short discussion of particle and gaseous contaminant removal mechanisms, (3) a brief overview of particle removal technologies, (4) a discussion of the existing AACS and its potential shortcomings, (5) an enumeration of issues to be addressed in upgrading the AACS, and, (6) a detailed discussion of the identified technologies. The purpose of this report is to identity available options to the existing particle removal system. This system is in continuous operation during routine operation of the reactor. As will be seen, there are a number of options and the selection of any technology or combination of technologies will depend on the design aerosol source term (yet to be appropriately defined) as well as the flow requirements and configuration. This report does not select a specific technology. It focuses on particulate removal and qualitatively on the removal of radio-iodine and mist elimination. Candidate technologies have been selected from industrial and nuclear gas cleaning applications.

  6. Alternate particle removal technologies for the Airborne Activity Confinement System at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents a review of the filtration technologies available for the removal of particulate material from a gas stream. It was undertaken to identify alternate filtration technologies that may be employed in the Airborne Activity Confinement System (AACS) at the Savannah River Plant. This report is organized into six sections: (1) a discussion of the aerosol source term and its definition, (2) a short discussion of particle and gaseous contaminant removal mechanisms, (3) a brief overview of particle removal technologies, (4) a discussion of the existing AACS and its potential shortcomings, (5) an enumeration of issues to be addressed in upgrading the AACS, and, (6) a detailed discussion of the identified technologies. The purpose of this report is to identity available options to the existing particle removal system. This system is in continuous operation during routine operation of the reactor. As will be seen, there are a number of options and the selection of any technology or combination of technologies will depend on the design aerosol source term (yet to be appropriately defined) as well as the flow requirements and configuration. This report does not select a specific technology. It focuses on particulate removal and qualitatively on the removal of radio-iodine and mist elimination. Candidate technologies have been selected from industrial and nuclear gas cleaning applications

  7. Treatment of Clinical Solid Waste Using a Steam Autoclave as a Possible Alternative Technology to Incineration

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Omar Ab Kadir; Nik Norulaini Nik Ab Rahman; Md. Sohrab Hossain; Md. Zaidul Islam Sarker; Venugopal Balakrishnan

    2012-01-01

    A steam autoclave was used to sterilize bacteria in clinical solid waste in order to determine an alternative to incineration technology in clinical solid waste management. The influence of contact time (0, 5, 15, 30 and 60 min) and temperature (111 °C, 121 °C and 131 °C) at automated saturated steam pressure was investigated. Results showed that with increasing contact time and temperature, the number of surviving bacteria decreased. The optimum experimental conditions as measured by degree ...

  8. Cost-effectiveness of alternative green payment policies for conservation technology adoption with heterogeneous land quality

    OpenAIRE

    Khanna, Madhu; Isik, Murat; Zilberman, David

    2002-01-01

    This paper quantitatively analyses the cost-effectiveness of alternative green payment policies designed to achieve a targeted level of pollution control by heterogeneous micro units. These green payment policies include cost-share subsidies that share the fixed costs of adoption of a conservation technology and/or input reduction subsidies to reduce the use of a polluting input. The paper shows that unlike a pollution tax that achieves abatement through three mechanisms, a negative extensive...

  9. New technologies and alternative feedstocks in petrochemistry and refining. Preprints of the conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernst, S.; Jess, A.; Lercher, J.A.; Lichtscheidl, J.; Marchionna, M. (eds.)

    2013-11-01

    This international conference paper provides a forum for chemists and engineers from refinery, petrochemistry and the chemical industry as well as from academia to discuss new technologies and alternative feedstocks in petrochemistry and refining with the special topic ''Shale Gas, Heavy Oils and Coal''. 23 Lectures and 18 Posters are presented. All papers are analyzed for the ENERGY database.

  10. From conventional Infrastructure to Technological Infrastructure Capabilities: A New Alternative for Harnessing Science and Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Developing countries have relied on natural resources, tourism services and raw materials for economic growth. In the past the returns from such investments were high enough to sustain rapid population growth. The education system and hence the research and technology endeavors of these countries were directed at meeting the needs of the above economic drivers. the decline in the growth of gross domestic product from 7% in the seventies to three or negative percent growth of most developing countries in the last two to three decades has signaled countries are to compete favourably in a knowledge-led economy. The acceptance of the need to change on its own is not a sufficient condition for economic turn around unless the emphasis is also placed on investments that will improve the science and technological learning process. Improvement of a continuous learning process has several prerequisites, namely: Establishment of a strong science, technology and innovation policy with forward and backward linkages; Formulation of national innovation systems; Clustering of institutions and organizations to maximize co-operation between private sector, universities and research institutions and government; Establishments of legal and institutional framework laws and regulations which are essential for business investments; Provision of incentives, loans, investments and guarantees that will attract Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) and private sector participation; and Restructuring of how government does business so that there is strong government leadership through policy formulation and operations without strong government command and obey practices

  11. Preliminary engineering assessment of treatment alternatives for groundwater from the Hanford 200 Area 200-BP-5 plumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of the Preliminary Engineering Assessment of Treatment Alternatives (PEATA), an engineering evaluation of potential treatment alternatives for groundwater extracted from the 200-BP-5 Area's 216-BY Cribs and 216-B-5 Reverse Well plumes. The primary objective of the PEATA was to identify treatment technologies that are worth further consideration (i.e., treatability testing or a more refined engineering evaluation). It will also provide a basis for evaluating the results of the treatability testing that is currently being conducted on the presumptive remedy of ion exchange with disposal of spent resin and will serve as a guide for selection of other technologies for additional testing. Because there are little data or past experience with groundwater similar to the BY-Crib and B-5 Reverse Well Plumes, treatment efficiencies cannot be predicted with certainty and rigorous treatment system designs and costs cannot be developed. This applies to all alternatives, including the presumptive remedy of ion exchange. The approach for this study was to develop conceptual designs and approximate costs for the treatment technologies that were most likely to be effective on the BY-Crib and B-5 Reverse Well groundwater

  12. Technology in military strategy: a realistic assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanders, R.

    1983-01-01

    Today the Military Reform Movement strongly criticizes the United States military for being mesmerized by technology to the detriment of other, including human, factors. Only in this century have writers given great attention to war technologies. In contrast to strategic thinkers like Sun-Tsu, Machiavelli, Clausewitz, Moltke, and Mahan, post-World War I theorists like fuller, Liddell Hart, Douhet, and Mitchell made technology a key to their strategic concepts. Nuclear war theorists like Brodie, Kahn, and Wohlstetter made technology a centrality, while limited war theorists like Osgood and Kissinger gave it considerable, but less, stress. The reformers place more weight on teh art of using military forces than on weapons, emphasizing mobility and historical lessons, rather than technology. Nuclear war theories rely too heavily on technological dimensions to expect a shift. Somewhat more attention could profitably be paid to nontechnological aspects of conventional war, but any violent pendulum swing should be avoided.

  13. Assessments of emerging science and technologies: Mapping the landscape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forsberg, E.M.; Thorstensen, E.; Nielsen, R.O.; Bakker, de E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents comparative work from the EST-Frame project on technology appraisal. It focuses on studies of 'advisory domains' (more or less distinct traditions for assessment of technologies, such as risk analysis, foresight and ethical assessments). The purpose of the study was to increase t

  14. Technological Alternatives or Use of Wood Fuel in Combined Heat and Power Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusanova, Jekaterina; Markova, Darja; Bazbauers, Gatis; Valters, Kārlis

    2013-12-01

    Abstract Latvia aims for 40% share of renewable energy in the total final energy use. Latvia has large resources of biomass and developed district heating systems. Therefore, use of biomass for heat and power production is an economically attractive path for increase of the share of renewable energy. The optimum technological solution for use of biomass and required fuel resources have to be identified for energy planning and policy purposes. The aim of this study was to compare several wood fuel based energy conversion technologies from the technical and economical point of view. Three biomass conversion technologies for combined heat and electricity production (CHP) were analyzed: • CHP with steam turbine technology; • gasification CHP using gas engine; • bio-methane combined cycle CHP. Electricity prices for each alternative are presented. The results show the level of support needed for the analyzed renewable energy technologies and time period needed to reach price parity with the natural gas - fired combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) CHPss. The results also show that bio-methane technology is most competitive when compared with CCGT among the considered technologies regarding fuel consumption and electricity production, but it is necessary to reduce investment costs to reach the electricity price parity with the natural gas CCGT.

  15. Comparative alternative materials assessment to screen toxicity hazards in the life cycle of CIGS thin film photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenberg, Daniel A.; Yu, Mengjing; Lam, Carl W. [University of California, Davis, 1 Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Ogunseitan, Oladele A. [University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Schoenung, Julie M., E-mail: jmschoenung@ucdavis.edu [University of California, Davis, 1 Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • Comparative alternatives assessment of thin film manufacturing technologies. • Development of chemical alternatives assessment in a life cycle context. • Screening of manufacturing and solar cell hazardous substances simultaneously. -- Abstract: Copper–indium–gallium–selenium–sulfide (CIGS) thin film photovoltaics are increasingly penetrating the market supply for consumer solar panels. Although CIGS is attractive for producing less greenhouse gas emissions than fossil-fuel based energy sources, CIGS manufacturing processes and solar cell devices use hazardous materials that should be carefully considered in evaluating and comparing net environmental benefits of energy products. Through this research, we present a case study on the toxicity hazards associated with alternative materials selection for CIGS manufacturing. We applied two numeric models, The Green Screen for Safer Chemicals™ and the Toxic Potential Indicator. To improve the sensitivity of the model outputs, we developed a novel, life cycle thinking based hazard assessment method that facilitates the projection of hazards throughout material life cycles. Our results show that the least hazardous CIGS solar cell device and manufacturing protocol consist of a titanium substrate, molybdenum metal back electrode, CuInS{sub 2} p-type absorber deposited by spray pyrolysis, ZnS buffer deposited by spray ion layer gas reduction, ZnO:Ga transparent conducting oxide (TCO) deposited by sputtering, and the encapsulant polydimethylsiloxane.

  16. Comparative alternative materials assessment to screen toxicity hazards in the life cycle of CIGS thin film photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Comparative alternatives assessment of thin film manufacturing technologies. • Development of chemical alternatives assessment in a life cycle context. • Screening of manufacturing and solar cell hazardous substances simultaneously. -- Abstract: Copper–indium–gallium–selenium–sulfide (CIGS) thin film photovoltaics are increasingly penetrating the market supply for consumer solar panels. Although CIGS is attractive for producing less greenhouse gas emissions than fossil-fuel based energy sources, CIGS manufacturing processes and solar cell devices use hazardous materials that should be carefully considered in evaluating and comparing net environmental benefits of energy products. Through this research, we present a case study on the toxicity hazards associated with alternative materials selection for CIGS manufacturing. We applied two numeric models, The Green Screen for Safer Chemicals™ and the Toxic Potential Indicator. To improve the sensitivity of the model outputs, we developed a novel, life cycle thinking based hazard assessment method that facilitates the projection of hazards throughout material life cycles. Our results show that the least hazardous CIGS solar cell device and manufacturing protocol consist of a titanium substrate, molybdenum metal back electrode, CuInS2 p-type absorber deposited by spray pyrolysis, ZnS buffer deposited by spray ion layer gas reduction, ZnO:Ga transparent conducting oxide (TCO) deposited by sputtering, and the encapsulant polydimethylsiloxane

  17. Predicting technology operational availability using technical maturity assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A technical maturity assessment method was performed by systems engineers in collaboration with an advisory panel composed of team members from different Department of Energy sites and from different engineering and science disciplines. Various stabilization technologies were assessed annually as to their relative maturity and availability for use in stabilizing nuclear materials. After three years of assessments, several of the technologies are now components of operational systems. A regression analysis of the historical assessments was performed, and it was concluded that the numerical technical maturity score produced by a team of experts can provide a powerful predictor of the time remaining until the operational application of technologies

  18. A critical assessment of fuel cell technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cold combustion is a promised technology to mankind since the middle of the last century. The fuel cell may at last become the energy machine of the one to come after a long journey on a road bordered with expectations, successes and disappointments. Ten billion people will need the cell for their well-being. The progress and the state-of-art is assessed by means of figures of merit for performance, normalized to standard conditions, life and variability. State-of-art current densities for multi-kW stacks operating on atmospheric pressure air at 0.74 V cell voltage (50% efficiency, HHV) are estimated to be 150 mA/cm2 for MCFC, 160 mA/cm2 for AFC, 239 mA/cm2 for PEFC and 270 mA/cm2 for SOFC. PAFC gives 260 mA/cm2 at 0.66 V and DMFC 100 mA/cm2 at 0.37 V. Decay rates are about 1%/1000 h for PEFC, PAFC and SOFC compared to 2%/1000 h for AFC and 3%/1000 h for MCFC. Coefficients of variation for cell voltages amount to about 1% for all options, except for MCFC with 3-4%. Improvement of cell performance after 1975 is nil to moderate, except for SOFC with a consistent annual improvement of about 10%. There is room for further development of terrestrial AFCs towards 300-400 mA/cm2 considering the figure 800 mA/cm2 for oxygen AFCs. Life and cost will decide the future of the fuel cell. Prospects are not as good as they could be. The fuel cell community lacks understanding of the basics of fuel processing, as demonstrated by the widespread misbelief ('the CO2 syndrome') that CO2 cannot be removed cost effectively from a hydrogen feed (which is practiced in every NH3 plant around the world). The competition, read the gas turbine, has to be taken very seriously. Emphasis has to be shifted from premature demonstrations to R and D on fundamental problems, which have been around too long. 34 refs

  19. Subgroup report on alternative technology strategies for the isolation of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to provide information to support programmatic approaches to the disposal of high-level and transuranic-contaminated (TRU) wastes. For this purpose the report describes, in Appendices A through F, the state of knowledge relevant to selected nuclear waste disposal technologies. Within the main report a number of alternative technological strategies that could lead to a disposal facility are specified for illustrative and analytical purposes. These strategies span a wide range of variations of technological emphasis and programmatic diversity. Selected implications of these strategies are analyzed. In addition, subjects such as technical conservatism, retrievability, and intermediate scale facilities, that apply to any strategy, are examined and implications of each are discussed

  20. Decision Gate Process for Assessment of a Technology Development Portfolio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohli, Rajiv; Fishman, Julianna; Hyatt, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Dust Management Project (DMP) was established to provide technologies (to TRL 6 development level) required to address adverse effects of lunar dust to humans and to exploration systems and equipment, which will reduce life cycle cost and risk, and will increase the probability of sustainable and successful lunar missions. The technology portfolio of DMP consisted of different categories of technologies whose final product is either a technology solution in itself, or one that contributes toward a dust mitigation strategy for a particular application. A Decision Gate Process (DGP) was developed to assess and validate the achievement and priority of the dust mitigation technologies as the technologies progress through the development cycle. The DGP was part of continuous technology assessment and was a critical element of DMP risk management. At the core of the process were technology-specific criteria developed to measure the success of each DMP technology in attaining the technology readiness levels assigned to each decision gate. The DGP accounts for both categories of technologies and qualifies the technology progression from technology development tasks to application areas. The process provided opportunities to validate performance, as well as to identify non-performance in time to adjust resources and direction. This paper describes the overall philosophy of the DGP and the methodology for implementation for DMP, and describes the method for defining the technology evaluation criteria. The process is illustrated by example of an application to a specific DMP technology.

  1. ALTERNATIVE REMEDIATION TECHNOLOGY STUDY FOR GROUNDWATER TREATMENT AT 200-PO-1 OPERABLE UNIT AT HANFORD SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DADO MA

    2008-07-31

    This study focuses on the remediation methods and technologies applicable for use at 200-PO-I Groundwater Operable Unit (OU) at the Hanford Site. The 200-PO-I Groundwater au requires groundwater remediation because of the existence of contaminants of potential concern (COPC). A screening was conducted on alternative technologies and methods of remediation to determine which show the most potential for remediation of groundwater contaminants. The possible technologies were screened to determine which would be suggested for further study and which were not applicable for groundwater remediation. COPCs determined by the Hanford Site groundwater monitoring were grouped into categories based on properties linking them by remediation methods applicable to each COPC group. The screening considered the following criteria. (1) Determine if the suggested method or technology can be used for the specific contaminants found in groundwater and if the technology can be applied at the 200-PO-I Groundwater au, based on physical characteristics such as geology and depth to groundwater. (2) Evaluate screened technologies based on testing and development stages, effectiveness, implementability, cost, and time. This report documents the results of an intern research project conducted by Mathew Dado for Central Plateau Remediation in the Soil and Groundwater Remediation Project. The study was conducted under the technical supervision of Gloria Cummins and management supervision of Theresa Bergman and Becky Austin.

  2. A European perspective on alternatives to animal testing for environmental hazard identification and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Stefan; Sela, Erika; Blaha, Ludek; Braunbeck, Thomas; Galay-Burgos, Malyka; García-Franco, Mauricio; Guinea, Joaquin; Klüver, Nils; Schirmer, Kristin; Tanneberger, Katrin; Tobor-Kapłon, Marysia; Witters, Hilda; Belanger, Scott; Benfenati, Emilio; Creton, Stuart; Cronin, Mark T D; Eggen, Rik I L; Embry, Michelle; Ekman, Drew; Gourmelon, Anne; Halder, Marlies; Hardy, Barry; Hartung, Thomas; Hubesch, Bruno; Jungmann, Dirk; Lampi, Mark A; Lee, Lucy; Léonard, Marc; Küster, Eberhard; Lillicrap, Adam; Luckenbach, Till; Murk, Albertinka J; Navas, José M; Peijnenburg, Willie; Repetto, Guillermo; Salinas, Edward; Schüürmann, Gerrit; Spielmann, Horst; Tollefsen, Knut Erik; Walter-Rohde, Susanne; Whale, Graham; Wheeler, James R; Winter, Matthew J

    2013-12-01

    Tests with vertebrates are an integral part of environmental hazard identification and risk assessment of chemicals, plant protection products, pharmaceuticals, biocides, feed additives and effluents. These tests raise ethical and economic concerns and are considered as inappropriate for assessing all of the substances and effluents that require regulatory testing. Hence, there is a strong demand for replacement, reduction and refinement strategies and methods. However, until now alternative approaches have only rarely been used in regulatory settings. This review provides an overview on current regulations of chemicals and the requirements for animal tests in environmental hazard and risk assessment. It aims to highlight the potential areas for alternative approaches in environmental hazard identification and risk assessment. Perspectives and limitations of alternative approaches to animal tests using vertebrates in environmental toxicology, i.e. mainly fish and amphibians, are discussed. Free access to existing (proprietary) animal test data, availability of validated alternative methods and a practical implementation of conceptual approaches such as the Adverse Outcome Pathways and Integrated Testing Strategies were identified as major requirements towards the successful development and implementation of alternative approaches. Although this article focusses on European regulations, its considerations and conclusions are of global relevance. PMID:24161465

  3. Assessment of selected furnace technologies for RWMC waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides a description and initial evaluation of five selected thermal treatment (furnace) technologies, in support of earlier thermal technologies scoping work for application to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) buried wastes. The cyclone furnace, molten salt processor, microwave melter, ausmelt (fuel fired lance) furnace, and molten metal processor technologies are evaluated. A system description and brief development history are provided. The state of development of each technology is assessed, relative to treatment of RWMC buried waste

  4. Assessment of selected furnace technologies for RWMC waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batdorf, J.; Gillins, R. (Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Anderson, G.L. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States))

    1992-03-01

    This report provides a description and initial evaluation of five selected thermal treatment (furnace) technologies, in support of earlier thermal technologies scoping work for application to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) buried wastes. The cyclone furnace, molten salt processor, microwave melter, ausmelt (fuel fired lance) furnace, and molten metal processor technologies are evaluated. A system description and brief development history are provided. The state of development of each technology is assessed, relative to treatment of RWMC buried waste.

  5. Genome engineering with TAL-effector nucleases and alternative modular nuclease technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharenberg, Andrew M; Duchateau, Philippe; Smith, Julianne

    2013-08-01

    Over three years following the discovery of the TAL code, artificial TAL effector DNA binding domains have emerged as the premier platform for building site-specific DNA binding polypeptides for use in biological research. Here, we provide an overview of TAL effector and alternative modular DNA binding domain (mDBD) technologies, focusing on their use in established and emerging architectures for building site-specific endonucleases for genome engineering applications. We also discuss considerations for choosing TAL effector/mDBD or alternative nuclease technologies for genome engineering projects ranging from basic laboratory gene editing of cultured cell lines to therapeutics. Finally, we highlight how the rapid pace of development of mDBD-based, such as monomeric TALENs (I-TevI-TAL), and more recently RNA-guided nucleases (CRISPR-Cas9) has led to a transition in the field of genome engineering towards development of the next generation of technologies aimed at controlling events that occur after targeted DNA breaks are made. PMID:23888878

  6. Technology assessments in transportation: survey of recent literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaBelle, S.J.

    1980-03-01

    A survey and an evaluation of recent studies of transportation systems done in a technology-assessment framework were undertaken as the basis for a detailed statement of work for a US Department of Energy technology assessment of transportation energy-conservation strategies. Several bibliographies were searched and numerous professionals in the field of technology assessment were contacted regarding current work. Detailed abstracts were prepared for studies judged to be sufficiently broad in coverage of impacts assessed, yet detailed in coverage of all or part of the nation's transportation systems. Some studies were rich in data but not comprehensive in their analytical approach; brief abstracts were prepared for these. An explanation of the criteria used to screen the studies, as well as abstracts of 37 reports, are provided in this compendium of transportation-technology-assessment literature.

  7. Superconducting Technology Assessment (NSA, Office of Corporate Assessments)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — The government, and particularly NSA, has a continuing need for ever-increasing computational power. The Agency is concerned about projected limitations of...

  8. Value-Based Assessment of New Medical Technologies: Towards a Robust Methodological Framework for the Application of Multiple Criteria Decision Analysis in the Context of Health Technology Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelis, Aris; Kanavos, Panos

    2016-05-01

    In recent years, multiple criteria decision analysis (MCDA) has emerged as a likely alternative to address shortcomings in health technology assessment (HTA) by offering a more holistic perspective to value assessment and acting as an alternative priority setting tool. In this paper, we argue that MCDA needs to subscribe to robust methodological processes related to the selection of objectives, criteria and attributes in order to be meaningful in the context of healthcare decision making and fulfil its role in value-based assessment (VBA). We propose a methodological process, based on multi-attribute value theory (MAVT) methods comprising five distinct phases, outline the stages involved in each phase and discuss their relevance in the HTA process. Importantly, criteria and attributes need to satisfy a set of desired properties, otherwise the outcome of the analysis can produce spurious results and misleading recommendations. Assuming the methodological process we propose is adhered to, the application of MCDA presents three very distinct advantages to decision makers in the context of HTA and VBA: first, it acts as an instrument for eliciting preferences on the performance of alternative options across a wider set of explicit criteria, leading to a more complete assessment of value; second, it allows the elicitation of preferences across the criteria themselves to reflect differences in their relative importance; and, third, the entire process of preference elicitation can be informed by direct stakeholder engagement, and can therefore reflect their own preferences. All features are fully transparent and facilitate decision making. PMID:26739955

  9. High Altitude Long Endurance UAV Analysis of Alternatives and Technology Requirements Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickol, Craig L.; Guynn, Mark D.; Kohout, Lisa L.; Ozoroski, Thomas A.

    2007-01-01

    An Analysis of Alternatives and a Technology Requirements Study were conducted for two mission areas utilizing various types of High Altitude Long Endurance (HALE) Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV). A hurricane science mission and a communications relay mission provided air vehicle requirements which were used to derive sixteen potential HALE UAV configurations, including heavier-than-air (HTA) and lighter-than-air (LTA) concepts with both consumable fuel and solar regenerative propulsion systems. A HTA diesel-fueled wing-body-tail configuration emerged as the preferred concept given near-term technology constraints. The cost effectiveness analysis showed that simply maximizing vehicle endurance can be a sub-optimum system solution. In addition, the HTA solar regenerative configuration was utilized to perform both a mission requirements study and a technology development study. Given near-term technology constraints, the solar regenerative powered vehicle was limited to operations during the long days and short nights at higher latitudes during the summer months. Technology improvements are required in energy storage system specific energy and solar cell efficiency, along with airframe drag and mass reductions to enable the solar regenerative vehicle to meet the full mission requirements.

  10. Nonproliferation criteria for assessing civilian nuclear technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two trends are affecting the spread of nuclear weapons. One is the growing access to readily fissionable materials as a by-product of the spread of civilian nuclear technology. The second is the fact that many countries acquiring easier access also have an increased incentive to acquire nuclear explosives, or at least to shorten the lead time to them. Nonproliferation strategies might seek to influence the demand for nuclear explosives through improved alliance ties, regional security associations, and nuclear free zones, as well as the ease of access to explosives through agreement on increasing the difficulty of each access through changes in international agreements on technologies, or through a mix of such measures. The discussion focuses on a supply-oriented strategy, not because such a strategy by itself is likely to be optimal, but because it would be a significant component of a broad strategy, and it is the one that has been central to the nonproliferation efforts of the United States in the past several years. A supply-oriented strategy could have two components: 1. A set of incentives for choosing less dangerous nuclear systems instead of more dangerous ones (and in some cases the choosing of non-nuclear rather than nuclear technologies); 2. A set of political agreements restricting especially dangerous systems or components of systems. For such a strategy to have a prospect of being effective, it should encompass all the paths to a bomb from a legitimate safeguarded state. Specifically, it should include: 1. Paths starting from large plutonium reactors, including those labeled research reactors; 2. Isotope separation technologies; 3. Power-reactors-related paths, based on using either a. Material available at the front end, or b. Material available at the back end; and 4 Various possible future technologies, such as accelerator breeders or fusion-fission technology. Some illustrative cases are discussed

  11. Technology and public policy: The process of technology assessment in the federal government

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, V. T.

    1975-01-01

    A study was conducted to provide a descriptive and analytical review of the concept of technology assessment and the current status of its applications in the work of the federal executive agencies. The origin of the term technology assessment was examined along with a brief history of its discussion and development since 1966 and some of the factors influencing that development.

