WorldWideScience

Sample records for alternative post harvest

  1. Irradiation as an alternative post harvest treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This current world population has significantly added to the pressures placed upon our finite resources and our resulting ability to feed ourselves. In order to cope with current and future demands, the two established lines of action, that is, reduced population growth and expansion of agricultural production, must be supplemented with the parallel activity of reducing food losses during and after harvest. For developing countries in particular, enormous post-harvest losses result from spillage, contamination, pests and physiological deterioration during storage. Studies in these countries indicate that post-harvest losses are enormous and amount to tens of millions of tons per year valued at billions of dollars. Programs to reduce post-harvest losses, if applied properly, can result in realistic yield increases between 10 and 30%, which can be directly converted into increased consumption for humans. Post-harvest losses vary greatly and are a function of the crop variety, pest combinations in the environment, climate, the system of harvesting, storage, handling, marketing, and even the social and cultural environment. Pests are among the most criticals of these factors. Because of the disastrous potential consequences of such pests, quarantine regulations prohibit the entrance of plants or products which might hide the unwanted pest from countries where it is known to exist. Quarantine treatments are can be chemical, physical or ionizing radiation treatment. Numerous investigations on the use of ionizing radiation for the disinfestation of fresh plant materials indicate that rather low dosages will control fruit-fly problems, thus making it well suited for quarantine treatment. The effectiveness of the irradiation as a broad spectrum quarantine treatment of fresh fruits and vegetables was recognized by the several plant protection organizations around the world. Currently, some 40 countries have approved one or more irradiated food items or groups of food

  2. Irradiation as an alternative post harvest treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satin, M. [Agricultural Industries and Post-harvest Management Service, FAO, Rome (Italy); Loaharanu, P. [Head, Food Preservation Section, Joint FAO/ IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Wagramerstr. 5, A-1400, Vienna (Austria)

    1997-12-31

    This current world population has significantly added to the pressures placed upon our finite resources and our resulting ability to feed ourselves. In order to cope with current and future demands, the two established lines of action, that is, reduced population growth and expansion of agricultural production, must be supplemented with the parallel activity of reducing food losses during and after harvest. For developing countries in particular, enormous post-harvest losses result from spillage, contamination, pests and physiological deterioration during storage. Studies in these countries indicate that post-harvest losses are enormous and amount to tens of millions of tons per year valued at billions of dollars. Programs to reduce post-harvest losses, if applied properly, can result in realistic yield increases between 10 and 30%, which can be directly converted into increased consumption for humans. Post-harvest losses vary greatly and are a function of the crop variety, pest combinations in the environment, climate, the system of harvesting, storage, handling, marketing, and even the social and cultural environment. Pests are among the most criticals of these factors. Because of the disastrous potential consequences of such pests, quarantine regulations prohibit the entrance of plants or products which might hide the unwanted pest from countries where it is known to exist. Quarantine treatments are can be chemical, physical or ionizing radiation treatment. Numerous investigations on the use of ionizing radiation for the disinfestation of fresh plant materials indicate that rather low dosages will control fruit-fly problems, thus making it well suited for quarantine treatment. The effectiveness of the irradiation as a broad spectrum quarantine treatment of fresh fruits and vegetables was recognized by the several plant protection organizations around the world. Currently, some 40 countries have approved one or more irradiated food items or groups of food

  3. Sweetpotato post-harvest assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Rees, Debbie; Van Oirschot, Quirien; Kapinga, Regina

    2003-01-01

    For any crop cultivar to be successful it must not only have good production characteristics but also characteristics that ensure the harvested crop is acceptable and suitable for its intended use. Sweetpotato Post-harvest Assessment summarizes work carried out on postharvest aspects of sweetpotato between 1994 and 2002 within collaborative projects involving the Natural Resources Institute (UK), the International Potato Center and the Tanzanian Ministry of Agriculture, with input from the Ke...

  4. Nitrogen and post-harvest yellowing of Brussels sprouts

    OpenAIRE

    Everaarts, A.P.

    2000-01-01

    A study was made of the effect of a late nitrogen application on post-harvest yellowing of Brussels sprouts. Application of nitrogen, whether as granular fertilizer or as a lower amount sprayed over the crop in a watery solution, increased the nitrogen concentration in the outer leaves of the sprouts, but this did not result in less post-harvest yellowing. Size of the sprouts and moment of harvest, however, strongly influenced post-harvest yellowing.

  5. Post harvest losses in the fisheries of Kainji Lake

    OpenAIRE

    Eyo, A.A.

    1997-01-01

    An assessment is given of the post-harvest losses in the Lake Kainji fisheries of Nigeria. The study focussed on quantifiable information on post-harvest technology and post-harvest losses from fisherfolk, fish processors and fish traders operating within the Kainji Lake basin. The information was obtained from questionnaires sent to a total of 665 respondents, comprising 317 fishermen, 115 fish processors, 125 fish buyers, and 111 fish sellers in 45 fishing villages and collection centres wi...

  6. A relational database of post-harvest fish losses

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, M. C.; Venn, J.; Cheke, R.A.; Ward, A. R.

    1997-01-01

    The article describes FISHLOSS, a database of post-harvest fish losses devised by the Natural Resources Institute (NRI), UK. The database contains 450 records of post-harvest fish losses from 150 sources. The majority of the estimates are shelf-life estimates. Designed to be a reference for people studying post-harvest fish losses, it draws attention to areas requiring future research to identify significant losses and the factors which cause them. All researchers and users are encouraged to ...

  7. Evaluating strawberry breeding selections for post-harvest fruit decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    The annual replicated yield assessments for the USDA-ARS strawberry breeding effort at Beltsville, MD, 2007 and 2008, were used to develop a method of assessing each genotype’s post-harvest decay. Detectability of statistical differences between genotypes was improved by treating harvest × plot comb...

  8. OPTIMAL POST-HARVEST GRAINS STORAGE BY RISK AVERSE FARMERS

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, Jing-Yi; Myers, Robert J.; Hanson, Steven D.

    2001-01-01

    Most previous research on post-harvest grain storage by farmers has assumed risk-neutral behavior and/or made restrictive assumptions about underlying price probability distributions. In this study we solve the optimal post-harvest storage problem for a risk averse farmer under more general assumptions about underlying price distributions. The resulting model is applied to Michigan corn farmers and results show that, contrary to the sell all-or-nothing risk-neutral rule, risk averse farmers w...

  9. Management of post-harvest residue blanket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timely and effective residue management is essential for maximum sugar yields. Several studies were implemented in 2003 and harvested in 2004 in an effort to increase the effectiveness of residue management practices. Six studies were conducted to determine the effect of residue removal timing a...

  10. Post-harvest handling and storage of mangoes - an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mango fruit is an important agricultural commodity in the global trade and economy of its producing countries. Of late, there is a growing demand for the traditional varieties of mango in the Western markets. However, it is yet to realize its maximum potential as a tradable commodity due to its localized production and its potential markets located across the globe. Post-harvest losses in mangoes have been estimated in the range of 25 to 40% from harvesting to consumption stage. If proper methods of harvesting, handling, transportation and storage are adopted, such losses could be minimized. Hence, to tap its potential to the fullest, there is a need to adopt technologies and strategies to ensure a longer post-harvest shelf-life and longer transportation times. There are several technologies, like low temperature and other associated technologies such as controlled atmosphere (CA)/modified atmosphere (MA) storage, hypobaric storage, irradiated storage and storage in chemicals and by coatings. It is also essential that post-harvest operations like grading, packaging and precooling are adopted, to enhance the efficiency of the preservation techniques. Before adopting any of the preservation techniques, it is necessary to evaluate the relative merits and constraints of the respective technologies and adopt the most appropriate technology based on its techno-economic feasibility. In this paper different techniques for handling and storage of mangoes have been critically reviewed and discussed. (author)

  11. Efeito de produtos alternativos para o controle do bolor verde (Penicillium digitatum em pós-colheita de citros Effect of the alternative products for control of green mold (Penicillium digitatum in post-harvest citrus fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIEL ANDRADE DE SIQUEIRA FRANCO

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi verificar a ocorrência de sinergismo entre misturas de produtos alternativos aos fungicidas, para o controle do bolor verde (Penicillium digitatum em pós-colheita de citros. Foram testados dez produtos individualmente e trinta e cinco combinações destes produtos dois a dois, em comparação com tiabendazole e testemunha, com e sem inoculação. Os produtos testados não apresentaram efeito de sinergismo, exceto a mistura carbonato de Na + ácido bórico. Carbonato de Na e ácido bórico controlaram a doença em 78 e 87%, respectivamente, e, utilizando a mistura, o controle foi de 93%. Destacaram-se, ainda no controle da doença, o bicarbonato de Na, metabissulfito de Na e as misturas de bicarbonato de sódio + ácido bórico, carbonato de Na + carbonato de K, carbonato de Na + sorbato de K, bicarbonato de Na + carbonato de Na, controlando 92; 77; 81; 77; 75 e 71%, respectivamente. O tiabendazole utilizado como padrão controlou totalmente a doença.The objective of this work was verify the ocurrence of synergism of mixtures for alternative products to the fungicides for the control of the green mold (Penicillium digitatum in post-harvest citrus fruits. The efficiency of ten products, tested individually, and thirty five combinations among them, in pairs, were compared to thiabendazole and control, with and without inoculation. The products didn't present a synergism effect, except the mixture sodium carbonate + boric acid, that had a disease control of 93%. The products, sodium carbonate and boric acid controled 78 and 87%, respectively. The sodium bicarbonate, sodium methabisulphite and the mixtures of sodium bicarbonate + boric acid, sodium carbonate + potassium carbonate, sodium carbonate + potassium sorbate, sodium bicarbonate + sodium carbonate had a disease control of 92%, 77%, 81%, 77%, 75% and 71%, respectively. The fungicide treatment with thiabendazole used by standard had a whole disease control.

  12. Post harvest control of insects and mites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the Research Station for Floriculture, Aalsmeer, research is conducted to control insects and mites after harvest. Investigations include treatment with gamma radiation and fumigation with methylbromide. In many species of insects mortality or sterility can be induced by low doses of gamma radiation (10–15 krad). Reactions of cut-flowers to gamma radiation differ widely; some species tolerate radiation levels of 50 krad, others are damaged already at 5 krad. There are also indications for a seasonal variation in sensitivity. Symptoms of damage most frequently found after radiation are: flowers fail to open or open only partially; a lighter colour of the leaves and/or petals; a shorter vaselife. Fumigation with methylbromide (30 g/m3 for 1 ½ hours at 18–23°C) results in a high mortality of thrips and lepidopterous larvae. Many cut-flowers, including liatris and iris, tolerate this treatment. In some species damage was found after fumigation; the occurrence of damage often was positively correlated with the temperature. A small group of species was very sensitive to the treatment, showing damage after fumigations at lower temperatures. Also differences in sensitivity occurred between cultivars (e.g., Rosa). Symptoms of damage most frequently found after fumigation with methylbromide are: a shorter vaselife, leaf scorching, and failure of flowers to open. (author)

  13. Plant extracts for controlling the post-harvest anthracnose of banana fruit

    OpenAIRE

    M.E.S Cruz; K.R.F. Schwan-Estrada; E. Clemente; A.T. Itako; J.R. Stangarlin; M.J.S. Cruz

    2013-01-01

    In banana, fruit rot is incited by Colletotrichum musae which has been the most serious post-harvest disease of immature and mature fruit. The usual control by fungicides prohibited in many countries reduces their commercial value. Therefore, two experiments were conducted to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of alternative products to the synthetic fungicides. First, berries naturally infected by anthracnose were immersed into Azadirachta indica and citric extracts at 2 and 4% (v/v) for 3 ...

  14. Alternativas de controle pós-colheita da podridão-parda e da podridão-mole em frutos de pessegueiro Alternatives for post-harvest control of brown rot and soft rot in peach fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Luiz de Carvalho

    2009-03-01

    of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of alternative products, used during the post-harvest, in order to control the brown rot (Monilinia fructicola and the soft rot (Rhizopus spp. in peaches. The experiment was carried out in the municipality of Nepomuceno-MG in peaches of cultivar Diamond, of 10 years of planting. The experimental design was completely randomized, with 7 treatments and 3 repetitions. For the study, it was selected fruits without injuries and symptoms of the diseases. The fruits were immersed for 30 seconds in a solution containing the following treatments: 1- clove oil 0.01%; 2-Chlorine dioxide 0.1%; 3-Chlorine dioxide 0.05%; 4-Benzalkonium chloride 0.25%; 5-Dichloran 0.12%, 6-Iprodione 0.15% and 7-control (water only. After the treatments, the fruits, in a number of 10, were placed in sterile trays, in three replicates. The experiment was carried out in uncontrolled environmental conditions, the development of the diseases were evaluated 3 and 5 days after the treatments in 2005 and 3, 6 and 9 days after treatment in 2006. The use of Iprodione controlled the incidence and severity of M. fructicola and Rhizopus spp. The Dichloran was the most effective treatment in the control of Rhizopus spp. and intermediate in the control of M. fructicola. The treatments with clove oil and chlorine dioxide, at the highest concentration, reduced the incidence of Rhizopus spp. and to severity they showed intermediate results.

  15. Post-harvest losses of fish in the tropics

    OpenAIRE

    Ames, Geoff; Clucas, Ivor; Paul, Susan Scott

    1991-01-01

    Huge quantities of fish are lost after capture. This is an enormous waste of food, especially in the Third World, where much fish production is on a small scale, and where high temperatures make spoilage much more rapid. The situation is increasingly serious, at a time when the world's demand for fish is increasing, yet fishery resources are already under very heavy pressure. This publication seeks to explain just what the 'post-harvest' losses are, and the steps which can be taken to reduce ...

  16. Comparison of Postoperative Pain Relief by Intercostal Block Between Pre-rib Harvest and Post-rib Harvest Groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To compare intercostal nerve block before and after rib harvest in terms of mean postoperative pain score and mean postoperative tramadol usage. Study Design: Randomized controlled trial. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Plastic Surgery, Mayo Hospital, KEMU, Lahore, from January 2011 to July 2012. Methodology: Patients (n = 120) of either gender with ASA class-I and II requiring autogenous costal cartilage graft were inducted. Patients having history of local anaesthetic hypersensitivity and age 60 years were excluded. Subjects were randomly assigned to pre-rib harvest (group-1) and post-rib harvest (group-2). Local anaesthetic mixture was prepared by adding 10 milliliters 2% lidocaine to 10 milliliters 0.5% bupivacaine to obtain a total 20 ml solution. Group-1 received local anaesthetic infiltration along the proposed incision lines and intercostals block before the rib harvest. Group-2 received the infiltration and block after rib harvest. Postoperative consumption of tramadol and pain scores were measured at 6 and 12 hours postoperatively using VAS. Results: Mean age was 31.43 A +- 10.78 years. The mean pain scores at 6 hours postoperatively were 1.033 A +- 0.609 and 2.4667 A +- 0.812 in pre-rib harvest and post-rib harvest groups respectively (p < 0.0001). The mean pain scores at 12 hours postoperatively were 1.45 A +- 0.565 and 3.65 A +- 0.633 in pre-rib harvest and post-rib harvest groups respectively (p < 0.0001). The mean tramadol used postoperatively in first 24 hours was 169 A +- 29.24 mg and 255 A +- 17.70 mg in prerib harvest and post-rib harvest groups respectively (p < 0.0001). Conclusion: Intercostal block administered before rib harvest as preemptive strategy result in decreased postoperative pain scores and narcotic use. (author)

  17. Post Harvest Treatment Effects on Crown-Cut Broccoli Shelf Life

    OpenAIRE

    Ramesh, Reddy Yettella Venkata

    2004-01-01

    The effects of packaging treatments, post harvest cooling delay and storage duration on color, texture, ascorbic acid content, weight loss and glucosinolate retention in crown-cut heads of broccoli were studied. Oxygen and CO2 levels inside shrink wrap packages were also monitored. Shrink wrap packaging had a significant positive effect on hue angle (p<0.05). Packaging and post harvest cooling delay had no effect on hue difference and total color difference. While post harvest cooling dela...

  18. AHP choice in cocoa post-harvest technology for small-scale farmers

    OpenAIRE

    Lenin Vera-Montenegro; Amparo Baviera-Puig; Jose-Maria Garcia-Alvarez-Coque

    2014-01-01

    Ensuring that the post-harvest process yields good quality cocoa is a relevant research question. However, the literature currently lacks detailed studies of producers’ criteria for post-harvest technology selection. There is therefore a need for research that examines technology choice based on several criteria. This is the aim of our paper. We defined a cocoa post-harvest technology selection model to assist small producers in Ecuador. To do so, we employed the Analytical Hierarchy Process ...

  19. Principles of Designing and Implementing Agricultural Extension Programs for Reducing Post-harvest Loss

    OpenAIRE

    Paul E. McNamara; Joyous S. Tata

    2015-01-01

    Post-harvest losses represent a significant threat to food security and farmer incomes worldwide. It is an inefficiency in the global food production system that is avoidable. In deducing principles of designing and implementing agricultural extension programs to reduce post-harvest losses, valuable lessons can be gleaned from the handful of previous extension projects and programs addressing post-harvest loss. Abstracting principles from previous experiences and using this to inform future p...

  20. Hurdle technology to preserve the 'Golden' papaya post harvest quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the purpose of evaluating a combination of post harvest techniques on papaya Golden storage, the following treatments were investigated: carton boxes packaging (CP); CP + plastic bag of PEBD - low density polyethylene film, with 0.05mm of thickness (PE); CP + PEBD with 0.025mm of thickness impregnated with mineral ethylene scavenger (PEAbs); gamma-irradiation (0.4 kGy and 0.7 kGy); and refrigerated storage at 10 deg C e 90% of relative humidity for 2, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 days plus five days under environmental conditions to allow ripening and to simulate the product marketing. To evaluate the effects on fruit quality the following measurements were taken: - first experiment, disease incidence, skin color and loss of turgidity (as visual variables); skin and flesh color, weight loss, flesh firmness, total soluble solids, total titratable acidity, pH, lycopene and beta-carotene composition; - second experiment, sensorial analysis on samples submitted to the treatments with better results from the first experiment. Post harvest diseases were the main factor responsible for discarding fruits. Percentage of weight loss was higher on papayas stored without plastic packaging. Time affected the flesh firmness (F = 95%). However, there wasn't influence of the treatments on that parameter. A significant effect on skin color was observed with interaction between irradiation (0.4 and 0.7 kGy) and storage period. Once reached the edible stage, irradiated papayas presented more uniformity on skin color. For beta-carotene and Lycopene, the mean values were 1.27 to 1.79 and 19.16 to 23.90 mug/ml of flesh, respectively. But those substances weren't affected by the combined methods or the time. The same behavior were observed for total soluble solids, total titratable acidity and pH (mean values of 11.53 to 12.20 deg Brix, 0.117 to 0.136 g of citric acid/100g of flesh and 4.91 to 5.04, respectively). On sensory evaluation, the judges didn't get to detect significant

  1. Potentiality of botanical agents for the management of post harvest insects of maize: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soujanya, P Lakshmi; Sekhar, J C; Kumar, P; Sunil, N; Prasad, Ch Vara; Mallavadhani, U V

    2016-05-01

    Natural products derived from plants are emerging as potent biorational alternatives to synthetic insecticides for the integrated management of post harvest insects of maize. In this paper, effectiveness of botanicals including plant extracts, essential oils, their isolated pure compounds, plant based nano formulations and their mode of action against storage insects have been reviewed with special reference to maize. Plant based insecticides found to be the most promising means of controlling storage insects of maize in an eco friendly and sustainable manner. This article also throws light on the commercialization of botanicals, their limitations, challenges and future trends of storage insect management. PMID:27407183

  2. Post-harvest loss in Sub-Saharan Africa -- what do farmers say ?

    OpenAIRE

    Kaminski, Jonathan; Christiaensen, Luc

    2014-01-01

    The 2007-2008 global food crisis has renewed interest in post-harvest loss, but estimates remain scarce, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa. This paper uses self-reported measures from nationally representative household surveys in Malawi, Uganda, and Tanzania. Overall, on-farm post-harvest loss adds to 1.4-5.9 percent of the national maize harvest, substantially lower than the Food and Agri...

  3. Response of sugar beet recombinant inbred lines to post-harvest rot fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugar beet is commonly stored in outdoor piles prior to processing. During this storage period the crop is subject to multiple post-harvest rots. Resistance to three post harvest rots was identified in two sugar beet germplasm in the 1970s, but there has been little work done on host resistance to p...

  4. Response of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) recombinant inbred lines to post-harvest rot fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) is commonly stored in outdoor piles prior to processing for food and animal feed. During this storage period the crop is subject to multiple post-harvest rots. Resistance to three post harvest rots was identified in two sugar beet germplasm in the 1970s, but there has been...

  5. Input of sugarcane post-harvest residues into the soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Luís Nunes Carvalho

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. crops provide carbon (C for soil through straw and root system decomposition. Recently, however, sugarcane producers are considering straw to be removed for electricity or second generation ethanol production. To elucidate the role of straw and root system on the carbon supply into the soil, the biomass inputs from sugarcane straw (tops and dry leaves and from root system (rhizomes and roots were quantified, and its contribution to provide C to the soil was estimated. Three trials were carried out in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil, from 2006 to 2009. All sites were cultivated with the variety SP81 3250 under the green sugarcane harvest. Yearly, post-harvest sugarcane residues (tops, dry leaves, roots and rhizomes were sampled; weighted and dried for the dry mass (DM production to be estimated. On average, DM root system production was 4.6 Mg ha-1 year-1 (1.5 Mg C ha-1 year-1 and 11.5 Mg ha-1 year-1 (5.1 Mg C ha-1 year-1 of straw. In plant cane, 35 % of the total sugarcane DM was allocated into the root system, declining to 20 % in the third ratoon. The estimate of potential allocation of sugarcane residues to soil organic C was 1.1 t ha-1 year-1; out of which 33 % was from root system and 67 % from straw. The participation of root system should be higher if soil layer is evaluated, a deeper soil layer, if root exudates are accounted and if the period of higher production of roots is considered.

  6. Impact of different packaging technologies on post harvest losses of stone fruits in swat pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soft texture of stone fruits makes them prone to post harvest losses. Effect of different packaging materials on the texture of fruits also varies for their post-harvest losses. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of wooden and cardboard box technologies on post-harvest losses of plum through its marketing channel. Primary data was collected through pre tested questionnaires by proportionate random sampling procedure. Quantitative losses were estimated through percentage method while partial losses were estimated at the wholesale and retail level by price differential method. Multiple regression analysis was employed to find relation between post-harvest losses and different factors at three different stages. Findings of the study revealed the channel of cardboard box technology accounted for post-harvest losses of 10.49% while at farm level, losses were 2.90%, at wholesale level 1.45% and retail level the losses were 6.14%. On the other hand post-harvest losses were 14.24% in wooden box channel; in which 6.10% occurred at farm level, 1.43% at the wholesale level and 6.71% at the retail level. Cardboard box technology has reduced post-harvest losses of plum by 27%. Post-harvest losses were moderate and positively correlated at farm level, weakly and positive related at whole sale level and weak and negatively correlated at retail level. Pre-harvest management, careful handling and harvesting in proper maturity can help in reducing post-harvest losses. (author)

  7. Post harvest changes gamma-irradiated banana Prata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of the gamma-irradiation was evaluated at 0.25 and 0.50 kGy, on the development of peel coloration, CO2 and ethylene evolution, conversion of starch to sugars, pulp-to-peel ratio, pectic solubilization and activities of enzymes of the cell wall, pectin methylesterase (PME), and polygalacturonase (PG), during maturation of 'Prata' bananas. The gamma-irradiation did not affect the normal colour development of the fruits. An increase in the ethylene peak and a decrease in the CO2 peak was observed. The gamma-irradiation did not affect the degradation of starch, while a delay in soluble sugar accumulation was noted on the 6 and 7 colour grades. The fruits subjected to 0.25 kGy had the highest increase in the pulp-to-peel relation, beginning with colour grade 5, due to a possible stress effect of that dose. An increase of pectin solubilization was observed. Higher PME activities were exhibited by irradiated fruits, although the gamma-irradiation suppressed the PG activity throughout the maturation period. The gamma-irradiation did not extend the post-harvest life of 'Prata' bananas. (author)

  8. The Effect of Plant Cultivar, Growth Media, Harvest Method and Post Harvest Treatment on the Microbiology of Edible Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummerick, Mary P.; Gates, Justin R.; Nguyen, Bao-Thang; Massa, Gioia D.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2011-01-01

    Systems for the growth of crops in closed environments are being developed and tested for potential use in space applications to provide a source of fresh food. Plant growth conditions, growth media composition and harvest methods can have an effect on the microbial population of the plant, and therefore should be considered along with the optimization of plant growth and harvest yields to ensure a safe and palatable food crop. This work examines the effect of plant cultivar, growth media, and harvest method on plant microbial populations. Twelve varieties of leafy greens and herbs were grown on a mixture of Fafard #2 and Arcillite in the pillow root containment system currently being considered for the VEGGIE plant growth unit developed by Orbitec. In addition, ,Sierra and Outredgeous lettuce varieties were grown in three different mixtures (Fafard #2, Ardllite, and Perlite/Vermiculite). The plants were analyzed for microbial density. Two harvest methods, "cut and come again" (CACA) and terminal harvest were also compared. In one set ofexpe'riments red leaf lettuce and mizuna were grown in pots in a Biomass Production System for education. Plants were harvested every two weeks by either method. Another set of experiments was performed using the rooting pillows to grow 5 varieties of leafy greens and cut harvesting at different intervals. Radishes were harvested and replanted at two-week intervals. Results indicate up to a 3 IOglO difference in microbial counts between some varieties of plants. Rooting medium resulted in an approximately 2 IOglO lower count in the lettuce grown in arscillite then those grown in the other mixtures. Harvest method and frequency had less impact on microbial counts only showing a significant increase in one variety of plant. Post harvest methods to decrease the bacterial counts on edible crops were investigated in these and other experiments. The effectiveness of PRO-SAN and UV-C radiation is compared.

  9. Pre-and Post Harvest Losses of Pigeon pea in Maharashtra

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Deepak

    2014-01-01

    The present study makes a comprehensive attempt to estimate the dimension of losses occurring during the pre- and post harvest stages of pigeon pea among pulses cultivated in the state of Maharashtra. The study showed about 14-18 per cent of the total production of pigeon pea as lost on account of pre-harvest, harvest and post-harvest operations. Such high magnitude of loss of crop production is certainly a matter of great concern. Therefore, efforts need to be initiated to curb such losses b...

  10. Effects of Post-Harvest Treatment Requirements on the Markets for Oysters

    OpenAIRE

    Muth, Mary K.; Karns, Shawn A.; Anderson, Donald W.; Brian C. Murray

    2002-01-01

    Because of public health concerns, regulators are considering requiring post-harvest treatment of halfshell and shucked oysters by wholesalers and processors. Two recently developed post-harvest treatment technologies may actually reduce the costs of producing shucked oysters, but would increase the costs of halfshell oysters. An interregional model of the wholesale oyster industry is developed to estimate the effects of treatment requirements on prices, output, and employment. If post-harves...

  11. Modeling the Effects of Harvest Alternatives on Mitigating Oak Decline in a Central Hardwood Forest Landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen J Wang

    Full Text Available Oak decline is a process induced by complex interactions of predisposing factors, inciting factors, and contributing factors operating at tree, stand, and landscape scales. It has greatly altered species composition and stand structure in affected areas. Thinning, clearcutting, and group selection are widely adopted harvest alternatives for reducing forest vulnerability to oak decline by removing susceptible species and declining trees. However, the long-term, landscape-scale effects of these different harvest alternatives are not well studied because of the limited availability of experimental data. In this study, we applied a forest landscape model in combination with field studies to evaluate the effects of the three harvest alternatives on mitigating oak decline in a Central Hardwood Forest landscape. Results showed that the potential oak decline in high risk sites decreased strongly in the next five decades irrespective of harvest alternatives. This is because oak decline is a natural process and forest succession (e.g., high tree mortality resulting from intense competition would eventually lead to the decrease in oak decline in this area. However, forest harvesting did play a role in mitigating oak decline and the effectiveness varied among the three harvest alternatives. The group selection and clearcutting alternatives were most effective in mitigating oak decline in the short and medium terms, respectively. The long-term effects of the three harvest alternatives on mitigating oak decline became less discernible as the role of succession increased. The thinning alternative had the highest biomass retention over time, followed by the group selection and clearcutting alternatives. The group selection alternative that balanced treatment effects and retaining biomass was the most viable alternative for managing oak decline. Insights from this study may be useful in developing effective and informed forest harvesting plans for managing oak

  12. RATIONAL TECHNOLOGIES OF SUNFLOWER SEEDS POST-HARVEST PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priporov I. E.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research is the determination of rational technology of post-harvest treatment of seeds of sunflower. Existing technologies that are implemented in grain cleaning units and complexes for the preparation of seed material type GCM (Voronezhselmash, "Polyma" (Belarus and others perform seed treatment by sequential processing on all cleaning machines. Return at any point not provided, it is necessary to conduct repeated handling throughout the chain of cars that leads to the reduction of seed yield, decreased performance and increased injury to seed. Research Institute of oil crops designed container technology in universal seed cleaning complex, eliminates these disadvantages and allows finishing the processing of seed material at the time of matching seeds with the requirements of GOST at any stage. In seed output pneumatic sorting machines MOS-9N, which is seed cleaning complex that contained diseased seeds that differ from healthy seeds by color and lowered their quality. To improve the quality of seed material was applied photoelectron separator F 5.1, followed by separation of sunflower seeds on the dimension fraction (Ø7-Ø8 mm, Ø8-Ø9мм. In the result of the research container technology with subsequent fractionation of sunflower seeds on the separator at the final stage of their processing improves the yield of highly certified seeds from 92.90 to 93.20 % compared 91,20 % (without fractionation and reduce the content of their departure from 68,83 to 65,60 % compared 85,52 % (without fractionation depending on size fraction

  13. Harvest time and post-harvest quality of Fuyu persimmon treated before harvest with gibberellic acid and aminoetoxyvinilglycine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Antonio Ayub

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of gibberellic acid (GA3 and aminoetoxyvinilglycine (AVG applied in preharvest spraying, on the retardation of the harvest and on the quality of persimmon fruits cv. Fuyu. The experiment was carried in randomized complete block design. The treatments were: control, 136mgL-1 of AVG, 272 mgL-1 of AVG, 36mgL-1 of GA3, 72mgL-1 of GA3 and 136mgL-1 of AVG + 36mgL-1 of GA3, spraying 30 days before the first harvest. The fruits were harvested twice and stored at 4ºC. The chemical and physical evaluations of the fruits were carried out the date of the harvest and at intervals of 15 days followed by four days at 20ºC. In conclusion, the application of AVG (136mgL-1 or GA3 (72mgL-1 maintained the firmness of the fruits and delayed harvest by twenty days. However, fruits harvested in the initial state of ripening were more sensitive to chilling injury and were unable to support 15 days of storage at 4ºC. The plant growth regulators were not efficient in prolonged storage due to the fact that the concentration of sugars was lower in the treatments than in the control.

  14. EFFICACY OF LEAF EXTRACTS AGAINST THE POST HARVEST FUNGAL PATHOGENS OF COWPEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umesh P. Mogle

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to control the fungi associated with cowpea legumes. Post-harvest fungal diseases of cowpea legumes in the markets of Jalna (MS India, were isolated, identified and maintained on an agar medium. Efficacy of 10 % aqueous leaf extracts was tested against the growth of 06 post harvest fungal pathogens of Cowpea legumes. Aqueous leaves extract of Parthenium hysterophorus, Annona reticulata, Polyalthia longifolia, Ipomea carnea, Tridax procumbens, Argemone mexicana, Cathranthus roseus, Eucalyptus globulus and Achyranthus aspera were used against the post harvest fungal mycoflora. All the plants used were found to be antifungal. In particular Eucalyptus globulus, Argemone mexicana, Tridax procumbens and Parthenium hysterophorus were highly inhibitory. These plant extracts can be used for controlling fungal pathogens of Cowpea legumes during post harvest as these are eco-friendly and do not cause environmental hazard.

