WorldWideScience

Sample records for alternative route designations

  1. State alternative route designations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-07-01

    Pursuant to the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act (HMTA), the Department of Transportation (DOT) has promulgated a comprehensive set of regulations regarding the highway transportation of high-level radioactive materials. These regulations, under HM-164 and HM-164A, establish interstate highways as the preferred routes for the transportation of radioactive materials within and through the states. The regulations also provide a methodology by which a state may select alternative routes. First,the state must establish a ``state routing agency,`` defined as an entity authorized to use the state legal process to impose routing requirements on carriers of radioactive material (49 CFR 171.8). Once identified, the state routing agency must select routes in accordance with Large Quantity Shipments of Radioactive Materials or an equivalent routing analysis. Adjoining states and localities should be consulted on the impact of proposed alternative routes as a prerequisite of final route selection. Lastly, the states must provide written notice of DOT of any alternative route designation before the routes are deemed effective.

  2. State alternative route designations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-07-01

    Pursuant to the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act (HMTA), the Department of Transportation (DOT) has promulgated a comprehensive set of regulations regarding the highway transportation of high-level radioactive materials. These regulations, under HM-164 and HM-164A, establish interstate highways as the preferred routes for the transportation of radioactive materials within and through the states. The regulations also provide a methodology by which a state may select alternative routes. First,the state must establish a state routing agency,'' defined as an entity authorized to use the state legal process to impose routing requirements on carriers of radioactive material (49 CFR 171.8). Once identified, the state routing agency must select routes in accordance with Large Quantity Shipments of Radioactive Materials or an equivalent routing analysis. Adjoining states and localities should be consulted on the impact of proposed alternative routes as a prerequisite of final route selection. Lastly, the states must provide written notice of DOT of any alternative route designation before the routes are deemed effective.

  3. Alternative iron making routes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaushik, P.; Sharma, T. [Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad (India)

    2002-07-01

    The versatile route of iron production 'blast furnace' technique is being replaced by widely accepted Corex technology, Midrex process using Fastmelt ironmaking, eco-friendly Romelt process, more innovative Ausmelt & Hismelt technology, TATA KORF Mini blast furnace improvement, 'quickest iron through Orbiting Plasma', Direct iron ore smelting process, Conred, AISI-Hyl, Inred processes, Direct iron ore reduction methods, their comparison and proposed modifications. 18 refs., 11 figs., 14 tabs.

  4. Alternative routes of insulin delivery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ranjith K. Krishnankutty; Aju Mathew; Saikiran K. Sedimbi; Shrikumar Suryanarayan; Carani B. Sanjeevi

    2009-01-01

    Parenteral route of insulin administration has been the mode of treatment for all Type 1 diabetics and Type 2 diabetics with complications. Patient compliance has really been a major concern for this route of administration. Several alternative routes of administration are under consideration for effective glycemic control, including oral, inhaled, buccal, nasal, and patch routes. One of the approaches involving inhaled insulin has now reached the market. Several other candidates may reach the market in the near future, the promising one being oral insulin.

  5. Dynamic cellular manufacturing system design considering alternative routing and part operation tradeoff using simulated annealing based genetic algorithm

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    KAMAL DEEP; PARDEEP K SINGH

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, an integrated mathematical model of multi-period cell formation and part operation tradeoff in a dynamic cellular manufacturing system is proposed in consideration with multiple part process route. This paper puts emphasize on the production flexibility (production/subcontracting part operation) to satisfy the product demand requirement in different period segments of planning horizon considering production capacity shortage and/or sudden machine breakdown. The proposed model simultaneously generates machine cells and part families and selects the optimum process route instead of the user specifying predetermined routes. Conventional optimization method for the optimal cell formation problem requires substantial amount of time and memory space. Hence a simulated annealing based genetic algorithm is proposed to explore the solution regions efficiently and to expedite the solution search space. To evaluate the computability of the proposed algorithm, different problem scenarios are adopted from literature. The results approve the effectiveness of theproposed approach in designing the manufacturing cell and minimization of the overall cost, considering various manufacturing aspects such as production volume, multiple process route, production capacity, machine duplication, system reconfiguration, material handling and subcontracting part operation.

  6. Alternative routes to olefins. Chances and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meiswinkel, A.; Delhomme, C.; Ponceau, M. [Linde AG, Pullach (Germany)

    2013-11-01

    In the future, conventional raw materials which are used for the production of olefins will get shorter and more expensive and alternative raw materials and production routes will gain importance. Natural gas, coal, shale oil or bio-mass are potential sources for the production of olefins, especially ethylene and propylene, as major base chemicals. Several potential production routes were already developed in the past, but cost, energy and environmental considerations might make these unattractive or unfeasible in comparison to traditional processes (e.g. steam cracking). Other processes such as methanol to olefins processes were successfully developed and first commercial units are running. In addition, combination of traditional processes (e.g. coal/biomass gasification, Fischer-Tropsch and steam cracking) might enable new pathways. Besides, dehydration of ethanol is opening direct routes from biomass to 'green' ethylene. However, for these 'bio-routes', feedstock availability and potential land use conflict with food production (sugar cane, wheat,..) still need to be evaluated. finally, new oxidative routes, including processes such as oxidative coupling of methane or oxidative dehydrogenation, are still at an early development stage but present potential for future industrial applications. (orig.) (Published in summary form only)

  7. Two Alternative Routes to MS2 Nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanqing LIU; Changsheng LI; Jinghai YANG; Zhong HUA; Junmao LI; Kehong YAN; Shuhuo ZHAO

    2007-01-01

    Inorganic tubular nanostructure MS2 (M=Mo, W, Nb, Ta) were synthesized by two alternative routes. Thermal decomposition method was used for producing fullerence-like MS2 (M=Mo, W) nanotubes on Al2O3 template using ammonium sulfur respectively; NbS2, and TaS2 nanotubes were obtained successfully by reducing corresponding metal trisulfide in a stream of H2 (mixed with N2 in some cases) at elevated temperatures.Detailed experimental procedure, and the characterization of associated results, were evaluated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The result reveals that products are composed of high density of MS2 tubular nanostructures with the diameter of 100 nm and length of tens of micrometers. And no mistake, these 1-D (one-dimensional) tubular nanomaterials added quantities and varieties in the growing family of nanotubes of inorganic layered materials.

  8. Alternate Routing in Tandem Traffic-Groomed Optical Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Nicki Washington

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in telecommunication networks have allowed WDM to emerge as a viable solution to the ever-increasing demands of the Internet. Because these networks carry large amounts of traffic, alternate routing methods are designed in order to allow traffic to be properly re-routed from source to destination in the event of certain events, such as link blocking or failure. In this paper, we consider a tandem traffic-groomed optical network, modeled as a multi-level overflow system, where each level represents a wavelength between adjacent nodes. The queueing network is analyzed using a combination of methods. As will be shown, the decomposition method provides a good approximate analysis of large overflow systems supporting traffic from multiple sources.

  9. An Alternative Route to Pentavalent Postperovskite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, Wilson A; Yusenko, Kirill V; Riva, Sephira; Mazzali, Francesco; Margadonna, Serena

    2016-06-20

    Two different high-pressure and -temperature synthetic routes have been used to produce only the second-known pentavalent CaIrO3-type oxide. Postperovskite NaOsO3 has been prepared from GdFeO3-type perovskite NaOsO3 at 16 GPa and 1135 K. Furthermore, it has also been synthesized at the considerably lower pressure of 6 GPa and 1100 K from a precursor of hexavalent Na2OsO4 and nominally pentavalent KSbO3-like phases. The latter synthetic pathway offers a new lower-pressure route to the postperovskite form, one that completely foregoes any perovskite precursor or intermediate. This work suggests that postperovskite can be obtained in other compounds and chemistries where generalized rules based on the perovskite structure may not apply or where no perovskite is known. One more obvious consequence of our second route is that perovskite formation may even mask and hinder other less extreme chemical pathways to postperovskite phases. PMID:27267734

  10. Seal design alternatives study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results from a study of various sealing alternatives for the WIPP sealing system. Overall, the sealing system has the purpose of reducing to the extent possible the potential for fluids (either gas or liquid) from entering or leaving the repository. The sealing system is divided into three subsystems: drift and panel seals within the repository horizon, shaft seals in each of the four shafts, and borehole seals. Alternatives to the baseline configuration for the WIPP seal system design included evaluating different geometries and schedules for seal component installations and the use of different materials for seal components. Order-of-magnitude costs for the various alternatives were prepared as part of the study. Firm recommendations are not presented, but the advantages and disadvantages of the alternatives are discussed. Technical information deficiencies are identified and studies are outlined which can provide required information

  11. Seal design alternatives study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Sambeek, L.L. [RE/SPEC Inc., Rapid City, SD (US); Luo, D.D.; Lin, M.S.; Ostrowski, W.; Oyenuga, D. [Parsons Brinckerhoff Quade & Douglas, Inc., San Francisco, CA (US)

    1993-06-01

    This report presents the results from a study of various sealing alternatives for the WIPP sealing system. Overall, the sealing system has the purpose of reducing to the extent possible the potential for fluids (either gas or liquid) from entering or leaving the repository. The sealing system is divided into three subsystems: drift and panel seals within the repository horizon, shaft seals in each of the four shafts, and borehole seals. Alternatives to the baseline configuration for the WIPP seal system design included evaluating different geometries and schedules for seal component installations and the use of different materials for seal components. Order-of-magnitude costs for the various alternatives were prepared as part of the study. Firm recommendations are not presented, but the advantages and disadvantages of the alternatives are discussed. Technical information deficiencies are identified and studies are outlined which can provide required information.

  12. Alternative kynurenic acid synthesis routes studied in the rat cerebellum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonali eBlanco Ayala

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Kynurenic acid (KYNA, an astrocyte-derived, endogenous antagonist of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine and excitatory amino acid receptors, regulates glutamatergic, GABAergic, cholinergic and dopaminergic neurotransmission in several regions of the rodent brain. Synthesis of KYNA in the brain and elsewhere is generally attributed to the enzymatic conversion of L-kynurenine (L-KYN by kynurenine aminotransferases (KATs. However, alternative routes, including KYNA formation from D-kynurenine (D-KYN by D-amino acid oxidase (DAAO and the direct transformation of kynurenine to KYNA by reactive oxygen species (ROS, have been demonstrated in the rat brain. Using the rat cerebellum, a region of low KAT activity and high DAAO activity, the present experiments were designed to examine KYNA production from L-KYN or D-KYN by KAT and DAAO, respectively, and to investigate the effect of ROS on KYNA synthesis. In chemical combinatorial systems, both L-KYN and D-KYN interacted directly with peroxynitrite (ONOO- and hydroxyl radicals (OH•, resulting in the formation of KYNA. In tissue homogenates, the non-specific KAT inhibitor aminooxyacetic acid (AOAA; 1 mM reduced KYNA production from L-KYN and D-KYN by 85.1 ± 1.7% and 27.1 ± 4.5%, respectively. Addition of DAAO inhibitors (benzoic acid, kojic acid or 3-methylpyrazole-5-carboxylic acid; 5 µM each attenuated KYNA formation from L-KYN and D-KYN by ~35% and ~66%, respectively. ONOO- (25 µM potentiated KYNA production from both L-KYN and D-KYN, and these effects were reduced by DAAO inhibition. AOAA attenuated KYNA production from L-KYN + ONOO- but not from D-KYN + ONOO-. In vivo, extracellular KYNA levels increased rapidly after perfusion of ONOO- and, more prominently, after subsequent perfusion with L-KYN or D-KYN (100 µM. Taken together, these results suggest that different mechanisms are involved in KYNA production in the rat cerebellum, and that, specifically, DAAO and ROS can function as alternative routes

  13. ROUTE PLAN DESIGNER FOR TRACTOR GUIDANCE SYSTEMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sveistrup, Daniel; Jørgensen, Rasmus Nyholm; Green, Ole;

    2010-01-01

    Earlier works have shown field trial designs to be very labor extensive, even when combining autoguidancesystems with conventional machinery.Designing routes for semi-automated systems in a controlled manner is both resource demandingand complicated. Different types of auto-guidance systems vary...... was outlined, it took less thanone hour entering the design into the software and generating the auto-guidance files.KeywordsGIS, Auto steering systems, plot trial design, full-scale field trials, Java...

  14. Metabolic profiling of alternative NAD biosynthetic routes in mouse tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerio Mori

    Full Text Available NAD plays essential redox and non-redox roles in cell biology. In mammals, its de novo and recycling biosynthetic pathways encompass two independent branches, the "amidated" and "deamidated" routes. Here we focused on the indispensable enzymes gating these two routes, i.e. nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase (NMNAT, which in mammals comprises three distinct isozymes, and NAD synthetase (NADS. First, we measured the in vitro activity of the enzymes, and the levels of all their substrates and products in a number of tissues from the C57BL/6 mouse. Second, from these data, we derived in vivo estimates of enzymes'rates and quantitative contributions to NAD homeostasis. The NMNAT activity, mainly represented by nuclear NMNAT1, appears to be high and nonrate-limiting in all examined tissues, except in blood. The NADS activity, however, appears rate-limiting in lung and skeletal muscle, where its undetectable levels parallel a relative accumulation of the enzyme's substrate NaAD (nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide. In all tissues, the amidated NAD route was predominant, displaying highest rates in liver and kidney, and lowest in blood. In contrast, the minor deamidated route showed higher relative proportions in blood and small intestine, and higher absolute values in liver and small intestine. Such results provide the first comprehensive picture of the balance of the two alternative NAD biosynthetic routes in different mammalian tissues under physiological conditions. This fills a gap in the current knowledge of NAD biosynthesis, and provides a crucial information for the study of NAD metabolism and its role in disease.

  15. Real-time routing control design for traffic networks with multi-route choices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗莉华; 葛颖恩; 陈继红; 张方伟

    2016-01-01

    This work considers those road networks in which there are multi-route choices for bifurcation-destination (or origin-destination) pairs, and designs a real-time variable message sign (VMS)-based routing control strategy in the model predictive control (MPC) framework. The VMS route recommendation provided by the traffic management authority is directly considered as the control variable, and the routing control model is established, in which a multi-dimensional control vector is introduced to describe the influence of route recommendations on flow distribution. In the MPC framework, a system optimum routing strategy with the constraints regarding drivers’ acceptability with recommended routes is designed, which can not only meet the traffic management authority’s control requirement but also improve drivers’ satisfaction with the route guidance system. The simulation carried out shows that the proposed routing control can effectively mitigate traffic congestion, reduces followers’ time delay, and improves drivers’ satisfaction with routing control in road networks.

  16. 49 CFR 397.103 - Requirements for State routing designations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... § 397.201(c), shall select routes to minimize radiological risk using “Guidelines for Selecting... equivalent routing analysis which adequately considers overall risk to the public. Designations must be... to ensure consideration of all impacts and continuity of designated routes. (b) State...

  17. Southern routes for high-level radioactive waste: Agencies, contacts, and designations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-05-01

    The Southern Routes for High-Level Radioactive Waste: Agencies, Contacts and Designations is a compendium of sixteen southern states` routing programs for the transportation of high-level radioactive materials. The report identifies the state-designated routing agencies as defined under 49 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 171 and provides a reference to the source and scope of the agencies` rulemaking authority. Additionally, the state agency and contact designated by the state`s governor to receive advance notification and shipment routing information under 10 CFR Parts 71 and 73 are also listed. This report also examines alternative route designations made by southern states and the lessons that were learned from the designation process.

  18. Southern routes for high-level radioactive waste: Agencies, contacts, and designations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-05-01

    The Southern Routes for High-Level Radioactive Waste: Agencies, Contacts and Designations is a compendium of sixteen southern states' routing programs for the transportation of high-level radioactive materials. The report identifies the state-designated routing agencies as defined under 49 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 171 and provides a reference to the source and scope of the agencies' rulemaking authority. Additionally, the state agency and contact designated by the state's governor to receive advance notification and shipment routing information under 10 CFR Parts 71 and 73 are also listed. This report also examines alternative route designations made by southern states and the lessons that were learned from the designation process.

  19. 76 FR 76640 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Gulf Intracoastal Waterway (Algiers Alternate Route), Belle...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-08

    ... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: In FR Vol. 76, No. 232, USCG 2011-0959, appearing on page 75507 in the issue of... Alternate Route), Belle Chasse, LA ACTION: Notice of Proposed Rulemaking; Correction. SUMMARY: In the..., Gulf Intracoastal Waterway (Algiers Alternate Route), Belle Chasse, LA. That publication contained...

  20. 76 FR 73998 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Gulf Intracoastal Waterway (Algiers Alternate Route), Belle...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-30

    ... Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public meeting. But you may... Alternate Route), Belle Chasse, LA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of temporary deviation from... Waterway (Algiers Alternate Route), mile 3.8, at Belle Chasse, Plaquemines Parish, Louisiana....

  1. 76 FR 75505 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Gulf Intracoastal Waterway (Algiers Alternate Route), Belle...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-02

    ... Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public meeting. But you may... Alternate Route), Belle Chasse, LA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY... the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway (Algiers Alternate Route), mile 3.8, at Belle Chasse,...

  2. Routing Protocol Design and Performance Optimization in Cognitive Radio Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenguo Wu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Routing protocol is an important issue in cognitive radio networks. This paper explored the issues and challenges of routing protocol in cognitive radio network from five aspects: hidden terminal, exposed terminal, deafness, cross-layer design, and topology. The existed protocols are classified by the metrics: the establishment of active routing, cross-layer routing, and network performance indicators. Focusing on analyzing performance of routing protocols and design optimized schemes in cognitive radio networks, the advantage and disadvantage of related work were discussed in detail.

  3. Tour Route Multiobjective Optimization Design Based on the Tourist Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Han

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The question prompted is how to design the tour route to make the tourists get the maximum satisfactions considering the tourists’ demand. The influence factors of the tour route choices of tourists were analyzed and tourists’ behavior characteristics and psychological preferences were regarded as the important influence factors based on the tourist behavioral theories. A questionnaire of tourists’ tour route information and satisfaction degree was carried out. Some information about the scene spot and tourists demand and tour behaviors characteristic such as visit frequency, number of attractions visited was obtained and analyzed. Based on the convey datum, tour routes multiobjective optimization functions were prompted for the tour route design regarding the maximum satisfaction and the minimum tour distance as the optimal objective. The available routes are listed and categorized. Based on the particle swarm optimization model, the priorities of the tour route are calculated and finally the suggestion depth tour route and quick route tour routes are given considering the different tour demands of tourists. The results can offer constructive suggestions on how to design tour routes on the part of tourism enterprises and how to choose a proper tour route on the part of tourists.

  4. Alternative Design of Boat Fenders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banke, Lars

    1996-01-01

    On offshore platforms the purpose of fenders is to protect the oil-risers against minor accidental collisions with supply vessels. Normally, the fender is designed by use of thin-walled tubes. However, the tube itself is not capable of resisting the impact load of the boat. Therefore, alternative...

  5. Taking an Alternative Route: A guide for fleet operators and individual owners using alternative fuels in cars and trucks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taking an Alternative Route is a 30-page guide for fleet managers and individual owners on using alternative fuels in cars and trucks. Discussed in detail are all fuels authorized for federal credits under the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct). The publication informs federal and state fleet managers about how to comply with EPAct, and provides information about the Clean Air Act Amendments

  6. An ornithological study of alternate gas pipeline routes in Alaska, Yukon Territory and the Northwest Territories

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The study was an attempt to describe and estimate the numbers of species and relative densities of birds along the two alternate pipeline routes, and to arrive at...

  7. Routing of individual polymers in designed patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Jakob Bach; Liu, Lei; Kodal, Anne Louise Bank;

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic polymers are ubiquitous in the modern world, but our ability to exert control over the molecular conformation of individual polymers is very limited. In particular, although the programmable self-assembly of oligonucleotides and proteins into artificial nanostructures has been...... demonstrated, we currently lack the tools to handle other types of synthetic polymers individually and thus the ability to utilize and study their single-molecule properties. Here we show that synthetic polymer wires containing short oligonucleotides that extend from each repeat can be made to assemble...... into arbitrary routings. The wires, which can be more than 200 nm in length, are soft and bendable, and the DNA strands allow individual polymers to self-assemble into predesigned routings on both two- and three-dimensional DNA origami templates. The polymers are conjugated and potentially conducting, and could...

  8. Alternative administration routes and delivery technologies for polio vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraan, Heleen; van der Stel, Wanda; Kersten, Gideon; Amorij, Jean-Pierre

    2016-08-01

    Global polio eradication is closer than ever. Replacement of the live attenuated oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) by inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) is recommended to achieve complete eradication. Limited global production capacity and relatively high IPV costs compared to OPV spur the need for improved polio vaccines. The target product profile of these vaccines includes not only dose sparing but also high stability, which is important for stockpiling, and easy application important for (emergency) vaccination campaigns. In this review, the current status of alternative polio vaccine delivery strategies is given. Furthermore, we discuss the feasibility of these strategies by highlighting challenges, hurdles to overcome, and formulation issues relevant for optimal vaccine delivery. PMID:26912100

  9. Alternative Fabrication Routes toward Oxide-Dispersion-Strengthened Steels and Model Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergner, Frank; Hilger, Isabell; Virta, Jouko; Lagerbom, Juha; Gerbeth, Gunter; Connolly, Sarah; Hong, Zuliang; Grant, Patrick S.; Weissgärber, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    The standard powder metallurgy (PM) route for the fabrication of oxide-dispersion-strengthened (ODS) steels involves gas atomization to produce a prealloyed powder, mechanical alloying (MA) with fine oxide powders, consolidation, and finally thermal/thermomechanical treatment (TMT). It is well established that ODS steels with superior property combinations, for example, creep and tensile strength, can be produced by this PM/MA route. However, the fabrication process is complex and expensive, and the fitness for scaling up to the industrial scale is limited. At the laboratory scale, production of small amounts of well-controlled model systems continues to be desirable for specific purposes, such as modeling-oriented experiments. Thus, from the laboratory to industrial application, there is growing interest in complementary or alternative fabrication routes for ODS steels and related model systems, which offer a different balance of cost, convenience, properties, and scalability. This article reviews the state of the art in ODS alloy fabrication and identifies promising new routes toward ODS steels. The PM/AM route for the fabrication of ODS steels is also described, as it is the current default process. Hybrid routes that comprise aspects of both the PM route and more radical liquid metal (LM) routes are suggested to be promising approaches for larger volumes and higher throughput of fabricated material. Although similar uniformity and refinement of the critical nanometer-sized oxide particles has not yet been demonstrated, ongoing innovations in the LM route are described, along with recent encouraging preliminary results for both extrinsic nano-oxide additions and intrinsic nano-oxide formation in variants of the LM route. Finally, physicochemical methods such as ion beam synthesis are shown to offer interesting perspectives for the fabrication of model systems. As well as literature sources, examples of progress in the authors' groups are also highlighted.

  10. Alternative Fabrication Routes toward Oxide-Dispersion-Strengthened Steels and Model Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergner, Frank; Hilger, Isabell; Virta, Jouko; Lagerbom, Juha; Gerbeth, Gunter; Connolly, Sarah; Hong, Zuliang; Grant, Patrick S.; Weissgärber, Thomas

    2016-11-01

    The standard powder metallurgy (PM) route for the fabrication of oxide-dispersion-strengthened (ODS) steels involves gas atomization to produce a prealloyed powder, mechanical alloying (MA) with fine oxide powders, consolidation, and finally thermal/thermomechanical treatment (TMT). It is well established that ODS steels with superior property combinations, for example, creep and tensile strength, can be produced by this PM/MA route. However, the fabrication process is complex and expensive, and the fitness for scaling up to the industrial scale is limited. At the laboratory scale, production of small amounts of well-controlled model systems continues to be desirable for specific purposes, such as modeling-oriented experiments. Thus, from the laboratory to industrial application, there is growing interest in complementary or alternative fabrication routes for ODS steels and related model systems, which offer a different balance of cost, convenience, properties, and scalability. This article reviews the state of the art in ODS alloy fabrication and identifies promising new routes toward ODS steels. The PM/AM route for the fabrication of ODS steels is also described, as it is the current default process. Hybrid routes that comprise aspects of both the PM route and more radical liquid metal (LM) routes are suggested to be promising approaches for larger volumes and higher throughput of fabricated material. Although similar uniformity and refinement of the critical nanometer-sized oxide particles has not yet been demonstrated, ongoing innovations in the LM route are described, along with recent encouraging preliminary results for both extrinsic nano-oxide additions and intrinsic nano-oxide formation in variants of the LM route. Finally, physicochemical methods such as ion beam synthesis are shown to offer interesting perspectives for the fabrication of model systems. As well as literature sources, examples of progress in the authors' groups are also highlighted.

  11. Environmental evaluation of route alternative system - technological approach of environmental viability project study; Sistema de avaliacao ambiental de alternativas de percursos - uma abordagem tecnologica para estudos de viabilidade ambiental de projetos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Wilson Jose de; Porciano, Patricia Pereira [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Alvarez, Beatriz Silva Villa; Casanova, Marco Antonio; Carvalho, Marcelo Tilio Monteiro de; Montenegro, Anselmo Antunes; Carvalho, Paulo Cezar Pinto [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Informatica. Grupo de Tecnologia em Computacao Grafica (TECGRAF)

    2003-07-01

    SAAAP - Routing Alternatives Environmental Evaluation System - was designed to select the best alternative pipeline route. The system takes into account economic, environmental and engineering factors, according to an optimality criterion that combines several variables, such as vegetation coverage, soil type and declivity. The system is operational and has been tested in several realistic projects. (author)

  12. A DRIVEN BACKUP ROUTING TABLE TO FIND ALTERNATIVE DISJOINT PATH IN AD HOC WIRELESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radwan S. Abujassar

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The performances of the routing protocols are important since they compute the primary path betweensource and destination. In addition, routing protocols need to detect failure within a short period oftime when nodes move to start updating the routing table in order to find a new primary path tothe destination. Meantime, loss of packets and end-to- end delays will increase thereby reducingthroughput and degrading the performance of the network. This paper proposes a new algorithm,DBRT (Driven Backup Routing Table, to improve the existing proactive protocols such as DSDV(Destination Sequenced Distance Vector protocol by creating a backup routing table to providemultiple alternative routes. The DBRT algorithm identifies adjacent nodes for each node in the samerange and then selects one of these as a backup next hop according to the available path to thedestination. The results show that loss of data packets, throughput and end-to-end delay times betweensource and destination are improved. The results show that the new protocol does not degrade thenetwork’s performance despite sending extra messages to construct and update the new backuprouting table. Simulations (using an NS2 simulator are undertaken to demonstrate the differencebetween using a DSDV protocol with or without the proposed schema.Index Terms; Network Protocols ;( DSDV Destination Sequenced Distance Vector ; DBRT (Driven BackupRouting Table;Wireless Network; Mobile Ad Hoc Network

  13. Comment on "Quantum waveguide array generator for performing Fourier transforms: Alternate route to quantum computing"

    OpenAIRE

    Lidar, Daniel A.

    2003-01-01

    A Comment on the paper "Quantum waveguide array generator for performing Fourier transforms: Alternate route to quantum computing" by R. Akis and D.K. Ferry, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2823 (2001). The authors reply in Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 2420 (2002).

  14. A Driven Backup Routing Table to Find Alternative Dijoint Path in Ad Hoc Wireless

    CERN Document Server

    abujassar, Radwan

    2011-01-01

    The performances of the routing protocols are important since they compute the primary path between source and destination. In addition, routing protocols need to detect failure within a short period of time when nodes move to start updating the routing table in order to find a new primary path to the destination. Meantime, loss of packets and end-to- end delays will increase thereby reducing throughput and degrading the performance of the network. This paper proposes a new algorithm, DBRT (Driven Backup Routing Table), to improve the existing proactive protocols such as DSDV (Destination Sequenced Distance Vector) protocol by creating a backup routing table to provide multiple alternative routes. The DBRT algorithm identifies adjacent nodes for each node in the same range and then selects one of these as a backup next hop according to the available path to the destination. The results show that loss of data packets, throughput and end-to-end delay times between source and destination are improved. The result...

  15. Mixed oxide conversion facility alternative conceptual designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allied-General Nuclear Services recently performed studies to evaluate alternative proliferation-resistant flowsheets of the uranium-based LWR fuel cycle. The alternatives evaluated consist of coprocessing schemes with either a gamma or a heat spike added. A literature search and evaluation were performed to select a process technology for mixed oxide coconversion. The COPRECAL process was chosen as the most suitable conversion process technology. Three alternative mixed oxide conversion facility design concepts were prepared based on the COPRECAL technology. These alternative concepts are compared to a pure plutonium conversion facility. Facility designs, relative proliferation resistance, and cost estimates are discussed

  16. Meeting Air Transportation Demand in 2025 by Using Larger Aircraft and Alternative Routing to Complement NextGen Operational Improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jeremy C.; Guerreiro, Nelson M.; Viken, Jeffrey K.; Dollyhigh, Samuel M.; Fenbert, James W.

    2010-01-01

    A study was performed that investigates the use of larger aircraft and alternative routing to complement the capacity benefits expected from the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) in 2025. National Airspace System (NAS) delays for the 2025 demand projected by the Transportation Systems Analysis Models (TSAM) were assessed using NASA s Airspace Concept Evaluation System (ACES). The shift in demand from commercial airline to automobile and from one airline route to another was investigated by adding the route delays determined from the ACES simulation to the travel times used in the TSAM and re-generating new flight scenarios. The ACES simulation results from this study determined that NextGen Operational Improvements alone do not provide sufficient airport capacity to meet the projected demand for passenger air travel in 2025 without significant system delays. Using larger aircraft with more seats on high-demand routes and introducing new direct routes, where demand warrants, significantly reduces delays, complementing NextGen improvements. Another significant finding of this study is that the adaptive behavior of passengers to avoid congested airline-routes is an important factor when projecting demand for transportation systems. Passengers will choose an alternative mode of transportation or alternative airline routes to avoid congested routes, thereby reducing delays to acceptable levels for the 2025 scenario; the penalty being that alternative routes and the option to drive increases overall trip time by 0.4% and may be less convenient than the first-choice route.

  17. Selection of alternative routings in real time: DMM and modified DMM rules

    OpenAIRE

    HASSAM, Ahmed; SARI, Zaki

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study is to test the effectiveness of the modified Dissimilarity Maximisation Method (modified DMM) for real-time Flexible Manufacturing Systems (FMSs) scheduling. The modified DMM is an improvement over the DMM. It is a plan selection method for an alternative process that was developed for routing selection in real-time FMS scheduling. A computer simulation model, which mimics a physical system, is used to evaluate the effect of DMM and modified DMM r...

  18. Modified Waste Emplacement Mode Design Alternative Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The alternative emplacement modes presented in this report provide potential conceptual design options to the VA design that enhance human access to the emplacement drift area during abnormal events. The alternative conceptual designs emplace waste packages in configurations that reduce the level of radiation exposure utilizing shield doors, shield plugs, and concrete slabs to allow for human access during off-normal events. The alternative emplacements modes rank slightly lower than the VA design when evaluated against the eight criteria (i.e., postclosure performance; preclosure performance; assurance of safety; engineering acceptance, construction, operations and maintenance; schedule; cost and environmental considerations) presented in Section 5. However, the alternative emplacement modes allow the waste packages to be more accessible for human access to perform infrequent and unplanned events. The alternative emplacement modes were evaluated by a team of experts in assessing the confidence level that would be presented by each one of the design emplacement mode concepts (See Appendix A). The experts ranked the alternative emplacement mode concepts on a scale from A to E (i.e., A represents a high level of confidence and E represents the lowest level of confidence). The criteria in which the alternative modes were evaluated include the following: postclosure performance; preclosure performance; assurance of safety; engineering acceptance; construction, operations and maintenance; schedule; and cost. The results of the evaluation concluded that the alternative emplacement modes have a moderate level of confidence when evaluated against the selected criteria. Overall, the average rankings for the alternative emplacement modes presented in this report score below the VA reference design when analyzed against the evaluation criteria. Some limited calculations for the postclosure performance criteria were generated to determine the TSPA for each alternative

  19. Modified waste emplacement mode design alternative report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The alternative emplacement modes presented in this report provide potential conceptual design options to the VA design that enhance human access to the emplacement drift area during abnormal events. The alternative conceptual designs emplace waste packages in configurations that reduce the level of radiation exposure utilizing shield doors, shield plugs, and concrete slabs to allow for human access during off-normal events. The alternative emplacements modes rank slightly lower than the VA design when evaluated against the eight criteria (i.e., postclosure performance; preclosure performance; assurance of safety; engineering acceptance, construction, operations and maintenance; schedule; cost and environmental considerations) presented in Section 5. However, the alternative emplacement modes allow the waste packages to be more accessible for human access to perform infrequent and unplanned events. The alternative emplacement modes were evaluated by a team of experts in assessing the confidence level that would be presented by each one of the design emplacement mode concepts (See Appendix A). The experts ranked the alternative emplacement mode concepts on a scale from A to E (i.e., A represents a high level of confidence and E represents the lowest level of confidence). The criteria in which the alternative modes were evaluated include the following: postclosure performance; preclosure performance; assurance of safety; engineering acceptance; construction, operations and maintenance; schedule; and cost. The results of the evaluation concluded that the alternative emplacement modes have a moderate level of confidence when evaluated against the selected criteria. Overall, the average rankings for the alternative emplacement modes presented in this report score below the VA reference design when analyzed against the evaluation criteria. Some limited calculations for the postclosure performance criteria were generated to determine the TSPA for each alternative

  20. An integrated approach to route selection in slurry pipeline design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betinol, Roy G.; Altmann, Nara [Brass Chile S.A., Santiago (Chile)

    2009-12-19

    The pressure to get engineering projects done and constructed as fast as possible in order to take advantage of the high prices in metals and petrochemicals has been driving companies to skip the conceptual phase and go straight into basic engineering with cost estimates in the level of 15% accuracy. By-passing early engineering and demanding higher cost estimating accuracy is a contradiction. In most cases, savings made on capital investment is much higher had money been spent in conceptual studies which allow for the optimal solution to be found. This paper reviews one of the key aspects in conceptual engineering of slurry pipeline designs: route selection. This activity is often overlooked, causing capital cost and operating difficulties to rise unnecessarily. This paper describes and gives example on how an integrated client/engineering company's approach to route selection can produce significant savings in pipeline construction and operating costs. (author)

  1. On-Chip Network Design Automation with Source Routing Switches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Liwei; SUN Yihe

    2007-01-01

    Network-on-chip (NoC) is a new design paradigm for system-on-chip intraconnections in the billion-transistor era. Application specific on-chip network design is essential for NoC success in this new era.This paper presents a class of source routing switch that can be used to efficiently form arbitrary network topologies and that can be optimized for various applications. Hardware description language versions of the networks can be generated automatically for simulations and for syntheses. A series of switches and networks has been configured with their performances including latency, delay, area, and power, and analyzed theoretically and experimentally. The results show that this NoC architecture provides a large design space for application specific on-chip network designs.

  2. Life Cycle Design - a Route to the Sustainable Industrial Culture?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Wenzel, Henrik; Alting, Leo

    1999-01-01

    In the attempt to reorient Society's development in a more sustainable direction attention is focused on the environmental impact of products and systems over their entire life cycle, but how can the environmental life cycle perspective be introduced into the design of new solutions and how much ...... is reviewed and the overall question of to what extent life cycle design is a route to the sustainable industrial culture is discussed.......In the attempt to reorient Society's development in a more sustainable direction attention is focused on the environmental impact of products and systems over their entire life cycle, but how can the environmental life cycle perspective be introduced into the design of new solutions and how much...... can be optained through life cycle design? The authors' experience with integration of environmental considerations in product development is presented, ranging from the detailed interactive approach to the EDIP-method through various simplified approaches. The potential for environmental improvements...

  3. Victim derogation and victim enhancement as alternate routes to system justification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Aaron C; Jost, John T; Young, Sean

    2005-03-01

    Abstract-Numerous studies have documented the potential for victim-blaming attributions to justify the status quo. Recent work suggests that complementary, victim-enhancing stereotypes may also increase support for existing social arrangements. We seek to reconcile these seemingly contradictory findings by proposing that victim derogation and victim enhancement are alternate routes to system justification, with the preferred route depending on the perception of a causal link between trait and outcome. Derogating "losers" (and lionizing "winners") on traits (e.g., intelligence) that are causally related to outcomes (e.g., wealth vs. poverty) serves to increase system justification, as does compensating "losers" (and downgrading "winners") on traits (e.g., physical attractiveness) that are causally unrelated to those outcomes. We provide converging evidence using system-threat and stereotype-activation paradigms. PMID:15733206

  4. Victim derogation and victim enhancement as alternate routes to system justification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Aaron C; Jost, John T; Young, Sean

    2005-03-01

    Abstract-Numerous studies have documented the potential for victim-blaming attributions to justify the status quo. Recent work suggests that complementary, victim-enhancing stereotypes may also increase support for existing social arrangements. We seek to reconcile these seemingly contradictory findings by proposing that victim derogation and victim enhancement are alternate routes to system justification, with the preferred route depending on the perception of a causal link between trait and outcome. Derogating "losers" (and lionizing "winners") on traits (e.g., intelligence) that are causally related to outcomes (e.g., wealth vs. poverty) serves to increase system justification, as does compensating "losers" (and downgrading "winners") on traits (e.g., physical attractiveness) that are causally unrelated to those outcomes. We provide converging evidence using system-threat and stereotype-activation paradigms.

  5. 14 CFR 71.15 - Designation of jet routes and VOR Federal airways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Designation of jet routes and VOR Federal... ROUTES; AND REPORTING POINTS § 71.15 Designation of jet routes and VOR Federal airways. Unless otherwise... subpart A of FAA Order 7400.9T, and as VOR Federal airways in subpart E of FAA Order 7400.9T, are...

  6. Alternative Design of Postgraduate English Writing Course

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芬

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an alternative design of postgraduate English writing course to meet the requirement of the current postgraduate English teaching reform.The author believes that efficiently-organized writing activities based on practical needs could refresh teaching frame- work and consequently assist postgraduates in English writing.

  7. Human growth hormone: new delivery systems, alternative routes of administration, and their pharmacological relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cázares-Delgadillo, J; Ganem-Rondero, A; Kalia, Y N

    2011-06-01

    The availability of recombinant human growth hormone (GH) has broadened its range of clinical applications. Approved indications for GH therapy include treatment of growth hormone deficiency (in children and in adults), Turner syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome, chronic renal insufficiency and more recently, idiopathic short stature in children, AIDS-related wasting and fat accumulation associated with lipodystrophy in adults. Therapy with GH usually begins at a low dose and is gradually titrated to obtain optimal efficacy while minimizing side effects. It is usually administered on a daily basis by subcutaneous injection, since this was considered to impact upon patient compliance, extended-release GH preparations were developed and new delivery platforms - e.g., auto-injectors and needle-free devices - were introduced in order to improve not only compliance and convenience but also dosing accuracy. In addition, alternative less invasive modes of administration such as the nasal, pulmonary and transdermal routes have also been investigated. Here, we provide an overview of the different technologies and routes of GH administration and discuss the principles, limitations and pharmacological profiles for each approach. PMID:21296662

  8. DESIGN OF ENERGY EFFICIENT ROUTING ALGORITHM FOR WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK (WSN) USING PASCAL GRAPH

    OpenAIRE

    Deepali Panwar; Subhrendu Guha Neogi

    2013-01-01

    Development of energy efficient Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) routing protocol is nowadays main area of interest amongst researchers. This research is an effort in designing energy efficient Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) routing protocol under certain parameters consideration. Research report discusses various existing WSN routing protocols and propose a new WSN energy efficient routing protocol. Results show a significant improvement in life cycle of the nodes and enhancement ...

  9. Optimization methods for alternative energy system design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, Michael Henry

    An electric vehicle heating system and a solar thermal coffee dryer are presented as case studies in alternative energy system design optimization. Design optimization tools are compared using these case studies, including linear programming, integer programming, and fuzzy integer programming. Although most decision variables in the designs of alternative energy systems are generally discrete (e.g., numbers of photovoltaic modules, thermal panels, layers of glazing in windows), the literature shows that the optimization methods used historically for design utilize continuous decision variables. Integer programming, used to find the optimal investment in conservation measures as a function of life cycle cost of an electric vehicle heating system, is compared to linear programming, demonstrating the importance of accounting for the discrete nature of design variables. The electric vehicle study shows that conservation methods similar to those used in building design, that reduce the overall UA of a 22 ft. electric shuttle bus from 488 to 202 (Btu/hr-F), can eliminate the need for fossil fuel heating systems when operating in the northeast United States. Fuzzy integer programming is presented as a means of accounting for imprecise design constraints such as being environmentally friendly in the optimization process. The solar thermal coffee dryer study focuses on a deep-bed design using unglazed thermal collectors (UTC). Experimental data from parchment coffee drying are gathered, including drying constants and equilibrium moisture. In this case, fuzzy linear programming is presented as a means of optimizing experimental procedures to produce the most information under imprecise constraints. Graphical optimization is used to show that for every 1 m2 deep-bed dryer, of 0.4 m depth, a UTC array consisting of 5, 1.1 m 2 panels, and a photovoltaic array consisting of 1, 0.25 m 2 panels produces the most dry coffee per dollar invested in the system. In general this study

  10. Gossip Based Routing Protocol Design for Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toqeer Mahmood

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A spontaneously mannered decentralized network with no formal infrastructure and limited in temporal and spatial extent where each node communicate with each other over a wireless channel and is willing to forward data for other nodes is called as Wireless Ad Hoc network. In this research study, we proposed a routing strategy based on gossip based routing approach that follows the proactive routing with some treatment for wireless Ad Hoc network. The analytical verification of our proposed idea shows that it is a better approach based on gossip routing.

  11. Design Method Based on Routing Tree for Topology Update in Ad Hoc Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Zheng-xi; ZHANG Hong; WANG Xiao-ling

    2006-01-01

    A design method based on the tree-model structure for topology update is presented. The routing tree of every node in network is built by defining the data structure and is used to save the topology information of neighbor nodes. The node topology update is accomplished by exchanging their routing trees. For saving the precious wireless bandwidth, the routing tree is sparsely shaped before sending by pruning the redundant routing information. Then, the node topology update is implemented by using algorithms of inserting and deleting routing sub-trees.

  12. Minimizing the Carbon Footprint for the Time-Dependent Heterogeneous-Fleet Vehicle Routing Problem with Alternative Paths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-Yu Liu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Torespondto the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and global warming, this paper investigates the minimal-carbon-footprint time-dependent heterogeneous-fleet vehicle routing problem with alternative paths (MTHVRPP. This finds a route with the smallestcarbon footprint, instead of the shortestroute distance, which is the conventional approach, to serve a number of customers with a heterogeneous fleet of vehicles in cases wherethere may not be only one path between each pair of customers, and the vehicle speed differs at different times of the day. Inheriting from the NP-hardness of the vehicle routing problem, the MTHVRPP is also NP-hard. This paper further proposes a genetic algorithm (GA to solve this problem. The solution representedbyour GA determines the customer serving ordering of each vehicle type. Then, the capacity check is used to classify multiple routes of each vehicle type, and the path selection determines the detailed paths of each route. Additionally, this paper improves the energy consumption model used for calculating the carbon footprint amount more precisely. Compared with the results without alternative paths, our experimental results show that the alternative path in this experimenthas a significant impact on the experimental results in terms of carbon footprint.

  13. 36 CFR 1004.10 - Travel on Presidio Trust roads and designated routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... roads and designated routes. 1004.10 Section 1004.10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST VEHICLES AND TRAFFIC SAFETY § 1004.10 Travel on Presidio Trust roads and designated routes. (a) Operating a motor vehicle is prohibited except on Presidio Trust roads and in parking areas. (b) The following...

  14. Design of Vehicle Routing by Integrating Optimization and Simulated Annealing Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chwen-Tzeng; Su; Chikong; Hwang

    2002-01-01

    The vehicle routing problem (VRP) can be described as the problem of designing the optimal delivery or collection routes from one or several depots to a number of geographically scattered customers, subject to load constraints. The routing decision involves determining which of the demand s will be satisfied by each vehicle and what route each vehicle will follow in s erving its assigned demand in order to minimize total delivery cost. In this pap er, a methodology for the design of VRP by integrating...

  15. Alternative route for the preparation of CoSb3 and Mg2Si derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An alternative manufacturing route has been developed for cobalt triantimonide and magnesium disilicide derivatives. Elemental powders were mixed in stoichiometric proportions, cold pressed into cylindrical preforms and heated in oxygen-free environment to initiate the exothermic reaction. According to DTA/TG measurements and observations under high-temperature microscope, the onset of reaction occurred at a temperature not exceeding the melting point of the more volatile component, i.e. antimony in the case of CoSb3 and magnesium in the case of Mg2Si. The reaction products were additionally heat treated to secure homogenization. Dense sinters were obtained by hot uniaxial pressing of the obtained powders in moderate temperature-and-pressure conditions. Several advantages were identified in the proposed technology: absence of liquid phases, relatively short time of the synthesis, possibility of in-situ or ex-situ doping and grain size control. - Graphical abstract: (1) Manufacturing flow sheet for CoSb3 (milling included) and Mg2Si (no milling). (2) Micrographs of CoSb3 product. (3) Micrographs of Mg2Si product. Highlights: ► The combustion synthesis followed by HP was used for the manufacturing of CoSb3 or Mg2Si. ► The time of reaction is shorter compared with many other synthesis methods. ► The process is scalable and practically wasteless.

  16. The Alternative Route to Heme in the Methanogenic Archaeon Methanosarcina barkeri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Kühner

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In living organisms heme is formed from the common precursor uroporphyrinogen III by either one of two substantially different pathways. In contrast to eukaryotes and most bacteria which employ the so-called “classical” heme biosynthesis pathway, the archaea use an alternative route. In this pathway, heme is formed from uroporphyrinogen III via the intermediates precorrin-2, sirohydrochlorin, siroheme, 12,18-didecarboxysiroheme, and iron-coproporphyrin III. In this study the heme biosynthesis proteins AhbAB, AhbC, and AhbD from Methanosarcina barkeri were functionally characterized. Using an in vivo enzyme activity assay it was shown that AhbA and AhbB (Mbar_A1459 and Mbar_A1460 together catalyze the conversion of siroheme into 12,18-didecarboxysiroheme. The two proteins form a heterodimeric complex which might be subject to feedback regulation by the pathway end-product heme. Further, AhbC (Mbar_A1793 was shown to catalyze the formation of iron-coproporphyrin III in vivo. Finally, recombinant AhbD (Mbar_A1458 was produced in E. coli and purified indicating that this protein most likely contains two [4Fe-4S] clusters. Using an in vitro enzyme activity assay it was demonstrated that AhbD catalyzes the conversion of iron-coproporphyrin III into heme.

  17. The Balanced Cross-Layer Design Routing Algorithm in Wireless Sensor Networks Using Fuzzy Logic

    OpenAIRE

    Ning Li; José-Fernán Martínez; Vicente Hernández Díaz

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the cross-layer design for the wireless sensor network communication protocol has become more and more important and popular. Considering the disadvantages of the traditional cross-layer routing algorithms, in this paper we propose a new fuzzy logic-based routing algorithm, named the Balanced Cross-layer Fuzzy Logic (BCFL) routing algorithm. In BCFL, we use the cross-layer parameters’ dispersion as the fuzzy logic inference system inputs. Moreover, we give each cross-layer paramete...

  18. 36 CFR 4.10 - Travel on park roads and designated routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Travel on park roads and... THE INTERIOR VEHICLES AND TRAFFIC SAFETY § 4.10 Travel on park roads and designated routes. (a) Operating a motor vehicle is prohibited except on park roads, in parking areas and on routes and...

  19. Alternate Routes of Administration and Risk for HIV among Prescription Opioid Abusers

    OpenAIRE

    Surratt, Hilary; Kurtz, Steven P.; Cicero, Theodore J.

    2011-01-01

    Route of administration is an important contributor to the adverse health consequences of prescription medication abuse. The present study examines characteristics associated with non-oral routes of administration among a large sample of prescription opioid abusers, and explores needle related

  20. Alternative Routes to Induce Naïve Pluripotency in Human Embryonic Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggal, Galbha; Warrier, Sharat; Ghimire, Sabitri; Broekaert, Dorien; Van der Jeught, Margot; Lierman, Sylvie; Deroo, Tom; Peelman, Luc; Van Soom, Ann; Cornelissen, Ria; Menten, Björn; Mestdagh, Pieter; Vandesompele, Jo; Roost, Matthias; Slieker, Roderick C; Heijmans, Bastiaan T; Deforce, Dieter; De Sutter, Petra; De Sousa Lopes, Susana Chuva; Heindryckx, Björn

    2015-09-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) closely resemble mouse epiblast stem cells exhibiting primed pluripotency unlike mouse ESCs (mESCs), which acquire a naïve pluripotent state. Efforts have been made to trigger naïve pluripotency in hESCs for subsequent unbiased lineage-specific differentiation, a common conundrum faced by primed pluripotent hESCs due to heterogeneity in gene expression existing within and between hESC lines. This required either ectopic expression of naïve genes such as NANOG and KLF2 or inclusion of multiple pluripotency-associated factors. We report here a novel combination of small molecules and growth factors in culture medium (2i/LIF/basic fibroblast growth factor + Ascorbic Acid + Forskolin) facilitating rapid induction of transgene-free naïve pluripotency in hESCs, as well as in mESCs, which has not been shown earlier. The converted naïve hESCs survived long-term single-cell passaging, maintained a normal karyotype, upregulated naïve pluripotency genes, and exhibited dependence on signaling pathways similar to naïve mESCs. Moreover, they undergo global DNA demethylation and show a distinctive long noncoding RNA profile. We propose that in our medium, the FGF signaling pathway via PI3K/AKT/mTORC induced the conversion of primed hESCs toward naïve pluripotency. Collectively, we demonstrate an alternate route to capture naïve pluripotency in hESCs that is fast, reproducible, supports naïve mESC derivation, and allows efficient differentiation.

  1. DESIGN OF ANTRO ROUTING PROTOCOL FOR UNDERWATER WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Srinithi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Existing routing algorithms are not effective in supporting the dynamic characteristics of underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs and cannot ensure sufficient quality of service in UWSN applications. This project proposes a probabilistic technique for solving computational problems which can be reduced to finding better paths through graphs. . This algorithm is a member of an ant colony algorithms family, in swarm intelligence methods, the algorithm was aiming to search for an optimal path in a graph.

  2. DESIGN OF ANTRO ROUTING PROTOCOL FOR UNDERWATER WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK

    OpenAIRE

    R. Srinithi; Dr.S. Sharmila

    2015-01-01

    Existing routing algorithms are not effective in supporting the dynamic characteristics of underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs) and cannot ensure sufficient quality of service in UWSN applications. This project proposes a probabilistic technique for solving computational problems which can be reduced to finding better paths through graphs. . This algorithm is a member of an ant colony algorithms family, in swarm intelligence methods, the algorithm was aiming to search for an optimal pa...

  3. Optimum Route Selection for Vehicle Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalip

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of Optimum Route Selection for Vehicle Navigation System (ORSVNS article is to develop a system, which provides information about real time alternate routes to the drivers and also helps in selecting the optimal route among all the alternate routes from an origin to destination. Two types of query systems, special and general, are designed for drivers. Here, the criterion for route selection is introduced using primary and secondary road attributes. The presented methodology helps the drivers in better decision making to choose optimal route using fuzzy logic. For experimental results ORSVNS is tested over 220 km portion of Haryana state in India.

  4. A cross-layer design and ant-colony optimization based load-balancing routing protocol for ad-hoc networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Xiangquan; GUO Wei; GE Lijia; LIU Renting

    2007-01-01

    In order to periodically reassess the status of the alternate path route (APR) set and to improve the efficiency of alternate path construction existing in most current alternate path routing protocols,we present a cross-layer design and ant-colony optimization based load-balancing routing protocol for ad-hoc networks (CALRA) in this paper.In CALRA,the APR set maintained in nodes is aged and reassessed by the inherent mechanism of pheromone evaporation of ant-colony optimization algorithm,and load balance of network is achieved by ant-colony optimization combining with cross-layer synthetic optimization.The efficiency of APR set construction is improved by bidirectional and hop-by-hop routing update during routing discovery and routing maintenance process.Moreover,ants in CALRA deposit simulated pheromones as a function of multiple parameters corresponding to the information collected by each layer of each node visited,such as the distance from their source node,the congestion degree of the visited nodes,the current pheromones the nodes possess,the velocity of the nodes,and so on,and provide the information to the visiting nodes to update their pheromone tables by endowing the different parameters corresponding to different information and different weight values,which provides a new method to improve the congestion problem,the shortcut problem,the convergence rate and the heavy overheads commonly existed in existing ant-based routing protocols for ad-hoc networks.The performance of the algorithm is measured by the packet delivery rate,good-put ratio (routing overhead),and end-to-end delay.Simulation results show that CALRA performs well in decreasing the route overheads,balancing traffic load,as well as increasing the packet delivery rate,etc.

  5. Design and Simulation of Routing-switching Protocol Based on Optical Switch Array

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Wei; MAO You-ju; LIU Jiang

    2004-01-01

    An optical routing- switching technology based on optical switch array is proposed. The characteristics of the blocking and nonblocking networks are analyzed and compared, odd- even sorting network is used to realize optical routing- switching, relative routing- switching protocol is designed.Simulation test under load shows that it can reduce a blocking effectively and enhance an efficiency of switching. Further, it can transfer the processing and switching within parallel computer from electric domain to optical domain. It can make parallel computer coordinating computing and processing at much more higher speed, storing and transmitting even more efficiently.

  6. 46 CFR 177.340 - Alternate design considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alternate design considerations. 177.340 Section 177.340... TONS) CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Hull Structure § 177.340 Alternate design considerations. When the... approved in accordance with §§ 177.300, 177.310 or 177.315, the structure may be approved by the...

  7. ReRouting biomedical innovation: observations from a mapping of the alternative research and development (R&D) landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Alexandra; Kiddell-Monroe, Rachel

    2016-09-14

    In recent years, the world has witnessed the tragic outcomes of multiple global health crises. From Ebola to high prices to antibiotic resistance, these events highlight the fundamental constraints of the current biomedical research and development (R&D) system in responding to patient needs globally.To mitigate this lack of responsiveness, over 100 self-identified "alternative" R&D initiatives, have emerged in the past 15 years. To begin to make sense of this panoply of initiatives working to overcome the constraints of the current system, UAEM began an extensive, though not comprehensive, mapping of the alternative biomedical R&D landscape. We developed a two phase approach: (1) an investigation, via the RE:Route Mapping, of both existing and proposed initiatives that claim to offer an alternative approach to R&D, and (2) evaluation of those initiatives to determine which are in fact achieving increased access to and innovation in medicines. Through phase 1, the RE:Route Mapping, we examined 81 initiatives that claim to redress the inequity perpetuated by the current system via one of five commonly recognized mechanisms necessary for truly alternative R&D.Preliminary analysis of phase 1 provides the following conclusions: 1. No initiative presents a completely alternative model of biomedical R&D. 2. The majority of initiatives focus on developing incentives for drug discovery. 3. The majority of initiatives focus on rare diseases or diseases of the poor and marginalized. 4. There is an increasing emphasis on the use of push, pull, pool, collaboration and open mechanisms alongside the concept of delinkage in alternative R&D. 5. There is a trend towards public funding and launching of initiatives by the Global South. Given the RE:Route Mapping's inevitable limitations and the assumptions made in its methodology, it is not intended to be the final word on a constantly evolving and complex field; however, its findings are significant. The Mapping's value lies in its

  8. ReRouting biomedical innovation: observations from a mapping of the alternative research and development (R&D) landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Alexandra; Kiddell-Monroe, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the world has witnessed the tragic outcomes of multiple global health crises. From Ebola to high prices to antibiotic resistance, these events highlight the fundamental constraints of the current biomedical research and development (R&D) system in responding to patient needs globally.To mitigate this lack of responsiveness, over 100 self-identified "alternative" R&D initiatives, have emerged in the past 15 years. To begin to make sense of this panoply of initiatives working to overcome the constraints of the current system, UAEM began an extensive, though not comprehensive, mapping of the alternative biomedical R&D landscape. We developed a two phase approach: (1) an investigation, via the RE:Route Mapping, of both existing and proposed initiatives that claim to offer an alternative approach to R&D, and (2) evaluation of those initiatives to determine which are in fact achieving increased access to and innovation in medicines. Through phase 1, the RE:Route Mapping, we examined 81 initiatives that claim to redress the inequity perpetuated by the current system via one of five commonly recognized mechanisms necessary for truly alternative R&D.Preliminary analysis of phase 1 provides the following conclusions: 1. No initiative presents a completely alternative model of biomedical R&D. 2. The majority of initiatives focus on developing incentives for drug discovery. 3. The majority of initiatives focus on rare diseases or diseases of the poor and marginalized. 4. There is an increasing emphasis on the use of push, pull, pool, collaboration and open mechanisms alongside the concept of delinkage in alternative R&D. 5. There is a trend towards public funding and launching of initiatives by the Global South. Given the RE:Route Mapping's inevitable limitations and the assumptions made in its methodology, it is not intended to be the final word on a constantly evolving and complex field; however, its findings are significant. The Mapping's value lies in its

  9. Digital Hardware Design Teaching: An Alternative Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benkrid, Khaled; Clayton, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the design and implementation of a complete review of undergraduate digital hardware design teaching in the School of Engineering at the University of Edinburgh. Four guiding principles have been used in this exercise: learning-outcome driven teaching, deep learning, affordability, and flexibility. This has identified…

  10. Cross-Layer Design of Energy-Saving AODV Routing Protocol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Bing; JIN Zhigang; SHU Yantai

    2009-01-01

    Since most ad hoc mobile devices today operate on batteries, the power consumption becomes an im-portant issue. This paper proposes a cross-layer design of energy-aware ad hoc on-demand distance vector (CEAODV)routing protocol which adopts cross-layer mechanism and energy-aware metric to improve AODV routing protocol to reduce the energy consumption and then prolong the life of the whole network. In CEAODV, the link layer and the routing layer work together to choose the optimized transmission power for nodes and the route for packets. The link layer provides the energy consumption information for the routing layer and the routing layer chooses route accordingly and conversely controls the link layer to adjust the transmission power. The simulation result shows that CEAODV can outperform AODV to save more energy. It can reduce the consumed energy by about 8% over traditional energy-aware algorithm. And the performance is better when the traffic load is higher in the network.