  12. 20 Years of Technology and Language Assessment in "Language Learning & Technology"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapelle, Carol A.; Voss, Erik

    2016-01-01

    This review article provides an analysis of the research from the last two decades on the theme of technology and second language assessment. Based on an examination of the assessment scholarship published in "Language Learning & Technology" since its launch in 1997, we analyzed the review articles, research articles, book reviews,…

  13. The development of integrated safety assessment technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the purpose of developing the integrated PSA methodology and computer codes, Level-1 and Level-2 PSA methodology and tools were reviewed and improved. The Level-1 PSA computer code package KIRAP was improved and released by the name of KIRAP Release 2.0 Several Human reliability analysis and common cause failure analysis methods was reviewed and compared. For the development of Level-2 PSA computer code, several level-1 and Level-2 interface methods and containment event tree development methods were reviewed and compared. And the new technology such as artificial intelligence was reviewed if the technology can be applied to the development of PSA methodology.(Author)

  14. Biomedical Technology Assessment The 3Q Method

    CERN Document Server

    Weinfurt, Phillip

    2010-01-01

    Evaluating biomedical technology poses a significant challenge in light of the complexity and rate of introduction in today's healthcare delivery system. Successful evaluation requires an integration of clinical medicine, science, finance, and market analysis. Little guidance, however, exists for those who must conduct comprehensive technology evaluations. The 3Q Method meets these present day needs. The 3Q Method is organized around 3 key questions dealing with 1) clinical and scientific basis, 2) financial fit and 3) strategic and expertise fit. Both healthcare providers (e.g., hospitals) an

  15. LNG vehicle technology, economics, and safety assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powars, Charles A.; Moyer, Carl B.; Lowell, Douglas D.

    1994-02-01

    Liquid natural gas (LNG) is an attractive transportation fuel because of its high heating value and energy density (i.e., Btu/lb. and Btu/gal.), clean burning characteristics, relatively low cost ($/Btu), and domestic availability. This research evaluated LNG vehicle and refueling system technology, economics, and safety. Prior and current LNG vehicle projects were studied to identify needed technology improvements. Life-cycle cost analyses considered various LNG vehicle and fuel supply options. Safety records, standards, and analysis methods were reviewed. The LNG market niche is centrally fueled heavy-duty fleet vehicles with high fuel consumption. For these applications, fuel cost savings can amortize equipment capital costs.

  16. Technology development risk assessment and mixed interests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main purpose of this work is to demonstrate by means of a critical analysis of the state-of-the-art in technological and environmental risk analysis and decision making, that risk and environmental management decisions involve heterogeneous groups of social actors, each representing conflicting interests. It is argued that risk analyses should therefore be based on social interaction and communication paradigma, as well as, on a new rational way of thinking concerning the optimum choice of suitable technological development strategies leading towards a publicly acceptable balance between national energy-economic strategic necessities and social and individual perception of risk

  17. Waste management project’s alternatives: A risk-based multi-criteria assessment (RBMCA) approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► We examine the evaluation of a waste management project’s alternatives. ► We present a novel risk-based multi-criteria assessment (RBMCA) approach. ► In the RBMCA the evaluation criteria are based on the quantitative risk analysis of the project’s alternatives. ► Correlation between the criteria weight values and the decision makers’ risk preferences is examined. ► Preference to the multi-criteria against the one-criterion evaluation process is discussed. - Abstract: This paper examines the evaluation of a waste management project’s alternatives through a quantitative risk analysis. Cost benefit analysis is a widely used method, in which the investments are mainly assessed through the calculation of their evaluation indicators, namely benefit/cost (B/C) ratios, as well as the quantification of their financial, technical, environmental and social risks. Herein, a novel approach in the form of risk-based multi-criteria assessment (RBMCA) is introduced, which can be used by decision makers, in order to select the optimum alternative of a waste management project. Specifically, decision makers use multiple criteria, which are based on the cumulative probability distribution functions of the alternatives’ B/C ratios. The RBMCA system is used for the evaluation of a waste incineration project’s alternatives, where the correlation between the criteria weight values and the decision makers’ risk preferences is analyzed and useful conclusions are discussed.

  18. Future technology in cochlear implants: assessing the benefit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Robert J S

    2011-05-01

    It has been over 50 years since Djourno and Eyries first attempted electric stimulation in a patient with deafness. Over this time, the Cochlear Implant (CI) has become not only remarkably successful, but increasingly complex. Although the basic components of the system still comprise an implanted receiver stimulator and electrode, externally worn speech processor, microphone, control system, and power source, there are now several alternative designs of these components with different attributes that can be variably combined to meet the needs of specific patient groups. Development by the manufacturers has been driven both by these various patient needs, and also by the desire to achieve technological superiority, or at least differentiation, ultimately in pursuit of market share. Assessment of benefit is the responsibility of clinicians. It is incumbent on both industry and clinicians to ensure appropriate, safe, and affordable introduction of new technology. For example, experience with the totally implanted cochlear implant (TIKI) has demonstrated that quality of hearing is the over-riding consideration for CI users. To date, improved hearing outcomes have been achieved by improvements in: speech processing strategies; microphone technology; pre-processing strategies; electrode placement; bilateral implantation; use of a hearing aid in the opposite ear (bimodal stimulation); and the combination of electric and acoustic stimulation in the same ear. The resulting expansion of CI candidacy, with more residual hearing, further improves the outcomes achieved. Largely facilitated by advances in electronic capability and computerization, it can be expected that these improvements will continue. However, marked variability of results still occurs and we cannot assure any individual patient of their outcome. Realistic goals for implementation of new technology include: improved hearing in noise and music perception; effective invisible hearing (no external apparatus

  19. Female alternative reproductive behaviors: the effect of female group size on mate assessment and copying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Bernard J; Flaxman, Samuel M; Alonzo, Suzanne H

    2008-08-01

    Extensive theoretical and empirical research has focused on male alternative reproductive tactics. In comparison, female alternative tactics have attracted little attention, and further theoretical and empirical research are needed. Using a game theoretical model, we examine female choice alternatives (1) by considering assessment errors in a novel and more realistic manner than done previously, and (2) for the first time, by highlighting the formation of groups of females as an important consequence of copying behavior. We consider two alternatives: direct assessment of male quality by females and female copying of the choice of other females. Assessment and copying are predicted to coexist under a wide variety of circumstances and copying is favored when females make assessment errors, when high-quality males are either common or very rare, and when female fitness declines with the number of other females choosing the same male. We also find that the frequency of copying at equilibrium is predicted to decrease when the presence of other females mating with the same male has a positive effect on female fitness (e.g. through increased male parental effort, decreased predation risk or cooperation among females). Female alternative choice tactics also influence the potential for sexual selection. In our model, when the frequency of copying females is low, the potential for sexual selection can be higher than in the absence of female copying. However, contrary to previous theory, we find that as copying females become more common than assessing females, the potential for sexual selection will be low as more females copy the mate choice of other copiers without assessment. PMID:18511084

  20. Dialogic Global Studies for Multicultural Technology Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durakovic, Emina; Feigl, Britta Marion; Fischer, Bettina Marion; Fleck, Christopher; Galler, Lisa-Maria; Heinrich, Johannes; Kulmer, Karin; Kurzweil, Birgitta; Scholze, Markus; Sperl, Raphael Stefan; Unterkofler, Rene; Remele, Kurt; Matzenberger, Julian; Ahamer, Gilbert

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to show a practical case of dialogic web-based learning that has provided a set of questions analysing two complex technological projects in "southern" countries with effects on multicultural equity. Design/methodology/approach: Structured online review processes in multicultural and systems science curricula…

  1. Constructive Technology Assessment for HIT development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høstgaard, Anna Marie Balling; Bertelsen, Pernille; Petersen, Lone Stub;

    2013-01-01

    -users. The CTA methodology is based on a Socio-technical understanding of technological development as an open ended, emergent process. The CTA was used during the EHR development process in the Region of North Jutland where it proved successful inproviding learning and feedback between all relevant groups...

  2. Mixed Waste Focus Area alternative oxidation technologies development and demonstration program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) is currently supporting the development and demonstration of several alternative oxidation technology (AOT) processes for treatment of combustible mixed low-level wastes. The impetus for this support derives from regulatory and political hurdles frequently encountered by traditional thermal techniques, primarily incinerators. AOTs have been defined as technologies that destroy organic material without using open-flame reactions. Whether thermal or nonthermal, the processes have the potential advantages of relatively low-volume gaseous emissions, generation of few or no dioxin/furan compounds, and operation at low enough temperatures that metals (except mercury) and most radionuclides are not volatilized. Technology development and demonstration are needed to confirm and realize the potential of AOTs and to compare them on an equal basis with their fully demonstrated thermal counterparts. AOTs include both thermal and nonthermal processes that oxidize organic wastes but operate under significantly different physical and chemical conditions than incinerators. Nonthermal processes currently being studied include Delphi DETOX and acid digestion at the Savannah River Site, and direct chemical oxidation at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. All three technologies are at advanced stages of development or are entering the demonstration phase. Nonflame thermal processes include catalytic chemical oxidation, which is being developed and deployed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, and team reforming, a commercial process being supported by Department of Energy. Related technologies include two low-flow, secondary oxidation processes (Phoenix and Thermatrix units) that have been tested at MSE, Inc., in Butte, Montana. Although testing is complete on some AOT technologies, most require additional support to complete some or all of the identified development objectives. Brief descriptions, status, and planned paths forward for each

  3. Mixed Waste Focus Area alternative oxidation technologies development and demonstration program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borduin, L.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Fewell, T.; Gombert, D.; Priebe, S. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1998-07-01

    The Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) is currently supporting the development and demonstration of several alternative oxidation technology (AOT) processes for treatment of combustible mixed low-level wastes. The impetus for this support derives from regulatory and political hurdles frequently encountered by traditional thermal techniques, primarily incinerators. AOTs have been defined as technologies that destroy organic material without using open-flame reactions. Whether thermal or nonthermal, the processes have the potential advantages of relatively low-volume gaseous emissions, generation of few or no dioxin/furan compounds, and operation at low enough temperatures that metals (except mercury) and most radionuclides are not volatilized. Technology development and demonstration are needed to confirm and realize the potential of AOTs and to compare them on an equal basis with their fully demonstrated thermal counterparts. AOTs include both thermal and nonthermal processes that oxidize organic wastes but operate under significantly different physical and chemical conditions than incinerators. Nonthermal processes currently being studied include Delphi DETOX and acid digestion at the Savannah River Site, and direct chemical oxidation at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. All three technologies are at advanced stages of development or are entering the demonstration phase. Nonflame thermal processes include catalytic chemical oxidation, which is being developed and deployed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, and team reforming, a commercial process being supported by Department of Energy. Related technologies include two low-flow, secondary oxidation processes (Phoenix and Thermatrix units) that have been tested at MSE, Inc., in Butte, Montana. Although testing is complete on some AOT technologies, most require additional support to complete some or all of the identified development objectives. Brief descriptions, status, and planned paths forward for each

  4. Appraising the sustainability of project alternatives: An increasing role for cumulative effects assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evaluating and comparing development alternatives with regard to sustainability is an important goal for comprehensive project appraisal. In the United States, this component has been largely missing from standard environmental impact assessment practice. Cumulative effects assessment provides a way to appraise the sustainability of project alternatives in terms of their probable contributions to long-term trends affecting the condition of valued environmental components. Sustainability metrics and predictors are being developed as criteria for rating systems and evaluation processes that are applied to community planning, building design, and transportation infrastructure. Increasing interest in adaptive management is also providing cost-effective solutions to optimizing safety and function throughout the long-term operation of a facility or infrastructure. Recent federal legislation is making it easier to integrate sustainability features into development alternatives through early, community-based planning.

  5. Assessing Jatropha Crop Production Alternatives in Abandoned Agricultural Arid Soils Using MCA and GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serafin Corral

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the assessment of various biofuel crop production alternatives on the island of Fuerteventura using Jatropha crops. It adopts an integrated approach by carrying out a multi-criteria assessment with the support of participatory techniques and geographical information systems. Sixteen production alternatives were analyzed for growing Jatropha, and the results suggest that the best alternative involves using typical torrifluvent soils irrigated with recycled urban wastewater using surface drip irrigation covering 100% evapotranspiration. It was also determined that a potential area of 2546 ha could be used for cultivation within a radius of 10 km from a wastewater treatment plant. This level of production would supply 27.56% of the biofuel needs of Fuerteventura, thereby contributing to the 2020 target of the European Commission regarding biofuels for land transport.

  6. ISO New England: Results of Ancillary Service Pilot Programs, Alternative Technology Regulation Pilot Program and Demand Response Reserves Pilot Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowell, Jon [ISO New England, Holyoke, MA (United States); Yoshimura, Henry [ISO New England, Holyoke, MA (United States)

    2011-10-26

    This PowerPoint presentation compares performance of pilot program assets and generation resources in alternative technology regulation and demand response reserves for flywheels and residential electric thermal storage.

  7. Assessing Tuition and Student Aid Strategies: Using Price-Response Measures to Simulate Pricing Alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. John, Edward P.

    1994-01-01

    A study used price-response measures from recent national studies to assess college and university pricing (tuition and student aid) alternatives in diverse institutional settings. It is concluded that such analyses are feasible. Analysis indicated limits to "Robin Hood" pricing patterns are predominant in private colleges. Consideration of new…

  8. Assessment Training Effects on Student Assessment Skills and Task Performance in a Technology-Facilitated Peer Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiongyi; Li, Lan

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the impact of an assessment training module on student assessment skills and task performance in a technology-facilitated peer assessment. Seventy-eight undergraduate students participated in the study. The participants completed an assessment training exercise, prior to engaging in peer-assessment activities. During the…

  9. Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Commercial Lawn Equipment (Spanish version); Clean Cities, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Erik

    2015-06-01

    Powering commercial lawn equipment with alternative fuels or advanced engine technology is an effective way to reduce U.S. dependence on petroleum, reduce harmful emissions, and lessen the environmental impacts of commercial lawn mowing. Numerous alternative fuel and fuel-efficient advanced technology mowers are available. Owners turn to these mowers because they may save on fuel and maintenance costs, extend mower life, reduce fuel spillage and fuel theft, and demonstrate their commitment to sustainability.

  10. IMPROVING HOSPITAL LOGISTICS BY RETHINKING TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Peter; Jørgensen, Pelle Morten Thomas

    2011-01-01

    In order to cope with the future challenges of the health care sector, there is an urging need for improving efficiency at hospitals. The study presents a framework enabling health care managers of improving the in-house logistics. The distinctiveness of the framework is the way in which it relates...... technology, logistics, structure and procedures to efficiency. Changing one factor e.g. technology, initiates an iterative loop focusing on change in the related factors in order to obtain the optimal efficiency. The search for an optimal efficient solution is the driving force of the framework, and will...... Danish hospital. The framework is tested on the blood sample logistics between the emergency department and laboratory with the goal of enhancing the efficiency of the emergency department....

  11. Radioactive scrap metal decontamination technology assessment report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the DOE complex there exists a tremendous quantity of radioactive scrap metal. As an example, it is estimated that within the gaseous diffusion plants there exists in excess of 700,000 tons of contaminated stainless steel. At present, valuable material is being disposed of when it could be converted into a high quality product. Liquid metal processing represents a true recycling opportunity for this material. By applying the primary production processes towards the material's decontamination and re-use, the value of the strategic resource is maintained while drastically reducing the volume of material in need of burial. Potential processes for the liquid metal decontamination of radioactively contaminated metal are discussed and contrasted. Opportunities and technology development issues are identified and discussed. The processes compared are: surface decontamination; size reduction, packaging and burial; melting technologies; electric arc melting; plasma arc centrifugal treatment; air induction melting; vacuum induction melting; and vacuum induction melting and electroslag remelting

  12. Radioactive scrap metal decontamination technology assessment report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckentin, J.M.; Damkroger, B.K.; Schlienger, M.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Liquid Metal Processing Lab.

    1996-04-01

    Within the DOE complex there exists a tremendous quantity of radioactive scrap metal. As an example, it is estimated that within the gaseous diffusion plants there exists in excess of 700,000 tons of contaminated stainless steel. At present, valuable material is being disposed of when it could be converted into a high quality product. Liquid metal processing represents a true recycling opportunity for this material. By applying the primary production processes towards the material`s decontamination and re-use, the value of the strategic resource is maintained while drastically reducing the volume of material in need of burial. Potential processes for the liquid metal decontamination of radioactively contaminated metal are discussed and contrasted. Opportunities and technology development issues are identified and discussed. The processes compared are: surface decontamination; size reduction, packaging and burial; melting technologies; electric arc melting; plasma arc centrifugal treatment; air induction melting; vacuum induction melting; and vacuum induction melting and electroslag remelting.

  13. Health-Care Technology Assessment in Radiology

    OpenAIRE

    Arash Deljou

    2010-01-01

    Health-care service provision and procurement is increasingly subject to policy decisions, managed more than ever before. Becoming more international, collaboration is increasing as the health professions, research and industry all work across borders. Differing health-care systems across the countries result from national and regional policy developments and priorities."nIn health-care, all interventions and procedures are basically technologies-including radiology and sur-gery, and tec...

  14. Space Propulsion Synergy Group ETO technology assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, James

    There exists within the aerospace community a widely recognized need to improve future space launch systems. While these needs have been expressed by many national committees, potential solutions have not achieved consensus nor have they endured. Facing the challenge to remain competitive with limited national resources, the U.S. must improve its strategic planning efforts. A nationally accepted strategic plan for space would enable a focused research & development program. The Space Propulsion Synergy Group (SPSG), chartered to support long range strategic planning, has achieved several breakthroughs. First, using a broad industry/government team, the SPSG evaluated and achieved consensus on the vehicles, propulsion systems, and propulsion technologies that have the best long term potential for achieving desired system attributes. The breakthrough that enabled broad consensus was developing criteria that are measurable a-priori. Second, realizing that systems having the best long term payoffs can loose support when constraints are tight, the SPSG invented a dual prioritization approach that balances long term strategic thrusts with current programmatic constraints. This breakthrough enables individual program managers to make decisions based on both individual project needs and long term strategic needs. Results indicate that a SSTO using an integrated modular engine has the best long term potential for a 20 Klb class vehicle and that health monitoring and control technologies rank among the highest dual priority liquid rocket technologies.

  15. Global warming impacts of CFC alternative technologies: Combining fluorocarbon and CO2 effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are on their way out, due to their role in stratospheric ozone depletion and the related international Montreal Protocol agreement and various national phaseout timetables. As the research, engineering development, and manufacturing investment decisions have ensued to prepare for this transition away from CFCs, the climate change issue has emerged and there has recently been increased attention on the direct global warming potential (GWP) of the fluorocarbon alternatives as greenhouse gases. However, there has been less focus on the indirect global warming effect arising from end-use energy changes and associated CO2 emissions. A study was undertaken to address these combined global warming effects. A concept of Total Equivalent Warming Impact (TEWI) was developed for combining the direct and indirect effects and was used for evaluating CFC-replacement options available in the required CFC transition time frame. Analyses of industry technology surveys indicate that CFC-user industries have made substantial progress toward near-equal energy efficiency with many HCFC/HFC alternatives. The findings also bring into question the relative importance of the direct effect in many applications and stress energy efficiency when searching for suitable CFC alternatives. For chillers, household refrigerators, and unitary air-conditioning or heat pump equipment, changes in efficiency of only 2--5% would have a greater effect on future TEWI than completely eliminating the direct effect

  16. Apperception and assessment of technological risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risk is defined to be the possibility to induce damage or loss. Any person confronted with risk in his activities has to assess the risk in every case. The author explains a number of actions and events that have been worked out to train people in better management of risk, especially in the working environment. (DG)

  17. Production Costs of Alternative Transportation Fuels. Influence of Crude Oil Price and Technology Maturity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazzola, Pierpaolo; Morrison, Geoff; Kaneko, Hiroyuki; Cuenot, Francois; Ghandi, Abbas; Fulton, Lewis

    2013-07-01

    This study examines the production costs of a range of transport fuels and energy carriers under varying crude oil price assumptions and technology market maturation levels. An engineering ''bottom-up'' approach is used to estimate the effect of the input cost of oil and of various technological assumptions on the finished price of these fuels. In total, the production costs of 20 fuels are examined for crude oil prices between USD 60 and USD 150 per barrel. Some fuel pathways can be competitive with oil as their production, transport and storage technology matures, and as oil price increases. Rising oil prices will offer new opportunities to switch to alternative fuels for transport, to diversify the energy mix of the transport sector, and to reduce the exposure of the whole system to price volatility and potential distuption of supply. In a time of uncertainty about the leading vehicle technology to decarbonize the transport sector, looking at the fuel cost brings key information to be considered to keep mobility affordable yet sustainable.

  18. Engineering evaluation of alternatives: Technologies for monitoring interstitial liquids in single-shell tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A global search of mature, emerging, and conceptual tank liquid monitoring technologies, along with a historical review of Hanford tank farm waste monitoring instrumentation, was conducted to identify methods for gauging the quantity of interstitial waste liquids contained in Hanford SSTs. Upon completion of the search, an initial screening of alternatives was conducted to identify candidates which might be capable of monitoring interstitial tank liquids. The nine candidate technologies that were selected, evaluated, and ranked are summarized. Hydrostatic tank gauging (HTG) is the technology generally recommended for gauging the quantity of process materials contained in Hanford SSTs. HTG is a mass-based technique that has the capability for continuous remote monitoring. HTG has the advantages of no moving parts, intrinsic safety, and potentially gauging a one-million gal tank with a precision of approximately ±500 pounds (i.e., ±62 gal of water or ±0.02 in. of level in a 75 ft diameter tank). HTG is relatively inexpensive and probe design, construction, testing, installation, and operation should be straightforward. HTG should be configured as part of a hybrid tank gauging system. A hybrid system employs two or more independent measurement systems which function in concert to provide redundancy, improved accuracy, and maximum information at minimum cost. An excellent hybrid system choice for monitoring interstitial liquids in SSTs might be the combination of HTG with thermal differential technology

  19. Illustrating anticipatory life cycle assessment for emerging photovoltaic technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wender, Ben A; Foley, Rider W; Prado-Lopez, Valentina; Ravikumar, Dwarakanath; Eisenberg, Daniel A; Hottle, Troy A; Sadowski, Jathan; Flanagan, William P; Fisher, Angela; Laurin, Lise; Bates, Matthew E; Linkov, Igor; Seager, Thomas P; Fraser, Matthew P; Guston, David H

    2014-09-16

    Current research policy and strategy documents recommend applying life cycle assessment (LCA) early in research and development (R&D) to guide emerging technologies toward decreased environmental burden. However, existing LCA practices are ill-suited to support these recommendations. Barriers related to data availability, rapid technology change, and isolation of environmental from technical research inhibit application of LCA to developing technologies. Overcoming these challenges requires methodological advances that help identify environmental opportunities prior to large R&D investments. Such an anticipatory approach to LCA requires synthesis of social, environmental, and technical knowledge beyond the capabilities of current practices. This paper introduces a novel framework for anticipatory LCA that incorporates technology forecasting, risk research, social engagement, and comparative impact assessment, then applies this framework to photovoltaic (PV) technologies. These examples illustrate the potential for anticipatory LCA to prioritize research questions and help guide environmentally responsible innovation of emerging technologies. PMID:25121583

  20. Quadrennial Technology Review 2015: Technology Assessments--Wind Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2015-10-07

    Wind power has become a mainstream power source in the U.S. electricity portfolio, supplying 4.9% of the nation’s electricity demand in 2014. With more than 65 GW installed across 39 states at the end of 2014, utility-scale wind power is a cost-effective source of low-emissions power generation throughout much of the nation. The United States has significant sustainable land-based and offshore wind resource potential, greater than 10 times current total U.S. electricity consumption. A technical wind resource assessment conducted by the Department of Energy (DOE) in 2009 estimated that the land-based wind energy potential for the contiguous United States is equivalent to 10,500 GW capacity at 80 meters (m) hub and 12,000 GW capacity at 100 meters (m) hub heights, assuming a capacity factor of at least 30%. A subsequent 2010 DOE report estimated the technical offshore wind energy potential to be 4,150 GW. The estimate was calculated from the total offshore area within 50 nautical miles of shore in areas where average annual wind speeds are at least 7 m per second at a hub height of 90 m.

  1. Risk assessments of innovative technologies for treatment of mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mission of the US Department of Energy's (DOE'S) Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) is to develop complete and appropriate technologies for the treatment of DOE mixed low-level waste and transuranic wastes in order to ensure that all affected DOE installations and projects can come into compliance with environmental law and meet DOE's 30-yr cleanup and operational goals. The MWIP will achieve its goal by developing technologies that are in compliance with regulatory requirements, are socially and politically viable, and are cost beneficial and effective in disposed waste source term and volume reduction. The project management plan for MWIP requires that technologies be evaluated in accordance with criteria that rank technologies with regard to performance, risk, and cost-effectiveness. This paper addresses the methodology used to rank alternative mixed-water treatment technologies with regard to relative risk

  2. Photopneumatic Technology in Acne Treatment and Skin Rejuvenation: Histological Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Omi, Tokuya

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims: Recent reports indicate that a variety of light-based devices have been used for acne treatment and skin rejuvenation. A new technology combining intense pulsed light with negative pressure, photopneumatic technology, has recently attracted interest. The present study assessed acne treatment and skin rejuvenation with this novel approach

  3. Framework for dementia Quality of Life assessment with Assistive Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peterson, Carrie Beth; Prasad, Neeli R.; Prasad, Ramjee

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a theoretical framework for a Quality of Life (QOL) evaluation tool that is sensitive, flexible, computerized, and specific to assistive technology (AT) for dementia care. Using the appropriate evaluation tool serves to improve methodologies that are used for AT assessment...... particular regard to the influx in assistive technologies and their implications as therapeutic interventions for dementia care....

  4. Lifecycle Assessment of Biofuel Production from Wood Pyrolysis Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyele, S. V.

    2007-01-01

    Due to a stronger dependency on biomass for energy, there is a need for improved technologies in biomass-to-energy conversion in Tanzania. This paper presents a life cycle assessment (LCA) of pyrolysis technology used for conversion of wood and wood waste to liquid biofuel. In particular, a survey of environmental impacts of the process is…

  5. A needs assessment for mobile technology use in medical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrzad Vafa

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study investigated how medical students perceived mobile technology as a component of their learning experience and identified barriers to the use of mobile technology in education. Methods: An anonymous survey developed by EDUCAUSE was distributed to 1000 first year medical students (M1s at two separate medical schools during three consecutive academic years, 2010 to 2013. The 25-item questionnaire assessed student use of mobile devices, student interest in mobile technologies as they apply to education, and technology issues related to implementing mobile application in education. Results: The majority of participating M1s (n=520 indicated that they own a smartphone or a similar mobile device. More than half of M1s reported using their devices for education, primarily to download educational course materials, listen to podcasts/lectures, and access medical resource applications. Two student-identified technology issues concerning the use of mobile technology in education were ensuring better implementation of technology and faster data transmission (60. Review of qualitative data from written responses to open-ended questions highlighted three common themes: (1 the current use of mobile technology in the clinics and other institutions, (2 common technology ownership and comfort of use, and (3 efficiency and accessibility to learning materials. Conclusions: While the needs assessment revealed student acceptance of mobile technology in education, student responses highlighted the need for a supportive academic and technological infrastructure.

  6. Technology Development Risk Assessment for Space Transportation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathias, Donovan L.; Godsell, Aga M.; Go, Susie

    2006-01-01

    A new approach for assessing development risk associated with technology development projects is presented. The method represents technology evolution in terms of sector-specific discrete development stages. A Monte Carlo simulation is used to generate development probability distributions based on statistical models of the discrete transitions. Development risk is derived from the resulting probability distributions and specific program requirements. Two sample cases are discussed to illustrate the approach, a single rocket engine development and a three-technology space transportation portfolio.