  15. Thermal control of some post-harvest rot pathogens of Irish potato (solanum tuberosum l.)

    OpenAIRE

    Salami Olusola Abiodun; Popoola Omololu Olumide

    2007-01-01

    Thermal control effect on the incidence of some post-harvest rot pathogens of Solanum tuberosum (potato) was investigated in this study. Three cultivars of potato tuber whose local names are, Patiska, Mai Bawondoya and Nicola were used for the study. Five pathogenic fungi viz: Botryodiplodia theobromae, Fusarium redolens, Fusarium oxysporum, Penicillium sp. and Rhizopus oryzae associated with post harvest storage rot of root-tubers, were isolated from diseased potatoes. Among the three specie...

  16. Economic Analysis of Post-harvest Losses in Marketing of Vegetables in Uttarakhand

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Gaurav; Singh, S.P.

    2011-01-01

    The study has examined the nature and extent of post-harvest losses in vegetable supply chain in the Kumaon division of Uttarakhand. Multistage cluster sampling has been used for selection of 80 vegetable growers, 40 farmers from the hilly region and 40 farmers from the bhabhar region. The sample has also included 25 market functionaries. Twelve major vegetables have been selected for the study. The maximum aggregate post-harvest losses have been found in tomato, followed by potato, brinjal, ...

  17. EFFICACY OF LEAF EXTRACTS AGAINST THE POST HARVEST FUNGAL PATHOGENS OF COWPEA

    OpenAIRE

    Umesh P. Mogle

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed to control the fungi associated with cowpea legumes. Post-harvest fungal diseases of cowpea legumes in the markets of Jalna (MS) India, were isolated, identified and maintained on an agar medium. Efficacy of 10 % aqueous leaf extracts was tested against the growth of 06 post harvest fungal pathogens of Cowpea legumes. Aqueous leaves extract of Parthenium hysterophorus, Annona reticulata, Polyalthia longifolia, Ipomea carnea, Tridax procumbens, Argemone mexicana, Cathranthus ro...

  18. Detection and prediction of post harvest carrot diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrot is the most important outdoor vegetable crop in Norway with a market value of NOK 675 million in 2010. Because demand for carrots is year-round but the growing season is short, the crop is typically stored after harvest for as long as 6 months. Diseases that develop during low temperature sto...

  19. Harvest Efficiency and Discards under Harvest Uncertainty and Trading Frictions

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Rajesh; Weninger, Quinn

    2012-01-01

    We study harvesting efficiency and the problem of discards under harvest uncertainty in a fishery that is managed with quotas. With only idiosyncratic harvest uncertainty, we show that frictionless post harvest quota trade can achieve full efficiency and eliminate quota-overage discards completely. In the absence of such trade, we deduce an ad-valorem tax/subsidy that eliminates discards while delivering a desired aggregate harvest target. Alternatively, we show that a hybrid policy, i.e., a ...

  20. Methyl Jasmonate and 1-Methylcyclopropene Treatment Effects on Quinone Reductase Inducing Activity and Post-Harvest Quality of Broccoli

    OpenAIRE

    Ku, Kang Mo; Choi, Jeong Hee; Kim, Hyoung Seok; Kushad, Mosbah M.; Jeffery, Elizabeth H.; Juvik, John A.

    2013-01-01

    Effect of pre-harvest methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and post-harvest 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) treatments on broccoli floret glucosinolate (GS) concentrations and quinone reductase (QR, an in vitro anti-cancer biomarker) inducing activity were evaluated two days prior to harvest, at harvest and at 10, 20, and 30 days of post-harvest storage at 4 °C. MeJA treatments four days prior to harvest of broccoli heads was observed to significantly increase floret ethylene biosynthesis resulting in chloro...

  1. Insights into molecular and metabolic events associated with fruit response to post-harvest fungal pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Alkan, Noam; Fortes, Ana M

    2015-01-01

    Due to post-harvest losses more than 30% of harvested fruits will not reach the consumers’ plate. Fungal pathogens play a key role in those losses, as they cause most of the fruit rots and the customer complaints. Many of the fungal pathogens are already present in the unripe fruit but remain quiescent during fruit growth until a particular phase of fruit ripening and senescence. The pathogens sense the developmental change and switch into the devastating necrotrophic life style that causes f...

  2. Mineralogical Response of the Post harvest Mango (Mangifera Indica L.) to Different Levels of Bavistin DF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was carried out with the post harvest mangoes (viz., the Langra and the Khirshapat) treating with different levels of Bavistin DF solution (namely, 250, 500, and 750 PPM) for obtaining results on the mineral content changes as well as storability of post harvest mango. The results of the experiments exhibited that only the single effect of varieties was found to be significant in most of the parameters studied. The Langra enriched a greater quantity of magnesium, iron and manganese constituents over the Khirshapat. On the other hand, Khirshapat enriched higher quantities of calcium, copper and zinc content at all the storage duration. Different post harvest treatments subjected to the investigation demonstrated significant variation in most of the mineralogical properties of mango at different days of storage. The result explored that calcium, magnesium, iron, and manganese contents were rapidly increased. On the other hand copper and zinc content drastically decreased from untreated mangoes. (author)

  3. Post-harvest technologies for various crops of pakistan: status quo, employment generation and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The climatic conditions of Pakistan vary from tropical to temperate, allow 40 different kinds of vegetables, 21 type of fruit, and 5 major crops (wheat, cotton, rice, sugarcane, and maize) to grow. During the peak harvest-season, a great proportion of fresh agricultural/horticultural produce is lost, due to unavailability of suitable post-harvest technologies. An effort was made to present the status quo, constraints, Government policies and possible post-harvest technologies that can be developed/adopted in the country to generate employment in the rural areas. Secondary processing-industry (flour mills, sugar mills, oil mills etc.) is fairly developed in the country. However. primary processing of agricultural produce is poorly developed in the country. The higher cost of the processed products, consumers habits of eating fresh commodities, seasonability of fresh fruit and vegetables, and low quality of the processed products are the key-constraints for the slow growth of post-harvest processing industry. By removing these constraints, and by developing/adopting various technologies, identified in this paper, we may help to establish post-harvest processing industry on sound footings. Consequently, the employment-opportunities will increase in the rural areas of the country. (author)

  4. Molecular genetic tools to modulate post-harvest physiology in cassava

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within 24-72 hours of harvest the starchy storage roots of cassava deteriorate rapidly depending on variety and environmental conditions. This post-harvest physiological deterioration (PPD) necessitates their prompt consumption or processing. In traditional village society, cassava roots are left in the ground until required; but, with increased urbanisation and the entry of cassava into the cash economy, distances have increased and PPD has become a major constraint to the development of this important crop, which impacts on farmers, processors and consumers alike. Improvement of cassava with respect to its PPD response via breeding is fraught with difficulties due to the high heterozygosity of the crop, a strong association between PPD and high dry matter content, and a high genetic X environment interaction. Molecular genetic tools may offer alternative approaches via insights into the PPD response itself, the provision of molecular markers for use in marker assisted selection and via the direct manipulation of the cassava genome. cDNA microarrays identify 73 genes whose expression changes significantly during the time-course of PPD; these clones are available to the cassava community for mapping or other research. These data support the hypothesis that reactive oxygen species mediated programmed cell death is at the heart of the PPD response. Currently we are further testing this hypothesis through the genetic modification of cassava using genes with the ability to alter the reactive oxygen defence status of the roots or to enhance the root's antiprogrammed cell death response. These modifications have the potential to extend the shelf-life of the cassava roots and ultimately to benefit resource-poor farmers. (author)

  5. Post-harvest field manipulations to conserve waste rice for waterfowl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, J.D.; Kaminski, R.M.; Reinecke, K.J.; Kurtz, M.E.; Manley, S.W.

    2005-01-01

    Rice seeds escaping collection by combines during harvest (hereafter, waste rice) provide quality forage for migrating and wintering waterfowl in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley (MAV) and other rice growing regions in the United States. Recent sample surveys across the MAV have revealed abundance of waste rice in fields declined an average of 71% between harvest and late autumn. Thus, we evaluated the ability of common post-harvest, field-management practices to conserve waste rice for waterfowl until early winter via controlled experiments in Mississippi rice test plots in 2001 and 2003 and analyses of data from MAV-wide surveys of waste rice in rice production fields in 2000-2002. Our experiments indicated test plots with burned rice stubble that were not flooded during autumn contained more waste rice than other treatments in 2001 (P?0.10). Waste-rice abundance in test plots did not differ among postharvest treatments in 2003 (P = 0.97). Our analyses of data from the MAV sample surveys did not detect differences in abundance of waste rice among fields burned, rolled, disked, or left in standing stubble post-harvest (P?0.04; Bonferroni corrected critical ( a= 0.017). Because results from test-plot experiments were inconclusive, we based our primary inference regarding best post-harvest treatments on patterns of rice abundance identified from the MAV surveys and previously documented environmental and agronomic benefits of managing harvested rice fields for wintering waterfowl. Therefore, we recommend leaving standing stubble in rice fields after harvest as a preliminary beneficial management practice. We suggest future research evaluate potential of postharvest practices to conserve waste rice for waterfowl and reduce straw in production rice fields managed for wintering waterfowl throughout the MAV.

  6. Effects of Genetic, Pre- and Post-Harvest Factors on Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Capacity of White Asparagus Spears

    OpenAIRE

    Evangelos Kazakis; Dimitrios Gerasopoulos; Athanasios Koukounaras; Eleftherios Papoulias; Siomos, Anastasios S.

    2009-01-01

    The effects of genetic, pre-harvest (season of harvest, spear diameter, spear portion and spear tip color) and post-harvest factors (storage and domestic preparation practices, e.g., peeling and cooking) on total phenolic, flavonoid and ascorbic acid content of white asparagus spears and their correlation with antioxidant capacity (DPPH and FRAP) were studied. Results showed that genetic material was important for the total phenolic content but not season of harvest, spear diameter or storage...

  7. Selection and testing of epiphytic yeasts to control anthacnose in post-harvest of papaya fruit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capdeville, G.; Souza, M.T.; Santos, J.R.P.; Miranda, S.P.; Caetano, A.R.; Torres, F.A.G.

    2007-01-01

    Anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, is a major post-harvest disease in papaya fruit. The major objectives of the present work were to isolate, select and test the in vitro and in vivo ability of epiphytic microorganisms, isolated from papaya fruit and leaf surfaces, in controlling

  8. A preliminary investigation into the post harvest losses of fish in Shiroro Lake area

    OpenAIRE

    Oyero, J.O.

    2001-01-01

    The findings are presented of a study conducted to assess the post harvest losses in Shiroro Lake, Nigeria. The major objectives were to identify and quantify the types of losses, to provide recommendations that would enhance formulation of policy guidelines for utilization and exploitation of the declining fishery resources of the lake

  9. Effects of chitosan-based coatings containing peppermint essential oil on the quality of post-harvest papaya fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edible coatings comprised of antimicrobial polymers based on chitosan are promising technologies to preserve post-harvest fruit quality. In this study, we investigated the potential utility of a coating made from chitosan modified by N-acylation with fatty acid to preserve post-harvest papaya qualit...

  10. Alternative solvents for post combustion carbon capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arachchige, Udara S.P.R. [Telemark University College, Porsgrunn (Norway); Melaaen, Morten C. [Telemark University College, Porsgrunn (Norway); Tel-Tek, Porsgrunn (Norway)

    2013-07-01

    The process model of post combustion chemical absorption is developed in Aspen Plus for both coal and gas fired power plant flue gas treating. The re-boiler energy requirement is considered as the most important factor to be optimized. Two types of solvents, mono-ethylamine (MEA) and di-ethylamine (DEA), are used to implement the model for three different efficiencies. The re-boiler energy requirement for regeneration process is calculated. Temperature and concentration profiles in absorption column are analyzed to understand the model behavior. Re-boiler energy requirement is considerably lower for DEA than MEA as well as impact of corrosion also less in DEA. Therefore, DEA can be recommended as a better solvent for post combustion process for carbon capture plants in fossil fuel fired power industries.

  11. Alternative solvents for post combustion carbon capture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udara S. P. R. Arachchige, Morten C. Melaaen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The process model of post combustion chemical absorption is developed in Aspen Plus for both coal and gas fired power plant flue gas treating. The re-boiler energy requirement is considered as the most important factor to be optimized. Two types of solvents, mono-ethylamine (MEA and di-ethylamine (DEA, are used to implement the model for three different efficiencies. The re-boiler energy requirement for regeneration process is calculated. Temperature and concentration profiles in absorption column are analyzed to understand the model behavior. Re-boiler energy requirement is considerably lower for DEA than MEA as well as impact of corrosion also less in DEA. Therefore, DEA can be recommended as a better solvent for post combustion process for carbon capture plants in fossil fuel fired power industries.

  12. Alternative solvents for post combustion carbon capture

    OpenAIRE

    Udara S. P. R. Arachchige, Morten C. Melaaen

    2013-01-01

    The process model of post combustion chemical absorption is developed in Aspen Plus for both coal and gas fired power plant flue gas treating. The re-boiler energy requirement is considered as the most important factor to be optimized. Two types of solvents, mono-ethylamine (MEA) and di-ethylamine (DEA), are used to implement the model for three different efficiencies. The re-boiler energy requirement for regeneration process is calculated. Temperature and concentration profiles in absorption...

  13. Design Alternative Evaluation No. 3: Post-Closure Ventilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study is to provide input to the Enhanced Design Alternatives (EDA) for License Application Design Selection (LADS). Its purpose is to develop and evaluate conceptual designs for post-closure ventilation alternatives that enhance repository performance. Post-closure ventilation is expected to enhance repository performance by limiting the amount of water contacting the waste packages. Limiting the amount of water contacting the waste packages will reduce corrosion

  14. Design Alternative Evaluation No. 3: Post-Closure Ventilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logan, R.C.

    1999-06-22

    The objective of this study is to provide input to the Enhanced Design Alternatives (EDA) for License Application Design Selection (LADS). Its purpose is to develop and evaluate conceptual designs for post-closure ventilation alternatives that enhance repository performance. Post-closure ventilation is expected to enhance repository performance by limiting the amount of water contacting the waste packages. Limiting the amount of water contacting the waste packages will reduce corrosion.

  15. Effect of gamma radiation on post harvest storage life of onion bulb under ordinary room condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post harvest storage life of radiated onion bulbs harvested at different stages of maturity and stored at ordinary room temperature (30-39 degree C) was studied at the Department of Horticulture, NWFP Agricultural University, Peshawar, during August 2002. Onion bulbs were harvested at two stages i.e. drooping and complete dried leaf. Four radiation doses of 2, 4, 6 and 8 kilo rad (Kr) were applied with normal (control). The data of experiment was collected from weight loss, rot attack, sprouting, firmness and taste pungency. The results revealed that various radiation doses significantly affected weight loss, rot attack, sprouting, firmness and taste pungency. Onion bulbs radiated with 8 Kr showed minimum percent weight loss (28.59%), decrease in firmness and taste pungency. Minimum percent rot attack (6.3%) was observed in 6 and 8 Kr. Radiation doses of 4, 6 and 8 Kr showed no sprouting at all. Maximum weight loss (43.20%), rot attack (16.2%), sprouting (40.78%), decrease in firmness and taste pungency were recorded for control. The results showed that harvesting stages are statistically non-significant. The interaction between radiation doses and harvesting stages are also non-significant. Harvesting stages significantly affected weight loss, rot attack, sprouting and taste pungency. Onion bulbs of complete dried leaf stage recorded maximum percent weight loss (35.42%), percent sprouting (11.7%) and taste pungency while minimum percent weight loss (31.62%), percent sprouting (5.01%) and taste pungency was observed in onion bulbs of drooping stage. Maximum percent rot attack (10.9%) was noted in onion bulbs of drooping stage while minimum (7.3%) in onion bulbs of complete dried leaf stage. Radiation dose of 8 Kr is recommended to reduce the post-harvest losses in onion bulbs. Drooping stage comparatively prolonged the shelf life of bulb

  16. Waterbird communities in rice fields subjected to different post-harvest treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, J.H.; Colwell, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    In California's Sacramento Valley, the potential value of rice fields as habitat for waterbirds may vary with harvest method, post-harvest treatment of rice straw (chopped, burned, plowed), and extent of flooding. Recent changes in rice harvesting methods (i.e., use of stripper-headers) and a legislative mandate to decrease burning of rice straw after harvest may alter habitat availability and use. Thus, we investigated species richness and community composition of nonbreeding waterbirds during October-March 1993-94 and 1994-95 in rice fields of the northern Sacramento Valley. Most (85-91% of land area) rice was conventionally harvested (i.e., cutter bar), and the remainder was stripped. Rice straw was left untreated in more than half of fields (52% in 1994 and 54% in 1995), especially in stripped fields (56-70%). In fields where farmers treated straw, the most common management methods were plowing (15-21%), burning (19-24%), and chopping (3-5%). Fields became increasingly wet from October through March as seasonal precipitation accumulated and farmers flooded fields to facilitate straw decomposition and provide habitat for ducks. Species richness of waterbirds was greater (P 0.23). Species richness in stripped fields probably was low because foraging opportunities were limited by tall dense straw, decreased grain density, and infrequent flooding. We recommend that land managers wishing to provide habitat for a diverse waterbird community harvest rice using conventional methods and flood fields shallowly.

  17. DESCRIPTION AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF MEXICAN CRIOLLO CACAO DURING POSTHARVEST PROCESSING

    OpenAIRE

    P. García-­Alamilla; V.W. González-Lauck; E de la Cruz-Lázaro; L.M. Lagunes­-Gálvez; R. García-Alamilla

    2012-01-01

    Cacao pod and bean characteristics are indicators of quality, productivity and production,while beans physical properties are required to design processing equipment for handling, transportation and storage. Description of physical properties of a Mexican criollo type cacao where made in function of moisture content during the post harvest processing process. The average moisture content was from 1.075 to 0.064 g g-1 dry mater from harvest to storage. The bean index ranged from 1.38 to 1.48 ...

  18. Survival analysis: a tool in the study of post-harvest diseases in peaches

    OpenAIRE

    Cristiano Nunes Nesi; Silvia Emiko Shimakura; Paulo Justiniano Ribeiro Junior; Louise Larissa May De Mio

    2015-01-01

    Survival analysis is applied when the time until the occurrence of an event is of interest. Such data are routinely collected in plant diseases, although applications of the method are uncommon. The objective of this study was to use two studies on post-harvest diseases of peaches, considering two harvests together and the existence of random effect shared by fruits of a same tree, in order to describe the main techniques in survival analysis. The nonparametric Kaplan-Meier method, the log-ra...

  19. IMPACT OF DELAYED CRUSH ON POST-HARVEST DETERIORATION OF PROMISING EARLY MATURING SUGARCANE CLONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. SHARATH

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane is a perishable commodity and must be processed in to sugar quickly after it is harvested. Post harvest sucrose losses have been reported from many cane producing countries due to delayed crushing as a major concern. In this context to access the effect of delayed crushing in sugarcane the present study was conducted with seven promising early maturing sugarcane clones at Agricultural Research station, Perumallapalle, A.P., India during Rabi 2011-2012. Different biochemical aspects like percent juice sucrose, TSS, commercial cane sugar percent, reducing sugars %, juice pH & juice extraction percent were assayed from 0-120 hrs at 24 hrs interval after harvest to identify the sugar cane clones suitable for delayed crushing. The results of the study indicated that the clones 2006T36 and 2006T3 recorded highest sucrose% (16.37%,15.18% and lowest reducing sugars (2.50%,2.70% respectively and were found to posses tolerance to post harvest deterioration. While the clone 2006T23 recorded highest reducing sugars (3.72% and lowest sucrose % (12.39% indicating the deterioration in quality. However, significantly highest cane yield was recorded in Co C 671 (1.64 kg, Co 94008 (1.42 kg and 2006T36 (1.49 kg.

  20. Post-harvest conservation of organic strawberries coated with cassava starch and chitosan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel P Campos

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The strawberry is as non-climacteric fruit, but has a high post-harvest respiration rate, which leads to a rapid deterioration at room temperature. This study aimed to evaluate the application of biodegradable coating on postharvest conservation of organic strawberries, cv. Camarosa, packed in plastic hinged boxes and stored at 10ºC. The treatments consisted of: a control; b 2% cassava starch; c 1% chitosan; and d 2% cassava starch + 1% chitosan. Physical and chemical characteristics of fruits were evaluated at 3, 6 and 9 days of storage, and microbiological and sensory analyses were carried out at the end of the storage period. The treatments influenced positively the post-harvest quality of organic strawberries. The coating cassava starch + chitosan provided the best results, with less than 6% of loss in fruit mass, lower counts of yeast and psychrophilic microorganisms and the best appearance according to the sensory analysis.

  1. Effect of Manipulation Technique on The Grains Quality in Post-harvesting Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Angelovič

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Experimental measurements during transporting and manipulating with grains were carried out at post-harvesting line under operational conditions. Measurements were carried out in Agro Division Selice and POD Abrahám. Effect of the transportation and manipulation on the external quality of grains was evaluated. Grain volume weight, foreign matters, impurities and grain damage were assessed. Obtained results: Manipulation with grain is a big source of grain mechanical damage. Bucket elevators are intended for vertical transportation of grain, they cause crushing the grain leading to breaking kernels rather than to small damages of transported grain. Chain conveyors (redlers are intended for horizontal transportation of grain. The mechanical damage of grain is particularly observed at the capacity lower than the nominal capacity. Screw conveyors with closed channel are rarely used in post-harvesting lines. They cause large damage of transported grain and therefore absolutely improper for malting barley (sprouts are broken by them.  

  2. Environment effect on fruit ripening related gene to develop a new post harvest technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivany, Fenny; Esyanti, Rizkita Rahmi; Robertlee, Jekson; Paramaputra, Indra Chandra; Permatadewi, Rinda Kania; Tambun, Dina Hermawaty; Handayani, Resnanti Utami; Pratiwi, Aksarani'Sa; Zaskia, Herafi

    2014-03-01

    Ripening process of fruits is a very complex process, which involves ethylene production, causing alteration on molecular and physiology level. Environmental stress caused by biotic and abiotic stress conditions (such as pathogen, mechanical stress, physical and physiology stress) can stimulate ethylene production. High levels of ethylene in turn can also inhibit growth, cause premature ripening and induce the onset of senescence, which then potentially reduce plant productivity. The ACC Synthase (ACS) and ACC Oxidase (ACO) genes are genes that have role in the ethylene production. By regulating those genes, especially ethylene biosynthesis genes, we might improve the quality of fruit at post harvest condition. Therefore, in this research we studied fruit ripening related genes expression on banana such as MaACS family at different environment condition. The result of study can give contributions in developing of new plants with desired traits or new post harvest technologies.

  3. Occurrence of Pre- and Post-Harvest Mycotoxins and Other Secondary Metabolites in Danish Maize Silage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm, Ida Marie Lindhardt Drejer; Rasmussen, Rie Romme; Rasmussen, Peter Have

    2014-01-01

    Maize silage is a widely used feed product for cattle worldwide, which may be contaminated with mycotoxins, pre- and post-harvest. This concerns both farmers and consumers. To assess the exposure of Danish cattle to mycotoxins from maize silage, 99 samples of whole-crop maize (ensiled and un......-ensiled) were analyzed for their contents of 27 mycotoxins and other secondary fungal metabolites by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The method specifically targets the majority of common pre- and post-harvest fungi associated with maize silage in Denmark. Sixty-one samples contained one or more...... of the 27 analytes in detectable concentrations. The most common mycotoxins were zearalenone, enniatin B nivalenol and andrastin A, found in 34%, 28%, 16% and 15% of the samples, respectively. None of the samples contained mycotoxins above the EU recommended maximum concentrations for Fusarium toxins...

  4. In Vitro Control of Post-Harvest Fruit Rot Fungi by Some Plant Essential Oil Components

    OpenAIRE

    Gian Luigi Rana; Vincenzo De Feo; Emilia Mancini; Luciana Altieri; Laura De Martino; Ippolito Camele

    2012-01-01

    Eight substances that are main components of the essential oils from three Mediterranean aromatic plants (Verbena officinalis, Thymus vulgaris and Origanum vulgare), previously found active against some phytopathogenic Fungi and Stramenopila, have been tested in vitro against five etiological agents of post-harvest fruit decay, Botrytis cinerea, Penicillium italicum, P. expansum, Phytophthora citrophthora and Rhizopus stolonifer. The tested compounds were β-fellandrene, β-pinene, camphene, ca...

  5. Occurrence of Pre- and Post-Harvest Mycotoxins and Other Secondary Metabolites in Danish Maize Silage

    OpenAIRE

    Ida M. L. Drejer Storm; Rie Romme Rasmussen; Peter Have Rasmussen

    2014-01-01

    Maize silage is a widely used feed product for cattle worldwide, which may be contaminated with mycotoxins, pre- and post-harvest. This concerns both farmers and consumers. To assess the exposure of Danish cattle to mycotoxins from maize silage, 99 samples of whole-crop maize (ensiled and un-ensiled) were analyzed for their contents of 27 mycotoxins and other secondary fungal metabolites by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The method specifically targets the majority of common...

  6. Post-harvest evaluation of the impact of conservation farming under FAO-FSP

    OpenAIRE

    Mwape, F.; Kalinda, T.; Maimbo, F.; Banda, D.; Luhila, F.; Wilson, I.

    2004-01-01

    EXECUTIVE Following the 2001/2-drought and the resulting poor crop production in Zones II and I, the FAO-FSP was established as an emergency response to assist 59,500 selected households to re-establish their food production-base through provision of food security pack inputs and adoption of conservation farming. The post-harvest evaluation of FAO-FSP was launched

  7. Lactic acid bacteria against post-harvest moulds and ochratoxin A isolated from stored wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Belkacem-Hanfi, N.; Fhoula, I.; Semmar, N.; Guesmi, A.; Perraud Gaime, Isabelle; Ouzari, H. I.; A. Boudabous; Roussos, Sevastianos

    2014-01-01

    A total of 54 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from stored wheat samples sourced from grain silos in North Tunisia. Fifteen representative isolates were identified by 16S rDNA sequencing as Pediococcus pentosaceus, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus graminis, Lactobacillus coryniformis and Weissella cibaria. These isolates were screened for antifungal activity in dual culture agar plate assay against eight post-harvest moulds (Penicillium expansum, Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicil...

  8. Post-harvest conservation of organic strawberries coated with cassava starch and chitosan

    OpenAIRE

    Raquel P Campos; Angela Kwiatkowski; Edmar Clemente

    2011-01-01

    The strawberry is as non-climacteric fruit, but has a high post-harvest respiration rate, which leads to a rapid deterioration at room temperature. This study aimed to evaluate the application of biodegradable coating on postharvest conservation of organic strawberries, cv. Camarosa, packed in plastic hinged boxes and stored at 10ºC. The treatments consisted of: a) control; b) 2% cassava starch; c) 1% chitosan; and d) 2% cassava starch + 1% chitosan. Physical and chemical characteristics of f...

  9. Food Safety Impacts from Post-Harvest Processing Procedures of Molluscan Shellfish

    OpenAIRE

    George L. Baker

    2016-01-01

    Post-harvest Processing (PHP) methods are viable food processing methods employed to reduce human pathogens in molluscan shellfish that would normally be consumed raw, such as raw oysters on the half-shell. Efficacy of human pathogen reduction associated with PHP varies with respect to time, temperature, salinity, pressure, and process exposure. Regulatory requirements and PHP molluscan shellfish quality implications are major considerations for PHP usage. Food safety impacts associated with ...

  10. Plant extracts for controlling the post-harvest anthracnose of banana fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E.S. Cruz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In banana, fruit rot is incited by Colletotrichum musae which has been the most serious post-harvest disease of immature and mature fruit. The usual control by fungicides prohibited in many countries reduces their commercial value. Therefore, two experiments were conducted to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of alternative products to the synthetic fungicides. First, berries naturally infected by anthracnose were immersed into Azadirachta indica and citric extracts at 2 and 4% (v/v for 3 minutes and stored for 11 days under environmental conditions. Next, other berries were immersed into essential oil emulsions of Allium sativum, Copaifera langsdorfii, Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Eugenia caryophyllata at 5% for 3 minutes but stored for 11 days. Berries immersed into distilled water were used as control-treatments. The percentage of disease incidence observed in the control-treatment was similar to the ones observed in the extract of A. indica at 2%. The control-treatment showed disease severity of 75.13% and the percentage of disease control was 20.85%. Fruit immersed into distilled water presented less effectiveness than the ones immersed into citric extracts, which promoted the highest effectiveness. Citric extract at 4% was the most efficient treatment because the disease incidence was 19.44%, the disease severity was 9.34% and the disease control was 90.16%. Less severity and, consequently, more disease control were achieved by immersing the berries into the emulsion of essential oil of A. sativum, followed by treatments with C. langsdorfii, E. caryophyllata and C. zeylanicum.

  11. Advanced Post-Irradiation Examination Capabilities Alternatives Analysis Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeff Bryan; Bill Landman; Porter Hill

    2012-12-01

    An alternatives analysis was performed for the Advanced Post-Irradiation Capabilities (APIEC) project in accordance with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order DOE O 413.3B, “Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets”. The Alternatives Analysis considered six major alternatives: ? No Action ? Modify Existing DOE Facilities – capabilities distributed among multiple locations ? Modify Existing DOE Facilities – capabilities consolidated at a few locations ? Construct New Facility ? Commercial Partnership ? International Partnerships Based on the alternatives analysis documented herein, it is recommended to DOE that the advanced post-irradiation examination capabilities be provided by a new facility constructed at the Materials and Fuels Complex at the Idaho National Laboratory.

  12. Methyl jasmonate and 1-methylcyclopropene treatment effects on quinone reductase inducing activity and post-harvest quality of broccoli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Mo Ku

    Full Text Available Effect of pre-harvest methyl jasmonate (MeJA and post-harvest 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP treatments on broccoli floret glucosinolate (GS concentrations and quinone reductase (QR, an in vitro anti-cancer biomarker inducing activity were evaluated two days prior to harvest, at harvest and at 10, 20, and 30 days of post-harvest storage at 4 °C. MeJA treatments four days prior to harvest of broccoli heads was observed to significantly increase floret ethylene biosynthesis resulting in chlorophyll catabolism during post-harvest storage and reduced product quality. Post-harvest treatment with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP, which competitively binds to protein ethylene receptors, maintained post-harvest floret chlorophyll concentrations and product visual quality in both control and MeJA-treated broccoli. Transcript abundance of BoPPH, a gene which is responsible for the synthesis of pheophytinase, the primary enzyme associated with chlorophyll catabolism in broccoli, was reduced by 1-MCP treatment and showed a significant, negative correlation with floret chlorophyll concentrations. The GS, glucobrassicin, neoglucobrassicin, and gluconasturtiin were significantly increased by MeJA treatments. The products of some of the GS from endogenous myrosinase hydrolysis [sulforaphane (SF, neoascorbigen (NeoASG, N-methoxyindole-3-carbinol (NI3C, and phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC] were also quantified and found to be significantly correlated with QR. Sulforaphane, the isothiocyanate hydrolysis product of the GS glucoraphanin, was found to be the most potent QR induction agent. Increased sulforaphane formation from the hydrolysis of glucoraphanin was associated with up-regulated gene expression of myrosinase (BoMyo and the myrosinase enzyme co-factor gene, epithiospecifier modifier1 (BoESM1. This study demonstrates the combined treatment of MeJA and 1-MCP increased QR activity without post-harvest quality loss.