  11. Designing oligo libraries taking alternative splicing into account

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoshan, Avi; Grebinskiy, Vladimir; Magen, Avner; Scolnicov, Ariel; Fink, Eyal; Lehavi, David; Wasserman, Alon

    2001-06-01

    We have designed sequences for DNA microarrays and oligo libraries, taking alternative splicing into account. Alternative splicing is a common phenomenon, occurring in more than 25% of the human genes. In many cases, different splice variants have different functions, are expressed in different tissues or may indicate different stages of disease. When designing sequences for DNA microarrays or oligo libraries, it is very important to take into account the sequence information of all the mRNA transcripts. Therefore, when a gene has more than one transcript (as a result of alternative splicing, alternative promoter sites or alternative poly-adenylation sites), it is very important to take all of them into account in the design. We have used the LEADS transcriptome prediction system to cluster and assemble the human sequences in GenBank and design optimal oligonucleotides for all the human genes with a known mRNA sequence based on the LEADS predictions.

  12. A Cross-Layer Routing Design for Multi-Interface Wireless Mesh Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Chieh Tsai

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs technologies have received significant attentions. WMNs not only accede to the advantages of ad hoc networks but also provide hierarchical multi-interface architecture. Transmission power control and routing path selections are critical issues in the past researches of multihop networks. Variable transmission power levels lead to different network connectivity and interference. Further, routing path selections among different radio interfaces will also produce different intra-/interflow interference. These features tightly affect the network performance. Most of the related works on the routing protocol design do not consider transmission power control and multi-interface environment simultaneously. In this paper, we proposed a cross-layer routing protocol called M2iRi2 which coordinates transmission power control and intra-/interflow interference considerations as routing metrics. Each radio interface calculates the potential tolerable-added transmission interference in the physical layer. When the route discovery starts, the M2iRi2 will adopt the appropriate power level to evaluate each interface quality along paths. The simulation results demonstrate that our design can enhance both network throughput and end-to-end delay.

  13. DESIGN OF ENERGY EFFICIENT ROUTING ALGORITHM FOR WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK (WSN USING PASCAL GRAPH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepali Panwar

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Development of energy efficient Wireless Sensor Network (WSN routing protocol is nowadays main area of interest amongst researchers. This research is an effort in designing energy efficient Wireless Sensor Network (WSN routing protocol under certain parameters consideration. Research report discusses various existing WSN routing protocols and propose a new WSN energy efficient routing protocol. Results show a significant improvement in life cycle of the nodes and enhancement in energy efficiency of WSN. In this paper, an attempt has been made to design a wireless sensor network involving the extraction of Pascal Graph features. The standard task involves designing a suitable topology using Pascal Graph. As per the definition of interconnection network it is equivalent that a suitable graph can represent the different computer network topologies very efficiently. Different characteristics of Pascal Graph Topology has been discovered and used in network topology design. Since Pascal Graph gives better result in terms of finding the dependable and reliable nodes in topology, it has been considered for network analysis. Moreover, we propose a methodology that involves the Pascal Graph Topology for wireless sensor network which can analyse and represent the network and help in routing.

  14. Practical design of alternating-phase-focused linacs

    CERN Document Server

    Jameson, R A

    2014-01-01

    Conventional magnetic transverse focusing in conventional linear accelerators represents a high fraction of their cost and complexity. Both transverse and longitudinal focusing can be obtained from the radio frequency field by using the technique known as Alternating Phase Focusing. The design of suitable sequences has been difficult, without direct theoretical support, inhibiting Alternating Phase Focusing adoption. Synthesis of reported details and new physics and technique result in a new, general method for designing practical Alternating Phase Focusing linear accelerators. Very long sequences with high energy gain factors are demonstrated, motivated by the desire to accelerate particles over a factor of 500-600 energy gain. The method is demonstrated with simple dynamics and no space charge, later incorporation of space charge and more accurate elements is straight forward. Alternating Phase Focusing can now be another practical approach in the linear accelerator designer repertoire. Alternating Phase Fo...

  15. The Balanced Cross-Layer Design Routing Algorithm in Wireless Sensor Networks Using Fuzzy Logic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Martínez, José-Fernán; Hernández Díaz, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the cross-layer design for the wireless sensor network communication protocol has become more and more important and popular. Considering the disadvantages of the traditional cross-layer routing algorithms, in this paper we propose a new fuzzy logic-based routing algorithm, named the Balanced Cross-layer Fuzzy Logic (BCFL) routing algorithm. In BCFL, we use the cross-layer parameters' dispersion as the fuzzy logic inference system inputs. Moreover, we give each cross-layer parameter a dynamic weight according the value of the dispersion. For getting a balanced solution, the parameter whose dispersion is large will have small weight, and vice versa. In order to compare it with the traditional cross-layer routing algorithms, BCFL is evaluated through extensive simulations. The simulation results show that the new routing algorithm can handle the multiple constraints without increasing the complexity of the algorithm and can achieve the most balanced performance on selecting the next hop relay node. Moreover, the Balanced Cross-layer Fuzzy Logic routing algorithm can adapt to the dynamic changing of the network conditions and topology effectively. PMID:26266412

  16. The Balanced Cross-Layer Design Routing Algorithm in Wireless Sensor Networks Using Fuzzy Logic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Martínez, José-Fernán; Hernández Díaz, Vicente

    2015-08-10

    Recently, the cross-layer design for the wireless sensor network communication protocol has become more and more important and popular. Considering the disadvantages of the traditional cross-layer routing algorithms, in this paper we propose a new fuzzy logic-based routing algorithm, named the Balanced Cross-layer Fuzzy Logic (BCFL) routing algorithm. In BCFL, we use the cross-layer parameters' dispersion as the fuzzy logic inference system inputs. Moreover, we give each cross-layer parameter a dynamic weight according the value of the dispersion. For getting a balanced solution, the parameter whose dispersion is large will have small weight, and vice versa. In order to compare it with the traditional cross-layer routing algorithms, BCFL is evaluated through extensive simulations. The simulation results show that the new routing algorithm can handle the multiple constraints without increasing the complexity of the algorithm and can achieve the most balanced performance on selecting the next hop relay node. Moreover, the Balanced Cross-layer Fuzzy Logic routing algorithm can adapt to the dynamic changing of the network conditions and topology effectively.

  17. Alternative process to produce UF{sub 4} using the effluent from ammonium uranyl carbonate route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Neto, Joao B.; Garcia, Rafael Henrique Lazzari; Dal Vechio, Edvaldo, E-mail: jbsneto@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), SP (Brazil); Riella, Humberto G., E-mail: riella@enq.ufsc.br [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Ciencias e Tecnologia de Reatores Nucleares Inovadores (INCT/CNPq) (Brazil); Carvalho, Elita F. Urano de; Durazzo, Michelangelo [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), SP (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Ciencias e Tecnologia de Reatores Nucleares Inovadores (INCT/CNPq) (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The Nuclear Fuel Centre of IPEN / CNEN - SP develops and manufactures dispersion fuel with high uranium concentration. It meets the demand of the IEA-R1 reactor and future research reactors to be constructed in Brazil. The fuel uses uranium silicide (U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}) dispersed in aluminum. For producing the fuel, the process of uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) conversion consist in obtaining U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} and / or U{sub 3}O{sub 8} through the preparation of intermediate compounds, among them ammonium uranyl carbonate - AUC, ammonium diuranate - DUA and uranium tetrafluoride - UF{sub 4}. This work describes a procedure for preparing uranium tetrafluoride via a dry route, using as raw material the filtrate generated when ammonium uranyl carbonate is routinely produced. The filtrate consists mainly of a solution containing high concentrations of ammonium (NH{sup 4+}), fluoride (F{sup -}), carbonate (CO{sup 3-}) and low concentrations of uranium. The procedure consists in recovering NH{sup 4F} and uranium, as UF{sub 4}, through the crystallization of ammonium bifluoride (NH{sub 4}HF{sub 2}) and, in a later step, the addition of UO{sub 2}, occurring fluoridation and decomposition. The UF{sub 4} obtained is further diluted in the UF{sub 4} produced routinely at IPEN / CNEN-SP by a wet route process. (author)

  18. Incorporating location, routing, and inventory decisions in a bi-objective supply chain design problem with risk-pooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakkoli-Moghaddam, Reza; Forouzanfar, Fateme; Ebrahimnejad, Sadoullah

    2013-07-01

    This paper considers a single-sourcing network design problem for a three-level supply chain. For the first time, a novel mathematical model is presented considering risk-pooling, the inventory existence at distribution centers (DCs) under demand uncertainty, the existence of several alternatives to transport the product between facilities, and routing of vehicles from distribution centers to customer in a stochastic supply chain system, simultaneously. This problem is formulated as a bi-objective stochastic mixed-integer nonlinear programming model. The aim of this model is to determine the number of located distribution centers, their locations, and capacity levels, and allocating customers to distribution centers and distribution centers to suppliers. It also determines the inventory control decisions on the amount of ordered products and the amount of safety stocks at each opened DC, selecting a type of vehicle for transportation. Moreover, it determines routing decisions, such as determination of vehicles' routes starting from an opened distribution center to serve its allocated customers and returning to that distribution center. All are done in a way that the total system cost and the total transportation time are minimized. The Lingo software is used to solve the presented model. The computational results are illustrated in this paper.

  19. Insights Gained from Testing Alternate Cell Designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. E. O' Brien; C. M. Stoots; J. S. Herring; G. K. Housley; M. S. Sohal; D. G. Milobar; Thomas Cable

    2009-09-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has been researching the application of solid-oxide electrolysis cell for large-scale hydrogen production from steam over a temperature range of 800 to 900ºC. The INL has been testing various solid oxide cell designs to characterize their electrolytic performance operating in the electrolysis mode for hydrogen production. Some results presented in this report were obtained from cells, initially developed by the Forschungszentrum Jülich and now manufactured by the French ceramics firm St. Gobain. These cells have an active area of 16 cm2 per cell. They were initially developed as fuel cells, but are being tested as electrolytic cells in the INL test stands. The electrolysis cells are electrode-supported, with ~10 µm thick yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolytes, ~1400 µm thick nickel-YSZ steam-hydrogen electrodes, and manganite (LSM) air-oxygen electrodes. The experiments were performed over a range of steam inlet mole fractions (0.1 to 0.6), gas flow rates, and current densities (0 to 0.6 A/cm2). Steam consumption rates associated with electrolysis were measured directly using inlet and outlet dewpoint instrumentation. On a molar basis, the steam consumption rate is equal to the hydrogen production rate. Cell performance was evaluated by performing DC potential sweeps at 800, 850, and 900°C. The voltage-current characteristics are presented, along with values of area-specific resistance as a function of current density. Long-term cell performance is also assessed to evaluate cell degradation. Details of the custom single-cell test apparatus developed for these experiments are also presented. NASA, in conjunction with the University of Toledo, has developed another fuel cell concept with the goals of reduced weight and high power density. The NASA cell is structurally symmetrical, with both electrodes supporting the thin electrolyte and containing micro-channels for gas diffusion. This configuration is called a bi

  20. CULTURAL EXPLORATION AS ALTER/NATIVE1 ROUTE TO NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT: INSIGHTS FROM YORUBA VERBAL ARTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OLUWOLE COKER

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper interrogates Yoruba verbal arts and situates culture as a catalyst for development. It is suggested that the intricate resources of oral art, exemplified by Yoruba textual references, are viable ingredients for socio-cultural empowerment. To fully comprehend the dynamics of a society in constant change due to external and internal realities, one must reconsider culture in order to reposition the society. The multidimensional and multidisciplinary significance of Yoruba verbal art demonstrate that culture has a vital role to play in any meaningful socio-political advancement in the Nigerian body polity. The ideas conveyed in proverbial expressions, representing key cultural realities of the Yoruba people, offer insights and ideas for development and social good. The paper submits that a deeper exploration of the intricate resources of verbal art is a viable route to development.

  1. Comparison of different SFL design alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivars Neretnieks, Ivars [Chemima AB, Taeby (Sweden); Moreno, Luis [LMQuimica, Vaarby (Sweden)

    2013-04-15

    Four different design options for a repository for long-lived nuclear waste from the future dismantling of the nuclear power plants have been compared. The time scales considered range up to 100,000 years. The repository is to be located at about 500 m depth in granitic rock. The vault can be a tunnel about 200 m long and on the order of 15 X 15 meters, in which the waste is surrounded by either a hydraulic cage, a concrete buffer or a bentonite buffer about 2 m thick. A fourth option is to make a silo, called Supersilo, about as high as wide, surrounded by both concrete and bentonite. In order to compare potential release rates of radionuclides from the waste to the seeping water in the rock a number of simple models have been devised. Some of these models allow the water flow rates through vaults to be assessed under various conditions and configurations. Other models are used to calculate the uptake by molecular diffusion to the water in the rock that seeps past the vaults. Moreover other models are used to calculate the rate of transport of nuclides by diffusion and flow through the buffer and waste. The decay of the nuclides during their passage from the waste to the flowing water through and past the vaults is accounted for. Many nuclides of interest decay considerably in the buffer. The mathematical form of the models is made so simple that essentially hand calculations can be used to explore the strength of different barriers and design options. The simple models are validated against more complex coupled models accounting for simultaneously competing processes. The more complex models are solved by numerical methods. The toolbox of simple models is used to calculate the strength of the barriers in the different design options under various conditions. Examples of activity releases of three nuclides with different sorption characteristics and half-lives are presented. It is found that a hydraulic cage is not a good option as it promotes the release of

  2. An Alternative Route to Teaching Fraction Division: Abstraction of Common Denominator Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zembat, Ismail Özgür

    2015-01-01

    From a curricular stand point, the traditional invert and multiply algorithm for division of fractions provides few affordances for linking to a rich understanding of fractions. On the other hand, an alternative algorithm, called common denominator algorithm, has many such affordances. The current study serves as an argument for shifting…

  3. Templating Routes to Supported Oxide Catalysts by Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Notestein, Justin M [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Center for Catalysis and Surface Science; Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering

    2016-09-08

    The rational design and understanding of supported oxide catalysts requires at least three advancements, in order of increasing complexity: the ability to quantify the number and nature of active sites in a catalytic material, the ability to place external controls on the number and structure of these active sites, and the ability to assemble these active sites so as to carry out more complex functions in tandem. As part of an individual investigator research program that is integrated with the Northwestern University Institute for Catalysis in Energy Processes (ICEP) as of 2015, significant advances were achieved in these three areas. First, phosphonic acids were utilized in the quantitative assessment of the number of active and geometrically-available sites in MOx-SiO2 catalysts, including nanocrystalline composites, co-condensed materials, and grafted structures, for M=Ti, Zr, Hf, Nb, and Ta. That work built off progress in understanding supported Fe, Cu, and Co oxide catalysts from chelating and/or multinuclear precursors to maximize surface reactivity. Secondly, significant progress was made in the new area of using thin oxide overcoats containing ‘nanocavities’ from organic templates as a method to control the dispersion and thermal stability of subsequently deposited metal nanoparticles or other catalytic domains. Similar methods were used to control surface reactivity in SiO2-Al2O3 acid catalysts and to control reactant selectivity in Al2O3-TiO2 photocatalysts. Finally, knowledge gained from the first two areas has been combined to synthesize a tandem catalyst for hydrotreating reactions and an orthogonal tandem catalyst system where two subsequent reactions in a reaction network are independently controlled by light and heat. Overall, work carried out under this project significantly advanced the knowledge of synthesis-structure-function relationships in supported oxide catalysts for energy applications.

  4. Templating Routes to Supported Oxide Catalysts by Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Notestein, Justin M. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)

    2016-09-08

    The rational design and understanding of supported oxide catalysts requires at least three advancements, in order of increasing complexity: the ability to quantify the number and nature of active sites in a catalytic material, the ability to place external controls on the number and structure of these active sites, and the ability to assemble these active sites so as to carry out more complex functions in tandem. As part of an individual investigator research program that is integrated with the Northwestern University Institute for Catalysis in Energy Processes (ICEP) as of 2015, significant advances were achieved in these three areas. First, phosphonic acids were utilized in the quantitative assessment of the number of active and geometrically-available sites in MOx-SiO2 catalysts, including nanocrystalline composites, co-condensed materials, and grafted structures, for M=Ti, Zr, Hf, Nb, and Ta. That work built off progress in understanding supported Fe, Cu, and Co oxide catalysts from chelating and/or multinuclear precursors to maximize surface reactivity. Secondly, significant progress was made in the new area of using thin oxide overcoats containing ‘nanocavities’ from organic templates as a method to control the dispersion and thermal stability of subsequently deposited metal nanoparticles or other catalytic domains. Similar methods were used to control surface reactivity in SiO2-Al2O3 acid catalysts and to control reactant selectivity in Al2O3-TiO2 photocatalysts. Finally, knowledge gained from the first two areas has been combined to synthesize a tandem catalyst for hydrotreating reactions and an orthogonal tandem catalyst system where two subsequent reactions in a reaction network are independently controlled by light and heat. Overall, work carried out under this project significantly advanced the knowledge of synthesis-structure-function relationships in supported

  5. Area Efficient Design of Routing Node for Network-on-Chip

    OpenAIRE

    Rehan Maroofi; Vilas Nitnaware; Shyam Limaye

    2011-01-01

    Network-on-Chip (NoC) is a paradigm proposed to satisfy the communication demands of future Systems-on-Chip (SoC). The main components of an NoC are the network adapters, routing nodes, and network interconnect links. Reducing area and power consumption has higher priority in the case of on-chip networks compared to conventional off-chip networks. This paper presents an area efficient design for the routing node component of an NoC. The area efficiency is obtained by applying the concept of a...

  6. Variability in Criteria for Emergency Medical Services Routing of Acute Stroke Patients to Designated Stroke Center Hospitals

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolay Dimitrov; William Koenig; Nichole Bosson; Sarah Song; Saver, Jeffrey L.; Mack, William J.; Nerses Sanossian

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Comprehensive stroke systems of care include routing to the nearest designated stroke center hospital, bypassing non-designated hospitals. Routing protocols are implemented at the state or county level and vary in qualification criteria and determination of destination hospital. We surveyed all counties in the state of California for presence and characteristics of their prehospital stroke routing protocols. Methods: Each county’s local emergency medical se...

  7. Designing Daily Patrol Routes for Policing Based on ANT Colony Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H.; Cheng, T.; Wise, S.

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we address the problem of planning police patrol routes to regularly cover street segments of high crime density (hotspots) with limited police forces. A good patrolling strategy is required to minimise the average time lag between two consecutive visits to hotspots, as well as coordinating multiple patrollers and imparting unpredictability in patrol routes. Previous studies have designed different police patrol strategies for routing police patrol, but these strategies have difficulty in generalising to real patrolling and meeting various requirements. In this research we develop a new police patrolling strategy based on Bayesian method and ant colony algorithm. In this strategy, virtual marker (pheromone) is laid to mark the visiting history of each crime hotspot, and patrollers continuously decide which hotspot to patrol next based on pheromone level and other variables. Simulation results using real data testifies the effective, scalable, unpredictable and extensible nature of this strategy.

  8. DESIGNING DAILY PATROL ROUTES FOR POLICING BASED ON ANT COLONY ALGORITHM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Chen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we address the problem of planning police patrol routes to regularly cover street segments of high crime density (hotspots with limited police forces. A good patrolling strategy is required to minimise the average time lag between two consecutive visits to hotspots, as well as coordinating multiple patrollers and imparting unpredictability in patrol routes. Previous studies have designed different police patrol strategies for routing police patrol, but these strategies have difficulty in generalising to real patrolling and meeting various requirements. In this research we develop a new police patrolling strategy based on Bayesian method and ant colony algorithm. In this strategy, virtual marker (pheromone is laid to mark the visiting history of each crime hotspot, and patrollers continuously decide which hotspot to patrol next based on pheromone level and other variables. Simulation results using real data testifies the effective, scalable, unpredictable and extensible nature of this strategy.

  9. 46 CFR 116.340 - Alternate design considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ARRANGEMENT Hull Structure § 116.340 Alternate design considerations. The Commanding Officer, Marine Safety Center, may approve the structure of a vessel of novel design, unusual form, or special materials, which... principles that the vessel structure provides adequate safety and strength. An owner seeking approval of...

  10. Subsurface barrier design alternatives for confinement and controlled advection flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various technologies and designs are being considered to serve as subsurface barriers to confine or control contaminant migration from underground waste storage or disposal structures containing radioactive and hazardous wastes. Alternatives including direct-coupled flood and controlled advection designs are described as preconceptual examples. Prototype geotechnical equipment for testing and demonstration of these alternative designs tested at the Hanford Geotechnical Development and Test Facility and the Hanford Small-Tube Lysimeter Facility include mobile high-pressure injectors and pumps, mobile transport and pumping units, vibratory and impact pile drivers, and mobile batching systems. Preliminary laboratory testing of barrier materials and additive sequestering agents have been completed and are described

  11. Ion-assisted phase separation in compound films: An alternate route to ordered nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Scott A.

    2013-11-01

    In recent years, observations of highly ordered, hexagonal arrays of self-organized nanostructures on binary or impurity-laced targets under normal-incidence ion irradiation have excited interest in this phenomenon as a potential route to high-throughput, low-cost manufacture of nanoscale devices or nanostructured coatings. The currently prominent explanation for these structures is a morphological instability driven by ion erosion discovered by Bradley and Shipman; however, recent parameter estimates via molecular dynamics simulations suggest that this erosive instability may not be active for the representative GaSb system in which hexagonal structures were first observed. Motivated by recent experimental and numerical evidence suggesting the likely importance of phase separation during thin-film processing, we here generalize the Bradley-Shipman theory to include the effect of ion-assisted phase separation. The resulting system admits a chemically driven finite-wavelength instability that can explain the order of observed patterns even when the erosive Bradley-Shipman instability is inactive. In a relevant simplifying limit, it also provides an intuitive instability criterion similar to results in thin-film deposition, as well as predictions on pattern wavelengths that agree qualitatively with experimental observations. Finally, we identify a characteristic experimental signature that distinguishes the chemical and morphological instabilities and highlights the need for specific additional experimental data on the GaSb system.

  12. Reduction and oxalate precipitation as an alternate route for uranium reconversion in thorex process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium reconversion at Uranium Thorium Separation Facility (UTSF) was carried out by ammonium-diuranate (ADU) precipitation followed by calcination. The significant iron contamination levels in the uranium product solution necessitated carbonate precipitation followed by neutralization before ADU precipitation thus rendering the process cumbersome. Also accumulation of ammonium nitrate in the process lines and equipments is a cause for concern in view of both choking up of the process lines as well as its potential hazard. However, these difficulties can be mitigated by the choice of oxalate precipitation route for uranium reconversion. As uranium can be precipitated as uranous oxalate the product uranyl nitrate needs to be reduced to uranous nitrate. Earlier studies in our laboratory revealed the feasibility of quantitative reduction of uranyl ion in the range 50 to 200 g/l with hydrazine nitrate as reducing agent in presence of PtO2 catalyst. However, in power reactor thoria reprocessing uranium product solution is expected to have a uranyl nitrate of about 4 g/l. So the feasibility of reduction of uranyl nitrate in this low range of uranium with hydrazine nitrate by the catalytic method was investigated and the precipitation of the uranous ion was carried out with oxalate and the supernatant was analysed for uranium losses

  13. An alternative route towards monodisperse CdS quantum dots for hybrid solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Fengfeng; Wang, Hao [College of Physics, Optoelectronics and Energy and Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Xia, Zhouhui [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Dai, Xiao; Cong, Shan [College of Physics, Optoelectronics and Energy and Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Dong, Chao [Department of Chemistry and Biology, University of New Mexico, ABQ 87120 (United States); Sun, Baoquan [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Lou, Yanhui, E-mail: yhlou@suda.edu.cn [College of Physics, Optoelectronics and Energy and Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Sun, Yinghui; Zhao, Jie [College of Physics, Optoelectronics and Energy and Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Zou, Guifu, E-mail: zouguifu@suda.edu.cn [College of Physics, Optoelectronics and Energy and Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China)

    2015-01-15

    Monodisperse CdS quantum dots (QDs) are synthesized by thermal decomposition of organic complexes in the system of the cost-effective commercial 0{sup #} diesel at 200 °C. The prepared CdS QDs have a good dispersion and high crystallization. When the CdS QDs are doped into the blends of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and 1-(3-methoxycarbonyl)-propyl-1-phenyl-(6, 6)C61 (PCBM) for hybrid solar cells (HSCs), the HSCs achieve about 25% increase of power conversion efficiency in comparison to the reference device without the CdS QDs. The improvement of the cell performance mainly attributes to the increased short-circuit current density arising from the absorption enhancement in the wavelength range of 350–550 nm by introducing the synthesized CdS QDs into the P3HT: PCBM active layer. - Highlights: • Monodisperse CdS quantum dots. • A cost-effective route to synthesize crystalline CdS quantum dots. • CdS quantum dots based hybrid solar cells with power conversion efficiency enhancement.

  14. An alternative route towards monodisperse CdS quantum dots for hybrid solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monodisperse CdS quantum dots (QDs) are synthesized by thermal decomposition of organic complexes in the system of the cost-effective commercial 0# diesel at 200 °C. The prepared CdS QDs have a good dispersion and high crystallization. When the CdS QDs are doped into the blends of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and 1-(3-methoxycarbonyl)-propyl-1-phenyl-(6, 6)C61 (PCBM) for hybrid solar cells (HSCs), the HSCs achieve about 25% increase of power conversion efficiency in comparison to the reference device without the CdS QDs. The improvement of the cell performance mainly attributes to the increased short-circuit current density arising from the absorption enhancement in the wavelength range of 350–550 nm by introducing the synthesized CdS QDs into the P3HT: PCBM active layer. - Highlights: • Monodisperse CdS quantum dots. • A cost-effective route to synthesize crystalline CdS quantum dots. • CdS quantum dots based hybrid solar cells with power conversion efficiency enhancement

  15. Alternative route for the MDW project for automotive fuels in the Dutch highway sector. A legal analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In February 1998, the Dutch Government initiated an MDW project ('Marktwerking, Deregulering en Wetgevingskwaliteit', i.e. market functioning, deregulation and quality of legislation) to review ways in which competition within the motorway segment of the Dutch retail fuel market could be improved. The project reviewed the entry barriers and considered ways to stimulate competition, including preferential treatment of new entrants. The Dutch Major oil companies protested against the original plans of the Government and announced legal proceedings. The Government agreed to engage in negotiations with the oil industry in order to reach a compromise solution and avoid a legal battle. This resulted in an alternative route, which is analyzed in this article from a legal perspective

  16. Crossing Active Faults on the Sakhalin II Onshore Pipeline Route: Pipeline Design and Risk Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattiozzi, Pierpaolo; Strom, Alexander

    2008-07-01

    Twin oil (20 & 24 inch) and gas (20 & 48 inch) pipeline systems stretching 800 km are being constructed to connect offshore hydrocarbon deposits from the Sakhalin II concession in the North to an LNG plant and oil export terminal in the South of Sakhalin island. The onshore pipeline route follows a regional fault zone and crosses individual active faults at 19 locations. Sakhalin Energy, Design and Construction companies took significant care to ensure the integrity of the pipelines, should large seismic induced ground movements occur during the Operational life of the facilities. Complex investigations including the identification of the active faults, their precise location, their particular displacement values and assessment of the fault kinematics were carried out to provide input data for unique design solutions. Lateral and reverse offset displacements of 5.5 and 4.5 m respectively were determined as the single-event values for the design level earthquake (DLE)—the 1000-year return period event. Within the constraints of a pipeline route largely fixed, the underground pipeline fault crossing design was developed to define the optimum routing which would minimize stresses and strain using linepipe materials which had been ordered prior to the completion of detailed design, and to specify requirements for pipe trenching shape, materials, drainage system, etc. Detailed Design was performed with due regard to actual topography and to avoid the possibility of the trenches freezing in winter, the implementation of specific drainage solutions and thermal protection measures.

  17. Crossing Active Faults on the Sakhalin II Onshore Pipeline Route: Pipeline Design and Risk Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twin oil (20 and 24 inch) and gas (20 and 48 inch) pipeline systems stretching 800 km are being constructed to connect offshore hydrocarbon deposits from the Sakhalin II concession in the North to an LNG plant and oil export terminal in the South of Sakhalin island. The onshore pipeline route follows a regional fault zone and crosses individual active faults at 19 locations. Sakhalin Energy, Design and Construction companies took significant care to ensure the integrity of the pipelines, should large seismic induced ground movements occur during the Operational life of the facilities. Complex investigations including the identification of the active faults, their precise location, their particular displacement values and assessment of the fault kinematics were carried out to provide input data for unique design solutions. Lateral and reverse offset displacements of 5.5 and 4.5 m respectively were determined as the single-event values for the design level earthquake (DLE) - the 1000-year return period event. Within the constraints of a pipeline route largely fixed, the underground pipeline fault crossing design was developed to define the optimum routing which would minimize stresses and strain using linepipe materials which had been ordered prior to the completion of detailed design, and to specify requirements for pipe trenching shape, materials, drainage system, etc. Detailed Design was performed with due regard to actual topography and to avoid the possibility of the trenches freezing in winter, the implementation of specific drainage solutions and thermal protection measures

  18. 29 CFR 2703.2 - Designated agency ethics official and alternate designated agency ethics official.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Designated agency ethics official and alternate designated agency ethics official. 2703.2 Section 2703.2 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL... agency ethics official and alternate designated agency ethics official. The Chairman shall appoint...

  19. Enhancing Energy Efficiency of Wireless Sensor Network through the Design of Energy Efficient Routing Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Zaman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Network (WSN is known to be a highly resource constrained class of network where energy consumption is one of the prime concerns. In this research, a cross layer design methodology was adopted to design an energy efficient routing protocol entitled “Position Responsive Routing Protocol” (PRRP. PRRP is designed to minimize energy consumed in each node by (1 reducing the amount of time in which a sensor node is in an idle listening state and (2 reducing the average communication distance over the network. The performance of the proposed PRRP was critically evaluated in the context of network lifetime, throughput, and energy consumption of the network per individual basis and per data packet basis. The research results were analyzed and benchmarked against the well-known LEACH and CELRP protocols. The outcomes show a significant improvement in the WSN in terms of energy efficiency and the overall performance of WSN.

  20. AREA-EFFICIENT DESIGN OF SCHEDULER FOR ROUTING NODE OF NETWORK-ON-CHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehan Maroofi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Traditional System-on-Chip (SoC design employed shared buses for data transfer among varioussubsystems. As SoCs become more complex involving a larger number of subsystems, traditional busbasedarchitecture is giving way to a new paradigm for on-chip communication. This paradigm is calledNetwork-on-Chip (NoC. A communication network of point-to-point links and routing switches is used tofacilitate communication between subsystems. The routing switch proposed in this paper consists of fourcomponents, namely the input ports, output ports, switching fabric, and scheduler. The scheduler design isdescribed in this paper. The function of the scheduler is to arbitrate between requests by data packets foruse of the switching fabric. The scheduler uses an improved round robin based arbitration algorithm. Dueto the symmetric structure of the scheduler, an area-efficient design is proposed by folding the scheduleronto itself, thereby reducing its area roughly by 50%.

  1. Crossing Active Faults on the Sakhalin II Onshore Pipeline Route: Analysis Methodology and Basic Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitali, Luigino; Mattiozzi, Pierpaolo

    2008-07-01

    Twin oil (20 & 24 inch) and gas (20 & 48 inch) pipeline systems stretching 800 km are being constructed to connect offshore hydrocarbon deposits from the Sakhalin II concession in the North to an LNG plant and oil export terminal in the South of Sakhalin island. The onshore pipeline route follows a regional fault zone and crosses individual active faults at 19 locations. Sakhalin Energy, Design and Construction companies took significant care to ensure the integrity of the pipelines, should large seismic induced ground movements occur during the Operational life of the facilities. Complex investigations including the identification of the active faults, their precise location, their particular displacement values and assessment of the fault kinematics were carried out to provide input data for unique design solutions. Lateral and reverse offset displacements of 5.5 and 4.5 m respectively were determined as the single-event values for the design level earthquake (DLE)—the 1000-year return period event. Within the constraints of a pipeline route largely fixed, the underground pipeline fault crossing design was developed to define the optimum routing which would minimize stresses and strain using linepipe materials which had been ordered prior to the completion of detailed design, and to specify requirements for pipe trenching shape, materials, drainage system, etc. This Paper describes the steps followed to formulate the concept of the special trenches and the analytical characteristics of the Model.

  2. Design of a covert RFID tag network for target discovery and target information routing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Qihe; Narayanan, Ram M

    2011-01-01

    Radio frequency identification (RFID) tags are small electronic devices working in the radio frequency range. They use wireless radio communications to automatically identify objects or people without the need for line-of-sight or contact, and are widely used in inventory tracking, object location, environmental monitoring. This paper presents a design of a covert RFID tag network for target discovery and target information routing. In the design, a static or very slowly moving target in the field of RFID tags transmits a distinct pseudo-noise signal, and the RFID tags in the network collect the target information and route it to the command center. A map of each RFID tag's location is saved at command center, which can determine where a RFID tag is located based on each RFID tag's ID. We propose the target information collection method with target association and clustering, and we also propose the information routing algorithm within the RFID tag network. The design and operation of the proposed algorithms are illustrated through examples. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the design.

  3. A STUDY AND IMPLEMENTATION OF THE TRANSIT ROUTE NETWORK DESIGN PROBLEM FOR A REALISTIC URBAN CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kalochristianakis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The design of public transportation networks presupposes solving optimization problems, involving various parameters such as the proper mathematical description of networks, the algorithmic approach to apply, and also the consideration of real-world, practical characteristics such as the types of vehicles in the network, the frequencies of routes, demand, possible limitations of route capacities, travel decisions made by passengers, the environmental footprint of the system, the available bus technologies, besides others. The current paper presents the progress of the work that aims to study the design of a municipal public transportation system that employs middleware technologies and geographic information services in order to produce practical, realistic results. The system employs novel optimization approaches such as the particle swarm algorithms and also considers various environmental parameters such as the use of electric vehicles and the emissions of conventional ones.

  4. Cross-layer rate control, medium access control and routing design in cooperative VANET

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Liang; Zheng, Baoyu; Geller, Benoit; Wei, Anne; Xu, Shan; Li, Yajun

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we address the rate control, the Medium Access Control (MAC) and the routing problem for cooperative Vehicular Ad-Hoc Network (VANET) in the framework of cross-layer design. At first, we introduce the cooperative communication conception to VANET, and propose an opportunistic cooperation strategy to improve the system performance. And then, we develop a cross-layer solution which consists of the link capacity detection with adjusting persistence probability at the MAC Layer, th...

  5. An alternative tensiometer design for deep vadose zone monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, A. B.; Kandelous, M. M.; Hopmans, J. W.

    2015-12-01

    The conventional tensiometer is among the most accurate devices for soil water matric potential measurements, as well as for estimations of soil water flux from soil water potential gradients. Uncertainties associated with conventional tensiometers such as caused by ambient temperature effects and the draining of the tensiometer tube, as well as their limitation for deep soil monitoring has prevented their widespread use for vadose zone monitoring, despite their superior accuracy, in general. We introduce an alternative tensiometer design that offers the accuracy of the conventional tensiometer, while minimizing afore-mentioned uncertainties and limitations. The proposed alternative tensiometer largely eliminates temperature-induced diurnal fluctuations and uncertainties associated with the draining of the tensiometer tube, and removes the limitation in installation depth. In addition, the manufacturing costs of this alternative tensiometer design is close to that of the conventional tensiometer, while it is especially suited for monitoring of soil water potential gradients as required for soil water flux measurements.

  6. Optimized operation and design of alternating activated sludge processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lukasse, L.J.S.; Keesman, K.J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a simulation study with the scope to optimise the plant design and operation strategy of 2-reactors alternating activated sludge processes with only flow schedule and aeration on/off as control inputs. The methodology is to simulate the application of receding horizon optimal con

  7. Electrohydrodynamic bubbling: an alternative route to fabricate porous structures of silk fibroin based materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekemen, Zeynep; Ahmad, Zeeshan; Stride, Eleanor; Kaplan, David; Edirisinghe, Mohan

    2013-05-13

    Conventional fabrication techniques and structures employed in the design of silk fibroin (SF) based porous materials provide only limited control over pore size and require several processing stages. In this study, it is shown that, by utilizing electrohydrodynamic bubbling, not only can new hollow spherical structures of SF be formed in a single step by means of bubbles, but the resulting bubbles can serve as pore generators when dehydrated. The bubble characteristics can be controlled through simple adjustments to the processing parameters. Bubbles with diameters in the range of 240-1000 μm were fabricated in controlled fashion. FT-IR characterization confirmed that the rate of air infused during processing enhanced β-sheet packing in SF at higher flow rates. Dynamic mechanical analysis also demonstrated a correlation between air flow rate and film tensile strength. Results indicate that electrohydrodynamically generated SF and their composite bubbles can be employed as new tools to generate porous structures in a controlled manner with a range of potential applications in biocoatings and tissue engineering scaffolds.

  8. Final environmental assessment: Los Reales 115 kV transmission line alternative routes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-10-01

    The Central Arizona Project (CAP) was authorized as a part of the Colorado River Basin Project Act (Public Law 90-537) on September 30, 1968. The primary purpose of the CAP is to furnish water for agricultural, municipal, and industrial uses in central and southern Arizona, and western New Mexico. Due to its magnitude, the CAP is divided into several major features serving separate but interrelated functions. The Tucson Aqueduct Phase B pumping plants were designed and constructed to operate on a looped power system. The entire looped power system, including two switching stations and connecting 115-kv transmission lines, was identified in the FEIS and approved for construction in the Secretary of Interior's Record of Decision dated September 24, 1985. The loop begins in the vicinity of the Twin Peaks Pumping Plant -- the northernmost Phase B pumping station, at the Rattlesnake Switching Station. All of the looped power system has been constructed with the exception of the switching station and portion of transmission line proposed to be constructed in this project. Without construction of this final portion of the looped power system, the Phase B pumping plants will not be able to operate normally without negatively affecting nearby power sources. The CAP will also not be able to provide the reliability necessary for municipal water systems dependent upon CAP water. The purpose of this EA is to describe impacts that would result from relocating the Los Reales 115-kV transmission line, and possibly the switching station, originally identified in the FEIS. It should be mentioned the Department of Energy will complete a separate NEPA review.

  9. Low Loss Photonic Switch Based Routing (PSBR Design for Photonic Topology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Reza

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Silicon nanophotonics is suggested as a solution for future multi-core chip communications, because of traditional electrical NoC challenges. Therefore, wide research has been done on the design of optical communications infrastructure. One of challenge in on chip photonic communication is insertion loss that has direct impact on efficiency and network scalability. In this paper, we introduce new photonic switch based routing (PSBR to reduce network insertion loss. Based on evaluation result, the PSBR design for Mesh and D-Mesh topologies shows obvious improvement in efficiency and network scalability

  10. The Virtual Private Network Design Tree Routing Conjecture for Outerplanar Networks (extended abstract)

    CERN Document Server

    Fiorini, Samuel; Sanità, Laura; Theis, Dirk Oliver

    2007-01-01

    The VPN Tree Routing Conjecture is a conjecture about the Virtual Private Network Design problem. It states that the symmetric version of the problem always has an optimum solution which has a tree-like structure. In recent work, Hurkens, Keijsper and Stougie (Proc. IPCO XI, 2005; SIAM J. Discrete Math., 2007) have shown that the conjecture holds when the network is a ring. A shorter proof of the VPN Conjecture for rings was found a few months ago by Grandoni, Kaibel, Oriolo and Skutella (to appear in Oper. Res. Lett., 2008). In their paper, Grandoni et al. introduce another conjecture, called the Pyramidal Routing Conjecture (or simply PR Conjecture), which implies the VPN Conjecture. Here we consider a strengthened version of the PR Conjecture. First we establish several general tools which can be applied in arbitrary networks. Then we use them to prove that outerplanar networks satisfy the PR Conjecture.

  11. Experiencing the Tourist City. The European Capital of Culture in Re-Designing City Routes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Guerreiro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Assuming that providing memorable experiences is the raison d’être of tourism industry, the city envisaged as a tourist destination should assume the tourist’s perspective when designing the settings and the most significant activities of a visit. Cities are facing new challenges, noticeably the globalisation of economies, the growing importance of the visual and the symbolic that define the current trends of consumption and the attractiveness of a place. Culture and events play a strategic role when designing innovative and appealing tourism experiences. The European Capital of Culture (ECoC is an international event which represents a unique opportunity for the cities to stand out in this globalised and competitive scenario. This paper focuses on the study of Pécs, European Capital of Culture 2010, and it aims to study the influence of this event on the design of city tourism routes. A survey by questionnaire was administered to tourists before and during ECoC in Pécs. Respondents indicated in open-ended questions the most outstanding points in their visit to the city, on which were designed the relevant circuits and routes during that tourist experience in Pécs. Data analysis was performed using the statistical software STAS.

  12. Alternate Transportation Routes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Carl

    2009-01-01

    Since last school year, the St. Lucie County (Florida) Public Schools reduced the number of buses it operates from 399 to 362, despite opening two new schools. Add in some other smart changes in policy, and the district lowered its annual transportation costs by more than $3 million over last year. Saving $3 million a year does not come easily,…

  13. A Location-Inventory-Routing Problem in Forward and Reverse Logistics Network Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qunli Yuchi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We study a new problem of location-inventory-routing in forward and reverse logistic (LIRP-FRL network design, which simultaneously integrates the location decisions of distribution centers (DCs, the inventory policies of opened DCs, and the vehicle routing decision in serving customers, in which new goods are produced and damaged goods are repaired by a manufacturer and then returned to the market to satisfy customers’ demands as new ones. Our objective is to minimize the total costs of manufacturing and remanufacturing goods, building DCs, shipping goods (new or recovered between the manufacturer and opened DCs, and distributing new or recovered goods to customers and ordering and storage costs of goods. A nonlinear integer programming model is proposed to formulate the LIRP-FRL. A new tabu search (NTS algorithm is developed to achieve near optimal solution of the problem. Numerical experiments on the benchmark instances of a simplified version of the LIRP-FRL, the capacitated location routing problem, and the randomly generated LIRP-FRL instances demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed NTS algorithm in problem resolution.

  14. Mucoadhesive microemulsion of ibuprofen: design and evaluation for brain targeting efficiency through intranasal route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surjyanarayan Mandal

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at designing mucoadhesive microemulsion gel to enhance the brain uptake of Ibuprofen through intranasal route. Ibuprofen loaded mucoadhesive microemulsion (MMEI was developed by incorporating polycarbophil as mucoadhesive polymer into Capmul MCM based optimal microemulsion (MEI and was subjected to characterization, stability, mucoadhesion and naso-ciliotoxicity study. Brain uptake of ibuprofen via nasal route was studied by performing biodistribution study in Swiss albino rats. MEI was found to be transparent, stable and non ciliotoxic with 66.29 ± 4.15 nm, -20.9 ± 3.98 mV and 98.66 ± 1.01% as average globule size, zeta potential and drug content respectively. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM study revealed the narrow globule size distribution of MEI. Following single intranasal administration of MMEI and MEI at a dose of 2.86 mg/kg, uptake of ibuprofen in the olfactory bulb was around 3.0 and 1.7 folds compared with intravenous injection of ibuprofen solution (IDS. The ratios of AUC in brain tissues to that in plasma obtained after nasal administration of MMEI were significantly higher than those after intravenous administration of IDS. Findings of the present investigation revealed that the developed mucoadhesive microemulsion gel could be a promising approach for brain targeting of ibuprofen through intranasal route.

  15. AREA-EFFICIENT DESIGN OF SCHEDULER FOR ROUTING NODE OF NETWORK-ON-CHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehan Maroof

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Traditional System-on-Chip (SoC design employed shared buses for data transfer among various subsystems. As So Cs become more complex involving a larger number of subsystems, traditional bus based architecture is giving way to a new paradigm for on-chip communication. This paradigm is called Network-on-Chip (NoC. A communication network of point-to-point links and routing switches is used to facilitate communication between subsystems. The routing switch proposed in this paper consists of four components, namely the input ports, output ports, switching fabric, and scheduler. The scheduler design is described in this paper. The function of the scheduler is to arbitrate between requests by data packets for use of the switching fabric. The scheduler uses an improved round robin based arbitration algorithm. Due to the symmetric structure of the scheduler, an area-efficient design is proposed by folding the scheduler onto itself, thereby reducing its area roughly by 50%.

  16. Variability in Criteria for Emergency Medical Services Routing of Acute Stroke Patients to Designated Stroke Center Hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay Dimitrov

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Comprehensive stroke systems of care include routing to the nearest designated stroke center hospital, bypassing non-designated hospitals. Routing protocols are implemented at the state or county level and vary in qualification criteria and determination of destination hospital. We surveyed all counties in the state of California for presence and characteristics of their prehospital stroke routing protocols. Methods: Each county’s local emergency medical services agency (LEMSA was queried for the presence of a stroke routing protocol. We reviewed these protocols for method of stroke identification and criteria for patient transport to a stroke center. Results: Thirty-three LEMSAs serve 58 counties in California with populations ranging from 1,175 to nearly 10 million. Fifteen LEMSAs (45% had stroke routing protocols, covering 23 counties (40% and 68% of the state population. Counties with protocols had higher population density (1,500 vs. 140 persons per square mile. In the six counties without designated stroke centers, patients meeting criteria were transported out of county. Stroke identification in the field was achieved using the Cincinnati Prehospital Stroke Screen in 72%, Los Angeles Prehospital Stroke Screen in 7% and a county-specific protocol in 22%. Conclusion: California EMS prehospital acute stroke routing protocols cover 68% of the state population and vary in characteristics including activation by symptom onset time and destination facility features, reflecting matching of system design to local geographic resources.

  17. Arizona Public Service - Alternative Fuel (Hydrogen) Pilot Plant Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James E. Francfort

    2003-12-01

    Hydrogen has promise to be the fuel of the future. Its use as a chemical reagent and as a rocket propellant has grown to over eight million metric tons per year in the United States. Although use of hydrogen is abundant, it has not been used extensively as a transportation fuel. To assess the viability of hydrogen as a transportation fuel and the viability of producing hydrogen using off-peak electric energy, Pinnacle West Capital Corporation (PNW) and its electric utility subsidiary, Arizona Public Service (APS) designed, constructed, and operates a hydrogen and compressed natural gas fueling station—the APS Alternative Fuel Pilot Plant. This report summarizes the design of the APS Alternative Fuel Pilot Plant and presents lessons learned from its design and construction. Electric Transportation Applications prepared this report under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory manages these activities for the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity.

  18. An Evaluation of Alternative Designs for a Grid Information Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Warren; Waheed, Abdul; Meyers, David; Yan, Jerry; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Globus information service wasn't working well. There were many updates of data from Globus daemons which saturated the single server and users couldn't retrieve information. We created a second server for NASA and Alliance. Things were great on that server, but a bit slow on the other server. We needed to know exactly how the information service was being used. What were the best servers and configurations? This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of the evaluation of alternative designs for a Grid Information Service. Details are given on the workload characterization, methodology used, and the performance evaluation.

  19. 31 CFR 0.104 - Designated Agency Ethics Official and Alternate Designated Agency Ethics Official.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Standards and Treasury Supplemental Standards and Rules. See 5 CFR 2638.203. The Senior Counsel for Ethics... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Designated Agency Ethics Official and Alternate Designated Agency Ethics Official. 0.104 Section 0.104 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of...

  20. Creating an alternative design for ASITA Corporate identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Elise

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to find the solution to the problem outlined,which is to create an alternative design for corporate identity of ASITA. ASITA is anonprofit organization to foster tour and travel agencies in Indonesia.The writer had conducted interview to the ASITA Jakarta Chapter, whichwas appointed to represent ASITA in providing the data needed by the writer. Thewriter interviewed the advisor of the organization, Mrs. Meity Robot, which had onceserved as chairperson of ASITA.The result of the research is new corporate identity system of ASITA basedon a concept that ASITA as an organization, serves as a compass that guides andassists in every directions.The writer found that corporate identity is an important element to definean organization as well as giving impact on its first impression. To create goodcorporate identity, several things such as elements of design, color, typography, etc.need to be put into attention.

  1. An alternative LEU design for the FRM-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Alternative LEU Design for the FRM-II proposed by the RERTR Program at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has a compact core consisting of a single fuel element that uses LEU silicide fuel with a uranium density of 4.5 g/cm3 and has a power level of 32 MW. Both the HEU design by the Technical University of Munich (TUM) and the alternative LEU design by ANL have the same fuel lifetime (50 days) and the same neutron flux performance (8 x 1014 n/cm2/s in the reflector). LEU silicide fuel with 4.5 g/cm3 has been thoroughly tested and is fully-qualified, licensable, and available now for use in a high flux reactor such as the FRM-II. The following issues raised by TUM were addressed: qualification of HEU and LEU silicide fuels, gamma heating in the heavy water reflector, radiological consequences of larger fission product and plutonium inventories in the LEU core, and cost and schedule. The conclusions of these analyses are summarized below. This paper addresses three additional safety issues that were raised by TUM: stability of the involute fuel plates, a hypothetical accident involving the configuration of the reflector, and a loss of primary coolant flow transient due to an interrupted power supply. Calculations were also done to address the possibility that new high density fuels could be developed that would allow conversion of the TUM HEU design to LEU fuel. Based on the excellent results for the Alternative LEU Design that were obtained in these analyses, the RERTR Program concludes that all of the major technical issues regarding use of LEU fuel instead of HEU fuel in the FRM-II have been successfully resolved and that it is definitely feasible to use LEU fuel in the FRM-II without compromising the safety or performance of the facility. In this regard, the RERTR Program would like to reiterate its strong support for construction of the FRM-II reactor using LEU silicide fuel and its readiness to exchange information with the TUM to resolve any technical

  2. Power-Aware Routing and Network Design with Bundled Links: Solutions and Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario G. Garroppo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deeply analyzes a novel network-wide power management problem, called Power-Aware Routing and Network Design with Bundled Links (PARND-BL, which is able to take into account both the relationship between the power consumption and the traffic throughput of the nodes and to power off both the chassis and even the single Physical Interface Card (PIC composing each link. The solutions of the PARND-BL model have been analyzed by taking into account different aspects associated with the actual applicability in real network scenarios: (i the time for obtaining the solution, (ii the deployed network topology and the resulting topology provided by the solution, (iii the power behavior of the network elements, (iv the traffic load, (v the QoS requirement, and (vi the number of paths to route each traffic demand. Among the most interesting and novel results, our analysis shows that the strategy of minimizing the number of powered-on network elements through the traffic consolidation does not always produce power savings, and the solution of this kind of problems, in some cases, can lead to spliting a single traffic demand into a high number of paths.

  3. Ant Colony Based Approach for Solving FPGA routing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay Chopra

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on an ant colony optimization algorithm (ASDR for solving FPGA routing for a route based routing constraint model in FPGA design architecture. In this approach FPGA routing task is transformed into a Boolean Satisfiabilty (SAT equation with the property that any assignment of input variables that satisfies the equation specifies a valid route. The Satisfiability equation is then modeled as Constraint Satisfaction problem, which helps in reducing procedural programming. Satisfying assignment for particular route will result in a valid routing and absence of a satisfying assignment implies that the layout is unroutable. In second step ant colony optimization algorithm is applied on the Boolean equation for solving routing alternatives utilizing approach of hard combinatorial optimization problems. The experimental results suggest that the developed ant colony optimization algorithm based router has taken extremely short CPU time as compared to classical Satisfiabilty based detailed router (SDR and finds all possible routes even for large FPGA circuits.

  4. Incorporating alternative design clinical trials in network meta-analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorlund K

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Kristian Thorlund,1–3 Eric Druyts,1,4 Kabirraaj Toor,1,5 Jeroen P Jansen,1,6 Edward J Mills1,3 1Redwood Outcomes, Vancouver, BC, 2Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada; 3Stanford Prevention Research Center, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA; 4Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, 5School of Population and Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 6Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Tufts University, Boston, MA, USA Introduction: Network meta-analysis (NMA is an extension of conventional pairwise meta-analysis that allows for simultaneous comparison of multiple interventions. Well-established drug class efficacies have become commonplace in many disease areas. Thus, for reasons of ethics and equipoise, it is not practical to randomize patients to placebo or older drug classes. Unique randomized clinical trial designs are an attempt to navigate these obstacles. These alternative designs, however, pose challenges when attempting to incorporate data into NMAs. Using ulcerative colitis as an example, we illustrate an example of a method where data provided by these trials are used to populate treatment networks. Methods: We present the methods used to convert data from the PURSUIT trial into a typical parallel design for inclusion in our NMA. Data were required for three arms: golimumab 100 mg; golimumab 50 mg; and placebo. Golimumab 100 mg induction data were available; however, data regarding those individuals who were nonresponders at induction and those who were responders at maintenance were not reported, and as such, had to be imputed using data from the rerandomization phase. Golimumab 50 mg data regarding responses at week 6 were not available. Existing relationships between the available components were used to impute the expected proportions in this missing subpopulation. Data for placebo maintenance

  5. Comparison of the FRM-II HEU design with an alternative LEU design. Attachment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After presentation of the foregoing paper by Dr. Nelson Hanan of Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) proposing an alternative LEU core with one fuel ring and a power level of 33 MW, a presentation was made by Dr. Klaus Boning of the Technical University of Munich comparing the FRM-II HEU design with an LEU design by Tlm that had two fuel rings and a power level of 40 MW. Dr. Boning raised the following issues concerning the use of LEU fuel in FRM-H reactor designs: (1) qualification of HEU and LEU silicide fuels, (2) gamma heating in the heavy water reflector, (3) the radiological consequences of hypothetical accidents, and (4) cost and schedule. These issues are addressed in this Attachment. In his presentation, Dr. Hanan mentioned that ANL was also investigating other LEU designs. This work led to a second alternative LEU design that has the same neutron flux performance (8 x 1014 n/cm2/s peak neutron flux in the reflector) and the same fuel lifetime (50 full power days) as the HEU design, but uses LEU silicide fuel with a uranium density of only 4.5 g/cm3. This design was achieved by using a fuel plate that has a fuel meat thickness of 0.76 mm, a cladding thickness of 0.38 mm, and a water channel gap of 2.2 mm. A comparison is shown of the main characteristics of this second alternative LEU design with those of the FRM-II HEU design. The ANL core again has one fuel ring with the same dimensions. With this LEU design, a two stage process is no longer necessary because LEU silicide fuel with a uranium density of 4.5 g/cm3 is fully qualified, licensable, and available now for use in a high flux reactor such as the FRM-II

  6. Design and Development of a Flight Route Modification, Logging, and Communication Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlino, Daniel K.; Wilson, C. Logan; Carboneau, Lindsey M.; Wilder, Andrew J.; Underwood, Matthew C.

    2016-01-01

    There is an overwhelming desire to create and enhance communication mechanisms between entities that operate within the National Airspace System. Furthermore, airlines are always extremely interested in increasing the efficiency of their flights. An innovative system prototype was developed and tested that improves collaborative decision making without modifying existing infrastructure or operational procedures within the current Air Traffic Management System. This system enables collaboration between flight crew and airline dispatchers to share and assess optimized flight routes through an Internet connection. Using a sophisticated medium-fidelity flight simulation environment, a rapid-prototyping development, and a unified modeling language, the software was designed to ensure reliability and scalability for future growth and applications. Ensuring safety and security were primary design goals, therefore the software does not interact or interfere with major flight control or safety systems. The system prototype demonstrated an unprecedented use of in-flight Internet to facilitate effective communication with Airline Operations Centers, which may contribute to increased flight efficiency for airlines.