  7. Perspectives and strategies of alternative methods used in the risk assessment of personal care products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quantin, P; Thélu, A; Catoire, S; Ficheux, H

    2015-11-01

    Risk assessment for personal care products requires the use of alternative methods since animal testing is now totally banned. Some of these methods are effective and have been validated by the "European Union Reference Laboratory for alternatives to animal testing"; but there is still a need for development and implementation of methods for specific endpoints. In this review, we have focused on dermal risk assessment because it is the prime route of absorption and main target organ for personal care products. Within this field, various areas must be assessed: irritation, sensitisation and toxicokinetic. Personal care product behaviour after use by the consumer and potential effects on the environment are also discussed. The purpose of this review is to show evolution and the prospects of alternative methods for safety dermal assessment. Assessment strategies must be adapted to the different chemical classes of substances studied but also to the way in which they are used. Finally, experimental and theoretical technical parameters that may impact on measured effects have been identified and discussed. PMID:26184446

  8. Defining the "proven technology" technical criterion in the reactor technology assessment for Malaysia's nuclear power program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anuar, Nuraslinda; Kahar, Wan Shakirah Wan Abdul; Manan, Jamal Abdul Nasir Abd

    2015-04-01

    Developing countries that are considering the deployment of nuclear power plants (NPPs) in the near future need to perform reactor technology assessment (RTA) in order to select the most suitable reactor design. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) reported in the Common User Considerations (CUC) document that "proven technology" is one of the most important technical criteria for newcomer countries in performing the RTA. The qualitative description of five desired features for "proven technology" is relatively broad and only provides a general guideline to its characterization. This paper proposes a methodology to define the "proven technology" term according to a specific country's requirements using a three-stage evaluation process. The first evaluation stage screens the available technologies in the market against a predefined minimum Technology Readiness Level (TRL) derived as a condition based on national needs and policy objectives. The result is a list of technology options, which are then assessed in the second evaluation stage against quantitative definitions of CUC desired features for proven technology. The potential technology candidates produced from this evaluation is further narrowed down to obtain a list of proven technology candidates by assessing them against selected risk criteria and the established maximum allowable total score using a scoring matrix. The outcome of this methodology is the proven technology candidates selected using an accurate definition of "proven technology" that fulfills the policy objectives, national needs and risk, and country-specific CUC desired features of the country that performs this assessment. A simplified assessment for Malaysia is carried out to demonstrate and suggest the use of the proposed methodology. In this exercise, ABWR, AP1000, APR1400 and EPR designs assumed the top-ranks of proven technology candidates according to Malaysia's definition of "proven technology".

  9. A value/impact assessment for alternative decay heat removal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Value/Impact assessment for several alternative decay heat removal systems has been carried out using several measures. The assessment is based on an extension of the methodology presented in the Value/Impact Handbook and includes the effects of uncertainty. The assessment was carried out as a function of site population density, existing plant features, and new plant features. Value/Impact measures based on population dose are shown to be sensitive to site, while measures which monetize and aggregate risk are less so. The latter are dominated by on-site costs such as replacement power costs. (orig.)

  10. Assessment of Energy Efficiency Project Financing Alternatives for Brookhaven National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, W. D.; Hail, John C.; Sullivan, Gregory P.

    2000-02-14

    This document provides findings and recommendations that resulted from an assessment of the Brookhaven National Laboratory by a team from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to assess the site's potential for various alternative financing options as a means to implement energy-efficiency improvements. The assessment looked for life-cycle cost-effective energy-efficiency improvement opportunities, and through a series of staff interviews, evaluated the various methods by which these opportunities may be financed, while considering availability of funds, staff, and available financing options. This report summarizes the findings of the visit and the resulting recommendations.

  11. Technology assessment of geothermal energy resource development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-04-15

    Geothermal state-of-the-art is described including geothermal resources, technology, and institutional, legal, and environmental considerations. The way geothermal energy may evolve in the United States is described; a series of plausible scenarios and the factors and policies which control the rate of growth of the resource are presented. The potential primary and higher order impacts of geothermal energy are explored, including effects on the economy and society, cities and dwellings, environmental, and on institutions affected by it. Numerical and methodological detail is included in appendices. (MHR)

  12. Contact radiotherapy. Report of technological assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report aims at assessing safety, indications, the role in therapeutic strategy, and efficiency of contact radiotherapy. It also aims at answering questions like: is the contact radiotherapy technique validated? What are the indications for contact radiotherapy? What about the efficiency and safety of contact radiotherapy? After a presentation of preliminary notions on radiotherapy (radiation types, dose, and irradiation techniques), the report presents this specific technique of contact radiotherapy: definition, devices, use recommendations, issues of radiation protection, modalities of performance of a contact radiotherapy session, and concerned pathologies. Then, based on a literature survey, this report addresses the various concerned tumours (skin, rectum, brain, breast), indicates some general information about these tumours (epidemiological data, anatomy and classification, therapeutic options, radiotherapy), and proposes an assessment of the efficiency and safety of contact radiotherapy

  13. Problems of method of technology assessment. A methodological analysis; Methodenprobleme des Technology Assessment; Eine methodologische Analyse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmermann, V.

    1993-03-01

    The study undertakes to analyse the theoretical and methodological structure of Technology Assessment (TA). It is based on a survey of TA studies which provided an important condition for theoreticall sound statements on methodological aspects of TA. It was established that the main basic theoretical problems of TA are in the field of dealing with complexity. This is also apparent in the constitution of problems, the most elementary and central approach of TA. Scientifically founded constitution of problems and the corresponding construction of models call for interdisciplinary scientific work. Interdisciplinarity in the TA research process is achieved at the level of virtual networks, these networks being composed of individuals suited to teamwork. The emerging network structures have an objective-organizational and an ideational basis. The objective-organizational basis is mainly the result of team composition and the external affiliations of the team members. The ideational basis of the virtual network is represented by the team members` mode of thinking, which is individually located at a multidisciplinary level. The theoretical `skeleton` of the TA knowledge system, which is represented by process knowledge based linkage structures, can be generated and also processed in connection with the knowledge on types of problems, areas of analysis and procedures to deal with complexity. Within this process, disciplinary knowledge is a necessary but not a sufficient condition. Metatheoretical and metadisciplinary knowledge and the correspondingly processes complexity of models are the basis for the necessary methodological awareness, that allows TA to become designable as a research procedure. (orig./HP) [Deutsch] Die Studie stellt sich die Aufgabe, die theoretische und methodische Struktur des Technology Assessment (TA) zu analysieren. Sie fusst auf Erhebungen, die bei Technology-Assessment-Studien vorgenommen wurden und die wesentliche Voraussetzungen fuer

  14. Decommissioning planning and the assessment of alternatives for the Hanford production reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several years ago, the US Department of Energy began assessing alternatives and planning the decommissioning of eight shut-down plutonium production reactors located on the DOE Hanford Site in Washington State. The first of these graphite-moderated, water-cooled, reactors was built and started up in 1944 as part of the World War II Manhattan Project. The last of them started up in 1955. The eight reactors each operated for 12 to 24 years, with all eight operating simultaneously for about 10 years. In the 1960's, production needs declined and the reactors were one-by-one permanently shut down, the last of them in 1971. (A ninth Hanford production reactor, N Reactor, was started up in 1963; it is still operating and is not within the scope of the decommissioning planning and alternatives assessment work reported in this paper). This paper provides an overview description of the decommissioning plan for the eight shut-down Hanford production reactors and their associated fuel storage basins. Included are descriptions of the decommissioning alternatives considered for the facilities, along with discussions of National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) process activities applicable to the Hanford decommissioning work. The criteria used in assessing decommissioning alternatives and the assumptions used in the decommissioning planning are identified. 4 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs

  15. Developing a Hierarchical Decision Model to Evaluate Nuclear Power Plant Alternative Siting Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingga, Marwan Mossa

    A strong trend of returning to nuclear power is evident in different places in the world. Forty-five countries are planning to add nuclear power to their grids and more than 66 nuclear power plants are under construction. Nuclear power plants that generate electricity and steam need to improve safety to become more acceptable to governments and the public. One novel practical solution to increase nuclear power plants' safety factor is to build them away from urban areas, such as offshore or underground. To date, Land-Based siting is the dominant option for siting all commercial operational nuclear power plants. However, the literature reveals several options for building nuclear power plants in safer sitings than Land-Based sitings. The alternatives are several and each has advantages and disadvantages, and it is difficult to distinguish among them and choose the best for a specific project. In this research, we recall the old idea of using the alternatives of offshore and underground sitings for new nuclear power plants and propose a tool to help in choosing the best siting technology. This research involved the development of a decision model for evaluating several potential nuclear power plant siting technologies, both those that are currently available and future ones. The decision model was developed based on the Hierarchical Decision Modeling (HDM) methodology. The model considers five major dimensions, social, technical, economic, environmental, and political (STEEP), and their related criteria and sub-criteria. The model was designed and developed by the author, and its elements' validation and evaluation were done by a large number of experts in the field of nuclear energy. The decision model was applied in evaluating five potential siting technologies and ranked the Natural Island as the best in comparison to Land-Based, Floating Plant, Artificial Island, and Semi-Embedded plant.

  16. Liquid metal alloy ion sources—An alternative for focussed ion beam technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, Lothar; Mazarov, Paul; Bruchhaus, Lars; Gierak, Jacques

    2016-06-01

    Today, Focused Ion Beam (FIB) processing is nearly exclusively based on gallium Liquid Metal Ion Sources (LMIS). But, many applications in the μm- or nm range could benefit from ion species other than gallium: local ion implantation, ion beam mixing, ion beam synthesis, or Focused Ion Beam Lithography (IBL). Therefore, Liquid Metal Alloy Ion Sources (LMAIS) represent a promising alternative to expand the remarkable application fields for FIB. Especially, the IBL process shows potential advantages over, e.g., electron beam or other lithography techniques: direct, resistless, and three-dimensional patterning, enabling a simultaneous in-situ process control by cross-sectioning and inspection. Taking additionally into account that the used ion species influences significantly the physical and chemical nature of the resulting nanostructures—in particular, the electrical, optical, magnetic, and mechanic properties leading to a large potential application area which can be tuned by choosing a well suited LMAIS. Nearly half of the elements of the periodic table are recently available in the FIB technology as a result of continuous research in this area during the last forty years. Key features of a LMAIS are long life-time, high brightness, and stable ion current. Recent developments could make these sources feasible for nano patterning issues as an alternative technology more in research than in industry. The authors will review existing LMAIS, LMIS other than Ga, and binary and ternary alloys. These physical properties as well as the fabrication technology and prospective domains for modern FIB applications will similarly be reviewed. Other emerging ion sources will be also presented and their performances discussed.

  17. High Altitude Long Endurance Air Vehicle Analysis of Alternatives and Technology Requirements Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickol, Craig L.; Guynn, Mark D.; Kohout, Lisa L.; Ozoroski, Thomas A.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a variety of High Altitude Long Endurance (HALE) Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) conceptual designs for two operationally useful missions (hurricane science and communications relay) and compare their performance and cost characteristics. Sixteen potential HALE UAV configurations were initially developed, including heavier-than-air (HTA) and lighter-than-air (LTA) concepts with both consumable fuel and solar regenerative (SR) propulsion systems. Through an Analysis of Alternatives (AoA) down select process, the two leading consumable fuel configurations (one each from the HTA and LTA alternatives) and an HTA SR configuration were selected for further analysis. Cost effectiveness analysis of the consumable fuel configurations revealed that simply maximizing vehicle endurance can lead to a sub-optimum system solution. An LTA concept with a hybrid propulsion system (solar arrays and a hydrogen-air proton exchange membrane fuel cell) was found to have the best mission performance; however, an HTA diesel-fueled wing-body-tail configuration emerged as the preferred consumable fuel concept because of the large size and technical risk of the LTA concept. The baseline missions could not be performed by even the best HTA SR concept. Mission and SR technology trade studies were conducted to enhance understanding of the potential capabilities of such a vehicle. With near-term technology SR-powered HTA vehicles are limited to operation in favorable solar conditions, such as the long days and short nights of summer at higher latitudes. Energy storage system specific energy and solar cell efficiency were found to be the key technology areas for enhancing HTA SR performance.

  18. Impact of alternative electricity generation technologies on the Scottish economy: an illustrative input-output analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allan, G.; McGregor, P.G.; Swales, J.K.; Turner, K. [University of Strathclyde, Glasgow (United Kingdom)

    2007-03-15

    UK energy policy is at a critical juncture, with major changes in the electricity generation mix in prospect. In Scotland, significant reductions in electricity- generating capacity are expected as coal- and nuclear-powered stations close, and renewable technologies provide a growing share of total electricity. Despite these radical changes, there has as yet been no assessment of the likely implications for the Scottish economy. This paper explores the likely systemwide impact of these changes on aggregate and sectoral outputs and employment levels using an input-output analysis that separately identifies eight generating technologies. The results suggest the need for careful disaggregation of the electricity generation sector and emphasize the economic distinctiveness of individual generation technologies.

  19. Methods of Assessment of Variants of Technical and Technological Renovation under Modern Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shevchuk Larysa M.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article marks out stages of planning of the moment of renovation, considers an algorithm of selection of the best variant of renovation out of alternative variants with consideration of such aspects as the degree of risk of each investment project, financial capabilities and economic efficiency of renovation. The article studies the scheme of analysis of alternative variants of technical and technological renovation, which includes preliminary, financial and economic, technical and other types of analysis. The article forms an economic model of assessment of introduction of a new technology at an enterprise moving by the technological scheme of development and realisation of novelty; it calculates expenses (engineering and design, material, technical and personnel training costs and identifies economic possibilities of an enterprise on the conduct of renovation. In the result it allocates the indicator of realisation of a new technology in general by an aggregate group of factors. Due to absence of indicators of assessment of efficiency of renovation adapted to market conditions, the article offers to calculate the indicator of assessment of efficiency of investing into renovation, showing what portion of the investment is returned in the form of profit during one period of planning.

  20. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 3, Appendix A: Mass burn technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1992-10-01

    This appendix on Mass Burn Technologies is the first in a series designed to identify, describe and assess the suitability of several currently or potentially available generic technologies for the management of municipal solid waste (MSW). These appendices, which cover eight core thermoconversion, bioconversion and recycling technologies, reflect public domain information gathered from many sources. Representative sources include: professional journal articles, conference proceedings, selected municipality solid waste management plans and subscription technology data bases. The information presented is intended to serve as background information that will facilitate the preparation of the technoeconomic and life cycle mass, energy and environmental analyses that are being developed for each of the technologies. Mass burn has been and continues to be the predominant technology in Europe for the management of MSW. In the United States, the majority of the existing waste-to-energy projects utilize this technology and nearly 90 percent of all currently planned facilities have selected mass burn systems. Mass burning generally refers to the direct feeding and combustion of municipal solid waste in a furnace without any significant waste preprocessing. The only materials typically removed from the waste stream prior to combustion are large bulky objects and potentially hazardous or undesirable wastes. The technology has evolved over the last 100 or so years from simple incineration to the most highly developed and commercially proven process available for both reducing the volume of MSW and for recovering energy in the forms of steam and electricity. In general, mass burn plants are considered to operate reliably with high availability.

  1. Technologies for Interactive Learning and Assessment Content Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusev, Marjan; Ristov, Sasko; Armenski, Goce

    2016-01-01

    Recent technology trends evolved the student assessment from traditional ones ("pen-and-paper" and "face-to-face") to modern e-Assessment system. These modern approaches allow the teachers to conduct and evaluate an exam with huge number of students in a short period of time. Even more important, both the teacher and the…

  2. Technology Enhanced Formative Assessment for 21st Century Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spector, J. Michael; Ifenthaler, Dirk; Sampson, Demetrios; Yang, Lan; Mukama, Evode; Warusavitarana, Amali; Dona, Kulari Lokuge; Eichhorn, Koos; Fluck, Andrew; Huang, Ronghuai; Bridges, Susan; Lu, Jiingyan; Ren, Youqun; Gui, Xiaoqing; Deneen, Christopher C.; San Diego, Jonathan; Gibson, David C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper is based on the deliberations of the Assessment Working Group at EDUsummIT 2015 in Bangkok, Thailand. All of the members of Thematic Working Group 5 (TWG5) have contributed to this synthesis of potentials, concerns and issues with regard to the role of technology in assessment as, for and of learning in the 21st century. The group…

  3. Utilisation of medical technology assessment in health policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Heuvel, WJA; Wieringh, R; van den Heuvel, LPM

    1997-01-01

    Objective: To assess the contribution of medical technology assessment (MTA) to health policy decision making, the question has to be answered whether MTA is actually being used in decision-making processes and what factors are related to its utilisation. Design: We investigated recent Dutch policy

  4. Voice Assessment of Student Work: Recent Studies and Emerging Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckhouse, Barry; Carroll, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Although relatively little attention has been given to the voice assessment of student work, at least when compared with more traditional forms of text-based review, the attention it has received strongly points to a promising form of review that has been hampered by the limits of an emerging technology. A fresh review of voice assessment in light…

  5. Speech Technology-Based Assessment of Phoneme Intelligibility in Dysarthria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Nuffelen, Gwen; Middag, Catherine; De Bodt, Marc; Martens, Jean-Pierre

    2009-01-01

    Background: Currently, clinicians mainly rely on perceptual judgements to assess intelligibility of dysarthric speech. Although often highly reliable, this procedure is subjective with a lot of intrinsic variables. Therefore, certain benefits can be expected from a speech technology-based intelligibility assessment. Previous attempts to develop an…

  6. Space-reactor electric systems: subsystem technology assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the subsystem technology assessment. For the purpose of this report, five subsystems were defined for a space reactor electric system, and the report is organized around these subsystems: reactor; shielding; primary heat transport; power conversion and processing; and heat rejection. The purpose of the assessment was to determine the current technology status and the technology potentials for different types of the five subsystems. The cost and schedule needed to develop these potentials were estimated, and sets of development-compatible subsystems were identified

  7. Space-reactor electric systems: subsystem technology assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, R.V.; Bost, D.; Determan, W.R.

    1983-03-29

    This report documents the subsystem technology assessment. For the purpose of this report, five subsystems were defined for a space reactor electric system, and the report is organized around these subsystems: reactor; shielding; primary heat transport; power conversion and processing; and heat rejection. The purpose of the assessment was to determine the current technology status and the technology potentials for different types of the five subsystems. The cost and schedule needed to develop these potentials were estimated, and sets of development-compatible subsystems were identified.

  8. Alternative model for administration and analysis of research-based assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Bethany R.; Zwickl, Benjamin M.; Hobbs, Robert D.; Aiken, John M.; Welch, Nathan M.; Lewandowski, H. J.

    2016-06-01

    Research-based assessments represent a valuable tool for both instructors and researchers interested in improving undergraduate physics education. However, the historical model for disseminating and propagating conceptual and attitudinal assessments developed by the physics education research (PER) community has not resulted in widespread adoption of these assessments within the broader community of physics instructors. Within this historical model, assessment developers create high quality, validated assessments, make them available for a wide range of instructors to use, and provide minimal (if any) support to assist with administration or analysis of the results. Here, we present and discuss an alternative model for assessment dissemination, which is characterized by centralized data collection and analysis. This model provides a greater degree of support for both researchers and instructors in order to more explicitly support adoption of research-based assessments. Specifically, we describe our experiences developing a centralized, automated system for an attitudinal assessment we previously created to examine students' epistemologies and expectations about experimental physics. This system provides a proof of concept that we use to discuss the advantages associated with centralized administration and data collection for research-based assessments in PER. We also discuss the challenges that we encountered while developing, maintaining, and automating this system. Ultimately, we argue that centralized administration and data collection for standardized assessments is a viable and potentially advantageous alternative to the default model characterized by decentralized administration and analysis. Moreover, with the help of online administration and automation, this model can support the long-term sustainability of centralized assessment systems.

  9. Alternative security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book contains the following chapters: The Military and Alternative Security: New Missions for Stable Conventional Security; Technology and Alternative Security: A Cherished Myth Expires; Law and Alternative Security: Toward a Just World Peace; Politics and Alternative Security: Toward a More Democratic, Therefore More Peaceful, World; Economics and Alternative Security: Toward a Peacekeeping International Economy; Psychology and Alternative Security: Needs, Perceptions, and Misperceptions; Religion and Alternative Security: A Prophetic Vision; and Toward Post-Nuclear Global Security: An Overview

  10. Health Technology Assessment of Integrated Home Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    2012-01-01

    Background: The fragmented delivery of healthcare and social services as advanced by WHO 2002. Objectives: This project of international collaboration assesses integrated home care (IHC) for frail elder somatic patients as compared to usual hospital care. Methods: The HTA follows the special......-up: Stroke: A meta-analysis including 14 randomized trials (N=2139) demonstrate a significant reduction (p< 0.001) in the risk being dead or dependent compared with conventional care with OR=0.75 (CI95%: 0.61-0.92). HF: 3 RCT (N=568) demonstrate each a significant reduction of all-cause readmissions. A meta...

  11. Thermionic conversion reactor technology assessment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-02-01

    The in-core thermionic space nuclear power supply may be the only identified reactor-power concept that can meet the SP-100 size functional requirements with demonstrated state-of-the-art reactor system and space-qualified power system component temperatures. The SP-100 configuration limits provide a net 40 m/sup 2/ of primary non-deployed radiator area. If a reasonable 7-year degradation allowance of 15% to 20% is provided then the beginning of life (BOL) net power output requirement is about 120 kWe. Consequently, the SP-100 power system must produce a P/A of 2.7 kWe/m/sup 2/. This non-deployed radiator area power density performance can only be reasonably achieved by the thermionic in-core convertr system, the potassium Rankine turbine system and the Stirling engine system. The purpose of this study is to examine past and current tests and data, and to assess the potential for successful development of suitable fueled-thermionic converters that will meet SP-100 and growth requirements. The basis for the assessment will be provided and the recommended key developments plan set forth.

  12. Thermionic conversion reactor technology assessment. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The in-core thermionic space nuclear power supply may be the only identified reactor-power concept that can meet the SP-100 size functional requirements with demonstrated state-of-the-art reactor system and space-qualified power system component temperatures. The SP-100 configuration limits provide a net 40 m2 of primary non-deployed radiator area. If a reasonable 7-year degradation allowance of 15% to 20% is provided then the beginning of life (BOL) net power output requirement is about 120 kWe. Consequently, the SP-100 power system must produce a P/A of 2.7 kWe/m2. This non-deployed radiator area power density performance can only be reasonably achieved by the thermionic in-core convertr system, the potassium Rankine turbine system and the Stirling engine system. The purpose of this study is to examine past and current tests and data, and to assess the potential for successful development of suitable fueled-thermionic converters that will meet SP-100 and growth requirements. The basis for the assessment will be provided and the recommended key developments plan set forth

  13. Alternative model for assessment administration and analysis: An example from the E-CLASS

    CERN Document Server

    Wilcox, Bethany R; Hobbs, Robert D; Aiken, John M; Welch, Nathan M; Lewandowski, H J

    2016-01-01

    The primary model for dissemination of conceptual and attitudinal assessments that has been used within the physics education research (PER) community is to create a high quality, validated assessment, make it available for a wide range of instructors to use, and provide minimal (if any) support to assist with administration or analysis of the results. Here, we present and discuss an alternative model for assessment dissemination, which is characterized by centralized data collection and analysis. This model also provides a greater degree of support for both researchers and instructors. Specifically, we describe our experiences developing a centralized, automated system for an attitudinal assessment we previously created to examine students' epistemologies and expectations about experimental physics. This system provides a proof-of-concept that we use to discuss the advantages associated with centralized administration and data collection for research-based assessments in PER. We also discuss the challenges t...

  14. Determination of optimum alternative low-level radioactive waste disposal site/disposal technology combinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A methodology is developed and demonstrated to determine a numerical figure of merit (FOM) by which alternative low-level radioactive waste (LLWR) disposal sites and disposal technologies can be evaluated. The FOM is an arbitrarily selected nominal value, representative of the societal value of products associated with the LLRW, modified by the positive and negative impacts of waste disposal. Impacts considered include radiological health effects, transportation accidents, disposal and transportation economics, and user-specified socioeconomic factors. All impacts are converted to an economic basis via a user-specified value of life to allow a common basis of comparison. A demonstration of the methodology evaluates the 1984 Pennsylvania LLRW source team in 24 cases, 2 general locations, 3 soil types, and 4 disposal technologies (Part 61 trench, above-ground vault, below-ground vault, and grouted trench or engineered container). Costs derived for each case in 1984 dollars range from $1990 to 1090/m/sup 3/ ($28 to 31/ft/sup 3/). Uniform criteria applied to each case assume a linear loss of containment and structural stability for LLRW in a waste cell. Radiological pathways are primarily a function of the site and generally show little or no dependence on the disposal technology

  15. Two innovative healthcare technologies at the intersection of serious games, alternative realities, and play therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahnam, Sheryl; Brooks, Anthony L

    2014-01-01

    Using game technologies and digital media for improving physical and mental health and for the therapeutic benefit and well-being of a wide range of people is an area of study that is rapidly expanding. Much research in this emerging field is centered at the intersection of serious games, alternative realities, and play therapy. In this paper the authors describe their transdisciplinary work at this intersection: i) an integrative system of psychotherapy technologies called MyPsySpace currently being prototyped in Second Life with the aim of offering new and virtual translations of traditional expressive therapies (virtual sandplay, virtual drama therapy, digital expressive therapy, and virtual safe spaces) and ii) a mature body of research entitled SoundScapes that is exploring the use of interactive video games and abstract creative expression (making music, digital painting, and robotic device control) as a supplement to traditional physical rehabilitation intervention. Aside from introducing our work to a broader audience, our goal is to encourage peers to investigate ideas that reach across disciplines-to both risk and reap the benefits of combining technologies, theories, and methods stemming from multiple disciplines. PMID:25488221

  16. Assessment of the impacts of spent fuel disassembly alternatives on the Nuclear Waste Isolation System. [Preparing and packaging spent fuel assemblies for geologic disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-07-01

    The objective of this report was to evaluate four possible alternative methods of preparing and packaging spent fuel assemblies for geologic disposal against the Reference Process of unmodified spent fuel. The four alternative processes were: (1) End fitting removal, (2) Fission gas venting and resealing, (3) Fuel bundle disassembly and close packing of fuel pins, and (4) Fuel shearing and immobilization. Systems analysis was used to develop a basis of comparison of the alternatives. Conceptual processes and facility layouts were devised for each of the alternatives, based on technology deemed feasible for the purpose. Assessments were made of 15 principal attributes from the technical, operational, safety/risk, and economic considerations related to each of the alternatives, including both the surface packaging and underground repository operations. Specific attributes of the alternative processes were evaluated by assigning a number for each that expressed its merit relative to the corresponding attribute of the Reference Process. Each alternative process was then ranked by summing the numbers for attributes in each of the four assessment areas and collectively. Fuel bundle disassembly and close packing of fuel pins was ranked the preferred method of disposal of spent fuel. 63 references, 46 figures, 46 tables.