  13. Current strategies in the farm practices and post-harvest pesticidal defence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Molinari

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Today, people often talk about biologic agriculture and Integrated Production (IP, even if the real meaning of these terms is altered. In both cases, they deal with production methods characterized by a particular attention to the reduction of the environmental impact of all the farm practices used, especially for defence from adversities, being the element of major concern for environment and consumers’ health.Farm practice evolution, especially those about pest defence, is based on important conceptual change, accurate scientific analysis and organization of technical assistance, rationalization of agri-pharmaceutical product use is one of the main objective of Integrated Production Specifications (IPS. The quantitative reduction is the first objective, obtained by various means such as the use of efficient equipment and the qualitative selection based on the priority use of minor impact means, effectiveness being equal. At post-harvest, the anti-parasitary defence is undergoing deep changes in our country. Once, pesticides very toxic and persistent were used; however, in the last years the availability of active principles (a.p. usable on foodstuffs or in productive environments; for instance, methyl bromide use has been progressively reduced till its banishment because it is recognized to damage the ozone layer. Thus, on the whole we can talk about “integrated pest management” even for the post-harvest sector. However, substantial differences exist between agriculture and post-harvest, thus the integrated pest management in food production environment has to be designed in a different way. The fundamental element of this technique is to identify a tolerance threshold to pest attack but for the defence of food industries and stored foodstuffs is very difficult, if not impossible, to fix a limit to insect presence after which intervening is compulsory. Monitoring of pest attacks and the implementation of prevention practices is

  14. Incorporating stochasticity in the study of exploited fish population dynamics: Implications for the study of post-recruitment harvest strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Councill, Elizabeth L

    2016-03-01

    Previous work has shown that an effective method of maintaining spawning stock biomass (SSB), the biomass of fish that are reproductively mature, within an exploited stock is to regulate harvest so that maximum fishing mortality rates occur after peak spawning during the year. This is known as post-recruitment harvest. The goal of this work is to examine if the advantages of post-recruitment harvest hold when reported stochasticity in the age and time distribution of harvest rates, known as selectivity, is considered. A hybrid dynamical systems model, one in which both continuous-time and discrete-time processes operate simultaneously, was derived, and recursive solutions were found. Results from other studies indicating the benefit of post-recruitment harvest were verified using this hybrid model when selectivity was considered fixed. Simulations were repeated including variance in selectivity using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) procedure. Results show that the benefits of post-recruitment harvest to the preservation of SSB were considerably less advantageous when each age class was assumed to be subject to annual stochastic selectivity. Furthermore, the stochastic scenarios gave estimates of SSB that were lower than their fixed selectivity analogs, indicating that the benefits of theoretical post-recruitment harvest may be diminished to some extent when stochasticity plays a large role in the dynamics. PMID:26721378

  15. Survival analysis: a tool in the study of post-harvest diseases in peaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Nunes Nesi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Survival analysis is applied when the time until the occurrence of an event is of interest. Such data are routinely collected in plant diseases, although applications of the method are uncommon. The objective of this study was to use two studies on post-harvest diseases of peaches, considering two harvests together and the existence of random effect shared by fruits of a same tree, in order to describe the main techniques in survival analysis. The nonparametric Kaplan-Meier method, the log-rank test and the semi-parametric Cox's proportional hazards model were used to estimate the effect of cultivars and the number of days after full bloom on the survival to the brown rot symptom and the instantaneous risk of expressing it in two consecutive harvests. The joint analysis with baseline effect, varying between harvests, and the confirmation of the tree effect as a grouping factor with random effect were appropriate to interpret the phenomenon (disease evaluated and can be important tools to replace or complement the conventional analysis, respecting the nature of the variable and the phenomenon.

  16. The use of CFD to characterize and design post-harvest storage facilities: Past, present and future

    OpenAIRE

    Tsige, Alemayehu Ambaw; Delele, Mulugeta; Defraeye, Thijs; Ho, Quang Tri; Opara, Linus; Nicolai, Bart; Verboven, Pieter

    2013-01-01

    There has long been an interest on the use of mathematical models for optimization of post-harvest refrigeration systems operation and design. These mathematical models are applied to predict the biophysical phenomena that take place during post-harvest handling of horticultural products. CFD has now become feasible to investigate the flow, heat and mass transfer processes in such details that include complex aspects such as product stacking, gas diffusion and kinetics, and droplet or particl...

  17. The incidence of post-harvest problems among small farmers surveyed in three regions of the Limpopo Province

    OpenAIRE

    Randela, Rendani

    2003-01-01

    High yielding varieties and new production technology have vastly increased the world's agricultural production and provided rural incomes and affordable food for large parts of the population. While production research has received considerable attention, until recently, post harvest activities have not received much attention. Post harvest research has significant contribution towards the alleviation of poverty, food insecurity and the sustainable use of resources. The objective of the pape...

  18. Post-Harvest Deterioration of Cassava and its Control Using Extracts of Azadirachta Indica and Aframomum Melegueta

    OpenAIRE

    R. N. Okigbo; Ramesh Putheti; C. T. Achusi

    2009-01-01

    Post-harvest deterioration is the most important cause of loss in cassava production and this is mainly as a result of microbial invasion of the tubers. This research was therefore carried out to identify and control the organisms responsible for post-harvest deterioration of cassava tubers. Ethanolic and water extractions of Azadirachta Indica (A. Juss) leaves and Aframomum melegueta (Schumann) seeds were used as antifungal agents and the susceptibility of four of the isolated pathogenic fun...

  19. POST HARVEST TRANSMISSION OF Salmonella enterica TO THE ROOTS AND LEAVES OF BUTTERHEAD LETTUCE PACKAGED WITH INTACT ROOTS

    OpenAIRE

    Waitt, Jessie Anne

    2013-01-01

    In the United States, illnesses associated with fresh produce are increasing in frequency.  While contamination risks are present at every aspect of the farm to fork continuum, post-harvest practices holds the potential for cross-contamination of large amounts of product.  Post-harvest contamination risks for hydroponically grown lettuce packaged with intact roots and sold as "®living lettuce"" are poorly understood.  In this study, transmission of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis to ...

  20. Post-Harvest Induced Production of Salvianolic Acids and Significant Promotion of Antioxidant Properties in Roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza (Danshen)

    OpenAIRE

    Guo-Jun Zhou; Wei Wang,; Xiao-Mei Xie; Min-Jian Qin; Ben-Ke Kuai; Tong-Shui Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Danshen, the dried roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza, is an extremely valued Traditional Chinese Medicine. Previously, we have demonstrated that salvianolic acid B (SaB), the important bioactive ingredient in this herb, was a post-harvest product. Here, we further reported that all salvianolic acids (SAs) in the roots were post-harvest products of the drying process. In addition, the results of various radical scavenging activity assays, including lipid peroxidation (1), DPPH (2), hydroxyl (3) and...

  1. Spatio-temporal analysis of post-harvest moulds genera distribution on stored durum wheat cultivated in Tunisia

    OpenAIRE

    Belkacem-Hanfi, N.; Semmar, N; Perraud Gaime, Isabelle; Guesmi, A.; Cherni, M.; I. Cherif; Boudabous, A.; Roussos, Sevastianos

    2013-01-01

    Wheat represents a principal ingredient in traditional Tunisian diet including couscous, bread, pasta and biscuits. Northen Tunisia is an important growing area of wheat which after harvest is stored in silos and on farm. The cereal grains can become contaminated by post-harvest moulds during storage in silos under unfavorable conditions leading to a decrease in quality, packing and marketing of wheat. In this study, a mycological survey was undertaken to determine the biodiversity of post-ha...

  2. Potential effect of atmospheric warming on grapevine phenology and post-harvest heat accumulation across a range of climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Andrew; Mathews, Adam J.; Holzapfel, Bruno P.

    2016-01-01

    Carbohydrates are accumulated within the perennial structure of grapevines when their production exceeds the requirements of reproduction and growth. The period between harvest and leaf-fall (the post-harvest period) is a key period for carbohydrate accumulation in relatively warmer grape-growing regions. The level of carbohydrate reserves available for utilisation in the following season has an important effect on canopy growth and yield potential and is therefore an important consideration in vineyard management. In a warming climate, the post-harvest period is lengthening and becoming warmer, evidenced through studies in wine regions worldwide that have correlated recent air temperature increases with changing grapevine phenology. Budbreak, flowering, veraison, and harvest have all been observed to be occurring earlier than in previous decades. Additionally, the final stage of the grapevine phenological cycle, leaf-fall, occurs later. This study explored the potential for increased post-harvest carbohydrate accumulation by modelling heat accumulation following harvest dates for the recent climate (1975-2004) and two warmer climate projections with mean temperature anomalies of +1.26 and +2.61 °C. Summaries of post-harvest heat accumulation between harvest and leaf-fall were produced for each of Australia's Geographical Indications (wine regions) to provide comparisons from the base temperatures to projected warmer conditions across a range of climates. The results indicate that for warmer conditions, all regions observe earlier occurring budbreak and harvest as well as increasing post-harvest growing degree days accumulation before leaf-fall. The level of increase varies depending upon starting climatic condition, with cooler regions experiencing the greatest change.

  3. Influence of post-harvest irradiation time and absorbed dose to potatoes and onions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post harvest losses of potatoes and onions were mainly due to sprouting and rotting. Irradiation dose of 50 Gy for onions and of 100 Gy for potatoes applied within the dormancy period effectively inhibited sprouting. In Vietnam conditions the optimal irradiation time after harvest is 3 - 6 weeks for potatoes, within 4 weeks for onions. Irradiated potatoes and onions stored under ambient conditions tend to be more spoiled in comparison with unirradiated ones.Irradiation caused a slight decrease of vitamin C content and an increase of reduced sugars and total sugars for potatoes and onions stored under room temperature. There are no changes in main nutritional properties of irradiated onions, no after-cooking discoloration in irradiated potatoes. (author). 8 refs, 4 tabs, 9 figs

  4. Split double factorial with additional treatment and the post-harvest of Niagara grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pórtya Piscitelli Cavalcanti

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThis study aims to discuss and explain how to deal with the analysis of experiments conducted in completely randomized design (CRD and subdivided into double factorial with additional treatment in the plot. In addition it was illustrate the discussion by analyzing data from an experiment on post-harvest of Niagara grapes. The sums of squares for each source of variation are presented, while discussing how the additional treatment affects the whole variation. Niagara grapes were treated in the pre-harvest with three preservatives (calcium chloride, calcium nitrate and calcium lactate at 0%, 0.5%, 1% and 2% and stored for 0, 10, 20 and 30 days.All the preservatives evaluated at 0% represented the control (additional treatment.

  5. Effect of safe environmental pre and post harvest treatments and irradiation on handling of some fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was carried out during two successive seasons of 2005 and 2006 seasons onMontakhab El-Kanaterguavas andHachiyapersimmons.two different experiments were studied, the first one for pre harvest and second post harvest. Regarding pre harvest experiment,hand or chemical flower thinning by urea or ethrel and date of fruit picking (maturity) were evaluated on both guavas and persimmons.All flower thinning treatments increased fruit set,total yield,average fruit weight and decreased fruit abscission.However,a great effect on fruit quality and chemical compositions were also found with flower thinning treatments. Chemical flower thinning was more effective than hand thinning in improving yield and quality in Montakhab El-Kanaterguavas and Hachiyapersimmons. However,early maturation(120 and 150 days for guava and persimmon respect.) produced poor fruit quality.Whereas, medium maturity(130 and 180 days for guava and persimmon respect.) produced fruit with high quality.However,late picking(140 and 210 days for guava and persimmon respect.) produced fruits with less marketability. On the other side, post harvest treatments including irradiation of fruits with or without pre-cooling process at 0.2,0.4,and 0.8 K.Gy for guavas and 1.5, 2.5 and 3.5 K.Gy for persimmons. Also,hot water at 45 degree C, fungicide at 0.5 and 1.0 g/L.and ethanol vapor at 25 and 50% were evaluated on both fruits. The obtained data were evaluated on discarded fruits %, weight loss %, fruit firmness,fruit marketability, total soluble solids,acidity,L-ascorbic acid (guava), tannins (persimmon), total sugars and fruit respiration. All supplementary refrigeration treatments improved fruit quality during cold storage but ethanol vapor either 25 or 50 % were more effective than other treatments

  6. 78 FR 14843 - Temporary Scope Expansion of the Post-Investigation Alternative Dispute Resolution Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-07

    ... COMMISSION Temporary Scope Expansion of the Post-Investigation Alternative Dispute Resolution Program AGENCY... Regulatory Commission (NRC) is expanding the scope of the post-investigation Alternative Dispute Resolution...-0115, ``Alternative Dispute Resolution Review Team (ART) Pilot Program Recommendations for...

  7. Evaluation of Post-Harvest Organic Carbon Amendments as a Strategy to Minimize Nitrogen Losses in Cole Crop Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura L. Van Eerd

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Cole crops (Brassica vegetables can pose a significant risk for N losses during the post-harvest period due to substantial amounts of readily mineralizable N in crop residues. Amending the soil with organic C has the potential to immobilize N and thereby reduce the risk for N losses. Four field trials were conducted to determine the effects of organic C amendments (OCA on N dynamics and spring wheat (Triticum durum L. harvest parameters proceeding early- and late-broccoli (Brassica olecerea var italica L. systems in 2009 and 2010. The experimental controls represented the traditional grower practice of incorporated broccoli crop residue (CR-control and the pre-plant application of N fertilizer (CRN-control to subsequent spring wheat. Alternative practices were compared to the controls, which included broccoli crop residue removal (CR-removal, an oat (Avena sativa L. cover crop (CC-oat, and three different OCA of wheat straw (OCA-straw, yard waste (OCA-yard, or used cooking oil (OCA-oil. The treatments, which demonstrated reduced autumn soil mineral N (SMN concentrations after broccoli harvest, relative to the CR-control, were CR-removal, OCA-straw, and OCA-oil. Although CR-removal and OCA-straw indicated a reduced potential for autumn soil N losses in the early-broccoli system, these practices are not recommended for growers because subsequent spring wheat yield and profit margins were reduced compared to the CR- and CRN-controls. The OCA-oil reduced autumn SMN concentrations by 53 to 112 kg N ha−1 relative to the CR-control after both early- and late-broccoli harvest, suggesting a larger potential for reduced autumn soil N losses, compared to all other treatments. No detrimental effects resulted from the OCA-oil treatment on the subsequent spring yield or grain N. The OCA-oil reduced spring wheat profit margins relative to the CR-control, like the OCA-straw and CR-removal treatments, however profit margins were similar between the OCA-oil and

  8. A Process-Based Model of TCA Cycle Functioning to Analyze Citrate Accumulation in Pre- and Post-Harvest Fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etienne, Audrey; Génard, Michel; Bugaud, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Citrate is one of the most important organic acids in many fruits and its concentration plays a critical role in organoleptic properties. The regulation of citrate accumulation throughout fruit development, and the origins of the phenotypic variability of the citrate concentration within fruit species remain to be clarified. In the present study, we developed a process-based model of citrate accumulation based on a simplified representation of the TCA cycle to predict citrate concentration in fruit pulp during the pre- and post-harvest stages. Banana fruit was taken as a reference because it has the particularity of having post-harvest ripening, during which citrate concentration undergoes substantial changes. The model was calibrated and validated on the two stages, using data sets from three contrasting cultivars in terms of citrate accumulation, and incorporated different fruit load, potassium supply, and harvest dates. The model predicted the pre and post-harvest dynamics of citrate concentration with fairly good accuracy for the three cultivars. The model suggested major differences in TCA cycle functioning among cultivars during post-harvest ripening of banana, and pointed to a potential role for NAD-malic enzyme and mitochondrial malate carriers in the genotypic variability of citrate concentration. The sensitivity of citrate accumulation to growth parameters and temperature differed among cultivars during post-harvest ripening. Finally, the model can be used as a conceptual basis to study citrate accumulation in fleshy fruits and may be a powerful tool to improve our understanding of fruit acidity. PMID:26042830

  9. Thermal control of some post-harvest rot pathogens of Irish potato (solanum tuberosum l.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salami Olusola Abiodun

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal control effect on the incidence of some post-harvest rot pathogens of Solanum tuberosum (potato was investigated in this study. Three cultivars of potato tuber whose local names are, Patiska, Mai Bawondoya and Nicola were used for the study. Five pathogenic fungi viz: Botryodiplodia theobromae, Fusarium redolens, Fusarium oxysporum, Penicillium sp. and Rhizopus oryzae associated with post harvest storage rot of root-tubers, were isolated from diseased potatoes. Among the three species of potatoes used in the study, Patiska was found most resistant followed by Mai Bawondoya, while Nicola was the least resistant. Increase in substrate (i.e. soluble starch or CMC concentration enhanced a proportional increase in mycelial growth and in the amount of extracellular enzymes produced. Some of these test pathogens were found to produce cell wall degrading enzymes (i.e. amylase and cellulase. Preferential utilization of carbohydrate sources was established in this study based on the growth of test pathogens. Growth on potato broth medium was highest followed by growth on Cocoyam and Sweet potato broth media and least on Cassava broth medium. Growth of the test pathogens on carbohydrate sources was found at variant. The use of hot water treatment at different temperatures was found to significantly reduce post-harvest fungal populations on the surface of root-tubers. The efficacy of blanching in hot water at 60˚C was significantly higher than that of blanching in hot water at other temperatures. The control method adopted in this study showed that the problems of potatoes’ rot disease in storage (especially by the peasant farmers can be eradicated by thermal treatments without reducing the quality of the Irish tuber.

  10. Incidence of post-harvest fungal diseases of ripe papaya in Mymensingh

    OpenAIRE

    Hamim, I.; Alam, M.Z.; Ali, M. A.; M. Ashrafuzzaman

    2014-01-01

    A survey was conducted during November, 2012 to May, 2013 to assess the status of major post harvest diseases of papaya fruits in the local markets of Mymensingh. Average percentage of diseased fruits at the markets were 29.83 and diseased fruits ranged from 20.40% to 38.04% during the study period. Highest percentage of diseased fruits (38.04%) was recorded in the month of May, 2013 followed by March, 2013 (37.98%). The minimum percentage of diseased fruits (20.40%) was recorded in January, ...

  11. Marketing and Post-Harvest Research (MPR) in the Philippine Fisheries: A Review of Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Nerissa D. Salayo

    2000-01-01

    The need for efficiency in handling perishable fish and products and the overwhelming gross value added of the fishery sector are among the major reasons for the interest in marketing and post-harvest research (MPR). This paper reviewed the literature on MPR in the Philippine fishery sector from 1968 to 1999, with emphasis on the evaluation of past studies to either facilitate or respond to the needs of the industry. This review found that the number of studies on MPR started to decline after...

  12. Influence of post harvest processing conditions on yield and quality of ground turmeric (Curcuma longa L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Lúcia A. Bambirra; Roberto G. Junqueira; Maria Beatriz A. Glória

    2002-01-01

    Studies were carried out to evaluate the influence of post harvest processing conditions on yield and quality of ground turmeric. Rhizomes were peeled, cooked (autoclave or immersion) in water or alkaline media, sliced, dehydrated, ground, sieved, packaged in polyethylene bags and stored for 60 days at room temperature. Yields ranged from 9.84 to 14.51 g of powder/100 g of rhizome with moisture varying from 8.84 to 9.86 g/100 g. Peel removal caused 30% mass loss but the powder obtained had hi...

  13. Effect of metconazole on post-harvest longevity of tulips (Tulipa sp.)

    OpenAIRE

    Beata Janowska; Agnieszka Kupska; Iwona Rossa

    2013-01-01

    Tulips were conditioned for 4 h in room at temperature of 18-20°C and/or 24 h in cool room of 5°C in water solution of metconazole in Caramba 6- SL at concentrations of 300, 600 and 900 mg∙dm-3. The post-harvest longevity of ‘Strong Gold’ and ‘Foxtrot’ increased after conditioning in metconazole at concentrations of 300-900 mg∙dm-3 for 4 and 24 h. Metconazole used in mentioned concentrations did not inhibit the elongation of stems and upper internod...

  14. Supply and value chain analyses of warqe food products in relation to post-harvest losses

    OpenAIRE

    Chaka, Ashenafi

    2016-01-01

    Post-harvest losses are a global problem and are of critical importance in food-insecure countries such as Ethiopia. Losses of root and tuber crops are known to be high in developing countries, where many of the population are dependent on these crops. Warqe (Ensete ventricosum (Welw.) Cheesman) is a staple crop in Ethiopia. This banana-like plant is used as a food, mainly in the form of the products kocho, bulla and amicho, and also in non-food applications. The supply and value chain of war...

  15. Novel Wireless Sensor System for Monitoring Oxygen, Temperature and Respiration Rate of Horticultural Crops Post Harvest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ole Green

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to design optimal packages, it is of pivotal importance to determine the rate at which harvested fresh fruits and vegetables consume oxygen. The respiration rate of oxygen (RRO2 is determined by measuring the consumed oxygen per hour per kg plant material, and the rate is highly influenced by temperature and gas composition. Traditionally, RRO2 has been determined at discrete time intervals. In this study, wireless sensor networks (WSNs were used to determine RRO2 continuously in plant material (fresh cut broccoli florets at 5 °C, 10 °C and 20 °C and at modified gas compositions (decreasing oxygen and increasing carbon dioxide levels. Furthermore, the WSN enabled concomitant determination of oxygen and temperature in the very close vicinity of the plant material. This information proved a very close relationship between changes in temperature and respiration rate. The applied WSNs were unable to determine oxygen levels lower than 5% and carbon dioxide was not determined. Despite these drawbacks in relation to respiration analysis, the WSNs offer a new possibility to do continuous measurement of RRO2 in post harvest research, thereby investigating the close relation between temperature and RRO2. The conclusions are that WSNs have the potential to be used as a monitor of RRO2 of plant material after harvest, during storage and packaging, thereby leading to optimized consumer products.

  16. Implication of Abscisic Acid on Ripening and Quality in Sweet Cherries: Differential Effects during Pre- and Post-harvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tijero, Verónica; Teribia, Natalia; Muñoz, Paula; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2016-01-01

    Sweet cherry, a non-climacteric fruit, is usually cold-stored during post-harvest to prevent over-ripening. The aim of the study was to evaluate the role of abscisic acid (ABA) on fruit growth and ripening of this fruit, considering as well its putative implication in over-ripening and effects on quality. We measured the endogenous concentrations of ABA during the ripening of sweet cherries (Prunus avium L. var. Prime Giant) collected from orchard trees and in cherries exposed to 4°C and 23°C during 10 days of post-harvest. Furthermore, we examined to what extent endogenous ABA concentrations were related to quality parameters, such as fruit biomass, anthocyanin accumulation and levels of vitamins C and E. Endogenous concentrations of ABA in fruits increased progressively during fruit growth and ripening on the tree, to decrease later during post-harvest at 23°C. Cold treatment, however, increased ABA levels and led to an inhibition of over-ripening. Furthermore, ABA levels positively correlated with anthocyanin and vitamin E levels during pre-harvest, but not during post-harvest. We conclude that ABA plays a major role in sweet cherry development, stimulating its ripening process and positively influencing quality parameters during pre-harvest. The possible influence of ABA preventing over-ripening in cold-stored sweet cherries is also discussed. PMID:27200070

  17. Adoption of On-farm and Post-harvest Rice Quality Enhancing Technologies in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiamiyu, SA.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the rate and determinants of adoption of improved rice quality enhancing technologies among a randomly selected sample of 150 farmers and 18 rice processors from six rice producing areas of Niger State. Data were collected through interview schedule using questionnaires. Descriptive statistics and regression model were adopted to analyze data. Results show that adoption of quality enhancing technologies was low among the selected sample of these rice value chain actors. The adoption indices of on-farm and post-harvest quality enhancing practices were 0.46 and 0.37 respectively. Some socioeconomic attributes including: Age, level of education, contact with extension, access to credit and level of commercialization were statistically significant determining factors (P≤0.05 influencing adoption at farm level, while post-harvest technology adoption was determined by level of education, access to credit and membership of cooperatives. Promotion of quality enhanced technologies among these actors in the rice value chain is recommended.

  18. Potential contributions of food irradiation in post-harvest management in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research has demonstrated the effectiveness of irradiation processing in the control of food losses due to insects, microorganisms and physiological processes such as sprouting and ripening. The cost of irradiation processing, however, varies from one country to another owing to differences in production levels and post-harvest management of the commodities. Food production in Ghana is by smallholders cropping between 0.4-4.0 ha of land. With the exception of cocoa, which has the government as the sole buyer and enjoys well-organized storage and marketing structures, the storage and marketing of over 80% of other food commodities are controlled by the informal sector. Consequently, the government has recently launched a farm-level educational campaign on the correct post-harvest management of foods in order to reduce losses. With the provision of financial and technical assistance to farmers, the application of chemicals and fumigants to control grain losses has increased. The paper presents and discusses issues which must be addressed if new food preservation technologies such as irradiation processing are to be effectively adopted in Ghana. The present structures of storage and marketing of food commodities constitute the immediate limitations that must be overcome in order for food irradiation to be cost effective. (author). 11 refs, 2 figs, 4 tabs

  19. Quantitative Roughness Analysis of Post-harvest Agaricus bisporus by Atomic Force Microscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANGHong-Shun; FENGGuo-Ping; ANHong-Jie; LIYun-Fei

    2004-01-01

    The moisture loss degree is important in determining the quality of post-harvest mushroom (Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Sing). Quantitative roughness analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) was proposed to denote the degree of shrinkage, with arithmetic average roughness (Ra) and root mean square roughness (Rq) as parameters, The initial value of Ra was (30.035±1.839)nm, while those of 2℃, 25℃ and dynamic temperature on the 2nd day were (40.139±3.359) nm, (54.393±13.534) nm and (41.197±6.555) nm, respectively. There is a similar tendency for the results of Ra and Rq Both values of roughness increased in duration of storage and with increasing temperatures. The three-dimensional profile of the pileus epicutis could signify the process of water evaporation intuitionally. The tendency was in accordance with the roughness results, especially for the earlier stage of the storage (0-2 d). The outcome of roughness analysis could signify the differences of storage conditions. It was shown that the roughness measured by atomic force microscopy effectively reflected the moisture loss degree of the mushroom pileus epicutis during post-harvest storage.

  20. Occurrence of Pre- and Post-Harvest Mycotoxins and Other Secondary Metabolites in Danish Maize Silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida M. L. Drejer Storm

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Maize silage is a widely used feed product for cattle worldwide, which may be contaminated with mycotoxins, pre- and post-harvest. This concerns both farmers and consumers. To assess the exposure of Danish cattle to mycotoxins from maize silage, 99 samples of whole-crop maize (ensiled and un-ensiled were analyzed for their contents of 27 mycotoxins and other secondary fungal metabolites by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The method specifically targets the majority of common pre- and post-harvest fungi associated with maize silage in Denmark. Sixty-one samples contained one or more of the 27 analytes in detectable concentrations. The most common mycotoxins were zearalenone, enniatin B nivalenol and andrastin A, found in 34%, 28%, 16% and 15% of the samples, respectively. None of the samples contained mycotoxins above the EU recommended maximum concentrations for Fusarium toxins in cereal-based roughage. Thus, the present study does not indicate that Danish maize silage in general is a cause of acute single mycotoxin intoxications in cattle. However, 31 of the samples contained multiple analytes; two samples as much as seven different fungal metabolites. Feed rations with maize silage may therefore contain complex mixtures of fungal secondary metabolites with unknown biological activity. This emphasizes the need for a thorough examination of the effects of chronic exposure and possible synergistic effects.

  1. Occurrence of Pre- and Post-Harvest Mycotoxins and Other Secondary Metabolites in Danish Maize Silage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storm, Ida M. L. Drejer; Rasmussen, Rie Romme; Rasmussen, Peter Have

    2014-01-01

    Maize silage is a widely used feed product for cattle worldwide, which may be contaminated with mycotoxins, pre- and post-harvest. This concerns both farmers and consumers. To assess the exposure of Danish cattle to mycotoxins from maize silage, 99 samples of whole-crop maize (ensiled and un-ensiled) were analyzed for their contents of 27 mycotoxins and other secondary fungal metabolites by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The method specifically targets the majority of common pre- and post-harvest fungi associated with maize silage in Denmark. Sixty-one samples contained one or more of the 27 analytes in detectable concentrations. The most common mycotoxins were zearalenone, enniatin B nivalenol and andrastin A, found in 34%, 28%, 16% and 15% of the samples, respectively. None of the samples contained mycotoxins above the EU recommended maximum concentrations for Fusarium toxins in cereal-based roughage. Thus, the present study does not indicate that Danish maize silage in general is a cause of acute single mycotoxin intoxications in cattle. However, 31 of the samples contained multiple analytes; two samples as much as seven different fungal metabolites. Feed rations with maize silage may therefore contain complex mixtures of fungal secondary metabolites with unknown biological activity. This emphasizes the need for a thorough examination of the effects of chronic exposure and possible synergistic effects. PMID:25089350

  2. Modeling systems and vis/NIR device to improve peach and nectarine pre and post-harvest fruit maturity management

    OpenAIRE

    Bonora, Elisa

    2013-01-01

    During the last decade peach and nectarine fruit have lost considerable market share, due to increased consumer dissatisfaction with quality at retail markets. This is mainly due to harvesting of too immature fruit and high ripening heterogeneity. The main problem is that the traditional used maturity indexes are not able to objectively detect fruit maturity stage, neither the variability present in the field, leading to a difficult post-harvest management of the product and to high fruit los...

  3. Evaluation of Post-Harvest Organic Carbon Amendments as a Strategy to Minimize Nitrogen Losses in Cole Crop Production

    OpenAIRE

    Laura L. Van Eerd; Katelyn A. Congreves; Vyn, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    Cole crops (Brassica vegetables) can pose a significant risk for N losses during the post-harvest period due to substantial amounts of readily mineralizable N in crop residues. Amending the soil with organic C has the potential to immobilize N and thereby reduce the risk for N losses. Four field trials were conducted to determine the effects of organic C amendments (OCA) on N dynamics and spring wheat (Triticum durum L.) harvest parameters proceeding early- and late-broccoli (Brassica olecere...

  4. Post harvest controlling of orchid thrips on cut flowers by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post-harvest controlling of orchid thrips, Thrips palmi Karny on cut flowers by irradiation was conducted during October 1992 to September 1997 at the Thai Irradiation Centre (TIC) and Division of Entomology and Zoology, Department of Agriculture, Thailand. The studies were carried out by conducting experiments on irradiation of cut flowers for controlling thrips with doses ranging from 0.1 to 1 kGy. The vase-life of radiated cut flowers was evaluated. Colonies of thrips were established in the laboratory in order to determine radiation sensitivity of various development stages of thrips and also to assess the occurrence of natural infestations by examining commercial market quality flowers from growers where management practices can be identified. Results from five years of research on post harvest control of thrips on orchids and cut flowers by irradiation showed that despite intensive investigation, difficulty in permanent establishment of a laboratory colony of Thrips palmi Karny for bioassays continued. The snap bean rearing method for rearing large number of thrips has bean developed, although it is less satisfactory than desirable. It has given sufficient numbers for testing in the 6th experiment. The maximum dose tolerated by Dendrobium orchid flowers at ambient temperature (25-30 deg. C) was below 0.5 kGy, but at a pre- and post irradiation temperature 15-18 deg. C, the maximum dose tolerated approached 0.75-0.8 kGy. The effective dose for control Thrips palmi Karny, however, was higher than 0.75 kGy. (author)

  5. Decreasing post-harvest losses in cereal grains by gamma irradiation in relation to aflatoxin producing potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A gamma irradiation dose of 0.5 KGY reduced post-harvest losses from 32% to 2% in stored cereal grains (wheat, maize and rice). However, this treatment was found to augment significantly aflatoxin B1 production by 15-63% and 21-81% over that of controls for naturally infected-irradiated and artificially infected-irradiated stored cereal grains, respectively. A high gamma irradiation dose of 5 KGY decontaminated harmful insects and microorganisms in stored cereal grains and reduced post-harvest losses from 32% to 1%. This decontaminating gamma irradiation dose was found to be a real treatment to be exploited for decreasing post-harvest losses as it improves hygienic quality of grains due its ability to eliminate aflatoxin B1 production in irradiated-stored cereal grains

  6. Post-harvest regulated gene expression and splicing efficiency in storage roots of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotthues, Alexander; Kappler, Jeannette; Lichtfuss, Anna; Kloos, Dorothee U; Stahl, Dietmar J; Hehl, Reinhard

    2008-05-01

    Sixteen post-harvest upregulated genes from sugar beet comprising five novel sequences were isolated by subtractive cloning. Transcription profiles covering a period of up to 49 days after harvest under controlled storage conditions and in field clamps are reported. Post-harvest induced genes are involved in wound response, pathogen defense, dehydration stress, and detoxification of reactive oxygen species. An early induction of a cationic peroxidase indicates a response to post-harvest damage. Wound response reactions may also involve genes required for cell division such as a regulator of chromatin condensation and a precursor of the growth stimulating peptide phytohormone phytosulfokine-alpha. Surprisingly, also three putative non-protein coding genes were isolated. Two of these genes show intron specific and storage temperature dependent splicing of a precursor mRNA. The temperature dependent splicing of an intron containing sugar beet mRNA is also maintained in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana. The storage induced genes are integrated into a model that proposes the response to several post-harvest stress conditions. Temperature regulated splicing may be a mechanism to sense seasonal temperature changes. PMID:18324413

  7. Physiological and proteomic approaches to address the active role of ozone in kiwifruit post-harvest ripening

    OpenAIRE

    Minas, Ioannis S.; Tanou, Georgia; Belghazi, Maya; Job, Dominique; Manganaris, George A.; Molassiotis, Athanassios; Vasilakakis, Miltiadis

    2012-01-01

    Post-harvest ozone application has recently been shown to inhibit the onset of senescence symptoms on fleshy fruit and vegetables; however, the exact mechanism of action is yet unknown. To characterize the impact of ozone on the post-harvest performance of kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa cv. ‘Hayward’), fruits were cold stored (0 °C, 95% relative humidity) in a commercial ethylene-free room for 1, 3, or 5 months in the absence (control) or presence of ozone (0.3 μl l−1) and subsequently were a...