  7. Routes for GMR-Sensor Design in Non-Destructive Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Schütze

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available GMR sensors are widely used in many industrial segments such as information technology, automotive, automation and production, and safety applications. Each area requires an adaption of the sensor arrangement in terms of size adaption and alignment with respect to the field source involved. This paper deals with an analysis of geometric sensor parameters and the arrangement of GMR sensors providing a design roadmap for non-destructive testing (NDT applications. For this purpose we use an analytical model simulating the magnetic flux leakage (MFL distribution of surface breaking defects and investigate the flux leakage signal as a function of various sensor parameters. Our calculations show both the influence of sensor length and height and that when detecting the magnetic flux leakage of µm sized defects a gradiometer base line of 250 µm leads to a signal strength loss of less than 10% in comparison with a magnetometer response. To validate the simulation results we finally performed measurements with a GMR magnetometer sensor on a test plate with artificial µm-range cracks. The differences between simulation and measurement are below 6%. We report on the routes for a GMR gradiometer design as a basis for the fabrication of NDT-adapted sensor arrays. The results are also helpful for the use of GMR in other application when it comes to measure positions, lengths, angles or electrical currents.

  8. Quantitative design space exploration of routing-switches for Network-on-Chip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Neuenhahn

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Future Systems-on-Chip (SoC will consist of many embedded functional units like e.g. embedded processor cores, memories or FPGA like structures. These SoCs will have huge communication demands, which can not be fulfilled by bus-based communication systems. Possible solutions to this problem are so called Networks-on-Chip (NoC.

    These NoCs basically consist of network-interfaces which integrate functional units into the NoC and routing-switches which connect the network-interfaces. Here, VLSI-based routing-switch implementations are presented. The characteristics of these NoCs like performance and costs (e.g. silicon area respectively logic elements, power dissipation depend on a variety of parameters. As a routing-switch is a key component of a NoC, the costs and performance of routing-switches are compared for different parameter combinations. Evaluated parameters are for example data word length, architecture of the routing-switch (parallel vs. centralized implementation and routing-algorithm.

    The performance and costs of routing-switches were evaluated using an FPGA-based NoC-emulator. In addition different routing-switches were implemented using a 90 nm standard-cell library to determine the maximum clock frequency, power-dissipation and area of a VLSI-implementation. The power consumption was determined by simulating the extracted layout of the routing-switches. Finally, these results are benchmarked to other routing-switch implementations like Aetheral and xpipes.

  9. The study, design and simulation of a free piston Stirling engine linear alternatorThe study, design and simulation of a free piston Stirling engine linear alternator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodora Susana Oros

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study, design and simulation of a Free Piston Stirling Engine Linear Alternator. There are presented the main steps of the magnetic and electric calculations for a permanent magnet linear alternator of fixed coil and moving magnets type. Finally, a detailed thermal, mechanical and electrical model for a Stirling engine linear alternator have been made in SIMULINK simulation program. The linear alternator simulation model uses a controllable DC voltage which simulates the linear alternator combined with a rectifier, a variable load and a DC-DC converter, which compensates for the variable nature of Stirling engine operation, and ensures a constant voltage output regardless of the load.

  10. Integrated routing and fill for self-aligned double patterning (SADP) using grid-based design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Youngsoo; Lee, Jeemyung; Lee, Seongmin; Shin, Youngsoo

    2016-03-01

    Self-aligned double patterning (SADP) has been proposed as an alternative patterning solution for sub-10nm technology because of delay of advanced lithography beyond 193nm ArF. In conventional SADP, line and space style of dummy metal fills are inserted once main design is complete. A large buffer distance is required around the main design because no further verification of main design (in presence of fills) is performed. This causes irregular pattern density, which becomes a source of process variations. We propose integrated-fill, in which main design and dummy fill insertion are performed together. This requires a change in overall design flow, which we discuss. Integrated-fill is demonstrated in M2 layer of SADP process; M2 density increases by 15.7% with 2.3% reduction in standard deviation of density distribution; metal thickness variation is also reduced by 24%. More dummy fills cause increased coupling capacitance, which however is shown to be insignificant.

  11. Routing Proposals for Multipath Interdomain Routing

    OpenAIRE

    Bilal, Sardar M.; Dilber, Muhammad Naveed; Khan, Atta ur Rehman

    2013-01-01

    Internet is composed of numbers of independent autonomous systems. BGP is used to disseminate reachability information and establishing path between autonomous systems. Each autonomous system is allowed to select a single route to a destination and then export the selected route to its neighbors. The selection of single best route imposes restrictions on the use of alternative paths during interdomain link failure and thus, incurred packet loss. Packet loss still occurs even when multiple pat...

  12. Design of an Energy Efficient Routing Protocol for MANETs based on AODV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annapurna P Patil

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs also called mesh networks are self-configuring networks of mobile devices connected by wireless links. MANETs are deployed in situations where there is no existing infrastructure, such as emergency search and rescue, military, etc. Each application has a different set of requirements. In this paper we concentrate on emergency search and rescue operations which rely heavily on the availability of the network. The availability is a direct cost of the overall network lifetime, i.e., energy of the nodes. The first objective of our work is to select two existing energy efficient routing protocols based on AODV, each of which is based on a different energy cost metric. We then propose the design of a protocol that is a combination of two energy cost metrics in a single protocol. The second objective is to evaluate the performance of the proposed protocol against the two protocols chosen for combination and against the traditional AODV. The performance metrics used for evaluation are packet delivery ratio, throughput, network lifetime and average energy consumed. The simulation will be done using NS2 network simulator.

  13. Comparison of haematopoietic stem cell engraftment through the retro-orbital venous sinus and the lateral vein: alternative routes for bone marrow transplantation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon-Rico, D; Fernández-García, M; Aldea, M; Sánchez, R; Peces-Barba, M; Martinez-Palacio, J; Yáñez, R M; Almarza, E

    2015-04-01

    Bone marrow transplantation in mice is performed by intravenous administration of haematopoietic repopulating cells, usually via the lateral tail vein. This technique can be technically challenging to carry out and may cause distress to the mice. The retro-orbital sinus is a large area where there is a confluence of several vessels that provides an alternative route for intravenous access. Retro-orbital injection, although aesthetically unpleasant, can be performed rapidly without requiring mechanical restriction or heat-induced vasodilation. In addition, this technique can be easily learned by novice manipulators. This route of administration has been reported for use in bone marrow transplantation but there is no comparison of retro-orbital and tail vein injections reported for this specific purpose, although both routes have been compared for many other applications. Here, we provide for the first time a comprehensive comparison between tail vein and retro-orbital injections for two different bone marrow transplant scenarios in P3B and B6D2F1 mice. In both cases, no significant differences regarding donor engraftment were observed between mice transplanted using each of the techniques. Haematological counts and leukocyte subpopulation distribution were practically identical between both animal groups. Moreover, donor engraftment levels were less homogenous when cells were transplanted by tail vein injection, probably due to a higher risk of failure associated with this technique. All these data suggest that retro-orbital injection is a compelling alternative to conventional tail vein injection for bone marrow transplant in mice, providing similar and more homogenous haematopoietic reconstitution.

  14. Values-led Participatory Design as a pursuit of meaningful alternatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leong, Tuck Wah; Iversen, Ole Sejer

    2015-01-01

    Participatory Design (PD) is inherently concerned with inquiring into and supporting human values when designing IT. We argue that a PD approach that is led by a focus upon participants' values can allow participants to discover meaningful alternatives -- alternative uses and alternative conceptu......Participatory Design (PD) is inherently concerned with inquiring into and supporting human values when designing IT. We argue that a PD approach that is led by a focus upon participants' values can allow participants to discover meaningful alternatives -- alternative uses and alternative...... conceptualizations for IT that are particularly meaningful to them. However, how PD works with values in the design process has not been made explicit. In this paper, we aim to (i) explicate this values-led PD approach, (ii) illustrate how this approach can lead to outcomes that are meaningful alternatives, and (iii...

  15. Design of Survivable Routing with and without Wavelength-continuity Constraints in WDM Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Fengqing(刘逢清); Zeng Qingji; Zhu Xu; Yang Xudong; Xiao Shilin

    2004-01-01

    The problem of routing logical links (lightpaths) on a physical topology of WDM networks in a way that the logical topology remains connected in the event of single physical link failure is called survivable routing. This paper addresses the survivable routing problem with and without wavelength-continuity constraints by proposing a new Integer Linear Programming (ILP) algorithm, which is based on a simplified necessary and sufficient condition. Numerical results are given and discussed to show that survivable routing solutions of most logical topologies can be found by the algorithm of the authors. Furthermore, comparing with other similar methods, the above algorithm can find out a survivable solution in much shorter time, and it works especially well with sparse-connected logical topologies. The impact of wavelength-continuity constraints and the other factors that influence the probability to find out a survivable solution are also discussed in the paper.

  16. Alternative design for extremely large telescopes and options to use the VATT for ELT design demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, Mark R.; McGraw, John T.; Zimmer, Peter C.

    2013-12-01

    A variety of optical designs for extremely large telescopes (ELTs) can be found throughout the technical literature. Most feature very fast primary mirrors of either conic or spherical figure. For those designs with conic primary mirrors, many of the optical approaches tend to be derivatives of either the aplanatic Cassegrain or Gregorian systems. The Cassegrain approach is more common as it results in a shorter optical system, but it requires a large convex aspheric secondary mirror, which is extremely difficult and expensive to test. The Gregorian approach is physically longer and suffers from greater field curvature. In some design variations, additional mirrors are added to reimage and possibly flatten a Cassegrain focus. An interesting alternative ELT design uses a small Cassegrain system to image the collimated output of a Gregorian-Mersenne concentrator. Another alternative approach, currently in favor for use on the European ELT, uses three powered mirrors and two flat mirrors to reimage a Cassegrain focus out the side similar to a Nasmyth system. A preliminary examination suggests that a small, fast primary mirror, such as that used on the VATT, might be used for a subscale prototype of current ELT optical design options.

  17. On Energy-Efficient Hierarchical Cross-Layer Design: Joint Power Control and Routing for Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Comaniciu

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A hierarchical cross-layer design approach is proposed to increase energy efficiency in ad hoc networks through joint adaptation of nodes' transmitting powers and route selection. The design maintains the advantages of the classic OSI model, while accounting for the cross-coupling between layers, through information sharing. The proposed joint power control and routing algorithm is shown to increase significantly the overall energy efficiency of the network, at the expense of a moderate increase in complexity. Performance enhancement of the joint design using multiuser detection is also investigated, and it is shown that the use of multiuser detection can increase the capacity of the ad hoc network significantly for a given level of energy consumption.

  18. On Energy-Efficient Hierarchical Cross-Layer Design: Joint Power Control and Routing for Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poor HVincent

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A hierarchical cross-layer design approach is proposed to increase energy efficiency in ad hoc networks through joint adaptation of nodes' transmitting powers and route selection. The design maintains the advantages of the classic OSI model, while accounting for the cross-coupling between layers, through information sharing. The proposed joint power control and routing algorithm is shown to increase significantly the overall energy efficiency of the network, at the expense of a moderate increase in complexity. Performance enhancement of the joint design using multiuser detection is also investigated, and it is shown that the use of multiuser detection can increase the capacity of the ad hoc network significantly for a given level of energy consumption.

  19. On Energy Efficient Hierarchical Cross-Layer Design: Joint Power Control and Routing for Ad Hoc Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Comaniciu, Cristina

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, a hierarchical cross-layer design approach is proposed to increase energy efficiency in ad hoc networks through joint adaptation of nodes' transmitting powers and route selection. The design maintains the advantages of the classic OSI model, while accounting for the cross-coupling between layers, through information sharing. The proposed joint power control and routing algorithm is shown to increase significantly the overall energy efficiency of the network, at the expense of a moderate increase in complexity. Performance enhancement of the joint design using multiuser detection is also investigated, and it is shown that the use of multiuser detection can increase the capacity of the ad hoc network significantly for a given level of energy consumption.

  20. Design and implementation of a delay-optimized universal programmable routing circuit for FPGAs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Fang; Zhang Huowen; Lai Jinmei; Wang Yuan; Chen Liguang; Duan Lei; Tong Jiarong

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a universal field programmable gate array (FPGA) programmable routing circuit,focusing primarily on a delay optimization. Under the precondition of the routing resource's flexibility and routability, the number of programmable interconnect points (PIP) is reduced, and a multiplexer (MUX) plus a BUFFER structure is adopted as the programmable switch. Also, the method of offset lines and the method of complementary hanged end-lines are applied to the TILE routing circuit and the I/O routing circuit, respectively. All of the above features ensure that the whole FPGA chip is highly repeatable, and the signal delay is uniform and predictable over the total chip. Meanwhile, the BUFFER driver is optimized to decrease the signal delay by up to 5%. The proposed routing circuit is applied to the Fudan programmable device (FDP) FPGA, which has been taped out with an SMIC 0.18-μm logic 1P6M process. The test result shows that the programmable routing resource works correctly, and the signal delay over the chip is highly uniform and predictable.

  1. Design and implementation of a delay-optimized universal programmable routing circuit for FPGAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Wu; Huowen, Zhang; Jinmei, Lai; Yuan, Wang; Liguang, Chen; Lei, Duan; Jiarong, Tong

    2009-06-01

    This paper presents a universal field programmable gate array (FPGA) programmable routing circuit, focusing primarily on a delay optimization. Under the precondition of the routing resource's flexibility and routability, the number of programmable interconnect points (PIP) is reduced, and a multiplexer (MUX) plus a BUFFER structure is adopted as the programmable switch. Also, the method of offset lines and the method of complementary hanged end-lines are applied to the TILE routing circuit and the I/O routing circuit, respectively. All of the above features ensure that the whole FPGA chip is highly repeatable, and the signal delay is uniform and predictable over the total chip. Meanwhile, the BUFFER driver is optimized to decrease the signal delay by up to 5%. The proposed routing circuit is applied to the Fudan programmable device (FDP) FPGA, which has been taped out with an SMIC 0.18-μm logic 1P6M process. The test result shows that the programmable routing resource works correctly, and the signal delay over the chip is highly uniform and predictable.

  2. Performance Analysis of Route Discovery by Cross Layer Routing Protocol- RDCLRP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehajabeen Fatima

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Wired and wireless network is based on the TCP / IP architecture but it is not sufficient to cope with the dynamics of the MANET. Cross layer design can be an alternative architecture for MANET. Frequent route break is one of the major problems of mobile adhoc network (MANET. Path breaks due to less available battery power and mobility of nodes. Most of the battery power is consumed in flooding of control packets. A key challenge in the design of efficient routing protocol is to reduce link breakage and flooding of control packets. Route breakage can be reduced if the possibility of route breakage is predicted and a handoff is done without drop of data packets. If route breakage is reduced, the more battery power will be available with nodes. In turn it reduces the possibility of route breakage and the possibility of flooding. This is a cumulative effect. So a novel preemptive route repair algorithm is proposed named as RDCLRP- Route discovery by cross layer routing protocol to reduce frequency of control packet flooding and route breakage. Three variants of RDCLRP and their results are illustrated. In this paper, the impact of the number of nodes on performance of RDCLRP are investigated and analyzed. The results show 55.6% reduction in link breakage, 14.7% improvement in residual battery power and an average of 6.7% increase in throughput compared to basic AODV.

  3. One shots and alternatives in synchronous digital system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Undesirable features of nonostable multivibrators (one shots) in digital integrated circuits are described and some alternatives to their use are discussed. These include flip-flops and gates, delay lines, and other methods

  4. Efficient Resource Conservation Design in Mobile Ad hoc Networks Using Reactive Routing Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.Sujitha

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Ad hoc Network is a compilation of wireless mobile terminals that are in contact with each other in the absence of a permanent infrastructure network. This gives a irregular formation. Many resources like power, energy, reliable data delivery and end to end delay plays a significant role in the network. But due to the dynamic movement of nodes, power management and energy conservation stands as a critical area. This is also due to the limited battery power and the maximum utilization of power by the nodes in the network .The responsibility of saving power has increased and it is possible byminimizing the consumption during the routing process. It is done in order to expand the lifetime of the network. In view of such a vital position, we introduce a new algorithm using an MAODV( Modified AdHoc On-Demand Distance Vector Routing Protocol protocol which exactly concentrates on power awareness at the time of route selection. Power status of each and every node is observed to avoid excess consumption. It also makes sure that there is a rise in the speed of route selection and discovery process. Route Patch-Up scheme used in this algorithm results in optimum utilization of power using an Modified AODV (MAODV protocol. Thus the idea proposed provides better performance through simulation over NS2.

  5. Optimal design and routing of power lines; ecological, technical and economic perspectives (OPTIPOL). Progress report 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bevanger, K.; Bartzke, G.; Broeseth, H.; Gjershaug, J.O.; Hanssen, F.; Jacobsen, K.-O.; Kvaloey, P.; May, R.; Nygaard, T.; Pedersen, H.C.; Reitan, O.; Refsnaes, S.; Stokke, S.; Vang, R.

    2009-12-15

    From 2009 inclusive, NINA has received economic support for research on power lines and wildlife from the Norwegian Research Council (NFR) through the RENERGI Programme. The project is named 'Optimal design and routing of power lines; ecological, technical and economic perspectives' (OPTIPOL). It is scheduled for 5 years (2009-1013) and is part of the activities within CEDREN, i.e. the Centre for environmental design of renewable energy (cf. http://www.cedren.no). With a grid close to 200 000 km overhead power-lines, the associated rights-of-way (ROW) affect huge land areas in Norway. The overall goal is to develop predict-ing tools for optimal routing of power lines from an environmental perspective and assess technical and economic solutions to minimize conflicts with wildlife and habitat conservation. Thus, the OPTIPOL rationale is based on the belief that the negative effects of electricity transmission and distribution can be reduced with respect to birds and mammals. OPTIPOL has several ambitious objectives, and is divided into sub-projects and specific tasks. From the first of November a PhD-student became part of the project, a position that will be held for 4 years. The main objective of the PhD-activities will be to assess how and why different wildlife species use deforested areas below power lines, evaluate possible positive and negative effects of power-line ROWs, and assess the possibilities for quality improvement. Another part of the project is dedicated the effects of linear structures on movement patterns and distribution in the landscape in native deer species. Here we will examine how different spatial scales influence the processes that guide movement patterns, and responses to linear structures. Another focus will be small game species, with mountain hare, capercaillie, black grouse and hazel grouse as model species. The main objective will be to assess the impact of transforming ROW habitats into attractive small-game foraging

  6. Design and Implementation of EAR Algorithm for Detecting Routing Attacks in WSN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimple Juneja

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The work proposes an ant-based method for detecting congestion and various routing attacks in Wireless Sensor Network. The prime parameters under consideration are Energy, Age and Reliability (EAR. Although researchers have proposed number of mechanisms for detecting congestion and routing attacks in WSN but very few of them have thought of deploying ants as intelligent entities which are computationally efficient. Moreover, the previous works had been focusing on using parameters like energy, hop and distance but none have used age and reliability of node as important parameters. This work uniquely contributes an ant-based detection algorithm that considers all of the above mentioned attributes. The simulation results show that minimum number of ants can discover maximum number of routing faults and consumes less energy which is an important constraint in Wireless Sensor Network.

  7. Modular Design/Phased Construction Alternative Evaluation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartztrauber, K.

    1999-05-28

    Modular design concepts are being considered for the license application during the surface facility design phase of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). The Viability Assessment (VA) design is used as the reference design for the report. The primary objectives are to spread construction of the WHB and the subsurface repository over time to reduce annual project costs, and to provide a cost-effective design for the surface facilities that supports waste emplacement starting in the year 2010.

  8. Optimal design and routing of power lines; ecological, technical and economic perspectives (OPTIPOL). Progress report 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bevanger, Kjetil; Bartzke, Gundula; Broeseth, Henrik; Dahl, Espen Lie; Gjershaug, Jan Ove; Hanssen, Frank; Jacobsen, Karl-Otto; Kleven, Oddmund; Kvaloey, Paal; May, Roel; Meaas, Roger; Nygaaard, Torgeir; Resnaes, Steinar; Stokke, Sigbjoern; Thomassen, Joern

    2012-07-01

    birds in the database, compared to only 117 a year earlier. WP5 - 'A Least Cost Path (LCP) toolbox for optimal route routing of power lines', has developed an LCP-pilot to demonstrate the LCP method, based on the impact studies were undertaken prior to construction of a 420 kV transmission line in Central Norway 2005. Relevant economic, ecological and technological environment criteria based on suggestions from interested users (NGOs, government, industry, etc.), was used. LCP-pilot and a fuzzy-logic approach of this was demonstrated in the first dialogue-based workshop, 23.-24. april 2012. The seminar, which had an emphasis on criteria definitions were followed up with a working seminar that focused criterion values ??on 20 november 2012. Lecture - 'A Least Cost Path (LCP) Toolbox for Optimal Routing of Power Lines, -was presented and submitted as contributions to the conference report from 'The 10th ROW Conference' in Arizona, 'The 32nd Annual Conference of the International Association for Impact Assessment (IAIA12) ' in Porto, Portugal, and 'The ESRI European User Conference' in Oslo. WP6 - 'Birds and camouflaging of power lines', has almost completed the final report, 'Power line camouflaging. An assessment of the ecological and technical challenges'. 'Because of the budget situation in CEDREN However, completion of the report postponed until the end of April 2013. WP7 - 'Effect of line marking / modifications remedial measures against bird mortality' has almost completed the final report 'Opportunities and limitations in terms of reducing mortality in birds due to collision and electrocution.' Due to overall budget situation in CEDREN the report deferred to the end of april 2013. WP8, 'guidelines for technological solutions that may reduce mortality in birds because of the power line's', has focused topics relating to the labeling, design, insulation, camouflage and wiring. The results, which are presented in the notes and articles, will be implemented in

  9. Design of an Energy Efficient and Delay Tolerant Routing Protocol for Wireless Body Area Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms.Venkateswari.R

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The Wireless Body Area Network provide continuous health monitoring and real-time feedback to the medical personnel. The devices used for WBAN have limited energy resources. For most devices it is impossible to recharge or change the batteries. Low power is needed to provide long lifetime to the devices. All devices are equally important and devices are only added when they are needed for an application. The data mostly consists of medical information. Hence, high reliability and low delay is required. Cluster topology and Dynamic Source Routing Protocol provides high packet delivery ratio, low delay and low energy consumption. In this paper, a modification in the DSR routing protocol has been proposed. The modified DSR named as EDSR (Efficient Dynamic Source Routing, reduces the delay by reducing the average end to end delay for the node and reduces the number of packets dropped thereby increasing packet delivery ratio. Energy consumption in EDSR is decreased by 16.73% when compared to DSR. This protocol reduces the energy consumption and delay by reducing the time needed for route discovery process. EDSR achieves high residual battery capacity which eliminates the need for recharging the batteries thereby ensuring long lifetime of the devices.

  10. Application of the Fuzzy Comprehensive Assessment Technique to Optimal Selection of Pipeline Design Alternative

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChuFeixue; ChuYanfan; LiuXiumin

    2005-01-01

    Regarding the influencing factors in an optimal selection of pipeline design alternative as fuzzy variables with different weights, a fuzzy comprehensive assessment was applied to an optimal selection of the design alternative. Giving the Lanzhou-Chengdu pipeline as an example to explain the process, the result shows that this method is acceptable.

  11. Fiber-optic tunable multiwavelength variable attenuator and routing module designs that use bulk acousto-optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riza, Nabeel A; Mughal, M Junaid

    2005-02-10

    A compact fiber-coupled bulk acousto-optical multiwavelength variable optical attenuator module design that uses a retroreflective double-pass geometry within a single bulk acousto-optic tunable filter device is presented. The proposed attenuator module demonstrates a high 17-dB notch dynamic range at a low 100-mW drive power and uses a single bulk collinear-interaction acousto-optic tunable-filter device. Experiments show a low (design is extended to allow for efficient architectures for routing modules such as agile drop filters, analog hitless tap filters, and digital add-drop switches.

  12. Using sequence data to identify alternative routes and risk of infection: a case-study of campylobacter in Scotland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bessell Paul R

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic typing data are a potentially powerful resource for determining how infection is acquired. In this paper MLST typing was used to distinguish the routes and risks of infection of humans with Campylobacter jejuni from poultry and ruminant sources Methods C. jejuni samples from animal and environmental sources and from reported human cases confirmed between June 2005 and September 2006 were typed using MLST. The STRUCTURE software was used to assign the specific sequence types of the sporadic human cases to a particular source. We then used mixed case-case logistic regression analysis to compare the risk factors for being infected with C. jejuni from different sources. Results A total of 1,599 (46.3% cases were assigned to poultry, 1,070 (31.0% to ruminant and 67 (1.9% to wild bird sources; the remaining 715 (20.7% did not have a source that could be assigned with a probability of greater than 0.95. Compared to ruminant sources, cases attributed to poultry sources were typically among adults (odds ratio (OR = 1.497, 95% confidence intervals (CIs = 1.211, 1.852, not among males (OR = 0.834, 95% CIs = 0.712, 0.977, in areas with population density of greater than 500 people/km2 (OR = 1.213, 95% CIs = 1.030, 1.431, reported in the winter (OR = 1.272, 95% CIs = 1.067, 1.517 and had undertaken recent overseas travel (OR = 1.618, 95% CIs = 1.056, 2.481. The poultry assigned strains had a similar epidemiology to the unassigned strains, with the exception of a significantly higher likelihood of reporting overseas travel in unassigned strains. Conclusions Rather than estimate relative risks for acquiring infection, our analyses show that individuals acquire C. jejuni infection from different sources have different associated risk factors. By enhancing our ability to identify at-risk groups and the times at which these groups are likely to be at risk, this work allows public health messages to be targeted more effectively. The

  13. Implications of solar energy alternatives for community design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, A.; Steinitz, C.

    1980-06-01

    A graduate-level studio at the Harvard School of Design explored how a policy of solar-based energy independence will influence the design of a new community of approximately 4500 housing units and other uses. Three large sites outside Tucson (a cooling problem), Atlanta (a humidity problem), and Boston (a heating problem) were selected. Each is typical of its region. A single program was assumed and designed for. Each site had two teams, one following a compact approach and one following a more dispersed approach. Each was free to choose the most appropriate mix of (solar) technology and scale, and was free to integrate energy and community in the design as it saw fit. These choice and integration issues are key areas where our experience may be of interest to those involved in community design and solar energy.

  14. Tree Component Alternatives to the Composite Design Pattern

    OpenAIRE

    Sudhir, Arun

    2008-01-01

    The Composite design pattern is commonly employed in object-oriented languages to design a system of objects that form a part-whole hierarchical structure with composite objects formed out of primitive objects. The client does not differentiate between a composite object and a primitive object. The composite hierarchy effectively forms a tree-like hierarchical grouping of objects. From a software engineering perspective, there are at least two problems with the Composite pattern. First, it do...

  15. Confine Clay in an Alternating Multilayered Structure through Injection Molding: A Simple and Efficient Route to Improve Barrier Performance of Polymeric Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Feilong; Deng, Hua; Bai, Hongwei; Zhang, Qin; Wang, Ke; Chen, Feng; Fu, Qiang

    2015-05-20

    Various methods have been devoted to trigger the formation of multilayered structure for wide range of applications. These methods are often complicated with low production efficiency or require complex equipment. Herein, we demonstrate a simple and efficient method for the fabrication of polymeric sheets containing multilayered structure with enhanced barrier property through high speed thin-wall injection molding (HSIM). To achieve this, montmorillonite (MMT) is added into PE first, then blended with PP to fabricate PE-MMT/PP ternary composites. It is demonstrated that alternating multilayer structure could be obtained in the ternary composites because of low interfacial tension and good viscosity match between different polymer components. MMT is selectively dispersed in PE phase with partial exfoliated/partial intercalated microstructure. 2D-WAXD analysis indicates that the clay tactoids in PE-MMT/PP exhibits an uniplanar-axial orientation with their surface parallel to the molded part surface, while the tactoids in binary PE-MMT composites with the same overall MMT contents illustrate less orientation. The enhanced orientation of nanoclay in PE-MMT/PP could be attributed to the confinement of alternating multilayer structure, which prohibits the tumbling and rotation of nanoplatelets. Therefore, the oxygen barrier property of PE-MMT/PP is superior to that of PE-MMT because of increased gas permeation pathway. Comparing with the results obtained for PE based composites in literature, outstanding barrier property performance (45.7% and 58.2% improvement with 1.5 and 2.5 wt % MMT content, respectively) is achieved in current study. Two issues are considered responsible for such improvement: enhanced MMT orientation caused by the confinement in layered structure, and higher local density of MMT in layered structure induced denser assembly. Finally, enhancement in barrier property by confining impermeable filler into alternating multilayer structure through such

  16. Designing medical and educational intervention studies. A review of some alternatives to conventional randomized controlled trials

    OpenAIRE

    Bradley, Clare

    1993-01-01

    The advantages and limitations of RCT designs are discussed, and a range of alternative designs for medical and educational intervention studies considered. Designs selected are those that address the much neglected psychological issues involved in the recruitment of patients and allocation of patients to treatments within trials. Designs include Zelen's (18) randomized consent design, Brewin and Bradley's (20) partially randomized patient-centered design, and Korn and Baumrind's (21) partial...

  17. 基于 Google Earth 的道路选线设计%Route Selection Design Based on Google Earth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯生辉

    2014-01-01

    以宝鸡市眉县县区内的一段公路为例,介绍了利用 Google Earth 结合 AutoCAD 进行道路初步选线设计的方法。主题思想是通过“国家地理空间数据云”以及 Google Earth 提取项目区的地理信息资料,然后在 AutoCAD 中进行道路的初步选线,并计算线路要素以及主要点号的坐标,编写 KML 文件最终将选线成果在 Google Earth 上展示出来。%Taking a section of highway in Meixian County,Baoji City as an example,this paper presents a method by using Google Earth combined with AutoCAD for the preliminary design of route selection.The main ideas of the article is extracting the geographic information data in the project area with National Geospatial Data Cloud as well as Google Earth data,and then calculate the elements of route and the coordinates of the main points,eventually show up the results of the selected route on Google Earth by writing KML file.

  18. Alternative Spring Break at the Savannah College of Art and Design: Engaging Art and Design Students in Community Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoey, J. Joseph; Feld-Gore, Jeffrey A.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter describes the impact of an alternative spring break program on students at the Savannah College of Art and Design over a set of years as well as its effectiveness as a service-learning tool.

  19. ALTERNATE MATERIALS IN DESIGN OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanton, P.; Eberl, K.

    2010-07-09

    This paper presents a summary of design and testing of material and composites for use in radioactive material packages. These materials provide thermal protection and provide structural integrity and energy absorption to the package during normal and hypothetical accident condition events as required by Title 10 Part 71 of the Code of Federal Regulations. Testing of packages comprising these materials is summarized.

  20. Designing with transparency: Case studies for alternatives to glazing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antoniadi, K.; Tanuharja, M.K.

    2014-01-01

    This "designers' manual" is made during the TIDO-course AR0533 Innovation & Sustainability. Transparency is an important parameter for many architectural buildings. The need for a large percentage of a transparent envelope often contradicts with other conditions (like thermal or acoustic insulation

  1. Design element alternatives for stress-management intervention websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Reg A; Gatien, Gary; Hagerty, Bonnie

    2011-01-01

    Typical public and military-sponsored websites on stress and depression tend to be prescriptive. Some require users to complete lengthy questionnaires. Others reproduce printed flyers, papers, or educational materials not adapted for online use. Some websites require users to follow a prescribed path through the material. Stress Gym was developed as a first-level, evidence-based, website intervention to help U.S. military members learn how to manage mild to moderate stress and depressive symptoms using a self-help intervention with progress tracking and 24/7 availablility. It was designed using web-based, health-management intervention design elements that have been proven effective and users reported they prefer. These included interactivity, self-pacing, and pleasing aesthetics. Users learned how to manage stress by accessing modules they choose, and by practicing proven stress management strategies interactively immediately after login. Test results of Stress Gym with Navy members demonstrated that it was effective, with significant decreases in reported perceived stress levels from baseline to follow-up assessment. Stress Gym used design elements that may serve as a model for future websites to emulate and improve upon, and as a template against which to compare and contrast the design and functionality of future online, health-intervention websites. PMID:21684565

  2. Alternatives generation and analysis for phase I intermediate waste feed staging system design requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britton, M.D.

    1996-10-02

    This document provides; a decision analysis summary; problem statement; constraints, requirements, and assumptions; decision criteria; intermediate waste feed staging system options and alternatives generation and screening; intermediate waste feed staging system design concepts; intermediate waste feed staging system alternative evaluation and analysis; and open issues and actions.

  3. Alternative Design for Visual Identity of Yayasan Batik Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puspita Putri Nugroho

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The research objective is to create a logo as the main visual identity. It is together with the graphic elements to support the overall visual identity of the organization and also apply the corporate identity to various applications to effectively foster the professional and trustworthy image of the organization as the foundation in Indonesia aiming for preserving and advancing Batik as the national asset. The writer used qualitative and quantitative method. Qualitative method included Face-to-face interview with the vice secretary of YBI, e-mail interview with the previous logo designer and direct survey to Textile Museum Jakarta and Batik Gallery; and Quantitative method through online survey. The result of the project is a new visual identity for Yayasan Batik Indonesia, which portrays its vision and mission. Design is the core in attaining an advantageous visual identity that could portray the image of the respected organization. When a consistency is applied through the whole visual identity, professional character of the organization is achieved.

  4. Emulsion Synthesis of Size-Tunable CH3NH3PbBr3 Quantum Dots: An Alternative Route toward Efficient Light-Emitting Diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hailong; Zhao, Fangchao; Liu, Lige; Zhang, Feng; Wu, Xian-gang; Shi, Lijie; Zou, Bingsuo; Pei, Qibing; Zhong, Haizheng

    2015-12-30

    We report a facile nonaqueous emulsion synthesis of colloidal halide perovskite quantum dots by controlled addition of a demulsifier into an emulsion of precursors. The size of resulting CH3NH3PbBr3 quantum dots can be tuned from 2 to 8 nm by varying the amount of demulsifier. Moreover, this emulsion synthesis also allows the purification of these quantum dots by precipitation from the colloidal solution and obtains solid-state powder which can be redissolved for thin film coating and device fabrication. The photoluminescence quantum yields of the quantum dots is generally in the range of 80-92%, and can be well-preserved after purification (∼80%). Green light-emitting diodes fabricated comprising a spin-cast layer of the colloidal CH3NH3PbBr3 quantum dots exhibited maximum current efficiency of 4.5 cd/A, power efficiency of 3.5 lm/W, and external quantum efficiency of 1.1%. This provides an alternative route toward high efficient solution-processed perovskite-based light-emitting diodes. In addition, the emulsion synthesis is versatile and can be extended for the fabrication of inorganic halide perovskite colloidal CsPbBr3 nanocrystals.

  5. Multi-Constrained Dynamic QoS Multicast Routing Design Using Ant Colony System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUI Zhi-bo; WU Xiao-quan

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, an Ant Colony System (AC) based heuristic algorithm is presented to find the multi-constrained dynamic Quality of Service (QoS) multicast routing. We also explore the scalability of the AC algorithm and multicast tree by using "Pull" mode instead of "Push" mode, and the improvement on the time complexity of AC algorithm by using a new data structure, I.e., a pointer array instead of the previous "matrix" structure. Our extensive tests show that the presented algorithm can find the global optimum or suboptimum, and has a good scalability with dynamic adaptation to the change of multicast group, and gives better performance in terms of the total cost than other two algorithms.

  6. QoS-Based Dynamic Multicast Routing Design Using Genetic Algorithms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUANYouwei; YANLamei

    2004-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of determining minimum cost paths to nodes in a Multicast group satisfying delay bounds and delay variation bounds. This study explores the use of Genetic algorithms (GAs) for solving the multicast routing problems when multiple Quality of services (QoS) requirements are presented. Our simulation results indicate that it is critical to select a suitable representation method and a set of appropriate parameters in order to obtain good performance. For a medium network, the probability from 0.02 to 0.2 seems to work better than those of too small or too large. As compared with the other optimal algorithm, the proposed algorithm gives better performance in terms of the success rate, the tree cost, the number of exchanged messages and the convergence time.

  7. Loss-Aware Router Design Approach for Dimension- Ordered Routing Algorithms in Photonic Networks-on-Chip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Hatami Rad

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Photonic-Network-on-chip (PNoC has been proposed as a promising solution for the communication infrastructure of Chip Multiprocessors (CMPs and as a solution to overcome the constraints in traditional NoCs. Photonic NoCs provide the opportunity of increasing both the bandwidth and the number of cores significantly, and can improve performance and the cost parameters of CMPs. In this paper, a designing approach for a photonic router has been proposed in order to reduce insertion loss in photonic NoCs, which can in turn increase network throughput, since it uses more parallel wavelengths. It has also led to the design of a router structure exclusively for XY routing algorithm. The proposed router shows an improvement of up to 52% in insertion loss, when compared to other proposed routers.

  8. Structural design, layout analysis and routing strategy for constructing IC standard cells using emerging 3D vertical MOSFETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongyi; Hong, Chuyang; Han, Ting; Zhou, Jun; Chen, Yijian

    2016-03-01

    As optical lithography and conventional transistor structure are approaching their physical limits, 3D vertical gate-all-around (GAA) nanowire MOSFETs and double-surrounding-gate (DSG) MOSFETs are two promising device candidates for post-FinFET logic scaling owing to their superior gate control and scaling potential. However, source, drain and gate of a vertical nanowire MOSFET and DSG MOSFETs are located in different physical layers. Consequently, structural design of IC devices/circuits, layout arrangement for high-density vertical nanowires/interconnects, and routing strategy are non-trivial challenges. In this paper, we shall discuss these critical issues for constructing standard cells using 3D vertical GAA nanowire MOSFETs and DSG MOSFETs. We redesigned the standard cells in Nangate Open Cell Library for 5nm node using vertical GAA nanowire MOSFETs and DSG MOSFETs. Experimental results verify the functionality of the proposed standard cell layout design approach.

  9. Lentiviral vector design using alternative RNA export elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Frank

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lentiviral vectors have been designed with complex RNA export sequences in both the integrating and packaging plasmids in order to co-ordinate efficient vector production. Recent studies have attempted to replace the existing complex rev/RRE system with a more simplistic RNA export system from simple retroviruses to make these vectors in a rev-independent manner. Results Towards this end, lentiviral transfer plasmids were modified with various cis-acting DNA elements that co-ordinate RNA export during viral production to determine their ability to affect the efficiency of vector titer and transduction in different immortalized cell lines in vitro. It was found that multiple copies of the constitutive transport element (CTE originating from different simian retroviruses, including simian retrovirus type 1 (SRV-1 and type-2 (SRV-2 and Mason-Pfizer (MPV could be used to eliminate the requirement for the rev responsive element (RRE in the transfer and packaging plasmids with titers >106 T.U./mL (n = 4–8 preparations. The addition of multiple copies of the murine intracisternal type A particle, the woodchuck post-regulatory element (WPRE, or single and dual copies of the simian CTE had minimal effect on viral titer. Immortalized cell lines from different species were found to be readily transduced by VSV-G pseudotyped lentiviral vectors containing the multiple copies of the CTE similar to the findings in HeLa cells, although the simian-derived CTE were found to have a lower infectivity into murine cell lines compared to the other species. Conclusion These studies demonstrated that the rev-responsive element (RRE could be replaced with other constitutive transport elements to produce equivalent titers using lentivectors containing the RRE sequence in vitro, but that concatemerization of the CTE or the close proximity of RNA export sequences was needed to enhance vector production.

  10. Privacy by Design: An alternative to existing practice in safeguarding privacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lieshout, M.J. van; Kool, L.; Schoonhoven, B. van; Jonge, M. de

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop/elaborate the concept Privacy by Design (PbD) and to explore the validity of the PbD framework. Design/methodology/approach: Attention for alternative concepts, such as PbD, which might offer surplus value in safeguarding privacy, is growing. Using Pb

  11. Detailed design, fabrication and testing of an engineering prototype compensated pulsed alternator. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design, fabrication, and test results of a prototype compensated pulsed alternator are discussed. The prototype compulsator is a vertical shaft single phase alternator with a rotating armature and salient pole stator. The machine is designed for low rep rate pulsed duty and is sized to drive a modified 10 cm Beta amplifier. The load consists of sixteen 15 mm x 20 mm x 112 cm long xenon flashlamps connected in parallel. The prototype compulsator generates an open circuit voltage of 6 kV, 180 Hz, at a maximum design speed of 5400 rpm. At maximum speed, the inertial energy stored in the compulsator rotor is 3.4 megajoules

  12. Multihop Wireless Networks Opportunistic Routing

    CERN Document Server

    Zeng, Kai; Li, Ming

    2011-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to opportunistic routing an emerging technology designed to improve the packet forwarding reliability, network capacity and energy efficiency of multihop wireless networks This book presents a comprehensive background to the technological challenges lying behind opportunistic routing. The authors cover many fundamental research issues for this new concept, including the basic principles, performance limit and performance improvement of opportunistic routing compared to traditional routing, energy efficiency and distributed opportunistic routing protocol desig

  13. Design of sustainable chemical processes: Systematic retrofit analysis, generation and evaluation alternatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carvalho, Ana; Gani, Rafiqul; Matos, Henrique

    2008-01-01

    -aided tool has been developed to facilitate the calculations needed for the application of the methodology. The application of the indicator-based methodology and the developed software are highlighted through a process flowsheet for the production of vinyl chlorine monomer (VCM).......The objective of this paper is to present a generic and systematic methodology for identifying the feasible retrofit design alternatives of any chemical process. The methodology determines a set of mass and energy indicators from steady-state process data, establishes the operational and design...... targets, and through a sensitivity-based analysis, identifies the design alternatives that can match a set of design targets. The significance of this indicator-based method is that it is able to identify alternatives, where one or more performance criteria (factors) move in the same direction thereby...

  14. Design of batch operations: Systematic methodology for generation and analysis of sustainable alternatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carvalho, Ana; Matos, Henrique A.; Gani, Rafiqul

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present a new methodology that is able to generate, screen and identify sustainable alternatives to continuous chemical processes as well as processes operating in the batch mode. The methodology generates the sustainable (design) alternatives by locating...... processes are described, highlighting the main differences between them. Through two case studies, the application of the methodology, to obtain sustainable design alternatives for batch plants, is highlighted....... the operational, environmental, economical and safety related problems inherent in the process (batch or continuous). Alternatives that are more sustainable, compared to a reference, are generated and evaluated by addressing one or more of the identified problems. A decomposition technique as well as a set...

  15. Part 2. Design and performance characteristics of alternative fuels and fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents performance characteristics of a wide range of fast breeder reactor designs and fuel cycle options to provide the bases for the study of alternatives that is the primary focus of the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation. Since breeding performance is at the center of many of the feasibility questions connected with alternative forms of breeder development, particular attention was given to a consistent comparison between various alternatives and quantitative analyses that provide physical understanding of intrinsic differences in their breeding performance

  16. The Linearized Simultaneous String-Design and Cargo-Routing Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Christian Edinger Munk

    A global liner shipping network, consists of a billion dollar investment in assets. Designing this network, to minimize costs, while considering operational constraints is thus of great relevance. Empirical studies of the cost structure of a networks strings (ship rotations), show linear relation...

  17. Virtual private network design: a proof of the tree routing conjecture on ring networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hurkens, C.A.J.; Keijsper, J.C.M.; Stougie, L.

    2005-01-01

    A basic question in Virtual Private Network (VPN) design is if the symmetric version of the problem always has an optimal solution which is a tree network. An affirmative answer would imply that the symmetric VPN problem is solvable in polynomial time. We give an affirmative answer in case the commu

  18. The Design of Treatment Wetlands in the United Kingdom: Successes, Failures, and Alternative Approaches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Guangzhi; ZHANG Guangxin

    2008-01-01

    Constructed wetland was first introduced into the United Kingdom in the middle of 1980s, following a visit by a group of scientist to Western Germany. In the past 2 decades, the applications of constructed wetlands in this country have expanded substantially, due to the demand for green technologies and rising cost of fossil fuel energies. This paper reported a statistical investigation of the performances of 78 horizontal flow wetlands, representatives of such system in the United Kingdom. Alternative design equations, based on organic matter removal efficiency, have been developed from Monod kinetics, and the accuracy and reliability of current and alternative design approaches have been examined.

  19. Routes for GMR-Sensor Design in Non-Destructive Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas Schütze; Marc Kreutzbruck; Verena Reimund; Andreas Neubauer; Matthias Pelkner

    2012-01-01

    GMR sensors are widely used in many industrial segments such as information technology, automotive, automation and production, and safety applications. Each area requires an adaption of the sensor arrangement in terms of size adaption and alignment with respect to the field source involved. This paper deals with an analysis of geometric sensor parameters and the arrangement of GMR sensors providing a design roadmap for non-destructive testing (NDT) applications. For this purpose we use an ana...

  20. Based on the Cross Layer Integrated Metric and Change of the Trigger Mechanism WMN Routing Protocol Design and Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Fei

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available To improve the throughput and transmission quality of routing protocols for Wireless Mesh Networks, this paper presents a cross-layer routing protocol MCL-AODV for the wireless Mesh backbone networks. The protocol takes the quality of MAC layer link, node queue congestion degrees and wireless transmission distance into account through the cross-layer operating system, to optimize the routing selection process by creating a new composite routing metric and reduce the routing overhead of management control by changing the trigger mechanism of HELLO message. Simulation results show that MCL-AODV protocol reduces the average routing overhead and end-to-end delay, improves network throughput and packet delivery ratio.

  1. Study and Design an Anycast Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Demin Gao; Huanyan Qian; Zheng Wang; Jiguang Chen

    2011-01-01

    In wireless sensor networks, there is usually a sink which gathers data from the battery-powered sensor nodes. As sensor nodes around the sink consume their energy faster than the other nodes, several sinks have to be deployed to increase the network lifetime. Anycast is a mechanism that the source node sends the data to the nearest sink node. The paper study and design an anycast service for deploying several sinks in wireless sensor network. A novel anycast tree-based is proposed approach t...

  2. Alternatives generation and analysis for the Phase I intermediate waste feed staging system design requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claghorn, R.D., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-06

    This alternatives generation and analysis (AGA) addresses the question: What is the design basis for the facilities required to stage low-level waste (LLW) feed to the Phase I private contractors? Alternative designs for the intermediate waste feed staging system were developed, analyzed, and compared. Based on these analyses, this document recommends installing mixer pumps in the central pump pit of double-shell tanks 241-AP-102 and 241-AP-104. Also recommended is installing decant/transfer pumps at these tanks. These recommendations have clear advantages in that they provide a low shedule impact/risk and the highest operability of all the alternatives investigated. This revision incorporates comments from the decision board.

  3. Doping in the Valley of Hydrogen Solubility: A Route to Designing Hydrogen-Resistant Zirconium Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Mostafa; Yang, Ming; Yildiz, Bilge

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen pickup and embrittlement pose a challenging safety limit for structural alloys used in a wide range of infrastructure applications, including zirconium alloys in nuclear reactors. Previous experimental observations guide the empirical design of hydrogen-resistant zirconium alloys, but the underlying mechanisms remain undecipherable. Here, we assess two critical prongs of hydrogen pickup through the ZrO2 passive film that serves as a surface barrier of zirconium alloys; the solubility of hydrogen in it—a detrimental process—and the ease of H2 gas evolution from its surface—a desirable process. By combining statistical thermodynamics and density-functional-theory calculations, we show that hydrogen solubility in ZrO2 exhibits a valley shape as a function of the chemical potential of electrons, μe . Here, μe , which is tunable by doping, serves as a physical descriptor of hydrogen resistance based on the electronic structure of ZrO2 . For designing zirconium alloys resistant against hydrogen pickup, we target either a dopant that thermodynamically minimizes the solubility of hydrogen in ZrO2 at the bottom of this valley (such as Cr) or a dopant that maximizes μe and kinetically accelerates proton reduction and H2 evolution at the surface of ZrO2 (such as Nb, Ta, Mo, W, or P). Maximizing μe also promotes the predomination of a less-mobile form of hydrogen defect, which can reduce the flux of hydrogen uptake. The analysis presented here for the case of ZrO2 passive film on Zr alloys serves as a broadly applicable and physically informed framework to uncover doping strategies to mitigate hydrogen embrittlement also in other alloys, such as austenitic steels or nickel alloys, which absorb hydrogen through their surface oxide films.

  4. Demonstration of risk-based decision analysis in remedial alternative selection and design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, E.K.; Duffield, G.M. (Geraghty and Miller Modeling Group, Reston, VA (United States)); Massmann, J.W. (Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States)); Freeze, R.A. (Freeze (R.A.) Engineering, Inc., White Rock, BC (Canada)); Stephenson, D.E. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States))

    1993-01-01

    This study demonstrates the use of risk-based decision analysis (Massmann and Freeze 1987a, 1987b) in the selection and design of an engineering alternative for groundwater remediation at a waste site at the Savannah River Site, a US Department of Energy facility in South Carolina. The investigation focuses on the remediation and closure of the H-Area Seepage Basins, an inactive disposal site that formerly received effluent water from a nearby production facility. A previous study by Duffield et al. (1992), which used risk-based decision analysis to screen a number of ground-water remediation alternatives under consideration for this site, indicated that the most attractive remedial option is ground-water extraction by wells coupled with surface water discharge of treated effluent. The aim of the present study is to demonstrate the iterative use of risk-based decision analysis throughout the design of a particular remedial alternative. In this study, we consider the interaction between two episodes of aquifer testing over a 6-year period and the refinement of a remedial extraction well system design. Using a three-dimensional ground-water flow model, this study employs (1) geostatistics and Monte Carlo techniques to simulate hydraulic conductivity as a stochastic process and (2) Bayesian updating and conditional simulation to investigate multiple phases of aquifer testing. In our evaluation of a remedial alternative, we compute probabilistic costs associated with the failure of an alternative to completely capture a simulated contaminant plume. The results of this study demonstrate the utility of risk-based decision analysis as a tool for improving the design of a remedial alternative through the course of phased data collection at a remedial site.

  5. Demonstration of risk-based decision analysis in remedial alternative selection and design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, E.K.; Duffield, G.M. [Geraghty and Miller Modeling Group, Reston, VA (United States); Massmann, J.W. [Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States); Freeze, R.A. [Freeze (R.A.) Engineering, Inc., White Rock, BC (Canada); Stephenson, D.E. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1993-05-01

    This study demonstrates the use of risk-based decision analysis (Massmann and Freeze 1987a, 1987b) in the selection and design of an engineering alternative for groundwater remediation at a waste site at the Savannah River Site, a US Department of Energy facility in South Carolina. The investigation focuses on the remediation and closure of the H-Area Seepage Basins, an inactive disposal site that formerly received effluent water from a nearby production facility. A previous study by Duffield et al. (1992), which used risk-based decision analysis to screen a number of ground-water remediation alternatives under consideration for this site, indicated that the most attractive remedial option is ground-water extraction by wells coupled with surface water discharge of treated effluent. The aim of the present study is to demonstrate the iterative use of risk-based decision analysis throughout the design of a particular remedial alternative. In this study, we consider the interaction between two episodes of aquifer testing over a 6-year period and the refinement of a remedial extraction well system design. Using a three-dimensional ground-water flow model, this study employs (1) geostatistics and Monte Carlo techniques to simulate hydraulic conductivity as a stochastic process and (2) Bayesian updating and conditional simulation to investigate multiple phases of aquifer testing. In our evaluation of a remedial alternative, we compute probabilistic costs associated with the failure of an alternative to completely capture a simulated contaminant plume. The results of this study demonstrate the utility of risk-based decision analysis as a tool for improving the design of a remedial alternative through the course of phased data collection at a remedial site.

  6. Single-Case Research Design: An Alternative Strategy for Evidence-Based Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Drue; Hawkins, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The trend of utilizing evidence-based practice (EBP) in athletic training is now requiring clinicians, researchers, educators, and students to be equipped to both engage in and make judgments about research evidence. Single-case design (SCD) research may provide an alternative approach to develop such skills and inform clinical and…

  7. Long-term strategies for flood risk management: scenario definition and strategic alternative design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijn, de K.; Klijn, F.; McGahey, C.; Mens, M.; Wolfert, H.P.

    2008-01-01

    This report reviews some mainstream existing methods of scenario development and use, as well as experiences with the design and assessment of strategic alternatives for flood risk management. Next, a procedure and methods are proposed and discussed. Thirdly, the procedure and methods are tried on t

  8. Computational issues in alternating projection algorithms for fixed-order control design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beran, Eric Bengt; Grigoriadis, K.

    1997-01-01

    Alternating projection algorithms have been introduced recently to solve fixed-order controller design problems described by linear matrix inequalities and non-convex coupling rank constraints. In this work, an extensive numerical experimentation using proposed benchmark fixed-order control desig...

  9. Study and Design an Anycast Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demin Gao

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In wireless sensor networks, there is usually a sink which gathers data from the battery-powered sensor nodes. As sensor nodes around the sink consume their energy faster than the other nodes, several sinks have to be deployed to increase the network lifetime. Anycast is a mechanism that the source node sends the data to the nearest sink node. The paper study and design an anycast service for deploying several sinks in wireless sensor network. A novel anycast tree-based is proposed approach to minimize the path cost. Here the nodes form a tree with a sink node as the root, while the height of the tree integrates multiple metrics to calculate path cost based on diverse selection criteria. This paper discusses and analyzes the model deeply. The experimental data proves its validity and efficiency. Computer simulation shows that the proposed scheme reduces and balances the energy consumption among the nodes effectively, so it significantly extends the network lifetime compared to the existing schemes.

  10. A comparison of alternative 60-mer probe designs in an in-situ synthesized oligonucleotide microarray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fairbanks Benjamin D

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA microarrays have proven powerful for functional genomics studies. Several technologies exist for the generation of whole-genome arrays. It is well documented that 25mer probes directed against different regions of the same gene produce variable signal intensity values. However, the extent to which this is true for probes of greater length (60mers is not well characterized. Moreover, this information has not previously been reported for whole-genome arrays designed against bacteria, whose genomes may differ substantially in characteristics directly affecting microarray performance. Results We report here an analysis of alternative 60mer probe designs for an in-situ synthesized oligonucleotide array for the GC rich, β-proteobacterium Burkholderia cenocepacia. Probes were designed using the ArrayOligoSel3.5 software package and whole-genome microarrays synthesized by Agilent, Inc. using their in-situ, ink-jet technology platform. We first validated the quality of the microarrays as demonstrated by an average signal to noise ratio of >1000. Next, we determined that the variance of replicate probes (1178 total probes examined of identical sequence was 3.8% whereas the variance of alternative probes (558 total alternative probes examined designs was 9.5%. We determined that depending upon the definition, about 2.4% of replicate and 7.8% of alternative probes produced outlier conclusions. Finally, we determined none of the probe design subscores (GC content, internal repeat, binding energy and self annealment produced by ArrayOligoSel3.5 were predictive or probes that produced outlier signals. Conclusion Our analysis demonstrated that the use of multiple probes per target sequence is not essential for in-situ synthesized 60mer oligonucleotide arrays designed against bacteria. Although probes producing outlier signals were identified, the use of ratios results in less than 10% of such outlier conclusions. We also determined that

  11. Alternative core design for the Innovative Research Reactor (RRI) from neutronics aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on its User Requirement Document and main function, RRI shall be able to provide a maximum thermal neutron flux of 1×1015 neutron cm-2s-1. The reason is that the RRI reactor can serve targets requiring a high neutron flux. From the previous results it was obtained that RRI design using fuel of RSG-GAS type was not possible to produce that high neutron flux. One among other reasons is that the geometry dimension is the large, as the neutron flux is inversely proportional to core volume. The objective of the study is to find an alternative core for RRI which meets the high neutron flux requirement. It was chosen an alternative fuel element one like used in JMTR (Japan Material Testing Reactor) that has smaller dimension compared to that of the RSG-GAS reactor. Besides that, active core's height was also varied for 70 cm and 75 cm. Design was carried out by means of analytic codes WIMS-D5B, Batan-FUEL and Batan-3DIFF. Alternative core applied compact core configuration concept of 5×5 with 4 follower control elements. The calculations resulted 3 (three) alternative cores fulfill the requirement, including core using RSG-GAS fuel type but of 70 cm height instead of 60 cm. Through analyzing from over all aspects of core safety and efficiency as well as effectively, core using JMTR fuel type with height of 70 cm represent the best alternative core. (author)

  12. Alternate MIMO AF relaying networks with interference alignment: Spectral efficient protocol and linear filter design

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Kihong

    2013-02-01

    In this paper, we study a two-hop relaying network consisting of one source, one destination, and three amplify-and-forward (AF) relays with multiple antennas. To compensate for the capacity prelog factor loss of 1/2$ due to the half-duplex relaying, alternate transmission is performed among three relays, and the inter-relay interference due to the alternate relaying is aligned to make additional degrees of freedom. In addition, suboptimal linear filter designs at the nodes are proposed to maximize the achievable sum rate for different fading scenarios when the destination utilizes a minimum mean-square error filter. © 1967-2012 IEEE.