  17. Impact of alternate fusion fuels on fusion reactor technology: an initial assessment study. [Catalyzed D, D-/sup 3/He, p-/sup 6/Li, p-/sup 7/Li, D-/sup 6/Li, p-/sup 11/B, /sup 3/He-/sup 3/He

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, C.C.; Bolon, A.; Clemmer, R.

    1979-11-01

    The initial results of a study carried out to assess some of the technology implications of non-D-T fusion fuel cycles are presented. The primary emphasis in this report is on D-D, catalyzed-D and D-/sup 3/He fuel cycles. Tokamaks and field-reversed mirrors have been selected as sample confinement concepts. A new technique of employing neutronic computer codes to study the transport of cyclotron radiation for cases of non-uniform density and temperature profiles is described. The technology areas considered include first wall design considerations, shielding requirements, fuel cycle requirements and some safety and environmental considerations. Conclusions resulting from the study are also presented.

  18. Towards ABET accreditation for a SWE program: alternative student assessment techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes assessment techniques utilized for assessing undergraduate students studying in a software engineering program. The purpose behind this work is to get the program accredited by the Accreditation Board of Engineering and Technology (ABET). Therefore, a number of applied direct and indirect assessment techniques are described. These techniques are implemented towards the end of the semester to assess the extent to which the student and course outcomes are satisfied. Consequently, results are obtained and analyzed and various learning issues are eventually identified. Finally, the paper provides suggestions for improvement in course delivery as well as learning mechanism. (author)

  19. Development of integrated accident management assessment technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project aims to develop critical technologies for accident management through securing evaluation frameworks and supporting tools, in order to enhance capabilities coping with severe accidents. For the research goal, firstly under the viewpoint of accident prevention, on-line risk monitoring system and the analysis framework for human error have been developed. Secondly, the training/supporting systems including the training simulator and the off-site risk evaluation system have been developed to enhance capabilities coping with severe accidents. Four kinds of research results have been obtained from this project. Firstly, the framework and taxonomy for human error analysis has been developed for accident management. As the second, the supporting system for accident managements has been developed. Using data that are obtained through the evaluation of off-site risk for Younggwang site, the risk database as well as the methodology for optimizing emergency responses has been constructed. As the third, a training support system, SAMAT, has been developed, which can be used as a training simulator for severe accident management. Finally, on-line risk monitoring system, DynaRM, has been developed for Ulchin 3 and 4 unit

  20. Cost benefit and risk assessment for selected tank waste process testing alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy has established the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) program to safely manage wastes currently stored in underground tank at the Hanford Site. A TWRS testing and development strategy was recently developed to define long-range TWRS testing plans. The testing and development strategy considered four alternatives. The primary variable in the alternatives is the level of pilot-scale testing involving actual waste. This study evaluates the cost benefit and risks associated with the four alternatives. Four types of risk were evaluated: programmatic schedule risk, process mishap risk, worker risk, and public health risk. The structure of this report is as follows: Section 1 introduces the report subject; Section 2 describes the test strategy alternative evaluation; Section 3 describes the approach used in this study to assess risk and cost benefit; Section 4 describes the assessment methodologies for costs and risks; Section 5 describes the bases and assumptions used to estimate the costs and risks; Section 6 presents the detailed costs and risks; and Section 7 describes the results of the cost benefit analysis and presents conclusions

  1. Cost benefit and risk assessment for selected tank waste process testing alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasper, K.A. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-05-22

    The US Department of Energy has established the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) program to safely manage wastes currently stored in underground tank at the Hanford Site. A TWRS testing and development strategy was recently developed to define long-range TWRS testing plans. The testing and development strategy considered four alternatives. The primary variable in the alternatives is the level of pilot-scale testing involving actual waste. This study evaluates the cost benefit and risks associated with the four alternatives. Four types of risk were evaluated: programmatic schedule risk, process mishap risk, worker risk, and public health risk. The structure of this report is as follows: Section 1 introduces the report subject; Section 2 describes the test strategy alternative evaluation; Section 3 describes the approach used in this study to assess risk and cost benefit; Section 4 describes the assessment methodologies for costs and risks; Section 5 describes the bases and assumptions used to estimate the costs and risks; Section 6 presents the detailed costs and risks; and Section 7 describes the results of the cost benefit analysis and presents conclusions.

  2. Genome-wide alternative polyadenylation in animals: insights from high-throughput technologies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Sun; Yonggui Fu; Yuxin Li; Anlong Xu

    2012-01-01

    Alternative polyadenylation (APA) plays an important role in gene expression by affecting mRNA stability,translation,and translocation in cells.However,genome-wide APA events have only recently been subjected to more systematic analysis with newly developed high-throughput methods.In this review,we focus on the recent technological development of APA analyses on a genome-wide scale,as well as the impact of APA switches on a number of critical biological processes in animals,including cell proliferation,differentiation,and oncogenic transformation.With the highly enlarged scope of genome-wide APA analyses,the APA regulations of various biological processes have increasingly become a new paradigm for the regulation of gene transcription and translation.

  3. Integrated assessment of emerging science and technologies as creating learning processes among assessment communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsberg, Ellen-Marie; Ribeiro, Barbara; Heyen, Nils B; Nielsen, Rasmus Øjvind; Thorstensen, Erik; de Bakker, Erik; Klüver, Lars; Reiss, Thomas; Beekman, Volkert; Millar, Kate

    2016-12-01

    Emerging science and technologies are often characterised by complexity, uncertainty and controversy. Regulation and governance of such scientific and technological developments needs to build on knowledge and evidence that reflect this complicated situation. This insight is sometimes formulated as a call for integrated assessment of emerging science and technologies, and such a call is analysed in this article. The article addresses two overall questions. The first is: to what extent are emerging science and technologies currently assessed in an integrated way. The second is: if there appears to be a need for further integration, what should such integration consist in? In the article we briefly outline the pedigree of the term 'integrated assessment' and present a number of interpretations of the concept that are useful for informing current analyses and discussions of integration in assessment. Based on four case studies of assessment of emerging science and technologies, studies of assessment traditions, literature analysis and dialogues with assessment professionals, currently under-developed integration dimensions are identified. It is suggested how these dimensions can be addressed in a practical approach to assessment where representatives of different assessment communities and stakeholders are involved. We call this approach the Trans Domain Technology Evaluation Process (TranSTEP). PMID:27465504

  4. Technology assessment - a workable way out of the 'risk society'?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the basis of concrete experience and results in the risk assessment process concerning nuclear technology in the Federal Republic of Germany it becomes apparent that technology asessment can make a contribution towards the required technology domestication. The 'risk management' of the circle of nuclear power generators and the consulting and licensing bodies having failed, a new phase of technology assessment began in 1970, whereby proponents and opponents of nuclear energy had a say. Parallel research on the safety of light water reactors and fast breeders gave valuable insight into the danger potential of nuclear energy while the latent risk of technology assessment misuse became apparent in the decision-finding process concerning the problem of radioactive waste management. In the end it were the Enquete Commission 'Future Nuclear Energy Policy' of the German Bundestag and the studies on social agreeability of energy supply systems which resulted in the perspective of a future without the use of nuclear power being a realistic option. The general findings of technology assessment, e.g. the cognition that there can be no scientific decision in favour of assuming responsibility for nuclear energy, opens up new views and possibilities for acting for the decision-makers in the field of energy policy. (orig./HSCH)

  5. Evaluation of remedial alternatives for the Solar Ponds Plume, Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the process used to select a remedial alternative for handling contaminated groundwater emanating from the Solar Evaporation Ponds (Solar Ponds) at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) and prevent it from reaching the nearest surface water body, North Walnut Creek. Preliminary results of field investigations conducted to provide additional information for the alternatives analysis are also presented. The contaminated groundwater is referred to as the Solar Ponds Plume (SPP). The primary contaminants in the SPP are nitrate and uranium; however, some metals exceed the site action levels at several locations and volatile organic compounds, originating from other sources, also have been detected. Currently the SPP, local surface water runoff, and infiltrated precipitation are collected by a trench system located downgradient of the Solar Ponds and pumped to three storage tanks. The water (two to three million gallons annually) is then pumped to an on-site treatment plant for evaporation at an approximate cost of $7.57 per liter

  6. Alternative landfill cover technology demonstration at Kaneohe Marine Corps Base Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karr, L.A.; Harre, B. [Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center, Port Hueneme, CA (United States); Hakonson, T.E. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Surface covers to control water infiltration to waste buried in landfills will be the remediation alternative of choice for most hazardous and sanitary landfills operated by the Department of Defense. Although surface covers are the least expensive method of remediation for landfills, they can still be expensive solutions. Conventional wisdom suggests that landfill capping technology is well developed as evidenced by the availability of EPA guidance for designing and constructing what has become known as the {open_quotes}RCRA Cap{close_quotes}. In practice, however, very little testing of the RCRA cap, or any other design, has been done to evaluate how effective these designs are in limiting infiltration of water into waste. This paper describes a low cost alternative to the {open_quotes}RCRA Cap{close_quotes} that is being evaluated at Marine Corps Base Hawaii (MCBH) Kaneohe Bay. This study uses an innovative, simple and inexpensive concept to manipulate the fate of water falling on a landfill. The infiltration of water through the cap will be controlled by combining the evaporative forces of vegetation to remove soil water, with engineered structures that limit infiltration of precipitation into the soil. This approach relies on diverting enough of the annual precipitation to runoff, so that the water that does infiltrate into the soil can easily be removed by evapotranspiration.

  7. Alternative landfill cover technology demonstration at Kaneohe Marine Corps Base Hawaii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surface covers to control water infiltration to waste buried in landfills will be the remediation alternative of choice for most hazardous and sanitary landfills operated by the Department of Defense. Although surface covers are the least expensive method of remediation for landfills, they can still be expensive solutions. Conventional wisdom suggests that landfill capping technology is well developed as evidenced by the availability of EPA guidance for designing and constructing what has become known as the open-quotes RCRA Capclose quotes. In practice, however, very little testing of the RCRA cap, or any other design, has been done to evaluate how effective these designs are in limiting infiltration of water into waste. This paper describes a low cost alternative to the open-quotes RCRA Capclose quotes that is being evaluated at Marine Corps Base Hawaii (MCBH) Kaneohe Bay. This study uses an innovative, simple and inexpensive concept to manipulate the fate of water falling on a landfill. The infiltration of water through the cap will be controlled by combining the evaporative forces of vegetation to remove soil water, with engineered structures that limit infiltration of precipitation into the soil. This approach relies on diverting enough of the annual precipitation to runoff, so that the water that does infiltrate into the soil can easily be removed by evapotranspiration

  8. How to make participatory technology assessment in agriculture more 'participatory'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tavella, Elena

    2016-01-01

    the cultivation of new GM plants in Denmark. Furthermore, through this illustration, the term Participatory Technology Assessment (PTA) is redefined, thereby suggesting two additional aspects to assessing new technologies – following and evaluating policy making – to be considered in the conduct of......This paper suggests a framework, based on Critical Systems Heuristics (CSH), to guide the organisation and management of expert-facilitated and participatory processes that allow for stakeholders' different interests, concerns, and values to be included in the assessment and policy making of GM...... plants. The framework is particularly useful for stakeholders, such as governments, foundations, and researchers, who attempt to facilitate inclusive and democratic processes to assess GM plants. The use of the framework is illustrated by evaluating the report from a citizen jury carried out to assess...

  9. Implementation of alternative test strategies for the safety assessment of engineered nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nel, A E

    2013-12-01

    Nanotechnology introduces a new field that requires novel approaches and methods for hazard and risk assessment. For an appropriate scientific platform for safety assessment, nanoscale properties and functions of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs), including how the physicochemical properties of the materials relate to mechanisms of injury at the nano-bio interface, must be considered. Moreover, this rapidly advancing new field requires novel test strategies that allow multiple toxicants to be screened in robust, mechanism-based assays in which the bulk of the investigation can be carried out at the cellular and biomolecular level whilst maintaining limited animal use and is based on the contribution of toxicological pathways to the pathophysiology of disease. First, a predictive toxicological approach for the safety assessment of ENMs will be discussed against the background of a '21st-century vision' for using alternative test strategies (ATSs) to perform toxicological assessment of large numbers of untested chemicals, thereby reducing a backlog that could otherwise become a problem for nanotechnology. An ATS is defined here as an alternative to animal experiments or refinement/reduction alternative to traditional animal testing. Secondly, the approach of selecting pathways of toxicity to screen for the pulmonary hazard potential of carbon nanotubes and metal oxides will be discussed, as well as how to use these pathways to perform high-content or high-throughput testing and how the data can be used for hazard ranking, risk assessment, regulatory decision-making and 'safer-by-design' strategies. Finally, the utility and disadvantages of this predictive toxicological approach to ENM safety assessment, and how it can assist the 21st-century vision, will be addressed. PMID:23879741

  10. An integrated method for assessing climate-related risks and adaptation alternatives in urban areas

    OpenAIRE

    Yvonne Andersson-Sköld; Sofia Thorsson; David Rayner; Fredrik Lindberg; Sara Janhäll; Anna Jonsson; Ulf Moback; Ramona Bergman; Mikael Granberg

    2015-01-01

    The urban environment is a complex structure with interlinked social, ecological and technical structures. Global warming is expected to have a broad variety of impacts, which will add to the complexity. Climate changes will force adaptation, to reduce climate-related risks. Adaptation measures can address one aspect at the time, or aim for a holistic approach to avoid maladaptation. This paper presents a systematic, integrated approach for assessing alternatives for reducing the risks of hea...

  11. Performance Tasks as Alternative Assessment for Young EFL Learners: Does Practice Match the Curriculum Proposal?

    OpenAIRE

    Rana Yildirim; Esra Orsdemir

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of a studywhich investigates performance tasks as a means of alternative assessment for young EFL learners. The study specifically looks into the match between what is proposed by the Primary English Curriculum and what is actually done in classrooms concerning the characteristics, implementation process, and evaluation of these tasks from teachers’ point of view. In addition, the opinions of teachers, in relation to whether these tasks have any contribution to...

  12. Preliminary assessment of the Satellite Power System (SPS) and six other energy technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolsko, T.; Brown, C.; Cirillo, R.

    1980-04-01

    The comparative assessment portion of the Satellite Power System (SPS) Concept Development and Evaluation program established by the Department of Energy and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration to generate information from which a rational decision could be made regarding the viability of the SPS is presented. The objective of the comparative assessment is to develop an initial understanding of the SPS with respect to a limited set of energy alternatives. Six alternative technologies (conventional coal combustion; light water reactor; coal gasification/combined cycle; liquid-metal, fast-breeder reactor; terrestrial photovoltaic; and fusion) were compared to the SPS on the basis of available data on cost and performance, health and safety, environmental welfare, resource requirements, and economics. These comparisons are descriptive and do not culminate in any bottom line regarding the overall viability of the SPS.

  13. Reading comprehension as an alternative tool for teaching science and nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent decades, the vast amount of information originated in the production of knowledge and its applications, has highlighted the importance of being independent readers, critics, and able to interpret written material circulating referred to scientific and technological issues, that invade the people's daily life. Moreover, in the last stage of education system of all future citizens of the country, the results of many diagnoses have highlighted the difficulties of young students to understand the texts related to science and technology. However, simultaneously with these weaknesses, students permanently express the need to relate science and technology to everyday life, and are interested in the discussion of the news related to atomic energy spread by the mass media. This duality lack of interest in reading vs interest in knowledge in certain subjects, is what has been taken into account when proposing this pedagogical approach that simultaneously involves several aspects. From the need to find a trigger for the treatment of a particular issue, to familiarization of students with the vocabulary and methodology of science ill the debate on the characteristics of specific technological applications of nuclear technology. Considering particularly the last of these factors, since 2011 has been developed in Jose Maria Paz School of Cordoba, Reading Comprehension Experience, using texts with scientific and technological contents published by Institute for Energy and Development (IEDS) of the National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) in Knowledge Leaves Series, as a methodological tool, to bring students to the physics of the atom and matter. The reading strategy used is based on the hypothesis of the type of questions being asked about the contents, can help students to develop reading strategies for comprehension and thus contribute positively to his learning. With this proposal it has been observed an increased on student interest in learning natural science

  14. Avaliação tecnológica em saúde: densitometria óssea e terapêuticas alternativas na osteoporose pós-menopausa Technology assessment in health care: bone densitometry and alternatives therapeutical in post-menopausal osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Krauss Silva

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta de forma sucinta os fatores considerados e as metodologias de síntese empregadas em uma avaliação tecnológica, assim como a lógica subjacente à sua elaboração e utilização no campo da saúde pública. O exemplo utilizado focaliza o problema osteoporose na pós-menopausa, analisando a oportunidade da difusão, no momento atual, da densitometria óssea e de tecnologias antiosteoporose em nosso país. Os estudos disponíveis sobre os efeitos das tecnologias envolvidas foram revisados, seguindo a metodologia recomendada, a fim de produzir uma síntese das evidências científicas, atualizada e aplicada ao nosso país. Análises de custo-efetividade preliminares de alternativas de intervenção, frente à assistência tradicional, são apresentadas, considerando mulheres na perimenopausa e com 65 anos de idade. A despeito das hipóteses otimistas assumidas, as estimativas de custo incremental por fratura evitada foram elevadas, todas acima de R$ 10.000,00 para quaisquer das alternativas de intervenção examinadas, sendo o custo médio estimado das fraturas assistidas dentro da alternativa tradicional inferior a R$ 2.000,00, o que indica que a implementação no SUS de qualquer uma das alternativas em pauta seria questionável segundo critérios de eficiência no uso de recursos e de eqüidade.This article briefly presents the target factors and methods for summarizing evidence employed in a technological evaluation, as well as the underlying logic in their elaboration and utilization in the field of public health. The example is post-menopausal osteoporosis, analyzing the current timeliness of disseminating bone densitometry and technologies to combat osteoporosis in Brazil Available studies on the effects of the respective technologies were reviewed according to the recommended methodology in order to produce a synthesis of the scientific evidence, updated and applied in Brazil. Preliminary cost-effective analyses of

  15. Technological and life cycle assessment of organics processing odour control technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bindra, Navin [School of Engineering, University of Guelph, 50 Stone Road East, Guelph, Ontario N1G2W1 (Canada); Dubey, Brajesh, E-mail: bkdubey@civil.iitkgp.ernet.in [School of Engineering, University of Guelph, 50 Stone Road East, Guelph, Ontario N1G2W1 (Canada); Environmental Engineering Division, Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, West Bengal 721302 (India); Dutta, Animesh [School of Engineering, University of Guelph, 50 Stone Road East, Guelph, Ontario N1G2W1 (Canada)

    2015-09-15

    As more municipalities and communities across developed world look towards implementing organic waste management programmes or upgrading existing ones, composting facilities are emerging as a popular choice. However, odour from these facilities continues to be one of the most important concerns in terms of cost & effective mitigation. This paper provides a technological and life cycle assessment of some of the different odour control technologies and treatment methods that can be implemented in organics processing facilities. The technological assessment compared biofilters, packed tower wet scrubbers, fine mist wet scrubbers, activated carbon adsorption, thermal oxidization, oxidization chemicals and masking agents. The technologies/treatment methods were evaluated and compared based on a variety of operational, usage and cost parameters. Based on the technological assessment it was found that, biofilters and packed bed wet scrubbers are the most applicable odour control technologies for use in organics processing faculties. A life cycle assessment was then done to compare the environmental impacts of the packed-bed wet scrubber system, organic (wood-chip media) bio-filter and inorganic (synthetic media) bio-filter systems. Twelve impact categories were assessed; cumulative energy demand (CED), climate change, human toxicity, photochemical oxidant formation, metal depletion, fossil depletion, terrestrial acidification, freshwater eutrophication, marine eutrophication, terrestrial eco-toxicity, freshwater eco-toxicity and marine eco-toxicity. The results showed that for all impact categories the synthetic media biofilter had the highest environmental impact, followed by the wood chip media bio-filter system. The packed-bed system had the lowest environmental impact for all categories. - Highlights: • Assessment of odour control technologies for organics processing facilities. • Comparative life cycle assessment of three odour control technologies was conducted

  16. Technological and life cycle assessment of organics processing odour control technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As more municipalities and communities across developed world look towards implementing organic waste management programmes or upgrading existing ones, composting facilities are emerging as a popular choice. However, odour from these facilities continues to be one of the most important concerns in terms of cost & effective mitigation. This paper provides a technological and life cycle assessment of some of the different odour control technologies and treatment methods that can be implemented in organics processing facilities. The technological assessment compared biofilters, packed tower wet scrubbers, fine mist wet scrubbers, activated carbon adsorption, thermal oxidization, oxidization chemicals and masking agents. The technologies/treatment methods were evaluated and compared based on a variety of operational, usage and cost parameters. Based on the technological assessment it was found that, biofilters and packed bed wet scrubbers are the most applicable odour control technologies for use in organics processing faculties. A life cycle assessment was then done to compare the environmental impacts of the packed-bed wet scrubber system, organic (wood-chip media) bio-filter and inorganic (synthetic media) bio-filter systems. Twelve impact categories were assessed; cumulative energy demand (CED), climate change, human toxicity, photochemical oxidant formation, metal depletion, fossil depletion, terrestrial acidification, freshwater eutrophication, marine eutrophication, terrestrial eco-toxicity, freshwater eco-toxicity and marine eco-toxicity. The results showed that for all impact categories the synthetic media biofilter had the highest environmental impact, followed by the wood chip media bio-filter system. The packed-bed system had the lowest environmental impact for all categories. - Highlights: • Assessment of odour control technologies for organics processing facilities. • Comparative life cycle assessment of three odour control technologies was conducted

  17. Alternative Exercise Technologies to Fight against Sarcopenia at Old Age: A Series of Studies and Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Kemmler

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The most effective physiologic mean to prevent sarcopenia and related muscle malfunction is a physically active lifestyle, or even better, physical exercise. However, due to time constraints, lack of motivation, or physical limitations, a large number of elderly subjects are either unwilling or unable to perform conventional workouts. In this context, two new exercise technologies, whole-body vibration (WBV and whole-body electromyostimulation (WB-EMS, may exhibit a save, autonomous, and efficient alternative to increase or maintain muscle mass and function. Regarding WB-EMS, the few recent studies indeed demonstrated highly relevant effects of this technology on muscle mass, strength, and power parameters at least in the elderly, with equal or even higher effects compared with conventional resistance exercise. On the contrary, although the majority of studies with elderly subjects confirmed the positive effect of WBV on strength and power parameters, a corresponding relevant effect on muscle mass was not reported. However, well-designed studies with adequate statistical power should focus more intensely on this issue.

  18. Theoretical Assessment of Technological Potential of Magnetic and Electrical Separation

    OpenAIRE

    Karmazin, V. V.

    1997-01-01

    Magnetic, electrical an combined methods of mineral beneficiation are widely used in various branches of mining industry. These processes have significant economic and ecological advantages in those areas where they can be applied technologically. It is thus necessary to analyse technological possibilities and areas of potential applications. Different designs of the separators must also be considered. Such an attempt is being done in this article based on the assessment of the level of diffe...

  19. Assessment of battery technologies for EV (Electric Vehicle) applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratner, Elliot Z.; Henriksen, Gary L.; Warde, Charles J.

    To guide future R and D program planning, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) commissioned an assessment of all viable battery techniques for EV applications. Sixty-seven technology developers in the United States, Canada, Europe, Asia, and Africa were solicited to design a power pack for an Improved Dual-Shaft Electric Propulsions (IDSEP) van. A team of 10 consultants and 8 representatives from DOE's National Laboratories evaluated 43 developer responses and consultant-prepared conceptual designs. Using six criteria---five technical/economic criteria and a maturity/technical barriers criterion---the assessment identified 12 most promising battery technologies.

  20. LISA technologies in new light: exploring alternatives for charge management and optical bench construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciani, Giacomo; Chilton, Andrew; Olatunde, Taiwo; Apple, Stephen; Conklin, John W.; Mueller, Guido

    2015-08-01

    A LISA-like gravitational wave observatory is the choice candidate for ESA's L3 large mission scheduled to launch in 2034. The LISA Test Package (LTP) mission will launch later this year and test many critical technologies needed for such an observatory, among which are picometer interferometry in space and UV charge management of the Test Mass (TM). The design of these subsystems has been frozen many years ago during the final formulation of the LTP mission; since then, the LISA mission concept has evolved and new technologies have become available, making it possible to re-think the way these subsystem are implemented. With the final formulation of the L3 mission still years in the future and the LTP results expected in about one year, now is an ideal time look for areas of possible improvement and explore alternative implementations that can enhance performance, reduce costs or mitigate risks.Recently developed UV LED are lighter, cheaper and more powerful than traditional mercury lamps; in addition, their fast response time can be used to implement AC discharge techniques that can save even more space and power, and provide a more precise control of the charge.The most recent iteration of the mission baseline design allows for eliminating some of the optical components initially deemed essential; paired with the use of polarization multiplexing, this permits a redesign of the optical bench that simplifies the layout and enables a modular approach to machining and assembly, thus reducing the risks and costs associated with the current monolithic design without compromising the picometer stability of the optical path.Leveraging on extensive previous experience with LISA interferometry and the availability of a torsion pendulum-based LISA test-bed, the University of Florida LISA group is working at developing, demonstrating and optimizing both these technologies. I will describe the most recent advancements and results.

  1. Process for Selecting System Level Assessments for Human System Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, James; Park, John

    2006-01-01

    The integration of many life support systems necessary to construct a stable habitat is difficult. The correct identification of the appropriate technologies and corresponding interfaces is an exhaustive process. Once technologies are selected secondary issues such as mechanical and electrical interfaces must be addressed. The required analytical and testing work must be approached in a piecewise fashion to achieve timely results. A repeatable process has been developed to identify and prioritize system level assessments and testing needs. This Assessment Selection Process has been defined to assess cross cutting integration issues on topics at the system or component levels. Assessments are used to identify risks, encourage future actions to mitigate risks, or spur further studies.

  2. Individual Characteristics and Stated Preferences for Alternative Energy Sources and Propulsion Technologies in Vehicles: A Discrete Choice Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas R. Ziegler

    2010-01-01

    This paper empirically examines the determinants of the demand for alternative energy sources and propulsion technologies in vehicles. The data stem from a stated preference discrete choice experiment with 598 potential car buyers. In order to simulate a realistic automobile purchase situation, seven alternatives were incorporated in each of the six choice sets, i.e. hybrid, gas, biofuel, hydrogen, and electric as well as the common fuels gasoline and diesel. The vehicle types were additional...