  8. Pre and post harvest IPM for the mango fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verghese, Abraham; Sreedevi, K.; Nagaraju, D.K., E-mail: avergis@iihr.ernet.i [Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Bangalore, Karnataka (India)

    2006-07-01

    The fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) is a major pest of mango in India. So, investigations were carried out to standardize an Integrated Pest Management (IPM) for fruit fly-free and residue-free mango fruits. The study required orchard and laboratory studies, which were conducted on the commercial variety Banganapalli, at the Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Hessaraghatta Lake P.O., Bangalore, India, during 2004 and 2005. Results showed that a pre harvest IPM combination of male annihilation technique (MAT) (using methyl eugenol as a lure) + sanitation brought down B. dorsalis infestation to 5.00% from an infestation ranging from 17 to 66% in control in both years. An additional cover spray of Decamethrin 2.8EC 0.5ml/l (which is half the recommended dose) + Azadirachtin (0.03 %) 2ml/l (neem based botanical) gave 100% control in both the years. Post harvest treatments with hot water at 48 degree C for 60 and 75 min resulted in 100% control at both the time regimes in 2004 and 2005. The untreated fruits, which were also exposed to gravid females (but not treated in hot water) showed 30% and 5.5% infestations, respectively, in 2004 and 2005. (author)

  9. Pre and post harvest IPM for the mango fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) is a major pest of mango in India. So, investigations were carried out to standardize an Integrated Pest Management (IPM) for fruit fly-free and residue-free mango fruits. The study required orchard and laboratory studies, which were conducted on the commercial variety Banganapalli, at the Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Hessaraghatta Lake P.O., Bangalore, India, during 2004 and 2005. Results showed that a pre harvest IPM combination of male annihilation technique (MAT) (using methyl eugenol as a lure) + sanitation brought down B. dorsalis infestation to 5.00% from an infestation ranging from 17 to 66% in control in both years. An additional cover spray of Decamethrin 2.8EC 0.5ml/l (which is half the recommended dose) + Azadirachtin (0.03 %) 2ml/l (neem based botanical) gave 100% control in both the years. Post harvest treatments with hot water at 48 degree C for 60 and 75 min resulted in 100% control at both the time regimes in 2004 and 2005. The untreated fruits, which were also exposed to gravid females (but not treated in hot water) showed 30% and 5.5% infestations, respectively, in 2004 and 2005. (author)

  10. Radiation processing as a post-harvest quarantine control for raisins, dried figs and dried apricots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cetinkaya, N. [TAEA, Ankara Nuclear Research Center in Agriculture and Animal Sciences, 06983 Ankara (Turkey)]. E-mail: nurcet@taek.gov.tr; Ozyardimci, B. [TAEA, Ankara Nuclear Research Center in Agriculture and Animal Sciences, 06983 Ankara (Turkey); Denli, E. [TAEA, Ankara Nuclear Research Center in Agriculture and Animal Sciences, 06983 Ankara (Turkey); Ic, E. [TAEA, Ankara Nuclear Research Center in Agriculture and Animal Sciences, 06983 Ankara (Turkey)

    2006-03-15

    The commercially packed samples of raisins, dried figs and dried apricots were irradiated using doses in the range of 0.5-1.0 kGy for disinfestation and 0.5-5.0 kGy for sensory analysis with the dose rate ranging from 1.44 to 1.92 kGy/h. Pests on dried fruits were evaluated after 0, 1, 2 and 3 months of storage for irradiated dried figs and 1, 3, 6 and 12 months of storage for raisins and dried apricots. Sensory analysis of dried figs, dried apricots and raisins were carried out after 0, 1, 3, 6 and 12 months of storage. The results indicated that radiation processing at low doses ({approx}1.0 kGy) is an effective post-harvest treatment and quarantine control for these products with no adverse effects on sensory (marketing) attributes.

  11. A novel sono-assisted acid pretreatment of chili post harvest residue for bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindhu, Raveendran; Binod, Parameswaran; Pandey, Ashok

    2016-08-01

    The objective of the present study was to develop a sono-assisted acid pretreatment strategy for the effective removal of lignin and hemicelluloses and to improve the sugar yield from chili post harvest residue. Operational parameters that affect the pretreatment efficiency were studied and optimized. Inhibitor analysis of the hydrolyzate revealed that major fermentation inhibitors like furfural, hydroxymethyl furfural and organic acids like citric acid, succinic acid and propionic acid were absent. Changes in structural properties of the biomass were studied in relation to the pretreatment process using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) analysis, and the changes in chemical composition was also monitored. The biomass pretreated with the optimized novel method yielded 0.465g/g of reducing sugars on enzymatic hydrolysis. Fermentation of the non-detoxified hydrolysate yielded 2.14% of bioethanol with a fermentation efficiency of 71.03%. PMID:26949055

  12. Interaction of post harvest disease control treatments and gamma irradiation on mangoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of gamma irradiation and disease control treatments on disease severity and post harvest quality of several mango cultivars were investigated. In mangoes cv. Kensington Pride, irradiation doses ranging from 300-1200 Gy reduced disease, but the level of control was not commercially acceptable. Hot benomyl immediately followed by irradiation provided effective control of anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides) and stem end rot (Dothiorella dominicana) during short-term storage (15 days at 20degC). The effects of the two treatments were additive. Satisfactory disease control was achieved during long-term controlled atmosphere storage when mangoes were treated with hot benomyl followed by prochloraz and then irradiated. Effects of fungicide treatment and irradiation were additive. Fungicide, or irradiation treatments alone, were unsatisfactory. Irradiation of cv. Kensington Pride at doses in excess of 600 Gy caused unacceptable surface damage. (author)

  13. Interaction of post harvest disease control treatments and gamma irradiation on mangoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, G.I.; Cooke, A.W. (Department of Primary Industries, Indooroopilly (Australia)); Boag, T.S. (Riverina-Murray Inst. of Higher Education, Wagga Wagga (Australia). School of Agriculture); Izard, M. (Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights (Australia)); Panitz, M. (Committee of Direction of Fruit Marketing, Brisbane Markets (Australia)); Sangchote, S. (Kasetsart Univ., Bangkok (Thailand))

    1990-04-01

    The effects of gamma irradiation and disease control treatments on disease severity and post harvest quality of several mango cultivars were investigated. In mangoes cv. Kensington Pride, irradiation doses ranging from 300-1200 Gy reduced disease, but the level of control was not commercially acceptable. Hot benomyl immediately followed by irradiation provided effective control of anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides) and stem end rot (Dothiorella dominicana) during short-term storage (15 days at 20degC). The effects of the two treatments were additive. Satisfactory disease control was achieved during long-term controlled atmosphere storage when mangoes were treated with hot benomyl followed by prochloraz and then irradiated. Effects of fungicide treatment and irradiation were additive. Fungicide, or irradiation treatments alone, were unsatisfactory. Irradiation of cv. Kensington Pride at doses in excess of 600 Gy caused unacceptable surface damage. (author).

  14. Radiation processing as a post-harvest quarantine control for raisins, dried figs and dried apricots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The commercially packed samples of raisins, dried figs and dried apricots were irradiated using doses in the range of 0.5-1.0 kGy for disinfestation and 0.5-5.0 kGy for sensory analysis with the dose rate ranging from 1.44 to 1.92 kGy/h. Pests on dried fruits were evaluated after 0, 1, 2 and 3 months of storage for irradiated dried figs and 1, 3, 6 and 12 months of storage for raisins and dried apricots. Sensory analysis of dried figs, dried apricots and raisins were carried out after 0, 1, 3, 6 and 12 months of storage. The results indicated that radiation processing at low doses (∼1.0 kGy) is an effective post-harvest treatment and quarantine control for these products with no adverse effects on sensory (marketing) attributes

  15. Effect of metconazole on post-harvest longevity of tulips (Tulipa sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Janowska

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Tulips were conditioned for 4 h in room at temperature of 18-20°C and/or 24 h in cool room of 5°C in water solution of metconazole in Caramba 6- SL at concentrations of 300, 600 and 900 mg∙dm-3. The post-harvest longevity of ‘Strong Gold’ and ‘Foxtrot’ increased after conditioning in metconazole at concentrations of 300-900 mg∙dm-3 for 4 and 24 h. Metconazole used in mentioned concentrations did not inhibit the elongation of stems and upper internodes of stickled cultivars. Conditioning for 4 and 24 h in metconazole at concentrations 300-900 mg∙dm-3 stimulated the elongation of petals in ‘Strong Gold’. Regardless of conditioning time metconazole affected higher leaf greenness index value of the studied cultivars.  

  16. Sensitivity to gamma irradiation of post-harvest pathogens of pear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, radiation has been used as a fungicidal treatment in the post harvest technology of fruits. The effect of gamma irradiation at doses of 5 - 3000 Gy, on spore germination and mycelial growth of four fungi (Alternaria tenuissima, Botrytis cinerea, Penicillium expansum & Stemphylium botryosum) pathogenic to stored pears were studied. Inhibition of spore germination was found to be directly related to the strength of the radiation dose. B. cinerea and P. expansum were radiation sensitive, while A. tenuissima and S. botryosum were radiation resistant. Exposure of mycelial mat to different radiation doses showed that a dose level of 1000 and 3000 Gy could be considered sufficient for decontamination by the radiosensitive and radio-resistant species, respectively. Regardless of index of mycelial age, young mycelia were more resistant than mature mycelia. The lower doses of gamma radiation increased total proteins and total soluble sugar s of all the tested fungal species but did not effect lipid synthesis

  17. Flyash as a post-harvest preservative for five commonly utilized pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendki, P.S.; Maheshwari, V.L.; Kothari, R.M.

    2001-07-01

    Flyash was evaluated for post-harvest preservation of five commonly used pulses; namely soyabean (Glycin max), bengal gram (Cicer arietinum), green gram (Vigna radiata), black gram (V. mungo) and red gram (V. unguiculata). All the pulses were deliberately infested with stored grain pest, (Callosobruchus chinensis) and treated with 1 gm flyash per 5 kg of pulses under ambient storage conditions for 18 months. No adult C. chinensis were found in pulses treated with flyash even after 12 months of treatment. After 18 months, bengal gram was the most infested, both in terms of number of insects observed and percent damaged grains, whereas soyabean and black gram were least infested. There was no effect of flyash on the nutritional quality and percent germination of pulses.

  18. Food irradiation - a viable technology for reducing post harvest losses of food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research and development in the past 30 years have clearly demonstrated that food irradiation is a safe, effective and environmentally clean process of food preservation. Twenty-seven countries have approved over 40 irradiated foods or groups of related food items for human consumption, either on an unconditional or a restricted basis. The technology is beginning to play an important role in reducing post-harvest losses of food in facilitating wider distribution of food in the trade. Its wide application in solving microbial spoilage loss of food, insect disinfestation, improving hygenic qualities, slowing down physiological processes of foods is reviewed. Special emphasis is placed on applications of direct relevance to countries in Asia and the Pacific region. (author)

  19. Post-harvest proteomics of grapes infected by Penicillium during withering to produce Amarone wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzini, Marilinda; Mainente, Federica; Zapparoli, Giacomo; Cecconi, Daniela; Simonato, Barbara

    2016-05-15

    The study of withered grape infection by Penicillium, a potentially toxigenic fungus, is relevant to preserve grape quality during the post-harvest dehydration process. This report describes the first proteomic analysis of Amarone wine grapes, infected by two strains of Penicillium expansum (Pe1) and Penicillium crustosum (Pc4). Protein identification by MS analysis allowed a better understanding of physiological mechanisms underlying the pathogen attack. The Pe1 strain had a major impact on Vitis vinifera protein expression inducing pathogenesis-related proteins and other protein species involved in energy metabolism. A greater expression of new Penicillium proteins involved in energy metabolism and some protein species related to redox homeostasis has been observed on grapes infected by Pc4 strain. Moreover, the new induced proteins in infected grapes could represent potential markers in withered grapes, thus creating the chance to develop case-sensitive prevention strategies to inhibit fungal growth. PMID:26776019

  20. Localization of 45Ca and 36Cl in fruit tissue of apples after post harvest dipping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apples of 'Cox's Orange Pippin' and 'Golden Delicious' were post-harvest dipped (2% CaCl2 + 0.3% Keltrol) to study the translocation and deposit of Ca and of Cl in the fruit. Macroautoradiographic studies showed that both ions easily penetrated into the fruit increasingly with time of storage, but that they were distributed differently: After 3 months of storage Ca was found in all parts of the fruit, more pronounced so in the vascular tissue and cortex, contrary to Cl, which mainly accumulated in the cortex tissue. In the area of the calyx and stem end penetration was markedly enhanced. After external application of Ca and other multivalent cations the endogenous fruit Ca was partly translocated into the tissue below. Efflux and exchange experiments with fruit tissue in hypertonic solution showed that 5-10% of the Ca deposited in the cortex after post-harvest dipping was removed within 5 h; however, with addition of EDTA to the solution, more than 80% exchanged. Contrarily, the rate of Cl efflux and that of monovalent cations (K,Na) was only half the amount, independent whether the complexing agent was added to the solution or not. Likewise 64-72% of the Ca deposited after natural transport into the fruit, could be exchanged. After supply of 1 mM 45CaCl2 in hypertonic solution substantial amounts of Ca were absorbed by the fruit tissue, but even after an exchange period with EDTA a remarkable portion was retained. The investigations underline the importance of the high cation binding capacity of the fruit tissue in the region of the membrane and cell wall with respect to the function of Ca. Furthermore, it was shown that the Ca companion ion, Cl, has to be included into the considerations. (orig./MG)

  1. Variation in cassava germplasm for tolerance to post-harvest physiological deterioration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturini, M T; Santos, L R; Vildoso, C I A; Santos, V S; Oliveira, E J

    2016-01-01

    Tolerant varieties can effectively control post-harvest physiological deterioration (PPD) of cassava, although knowledge on the genetic variability and inheritance of this trait is needed. The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters and identify sources of tolerance to PPD and their stability in cassava accessions. Roots from 418 cassava accessions, grown in four independent experiments, were evaluated for PPD tolerance 0, 2, 5, and 10 days post-harvest. Data were transformed into area under the PPD-progress curve (AUP-PPD) to quantify tolerance. Genetic parameters, stability (Si), adaptability (Ai), and the joint analysis of stability and adaptability (Zi) were obtained via residual maximum likelihood (REML) and best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP) methods. Variance in the genotype (G) x environment (E) interaction and genotypic variance were important for PPD tolerance. Individual broad-sense heritability (hg(2)= 0.38 ± 0.04) and average heritability in accessions (hmg(2)= 0.52) showed high genetic control of PPD tolerance. Genotypic correlation of AUP-PPD in different experiments was of medium magnitude (ȓgA = 0.42), indicating significant G x E interaction. The predicted genotypic values o f G x E free of interaction (û + ĝi) showed high variation. Of the 30 accessions with high Zi, 19 were common to û + ĝi, Si, and Ai parameters. The genetic gain with selection of these 19 cassava accessions was -55.94, -466.86, -397.72, and -444.03% for û + ĝi, Si, Ai, and Zi, respectively, compared with the overall mean for each parameter. These results demonstrate the variability and potential of cassava germplasm to introduce PPD tolerance in commercial varieties. PMID:27173317

  2. Salmonella surveillance and control at post-harvest in the Belgian pork meat chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delhalle, L; Saegerman, C; Farnir, F; Korsak, N; Maes, D; Messens, W; De Sadeleer, L; De Zutter, L; Daube, G

    2009-05-01

    Salmonella remains the primary cause of reported bacterial food borne disease outbreaks in Belgium. Pork and pork products are recognized as one of the major sources of human salmonellosis. In contrast with the primary production and slaughterhouse phases of the pork meat production chain, only a few studies have focussed on the post-harvest stages. The goal of this study was to evaluate Salmonella and Escherichia coli contamination at the Belgian post-harvest stages. E. coli counts were estimated in order to evaluate the levels of faecal contamination. The results of bacteriological analysis from seven cutting plants, four meat-mincing plants and the four largest Belgian retailers were collected from official and self-monitoring controls. The prevalence of Salmonella in the cutting plants and meat-mincing plants ranged from 0% to 50%. The most frequently isolated serotype was Salmonella typhimurium. The prevalence in minced meat at retail level ranged from 0.3% to 4.3%. The levels of Salmonella contamination estimated from semi-quantitative analysis of data relating to carcasses, cuts of meat and minced meat were equal to -3.40+/-2.04 log CFU/cm(2), -2.64+/-1.76 log CFU/g and -2.35+/-1.09 log CFU/g, respectively. The E. coli results in meat cuts and minced meat ranged from 0.21+/-0.50 to 1.23+/-0.89 log CFU/g and from 1.33+/-0.58 to 2.78+/-0.43 log CFU/g, respectively. The results showed that faecal contamination still needs to be reduced, especially in specific individual plants. PMID:19269567

  3. Effects of Genetic, Pre- and Post-Harvest Factors on Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Capacity of White Asparagus Spears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelos Kazakis

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of genetic, pre-harvest (season of harvest, spear diameter, spear portion and spear tip color and post-harvest factors (storage and domestic preparation practices, e.g., peeling and cooking on total phenolic, flavonoid and ascorbic acid content of white asparagus spears and their correlation with antioxidant capacity (DPPH and FRAP were studied. Results showed that genetic material was important for the total phenolic content but not season of harvest, spear diameter or storage. Violet spear tips and apical spear portions showed the largest amount of total phenolics. Peeling did not affect total phenolics in fresh asparagus, whereas it reduced their content in stored asparagus, while cooking resulted in an increase in both fresh and stored asparagus. However, the soluble extract of total phenolics and flavonoids were minor and the missing significance of phenolics and flavonoids in antioxidant capacity of white asparagus spears depends on these small amounts.

  4. Embedding Post-Capitalist Alternatives: The Global Network of Alternative Knowledge Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William K. Carroll

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1970s, transnational alternative policy groups (TAPGs have emerged as a component of global civil society, generating visions and strategies for a "globalization from below" that point toward post-capitalist alternatives. Here, we map the global network ofTAPGs and kindred international groups in order to discern how TAPGs are embedded in a larger formation. In this era of capitalist globalization, do TAPGs, like their hegemonic counterparts, bridge across geographic spaces (e.g. North-South and movement domains to foster the convergence across difference that is taken as a criterial attribute of a counter-hegemonic historical bloc? Our network analysis suggests that TAPGs are well placed to participate in the transformation of the democratic globalization network from a gelatinous and unselfconscious state, into an historical bloc capable of collective action toward an alternative global order. However, there are gaps in the bloc, having to do with the representation and integration of regions and movement domains, and with the salience of post-capitalism as a unifying social vision. Also, our architectonic network analysis does not reveal what the various relations and mediations in which TAPGs are active agents actually mean in concrete practice. There is a need both for closer analysis of the specific kinds of relations that link transnational alternative policy groups to other international actors, including intergovernmental organizations and funding foundations, and for field work that explores the actual practices of these groups, in situ.

  5. Ascochyta blight of chickpea reduced 38% by application of Aureobasidium pullulans (anamorphic Dothioraceae, Dothideales) to post harvest debris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2004-2005, early winter application of suspensions of Aureobasidium pullulans (AuP) conidia to post-harvest chickpea debris resulted in significantly fewer spring-time Ascochyta blight lesions on chickpea test plants relative to controls. Survival of plants adjacent to treated debris was higher t...

  6. Opportunities and Best Practices to Support Sustainable Production for Small Growers and Post-Harvest Processors in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fissore, Cinzia; Duran, Daniel F.; Russell, Robert

    2015-01-01

    This article describes current practices and needs associated with water and gas conservation among Southern California greenhouse growers, Post-Harvest Processors (PHPs), and agricultural associations. Two communication forums were held with the goal of educating the local gas company and small growers and PHPs on the most compelling needs and…

  7. Ultraviolet radiation (UV-C) on the post harvest control of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides in 'niagara rosada' grapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most of the post harvest losses of 'Niagara Rosada' grapes are caused by rot and detached berries. Recently, many researches on alternative methods, such as physical treatments, have been carried out in order to control rots and extend the shelf life of fruits. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of ultraviolet radiation (UV-C) on the control of C. gloeosporioides in 'Niagara Rosada' grapes stored at room condition and under refrigeration. Clusters of 'Niagara Rosada' grapes were inoculated with the pathogen and submitted 2 hours later to different doses of UV-C, 0, 1.05, 2.09, 4.18, and 8.35 kJ m-2, during the periods of 0, 1, 2, 4, and 8 min, respectively. Then, the clusters were stored under two conditions: 25 ± 1 deg C / 80 ± 5 % RH for 7 days, and at 1 ± 1 deg C / 90 ± 5 % RH for 16 days followed by storage at 25 ± 1 deg C / 80 ± 5 %RH for 5 more days. The grapes were evaluated for rot incidence, stem browning, color of the berries, percentage of detached berries, titratable acidity, total soluble solids, and ratio. It was observed that UV-C radiation was effective in reducing the incidence of C. gloeosporioides on inoculated 'Niagara Rosada' grapes and did not change the physicochemical characteristics of the grapes. (author)

  8. Comparative classification analysis of post-harvest growth detection from terrestrial LiDAR point clouds in precision agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Kristina; Höfle, Bernhard; Hämmerle, Martin; Jarmer, Thomas; Siegmann, Bastian; Lilienthal, Holger

    2015-06-01

    In precision agriculture, detailed geoinformation on plant and soil properties plays an important role, e.g., in crop protection or the application of fertilizers. This paper presents a comparative classification analysis for post-harvest growth detection using geometric and radiometric point cloud features of terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) data, considering the local neighborhood of each point. Radiometric correction of the TLS data was performed via an empirical range-correction function derived from a field experiment. Thereafter, the corrected amplitude and local elevation features were explored regarding their importance for classification. For the comparison, tree induction, Naive Bayes, and k-Means-derived classifiers were tested for different point densities to distinguish between ground and post-harvest growth. The classification performance was validated against highly detailed RGB reference images and the red edge normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI705), derived from a hyperspectral sensor. Using both geometric and radiometric features, we achieved a precision of 99% with the tree induction. Compared to the reference image classification, the calculated post-harvest growth coverage map reached an accuracy of 80%. RGB and LiDAR-derived coverage showed a polynomial correlation to NDVI705 of degree two with R2 of 0.8 and 0.7, respectively. Larger post-harvest growth patches (>10 × 10 cm) could already be detected by a point density of 2 pts./0.01 m2. The results indicate a high potential of radiometric and geometric LiDAR point cloud features for the identification of post-harvest growth using tree induction classification. The proposed technique can potentially be applied over larger areas using vehicle-mounted scanners.

  9. Influence of gamma rays and some pre and post harvest treatments on behavior of some fruits during cold storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apricot fruits usually harvested relatively mature but hard enough to withstand-post harvest handling through the marketing chain. These fruits have considerably lower edible quality than tree-ripened fruit. Fruit quality can be improved by delaying harvest least until physiological maturation is completed on the tree (Bonghi et al. 1999) Apricots containing 11% soluble solids concentration, or higher are in high demand by consumers, as fruit have developed considerable taste, aroma and handling for long distance markets. (Kader, 1999). These fruit will be highly perishable, so rapid cold storage to the lowest safe temperature and supplementary treatments (Mc Donald et al, 1999) such as irradiation with the recommend doses (Sillano et al, 1994) or pre-storage heat treatments will be necessary to retard ripening (mainly softening) during 1-2 weeks post harvest life necessary for distribution to distant markets (Mc Donald et al 1999). Therefore, one can conclude that spraying Canino apricot and Dessert Red peach trees with calcium chloride at 5% or Soya bean oil at 2% showed beneficial effects as pre harvest treatments where they increased fruit firmness and improved fruit quality and prolonged storage and marketing periods as well as decreasing weight loss and percentage of discarded fruits. In addition, spaying Manfaloti pomegrates trees with CaCl2 solution at 7.5% or Soya bean oil at 4% gained the same results.As for the post harvest treatments, results indicated that subjecting Canino apricots and Dessert Red peaches to gamma radiation at 0.5 K.Gy and pomegrates to 1.0 K.Gy proved to be the best treatments where they reduced respiration rate and loss in fruit weight and improved fruit quality and prolonged both storage and marketing periods

  10. Improving the Keeping Quality and Vase Life of Cut Alstroemeria Flowers by Pre and Post-harvest Salicylic Acid Treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Elnaz SOLEIMANY-FARD; Khodayar HEMMATI; Ahmad KHALIGHI

    2013-01-01

    Keeping quality and length of vase life are important factors for evaluation of cut flowers quality, for both domestic and export markets. Studding the effect of pre- and post-harvest salicylic acid applications on keeping quality and vase life of cut alstroemeria flowers during vase period is the approach taken. Aqueous solutions of salicylic acid at 0.0 (with distilled water), 1, 2 and 3 mM were sprayed to run-off (approximately 500 mL per plant), about two weeks before flowers harvest. The...

  11. In Vitro Control of Post-Harvest Fruit Rot Fungi by Some Plant Essential Oil Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Luigi Rana

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Eight substances that are main components of the essential oils from three Mediterranean aromatic plants (Verbena officinalis, Thymus vulgaris and Origanum vulgare, previously found active against some phytopathogenic Fungi and Stramenopila, have been tested in vitro against five etiological agents of post-harvest fruit decay, Botrytis cinerea, Penicillium italicum, P. expansum, Phytophthora citrophthora and Rhizopus stolonifer. The tested compounds were β-fellandrene, β-pinene, camphene, carvacrol, citral, o-cymene, γ-terpinene and thymol. Citral exhibited a fungicidal action against P. citrophthora; carvacrol and thymol showed a fungistatic activity against P. citrophthora and R. stolonifer. Citral and carvacrol at 250 ppm, and thymol at 150 and 250 ppm stopped the growth of B. cinerea. Moreover, thymol showed fungistatic and fungicidal action against P. italicum. Finally, the mycelium growth of P. expansum was inhibited in the presence of 250 ppm of thymol and carvacrol. These results represent an important step toward the goal to use some essential oils or their components as natural preservatives for fruits and foodstuffs, due to their safety for consumer healthy and positive effect on shelf life extension of agricultural fresh products.

  12. Effect of post-harvest heat treatment on proteome change of peach fruit during ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Yu, Zhifang; Jiang, Li; Jiang, Juan; Luo, Haibo; Fu, Linran

    2011-06-10

    The extracted proteins from the heat-treated peach fruit (dipped in hot water at 48°C for 10min and then stored at room temperature (20°C-25°C) for up to 6 days) were used for proteomic analysis in order to understand the response of post-harvest peach fruit to heat treatment during ripening stage at proteomic level. After two dimensional gels electrophoresis (2-DE) was conducted, more than 600 protein spots were detected. Among them, 35 differently expressed spots (Pheat treatment, 43% were related to stress response, 17% to cell structure, 13% to protein fate, 7% to glycolytic pathway, 3% to ripening and senescence and 17% to unclassified. All of them are involved in the regulation of peach fruit development and ripening. All these indicated that the self-defense capability of peach fruit was improved by heat treatment. The study will enable future detailed investigation of gene expression and function linked with peach fruit ripening. PMID:21550427

  13. Post-harvest UVC irradiation effect on anthocyanin profile of grape berries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anthocyanins are a class of phenolic compounds that contribute to the color of red grapes and have shown nutraceutical properties for human health. UVC light irradiation has been proved to increase phenolic compounds such as stilbenes, but its effect on anthocyanins has not been reported. The aim of this work was to identify the best treatment conditions of UVC light irradiation on post-harvest berries of Malbec (M), Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) and Tempranillo (T) for anthocyanin increments. Grape berries were irradiated with 240 W at 20 and 40 cm from the light source, for 30, 60 and 120 seconds. Both, irradiated and control grapes were stored on darkness at 20 C degree until anthocyanin extraction with methanol/ClH. HPLC analysis were performed and nine anthocyanins were quantified. UVC light irradiation modified the anthocyanin profile of the three cultivars. All the glucoside anthocyanins derivates and peonidin-acetyl-glucoside, as well as total anthocyanins were increased when CS berries were exposed to UVC for 120 s at 40 cm. This suggests that UVC stimulated the entire biosynthetic pathway. The anthocyanin content of the control berries was always higher than the treatments with UVC on M and T, making necessary to evaluate less rigorous conditions for these varieties. (authors)

  14. Enhancing post harvest storage life of peach fruits using calcium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summary: The present study was conducted to enhance the post harvest storage life of peach fruits using calcium chloride treatments. CaCl/sub 2/ solution at 1 % (T1 ), 2 % (T2 ) and 3 % (T3) were prepared and the fruits were dipped for five minutes, while (To) was left with out calcium chloride treatment as control. The fruits were packed in corrugated soft board cartons and stored at ambient temperature (35 degree C + 2) for a total period of 15 days. The physicochemical analysis such as weight loss, fruit firmness, total soluble solids (TSS), decay index, titratable acidity, ascorbic acid content and overall sensory acceptability were determined at an interval of three days up to the successful completion of the study. A significant decrease was observed in fruit firmness (1.8-0.3 kg), % acidity (0.950- 0.538), ascorbic acid content (7.06-4.67 mg/100g) and overall sensory acceptability (8.4-2.3), while a significant increase was observed in TSS (8.2-11.9 degree brix), decay index (0-72.64 %) and % weight loss (0-11.3) during storage. Results showed that one and two percent calcium chloride treated fruits have little improvement while fruits treated with 3 % calcium chloride were found to be most acceptable as per physico-chemical analyses and over all sensory acceptability result. (author)

  15. Effect of different post harvest treatments on physical characteristics of custard apple fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study was conducted with the objective to see the effect of different post harvest treatments on physical characteristics of custard apple fruits. Fruits were treated with different doses of gamma radiation ranging from 0.25 to 1.75 kGy in combination with antioxidant i.e. Benzyl Adenine (BA) at the rate of 50 and 100 ppm and stored for 12 days at ambient temperature (25 ± 5 deg C, RH 90 ± 2 %) during winter season. Fruits treated with low doses of gamma radiation i.e. upto 1.00 kGy along with 50 ppm benzyl adenine extended the shelf life of fruits up to 6 days as compared to untreated fruits as well as fruits treated with higher doses of radiation. A decreasing trend in physiological weight loss (PLW) and percentage of marketable fruits was observed with increase in radiation doses. This promises to provide advantage to producers for transhipment of custard apple fruits in good and acceptable condition. (author)

  16. Use of micellar liquid chromatography for rapid monitoring of fungicides post harvest applied to citrus wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peris-Vicente, Juan; Marzo-Mas, Ana; Roca-Genovés, Pasqual; Carda-Broch, Samuel; Esteve-Romero, Josep

    2016-04-01

    A method based on micellar liquid chromatography has been developed to simultaneously monitor four pesticides largely post-harvest applied to citrus: thiabendazole, pyrimethanil, o-phenylphenol and imazalil. Water samples were filtered and directly injected without other treatment, thus avoiding extraction steps. The composition of the mobile phase was optimized using a chemometrical approach to achieve and excellent resolution to 0.07mol/L SDS/5%, V/V 1-pentanol buffered at pH3. Mobile phase run through a C18 column at 1mL/min at room temperature. The detection was performing by UV-Visible absorbance using a wavelength program: 0-10min, 305nm (for thiabendazole); 10-12; 265nm (for pyrimethanil) and 12-18, 220nm (o-phenylphenol and imazalil). The developed method was validated following the guidelines of the US Environmental Protection Agency in terms of: quantitation range, (0.5-4 to 15μg/mL), linearity (r(2)>0.9995), sensitivity (LOD, 0.18-1.4μg/mL), precision (<9.2%), trueness (93.9%-103.7%), and ruggedness (<9.9%). It was found that the fungicides remain up to eight days in surface water at outdoor conditions. The method was used to screen the presence of the analytes in several waste water samples, and was proved to be useful in routine analysis. PMID:27090721

  17. Effect of irradiation on the post-harvest life of potatoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research work was conducted to find out the effect of irradiation on the post-harvest life of potatoes. Cultivar Raja was obtained from Agricultural Research Institute, Tarnab, and irradiated by Cobalt-60 source at different doses 0, 5, 7.5, 10 and 15 Krad at the Nuclear Institute for Food and Agriculture (NIFA), Tarnab during the year 2002. The samples were then stored for three months at the Horticultural Research Farm, Malakandher, at a room temperature of 30-39 degree C and relative humidity of 29-63%. Various tests carried out at Food Science laboratory revealed that irradiation significantly affected the weight loss, sugars, starch, ascorbic acid, sprouting and specific gravity. It was observed that maximum sprouting has occurred in control (42.1%) followed by 5 Krad irradiated tubers (6.4%). While irradiation doses of 7.5, 10 and 15 Krad completely inhibited sprouting. Maximum percent decrease in weight (42.66%), reducing sugars (0.57%), non reducing sugars (0.87%), starch (12%), ascorbic acid (32%) and specific gravity (4%) were recorded for control while minimum percent decrease in weight (31.40%), reducing sugars (0.19%), non-reducing sugars (0.27%), starch (8.0%), ascorbic acid (12%) and specific gravity (1.7%) were noted for IS Krad irradiated tubers. Irradiation dose of 7.5 Krad seems to be better for the extension of shelf life of potatoes

  18. Influence of post harvest processing conditions on yield and quality of ground turmeric (Curcuma longa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambirra Maria Lúcia A.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies were carried out to evaluate the influence of post harvest processing conditions on yield and quality of ground turmeric. Rhizomes were peeled, cooked (autoclave or immersion in water or alkaline media, sliced, dehydrated, ground, sieved, packaged in polyethylene bags and stored for 60 days at room temperature. Yields ranged from 9.84 to 14.51 g of powder/100 g of rhizome with moisture varying from 8.84 to 9.86 g/100 g. Peel removal caused 30% mass loss but the powder obtained had higher intensity of yellow and red. Cooking caused a reduction in dehydration time and provided a powder with lower moisture content, higher levels of curcuminoid pigments and higher Hunter CIE L*, a* and b* values. Cooking by immersion provided higher quality powder compared to autoclave. Use of alkaline media resulted in a product with lower curcuminoid content, and higher intensity of yellow. There was no change in pigment and colour characteristics during storage.