  13. Contact Graph Routing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burleigh, Scott C.

    2011-01-01

    Contact Graph Routing (CGR) is a dynamic routing system that computes routes through a time-varying topology of scheduled communication contacts in a network based on the DTN (Delay-Tolerant Networking) architecture. It is designed to enable dynamic selection of data transmission routes in a space network based on DTN. This dynamic responsiveness in route computation should be significantly more effective and less expensive than static routing, increasing total data return while at the same time reducing mission operations cost and risk. The basic strategy of CGR is to take advantage of the fact that, since flight mission communication operations are planned in detail, the communication routes between any pair of bundle agents in a population of nodes that have all been informed of one another's plans can be inferred from those plans rather than discovered via dialogue (which is impractical over long one-way-light-time space links). Messages that convey this planning information are used to construct contact graphs (time-varying models of network connectivity) from which CGR automatically computes efficient routes for bundles. Automatic route selection increases the flexibility and resilience of the space network, simplifying cross-support and reducing mission management costs. Note that there are no routing tables in Contact Graph Routing. The best route for a bundle destined for a given node may routinely be different from the best route for a different bundle destined for the same node, depending on bundle priority, bundle expiration time, and changes in the current lengths of transmission queues for neighboring nodes; routes must be computed individually for each bundle, from the Bundle Protocol agent's current network connectivity model for the bundle s destination node (the contact graph). Clearly this places a premium on optimizing the implementation of the route computation algorithm. The scalability of CGR to very large networks remains a research topic

  14. Performance of R-410A Alternative Refrigerants in a Reciprocating Compressor Designed for Air Conditioning Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrestha, Som S [ORNL; Vineyard, Edward Allan [ORNL; Mumpower, Kevin [Bristol Compressors International, Inc.

    2016-01-01

    In response to environmental concerns raised by the use of refrigerants with high Global Warming Potential (GWP), the Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) has launched an industry-wide cooperative research program, referred to as the Low-GWP Alternative Refrigerants Evaluation Program (AREP), to identify and evaluate promising alternative refrigerants for major product categories. After successfully completing the first phase of the program in December 2013, AHRI launched a second phase of the Low-GWP AREP in 2014 to continue research in areas that were not previously addressed, including refrigerants in high ambient conditions, refrigerants in applications not tested in the first phase, and new refrigerants identified since testing for the program began. Although the Ozone Depletion Potential of R-410A is zero, this refrigerant is under scrutiny due to its high GWP. Several candidate alternative refrigerants have already demonstrated low global warming potential. Performance of these low-GWP alternative refrigerants is being evaluated for Air conditioning and heat pump applications to ensure acceptable system capacity and efficiency. This paper reports the results of a series of compressor calorimeter tests conducted for the second phase of the AREP to evaluate the performance of R-410A alternative refrigerants in a reciprocating compressor designed for air conditioning systems. It compares performance of alternative refrigerants ARM-71A, L41-1, DR-5A, D2Y-60, and R-32 to that of R-410A over a wide range of operating conditions. The tests showed that, in general, cooling capacities were slightly lower (except for the R-32), but energy efficiency ratios (EER) of the alternative refrigerants were comparable to that of R-410A.

  15. Methodology for assessing the impacts of alternative rate designs on industrial energy use. Draft report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-01-11

    A task was undertaken to develop a method for analyzing industrial user responses to alternative rate designs. The method described considers the fuel switching and conservation responses of industrial users and the impact to a hypothetical utility regarding revenue stability, annual gas demand, and seasonal fluctuations. Twenty-seven hypothetical industrial plant types have been specified. For each combustor in the plant, the fuel consumption by season, initial fuel type, fuel switching costs, conservation costs, and amount of fuel conservable is provided. The decision making takes place at the plant level and is aggregated to determine the impact to the utility. Section 2 discusses the factors affecting an industrial user's response to alternative rate designs. Section 3 describes the methodology, includes an overview of the model and an example industrial user's response to a set of fuel prices. The data describing the 27 hypothetical firms is in an appendix.

  16. SustainPro - A tool for systematic process analysis, generation and evaluation of sustainable design alternatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carvalho, Ana; Matos, Henrique A.; Gani, Rafiqul

    2013-01-01

    the user through the necessary steps according to work-flow of the implemented methodology. At the end the design alternatives, are evaluated using environmental impact assessment tools and safety indices. The extended features of the methodology incorporate Life Cycle Assessment analysis and economic...... analysis. The application and the main features of SustainPro are illustrated through a case study of ß-Galactosidase production....

  17. Modification Design of Petrol Engine for Alternative Fueling using Compressed Natural Gas

    OpenAIRE

    Eliezer Uchechukwu Okeke; Barinaadaa Thaddeus Lebele-Alawa

    2013-01-01

    This paper is on the modification design of petrol engine for alternative fuelling using Compressed Natural Gas (CNG). It provides an analytical background in the modification design process. A petrol engine Honda CR-V 2.0 auto which has a compression ratio of 9.8 was selected as case study. In order for this petrol engine to run on CNG, its compression had to be increased. An optimal compression ratio of 11.97 was computed using the standard temperature-specific volume relationsh...

  18. Towards for Analyzing Alternatives of Interaction Design Based on Verbal Decision Analysis of User Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Soares Mendes

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In domains (as digital TV, smart home, and tangible interfaces that represent a new paradigm of interactivity, the decision of the most appropriate interaction design solution is a challenge. HCI researchers have promoted in their works the validation of design alternative solutions with users before producing the final solution. User experience with technology is a subject that has also gained ground in these works in order to analyze the appropriate solution(s. Following this concept, a study was accomplished under the objective of finding a better interaction solution for an application of mobile TV. Three executable applications of mobile TV prototypes were built. A Verbal Decision Analysis model was applied on the investigations for the favorite characteristics in each prototype based on the user’s experience and their intentions of use. This model led a performance of a qualitative analysis which objectified the design of a new prototype.

  19. Design and First Measurements of an Alternative Calorimetry Chamber for the HZB Quadrupole Resonator

    CERN Document Server

    Keckert, Sebastian; Knobloch, Jens; Kugeler, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    The systematic research on superconducting thin films requires dedicated testing equipment. The Quadrupole Resonator (QPR) is a specialized tool to characterize the superconducting RF properties of circular planar samples. A calorimetric measurement of the RF surface losses allows the surface resistance to be measured with sub nano-ohm resolution. This measurement can be performed over a wide temperature and magnetic field range, at frequencies of 433, 866 and 1300 MHz. The system at Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB) is based on a resonator built at CERN and has been optimized to lower peak electric fields and an improved resolution. In this paper the design of an alternative calorimetry chamber is presented, providing flat samples for coating which are easy changeable. All parts are connected by screwing connections and no electron beam welding is required. Furthermore this design enables exchangeability of samples between the resonators at HZB and CERN. First measurements with the new design show ambiguous r...

  20. Experimental design for stable genetic manipulation in mammalian cell lines: lentivirus and alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, Robert F; Saunders, Darren N

    2015-01-01

    The use of third-generation lentiviral vectors is now commonplace in most areas of basic biology. These systems provide a fast, efficient means for modulating gene expression, but experimental design needs to be carefully considered to minimize potential artefacts arising from off-target effects and other confounding factors. This review offers a starting point for those new to lentiviral-based vector systems, addressing the main issues involved with the use of lentiviral systems in vitro and outlines considerations which should be taken into account during experimental design. Factors such as selecting an appropriate system and controls, and practical titration of viral transduction are important considerations for experimental design. We also briefly describe some of the more recent advances in genome editing technology. TALENs and CRISPRs offer an alternative to lentivirus, providing endogenous gene editing with reduced off-target effects often at the expense of efficiency.

  1. Effective local dynamic routing strategy for air route networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Wenjun; Zhao Lingxi

    2015-01-01

    With the rapid development of air transportation, network service ability has attracted a lot of attention in academe. Aiming to improve the throughput of the air route network (ARN), we propose an effective local dynamic routing strategy in this paper. Several factors, such as the rout-ing distance, the geographical distance and the real-time local traffic, are taken into consideration. When the ARN is in the normal free-flow state, the proposed strategy can recover the shortest path routing (SPR) strategy. When the ARN undergoes congestion, the proposed strategy changes the paths of flights based on the real-time local traffic information. The throughput of the Chinese air route network (CARN) is evaluated. Results confirm that the proposed strategy can significantly improve the throughput of CARN. Meanwhile, the increase in the average flying distance and time is tiny. Results also indicate the importance of the distance related factors in a routing strategy designed for the ARN.

  2. Alternative Ultrasound Gel for a Sustainable Ultrasound Program: Application of Human Centered Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Margaret; Salmon, Christian; Bissinger, Alexa; Muller, Mundenga Mutendi; Gebreyesus, Alegnta; Geremew, Haimanot; Wendel, Sarah K; Wendell, Sarah; Azaza, Aklilu; Salumu, Maurice; Benfield, Nerys

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes design of a low cost, ultrasound gel from local products applying aspects of Human Centered Design methodology. A multidisciplinary team worked with clinicians who use ultrasound where commercial gel is cost prohibitive and scarce. The team followed the format outlined in the Ideo Took Kit. Research began by defining the challenge "how to create locally available alternative ultrasound gel for a low-resourced environment? The "End-Users," were identified as clinicians who use ultrasound in Democratic Republic of the Congo and Ethiopia. An expert group was identified and queried for possible alternatives to commercial gel. Responses included shampoo, oils, water and cornstarch. Cornstarch, while a reasonable solution, was either not available or too expensive. We then sought deeper knowledge of locally sources materials from local experts, market vendors, to develop a similar product. Suggested solutions gleaned from these interviews were collected and used to create ultrasound gel accounting for cost, image quality, manufacturing capability. Initial prototypes used cassava root flour from Great Lakes Region (DRC, Rwanda, Uganda, Tanzania) and West Africa, and bula from Ethiopia. Prototypes were tested in the field and resulting images evaluated by our user group. A final prototype was then selected. Cassava and bula at a 32 part water, 8 part flour and 4 part salt, heated, mixed then cooled was the product design of choice.

  3. A MILP-based flux alternative generation and NMR experimental design strategy for metabolic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phalakornkule, C; Lee, S; Zhu, T; Koepsel, R; Ataai, M M; Grossmann, I E; Domach, M M

    2001-04-01

    A mixed-integer linear program (MILP) is described that can enumerate all the ways fluxes can distribute in a metabolic network while still satisfying the same constraints and objective function. The multiple solutions can be used to (1) generate alternative flux scenarios that can account for limited experimental observations, (2) forecast the potential responses to mutation (e.g., new reaction pathways may be used), and (3) (as illustrated) design (13)C NMR experiments such that different potential flux patterns in a mutant can be distinguished. The experimental design is enabled by using the MILP results as an input to an isotopomer mapping matrices (IMM)-based program, which accounts for the network circulation of (13)C from a precursor such as glucose. The IMM-based program can interface to common plotting programs with the result that the user is provided with predicted NMR spectra that are complete with splittings and Lorentzian line-shape features. The example considered is the trafficking of carbon in an Escherichia coli mutant, which has pyruvate kinase activity deleted for the purpose of eliminating acetate production. Similar yields and extracellular measurements would be manifested by the flux alternatives. The MILP-IMM results suggest how NMR experiments can be designed such that the spectra of glutamate for two flux distribution scenarios differ significantly.

  4. Alternative Ultrasound Gel for a Sustainable Ultrasound Program: Application of Human Centered Design.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Salmon

    Full Text Available This paper describes design of a low cost, ultrasound gel from local products applying aspects of Human Centered Design methodology. A multidisciplinary team worked with clinicians who use ultrasound where commercial gel is cost prohibitive and scarce. The team followed the format outlined in the Ideo Took Kit. Research began by defining the challenge "how to create locally available alternative ultrasound gel for a low-resourced environment? The "End-Users," were identified as clinicians who use ultrasound in Democratic Republic of the Congo and Ethiopia. An expert group was identified and queried for possible alternatives to commercial gel. Responses included shampoo, oils, water and cornstarch. Cornstarch, while a reasonable solution, was either not available or too expensive. We then sought deeper knowledge of locally sources materials from local experts, market vendors, to develop a similar product. Suggested solutions gleaned from these interviews were collected and used to create ultrasound gel accounting for cost, image quality, manufacturing capability. Initial prototypes used cassava root flour from Great Lakes Region (DRC, Rwanda, Uganda, Tanzania and West Africa, and bula from Ethiopia. Prototypes were tested in the field and resulting images evaluated by our user group. A final prototype was then selected. Cassava and bula at a 32 part water, 8 part flour and 4 part salt, heated, mixed then cooled was the product design of choice.

  5. The selection of the production route in the assembly system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dobrzańska-Danikiewicz

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the conducted research is the outworking of the methodology enabling the selection of the fastest production route from the set of the alternative production routes. The presented approach is applied to the assembly system described by the following matrices: the assembly process matrices specified for each assembly process, the processes links matrix specified for the entire system and the alternative routes matrix specified for the entire system. In the considered assembly system rhythmic concurrent production with wide assortment is realised.Design/methodology/approach: The considerations presented in that paper have the theoretical roots in theory of constraints as well as critical path scheduling techniques.Findings: The result of carried out works is the three-step methodology enabling the determination which production route from the set of the alternative production routes enables the fastest customer order realisation. The proposed methodology enables production planning in the way ensuring the satisfaction of the customer needs as soon as possible.Research limitations/implications: The future research will concern the assembly system behaviour in a starting-up phase and a cease phase as well as transient phases. That work boils down to meta-rules determination for the considered class of the system.Practical implications: The proposed three-step methodology can become the integrated part of existing authority software. The outworked computer system aids the decision-making process connected with production planning and ensures effective utilisation of production resources.Originality/value: The main achievement of the given paper is to outwork the three-step methodology permitting to solve the decision problem concerning the selection of the fastest production route from the set of the alternative production routes, which are possible for the realisation in the assembly system.

  6. Feed-water heaters alternative design comparison; Comparacion de disenos alternativos de calentadores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres Toledano, Gerardo [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1988-12-31

    A procedure is presented for the alternative design comparison of feed water heaters, based in the failure records of damaged tubes during operation. The procedure is used for cases in which non-continuous or random inspections are made to the feed-water heaters. [Espanol] Se presenta un procedimiento para comparar disenos alternativos de calentadores, basandose en los registros de fallas de los tubos rotos acumuladas durante su operacion. El procedimiento se emplea para casos en los que se realizan inspecciones a los calentadores no continuas, ya sea periodicas o al azar.

  7. Interdigital H -mode drift-tube linac design with alternative phase focusing for muon linac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, M.; Mibe, T.; Yoshida, M.; Hasegawa, K.; Kondo, Y.; Hayashizaki, N.; Iwashita, Y.; Iwata, Y.; Kitamura, R.; Saito, N.

    2016-04-01

    We have developed an interdigital H-mode (IH) drift-tube linac (DTL) design with an alternative phase focusing (APF) scheme for a muon linac, in order to measure the anomalous magnetic moment and electric dipole moment (EDM) of muons at the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC). The IH-DTL accelerates muons from β =v /c =0.08 to 0.28 at an operational frequency of 324 MHz. The output beam emittances are calculated as 0.315 π and 0.195 π mm mrad in the horizontal and vertical directions, respectively, which satisfies the experimental requirement.

  8. Utility of an alternative bicycle commute route of lower proximity to motorised traffic in decreasing exposure to ultra-fine particles, respiratory symptoms and airway inflammation – a structured exposure experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Bicycle commuting in an urban environment of high air pollution is known to be a potential health risk, especially for susceptible individuals. While risk management strategies aimed to reduce exposure to motorised traffic emissions have been suggested, only limited studies have assessed the utility of such strategies in real-world circumstances. Objectives The potential to lower exposure to ultrafine particles (UFP; < 0.1 μm) during bicycle commuting by reducing proximity to motorised traffic was investigated with real-time air pollution and intermittent acute inflammatory measurements in healthy individuals using their typical higher proximity, and an alternative lower proximity, bicycle commute route. Methods Thirty-five healthy adults (mean ± SD: age = 39 ± 11 yr; 29% female) completed two return trips, one each in the condition of their typical route (HIGH) and a pre-determined alternative route of lower proximity to motorised traffic (LOW); proximity being determined by the proportion of on-road cycle paths. Particle number concentration (PNC) and diameter (PD) were monitored in-commute in real-time. Acute inflammatory indices of respiratory symptoms (as a scalar of frequency from very low to very high / 1 to 5), lung function and spontaneous sputum (for inflammatory cell analyses) were collected immediately pre-commute, and immediately and three hours post-commute. Results In the condition of LOW, compared to in the condition of HIGH, there was a significant decrease in mean PNC (1.91 x e4 ± 0.93 × e4 ppcc vs. 2.95 × e4 ± 1.50 × e4 ppcc; p ≤ 0.001), and the mean frequency of in-commute offensive odour detection (2.1 vs. 2.8; p = 0.019), dust and soot observation (1.7 vs. 2.3; p = 0.038) and nasopharyngeal irritation (1.5 vs. 1.9; p = 0.007). There were no significant differences between LOW and HIGH in the commute distance and duration (12.8 ± 7.1 vs. 12.0 ± 6.9 km and 44 ± 17 vs. 42 ± 17 min, respectively), or other indices of

  9. Beyond Fullerenes: Designing Alternative Molecular Electron Acceptors for Solution-Processable Bulk Heterojunction Organic Photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvé, Geneviève; Fernando, Roshan

    2015-09-17

    Organic photovoltaics (OPVs) are promising candidates for providing a low cost, widespread energy source by converting sunlight into electricity. Solution-processable active layers have predominantly consisted of a conjugated polymer donor blended with a fullerene derivative as the acceptor. Although fullerene derivatives have been the acceptor of choice, they have drawbacks such as weak visible light absorption and poor energy tuning that limit overall efficiencies. This has recently fueled new research to explore alternative acceptors that would overcome those limitations. During this exploration, one question arises: what are the important design principles for developing nonfullerene acceptors? It is generally accepted that acceptors should have high electron affinity, electron mobility, and absorption coefficient in the visible and near-IR region of the spectra. In this Perspective, we argue that alternative molecular acceptors, when blended with a conjugated polymer donor, should also have large nonplanar structures to promote nanoscale phase separation, charge separation and charge transport in blend films. Additionally, new material design should address the low dielectric constant of organic semiconductors that have so far limited their widespread application.

  10. A Visual Analytics Based Decision Support Methodology For Evaluating Low Energy Building Design Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Ranojoy

    The ability to design high performance buildings has acquired great importance in recent years due to numerous federal, societal and environmental initiatives. However, this endeavor is much more demanding in terms of designer expertise and time. It requires a whole new level of synergy between automated performance prediction with the human capabilities to perceive, evaluate and ultimately select a suitable solution. While performance prediction can be highly automated through the use of computers, performance evaluation cannot, unless it is with respect to a single criterion. The need to address multi-criteria requirements makes it more valuable for a designer to know the "latitude" or "degrees of freedom" he has in changing certain design variables while achieving preset criteria such as energy performance, life cycle cost, environmental impacts etc. This requirement can be met by a decision support framework based on near-optimal "satisficing" as opposed to purely optimal decision making techniques. Currently, such a comprehensive design framework is lacking, which is the basis for undertaking this research. The primary objective of this research is to facilitate a complementary relationship between designers and computers for Multi-Criterion Decision Making (MCDM) during high performance building design. It is based on the application of Monte Carlo approaches to create a database of solutions using deterministic whole building energy simulations, along with data mining methods to rank variable importance and reduce the multi-dimensionality of the problem. A novel interactive visualization approach is then proposed which uses regression based models to create dynamic interplays of how varying these important variables affect the multiple criteria, while providing a visual range or band of variation of the different design parameters. The MCDM process has been incorporated into an alternative methodology for high performance building design referred to as

  11. 77 FR 14801 - Request for Information (RFI) on Design of a Pilot Operational Study To Assess Alternative Blood...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Request for Information (RFI) on Design of a Pilot Operational Study To Assess... obtain information relevant to the design of a pilot operational study (or studies) on alternative donor... recognition of the challenges of designing such studies. This RFI seeks information from interested...

  12. Model‐Based Assessment of Alternative Study Designs in Pediatric Trials. Part II: Bayesian Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smania, G; Baiardi, P; Ceci, A; Magni, P

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a pharmacokinetic‐pharmacodynamic based clinical trial simulation framework for evaluating the performance of a fixed‐sample Bayesian design (BD) and two alternative Bayesian sequential designs (BSDs) (i.e., a non‐hierarchical (NON‐H) and a semi‐hierarchical (SEMI‐H) one). Prior information was elicited from adult trials and weighted based on the expected similarity of response to treatment between the pediatric and adult populations. Study designs were evaluated in terms of: type I and II errors, sample size per arm (SS), trial duration (TD), and estimate precision. No substantial differences were observed between NON‐H and SEMI‐H. BSDs require, on average, smaller SS and TD compared to the BD, which, on the other hand, guarantees higher estimate precision. When large differences between children and adults are expected, BSDs can return very large SS. Bayesian approaches appear to outperform their frequentist counterparts in the design of pediatric trials even when little weight is given to prior information from adults. PMID:27530374

  13. Lithography alternatives meet design style reality: How do they "line" up?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smayling, Michael C.

    2016-03-01

    Optical lithography resolution scaling has stalled, giving innovative alternatives a window of opportunity. One important factor that impacts these lithographic approaches is the transition in design style from 2D to 1D for advanced CMOS logic. Just as the transition from 3D circuits to 2D fabrication 50 years ago created an opportunity for a new breed of electronics companies, the transition today presents exciting and challenging time for lithographers. Today, we are looking at a range of non-optical lithography processes. Those considered here can be broadly categorized: self-aligned lithography, self-assembled lithography, deposition lithography, nano-imprint lithography, pixelated e-beam lithography, shot-based e-beam lithography .Do any of these alternatives benefit from or take advantage of 1D layout? Yes, for example SAPD + CL (Self Aligned Pitch Division combined with Complementary Lithography). This is a widely adopted process for CMOS nodes at 22nm and below. Can there be additional design / process co-optimization? In spite of the simple-looking nature of 1D layout, the placement of "cut" in the lines and "holes" for interlayer connections can be tuned for a given process capability. Examples of such optimization have been presented at this conference, typically showing a reduction of at least one in the number of cut or hole patterns needed.[1,2] Can any of the alternatives complement each other or optical lithography? Yes.[3] For example, DSA (Directed Self Assembly) combines optical lithography with self-assembly. CEBL (Complementary e-Beam Lithography) combines optical lithography with SAPD for lines with shot-based e-beam lithography for cuts and holes. Does one (shrinking) size fit all? No, that's why we have many alternatives. For example NIL (Nano-imprint Lithography) has been introduced for NAND Flash patterning where the (trending lower) defectivity is acceptable for the product. Deposition lithography has been introduced in 3D NAND Flash to

  14. Capacity Constrained Routing Algorithms for Evacuation Route Planning

    OpenAIRE

    Shekhar, Shashi; George, Betsy; Lu, Qingsong

    2010-01-01

    Efficient tools are needed to identify routes and schedules to evacuate affected populations to safety in face of natural disasters or terrorist attacks. Challenges arise due to violation of key assumptions (e.g. stationary ranking of alternative routes, Wardrop equilibrium) behind popular shortest path algorithms (e.g. Dijktra's, A*) and microscopic traffic simulators (e.g. DYNASMART). Time-expanded graphs (TEG) based mathematical programming paradigm does not scale up to large urban scenari...

  15. RIP Input From WAPDEG for LA Desgin Selection: Enhanced Design Alternative II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B.E. Bullard

    1999-07-16

    The purpose of this analysis is to identify and analyze concepts for the acquisition of data in support of the Performance Confirmation (PC) program at the potential subsurface nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. This analysis is being prepared to document an investigation of design concepts, current available technology, technology trends, and technical issues associated with data acquisition during the PC period. This analysis utilizes the ''Performance Confirmation Plan'' (CRWMS M&O 2000b) to help define the scope for the PC data acquisition system. The focus of this analysis is primarily on the PC period for a minimum of 30 years after emplacement of the last waste package. The design of the data acquisition system shall allow for a closure deferral up to 300 years from initiation of waste emplacement. (CRWMS M&O 2000h, page 5-1). This analysis is a revision to and supercedes analysis, ''Performance Confirmation Data Acquisition System'', DI No. BCAI00000-017 17-0200-00002 Rev 00 (CRWMS M&O 1997), and incorporates the latest repository design changes following the M&O & DOE evaluation of a series of Enhanced Design Alternatives (EDAs), as described in the ''Enhanced Design Alternatives II Report'' (CRWMS M&O 1999d). Significant design changes include: thermal line loading of the emplacement drifts, closer spacing of the waste packages (WPs), wider spacing and fewer emplacement drifts, continuous ventilation of all active emplacement drifts, thinner walled WP designs which will increase external radiation levels, a 50-year repository closure option, inclusion of a drip-shield, exclusion of backfill, and new conceptual designs for the waste emplacement vehicles and equipment (Stroupe 2000). The scope and primary objectives of this analysis are to: (1) Review the criteria for design as presented in the Performance Confirmation Data Acquisition/Monitoring System Description Document, by way of the

  16. Preliminary Evaluation of Alternate Designs for HFIR Low-Enriched Uranium Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renfro, David G [ORNL; Chandler, David [ORNL; Cook, David Howard [ORNL; Ilas, Germina [ORNL; Jain, Prashant K [ORNL; Valentine, Jennifer R [ORNL

    2014-11-01

    Engineering design studies of the feasibility of conversion of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) from high-enriched uranium (HEU) to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel are ongoing at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) as part of an effort sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy s Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI)/Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) program. The fuel type selected by the program for the conversion of the five high-power research reactors in the U.S. that still use HEU fuel is a new U-Mo monolithic fuel. Studies by ORNL have previously indicated that HFIR can be successfully converted using the new fuel provided (1) the reactor power can be increased from 85 MW to 100 MW and (2) the fuel can be fabricated to a specific reference design. Fabrication techniques for the new fuel are under development by the program but are still immature, especially for the complex aspects of the HFIR fuel design. In FY 2012, the program underwent a major shift in focus to emphasize developing and qualifying processes for the fabrication of reliable and affordable LEU fuel. In support of this new focus and in an effort to ensure that the HFIR fuel design is as suitable for reliable fabrication as possible, ORNL undertook the present study to propose and evaluate several alternative design features. These features include (1) eliminating the fuel zone axial contouring in the previous reference design by substituting a permanent neutron absorber in the lower unfueled region of all of the fuel plates, (2) relocating the burnable neutron absorber from the fuel plates of the inner fuel element to the side plates of the inner fuel element (the fuel plates of the outer fuel element do not contain a burnable absorber), (3) relocating the fuel zone inside the fuel plate to be centered on the centerline of the depth of the plate, and (4) reshaping the radial contour of the relocated fuel zone to be symmetric about this centerline. The present

  17. Preliminary Evaluation of Alternate Designs for HFIR Low-Enriched Uranium Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renfro, David [ORNL; Chandler, David [ORNL; Cook, David [ORNL; Ilas, Germina [ORNL; Jain, Prashant [ORNL; Valentine, Jennifer [ORNL

    2014-10-30

    Engineering design studies of the feasibility of conversion of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) from high-enriched uranium (HEU) to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel are ongoing at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) as part of an effort sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI)/Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) program. The fuel type selected by the program for the conversion of the five high-power research reactors in the U.S. that still use HEU fuel is a new U-Mo monolithic fuel. Studies by ORNL have previously indicated that HFIR can be successfully converted using the new fuel provided (1) the reactor power can be increased from 85 MW to 100 MW and (2) the fuel can be fabricated to a specific reference design. Fabrication techniques for the new fuel are under development by the program but are still immature, especially for the “complex” aspects of the HFIR fuel design. In FY 2012, the program underwent a major shift in focus to emphasize developing and qualifying processes for the fabrication of reliable and affordable LEU fuel. In support of this new focus and in an effort to ensure that the HFIR fuel design is as suitable for reliable fabrication as possible, ORNL undertook the present study to propose and evaluate several alternative design features. These features include (1) eliminating the fuel zone axial contouring in the previous reference design by substituting a permanent neutron absorber in the lower unfueled region of all of the fuel plates, (2) relocating the burnable neutron absorber from the fuel plates of the inner fuel element to the side plates of the inner fuel element (the fuel plates of the outer fuel element do not contain a burnable absorber), (3) relocating the fuel zone inside the fuel plate to be centered on the centerline of the depth of the plate, and (4) reshaping the radial contour of the relocated fuel zone to be symmetric about this centerline. The

  18. Alternative method for design and optimization of the ring resonator used in micro-optic gyro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kunbo; Feng, Lishuang; Wang, Junjie; Lei, Ming

    2013-03-01

    The ring resonator is one of the key elements in the micro-optic gyro system, but there is not a uniform method for designing the parameters of a ring resonator, especially for its size. In this paper, an alternative method is presented for designing the ring resonator used in micro-optic gyro. Maximization of the resonator output is proposed to be the principle in design and optimization for the first time to our knowledge. The scale factor accuracy and the full range of the gyro system are taken into account to obtain the optimum diameter of the ring. A theoretical optimal diameter of 0.25 m is achieved for SiO(2) waveguide resonator with a dynamic range of ±500°/s by analyzing the influence of resonator parameters on the output in detail, and the corresponding sensitivity of the gyro is less than 1.28°/h, which can meet the demands of a tactical inertia system.

  19. Complexity-based learning—An alternative learning design for the twenty-first century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foo Seong David Ng

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In programme delivery, while the international trend in education has seen a shift from teacher-centred to student-centred learning and from transmission to reflective approaches, most leadership programmes have remained heavily teacher-centred. A key feature of teacher-centred learning relies on practices of course-driven programmes. This feature has been remarkably resilient over the years in the face of efforts to effect change in programme delivery and a new understanding of complexity in the world of education. The complexity theoretical framework provides us the advantage of an alternative design for leadership development programmes that is able to meet current and future challenges. Yearly, billions of dollars are spent on training and development. It is important to ensure that the outcome of training, learning and development must yield practical outcomes that are relevant, innovative and implementable solutions.

  20. Design and Implementation of the End System to Intermediate System (ES-IS) Routing Information Exchange Protocol as a Loadable Kernel Module in Linux Kernel 2.6

    CERN Document Server

    Maria, Stella; Fahmi, Husni; Faidah, Haret; Purnama, James; Lim, Charles; Damar, Harya

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a partial implementation of the ES-IS Routing Information Exchange Protocol packet processing in Linux Kernel 2.6, which is for use in conjunction with the Connectionless Network Protocol (CLNP) in Aeronautical Telecommunication Network (ATN). First, we show the data structures involved in the protocol operation. Second, we describe the map of the packet processing whose design has been developed in the research. Third, we explain how the protocol is implemented as a loadable kernel module. Finally, we conclude the implementation result based on performed tests.

  1. VANET Routing Protocols: Pros and Cons

    OpenAIRE

    Paul, Bijan; Ibrahim, Md.; Bikas, Md. Abu Naser

    2012-01-01

    VANET (Vehicular Ad-hoc Network) is a new technology which has taken enormous attention in the recent years. Due to rapid topology changing and frequent disconnection makes it difficult to design an efficient routing protocol for routing data among vehicles, called V2V or vehicle to vehicle communication and vehicle to road side infrastructure, called V2I. The existing routing protocols for VANET are not efficient to meet every traffic scenarios. Thus design of an efficient routing protocol h...

  2. Perfil de pacientes em uso de via alternativa de alimentação internados em um hospital geral Profile of patients using alternative feeding route in a general hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serjana Cavalcante Jucá Nogueira

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: caracterizar a população em uso de via alternativa de alimentação internada em um hospital geral de referência. MÉTODO: estudo transversal prospectivo, tendo-se realizado coleta de dados em 229 prontuários de pacientes em uso de via alternativa de alimentação internados em enfermarias adultas de um hospital geral, identificando-se dados referentes à via alternativa de alimentação em uso, justificativas clínicas, doença(s de base e demais aspectos clínicos relacionados aos distúrbios de deglutição. RESULTADOS: houve predomínio do sexo masculino (55,02%; 70,3% dos pacientes apresentaram diagnóstico de alguma doença neurológica e a via de alimentação mais utilizada foi a sonda nasoenteral (82,53%. Embora a pneumonia e a desnutrição tenham sido diagnosticadas na minoria dos casos (35,08% e 10,04%, houve associação entre as variáveis pneumonia e disfagia (p=0,0098, não ocorrendo o mesmo entre desnutrição e disfagia (p=0,0759. A disfagia foi citada em apenas em 6,55% dos casos. Observou-se, ainda, alta frequência de ausência de dados referente aos sinais e sintomas de dificuldade de alimentação e de justificativas para indicação da via alternativa de alimentação prescrita. CONCLUSÃO: embora a população estudada tenha apresentado fatores de risco para desenvolvimento de distúrbios da deglutição, como doenças de base com alta ocorrência de disfagia e alteração do nível de consciência e/ou sonolência, a baixa frequência do diagnóstico da disfagia e a constante falta de dados relacionados ao contexto alimentar revelaram a pouca importância dada às manifestações funcionais pela unidade hospitalar estudada.PURPOSE: to characterize the population submitted to administration of alternative feeding route admitted to a general hospital in the state of Alagoas. METHOD: data from medical records of 229 patients admitted to adult infirmary were investigated. Data referring to the administration

  3. Les voies indiennes de l’homéopathie Indian Routes to Homoeopathy : Dissemination and Adjustments of European Alternative Medicine in Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Anne-Cécile Hoyez; Olivier Schmitz

    2011-01-01

    Dans les sociétés occidentales, l’homéopathie occupe une place privilégiée parmi les médecines alternatives et complémentaires présentes dans le champ médical, à côté de la médecine allopathique et des remèdes traditionnels. Mais si l’on peut déjà s’étonner de sa pérennité malgré les fortes oppositions qu’elle rencontra dès sa naissance de la part du corps médical, la place qu’elle occupe aujourd’hui dans le système médical indien soulève bien d’autres questions. Nous décrivons et analysons i...

  4. Les voies indiennes de l’homéopathie Indian Routes to Homoeopathy : Dissemination and Adjustments of European Alternative Medicine in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Cécile Hoyez

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Dans les sociétés occidentales, l’homéopathie occupe une place privilégiée parmi les médecines alternatives et complémentaires présentes dans le champ médical, à côté de la médecine allopathique et des remèdes traditionnels. Mais si l’on peut déjà s’étonner de sa pérennité malgré les fortes oppositions qu’elle rencontra dès sa naissance de la part du corps médical, la place qu’elle occupe aujourd’hui dans le système médical indien soulève bien d’autres questions. Nous décrivons et analysons ici l’histoire de l’introduction de l’homéopathie dans le monde indien, en identifiant, grâce aux sources historiques disponibles, les acteurs et les lieux de sa diffusion, jusqu’à sa reconnaissance légale et son intégration dans le système médical pluraliste indien.In Western societies, among other complementary and alternative medicines, homoeopathy occupies a privileged position alongside allopathy and traditional remedies. Surprisingly, although homoeopathy had to face strong opposition movements from the medical field in Europe, it seems that its introduction in India was received more positively in the long term, a point which raises many issues. In this article, we describe and analyze the introduction of homoeopathy in India and its long-term historical process, identifying actors and places of its dissemination from the 1830s until its legal recognition by the State in the 1970s and its integration in the pluralistic Indian medical system.

  5. Modification Design of Petrol Engine for Alternative Fueling using Compressed Natural Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliezer Uchechukwu Okeke

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is on the modification design of petrol engine for alternative fuelling using Compressed Natural Gas (CNG. It provides an analytical background in the modification design process. A petrol engine Honda CR-V 2.0 auto which has a compression ratio of 9.8 was selected as case study. In order for this petrol engine to run on CNG, its compression had to be increased. An optimal compression ratio of 11.97 was computed using the standard temperature-specific volume relationship for an isentropic compression process. This computation of compression ratio is based on an inlet air temperature of 30oC (representative of tropical ambient condition and pre-combustion temperature of 540oC (corresponding to the auto-ignition temperature of CNG. Using this value of compression ratio, a dimensional modification Quantity =1.803mm was obtained using simple geometric relationships. This value of 1.803mm is needed to increase the length of the connecting rod, the compression height of the piston or reducing the sealing plate’s thickness. After the modification process, a CNG engine of air standard efficiency 62.7% (this represents a 4.67% increase over the petrol engine, capable of a maximum power of 83.6kW at 6500rpm, was obtained.

  6. The Potential Use of an Alternative Fluid for SFR Intermediate Loops: Selection and First Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the Generation IV systems, Sodium Fast Reactors (SFR) are promising and benefit of considerable technological experience, but improvements are researched on safety approach and capital cost reduction. One of the main problems to be solved by the standard SFR design is the proper management of the risk of leakage between the intermediate circuit filled with sodium and the energy conversion system using a water Rankine cycle. This risk requires notably an early detection of water leakage to prevent a water-sodium reaction, and adequate draining and pressure resistant components to mitigate the reaction consequences. One can think also to suppress this risk by replacing the sodium in the secondary loops by an alternative fluid, less reactive with water. This alternative fluid might also allow innovative designs, e.g. Intermediate Heat eXchanger (IHX) and Steam Generator Unit (SGU) grouped in the same component. CEA, AREVA and EDF have formed a working group in order to evaluate different 'alternative fluids' that might replace sodium. A first selection retained seven fluids on the bases of 'required properties' as: large operating range (low melting point, high boiling point ...), fluid cost and availability, acceptable corrosion at SFR working temperature. These are three bismuth alloys, two nitrate salts, one molten hydroxide and sodium with nanoparticles. Then, it was decided to evaluate these fluids through a multi-criteria analysis in order to point out advantages and drawbacks of each fluid and to compare them with sodium. Lack of knowledge, impact on materials, design, working conditions and reactor availability should be emphasized by this analysis, in order to provide sound arguments for a research program on one or two most promising fluids. A global note is given to each fluid by evaluating them with respect to 'major criteria', weighted differently according to their importance. The major criteria were: thermal properties, reactivity with structures

  7. Security Consideration With Dynamic Routing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VISWESWARARAO BOLLA

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the major issues for data communication over wired and wireless networks is the security. the past work is on the designs of cryptography algorithms and system infrastructures. Dynamic routing algorithm called improved dynamic routing with security consideration, which is based on the concept of Zone Routing Protocol (ZRP that could randomize delivery paths for data transmission. The algorithm is easy to implement and compatible with popular routing protocols, such as the Routing Information Protocol (RIP in wired networks and Destination-Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV protocol in wireless networks, without introducing extra control messages. This algorithm is mainly proposed to improve the and to overcome the limitations existing with the present cryptographic algorithms and protocols. Although some designs like IP security, Secure Socket Layer provide essential security, E-Mail security they unavoidably introduce substantial overheads in the Gateway/Host performance and effective network bandwidths.

  8. Catalyst-controlled stereoselective olefin metathesis as a principal strategy in multistep synthesis design: a concise route to (+)-neopeltolide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Miao; Schrock, Richard R; Hoveyda, Amir H

    2015-01-01

    Molybdenum-, tungsten-, and ruthenium-based complexes that control the stereochemical outcome of olefin metathesis reactions have been recently introduced. However, the complementary nature of these systems through their combined use in multistep complex molecule synthesis has not been illustrated. A concise diastereo- and enantioselective route that furnishes the anti-proliferative natural product neopeltolide is now disclosed. Catalytic transformations are employed to address every stereochemical issue. Among the featured processes are an enantioselective ring-opening/cross-metathesis promoted by a Mo monoaryloxide pyrrolide (MAP) complex and a macrocyclic ring-closing metathesis that affords a trisubstituted alkene and is catalyzed by a Mo bis(aryloxide) species. Furthermore, Z-selective cross-metathesis reactions, facilitated by Mo and Ru complexes, have been employed in the stereoselective synthesis of the acyclic dienyl moiety of the target molecule.

  9. Femtosecond laser assisted design of sutureless intrastromal graft as an alternative to partial thickness keratoplasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Francesca; Durkee, Heather; Pini, Roberto; Canovetti, Annalisa; Malandrini, Alex; Lenzetti, Ivo; Rubino, Pierangela; Leaci, Rosachiara; Neri, Alberto; Scaroni, Patrizia; Menabuoni, Luca; Macaluso, Claudio

    2014-02-01

    Minimally invasive laser assisted surgery in ophthalmology is continuously developing in order to find new surgical approaches, preserve patient tissue and improve surgical results in terms of cut precision, restoration of visual acuity, and invasiveness. In order to achieve these goals, the current approach in corneal transplant is lamellar keratoplasty, where only the anterior or posterior part of the patient's cornea is substituted depending on the lesion or pathology. In this work, we present a novel alternative approach: a case study of intrastromal sutureless transplant, where a portion of the anterior stroma of a donor cornea was inserted into the stroma of the recipient cornea, aiming to restore the correct thickness of the patient's cornea. The patient cornea was paracentrally thin, as the result of a trophic ulcer due to ocular pemphigoid. A discoid corneal graft from the anterior stroma of a donor eye was prepared: a femtosecond laser cut with a trapezoidal profile (thickness was 300 μm, minor and major basis were 3.00 and 3.50 mm, respectively). In the recipient eye, an intrastromal cut was also performed with the femtosecond laser using a specifically designed mask; the cut position was 275 μm in depth. The graft was loaded into an injector and inserted as an intrastromal presbyopic implant. The postoperative analysis evidenced a clear and stable graft that selectively restored corneal thickness in the thinned area. Intrastromal corneal transplant surgery is a minimally invasive alternative to anterior or posterior lamellar keratoplasty in select cases. We believe that Sutureless Intrastromal Laser Keratoplasty (SILK) could open up new avenues in the field of corneal transplantation by fully utilizing the potential and precision of existing lasers.

  10. Intersecting Knowledge Fields and Integrating Data-Driven Computational Design en Route to Performance-Oriented and Intensely Local Architectures

    OpenAIRE

    Hensel, Michael U.; Sørensen, Søren S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses research by design efforts in architectural education, focused on developing concepts and methods for the design of performance-oriented and intensely local architectures. The pursued notion of performance foregrounds the interaction between a given architecture and its local setting, with consequences not only for the design product but also for the related processes by which it is generated. Integrated approaches to data-driven computational design serve to generate suc...

  11. Systems-Wide Prediction of Enzyme Promiscuity Reveals a New Underground Alternative Route for Pyridoxal 5'-Phosphate Production in E. coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew A Oberhardt

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent insights suggest that non-specific and/or promiscuous enzymes are common and active across life. Understanding the role of such enzymes is an important open question in biology. Here we develop a genome-wide method, PROPER, that uses a permissive PSI-BLAST approach to predict promiscuous activities of metabolic genes. Enzyme promiscuity is typically studied experimentally using multicopy suppression, in which over-expression of a promiscuous 'replacer' gene rescues lethality caused by inactivation of a 'target' gene. We use PROPER to predict multicopy suppression in Escherichia coli, achieving highly significant overlap with published cases (hypergeometric p = 4.4e-13. We then validate three novel predicted target-replacer gene pairs in new multicopy suppression experiments. We next go beyond PROPER and develop a network-based approach, GEM-PROPER, that integrates PROPER with genome-scale metabolic modeling to predict promiscuous replacements via alternative metabolic pathways. GEM-PROPER predicts a new indirect replacer (thiG for an essential enzyme (pdxB in production of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (the active form of Vitamin B6, which we validate experimentally via multicopy suppression. We perform a structural analysis of thiG to determine its potential promiscuous active site, which we validate experimentally by inactivating the pertaining residues and showing a loss of replacer activity. Thus, this study is a successful example where a computational investigation leads to a network-based identification of an indirect promiscuous replacement of a key metabolic enzyme, which would have been extremely difficult to identify directly.

  12. Design of routing strategies of bank branch network system%银行分行网络系统的路由策略设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘云洁; 孙振伟

    2011-01-01

    With the comprehensive promotion of banking network system and developments of various business, the branch network system has already not meet the needs of the business. In order to improve the operational efficiency of branch systems,provide customers with convenientand varied services, enhance the development of branch systems, and improve the competitiveness of branch systems,this paper presented a branch network system design scheme of routing strategies. It aims to accomplish the entire network routing optimization design mainly through designing a routing strategies of the core area, regional wide area network, Server network area and client access area.The results indicate that this design satisfies with the entire good operational channel fast deployment, the stable movement request on the Server revenue and the full line of business system, in aspects of high reliability, expansibility, high security and manageability etc, it can adapt the business development needs in the new situation.%随着分行网络系统的全面推广和各项业务的不断发展,分行网络系统已经不能满足业务发展的需要.为了提高分行系统的运作效率,为客户提供方便快捷和丰富多彩的服务,增强分行系统的发展力、影响力,提高分行系统的竞争能力,本文提出一种分行网络系统的路由策略设计方案,主要通过对分行网络系统的核心区域、广域网区域、服务器区域和客户端接入区域进行路由设计,达到整个网络系统路由的优化设计.结果表明,该设计满足了分行服务器上收和全行业务系统快速部署、稳定运行的要求,在高可靠性、可扩展性、高安全性、可管理性等方面能够适应新的形势下业务发展的需求.

  13. Intersecting Knowledge Fields and Integrating Data-Driven Computational Design en Route to Performance-Oriented and Intensely Local Architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael U Hensel

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses research by design efforts in architectural education, focused on developing concepts and methods for the design of performance-oriented and intensely local architectures. The pursued notion of performance foregrounds the interaction between a given architecture and its local setting, with consequences not only for the design product but also for the related processes by which it is generated. Integrated approaches to data-driven computational design serve to generate such designs. The outlined approach shifts the focus of design attention away from the delivery of finite architectural objects and towards an expanded range of architecture-environment interactions that are registered, instrumentalised and modulated over time. This paper examines ongoing efforts in integrating specific architectural goals and approaches, computational data-driven design methods and generative design processes, based on a range of context-specific and often real-time data sets. The work discussed is produced in the context of the Research Centre for Architecture and Tectonics (RCAT and the Advanced Computational Design Laboratory (ACDL at the Oslo School of Architecture and Design.

  14. Using pilot test data to refine an alternative cover design in northern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smesrud, Jason K; Benson, Craig H; Albright, William H; Richards, James H; Wright, Shannon; Israel, Tim; Goodrich, Keith

    2012-01-01

    Two instrumented test sections were constructed in summer 1999 at the Kiefer Landfill near Sacramento, California to test the hydraulic performance of two proposed alternative final covers. Both test sections simulated monolithic evapotranspiration (ET) designs that differed primarily in thickness. Both were seeded with a mix of two perennial and one annual grass species. Oleander seedlings were also planted in the thicker test section. Detailed hydrologic performance monitoring of the covers was conducted from 1999 through 2005, The thicker test section met the performance criterion (average percolation of hydraulic properties, geomorphology, and vegetation and to collect data to support a revised design. Field data from hydrologic monitoring and the decommissioning study were subsequently included in a hydrologic modeling study to estimate the performance of an optimized cover system for full-scale application. The decommissioning study showed that properties of the soils changed over the monitoring period (saturated hydraulic conductivity and water holding capacity increased, density decreased) and that the perennial grasses and shrubs intended for the cover were out-competed by annual species with shallower roots and lesser capacity for water uptake. Of these changes, reduced ET from the shallow-rooted annual vegetation is believed to be the primary cause for the high percolation rate from the thinner test section. Hydrologic modeling suggests that the target hydraulic performance can be achieved using an ET cover with similar thickness to the thin test section if perennial vegetation species observed in surrounding grasslands can be established. This finding underscores the importance of establishing and maintaining the appropriate vegetation on ET covers in this climate. PMID:22574382

  15. Design of Fogging Nozzles as Alternative Stock Pile Dust Suppression Medium at Gold Mining Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Kwasi Adzimah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to design fogging nozzles as alternative stock pile dust suppression medium at gold mining sites. Furthermore, this fogging medium helps to arrest the dust without getting the area wet and without any substantial expenditure. Emission of dust, which is one of the main contributors to the pollution of the environment, has been associated with mining industries for years, especially in the mining towns of Ghana and Liberia. The emission of dust takes place mainly around the haul roads, ore drilling, blasting and trafficking areas, crushers and, and especially, the stock pile unit. The intensity of the emissions of the dust is such that all the plants, objects, living things, gadgets, instruments and structures in the area are engulfed in the dust. Residents, who are hard hit by this phenomenon, backed by their traditional rulers often take the mining companies to task through legal or unlawful actions, which, many a time, become violent and confrontational. Sprinkling of water has been done to alleviate the situation but this process rather creates more problems in that, the area, especially roads, once wet becomes dry again, and the emission of dust gets intensified and aggravated.

  16. Three-dimensional analysis of the Pratt and Whitney alternate design SSME fuel turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirtley, K. R.; Beach, T. A.; Adamczyk, J. J.

    1991-01-01

    The three dimensional viscous time-mean flow in the Pratt and Whitney alternate design space shuttle main engine fuel turbine is simulated using the average passage Navier-Stokes equations. The migration of secondary flows generated by upstream blade rows and their effect on the performance of downstream blade rows is studied. The present simulation confirms that the flow in this two stage turbine is highly three dimensional and dominated by the tip leakage flow. The tip leakage vortex generated by the first blade persists through the second blade and adversely affects its performance. The greatest mixing of the inlet total temperature distortion occurs in the second vane and is due to the large leakage vortex generated by the upstream rotor. It is assumed that the predominant spanwise mixing mechanism in this low aspect ratio turbine is the radial transport due to the deterministically unsteady vortical flow generated by upstream blade rows. A by-product of the analysis is accurate pressure and heat loads for all blade rows under the influence of neighboring blade rows. These aero loads are useful for advanced structural analysis of the vanes and blades.

  17. The Designing of Tourism Route Based on Campbell Model---Taking Rizhao City as an Example%Campbell模型在旅游线路设计中的应用--以日照市为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦志玉; 郭丽丽; 胡秀丽

    2014-01-01

    旅游线路设计在景区规划和导游路线设计中是必不可少的内容,该文在已有研究的基础上,首先确定了旅游线路设计的四要素,形成了旅游线路设计原则列表,在分析 Campbell模型的基础上,得出该模型在线路设计方面对人们的四点启发,以日照市作为案例,在分析了日照市旅游资源和服务设施的基础上,最终形成基于Campbell模型的日照市旅游线路设计示意图,以此来探讨旅游线路设计的最优途径。%Tourism route designing in the scenic planning and tour route designing is an essential ele-ment.On the basis of the existing research,the four elements of tourism route designing are identified,and the list of tourism route designing principle is formed.On the basis of the analysis of the Campbell model, we optimize four simple inspirations in desigining tourism route.By the analysis of tourism resources and service facilities in Rizhao City,Rizhao City schematic of the tourism route designing is formed ultimately which is used to investigate the optimal way of the tourism route designing.

  18. Route Elimination Heuristic for Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sándor Csiszár

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the design of a route elimination (RE algorithm for thevehicle routing problem with time windows (VRPTW. The problem has two objectives, oneof them is the minimal number of routes the other is the minimal cost. To cope with theseobjectives effectively two-phase solutions are often suggested in the relevant literature. Inthe first phase the main focus is the route elimination, in the second one it is the costreduction. The algorithm described here is a part of a complete VRPWT study. The methodwas developed by studying the graph behaviour during the route elimination. For thispurpose a model -called “Magic Bricks” was developed. The computation results on theSolomon problem set show that the developed algorithm is competitive with the best ones.

  19. Designed synthesis of tunable amorphous carbon nanotubes (a-CNTs) by a novel route and their oxidation resistance properties

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Longlong Xu; Yifu Zhang; Xiongzhi Zhang; Yu Huang; Xiaoyu Tan; Chi Huang; Xiao Mei; Fei Niu; Changgong Meng; Gongzhen Cheng

    2014-10-01

    Tunable amorphous carbon nanotubes (a-CNTs) were successfully synthesized using V3O7.H2O and glucose solution as the starting materials by a novel route for the first time. The as-obtained samples were separately characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS), elemental analysis (EA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT–IR) and Raman spectrum. The results showed that the as-obtained a-CNTs had uniform diameters with outer diameter ranging from 140 to 250 nm and inner diameter about 28 nm on an average, and their length was up to several micrometres. No VO residues remaining in a-CNTs showed the as-obtained a-CNTs with high purity. The as-prepared a-CNTs were a kind of hydrogenated a-CNTs containing both the 3- and 2-type carbons. Furthermore, the thermal stability of the as-obtained a-CNTs in the air atmosphere were investigated by thermo-gravimetric/differential thermal analyser (TG-DTA), revealing that the as-obtained a-CNTs had good thermal stability and oxidation resistance below 300 °C in air.

  20. 基于路由功能的BACnet/Modbus协议转换器设计%Design of BACnet/Modbus Protocol Converter Based on Routing Function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春旺; 孙育英; 吴义民; 施方

    2012-01-01

    Traditional BACnet/Modbus gateway could realize data interchange only though data sharing, could not recognize Modbus devices directly under BACnet environment. The authors designed and developed a kind of BACnet/Modbus protocol converter based on routing function. By using it, the parsing and routing directing of Modbus device address could be realized in network layer, and BACnet datagram encapsulating to Modbus device could be done in application layer, so that a Modbus device could be directly encapsulated into a BACnet device. The experimentation results show that the management and operation to a Modbus device could be completed though BACnet software directly by using the protocol converter, and a higher data throughput was obtained simultaneously.%传统的BACnet/Modbus网关只能通过数据共享来实现数据交换,无法在BACnet环境下直接识别Modbus设备.研制了一种基于路由功能的BACnet/Modbus协议转换器,在网络层实现Modbus设备地址的解析和路由定向,在应用层完成对Modbus设备数据值的BACnet封装,将Modbus设备直接封装成BACnet设备.测试结果表明,通过该转换器可直接采用BACnet软件对Modbus设备进行管理和操作,具有较高的数据实时吞吐量.

  1. 铁路选线设计中常见问题分析%Analysis on Common Problems in Railway Route Selection Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永贵

    2014-01-01

    铁路选线的好坏,决定了项目工程的难易程度、工程投资的大小、施工和运营的安全,所以铁路选线是铁路项目设计中最基本、最重要的工作,是影响全局的总体性工作。在中国西南地区,山高谷深、地形地质条件复杂,在此区域修建铁路,工程十分艰巨,更有必要做好铁路选线。笔者经过多年在中国西南山区铁路选线设计工作的经验积累,将铁路选线设计中遇到的环境选线、地质选线、紧坡地段定线、竖曲线与平面圆曲线重合、坡度代数差、坡度使用等问题在文中分别进行了列举分析。铁路选线应根据规范、规定,结合项目沿线的环境和地形地质条件、工程条件、规划及人文等因数,经过多方案的比选,来确定最优的线路方案。%The route selection of railway determines the complexity of project engineering, the amount of project invest-ment as well as the safety of construction and operation, therefore, route selection is the most fundamental and signifi-cant work of project design and it's also a general task that influences the whole project. As Southwest China orea fea-tures high mountains, deep valleys and complex terrains and geological conditions, it's very difficult to build railways here. It is necessary to railway line. With years of experiences in route selection of railways in mountainous regions of Southwest China, problems encountered in selection of railway route are inevitable in the project of railway environmental route selection, geological line selection, tight slope segment alignment, vertical curve and plane circular curve coin-cide, difference in gradients, slope utilization. Route selection should be compliant with regulations and rules to deter-mine the optimal scheme of line,combining to the project along the terrain and geological conditions, construction condi-tions, project planning and cultural factors.

  2. Designing an aerobic exercise training in water as an alternative treatment for depression: A new method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Mohammadiyoun

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A highly disruptive emotional disorder is major depression, characterized by abnormal regulation of feelings of sadness and happiness. Traditional treatment for depression was pharmacological treatment. One alternative that has been shown to be effective in alleviating depression is physical activity. Previous observation and interventional studies have suggested that regular aerobic exercise reduced symptoms of depression. Moreover physical activity and exercise in water may have some beneficial effects on mood. However the purpose of this investigation was to design an aerobic exercise pattern in water and evaluate the effects of this pattern on depression.Methods and Materials: Two hundred and forty-nine male undergraduates allocated for this study. The Beck Depression Inventory was used to measure the presence and degree of depression. Fifty –two males (body mass, 67.8  9.3 kg; height, 1.73  0.04 m; age, 22.26  2.4 who obtained a depressive score more than 18 participated in an aerobic exercise program. The aerobic exercise program included unstructured water- polo sessions, 60 minute duration, three times per week for seven weeks. The participants trained at 60-70 % of maximum heart rate. The Beck Depression Inventory was administered before aerobic exercise training, at the first, twelfth, and twenty- first sessions. Results: Analysis of variance with repeated measures (ANOVA showed that levels of depression score were significantly higher pre-treatment than in middle-treatment (P<0.05. A significant change was observed between the pre-treatment and post-treatment (P<0.05, the level of depression score was lower in post-treatment. Comparison of Beck score in the depressed samples at the first day (25.19, twelfth (15.08, and the twenty-first (11.64 of session, after performance of the practice, was significant (P<0.05. The results in control group at pre and post training exercise unchanged significantly. Conclusion

  3. Phosgene free route to methyl diphenyl diisocynate (MDI): A technical and economical evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den H.; Ham, van der A.G.J.; Gutierrez, H.; Odu, S.O.; Roelofs, T.; Weerdt, de J.