  3. New Modes of Constructive Technology Assessment for Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, David; Remmen, Arne

    on ‘technology assessment’ in a search for inspiration. Technology assessment originally featured prominently as a discussion topic two decades ago, but is worth returning to because some principles embedded herein are especially relevant for sustainable co-creation process today targeting developing countries......An old piece of conventional wisdom warns against unsustainable ‘white elephants’ in any attempts at international transferal, adoption or development of technologies in developing countries. After more than half a century of failed attempts to introduce technologies in such settings mostly through...... by a product or process in a developing country. On the other hand are those who design, develop and promote the technological solution. If the latter group is to follow the call for proactively taking in socio-cultural and user knowledge, what methods may be employed? This paper revisits the literature...

  4. Assessing climate change mitigation technology interventions by international institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Coninck, Heleen; Puig, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Accelerating the international use of climate mitigation technologies is key if effortsto curb climate change are to succeed, especially in developing countries, where weakdomestic technological innovation systems constrain the uptake of climate change mitigationtechnologies. Several...... intergovernmental agencies have set up specific programmes to supportthe diffusion of climate mitigation technologies. Using a simplified technological innovationsystem-based framework, this paper aims to systematically review these programmes, with thedual aim of assessing their collective success in promoting...... further developed include knowledge development, legitimation and marketformation. These could be focal areas for the UNFCCC Technology Mechanism. We recommendthat, in future programmes, part of the funding is dedicated to programmes doingresearch and development as well as capability development....

  5. Technology Innovation Enabling Falls Risk Assessment in a Community Setting

    OpenAIRE

    Ni Scanaill, Cliodhna; Garattini, Chiara; Greene, Barry R; McGrath, Michael J

    2010-01-01

    Approximately one in three people over the age of 65 will fall each year, resulting in significant financial, physical, and emotional cost on the individual, their family, and society. Currently, falls are managed using on-body sensors and alarm pendants to notify others when a falls event occurs. However these technologies do not prevent a fall from occurring. There is now a growing focus on falls risk assessment and preventative interventions. Falls risk is currently assessed in a clinical ...

  6. Early phase Technology Assessment of nanotechnology in oncology

    OpenAIRE

    Retèl, Valesca P; Hummel, Marjan J.M.; Harten, van, W.H.

    2008-01-01

    To perform early Technology Assessment (TA) of nanotechnology in oncology. The possibilities of nanotechnology for detection (imaging), diagnosis and treatment of cancer are subject of different research programs where major investments are concerned. As a range of bio- nanotechnologies is expected to enter the oncology field it is relevant to consider the various aspects involved in especially early TA. This article provides two cases of early assessment of (predecessors of) nanotechnologies...

  7. Comparison of Alternate and Original Items on the Montreal Cognitive Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedeva, Elena; Huang, Mei; Koski, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Background The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) is a screening tool for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in elderly individuals. We hypothesized that measurement error when using the new alternate MoCA versions to monitor change over time could be related to the use of items that are not of comparable difficulty to their corresponding originals of similar content. The objective of this study was to compare the difficulty of the alternate MoCA items to the original ones. Methods Five selected items from alternate versions of the MoCA were included with items from the original MoCA administered adaptively to geriatric outpatients (N = 78). Rasch analysis was used to estimate the difficulty level of the items. Results None of the five items from the alternate versions matched the difficulty level of their corresponding original items. Conclusions This study demonstrates the potential benefits of a Rasch analysis-based approach for selecting items during the process of development of parallel forms. The results suggest that better match of the items from different MoCA forms by their difficulty would result in higher sensitivity to changes in cognitive function over time. PMID:27076861

  8. Sustainability assessment of renewable power and heat generation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rationalisation of consumption, more efficient energy usage and a new energy structure are needed to be achieved in order to shift the structure of energy system towards sustainability. The required energy system is among others characterised by intensive utilisation of renewable energy sources (RES). RES technologies have their own advantages and disadvantages. Nevertheless, for the strategic planning there is a great demand for the comparison of RES technologies. Furthermore, there are additional functions of RES utilisation expected beyond climate change mitigation, e.g. increment of employment, economic growth and rural development. The aim of the study was to reveal the most beneficial RES technologies with special respect to sustainability. Ten technologies of power generation and seven technologies of heat supply were examined in a multi-criteria sustainability assessment frame of seven attributes which were evaluated based on a choice experiment (CE) survey. According to experts the most important characteristics of RES utilisation technologies are land demand and social impacts i.e. increase in employment and local income generation. Concentrated solar power (CSP), hydropower and geothermal power plants are favourable technologies for power generation, while geothermal district heating, pellet-based non-grid heating and solar thermal heating can offer significant advantages in case of heat supply. - highlights: • We used choice experiment to estimate the weights of criteria for the sustainability assessment of RES technologies. • The most important attributes of RES technologies according to experts are land demand and social impacts. • Concentrated solar power (CSP), hydropower and geothermal power plants are advantageous technologies for power generation. • Geothermal district heating, pellet-based non-grid heating and solar thermal heating are favourable in case of heat supply

  9. Technical feasibility assessment of horizontal alterning steam drive (HASD) implementation as a thermal recovery option for the Junin 8 block in Faja Petrolifera del Orinoco, Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velasquez, R.G.; Figueroa, Y.; Pinto, L.R. [PDVSA CVP (Venezuela)

    2011-07-01

    The Faja Petrolifera del Orinoco, Venezuela, is the largest accumulation field in the world, extraction is mainly achieved with cold production and recovery factors are around 10%. Thus the implementation of new technologies such as thermal recovery methods is needed to increase oil production through better recovery factors. This study aimed at assessing the technical feasibility of applying the horizontal alternate steam drive (HASD) method which consists of 3 or more parallel horizontal wells acting alternately as injectors and producers. Simulations, sensitivity analyses, uncertainty assessments and optimizations were conducted on a base case of 4 well pad in the Junin 8 block. Parameters influencing the oil recovery factor and the steam oil ratio were found as well as the optimal operational conditions; under those conditions, a recovery factor of more than 30% was observed. This study suggested that HASD could be technically feasible but an economical assessment should be undertaken.

  10. The NICE ADHD health technology assessment: A review and critique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schlander Michael

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health technology assessments (HTAs by the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE enjoy high levels of international attention. The present analysis addresses NICE's appraisal of methylphenidate, atomoxetine and dexamphetamine for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in children and adolescents, published in March 2006. Methods A qualitative study of NICE Technology Appraisal No. 98 was done focusing on the >600-page technology assessment report, which aimed at evaluating ADHD treatment strategies by a clinical effectiveness review and an economic analysis using meta-analytical techniques and a cost-effectiveness model. Results The technology assessment was unable to differentiate between the various drugs in terms of efficacy, and its economic model was ultimately driven by cost differences. While the assessment concluded that the economic model "clearly identified an optimal treatment strategy" with first-line dexamphetamine, the NICE appraisal committee subsequently found it impossible to distinguish between the different strategies on grounds of cost-effectiveness. Analyzing the assessment reveals gaps and inconsistencies concerning data selection (ultimately relying on a small number of short-term studies only, data synthesis (pooling of heterogeneous study designs and clinical endpoints, and economic model structure (identifying double-counting of nonresponders as a likely source of bias, alongside further methodological anomalies. Conclusion Many conclusions of the NICE technology assessment rest on shaky grounds. There remains a need for a new, state-of-the-art systematic review of ADHD treatment strategies including economic evaluation, which ideally should address outcomes beyond children's health-related quality of life, such as long-term sequelae of the disorder and caregiver burden.

  11. An integrated method for assessing climate-related risks and adaptation alternatives in urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Andersson-Sköld

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The urban environment is a complex structure with interlinked social, ecological and technical structures. Global warming is expected to have a broad variety of impacts, which will add to the complexity. Climate changes will force adaptation, to reduce climate-related risks. Adaptation measures can address one aspect at the time, or aim for a holistic approach to avoid maladaptation. This paper presents a systematic, integrated approach for assessing alternatives for reducing the risks of heat waves, flooding and air pollution in urban settings, with the aim of reducing the risk of maladaptation. The study includes strategies covering different spatial scales, and both the current climate situation and the climate predicted under climate change scenarios. The adaptation strategies investigated included increasing vegetation; selecting density, height and colour of buildings; and retreat or resist (defend against sea-level rise. Their effectiveness was assessed with regard to not only flooding, heat stress and air quality but also with regard to resource use, emissions to air (incl. GHG, soil and water, and people’s perceptions and vulnerability. The effectiveness of the strategies were ranked on a common scale (from −3 to 3 in an integrated assessment. Integrated assessments are recommended, as they help identify the most sustainable solutions, but to reduce the risk of maladaptation they require experts from a variety of disciplines. The most generally applicable recommendation, derived from the integrated assessment here, taking into account both expertise from different municipal departments, literature surveys, life cycle assessments and publics perceptions, is to increase the urban greenery, as it contributes to several positive aspects such as heat stress mitigation, air quality improvement, effective storm-water and flood-risk management, and it has several positive social impacts. The most favourable alternative was compact, mid

  12. COMPLEAT (Community-Oriented Model for Planning Least-Cost Energy Alternatives and Technologies): A planning tool for publicly owned electric utilities. [Community-Oriented Model for Planning Least-Cost Energy Alternatives and Technologies (Compleat)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-01

    COMPLEAT takes its name, as an acronym, from Community-Oriented Model for Planning Least-Cost Energy Alternatives and Technologies. It is an electric utility planning model designed for use principally by publicly owned electric utilities and agencies serving such utilities. As a model, COMPLEAT is significantly more full-featured and complex than called out in APPA's original plan and proposal to DOE. The additional complexity grew out of a series of discussions early in the development schedule, in which it became clear to APPA staff and advisors that the simplicity characterizing the original plan, while highly desirable in terms of utility applications, was not achievable if practical utility problems were to be addressed. The project teams settled on Energy 20/20, an existing model developed by Dr. George Backus of Policy Assessment Associates, as the best candidate for the kinds of modifications and extensions that would be required. The remainder of the project effort was devoted to designing specific input data files, output files, and user screens and to writing and testing the compute programs that would properly implement the desired features around Energy 20/20 as a core program. This report presents in outline form, the features and user interface of COMPLEAT.

  13. Prioritising investments in health technology assessment: can we assess the potential value for money?

    OpenAIRE

    Linda Davies; Mike Drummond; Panos Papanikoloau

    1999-01-01

    The objective was to develop an economic prioritisation model to assist those involved in (i) the selection and prioritisation of health technology assessment topics and (ii) commissioning of HTA projects. The model used decision analytic techniques to estimate the expected costs and benefits of the health care interventions which were the focus of the HTA question(s) considered by the NHS Health Technology Assessment Programme in England. Initial estimation of the value for money of HTA was ...

  14. Assessment of energy crops alternative to maize for biogas production in the Greater Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Frédéric; Gerin, Patrick A; Noo, Anaïs; Lemaigre, Sébastien; Stilmant, Didier; Schmit, Thomas; Leclech, Nathael; Ruelle, Luc; Gennen, Jerome; von Francken-Welz, Herbert; Foucart, Guy; Flammang, Jos; Weyland, Marc; Delfosse, Philippe

    2014-08-01

    The biomethane yield of various energy crops, selected among potential alternatives to maize in the Greater Region, was assessed. The biomass yield, the volatile solids (VS) content and the biochemical methane potential (BMP) were measured to calculate the biomethane yield per hectare of all plant species. For all species, the dry matter biomass yield and the VS content were the main factors that influence, respectively, the biomethane yield and the BMP. Both values were predicted with good accuracy by linear regressions using the biomass yield and the VS as independent variable. The perennial crop miscanthus appeared to be the most promising alternative to maize when harvested as green matter in autumn and ensiled. Miscanthus reached a biomethane yield of 5.5 ± 1 × 10(3)m(3)ha(-1) during the second year after the establishment, as compared to 5.3 ± 1 × 10(3)m(3)ha(-1) for maize under similar crop conditions. PMID:24929279

  15. Incorporating the Technology Roadmap Uncertainties into the Project Risk Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes two methods, Technology Roadmapping and Project Risk Assessment, which were used to identify and manage the technical risks relating to the treatment of sodium bearing waste at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The waste treatment technology under consideration was Direct Vitrification. The primary objective of the Technology Roadmap is to identify technical data uncertainties for the technologies involved and to prioritize the testing or development studies to fill the data gaps. Similarly, project management's objective for a multi-million dollar construction project includes managing all the key risks in accordance to DOE O 413.3 - ''Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets.'' In the early stages, the Project Risk Assessment is based upon a qualitative analysis for each risk's probability and consequence. In order to clearly prioritize the work to resolve the technical issues identified in the Technology Roadmap, the issues must be cross- referenced to the project's Risk Assessment. This will enable the project to get the best value for the cost to mitigate the risks

  16. Assessment of x-ray technology for narcotics detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Siraj M.; Smith, Douglas E.; Hoglund, David E.

    1994-10-01

    This paper describes the plan for the assessment of the second generation X-ray inspection systems based on direct transmission, dual view, dual energy and backscatter technology. The purpose of this assessment is to determine the performance of each of these systems based on the analysis of the data on the detection of cocaine and heroin. The results of this assessment will be of immense value to law enforcement agencies in helping them select the type of X-ray inspection system best suited for their particular application.

  17. Information Technologies in the Assessment of Violations of Cognitive Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaly P. Omelchenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is about application of information technologies for an assessment of violations of cognitive functions at patients with diabetic and discirculatorencephalopathies. Results of the mathematical analysis of bioelectric activity of a brain of examinees are considered, the most significant factors reflecting existence of cognitive violations are revealed

  18. Assessment, Technology and Democratic Education in the Age of Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrotta, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    This paper contends that powerful techniques to manipulate data, enabled by technological and economic developments, can be easily co-opted to serve the restrictive frameworks of hyper-controlling, managerial accountability that characterise current cultures of summative assessment in education. In response to these challenges, research is…

  19. Reimbursement of pharmaceuticals: Reference pricing versus health technology assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Drummond (Michael); B. Jönsson (Bengt); F.F.H. Rutten (Frans); T. Stargardt (Tom)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractReference pricing and health technology assessment are policies commonly applied in order to obtain more value for money from pharmaceuticals. This study focussed on decisions about the initial price and reimbursement status of innovative drugs and discussed the consequences for market a

  20. A Qualitative Approach to Assessing Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groth, Randall; Spickler, Donald; Bergner, Jennifer; Bardzell, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Because technological pedagogical content knowledge is becoming an increasingly important construct in the field of teacher education, there is a need for assessment mechanisms that capture teachers' development of this portion of the knowledge base for teaching. The paper describes a proposal drawing on qualitative data produced during lesson…

  1. Technology Applications for Children with ADHD: Assessing the Empirical Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chunzhen; Reid, Robert; Steckelberg, Allen

    2002-01-01

    This article reviews technology research (n=20) with students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in five categories: computer-assisted instruction, computer-based cognitive training, biofeedback training, assessment, and behavior modification. Analysis of available research suggests there is little well controlled experimental…

  2. A model for technology assessment and commercialization for innovative disruptive technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KASSICIEH, SULEIMAN K.; WALSH, STEVE; MCWHORTER,PAUL J.; CUMMINGS JR.,JOHN C.; WILLIAMS,W. DAVID; ROMIG JR.,ALTON D.

    2000-05-17

    Disruptive technologies are scientific discoveries that break through the usual product technology capabilities and provide a basis for a new competitive paradigm as described by Anderson and Tushman [1990], Tushman and Rosenkopf [1992], and Bower and Christensen [1995]. Discontinuous innovations are products/processes/services that provide exponential improvements in the value received by the customer much in the same vein as Walsh [1996], Lynn, Morone and Paulson [1996], and Veryzer [1998]. For more on definitions of disruptive technologies and discontinuous innovations, see Walsh and Linton [1999] who provide a number of definitions for disruptive technologies and discontinuous innovations. Disruptive technologies and discontinuous innovations present a unique challenge and opportunity for R and D organizations seeking to build their commercialization efforts and to reinvent the corporation. These technologies do not have a proven path from scientific discovery to mass production and therefore require novel approaches. These critically important technologies are the wellspring of wealth creation and new competency generation but are not readily accepted by the corporate community. They are alternatively embraced and eschewed by the commercial community. They are finally accepted when the technology has already affected the industry or when the technological horse has already flown out of the hanger. Many firms, especially larger firms, seem reluctant to familiarize themselves with these technologies quickly. The trend seems to be that these firms prefer to react to a proven disruptive technology that has changed the product market paradigm. If true, then there is cause for concern. This paper will review the literature on disruptive technologies presenting a model of the progression from scientific idea to mass production for disruptive technologies contrasted to the more copious incremental technologies. The paper will then describe Sandia National Laboratories

  3. An assessment of alternative agricultural management practice impacts on soil carbon in the corn belt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnwell, T.O. Jr.; Jackson, R.B.; Mulkey, L.A. [Environmental Research Laboratory, Athens, GA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    This impact of alternative management practices on agricultural soil C is estimated by a soil C mass balance modeling study that incorporates policy considerations in the analysis. A literature review of soil C modeling and impacts of management practices has been completed. The models selected for use and/or modification to meet the needs of representing soil C cycles in agroecosystems and impacts of management practices are CENTURY and DNDC. These models share a common ability to examine the impacts of alternative management practices on soil organic C, and are readily accessible. An important aspect of this effort is the development of the modeling framework and methodology that define the agricultural production systems and scenarios (i.e., crop-soil-climate combinations) to be assessed in terms of national policy, the integration of the model needs with available databases, and the operational mechanics of evaluating C sequestration potential with the integrated model/database system. We are working closely with EPA`s Office of Policy and Program Evaluation to define a reasonable set of policy alternatives for this assessment focusing on policy that might be affected through a revised Farm Bill, such as incentives to selectively promote conservation tillage, crop rotations, and/or good stewardship of the conservation reserve. Policy alternatives are translated into basic data for use in soil C models through economic models. These data, including such elements as agricultural practices, fertilization rates, and production levels are used in the soil C models to produce net carbon changes on a per unit area basis. The unit-area emissions are combined with areal-extent data in a GIS to produce an estimate of total carbon and nitrogen changes and thus estimate greenhouse benefits.

  4. Environmental impact assessment for alternative-energy power plants in México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Avila, María E; Beltrán-Morales, Luis Felipe; Braker, Elizabeth; Ortega-Rubio, Alfredo

    2006-07-01

    Ten Environmental Impact Assessment Reports (EIAR) were reviewed for projects involving alternative power plants in Mexico developed during the last twelve years. Our analysis focused on the methods used to assess the impacts produced by hydroelectric and geothermal power projects. These methods used to assess impacts in EIARs ranged from the most simple, descriptive criteria, to quantitative models. These methods are not concordant with the level of the EIAR required by the environmental authority or even, with the kind of project developed. It is concluded that there is no correlation between the tools used to assess impacts and the assigned type of the EIAR. Because the methods to assess impacts produced by these power projects have not changed during 2000 years, we propose a quantitative method, based on ecological criteria and tools, to assess the impacts produced by hydroelectric and geothermal plants, according to the specific characteristics of the project. The proposed method is supported by environmental norms, and can assist environmental authorities in assigning the correct level and tools to be applied to hydroelectric and geothermal projects. The proposed method can be adapted to other production activities in Mexico and to other countries. PMID:17402235

  5. Readings in technology assessment. [in relation to social impact and the law

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Papers are presented which reflect research in the following areas: development of the concept of technology assessment; institutionalization of technology assessment; the interface between law and technology assessment; and assessment case studies. Case studies include hazards of the medical use of X-rays, environmental noise effects in transportation planning, genetic technology, impact of underground coal mining, and aircraft/airport noise abatement.

  6. A potential impact of computer technology on students' alternative conceptions and explanatory style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, Ralph E.

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact a computer simulation may have on the process of altering learners' conceptions and explanatory styles in a specific science learning situation. For the investigation of the conceptualization process, it is assumed that children come to understand science through a process in which they question and modify their own alternative conceptions. Further, since science frequently depends on conceptions that cannot be derived from direct observation, successful teaching strategies frequently utilize activities and tools that facilitate constructions of conceptions that are more abstract than those previously relied upon by students prior to their school experience. A computer simulation may provide a unique learning tool for this purpose by bridging a gap between abstract conception and direct experience in situations where laboratory reconstructions are not possible or feasible. For the investigation of explanatory style, it is assumed that students who tend to attribute success and failure in learning to themselves also tend to be interested in learning. Students who are inclined to see themselves as responsible for their own success or failure have an optimistic explanatory style. Students inclined to see external factors as responsible have a helpless explanatory style. Conceptualization, specifically, conceptualization of friction and gravity, is assessed by a variation of the Interview-about-Instances technique. Explanatory style is measured by Crandall's Intellectual Achievement Responsibility Scale and the Intellectual Achievement Responsibility Scale for Conceptualization of Friction and Gravity. The study targets fifth and sixth grade students in a suburban setting. Quantitative Analysis indicates that the effective utilization of the software Sir Isaac Newton's Games improves student conceptualization of friction and gravity, and prevents drops toward a less optimistic explanatory style. Also shown is a

  7. Well-to-wheels life-cycle analysis of alternative fuels and vehicle technologies in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A well-to-wheels life cycle analysis on total energy consumptions and greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions for alternative fuels and accompanying vehicle technologies has been carried out for the base year 2010 and projected to 2020 based on data gathered and estimates developed for China. The fuels considered include gasoline, diesel, natural gas, liquid fuels from coal conversion, methanol, bio-ethanol and biodiesel, electricity and hydrogen. Use of liquid fuels including methanol and Fischer–Tropsch derived from coal will significantly increase GHG emissions relative to use of conventional gasoline. Use of starch-based bio-ethanol will incur a substantial carbon disbenefit because of the present highly inefficient agricultural practice and plant processing in China. Electrification of vehicles via hybrid electric, plug-in hybrid electric (PHEV) and battery electric vehicle technologies offers a progressively improved prospect for the reduction of energy consumption and GHG emission. However, the long-term carbon emission reduction is assured only when the needed electricity is generated by zero- or low-carbon sources, which means that carbon capture and storage is a necessity for fossil-based feedstocks. A PHEV that runs on zero- or low-carbon electricity and cellulosic ethanol may be one of the most attractive fuel-vehicle options in a carbon-constrained world. - Highlights: ► Data and estimates unique to China are used in this analysis. ► Use of starch-based bio-ethanol will incur a substantial carbon disbenefit in China. ► Use of methanol derived from coal will incur even more carbon disbenefit. ► Plug-in-hybrid with cellulosic ethanol and clean electricity may be a viable option.

  8. Acute medical assessment units: an efficient alternative to in-hospital acute medical care.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Watts, M

    2011-02-01

    Acute Medical Assessment Units (AMAUs) are being proposed as an alternative to congested Emergency Departments (EDs for the assessment of patients with a range of acute medical problems. We retrospectively reviewed the discharge destination of patients referred to a newly established AMAU during a six-month period. During the same period we contrasted activity in the ED for a similar group of patients. 1,562 patients were assessed in the AMAU. 196 (12.5%) were admitted to an in-patient bed and 1,148 (73.5%) were entered into specific diagnosis-driven out-patient pathways. 1,465 patients attended the ED and 635 (43.3%) were admitted. Out-patient alternatives to expensive in-patient care need to be provided at the \\'coal face" of acute referral. The AMAU provides this, and as a consequence admission rates are relatively low. This is achieved by directly communicating with GPs, accessing senior clinical decision makers, and providing immediate access to diagnostically driven outpatient pathways.

  9. Alternative energy technologies as a cultural endeavor: a case study of hydrogen and fuel cell development in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Galich, Ante; Marz, Lutz

    2012-01-01

    Background: The wider background to this article is the shift in the energy paradigm from fossil energy sources to renewable sources which should occur in the twenty-first century. This transformation requires the development of alternative energy technologies that enable the deployment of renewable energy sources in transportation, heating, and electricity. Among others, hydrogen and fuel cell technologies have the potential to fulfill this requirement and to contribute to a sustainable and ...

  10. Assessment of structural analysis technology for elastic shell collapse problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, N. F., Jr.; Macy, S. C.; Mccleary, S. L.

    1989-01-01

    The prediction of the ultimate load carrying capability for compressively loaded shell structures is a challenging nonlinear analysis problem. Selected areas of finite element technology research and nonlinear solution technology are assessed. Herein, a finite element analysis procedure is applied to four shell collapse problems which have been used by computational structural mechanics researchers in the past. This assessment will focus on a number of different shell element formulations and on different approaches used to account for geometric nonlinearities. The results presented confirm that these aspects of nonlinear shell analysis can have a significant effect on the predicted nonlinear structural response. All analyses were performed using the CSM Testbed software system which allowed a convenient assessment of different element formulations with a consistent approach to solving the discretized nonlinear equations.

  11. Technology Assessment and Roadmap for the Emergency Radiation Dose Assessment Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Joint Interagency Working Group (JIWG) under the auspices of the Department of Homeland Security Office of Research and Development conducted a technology assessment of emergency radiological dose assessment capabilities as part of the overall need for rapid emergency medical response in the event of a radiological terrorist event in the United States. The goal of the evaluation is to identify gaps and recommend general research and development needs to better prepare the Country for mitigating the effects of such an event. Given the capabilities and roles for responding to a radiological event extend across many agencies, a consensus of gaps and suggested development plans was a major goal of this evaluation and road-mapping effort. The working group consisted of experts representing the Departments of Homeland Security, Health and Human Services (Centers for Disease Control and the National Institutes of Health), Food and Drug Administration, Department of Defense and the Department of Energy's National Laboratories (see appendix A for participants). The specific goals of this Technology Assessment and Roadmap were to: (1) Describe the general context for deployment of emergency radiation dose assessment tools following terrorist use of a radiological or nuclear device; (2) Assess current and emerging dose assessment technologies; and (3) Put forward a consensus high-level technology roadmap for interagency research and development in this area. This report provides a summary of the consensus of needs, gaps and recommendations for a research program in the area of radiation dosimetry for early response, followed by a summary of the technologies available and on the near-term horizon. We then present a roadmap for a research program to bring present and emerging near-term technologies to bear on the gaps in radiation dose assessment and triage. Finally we present detailed supporting discussion on the nature of the threats we considered, the status of technology

  12. Technology Assessment and Roadmap for the Emergency Radiation Dose Assessment Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turteltaub, K W; Hartman-Siantar, C; Easterly, C; Blakely, W

    2005-10-03

    A Joint Interagency Working Group (JIWG) under the auspices of the Department of Homeland Security Office of Research and Development conducted a technology assessment of emergency radiological dose assessment capabilities as part of the overall need for rapid emergency medical response in the event of a radiological terrorist event in the United States. The goal of the evaluation is to identify gaps and recommend general research and development needs to better prepare the Country for mitigating the effects of such an event. Given the capabilities and roles for responding to a radiological event extend across many agencies, a consensus of gaps and suggested development plans was a major goal of this evaluation and road-mapping effort. The working group consisted of experts representing the Departments of Homeland Security, Health and Human Services (Centers for Disease Control and the National Institutes of Health), Food and Drug Administration, Department of Defense and the Department of Energy's National Laboratories (see appendix A for participants). The specific goals of this Technology Assessment and Roadmap were to: (1) Describe the general context for deployment of emergency radiation dose assessment tools following terrorist use of a radiological or nuclear device; (2) Assess current and emerging dose assessment technologies; and (3) Put forward a consensus high-level technology roadmap for interagency research and development in this area. This report provides a summary of the consensus of needs, gaps and recommendations for a research program in the area of radiation dosimetry for early response, followed by a summary of the technologies available and on the near-term horizon. We then present a roadmap for a research program to bring present and emerging near-term technologies to bear on the gaps in radiation dose assessment and triage. Finally we present detailed supporting discussion on the nature of the threats we considered, the status of

  13. Identification and assessment of site treatment plan implementation opportunities for emerging technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, E.A. [Sandia National Labs., Germantown, MD (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The Department of Energy (DOE), in response to the 1992 Federal Facility Compliance Act, has prepared Site Treatment Plans (STP) for the approximately 2,000 waste streams identified within its mixed waste inventory Concurrently, emerging mixed waste treatment technologies are in final development. This paper defines a three-phase process to identify and assess implementation opportunities for these emerging technologies within the STP. It highlights the first phase, functional matching of expected treatment capabilities with proposed treatment requirements. Matches are based on treatment type, regulated contaminant and waste matrix type, for both capabilities and requirements. Results identify specific waste streams and volumes that could be treated by each emerging technology. A study for Plasma Hearth Process, Delphi DETOX{sup sm}, Supercritical Water Oxidation and Vitrification shows that about 200,000 ml of DOE`s mixed waste inventory can potentially be treated by one or more of these emerging technologies. Actual implementations are small fractions of the treatable inventory. Differences between potential and actual implementations must be minimized to accrue optimum benefit from implementation of emerging or alternative treatment technologies. Functional matching is the first phase in identifying and quantifying benefits, addressing technology system and treatment issues, and providing, in part, the basis for STP implementation decisions. DOE, through EM`s Office of Technology Development, has funded this work.