  19. Food and nutrition security: challenges of post-harvest handling in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimiywe, J

    2015-11-01

    Presently, close to 1 billion people suffer from hunger and food insecurity. Statistics in Kenya indicates that over 10 million people suffer from chronic food insecurity and poor nutrition, 2-4 million people require emergency food assistance at any given time with nearly 30 % of Kenya's children being undernourished, 35 % stunted while micro-nutrient deficiency is wide spread. Key among the challenges contributing to inadequate foods include lack of certified seeds, seasonal production (rain-fed), high post-harvest losses and wastages, poor transportation, low value additions which reduce their market competitiveness. The present paper examines some of the underlying causes for high food wastage experience in Kenya and the associated challenges in addressing these problems. The paper also provides an overview of some of the basic solutions that have been recommended by various stakeholders. However, in spite of the recent efforts made to mitigate food wastage, there is still an urgent need to address these gaps through participatory, innovative community based interventions that will create resilience to climate change and enhance livelihoods of smallholder farmers in diverse ecosystems. PMID:26260147

  20. The Or gene enhances carotenoid accumulation and stability during post-harvest storage of potato tubers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Yang, Yong; Xu, Qiang; Owsiany, Katherine; Welsch, Ralf; Chitchumroonchokchai, Chureeporn; Lu, Shan; Van Eck, Joyce; Deng, Xiu-Xin; Failla, Mark; Thannhauser, Theodore W

    2012-03-01

    Provitamin A carotenoids in staple crops are not very stable during storage and their loss compromises nutritional quality. To elucidate the fundamental mechanisms underlying carotenoid accumulation and stability, we investigated transgenic potato tubers that expressed the cauliflower Orange (Or) gene. We found that the Or transgene not only promoted retention of β-carotene level, but also continuously stimulated its accumulation during 5 months of cold storage. In contrast, no increased levels of carotenoids were observed in the tubers of vector-only controls or a yellow-flesh variety during the same period of storage. The increased carotenoid accumulation was found to be associated with the formation of lipoprotein-carotenoid sequestering structures, as well as with the enhanced abundance of phytoene synthase, a key enzyme in the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway. Furthermore, the provitamin A carotenoids stored were shown to be stable during simulated digestion and accessible for uptake by human intestinal absorptive cells. Proteomic analysis identified three major functional groups of proteins (i.e. heat shock proteins, glutathione-S-transferases, and carbohydrate metabolic proteins) that are potentially important in the Or-regulated carotenoid accumulation. Our results show that regulation of carotenoid sequestration capacity is an important mechanism by which carotenoid stability is regulated. Our findings suggest that induction of a proper sink structure formation in staple crops may provide the crops with a unique ability to promote and/or stabilize provitamin A accumulation during plant growth and post-harvest storage. PMID:22155949

  1. Alternative Modelling Approach to Spatial Harvest Scheduling with Respect to Fragmentation of Forest Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marušák, Róbert; Kašpar, Jan; Hlavatý, Robert; Kotek, Václav; Kuželka, Karel; Vopěnka, Petr

    2015-11-01

    Fragmentation of the forests affects forest ecosystems by changing the composition, shape, and configuration of the resulting patches. Subsequently, the prevailing conditions vary between patches. The exposure to the sun decreases from the patch boundary to the patch interior and this forms core and edge areas within each patch. Forest harvesting and, in particular, the clear-cut management system which is still preferred in many European countries has a significant impact on forest fragmentation. There are many indices of measuring fragmentation: non-spatial and spatial. The non-spatial indices measure the composition of patches, while the spatial indices measure both the shape and configuration of the resulting patches. The effect of forest harvesting on fragmentation, biodiversity, and the environment is extensively studied; however, the integration of fragmentation indices in the harvest scheduling model is a new, novel approach. This paper presents a multi-objective integer model of harvest scheduling for clear-cut management system and presents a case study demonstrating its use. Harvest balance and sustainability are ensured by the addition of constraints from the basic principle of the regulated forest model. The results indicate that harvest balance and sustainability can be also achieved in minimizing fragmentation of forest ecosystems. From the analyses presented in this study, it can be concluded that integration of fragmentation into harvest scheduling can provide better spatial structure. It depends on the initial spatial and age structure. It was confirmed that it is possible to find compromise solution while minimizing fragmentation and maximizing harvested area.

  2. Post-Harvest Induced Production of Salvianolic Acids and Significant Promotion of Antioxidant Properties in Roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza (Danshen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Jun Zhou

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Danshen, the dried roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza, is an extremely valued Traditional Chinese Medicine. Previously, we have demonstrated that salvianolic acid B (SaB, the important bioactive ingredient in this herb, was a post-harvest product. Here, we further reported that all salvianolic acids (SAs in the roots were post-harvest products of the drying process. In addition, the results of various radical scavenging activity assays, including lipid peroxidation (1, DPPH (2, hydroxyl (3 and superoxide (4, were significantly increased along with the accumulation of total salvianolic acids in the process. The contents of chemical targets and antioxidant activities both reached the highest value under thermal treatment at 130 °C for 80 min. In this dehydration period, contents of SaB, and sum of nine SAs increased from 0.01% to 5.51%, and 0.20% to 6.61%; and IC50 of antioxidant activity decreased from 4.85 to 2.69 (1; 7.75 to 0.43 (2; 2.57 to 1.13 (3 and 17.25 to 1.10 mg/mL. These results further supported the hypothesis that the newly harvested plant roots were still physiologically active and the secondary metabolites might be produced due to dehydration stress after harvest. Our findings supplied an important and useful theoretical basis for promoting the quality of Danshen and other medicinal plant materials.

  3. Post-harvest induced production of salvianolic acids and significant promotion of antioxidant properties in roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza (Danshen).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Guo-Jun; Wang, Wei; Xie, Xiao-Mei; Qin, Min-Jian; Kuai, Ben-Ke; Zhou, Tong-Shui

    2014-01-01

    Danshen, the dried roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza, is an extremely valued Traditional Chinese Medicine. Previously, we have demonstrated that salvianolic acid B (SaB), the important bioactive ingredient in this herb, was a post-harvest product. Here, we further reported that all salvianolic acids (SAs) in the roots were post-harvest products of the drying process. In addition, the results of various radical scavenging activity assays, including lipid peroxidation (1), DPPH (2), hydroxyl (3) and superoxide (4), were significantly increased along with the accumulation of total salvianolic acids in the process. The contents of chemical targets and antioxidant activities both reached the highest value under thermal treatment at 130 °C for 80 min. In this dehydration period, contents of SaB, and sum of nine SAs increased from 0.01% to 5.51%, and 0.20% to 6.61%; and IC50 of antioxidant activity decreased from 4.85 to 2.69 (1); 7.75 to 0.43 (2); 2.57 to 1.13 (3) and 17.25 to 1.10 mg/mL. These results further supported the hypothesis that the newly harvested plant roots were still physiologically active and the secondary metabolites might be produced due to dehydration stress after harvest. Our findings supplied an important and useful theoretical basis for promoting the quality of Danshen and other medicinal plant materials. PMID:24886944

  4. Biofumigation on Post-Harvest Diseases of Fruits Using a New Volatile-Producing Fungus of Ceratocystis fimbriata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Li

    Full Text Available A variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs produced by Ceratocystis fimbriata have strong bioactivity against a wide range of fungi, bacteria and oomycetes. Mycelial growth, conidial production, and spore germination of fungi and oomycetes were significantly inhibited after exposure to cultures of C. fimbriata, and colony formation of bacteria was also inhibited. Two post-harvest diseases, peach brown rot caused by Monilinia fructicola and citrus green mold caused by Penicillium digitatum, were controlled during a 4-day storage by enclosing wound-inoculated fruits with 10 standard diameter Petri plate cultures of C. fimbriata in a 15 L box. The fruits were freshly inoculated at onset of storage and the cultures of C. fimbriata were 6 days old. Percentage of control was 92 and 97%, respectively. After exposure to C. fimbriata VOCs, severely misshapen hyphae and conidia of these two post-harvest pathogens were observed by scanning electron microscopy, and their pathogenicity was lost or greatly reduced.

  5. Biofumigation on Post-Harvest Diseases of Fruits Using a New Volatile-Producing Fungus of Ceratocystis fimbriata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Wu, Lei; Hao, Jianjun; Luo, Laixin; Cao, Yongsong; Li, Jianqiang

    2015-01-01

    A variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by Ceratocystis fimbriata have strong bioactivity against a wide range of fungi, bacteria and oomycetes. Mycelial growth, conidial production, and spore germination of fungi and oomycetes were significantly inhibited after exposure to cultures of C. fimbriata, and colony formation of bacteria was also inhibited. Two post-harvest diseases, peach brown rot caused by Monilinia fructicola and citrus green mold caused by Penicillium digitatum, were controlled during a 4-day storage by enclosing wound-inoculated fruits with 10 standard diameter Petri plate cultures of C. fimbriata in a 15 L box. The fruits were freshly inoculated at onset of storage and the cultures of C. fimbriata were 6 days old. Percentage of control was 92 and 97%, respectively. After exposure to C. fimbriata VOCs, severely misshapen hyphae and conidia of these two post-harvest pathogens were observed by scanning electron microscopy, and their pathogenicity was lost or greatly reduced. PMID:26147922

  6. Effects of post-harvest treatment using chitosan from Mucor circinelloides on fungal pathogenicity and quality of table grapes during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Carlos Eduardo Vasconcelos; Magnani, Marciane; de Sales, Camila Veríssimo; Pontes, Alline Lima de Souza; Campos-Takaki, Galba Maria; Stamford, Thayza Christina Montenegro; de Souza, Evandro Leite

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to extract chitosan (CHI) from Mucor circinelloides UCP 050 grown in a corn steep liquor (CSL)-based medium under optimized conditions and to assess the efficacy of the obtained CHI to inhibit the post-harvest pathogenic fungi Aspergillus niger URM 5162 and Rhizopus stolonifer URM 3482 in laboratory media and as a coating on table grapes (Vitis labrusca L.). The effect of CHI coating on some physical, physicochemical and sensory characteristics of the fruits during storage was assessed. The greatest amount of CHI was extracted from M. circinelloides UCP 050 grown in medium containing 7 g of CSL per 100 mL at pH 5.5 with rotation at 180 rpm. CHI from M. circinelloides UCP 050 caused morphological changes in the spores of the fungal strains tested and inhibited mycelial growth and spore germination. CHI coating delayed the growth of the assayed fungal strains in artificially infected grapes, as well as autochthonous mycoflora during storage. CHI coating preserved the quality of grapes during storage, as measured by their physical, physicochemical and sensory attributes. These results demonstrate that edible coatings derived from M. circinelloides CHI could be a useful alternative for controlling pathogenic fungi and maintaining the post-harvest quality of table grapes. PMID:25084665

  7. Technology transfer for the handling post-harvest of grains at small farmer's level in three villages of the Municipality of La Vega Cundinamarca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The small agricultural producers of La Vega Municipality, in the Cundinamarca Department, the same as most of the rural producers of the country, they have been seeing seriously affected their crops of corn, bean and in general of basic grains, because of the attack of different agents biological considered plagues in the stored grains; as insects, microorganisms, birds and rodents, due to the ignorance of the appropriate techniques for the handling post-harvest of these products already the lack of sure systems of storage and conservation of the same ones. With the co-financing of the Technology National Program Transfer - PRONATTA. The present project developed a methodological model of technology transfer for the handling post-harvest of basic grains; the causes were determined that originated the problem and they thought about several technological alternatives of solution. Among the causes it was the lack of arrangement of the grains after the gathering and the use of systems and storage structures that didn't offer protection to the product, in front of the action of the destructive biological agents, in such a way that they were given training in the handling of the grains, appropriate silos were built, shops were developed with the farmers, to divulge notes, manuals and didactic videos, among others

  8. Analysis of free amino acids in green coffee beans. II. Changes of the amino acid content in arabica coffees in connection with post-harvest model treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, U; Ludwig, E

    1996-10-01

    To investigate amino acid changes in green coffee beans in the post-harvest period, amino acid concentrations were determined in green beans and after modelled drying, fermentation and storage. After the drying at alternating temperatures up to maximally 40 degrees C, considerable changes in the concentrations of individual amino acids were identified. At the beginning of the storage period, significant changes in concentration were found to a minor extent. Under the condition of drying, it was mainly the concentration of glutamic acid that changed considerably. There was an increase in all the samples by 500 mg/kg dry matter on average, which corresponds to an increase of about 50% of the original value. In contrast, the concentration of aspartic acid in most of the samples decreased clearly due to drying. For the predominant part of the coffee samples, there was a significant increase in the hydrophobic amino acids Val, Phe, Ile and Leu. Changes of the quantities of other amino acids were non-uniform and only insignificant. Constant drying at 80 degrees C for most of the amino acids brought about only minor concentration changes compared to those values obtained at 40 degrees C. Modelled fermentation had no significant effect on the concentrations of the individual amino acids. After a 4-week storage of dried beans, amino acid concentrations did not change further. It is very possible that different post-harvest treatment parameters may influence the amount of aroma precursor compounds in the coffee beans. PMID:9123976

  9. Post-harvest changes in sweet sorghum II: pH, acidity, protein, starch, and mannitol

    Science.gov (United States)

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of four harvesting methods on juice quality and storability in sweet sorghum. Three cultivars (Dale, Theis, and M81-E) were harvested at 90, 115, and 140 days after planting. Stalks were stripped of leaves and topped at the peduncle, then divide...

  10. Farmer Co- designed strategies to reduce post-harvest residue removal for household use and restore soil fertility

    OpenAIRE

    Anders, E; Norton, U.

    2012-01-01

    Soil resource depletion and land degradation are key contributing factors to food insecurity in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Novel conservation agriculture practices (CAP) encourage smallholder farmers to leave post-harvest residue in the field for the purpose of soil organic matter (SOM) restoration and soil water conservation. Many farmers understand the importance of crop residue retention for soil fertility. Due to resource limitations and everyday demands, retaining residues is often imposs...

  11. The use of gamma radiation aiming to post harvest conservation of Cantaloupe melon (Cucumis melo L. var. Cantaloupensis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although Brazilian fruit culture has been growing in the international market, the fruit quality and the post harvest technology have not been improved properly. In Brazil, fruit nutritional factors are very important because of their potential to provide suitable nutrients for a significant part of the Country population. Some post harvest technologies, such as ionizing radiation, can keep the physical, chemical, nutritional and sensorial characteristics of the natural fruit, improving the quality of the fruits in the market. This work evaluated the effects of Cobalt 60 irradiation in Cantaloupe melon, aiming the post harvest conservation during 7 days of storage, at a temperature ranging from 20 to 22 deg C. The doses of irradiation were set to 0, 150, 300, 450, 600, 750 and 900 Gy, based on the multiple of 150 Gy quarantine dose, aiming to establish the lowest, the highest and the ideal doses. Afterwards, physical, chemical and nutritional characteristics of irradiated fruit were checked and, finally, the sensorial characteristics through acceptability test. Results indicated that the doses higher than 450 Gy affected firmness, pulp yield and color (L and a*) parameters. Nevertheless, analyzing physical, chemical and nutritional parameters, doses of 450 and 900 Gy kept pH, tetrable acidity, soluble solids, color (a* and b*), chlorophyll and carotenoids, phenolic compounds, respiratory rate and ethylene level. The storage period was the most important factor that affected the quality of the fruit, despite of the radiation doses. Based on the acceptability test, the best evaluated fruits were from the treatments of 450 and 900 Gy. This work allowed to conclude that fruit radiation is an appropriate technology for Cantaloupe melon post harvest conservation, but it is necessary to be used in combination with other technologies, especially to fungi control. (author)

  12. Economic impact analysis of marker-assisted breeding for resistance to pests and post harvest deterioration in cassava

    OpenAIRE

    Rudi, Nderim; Norton, George W.; Alwang, Jeffrey Roger; Asumugha, Godwin N.

    2010-01-01

    Marker-assisted breeding could have a major impact in relieving productivity constraints that cannot as easily or rapidly be relieved by conventional breeding alone. This paper estimates the benefits of using marker-assisted breeding, as compared to conventional breeding alone, in developing cassava varieties resistant to cassava mosaic disease, green mite, whitefly and post-harvest physiological deterioration in Nigeria, Ghana and Uganda. Marker-assisted breeding is estimated to save at leas...

  13. Simulation of the internal environment of a post-harvest installation and a solar dryer of coffee

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson Osorio H.; Lina M. Guerra G.; Ilda de F. F. Tinôco; José H. Martins; Cecília de F. Souza; Jairo A. Osorio S.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study aimed to make a simulation of the internal environment of an installations for coffee post-harvest and a parabolic solar dryer, specifically analyzing the effect of natural ventilation on the temperature and relative humidity inside these buildings. The ventilated coffee-processing plant and the solar dryer with the largest natural ventilation area showed the best results to preserve the quality of coffee grain.

  14. Vitamin D2 Formation from Post-Harvest UV-B Treatment of Mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) and Retention during Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this research were to study the effects of high intensity (0.5, 0.75, and 1.0 mW/cm2), dose (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 J/cm2), and post-harvest time (1 and 4 days) on the vitamin D2 formation in Portabella mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) as a result of UV-B exposure, as well as the vitamin D...

  15. Production of Salvianolic Acid B in Roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza (Danshen) During the Post-Harvest Drying Process

    OpenAIRE

    Guo-Jun Zhou; Xiao-Mei Xie; Tong-Shui Zhou; Xiao-Bing Li; Yan Li; Wei Wang,

    2012-01-01

    Drying is the most common and fundamental procedure in the post-harvest processing which contributes to the quality and valuation of medicinal plants. However, attention to and research work on this aspect is relatively poor. In this paper, we reveal dynamic variations of concentrations of five major bioactive components, namely salvianolic acid B (SaB), dihydrotanshinone I, cryptotanshinone, tanshinone I and tanshinone IIA, in roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza (Dashen) during the drying process a...

  16. Physiological and proteomic approaches to address the active role of ozone in kiwifruit post-harvest ripening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minas, Ioannis S.; Tanou, Georgia; Belghazi, Maya; Job, Dominique; Manganaris, George A.; Molassiotis, Athanassios; Vasilakakis, Miltiadis

    2012-01-01

    Post-harvest ozone application has recently been shown to inhibit the onset of senescence symptoms on fleshy fruit and vegetables; however, the exact mechanism of action is yet unknown. To characterize the impact of ozone on the post-harvest performance of kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa cv. ‘Hayward’), fruits were cold stored (0 °C, 95% relative humidity) in a commercial ethylene-free room for 1, 3, or 5 months in the absence (control) or presence of ozone (0.3 μl l−1) and subsequently were allowed to ripen at a higher temperature (20 °C), herein defined as the shelf-life period, for up to 12 days. Ozone blocked ethylene production, delayed ripening, and stimulated antioxidant and anti-radical activities of fruits. Proteomic analysis using 1D-SDS-PAGE and mass spectrometry identified 102 kiwifruit proteins during ripening, which are mainly involved in energy, protein metabolism, defence, and cell structure. Ripening induced protein carbonylation in kiwifruit but this effect was depressed by ozone. A set of candidate kiwifruit proteins that are sensitive to carbonylation was also discovered. Overall, the present data indicate that ozone improved kiwifruit post-harvest behaviour, thus providing a first step towards understanding the active role of this molecule in fruit ripening. PMID:22268155

  17. Post-harvest light treatment increases expression levels of recombinant proteins in transformed plastids of potato tubers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larraya, Luis M; Fernández-San Millán, Alicia; Ancín, María; Farran, Inmaculada; Veramendi, Jon

    2015-09-01

    Plastid genetic engineering represents an attractive system for the production of foreign proteins in plants. Although high expression levels can be achieved in leaf chloroplasts, the results for non-photosynthetic plastids are generally discouraging. Here, we report the expression of two thioredoxin genes (trx f and trx m) from the potato plastid genome to study transgene expression in amyloplasts. As expected, the highest transgene expression was detected in the leaf (up to 4.2% of TSP). The Trx protein content in the tuber was approximately two to three orders of magnitude lower than in the leaf. However, we demonstrate that a simple post-harvest light treatment of microtubers developed in vitro or soil-grown tubers induces up to 55 times higher accumulation of the recombinant protein in just seven to ten days. After the applied treatment, the Trx f levels in microtubers and soil-grown tubers increased to 0.14% and 0.11% of TSP, respectively. Moreover, tubers stored for eight months maintained the capacity of increasing the foreign protein levels after the light treatment. Post-harvest cold induction (up to five times) at 4°C was also detected in microtubers. We conclude that plastid transformation and post-harvest light treatment could be an interesting approach for the production of foreign proteins in potato. PMID:26121393

  18. Gene expression patterns to define stages of post-harvest senescence in Alstroemeria petals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeze, Emily; Wagstaff, Carol; Harrison, Elizabeth; Bramke, Irene; Rogers, Hilary; Stead, Anthony; Thomas, Brian; Buchanan-Wollaston, Vicky

    2004-03-01

    Petal senescence in many species is regulated by ethylene but some flowers, such as those on the monocotyledonous plant Alstroemeria, var. Rebecca are ethylene insensitive. Changes in gene expression during the post-harvest senescence of Alstroemeria flowers were investigated using several different techniques. Suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH) was used to obtain cDNA libraries enriched for genes expressed at selected stages of petal senescence. Sequencing of the EST clones obtained resulted in over 1000 sequences that represent approximately 500 different genes. Analysis of the potential functions of these genes provides a snapshot of the processes that are taking place during petal development. Both cell wall related genes and genes involved in metabolism were present at a higher proportion in the earlier stages. Genes encoding metal binding proteins (mostly metallothionein-like) were the major component of senescence enhanced libraries. This limited the diversity of genes identified showing differential expression at the later stages. Changes in the expression of all genes were analysed using microarray hybridization, and genes showing either up or down-regulation were identified. The expression pattern of a selection of genes was confirmed using Northern hybridization. Northern hybridization confirmed the up-regulation of metallothioneins after floral opening, however, this was not detected by the microarray analysis, indicating the importance of using a combination of methods to investigate gene expression patterns. Considerably more genes were up-regulated than down-regulated. This may reflect the need during Alstroemeria petal senescence for the expression of a whole new set of genes involved with degradation and mobilization. The potential uses of expression profiling to improve floral quality in breeding programmes or as a diagnostic tool are discussed. PMID:17147607

  19. The Or Gene Enhances Carotenoid Accumulation and Stability During Post-Harvest Storage of Potato Tubers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Li; Mark Failla; Theodore W.Thannhauser; Yong Yang; Qiang Xu; Katherine Owsiany; Ralf Welsch; Chureeporn Chitchumroonchokchai; Shan Lu; Joyce Van Eck; Xiu-Xin Deng

    2012-01-01

    Provitamin A carotenoids in staple crops are not very stable during storage and their loss compromises nutritional quality.To elucidate the fundamental mechanisms underlying carotenoid accumulation and stability,we investigated transgenic potato tubers that expressed the cauliflower Orange (Or) gene.We found that the Or transgene not only promoted retention of β-carotene level,but also continuously stimulated its accumulation during 5 months of cold storage.In contrast,no increased levels of carotenoids were observed in the tubers of vector-only controls or a yellowflesh variety during the same period of storage.The increased carotenoid accumulation was found to be associated with the formation of lipoprotein-carotenoid sequestering structures,as well as with the enhanced abundance of phytoene synthase,a key enzyme in the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway.Furthermore,the provitamin A carotenoids stored were shown to be stable during simulated digestion and accessible for uptake by human intestinal absorptive cells.Proteomic analysis identified three major functional groups of proteins (i.e.heat shock proteins,glutathione-S-transferases,and carbohydrate metabolic proteins) that are potentially important in the Or-regulated carotenoid accumulation.Our results show that regulation of carotenoid sequestration capacity is an important mechanism by which carotenoid stability is regulated.Our findings suggest that induction of a proper sink structure formation in staple crops may provide the crops with a unique ability to promote and/or stabilize provitamin A accumulation during plant growth and post-harvest storage.

  20. Assessment of the post harvest knowledge of fruits and vegetable farmers in Garun Mallam L.G.A of Kano, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad, R.H; Hionu, G.C.; F.F. Olayemi

    2012-01-01

    A total of 100 questionnaires were randomly distributed among fruits and vegetable producers of Garun Mallam Local Governments Area of Kano State Nigeria. Information was obtained on the farmers post harvest handling of fruits and vegetables, i.e types of produce, time of harvesting, ways of cooling, packaging and transporting of their produce. All of the farmers have more than ten years of farming experience, harvesting was found to be done at no specific time, and none of the farmers was fo...

  1. Reverse Flipping Technique: An Alternate Approach to Tie Reversing Half-Hitches on Alternating Posts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Alexander C M; Prohaska, Daniel J; Pate, Ryan C

    2016-04-01

    Arthroscopic knot tying requires practice and attention to detail, especially tying the 3 reversing half-hitches on alternating posts (RHAPs) in a knot. Mistakes can occur that result in an unintentional tension (>10 N) applied to the wrapping suture limb, and by placing tension in the wrong limb, the previously "flipped" half-hitch is converted from a series of RHAPs into a series of identical half-hitches on the same post, thereby producing insecure knots or suture loops. This was hypothesized to be a source of knot failure by knot slippage. This error can be avoided by using a technique we describe as "reverse flipping," which purposely "flips" the half-hitch down at the main knot while tying the 3 RHAPs in a knot, and then the half-hitch is retightened using either a past-pointing or over-pointing technique. This way the surgeon can be absolutely sure that the half-hitch is tightened in the direction that it was intended to be placed, and can also prevent the unintentional tension applied to the wrapping suture limb that causes the half-hitch to "flip." However, caution should be used when tensioning the half-hitches; overtensioning (>40 N) during past-pointing or over-pointing could also potentially "flip" the previous half-hitch that has already been tightened and cause potential knot failure. PMID:27462541

  2. The effect of Bt-corn on soil invertebrates and decomposition rates of corn post-harvest residues under field and laboratory conditions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frouz, Jan; Kocourek, F.

    Brisbane: Australian Entomological Society, 2004. [Entomology Strength in Diversity. International Congress of Entomology /22./. 15.08.2004-21.08.2004, Brisbane] Keywords : Bt-corn * soil invertebrates * corn post - harvest residues Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  3. The effect of Bt-corn on decomposers and decomposition rates of corn post-harvest residues under laboratory and field conditions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frouz, Jan; Elhottová, Dana; Kocourek, J.

    Rouen: Université de Rouen, 2004. s. 195. [International Colloquium on Soil Zoology and Ecology /14./. 30.08.2004-03.09.2004, Rouen] Keywords : Bt-corn * decomposition rates * corn post - harvest residues Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  4. Microorganisms associated with post-harvest green olives deteriorations in Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faid, M.

    1994-10-01

    Full Text Available Altered green olive fruits harvested by the pole slender method were studied for the microorganisms involved in post-harvest alterations of the fruits before the fermentation process. The determinations included: standard plate count, Gram-negative bacteria (conforms and pseudomonads, bacillus, and yeasts. Results showed that the alterations are due first to yeasts and their interactions with pseudomonads and conforms. The most frequent yeasts were represented by the species: Debaryomyces hansenii, Rodothorula glutinis, Pichia membranefaciens, P. Anomala and Candida Bacarum. Gram-negative fermenting bacteria were represented by the species: Envinia carotovora, Hafnia alvei, Enterobacter agglomerans, E. Aerogenes and Serratia marcescens, S. liquefaciens and Shigella flexneri. The oxidase-positive bacteria were most abundant and mainly dominated by Pseudomonas species including P. aeruginosa, P. alcaligenes and P. Syringae. Most of the isolates of these microorganisms were cellulolytic and lipolytic. bacillus especies were also isolated and identified. The main species were Bacillus megaterium, B. pumilus, B. cereus and B. olei. Bacillus species seem not involved in olive deteriorations

    Se estudiaron los microorganismos envueltos en las alteraciones postcosecha de aceitunas verdes alteradas recolectadas mediante el método de vareo y antes del proceso de fermentación. Las determinaciones incluyeron: recuento estándar en placa, bacterias gram-negativa (coliformes y pseudomonas, bacillus y levaduras. Los resultados mostraron que las alteraciones son debidas en primer lugar a las levaduras y a sus interaciones con pseudomonas y coliformes. Las levaduras más frecuentes estuvieron representadas por las especies: Debaryomyces hansenii, Rodothorula glutinis, Pichia membranefaciens, P. anómala y Candida bacarum. Las bacterias gram

  5. ASSESSING THE EFFECTS OF LOGGING ACTIVITIES ON AVIAN RICHNESS AND DIVERSITY IN DIFFERENT AGED POST-HARVESTED HILL DIPTEROCARP TROPICAL RAINFOREST OF MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Rajpar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Logging activities have encroached into the hill dipterocarp tropical rainforest area since the lowland dipterocarp forests have decreased in size. Hill dipterocarp tropical rainforest is rich in habitat diversity and provide a variety of resources for avian species such as food, habitat and shelter. Therefore it is important to examine the logging effects of hill dipterocarp rainforest on avian species. We compared the avian richness and diversity in different aged post-harvested hill dipterocarp tropical rainforest at the Berkelah Hill Dipterocarp Rainforest Reserve in Maran, Pahang, West Malaysia using mist-netting method. We captured a total of 1908 individuals representing 86 species and 29 families (i.e., 18.55% from two years post-harvested forest, 25.10% from ten years post-harvested, 23.90% from twenty years post-harvested and 32.44% from thirty five years post-harvested forests. Forty nine species were caught in two years and ten years, 55 species in twenty years and 59 species in thirty five years’ post-harvested forest. Seventeen species were common in all four types of forest. Pycnonotidae, Timaliidae and Nectariniidae were the most dominant families in all types of post-harvested hill dipterocarp tropical rainforest. Diversity analysis indicated that the bird species in twenty years post-harvested hill dipterocarp rainforest was most diverse (i.e., Fisher’s Alpha Diversity Index; 16.34 and evenly distributed (i.e., McIntosh Evenness index E; 0.933 as compared to two years, ten years and thirty five years post-harvested forest. However, thirty five years post-harvested forest was richest in avian species (i.e., Margalef’s Richness index R1; 9.02 as compared to other post-harvested forest. The findings of this study revealed that logging and recovery process may affects on avian distribution and diversity. However, these effects may vary from species to species.