    2012-01-01

    The objective is to design an alternative production process for Methyl Diphenyl Diisocyanate (MDI) in which no toxic phosgene is used. The plant should use 4,4′-Methylenedianiline (MDA) as a raw material. Seven routes found in the open literature were investigated and compared on process conditions

  4. Visual perception aspects of excursion route composition

    OpenAIRE

    Antonets, Margaryta

    2013-01-01

    Research dedicated to the influence of visual perception on landscape excursion routes composition should be based on the characteristics of human perception of the environment. During forming of excursion route an important part is design of visual frames as the primary compositional elements of visual impressions. The general visual impression of the route is characterized by two parameters: the level of attractiveness of objects and the level of attractiveness of route.

  5. Whirlpool routing for mobility

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Jung Woo

    2010-01-01

    We present the Whirlpool Routing Protocol (WARP), which efficiently routes data to a node moving within a static mesh. The key insight in WARP\\'s design is that data traffic can use an existing routing gradient to efficiently probe the topology, repair the routing gradient, and communicate these repairs to nearby nodes. Using simulation, controlled testbeds, and real mobility experiments, we find that using the data plane for topology maintenance is highly effective due to the incremental nature of mobility updates. WARP leverages the fact that converging flows at a destination make the destination have the region of highest traffic. We provide a theoretical basis for WARP\\'s behavior, defining an "update area" in which the topology must adjust when a destination moves. As long as packets arrive at a destination before it moves outside of the update area, WARP can repair the topology using the data plane. Compared to existing protocols, such as DYMO and HYPER, WARP\\'s packet drop rate is up to 90% lower while sending up to 90% fewer packets.

  6. A graph-theoretic method to quantify the airline route authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Y.

    1979-01-01

    The paper introduces a graph-theoretic method to quantify the legal statements in route certificate which specifies the airline routing restrictions. All the authorized nonstop and multistop routes, including the shortest time routes, can be obtained, and the method suggests profitable route structure alternatives to airline analysts. This method to quantify the C.A.B. route authority was programmed in a software package, Route Improvement Synthesis and Evaluation, and demonstrated in a case study with a commercial airline. The study showed the utility of this technique in suggesting route alternatives and the possibility of improvements in the U.S. route system.

  7. Parametric Optimization of Some Critical Operating System Functions--An Alternative Approach to the Study of Operating Systems Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobh, Tarek M.; Tibrewal, Abhilasha

    2006-01-01

    Operating systems theory primarily concentrates on the optimal use of computing resources. This paper presents an alternative approach to teaching and studying operating systems design and concepts by way of parametrically optimizing critical operating system functions. Detailed examples of two critical operating systems functions using the…

  8. Startup Diagnostics of the Degree of Well-Formedness of Student Design Competence as an Integral Means of Students Plotting Their Own Individual Learning Route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladlen K. Ignatovich

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to substantiate the need for the prognostic assessment of the degree to which school students are prepared to master new types of activity, which underlie their design of an individual learning route at an appropriate senior stage of learning. The authors discuss the concept of project competence as an integral characteristic of such preparedness. The article describes the components of school students’ project competence, characterizes the degrees to which they may be formed, and brings to light the possibility of diagnosing these components using specially prepared cases. The authors describe the experience of pilot-testing the methodology, discuss their findings, and identify major gaps in the project competence of present-day school students.

  9. Conceptual design report: Nuclear materials storage facility renovation. Part 6, Alternatives study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Materials Storage Facility (NMSF) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) was a Fiscal Year (FY) 1984 line-item project completed in 1987 that has never been operated because of major design and construction deficiencies. This renovation project, which will correct those deficiencies and allow operation of the facility, is proposed as an FY 97 line item. The mission of the project is to provide centralized intermediate and long-term storage of special nuclear materials (SNM) associated with defined LANL programmatic missions and to establish a centralized SNM shipping and receiving location for Technical Area (TA)-55 at LANL. Based on current projections, existing storage space for SNM at other locations at LANL will be loaded to capacity by approximately 2002. This will adversely affect LANUs ability to meet its mission requirements in the future. The affected missions include LANL's weapons research, development, and testing (WRD ampersand T) program; special materials recovery; stockpile survelliance/evaluation; advanced fuels and heat sources development and production; and safe, secure storage of existing nuclear materials inventories. The problem is further exacerbated by LANL's inability to ship any materials offsite because of the lack of receiver sites for material and regulatory issues. Correction of the current deficiencies and enhancement of the facility will provide centralized storage close to a nuclear materials processing facility. The project will enable long-term, cost-effective storage in a secure environment with reduced radiation exposure to workers, and eliminate potential exposures to the public. This report is organized according to the sections and subsections outlined by Attachment 111-2 of DOE Document AL 4700.1, Project Management System. It is organized into seven parts. This document, Part VI - Alternatives Study, presents a study of the different storage/containment options considered for NMSF

  10. Consideration of alternative designs for a Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy feeding tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerrabolu, Santosh Rohit

    The inability of some people to chew or swallow foods (but can digest foods) due to problems associated with various diseases and complications leads them to insufficient nutritional intake and loss of quality of life. These individuals are generally provided with nutritional support by means of injecting or infusing food directly into their stomachs or small intestines via feeding tubes. Gastrostomy feeding tubes (G-tubes) are used when such nutritional support is required for over 3-6 weeks. Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy (PEG) tubes are one of the most widely used G- Tubes and devices which are inserted via an incision through the abdominal wall either through a pull or push method. This investigation proposes conceptual alternative Percutaneous Endoscopy Gastrostomy (PEG) feeding tube designs with optimized materials selection to be used for their construction. The candidate materials were chosen from 18 commercial catheters, 2 reference grade polymers and a commercial polymer; using tissue-catheter-friction testing and surface chemistry characterization (Infrared spectroscopy and Critical Surface Tension approximation). The main objectives considered were to minimize slipping/dislodgement of gastrostomy tube/seal, to reduce peristomal leakage, and to attain size variability of PEG tubes while maintaining a low profile. Scanning Electron Microscope- Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy was employed to further determine the filler materials used in the samples. Nylon coated with fatty ester and filled with Barium sulphate was determined as the optimum material for the construction of the tube part of the feeding tubes to reduce slipping/dislodgment of gastrostomy tube/seal and to minimize peristomal leakage. Nylon coated with fatty ester and filled with Silica is the suggested as a candidate material for construction of the bumper/mushroom sections of the feeding tubes to avoid the Buried Bumper Syndrome. Fused Deposition Modeling, Selective Laser Sintering

  11. Update and Improve Subsection NH –– Alternative Simplified Creep-Fatigue Design Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tai Asayama

    2009-10-26

    This report described the results of investigation on Task 10 of DOE/ASME Materials NGNP/Generation IV Project based on a contract between ASME Standards Technology, LLC (ASME ST-LLC) and Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). Task 10 is to Update and Improve Subsection NH -- Alternative Simplified Creep-Fatigue Design Methods. Five newly proposed promising creep-fatigue evaluation methods were investigated. Those are (1) modified ductility exhaustion method, (2) strain range separation method, (3) approach for pressure vessel application, (4) hybrid method of time fraction and ductility exhaustion, and (5) simplified model test approach. The outlines of those methods are presented first, and predictability of experimental results of these methods is demonstrated using the creep-fatigue data collected in previous Tasks 3 and 5. All the methods (except the simplified model test approach which is not ready for application) predicted experimental results fairly accurately. On the other hand, predicted creep-fatigue life in long-term regions showed considerable differences among the methodologies. These differences come from the concepts each method is based on. All the new methods investigated in this report have advantages over the currently employed time fraction rule and offer technical insights that should be thought much of in the improvement of creep-fatigue evaluation procedures. The main points of the modified ductility exhaustion method, the strain range separation method, the approach for pressure vessel application and the hybrid method can be reflected in the improvement of the current time fraction rule. The simplified mode test approach would offer a whole new advantage including robustness and simplicity which are definitely attractive but this approach is yet to be validated for implementation at this point. Therefore, this report recommends the following two steps as a course of improvement of NH based on newly proposed creep-fatigue evaluation

  12. Vehicle routing for the eco-efficient collection of household plastic waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bing, Xiaoyun; de Keizer, Marlies; Bloemhof-Ruwaard, Jacqueline M; van der Vorst, Jack G A J

    2014-04-01

    Plastic waste is a special category of municipal solid waste. Plastic waste collection is featured with various alternatives of collection methods (curbside/drop-off) and separation methods (source-/post-separation). In the Netherlands, the collection routes of plastic waste are the same as those of other waste, although plastic is different than other waste in terms of volume to weight ratio. This paper aims for redesigning the collection routes and compares the collection options of plastic waste using eco-efficiency as performance indicator. Eco-efficiency concerns the trade-off between environmental impacts, social issues and costs. The collection problem is modeled as a vehicle routing problem. A tabu search heuristic is used to improve the routes. Collection alternatives are compared by a scenario study approach. Real distances between locations are calculated with MapPoint. The scenario study is conducted based on real case data of the Dutch municipality Wageningen. Scenarios are designed according to the collection alternatives with different assumptions in collection method, vehicle type, collection frequency and collection points, etc. Results show that the current collection routes can be improved in terms of eco-efficiency performance by using our method. The source-separation drop-off collection scenario has the best performance for plastic collection assuming householders take the waste to the drop-off points in a sustainable manner. The model also shows to be an efficient decision support tool to investigate the impacts of future changes such as alternative vehicle type and different response rates.

  13. A Swarm Intelligent Algorithm Based Route Maintaining Protocol for Mobile Sink Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoming Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that mobile sink can be a solution to solve the problem that energy consumption of sensor nodes is not balanced in wireless sensor networks (WSNs. Caused by the sink mobility, the paths between the sensor nodes and the sink change frequently and have profound influence on the lifetime of WSN. It is necessary to design a protocol that can find efficient routings between the mobile sink and nodes but does not consume too many network resources. In this paper, we propose a swarm intelligent algorithm based route maintaining protocol to resolve this issue. The protocol utilizes the concentric ring mechanism to guide the route researching direction and adopts the optimal routing selection to maintain the data delivery route in mobile sink WSN. Using the immune based artificial bee colony (IABC algorithm to optimize the forwarding path, the routing maintaining protocol could find an alternative routing path quickly and efficiently when the coordinate of sink is changed in WSN. The results of our extensive experiments demonstrate that our proposed route maintaining protocol is able to balance the network traffic load and prolong the network lifetime.

  14. An Opportunistic Routing Protocol for Mobile Cognitive Radio Ad hoc networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Selvakanmani

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive radio, an upcoming technology gives the solution for the scarcity of spectrum where the transmitter acts as a sensible device which behaves as per the surrounding environment. A group of devices, which follows this technology, forms a temporary network called mobile cognitive radio ad hoc networks. The widely known ad hoc networks are always in moving fashion and there is no need for central abstraction in collecting the data. In such networks, formation of route(s to the destination becomes a leading problem. In Cognitive Radio ad hoc Networks (CRAHNs a challenging problem is to design the routing metric and also to reduce the packet drop. This problem arrives due to the usage of traditional routing in CRAHNs. Opportunistic routing - a new routing paradigm has been used as an alternate for maximizing the packet delivery ratio. The paper discusses about the routing protocol called CRCN CORMEN discusses about packet delivery ratio, reduces delay in a cooperative way among the nodes, when compared to the traditional Cooperative communications. The proposed protocol is evaluated and compared through NS2 simulation. The result indicates a high performance due to opportunistic routing and the evaluation is shown through by using xgraph.

  15. METHODOLOGY, ASSUMPTIONS, AND BASELINE DATA FOR THE REPOSITORY DESIGN AND OPERATION, RAIL CORRIDORS, AND HEAVY TRUCK ROUTES, CLARK COUNTY, NEVADA, LINCOLN COUNTY, NEVADA, NYE COUNTY, NEVADA, ''REST OF NEVADA'', STATE OF NEVADA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document was prepared in support of the ''Environmental Impact Statement for a Geologic Repository for the Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste at Yucca Mountain; Nye County, Nevada''. Specifically, the document evaluates potential socioeconomic impacts resulting from the various rail corridor and heavy haul truck route implementing alternatives, one of which would be selected to transport the nation's commercial and defense spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste to the proposed repository

  16. VANET Routing Protocols: Pros and Cons

    CERN Document Server

    Paul, Bijan; Bikas, Md Abu Naser

    2012-01-01

    VANET (Vehicular Ad-hoc Network) is a new technology which has taken enormous attention in the recent years. Due to rapid topology changing and frequent disconnection makes it difficult to design an efficient routing protocol for routing data among vehicles, called V2V or vehicle to vehicle communication and vehicle to road side infrastructure, called V2I. The existing routing protocols for VANET are not efficient to meet every traffic scenarios. Thus design of an efficient routing protocol has taken significant attention. So, it is very necessary to identify the pros and cons of routing protocols which can be used for further improvement or development of any new routing protocol. This paper presents the pros and cons of VANET routing protocols for inter vehicle communication.

  17. MILITARY MULTI-HOP ROUTING PROTOCOL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Military tactical network is one of the most important applications of ad hoc network. Currently the existing routing protocols are put forward based on the simple and universal network model which has the ability of multi-hop routing but cannot work efficiently in the special military applications. The narrow bandwidth and limited energy of the wireless network make general routing protocols seem to be more redundant.In order to satisfy military needs properly, this letter makes a detailed analysis of physical nodes and traffic distribution in military network, uses cross-layer design concept for reference, combines traffic characteristic of application layer with routing protocol design. It categorized routing problem as crucial routes and non-crucial routes which adopted separate maintenance methods. It not only realizes basic transmission function but also works efficiently. It is quite fit for military application.

  18. Research on secure routing algorithm in wireless sensor network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo

    2013-03-01

    Through the research on the existing wireless sensor network (WSN) and its security technologies, this paper presents a design of the WSN-based secure routing algorithm. This design uses the existing routing algorithm as chief source, adding the security guidance strategy, introducing the location key information, to enhance the security performance of WSN routing. The improved routing algorithm makes the WSN routing achieve better anti-attack in the case of little overhead increase, therefore has high practical value.

  19. 基于GIS与旅行商问题的自驾游路径设计%Self-Driving Route Design Concerning GIS and Traveling Salesman

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾中星; 景海涛; 李伟

    2014-01-01

    自驾游以自主性、灵活性、选择性以及多样性等内在特点吸引着许多人,而它的线路设计质量直接影响自驾游者的心理满意度。通过收集、梳理河南省优秀旅游资源的空间分布、景区详情、交通道路等信息,依据旅游学中旅游行为空间模式、数学中图论和旅行商问题、地理信息系统( GIS )等科学理论,设计河南省自助游的最佳旅游线路。本研究以具有河南代表性的旅游景区为实际空间数据源,以ArcGIS系统为空间分布、交通等属性信息的可视化工具,以图论和旅行商问题为路线设计的数学基础,构建出自驾游线路设计的模式。本研究方法简单科学,为广大自驾游者规划旅游线路提供了有实际意义的参考。%Since the self-driving have many advantages, such as Independence, flexibility, selectivity and diversity, now many peo-ple have been attracted by self-driving.And the quality of the tourist routes may affect our satisfaction.In this study, firstly, we have collected and managed the spatial information of the famous tourist resources in Henan Province, such as spatial distribution of landscape and road information.Secondly, based on space travel behavior patterns, graph theory and the traveling salesman problem of GIS, we can design the best road to satisfy people’ s demand.At the same time, we can realize attribute information visualization, such as graph, the shortest path and so on.The paper designs a personal spatial tourism model plan according to geospatial data that contains some famous tourist destinations in Henan Province.The processes are simple and scientific.We can design unique tourism routes for ourselves so it is very practical for self-driving tour.

  20. Routing for wireless multi-hop networks

    CERN Document Server

    Hamid, Sherin Abdel; Takahara, Glen

    2013-01-01

    The focus of this brief is to identify what unifies and what distinguishes the routing functions in four wireless multi-hop network paradigms. The brief introduces a generic routing model that can be used as a foundation of wireless multi-hop routing protocol analysis and design. It demonstrates that such model can be adopted by any wireless multi-hop routing protocol. Also presented is a glimpse of the ideal wireless multi-hop routing protocol along with several open issues.

  1. Quality by design approach for formulation, evaluation and statistical optimization of diclofenac-loaded ethosomes via transdermal route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Shashank; Patel, Niketkumar; Madan, Parshotam; Lin, Senshang

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to fabricate and understand ethosomal formulations of diclofenac (DF) for enhanced anti-inflammatory activity using quality by design approach. DF-loaded ethosomal formulations were prepared using 4 × 5 full-factorial design with phosphatidylcholine:cholesterol (PC:CH) ratios ranging between 50:50 and 90:10, and ethanol concentration ranging between 0% and 30% as formulation variables. These formulations were characterized in terms of physicochemical properties and skin permeation kinetics. The interaction of formulation variables had a significant effect on both physicochemical properties and permeation kinetics. The results of multivariate regression analysis illustrated that vesicle size and elasticity of ethosomes were the dominating physicochemical properties affecting skin permeation, and could be suitably controlled by manipulation of formulation variables to optimize the formulation and enhance the skin permeation of DF-loaded ethosomes. The optimized formulation had ethanol concentration of 22.9% and PC:CH ratio of 88.4:11.6, with vesicle size of 144 ± 5 nm, zeta potential of -23.0 ± 3.76 mV, elasticity of 2.48 ± 0.75 and entrapment efficiency of 71 ± 4%. Permeation flux for the optimized formulation was 12.9 ± 1.0 µg/h cm(2), which was significantly higher than the drug-loaded conventional liposome, ethanolic or aqueous solution. The in vivo study indicated that optimized ethosomal hydrogel exhibited enhanced anti-inflammatory activity compared with liposomal and plain drug hydrogel formulations. PMID:24490793

  2. Quality by design approach for formulation, evaluation and statistical optimization of diclofenac-loaded ethosomes via transdermal route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Shashank; Patel, Niketkumar; Madan, Parshotam; Lin, Senshang

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to fabricate and understand ethosomal formulations of diclofenac (DF) for enhanced anti-inflammatory activity using quality by design approach. DF-loaded ethosomal formulations were prepared using 4 × 5 full-factorial design with phosphatidylcholine:cholesterol (PC:CH) ratios ranging between 50:50 and 90:10, and ethanol concentration ranging between 0% and 30% as formulation variables. These formulations were characterized in terms of physicochemical properties and skin permeation kinetics. The interaction of formulation variables had a significant effect on both physicochemical properties and permeation kinetics. The results of multivariate regression analysis illustrated that vesicle size and elasticity of ethosomes were the dominating physicochemical properties affecting skin permeation, and could be suitably controlled by manipulation of formulation variables to optimize the formulation and enhance the skin permeation of DF-loaded ethosomes. The optimized formulation had ethanol concentration of 22.9% and PC:CH ratio of 88.4:11.6, with vesicle size of 144 ± 5 nm, zeta potential of -23.0 ± 3.76 mV, elasticity of 2.48 ± 0.75 and entrapment efficiency of 71 ± 4%. Permeation flux for the optimized formulation was 12.9 ± 1.0 µg/h cm(2), which was significantly higher than the drug-loaded conventional liposome, ethanolic or aqueous solution. The in vivo study indicated that optimized ethosomal hydrogel exhibited enhanced anti-inflammatory activity compared with liposomal and plain drug hydrogel formulations.

  3. MODELING AND DESIGN STUDY USING HFC-236EA AS AN ALTERNATIVE REFRIGERANT IN A CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of an investigation of the operation of a centrifugal compressor--part of a chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)-114 chiller installation--with the new refrigerant hydrofluorocarbon (HFC)-236ea, a proposed alternative to CFC-114. A large set of CFC-236ea operating da...

  4. The ChemScreen project to design a pragmatic alternative approachto predict reproductive toxicity of chemicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Burg, B.; Wedebye, E.B.; Dietrich, D.R.; Jaworska, J.; Mangelsdorf, I.; Paune, E.; Schwarz, M.; Piersma, A.H.; Kroese, E.D.

    2015-01-01

    There is a great need for rapid testing strategies for reproductive toxicity testing, avoiding animal use.The EU Framework program 7 project ChemScreen aimed to fill this gap in a pragmatic manner prefer-ably using validated existing tools and place them in an innovative alternative testing strategy

  5. On Answering Questions Worth Asking: Alternative Designs for Sport and Exercise Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, John M., III; Parkhouse, Bonnie L.

    1982-01-01

    Alternate approaches to traditional research techniques available for the physical educator are: (1) field research, using structured and unstructured observation in actual settings; (2) survey analysis to ascertain current conditions or practice; (3) field experiments conducted in actual settings with experimenter controls; (4) time series…

  6. Electro-Active Polymers (EAPs: A Promising Route to Design Bio-Organic/Bioinspired Platforms with on Demand Functionalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Guarino

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Through recent discoveries and new knowledge among correlations between molecular biology and materials science, it is a growing interest to design new biomaterials able to interact—i.e., to influence, to guide or to detect—with cells and their surrounding microenvironments, in order to better control biological phenomena. In this context, electro-active polymers (EAPs are showing great promise as biomaterials acting as an interface between electronics and biology. This is ascribable to the highly tunability of chemical/physical properties which confer them different conductive properties for various applicative uses (i.e., molecular targeting, biosensors, biocompatible scaffolds. This review article is divided into three parts: the first one is an overview on EAPs to introduce basic conductivity mechanisms and their classification. The second one is focused on the description of most common processes used to manipulate EAPs in the form of two-dimensional (2D and three-dimensional (3D materials. The last part addresses their use in current applications in different biomedical research areas including tissue engineering, biosensors and molecular delivery.

  7. Electromagnetic plasmon propagation and coupling through gold nanoring heptamers: a route to design optimized telecommunication photonic nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadivand, Arash; Golmohammadi, Saeed

    2014-06-20

    In this work, a configuration of bulk gold nanorings with certain geometrical sizes has been utilized for designing efficient photonic subwavelength nanostructures. We verify that adjacent heptamers based on gold nanorings are able to couple and transport magnetic plasmon resonance along a nanoring array in chrysene and triphenylene molecule orientations. This magnetic resonance transmission is caused by an antiphase circular current through the heptamer arrays. An orientation model of nanoring heptamers helps us to provide efficient optical structures with a remarkable decay length and a trivial ratio of destructive interferences. Exploiting the robust magnetic plasmon resonance coupling effect between heptamers arrays, we would be able to propose a practical plasmonic waveguide, a Y-shaped optical power divider (splitter), and an ON/OFF router that is operating based on destructive and constructive interferences. The quality of power splitting has been discussed comprehensively and also, the effect of undesirable occasions on the functioning performance of the proposed router has been investigated numerically. Ultimately, we verify that employing heptamers based on gold nanorings leads us to propose efficient plasmonic nanostructures and devices that are able to work in the telecommunication spectrum.

  8. Generating Alternative Engineering Designs by Integrating Desktop VR with Genetic Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandramouli, Magesh; Bertoline, Gary; Connolly, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    This study proposes an innovative solution to the problem of multiobjective engineering design optimization by integrating desktop VR with genetic computing. Although, this study considers the case of construction design as an example to illustrate the framework, this method can very much be extended to other engineering design problems as well.…

  9. Using Collective Intelligence to Route Internet Traffic

    OpenAIRE

    DAVID H. WOLPERT; Tumer, Kagan; Frank, Jeremy

    1999-01-01

    A COllective INtelligence (COIN) is a set of interacting reinforcement learning (RL) algorithms designed in an automated fashion so that their collective behavior optimizes a global utility function. We summarize the theory of COINs, then present experiments using that theory to design COINs to control internet traffic routing. These experiments indicate that COINs outperform all previously investigated RL-based, shortest path routing algorithms.

  10. Using Collective Intelligence to Route Internet Traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolpert, David H.; Tumer, Kagan; Frank, Jeremy

    1998-01-01

    A Collective Intelligence (COIN) is a community of interacting reinforcement learning (RL) algorithms designed so that their collective behavior maximizes a global utility function. We introduce the theory of COINs, then present experiments using that theory to design COINs to control internet traffic routing. These experiments indicate that COINs outperform previous RL-based systems for such routing that have previously been investigated.

  11. The Civic-Minded Instructional Designers Framework: An Alternative Approach to Contemporary Instructional Designers' Education in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusop, Farrah Dina; Correia, Ana-Paula

    2012-01-01

    This paper argues that an emphasis on training-for-the-job approaches has distracted designers from thinking about the meaning of their profession and the grand purpose of practising instructional design. Drawing from literature in the fields of sociology and educational technology, this paper synthesises discourses on civic professionalism in…

  12. Dynamic Route Shortening and Route Repairing Mechanism for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. R. Rangaswamy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Ad hoc Networks are wireless networks without any fixed infrastructure. The network topology changes frequently and unpredictably due to the random movement of the nodes. The ad hoc on Demand Distant Vector Routing (AODV protocol works in a dynamic fashion, by establishing a route on demand and continues that route until it breaks. Due to the changing network topology of ad hoc networks, if other routes with less hop count become available, the network topology is not able to adapt until the route break occurs. Hence in the route shortening scheme is some redundant nodes in the active route is replaced with a node that is not on the active route. When there is any link failure between any two nodes, the alternative route with optimum route to be constructed and not sending RRER message to the source node to initiate the route discovery process again. Approach: This study proposes a new routing protocol called, Dynamic Route Shortening and Repairing mechanism (DRSR. The route shortening is incorporated with route repairing mechanism, to improve the performance of the AODV. The route shortening scheme works by replacing some redundant nodes in the active route, with a node that is not on the active route. If there is a link failure between the two nodes, the route repairing mechanism repairs the route, by using the nodes that are close enough to the route to overhear the message. Whenever the links go down, the DRSR replaces the failed links with the optimum route that is adjacent to the main route and not sending and RRER message to the source node to initiate the route discovery process again. The alternative route construction process could be initiated at any time, not just when a route has failed. The dynamically constructed alternative route’s information is passed on to the upstream nodes, which then determine by themselves when to direct their packets to the Normal 0 false false false EN-US X

  13. Dynamic Routing with Security Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Murali

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Now-a-days one of the major issues for data communication over wired and wireless networks is the security. the past work is on the designs of cryptography algorithms and system infrastructures. Apart from that we will propose a dynamic routing algorithm that could randomize delivery paths for data transmission. The algorithm is easy to implement and compatible with popular routing protocols, such as the Routing Information Protocol(RIP in wired networks and Destination-Sequenced Distance Vector(DSDV protocol in wireless networks, without introducing extra control messages. A clear study on the proposed algorithm is presented, and a series of simulation experiments are conducted to verify the results and to show the capability of the proposed algorithm. This algorithm is mainly proposed to improve the security and to overcome the limitations existing with the present cryptographic algorithms and protocols. Although some designs like IP security, Secure Socket Layer provide essential security, they unavoidably introduce substantial overheads in the Gateway/Host performance and effective network bandwidths. This routing protocol is compatible with the Routing Information Protocol which uses hop-count as its Routing metric. So there will be a limited number of hops and data transmissions are done by selecting hops randomly in a network. This improves security as well as controls traffic in the network. So, the procedure also includes using the multipath routing to select the paths to be followed. It uses the randomization process for selecting the number of hops to be selected for transforming the data. The routing table in this algorithm is based on the well-known Bellman-Ford algorithm. So, this overcomes the problems with security and traffic occurred with increase in the number of networks in these days

  14. Linear Network Fractional Routing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.ASOKAN,

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A Network is a finite directed acyclic graph with source messages from a fixed alphabet and message demands at sink nodes. Linear Programming is an algorithm design method. It can be used whenthe solution to a problem can be viewed as the result of a sequence of decisions. The Linear Programming model for the network problem where in every variable has a value one or zero. The problem is todetermine a method of transmitting the messages through the network such that all sink demands are satisfied. We will prove fractional routing capacity for some solvable network using Linear Programmingmodel.

  15. Innovative IPV from attenuated Sabin poliovirus or newly designed alternative seed strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidi, Ahd; Bakker, Wilfried A M

    2012-11-01

    This article gives an overview of the patent literature related to innovative inactivated polio vaccine (i-IPV) based on using Sabin poliovirus strains and newly developed alternative recombinant poliovirus strains. This innovative approach for IPV manufacturing is considered to attribute to the requirement for affordable IPV in the post-polio-eradication era, which is on the horizon. Although IPV is a well-established vaccine, the number of patent applications in this field was seen to have significantly increased in the past decade. Currently, regular IPV appears to be too expensive for universal use. Future affordability may be achieved by using alternative cell lines, alternative virus seed strains, improved and optimized processes, dose sparing, or the use of adjuvants. A relatively short-term option to achieve cost-price reduction is to work on regular IPV, using wild-type poliovirus strains, or on Sabin-IPV, based on using attenuated poliovirus strains. This price reduction can be achieved by introducing efficiency in processing. There are also multiple opportunities to work on dose sparing, for example, by using adjuvants or fractional doses. Renewed interest in this field was clearly reflected in the number and diversity of patent applications. In a later stage, several innovative approaches may become even more attractive, for example the use of recombinant virus strains or even a totally synthetic vaccine. Currently, such work is mainly carried out by research institutes and universities and therefore clinical data are not available. PMID:24236927

  16. Dynamic information routing in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirst, Christoph; Timme, Marc; Battaglia, Demian

    2016-04-01

    Flexible information routing fundamentally underlies the function of many biological and artificial networks. Yet, how such systems may specifically communicate and dynamically route information is not well understood. Here we identify a generic mechanism to route information on top of collective dynamical reference states in complex networks. Switching between collective dynamics induces flexible reorganization of information sharing and routing patterns, as quantified by delayed mutual information and transfer entropy measures between activities of a network's units. We demonstrate the power of this mechanism specifically for oscillatory dynamics and analyse how individual unit properties, the network topology and external inputs co-act to systematically organize information routing. For multi-scale, modular architectures, we resolve routing patterns at all levels. Interestingly, local interventions within one sub-network may remotely determine nonlocal network-wide communication. These results help understanding and designing information routing patterns across systems where collective dynamics co-occurs with a communication function.

  17. Dynamic information routing in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirst, Christoph; Timme, Marc; Battaglia, Demian

    2016-01-01

    Flexible information routing fundamentally underlies the function of many biological and artificial networks. Yet, how such systems may specifically communicate and dynamically route information is not well understood. Here we identify a generic mechanism to route information on top of collective dynamical reference states in complex networks. Switching between collective dynamics induces flexible reorganization of information sharing and routing patterns, as quantified by delayed mutual information and transfer entropy measures between activities of a network's units. We demonstrate the power of this mechanism specifically for oscillatory dynamics and analyse how individual unit properties, the network topology and external inputs co-act to systematically organize information routing. For multi-scale, modular architectures, we resolve routing patterns at all levels. Interestingly, local interventions within one sub-network may remotely determine nonlocal network-wide communication. These results help understanding and designing information routing patterns across systems where collective dynamics co-occurs with a communication function. PMID:27067257

  18. 《公路勘测设计》课程的教学设计%Teaching Design of Route Survey and Design Course

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩红青

    2011-01-01

    在课程教学设计中,针对教材恰当地进行整体设计和单元设计,并设置好实训项目,辅以四阶段教学法和项目教学法,有效地引导学生主动学习,就能有效地提高学生知识运用能力和岗位职业能力,使高职毕业生成为具有良好职业道德和内在素质,适应生产、建设、管理、服务第一线的高等技术应用性专门人才.%When designing teaching design, appropriately making overall design and unit design aiming at material, designing project of practical training, assisting with four-stage teaching method and project teaching method, and effectively guiding students to study positively can effectively improve students' knowledge application ability and occupational ability, and cultivate graduates' good work ethic and inner quality, cultivating high-skilled applied talents for production, construction, management and service.

  19. Design and analysis about security based on LEACH routing protocol.%基于LEACH协议的安全路由设计与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭芸; 高铁杠

    2011-01-01

    无线传感器网络中,路由算法是否安全直接影响整个网络的安全性和可用性.所以,基于LEACH路由协议,通过增加身份认证机制、密钥的动态更新机制,以及双重密钥加密机制,提出了一个新的安全策略--IS-LEACH,并给出了该策略的详细设计和分析.%The security of the routing protocol of Wireless Sensor Network(WSN) has direct influence on the security and availability of the entire network. By adding identity authentication mechanism, key update mechanism and dual-key encryption mechanism to Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy(LEACH) protocol, a new secure LEACH protocol——IS-LEACH is proposed.Detailed design and analysis of the proposed protocol are given.

  20. Microstructure & texture evolution and magnetic properties of high magnetic-induction 6.5% Si electrical steel thin sheet fabricated by a specially designed rolling route

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hao-ze; LIU Hai-tao; LIU Zhen-yu; WANG Xiang-long; LUO Zhong-han; ZHANG Feng-quan

    2016-01-01

    Electrical steel sheets with 6.5% (mas fraction) Si with good shapes and superior magnetic inductions were successfully produced by a specially designed processing route including ingot casting, hot rolling and warm rolling both with interpass thermal treatment, and final annealing. The sheets were of 0.2 mm and 0.3 mm thick over 140 mm width. A detailed study of the microstructural and textural evolutions from the hot rolling to annealing was carried out by optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction and electron backscattered diffraction. The hot rolled sheet characterized by near-equiaxed grains was dominated by the mixture of //ND fiber (λ-fiber), //RD fiber (α-fiber) and //ND fiber (γ-fiber) textures owing to the partial recrystallization and strain induced boundary migration (SIBM) during the hot rolling interpass thermal treatment. The static recovery and SIBM during the warm rolling interpass thermal treatment result in large and elongated warm rolling grains. The warm rolling texture is dominated by obvious λ, Goss and strong γ-fiber textures. The application of the interpass thermal treatment during hot and warm rolling significantly enhances the impact of SIBM during annealing, which is responsible for the formation of the moderate λ-fiber, some near-λ fiber texture components and the obviously weakened γ-fiber texture in the annealed sheet, leading to a higher magnetic induction compared to the commercially produced 6.5% Si steel by chemical vapor deposition (CVD).

  1. Reactive and proactive routing in labelled optical burst switching networks

    OpenAIRE

    Klinkowski, Miroslaw; Careglio, Davide; Solé Pareta, Josep

    2009-01-01

    Optical burst switching architectures without buffering capabilities are sensitive to burst congestion. The existence of a few highly congested links may seriously aggravate the network throughput. Proper network routing may help in congestion reduction. The authors focus on adaptive routing strategies to be applied in labelled OBS networks, that is, with explicit routing paths. In particular, two isolated alternative routing algorithms that aim at network performance improvement because o...

  2. The Dutch IOR approach to organizational design : An alternative to business process re-engineering?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijnatten, FM; van der Zwaan, AH

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents the current Dutch sociotechnical design approach to integral organizational renewal in a contextual way. Both its design theory and intervention processes are reviewed and some aggregated empirical evidence is presented. Next, the paper compares the ideas developed in the Dutch a

  3. Alternative practices in curriculum design. Participation as a key factor and speaking out as right

    OpenAIRE

    Susana Barco

    2012-01-01

    During the 1990s, in the context of neo-liberal policies, curricular changes ocurred in Latin América which gave a leading role to technicians and experts in education, in the process of writing the curricular documents. Beyond the critiques these policies can receive, it is necessary to find alternative ways of elaborating curricular documents, based on democratic idea of teacher's real participation.In an action-research within the scope of a university and two experiences referred to in th...

  4. Impact of Rate Design Alternatives on Residential Solar Customer Bills. Increased Fixed Charges, Minimum Bills and Demand-based Rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Davidson, Carolyn [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); McLaren, Joyce [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Miller, John [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    With rapid growth in energy efficiency and distributed generation, electric utilities are anticipating stagnant or decreasing electricity sales, particularly in the residential sector. Utilities are increasingly considering alternative rates structures that are designed to recover fixed costs from residential solar photovoltaic (PV) customers with low net electricity consumption. Proposed structures have included fixed charge increases, minimum bills, and increasingly, demand rates - for net metered customers and all customers. This study examines the electricity bill implications of various residential rate alternatives for multiple locations within the United States. For the locations analyzed, the results suggest that residential PV customers offset, on average, between 60% and 99% of their annual load. However, roughly 65% of a typical customer's electricity demand is non-coincidental with PV generation, so the typical PV customer is generally highly reliant on the grid for pooling services.

  5. Routing Physarum with electrical flow/current

    CERN Document Server

    Tsuda, Soichiro; Adamatzky, Andrew; Mills, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Plasmodium stage of Physarum polycephalum behaves as a distributed dynamical pattern formation mechanism who's foraging and migration is influenced by local stimuli from a wide range of attractants and repellents. Complex protoplasmic tube network structures are formed as a result, which serve as efficient `circuits' by which nutrients are distributed to all parts of the organism. We investigate whether this `bottom-up' circuit routing method may be harnessed in a controllable manner as a possible alternative to conventional template-based circuit design. We interfaced the plasmodium of Physarum polycephalum to the planar surface of the spatially represented computing device, (Mills' Extended Analog Computer, or EAC), implemented as a sheet of analog computing material whose behaviour is input and read by a regular 5x5 array of electrodes. We presented a pattern of current distribution to the array and found that we were able to select the directional migration of the plasmodium growth front by exploiting pla...

  6. GREENER CHEMICAL PROCESS DESIGN ALTERNATIVES ARE REVEALED USING THE WASTE REDUCTION DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM (WAR DSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Waste Reduction Decision Support System (WAR DSS) is a Java-based software product providing comprehensive modeling of potential adverse environmental impacts (PEI) predicted to result from newly designed or redesigned chemical manufacturing processes. The purpose of this so...

  7. Evaluation of occupational health interventions using a randomized controlled trial: challenges and alternative research designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schelvis, R.M; Oude Hengel, K.M.; Burdorf, A.; Blatter, B.M.; Strijk, J.E.; Beek, A.J. van

    2015-01-01

    Occupational health researchers regularly conduct evaluative intervention research for which a randomized controlled trial (RCT) may not be the most appropriate design (eg, effects of policy measures, organizational interventions on work schedules). This article demonstrates the appropriateness of a

  8. Engaging Alternative High School Students Through the Design, Development, and Crafting of Computationally Enhanced Pets

    OpenAIRE

    DuMont, Maneksha Katrine

    2014-01-01

    Hybrid design technologies, a combination of physical crafting, construction or art, and computing, have the potential to broaden participation in computing by appealing to youth through existing interests and hobbies. Expanding participation in computing is important because computational thinking, for example debugging, is a set of skills fundamental for success in our society. Youth can participate in and gain exposure to multiple disciplines with various hybrid design technologies. Yet al...

  9. Visualizing Internet routing changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lad, Mohit; Massey, Dan; Zhang, Lixia

    2006-01-01

    Today's Internet provides a global data delivery service to millions of end users and routing protocols play a critical role in this service. It is important to be able to identify and diagnose any problems occurring in Internet routing. However, the Internet's sheer size makes this task difficult. One cannot easily extract out the most important or relevant routing information from the large amounts of data collected from multiple routers. To tackle this problem, we have developed Link-Rank, a tool to visualize Internet routing changes at the global scale. Link-Rank weighs links in a topological graph by the number of routes carried over each link and visually captures changes in link weights in the form of a topological graph with adjustable size. Using Link-Rank, network operators can easily observe important routing changes from massive amounts of routing data, discover otherwise unnoticed routing problems, understand the impact of topological events, and infer root causes of observed routing changes.

  10. Routing in opportunistic networks

    CERN Document Server

    Dhurandher, Sanjay; Anpalagan, Alagan; Vasilakos, Athanasios

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive guide to selected topics, both ongoing and emerging, in routing in OppNets. The book is edited by worldwide technical leaders, prolific researchers and outstanding academics, Dr. Isaac Woungang and co-editors, Dr. Sanjay Kumar Dhurandher, Prof. Alagan Anpalagan and Prof. Athanasios Vasilakos. Consisting of contributions from well known and high profile researchers and scientists in their respective specialties, the main topics that are covered in this book include mobility and routing, social-aware routing, context-based routing, energy-aware routing, incentive-aware routing, stochastic routing, modeling of intermittent connectivity, in both infrastructure and infrastructure-less OppNets. Key Features: Discusses existing and emerging techniques for routing in infrastructure and infrastructure-less OppNets. Provides a unified covering of otherwise disperse selected topics on routing in infrastructure and infrastructure-less OppNets.  Includes a set of PowerPoint slides and g...

  11. PrimerSeq:Design and Visualization of RT-PCR Primers for Alternative Splicing Using RNA-seq Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Collin Tokheim; Juw Won Park; Yi Xing

    2014-01-01

    The vast majority of multi-exon genes in higher eukaryotes are alternatively spliced and changes in alternative splicing (AS) can impact gene function or cause disease. High-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) has become a powerful technology for transcriptome-wide analysis of AS, but RT-PCR still remains the gold-standard approach for quantifying and validating exon splicing levels. We have developed PrimerSeq, a user-friendly software for systematic design and visualization of RT-PCR primers using RNA-seq data. PrimerSeq incorporates user-provided tran-scriptome profiles (i.e., RNA-seq data) in the design process, and is particularly useful for large-scale quantitative analysis of AS events discovered from RNA-seq experiments. PrimerSeq features a graphical user interface (GUI) that displays the RNA-seq data juxtaposed with the expected RT-PCR results. To enable primer design and visualization on user-provided RNA-seq data and transcript annotations, we have developed PrimerSeq as a stand-alone software that runs on local computers. PrimerSeq is freely available for Windows and Mac OS X along with source code at http://primerseq.sourceforge.net/. With the growing popularity of RNA-seq for transcriptome stud-ies, we expect PrimerSeq to help bridge the gap between high-throughput RNA-seq discovery of AS events and molecular analysis of candidate events by RT-PCR.

  12. Sıkışma: An Alternative Information Design Project for Ihlamur Pavilions Istanbul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özmen, Melike

    2016-01-01

    Sıkışma is a transmedia information design project, which focuses on Ihlamur Pavilions and Ihlamur area. Ihlamur hosts Ihlamur Pavilions since 19th Century. It is located within Beşiktaş district in Istanbul. Nowadays the buildings belong to TBMM (The Grand National Assembly of Turkey) National Palaces and used as a Museum- Café. There is a conventional wayfinding & signage system for outdoor areas of the Pavilions. The system also includes two separate boards focusing on the history of Ihlamur and Ihlamur Pavilions. However, the information provided on these boards seems inadequate and the boards are physically damaged. According Universal Design approach it is possible to achieve good and functional design and solve the inadequacy problem by physically fixing information boards and re-setting the environment around the information boards according to Universal Design principles. Although, these principles provide solutions for important issues such as mobility, stability and accessibility, it doesn't provide sufficient proof of user engagement in terms of the creation of the content. The project Sıkışma offers an approach, which is concerned with content as with form and suggests that it is possible to infer a universal form from the content created through personal experience of the designer as a user. It is also intended to represent the past and the present through the project and to create an understanding of plausible scenarios of the unknown future in the viewers' mind.

  13. Sıkışma: An Alternative Information Design Project for Ihlamur Pavilions Istanbul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özmen, Melike

    2016-01-01

    Sıkışma is a transmedia information design project, which focuses on Ihlamur Pavilions and Ihlamur area. Ihlamur hosts Ihlamur Pavilions since 19th Century. It is located within Beşiktaş district in Istanbul. Nowadays the buildings belong to TBMM (The Grand National Assembly of Turkey) National Palaces and used as a Museum- Café. There is a conventional wayfinding & signage system for outdoor areas of the Pavilions. The system also includes two separate boards focusing on the history of Ihlamur and Ihlamur Pavilions. However, the information provided on these boards seems inadequate and the boards are physically damaged. According Universal Design approach it is possible to achieve good and functional design and solve the inadequacy problem by physically fixing information boards and re-setting the environment around the information boards according to Universal Design principles. Although, these principles provide solutions for important issues such as mobility, stability and accessibility, it doesn't provide sufficient proof of user engagement in terms of the creation of the content. The project Sıkışma offers an approach, which is concerned with content as with form and suggests that it is possible to infer a universal form from the content created through personal experience of the designer as a user. It is also intended to represent the past and the present through the project and to create an understanding of plausible scenarios of the unknown future in the viewers' mind. PMID:27534336

  14. Design and control of an alternative distillation sequence for bioethanol purification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Errico, Massimiliano; Ramírez-Márquez, César; Torres Ortega, Carlo Edgar;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bioethanol is a green fuel considered to be a sustainable alternative to petro-derived gasoline. The transport sector contributes significantly to carbon dioxide emission and consequently has a negative impact on the air quality and is responsible for the increase of the greenhouse...... separation is presented. The steady state performance and the dynamic beavior are analyzed compared with the classical configuration reported in the literature. RESULTS: Ethanol-water azeotropic separation represents a challenge for bioethanol purification. Usually a three column sequence is used to obtain...... fuel grade bioethanol by extractive distillation. In order to reduce bioethanol purification cost a two column separation sequence is proposed. This configuration shows a 10% saving in capital costs together with higher ethanol recovery and better control properties compared with the classical three...

  15. StateGEN/StateNET - A structured method to perform route comparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    StateGEN/StateNET is a modeling structure and routing algorithm designed expressly to address the needs of state and local governments to perform analyses of routing alternatives. StateGEN/StateNET is designed to permit the user to construct a network and assign attributes of interest to the network on a personal computer (PC). The completed network is then transferred via a modem to the TRANSNET system and the preferred route is determined based upon attribute weights assigned by the user. This modeling structure permits the state or local government to perform a routing analysis, such as that required by the US Department of Transportation (DOT) for Highway Route-Controlled Quantity shipments of radioactive materials, with a minimum of resources. StateGEN/StateNET provides a computerized version of the DOT guidelines or allows the user to structure their own network parameters. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is the Department of Energy (DOE) lead organization for transportation research and development. The DOE Office of Defense Programs has been the prime sponsor of development of models and associated databases used to analyze the impacts of the transportation of radioactive materials. The routing algorithms used in StateGEN/StateNET were based on the existing models on TRANSNET, a system which was developed to enable outside users to access analytical codes and associated data developed for the DOE

  16. BNR:The Tool to Analyse and Design the Minimal Deadlock-Free Fully Adaptive Routing Algorithm%BNR:最短路径无死锁全自适应路由算法的分析与设计工具

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓波; 杨晓东

    2000-01-01

    In a massively parallel processors(MPP)system,a routing algorithm constitutes the primary factor influencing the performance of the interconnect network and MPP system. After analysising the characteristics of message routing in interconnection network,one new concept"the Best Network for Routing"(BNR)is proposed. Using it,we can analyse any minimal deadlock-free fully-adaptive routing algorithm(MDF2A2)proposed,and also can design two new MDF2A2:VBA and LCFAA. On this point,it gives guidelines to the interconnection network designers.

  17. Alternative designs for megavoltage machines for cancer treatment in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In developing countries radiation therapy is often performed with antiquated cobalt-60 units, the radioactive sources of which are long decayed and, thus, treatments are ineffective. Furthermore the cost involved in the disposal of spent radionuclide sources discourages owners from proper removal and storage, and accidents occur. Although present design of microwave electron linear accelerators provide excellent beam characteristics, developing countries in many locations do not have the infrastructure to maintain such machines. After an analysis of the radiotherapy situation world-wide - especially from the viewpoint of maintenance - a consensus was reached on the radiotherapy equipment performance requirements. To meet these requirements, several accelerator designs were considered. Among the most promising new designs were the klystron/linac and the high frequency linear accelerator, the microtron in a radiation head, the high frequency betatron, also in a radiation accelerator, and DC accelerators. Possible treatment designs, including those of modular nature, were presented. Since it is estimated that by the year 2015, barring a dramatic and unforeseen cure for cancer, a total of 10,000 machines will be needed to provide treatment for an estimated 10 million new cases per year in developing countries, the impact of such high technology simple machine could be substantial in providing equity and quality for the management of cancer patients. 4 refs, 2 tabs

  18. Vehicle perceptibilty : reflectorized registration plates and alternative means : function, design and application.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griep, D.J. Thoenes, E. Schreuder, D.A. & Kranenburg, A.

    1970-01-01

    In November 1967 the Minister of Transport and Waterways in the Netherlands asked the Institute for Road Safety Research SWOV to examine the advisable design of reflectorized registration plates from the aspect of perceptibility. Allowance had to be made for the identification of motor vehicles. esp

  19. 关于改扩建道路路线设计的思路分析%Thought analysis about reconstruction road route design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢佳

    2015-01-01

    道路的路线设计是道路建设的根本和保证,改扩建道路就是要提高道路抵抗荷载的强度和道路的安全等级,在原有道路的基础上进行的必要工程项目。从道路改扩建的工作原则、程序、内容以及施工的难易程度等方面来看,改扩建道路和新建道路、道路的养护管理有着很大的不同。改扩建工程要在尽可能降低资金投入的前提下,科学合理地对现有道路进行改造,提高道路行车的安全性和舒适性,以适应社会经济飞速发展的需求,真正实现道路的基础性作用。%Road route design is the fundamental and guarantee of road construction,reconstruction and the strength of the road is to improve the road resistance load and road safety level,on the basis of the original road to the necessary engineering projects.From road construction and work principle,program,content as well as the ease of construction ways,such as roads and the reconstruction and new roads,road maintenance and management is a big difference.Reconstruction to reduce capital investment as much as possible under the premise of scientifically on the modification of existing roads,improve road traffic safety and comfort,to adapt to the demand of the rapid development of social economy,the basic role of real road.

  20. Light olefins - challenges from new production routes?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmermann, H. [Linde Engineering, Pullach (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Light Olefins are the building blocks for many modern plastic products and are produced in large quantities. Driven by high crude oil prices, production is shifted to regions with low cost raw materials. Alternatives to the traditional production from Naphta, AGO and other crude products are becoming attractive. This paper evaluates several methods Ethylene and Pro-pylene production economically and also the regional advantageous routes. The analysis includes Steamcracking, dehydrogenation, dehydration of Ethanol, Methanol based routes and olefin conversion by Metathesis. (orig.)

  1. A simple and efficient alternative to implementing systematic random sampling in stereological designs without a motorized microscope stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin, Neal R; Poda, Daniel; Sutherland, Robert J

    2007-10-01

    When properly applied, stereology is a very robust and efficient method to quantify a variety of parameters from biological material. A common sampling strategy in stereology is systematic random sampling, which involves choosing a random sampling [corrected] start point outside the structure of interest, and sampling relevant objects at [corrected] sites that are placed at pre-determined, equidistant intervals. This has proven to be a very efficient sampling strategy, and is used widely in stereological designs. At the microscopic level, this is most often achieved through the use of a motorized stage that facilitates the systematic random stepping across the structure of interest. Here, we report a simple, precise and cost-effective software-based alternative to accomplishing systematic random sampling under the microscope. We believe that this approach will facilitate the use of stereological designs that employ systematic random sampling in laboratories that lack the resources to acquire costly, fully automated systems.

  2. Design of an alternating phase focusing Interdigital H-mode Drift-Tube-Linac with low injection energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, L.; Pang, J.; He, X.; Ying, Z.; Shi, J.

    2016-01-01

    An Inter-digital H-mode (IH) Drift Tube Linac (DTL) was designed to accelerate a proton beam in the low energy region with high RF efficiency and high gradient. The IH DTL is 1.078 m long and operates at 200 MHz. Protons could be accelerated from 0.04 MeV to 2.4 MeV (the β range is from 0.0092 to 0.0714). The method of alternating phase focusing (APF) was applied for beam focusing. The simulation results show that the transmission is 38% and the longitudinal acceptance is approximately 140°. The shunt impedance of the entire cavity is 365 MΩ/m. Adjustments of the electric-field were performed, and the beam dynamics design was described. The beam loss and voltage sensitivity were calculated.

  3. An alternative approach to compensators design for photon beams used in radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jurkovic, S. [University Hospital, Department of Radiotherapy, Physics Division, Kresimirova 42, 51000 Rijeka (Croatia); Zauhar, G. [School of Medicine, Department of Physics, Brace Branchetta 20, 51000 Rijeka (Croatia)], E-mail: gordz@medri.hr; Bistrovic, M. [Hospital for Tumors, Radiotherapy Department, Ilica 272, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Faj, D. [University Hospital, Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, J. Huttlera 4, 31000 Osijek (Croatia); Kaliman, Z. [Faculty of Sciences and Arts, Department of Physics, Omladinska 14, 51000 Rijeka (Croatia); Smilovic Radojcic, D. [University Hospital, Department of Radiotherapy, Physics Division, Kresimirova 42, 51000 Rijeka (Croatia)

    2007-09-21

    The use of compensators in order to achieve desired dose distribution has a long history and is a well-established technique in radiation therapy planning. There are several different calculation methods for determining a compensator's thickness. An alternative method that is based on the Cunningham's modification of Clarkson's method to calculate scattered radiation in beams with an inhomogeneous cross-section is proposed. It is well known that the total dose distribution of radiotherapy photon beam consists of the contributions of the primary beam, attenuated by the tissue layer, and the scattered radiation generated by the primary radiation in single and multiple photon scatter events. The scattered component can be represented as a function of the primary radiation. The central point of our method is the numerical estimation of the primary distribution required to achieve the desired total distribution. Now using the calculated primary distribution, the shape of the modulator could be determined. In this way the contribution of the scattered component is validated in a more accurate way than using effective attenuation coefficients, which is a common practice. The method is verified in various clinical situations and compared with the standard method. The accuracy, although dependent on geometry, was improved by at least 2%. With more complex geometries there is an even higher gain in accuracy with our method when compared to the standard method.

  4. AN ALTERNATIVE APPROACH TO DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF BROADBAND BEAMSPACE ADAPTIVE ARRAYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. SRINIVASA RAO

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The beamwidth of a linear array depends on number of elements in the array and frequency of the input signal. At present designing of wideband antennas and beamformers became important, in the fields of microphone arrays intended for teleconferencing, in transmitting or receiving spread spectrum signals, crip signals etc. A beamspace adaptive planar array for broadband beamforming is proposed based on the filter – and - sum beamforming technique. A detailed design method was provided for both the linear arrays and the adaptivearrays and simulation results are provided for the proposed method. Our proposed method is used to demonstrate that the beam-space adaptive array can suppress interference signals having a wide fractional bandwidth and that the array has fast convergence.

  5. Joint Route Planning under Varying Market Conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cruijssen, F.C.A.M.; Braysy, O.; Dullaert, W.; Fleuren, H.A.; Salomon, M.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose - To provide empirical evidence on the level of savings that can be attained by joint route planning and how these savings depend on specific market characteristics.Design/methodology/approach - Joint route planning is a measure that companies can take to decrease the costs of their distribu

  6. Alternative approaches to fusion. [reactor design and reactor physics for Tokamak fusion reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    The limitations of the Tokamak fusion reactor concept are discussed and various other fusion reactor concepts are considered that employ the containment of thermonuclear plasmas by magnetic fields (i.e., stellarators). Progress made in the containment of plasmas in toroidal devices is reported. Reactor design concepts are illustrated. The possibility of using fusion reactors as a power source in interplanetary space travel and electric power plants is briefly examined.

  7. Testing alternative designs for a roadside animal detection system using a driving simulator

    OpenAIRE

    Molly K. Grace; Smith, Daniel J; Reed F Noss

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: A Roadside Animal Detection System (RADS) was installed in January 2012 along Highway 41 through Big Cypress National Preserve in Florida, USA in an attempt to reduce wildlife-vehicle collisions. The system uses flashing warning signs to alert drivers when a large animal is near the road. However, we suspected that the RADS warning signs could be ignored by drivers because they resemble other conventional signs. We hypothesized that word-based warning signs (current design) are le...

  8. Design Alternatives for a High-Performance Self-Securing Ethernet Network Interface

    OpenAIRE

    Schuff, Derek L.; Pai, Vijay S

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents and evaluates a strategy for integrating the Snort network intrusion detection system into a high-performance programmable Ethernet network interface card (NIC), considering the impact of several possible hardware and software design choices. While currently proposed ASIC, FPGA, and TCAM systems can match incoming string content in real-time, the system proposed also supports the stream reassembly and HTTP content transformation capabilities of Snort. This system, called L...