  14. Identification and assessment of site treatment plan implementation opportunities for emerging technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy (DOE), in response to the 1992 Federal Facility Compliance Act, has prepared Site Treatment Plans (STP) for the approximately 2,000 waste streams identified within its mixed waste inventory Concurrently, emerging mixed waste treatment technologies are in final development. This paper defines a three-phase process to identify and assess implementation opportunities for these emerging technologies within the STP. It highlights the first phase, functional matching of expected treatment capabilities with proposed treatment requirements. Matches are based on treatment type, regulated contaminant and waste matrix type, for both capabilities and requirements. Results identify specific waste streams and volumes that could be treated by each emerging technology. A study for Plasma Hearth Process, Delphi DETOXsm, Supercritical Water Oxidation and Vitrification shows that about 200,000 ml of DOE's mixed waste inventory can potentially be treated by one or more of these emerging technologies. Actual implementations are small fractions of the treatable inventory. Differences between potential and actual implementations must be minimized to accrue optimum benefit from implementation of emerging or alternative treatment technologies. Functional matching is the first phase in identifying and quantifying benefits, addressing technology system and treatment issues, and providing, in part, the basis for STP implementation decisions. DOE, through EM's Office of Technology Development, has funded this work

  15. Alternative technological approach for synthesis of ceramic pigments by waste materials recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alternative technological approach is proposed enabling utilization of raw materials from an oil refinery, such as waste guard layers from reactors. Reagent grade and purified MgO, Cr2O3, Fe2O3, and nitric acid (HNO3), were used as additional precursors. The homogeneous mixtures obtained were formed into pellets and sintered at different temperatures. The main phase was proved by X-ray phase analysis (XRD) and compared to ICPDS database. The main phase in the ceramics synthesized was solid solution of spinel MgAl2O4 and magnesiochromite. These minerals are classified as chromspinelide MgCr1.2Al0.4Fe0.4O4 and alumochromite MgCr1.6Al0.4O4. Additional SEM observations, combined with EDX analysis were performed, evincing agglomeration at lower temperatures, followed by agglomerate crumbling, at elevated calcination temperature. The complete transformation of initial precursors into the final ceramic compounds was found to occur at 800 degree centigrade 1 h. The ceramic samples synthesized had high density of 1.72-1.93 g/cm3 and large absorption area - 32.93% which is probably due to the high porosity of the sample. (Author)

  16. Alternative technological approach for synthesis of ceramic pigments by waste materials recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doynov, M.; Dimitrov, T.; Kozhukharov, S.

    2016-05-01

    Alternative technological approach is proposed enabling utilization of raw materials from an oil refinery, such as waste guard layers from reactors. Reagent grade and purified MgO, Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}), were used as additional precursors. The homogeneous mixtures obtained were formed into pellets and sintered at different temperatures. The main phase was proved by X-ray phase analysis (XRD) and compared to ICPDS database. The main phase in the ceramics synthesized was solid solution of spinel MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} and magnesiochromite. These minerals are classified as chromspinelide MgCr{sub 1}.2Al{sub 0}.4Fe{sub 0}.4O{sub 4} and alumochromite MgCr{sub 1}.6Al{sub 0}.4O{sub 4}. Additional SEM observations, combined with EDX analysis were performed, evincing agglomeration at lower temperatures, followed by agglomerate crumbling, at elevated calcination temperature. The complete transformation of initial precursors into the final ceramic compounds was found to occur at 800 degree centigrade 1 h. The ceramic samples synthesized had high density of 1.72-1.93 g/cm{sup 3} and large absorption area - 32.93% which is probably due to the high porosity of the sample. (Author)

  17. Potential alternatives of heat and power technology application using rice straw in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice straw could be used for heat and power with the current technologies available in Thailand. The cost of rice straw for power generation at 0.38-0.61 Baht/MJe (at rice straw price 930-1500 Baht/t) is not competitive with coal at 0.30 Baht/MJe but comparable with other biomass at 0.35-0.53 Baht/MJe. However, utilization of rice straw in industrial boilers is a more competitive and flexible option with two alternatives; (1) installing rice straw fired boilers instead of heavy oil fired or natural gas ones when selecting new boilers; and (2) fuel switching from coal to rice straw for existing boilers with cost saving of feedstock supply by 0.01 Baht/MJh. Based on its properties (Slagging index, Rs = 0.04; fouling index, Rf 0.24), rice straw is not expected to have significant operating problems or different emissions compared with wheat straw and rice husk under similar operating conditions. (author)

  18. Human factors assessments of innovative technologies: Robotics sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has funded major environmental technology developments over the past several years. One area that received significant attention is robotics, which has resulted in the development of a wide range of unique robotic systems tailored to the many tasks unique to the DOE complex. These systems are often used in highly hazardous environments, which reduces or eliminates worker exposures. The DOE, concurrent with the technology development initiative, also established and funded a 5-yr cooperative agreement intended to interface with the technology development community-with specific attention to the occupational safety and health aspects associated with individual technologies through human factors and hazard assessments. This program is now in its third year

  19. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power: report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume II. Proliferation resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    Volume II assesses proliferation resistance. Chapters are devoted to: assessment of civilian nuclear systems (once-through fuel-cycle systems, closed fuel cycle systems, research reactors and critical facilities); assessment of associated sensitive materials and facilities (enrichment, problems with storage of spent fuel and plutonium content, and reprocessing and refabrication facilities); and safeguards for alternative fuel cycles.

  20. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power: report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume II. Proliferation resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volume II assesses proliferation resistance. Chapters are devoted to: assessment of civilian nuclear systems (once-through fuel-cycle systems, closed fuel cycle systems, research reactors and critical facilities); assessment of associated sensitive materials and facilities (enrichment, problems with storage of spent fuel and plutonium content, and reprocessing and refabrication facilities); and safeguards for alternative fuel cycles

  1. Results of EPA's risk assessments of alternative methods of LLW disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evaluation of the potential health risk and individual exposure from a broad number of disposal alternatives is an important part of EPA's program to develop generally applicable environmental standards for the land disposal of low-level radioactive wastes (LLW). The Agency has completed an analysis of the potential population health risks and maximum individual exposures from ten disposal methods under three different hydrogeological and climatic settings. This paper briefly describes the general input, analysis procedures, and output used in the LLW assessments and presents preliminary results. Some important lessons learned from simulating LLW disposal under a large variety of methods and conditions are identified. 24 references, 6 figures, 7 tables

  2. Contextual approach to technology assessment: Implications for one-factor fix solutions to complex social problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, L. H.

    1975-01-01

    The contextual approach is discussed which undertakes to demonstrate that technology assessment assists in the identification of the full range of implications of taking a particular action and facilitates the consideration of alternative means by which the total affected social problem context might be changed by available project options. It is found that the social impacts of an application on participants, institutions, processes, and social interests, and the accompanying interactions may not only induce modifications in the problem contest delineated for examination with respect to the design, operations, regulation, and use of the posited application, but also affect related social problem contexts.

  3. Workgroup Report: Incorporating In Vitro Alternative Methods for Developmental Neurotoxicity into International Hazard and Risk Assessment Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Coecke S.; Goldberg A.M.; Allen S; Buzanska L.; Calamandrei G.; Crofton K.; Hareng L.; Hartung T.; Knaut H.; Honegger P.; Jacobs M.; Lein P.; Li A.; Mundy W.; Owen D.

    2007-01-01

    This is the report of the first workshop on Incorporating In Vitro Alternative Methods for Developmental Neurotoxicity (DNT) Testing into International Hazard and Risk Assessment Strategies, held in Ispra, Italy, on 19-21 April 2005. The workshop was hosted by the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM) and jointly organized by ECVAM, the European Chemical Industry Council, and the Johns Hopkins University Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing. The primary aim of...

  4. The Contribution of Health Technology Assessment, Health Needs Assessment, and Health Impact Assessment to the Assessment and Translation of Technologies in the Field of Public Health Genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkotter, N.; Vondeling, H.; Blancquaert, I.;

    2011-01-01

    contribute to the systematic translation and assessment of genomic health applications by focussing at population level and on public health policy making. It is shown to what extent HTA, HNA and HIA contribute to translational research by using the continuum of translational research (T1-T4) in genomic...... identify infrastructural needs. HIA delivers information on the impact of technologies in a wider scope and promotes informed decision making. HTA, HNA and HIA provide a partly overlapping and partly unique set of methodologies and infrastructure for the translation and assessment of genomic health......The European Union has named genomics as one of the promising research fields for the development of new health technologies. Major concerns with regard to these fields are, on the one hand, the rather slow and limited translation of new knowledge and, on the other hand, missing insights into the...

  5. Department of Energy Small-Scale Hydropower Program: Feasibility assessment and technology development summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes two subprograms under the US Department of Energy's Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power Program. These subprograms were part of the financial assistance activities and included the Program Research and Development Announcement (PRDA) feasibility assessments and the technology development projects. The other major subprograms included engineering research and development, legal and institutional aspects, and technology transfer. These other subprograms are covered in their respective summary reports. The problems of energy availability and increasing costs of energy led to a national effort to develop economical and environmental attractive alternative energy resources. One such alternative involved the utilization of existing dams with hydraulic heads of <65 ft and the capacity to generate hydroelectric power of 15 MW or less. Thus, the PRDA program was initiated along with the Technology Development program. The purpose of the PRDA feasibility studies was to encourage development of renewable hydroelectric resources by providing engineering, economic, environmental, safety, and institutional information. Fifty-five feasibility studies were completed under the PRDA. This report briefly summarizes each of those projects. Many of the PRDA projects went on to become technology development projects. 56 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  6. Department of Energy Small-Scale Hydropower Program: Feasibility assessment and technology development summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinehart, B.N.

    1991-06-01

    This report summarizes two subprograms under the US Department of Energy's Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power Program. These subprograms were part of the financial assistance activities and included the Program Research and Development Announcement (PRDA) feasibility assessments and the technology development projects. The other major subprograms included engineering research and development, legal and institutional aspects, and technology transfer. These other subprograms are covered in their respective summary reports. The problems of energy availability and increasing costs of energy led to a national effort to develop economical and environmental attractive alternative energy resources. One such alternative involved the utilization of existing dams with hydraulic heads of <65 ft and the capacity to generate hydroelectric power of 15 MW or less. Thus, the PRDA program was initiated along with the Technology Development program. The purpose of the PRDA feasibility studies was to encourage development of renewable hydroelectric resources by providing engineering, economic, environmental, safety, and institutional information. Fifty-five feasibility studies were completed under the PRDA. This report briefly summarizes each of those projects. Many of the PRDA projects went on to become technology development projects. 56 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  7. Technology Innovation Enabling Falls Risk Assessment in a Community Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni Scanaill, Cliodhna; Garattini, Chiara; Greene, Barry R; McGrath, Michael J

    2011-06-01

    Approximately one in three people over the age of 65 will fall each year, resulting in significant financial, physical, and emotional cost on the individual, their family, and society. Currently, falls are managed using on-body sensors and alarm pendants to notify others when a falls event occurs. However these technologies do not prevent a fall from occurring. There is now a growing focus on falls risk assessment and preventative interventions. Falls risk is currently assessed in a clinical setting by expert physiotherapists, geriatricians, or occupational therapists following the occurrence of an injurious fall. As the population ages, this reactive model of care will become increasingly unsatisfactory, and a proactive community-based prevention strategy will be required. Recent advances in technology can support this new model of care by enabling community-based practitioners to perform tests that previously required expensive technology or expert interpretation. Gait and balance impairment is one of the most common risk factors for falls. This paper reviews the current technical and non-technical gait and balance assessments, discusses how low-cost technology can be applied to objectively administer and interpret these tests in the community, and reports on recent research where body-worn sensors have been utilized. It also discusses the barriers to adoption in the community and proposes ethnographic research as a method to investigate solutions to these barriers. PMID:21660088

  8. Opportunities for an alternative integrating testing strategy for carcinogen hazard assessment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doktorova, Tatyana Y; Pauwels, Marleen; Vinken, Mathieu; Vanhaecke, Tamara; Rogiers, Vera

    2012-02-01

    The 2-year rodent carcinogenicity bioassay evolved more than 40 years ago, and although it is complex, long lasting, expensive, and animal consuming, it is still the only generally accepted test for assessing the carcinogenicity of chemicals. Over time, different alternative approaches have been developed with the final goal to replace the bioassay. Unfortunately, at present, none of these strategies alone provides sufficient assurance of accurate prediction. In this review paper, we discuss the major advantages and pitfalls of the existing alternative methodologies to the carcinogenicity bioassay. Finally, based on the available scientific data in the public domain, we propose what we would like to call a "feasible integrated testing strategy" which incorporates some promising alternatives, providing at the same time information on the mechanism of action and the toxic nature of the compounds tested. It is, however, clear that the adoption of whatever "new" testing scheme should be considered with caution and its effectiveness should be experimentally demonstrated in advance by addressing a reasonable number of chemical carcinogens and non-carcinogens from a variety of structural and functional classes. PMID:22141324

  9. Assessment of costs and benefits of flexible and alternative fuel use in the US transportation sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The DOE is conducting a comprehensive technical analysis of a flexible-fuel transportation system in the United States -- that is, a system that could easily switch between petroleum and another fuel, depending on price and availability. The DOE Alternative Fuels Assessment is aimed directly at questions of energy security and fuel availability, but covers a wide range of issues. This report examines environmental, health, and safety concerns associated with a switch to alternative- and flexible-fuel vehicles. Three potential alternatives to oil-based fuels in the transportation sector are considered: methanol, compressed natural gas (CNG), and electricity. The objective is to describe and discuss qualitatively potential environmental, health, and safety issues that would accompany widespread use of these three fuels. This report presents the results of exhaustive literature reviews; discussions with specialists in the vehicular and fuel-production industries and with Federal, State, and local officials; and recent information from in-use fleet tests. Each chapter deals with the end-use and process emissions of air pollutants, presenting an overview of the potential air pollution contribution of the fuel --relative to that of gasoline and diesel fuel -- in various applications. Carbon monoxide, particulate matter, ozone precursors, and carbon dioxide are emphasized. 67 refs., 6 figs. , 8 tabs

  10. Assessment of costs and benefits of flexible and alternative fuel use in the US transportation sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    The DOE is conducting a comprehensive technical analysis of a flexible-fuel transportation system in the United States -- that is, a system that could easily switch between petroleum and another fuel, depending on price and availability. The DOE Alternative Fuels Assessment is aimed directly at questions of energy security and fuel availability, but covers a wide range of issues. This report examines environmental, health, and safety concerns associated with a switch to alternative- and flexible-fuel vehicles. Three potential alternatives to oil-based fuels in the transportation sector are considered: methanol, compressed natural gas (CNG), and electricity. The objective is to describe and discuss qualitatively potential environmental, health, and safety issues that would accompany widespread use of these three fuels. This report presents the results of exhaustive literature reviews; discussions with specialists in the vehicular and fuel-production industries and with Federal, State, and local officials; and recent information from in-use fleet tests. Each chapter deals with the end-use and process emissions of air pollutants, presenting an overview of the potential air pollution contribution of the fuel --relative to that of gasoline and diesel fuel -- in various applications. Carbon monoxide, particulate matter, ozone precursors, and carbon dioxide are emphasized. 67 refs., 6 figs. , 8 tabs.

  11. Social and ethical analysis in health technology assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantivess, Sripen

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents a review of the domestic and international literature on the assessment of the social and ethical implications of health technologies. It gives an overview of the key concepts, principles, and approaches that should be taken into account when conducting a social and ethical analysis within health technology assessment (HTA). Although there is growing consensus among healthcare experts that the social and ethical ramifications of a given technology should be examined before its adoption, the demand for this kind of analysis among policy-makers around the world, including in Thailand, has so far been lacking. Currently decision-makers mainly base technology adoption decisions using evidence on clinical effectiveness, value for money, and budget impact, while social and ethical aspects have been neglected. Despite the recognized importance of considering equity, justice, and social issues when making decisions regarding health resource allocation, the absence of internationally-accepted principles and methodologies, among other factors, hinders research in these areas. Given that developing internationally agreed standards takes time, it has been recommended that priority be given to defining processes that are justifiable, transparent, and contestable. A discussion of the current situation in Thailand concerning social and ethical analysis of health technologies is also presented. PMID:24964703

  12. DECISION ANALYSIS AND TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENTS FOR METAL AND MASONRY DECONTAMINATION TECHNOLOGIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this investigation was to conduct a comparative analysis of innovative technologies for the non-aggressive removal of coatings from metal and masonry surfaces and the aggressive removal of one-quarter to one-inch thickness of surface from structural masonry. The technologies tested should be capable of being used in nuclear facilities. Innovative decontamination technologies are being evaluated under standard, non-nuclear conditions at the FIU-HCET technology assessment site in Miami, Florida. This study is being performed to support the OST, the Deactivation and Decommissioning (D and D) Focus Area, and the environmental restoration of DOE facilities throughout the DOE complex by providing objective evaluations of currently available decontamination technologies

  13. Technology and Economic Assessment of Innovative Field Drainage Technologies in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gachango, Florence Gathoni

    Framework Directive (EU WFD), introduced to address the water quality problem the situation calls for solutions that would reconcile these two conflicting issues. “End-of-pipe” filter technologies that would disconnect agricultural drainage pathway before it gets to the aquatic environment have been...... proposed as appropriate solutions to this problem in the Danish context. The feasibility of these technologies with regards to their cost-effectiveness in nutrient mitigation, farmers’ adoption behavior, and environmental policy implementation is assessed in this thesis. The thesis comprises of four papers...... technologies, and their willingness and extent of trading-off the existing farm management nutrient reduction measures with constructed wetland technology, iii) the cost-effectiveness of surface flow constructed wetlands, and iv) the strategies of incorporating the filter technologies into policy measures...

  14. Automatic and Objective Assessment of Alternating Tapping Performance in Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mevludin Memedi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development and evaluation of a method for enabling quantitative and automatic scoring of alternating tapping performance of patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD. Ten healthy elderly subjects and 95 patients in different clinical stages of PD have utilized a touch-pad handheld computer to perform alternate tapping tests in their home environments. First, a neurologist used a web-based system to visually assess impairments in four tapping dimensions (‘speed’, ‘accuracy’, ‘fatigue’ and ‘arrhythmia’ and a global tapping severity (GTS. Second, tapping signals were processed with time series analysis and statistical methods to derive 24 quantitative parameters. Third, principal component analysis was used to reduce the dimensions of these parameters and to obtain scores for the four dimensions. Finally, a logistic regression classifier was trained using a 10-fold stratified cross-validation to map the reduced parameters to the corresponding visually assessed GTS scores. Results showed that the computed scores correlated well to visually assessed scores and were significantly different across Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale scores of upper limb motor performance. In addition, they had good internal consistency, had good ability to discriminate between healthy elderly and patients in different disease stages, had good sensitivity to treatment interventions and could reflect the natural disease progression over time. In conclusion, the automatic method can be useful to objectively assess the tapping performance of PD patients and can be included in telemedicine tools for remote monitoring of tapping.

  15. The study of the life cycle of technology assessment model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Yu-Zhi; HUANG Xun-jiang

    2001-01-01

    The life cycle of technology is one of the most important indexes to weigh up the risk of the investment to neo-tech. There are so many uncertainties because it is conditioned by a lot of factors, we can not make a rational forecasting by traditional assessment method. So this paper gives a conprehensive consideration to the factors that influence production and makes some modification to production function, and establishes the life cycle of technology assessmet model by the method of fuzzy mathematics. So it quantifies the risk of investment. We can take it as one foundational index for the decision making of the investment.

  16. Processes of technology assessment: The National Transportation Safety Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, E.

    1972-01-01

    The functions and operations of the Safety Board as related to technology assessment are described, and a brief history of the Safety Board is given. Recommendations made for safety in all areas of transportation and the actions taken are listed. Although accident investigation is an important aspect of NTSB's activity, it is felt that the greatest contribution is in pressing for development of better accident prevention programs. Efforts of the Safety Board in changing transportation technology to improve safety and prevent accidents are illustrated.

  17. Human factors assessments of D and D technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On April 2, 1997, the US Secretary of Energy directed the US Assistant Secretary of Environmental Management and of Safety and Health to require field input of appropriate data to ensure that safety and health considerations were properly addressed in the Accelerating Cleanup: Focus on 2006 Plan. The US Department of Energy (DOE) field managers have committed to the Secretary that they will fully implement integrated safety management systems (ISMSs) at their respective sites by the end of fiscal year 1999. The Secretary has further directed that headquarters safety and health guidance be developed to support consistent and comprehensive project baseline summaries from the field. The Secretary has committed to institutionalizing ISMS as an integral component of the way the DOE conducts its business. The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board continues to oversee and closely monitor the DOE's commitment to the safety and health of its workers. The DOE is committed to a management system approach to ensure that work is performed in a manner that protects the worker, public, and environment. The Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA) is actively addressing the need to incorporate environmental safety and health (ES and H) considerations in developing technologies. The DDFA is partnered with the Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program (OENHP) to evaluate the ES and H considerations of the innovative and improved decontamination and decommissioning technologies. Part of the implementation of the ES and H work practices in the field is through a cooperative agreement between the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) and the OENHP. The objective of this program is to establish an International Environmental Technology and Training Center to conduct human factors assessments and protocols on environmental technologies. The intent of the human factors assessments is to enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of the technologies and to enhance

  18. Indoor propagation and assessment of blast waves from weapons using the alternative image theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, B.; Lee, K.; Lee, S.; Jung, S.; Song, K. H.

    2016-03-01

    Blast waves generated from the muzzles of various weapons might have significant effects on the human body, and these effects are recognized as being more severe when weapons are fired indoors. The risk can be assessed by various criteria, such as waveform, exposed energy, and model-based types. This study introduces a prediction model of blast wave propagation for estimating waveform parameters related to damage risk assessment. To simulate indoor multiple reflections in a simple way, the model is based on the alternative image theory and discrete wavefront method. The alternative theory is a kind of modified image theory, but it uses the image space concept from a receiver's perspective, so that it shows improved efficiency for indoor problems. Further, the discrete wavefront method interprets wave propagation as the forward movement of a finite number of wavefronts. Even though the predicted results show slight differences from the measured data, the locations of significant shock waves indicate a high degree of correlation between them. Since the disagreement results not from the proposed techniques but from the assumptions used, it is concluded that the model is appropriate for analysis of blast wave propagation in interior spaces.

  19. Alternative test method to assess the energy performance of frost-free refrigerating appliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper outlines an alternative test method to evaluate the energy consumption of frost-free refrigerators and freezers for residential applications. While the standardized methods require the refrigerating appliance to be kept running according to its onboard control system, which usually drives the refrigerator through an on–off cycling pattern, the proposed approach assesses the refrigerator energy performance in the steady-state regime, being therefore much faster and more reliable. In this procedure, the cooling capacity is matched to the cooling loads by PID-controlled electrical heaters installed within the refrigerated compartments, so that the compartment temperatures are kept at the desired standardized levels. Comparisons between the experimental results obtained using the steady-state energy test and the standardized procedures showed that the former follows closely the trends observed for the latter. - Highlights: ► An alternative test method to assess the energy consumption of refrigerators is proposed. ► PID-controlled electrical heaters were installed within the compartments. ► Steady-state and ISO energy tests were performed and compared. ► Both proposed and standardized test procedures showed similar trends.

  20. Planning Support Systems (PSS-Based Spatial Plan Alternatives and Environmental Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Sun Choi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Spatial planning is at the core of national land and urban development. Many countries and cities seek sustainable development through various means such as coordinated environmental planning, environmental assessment, and internalization of environmental analysis and planning. A Planning Support System (PSS is a GIS (Geographic Information System-based, spatial decision-making support system that incorporates a variety of theories and pertinent models. This study adopted the “What if?” model to design an alternative spatial plan that includes generation of predictive scenarios and is relatively easy to use. In the cities studied, we identified a total of six scenarios based on the main drivers of development—namely, population and spatial policies. Subsequently, we assessed the alternatives for their environmental impact, preparing sensitivity maps for each major environmental issue in the target area (natural ecosystem, air and microclimate, natural disasters. One projected advantage of the “What if?” model is that its digital visualization of proposed plans may improve public awareness and involvement. Furthermore, the tool is expected to be highly useful in ensuring the objectivity of quantitative analyses. However, it is necessary to develop a PSS that is both standardized and tailored to the particular needs of each area. Finally, the development of an e-governance system will be beneficial in ensuring public access to the decision making process.

  1. Visitor Assessment of the Mandatory Alternative Transportation System at Zion National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, Britton L.; Marquit, Joshua D.; Bates, Scott C.