  6. Factors That Affect Proliferation of Salmonella in Tomatoes Post-Harvest: The Roles of Seasonal Effects, Irrigation Regime, Crop and Pathogen Genotype

    OpenAIRE

    Marvasi, Massimiliano; Hochmuth, George J.; Giurcanu, Mihai C.; George, Andrée S; Noel, Jason T.; Bartz, Jerry; Teplitski, Max

    2013-01-01

    Main Objectives Fresh fruits and vegetables become increasingly recognized as vehicles of human salmonellosis. Physiological, ecological, and environmental factors are all thought to contribute to the ability of Salmonella to colonize fruits and vegetables pre- and post-harvest. The goal of this study was to test how irrigation levels, fruit water congestion, crop and pathogen genotypes affect the ability of Salmonella to multiply in tomatoes post-harvest. Experimental Design Fruits from thre...

  7. Post-harvest Handling, Processing and Marketing of Sisal Fibres and Crafts in the Shiselweni District of Swaziland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.T. Mkhonta

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess current status of post-harvest handling, processing and marketing of sisal fibres and crafts in the Shiselweni district of Swaziland. A variety of natural fibre based products are made in Swaziland using Agave sisalana for the local market and for export. However, there is limited information pertaining to post-harvest handling, processing and dyeing of plant fibres in the Shiselweni region of Swaziland. A qualitative and quantitative study using the Participatory Rural Appraisals (PRAs approach and questionnaires was carried out with two groups of participants from two parts of the Shiselweni region. Information gathered was analyzed, to capture the background of the participants, evaluate their methods of fibre harvesting, extraction, spinning, weaving and dyeing and to document challenges faced by the participants. The findings revealed that the sisal trade was dominated by women. The women used skills passed from generation to generation and generated profits in the business until the demand for natural fibres decreased. Fifty two percent of the women from Lavumisa were no longer satisfied with the returns of their trade, while 80% in Nhlangano felt the same way. However, both groups felt that working with sisal had improved their household food security to a certain extent. Further findings revealed that there was a great need to train the concerned women in product development, marketing skills, environmental conservation and entrepreneurship.

  8. Leaf cuticular wax amount and crystal morphology regulate post-harvest water loss in mulberry (Morus species).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamrutha, H M; Mogili, T; Jhansi Lakshmi, K; Rama, N; Kosma, Dylan; Udaya Kumar, M; Jenks, Matthew A; Nataraja, Karaba N

    2010-08-01

    Mulberry leaves are the sole source of food for silkworms (Bombyx mori), and moisture content of the detached leaves fed to silkworms determines silkworm growth and cocoon yield. Since leaf dehydration in commercial sericulture is a serious problem, development of new methods that minimize post-harvest water loss are greatly needed. In the present study, variability in moisture retention capacity (MRC, measured as leaf relative water content after one to 5 h of air-drying) was examined by screening 290 diverse mulberry accessions and the relationship between MRC and leaf surface (cuticular) wax amount was determined. Leaf MRC varied significantly among accessions, and was found to correlate strongly with leaf wax amount. Scanning electron microscopic analysis indicated that leaves having crystalline surface waxes of increased facet size and density were associated with high MRC accessions. Leaf MRC at 5 h after harvest was not related to other parameters such as specific leaf weight, and stomatal frequency and index. This study suggests that mulberry accessions having elevated leaf surface wax amount and crystal size and density exhibit reduced leaf post-harvest water loss, and could provide the foundation for selective breeding of improved cultivars. PMID:20580887

  9. Evaluating alternative water sources and their use for small-holder agriculture from a systemic perspective : a focus on water reuse and rainwater harvesting in Namibia

    OpenAIRE

    Woltersdorf, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Water is scarce in semi-arid and arid regions. Using alternative water sources (i.e. non-conventional water sources), such as municipal reuse water and harvested rain, contributes to using existing water resources more efficiently and productively. The aim of this study is to evaluate the two alternative water sources reuse water and harvested rain for the irrigation of small-holder agriculture from a system perspective. This helps decision and policy makers to have proper information about w...

  10. Influence of gamma irradiation on quality characteristic, sugar content, and respiration rate of mushrooms during post harvest storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) were irradiated using low-dose gamma radiation (100 krads) within four hours after harvest. Growth and development of irradiated mushrooms were markedly inhibited as indicated by the lower maturity index, whiter color, and shorter stipe length when compared with non-irradiated (control) mushrooms. there were no significant changes in the rate of moisture loss, soluble sugar content, or absolute fresh weight of the various tissues of irradiated and non-irradiated mushrooms during post harvest storage. Respiration rate of irradiated mushrooms was greater than that of the non-irradiated mushrooms at 24 hours of storage at 12 degree C, and then declined markedly. (author). 16 refs. 6 figs. 2 tabs

  11. Involvement of AOX and UCP pathways in the post-harvest ripening of papaya fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, M G; Mazorra, L M; Souza, A F; Silva, G M C; Correa, S F; Santos, W C; Saraiva, K D C; Teixeira, A J; Melo, D F; Silva, M G; Silva, M A P; Arrabaça, J D C; Costa, J H; Oliveira, J G

    2015-09-15

    Enhanced respiration during ripening in climacteric fruits is sometimes associated with an uncoupling between the ATP synthesis and the mitochondrial electron transport chain. While the participation of two energy-dissipating systems, one of which is mediated by the alternative oxidase (AOX) and the other mediated by the uncoupling protein (UCP), has been linked to fruit ripening, the relation between the activation of both mitochondrial uncoupling systems with the transient increase of ethylene synthesis (ethylene peak) remains unclear. To elucidate this question, ethylene emission and the two uncoupling (AOX and UCP) pathways were monitored in harvested papaya fruit during the ripening, from green to fully yellow skin. The results confirmed the typical climacteric behavior for papaya fruit: an initial increase in endogenous ethylene emission which reaches a maximum (peak) in the intermediate ripening stage, before finally declining to a basal level in ripe fruit. Respiration of intact fruit also increased and achieved higher levels at the end of ripening. On the other hand, in purified mitochondria extracted from fruit pulp the total respiration and respiratory control decrease while an increase in the participation of AOX and UCP pathways was markedly evident during papaya ripening. There was an increase in the AOX capacity during the transition from green fruit to the intermediate stage that accompanied the transient ethylene peak, while the O2 consumption triggered by UCP activation increased by 80% from the beginning to end stage of fruit ripening. Expression analyses of AOX (AOX1 and 2) and UCP (UCP1-5) genes revealed that the increases in the AOX and UCP capacities were linked to a higher expression of AOX1 and UCP (mainly UCP1) genes, respectively. In silico promoter analyses of both genes showed the presence of ethylene-responsive cis-elements in UCP1 and UCP2 genes. Overall, the data suggest a differential activation of AOX and UCP pathways in regulation

  12. Improving the Keeping Quality and Vase Life of Cut Alstroemeria Flowers by Pre and Post-harvest Salicylic Acid Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elnaz SOLEIMANY-FARD

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Keeping quality and length of vase life are important factors for evaluation of cut flowers quality, for both domestic and export markets. Studding the effect of pre- and post-harvest salicylic acid applications on keeping quality and vase life of cut alstroemeria flowers during vase period is the approach taken. Aqueous solutions of salicylic acid at 0.0 (with distilled water, 1, 2 and 3 mM were sprayed to run-off (approximately 500 mL per plant, about two weeks before flowers harvest. The cut flowers were harvested in the early morning and both of cut flowers treated (sprayed and untreated were kept in vase solutions containing salicylic acid at 0.0 (with distilled water, 1, 2 and 3 mM. Sucrose at 4% was added to all treatments as a base solution. The changes in relative fresh weight, water uptake, water loss, water balance, total chlorophyll content and vase life were estimated during vase period. The results showed that the relative fresh weight, water uptake, water balance, total chlorophyll content and vase life decreased significantly while the water loss increased significantly during experiment for all treatments. A significant difference between salicylic acid and control treatments in all measured parameters is observed. During vase period, the salicylic acid treatments maintained significantly a more favourable relative fresh weight, water uptake, water balance, total chlorophyll content and supressed significantly water loss, as compared to control treatment. Also, the results showed that the using salicylic acid increased significantly the vase life cut alstroemeria flowers, over control. The highest values of measured parameters were found when plants were treated by pre + post-harvest application of salicylic acid at 3 mM. The result revealed that the quality attributes and vase life of cut alstroemeria flowers were improved by the use of salicylic acid treatment.

  13. Assessment of soil erosion sensitivity and post-timber-harvesting erosion response in a mountain environment of Central Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrelli, Pasquale; Schütt, Brigitta

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the effects of forest management on the occurrence of accelerated soil erosion by water. The study site is located in a mountainous area of the Italian Central Apennines. Here, forest harvesting is a widespread forestry activity and is mainly performed on the moderate to steep slopes of the highlands. Through modeling operations based on data on soil properties and direct monitoring of changes in the post-forest-harvesting soil surface level at the hillslope scale, we show that the observed site became prone to soil erosion after human intervention. Indeed, the measured mean soil erosion rate of 49 t ha- 1 yr- 1 for the harvested watershed is about 21 times higher than the rate measured in its neighboring undisturbed forested watershed (2.3 t ha- 1 yr- 1). The erosive response is greatly aggravated by exposing the just-harvested forest, with very limited herbaceous plant cover, to the aggressive attack of the heaviest annual rainfall without adopting any conservation practices. The erosivity of the storms during the first four months of field measurements was 1571 MJ mm h- 1 ha- 1 in total (i.e., from September to December 2008). At the end of the experiment (16 months), 18.8%, 26.1% and 55.1% of the erosion monitoring sites in the harvested watershed recorded variations equal or greater than 0-5, 5-10 and > 10 mm, respectively. This study also provides a quantification of Italian forestland surfaces with the same pedo-lithological characteristics exploited for wood supply. Within a period of ten years (2002-2011), about 9891 ha of coppice forest changes were identified and their potential soil erosion rates modeled.

  14. Impact of post-harvest radiation treatment timing on shelf life and quality characteristics of potatoes

    OpenAIRE

    Rezaee, Mehdi; ALMASSI, Morteza; MINAEI, Saeed; Paknejad, Farzad

    2011-01-01

    The effects of gamma radiation treatment (50 and 100 Gy) on potato tubers irradiated at different days (10th, 30th and 50th) after harvest were studied during 5 months of storage at 10°C using Agria and Marfona varieties. A factorial experiment was done, based on a Randomized Complete Block Design with four replications. The 100 Gy radiation treatments on 10th and 30th days after harvest completely prevented sprouting at both varieties studied but on 50th day only Agria tubers not sprouted. T...

  15. Back to the roots: molecular characterization of cassava root responses during drought and post-harvest stresses

    OpenAIRE

    Vanderschuren, Hervé

    2015-01-01

    Back to the roots: molecular characterization of cassava root responses during drought and post-harvest stresses E.M. Lentz1, E. Nyaboga1,2, C. Orek1,3, W. Gruissem1, H. Vanderschuren1,4 1 ETH Zurich, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Plant Biotechnology Lab, Switzerland 2 International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Nairobi, Kenya 3 South Eastern Kenya University, Department of DryLand Agriculture, Kitui, Kenya 4 University of Liège, Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech, Plant Gene...

  16. Study on freshness quality and post-harvest loss of Hilsa (Tenualosa Ilisha) during marketing in Mymensingh town, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Dilip Chandra Ray; Md. Abu Zafar; AKM Nowsad Alam; Zubaida Parveen Patwary

    2015-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to know the freshness quality and associated post-harvest loss of hilsa, if any, transported to Mymensingh from the major landing centers through Cox’s Bazar-Chittagong (route A) and Barguna-Chandpur (route B) routes for a period of July to October 2012. The average environmental temperature of the wholesale and retail markets was 30.7 °C and 30.6 °C where the body temperature of hilsa was 4.5 °C (route A) and 4.7 °C (route B), respectively. The Freshness qualit...

  17. The Effects of Post Harvest Heat Processing and Storage on Physico-mechanical Properties and Tuber Quality of Potatoes

    OpenAIRE

    KESİM, Semih; Ebubekir ALTUNTAŞ

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the effects of post harvest heat processes (temperature and time) and storage treatments on physico-mechanical properties and tuber quality of potato (cv.Marabel) were investigated. Three different heat temperature treatment (55°C, 57.5°C, 60°C) and 45 and 90 days storage time were used. Physico-mechanical properties such as size dimension, geometric mean diameter, sphericity, surface area, volume, weigth lose and puncture force along X (length) and Y (width) axes were determin...

  18. Post-harvest N2O emissions were not affected by various types of oilseed straw incorporated into soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köbke, Sarah; Senbayram, Mehmet; Hegewald, Hannes; Christen, Olaf; Dittert, Klaus

    2015-04-01

    Oilseed rape post-harvest N2O emissions are seen highly critical as so far they are considered as one of the most crucial drawbacks in climate-saving bioenergy production systems. N2O emissions may substantially counterbalance the intended savings in CO2 emissions. Carbon-rich crop residues in conjunction with residual soil nitrate are seen as a key driver since they may serve as energy source for denitrification and, they may alter soil-borne N2O emissions. As oilseed rape straw is known to have high N/C ratio compared to other crop residues, its soil incorporation may specifically trigger post-harvest N2O emissions. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine post-harvest N2O emissions in soils amended with various types of oilseed rape straw (with different N/C ratio) and barley straw in field and incubation experiments. In the incubation experiment, oilseed rape or 15N labelled barley straw were mixed with soil at a rate of 1.3 t DM ha-1 and studied for 43 days. Treatments consisted of non-treated control soil (CK), 15N labelled barley straw (BST), oilseed rape straw (RST), 15N labelled barley straw + N (BST+N), or oilseed rape straw + N (RST+N). N fertilizer was applied to the soil surface as ammonium-nitrate at a rate of 100 kg N ha-1 and soil moisture was adjusted to 80% water-holding capacity. In the field experiment, during the vegetation period 15N labelled fertilizer (15NH415NO3) was used to generate 15N labelled oilseed rape straw (up to 5 at%). Here, the three fertilizer treatments consisted of 5 kg N ha-1 (RST-5), 150 kg N ha-1 (RST-150) and 180 kg N ha-1 (RST-180). Post-harvest N2O emissions were determined during the period of August 2013 to February 2014 by using static flux chambers. In the incubation trial, cumulative N2O emissions were 5, 29, 40 g N2O-N ha-1 148 days-1 in non-fertilized control, BST and RST treatments, respectively. Here, emissions were slightly higher in RST than BST (p

  19. Post-Contemporary Composition: Social Constructivism and Its Alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts-Miller, Patricia

    2002-01-01

    Criticizes the hegemony of social constructivism in rhetoric and composition. Argues there are more options than social constructivism, positivism, and expressivism. Describes Jurgen Habermas' philosophy of universal pragmatics as one of a number of alternatives. (PM)

  20. Post Harvest Handling, Storage, and Treatment for Fresh Market of Berry Fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    A perfect berry growing in the field may not reach the consumer in the same flawless condition. Producing high-quality berry fruit is only the first step. Delivering them to market in premium condition is also essential to command the buyer’s attention. The handling of berries during harvesting, sor...

  1. Pre and post harvest interventions for preventing potential contamination of apples with human pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    The possible presence of pathogens on the surface and/or inaccessible sites (calyx, stem, and/or core) of apples has implications for the microbiological safety of supplies to the fresh and fresh-cut industry. Contamination of apples with human pathogen can occur during growth, harvesting, distribut...

  2. Free anterolateral thigh flap harvesting from paralytic limbs in post-polio syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changchien, Chih-Hsuan; Chen, Wei-Chen; Su, Yu-Min

    2016-01-01

    We report two cases of poliomyelitis in which an anterolateral thigh myocutaneous free flap was harvested from the paralytic limb for oral reconstruction. We observed a decrease in the pedicle diameter of the anterolateral thigh flap, but the blood supply to the skin paddle was adequate. PMID:27583272

  3. Assessment of the post harvest knowledge of fruits and vegetable farmers in Garun Mallam L.G.A of Kano, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad, R.H

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A total of 100 questionnaires were randomly distributed among fruits and vegetable producers of Garun Mallam Local Governments Area of Kano State Nigeria. Information was obtained on the farmers post harvest handling of fruits and vegetables, i.e types of produce, time of harvesting, ways of cooling, packaging and transporting of their produce. All of the farmers have more than ten years of farming experience, harvesting was found to be done at no specific time, and none of the farmers was found to harvest at matured green stage. All of the farmers experienced post harvest losses, ranging from 20-50% of their harvest. Local baskets and bags were used in packaging produce, and transportation was carried out at anytime of the day in open pick-ups, Lorries and trucks. Results of the survey was analyzed and presented in percentages. It was concluded that the farmers lack general knowledge of postharvest handling despite their years of farming experience, therefore it was concluded that the lack of knowledge of post harvest could be responsible for the huge losses of fruits and vegetables in the country, intense enlightenment by concerned bodies like NSPRI, ADP, and KNADA was recommended to be intensified.

  4. Study on freshness quality and post-harvest loss of Hilsa (Tenualosa Ilisha during marketing in Mymensingh town, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilip Chandra Ray

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was conducted to know the freshness quality and associated post-harvest loss of hilsa, if any, transported to Mymensingh from the major landing centers through Cox’s Bazar-Chittagong (route A and Barguna-Chandpur (route B routes for a period of July to October 2012. The average environmental temperature of the wholesale and retail markets was 30.7 °C and 30.6 °C where the body temperature of hilsa was 4.5 °C (route A and 4.7 °C (route B, respectively. The Freshness quality of hilsa was assessed using sensory defects points (DPs that eventually gave rise to numerical values ‘1’ being the freshest and ‘5’ being the worst quality. The DPs of hilsa were found 2.0, which reveal that the fishes were in excellent conditions, i.e., there was no significant post-harvest loss even during retail sale. DPs on arrival and at wholesale in July, September and October were significantly different after auction and during retail sale (p<0.05, and in August differed significantly only during retail sale (p<0.05. It was observed that hilsa transported to Mymensingh from Barguna-Chandpur were better in quality than those transported from Cox’s Bazar-Chittagong. The reason behind this finding was not studied and this needs to be elucidated through further research.

  5. Aquatic Insect Emergence in Post-Harvest Flooded Agricultural Fields in the Southern San Joaquin Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, R. C.; Blumenshine, S.; Fleskes, J.

    2005-05-01

    California's Southern San Joaquin Valley is one of the most important waterbird areas in North America, but has suffered a disproportionate loss of wetlands when compared to other California regions. This project analyzes the habitat value of post-harvest flooded cropland by measuring the emergence of aquatic insects across multiple crop types. Aquatic insect emergence was sampled from post-harvest flooded fields of four crop types (alfalfa, corn, tomato, wheat), August-October, 2003-2004. Emergence was measured using traps deployed with a stratified random distribution to sample between and within field variation. Emergence rate and emergent biomass was significantly higher in flooded tomato fields. Results from corn fields indicate that flooding depth was correlated (r=0.095) with both diel temperature fluctuation and emergence rate. Chironomus dilutus larvae were grown in environmental chambers, under two thermal treatments with the same mean but different amplitudes (high: 15°-32°C, low: 20°-26°C) to investigate thermal fluctuation effects on survival and biomass. Larval survival (4x) and biomass (2x) were significantly greater in the low versus high temperature fluctuation treatment. This research has the potential to affect agricultural management throughout the 12,600 km2 region, increase aquatic insect production and aid in the recovery of declining bird populations.

  6. Strategy of Quality Improvement of Pond Shrimp Post Harvest Management (Penaeus monodon Fabricius in Mahakam Delta (Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Noor Asikin

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Mahakam Delta area, which is situated in Kutai Kartanegara Regency, has become a pond center that gives a significant contribution to shrimp export of East Kalimantan Province. Pond-produced shrimps, however, do not always accord to the intention of cold storage companies at expected price. The companies even sometimes reject the request due to poor quality of the product. The decreasing shrimp quality may be due to maintenance process by the pond farmers as well as the improper collectors. In the other hand, importing countries have decided more and more restricted requirements for the imported fishing products. This study was held in Muara Jawa, Anggana, and Muara Badak Districts using techniques of data collection of in-depth interview with twelve respondents. In order to improve shrimp quality, farmers or the producers have to formulate a strategy towards the improvement of the post harvest shrimps from the pond using an Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP. Results of the AHP consist of as follows: (1 application of pond shrimp post harvest technology and improvement of facilities and accommodation that support the quality improvement of the pond shrimps, (2 human resource quality improvement of pond farmers, collectors, and field instructors, (3 development of pond culture by applying best practices principle and local policies in order to improve the quality of the pond shrimps, and (4 improvement of interagency coordination, monitoring, and evaluation to enhance the pond shrimp quality

  7. Local post-harvest practices associated with aflatoxin and fumonisin contamination of maize in three agro ecological zones of Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamala, Analice; Kimanya, Martin; Haesaert, Geert; Tiisekwa, Bendantuguka; Madege, Richard; Degraeve, Szanne; Cyprian, Cypriana; De Meulenaer, Bruno

    2016-03-01

    A survey was undertaken of a total of 120 farmers, 40 from each of the three studied agro-ecological zones of Tanzania, to determine local post-harvest management practices associated with aflatoxin (AF) and fumonisin (FB) contamination of maize. Data on practices (collected using a structured questionnaire) and maize samples were obtained from each of the 120 farmers. FB and AF contamination in the samples were analysed by HPLC. A total of 45% and 85% of maize samples were positive for AF and FB respectively, with levels ranging from 0.1 to 269 μg kg(-1) for AF and from 49 to 18 273 μg kg(-1) for FBs. Significant differences in contamination level were observed among the three agro-ecological zones. Farmers in the three agro-ecological zones practised similar practices in varying degrees. Drying, sorting and protecting maize against insect infestation are practices that showed significant association with AF or FB contamination of maize. Drying maize on mat/raised platform, sorting (damaged, discoloured and moulded grains) and application of synthetic insecticides during storage are practices that were associated with less contamination of maize with AF and FB. The results can be used to advise on effective post-harvest strategies for prevention of AF and FB contamination of maize in rural Tanzania. PMID:26795400

  8. Post-harvest control strategies: Minimizing mycotoxins in the food chain.

    OpenAIRE

    Magan, Naresh; Aldred, David

    2007-01-01

    Contamination of cereal commodities by moulds and mycotoxins results in dry matter, quality, and nutritional losses and represents a significant hazard to the food chain. Most grain is harvested, dried and then stored on farm or in silos for medium/long term storage. Cereal quality is influenced by a range of interacting abiotic and biotic factors. In the so-called stored grain ecosystem, factors include grain and contaminant mould respiration, insect pests, rodents and the key environmental ...

  9. Novel Wireless Sensor System for Monitoring Oxygen, Temperature and Respiration Rate of Horticultural Crops Post Harvest

    OpenAIRE

    Ole Green; Mette Marie Løkke; Gareth Edwards; Helene Fast Seefeldt

    2011-01-01

    In order to design optimal packages, it is of pivotal importance to determine the rate at which harvested fresh fruits and vegetables consume oxygen. The respiration rate of oxygen (RRO2) is determined by measuring the consumed oxygen per hour per kg plant material, and the rate is highly influenced by temperature and gas composition. Traditionally, RRO2 has been determined at discrete time intervals. In this study, wireless sensor networks (WSNs) were used to determine RRO2 continuously in p...

  10. Impact of post-harvest radiation treatment timing on shelf life and quality characteristics of potatoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of gamma radiation treatment (50 and 100 Gy) on potato tubers irradiated at different days (10th, 30th and 50th) after harvest were studied during 5 months of storage at 10°C using Agria and Marfona varieties. A factorial experiment was done, based on a Randomized Complete Block Design with four replications. The 100 Gy radiation treatments on 10th and 30th days after harvest completely prevented sprouting at both varieties studied but on 50th day only Agria tubers did not sprout. This study indicated that early irradiation and absorbed radiation doses significantly decreased sprouting, percent weight loss and specific gravity of tubers. Reducing sugar content significantly increased by delay in irradiation and lower dose of radiation while non-reducing sugars did not decrease significantly by delay in irradiation and higher dose of radiation. The least increase in reducing sugars (10.2%) and most decrease in non-reducing sugar (-12.75%) were observed in tubers that irradiated on 10th day after harvest. The content of ascorbic acid was decreased by irradiation with higher dose. Although delay in irradiation caused less loss of ascorbic acid (8.5%) but showed greater metabolic changes as sprouting, weight loss, firmness, and sugars contents. Also, more increased delay in irradiation needed higher radiation doses for sprout inhibition. (author)

  11. Impact of post-harvest radiation treatment timing on shelf life and quality characteristics of potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaee, Mehdi; Almassi, Morteza; Minaei, Saeed; Paknejad, Farzad

    2013-04-01

    The effects of gamma radiation treatment (50 and 100 Gy) on potato tubers irradiated at different days (10th, 30th and 50th) after harvest were studied during 5 months of storage at 10°C using Agria and Marfona varieties. A factorial experiment was done, based on a Randomized Complete Block Design with four replications. The 100 Gy radiation treatments on 10th and 30th days after harvest completely prevented sprouting at both varieties studied but on 50th day only Agria tubers not sprouted. This study indicated that early irradiation and absorbed radiation doses significantly decreased sprouting, percent weight loss and specific gravity of tubers. Reducing sugar content significantly increased by delay in irradiation and lower dose of radiation while non-reducing sugars did not decrease significantly by delay in irradiation and higher dose of radiation. The least increase in reducing sugars (10.2%) and most decrease in non-reducing sugar (-12.75%) were observed in tubers that irradiated on 10th day after harvest. The content of ascorbic acid was decreased by irradiation with higher dose. Although delay in irradiation caused less loss of ascorbic acid (8.5%) but showed greater metabolic changes as sprouting, weight loss, firmness, and sugars contents. Also, more increased delay in irradiation needed higher radiation doses for sprout inhibition. PMID:24425925

  12. Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting Devices: An Alternative Energy Source for Wireless Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Action Nechibvute

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent advances in ultralow power device integration, communication electronics, and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS technology have fuelled the emerging technology of wireless sensor networks (WSNs. The spatial distributed nature of WSNs often requires that batteries power the individual sensor nodes. One of the major limitations on performance and lifetime of WSNs is the limited capacity of these finite power sources, which must be manually replaced when they are depleted. Moreover, the embedded nature of some of the sensors and hazardous sensing environment make battery replacement very difficult and costly. The process of harnessing and converting ambient energy sources into usable electrical energy is called energy harvesting. Energy harvesting raises the possibility of self-powered systems which are ubiquitous and truly autonomous, and without human intervention for energy replenishment. Among the ambient energy sources such as solar energy, heat, and wind, mechanical vibrations are an attractive ambient source mainly because they are widely available and are ideal for the use of piezoelectric materials, which have the ability to convert mechanical strain energy into electrical energy. This paper presents a concise review of piezoelectric microgenerators and nanogenerators as a renewable energy resource to power wireless sensors.

  13. Energy harvesting from localized dynamic transitions in post-buckled elastic beams under quasi-static loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchani, Wassim

    The deployability of structural health monitoring self-powered sensors relies on their capability to harvest energy from signals being monitored. Many of the signals required to assess the structure condition are quasi-static events which limits the levels of power that can be extracted. Several vibration-based techniques have been proposed to increase the transferred level of power and broaden the harvester operating bandwidth. However, these techniques require vibration input excitations at frequencies higher than dominant structural response frequencies which makes them inefficient and not suitable for ambient quasi-static excitations. This research proposes a novel sensing and energy harvesting technique at low frequencies using mechanical energy concentrators and triggers. These mechanisms consist of axially-loaded bilaterally-constrained beams with attached piezoelectric energy harvesters. When the quasi-static axial load reaches a certain mechanical threshold, a sudden snap-through mode-switching occurs. These transitions excite the attached piezoelectric scavengers with high-rate input accelerations, generating then electric power. The main objectives are to understand and model the post-buckling behavior of bilaterally-constrained beams, control it by tailoring geometry and material properties of the buckled elements or stacking them into system assemblies, and finally characterize the energy harvesting and sensing capability of the system under quasi-static excitations. The fundamental principle relies on the following concept. Under axial load, a straight slender beam buckles in the first buckling mode. The increased transverse deformations from a buckled shape lead to contact interaction with the lateral boundaries. The contact interaction generates transverse forces that induce the development of higher order buckling configurations. Transitions between the buckled configurations occur not only during loading, but also unloading. In this work, the post

  14. Switchgrass harvest and storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    The feedstock characteristics of the conversion platform will influence the optimal harvest and post harvest management practices for switchgrass. However, many of the harvest management practices are tied to plant phenology and will be similar across platforms. Proper harvest and storage of switchg...

  15. Modifying post-harvest sucrose loss in sugar beet : Assessment of transgenic approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Jansen, Andrea, 1983-

    2009-01-01

    Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) is one of the economically most important plants storing high levels of sucrose. Sucrose is accumulated in the taproot inside the vacuoles of parenchyma cells, with up to nearly 20 % of fresh weight. Harvesting of sugar beet includes wounding of taproots, leading to induction of invertases and consequently to sucrose loss. In the present study, the interaction of the sugar beet invertase inhibitor BvC/VIF (Beta vulgaris cell wall and/or vacuolar inhibitor of ß-f...

  16. Post harvest management of mango for export with a special reference to radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mango cultivator Baneshan is grown in large area in Andhra Pradesh, India. The fruit is carefully harvested, disapped and fungicide treatment is given with beveryl 500 ppm in combination with hot water for 3 minutes. The fruits are then packed, palletized, precooled (11.5 deg C) and stored at 12.5 deg C for further onward transit. The radiation processing at 0.25 to 0.50 k.gy would be able to replace the fungicide treatment and further enhance the shelf life. This is also in line with the requirement of Quarantine treatment of mangoes for export to U.S

  17. Solar Power for Post Harvest Losses - A Sensible Solution for Developing Countries!

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maheshwar, C.; Chilukuri, Snigdha

    2010-09-15

    About 30% of horticultural crops grown in developing countries like India (38.77 million tonnes amounting to US $13 billion), get wasted annually due to gaps in Cold Chain like insufficient cold storage capacity, unavailability of cold storages in close proximity to farms, poor transportation infrastructure etc. With solar energy availability (Insolation) averaging 5.0 KWh/sq. m/day with 3000 hours of sunshine every year, about 30-35% of these losses can be reduced by transporting the freshly harvested produce to the cold storages in 40,000 TEUs of refrigerated containers with 5 million sq. ft. of solar PV panels fixed on their rooftops and sides.