  9. Energy Efficient Routing Protocol for MANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Gopinath

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, many energy-efficient routing protocols have been proposed. However, very little efforts have been taken in studying the energy consumption of individual node, overhead and route maintaining issues. While not considering the design of energy efficient routing protocol, it may perform very worst than the normal routing protocol. Here, we have proposed On Demand Based Energy Efficient Routing Protocol (ODBEERP. The main aim of proposed protocol is to discover the minimum power-limitation route. The power limitation of a route is decided by the node which has the minimum energy in that route. So compared with the minimum node energy in any other route, the minimum node energy in the minimum power-limitation route has more energy. We have also proposed a more accurate analysis to track the energy consumptions due to various factors, and improve the performance during path discovery and in mobility scenarios. The proposed protocol is evaluated with object oriented discrete event simulator environment. Simulation results shows that the ODBEERP achieves good throughput, less delay, high packet delivery ratio and good energy efficiency than the existing protocol PEER.

  10. Life cycle assessment of a parabolic trough concentrating solar power plant and the impacts of key design alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, John J; Heath, Garvin A; Turchi, Craig S

    2011-03-15

    Climate change and water scarcity are important issues for today's power sector. To inform capacity expansion decisions, hybrid life cycle assessment is used to evaluate a reference design of a parabolic trough concentrating solar power (CSP) facility located in Daggett, CA, along four sustainability metrics: life cycle (LC) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, water consumption, cumulative energy demand (CED), and energy payback time (EPBT). This wet-cooled, 103 MW plant utilizes mined nitrates salts in its two-tank, thermal energy storage (TES) system. Design alternatives of dry-cooling, a thermocline TES, and synthetically derived nitrate salt are evaluated. During its LC, the reference CSP plant is estimated to emit 26 g of CO(2eq) per kWh, consume 4.7 L/kWh of water, and demand 0.40 MJ(eq)/kWh of energy, resulting in an EPBT of approximately 1 year. The dry-cooled alternative is estimated to reduce LC water consumption by 77% but increase LC GHG emissions and CED by 8%. Synthetic nitrate salts may increase LC GHG emissions by 52% compared to mined. Switching from two-tank to thermocline TES configuration reduces LC GHG emissions, most significantly for plants using synthetically derived nitrate salts. CSP can significantly reduce GHG emissions compared to fossil-fueled generation; however, dry-cooling may be required in many locations to minimize water consumption.

  11. Life Cycle Assessment of a Parabolic Trough Concentrating Solar Power Plant and Impacts of Key Design Alternatives: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heath, G. A.; Burkhardt, J. J.; Turchi, C. S.

    2011-09-01

    Climate change and water scarcity are important issues for today's power sector. To inform capacity expansion decisions, hybrid life cycle assessment is used to evaluate a reference design of a parabolic trough concentrating solar power (CSP) facility located in Daggett, California, along four sustainability metrics: life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, water consumption, cumulative energy demand (CED), and energy payback time (EPBT). This wet-cooled, 103 MW plant utilizes mined nitrate salts in its two-tank, thermal energy storage (TES) system. Design alternatives of dry-cooling, a thermocline TES, and synthetically-derived nitrate salt are evaluated. During its life cycle, the reference CSP plant is estimated to emit 26 g CO2eq per kWh, consume 4.7 L/kWh of water, and demand 0.40 MJeq/kWh of energy, resulting in an EPBT of approximately 1 year. The dry-cooled alternative is estimated to reduce life cycle water consumption by 77% but increase life cycle GHG emissions and CED by 8%. Synthetic nitrate salts may increase life cycle GHG emissions by 52% compared to mined. Switching from two-tank to thermocline TES configuration reduces life cycle GHG emissions, most significantly for plants using synthetically-derived nitrate salts. CSP can significantly reduce GHG emissions compared to fossil-fueled generation; however, dry-cooling may be required in many locations to minimize water consumption.

  12. How to choose the route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grecu, Irina

    2013-01-01

    Choosing the route for nutrition support delivery is one of the main steps in the algorithm of providing successful nutrition to the critically ill, but it is certainly not an easy process. The rationale should be guided not only by principles like physiology and benefit versus harm, but also by individual patient factors like feasibility, contraindications, predicted versus actual tolerance, and (most important) the timing for starting food delivery. Although oral nutrition is the more physiological route for feeding, it is seldom possible or sufficient in critically ill patients. Enteral nutrition, in the form of tube feeding, remains the best option in the absence of absolute contraindications, but many other factors should be taken into account. These include the importance of starting early and trying to achieve target nutrients delivery early, especially in previously undernourished or in most severely ill patients, as well as the gastrointestinal intolerance present in the majority of critically ill patients. Parenteral nutrition is an alternative route for nutrition delivery when the enteral one is impossible or insufficient. The most common complication when choosing this route is overfeeding, which has been associated with increased complications rate. On the other hand, the most common complication of enteral nutrition is underfeeding, which has also been associated with worse outcome and even increased mortality. Combining enteral with supplemental parenteral nutrition is therefore a rational approach for providing early and adequate nutritional support in the most severely ill patients.

  13. Testing alternative designs for a roadside animal detection system using a driving simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molly K. Grace

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: A Roadside Animal Detection System (RADS was installed in January 2012 along Highway 41 through Big Cypress National Preserve in Florida, USA in an attempt to reduce wildlife-vehicle collisions. The system uses flashing warning signs to alert drivers when a large animal is near the road. However, we suspected that the RADS warning signs could be ignored by drivers because they resemble other conventional signs. We hypothesized that word-based warning signs (current design are less effective than picture-based signs at catching drivers’ attention. Methods: We used a driving simulator to test (1 the effects of the RADS on collision rate, driver speed, and latency to brake; and (2 whether the RADS would be more effective if warning signs were picture-based. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three treatments: no warning (control, word-based RADS signs (current design, and picture-based RADS signs (proposed design. During the simulations, a deer entered the road in front of the driver, and we recorded whether drivers “crashed” or not. Results: Both the picture-based and word-based RADS signs resulted in significantly lower crash probabilities. The picture-based RADS signs performed better than the word-based signs in reducing speed and latency to brake, although the effect varied between twilight and night. However, the word-based RADS signs still did produce significant reductions in speed and braking latency. Conclusions: We conclude that the word-based RADS in Big Cypress should help prevent dangerous wildlife-vehicle collisions, but that redesigning the warning signs to be picture-based could yield even greater benefits.

  14. Routing on Metacyclic Graphs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenjun Xiao

    2002-01-01

    Wu, Lakshmivarahan and Dhall[5] recently described a deterministic, distributed routing scheme for some special classes of metacyclic graphs. However they have no proof of correctness that the scheme is a shortest path routing algorithm. In the note we give a suboptimal, deterministic routing algorithm.

  15. Building Low Carbon Cities: Framework to Design and Evaluate Alternative Technologies and Policies for Land Use Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, S.; Hamano, H.; Fujita, T.; Hori, H.

    2008-12-01

    Annex I parties of the Kyoto Protocol are facing even greater pressures to fulfill their commitment for GHG reduction as they enter the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol 2008-2012. In Japanese context, one such challenge is to reduce CO2 emissions from the household and business sectors because CO2 emissions from the both sectors has increased by 12% and 20% respectively since 1990 while the industry has achieved 21% of CO2 emissions reduction. Land use planning, which, either directly or indirectly, controls appropriate uses for land within jurisdictions, might play very important roles to deal with CO2 reductions from the household and business sectors. In this research, aiming at effective reductions of air- conditioning energy consumption and resultant CO2 emissions from the household and business sectors, the framework to design and evaluate land use planning was developed. The design and evaluation processes embraced in this framework consist of GIS database, technology and policy inventory for planning, one- dimensional urban canopy model which evaluate urban climate at neighborhood level and air-conditioning load calculation procedure. The GIS database provides spatial information of target areas such as land use, building use and road networks, which, then, helps design alternative land use plans. The technology and policy inventory includes various planning options ranging from those for land over control to those for building energy control, which, combined with the GIS database, serves for planning process. The urban canopy model derives vertical profiles of local climate, such as temperature and humidity, using the information of land use, building height and so on, aided by the GIS database. Vertical profiles of the urban climate are then utilized to derive air-conditioning load and associated CO2 emissions for each building located in target areas. The framework developed was applied to the coastal district of Kawasaki, Japan, with an

  16. Cell and stack design alternatives. First quarterly report, August 1, 1978-October 31, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoover, D.Q.

    1979-01-01

    An apartment house in Albany, New York with HUD minimum insulation was selected as the application to be used in evaluating various system configurations of on-site fuel cell total energy systems. Methods for calculating the static and dynamic thermal loads for a simulated season were developed. Computer models of some major subsystems are now being developed. Finite element models of the electrochemistry, thermodynamics and heat transfer relationships for fuel cells were developed and have been used to calculate current density and temperature distributions for sets of large cells and cooling plates. The results obtained led to several innovative ideas for advanced stack designs. A single lump model of a fuel cell stack was developed for use in the systems study. The available information on methane conditioning was collected and reviewed and a plan for attaining the missing design data has been developed. Simple models of reformer and water-gas shift reactors were developed for use in the systems study. The lines of communication among technical tasks were established, required documentation of plans and progress was prepared and delivered and the monthly review meetings were held as planned.

  17. Thermal Dissipation Modelling and Design of ITER PF Converter Alternating Current Busbar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Bin; Song, Zhiquan; Fu, Peng; Jiang, Li; Li, Jinchao; Wang, Min; Dong, Lin

    2016-10-01

    Because the larger metallic surrounds are heated by the eddy current, which is generated by the AC current flowing through the AC busbar in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) poloidal field (PF) converter system, shielding of the AC busbar is required to decrease the temperature rise of the surrounds to satisfy the design requirement. Three special types of AC busbar with natural cooling, air cooling and water cooling busbar structure have been proposed and investigated in this paper. For each cooling scheme, a 3D finite model based on the proposed structure has been developed to perform the electromagnetic and thermal analysis to predict their operation behavior. Comparing the analysis results of the three different cooling patterns, water cooling has more advantages than the other patterns and it is selected to be the thermal dissipation pattern for the AC busbar of ITER PF converter unit. The approach to qualify the suitable cooling scheme in this paper can be provided as a reference on the thermal dissipation design of AC busbar in the converter system. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51407179)

  18. Pentameric models as alternative molecular targets for the design of new antiaggregant agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera Guisasola, Exequiel E; Gutierrez, Lucas J; Andujar, Sebastián A; Angelina, Emilio; Rodríguez, Ana M; Enriz, Ricardo D

    2016-01-01

    The structure-based drug design has been an extremely useful technique used for searching and developing of new therapeutic agents in various biological systems. In the case of AD, this approach has been difficult to implement. Among other several causes, the main problem might be the lack of a specific stable and reliable molecular target. In this paper the results obtained using a pentameric amyloid beta (Aβ) model as a molecular target are discussed. Our MD simulations have shown that this system is relatively structured and stable, displaying a lightly conformational flexibility during 2.0 μs of simulation time. This study allowed us to distinguish characteristic structural features in specific regions of the pentamer which should be taken into account when choosing this model as a molecular target. This represents a clear advantage compared to the monomer or dimer models which are highly flexible structures with large numbers of possible conformers. Using this pentameric model we performed two types of studies usually carried out on a molecular target: a virtual screening and the design on structural basis of new mimetic peptides with antiaggregant properties. Our results indicate that this pentameric model might be a good molecular target for these particular studies of molecular modeling. Details about the predictive power of our virtual screening as well as about the molecular interactions that stabilize the mimetic peptide-pentamer Aβ complexes are discussed in this paper.

  19. A MINE alternative to D-optimal designs for the linear model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda M Bouffier

    Full Text Available Doing large-scale genomics experiments can be expensive, and so experimenters want to get the most information out of each experiment. To this end the Maximally Informative Next Experiment (MINE criterion for experimental design was developed. Here we explore this idea in a simplified context, the linear model. Four variations of the MINE method for the linear model were created: MINE-like, MINE, MINE with random orthonormal basis, and MINE with random rotation. Each method varies in how it maximizes the MINE criterion. Theorem 1 establishes sufficient conditions for the maximization of the MINE criterion under the linear model. Theorem 2 establishes when the MINE criterion is equivalent to the classic design criterion of D-optimality. By simulation under the linear model, we establish that the MINE with random orthonormal basis and MINE with random rotation are faster to discover the true linear relation with p regression coefficients and n observations when p>>n. We also establish in simulations with n<100, p=1000, σ=0.01 and 1000 replicates that these two variations of MINE also display a lower false positive rate than the MINE-like method and additionally, for a majority of the experiments, for the MINE method.

  20. Life cycle assessment of a power tower concentrating solar plant and the impacts of key design alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Michael B; Heath, Garvin A; Burkhardt, John J; Turchi, Craig S

    2013-06-01

    A hybrid life cycle assessment (LCA) is used to evaluate four sustainability metrics over the life cycle of a power tower concentrating solar power (CSP) facility: greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, water consumption, cumulative energy demand (CED), and energy payback time (EPBT). The reference design is for a dry-cooled, 106 MW(net) power tower facility located near Tucson, AZ that uses a mixture of mined nitrate salts as the heat transfer fluid and storage medium, a two-tank thermal energy storage system designed for six hours of full load-equivalent storage, and receives auxiliary power from the local electric grid. A thermocline-based storage system, synthetically derived salts, and natural gas auxiliary power are evaluated as design alternatives. Over its life cycle, the reference plant is estimated to have GHG emissions of 37 g CO2eq/kWh, consume 1.4 L/kWh of water and 0.49 MJ/kWh of energy, and have an EPBT of 15 months. Using synthetic salts is estimated to increase GHG emissions by 12%, CED by 7%, and water consumption by 4% compared to mined salts. Natural gas auxiliary power results in greater than 10% decreases in GHG emissions, water consumption, and CED. The thermocline design is most advantageous when coupled with the use of synthetic salts.

  1. Network Resilience through Multiple Routing Configurations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naga Raju Pamidi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available We propose the use of multi-topology (MT routing for network resilience against link and node failures. We describe the multi-topologies by an n-dimensional vector of different link costs for all links in the network. It is the base for the calculation of n shortest path trees from any node to all other destinations, i.e. for n virtual routing topologies. We define the link costs in such a way that the routing topologies complement each other in the sense that at least one valid route remains in a single link or node failure scenario for each pair of nodes in at least one routing topology. In such a failure case, packets are rather deviated over the intact routing topology than discarded. The recovery speed of the presented mechanism is very fast and can be compared to fast rerouting mechanisms in MPLS, which reduce packet, drops to a minimum. In contrast to MPLS, MT routing is still a pure IP-based solution that retains the scalability and the robustness of IP routing. As the Internet takes an increasingly central role in our communications infrastructure, the slow convergence of routing protocols after a network failure becomes a growing problem. To assure fast recovery from link and node failures in IP networks, we present a new recovery scheme called Multiple Routing Configurations (MRC. Our proposed scheme guarantees recovery in all single failure scenarios, using a single mechanism to handle both link and node failures, and without knowing the root cause of the failure. MRC is strictly connectionless, and assumes only destination based hop-by-hop forwarding. MRC is based on keeping additional routing information in the routers, and allows packet forwarding to continue on an alternative output link immediately after the detection of a failure. It can be implemented with only minor changes to existing solutions.

  2. Stateless and Delivery Guaranteed Geometric Routing on Virtual Coordinate System

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Ke

    2008-01-01

    Stateless geographic routing provides relatively good performance at a fixed overhead, which is typically much lower than conventional routing protocols such as AODV. However, the performance of geographic routing is impacted by physical voids, and localization errors. Accordingly, virtual coordinate systems (VCS) were proposed as an alternative approach that is resilient to localization errors and that naturally routes around physical voids. However, VCS also faces virtual anomalies, causing their performance to trail geographic routing. In existing VCS routing protocols, there is a lack of an effective stateless and delivery guaranteed complementary routing algorithm that can be used to traverse voids. Most proposed solutions use variants of flooding or blind searching when a void is encountered. In this paper, we propose a spanning-path virtual coordinate system which can be used as a complete routing algorithm or as the complementary algorithm to greedy forwarding that is invoked when voids are encountere...

  3. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Decontamination and Waste Treatment Facility: Documentation of impact analysis for design alternatives presented in the Draft Environmental Impact Statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is proposing to construct and operate a new Decontamination and Waste Treatment Facility (DWTF). The proposed DWTF would replace the existing Hazardous Waste Management (HWM) facilities at LLNL. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is preparing a Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) to assess the environmental consequences of the proposed DWTF and its alternatives. This report presents the assumptions, methodologies, and analyses used to estimate the waste flows, air emissions, ambient air quality impacts, and public health risks that are presented in the DEIS. Two DWTF design alternatives (Level I and Level II) have been designated as reasonable design alternatives considering available technologies, environmental regulations, and current and future LLNL waste generation. Both design alternatives would include new, separate radioactive and nonradioactive liquid waste treatment systems, a solidification unit, a new decontamination facility, storage and treatment facilities for reactive materials, a radioactive waste storage area, receiving and classification areas, and a uranium burn pan. The Level I design alternative would include a controlled-air incinerator system, while the Level II design alternative would include a rotary kiln incinerator system. 43 refs., 4 figs., 24 tabs

  4. Alternative Evaluation Designs for Data-Centered Technology-Based Geoscience Education Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalles, D. R.

    2012-12-01

    This paper will present different strategies for how to evaluate contrasting K-12 geoscience classroom-based interventions with different goals, leveraging the first author's experiences as principal investigator of four NSF and NASA-funded geoscience education projects. Results will also be reported. Each project had its own distinctive features but all had in common the broad goal of bringing to high school classrooms uses of real place-based geospatial data to study the relationships of Earth system phenomena to climate change and sustainability. The first project's goal was to produce templates and exemplars for curriculum and assessment designs around studying contrasting geoscience topics with different data sets and forms of data representation. The project produced a near transfer performance assessment task in which students who studied climate trends in Phoenix turned their attention to climate in Chicago. The evaluation looked at the technical quality of the assessment instrument as measured by inter-rater reliability. It then analyzed the assessment results against student responses to the instructional tasks about Phoenix. The evaluation proved useful in pinpointing areas of student strength and weakness on different inquiry tasks, from simple map interpretation to analysis of contrasting claims about what the data indicate. The goal of the second project was to produce an exemplar curriculum unit that bridges Western science and traditional American Indian ecological knowledge for student learning and skill building about local environmental sustainability issues. The evaluation looked at the extent to which Western and traditional perspectives were incorporated into the design of the curriculum. The curriculum was not constructed with a separate assessment, yet evidence centered design was utilized to extrapolate from the exemplar unit templates for future instructional and assessment tasks around other places, other sustainability problems, and

  5. Designing instruction to support mechanical reasoning: Three alternatives in the simple machines learning environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Ann Frances

    2001-07-01

    Creating a classroom environment that fosters a productive learning experience and engages students in the learning process is a complex endeavor. A classroom environment is dynamic and requires a unique synergy among students, teacher, classroom artifacts and events to achieve robust understanding and knowledge integration. This dissertation addresses this complex issue by developing, implementing, and investigating the simple machines learning environment (SIMALE) to support students' mechanical reasoning and understanding. SIMALE was designed to support reflection, collaborative learning, and to engage students in generative learning through multiple representations of concepts and successive experimentation and design activities. Two key components of SIMALE are an original web-based software tool and hands-on Lego activities. A research study consisting of three treatment groups was created to investigate the benefits of hands-on and web-based computer activities on students' analytic problem solving ability, drawing/modeling ability, and conceptual understanding. The study was conducted with two populations of students that represent a diverse group with respect to gender, ethnicity, academic achievement and social/economic status. One population of students in this dissertation study participated from the Mathematics, Engineering, and Science Achievement (MESA) program that serves minorities and under-represented groups in science and mathematics. The second group was recruited from the Academic Talent Development Program (ATDP) that is an academically competitive outreach program offered through the University of California at Berkeley. Results from this dissertation show success of the SIMALE along several dimensions. First, students in both populations achieved significant gains in analytic problem solving ability, drawing/modeling ability, and conceptual understanding. Second, significant differences that were found on pre-test measures were eliminated

  6. Research and design of plane network of QOS muiticast routing algorithm%平面网络中QOs多播路由算法研究与设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅创社

    2012-01-01

    Multicast communication this both broadcast and unicast communication advantages of both modes of communication, has been increasingly applied to planar network business. The first discussion of the source node in the muhicast routing strategy. In the analysis of the traditional multicast routing algorithm in the best link selection function based on, put forward a new optimal routing model and QMRI algorithm, the algorithm successfully solves the network muhicast node dynamic Q0S routing problem%多播通信这种兼顾了广播通信与单播通信两者优点的通信模式,已经被越来越多地应用于平面网络业务之中。首先讨论了面向源节点的多播路由策略。在分析传统多播路由算法中最佳链路选择函数的基础上,提出了一个新的最佳路由模型和QMRI算法,该算法成功地解决了网络中多播节点动态变化时的QOS路由选择问题。

  7. Escape probability based routing for ad hoc networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xuanping; Qin Zheng; Li Xin

    2006-01-01

    Routes in an ad hoc network may fail frequently because of node mobility. Stability therefore can be an important element in the design of routing protocols. The node escape probability is introduced to estimate the lifetime and stability of link between neighboring nodes and the escape probability based routing (EPBR) scheme to discover stable routes is proposed. Simulation results show that the EPBR can discover stable routes to reduce the number of route rediscovery, and is applicable for the situation that has highly dynamic network topology with broad area of communication.

  8. Green virtual topology design algorithm based on constraint-based routing%基于约束路由的绿色虚拟拓扑设计算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍元胜; 郭兵; 沈艳; 王继禾; 刘啸滨

    2014-01-01

    To reduce the energy consumption of Internet core network, a formulation model for green virtual topology design (GVTD) problem was developed, which employs the following measures:traffic aggregation, network resources allocation on demand, virtual topology design dynamically and multi-granularity sleeping. A heuristic algorithm base on constraint-based routing, namely CBR-GVTD, was proposed, which combines the single-hop and multi-hop routing to establish virtual topology, and makes trade-offs between the network power consumption and routing performance via the constraint-based routing mechanism. The simulation results indicate that CBR-GVTD can achieve at most 62%~90%power saving with very high resource utilization (80%~90%for interface utilization) and excellent routing performance (not more than 5 for maximum routing hops).%针对Internet核心网日益严重的能耗问题,建立了绿色虚拟拓扑设计(GVTD)问题的形式化模型,通过业务汇聚、按需配置网络资源、动态虚拟拓扑设计和多粒度睡眠机制降低网络能耗。提出了一种基于约束路由的启发式算法--CBR-GVTD算法,利用单跳路由和多跳路由相结合的方法构建网络虚拟拓扑,并通过基于约束的路由实现网络功耗与路由性能的折衷。模拟结果表明,CBR-GVTD算法可在接口平均利用率为80%~90%和最大路由跳数不超过5的条件下,最多可降低62%~90%的网络功耗。

  9. Survivable Lightpath Routing in WDM Optical Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUFengqing; ZENGQingji; ZHUXu; YANGXudong; XIAOShilin

    2004-01-01

    In IP over WDM networks, when a failure(such as a fiber cut) occurs, the service restoration can be implemented by dynamic routing in IP layer. But it needs that the logical topology remains connected after any physical link failure. Otherwise, IP layer cannot find an alternate path to restore the service. The problem of routing logical links (lightpaths) on a physical network topology in a way that the logical topology remains connected in the event of single physical link failure is called survivabl erouting. In this paper~ we address the survivable routing problem by proposing a new ILP algorithm that works well with sparse-connected logical topologies. The necessary and sufficient conditions for survivable routing are simplified, which greatly reduces the number of survivable constraints. Based-on the simplified conditions, a new ILP formulation with K-shortest paths as alternate paths for a logical link is presented, which mainly reduces the number of ILP variables. Finally, numerical results are given and discussed to show that most survivable routing solutions can be found with our algorithms, and the time needed to find such a survivable routing solution is much smaller than other similar methods.

  10. A Survey on Underwater Acoustic Sensor Network Routing Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Li

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Underwater acoustic sensor networks (UASNs have become more and more important in ocean exploration applications, such as ocean monitoring, pollution detection, ocean resource management, underwater device maintenance, etc. In underwater acoustic sensor networks, since the routing protocol guarantees reliable and effective data transmission from the source node to the destination node, routing protocol design is an attractive topic for researchers. There are many routing algorithms have been proposed in recent years. To present the current state of development of UASN routing protocols, we review herein the UASN routing protocol designs reported in recent years. In this paper, all the routing protocols have been classified into different groups according to their characteristics and routing algorithms, such as the non-cross-layer design routing protocol, the traditional cross-layer design routing protocol, and the intelligent algorithm based routing protocol. This is also the first paper that introduces intelligent algorithm-based UASN routing protocols. In addition, in this paper, we investigate the development trends of UASN routing protocols, which can provide researchers with clear and direct insights for further research.

  11. A Survey on Underwater Acoustic Sensor Network Routing Protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Martínez, José-Fernán; Meneses Chaus, Juan Manuel; Eckert, Martina

    2016-01-01

    Underwater acoustic sensor networks (UASNs) have become more and more important in ocean exploration applications, such as ocean monitoring, pollution detection, ocean resource management, underwater device maintenance, etc. In underwater acoustic sensor networks, since the routing protocol guarantees reliable and effective data transmission from the source node to the destination node, routing protocol design is an attractive topic for researchers. There are many routing algorithms have been proposed in recent years. To present the current state of development of UASN routing protocols, we review herein the UASN routing protocol designs reported in recent years. In this paper, all the routing protocols have been classified into different groups according to their characteristics and routing algorithms, such as the non-cross-layer design routing protocol, the traditional cross-layer design routing protocol, and the intelligent algorithm based routing protocol. This is also the first paper that introduces intelligent algorithm-based UASN routing protocols. In addition, in this paper, we investigate the development trends of UASN routing protocols, which can provide researchers with clear and direct insights for further research.

  12. A Survey on Underwater Acoustic Sensor Network Routing Protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Martínez, José-Fernán; Meneses Chaus, Juan Manuel; Eckert, Martina

    2016-01-01

    Underwater acoustic sensor networks (UASNs) have become more and more important in ocean exploration applications, such as ocean monitoring, pollution detection, ocean resource management, underwater device maintenance, etc. In underwater acoustic sensor networks, since the routing protocol guarantees reliable and effective data transmission from the source node to the destination node, routing protocol design is an attractive topic for researchers. There are many routing algorithms have been proposed in recent years. To present the current state of development of UASN routing protocols, we review herein the UASN routing protocol designs reported in recent years. In this paper, all the routing protocols have been classified into different groups according to their characteristics and routing algorithms, such as the non-cross-layer design routing protocol, the traditional cross-layer design routing protocol, and the intelligent algorithm based routing protocol. This is also the first paper that introduces intelligent algorithm-based UASN routing protocols. In addition, in this paper, we investigate the development trends of UASN routing protocols, which can provide researchers with clear and direct insights for further research. PMID:27011193

  13. Routing and scheduling problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhardt, Line Blander

    of a connection between two locations. This could be an urban bus schedule where busses are routed and this routing creates a bus schedule which the passengers between locations use. In this thesis various routing and scheduling problems will be presented. The topics covered will be routing from an origin...... set cost making the cost of the individual vehicle routes inter-dependant. Depending on the problem type, the size of the problems and time available for solving, different solution methods can be applicable. In this thesis both heuristic methods and several exact methods are investigated depending...... on the problems needed to be solved. The solution methods applied to the problems cover dynamic programming for multi constrained shortest paths, Branch-and-cut for liner shipping, Simulated annealing for transporting assisted passengers in airports, branch-cut-and-price for vehicle routing with time windows...

  14. Latent variables and route choice behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prato, Carlo Giacomo; Bekhor, Shlomo; Pronello, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    by proposing and estimating a hybrid model that integrates latent variable and route choice models. Data contain information about latent variable indicators and chosen routes of travelers driving regularly from home to work in an urban network. Choice sets include alternative routes generated with a branch...... and bound algorithm. A hybrid model consists of measurement equations, which relate latent variables to measurement indicators and utilities to choice indicators, and structural equations, which link travelers’ observable characteristics to latent variables and explanatory variables to utilities. Estimation...... results illustrate that considering latent variables (i.e., memory, habit, familiarity, spatial ability, time saving skills) alongside traditional variables (e.g., travel time, distance, congestion level) enriches the comprehension of route choice behavior....

  15. Traffic-Adaptive Routing

    OpenAIRE

    Kammenhuber, Nils

    2011-01-01

    Despite the bursty and highly volatile traffic, routing in the Internet today is optimised only on coarse time scales, as load-adaptive routing is known to induce performance deterioration by causing massive oscillations. We describe ReplEx, an universally applicable distributed algorithm for dynamic routing/traffic engineering, which is based on game theory. We show through extensive realistic simulations that ReplEx does not oscillate, and that it achieves performance gains comparable to tr...

  16. On Designing Thermal-Aware Localized QoS Routing Protocol for in-vivo Sensor Nodes in Wireless Body Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Mostafa Monowar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we address the thermal rise and Quality-of-Service (QoS provisioning issue for an intra-body Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN having in-vivo sensor nodes. We propose a thermal-aware QoS routing protocol, called TLQoS, that facilitates the system in achieving desired QoS in terms of delay and reliability for diverse traffic types, as well as avoids the formation of highly heated nodes known as hotspot(s, and keeps the temperature rise along the network to an acceptable level. TLQoS exploits modular architecture wherein different modules perform integrated operations in providing multiple QoS service with lower temperature rise. To address the challenges of highly dynamic wireless environment inside the human body. TLQoS implements potential-based localized routing that requires only local neighborhood information. TLQoS avoids routing loop formation as well as reduces the number of hop traversal exploiting hybrid potential, and tuning a configurable parameter. We perform extensive simulations of TLQoS, and the results show that TLQoS has significant performance improvements over state-of-the-art approaches.

  17. Energy efficient cluster-based routing in wireless sensor networks

    OpenAIRE

    Zeghilet, Houda; Badache, Nadjib; Maimour, Moufida

    2009-01-01

    Because of the lack of a global naming scheme, routing protocols in sensor networks usually use flooding to select paths and deliver data. This process although simple and effective, is very costly in terms of energy consumption, an important design issue in sensor networks routing protocols. Cluster-based routing is one solution to save energy. In this paper, we propose a combination of an improved clustering algorithm and directed diffusion, a well-known data-centric routing paradigm in sen...

  18. DNA display I. Sequence-encoded routing of DNA populations.

    OpenAIRE

    Halpin, David R; Pehr B Harbury

    2004-01-01

    Recently reported technologies for DNA-directed organic synthesis and for DNA computing rely on routing DNA populations through complex networks. The reduction of these ideas to practice has been limited by a lack of practical experimental tools. Here we describe a modular design for DNA routing genes, and routing machinery made from oligonucleotides and commercially available chromatography resins. The routing machinery partitions nanomole quantities of DNA into physically distinct subpools ...

  19. Caspian producers contemplate excess of export routes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fourth quarter of 2005 sees the commissioning of the latest oil export route from the Caspian: the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan (BTC) pipeline from Azerbaijan to Turkey. BTC is one of a series of potential export routes from Central Asia and the Trans-Caucasus. The proposed capacity of all these routes, however, far exceeds the volume of oil likely to be available to fill it at any time in the foreseeable future. Turkey nevertheless continues to press for more export capacity in an attempt to reduce the number of tankers passing through the narrow waterways that connect the Black Sea with the Mediterranean. For their part, Caspian oil producers want their oil to be transported by the cheapest and most direct route, which appears to rule out pipelines designed to divert their exports away from the Black Sea-Mediterranean sea-route. (author)

  20. Highway and interline transportation routing models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential impacts associated with the transportation of hazardous materials are important issues to shippers, carriers, and the general public. Since transportation routes are a central characteristic in most of these issues, the prediction of likely routes is the first step toward the resolution of these issues. In addition, US Department of Transportation requirements (HM-164) mandate specific routes for shipments of highway controlled quantities of radioactive materials. In response to these needs, two routing models have been developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). These models have been designated by DOE's Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, Transportation Management Division (DOE/EM) as the official DOE routing models. Both models, HIGHWAY and INTERLINE, are described

  1. Routing architecture and security for airborne networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Hongmei; Xie, Peng; Li, Jason; Xu, Roger; Levy, Renato

    2009-05-01

    Airborne networks are envisioned to provide interconnectivity for terrestial and space networks by interconnecting highly mobile airborne platforms. A number of military applications are expected to be used by the operator, and all these applications require proper routing security support to establish correct route between communicating platforms in a timely manner. As airborne networks somewhat different from traditional wired and wireless networks (e.g., Internet, LAN, WLAN, MANET, etc), security aspects valid in these networks are not fully applicable to airborne networks. Designing an efficient security scheme to protect airborne networks is confronted with new requirements. In this paper, we first identify a candidate routing architecture, which works as an underlying structure for our proposed security scheme. And then we investigate the vulnerabilities and attack models against routing protocols in airborne networks. Based on these studies, we propose an integrated security solution to address routing security issues in airborne networks.

  2. A SURVEY ON THE ALGORITHMIC APPROACH USED IN ROUTING FOR PLACEMENT AND ROUTING FLOW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KOMAL

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Routing is one of the long-drawn-out processes after placement in VLSI design. The routing provides the path for nets on chip to interconnect the pins on the pads or blocks at the chip boundary. This paper provides a systematic insight of interconnect of nets in ‘Placement and Routing Flow’ based on various methods (global routing and detailed routing. Further, the work reported so far has been compared with a multiple techniques for multiple factors such as reduction in wire-length, short execution time, fast and accurate congestion, improvement in complexity, signal integrity and crosstalk. Here the methodologies adopts are the Routing congestion estimator algorithm, Ant Colony Optimization. Firefly Algorithm, Monotonic Staircase Routing and so on. It is also observed that Pattern Based Routing is much faster than the Maze Routing, and the improved parameters are there is no over-congestion and 100% routablity with Monotonic Staircase Channels. zero overflow by Simulated-Evolution(Sim-E, and Complexity improved by a Fuzzified Approach Towards Global Routing.

  3. Comprehensive restoration performance analyzed under different routing and rerouting policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Bo; Lee, Peiyuan; Gu, Wanyi

    2005-11-01

    This paper studies the routing and wavelength assignment (RWA) problem in wavelength-routed all-optical networks with dynamic traffic demand. As well known, the performance of network restoration strongly depends upon the routing and rerouting policies. In this letter, we comprehensively analyzed the restoration performance under two main alternate dynamic routing algorithm, LLR(Least Loaded Routing) and FPLC(Fixed-Paths Least-Congestion routing), and two rerouting policies, based on K-path backup or Dijkstra algorithm. Through modelling and simulation, we compute the restoration efficiencies of four combinations on the NSFNET T1 backbone network, with different traffic load. The numerical simulation result shows that the rerouting policy based on Dijkstra algorithm has improved more 10%-20% performance than the rerouting policy based on K-path backup. The LLR and FPLC routing algorithm achieve the same performance by and large when the same rerouting policy is used.

  4. Performance of Input and Output Selection Techniques on Routing Efficiency in Network-On-Chip: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Behrouzian Nejad; Amin Mehranzadeh; Mehdi Hoodgar

    2011-01-01

    Network-On-Chip (NOC) is a new paradigm to make the interconnections inside a System-On-Chip (SOC) system. Networks-On-Chip have emerged as alternative to buses to provide a packet-switched communication medium for modular development of large Systems-On-Chip. The performance of Network-On-Chip largely depends on the underlying routing techniques. Routing algorithm can be classified into three categories, namely, deterministic routing, oblivious routing and adaptive routing. Each routing algo...

  5. TBRF: Trust Based Routing Framework for WSNs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kushal Gulaskar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The multi-hop routing in wireless sensor networks (WSNs offers little protection against identity deception through replaying routing information. An adversary can exploit this defect to launch various harmful or even devastating attacks against the routing protocols, including sinkhole attacks, wormhole attacks and Sybil attacks. The situation is further aggravated by mobile and harsh network conditions. Traditional cryptographic techniques or efforts at developing trust-aware routing protocols do not effectively address this severe problem. To secure the WSNs against adversaries misdirecting the multi-hop routing, we have designed and implemented TBRF, a robust trust-aware routing framework for dynamic WSNs. Without tight time synchronization or known geographic information, TBRF provides trustworthy and energy-efficient route. Most importantly, TBRF proves effective against those harmful attacks developed out of identity deception; the resilience of TBRF is verified through extensive evaluation with both simulation and empirical experiments on large-scale WSNs under various scenarios including mobile and RF-shielding network conditions. Further, we have implemented a low-overhead TBRF module in TinyOS; as demonstrated, this implementation can be incorporated into existing routing protocols with the least effort. Based on TBRF, we also demonstrated a proof-of-concept mobile target detection application that functions well against an anti-detection mechanism

  6. 基于传播损耗门限的水声传感网路由协议%Transmission Loss Threshold based Routing Design for Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王萍

    2015-01-01

    由于水声介质的各向异性,传统的基于节点位置和节点间物理距离的路由协议的能量效率在水声环境中会显著下降。针对水下通信组网节点能量有限和通信能耗高的特点,本文重新定义了水下邻居节点间基于传播损耗门限的邻接模型,并提出一种基于传播损耗门限的能量有效的路由协议。并进一步给出了最优传播损耗门限的理论值,以使得路由协议获得最低的能量损耗。最后,通过仿真对本文提出的协议和已有的协议性能进行了比较,结果表明基于传播损耗门限的路由协议有效考虑了水声介质各向异性特征,大大降低了通信能耗,性能明显优于已有的路由协议,且最优传输损耗门限理论值和仿真值非常吻合,进而为协议的工程实践提供了重要的指导意义。%Propagation of sound in the ocean medium is anisotropic, rendering those traditional routing protocols that purely use distances as the metric to select the best routes no longer energy-efficient. In this paper, considering that underwater acoustic sensor networks (UASNs) are powered by batteries which are costly to recharge or replace, we re-define nodes’ one-hop neighbors based on signal attenuation rather than geographical distance, and design a distributed energy-efficient routing protocol for UASNs. Further, the optimal transmission loss threshold has been theoretically derived, and a routing protocol based on this threshold has been designed. Results show that our transmission loss threshold based routing policy consistently outperforms the shortest path policy, and gives similar performance to the optimal one in several scenarios.

  7. Chongqin city tourism route design existing problem and countermeasure probing%重庆都市旅游线路设计存在问题与对策探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵纲

    2011-01-01

    Rich tourism resources of Chongqing city,the development of tourism for the city to provide a solid foundation.Number of tourist routes in Chongqing city,has developed rapidly,attracting a large number of foreign tourists come to travel.However,the design of tourist routes in the city,there are still many problems,such as: product design,unreasonable travel routes,update the slow,inadequate publicity and so on.Chongqing City Tour for the design of many issues arise with cold hot spots,local conditions,strengthen brand awareness and other measures.%重庆都市旅游资源种类齐全,非常丰富,为发展都市旅游提供了坚实的基础。目前,重庆市旅行社经营的都市旅游线路众多、发展迅速,吸引了大量中外游客前来旅游。但是在都市旅游线路的设计上,如:景点搭配不合理、宣传力度不够等还存在诸多问题。本文针对重庆都市旅游线路设计中出现的问题提出了"冷热搭配,因地制宜,加强宣传"等的措施,希望能为发展重庆都市旅游线路提供一些建议。

  8. Design of DTN Routing Algorithm Based on Probabilistic Delay%基于历史信息预测转发概率的DTN路由算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛静锋; 范志安; 李建胜; 樊秀梅

    2011-01-01

    为了尽量减少网络先验知识的使用,提高消息转发成功率,提出了一种基于历史链接信息预测转发概率的算法,综合运用了冗余复制和相遇预测的转发策略,将消息逐步向到达目标节点传输预测概率较高的节点转发,通过二分法复制策略来增加消息转发成功的可能性,并采用了主动冗余消息删除机制.仿真实验表明,随着缓冲区的增大和节点规模的增大,该路由算法的性能明显优于Epidemic,PRoPHET和BSW算法,并且具有很好的网络适应性能.%In DTN, the current routing forwarding strategies include flooding method based on copy and forwarding method based on knowledge. In order to deliver more messages with less knowledge oracle, a new routing algorithm which calculates the delivery predictability using the history contact information is proposed. The algorithm combines copy strategy and probabilistic routing. When one node meets the other node, a message is transferred to the other node if the delivery predictability to destination is higher at the other node. Binary mode copy strategy is used to distribute a message to a number of nodes to increase transmission rate and an active mechanism is used to delete redundancy messages. Simulation result shows this algorithm has a higher message delivery ratio than Epidemic, PRoPHET and BSW. In addition, this superiority scales better with the buffer size and the number of nodes.

  9. Integrated Routing Protocol for Opportunistic Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anshul Verma

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In opportunistic networks the existence of a simultaneous path is not assumed to transmit a message between a sender and a receiver. Information about the context in which the users communicate is a key piece of knowledge to design efficient routing protocols in opportunistic networks. But this kind of information is not always available. When users are very isolated, context information cannot be distributed, and cannot be used for taking efficient routing decisions. In such cases, context oblivious based schemes are only way to enable communication between users. As soon as users become more social, context data spreads in the network, and context based routing becomes an efficient solution. In this paper we design an integrated routing protocol that is able to use context data as soon as it becomes available and falls back to dissemination-based routing when context information is not available. Then, we provide a comparison between Epidemic and PROPHET, these are representative of context oblivious and context aware routing protocols. Our results show that integrated routing protocol is able to provide better result in term of message delivery probability and message delay in both cases when context information about users is available or not.

  10. Dynamic telecast Routing with Security Intensification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BeerthiSahadev

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Security has become one of the majorissues for data communication over wired and wireless networks. Different from the past work on the designs of network security algorithms and system infrastructures, we will propose a dynamic broadcast routing algorithm that could randomize delivery paths for data transmission. The algorithm is easy to implement and compatible with popular routing protocols, such as the Routing Information Protocol in wired networks and Destination-Sequenced Distance Vector protocol in wireless networks , without introducing extra control messages. The simulation results have been verified from the proposed algorithm and it shows the capability of the proposed algorithm.

  11. Large graph visualization of millions of connections in the CERN control system network traffic: analysis and design of routing and firewall rules with a new approach

    CERN Document Server

    Gallerani, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The CERN Technical Network (TN) TN was intended to be a network for accelerator and infrastructure operations. However, today, more than 60 million IP packets are routed every hour between the General Purpose Network (GPN) and the TN, involving more than 6000 different hosts. In order to improve the security of the accelerator control system, it is fundamental to understand the network traffic between the two networks and to define new appropriate routing and firewall rules without impacting operations. The complexity and huge size of the infrastructure and the number of protocols and services involved, have discouraged for years any attempt to understand and control the network traffic between the GPN and the TN. In this paper, we show a new way to solve the problem graphically. Combining the network traffic analysis with the use of large graph visualization algorithms we produced usable 2D large color topology maps of the network identifying the inter-relations of the control system machines and s...

  12. Improving Reactive Ad Hoc Routing Performance by Geographic Route Length

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Yuan-da; YU Yan-bing; LU Di

    2005-01-01

    In order to help reactive ad hoc routing protocols select better-performance routes, a novel metric named geographic route length (GRL) is proposed. The relationship between GRL metric and routing performance is analyzed in detail. Combined with hop metric, GRL is applied into the original ad hoc on-demand distance vector (AODV) to demonstrate its effectiveness. Simulation experiments have shown that GRL can effectively reduce packet delay and route discovery frequency, thus can improve reactive ad hoc routing performance.

  13. A New Route Maintenance in Dynamic Source Routing Protocol

    CERN Document Server

    Shukla, Ashish

    2010-01-01

    Mobile ad-hoc network (MANET) is infrastructureless, self-organizable, multi hop packet switched network. A number of routing protocols for MANETs have been proposed in recent years. Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) protocol is one of the most popular routing protocol for ad hoc networks. This paper presents a novel method to enhance route maintenance part of DSR protocol. Our proposed route maintenance significantly increases the efficiency of the protocol at the time of route failures.

  14. Security Conformance for the Dynamically Routed Data

    OpenAIRE

    Suma Patra; Dr.V.Janaki; Priyanka suram; Nalubala Ranjeeth Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Secure transmission of data plays a crucial role in the networks. To improve the security many methodologies have been proposed till now, like cryptographic designs, intrusion detection, dynamic routing etc. In this paper we consider that the data transmission is done by using the concept of dynamic routing. Sometimes the sender may be neglecting the security due to the lack of personal interest, but the receiver has to take the utmost care. In such cases the receiver after forcing the sender...

  15. Integrated Routing Protocol for Opportunistic Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Anshul Verma; Dr. Anurag Srivastava

    2012-01-01

    In opportunistic networks the existence of a simultaneous path is not assumed to transmit a message between a sender and a receiver. Information about the context in which the users communicate is a key piece of knowledge to design efficient routing protocols in opportunistic networks. But this kind of information is not always available. When users are very isolated, context information cannot be distributed, and cannot be used for taking efficient routing decisions. In such cases, context o...

  16. A KBE Application for Automatic Aircraft Wire Harness Routing

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Z.; van Tooren, M. J. L.; La Rocca, G

    2012-01-01

    Wire harness design is an increasingly complex task. Knowledge Based Engineering (KBE) and optimization techniques can be used to support designers in handling this complexity. The wire harness design process can be divided in three main parts, namely electrical design, configuration design and geometrical routing. This paper describes the latest progress in the development of a KBE application aiming at the automation of the routing phase. Discrete optimization techniques are used to design ...

  17. Energy Saving Multipath Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yash Arora

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The Wireless sensor networks have many characteristics such as limited energy resources, low bandwidth and unreliable links. Due to these characteristics there are many challenges in the design of sensor networks. Routing in WSN is very challenging task. Multipath establishes several path for data transmission rather than single path. Due to this data delivery is high. In this paper, we propose energy saving multipath routing protocol (ESMRP. ESMRP make use of load balancing algorithm to transfer the data. ESMRP calculates node strength to discover its next best hop. Our protocol uses two versions, in the first version, data is transmitted through single path, if some path failure occurs or discovered path node strength goes below 15% of alternative path node strength then it will switch to next alternative path. In the second version of ESMRP, message is split into various segments and some correction codes are added to these segments. After that these segments are transmitted across multiple paths. Simulation results shows that the proposed protocol is more energy saving than previous protocol in providing efficient resource utilization.

  18. Understanding individual routing behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Antonio; Stanojevic, Rade; Papagiannaki, Dina; Rodriguez, Pablo; González, Marta C

    2016-03-01

    Knowing how individuals move between places is fundamental to advance our understanding of human mobility (González et al. 2008 Nature 453, 779-782. (doi:10.1038/nature06958)), improve our urban infrastructure (Prato 2009 J. Choice Model. 2, 65-100. (doi:10.1016/S1755-5345(13)70005-8)) and drive the development of transportation systems. Current route-choice models that are used in transportation planning are based on the widely accepted assumption that people follow the minimum cost path (Wardrop 1952 Proc. Inst. Civ. Eng. 1, 325-362. (doi:10.1680/ipeds.1952.11362)), despite little empirical support. Fine-grained location traces collected by smart devices give us today an unprecedented opportunity to learn how citizens organize their travel plans into a set of routes, and how similar behaviour patterns emerge among distinct individual choices. Here we study 92 419 anonymized GPS trajectories describing the movement of personal cars over an 18-month period. We group user trips by origin-destination and we find that most drivers use a small number of routes for their routine journeys, and tend to have a preferred route for frequent trips. In contrast to the cost minimization assumption, we also find that a significant fraction of drivers' routes are not optimal. We present a spatial probability distribution that bounds the route selection space within an ellipse, having the origin and the destination as focal points, characterized by high eccentricity independent of the scale. While individual routing choices are not captured by path optimization, their spatial bounds are similar, even for trips performed by distinct individuals and at various scales. These basic discoveries can inform realistic route-choice models that are not based on optimization, having an impact on several applications, such as infrastructure planning, routing recommendation systems and new mobility solutions. PMID:26962031

  19. Characterization of Static/Dynamic Topological Routing For Grid Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gutierrez Lopez, Jose Manuel; Cuevas, Ruben; Riaz, M. Tahir;

    2009-01-01

    Grid or 2D Mesh structures are becoming one of the most attractive network topologies to study. They can be used in many different fields raging from future broadband networks to multiprocessors structures. In addition, the high requirements of future services and applications demand more flexible...... and adaptive networks. Topological routing in grid networks is a simple and efficient alternative to traditional routing techniques, e.g. routing tables, and the paper extends this kind of routing providing a "Dynamic" attribute. This new property attempts to improve the overall network performance for future...

  20. Using Ant Colony Optimization for Routing in VLSI Chips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Tamanna; Moses, Melanie

    2009-04-01

    Rapid advances in VLSI technology have increased the number of transistors that fit on a single chip to about two billion. A frequent problem in the design of such high performance and high density VLSI layouts is that of routing wires that connect such large numbers of components. Most wire-routing problems are computationally hard. The quality of any routing algorithm is judged by the extent to which it satisfies routing constraints and design objectives. Some of the broader design objectives include minimizing total routed wire length, and minimizing total capacitance induced in the chip, both of which serve to minimize power consumed by the chip. Ant Colony Optimization algorithms (ACO) provide a multi-agent framework for combinatorial optimization by combining memory, stochastic decision and strategies of collective and distributed learning by ant-like agents. This paper applies ACO to the NP-hard problem of finding optimal routes for interconnect routing on VLSI chips. The constraints on interconnect routing are used by ants as heuristics which guide their search process. We found that ACO algorithms were able to successfully incorporate multiple constraints and route interconnects on suite of benchmark chips. On an average, the algorithm routed with total wire length 5.5% less than other established routing algorithms.

  1. Dahomey Breeding Bird Survey Route

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Document contains route directions and map for the naitonal Dahomey BBS route. Includes milage for where specific listening stations are located along the route...

  2. Sleep-Route: Routing through Sleeping Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Sarkar, Chayan; Rao, Vijay S.; Prasad, R. Venkatesha

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we propose an energy-efficient data gathering scheme for wireless sensor network called Sleep-Route, which splits the sensor nodes into two sets - active and dormant (low-power sleep). Only the active set of sensor nodes participate in data collection. The sensing values of the dormant sensor nodes are predicted with the help of an active sensor node. Virtual Sensing Framework (VSF) provides the mechanism to predict the sensing values by exploiting the data correlation among ...

  3. Design Methodology for Self-organized Mobile Networks Based

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Petearson Anzola

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The methodology proposed in this article enables a systematic design of routing algorithms based on schemes of biclustering, which allows you to respond with timely techniques, clustering heuristics proposed by a researcher, and a focused approach to routing in the choice of clusterhead nodes. This process uses heuristics aimed at improving the different costs in communication surface groups called biclusters. This methodology globally enables a variety of techniques and heuristics of clustering that have been addressed in routing algorithms, but we have not explored all possible alternatives and their different assessments. Therefore, the methodology oriented design research of routing algorithms based on biclustering schemes will allow new concepts of evolutionary routing along with the ability to adapt the topological changes that occur in self-organized data networks.

  4. TO "LIMITATIONS OF ROI TESTING FOR VENTING DESIGN: DESCRIPTION OF AN ALTERNATIVE APPROACH BASED ON ATTAINMENT OF A CRITICAL PORE-GAS VELOCITY IN CONTAMINATED MEDIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this paper, we describe the limitations of radius of influence (ROI) evaluation for venting design in more detail than has been done previously and propose an alternative method based on specification and attainment of critical pore-gas velocities in contaminated subsurface me...

  5. Catalyst-Controlled Stereoselective Olefin Metathesis as a Principal Strategy in Multi-Step Synthesis Design. A Concise Route to (+)-Neopeltolide**

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Miao; Schrock, Richard R.

    2014-01-01

    Mo-, W- and Ru-based complexes that control the stereochemical outcome of olefin metathesis reactions have been recently introduced. However, the complementary nature of these systems through their combined use in multistep complex molecule synthesis has not been illustrated. Here, we disclose a concise diastereo- and enantioselective route that furnishes the anti-proliferative natural product neopeltolide. Catalytic transformations are employed to address every stereochemical issue. Among the featured processes are an enantioselective ring-opening/cross-metathesis promoted by a Mo monopyrrolide aryloxide (MAP) complex and a macrocyclic ring-closing metathesis affording a trisubstituted alkene catalyzed by a Mo bis-aryloxide species. Furthermore, Z-selective cross-metathesis reactions, facilitated by Mo and Ru complexes, have been employed in stereoselective synthesis of the acyclic dienyl moiety of the target molecule. PMID:25377347

  6. Design of static routing experiment based on IPv6%基于IPv6的静态路由实验设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪海涛

    2012-01-01

    对IPv6的地址格式和通信特点进行了分析,提出了一个IPv6的通信网络拓扑结构。详细介绍了IPv6的接口地址和静态路由协议的配置,实现了两台IPv6的主机相互通信。%This paper analyses the IPv6 address formats and communications features. Then, it proposes an IPv6 communication network topology. Details of the interface IPv6 address and static routing protocol configuration are introduced, which allows two IPv6 hosts communicate with each other.

  7. The Development of Mini Portable Digester Designs for Domestic and Restaurant Solid Waste Processing to be Clean Biogas as Energy's Alternative to Replace LPG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansur, A.; Janari dan, D.; Setiawan, N.

    2016-02-01

    Biofuel is developed as an alternative source of second generation energy that could be attained from organic waste. This research is purposed to create applicative and cheap Portable digester unit for society. The design concepts’ screening that was made under considerations of the experts is finally resumed. Design 1 with final weight score of 1, design 2 with final weight score of -1, design 3 with final weight score of 2, design 4 with final weight score 3, design 5 with final weight score of -1, design 6 with final weight score of 0. Accepted designs for further concept assessment are design 1, 2 and 6. The result of concept assessment applies weighting for the scoring. Design 1 resulting 2.67, design 2 results 2.15 while design 3 results 2.52. Design 1 is concluded as the design with biggest result, which is 2.67. Its specification is explained as follows: tank capacity of 60 liters, manual rotating crank pivot, tank's material is plastic with symbol 1, material of axle swivel arm is grey cast iron, 2 mm rotary blades with hole. The experiment 1 contained 23.78% methane and 13.65 carbon dioxide that resulted from content test.

  8. Class network routing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhanot, Gyan; Blumrich, Matthias A.; Chen, Dong; Coteus, Paul W.; Gara, Alan G.; Giampapa, Mark E.; Heidelberger, Philip; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D.; Takken, Todd E.; Vranas, Pavlos M.

    2009-09-08

    Class network routing is implemented in a network such as a computer network comprising a plurality of parallel compute processors at nodes thereof. Class network routing allows a compute processor to broadcast a message to a range (one or more) of other compute processors in the computer network, such as processors in a column or a row. Normally this type of operation requires a separate message to be sent to each processor. With class network routing pursuant to the invention, a single message is sufficient, which generally reduces the total number of messages in the network as well as the latency to do a broadcast. Class network routing is also applied to dense matrix inversion algorithms on distributed memory parallel supercomputers with hardware class function (multicast) capability. This is achieved by exploiting the fact that the communication patterns of dense matrix inversion can be served by hardware class functions, which results in faster execution times.

  9. 基于链路不对称性预测的机会网络路由设计%Routing Design of Opportunity Network Based on Link Asymmetry Prediction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎远松; 梁金明

    2014-01-01

    机会网络的混合路由优化设计可以有效降低冗余开销,提高数据传递成功率。传统方法采用链路代价评估和能量节省延迟容忍算法实现机会网络的路由设计,当在移动自组织网络中出现节点稀疏化调度下链路具有不对称性,降低了路由分配质量。提出一种基于改进的OLSRv2算法的链路不对称性预测控制机会网络混合路由优化算法,定义机会网络中混合置信因子概念,研究路由优化检验统计量的确定和判别系统的设计,通过OLSRv2算法引入了概率路由,在当前连通域的路由信息进行地址压缩得到最优传送概率值。仿真实验表明,采用该算法设计的机会网络路由进行网络通信,得到较小的控制开销,提高通信成功率,网络负载大幅降低。%The optimization design of network routing can effectively reduce the redundancy cost, and improve the success rate data transmission. The traditional methods take the link cost assessment and energy saving in delay tolerant algorithm, when the mobile node sparse scheduling link is asymmetric in self-organizing network, the routing assignment quality is re-duced. The traditional OLSRv2 algorithm is improved, and an improved routing optimization algorithm is proposed for op-portunity network based on link asymmetry prediction. The concept of hybrid confidence factor is defined, the test statistic and discrimination system are designed, the probability routing of OLSRv2 algorithm is introduced. The optimal transmis-sion probability value is obtained. Simulation results show that the new method has less control overhead, and the communi-cation success rate is improved, the load of network is reduced greatly.