    2013-11-01

    Transportation infrastructure in national parks has historically been designed for the automobile. With more vehicles in the parks, visitors found themselves in circumstances more reminiscent of a city than a park. Traffic jams, overcrowding, illegal parking, horn honking, and idling vehicles became common, creating stress and contributing to air and noise pollution, the very things visitors were hoping to get away from. Park managers began searching for alternatives, including shuttle systems. Many national parks have implemented optional shuttle systems, but relatively few have completely closed roads to vehicles, transporting visitors on mandatory shuttles. Zion National Park instituted a mandatory shuttle system in May 2000 to relieve crowding and congestion in the main canyon and to protect natural resources. Taking a longitudinal approach, attributes of the shuttle (e.g., crowding, accessibility, freedom, efficiency, preference, and success) were assessed with experiential park factors (e.g., scenic beauty, naturalness, solitude, tranquility, air quality, and soundscape) in 2000, 2003, and 2010 by surveying shuttle-riding park visitors. While visitors initially reported a few reservations about the shuttle system, by 2003, the majority rated the system successful. Ratings of all shuttle-related variables, except crowding, improved over the decade. Improvements were greatest for freedom, accessibility, and efficiency. Multiple regression found overall shuttle success to be mediated by preference, freedom, accessibility, efficiency, and comfort. Experiential variables assessing park conditions followed a similar pattern, with improved ratings as the decade progressed. Results provide important insights into the visitor experience with mandatory alternative shuttle systems in national parks.

  2. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power: report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program (NASAP) assessed alternative nuclear systems to find those with the lowest proliferation risk. The findings of the NASAP studies are: current and future nuclear-power systems can be made more proliferation-resistant. As long as doubts about security and fuel supply remain, more resource-efficient (and potentially less proliferation-resistant) systems will be attractive to some nations. Under some scenarios, domestic uranium supply/demand imbalances are possible beyond the year 2010. The worldwide uranium supply/demand balance is even less certain than the domestic picture. Other nuclear resources are less of a problem than uranium. Doubts about fuel supply can be alleviated in several ways. The approaches available to provide security of supply fall into three categories: resource extenders; supply improvements; and institutional and technical measures. Resource extension options include improvements to once-through cycles, advanced converters, recycle, and breeder reactors. The most promising resource extension options are light water reactor improvements (including reduced enrichment tails assay) and continued development of the plutonium-fueled breeder reactors. Uranium-supply initiatives include measures to reduce uncertainty in the estimated size of the resource base, to exploit it efficiently, and to ensure equitable access. An international nonproliferation regime will require institutional measures and technical approaches

  3. Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) system concept and technology definition study. Volume 2: Technology assessment and technology development plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnew, Donald L.; Jones, Peter A.

    1989-01-01

    A study was conducted to define reasonable and representative LDR system concepts for the purpose of defining a technology development program aimed at providing the requisite technological capability necessary to start LDR development by the end of 1991. This volume presents thirteen technology assessments and technology development plans, as well as an overview and summary of the LDR concepts. Twenty-two proposed augmentation projects are described (selected from more than 30 candidates). The five LDR technology areas most in need of supplementary support are: cryogenic cooling; astronaut assembly of the optically precise LDR in space; active segmented primary mirror; dynamic structural control; and primary mirror contamination control. Three broad, time-phased, five-year programs were synthesized from the 22 projects, scheduled, and funding requirements estimated.

  4. Remediation planning and risk assessment support through data fusion technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman Research's Data Fusion Modeling (DFM) services gives one the ability to use large geophysical and hydrological data sets, which include direct and indirect measurements, to obtain a unified mathematical model of the geology and hydrology at one's site. Coleman Research (CRC) has adapted highly stable and efficient statistical inversion techniques, developed over the past 20 years, to provide a 3D site model with quantified uncertainty based on state-of-the-art modeling codes. This site model supports risk assessment and remediation planning with enhanced numerical accuracy for tradeoff studies of alternate remediation strategies. Further, DFM supports real time model updates during remediation and site investigation

  5. Assessment of the Applications of Water Jet Technology in Mining Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İzzet Karakurt

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Waterjet technology finding broad application potential in different areas, due to having low cutting force required and the possibility of flexible and multi-directional cutting, is used as an alternative method over the conventional cutting systems. Waterjet technology, used firstly in excavation processes of soft rocks in mining, has increased its usability with the hydraulic excavation of coal. Nowadays, it is commonly used for block cutting in quarries and processing of natural stones for the purposes of decorative production. The method has the potential use in drilling and tunneling processes too. Recently, investigations have been carried out to enhance the usability of the technology in milling processes. In this study, an assessment of some applications of waterjet technology in mining is presented. Additionally, the technology is compared with other cutting systems used in mining in terms of various aspects as well. As a result of the study, it is determined that the cutting process with waterjet technology could be efficiently used in mining sector because of the advantages such as little material losses, not requiring any additional processes after cutting, eliminating the dust, increasing the fragmentation efficiency of rock or coal, decreasing the costs resulted from wear.

  6. Hospital Based Health Technology Assessment: an example from Siena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Manzi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Health Technology Assessment (HTA has emerged in recent years as a useful tool in healthcare decision-making. It is a multidisciplinary process that summarizes information about the medical, social, economic and ethical issues related to the use of a health technology and provides evidence-based information on how to allocate resources. The experience of Siena University Hospital is an example of multidisciplinary hospital-based HTA. In the present paper we summarize the organization of HTA commission and the assessment methodology of the purchase, rental or sale of medical equipment and medical devices. Furthermore we illustrate the data concerning the commission activities in 2013.http://dx.doi.org/10.7175/fe.v16i1.943

  7. International conference on comparative assessments of solar power technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many regions in the world which lack fossil fuel resources but possess ample sunshine seek to identify near-term solar technologies capable of gradually replacing their fuel imports in cost-effective fashion. The conference addresses the following topics: technical and economical studies specifying their underlying basic assumption, methods and rules for evaluation in order to enable meaningful comparison between different technologies and systems. Detailed delineation of numerical and graphical representations, critical analysis and comparison between simulations, and test validity. Generalized performance indicators for systems and subsystems, problems of measuring and evaluating physical parameters, of terminology and conceptual tools for comparative evaluations. Advances in research development, engineering and field performance, including implications pertaining to comparative assessments and definitions of criteria and standards helpful to comparative evaluation. Assessments of the full (and hidden) cost of fossil energies as compared to solar, including environmental costs. Cost/benefit studies for remote versus centralized systems. (ed.)

  8. Environmental assessment of solid waste systems and technologies: EASEWASTE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Janus Torsten; Birgisdottir, Harpa; Hansen, Trine Lund;

    2006-01-01

    A new model has been developed for evaluating the overall resource consumption and environmental impacts of municipal solid waste management systems by the use of life cycle assessment. The model is named EASEWASTE (Environmental Assessment of Solid Waste Systems and Technologies) and is able...... to compare different waste management strategies, waste treatment methods and waste process technologies. The potential environmental impacts can be traced back to the most important processes and waste fractions that contribute to the relevant impacts. A model like EASEWASTE can be used by waste planners...... may not always be the most environmentally friendly. The EASEWASTE model can identify the most environmentally sustainable solution, which may differ among waste materials and regions and can add valuable information about environmental achievements from each process in a solid waste management system....

  9. Assessing the Application of Tissue Microarray Technology to Kidney Research

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Ming-Zhi; Su, Yinghao; Yao, Bing; Zheng, Wei; deCaestecker, Mark; Harris, Raymond C.

    2010-01-01

    Tissue microarray (TMA) is a new high-throughput method that enables simultaneous analysis of the profiles of protein expression in multiple tissue samples. TMA technology has not previously been adapted for physiological and pathophysiological studies of rodent kidneys. We have evaluated the validity and reliability of using TMA to assess protein expression in mouse and rat kidneys. A representative TMA block that we have produced included: (1) mouse and rat kidney cortex, outer medulla, and...

  10. Alternative fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium resource utilization and economic considerations provide incentives to study alternative fuel cycles as future options to the PHWR natural uranium cycle. Preliminary studies to define the most favourable alternatives and their possible introduction dates are discussed. The important and uncertain components which influence option selection are reviewed, including nuclear capacity growth, uranium availability and demand, economic potential, and required technological developments. Finally, a summary of Ontario Hydro's program to further assess cycle selection and define development needs is given. (auth)

  11. Teacher Learning of Technology-Enhanced Formative Assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Beatty, Ian D; Leonard, William J; Gerace, William J; Cyr, Karen St; Lee, Hyunju; Harris, Robby

    2008-01-01

    Technology-Enhanced Formative Assessment (TEFA) is a pedagogy for teaching with classroom response technology. Teacher Learning of TEFA is a five-year research project studying teacher change, in the context of an intensive professional development program designed to help science and mathematics teachers learn TEFA. First, we provide an overview of the project's participating teachers, its intervention (consisting of the technology, the pedagogy, and the professional development program), and its research design. Then, we present narratives describing the unfolding change process experienced by four teachers. Afterward, we present some preliminary findings of the research, describe a "model for the co-evolution of teacher and pedagogy" that we are developing, and identify general implications for professional development.

  12. Technical and economic assessment of energy conversion technologies for MSW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermal processes for municipal solid wastes (MSW) based on pyrolysis and/or gasification that have relevance to the emerging UK market are described in this report, and the results of the technical and economical assessment of these processes are presented. The Mitsui R21 Technology, the Thermoselect Process, the Nippon Steel Waste Melting Process, the Pyropleq Process, and the Compact Power Process are selected for detailed comparison on the basis of the overall technical concept, the energy balance and the requirements for consumables, environmental performance, and the technical and commercial status of the technology. Details are also given of a comparison of the novel thermal technologies with conventional mass burn incineration for MSW

  13. Preliminary nuclear power reactor technology qualitative assessment for Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the worlds first nuclear reactor major breakthrough in December 02, 1942, the nuclear power industry has undergone tremendous development and evolution for more than half a century. After surpassing moratorium of nuclear power plant construction caused by catastrophic accidents at Three-mile island (1979) and Chernobyl (1986), today, nuclear energy is back on the policy agendas of many countries, both developed and developing, signaling nuclear revival or nuclear renaissance. Selection of suitable nuclear power technology has thus been subjected to primary attention. This short paper attempts to draw preliminary technology assessment for the first nuclear power reactor technology for Malaysia. Methodology employed is qualitative analysis collating recent finding of tnb-kepco preliminary feasibility study for nuclear power program in peninsular malaysia and other published presentations and/or papers by multiple experts. The results suggested that pressurized water reactor (PWR) is the prevailing technology in terms of numbers and plant performances, and while the commercialization of generation IV reactors is remote (e.g. Not until 2030), generation III/ III+ NPP models are commercially available on the market today. Five (5) major steps involved in reactor technology selection were introduced with a focus on introducing important aspects of selection criteria. Three (3) categories for the of reactor technology selection were used for the cursory evaluation. The outcome of these analyses shall lead to deeper and full analyses of the recommended reactor technologies for a comprehensive feasibility study in the near future. Recommendations for reactor technology option were also provided for both strategic and technical recommendations. The paper shall also implore the best way to select systematically the first civilian nuclear power reactor. (Author)

  14. SR 97 - Alternative models project. Discrete fracture network modelling for performance assessment of Aberg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dershowitz, B.; Eiben, T. [Golder Associates Inc., Seattle (United States); Follin, S.; Andersson, Johan [Golder Grundteknik KB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1999-08-01

    As part of studies into the siting of a deep repository for nuclear waste, Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) has commissioned the Alternative Models Project (AMP). The AMP is a comparison of three alternative modeling approaches for geosphere performance assessment for a single hypothetical site. The hypothetical site, arbitrarily named Aberg is based on parameters from the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory in southern Sweden. The Aberg model domain, boundary conditions and canister locations are defined as a common reference case to facilitate comparisons between approaches. This report presents the results of a discrete fracture pathways analysis of the Aberg site, within the context of the SR 97 performance assessment exercise. The Aberg discrete fracture network (DFN) site model is based on consensus Aberg parameters related to the Aespoe HRL site. Discrete fracture pathways are identified from canister locations in a prototype repository design to the surface of the island or to the sea bottom. The discrete fracture pathways analysis presented in this report is used to provide the following parameters for SKB's performance assessment transport codes FARF31 and COMP23: * F-factor: Flow wetted surface normalized with regards to flow rate (yields an appreciation of the contact area available for diffusion and sorption processes) [TL{sup -1}]. * Travel Time: Advective transport time from a canister location to the environmental discharge [T]. * Canister Flux: Darcy flux (flow rate per unit area) past a representative canister location [LT{sup -1}]. In addition to the above, the discrete fracture pathways analysis in this report also provides information about: additional pathway parameters such as pathway length, pathway width, transport aperture, reactive surface area and transmissivity, percentage of canister locations with pathways to the surface discharge, spatial pattern of pathways and pathway discharges, visualization of pathways, and

  15. Using Writing Portfolios as an Alternative Assessment Method in the Greek Primary School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angeliki Panou

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to present and analyze the use of writing portfolios as an alternative method of assessing the writing skill in a group of young learners who attend the 6th grade of a Greek State Primary School. In order for this research to be carried out successfully and to provide enlightening results, a systematic and purposeful collection and observation of these learners’ writing samples was conducted over a period of 4 months and further data was basically collected by means of questionnaires before, during and after the completion of the study. There are two major parts in this paper: the theoretical and the practical one. In the first one the following issues are considered: contrasts between traditional testing and alternative assessment and reasons for the selection of the latter as more preferable concerning the positive and very promising outcomes it provides to learners; current portfolio pedagogy and the benefits deriving in relation to the most profound theories underpinning young learners’ cognitive and linguistic development; and the process-writing approach in combination with the use of writing portfolios. The second part presents the actual implementation of the research, analyzing the whole process of the portfolio stages followed from the very beginning of the ‘journey’ to the end. Τhe outcomes and results of this research are discussed and evaluated, whether positive or even negative, and the implications of the present classroom-based study are outlined. Finally, the study concludes with suggestions for further research in order for possible revisions and/or improvements to the specific assessment method to be looked into in future.

  16. Zero-emission vehicle technology assessment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woods, T.

    1995-08-01

    This is the final report in the Zero-Emission Vehicle (ZEV) Technology Assessment, performed for NYSERDA by Booz-Allen & Hamilton Inc. Booz-Allen wrote the final report, and performed the following tasks as part of the assessment: assembled a database of key ZEV organizations, their products or services, and plans; described the current state of ZEV technologies; identified barriers to widespread ZEV deployment and projected future ZEV technical capabilities; and estimated the cost of ZEVs from 1998 to 2004. Data for the ZEV Technology Assessment were obtained from several sources, including the following: existing ZEV industry publications and Booz-Allen files; major automotive original equipment manufacturers; independent electric vehicle manufacturers; battery developers and manufacturers; infrastructure and component developers and manufacturers; the U.S. Department of Energy, the California Air Resources Board, and other concerned government agencies; trade associations such as the Electric Power Research Institute and the Electric Transportation Coalition; and public and private consortia. These sources were contacted by phone, mail, or in person. Some site visits of manufacturers also were conducted. Where possible, raw data were analyzed by Booz-Allen staff and/or verified by independent sources. Performance data from standardized test cycles were used as much as possible.

  17. National Wind Technology Center sitewide, Golden, CO: Environmental assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), the nation`s primary solar and renewable energy research laboratory, proposes to expand its wind technology research and development program activities at its National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) near Golden, Colorado. NWTC is an existing wind energy research facility operated by NREL for the US Department of Energy (DOE). Proposed activities include the construction and reuse of buildings and facilities, installation of up to 20 wind turbine test sites, improvements in infrastructure, and subsequent research activities, technology testing, and site operations. In addition to wind turbine test activities, NWTC may be used to support other NREL program activities and small-scale demonstration projects. This document assesses potential consequences to resources within the physical, biological, and human environment, including potential impacts to: air quality, geology and soils, water resources, biological resources, cultural and historic resources, socioeconomic resources, land use, visual resources, noise environment, hazardous materials and waste management, and health and safety conditions. Comment letters were received from several agencies in response to the scoping and predecisional draft reviews. The comments have been incorporated as appropriate into the document with full text of the letters contained in the Appendices. Additionally, information from the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site on going sitewide assessment of potential environmental impacts has been reviewed and discussed by representatives of both parties and incorporated into the document as appropriate.

  18. National Wind Technology Center sitewide, Golden, CO: Environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), the nation's primary solar and renewable energy research laboratory, proposes to expand its wind technology research and development program activities at its National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) near Golden, Colorado. NWTC is an existing wind energy research facility operated by NREL for the US Department of Energy (DOE). Proposed activities include the construction and reuse of buildings and facilities, installation of up to 20 wind turbine test sites, improvements in infrastructure, and subsequent research activities, technology testing, and site operations. In addition to wind turbine test activities, NWTC may be used to support other NREL program activities and small-scale demonstration projects. This document assesses potential consequences to resources within the physical, biological, and human environment, including potential impacts to: air quality, geology and soils, water resources, biological resources, cultural and historic resources, socioeconomic resources, land use, visual resources, noise environment, hazardous materials and waste management, and health and safety conditions. Comment letters were received from several agencies in response to the scoping and predecisional draft reviews. The comments have been incorporated as appropriate into the document with full text of the letters contained in the Appendices. Additionally, information from the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site on going sitewide assessment of potential environmental impacts has been reviewed and discussed by representatives of both parties and incorporated into the document as appropriate

  19. Assessment of Alternative Conceptual Models Using Reactive Transport Modeling with Monitoring Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Z.; Price, V.; Heffner, D.; Hodges, R.; Temples, T.; Nicholson, T.

    2005-12-01

    geochemical data, with detailed monitoring plume data. It provided key insights for confirming alternative conceptual site models and assessing the performance of monitoring networks. A monitoring strategy based on this graded approach for assessing alternative conceptual models can provide the technical bases for identifying critical monitoring locations, adequate monitoring frequency, and performance indicator parameters for performance monitoring involving ground-water levels and PCE concentrations.

  20. Teaching and Technology Transfer as Alternative Revenue Streams: A Primer on the Potential Legal Implications for UK Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hoorebeek, Mark; Marson, James

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to assess the financial and intellectual issues facing the university sector as many institutions in the UK pursue alternative revenue streams. As a consequence to the increasing financial pressures, university departments are increasingly exposed to new forms of potential litigation and also face the risk to…

  1. Joint Test Report for Validation of Alternative Low-Emission Surface Preparation/Depainting Technologies for Structural Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Pattie

    2007-01-01

    Headquarters National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) chartered the NASA Acquisition Pollution Prevention (AP2) Office to coordinate agency activities affecting pollution prevention issues identified during system and component acquisition and sustainment processes. The primary objectives of the AP2 Office are to: (1) Reduce or eliminate the use of hazardous materials or hazardous processes at manufacturing, remanufacturing, and sustainment locations. (2) Avoid duplication of effort in actions required to reduce or eliminate hazardous materials through joint center cooperation and technology sharing. The objective of this project was to qualify candidate alternative Low-Emission Surface Preparation/Depainting Technologies for Structural Steel applications at NASA facilities. This project compares the surface preparation/depainting performance of the proposed alternatives to existing surface preparation/depainting systems or standards. This Joint Test Report (JTR) contains the results of testing as per the outlines of the Joint Test Protocol (JTP), Joint Test Protocol for Validation of Alternative Low-Emission Surface Preparation/Depainting Technologies for Structural Steel, and the Field Test Plan (FTP), Field Evaluations Test Plan for Validation of Alternative Low-Emission Surface Preparation/Depainting Technologies for Structural Steel, for critical requirements and tests necessary to qualify alternatives for coating removal systems. These tests were derived from engineering, performance, and operational impact (supportability) requirements defined by a consensus of government and industry participants. This JTR documents the results of the testing as well as any test modifications made during the execution of the project. This JTR is made available as a reference for future pollution prevention endeavors by other NASA Centers, the Department of Defense and commercial users to minimize duplication of effort. The current coating removal processes

  2. Technology assessment of various coal-fuel options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technology assessment (TA) study of coal-based fuels presented in this report was performed for the Federal Ministry for Research and Technology. Its goal was to support decision-making of the Federal Ministry for Research and Technology in the field of coal conversion. Various technical options of coal liquefaction have been analyzed on the basis of hard coal as well as lignite -- direct liquefaction of coal (hydrogenation) and different possibilities of indirect liquefaction, that is the production of fuels (methanol, gasoline) by processing products of coal gasification. The TA study takes into consideration the entire technology chain from coal mining via coal conversion to the utilization of coal-based fuels in road transport. The analysis focuses on costs of the various options, overall economic effects, which include effects on employment and public budgets, and on environmental consequences compared to the use of liquid fuels derived from oil. Furthermore, requirements of infrastructure and other problems of the introduction of coal-based fuels as well as prospects for the export of technologies of direct and indirect coal liquefaction have been analyzed in the study. 14 figs., 10 tabs

  3. Battery technology assessment and R and D plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Gary L.

    To guide future EV battery R and D programs, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) commissioned a comprehensive assessment of secondary battery technologies. A total of 67 battery developers -- from the United States, Canada, Europe, Asia, and Africa -- were solicited to submit battery design concepts for an Improved Dual-Shaft Electric Propulsion (IDSEP) van. A team of 10 consultants and 7 representatives from DOE laboratories evaluated 42 developer responses and consultant-prepared designs. Using six criteria -- five technical/economic criteria and a maturity/technical barriers criterion -- the assessment identified 12 most-promising batteries. Employing a generic EV-battery development-process framework, the assessment results were used to formulate multi-year R and D plans and schedules for the most-promising developmental batteries.

  4. Connected Classroom Technology Facilitates Multiple Components of Formative Assessment Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirley, Melissa L.; Irving, Karen E.

    2015-02-01

    Formative assessment has been demonstrated to result in increased student achievement across a variety of educational contexts. When using formative assessment strategies, teachers engage students in instructional tasks that allow the teacher to uncover levels of student understanding so that the teacher may change instruction accordingly. Tools that support the implementation of formative assessment strategies are therefore likely to enhance student achievement. Connected classroom technologies (CCTs) include a family of devices that show promise in facilitating formative assessment. By promoting the use of interactive student tasks and providing both teachers and students with rapid and accurate data on student learning, CCT can provide teachers with necessary evidence for making instructional decisions about subsequent lessons. In this study, the experiences of four middle and high school science teachers in their first year of implementing the TI-Navigator™ system, a specific type of CCT, are used to characterize the ways in which CCT supports the goals of effective formative assessment. We present excerpts of participant interviews to demonstrate the alignment of CCT with several main phases of the formative assessment process. CCT was found to support implementation of a variety of instructional tasks that generate evidence of student learning for the teacher. The rapid aggregation and display of student learning evidence provided teachers with robust data on which to base subsequent instructional decisions.

  5. Alternative alkali resistant deNO{sub x} technologies. Appendix 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Putluru, S.S.R.; Degn Jensen, A.

    2011-07-01

    The increased use of biomass as fuel has created some new challenges to establish SCR flue gas treatment technology. One of these challenges comes from biomass complex chemical composition, which includes potassium shown to have a negative impact on the SCR catalyst. Studies have shown that potassium deactivates SCR catalyst and reduces its ability to reduce NO to N{sub 2}. An attempt was made to protect the SCR catalyst from alkali poisoning by the imposition of a coating on the catalyst surface. Various compounds were coated on a commercial catalyst supplied by Haldor Topsoee A/S and tested for alkali poisoning resistance. These materials were broadly divided as metal oxides, zeolites and other materials. The coated catalysts were exposed to potassium chloride aerosols at 350 deg. C for 650-1200 h. SCR activity, SEM and EDX measurements were performed to analyze the coated catalysts resistance to potassium poisoning. Coated catalysts (Mg, Mg containing compounds and Zeolites) showed appreciable alkali resistivity compared to the uncoated reference catalyst. Coated catalysts showed high potassium concentration at the surface of the coating and low potassium concentration across the cross section when compared to the uncoated reference catalyst. Thus, it is assumed that the coating layer accumulates the potassium at the surface and prevents to penetrate through the catalyst. The overall assessment is that it is possible to protect an SCR catalyst from potassium poisoning by the imposition of coating layer. (Author)

  6. Environmental assessment of waste incineration and alternatives; Miljoevurdering af affaldsforbraending og alternativer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, J.; Fruergaard, T.; Riber, C.; Astrup, T.; Hoejlund Christensen, T.

    2008-06-15

    Life cycle environmental assessment of waste combustion and alternatives were made using the LCA model EASEWASTE. Possible environmental effects for nine effect categories and the resource consumption of fossil fuels through treating 1 ton combustible waste were defined for several waste systems, including waste-only incineration, co-combustion in a fossil-fueled cogeneration plant, and combined biogas and compost production from household waste. The main conclusions of the analyses are: 1) with an optimum location, i.e. in the vicinity to a coal-fueled cogeneration plant, waste-only incineration, co-combustion , and combined biogas and compost production are all equal environmentally viable alternatives . 2) Regarding potential toxic impacts in the area of a coal-fueled cogeneration plant, waste-only incineration and combined biogas and compost production will result in slightly less net emissions compared to co-combustion because of better flue gas cleaning of heavy metals in incinerators than in power plants. 3) Siting the incinerator in a decentralized natural gas cogeneration area, co-combustion in a cogeneration plant is a better solution. 4) Combined biogas and compost production and waste-only combustion are environmentally equal treatments in all power plant areas. (ln)

  7. Comparative health and safety assessment of alternative future electrical-generation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report is an analysis of health and safety risks of seven alternative electrical generation systems, all of which have potential for commercial availability in the post-2000 timeframe. The systems are compared on the basis of expected public and occupational deaths and lost workdays per year associated with 1000 MWe average unit generation. Risks and their uncertainties are estimated for all phases of the energy production cycle, including fuel and raw material extraction and processing, direct and indirect component manufacture, on-site construction, and system operation and maintenance. Also discussed is the potential significance of related major health and safety issues that remain largely unquantifiable. The technologies include: the SPS; a low-Btu coal gasification system with an open-cycle gas turbine combined with a steam topping cycle (CG/CC); a light water fission reactor system without fuel reprocessing (LWR); a liquid metal fast breeder fission reactor system (LMFBR); a central station terrestrial photovoltaic system (CTPV); and a first generation fusion system with magnetic confinement. For comparison with the baseload technologies, risk from a decentralized roof-top photovoltaic system with 6 kWe peak capacity and battery storage (DTPV) was also evaluated

  8. Fast pyrolysis char - Assessment of alternative uses within the bioliq® concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funke, A; Niebel, A; Richter, D; Abbas, M M; Müller, A-K; Radloff, S; Paneru, M; Maier, J; Dahmen, N; Sauer, J

    2016-01-01

    Experiments with a process development unit for fast pyrolysis of biomass residues of 10kgh(-1) have been performed to quantify the impact of two different product recovery options. Wheat straw, miscanthus and scrap wood have been used as feedstock. A separate recovery of char increases the organic oil yield as compared to a combined recovery of char and organic condensate (OC). Furthermore, it allows for an alternative use of the byproduct char which represents an important product fraction for the high ash biomass residues under consideration. The char produced shows little advantage over its biomass precursor when considered as energy carrier due to its high ash content. Significant value can be added by demineralizing and activating the char. The potential to increase the economic feasibility of fast pyrolysis is shown by an assessment of the bioliq® process chain. PMID:26609947

  9. Alternative conceptual models and codes for unsaturated flow in fractured tuff: Preliminary assessments for GWTT-95

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groundwater travel time (GWTT) calculations will play an important role in addressing site-suitability criteria for the potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain,Nevada. In support of these calculations, Preliminary assessments of the candidate codes and models are presented in this report. A series of benchmark studies have been designed to address important aspects of modeling flow through fractured media representative of flow at Yucca Mountain. Three codes (DUAL, FEHMN, and TOUGH 2) are compared in these benchmark studies. DUAL is a single-phase, isothermal, two-dimensional flow simulator based on the dual mixed finite element method. FEHMN is a nonisothermal, multiphase, multidimensional simulator based primarily on the finite element method. TOUGH2 is anon isothermal, multiphase, multidimensional simulator based on the integral finite difference method. Alternative conceptual models of fracture flow consisting of the equivalent continuum model (ECM) and the dual permeability (DK) model are used in the different codes

  10. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT FOR THE NPDES STORM WATER COMPLIANCE ALTERNATIVES AT THE SRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shedrow, C

    2006-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) prepared this environmental assessment (EA) to evaluate the potential environmental impacts associated with proposed and alternative actions to achieve water quality permit compliance at 38 storm water outfalls located at the Savannah River Site (SRS) (Figure 1-1). Effluent monitoring data indicates that some of these outfalls may not presently comply with new National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Storm Water General Permit effluent standards that became effective July 1, 2005 (SCR000000). The NPDES permit requires that best management practices (BMPs) be implemented and maintained, as necessary, to ensure that storm water discharges at SRS do not cause or contribute to the contravention of applicable state water quality standards (WQS).