  18. Irradiation in the control of post harvest losses- a NRL contribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In-vitro growth of Phytophthora parasitica is completely prevented by a dose of 1.5kGy of gamma radiation and that of Phomopsis vexans by a dose of 4.0kGy. These doses, however cannot prevent the growth of other three studied fungi viz. Fusarium ceoruleum, Geotrichum candidum and Alternaria alternata and exerted only a reversible effect on their growth. Irradiation as a method for the control of harvest losses in fruits, tomato, rice etc. were studied at Nuclear Research Laboratory (NRL) and the results are given. 2 figs., 8 tabs

  19. Plant metabolites: an alternative and sustainable approach towards post harvest pest management in pulses

    OpenAIRE

    Salunke, B. K.; Prakash, K; Vishwakarma, K. S.; Maheshwari, V. L.

    2009-01-01

    Grain legumes are an important source of proteins in vegetarian diet besides their role in biological nitrogen fixation. They are prone to heavy pest infestation both on and off the field. Pest associated losses are an important contributing factor towards declining per capita availability of grain legumes. Synthetic chemical pesticides have played an important role in crop preservation, however their incessant use has posed several environmental and human health concerns. Methyl bromide and ...

  20. Post-harvest physiological study and evaluation of the quality of Cv. Horvin plums (prunus domestica l.) in three cold-storage conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Alfonso Parra Coronado; José Eugenio Hernández Hernández; Jesús Hernán Camacho-Tamayo

    2010-01-01

    The plum cv. Horvin is a highly perishable fruit; this hampers post-harvest handling and there is currently no cold sto-rage chamber or suitable post-harvest handling infrastructure in Colombia. The present work was aimed at evalua-ting the quality of the plum cv. Horvin in three storage conditions. The plum cv. Horvin is a climacterical fruit, its res-piratory rate being influenced by storage conditions showing a direct relationship with temperature. It was found that 4°C was the best storag...

  1. Gamma radiation effects on physico-chemical parameters of apple fruit during commercial post-harvest preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafavi, Hossein Ahari; Mirmajlessi, Seyed Mahyar; Mirjalili, Seyed Mohammad; Fathollahi, Hadi; Askari, Hadi

    2012-06-01

    The physico-chemical parameters (including moisture, total soluble solids, antioxidant activity, phenolic content and firmness) of cv. Red Delicious apple subjected to γ radiation were evaluated for their ability to avoid the post-harvest blue mold caused by Penicillium expansum during cold storage. Freshly harvested apples were inoculated with P. expansum. Treated fruits were irradiated at doses of 0, 300, 600, 900 and 1200 Gy and stored at 1 °C. Apples were evaluated at three month intervals. The results showed that there was a clear link between phenolic content and antioxidant activity, so that dose range of 900 Gy and higher significantly decreased phenolic content and antioxidant activity. The moisture percent of stored apples was more responsive to irradiation (at doses of 900-1200 Gy) than storage time and pathogen. Lesion diameter of pathogen-treated non-irradiated apples was significantly increased after three months. This means that storage at low temperature is not enough to avoid blue mold growth. As dose and storage time increased firmness decreased; also pathogen accelerated softening of stored apples. This study showed conclusively that low irradiation doses (300 and 600 Gy) combined with cold storage is a way to minimize apple quality losses during nine month storage period.

  2. Impacts of Frequent Burning on Live Tree Carbon Biomass and Demography in Post-Harvest Regrowth Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Collins

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The management of forest ecosystems to increase carbon storage is a global concern. Fire frequency has the potential to shift considerably in the future. These shifts may alter demographic processes and growth of tree species, and consequently carbon storage in forests. Examination of the sensitivity of forest carbon to the potential upper and lower extremes of fire frequency will provide crucial insight into the magnitude of possible change in carbon stocks associated with shifts in fire frequency. This study examines how tree biomass and demography of a eucalypt forest regenerating after harvest is affected by two experimentally manipulated extremes in fire frequency (i.e., ~3 year fire intervals vs. unburnt sustained over a 23 year period. The rate of post-harvest biomass recovery of overstorey tree species, which constituted ~90% of total living tree biomass, was lower within frequently burnt plots than unburnt plots, resulting in approximately 20% lower biomass in frequently burnt plots by the end of the study. Significant differences in carbon biomass between the two extremes in frequency were only evident after >15–20 years of sustained treatment. Reduced growth rates and survivorship of smaller trees on the frequently burnt plots compared to unburnt plots appeared to be driving these patterns. The biomass of understorey trees, which constituted ~10% of total living tree biomass, was not affected by frequent burning. These findings suggest that future shifts toward more frequent fire will potentially result in considerable reductions in carbon sequestration across temperate forest ecosystems in Australia.

  3. Harvesting Alternative Credit Transfer Students: Redefining Selectivity in Your Online Learning Program Enrollment Leads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corlett, Bradly

    2014-01-01

    Several recent issues and trends in online education have resulted in consolidation of efforts for Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs), increased Open Educational Resources (OER) in the form of asynchronous course repositories, with noticeable increases in governance and policy amplification. These emerging enrollment trends in alternative online…

  4. Effect of gamma-irradiation on post-harvest ripening of plantain fruit (Musa paradisiaca) cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three plantain cultivars, Agbagba, Obino L'ewai and Cardaba, harvested at two stages of maturity, were irradiated at 0.1-1.0 kGy prior to storage under tropical ambient conditions. Postirradiation storage behaviour showed that plantain fruits at full three-quarter grade were more responsive to irradiation treatment than at full grade maturity, while Cardaba, a type of cooking banana, showed the least response. Irrespective of varietal differences, irradiation to 0.5 kGy or higher caused severe tissue damage, softening and skin discolouration; however, gamma-irradiation at optimum dose range of 0.15-0.30 kGy effectively delayed ripening for 10-12 days in Agbagba and Obino L'ewai, respectively, without affecting respiratory pattern or fruit quality

  5. Analysis of phytochemical constituents of Eucalyptus citriodora L. responsible for antifungal activity against post-harvest fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, S; Shoaib, A; Mahmood, Z; Mushtaq, S; Iftikhar, S

    2012-01-01

    In vitro antifungal activity and phytochemical constituents of essential oil, aqueous, methanol and chloroform extract of Eucalyptus citriodora Hook leaves were investigated. A qualitative phytochemical analysis was performed for the detection of alkaloids, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, saponins, sterols, tannins and phenols. Methanolic extract holds all identified biochemical constituents except for the tannin. While these biochemical constituents were found to be absent in essential oil, aqueous and chloroform extracts with the exception of sterols, cardiac glycosides and phenols in essential oil and sterols and phenols in aqueous and chloroform extracts. Antimycotic activity of four fractions of E. citriodora was investigated through agar-well diffusion method against four post-harvest fungi, namely, Aspergillus flavus Link ex Gray, Aspergillus fumigatus Fres., Aspergillus nidulans Eidam ex Win and Aspergillus terreus Thom. The results revealed maximum fungal growth inhibition by methanolic extract (14.5%) followed by essential oil (12.9%), chloroform extract (10.15%) and aqueous extract (10%). PMID:21999598

  6. Multi-trait analysis of post-harvest storage in rocket salad (Diplotaxis tenuifolia) links sensorial, volatile and nutritional data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spadafora, Natasha D; Amaro, Ana L; Pereira, Maria J; Müller, Carsten T; Pintado, Manuela; Rogers, Hilary J

    2016-11-15

    Rocket salad (Diplotaxis tenuifolia; wild rocket) is an important component of ready to eat salads providing a distinct peppery flavour and containing nutritionally relevant compounds. Quality deteriorates during post-harvest, in relation to time and storage temperature amongst other factors. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are easily measurable from rocket leaves and may provide useful quality indicators for e.g. changes in isothiocyanates derived from nutritionally important glucosinolates. VOC profiles discriminated storage temperatures (0, 5 and 10°C) and times (over 14days). More specifically, concentrations of aldehydes and isothiocyanates decreased with time paralleling a fall in vitamin C and a reduction in sensorial quality at the two higher temperatures. Sulphur containing compounds rise at later time-points and at higher temperatures coincident with an increase in microbial titre, mirroring a further drop in sensorial quality thus indicating their contribution to off-odours. PMID:27283614

  7. Facing suffering and death: alternative therapy as post-secular religious practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Kalvig

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The idea of religious practice being ‘post-secular’ raises questions concerning secularisation, sacralisation and the various meanings of the prefix ‘post’. This paper investigates a kind of practice that is ever increasing in late modern, Western societies and elsewhere; namely, the practice of alternative therapy and the conceptualisations and world-views pertaining to it. The focus is on the themes of suffering and death in relation to alternative spirituality and therapy. Some answers are given to the following questions: is alternative therapy a kind of post-secular religious practice? If so, what kinds of answers or consolations does alternative therapy offer in the face of suffering and death? How do possible ‘alternative theodicies’ relate to holism as a paradigmatic principle? To what extent does, for example, ‘reincarnationism’ seem to function as explanatory model regarding suffering, evil and death?

  8. Quantification of the probable effects of alternative in-river harvest regulations on recovery of Snake River fall chinook salmon. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of this study was to quantify the probable effects that alternative strategies for managing in-river harvest would have on recovery of Snake River fall chinook salmon. This report presents the analysis of existing data to quantify the way in which various in-river harvest strategies catch Snake River bright (SRB) fall chinook. Because there has been disagreement among experts regarding the magnitude of in-river harvest impacts on Snake River fall chinook, the authors compared the results from using the following three different methods to estimate in-river harvest rates: (1) use of run reconstruction through stock accounting of escapement and landings data to estimate harvest rate of SRB chinook in Zone 6 alone; (2) use of Coded Wire Tag (CWT) recoveries of fall chinook from Lyons Ferry Hatchery in a cohort analysis to estimate age and sex specific harvest rates for Zone 6 and for below Bonneville Dam; (3) comparison of harvest rates estimated for SRB chinook by the above methods to those estimated by the same methods for Upriver Bright (URB) fall chinook

  9. Impacts of post-harvest slash and live-tree retention on biomass and nutrient stocks in Populus tremuloides Michx.-dominated forests, northern Minnesota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klockow, Paul A.; D'Amato, Anthony W.; Bradford, John B.

    2013-01-01

    Globally, there is widespread interest in using forest-derived biomass as a source of bioenergy. While conventional timber harvesting generally removes only merchantable tree boles, harvesting biomass feedstock can remove all forms of woody biomass (i.e., live and dead standing woody vegetation, downed woody debris, and stumps) resulting in a greater loss of biomass and nutrients as well as more severe habitat alteration. To investigate the potential impacts of this practice, this study examined the initial impacts (pre- and post-harvest) of various levels of slash and live-tree retention on biomass and nutrient stocks, including carbon (C), nitrogen (N), calcium (Ca), potassium (K), and phosphorus (P), in Populus tremuloides Michx.-dominated forests of northern Minnesota, USA. Treatments examined included three levels of slash retention, whole-tree harvest (WTH), 20% slash retention (20SR), and stem-only harvest (SOH), factored with three levels of green-tree retention, no trees retained (NONE), dispersed retention (DISP), and aggregate retention (AGR). Slash retention was the primary factor affecting post-harvest biomass and nutrient stocks, including woody debris pools. Compared to the unharvested control, stocks of biomass, carbon, and nutrients, including N, Ca, K, and P, in woody debris were higher in all treatments. Stem-only harvests typically contained greater biomass and nutrient stocks than WTH, although biomass and nutrients within 20SR, a level recommended by biomass harvesting guidelines in the US and worldwide, generally did not differ from WTH or SOH. Biomass in smaller-diameter slash material (typically 2.5-22.5 cm in diameter) dominated the woody debris pool following harvest regardless of slash retention level. Trends among treatments in this diameter range were generally similar to those in the total woody debris pool. Specifically, SOH contained significantly greater amounts of biomass than WTH while 20SR was not different from either WTH or

  10. Expanding Post-Harvest Finance Through Warehouse Receipts and Related Instruments

    OpenAIRE

    Baldwin, Marisa; Bryla, Erin; Langenbucher, Anja

    2006-01-01

    Warehouse receipt financing and similar types of collateralized lending provide an alternative to traditional lending requirements of banks and other financiers and could provide opportunities to expand this lending in emerging economies for agricultural trade. The main contents include: what is warehouse receipt financing; what is the value of warehouse receipt financing; other collater...

  11. Effect of Calcium Chloride and Cooling on Post-Harvest Brussels Cabbage (Brassica Oleracea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Rincón Pérez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the demand of crucifers has increased and particularly of Brussels sprouts (Brassica genus, species Brassica oleracea L.; mainly due to their functional properties; however, this vegetable is perishable and with inadequate techniques in postharvest handling, considerable losses are generated. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of calcium chloride and cooling on postharvest behavior of Brussels sprouts. A completely randomized design was performed, treatments corresponded to three storage temperatures (4°C, 8°C and temperature (18°C and three concentrations of calcium chloride (0%, 2% and 4% were used. Sprouts were harvested at commercial maturity on a farm irrigation district in Usochicamocha, Boyacá Department; of uniform size, excellent plant health and free from mechanical damage conditions. For 19 days of storage, weight loss, respiratory rate and total chlorophyll were measured. Sprouts stored at room temperature lasted 11days postharvest, while cooled lasted for 19 days. A significant effect in reducing weight loss between those sprouts which were stored at 4°C and 8°C and treated with calcium chloride solution at 4% was observed. For the respiratory rate was observed a significant reduction insprouts stored at 4°C. Therefore the most favorable temperature for the storage of Brussels sprouts is 4°C and calcium chloride solution 4%,useful information for producers and marketers.

  12. Post harvest fertility status of some cotton based leguminous and non-leguminous intercropping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Residual effect of different leguminous and non-leguminous intercropping systems on cotton planted in two planting patterns was studied at Agronomic Research Area, Univ. of Agriculture, Faisalabad under irrigated conditions of Central Punjab. Soil samples were collected from 0-15 cm and 15-30 cm depths before planting and after harvesting of each crop, each year to evaluate the impact of leguminous and non-leguminous crops included in this study. Experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design (R.C.B.D.) with split arrangement and four replications. Patterns were randomized in main plots and intercrops in sub plots. Plot size was 4.8 m x 7 m. All the intercrops produced substantially smaller yields when grown in association with cotton in either planting pattern compared to their sole crop yields. Residual nitrogen was improved in leguminous intercropping systems as compared to cotton alone as well non-legume intercropping systems. Similarly organic matter was also improved in all intercropping treatments, and maximum increase was recorded due to cowpeas. Phosphorus was depleted in all intercropping systems during both years under study as well as in relation to cotton alone. The same trend (depletion) was also observed in case of residual soil Potassium.(author)

  13. Alternative methods for the treatment of post-menopausal troubles [Alternative Methoden zur Behandlung postmenopausaler Beschwerden

    OpenAIRE

    Wasem, Jürgen; Aidelsburger, Pamela; Schauer, Svenja; Grabein, Kristin

    2012-01-01

    Background Menopause is described as the transition from the reproductive phase of a women to the non reproductive. Changes in hormone levels might lead to complaints and health consequences especially during peri- and postmenopause. Hormone therapy has a potential damaging health risk profile and is recommended for temporal limited therapy for acute vasomotor symptoms only. Objective The present HTA-report aims to assess the effectiveness and the cost-effectiveness of alternative treatment m...

  14. Decrease of Pirimiphos-Methyl and Deltamethrin Residues in Stored Rice with Post-Harvest Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanshan Yu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged (QuEChERS method with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs as reversed-dispersive solid phase extraction (r-DSPE material was applied to the analysis of pirimiphos-methyl and deltamethrin residues in stored rice. Two dustable powder (DP formulations (2% pirimiphos-methyl and deltamethrin DP; 5% pirimiphos-methyl DP were applied in simulated storehouse trials in the lab. The residues and dissipation of the two pesticides in stored rice were investigated. Slow dissipation of both pesticides was observed in stored rice. The half-lives of pirimiphos-methyl were 23.9–28.9 days, and those of deltamethrin were 23.9–24.8 days. Residues of pirimiphos-methyl from application rates of 4.5–6.75 a.i. mg/kg (active ingredient milligram per kilogram and 10–15 a.i. mg/kg were 1.6–3.8 mg/kg and 3.0–4.5 mg/kg at 60 days Pre-harvest Interval (PHI. Residues of deltamethrin from an application rate of 0.5–0.75 a.i. mg/kg were 0.13–0.14 mg/kg at 60 days PHI. Both pesticides residues were below the Maximum Residue Limits (MRLs established by the Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC. Therefore, at the recommended dosages they are safe for use on stored rice.

  15. Producción y beneficio de semilla de cilantro Production and Post-harvest Handling of Coriander Seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Enrique Puga Santos

    2008-10-01

    .42 kg hour-1, followed by threshing by beating with a stick (36.97 kg hour-1 and use of a threshing board (11.41 kg hour-1. Threshing by beating produced the cleanest material with the fewest fissures. The percentage of broken fruits was similar for the three threshing systems. Winnowing produced the lowest seed loss (92.3% recovery and the highest index of removal of inert material (78.1%. Plant population, harvest method, threshing system, and post-harvest handling did not affect the physical and physiological quality of coriander seed. Average germination was 92%, and plant vigor, measured as the speed of emergence index, was, on average, 8 seedlings day-1. Average seed moisture was 11.9%.

  16. Gamma radiation effects on physico-chemical parameters of apple fruit during commercial post-harvest preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The physico-chemical parameters (including moisture, total soluble solids, antioxidant activity, phenolic content and firmness) of cv. Red Delicious apple subjected to γ radiation were evaluated for their ability to avoid the post-harvest blue mold caused by Penicillium expansum during cold storage. Freshly harvested apples were inoculated with P. expansum. Treated fruits were irradiated at doses of 0, 300, 600, 900 and 1200 Gy and stored at 1 °C. Apples were evaluated at three month intervals. The results showed that there was a clear link between phenolic content and antioxidant activity, so that dose range of 900 Gy and higher significantly decreased phenolic content and antioxidant activity. The moisture percent of stored apples was more responsive to irradiation (at doses of 900–1200 Gy) than storage time and pathogen. Lesion diameter of pathogen-treated non-irradiated apples was significantly increased after three months. This means that storage at low temperature is not enough to avoid blue mold growth. As dose and storage time increased firmness decreased; also pathogen accelerated softening of stored apples. This study showed conclusively that low irradiation doses (300 and 600 Gy) combined with cold storage is a way to minimize apple quality losses during nine month storage period. - Highlights: ► A suitable method to reduce apple quality losses during nine month storage period. ► Effects of γ radiation and cold storage on physico-chemical parameters of the apple. ► Potential dual benefit of low irradiation dose combined with cold storage. ► Radiation dose determination for Penicillium expansum control.

  17. Education Tax Credits in a Post-"Zelman" Era: Legal, Political, and Policy Alternatives to Vouchers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta, Luis A.; d'Entremont, Chad

    2007-01-01

    This article examines an emerging preference for education tax credit programs in a post-"Zelman" era. First, the authors detail the origin of tax credits and the types of existing plans. Second, they review the assumptions underlying the supposed advantages that may favor tax credits as a feasible alternative to vouchers. Third, they analyze…

  18. Potential of Cerbera odollam as a bio-fungicide for post-harvest pathogen Penicilium digitatum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harbant; Yin-Chu, Sue; Al-Samarrai, Ghassan; Syarhabil, Muhammad

    2015-05-01

    Postharvest diseases due to fungal infection contribute to economic losses in agriculture industry during storage, transportation or in the market. Penicillium digitatum is one of the common pathogen responsible for the postharvest rot in fruits. This disease is currently being controlled by synthetic fungicides such as Guazatine and Imazalil. However, heavy use of fungicides has resulted in environmental pollution, such as residue in fruit that expose a significant risk to human health. Therefore, there is a strong need to develop alternatives to synthetic fungicide to raise customer confidence. In the current research, different concentrations (500 to 3000 ppm) of ethanol extract of Cerbera odollam or commonly known as Pong-pong were compared with Neem and the controls (Positive control/Guazatine; Negative control/DMSO) for the anti-fungicide activity in PDA media contained in 10 cm diameter Petri dishes, using a modification of Ruch and Worf's method. The toxicity (Lc50) of the C.odollam extract was determined by Brine-shrimp test (BST). The results of the research indicated that crude extraction from C.odollam showed the highest inhibition rate (93%) and smallest colony diameter (0.63 cm) at 3000 ppm in vitro compared with Neem (inhibition rate: 88%; colony diameter: 1.33 cm) and control (Positive control/Guazatine inhibition rate: 79%, colony diameter: 1.9 cm; Negative control/DMSO inhibition rate: 0%, colony diameter: 9.2 cm). C.odollam recorded Lc50 value of 5 µg/ml which is safe but to be used with caution (unsafe level: below 2 µg/ml). The above anti-microbial activity and toxicity value results indicate that C.odollam has a potential of being a future bio-fungicide that could be employed as an alternative to synthetic fungicide.

  19. Post-harvest of the Annurca apples in Campania region. Studies by the Istituto Sperimentale per la Frutticoltura [Malus pumila L.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The harvest and post-harvest of Annurca apples involves a high utilization of manpower and high production costs. The low yield and the need to also compete on the market, in terms of price, specially in the Spring period, with the fresh apples imported by foreign Countries, has induced the ISF of Caserta, in collaboration with the Istituto per la Valorizzazione dei Prodotti Agricoli of Milan, to promote studies to decrease the costs of production, to improve the quality, to eliminate the necessity of redness or to artificially induce it

  20. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi induced differential Cd and P phytoavailability via intercropping of upland kangkong (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk.) with Alfred stonecrop (Sedum alfredii Hance): post-harvest study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Junli; Li, Jintian; Wu, Fuyong; Wu, Shengchun; Ye, Zhihong; Lin, Xiangui; Wong, Ming Hung

    2013-12-01

    A post-harvest experiment was conducted further to our previous greenhouse pot study on upland kangkong (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk.) and Alfred stonecrop (Sedum alfredii Hance) intercropping system in Cd-contaminated soil inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. Previously, four treatments were established in the intercropping experiment, including monoculture of kangkong (control), intercropping with stonecrop (IS), and IS plus inoculation with Glomus caledonium (IS+Gc) or Glomus versiforme (IS+Gv). Both kangkong and stonecrop plants were harvested after growing for 8 weeks. Then, the tested soils were reclaimed for growing post-harvest kangkong for 6 weeks. In the post-harvest experiment, there were no significant differences between the IS and control treatments, except for a significantly decreased (p<0.05) soil available P concentration with IS treatment. Compared with IS, both IS+Gc and IS+Gv significantly decreased (p<0.05) soil DTPA-extractable (phytoavailable) Cd concentrations, but not total Cd, by elevating soil pH, causing significantly lower (p<0.05) Cd concentrations in both the root and shoot of kangkong. In addition, both Gc and Gv significantly increased (p<0.05) soil acid phosphatase activities and available P concentrations and hence resulted in significantly higher (p<0.05) plant P acquisitions. However, only Gv significantly increased (p<0.05) kangkong yield, while Gc only significantly elevated (p<0.05) the shoot P concentration. It suggested that AM fungi have played key roles in Cd stabilization and P mobilization in the intercropping system, and such positive responses seemed to be sustainable and valuable in post-harvest soils. PMID:23797707

  1. Post-harvest carbon emissions and sequestration in southern United States forest industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Row, C.

    1997-12-31

    Whether the forest industries in the southern United States are net emitters or sequesters of carbon from the atmosphere depends on one`s viewpoint. In the short-term, the solid-wood industries-lumber, plywood, and panels--appear to sequester more carbon than is in the fossil fuels they use for processing. The paper industries, however, emit more carbon from fossil fuels than they sequester in the pulp and paper they manufacture. This viewpoint is quite limited. If one considers the life-cycles of solid-wood and paper products from seedlings to landfill, these industries sequester more carbon than they emit from burning fossil fuels. These industries also generate large amounts of energy by replacing fossil fuels with biofuels from processing residues, and wood-based products produce more energy from incineration and landfill gases. Use of the carbon in these biofuels in effect keeps fossil fuel carbon in the ground, considering that at least that amount of carbon would be emitted in producing alternative materials. Another way of looking the emission balances is that wood-based materials, pound for pound or use for use, are the most {open_quotes}carbon efficient{close_quotes} group of major industrial materials. 5 refs., 12 figs.

  2. Feasibility of radiation processing for post-harvest storage of potatoes under tropical conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storage changes after gamma irradiation (10krad) of five commercial varieties of potatoes, Kufri Chandramukhi, K. Kuber, K. Alankar, K. Sheetman and K. Sinduri, grown in India were ascertained to arrive at optimal storage conditions. The radiation treatment could completely inhibit sprouting in all the varieties, irrespective of storage temperature, in addition to eliminating the tuber moth Pthorimaea operculella (Zeller). The temperature-dependent total losses could be attributed to microbial rotting and dehydration. The organisms causing soft rot at temperatures above 150C belonged to Erwinia spp., while the rot caused below 100C was essentially due to Micrococcus spp. Irradiation followed by storage at cool temperatures (10-150C) offers an alternative method, comparable with conventional refrigerated (2-40C) storage. The irradiated potatoes were not amenable to the attack of toxigenic fungi Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus during storage. This could be attributed to phenolic compounds present in the tubers. Phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), involved in the metabolism of phenolic compounds, showed enhancement in the irradiated potatoes. The extent of radiation-induced activation of PAL is suggested as a biochemical parameter for identifying irradiated tubers. (author)

  3. Feasibility of Radiation Processing for Post-Harvest Storage of Potatoes Under Tropical Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storage changes after gamma irradiation (10 krad) of five commercial varieties of potatoes, Kufri Chandramukhi, K. Kuber, K. Alankar, K. Sheetman and K. Sinduri, grown in India were ascertained to arrive at optimal storage conditions. The radiation treatment could completely inhibit sprouting in all the varieties, irrespective of storage temperature, in addition to eliminating the tuber moth Pthorimaea operculella (Zeller). The temperature-dependent total losses could be attributed to microbial rotting and dehydration. The organisms causing soft rot at temperatures above 15°C belonged to Erwinia spp., while the rot caused below 10°C was essentially due to Micrococcus spp. Irradiation followed by storage at cool temperatures (10-15°C) offers an alternative method, comparable with conventional refrigerated (2-4°C) storage. The irradiated potatoes were not amenable to the attack of toxigenic fungi Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus during storage. This could be attributed to phenolic compounds present in the tubers. Phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), involved in the metabolism of phenolic compounds, showed enhancement in the irradiated potatoes. The extent of radiation induced activation of PAL is suggested as a biochemical parameter for identifying irradiated tubers. (author)

  4. Application of aluminide coatings modified with yttrium for protecting corn post-harvest processing equipment against erosion in food industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent studies demonstrate that aluminide coatings are beneficial to wear and erosion resistance and also oxygen active elements such as yttrium can remarkably improve this resistance. In this research, the micro-hardness of the aluminide coatings with and without yttrium on carbon steel AISI 1045 was investigated using a micro-mechanical probe in post-harvest processing equipment in food industries. Wear of the samples was measured using a pin-on-disk tribometer. The erosion loss of specimens against five varieties of corn was also evaluated using a slurry erosion test machine. Experimental data were analyzed statistically using a 5-factor completely randomized design to study the effect of corn varieties, moisture content at three levels [13, 15, and 17% (wet basis)], and rotation velocity of the slurry erosion machine at three levels (150, 300, and 450 rpm) on erosion resistance. The results showed that the aluminide coatings improved the wear and erosion resistance of substrate carbon steel AISI 1045; yttrium markedly improved the hardness of the aluminide coating and its wear and erosion resistance. The erosion loss of materials was significantly (P < 0.01) influenced by the variety of corn, moisture content and rotation velocity. Both aluminide coating without yttrium and aluminide coating with yttrium showed higher wear and erosion resistance than carbon steel AISI 1045 substrate. (Author) 14 refs.

  5. Post harvest Quality of Mango (Mangifera Indica L.) Fruit Affected by Different Levels of Gibberellic Acid During Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experiment consisted of two popular mango varieties in Bangladesh (viz., Langra and Khirshapat) and four different levels of Gibberellic acid (GA3) solution, namely, control, 100, 200 and 400 ppm. The two factors experiment was assigned in randomized complete block design with three replicates. Data obtained from various biochemical analyses in terms of physicochemical properties and shelf life of post harvest mango, were recorded and statistically analyzed for comparison among the mean values using Duncan's Multiple Range Test (DMRT) and Least Significant Difference (LSD). The Khirshapat showed better performance in achieving higher quantity of moisture, progressively lost physiological weight, increased pulp pH, TSS after 6th day of storage, produced more quantity of sugar (total, reducing and non-reducing), as well as extended shelf life and delayed skin color changes than Langra at all the storage duration. Different levels of GA3 solution subjected to the investigation demonstrated significant variation in most of the physicochemical properties and shelf life of mango at different days after storage. The results explored that some physicochemical properties viz., physiological weight loss, moisture content, pulp pH, TSS, sugar (total, reducing and non reducing), were rapidly increased from untreated mangoes. GA3 at 400 ppm showed better performance in delaying the changes in physicochemical properties and extended shelf life. (author)

  6. Substantial Underestimation of Post-Harvest Burning Emissions in the North China Plain Revealed by Multi-Species Space Observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrakou, T; Müller, J-F; Bauwens, M; De Smedt, I; Lerot, C; Van Roozendael, M; Coheur, P-F; Clerbaux, C; Boersma, K F; van der A, R; Song, Y

    2016-01-01

    The large-scale burning of crop residues in the North China Plain (NCP), one of the most densely populated world regions, was recently recognized to cause severe air pollution and harmful health effects. A reliable quantification of the magnitude of these fires is needed to assess regional air quality. Here, we use an eight-year record (2005-2012) of formaldehyde measurements from space to constrain the emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in this region. Using inverse modelling, we derive that satellite-based post-harvest burning fluxes are, on average, at least a factor of 2 higher than state-of-the-art bottom-up statistical estimates, although with significant interannual variability. Crop burning is calculated to cause important increases in surface ozone (+7%) and fine aerosol concentrations (+18%) in the North China Plain in June. The impact of crop fires is also found in satellite observations of other species, glyoxal, nitrogen dioxide and methanol, and we show that those measurements validate the magnitude of the top-down fluxes. Our study indicates that the top-down crop burning fluxes of VOCs in June exceed by almost a factor of 2 the combined emissions from other anthropogenic activities in this region, underscoring the need for targeted actions towards changes in agricultural management practices. PMID:27577535

  7. The fate of post-harvest applied pirimiphos-methyl during oil extraction of rapeseeds and refining crude rapeseed oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapeseeds were treated, post-harvest, with 14C labelled pirimiphos-methyl. Rapeseed oil was then extracted by screw pressing or by using solvent extraction with hexane, or by using a combination of these processes. The solvent extraction was the most efficient process extracting 88.5% of the oil while co-extracting approximately 71% of the pesticide from the seed. The resulting pesticide concentration in the oil was 10.5 mg/kg compared to 4.2 mg/kg in the seed. The crude oil was spiked with labelled pirimiphos-methyl and refined using alkalis and physical refining regimes, the former consisting of sequential steps of: de-gumming; neutralization; bleaching and deodorization. For physical refining the neutralization stage was omitted. An initial concentration of 11.1 mg pirimiphos-methyl/kg of crude oil was reduced to 0.06 and 0.19 mg/kg by alkalis and physical refining respectively. De-gumming, neutralization and bleaching were almost equally effective at removing the pirimiphos-methyl and its degradation product pyrimidinol during alkalis refining. Bleaching was the most significant stage during physical refining removing 48% of the applied pirimiphos-methyl. The distribution of the activity between the parent compound and the break down products was investigated for the complete process. Screw expelling produced most break down product. Some pyrimidinol was produced at each refining stage, but was removed by the refining process. (author). 4 refs, 6 tabs

  8. Production of salvianolic acid B in roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza (Danshen) during the post-harvest drying process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Bing; Wang, Wei; Zhou, Guo-Jun; Li, Yan; Xie, Xiao-Mei; Zhou, Tong-Shui

    2012-01-01

    Drying is the most common and fundamental procedure in the post-harvest processing which contributes to the quality and valuation of medicinal plants. However, attention to and research work on this aspect is relatively poor. In this paper, we reveal dynamic variations of concentrations of five major bioactive components, namely salvianolic acid B (SaB), dihydrotanshinone I, cryptotanshinone, tanshinone I and tanshinone IIA, in roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza (Dashen) during the drying process at different oven temperatures. A minor amount of SaB was found in fresh materials while an noticeable increase in SaB was detected in drying at 50~160 °C. The maximal value occurred after 40 min of drying at 130 °C and its variation showed a reverse V-shaped curve. Production of SaB exhibited a significant positive correlation with drying temperatures and a significant negative correlation with sample moistures. The amounts of tanshinones were nearly doubled in the early stage of drying and their variations showed similar changing trends with drying temperatures and sample moistures. The results supported our speculation that postharvest fresh plant materials, especially roots, were still physiologically active organs and would exhibit a series of anti-dehydration mechanisms including production of related secondary metabolites at the early stage of dehydration. Hence, the proper design of drying processes could contribute to promoting rather than reducing the quality of Danshen and other similar medicinal plants. PMID:22370525

  9. Production of Salvianolic Acid B in Roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza (Danshen During the Post-Harvest Drying Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Jun Zhou

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Drying is the most common and fundamental procedure in the post-harvest processing which contributes to the quality and valuation of medicinal plants. However, attention to and research work on this aspect is relatively poor. In this paper, we reveal dynamic variations of concentrations of five major bioactive components, namely salvianolic acid B (SaB, dihydrotanshinone I, cryptotanshinone, tanshinone I and tanshinone IIA, in roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza (Dashen during the drying process at different oven temperatures. A minor amount of SaB was found in fresh materials while an noticeable increase in SaB was detected in drying at 50~160 °C. The maximal value occured after 40 min of drying at 130 °C and its variation showed a reverse V-shaped curve. Production of SaB exhibited a significant positive correlation with drying temperatures and a significant negative correlation with sample moistures. The amounts of tanshinones were nearly doubled in the early stage of drying and their variations showed similar changing trends with drying temperatures and sample moistures. The results supported our speculation that postharvest fresh plant materials, especially roots, were still physiologically active organs and would exhibit a series of anti-dehydration mechanisms including production of related secondary metabolites at the early stage of dehydration. Hence, the proper design of drying processes could contribute to promoting rather than reducing the quality of Danshen and other similar medicinal plants.