  10. Routed planar networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Aldous

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Modeling a road network as a planar graph seems very natural. However, in studying continuum limits of such networks it is useful to take {\\em routes} rather than {\\em edges} as primitives. This article is intended to introduce the relevant (discrete setting notion of {\\em routed network} to graph theorists. We give a naive classification of all 71 topologically different such networks on 4 leaves, and pose a variety of challenging research questions.

  11. Route guidance strategies revisited: Comparison and evaluation in an asymmetric two-route traffic system

    CERN Document Server

    He, Zhengbing; Guan, Wei

    2013-01-01

    To alleviate traffic congestion, a variety of route guidance strategies has been proposed for intelligent transportation systems. A number of the strategies are proposed and investigated on a symmetric two-route traffic system over the past decade. To evaluate the strategies in a more general scenario, this paper conducts eight prevalent strategies on a asymmetric two-route traffic network with different slowdown behaviors on alternative routes. The results show that only mean velocity feedback strategy is able to equalize travel time, i.e., approximate user optimality; while the others fail due to incapability of establishing relations between the feedback parameters and travel time. The paper helps better understand these strategies, and suggests mean velocity feedback strategy if the authority intends to achieve user optimality.

  12. Simulated Annealing Technique for Routing in a Rectangular Mesh Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noraziah Adzhar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the process of automatic design for printed circuit boards (PCBs, the phase following cell placement is routing. On the other hand, routing process is a notoriously difficult problem, and even the simplest routing problem which consists of a set of two-pin nets is known to be NP-complete. In this research, our routing region is first tessellated into a uniform Nx×Ny array of square cells. The ultimate goal for a routing problem is to achieve complete automatic routing with minimal need for any manual intervention. Therefore, shortest path for all connections needs to be established. While classical Dijkstra’s algorithm guarantees to find shortest path for a single net, each routed net will form obstacles for later paths. This will add complexities to route later nets and make its routing longer than the optimal path or sometimes impossible to complete. Today’s sequential routing often applies heuristic method to further refine the solution. Through this process, all nets will be rerouted in different order to improve the quality of routing. Because of this, we are motivated to apply simulated annealing, one of the metaheuristic methods to our routing model to produce better candidates of sequence.

  13. Evaluate Dynamic Source Routing Protocol Performance in Wireless MANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwin Perti

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Routing protocols used in ad hoc networks must automatically adjust to environments that can vary between the extremes of high mobility with low bandwidth, and low mobility with high bandwidth. In my research paper I have analyzed a routing protocol called Dynamic Source Routing (DSR. At the ed of my Research paper result of its unique design, the protocol adapts quickly to routing changes when node movement is frequent, yet requires little or no overhead during periods in which nodes move less frequently. By graphical form a detailed analysis of DSR’s behaviour in a variety of situations, this paper generalizes the lessons learned from DSR so that they can be applied to the many other new routing protocols that have adopted the basic DSR framework. In the DSR protocol, a backup route will be initiated to transfer data (in route cache when the initial route is broken. However, a backup route affects the overall network performance such as end-to-end delay, etc. In this paper, I showed the simulation results of the dynamic source routing protocol based on it’s throughput, pause time, packet received, drop packet ratio, end to end delay, packet delivery fraction, and routing overhead. This results shows that dynamic source routing protocol is an efficient protocol to be used in Ad Hoc network.

  14. Digital Labeling and Narrative Mapping in Mobile Remote Audio Signage: Verbalization of Routes and Generation of New Verbal Route Descriptions from Existing Route Sets

    OpenAIRE

    Tammineni, Tharun Tej

    2013-01-01

    Independent navigation is a great challenge for people with visual impairments. In this project, we have designed and implemented an assisted navigation solution based on the ability of visually impaired travelers to interpret and contextualize verbal route descriptions. Previous studies have validated that if a route is verbally described in sufficient and appropriate manner then VI can use their orientation and mobility skills to successfully follow the route. In this project, we do not con...

  15. An Immune Cooperative Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm for Fault-Tolerant Routing Optimization in Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifan Hu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The fault-tolerant routing problem is important consideration in the design of heterogeneous wireless sensor networks (H-WSNs applications, and has recently been attracting growing research interests. In order to maintain k disjoint communication paths from source sensors to the macronodes, we present a hybrid routing scheme and model, in which multiple paths are calculated and maintained in advance, and alternate paths are created once the previous routing is broken. Then, we propose an immune cooperative particle swarm optimization algorithm (ICPSOA in the model to provide the fast routing recovery and reconstruct the network topology for path failure in H-WSNs. In the ICPSOA, mutation direction of the particle is determined by multi-swarm evolution equation, and its diversity is improved by immune mechanism, which can enhance the capacity of global search and improve the converging rate of the algorithm. Then we validate this theoretical model with simulation results. The results indicate that the ICPSOA-based fault-tolerant routing protocol outperforms several other protocols due to its capability of fast routing recovery mechanism, reliable communications, and prolonging the lifetime of WSNs.

  16. Rich Vehicle Routing Problems and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wen, Min

    of these problems was motivated by our cooperation with industrial companies, particularly Transvision A/S and its client distributors, and Danish Crown. The models and methods proposed in the thesis are general and can be applied to practical routing problems arising in many other distribution companies as well...... the company’s solution in terms of all the objectives, including the travel time, customer waiting and daily workload balances, under the given constraints considered in the work. Finally, we address an integrated vehicle routing and driver scheduling problem, in which a large number of practical constraints......The Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) is one of the most important and challenging optimization problems in the field of Operations Research. It was introduced by Dantzig and Ramser (1959) and defined as the problem of designing the optimal set of routes for a fleet of vehicles in order to serve...

  17. EAF Steel Slag Filters for Phosphorus Removal from Milk Parlor Effluent: The Effects of Solids Loading, Alternate Feeding Regimes and In-Series Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon C. Bird

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Electric arc furnace (EAF steel slag filters were investigated for their efficiency at reducing the concentration of phosphorus (P from dairy farm wastewater in Vermont. The primary objective for this study was to examine the use of in series design on filters’ performance in P removal from dairy farm wastewater at subzero temperatures. Other research objectives were to investigate operational parameters such as the effects of total suspended solids (TSS daily mass loading rates and of alternating feeding and resting periods on EAF steel slag filters’ TSS, dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP and total phosphorus (TP removal efficiencies and filter system life-span. The utilization of in series filter design increased filter DRP removal efficiency by 35%. In series design also allows for alternating feeding and resting periods, which resulted in a 16%, 57% and 74% increase in TSS, DRP and TP removal efficiencies, respectively, by the first filter in series over a single period. Additionally, the system life span was extended 3.25 fold (from 52 to 169 day. Based on this research, we recommend alternate feeding and resting cycles and in series design to be integrated in the design of EAF steel slag filter systems for highly concentrated agricultural effluents in cold climates.

  18. Routing Service Quality—Local Driver Behavior Versus Routing Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ceikute, Vaida; Jensen, Christian S.

    2013-01-01

    of the quality of one kind of location-based service, namely routing services. Specifically, the paper presents a framework that enables the comparison of the routes provided by routing services with the actual driving behaviors of local drivers. Comparisons include route length, travel time, and also route...... experiments with real vehicle trajectory data and an existing online navigation service. It is found that the availability of information about previous trips enables better prediction of route travel time and makes it possible to provide the users with more popular routes than does a conventional navigation...

  19. Modeling Routing Overhead Generated by Wireless Proactive Routing Protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Javaid, Nadeem; Javaid, Akmal; Malik, Shahzad A

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present a detailed framework consisting of modeling of routing overhead generated by three widely used proactive routing protocols; Destination-Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV), Fish-eye State Routing (FSR) and Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR). The questions like, how these protocols differ from each other on the basis of implementing different routing strategies, how neighbor estimation errors affect broadcast of route requests, how reduction of broadcast overhead achieves bandwidth, how to cope with the problem of mobility and density, etc, are attempted to respond. In all of the above mentioned situations, routing overhead and delay generated by the chosen protocols can exactly be calculated from our modeled equations. Finally, we analyze the performance of selected routing protocols using our proposed framework in NS-2 by considering different performance parameters; Route REQuest (RREQ) packet generation, End-to-End Delay (E2ED) and Normalized Routing Load (NRL) with respect to varyi...

  20. Modeling Routing Overhead Generated by Wireless Reactive Routing Protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Javaid, Nadeem; Javaid, Akmal; Malik, Shahzad A

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we have modeled the routing over- head generated by three reactive routing protocols; Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV), Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) and DYnamic MANET On-deman (DYMO). Routing performed by reactive protocols consists of two phases; route discovery and route maintenance. Total cost paid by a protocol for efficient routing is sum of the cost paid in the form of energy consumed and time spent. These protocols majorly focus on the optimization performed by expanding ring search algorithm to control the flooding generated by the mechanism of blind flooding. So, we have modeled the energy consumed and time spent per packet both for route discovery and route maintenance. The proposed framework is evaluated in NS-2 to compare performance of the chosen routing protocols.

  1. A radio-aware routing algorithm for reliable directed diffusion in lossy wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Pyo; Jung, Euihyun; Park, Yong-Jin

    2009-01-01

    In Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), transmission errors occur frequently due to node failure, battery discharge, contention or interference by objects. Although Directed Diffusion has been considered as a prominent data-centric routing algorithm, it has some weaknesses due to unexpected network errors. In order to address these problems, we proposed a radio-aware routing algorithm to improve the reliability of Directed Diffusion in lossy WSNs. The proposed algorithm is aware of the network status based on the radio information from MAC and PHY layers using a cross-layer design. The cross-layer design can be used to get detailed information about current status of wireless network such as a link quality or transmission errors of communication links. The radio information indicating variant network conditions and link quality was used to determine an alternative route that provides reliable data transmission under lossy WSNs. According to the simulation result, the radio-aware reliable routing algorithm showed better performance in both grid and random topologies with various error rates. The proposed solution suggested the possibility of providing a reliable transmission method for QoS requests in lossy WSNs based on the radio-awareness. The energy and mobility issues will be addressed in the future work. PMID:22408493

  2. A Route for Every Learner: Universal Design for Learning (UDL) as a Framework for Supporting Learning and Improving Achievement for All Learners in Maryland, Prekindergarten through Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryland State Department of Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Universal Design for Learning (UDL) is a framework for curriculum design, instruction, and assessment that gives all students equal opportunities to learn and to demonstrate what they have learned. UDL is built on the premise that there is not one kind of learning. Learning differs across tasks, across development, and among individuals. UDL is…

  3. Routing algorithms in networks-on-chip

    CERN Document Server

    Daneshtalab, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a single-source reference to routing algorithms for Networks-on-Chip (NoCs), as well as in-depth discussions of advanced solutions applied to current and next generation, many core NoC-based Systems-on-Chip (SoCs). After a basic introduction to the NoC design paradigm and architectures, routing algorithms for NoC architectures are presented and discussed at all abstraction levels, from the algorithmic level to actual implementation.  Coverage emphasizes the role played by the routing algorithm and is organized around key problems affecting current and next generation, many-core SoCs. A selection of routing algorithms is included, specifically designed to address key issues faced by designers in the ultra-deep sub-micron (UDSM) era, including performance improvement, power, energy, and thermal issues, fault tolerance and reliability.   ·         Provides a comprehensive overview of routing algorithms for Networks-on-Chip and NoC-based, manycore systems; ·         Describe...

  4. Semantic Probabilistic Modelling of novel routing Protocol with Implication of Cumulative Routing Attack in Mobile adhoc network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil G. N.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The proposed system presents a novel approach for modelling along with mitigating various types of routing attacks in mobile adhoc network considering AODV protocol. Majority of the previous research work are either explored differently for security or routing protocols. The system identifies the susceptibility of the routing attack over the dynamic topology of mobile adhoc network where it has assumed a faster propagation of the infection towards the nodes. To make the analysis more challenging, the protocol also designs a sophisticated adversary module which is resilient against any types of preventive measure being adopted. The proposed system therefore used probabilistic approach for modelling the routing attack scenario over MANET. The uniqueness is that majority of the prior research work has focused on one type of routing attack, whereas the proposed system is experimentally evaluated for cumulative routing attack. The simulation results show highly contrastive result when compared with frequently used current algorithm for mitigating routing attacks.

  5. Collective network routing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoenicke, Dirk

    2014-12-02

    Disclosed are a unified method and apparatus to classify, route, and process injected data packets into a network so as to belong to a plurality of logical networks, each implementing a specific flow of data on top of a common physical network. The method allows to locally identify collectives of packets for local processing, such as the computation of the sum, difference, maximum, minimum, or other logical operations among the identified packet collective. Packets are injected together with a class-attribute and an opcode attribute. Network routers, employing the described method, use the packet attributes to look-up the class-specific route information from a local route table, which contains the local incoming and outgoing directions as part of the specifically implemented global data flow of the particular virtual network.

  6. Geographic Routing with Minimal Local Geometry

    OpenAIRE

    Samarasinghe, Kasun; Leone, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Geographic routing based on virtual coordinates has been studied extensively, especially in environments expensive localization techniques are infeasible. Even though, the construction of virtual coordinate system is theoretically understood, their practical deployment is questionable due to computational requirements. An alternative approach is to use raw range measures from a special set of nodes called ”anchors” as virtual coordinates, which only preserve partial geographic knowledge. In t...

  7. The azido ligand: a useful tool in designing chain compounds exhibiting alternating ferro- and antiferro-magnetic interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Viau, Guillaume; Lombardi, Maria Grazia; De Munno, Giovanni; Julve Olcina, Miguel; Lloret Pastor, Francisco; Faus, Juan; Caneschi, Andrea; Clemente Juan, Juan Modesto

    1997-01-01

    A one-pot reaction of NiII 1, CoII 2, FeII 3 and MnII 4 with 2,2A-bipyridine (bipy) and azide in water leads to [M(bipy)(N3)2]n chains where the metal ion is alternatively bridged by double end-on (EO) and end-to-end (EE) azido bridges; theoretical analysis of the variable-temperature magnetic susceptibility data of 1 and 4 reveals the occurrence of intrachain alternating ferro- (through EO) and antiferro-magnetic (through EE) interactions. Julve Olcina, Miguel, ; Lloret...

  8. Roots and routes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ann-Dorte; Jensen, Sune Qvotrup

    2011-01-01

    arguing that there is a dynamic interplay between roots and routes in people's lives. The empirical point of departure is narratives about roots and routes by ethnic minorities settled in Aalborg East, an underprivileged neighbourhood in northern Denmark. One of the main findings is a gap between the...... somewhat paradoxical finding is that it appears to be more difficult for transnational migrants to maintain their roots in the country of origin when they go back than it was to establish new roots in the host country...

  9. Torch Route Twist

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    San Francisco changes Olympic flame route due to security fears The city of San Francisco,the only North American stop for the 2008 Beijing Olympic torch,surprised thousands of supporters,demon- strators and visitors on April 9,by com- pletely changing the planned torch route at the last minute without notification. As scheduled,the torch was expected to start from the McCovey Cove in the south- east of the city at 1:00 p.m.before heading along the waterfront northbound to famous tourist spot Fisherman’s Wharf and finally

  10. Route-specific analysis for radioactive materials transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report addresses a methodology for route-specific analysis, of which route-selection is one aspect. Identification and mitigation of specific hazards along a chosen route is another important facet of route-specific analysis. Route-selection and route-specific mitigation are two tools to be used in minimizing the risk of radioactive materials transportation and promoting public confidence. Other tools exist to improve the safety of transportation under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act. Selection of a transportation mode and other, non-route-specific measures, such as improved driver training and improved cask designs, are additional tools to minimize transportation risk and promote public confidence. This report addresses the route-specific analysis tool and does not attempt to evaluate its relative usefulness as compared to other available tools. This report represents a preliminary attempt to develop a route-specific analysis methodlogy. The Western Interstate Energy Board High-Level Waste Committee has formed a Route-Specific Analysis Task Force which will build upon the methodology proposed in this Staff Report. As western states continue to investigate route-specific analysis issues, it is expected that the methodology will evolve into a more refined product representing the views of a larger group of interested parties in the West

  11. Route Design and Optimization of Mountain surveying and mapping low-altitude UAV%山区测绘型低空无人机航线设计及优化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨海波; 朱大明; 万保峰

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, UAV is increasingly applied in low-altitude aerial survey. In survey, ensuring field quality and efficiency is very necessary. Combined with practical experience and the main factors influencing the type of surveying and mapping low-altitude UAV route design, basic parameters, this paper mainly introduces general steps of the course design and the influence of the high pixel and long focal length camera on the ground resolution, aerial partition area and the efficiency in relief a large area; And how to ensure that there are enough overlapping degree between aerial photos, how to optimize the routes in the partition. In the end, it puts forward the high pixel, long-focus camera has a better applicability in volatile regions.%近年来无人机越来越多的应用于低空航测,如何保证外业质量和效率是很必要的。结合实际经验与影响测绘型低空无人机航线设计的主要因素、基本参数,文章重点介绍了航线设计的一般步骤和在地形起伏较大区域选用高像素,长焦距相机对地面分辨率、航摄分区面积、作业效率的影响;以及如何确保航片间有足够的重叠度,如何在分区内优化航线。提出了高像素,长焦距相机对起伏较大区域有更好的适用性。

  12. Passion-based learning:the design and implementation of a new approach to project-based learning (PBL) for alternative education

    OpenAIRE

    Robertson, Joanne Amelia

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the factors that influence the design and implementation of a project-based learning (PBL) curriculum within an alternative education program in a suburban public school district. The study sought to tell the story of the implementation of PBL from the perspectives of staff and students at the school. A narrative inquiry methodology was selected. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with twelve staff members and eight students. Data also included field notes made ...

  13. Alternative security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book contains the following chapters: The Military and Alternative Security: New Missions for Stable Conventional Security; Technology and Alternative Security: A Cherished Myth Expires; Law and Alternative Security: Toward a Just World Peace; Politics and Alternative Security: Toward a More Democratic, Therefore More Peaceful, World; Economics and Alternative Security: Toward a Peacekeeping International Economy; Psychology and Alternative Security: Needs, Perceptions, and Misperceptions; Religion and Alternative Security: A Prophetic Vision; and Toward Post-Nuclear Global Security: An Overview

  14. Energy Efficient Clustering and Routing in Mobile Wireless Sensor Network

    OpenAIRE

    Sridharan D; Neelavathy Pari.S; Kalaiarasi.R; Sara, Getsy S.

    2010-01-01

    A critical need in Mobile Wireless Sensor Network (MWSN) is to achieve energy efficiency during routing as the sensor nodes have scarce energy resource. The nodes' mobility in MWSN poses a challenge to design an energy efficient routing protocol. Clustering helps to achieve energy efficiency by reducing the organization complexity overhead of the network which is proportional to the number of nodes in the network. This paper proposes a novel hybrid multipath routing algorithm with an efficien...

  15. An Overlapping Clustering Approach for Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Zhenquan Qin; Can Ma; Lei Wang; Jiaqi Xu; Bingxian Lu

    2013-01-01

    The design and analysis of routing algorithm is an important issue in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Most traditional geographical routing algorithms cannot achieve good performance in duty-cycled networks. In this paper, we propose a k-connected overlapping clustering approach with energy awareness, namely, k-OCHE, for routing in WSNs. The basic idea of this approach is to select a cluster head by energy availability (EA) status. The k-OCHE scheme adopts a sleep scheduling strategy of CKN,...

  16. IMPLEMENTATION OF ADAPTIVE ZONE ROUTING PROTOCOL FOR WIRELESS NETWORKS

    OpenAIRE

    T. RAVI NAYAK; SAKE. POTHALAIAH; Dr. K ASHOK BABU

    2010-01-01

    Mobile Ad hoc wireless Networks (MANETs) that do not need any fixed infrastructure. They are characterized by dynamic topology due to node mobility, limited channel bandwidth, and limited battery power of nodes. The key challenge in the design of ad hoc networks is the development of dynamic routing protocols that can efficiently findroutes between two communicating nodes. Thus, many ad hoc routing protocols have been proposed in recent years. All these routing protocols attempt to provide a ...

  17. A Comparative Study of Various Routing Protocols in VANET

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Rakesh; Dave, Mayank

    2011-01-01

    Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANET) is a subclass of Mobile ad hoc networks which provides a distinguished approach for Intelligent Transport System (ITS). The survey of routing protocols in VANET is important and necessary for smart ITS. This paper discusses the advantages / disadvantages and the applications of various routing protocols for vehicular ad hoc networks. It explores the motivation behind the designed, and traces the evolution of these routing protocols. F inally the paper conclud...

  18. A Comparative Study of Various Routing Protocols in VANET

    OpenAIRE

    Rakesh Kumar; Mayank Dave

    2011-01-01

    Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANET) is a subclass of Mobile ad hoc networks which provides a distinguished approach for Intelligent Transport System (ITS). The survey of routing protocols in VANET is important and necessary for smart ITS. This paper discusses the advantages / disadvantages and the applications of various routing protocols for vehicular ad hoc networks. It explores the motivation behind the designed, and traces the evolution of these routing protocols. Finally the paper conclude...

  19. Performance Evaluation of the WSN Routing Protocols Scalability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Alazzawi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Scalability is an important factor in designing an efficient routing protocol for wireless sensor networks (WSNs. A good routing protocol has to be scalable and adaptive to the changes in the network topology. Thus scalable protocol should perform well as the network grows larger or as the workload increases. In this paper, routing protocols for wireless sensor networks are simulated and their performances are evaluated to determine their capability for supporting network scalability.

  20. A key route to designing huge eight-fold interpenetrated coordination networks with ths-type topology: Synthesis, structures, and topological characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tseng, Tien-Wen, E-mail: f10403@ntut.edu.tw [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Yang, Ming-Ling [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Institute of Chemistry, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Luo, Tzuoo-Tsair [Institute of Chemistry, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China)

    2015-01-15

    Solvothermal reactions of Cd(II) or Mn(II) ions with 4'-(4-carboxylphenyl)-2,2':6',2{sup -}terpyridine acid (Hcpt) and thiophene-2,5-dicarboxylic acid (H{sub 2}tpd) resulted in the formation of two isostructrual coordination networks ([M{sub 2}(cpt){sub 2}(tpd)]·3.5H{sub 2}O){sub n} (M=Cd, 1; M=Mn, 2). These complexes have been characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses, infrared spectra (IR), elemental analyses, and powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD). Complexes 1 and 2, formed by the cpt{sup −} and tpd{sup 2−} bidentate connectors, have a 3D framework with a 3-connected, uninodal 10{sup 3}-ths topology possessing an unusual eight-fold [4*2] interpenetration mode. In addition, the ths cage has a long intracage M⋯M distance. In contrast, only a 1D coordination network ([CdCl(cpt)]·3.75H{sub 2}O){sub n} (3) was obtained under similar conditions while in the absence of the H{sub 2}tpd ligand. Compound 3 is propagated only by the [CdCl(cpt)] unit, which illustrated that the incorporation of the cpt{sup −} and Cl{sup −} ligands to form a 1D network. The distinct ancillary anions (tpd{sup 2−} or Cl{sup −}) play a critical role in determining the coordination features and the network connectivity of metal ions. This work presents a successful route to preparing rare eight-fold [4*2] interpenetrated networks. - Highlights: • A ths-type network with an eight-fold [4*2] interpenetration mode is rare. • Combining elongated ligands facilitate the eight-fold interpenetrated networks. • This ths-type cage features longe intracage M⋯M distances. • The chloride anion cannot help the forming of 3D frameworks. • The integration of bulky and multi-carboxylate ligands helps the forming of ths-type MOFs.

  1. A Reliability-based Framework for Multi-path Routing Analysis in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Caleffi, Marcello; Paura, Luigi

    2008-01-01

    Unlike traditional routing procedures that, at the best, single out a unique route, multi-path routing protocols discover proactively several alternative routes. It has been recognized that multi-path routing can be more efficient than traditional one mainly for mobile ad hoc networks, where route failure events are frequent. Most studies in the area of multi-path routing focus on heuristic methods, and the performances of these strategies are commonly evaluated by numerical simulations. The need of a theoretical analysis motivates such a paper, which proposes to resort to the terminal-pair routing reliability as performance metric. This metric allows one to assess the performance gain due to the availability of route diversity. By resorting to graph theory, we propose an analytical framework to evaluate the tolerance of multi-path route discovery processes against route failures for mobile ad hoc networks. Moreover, we derive a useful bound to easily estimate the performance improvements achieved by multi-pa...

  2. SET-Routes programme

    CERN Multimedia

    Marietta Schupp, EMBL Photolab

    2008-01-01

    Dr Sabine Hentze, specialist in human genetics, giving an Insight Lecture entitled "Human Genetics – Diagnostics, Indications and Ethical Issues" on 23 September 2008 at EMBL Heidelberg. Activities in a achool in Budapest during a visit of Angela Bekesi, Ambassadors for the SET-Routes programme.

  3. SET-Routes programme

    CERN Document Server

    CERN audiovisual service

    2009-01-01

    The SET-Routes programme, launched in 2007 with the goal of attracting girls and young women to careers in science, came to an end in April this year. The result of a collaboration between EMBL, EMBO and CERN, the programme established a network of "ambassadors", women scientists who went out to talk about their careers in science at schools and universities across Europe.

  4. Efficiency of Choice Set Generation Methods for Bicycle Routes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halldórsdóttir, Katrín; Rieser-Schüssler, Nadine; W. Axhausen, Kay;

    With a growing interest in sustainable transport systems, the interest has increased on encouraging more cycling. To encourage cycling, it is important to identify which network attributes influence cyclists route choice and evaluate the trade-offs among these attributes. To analyse travel...... behaviour, observed choices and alternatives composing the choice set of each cyclist are necessary. However, generating the alternative choice sets can prove challenging. This paper analyses the efficiency of various choice set generation methods for bicycle routes in order to contribute to our...... that might produce inconsistent estimates. There have been some studies on bicycle route choice set generation reported in the literature, whereof few studies focussed on route choice models for bicyclist estimated from GPS observations. Menghini et al. [3] successfully applied a Breadth First Search on Link...

  5. Alternative energies; Energies alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonal, J.; Rossetti, P

    2007-07-01

    The earth took millions years to made the petroleum, the gas the coal and the uranium. Only a few centuries will be needed to exhaust these fossil fuels and some years to reach expensive prices. Will the wold continue on this way of energy compulsive consumption? The renewable energies and some citizen attitudes are sufficient to break this spiral. This book proposes to discuss these alternative energies. It shows that this attitude must be supported by the government. It takes stock on the more recent information concerning the renewable energies. it develops three main points: the electricity storage, the housing and the transports. (A.L.B.)

  6. EARQ: ENERGY AWARE ROUTING FOR REAL-TIME SENSOR NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SRIMATHI.C,

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Underwater wireless sensor networks consist of a certain number of sensors and vehicles that interact to collect data and perform collaborative tasks. Designing energy-efficient routing protocols for this type of networks is essential and challenging because sensor nodes are powered by batteries, which are difficult to replace orrecharge, and because underwater communications are severely affected by network dynamics, large propagation delays and high error probability of acoustic channels In this paper, we propose EARQ, which is a novel routing protocol for under water sensor networks. It provides real-time, reliable delivery of a packet, while considering energy awareness. In EARQ, a node estimates the energy cost, delay and reliability of a path to the sink node, based only on information from neighboring nodes. Then, it calculates the probability of selecting a path, using the estimates. When packet forwarding is required, it randomly selects the next node. A path with lower energy cost is likely to be selected, because the probability is inversely proportional to the energy cost to the sink node. To achieve real-time delivery, only paths that may deliver a packet in time are selected. To achieve reliability, it may send a redundant packet via an alternate path, but only if it is a source of a packet. Experimental results show that EARQ is suitable for under water sensor networks, due to its capability for energy eficient, real-time,reliable communications.

  7. Sublingual route for the systemic delivery of Ondansetron

    OpenAIRE

    Priyank Patel; Sandip Makwana; Urvish Jobanputra; Mihir Ravat; Ankit Ajmera,; Mandev Pate

    2011-01-01

    Drug delivery via sublingual mucous membrane is considered to be a promising alternative to the oral route. This route is useful when rapid onset of action is desired as in the case of antiemetics such as ondansetron. In terms of permeability, the sublingual area of the oral cavity is more permeable than cheek and palatal areas of mouth. The drug absorbed via sublingual blood vessels bypasses the hepatic first-pass metabolic processes giving acceptable bioavailability with low doses and hence...

  8. SHARD-PATH ROUTING TIMETABLE OPTIMISATION AND DESIGNING OF URBAN RAPID TRANSIT%城市轨道交通共线交路运行图的优化与编制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓倩; 崔炳谋

    2016-01-01

    传统铺画城市轨道交通共线交路运行图中考虑的因素较简单,针对其不能满足不断壮大的城市轨道交通网络的问题,先运用顺序推点法计算出列车在各站的到发时刻,然后分析为满足一条线路上的客流特征组织列车开行两种或两种以上交路的必要性,并根据折返站的容车能力以及折返时间等现场因素,提出适合于实际问题的模型与算法。实例铺图结果表明,相对于传统的车底交路勾画模型与算法,该模型与算法可明显减少车底在各折返站的总停留时间,从而最大限度地减少车底的运用数量。%The factors considered in traditional shared path routing timetable of urban rapid transit are relatively simple,however it cannot meet the growing problem of urban rail transit networks.Aiming at this issue,we used the push order-point method to calculate trains’arrival and departure time at each station first,then analysed the necessity of opening the lines of two or more path routing to meet the characteristics of passengers on one line,and in accordance with the field factors such as car capacity and time of turn back station,we built a mathematical model and designed an algorithm which were suitable for practical problems.Results in picture showed that compared with traditional models and algorithms of vehicle routing,this model and algorithm could obviously reduce the total residence time of vehicles at each turn back station and thus minimised the amount of vehicles.

  9. Route Repetition and Route Retracing: Effects of Cognitive Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Malte Wiener

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Retracing a recently traveled route is a frequent navigation task when learning novel routes or exploring unfamiliar environments. In the present study we utilized virtual environments technology to investigate age-related differences in repeating and retracing a learned route. In the training phase of the experiment participants were guided along a route consisting of multiple intersections each featuring one unique landmark. In the subsequent test phase, they were guided along short sections of the route and asked to indicate overall travel direction (repetition or retracing, the direction required to continue along the route, and the next landmark they would encounter. Results demonstrate age-related deficits in all three tasks. More specifically, in contrast to younger participants, the older participants had greater problems during route retracing than during route repetition. While route repetition can be solved with egocentric response or route strategies, successfully retracing a route requires allocentric processing. The age-related deficits in route retracing are discussed in the context of impaired allocentric processing and shifts from allocentric to egocentric navigation strategies as a consequence of age-related hippocampal degeneration.

  10. Improved ZigBee Network Routing Algorithm Based on LEACH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yawei; Zhang, Guohua; Xia, Zhongwu; Li, Xinhua

    Energy efficiency design of routing protocol is a kind of the key technologies used to wireless sensor networks. The paper introduces the ZigBee technology, summarizes the current transmitting routing model in wireless sensor networks, and finds that the traditional LEACH protocol can lead to overload of some cluster head nodes. The paper suggested that the existing LEACH agreement was improved and the new algorithm was better than traditional LEACH routing algorithm by the comprasion of simulation. The improved routing algorithm can prolong the networks lifetime and effectively save the scarce energy.

  11. DNA display I. Sequence-encoded routing of DNA populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R Halpin

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently reported technologies for DNA-directed organic synthesis and for DNA computing rely on routing DNA populations through complex networks. The reduction of these ideas to practice has been limited by a lack of practical experimental tools. Here we describe a modular design for DNA routing genes, and routing machinery made from oligonucleotides and commercially available chromatography resins. The routing machinery partitions nanomole quantities of DNA into physically distinct subpools based on sequence. Partitioning steps can be iterated indefinitely, with worst-case yields of 85% per step. These techniques facilitate DNA-programmed chemical synthesis, and thus enable a materials biology that could revolutionize drug discovery.

  12. A Comparative Study of Various Routing Protocols in VANET

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Rakesh

    2011-01-01

    Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANET) is a subclass of Mobile ad hoc networks which provides a distinguished approach for Intelligent Transport System (ITS). The survey of routing protocols in VANET is important and necessary for smart ITS. This paper discusses the advantages / disadvantages and the applications of various routing protocols for vehicular ad hoc networks. It explores the motivation behind the designed, and traces the evolution of these routing protocols. F inally the paper concludes by a tabular comparison of the various routing protocols for VANET.

  13. ENERGY AWARE ROUTING ALGORITHM FOR WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK

    OpenAIRE

    Barani, S.; Dr. C. Gomathy

    2011-01-01

    Technological advancements made major research challenges in the area of wireless sensor network. Power saving is the foremost criteria in this field. Consumption of energy is considerably reduced on properly designed protocol. This paper focuses on energy aware fuzzy based routing protocol. Protocol based on fuzzy logic computation reduces power consumption by the ratio of 10 when compared to classical routing protocol.

  14. Route Selection by Tankers(Dirty) at the Suez Canal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Risto Laulajainen

    2007-01-01

    <正>The Suez Canal,attached route alternatives with traffic flows and areas are described and theoretical break-even points derived. Logistically,route selection depends on relative distances,the level of spot rates and canal dues,the sensitivity to change growing with rising rate levels.The connection is diluted by the canal /pipeline owners’ price differentiation and the charterers’ capital costs;interest on cargo and change of its value during transit.Ship-owners are largely neutral to route choice as long as rates and main cost items are directly related to distance.

  15. Sacolas plásticas: destinações sustentáveis e alternativas de substituição Plastic bags: sustainable disposal and alternative routes to their substitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amélia S. F. e Santos

    2012-01-01

    , including environmental impact assessments of the different alternatives to minimize and/or solve the problems pertaining to the use of plastic bags.

  16. A Performance Analysis Between AODV & DSR Routing Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sankalp Bahadur Singh

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Mobile ad hoc network (MANET is an autonomous system of mobile nodes connected by wireless links. Each node operates not only as an end system, but also as a router to forward packets. The nodes are free to move about and organize themselves into a network. These nodes change position frequently. The main classes of routing protocols are Proactive, Reactive and Hybrid. A Reactive (on-demand routing strategy is a popular routing category for wireless ad hoc routing. It is a relatively new routing philosophy that provides a scalable solution to relatively large network topologies. The design follows the idea that each node tries to reduce routing overhead by sending routing packets whenever a communication is requested. In this paper an attempt has been made to compare the performance of two prominent on demand reactive routing protocols for MANETs: Ad hoc On Demand Distance Vector (AODV, Dynamic Source Routing (DSR protocols. DSR and AODV are reactive gateway discovery algorithms where a mobile device of MANET connects by gateway only when it is needed. As per our findings the differences in the protocol mechanics lead to significant performance differentials for both of these protocols. The performance differentials are analyzed using varying simulation time. These simulations are carried out using the ns-2 network simulator. The results presented in this work illustrate the importance in carefully evaluating and implementing routing protocols in an ad hoc environment..

  17. Prevention Of WormholeAttacks In Geographic Routing Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.Poornima,

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As mobile ad hoc network applications are deployed, security emerges as a central requirement..Position aided routing protocols can offer a significant performance increase over traditional ad hoc routing protocols. Boundary State Routing (BSR is a geographic routing protocol which routes the data using the location of the nodes. Geographic routing protocols are known to be particularly susceptible to attacks.. In this paper we present the possible attacks on BSR protocol. One of the most popular and serious attacks in ad hoc networks is wormhole attack in which two or more colluding attackers record packets at one location, and tunnel them to another location for a replay at that remote location. A wormhole attack is very powerful, and preventing the attack has proven to be very difficult. In this paper, we devise efficient methods to detect and avoid wormhole attacks in the BSR protocol. The first method namely Reverse Routing Scheme (RRS attempts to detect the intrusion action .The second technique namely Authentication of Nodes Scheme (ANS uses cryptographic concepts to detect and prevent wormhole attacks. It not only detects the fake route but also adopts preventive measures against action wormhole nodes from reappearing during routing. The proposed system is designed in Boundary state routing (BSRprotocol and analysis and simulations are performed in network simulator (NS-2.

  18. The Evaluation and Testing of Various Bladeless Wind Turbine Designs for use as an alternative renewable energy source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnew, Ian; Ray, Taylor

    2014-03-01

    Over the last two decades wind turbines have proven themselves globally as a reliable, renewable, and clean energy source. Even though wind turbines are simpler in design and do not pollute during operation as compared to conventional energy sources, many improvements can still be made. The design of a bladeless wind turbine offers potential improvements such as cost savings, reduction of operating noise level, simplification of the manufacturing process, reduction of maintenance costs, and incorporation of eco-friendly features. In order to analyze various turbine designs, a wind tunnel with a 30.3 cm x 29.1 cm test section was constructed at Georgia College. Several different wing sections are being evaluated in order to determine the turbine design and engineered for optimal aerodynamic efficiency over a Range of Reynolds numbers. Other factors like Pressure coefficients and overall drag profile of the designs will also be analyzed as well.

  19. Latent factors and route choice behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    A behaviourally realistic description of the route choice process should consider variables that are both observable, such as travel time and cost, and unobservable, such as attitudes, perceptions, spatial abilities and network knowledge. This manuscript focuses on automotive route choice behaviour...... and Link Nested Logit. Estimates were produced from model specifications that considered level-of-service, label and facility dummy variables. Moreover, a modelling framework was designed to represent drivers’ choices as affected by the latent constructs extracted with factor analysis. Previous experience...

  20. Routing in Highly Dynamic Ad Hoc Networks: Issues and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun G Menon

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research paper is to analyze the various issues and challenges involved in routing of data packets in highly mobile ad hoc networks. Routing in ad hoc networks has always been a challenging and tough task due to the dynamic topology and error prone wireless channel. There are a number of issues like lack of centralized control, constantly moving nodes etc that has to be considered while routing a data packet from the source to the destination in the ad hoc network. Routing of data packets becomes much more difficult with increased mobility of nodes. This paper analyses the various issues in routing of data packets from the source to the destination node and also lists down the parameters that has to be considered while designing and selecting a routing protocol for highly mobile ad hoc networks.

  1. Issues of Routing in VANET

    OpenAIRE

    Raja, Umar Waqas; Mustafa, Bilal

    2010-01-01

    Vehicular Ad Hoc Network (VANET) is a sub class of mobile ad hoc networks. VANET provides wireless communication among vehicles and vehicle to road side equipments. The communication between vehicles is used for safety, comfort and for entertainment as well. The performance of communication depends on how better the routing takes place in the network. Routing of data depends on the routing protocols being used in network. In this study we investigated about different ad hoc routing protocols ...

  2. Alternative additives; Alternative additiver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-08-15

    In this project a number of industrial and agricultural waste products have been characterised and evaluated in terms of alkali-getter performance. The intended use is for biomass-fired power stations aiming at reducing corrosion or slagging related problems. The following products have been obtained, characterised and evaluated: 1) Brewery draff 2) Danish de-gassed manure 3) Paper sludge 4) Moulding sand 5) Spent bleaching earth 6) Anorthosite 7) Sand 8) Clay-sludge. Most of the above alternative additive candidates are deemed unsuitable due to insufficient chemical effect and/or expensive requirements for pre-treatment (such as drying and transportation). 3 products were selected for full-scale testing: de-gassed manure, spent bleaching earth and clay slugde. The full scale tests were undertaken at the biomass-fired power stations in Koege, Slagelse and Ensted. Spent bleaching earth (SBE) and clay sludge were the only tested additive candidates that had a proven ability to react with KCl, to thereby reduce Cl-concentrations in deposits, and reduce the deposit flux to superheater tubes. Their performance was shown to nearly as good as commercial additives. De-gassed manure, however, did not evaluate positively due to inhibiting effects of Ca in the manure. Furthermore, de-gassed manure has a high concentration of heavy metals, which imposes a financial burden with regard to proper disposal of the ash by-products. Clay-sludge is a wet clay slurring, and drying and transportation of this product entails substantial costs. Spent bleaching does not require much pre-treatment and is therefore the most promising alternative additive. On the other hand, bleaching earth contains residual plant oil which means that a range of legislation relating to waste combustion comes into play. Not least a waste combustion fee of 330 DKK/tonne. For all alternative (and commercial) additives disposal costs of the increase ash by-products represents a significant cost. This is

  3. Exploration of a capability-focused aerospace system of systems architecture alternative with bilayer design space, based on RST-SOM algorithmic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhifei; Qin, Dongliang; Yang, Feng

    2014-01-01

    In defense related programs, the use of capability-based analysis, design, and acquisition has been significant. In order to confront one of the most challenging features of a huge design space in capability based analysis (CBA), a literature review of design space exploration was first examined. Then, in the process of an aerospace system of systems design space exploration, a bilayer mapping method was put forward, based on the existing experimental and operating data. Finally, the feasibility of the foregoing approach was demonstrated with an illustrative example. With the data mining RST (rough sets theory) and SOM (self-organized mapping) techniques, the alternative to the aerospace system of systems architecture was mapping from P-space (performance space) to C-space (configuration space), and then from C-space to D-space (design space), respectively. Ultimately, the performance space was mapped to the design space, which completed the exploration and preliminary reduction of the entire design space. This method provides a computational analysis and implementation scheme for large-scale simulation.

  4. Exploration of a capability-focused aerospace system of systems architecture alternative with bilayer design space, based on RST-SOM algorithmic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhifei; Qin, Dongliang; Yang, Feng

    2014-01-01

    In defense related programs, the use of capability-based analysis, design, and acquisition has been significant. In order to confront one of the most challenging features of a huge design space in capability based analysis (CBA), a literature review of design space exploration was first examined. Then, in the process of an aerospace system of systems design space exploration, a bilayer mapping method was put forward, based on the existing experimental and operating data. Finally, the feasibility of the foregoing approach was demonstrated with an illustrative example. With the data mining RST (rough sets theory) and SOM (self-organized mapping) techniques, the alternative to the aerospace system of systems architecture was mapping from P-space (performance space) to C-space (configuration space), and then from C-space to D-space (design space), respectively. Ultimately, the performance space was mapped to the design space, which completed the exploration and preliminary reduction of the entire design space. This method provides a computational analysis and implementation scheme for large-scale simulation. PMID:24790572

  5. Exploration of a Capability-Focused Aerospace System of Systems Architecture Alternative with Bilayer Design Space, Based on RST-SOM Algorithmic Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhifei Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In defense related programs, the use of capability-based analysis, design, and acquisition has been significant. In order to confront one of the most challenging features of a huge design space in capability based analysis (CBA, a literature review of design space exploration was first examined. Then, in the process of an aerospace system of systems design space exploration, a bilayer mapping method was put forward, based on the existing experimental and operating data. Finally, the feasibility of the foregoing approach was demonstrated with an illustrative example. With the data mining RST (rough sets theory and SOM (self-organized mapping techniques, the alternative to the aerospace system of systems architecture was mapping from P-space (performance space to C-space (configuration space, and then from C-space to D-space (design space, respectively. Ultimately, the performance space was mapped to the design space, which completed the exploration and preliminary reduction of the entire design space. This method provides a computational analysis and implementation scheme for large-scale simulation.

  6. A direct route for the investigation of crystalline field effects on the spectral properties of Eu3+ ions in designed nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hua; Guo, Hui; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Lao, Aiqing; Gao, Shaohua; Li, Qingxuan; Zhao, Lijuan

    2015-08-01

    The spectral properties of lanthanide ions doped in a solid-state matrix, especially the Stark splitting and emission shifts, are strongly influenced by the local crystalline field. Here, we use a direct approach to quantitatively investigate the crystalline field effect on these spectral properties of Eu3+ ions in our designed β-PbF2:Eu3+ and BaF2:Eu3+ nanostructures. The extremely similar structures in which the central Eu3+ ions have the same site symmetry allow the local crystalline field to be simplified as the same point charge electrostatic field model. In this model, the direction and intensity of the electrostatic field are related to the distortion and expansion degree of the charge cloud of the luminescent center, respectively, and further determine the Stark splitting and emission shift. The theoretical analysis and charge-cloud stimulations were in good agreement with the experimental results. The direction and intensity of the crystalline field were calculated, and showed that the emission spectra shift to red with the increase in intensity. This work provides a comprehensive understanding of the spectral changes induced by a crystalline field, which is of great significance for the design of materials with the desired spectral properties.

  7. Electronic route information panels (DRIPs).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2008-01-01

    Also in the Netherlands, the term Dynamic Route Information Panel (DRIP) is used for an electronic route information panel. A DRIP usually indicates whether there are queues on the various routes to a particular destination and how long they are. On certain locations DRIPS also give the estimated tr

  8. Application Study of Ergonomics in Piping Routing Design of Nuclear Power Plant%人机工程学在核电站管道布置中的应用探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘永

    2012-01-01

    From the aspect of human body sizes parameters, human physiologic properties and personal safety, it describes some ergonomics issues that are applied to piping layout design. Sufficient human factor should be con sidered in nuclear power plant piping routing design work in order to fit tightly with body height, height of eyes and passing through width, to match human visibility range and muscle power, facilitate the operation for people and to guarantee personal safety and health of operators.%分别从人体尺寸参数、人体生理结构和人员的人身安全三个方面,对一些管道布置中的人机工程学应用问题进行了阐述.核电站管道布置应充分考虑人的因素,与人体身高、眼高、通行宽度等尺寸参数相配合,与人的视距范围和手臂出力等生理特征相适应,方便人员操作,并保证操作者的人身安全和人体健康.

  9. 基于TinyOS2.1的WSN路由框架设计%The Design For WSN Routing Framework Based On TinyOS2.1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童冰彬

    2013-01-01

    探讨了在TinyOS2.1基础上进行WSN路由框架设计的工作。文中首先对TinyOS2.1、nesC语言进行了简单介绍,接着重点分析了TinyOS2.1中底层的消息及帧机制,在此基础上实现了NetworkServiceC组件的设计,并对其中的组件结构进行了分析。%This article discusses the design work for WSN routing framework based on TinyOS2.1.It first gives a brief descrip-tion of TinyOS2.1,nesC language,then focuses on TinyOS2.1 underlying message and frame mechanisms,on the basis of this the design of the NetworkServiceC component has been realized, and analyzes the assembly structure inside of the NetworkSe-rviceC component.

  10. Genetic algorithms for the vehicle routing problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volna, Eva

    2016-06-01

    The Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) is one of the most challenging combinatorial optimization tasks. This problem consists in designing the optimal set of routes for fleet of vehicles in order to serve a given set of customers. Evolutionary algorithms are general iterative algorithms for combinatorial optimization. These algorithms have been found to be very effective and robust in solving numerous problems from a wide range of application domains. This problem is known to be NP-hard; hence many heuristic procedures for its solution have been suggested. For such problems it is often desirable to obtain approximate solutions, so they can be found fast enough and are sufficiently accurate for the purpose. In this paper we have performed an experimental study that indicates the suitable use of genetic algorithms for the vehicle routing problem.

  11. Predication-Based Intelligence Routing on Telecommunications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONGJun; HEJifeng; PANYunhe

    2004-01-01

    The routingtelecommunication networksbeing one of key issues of management influences the switch rate and load balance directly, and becomes more and more important as the telecommunication traffic increases at full speed. It was said that raising one percent of switch rate of current Chinese telecommunication networks would result in revenue about one billion Yuan RMB. On the basis of demerit-analysis of routing scheme being used, a new intelligent routing strategy based on multi-agent systems and recurrent neural network predication is presented, including routing strategy, Calls generating and agent~ recurrent neural network computation, simulation software design, results and discussion. The results show that the new one is better by virtue of its upstanding distribution and intelligence characters, and provides excellent solution to increase network switch rate and balance network load. Meanwhile, its applications will go beyond the scope of telecommunication networks. But whether the strategy will be perfect depends on the cooperation among operator, manufacturer and researchers.

  12. Next Generation Network Routing and Control Plane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fu, Rong

    proved, the dominating Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) cannot address all the issues that in inter-domain QoS routing. Thus a new protocol or network architecture has to be developed to be able to carry the inter-domain traffic with the QoS and TE consideration. Moreover, the current network control also...... of Service classes. Under the NGN context, there are plenty of proposals intending to accommodate the issues listed above. Path Computation Elements (PCE) proposed by IETF designs suitable network architecture that aiming at compute the QoS based paths for traffic transportation through intra- and inter...... (RACF) provides the platform that enables cooperation and ubiquitous integration between networks. In this paper, we investigate in the network architecture, protocols and algorithms for inter-domain QoS routing and traffic engineering. The PCE based inter-domain routing architecture is enhanced...

  13. Climate Change, Coastal Vulnerability and the Need for Adaptation Alternatives: Planning and Design Examples from Egypt and the USA

    OpenAIRE

    S Jeffress Williams; Nabil Ismail

    2015-01-01

    Planning and design of coastal protection for high-risk events with low to moderate or uncertain probabilities are a challenging balance of short- and long-term cost vs. protection of lives and infrastructure. The pervasive, complex, and accelerating impacts of climate change on coastal areas, including sea-level rise, storm surge and tidal flooding, require full integration of the latest science into strategic plans and engineering designs. While the impacts of changes occurring are global, ...

  14. 新型双光路镜面露点仪设计%Design of Dew-point Hygrometer with Double Optical Routes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李亚萍; 晏云昌; 王三霞; 汪献忠

    2015-01-01

    设计出双光路的露点测量仪,测量光经分光后,一路直接被光电管接收,作为参考信号,能够对光强自动进行温度补偿;另一路经镜面反射和散射后被光电管接收,使反射光和散射光线都可以聚焦于测量,不浪费光线,光信号经光电转换及放大后控制制冷器制冷,使气体中的水蒸气在镜面上冷凝并达到相平衡状态,通过测温电路测出露层温度。同时合理选择各个部分的材料和元器件并设计出高精度的硬件电路及控制系统。通过实验验证,仪表可以快速稳定,测量精度大大提高。%A dew point hygrometer with double optical path was designed .Through the beam splitter ,one of the measuring light roads was directly received by the photoelectric tube as the reference signal ,and can automatically compensate temperature of the light intensity;the other path in the mirror was received by photoelectric cell after specular reflection and refraction ,so all lights can be focused on the measurement without waste .The light signal was conversed by the photoelectric circuit ,and then controlled the refrigerator after enlarged .When the gases get condensation equilibrium , dew point temperature was measured by temperature measurement circuit .We selected reasonable materials and components and designed the hardware circuit and control system with high accuracy .Through experimental verification , the instrument can be rapid and stable , and the measurement accuracy is im-proved .

  15. Robustness of airline route networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lordan, Oriol; Sallan, Jose M.; Escorihuela, Nuria; Gonzalez-Prieto, David

    2016-03-01

    Airlines shape their route network by defining their routes through supply and demand considerations, paying little attention to network performance indicators, such as network robustness. However, the collapse of an airline network can produce high financial costs for the airline and all its geographical area of influence. The aim of this study is to analyze the topology and robustness of the network route of airlines following Low Cost Carriers (LCCs) and Full Service Carriers (FSCs) business models. Results show that FSC hubs are more central than LCC bases in their route network. As a result, LCC route networks are more robust than FSC networks.

  16. Future high school teachers' difficulties and alternatives found to planning electromagnetism activities designed for visual handicapped students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eder Pires de Camargo

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available We report here partial outcomes of a study aimed to verify future High School teachers' performance when, during the development of a called "Teaching Practice" undergraduate course, were asked to plan, elaborate and teach, in classroom situations, electromagnetism topics to a students class which included visual handicapped pupils. Data analyzed show that the main difficulties presented by the future Physics High School teachers are related to the approach to know physics phenomena as dependent of vision and to break with some elements of the traditional pedagogy. By other hand, as alternatives, future teachers showed creativity in order to surpass passive aptitudes related to this educational problem, working out methodological strategies deprived of the relation knowing/seeing, as well as, the work with orality in a physics education context.

  17. Yen-BSR: A New Approach for the Choice of Routes in WDM Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, A. F.; Almeida, R. C.; Assis, K. D. R.

    2014-12-01

    In this paper we propose to use an iterative algorithm for optimizing the fixed-alternate shortest path routing in the dynamic routing and wavelength assignment (RWA) problem in wavelength routing optical networks. The algorithm performance is compared, in terms of blocking probability, with the Dijkstra and Yen traditional algorithms, as well as with the recently proposed best among the shortest routes (BSR) algorithm. The results suggest that it is feasible to choose an appropriate set of routes for each pair of nodes (source, destination), among the shortest paths and efficiently balance the network load. For all studied scenarios, the proposed heuristic achieved superior performance.

  18. Human factors in design modifications: panel alternative stop in Almaraz; Factores humanos en modificaciones de diseno: panel deparada alternativa en CN Almaraz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roman, Y.; Bote, J.

    2015-07-01

    Human Factors Engineering has acquired a crucial role in the development of any design modification (DM), where every aspect relative to any interaction with the human user has to be taken into account at any stage thereof. Considering this, during the last years, Almaraz Nuclear Powe Plants has developed a program of Human Factors Engineering in order to reach the internationally recognized standards or systematic collected on NUREG 0711 Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model (NRC). One of the most important projects of this program at Almaraz Nuclear Power Plant has been the implementation of the Alternative Stop Panel and their corresponding Transfer Panels. (Author)

  19. Personal continuous route pattern mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian YE; Ling CHEN; Gen-cai CHEN

    2009-01-01

    In the daily life, people often repeat regular routes in certain periods. In this paper, a mining system is developed to find the continuous route patterns of personal past trips. In order to count the diversity of personal moving status, the mining system employs the adaptive GPS data recording and five data filters to guarantee the clean trips data. The mining system uses a client/server architecture to protect personal privacy and to reduce the computational load. The server conducts the main mining procedure but with insufficient information to recover real personal routes. In order to improve the scalability of sequential pattern mining, a novel pattern mining algorithm, continuous route pattern mining (CRPM), is proposed. This algorithm can tolerate the different disturbances in real routes and extract the frequent patterns. Experimental results based on nine persons' trips show that CRPM can extract more than two times longer route patterns than the traditional route pattern mining algorithms.

  20. Research and Design of GPS Route Recorder on SD Card%基于SD卡的GPS轨迹记录仪研究设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐文达

    2011-01-01

    Have the STC12LE5A60S2 MCU as the core, the recorder can achieve the record of parameters, such as the running track, by the connecting of GPS module card, SD card, LCD and voice module. And the recorder' s composition, function and the design idea of its hardware and software are elaborated and explained. This recorder can record real-time running track of vehicles or ships. According to the setting of position and velocity, this recorder can also provides real-time detection and automated voice prompts. The setting of position, velocity and voice information can be modified conveniently, and which can be exchange with PC through the USB communication. In addition to that, the recorded information can be used for the reproduction and analysis of the vehicles and ship's process of moving. This recorder has large storage capacity, without loss of data even if power off, and easy to use.%以STC12LE5A60S2单片机为核心,通过连接GPS接收模块、SD( Secure Digital Memory Card)卡、显示及语音等模块实现对行车轨迹等参数的记录.对该记录仪的组成部件、功能及其软件和硬件的设计思想进行了阐述和说明.该记录仪可在行驶的过程中实时记录下车辆、船舶的行驶轨迹.根据设置的位置和速度信息,可实时检测并自动语音提示,设置位置、速度信息及语音信息方便修改,并能通过USB通信总线与PC机进行数据交换,记录的信患可用于车辆、船舶行驶过程的重现和分析.具有存储容量大,断电不丢失数据,使用方便等优点.

  1. Data transmission optimal routing in WSN using ant colony algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Jun, Su; Yatskiv, Vasyl; Sachenko, Anatoly; Yatskiv, Nataliya

    2012-01-01

    Ant colony algorithm to search an optimal route of data transmission in Wireless Sensor Network was explored. Correspondent software was designed and the dynamics and the decision search time was investigated for the given network topology.

  2. Cyclist safety on bicycle boulevards and parallel arterial routes in Berkeley, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minikel, Eric

    2012-03-01

    This study compares the safety of bicyclists riding on bicycle boulevards to those riding on parallel arterial routes in Berkeley, California. Literature on the impact of motor vehicle traffic characteristics on cyclist safety shows that high motor vehicle speeds and volumes and the presence of heavy vehicles are all detrimental to cyclist safety. This suggests that cyclists may be safer on side streets than on busy arterials. Bicycle boulevards-traffic-calmed side streets signed and improved for cyclist use-purport to offer cyclists a safer alternative to riding on arterials. Police-reported bicycle collision data and manually collected cyclist count data from bicycle boulevards and parallel arterial routes in Berkeley, California from 2003 to 2010 are used to test the hypothesis that Berkeley's bicycle boulevards have lower cyclist collision rates and a lower proportion of bicycle collisions resulting in severe injury. While no significant difference is found in the proportion of collisions that are severe, results show that collision rates on Berkeley's bicycle boulevards are two to eight times lower than those on parallel, adjacent arterial routes. The difference in collision rate is highly statistically significant, unlikely to be caused by any bias in the collision and count data, and cannot be easily explained away by self-selection or safety in numbers. Though the used dataset is limited and the study design is correlational, this study provides some evidence that Berkeley's bicycle boulevards are safer for cyclists than its parallel arterial routes. The results may be suggestive that, more generally, properly implemented bicycle boulevards can provide cyclists with a safer alternative to riding on arterials. PMID:22269506

  3. An alternative laboratory designed to address ethical concerns associated with traditional TAS2R38 student genotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBonte, Michelle L; Beers, Melissa A

    2015-01-01

    The TAS2R38 alleles that code for the PAV/AVI T2R38 proteins have long been viewed as benign taste receptor variants. However, recent studies have demonstrated an expanding and medically relevant role for TAS2R38. The AVI variant of T2R38 is associated with an increased risk of both colorectal cancer and Pseudomonas aeruginosa-associated sinus infection and T2R38 variants have been implicated in off-target drug responses. To address ethical concerns associated with continued student TAS2R38 gene testing, we developed an alternative to the traditional laboratory genotyping exercise. Instead of determining their own genotype, introductory level students isolated plasmid DNA containing a section of the human TAS2R38 gene from Escherichia coli. Following PCR-mediated amplification of a section of the TAS2R38 gene spanning the SNP at position 785, students determined their assigned genotype by restriction enzyme digestion and agarose gel electrophoresis. Using the course wide genotype and phenotype data, students found that there was an association between TAS2R38 genotype and the age of persistent P. aeruginosa acquisition in cystic fibrosis "patients." Assessment data demonstrated that students taking part in this new TAS2R38 laboratory activity made clear learning gains.