  11. Surrogate measures: A proposed alternative in human factors assessment of operational measures of performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Robert S.; Lane, Norman E.; Kuntz, Lois A.

    1987-01-01

    Surrogate measures are proposed as an alternative to direct assessment of operational performance for purposes of screening agents who may have to work under unusual stresses or in exotic environments. Such measures are particularly proposed when the surrogate can be empirically validated against the operational criterion. The focus is on cognitive (or throughput) performances in humans as opposed to sensory (input) or motor (output) measures, but the methods should be applicable for development of batteries which will tap input/output functions. A menu of performance tasks is under development for implementation on a battery-operated portable microcomputer, with 21 tests currently available. The tasks are reliable and become stable in minimum amounts of time; appear sensitive to some agents; comprise constructs related to actual job tasks; and are easily administered in most environments. Implications for human factors engineering studies in environmental stress are discussed.

  12. Assessment of Energy Storage Alternatives in the Puget Sound Energy System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balducci, Patrick J.; Jin, Chunlian; Wu, Di; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Leslie, Patrick; Daitch, Charles

    2013-12-12

    As part of an ongoing study co-funded by the Bonneville Power Administration, under its Technology Innovation Grant Program, and the U.S. Department of Energy, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has developed an approach and modeling tool for assessing the net benefits of using energy storage located close to the customer in the distribution grid to manage demand. PNNL in collaboration with PSE and Primus Power has evaluated the net benefits of placing a zinc bromide battery system at two locations in the PSE system (Baker River / Rockport and Bainbridge Island). Energy storage can provide a number of benefits to the utility through the increased flexibility it provides to the grid system. Applications evaluated in the assessment include capacity value, balancing services, arbitrage, distribution deferral and outage mitigation. This report outlines the methodology developed for this study and Phase I results.

  13. SEAISI 1999 Philippines seminar on technologies for alternative ironmaking and scrap/substitutes utilization processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    Papers discussed current compact ironmaking technologies (including BL process, MIDREX, FINMET process, DIOS process, HIsmelt and Fastmet/Fastmelt), handling and management of scrap and scrap substitutes, advances in modern steelmaking, and advanced technology in electric arc furnace.

  14. Novel, low-cost alternative technologies to tackle practical, industrial conundrums – a case study of batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Victor K. Y.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Whereas batteries in comparison with most other means of energy storage are more environmentally friendly and economical in their operation, they are beset by low energy replenishment rates, low energy storage density, high capital cost of themselves, and high capital cost of energy replenishment infrastructures. Mainly based on ergonomics, this paper proposes a novel, low-cost alternative technology to practically and industrially make these weaknesses irrelevant to some extent without calling for revolutionary technological breakthroughs in material science, batteries’ microstructures, or battery manufacturing technologies. The technology takes advantage of modularization of battery systems, prioritization of charging and discharging of battery module(s according to ease of unloading and/or loading the battery module(s and/or ease of loading replacement battery module(s of the battery module(s.

  15. Development and Implementation of Health Technology Assessment: A Policy Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Abooee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To provide an overview of the development of health technology assessment (HTA in Iran since 2007, and to facilitate further development of HTA and its integration into policy making.Methods: Data of this study were collected through key documents (e.g. literature, laws, and other official documentation and analyzed by experts of opinion in form of qualitative methods.Results: Health technology assessment entered to the political agenda in Iran only in 2007 with a strong impetus of an evidence-based medicine movement with the bellow objectives: Institutionalization of evidence-based decision making in Ministry of Health, Creating an localization for structural HTA in Health system of Iran, Setting up training courses in order to educate capable manpower to full up the capacity of the universities, Establishment of a new field in HTA subject in medical universities for MSc and PhD degree, International communication about HTA through national website and possible participation in international Congress.Conclusion: HTA has been established in the healthcare system of Iran but what is needed is a clear political will to push forward the objectives of HTA in Iran. Similar to other countries, advance the regulation on the adoption of new health technologies to improve not only technical or allocate efficiency, but also health equity.

  16. Expanding Health Technology Assessments to Include Effects on the Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Kevin; Ganz, Michael L; Hsu, John; Strandberg-Larsen, Martin; Gonzalez, Raquel Palomino; Lund, Niels

    2016-01-01

    There is growing awareness of the impact of human activity on the climate and the need to stem this impact. Public health care decision makers from Sweden and the United Kingdom have started examining environmental impacts when assessing new technologies. This article considers the case for incorporating environmental impacts into the health technology assessment (HTA) process and discusses the associated challenges. Two arguments favor incorporating environmental impacts into HTA: 1) environmental changes could directly affect people's health and 2) policy decision makers have broad mandates and objectives extending beyond health care. Two types of challenges hinder this process. First, the nascent evidence base is insufficient to support the accurate comparison of technologies' environmental impacts. Second, cost-utility analysis, which is favored by many HTA agencies, could capture some of the value of environmental impacts, especially those generating health impacts, but might not be suitable for addressing broader concerns. Both cost-benefit and multicriteria decision analyses are potential methods for evaluating health and environmental outcomes, but are less familiar to health care decision makers. Health care is an important and sizable sector of the economy that could warrant closer policy attention to its impact on the environment. Considerable work is needed to track decision makers' demands, augment the environmental evidence base, and develop robust methods for capturing and incorporating environmental data as part of HTA. PMID:27021760

  17. Cost comparison of the satellite power system and six alternative technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolsko, T.; Samsa, M.

    1981-04-01

    A framework is described for comparing the Satellite Power System (SPS) with various projected alternative energy sources on the basis of technical possibility, economic viability, and social and environmental acceptability. Each of the following energy sources is briefly described: conventional coal, light water reactor, coal gasification/combined cycle, liquid-metal fast-breeder reactor, central station terrestrial photovoltaic, fusion, and the SPS. The analysis consists of comparison of characterizations, side-by-side analysis, and alternative futures analysis. (LEW)

  18. Semen quality assessments and their significance in reproductive technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordan, W; Fraser, L; Wysocki, P; Strzezek, R; Lecewicz, M; Mogielnicka-Brzozowska, M; Dziekońska, A; Soliwoda, D; Koziorowska-Gilun, M

    2013-01-01

    Semen quality assessment methods are very important in predicting the fertilizing ability of persevered spermatozoa and to improve animal reproductive technology. This review discusses some of the current laboratory methods used for semen quality assessments, with references to their relevance in the evaluation of male fertility and semen preservation technologies. Semen quality assessment methods include sperm motility evaluations, analyzed with the computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA) system, and plasma membrane integrity evaluations using fluorescent stains, such as Hoechst 33258 (H33258), SYBR-14, propidium iodide (PI), ethidium homodimer (EthD) and 6-carboxyfluorescein diacetate (CFDA), and biochemical tests, such as the measurement of malondialdehyde (MDA) level. This review addresses the significance of specific fluorochromes and ATP measurements for the evaluation of the sperm mitochondrial status. Laboratory methods used for the evaluation of chromatin status, DNA integrity, and apoptotic changes in spermatozoa have been discussed. Special emphasis has been focused on the application of proteomic techniques, such as two-dimensional (2-D) gel electrophoresis and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), for the identification of the properties and functions of seminal plasma proteins in order to define their role in the fertilization-related processes. PMID:24597323

  19. Natural And Technological Risk Assessment And Mapping In Russian Federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burova, Valentina; Frolova, Nina; Ugarov, Aleksander; Pyrchenko, Vera

    2014-05-01

    Natural and technological disasters are serious threat for residents and infrastructures in urban areas of the Russian Federation and many other countries. Disasters' risk assessment and mapping is the first step to minimize the negative consequences of such events. The paper analyzes different approaches for risk assessment: mathematical simulation and empirical one based on statistic data of past events' consequences. Special attention is paid to verification of vulnerability functions of elements at risk against natural disasters. Numerical modeling of the impact of landslides on the building with various design elements and foundation with CAD systems PLAXIS 3D application was used to identify additional loads on buildings. The results of simulation were taken into account when assessing risk for the Russian Federation territory. The examples of natural and technological risk maps for some regions of the country are given. Verified vulnerability functions of buildings on pier foundation in tabular forms against landslides are presented, as well as verified vulnerability functions for different buildings type against floods.

  20. Novel, low-cost alternative technologies to tackle practical, industrial conundrums – a case study of batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Chan Victor K. Y.; Leong Sok Lei

    2016-01-01

    Whereas batteries in comparison with most other means of energy storage are more environmentally friendly and economical in their operation, they are beset by low energy replenishment rates, low energy storage density, high capital cost of themselves, and high capital cost of energy replenishment infrastructures. Mainly based on ergonomics, this paper proposes a novel, low-cost alternative technology to practically and industrially make these weaknesses irrelevant to some extent without calli...

  1. A/M Area Groundwater Corrective Action Southern Sector Remediation Technology Alternatives Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several technologies for clean up of solvents such as trichloroethylene, from groundwater were examined to determine the most reasonable strategy for the southern Sector in A/M Area of Savannah River Site. The most promising options identified were: pump and treat technology, airlift recirculation technology, and bioremediation technology. These options range from baseline/traditional methods to more innovative technologies. The traditional methods would be straightforward to implement, while the innovative methods have the potential to improve efficiency and reduce long term costs

  2. Thinking Tools in Computer-Based Assessment: Technology Enhancements in Assessments for Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Yigal

    2014-01-01

    One of the greatest concerns in schools today is how teachers can bring together assessment and learning in a way that is meaningful for students' thinking skills, while focusing on content standards. Better understanding of how different types of technology based thinking tools can be used for improving classroom teaching and learning,…

  3. Reflections on the social epidemiologic dimension of health technology assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazanjian, Arminée

    2004-01-01

    Certain key parameters such as safety, efficacy, effectiveness, and cost effectiveness have long been established as key in HTA analysis. Equally important, however, are sociolegal and epidemiologic perspectives. A comprehensive analytic framework will consider the implications of using a technology in the context of societal norms, cultural values, and social institutions and relations. The methodology in which this expanded framework has been developed is termed 'Strategic HTA' to denote its power for the decision-making process. In addition to systematic reviews of published evidence, it incorporates analyses of the influence of dominant social relations on technological development and diffusion. This essay discusses the social epidemiologic aspects of health technology assessment, which includes factors such as sex and gender. It seeks to show how it is possible to bring data from wide-ranging disciplinary perspectives within the parameters of a single scientific inquiry; to draw from them scientifically defensible conclusions; and thereby to realize a deeper understanding of technology impact within a health care system. Armed with such an understanding, policy officials will be better prepared to resolve the competitive clamor of stakeholder voices, and to make the most "equitable" use of the available resources. PMID:15209176

  4. Assessment of pollution prevention and control technology for plating operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmer, Paul D.; Sonntag, William A.; Cushnie, George C., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    The National Center for Manufacturing Sciences (NCMS) is sponsoring an on-going project to assess pollution prevention and control technology available to the plating industry and to make this information available to those who can benefit from it. Completed project activities include extensive surveys of the plating industry and vendors of technologies and an indepth literature review. The plating industry survey was performed in cooperation with the National Association of Metal Finishers. The contractor that conducted the surveys and prepared the project products was CAI Engineering. The initial products of the project were made available in April, 1994. These products include an extensive report that presents the results of the surveys and literature review and an electronic database. The project results are useful for all those associated with pollution prevention and control in the plating industry. The results show which treatment, recovery and bath maintenance technologies have been most successful for different plating processes and the costs for purchasing and operating these technologies. The project results also cover trends in chemical substitution, the identification of compliance-problem pollutants, sludge generation rates, off-site sludge recovery and disposal options, and many other pertinent topics.

  5. Health technology assessment: the contribution of qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leys, Mark

    2003-01-01

    The pragmatism in health care has made health technology assessment (HTA) restrict its scope to a particular set of problems, c.q. methods. The "multidisciplinary and comprehensive nature" of HTA, as the concept is presented in certain definitions, is lacking. Health care is also dominated by a positivistic-rationalistic approach of evaluation. In contrast, social studies of evaluations learn that a major difference has to be made between scientific research on (potential) impact of a technology and valuing these effects. In this contribution, we will discuss how the positivistic scientific bias of current HTA practice can be made up with other research traditions. More specifically, we focus on the question of how social scientists and particularly how qualitative research can contribute to HTA, complementary to positivistic studies of evidence and efficacy. PMID:12862189

  6. Finding Qualitative Research Evidence for Health Technology Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJean, Deirdre; Giacomini, Mita; Simeonov, Dorina; Smith, Andrea

    2016-08-01

    Health technology assessment (HTA) agencies increasingly use reviews of qualitative research as evidence for evaluating social, experiential, and ethical aspects of health technologies. We systematically searched three bibliographic databases (MEDLINE, CINAHL, and Social Science Citation Index [SSCI]) using published search filters or "hedges" and our hybrid filter to identify qualitative research studies pertaining to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and early breast cancer. The search filters were compared in terms of sensitivity, specificity, and precision. Our screening by title and abstract revealed that qualitative research constituted only slightly more than 1% of all published research on each health topic. The performance of the published search filters varied greatly across topics and databases. Compared with existing search filters, our hybrid filter demonstrated a consistently high sensitivity across databases and topics, and minimized the resource-intensive process of sifting through false positives. We identify opportunities for qualitative health researchers to improve the uptake of qualitative research into evidence-informed policy making. PMID:27117960

  7. A Framework for Assessment of Aviation Safety Technology Portfolios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sharon M.; Reveley, Mary S.

    2014-01-01

    The programs within NASA's Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD) conduct research and development to improve the national air transportation system so that Americans can travel as safely as possible. NASA aviation safety systems analysis personnel support various levels of ARMD management in their fulfillment of system analysis and technology prioritization as defined in the agency's program and project requirements. This paper provides a framework for the assessment of aviation safety research and technology portfolios that includes metrics such as projected impact on current and future safety, technical development risk and implementation risk. The paper also contains methods for presenting portfolio analysis and aviation safety Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) output results to management using bubble charts and quantitative decision analysis techniques.

  8. Levelised unit electricity cost comparison of alternate technologies for baseload generation in Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    rate of return required for projects is subject to some uncertainty. For a merchant project the higher the perceived risk the higher the required return. Publicly financed projects may be evaluated on the basis of a given discount rate or may be able to access funds at lower rates, but the risk of cost overruns is implicitly borne by the taxpayer. There is a third possibility, a public/private partnership. A number of partnership arrangements are possible, for example, public financing of construction and leasing to private owners for operation. All partnership arrangements represent a sharing of risk between the public and private sector. Public/private partnership may provide an attractive model for building new generation in Ontario. This report considers each of the generation options under both merchant and public financing. The base case merchant financing scenario is consistent with one where risk is relatively low, and consequently the real return on equity required by private investors is 12%. We believe a comparison between merchant and public financing to be important in that it shows the effect of taxes and financing assumptions on the economics of a generation project. Since the pure economic assessment of projects does not normally consider financing or tax costs, these being transfer payments not essential to the project itself, the public financing version of our assessments can be interpreted as the underlying economics of different technologies. This report does not include a detailed modelling of financing arrangements that could occur under a public/private partnership. However, we do consider how the cost of generation options compares under a wide range of illustrative assumptions on the required return on equity, debt and the debt/equity ratio. (author)

  9. Making Use of the New Student Assessment Standards To Enhance Technological Literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Jill

    2003-01-01

    Describes the student assessment standards outlined in "Advancing Excellence in Technological Literacy: Student Assessment, Professional Development, and Program Standards," a companion to the "Standards for Technological Literacy." Discusses how the standards apply to everyday teaching practices. (JOW)

  10. Savannah River Site Tank 48H Waste Treatment Project Technology Readiness Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) primary missions at Savannah River Site (SRS) is to retrieve and treat the high level waste (HLW) remaining in SRS tanks and close the F and H tank farms. At present, a significant impediment to timely completion of this mission is the presence of significant organic chemical contamination in Tank 48H. Tank 48H is a 1.3 million gallon tank with full secondary containment, located and interconnected within the SRS tank system. However, the tank has been isolated from the system and unavailable for use since 1983, because its contents - approximately 250,000 gallons of salt solution containing Cs-137 and other radioisotopes - are contaminated with nearly 22,000 Kg of tetraphenylborate, a material which can release benzene vapor to the tank head space in potentially flammable concentrations. An important element of the DOE SRS mission is to remove, process, and dispose of the contents of Tank 48H, both to eliminate the hazard it presents to the SRS H-Tank Farm and to return Tank 48H to service. Tank 48H must be returned to service to support operation of the Salt Waste Processing Facility, to free up HLW tank space, and to allow orderly tank closures per Federal Facility Agreement commitments. The Washington Savannah River Company (WSRC), the SRS prime contractor, has evaluated alternatives and selected two processes, Wet Air Oxidation (WAO) and Fluidized Steam Bed Reforming (FBSR) as candidates for Tank 48H processing. Over the past year, WSRC has been testing and evaluating these two processes, and DOE is nearing a final technology selection in late 2007. In parallel with WSRC's ongoing work, DOE convened a team of independent qualified experts to conduct a Technology Readiness Assessment (TRA). The purpose of the TRA was to determine the maturity level of the Tank 48H treatment technology candidates - WAO and FBSR. The methodology used for this TRA is based on detailed guidance for conducting TRAs contained in the Department

  11. Examination of Submental Space as an Alternative Method of Airway Assessment (Submental Sign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javid Mihan J

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Difficult airway especially failed intubation has been associated with a high incidence of mortality and morbidity. Most of mortalities occur when an anaesthesiologist encounters an unanticipated difficult airway. Findings In 1999, a 23 yr. old, 65 kg weight and 170 cm height female patient had been scheduled for arthroscopy. Despite totally normal airway assessment (thyromental distance, mouth opening, jaw and neck movement ... I was astonished by encountering a grade IV Cormack - Lehane laryngoscopic view. Tracheal intubation was impossible and ventilation was very difficult. On attempt to attain a better laryngoscopic view, while manipulating submandibular region I encountered a bulky noncompliant submental space (Submental Sign. This event made me more alert regarding this finding. Thereafter I noted for this sign throughout the past years and I found it very helpful. These findings encouraged me to write this report, and suggest a routine examination of submental space in order to keep the safety of the patient at the heart of the care we provide. Conclusion Evaluation of the submental space is suggested as an alternative predictor of difficult airway and routine examination of the submental space is of value in airway assessment.

  12. Oklahoma State University proposed Advanced Technology Research Center. Environmental Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) evaluating the construction and equipping of the proposed Advanced Technology Research Center (ATRC) at Oklahoma State University (OSU) in Stillwater, Oklahoma. Based on the analysis in the EA, the DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement is not required.

  13. Technology assessment and the Food and Drug Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, A. H.; Becker, R. H.

    1972-01-01

    The statutory standards underlying the activities of the FDA, and the problems the Agency faces in decision making are discussed from a legal point of view. The premarketing clearance of new drugs and of food additives, the two most publicized and criticized areas of FDA activity, are used as illustrations. The importance of statutory standards in technology assessment in a regulatory setting is developed. The difficulties inherent in the formulation of meaningful standards are recognized. For foods, the words of the statute are inadequate, and for drugs, a statutory recognition of the various other objectives would be useful to the regulator and the regulated.

  14. Health Technology Assessment of Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Shanxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yueze Liu; Jianwen Cao; Zuxun Lu

    2004-01-01

    Assess the current status of MRI in Shanxi province by health technology assessment method to provide suggestion and guidelines for future government decisions on the procurement and installation of new high-tech medical equipments. All of the 21 hospitals installed MRIs were surveyed.The results showed that 1 ) Diffusion of MRI is consistent with the economic development in different regional districts and hospital levels in Shanxi province. 2) There are better monetary returns of MRI in higher level hospitals than lower level hospitals. 3) Most MRIs in Shanxi province had been running at a loss, and the first class tertiary level hospitals had been making profit from providing MRI services to patients. 4) Better cost-benefit accorded with higher hospital level, more patients serviced etc. 5 ) The biggest investment risk is the initial purchase and installation of MRI. 6) Positive rates and veracity of MRI diagnosis were higher. 7) MRI is a safe equipment.

  15. Radiation safety assessment and development of environmental radiation monitoring technology

    CERN Document Server

    Choi, B H; Kim, S G

    2002-01-01

    The Periodic Safety Review(PSR) of the existing nuclear power plants is required every ten years according to the recently revised atomic energy acts. The PSR of Kori unit 1 and Wolsong unit 1 that have been operating more than ten years is ongoing to comply the regulations. This research project started to develop the techniques necessary for the PSR. The project developed the following four techniques at the first stage for the environmental assessment of the existing plants. 1) Establishment of the assessment technology for contamination and accumulation trends of radionuclides, 2) alarm point setting of environmental radiation monitoring system, 3) Development of Radiation Safety Evaluation Factor for Korean NPP, and 4) the evaluation of radiation monitoring system performance and set-up of alarm/warn set point. A dynamic compartment model to derive a relationship between the release rates of gas phase radionuclides and the concentrations in the environmental samples. The model was validated by comparing ...

  16. Simulation Technology Laboratory Building 970 hazards assessment document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, C.L.; Starr, M.D.

    1994-11-01

    The Department of Energy Order 5500.3A requires facility-specific hazards assessments be prepared, maintained, and used for emergency planning purposes. This hazards assessment document describes the chemical and radiological hazards associated with the Simulation Technology Laboratory, Building 970. The entire inventory was screened according to the potential airborne impact to onsite and offsite individuals. The air dispersion model, ALOHA, estimated pollutant concentrations downwind from the source of a release, taking into consideration the toxicological and physical characteristics of the release site, the atmospheric conditions, and the circumstances of the release. The greatest distances at which a postulated facility event will produce consequences exceeding the ERPG-2 and Early Severe Health Effects thresholds are 78 and 46 meters, respectively. The highest emergency classification is a Site Area Emergency. The Emergency Planning Zone is 100 meters.

  17. Simulation Technology Laboratory Building 970 hazards assessment document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy Order 5500.3A requires facility-specific hazards assessments be prepared, maintained, and used for emergency planning purposes. This hazards assessment document describes the chemical and radiological hazards associated with the Simulation Technology Laboratory, Building 970. The entire inventory was screened according to the potential airborne impact to onsite and offsite individuals. The air dispersion model, ALOHA, estimated pollutant concentrations downwind from the source of a release, taking into consideration the toxicological and physical characteristics of the release site, the atmospheric conditions, and the circumstances of the release. The greatest distances at which a postulated facility event will produce consequences exceeding the ERPG-2 and Early Severe Health Effects thresholds are 78 and 46 meters, respectively. The highest emergency classification is a Site Area Emergency. The Emergency Planning Zone is 100 meters

  18. A multi-stakeholder perspective on the use of alternative test strategies for nanomaterial safety assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nel, Andre E; Nasser, Elina; Godwin, Hilary; Avery, David; Bahadori, Tina; Bergeson, Lynn; Beryt, Elizabeth; Bonner, James C; Boverhof, Darrell; Carter, Janet; Castranova, Vince; Deshazo, J R; Hussain, Saber M; Kane, Agnes B; Klaessig, Frederick; Kuempel, Eileen; Lafranconi, Mark; Landsiedel, Robert; Malloy, Timothy; Miller, Mary Beth; Morris, Jeffery; Moss, Kenneth; Oberdorster, Gunter; Pinkerton, Kent; Pleus, Richard C; Shatkin, Jo Anne; Thomas, Russell; Tolaymat, Thabet; Wang, Amy; Wong, Jeffrey

    2013-08-27

    There has been a conceptual shift in toxicological studies from describing what happens to explaining how the adverse outcome occurs, thereby enabling a deeper and improved understanding of how biomolecular and mechanistic profiling can inform hazard identification and improve risk assessment. Compared to traditional toxicology methods, which have a heavy reliance on animals, new approaches to generate toxicological data are becoming available for the safety assessment of chemicals, including high-throughput and high-content screening (HTS, HCS). With the emergence of nanotechnology, the exponential increase in the total number of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in research, development, and commercialization requires a robust scientific approach to screen ENM safety in humans and the environment rapidly and efficiently. Spurred by the developments in chemical testing, a promising new toxicological paradigm for ENMs is to use alternative test strategies (ATS), which reduce reliance on animal testing through the use of in vitro and in silico methods such as HTS, HCS, and computational modeling. Furthermore, this allows for the comparative analysis of large numbers of ENMs simultaneously and for hazard assessment at various stages of the product development process and overall life cycle. Using carbon nanotubes as a case study, a workshop bringing together national and international leaders from government, industry, and academia was convened at the University of California, Los Angeles, to discuss the utility of ATS for decision-making analyses of ENMs. After lively discussions, a short list of generally shared viewpoints on this topic was generated, including a general view that ATS approaches for ENMs can significantly benefit chemical safety analysis. PMID:23924032

  19. Alternative Green Technology for Power Generation Using Waste-Heat Energy And Advanced Thermoelectric Materials Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA is interested in advancing green technology research for achieving sustainable and environmentally friendly energy sources for both terrestrial and space...

  20. Alternative Green Technology for Power Generation Using Waste-Heat Energy And Advanced Thermoelectric Materials Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA is interested in advancing green technology research for achieving sustainable and environmentally friendly energy sources. Thermo-electric power generation...