  4. An alternative laboratory designed to address ethical concerns associated with traditional TAS2R38 student genotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBonte, Michelle L; Beers, Melissa A

    2015-01-01

    The TAS2R38 alleles that code for the PAV/AVI T2R38 proteins have long been viewed as benign taste receptor variants. However, recent studies have demonstrated an expanding and medically relevant role for TAS2R38. The AVI variant of T2R38 is associated with an increased risk of both colorectal cancer and Pseudomonas aeruginosa-associated sinus infection and T2R38 variants have been implicated in off-target drug responses. To address ethical concerns associated with continued student TAS2R38 gene testing, we developed an alternative to the traditional laboratory genotyping exercise. Instead of determining their own genotype, introductory level students isolated plasmid DNA containing a section of the human TAS2R38 gene from Escherichia coli. Following PCR-mediated amplification of a section of the TAS2R38 gene spanning the SNP at position 785, students determined their assigned genotype by restriction enzyme digestion and agarose gel electrophoresis. Using the course wide genotype and phenotype data, students found that there was an association between TAS2R38 genotype and the age of persistent P. aeruginosa acquisition in cystic fibrosis "patients." Assessment data demonstrated that students taking part in this new TAS2R38 laboratory activity made clear learning gains. PMID:25704857

  5. Observational Study Designs for Comparative Effectiveness Research: An Alternative Approach to Close Evidence Gaps in Head-and-Neck Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comparative effectiveness research (CER) has emerged as an approach to improve quality of care and patient outcomes while reducing healthcare costs by providing evidence to guide healthcare decisions. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have represented the ideal study design to support treatment decisions in head-and-neck (H and N) cancers. In RCTs, formal chance (randomization) determines treatment allocation, which prevents selection bias from distorting the measure of treatment effects. Despite this advantage, only a minority of patients qualify for inclusion in H and N RCTs, which limits the validity of their results to the broader H and N cancer patient population seen in clinical practice. Randomized controlled trials often do not address other knowledge gaps in the management of H and N cancer, including treatment comparisons for rare types of H and N cancers, monitoring of rare or late toxicity events (eg, osteoradionecrosis), or in some instances an RCT is simply not feasible. Observational studies, or studies in which treatment allocation occurs independently of investigators' choice or randomization, may address several of these gaps in knowledge, thereby complementing the role of RCTs. This critical review discusses how observational CER studies complement RCTs in generating the evidence to inform healthcare decisions and improve the quality of care and outcomes of H and N cancer patients. Review topics include a balanced discussion about the strengths and limitations of both RCT and observational CER study designs; a brief description of design and analytic techniques to handle selection bias in observational studies; examples of observational studies that inform current clinical practices and management of H and N cancers; and suggestions for relevant CER questions that could be addressed by an observational study design

  6. Applying visual attention theory to transportation safety research and design: evaluation of alternative automobile rear lighting systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Scott E; Gugerty, Leo

    2014-06-01

    This field experiment takes a novel approach in applying methodologies and theories of visual search to the subject of conspicuity in automobile rear lighting. Traditional rear lighting research has not used the visual search paradigm in experimental design. It is our claim that the visual search design uniquely uncovers visual attention processes operating when drivers search the visual field that current designs fail to capture. This experiment is a validation and extension of previous simulator research on this same topic and demonstrates that detection of red automobile brake lamps will be improved if tail lamps are another color (in this test, amber) rather than the currently mandated red. Results indicate that when drivers miss brake lamp onset in low ambient light, RT and error are reduced in detecting the presence and absence of red brake lamps with multiple lead vehicles when tail lamps are not red compared to current rear lighting which mandates red tail lamps. This performance improvement is attributed to efficient visual processing that automatically segregates tail (amber) and brake (red) lamp colors into distractors and targets respectively.

  7. The quickly switching routing algorithm based on multi-path in mobile Ad Hoc networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposes a new on-demand multi-alternate-path algorithm, called quickly switching routing algorithm(QSRA). It switches failure routing to an alternate path as quickly as the network can. Like a nervure shape, algorithm QSRA shapes disjoint-alternate-path structure, but is not limited to. It also contains another structure that every primary node has several links to alternate paths. This structure has two advantages, the first one is that primary nodes can select one alternate path immediately when primary routing is failure without going back to source node to re-discover a new routing or choose an alternate path; the second is that it guarantees primary nodes can select another alternate path as quickly as possible once one of alternate paths fails. Strongpoint of algorithm QSRA is reducing frequency of routing re-discovering. Besides, the structure occupies fewer resources than other routing algorithms due to its distributed structure. Simulation shows that QSRA has higher packets received ratio and lower control packet overhead and lower end-to-end delay.

  8. 轻型遥控人工林集材索道力学分析及线路设计%Mechanics Analysis and Route Design of Light-duty Remote Control Ropeway Suitable for Plantation Skidding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗才英; 冯建祥

    2012-01-01

    A study was performed to prove up the mechanism of sliding of tow traction ropes on friction winding drum of winch near the lower fulcrum route section by analyzing the mechanics of closed side and loosed side of tow ropes in every section of hoisting working procedure along route of light-duty remote control ropeway suitable for plantation skidding. Moreover, the mechanisms of brake failure of the friction winding drum and lifting lumbers dropping in hook were clarified when a car was close to the upper pivot or the lowest point of ropeway through mechanics analysis of the skidding ropeway with high obliquity in over loading condition of running down slope or adverse slope. A design project of light-duty remote control ropeway for plantation skidding was presented, which could satisfy with exception slide condition and ensure safety and reliability during log carrying. The technical parameters for remote control car ropeway was optimized according to weight counterbalance of ropeway based on the productive test in cutting areas in plantations, in order to scientifically and reasonably set remote control car skidding ropeways; thereby to make the ropeways work economically, efficiently, safely and reliably.%通过对轻型遥控人工林集材索道沿线路各区段起重提升工序中牵引索紧边、松边的力学分析,探明索道在接近下支点线路区段,牵引索在绞盘机摩擦卷筒上打滑的机理;通过对大倾角集材索道重载顺坡或逆坡运行条件下的力学分析,阐明跑车在接近上支点及接近索道最低点时,摩擦卷筒制动失效、吊运木材落钩的机理.提出符合免滑条件、运载安全可靠的轻型遥控人工林集材索道线路设计方案.在人工林伐区生产试验基础上,对索道配重问题进行研究,优化索道技术参数,确保集材索道科学合理地安装架设,经济高效及安全可靠地营运.

  9. Evaluation of simulation alternatives for the brute-force ray-tracing approach used in backlight design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desnijder, Karel; Hanselaer, Peter; Meuret, Youri

    2016-04-01

    A key requirement to obtain a uniform luminance for a side-lit LED backlight is the optimised spatial pattern of structures on the light guide that extract the light. The generation of such a scatter pattern is usually performed by applying an iterative approach. In each iteration, the luminance distribution of the backlight with a particular scatter pattern is analysed. This is typically performed with a brute-force ray-tracing algorithm, although this approach results in a time-consuming optimisation process. In this study, the Adding-Doubling method is explored as an alternative way for evaluating the luminance of a backlight. Due to the similarities between light propagating in a backlight with extraction structures and light scattering in a cloud of light scatterers, the Adding-Doubling method which is used to model the latter could also be used to model the light distribution in a backlight. The backlight problem is translated to a form upon which the Adding-Doubling method is directly applicable. The calculated luminance for a simple uniform extraction pattern with the Adding-Doubling method matches the luminance generated by a commercial raytracer very well. Although successful, no clear computational advantage over ray tracers is realised. However, the dynamics of light propagation in a light guide as used the Adding-Doubling method, also allow to enhance the efficiency of brute-force ray-tracing algorithms. The performance of this enhanced ray-tracing approach for the simulation of backlights is also evaluated against a typical brute-force ray-tracing approach.

  10. Electric market models, competitive model and alternative design; Modelos de mercado electrico, paradigma competitivo y alternativas de diseno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnedillo, O.

    2007-07-01

    Almost ten years after the liberalization of the Spanish electric system, its market design has remained basically unchanged. Therefore, it is reasonable to consider whether the current model continues to be adequate or whether it should be changed. However, although the current model is far from the absolute optimum, it is suited to the current state of the Spanish system. Only some improvements, such as the reform of the capacity guarantee payment can be undertaken immediately. It will only be possible to undertake other improvements as distribution companies cover all of their electricity needs in forward contracts acquired through a competitive process. (Author)

  11. An Alternative Route of Legal Integration: The Community's Railways Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Knill

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available The process of European integration and policy-making is sometimes rather puzzling. On the one hand, it is well documented that with respect to the implementation of European legislation member states tend to do less than they are supposed to do. On the other hand, it is striking that with respect to the implementation of the Council Directive 91/440 on the development of the Community's railways many member states went far beyond the minimum required by the European legislation. We argue that these differing evaluations of implementation success can be traced to different implementation approaches, which may be termed the compliance approach and the support-building approach. While the first is directed at prescribing domestic reforms "from above", the latter aims at triggering European integration within the existing political context at the national level. Here, successful implementation refers to the extent to which European legislation triggers domestic changes by stimulating and strengthening support for European reform ideas at the national level. In this respect, European legislation can influence the domestic arenas in basically three ways: by providing legitimisation for political leadership, concepts for the solution of national problems, and strategic constraints for domestic actors opposing domestic reforms.

  12. An Alternative Route of Legal Integration: The Community's Railways Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Knill

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available The process of European integration and policy-making is sometimes rather puzzling. On the one hand, it is well documented that with respect to the implementation of European legislation member states tend to do less than they are supposed to do. On the other hand, it is striking that with respect to the implementation of the Council Directive 91/440 on the development of the Community's railways many member states went far beyond the minimum required by the European legislation. We argue that these differing evaluations of implementation success can be traced to different implementation approaches, which may be termed the ‘compliance approach’ and the ‘support-building approach’. While the first is directed at prescribing domestic reforms "from above", the latter aims at triggering European integration within the existing political context at the national level. Here, successful implementation refers to the extent to which European legislation triggers domestic changes by stimulating and strengthening support for European reform ideas at the national level. In this respect, European legislation can influence the domestic arenas in basically three ways: by providing legitimisation for political leadership, concepts for the solution of national problems, and strategic constraints for domestic actors opposing domestic reforms.

  13. Metapolicy Transition: An Alternate Route to the Evaluation Agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilman, John G.; Johnson, Gerald W.

    The relation of the concept of metapolicy to the evaluation agenda is discussed. Metapolicy is a general rule or policy about how public policies should be made or implemented. Broad shifts in metapolicy create new agenda items for evaluation. If the shift is toward reduced federal involvement in social programs, new evaluation questions are not…

  14. Science and the media alternative routes in scientific communication

    CERN Document Server

    Bucchi, Massimiano

    1998-01-01

    In the days of global warming and BSE, science is increasingly a public issue. This book provides a theoretical framework which allows us to understand why and how scientists address the general public. The author develops the argument that turning to the public is not simply a response to inaccurate reporting by journalists or to public curiosity, nor a wish to gain recognition and additional funding. Rather, it is a tactic to which the scientific community are pushed by certain "internal" crisis situations. Bucchi examines three cases of scientists turning to the public: the cold fusion case, the COBE/Big Bang issue and Louis Pasteur's public demonstration of the anthrax vaccine, a historical case of "public science." Finally, Bucchi presents his unique model of communications between science and the public, carried out through the media. This is a thoughtful and wide-ranging treatment of complex contemporary issues, touching upon the history and sociology of science, communication and media studies. Bucchi...

  15. Alternative routes for the chemical industry regarding US shale gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kneissel, B. [Stratley AG, Koeln (Germany)

    2013-11-01

    Cracking ethane from wet shale gas in North America sets a bench mark to global ethylene production costs. Regarding very attractive ethane prices from extraction of low cost wet shale gas we suggest in North America ethylene production costs will roughly vary between 400 and 600 $/ t. As in other parts of the world, except Middle East, the availability of ethane seems to be more limited other sources for ethylene, such as methane, coal and biomass are investigated. Oxidative coupling of methane (OCM) has its limits and may only lead to competitive production costs for large scale operations. Coal converted to ethylene via calcium carbide and subsequent hydrogenation may hardly be a viable answer. Ethylene derived by dehydration of ethanol from fermentation of corn sugar may be an answer for very low crop prices. Further research on the conversion of methane with emphasis on its industrial implementation as a major carbon resource is recommended. (orig.)

  16. 南水北调中线工程湍河渡槽安全监测设计%Safety monitoring design of Tuanhe Aqueduct of Middle Route Project of South to North Water Diversion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武方洁; 季凡

    2015-01-01

    湍河渡槽是南水北调中线干线控制性工程,合理的安全监测设计方案是确保监测成果可靠有效的基础。结合工程实际,并参照相关监测规范,提出了湍河渡槽安全监测设计的原则和思路,并在此基础上分别对渡槽进口闸室段和槽身段的监测设计内容展开介绍。主要包括变形监测,土压力监测,应力应变及温度监测、裂缝监测等,可为掌握渡槽施工期和运行期的安全性状提供合理可靠的数据。%Tuanhe Aqueduct is a controlling works of the Middle Route Project of South to North Water Diversion, so a reason-able safety monitoring scheme is important to the collection of effective and reliable monitoring data. Combining with the engineer-ing practice, the safety monitoring design principle and thought were proposed by referring to the relevant monitoring specifica-tion. On this basis, the monitoring design for entrance chamber section and aqueduct body section were introduced, including de-formation, stress-strain, earth pressure, temperature and cracks. It can provide reliable data for mastering the safety condition of Tuanhe Aqueduct in construction and operation period.

  17. Design of flood discharge aqueduct of Beipai River of Middle Route Project of South-to-North Water Diversion%南水北调中线工程北排河排洪渡槽设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张大勇; 陈璐; 闫海青

    2014-01-01

    According to the characteristics of flood discharge aqueduct of Beipai River of Middle Route Project of South-to-North Water Diversion, including large design discharge, high grade of loads and strict requirements for construction, we have studied the loading features of the upper and lower parts of the aqueduct, and compared the construction difficulty and schedule, the pre-stressed concrete simple supported beam scheme is adopted for the upper structure, which is a single trough in a single line. With consideration of the geological conditions of the engineering area, columnar pier was selected as lower pier of the aque-duct, and rock-socketed pile is designed as the foundation of the pier. Through analysis and calculation aiming at 3 basic cases of the aqueduct, the results meet the requirements and specifications.%针对南水北调中线一期工程北排河排洪渡槽设计流量大、荷载大、施工技术要求高等特点,通过对渡槽上、下部结构形式的受力特性、施工难度、工期等研究比选,确定了渡槽上部结构采用预应力混凝土简支梁方案,并且按单线单槽布置;在考虑了渡槽工程区地形地质条件后,渡槽下部墩身采用桩柱式桥墩,桩基础按嵌岩柱进行设计。经对北排河排洪渡槽3种基本工况进行分析计算,证明其结果满足规范要求。

  18. Geographic Routing on Improved Coordinates

    OpenAIRE

    Brandes, Ulrik; Fleischer, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    We consider routing methods for networks when geographic positions of nodes are available. Instead of using the original geographic coordinates, however, we precompute virtual coordinates using barycentric layout. Combined with simple geometric routing rules, this greatly reduces the lengths of routes and outperforms algorithms working on the original coordinates. Along with experimental results we proof properties such as guaranteed message delivery and worst-case optimality. Our methods app...

  19. ROUTE PLAN DESIGNER FOR TRACTOR GUIDANCE SYSTEMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sveistrup, Daniel; Jørgensen, Rasmus Nyholm; Green, Ole;

    2010-01-01

    in their file formats and operationalrequirements, thereby creating an unnecessary burden for the field trial managers and researchersoperating on different computational platforms such as Windows, Mac or Linux.This paper demonstrates a methodological proof of concept for a software solution for assisting...

  20. NIST cooperative laboratory for OSI routing technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montgomery, D.

    1994-05-23

    This document is one of two reports on the Integrated ISIS protocol. Required by the IAB/IESG in order for an Internet routing protocol to advance to Draft Standard Status. Integrated ISIS is an Interior Gateway Protocol and is designed to carry both IP and ISO CLNP routing information. Integrated ISIS is currently designated as a Proposed Standard. The protocol was first published in RFC 1195. Internet Draft was published subsequently to RFC 1195 and documents the current version of the protocol. This report documents experience with Integrated ISIS. This includes reports on interoperability testing, field experience and the current state of Integrated ISIS implementations. It also presents a summary of the Integrated ISIS Management Information Base (MIB), and a summary of the Integrated ISIS authentication mechanism.

  1. A Primer of Multicast Routing

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenberg, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Whereas unicast routing determines a path from one source node to one destination node, multicast routing determines a path from one source to many destinations, or from many sources to many destinations. We survey multicast routing methods for when the set of destinations is static, and for when it is dynamic. While most of the methods we review are tree based, some non-tree methods are also discussed. We survey results on the shape of multicast trees, delay constrained multicast routing, aggregation of multicast traffic, inter-domain multicast, and multicast virtual private networks. We focu

  2. Heuristic Approach to Select Opportunistic Routing Forwarders (HASORF) to Enhance Throughput for Wireless Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Yousaf Bin Zikria; Summera Nosheen; Jin-Ghoo Choi; Sung Won Kim

    2015-01-01

    Biological schemes provide useful resources for designing adaptive routing protocols for wireless sensor networks (WSNs). The key idea behind using bioinspired routing is to find the optimal path to the destination. Similarly, the idea of opportunistic routing (OR) is to find the least number of hops to deliver the data to the destination. Numerous routing schemes have been proposed in WSNs while targeting various performance goals, such as throughput, delay, and link quality. Rec...

  3. A Study of Driver's Route Choice Behavior Based on Evolutionary Game Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaowei Jiang; Yanjie Ji; Muqing Du; Wei Deng

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a route choice analytic method that embeds cumulative prospect theory in evolutionary game theory to analyze how the drivers adjust their route choice behaviors under the influence of the traffic information. A simulated network with two alternative routes and one variable message sign is built to illustrate the analytic method. We assume that the drivers in the transportation system are bounded rational, and the traffic information they receive is incomplete. An evolution...

  4. Desain Routing Information Protocol pada Jaringan Kamputer dengan Pengalokasian Jumlah Host Per Jaringan Berdasarkan VLSM

    OpenAIRE

    Lubis, Mhd Abdi Wahyuda

    2015-01-01

    The allocation of IP addresses is fundamental in building a computer network. In order for IP address allocation can be efficiently applied to each device connected to a network, first we should calculate the block of IP addresses available. On the other hand the process of routing in the network also requires efficient allocation of IP addresses. To help determining the allocation of IP address and routing path, an application as alternative solution is required. This study uses the Routing ...

  5. 基于序列号和可靠应答机制DSR安全路由的实现%Exploring an Effective Design of Secure Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) Protocol Using Request Sequence Number and End-to-End Acknowledgement Principle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建平; 史浩山

    2011-01-01

    Aim. The introduction of the full paper analyzes a type of black-hole attack on a route request (RREQ) packet. To avoid such attack, it proposes the exploration of a secure DSR protocol design, which is explained in sections 1 and 2. Section 1 explains that the sequence number of the RREQ packet is monotonically increasing.The core of section 2 consists of: ( 1 ) we perform the secure DSR routing protocol design with the sequence number increment principle and the end-to-end acknowledgement principle so that the route can effectively resist the blackhole attack; (2) to establish the credible routing information list, we design the procedural steps for processing the nodes in the RREQ packet and the end-to-end acknowledgement packet, which are illustrated by the block diagram shown in Fig. 2. To validate the effectiveness for resisting the black-hole attack, section 3 simulates the DSR protocol design obtained with our method; the simulation results, given in Figs. 6 and 7, and their analysis show preliminarily that: ( 1 ) the secure DSR protocol design obtained with our method can effectively resist the black-hole attack on the RREQ packet, guarantee secure routing information without expending much resource; (2) compared with the conventional DSR protocol design, our DSR protocol design has higher packet delivery ratio and smaller average delay.%文章分析了动态源路由(DSR)协议面临的路由请求(route request,RREQ)报文的黑洞攻击,针对该攻击,设计一种利用可靠的端到端应答机制和根据RREQ报文序列号连续递增原则来建立路由信息表.该设计在不消耗过多资源的基础上保证路由信息.通过仿真验证该设计能够很好地抵御RREQ报文的黑洞攻击,且与经典的DSR路由协议相比,分组投递率维持在较高水平上,且平均时延很小,具有更好的性能.

  6. Energy Efficient Clustering and Routing in Mobile Wireless Sensor Network

    CERN Document Server

    Sara, Getsy S; S, Neelavathy Pari; D, Sridharan

    2010-01-01

    A critical need in Mobile Wireless Sensor Network (MWSN) is to achieve energy efficiency during routing as the sensor nodes have scarce energy resource. The nodes' mobility in MWSN poses a challenge to design an energy efficient routing protocol. Clustering helps to achieve energy efficiency by reducing the organization complexity overhead of the network which is proportional to the number of nodes in the network. This paper proposes a novel hybrid multipath routing algorithm with an efficient clustering technique. A node is selected as cluster head if it has high surplus energy, better transmission range and least mobility. The Energy Aware (EA) selection mechanism and the Maximal Nodal Surplus Energy estimation technique incorporated in this algorithm improves the energy performance during routing. Simulation results can show that the proposed clustering and routing algorithm can scale well in dynamic and energy deficient mobile sensor network.

  7. Efficient Implementation of Dynamic Routing With Security Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    UMADEVI DURVASULA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Now-a-days security is one of the major issues for data communication over wireless and wired networks. The past work on the designs of cryptography algorithms and system infrastructures. Apart from that the authors proposed a dynamic routing algorithm called improved dynamic routing with security consideration, which is based on the concept of Zone Routing Protocol (ZRP that could randomize delivery paths for data transmission. The algorithm is easy to implement and compatible with popular routing protocols, such as the Routing Information Protocol (RIP in wired networks and Destination-Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV protocol in wireless networks, without introducing extra control messages. This improves security as well as controls traffic in the network. A clear study on the proposed algorithm is presented, and a series of simulation experiments are conducted to verify the results and to show the capability of the proposed algorithm.

  8. Optimization Model for Headway of a Suburban Bus Route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to relatively low passenger demand, headways of suburban bus route are usually longer than those of urban bus route. Actually it is also difficult to balance the benefits between passengers and operators, subject to the service standards from the government. Hence the headway of a suburban bus route is usually determined on the empirical experience of transport planners. To cope with this problem, this paper proposes an optimization model for designing the headways of suburban bus routes by minimizing the operating and user costs. The user costs take into account both the waiting time cost and the crowding cost. The feasibility and validity of the proposed model are shown by applying it to the Route 206 in Jiangning district, Nanjing city of China. Weightages of passengers’ cost and operating cost are further discussed, considering different passenger flows. It is found that the headway and objective function are affected by the weightages largely.

  9. Design of an accelerated test to determine the attack of the sulphates on concrete structures, and the suggest alternative to design a container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work at demonstrating one of the accelerated tests in the frame of the Norm ASTM E-632-82, in order to evaluate the life of service for Reinforced Concrete Structures with High Performance.These will be used as barriers of engineering in containers for Radioactive Wastes.The results of the evaluation are necessary for the probabilistic and deterministic analysis, which are required to obtain licentiate for the emplacement and construction of this type of installations.Since concrete is the principal material used in this type of containers, its properties, in particular, its durability must be evaluated taking into accounts both, intrinsic factors and the extrinsic factors.Within the intrinsic factors we can mention your formulation, including design of armors of steel, production, treated and structural design.As extrinsic factors, weather and environmental, soil characteristic and service operation must be considered.It is important to emphasize that within the criteria used in the conceptual design of these types of repositories, the structures that act of barrier must not alter their insulation properties during all the period of service, which may be several hundreds of years.Although it is not possible to guarantee that repository's performance will not be altered throughout its time of service, the fact to obtain results of accelerated tests and the long term, it will enable us to estimate the durability of such structures, across the support of mathematical suitable models.The different stages which should be taken into account for the development of the evaluation tests, determining the relevant parameters to be considered in them and results obtained so far, are showing in this work

  10. A nested recursive logit model for route choice analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mai, Tien; Frejinger, Emma; Fosgerau, Mogens

    2015-01-01

    We propose a route choice model that relaxes the independence from irrelevant alternatives property of the logit model by allowing scale parameters to be link specific. Similar to the recursive logit (RL) model proposed by Fosgerau et al. (2013), the choice of path is modeled as a sequence of lin...

  11. Personalized routing for multitudes in smart cities

    OpenAIRE

    De Domenico, Manlio; Lima, Antonio; Arenas, Alex; Gonzalez, Marta C.

    2014-01-01

    Human mobility in a city represents a fascinating complex system that combines social interactions, daily constraints and random explorations. New collections of data that capture human mobility not only help us to understand their underlying patterns but also to design intelligent systems. Bringing us the opportunity to reduce traffic and to develop other applications that make cities more adaptable to human needs. In this paper, we propose an adaptive routing strategy which accounts for ind...

  12. Route optimization model for strike aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Steve H. K.

    1995-01-01

    A model is designed and implemented to construct a 'flyable,' least- risk route for strike aircraft from takeoff to target, through enemy radars, in a defined area of operations. A network is fust constructed by discretizing the airspace into a three-dimensional grid of nodes and then connecting adjacent nodes with arcs. A shortest-path model in this network is then constructed with arc lengths that are a function of the probability of detection by radars monitoring t...

  13. Strategies for Selecting Routes through Real-World Environments: Relative Topography, Initial Route Straightness, and Cardinal Direction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tad T Brunyé

    Full Text Available Previous research has demonstrated that route planners use several reliable strategies for selecting between alternate routes. Strategies include selecting straight rather than winding routes leaving an origin, selecting generally south- rather than north-going routes, and selecting routes that avoid traversal of complex topography. The contribution of this paper is characterizing the relative influence and potential interactions of these strategies. We also examine whether individual differences would predict any strategy reliance. Results showed evidence for independent and additive influences of all three strategies, with a strong influence of topography and initial segment straightness, and relatively weak influence of cardinal direction. Additively, routes were also disproportionately selected when they traversed relatively flat regions, had relatively straight initial segments, and went generally south rather than north. Two individual differences, extraversion and sense of direction, predicted the extent of some effects. Under real-world conditions navigators indeed consider a route's initial straightness, cardinal direction, and topography, but these cues differ in relative influence and vary in their application across individuals.

  14. CNG/汽油两用燃料发动机ECU设计%Design of Alternative Fuel Engine ECU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴伟斌; 李礼夫; 洪添胜; 罗彩茹; 王康

    2011-01-01

    针对某品牌四缸两用燃料发动机,完成了基于Motorola 16位单片机MC9S12DP256的汽油机ECu和CNG发动机ECU硬件设计.完成汽油机ECU硬件电路的开发和调试,包括PCB图双层板设计、PCB板制作与焊接,硬件调试,模拟信号测试与波形观察.测试结果表明:基于曲轴信号和凸轮轴信号的控制逻辑能很好地满足发动机工作的时序要求,实现分组同步点火、喷油等模块的控制.喷油时间控制准确度达到0.01 ms,误差小于5%;点火提前角最小分辨率为0.01°,误差小于5%.%Enormous natural gas reserves in our country and more complete CNG filling stations in urban city provided a larger space for the development of CNG vehicles.Thus, the use of natural gas and gasoline-fueled dual-fuel engine control system is of great practical significance and dedicated to improving the current dual-fuel vehicle technology in the engine management level, being the driving force to enhance engine performance, minimizing emissions reduction, and making full use of China's natural gas resources.Based on the Motorola 16-bit MCU MC9S12DP256, the gasoline engine and the CNG engine ECU hardware were design.Base on the embedded C language with CodeWarrior IDE,software was design and debugged, and the control stratagy was made according to the data acquisition and data analysis.Through the MAP, with the engine speed and intake manifold absolute pressure signal values, the basic fuel injection pulse width was founded by interpolation method.According to other working condition parameters, the closed-loop feedback control and air-fuel ratio control were modified and realized the fuel injection control.

  15. Automated Flight Routing Using Stochastic Dynamic Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Hok K.; Morando, Alex; Grabbe, Shon

    2010-01-01

    Airspace capacity reduction due to convective weather impedes air traffic flows and causes traffic congestion. This study presents an algorithm that reroutes flights in the presence of winds, enroute convective weather, and congested airspace based on stochastic dynamic programming. A stochastic disturbance model incorporates into the reroute design process the capacity uncertainty. A trajectory-based airspace demand model is employed for calculating current and future airspace demand. The optimal routes minimize the total expected traveling time, weather incursion, and induced congestion costs. They are compared to weather-avoidance routes calculated using deterministic dynamic programming. The stochastic reroutes have smaller deviation probability than the deterministic counterpart when both reroutes have similar total flight distance. The stochastic rerouting algorithm takes into account all convective weather fields with all severity levels while the deterministic algorithm only accounts for convective weather systems exceeding a specified level of severity. When the stochastic reroutes are compared to the actual flight routes, they have similar total flight time, and both have about 1% of travel time crossing congested enroute sectors on average. The actual flight routes induce slightly less traffic congestion than the stochastic reroutes but intercept more severe convective weather.

  16. Enhanced Contact Graph Routing (ECGR) MACHETE Simulation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segui, John S.; Jennings, Esther H.; Clare, Loren P.

    2013-01-01

    Contact Graph Routing (CGR) for Delay/Disruption Tolerant Networking (DTN) space-based networks makes use of the predictable nature of node contacts to make real-time routing decisions given unpredictable traffic patterns. The contact graph will have been disseminated to all nodes before the start of route computation. CGR was designed for space-based networking environments where future contact plans are known or are independently computable (e.g., using known orbital dynamics). For each data item (known as a bundle in DTN), a node independently performs route selection by examining possible paths to the destination. Route computation could conceivably run thousands of times a second, so computational load is important. This work refers to the simulation software model of Enhanced Contact Graph Routing (ECGR) for DTN Bundle Protocol in JPL's MACHETE simulation tool. The simulation model was used for performance analysis of CGR and led to several performance enhancements. The simulation model was used to demonstrate the improvements of ECGR over CGR as well as other routing methods in space network scenarios. ECGR moved to using earliest arrival time because it is a global monotonically increasing metric that guarantees the safety properties needed for the solution's correctness since route re-computation occurs at each node to accommodate unpredicted changes (e.g., traffic pattern, link quality). Furthermore, using earliest arrival time enabled the use of the standard Dijkstra algorithm for path selection. The Dijkstra algorithm for path selection has a well-known inexpensive computational cost. These enhancements have been integrated into the open source CGR implementation. The ECGR model is also useful for route metric experimentation and comparisons with other DTN routing protocols particularly when combined with MACHETE's space networking models and Delay Tolerant Link State Routing (DTLSR) model.

  17. A Multipath Routing Protocol Based on Bloom Filter for Multihop Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junwei Jin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available On-demand multipath routing in a wireless ad hoc network is effective in achieving load balancing over the network and in improving the degree of resilience to mobility. In this paper, the salvage capable opportunistic node-disjoint multipath routing (SNMR protocol is proposed, which forms multiple routes for data transmission and supports packet salvaging with minimum overhead. The proposed mechanism constructs a primary path and a node-disjoint backup path together with alternative paths for the intermediate nodes in the primary path. It can be achieved by considering the reverse route back to the source stored in the route cache and the primary path information compressed by a Bloom filter. Our protocol presents higher capability in packet salvaging and lower overhead in forming multiple routes. Simulation results show that SNMR outperforms the compared protocols in terms of packet delivery ratio, normalized routing load, and throughput.

  18. Qos Routing Scheme and Route Repair in WSN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Belghachi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade, a new type of wireless network has evoked great interest among the scientific community; it is the wireless sensor networks (WSN. The WSN are used in various social activities, such as industrial processes, military surveillance applications, observation and monitoring of habitat, etc... This diversity of applications brings these networks to support different types of traffic and to provide services that must be both generic and adaptive for applications, the properties of the quality of service (QoS are different from one application to another. However, the need to minimize energy consumption has been the most important field of WSNs research. Few studies in the field are concerned with mechanisms for efficiently delivering QoS at the application level from network level metrics and connection such as delay or bandwidth, while minimizing the energy consumption of sensor nodes that are part of network. The idea is to ensure QoS through a routing process, which can detect paths that meet the QoS requirements based on ant colony optimization (ACOs, coupled with detected routes reservation process. However, it is necessary to integrate to this diagram the maintenance of route disrupted during communication. We propose a method that aims to improve the probability of success of a local route repair. This method based on the density of nodes in the vicinity of a route, as well as on the availability of this vicinity. Taking into account these parameters in the route selection phase (end of the routing process allows selecting among multiple routes, the one which is potentially the most easily repairable. In addition, we propose a method for early detection of the failure of a local route repair. This method can directly trigger a process of global re-routing that better fits to restore communication between the source and destination.

  19. Leapfrog: Optimal opportunistic Routing in Probabilistically Contacted Delay Tolerant Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming-Jun Xiao; Liu-Sheng Huang; Qun-Feng Dong; An Liu; Zhen-Guo Yang

    2009-01-01

    Delay tolerant networks (DTNs)experience frequent and long lasting network disconnection due to various reasons such as mobility.power management.and scheduling.One primary concern in DTNs is to route messages to keep the end-to-end delivery delay as low as possible.In this paper,we study the single-copy message routing problem and propose an optimal opportunistic routing strategy--Leapfrog Routing--for probabilistically contacted DTNs where nodes encounter or contact in some fixed probabilities.We deduce the iterative computation formulate of minimum expected opportunistic delivery delay from each node to the destination and discover that under the optimal opportunistic routing strategy,messages would be delivered from high-delay node to low-delay node in the leapfrog manner.Rigorous theoretical analysis shows that such a routing strategy is exactly the optimal among all possible ones.Moreover,we apply the idea of Reverse Dijkstra algorithm to design an algorithm.When a destination iS given,this algorithm can determine for each node the routing selection function under the Leapfrog Routing strategy.The computation overhead of this algorithm is only O(n~2) where n is the number of nodes in the network.In addition,through extensive simulations based on real DTN traces,we demonstrate that our algorithm can significantly outperform the previous ones.

  20. PGBR Protocol for Cloud Routing Implementation in NS-3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr.Tushar Kailas Mendhe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The current internet infrastructure is fronting a number of boundaries that is not suitable to meet the growing number of services and users. In particular, one aspect that requires enhancement is routing, where original routing concepts were designed for static traffic patterns with minimal variations and supporting mainly low through put traffic (e.g. Data. As the number of users as well as services supporting the user grows, the current routing mechanisms will not be feasible. In this paper we present a gradient based distributed routing technique that is based on discovering routes through a gradient field created in the topology. The gradient calculation is based on weighted sum of a number of components, which modifies the gradient field as the network load changes. An improved version of a fully distributed routing protocol that is applicable for cloud computing infrastructure, also an implementation of the PGBR routing protocol within the ns-3 simulator. Broadband convergence networks can offer a solution for multiple service classes through integrated heterogeneous networks. However, to prepare this for the future variability in traffic demand, a dynamic routing protocol that boosts scalability, QoS awareness, and easy roadmap to deployment if necessary. The implementation using ns-3 simulator can ensure this capability.

  1. A Preliminary Study on the Conceptual Design of Thorium/Uranium Mixed Nuclear Fuel for the Alternative of Burnable Poison in Commercial Pressurized Water Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorium has higher neutron absorption cross section than that of U-238. Thus, the thorium mixed uranium oxide nuclear fuel can reduce the initial excessive reactivity and the long-live radio-wastes with increasing the fuel utilization efficiency. In this study, a preliminary study on the application of the thorium/uranium mixed fuel is performed for the alternative of the PLUS7 fuel assembly which includes burnable poison. A conceptual design without geometrical change is proposed and the reactor characteristics are analyzed. In this study, a fuel assembly using the uranium/thorium mixed fuel was designed to substitute the assembly which includes burnable poison. The reactor characteristics, which are kinf, power distribution and plutonium production rate, were evaluated and the results are compared with the E1 assembly which is used in the OPR1000 reactor. The results show that the proposed design can efficiently reduce the excessive reactivity, peak power, and plutonium production with increasing the fuel utilization period

  2. Optimization Design of Precision Seeder Based on Multi-channel Routing Control%基于多信道路由控制的精量播种机优化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑仕勇; 朱强; 覃德泽; 鲍秀兰

    2016-01-01

    为了提高花生播种机播种的质量及作业效率,在花生引播机的路径和排种器的控制系统中,引入了多信道独立通信原理,降低了播种过程的漏种率;利用模糊神经网络控制原理,结合模糊域对花生播种机的结构进行了非线性优化设计.为了验证设计的花生精量播种机结构和控制系统的可靠性,对花生播种机进行了田间试验,结果表明:多信道路由花生播种机的合格率要明显高于传统的播种机,重播率要明显低于传统的播种机,破碎率和空穴率都比较低.这说明播种机的路径选择和排种器的控制都达到了最优,为花生播种机的研究和设计提供了理论依据.%In order to improve the quality of sowing peanut seeder seeding, improve working efficiency, control system in peanut sowing machine guide path and metering device, the introduction of multi channel independent communication principle, reducing the leakage rate of seeding process;fuzzy neural network control theory, combining the fuzzy domain structure of peanut seeder the nonlinear optimization design.In order to verify the reliability of the design of peanut sowing machine structure and control system, the field test of peanut planter, find the qualified rate was higher than that of the traditional seeding machine multi channel routing peanut seeder by experiment, the replay rate was significantly lower than that of the traditional sowing machine, the broken rate and hole rate is relatively low, the description of choice and path control metering seeder has reached the optimal, and it provides a theoretical basis for the research and design of the peanut planter.

  3. Designing nanobowl arrays of mesoporous TiO2 as an alternative electron transporting layer for carbon cathode-based perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiaoli; Wei, Zhanhua; Chen, Haining; Zhang, Qianpeng; He, Hexiang; Xiao, Shuang; Fan, Zhiyong; Wong, Kam Sing; Yang, Shihe

    2016-03-01

    In this work, we have designed a mesoporous TiO2 nanobowl (NB) array with pore size, bowl size and film thickness being easily controllable by the sol-gel process and the polystyrene (PS) template diameter. Based on the TiO2 NB array, we fabricated carbon cathode based perovskite solar cells (C-PSCs) to investigate the impact of TiO2 NB nanostructures on the performance of the as-obtained C-PSCs devices. As expected, the TiO2 NB based devices show a higher power conversion efficiency (PCE) than that of the planar counterpart, mainly due to the enhanced light absorption arising from the NB-assisted light management, the improved pore-filling of high quality perovskite crystals and the increased interface contact for rapid electron extraction and fast charge transport. Leveraging these advantages of the novel TiO2 NB film, the 220 nm-PS templated TiO2 NB based devices performed the best on both light absorption capability and charge extraction, and achieved a PCE up to 12.02% with good stability, which is 37% higher than that of the planar counterpart. These results point to a viable and convenient route toward the fabrication of TiO2 ETL nanostructures for high performance PSCs.In this work, we have designed a mesoporous TiO2 nanobowl (NB) array with pore size, bowl size and film thickness being easily controllable by the sol-gel process and the polystyrene (PS) template diameter. Based on the TiO2 NB array, we fabricated carbon cathode based perovskite solar cells (C-PSCs) to investigate the impact of TiO2 NB nanostructures on the performance of the as-obtained C-PSCs devices. As expected, the TiO2 NB based devices show a higher power conversion efficiency (PCE) than that of the planar counterpart, mainly due to the enhanced light absorption arising from the NB-assisted light management, the improved pore-filling of high quality perovskite crystals and the increased interface contact for rapid electron extraction and fast charge transport. Leveraging these

  4. 采用Tree及AODvjr-PB路由算法的家庭无线网络设计%Design of home wireless network using routing algorithm of Tree and AODVjr-PB

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱向庆; 陈志雄

    2011-01-01

    As far as some relatively complicated home dwelling is concerned, a kind of home wireless network is developed fusing routing algorithm of Tree and improved AODVjr-AODVjr-PB. The gateway is designed with an embedded chip LPC2214, single chip microcomputer STC12C5A60S2 is adopted as the control core of the household appliance. The gateway and movable remote controller can monitor household appliance through wireless module IP-Link 1221, it realizes intelligent electrical apparatus, environmental monitoring and safety protection. The gateway also connects to GPRS/GSM network, Internet and PSTN, the operator is able to remote control and monitor the appliance network by mobile and computer. This system is characterized by its safety and reliability, it is simple and practical, economic and cheap, with energy saving and low power consumption.%针对一些较复杂的家庭住宅,提出融合Tree及改进型AODVjr路由算法-AODVjr-PB的家庭无线网络设计方案.网关由LPC2214嵌入式芯片设计,STC12C5A60S2单片机作为家电子节点控制核心.网关和移动遥控器通过IP-Link 1221无线模块监控家电,实现智能电器、环境监测和安全防护.网关还连接GPRS/GSM网络、Internet和公共交换电话网络(publc switched telephone network,PSTN),操作者可通过手机或计算机远程遥控监测家电网络.系统具有安全可靠、简单实用、经济便宜和节能低耗的特点.

  5. Congestion Free Routing in Adhoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Sankaranarayanan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: A Mobile Ad-Hoc Network (MANET is a temporary network; the mobile devices in an ad-hoc network are communicating through wireless links without any pre-existing infrastructure. The one major problem of this network is network congestion, it may take place at any intermediate nodes when data packets are traveling from source to destination. The major problems of congestion or high data loss, increasing End to End and retransmission packets which affects the overall network performance. The main goal of congestion control is to effectively utilize the existing network resources and maintain the network load below the capacity. Approach: This study presents the Congestion Free Routing in Adhoc networks (CFR, based on dynamically estimated mechanism to monitor network congestion by calculating the average queue length at the node level. While using the average queue length, the nodes’ congestion status divided into the three zones (safe zone, likely to be congested zone and congested zone. CFR utilizes the non-congested neighbors and initiates route discovery mechanism to discover a congestion free route between source and destination. This path becomes a core path between source and destination. To maintain the congestion free status, the nodes which are helping data packet transmission periodically calculate their congestion status at the node level. When a core node is noticed that it fell in to likely to congested zone and alerts to its neighbors. The predecessor core path node is aware of this situation and initiates an alternate path discovery mechanism to a destination. Finally it discovers a new congestion free route to the destination. Results: The assessment between CFR and AODV was conducted by using the Ns-2 simulator. The simulation results confirmed that the CFR improved packet delivery ratio, reduction of End to End delay and control packets. Conclusion: Our proposed technique solved the congestion problems in a

  6. Perception bias in route choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreeswijk, J.D.; Thomas, T.; Berkum, van E.C.; Arem, van B.

    2014-01-01

    Travel time is probably one of the most studied attributes in route choice. Recently, perception of travel time received more attention as several studies have shown its importance in explaining route choice behavior. In particular, travel time estimates by travelers appear to be biased against non-

  7. Producing gestures facilitates route learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wing Chee So

    Full Text Available The present study investigates whether producing gestures would facilitate route learning in a navigation task and whether its facilitation effect is comparable to that of hand movements that leave physical visible traces. In two experiments, we focused on gestures produced without accompanying speech, i.e., co-thought gestures (e.g., an index finger traces the spatial sequence of a route in the air. Adult participants were asked to study routes shown in four diagrams, one at a time. Participants reproduced the routes (verbally in Experiment 1 and non-verbally in Experiment 2 without rehearsal or after rehearsal by mentally simulating the route, by drawing it, or by gesturing (either in the air or on paper. Participants who moved their hands (either in the form of gestures or drawing recalled better than those who mentally simulated the routes and those who did not rehearse, suggesting that hand movements produced during rehearsal facilitate route learning. Interestingly, participants who gestured the routes in the air or on paper recalled better than those who drew them on paper in both experiments, suggesting that the facilitation effect of co-thought gesture holds for both verbal and nonverbal recall modalities. It is possibly because, co-thought gesture, as a kind of representational action, consolidates spatial sequence better than drawing and thus exerting more powerful influence on spatial representation.

  8. Producing gestures facilitates route learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Wing Chee; Ching, Terence Han-Wei; Lim, Phoebe Elizabeth; Cheng, Xiaoqin; Ip, Kit Yee

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates whether producing gestures would facilitate route learning in a navigation task and whether its facilitation effect is comparable to that of hand movements that leave physical visible traces. In two experiments, we focused on gestures produced without accompanying speech, i.e., co-thought gestures (e.g., an index finger traces the spatial sequence of a route in the air). Adult participants were asked to study routes shown in four diagrams, one at a time. Participants reproduced the routes (verbally in Experiment 1 and non-verbally in Experiment 2) without rehearsal or after rehearsal by mentally simulating the route, by drawing it, or by gesturing (either in the air or on paper). Participants who moved their hands (either in the form of gestures or drawing) recalled better than those who mentally simulated the routes and those who did not rehearse, suggesting that hand movements produced during rehearsal facilitate route learning. Interestingly, participants who gestured the routes in the air or on paper recalled better than those who drew them on paper in both experiments, suggesting that the facilitation effect of co-thought gesture holds for both verbal and nonverbal recall modalities. It is possibly because, co-thought gesture, as a kind of representational action, consolidates spatial sequence better than drawing and thus exerting more powerful influence on spatial representation. PMID:25426624

  9. Enhancing Wireless Sensor Network Routing by High Quality Link Set Cooperative Routing Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Narendrakumar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In general Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN’s, improving the network reliability by using cooperative communication to select the relay node with low overhead is a challenging task. Also the design of routing scheme based on link quality is a critical problem. Due to the resource constraints, connections between the nodes are changeable one. It leads to the network to create a various routes which are necessary. By using the established path, it delivers the data to the base station in a reliable manner. This paper concentrates on a cross layer approach by using various cooperative metric such as Packet Delivery Rate (PDR, Packet Reception Rate(PRR, Required Number of Packet transmission (RNP, Average number of packet sent/resent and Expected Transmission Time (ETX. These parameters are taken as a fuzzy parameter that exploits the cooperative diversity at the routing layer. We propose a Fuzzy based High Quality Link Set Routing (FHQLSR which selects the high quality relay node and evaluates the quality of link in each node by using RNP and ETX parameters. This FHQLSR scheme is used to find the effective relay node that forward packets to the base station via high quality link and also find the optimal path using Improved Dijikstra’s Algorithm (IDA in the multi hop networks. By considering routing and link quality parameters, the FHQLSR scheme improves theoverall reliability, scalability and stability of the network.

  10. Impact of Flooding on Traffic Route Choices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Othman M.H.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic route choice using road network modelling can play a key role in preventing and minimizing traffic problems during disasters. Using road network modelling, real road conditions during flooding are simulated in order to produce a response plan for road users to evacuate based on the roads' real risks and situation. Using a Geographical Information System (GIS we can forecast and provide road users with available alternatives when certain access roads or links need to be closed due to catastrophic hazards such as floods. This study focuses on floods as it is the most common form of natural disaster occurring in Malaysia, and due to the fact that the chance and risk of a flood occurring cannot be accurately predicted nor measured. Therefore, as a response to this problem, the outcome of this study is highly useful for the retrieval of information on flooded roads and the impacts on road users. Using GIS's capability to display both spatial and attributive information, we have provided an attractive alternative to conventional methods in order to show available traffic route choices and a transportation network plan.

  11. Stochastic Vehicle Routing with Recourse

    CERN Document Server

    Goertz, Inge Li; Saket, Rishi

    2012-01-01

    We study the classic Vehicle Routing Problem in the setting of stochastic optimization with recourse. StochVRP is a two-stage optimization problem, where demand is satisfied using two routes: fixed and recourse. The fixed route is computed using only a demand distribution. Then after observing the demand instantiations, a recourse route is computed -- but costs here become more expensive by a factor lambda. We present an O(log^2 n log(n lambda))-approximation algorithm for this stochastic routing problem, under arbitrary distributions. The main idea in this result is relating StochVRP to a special case of submodular orienteering, called knapsack rank-function orienteering. We also give a better approximation ratio for knapsack rank-function orienteering than what follows from prior work. Finally, we provide a Unique Games Conjecture based omega(1) hardness of approximation for StochVRP, even on star-like metrics on which our algorithm achieves a logarithmic approximation.

  12. Securing Zone Routing Protocol in Ad-Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim S. I. Abuhaiba

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a contribution in the field of security analysis on mobile ad-hoc networks, and security requirements of applications. Limitations of the mobile nodes have been studied in order to design a secure routing protocol that thwarts different kinds of attacks. Our approach is based on the Zone Routing Protocol (ZRP; the most popular hybrid routing protocol. The importance of the proposed solution lies in the fact that it ensures security as needed by providing a comprehensive architecture of Secure Zone Routing Protocol (SZRP based on efficient key management, secure neighbor discovery, secure routing packets, detection of malicious nodes, and preventing these nodes from destroying the network. In order to fulfill these objectives, both efficient key management and secure neighbor mechanisms have been designed to be performed prior to the functioning of the protocol.To validate the proposed solution, we use the network simulator NS-2 to test the performance of secure protocol and compare it with the conventional zone routing protocol over different number of factors that affect the network. Our results evidently show that our secure version paragons the conventional protocol in the packet delivery ratio while it has a tolerable increase in the routing overhead and average delay. Also, security analysis proves in details that the proposed protocol is robust enough to thwart all classes of ad-hoc attacks.

  13. Acquisition of business intelligence from human experience in route planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello Orgaz, Gema; Barrero, David F.; R-Moreno, María D.; Camacho, David

    2015-04-01

    The logistic sector raises a number of highly challenging problems. Probably one of the most important ones is the shipping planning, i.e. plan the routes that the shippers have to follow to deliver the goods. In this article, we present an artificial intelligence-based solution that has been designed to help a logistic company to improve its routes planning process. In order to achieve this goal, the solution uses the knowledge acquired by the company drivers to propose optimised routes. Hence, the proposed solution gathers the experience of the drivers, processes it and optimises the delivery process. The solution uses data mining to extract knowledge from the company information systems and prepares it for analysis with a case-based reasoning (CBR) algorithm. The CBR obtains critical business intelligence knowledge from the drivers experience that is needed by the planner. The design of the routes is done by a genetic algorithm that, given the processed information, optimises the routes following several objectives, such as minimise the distance or time. Experimentation shows that the proposed approach is able to find routes that improve, on average, the routes made by the human experts.

  14. Security Analysis of Routing Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sadeghi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I describe briefly some of the different types of attacks on wireless sensor networks such as Sybil, HELLO, Wormhole and Sinkhole attacks. Then I describe security analysis of some major routing protocols in wireless sensor network such as Directed Diffusion, TinyOS beaconing, geographic and Rumor routings in term of attacks and security goals. As a result I explain some secure routing protocols for wireless sensor network and is discussed briefly some methods and policy of these protocols to meet their security requirements. At last some simulation results of these protocols that have been done by their designer are mentioned.

  15. A Routing Algorithm in WDM Mesh Networks with Grooming Capacities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qiang-min; RONG Meng-tian; ZHU Hong-wen

    2005-01-01

    Most of the work in traffic grooming has been in the area of providing efficient network designs in Wavelength division multiplexing (WDM). The objective of these traffic grooming algorithms is to reduce the cost of overall networks.In this paper, a routing algorithm based on transiently chaotic neural network is proposed to solve the problem in WDM logical topology. The objectives of the routing algorithm are accommodating all traffic requirements and using less network resource. The simulation shows that the proposed algorithm is efficient in the routing selection, meanwhile the algorithm can use less network resource.

  16. Satellite network robust QoS-aware routing

    CERN Document Server

    Long, Fei

    2014-01-01

    Satellite Network Robust QoS-aware Routing presents a novel routing strategy for satellite networks. This strategy is useful for the design of multi-layered satellite networks as it can greatly reduce the number of time slots in one system cycle. The traffic prediction and engineering approaches make the system robust so that the traffic spikes can be handled effectively. The multi-QoS optimization routing algorithm can satisfy various potential user requirements. Clear and sufficient illustrations are also presented in the book. As the chapters cover the above topics independently, readers from different research backgrounds in constellation design, multi-QoS routing, and traffic engineering can benefit from the book.   Fei Long is a senior engineer at Beijing R&D Center of 54th Research Institute of China Electronics Technology Group Corporation.

  17. Enhanced Optimized Link State Routing for Multimedia Traffic using Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Meenakshi Sundaram

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to modify OLSR using GA to reduce the end to end delay and to improve the network throughput. Simulation was carried out for multimedia traffic and video streamed network traffic using OPNET Simulator. Routing is a primary MANET function where each node forms routes between nodes not directly in each others range for communication. Major challenges in MANET are routing protocol design while maintaining quality of service in the network. Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR protocol is a Table driven Proactive Routing Protocol having topology information and routes which are used for routing. OLSR’s efficiency depends on Multi Point Relay (MPR selection. Many studies are conducted to decrease control traffic overheads by modifying existing OLSR routing protocol and traffic shaping based on packet priority.

  18. A Secure and Pragmatic Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad hoc Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhi-yuan

    2008-01-01

    An ad hoc network is a group of wireless mobile computers (or nodes), in which individual nodes cooperate by forwarding packets for each other to allow nodes to communicate beyond direct wireless transmission range. Because of node mobility and power limitations, the network topology changes frequently. Routing protocol plays an important role in the ad hoc network. A recent trend in ad hoc network routing is the reactive on-demand philosophy where routes are established only when required. As an optimization for the current Dynamic Source Routing Protocol, a secure and pragmatic routes selection scheme based on Reputation Systems was proposed. We design the Secure and Pragmatic Routing protocol and implement simulation models using GloMoSim. Simulation results show that the Secure and Pragmatic Routing protocol provides better experimental results on packet delivery ratio, power consumption and system throughput than Dynamic Source Routing Protocol.

  19. An Experimental Investigation of Hyperbolic Routing with a Smart Forwarding Plane in NDN

    CERN Document Server

    Lehman, Vince; Zhang, Beichuan; Zhang, Lixia; Aldecoa, Rodrigo; Krioukov, Dmitri; Wang, Lan

    2016-01-01

    Routing in NDN networks must scale in terms of forwarding table size and routing protocol overhead. Hyperbolic routing (HR) presents a potential solution to address the routing scalability problem, because it does not use traditional forwarding tables or exchange routing updates upon changes in network topologies. Although HR has the drawbacks of producing sub-optimal routes or local minima for some destinations, these issues can be mitigated by NDN's intelligent data forwarding plane. However, HR's viability still depends on both the quality of the routes HR provides and the overhead incurred at the forwarding plane due to HR's sub-optimal behavior. We designed a new forwarding strategy called Adaptive Smoothed RTT-based Forwarding (ASF) to mitigate HR's sub-optimal path selection. This paper describes our experimental investigation into the packet delivery delay and overhead under HR as compared with Named-Data Link State Routing (NLSR), which calculates shortest paths. We run emulation experiments using va...

  20. Cost and risk tradeoff for routing nuclear spent fuel movements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the transportation industry, much effort has been devoted to finding the least cost routes for shipping goods from their production sites to the market areas. In addition to cost, the decision maker must take the risk of an incident into consideration for transportation routing involving hazardous materials. The transportation of spent nuclear fuel from reactor sites to repositories is an example. Given suitable network information, existing routing methods can readily determine least cost or least risk routes for any shipment. These two solutions, however, represent the extremes of a large number of alternatives with different combinations of risk and cost. In the selection of routes and also in the evaluation of alternative storage sites it is not enough to know which is the lease cost or lowest risk. Intelligent decision-marking requires knowledge of how much it will cost to lower risk by a certain amount. The objective of this study is to develop an automated system to evaluate the tradeoff between transportation cost and potential population at risk under different nuclear spent fuel transportation strategies