  10. Influence of mist-chilling on post-harvest quality of fresh strawberries Cv. Mara des Bois and Gariguette

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allais, Irene [Cemagref, UMR Genial, 24, avenue des Landais B.P. 50085, 63172 Aubiere Cedex (France); Letang, Guy [Cemagref, UMR Genial, Parc de Tourvoie, B.P. 44, 92163 Antony Cedex (France)

    2009-09-15

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of mist-chilling on high-grade strawberry post-harvest quality (Cultivars ''Gariguette'' and ''Mara des Bois''). Strawberries were chilled at 2 C using three processes: air blast chilling at 0.3 m s{sup -1} or 1 m s{sup -1} and mist-chilling at 1 m s{sup -1}. After chilling, fruits were submitted to different distribution chains characterised by different handling conditions and storage temperatures (2 C or 7 C) and by a 12 h retailing step at 20 C. Strawberry quality was assessed by measuring 7 parameters: weight loss, commercial loss, firmness, sugar content, acidity, colour and sensory quality. Compared to air-chilling, mist-chilling did not reduce chilling time but it reduced weight loss by 20-40%. Mist-chilling had no detrimental effect on commercial loss defined as the percentage of fruit more than 1/3 of surface affected. It did not induce any major changes on strawberry quality. Temperature fluctuations undergone during cold storage and retailing had a detrimental effect on weight loss. The beneficial effect of packaging on weight loss was confirmed. (author)

  11. The importance of using the irradiation technology in the post-harvest Preservation of onions and garlic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Cuba post-harvest preservation of onions and garlic for different uses have been performed by irradiation bulbs with a minimal dose range of 80 to 90 Gy of Gamma radiation (Co60 ) at commercial level in the Food Irradiation Plant (PIA) Producto 1 which in 1986 held a nominal activity of 110 000 ci. Results showed that the irradiated products could be preserved up to 8 and 11 months, respectively, resulting un total losses lower than 30 %. Products were stored in a warehouse with forced air distribution system of 220C to 320C and 70 to 100 % RH, resulting in 30 air changes /hour. An important economic benefit was obtained from this method as compared to other traditional storage methods using controlled temperature chambers ( 10C to 30C) to preserve un-irradiated onions an garlic's. It is concluded that the irradiated products could be stored at atmospheric temperature and forced air distribution system resulting in lower losses and energy savings and non-imported product, which to reached more of the 5 dollars millions

  12. Fruit cuticle lipid composition and fruit post-harvest water loss in an advanced backcross generation of pepper (Capsicum sp.)

    KAUST Repository

    Parsons, Eugene P.

    2012-03-05

    To understand the role of fruit cuticle lipid composition in fruit water loss, an advanced backcross population, the BC2F2, was created between the Capsicum annuum (PI1154) and the Capsicum chinense (USDA162), which have high and low post-harvest water loss rates, respectively. Besides dramatic differences in fruit water loss, preliminary studies also revealed that these parents exhibited significant differences in both the amount and composition of their fruit cuticle. Cuticle analysis of the BC2F2 fruit revealed that although water loss rate was not strongly associated with the total surface wax amount, there were significant correlations between water loss rate and cuticle composition. We found a positive correlation between water loss rate and the amount of total triterpenoid plus sterol compounds, and negative correlations between water loss and the alkane to triterpenoid plus sterol ratio. We also report negative correlations between water loss rate and the proportion of both alkanes and aliphatics to total surface wax amount. For the first time, we report significant correlations between water loss and cutin monomer composition. We found positive associations of water loss rate with the total cutin, total C16 monomers and 16-dihydroxy hexadecanoic acid. Our results support the hypothesis that simple straight-chain aliphatic cuticle constituents form more impermeable cuticular barriers than more complex isoprenoid-based compounds. These results shed new light on the biochemical basis for cuticle involvement in fruit water loss. © 2012 Physiologia Plantarum.

  13. Effects of chitosan from Cunninghamella elegans on virulence of post-harvest pathogenic fungi in table grapes (Vitis labrusca L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Carlos Eduardo Vasconcelos; Magnani, Marciane; de Sales, Camila Veríssimo; de Souza Pontes, Alline Lima; Campos-Takaki, Galba Maria; Stamford, Thayza Christina Montenegro; de Souza, Evandro Leite

    2014-02-01

    This study aimed to obtain chitosan (CHI) from Cunninghamella elegans cultivated in corn step liquid (CSL)-based medium under optimized conditions and to assess the efficacy of the obtained CHI in inhibiting Botrytis cinerea and Penicillium expansum in laboratory media and when applied as a coating on table grapes (Vitis labrusca L.). Moreover, the influence of CHI-based coatings on several physical, physicochemical and sensory characteristics of the fruits during storage was assessed. According to the surface response methodology, the best conditions for isolating CHI from C. elegans cultivated in CSL-medium yielded 8.8 g/100mL at pHs between 5.0 and 5.5 and at 180 rpm. CHI from C. elegans inhibited mycelial growth and spore germination and caused morphological changes in the spores of the tested fungal strains. The CHI coatings delayed the growth of the assayed fungal strains in artificially infected grapes. Applying a CHI coating preserved the quality of grapes, as measured by some physical, physicochemical and sensory attributes, throughout the assessed storage time. These results demonstrate the potential of CHI from C. elegans to control post-harvest pathogenic fungi in fruits, in particular, B. cinerea and P. expansum in table grapes. PMID:24321603

  14. Effect of hydrocooling, packaging, and cold storage on the post-harvest quality of peppermint (Mentha piperita L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.K.R. BARBOSA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of hydrocooling and polyethylene terephthalate (PET perforated and non-perforated packaging on post-harvest quality of peppermint (Mentha piperita L. leaves stored at 5 and 25ºC. The experiments were conducted using a subdivided parcel layout in a completely randomized design with four replicates. Each parcel used a 2x3 layout (two hydrocooling treatments and three packaging treatments with subparcels for storage time. The shelf life, chlorophyll content, mass loss (ML, relative water content (RWC, total soluble sugars (TSS, reducing sugars (Red, non-reducing sugars (NRed and starch of the leaves were determined. Cold storage increased the shelf life of the peppermint by up to 64 times (>15 days. Hydrocooling increased the RWC of the leaves. Plastic packaging was effective in maintaining the RWC. Unperforated packages more effectively prevented ML in the peppermint leaves and prevented the leaves from wilting for a longer period of time. The chlorophyll content of the leaves varied according to the treatment. The soluble sugars and starch levels varied according to RWC. Hydrocooling with the use of non-perforated plastic packages was the most effective method for maintaining the postharvest quality of the peppermint.

  15. Alternative methods for the treatment of post-menopausal troubles [Alternative Methoden zur Behandlung postmenopausaler Beschwerden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasem, Jürgen

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available [english] Menopause is described as the transition from the reproductive phase of a women to the non reproductive. Changes in hormone levels might lead to complaints and health consequences especially during peri- and postmenopause. Hormone therapy has a potential damaging health risk profile and is recommended for temporal limited therapy for acute vasomotor symptoms only.The present HTA-report aims to assess the effectiveness and the cost-effectiveness of alternative treatment methods for women with postmenopausal symptoms in Germany regarding patient relevant endpoints (reduction of symptoms and frequency of adverse events and improvement of quality of life.A systematic literature search was carried out in 33 relevant databases in September 2010. Citations were selected according to pre-defined criteria and were extracted and evaluated.In the systematic research 22 studies are identified for the effectiveness evaluation, 22 primary studies and one review.High doses of isolated genistein reduce the frequency/intensity of hot flashes while low doses of genistein show no significant effect. Intake of isoflavone extract such as genistein, daidzein, glycitein in various combinations does not have an effect on improvement of cognitive function or vaginal dryness. The effect of black cohosh and hop extract for menopausal complaints cannot be determined since results are heterogenous. The combination of isoflavone, black cohosh, monk’s pepper, valerian and vitamin E has a positive effect on menopause symptoms. Ginkgo biloba shows no significant effect on menopause symptoms and cognitive improvement beside mental flexibility. Acupuncture has a significant influence on hot flashes especially in severe cases.No final statement can be drawn regarding the effectiveness of alter­ne treatment methods due to qualitative shortcomings of included studies and a general limited availability of studies in this field. Furthermore, the generalization of the

  16. Post-harvest treatments in smooth-stalked meadow grass (Poa pratensis L.) - effect on carbohydrates and tiller development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boelt, Birte

    2007-01-01

    Temperate grass species require a period of short days/low temperature to respond to flower induction stimuli. The same environmental conditions stimulate the increase in carbohydrate concentration in aboveground biomass and the accumulation of reserve carbohydrates in the basal plant parts. The...... present investigation was initiated to investigate the effect of post-harvest treatments on dry matter production in autumn, carbohydrate content, the number of reproductive tillers and seed yield in a turf-type cultivar ‘Conni' of smooth-stalked meadow grass. The results show that post-harvest treatments...... influence seed yield and yield components with the general tendency that defoliation increases the number of reproductive tillers, whereas chopping of straw results in fewer reproductive tillers and a reduced seed yield. This effect was eliminated if the crop was defoliated approximately six weeks after...

  17. Farmers' Post-Harvest Grain Management Choices under Liquidity Constraints and Impending Risks: Implications for Achieving Food Security Objectives in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel, Abebe H.; Hundie, Bekele

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore into the relationships between farmers' post-harvest grain management practices/capacities on the one hand, and liquidity constraints and impending risks on the other, in the context of achieving food security objective at household and national levels. The findings are primarily based on a household survey data from 300 randomly selected major food grain producing peasant households in three rural districts of Ethiopia. Results indicate that farmers pe...

  18. Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus HD100 guards against Pseudomonas tolaasii brown-blotch lesions on the surface of post-harvest Agaricus bisporus supermarket mushrooms

    OpenAIRE

    Saxon, Emma B; Jackson, Robert W.; Bhumbra, Shobita; Smith, Tim; Sockett, R. Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pseudomonas tolaasii is a problematic pathogen of cultured mushrooms, forming dark brown 'blotches' on mushroom surfaces and causing spoilage during crop growth and post-harvest . Treating P. tolaasii infection is difficult, as other, commensal bacterial species such as Pseudomonas putida are necessary for mushroom growth, so treatments must be relatively specific. RESULTS: We have found that P. tolaasii is susceptible to predation in vitro by the δ-proteobacterium Bdello...

  19. Review of Sample Design for Zambia Post-harvest Survey (1997/98) and Recommendations for Improving the Sampling Strategy and Estimation Procedures

    OpenAIRE

    Megill, David J.

    2000-01-01

    Following a review of the sample design for the 1997/98 Zambia Post-Harvest Survey (PHS), described in the survey reports, summary results were tabulated from the survey data to examine the distribution of the households for the different domains of analysis such as farm size groups. Summary data were also examined for the different crops and animals. The purpose of this report is to document the findings and recommendations from this review. Specific recommendations are made on potential imp...

  20. Comparative transcriptomics and proteomics analysis of citrus fruit, to improve understanding of the effect of low temperature on maintaining fruit quality during lengthy post-harvest storage

    OpenAIRE

    Yun, Ze; Jin, Shuai; Ding, Yuduan; Wang, Zhuang; Gao, Huijun; Pan, Zhiyong; Xu, Juan; Cheng, Yunjiang; Deng, Xiuxin

    2012-01-01

    Fruit quality is a very complex trait that is affected by both genetic and non-genetic factors. Generally, low temperature (LT) is used to delay fruit senescence and maintain fruit quality during post-harvest storage but the molecular mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Hirado Buntan Pummelo (HBP; Citrus grandis × C. paradis) fruit were chosen to explore the mechanisms that maintain citrus fruit quality during lengthy LT storage using transcriptome and proteome studies based on digital...

  1. Use of TD-GC–TOF-MS to assess volatile composition during post-harvest storage in seven accessions of rocket salad (Eruca sativa)

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, Luke; Spadafora, Natasha D.; Mueller, Carsten T.; Wagstaff, Carol; ROGERS, HILARY J.

    2016-01-01

    An important step in breeding for nutritionally enhanced varieties is determining the effects of the post-harvest supply chain on phytochemicals and the changes in VOCs produced over time. TD- GC-TOF-MS was used and a technique for the extraction of VOCs from the headspace using portable tubes is described. Forty-two compounds were detected; 39 were identified by comparison to NIST libraries. Thirty-five compounds had not been previously reported in Eruca sativa. Seven accessions were assesse...

  2. The Impact of Post Harvest Agricultural Crop Residue Fires on Volatile Organic Compounds and Formation of Secondary Air Pollutants in the N.W. Indo-Gangetic Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, V.; Chandra, P.; Kumar, V.; Sarkar, C.

    2015-12-01

    The N.W. Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) is an agriculturally and demographically important region of the world. Every year during the post harvest months of April-May and October-November, large scale open burning of wheat straw and paddy straw occurs in the region impairing the regional air quality and resulting in air pollution episodes. Here, using online in-situ measurements from the IISER Mohali Atmospheric Chemistry Facility (Sinha et al., Atmos Chem Phys, 2014), which is located at a regionally representative suburban site in the agricultural state of Punjab, India, we investigated the effects of this activity on gas phase chemistry. The online data pertaining to the pre harvest and post harvest paddy residue fires in 2012, 2013 and 2014 were analyzed to understand the effect of this anthropogenic activity on atmospheric chemistry and regional air quality with respect to health relevant VOCs such as benzenoids and isocyanic acid and trace gases such as ozone and carbon monoxide. These compounds showed marked increases (factor of 2-3 times higher) in their concentrations which correlated with the biomass combustion tracers such as acetonitrile. Emissions from the paddy residue fires did not result in significant enhancement of ambient ozone in 2012 but instead sustained hourly daytime ozone concentrations at ~ 50 ppb during the late post monsoon season, despite decreases in solar radiation and temperature. Results of such massive perturbations to ambient chemical composition, reactivity and formation of secondary pollutants and its implications for human health will be presented in this paper.

  3. Post-harvest physiological study and evaluation of the quality of Cv. Horvin plums (prunus domestica l. in three cold-storage conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Parra Coronado

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The plum cv. Horvin is a highly perishable fruit; this hampers post-harvest handling and there is currently no cold sto-rage chamber or suitable post-harvest handling infrastructure in Colombia. The present work was aimed at evalua-ting the quality of the plum cv. Horvin in three storage conditions. The plum cv. Horvin is a climacterical fruit, its res-piratory rate being influenced by storage conditions showing a direct relationship with temperature. It was found that 4°C was the best storage temperature for maintaining cv. Horvin plum quality, having a 13.23% accumulated weight loss, greater than 20 N firmness and more than 11°Brix total soluble solids (SST at the end of a 31-day sto-rage period. Weight loss, respiratory rate, firmness, titratable acidity (AT and SST/AT ratio were the parameters best representing cv. Horvin plum maturity during storage. Total soluble solids did not reveal high variability in the stora-ge conditions analysed here; this parameter should not be taken as being a post-harvest maturity index.

  4. Effect of Pre-Harvest Foliar Application of Citric Acid and Malic Acid on Chlorophyll Content and Post-Harvest Vase Life of Lilium cv. Brunello

    OpenAIRE

    Darandeh, Nafiseh; Hadavi, Ebrahim

    2012-01-01

    Citric acid is a regular ingredient in many vase solution formulations but pre-harvest use of citric acid is a novel method in vase life extension of cut flowers, which is reported on tuberose earlier. In order to verify previous result, and check for possible substitution of citric acid by malic acid, the current research was designed. Citric acid (0, 0.075, 0.15% w/v) and malic acid (0, 0.075, 0.15% w/v) were used in a factorial design with three replications. Foliar sprays were applied two...

  5. Application of zirconium dioxide nanoparticle sorbent for the clean-up step in post-harvest pesticide residue analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uclés, Ana; Herrera López, Sonia; Dolores Hernando, Maria; Rosal, Roberto; Ferrer, Carmen; Fernández-Alba, Amadeo R

    2015-11-01

    The use of yttria-stabilized zirconium dioxide nanoparticles as d-SPE clean-up sorbent for a rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) method for the determination of post-harvest fungicides (carbaryl, carbendazim, chlorpropham, diphenylamine, ethoxyquin, flutriafol, imazalil, iprodione, methomyl, myclobutanil, pirimiphos-methyl, prochloraz, pyrimethanil, thiabendazole, thiophanate-methyl and tolclofos-methyl) in orange and pear samples has been evaluated and validated. The sample preparation was a modification of the QuEChERS extraction method using yttria-stabilized zirconium dioxide and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) nanoparticles as the solid phase extraction (d-SPE) clean-up sorbents prior to injecting the ten-fold diluted extracts into the LC system. By using the yttria-stabilized zirconium dioxide extraction method, more recoveries in the 70-120% range were obtained - thus this method was used for the validation. Quantification was carried out using a matrix-matched calibration curve which was linear in the 1-500 µg kg(-1) range for almost all the pesticides studied. The validated limit of quantification was 10 µg kg(-1) for most of the studied compounds, except chlorpropham, ethoxyquin and thiophanate-methyl. Pesticide recoveries at the 10 and 100 µg kg(-1) concentration levels were satisfactory, with values between 77% and 120% and relative standard deviations (RSD) lower than 10% (n=5). The developed method was applied for the determination of selected fungicides in 20 real orange and pear samples. Four different pesticide residues were detected in 10 of these commodities; 20% of the samples contained pesticide residues at a quantifiable level (equal to or above the LOQs) for at least one pesticide residue. The most frequently-detected pesticide residues were: carbendazim, thiabendazole and imazalil-all were below the MRL. The highest concentration found was imazalil at 1175 µg kg

  6. Follow-up of the fate of imazalil from post-harvest lemon surface treatment to a baking experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vass, Andrea; Korpics, Evelin; Dernovics, Mihály

    2015-01-01

    Imazalil is one of the most widespread fungicides used for the post-harvest treatment of citrus species. The separate use of peel during food preparation and processing may hitherto concentrate most of the imazalil into food products, where specific maximum residue limits hardly exist for this fungicide. In order to monitor comprehensively the path of imazalil, our study covered the monitoring of the efficiency of several washing treatments, the comparison of operative and related sample preparation methods for the lemon samples, the validation of a sample preparation technique for a fatty cake matrix, the preparation of a model cake sample made separately either with imazalil containing lemon peel or with imazalil spiking, the monitoring of imazalil degradation into α-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-1H-imidazole-1-ethanol because of the baking process, and finally the mass balance of imazalil throughout the washing experiments and the baking process. Quantification of imazalil was carried out with an LC-ESI-MS/MS set-up, while LC-QTOF was used for the monitoring of imazalil degradation. Concerning the washing, none of the addressed five washing protocols could remove more than 30% of imazalil from the surface of the lemon samples. The study revealed a significant difference between the extraction efficiency of imazalil by the EN 15662:2008 and AOAC 2007.1 methods, with the advantage of the former. The use of the model cake sample helped to validate a modified version of the EN 15662:2008 method that included a freeze-out step to efficiently recover imazalil (>90%) from the fatty cake matrix. The degradation of imazalil during the baking process was significantly higher when this analyte was spiked into the cake matrix than in the case of preparing the cake with imazalil-containing lemon peel (52% vs. 22%). This observation calls the attention to the careful evaluation of pesticide stability data that are based on solution spiking experiments. PMID:26365625

  7. Contribution of post-harvest agricultural paddy residue fires in the N.W. Indo-Gangetic Plain to ambient carcinogenic benzenoids, toxic isocyanic acid and carbon monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praphulla Chandra, Boggarapu; Sinha, Vinayak

    2016-04-01

    In the North West Indo-Gangetic Plain (N.W.IGP), large scale post-harvest paddy residue fires occur every year during the months of October-November. This anthropogenic perturbation causes contamination of the atmospheric environment with adverse impacts on regional air quality posing health risks for the population exposed to high concentrations of carcinogens such as benzene and toxic VOCs such as isocyanic acid. These gases and carbon monoxide are known to be emitted from biomass fires along with acetonitrile. Yet no long-term in-situ measurements quantifying the impact of this activity have been carried out in the N.W. IGP. Using high quality continuous online in-situ measurements of these gases at a strategic downwind site over a three year period from 2012 to 2014, we demonstrate the strong impact of this anthropogenic emission activity on ambient concentrations of these gases. In contrast to the pre-paddy harvest period, excellent correlation of benzenoids, isocyanic acid and CO with acetonitrile (a biomass burning chemical tracer); (r ≥ 0.82) and distinct VOC/acetonitrile emission ratios were observed for the post-paddy harvest period which was also characterized by high ambient concentrations of these species. The average concentrations of acetonitrile (1.62 ± 0.18 ppb), benzene (2.51 ± 0.28 ppb), toluene (3.72 ± 0.41 ppb), C8-aromatics (2.88 ± 0.30 ppb), C9-aromatics (1.55 ± 0.19 ppb) and CO (552 ± 113 ppb) in the post-paddy harvest periods were about 1.5 times higher than the annual average concentrations. For isocyanic acid, a compound with both primary and secondary sources, the concentration in the post-paddy harvest period was 0.97 ± 0.17 ppb. The annual average concentrations of benzene, a class A carcinogen, exceeded the annual exposure limit of 1.6 ppb at NTP mandated by the National Ambient Air Quality Standard of India (NAAQS). We show that mitigating the post-harvest paddy residue fires can lower the annual average concentration of

  8. Applications of mathematical modeling in managing the spread of chronic wasting disease (CWD) in wild deer under alternative harvesting scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Arydah, M; Croteau, M C; Oraby, T; Smith, R J; Krewski, D

    2016-01-01

    The application of a recently developed mathematical model for predicting the spread of chronic wasting disease (CWD) in wild deer was assessed under different scenarios where harvesting is employed in disease management. A process-based mathematical model for CWD transmission in wild deer populations was recently developed and parameterized by Al-arydah et al. (2011) to provide a scientific basis for understanding the factors that affect spread of CWD and evaluate concomitant disease-control strategies. The impact of gender on CWD transmission was shown to have a significant influence on the spread of the disease in the wild. Our model demonstrates a range of harvesting rates in which CWD is controlled and deer populations survive. However, if harvesting rates are too low, the disease remains endemic for decades. Conversely, the Canadian deer population is eradicated if harvesting rates are excessive. Future investigation includes building the model to assess the spread of CWD under different disease-management scenarios. PMID:27556563

  9. Post-Keynesian alternative policies to curb macroeconomic imbalances in the Euro area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hein Eckhard

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we outline alternative post-Keynesian policy recommendations addressing the problems of differential inflation, divergence in competitiveness and associated current account imbalances within the Euro area. We provide a basic framework in order to systematically address the related issues making use of Anthony P. Thirlwall’s (1979, 2002 model of a “balance-of-payments-constrained growth rate” (BPCGR. Based on this framework, we outline the required stance for alternative economic policies and then we discuss the implications for alternative monetary, wage/incomes and fiscal policies in the Euro area as a whole, as well as the consequences for structural and regional policies in the Euro area periphery, in particular.

  10. Alternative-Donor Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation with Post-Transplantation Cyclophosphamide for Nonmalignant Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Orly R; Chen, Allen R; Gamper, Christopher; Loeb, David; Zambidis, Elias; Llosa, Nicolas; Huo, Jeffrey; Dezern, Amy E; Steppan, Diana; Robey, Nancy; Holuba, Mary Jo; Cooke, Kenneth R; Symons, Heather J

    2016-05-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is curative for many nonmalignant pediatric disorders, including hemoglobinopathies, bone marrow failure syndromes, and immunodeficiencies. There is great success using HLA-matched related donors for these patients; however, the use of alternative donors has been associated with increased graft failure, graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), and transplant-related mortality (TRM). HSCT using alternative donors with post-transplantation cyclophosphamide (PT/Cy) for GVHD prophylaxis has been performed for hematologic malignancies with engraftment, GVHD, and TRM comparable with that seen with HLA-matched related donors. There are limited reports of HSCT in nonmalignant pediatric disorders other than hemoglobinopathies using alternative donors and PT/Cy. We transplanted 11 pediatric patients with life-threatening nonmalignant conditions using reduced-intensity conditioning, alternative donors, and PT/Cy alone or in combination with tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil. We observed limited GVHD, no TRM, and successful engraftment sufficient to eliminate manifestations of disease in all patients. Allogeneic HSCT using alternative donors and PT/Cy shows promise for curing nonmalignant disorders; development of prospective clinical trials to confirm these observations is warranted. PMID:26860634

  11. Podridão basal pós-colheita do coco verde no estado do Ceará Post-harvest basal rot of coconut fruits in the State of Ceará, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco M. P Viana; FRANCISCO C.O. FREIRE; Beatriz M Barguil; Ricardo E Alves; ANTONIO A. SANTOS; JOSÉ E. CARDOSO; Julio C. Vidal

    2002-01-01

    A new post-harvest disease of coconut (Cocos nucifera) was recently detected in fruits exported to European countries. The main symptoms are the blacking and cracking of basal parts of the fruits. Water oozing may occurs as the infection progresses. The fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae has been frequently isolated from the lesions. Inoculation tests proved that this pathogen is the causal agent of the coconut fruit basal rot. This is the first occurrence of this post-harvest disease in Brazil.

  12. Contribution of post-harvest agricultural paddy residue fires in the N.W. Indo-Gangetic Plain to ambient carcinogenic benzenoids, toxic isocyanic acid and carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, B P; Sinha, Vinayak

    2016-03-01

    In the north west Indo-Gangetic Plain (N.W.IGP), large scale post-harvest paddy residue fires occur every year during the months of October-November. This anthropogenic perturbation causes contamination of the atmospheric environment with adverse impacts on regional air quality posing health risks for the population exposed to high concentrations of carcinogens such as benzene and toxic VOCs such as isocyanic acid. These gases and carbon monoxide are known to be emitted from biomass fires along with acetonitrile. Yet no long-term in-situ measurements quantifying the impact of this activity have been carried out in the N.W. IGP. Using high quality continuous online in-situ measurements of these gases at a strategic downwind site over a three year period from 2012 to 2014, we demonstrate the strong impact of this anthropogenic emission activity on ambient concentrations of these gases. In contrast to the pre-paddy harvest period, excellent correlation of benzenoids, isocyanic acid and CO with acetonitrile (a biomass burning chemical tracer); (r≥0.82) and distinct VOC/acetonitrile emission ratios were observed for the post-paddy harvest period which was also characterized by high ambient concentrations of these species. The average concentrations of acetonitrile (1.62±0.18ppb), benzene (2.51±0.28ppb), toluene (3.72±0.41ppb), C8-aromatics (2.88±0.30ppb), C9-aromatics (1.55±0.19ppb) and CO (552±113ppb) in the post-paddy harvest periods were about 1.5 times higher than the annual average concentrations. For isocyanic acid, a compound with both primary and secondary sources, the concentration in the post-paddy harvest period was 0.97±0.17ppb. The annual average concentrations of benzene, a class A carcinogen, exceeded the annual exposure limit of 1.6ppb at NTP mandated by the National Ambient Air Quality Standard of India (NAAQS). We show that mitigating the post-harvest paddy residue fires can lower the annual average concentration of benzene and ensure

  13. Chemical composition and bioactive compounds of garlic (Allium sativum L.) as affected by pre- and post-harvest conditions: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Natália; Petropoulos, Spyridon; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2016-11-15

    Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is considered one of the twenty most important vegetables, with various uses throughout the world, either as a raw vegetable for culinary purposes, or as an ingredient of traditional and modern medicine. Furthermore, it has also been proposed as one of the richest sources of total phenolic compounds, among the usually consumed vegetables, and has been highly ranked regarding its contribution of phenolic compounds to human diet. This review aims to examine all the aspects related with garlic chemical composition and quality, focusing on its bioactive properties. A particular emphasis is given on the organosulfur compounds content, since they highly contribute to the effective bioactive properties of garlic, including its derived products. The important effects of pre-harvest (genotype and various cultivation practices) and post-harvest conditions (storage conditions and processing treatments) on chemical composition and, consequently, bioactive potency of garlic are also discussed. PMID:27283605

  14. Effect of Pre-Harvest Foliar Application of Citric Acid and Malic Acid on Chlorophyll Content and Post-Harvest Vase Life of Lilium cv. Brunello.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darandeh, Nafiseh; Hadavi, Ebrahim

    2011-01-01

    Citric acid is a regular ingredient in many vase solution formulations but pre-harvest use of citric acid is a novel method in vase life extension of cut flowers, which is reported on tuberose earlier. In order to verify previous result, and check for possible substitution of citric acid by malic acid, the current research was designed. Citric acid (0, 0.075, 0.15% w/v) and malic acid (0, 0.075, 0.15% w/v) were used in a factorial design with three replications. Foliar sprays were applied two times during growth period of Lilium plants. The results point out that 0.15% citric acid alone had increased vase life from 11.8 in control treatment to 14 days (α < 0.05). The interesting finding was the effect of citric acid on bulbil weight, which was decreased from 9 g in control to 1.5 g in treatment containing combination of 0.075% citric acid and 0.075% malic acid. Malic acid while having no direct effect on pre-mentioned traits surprisingly increased the chlorophyll content significantly. The interaction effect between citric acid and malic acid on vase life and chlorophyll content proved significant and was evident in results, both as antagonistic and synergistic in various traits. PMID:22639626

  15. Transcriptomic profiling during the post-harvest of heat-treated Dixiland Prunus persica fruits: common and distinct response to heat and cold.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin A Lauxmann

    Full Text Available Cold storage is extensively used to slow the rapid deterioration of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch fruit after harvest. However, peach fruit subjected to long periods of cold storage develop chilling injury (CI symptoms. Post-harvest heat treatment (HT of peach fruit prior to cold storage is effective in reducing some CI symptoms, maintaining fruit quality, preventing softening and controlling post-harvest diseases. To identify the molecular changes induced by HT, which may be associated to CI protection, the differential transcriptome of peach fruit subjected to HT was characterized by the differential display technique. A total of 127 differentially expressed unigenes (DEUs, with a presence-absence pattern, were identified comparing peach fruit ripening at 20°C with those exposed to a 39°C-HT for 3 days. The 127 DEUs were divided into four expression profile clusters, among which the heat-induced (47% and heat-repressed (36% groups resulted the most represented, including genes with unknown function, or involved in protein modification, transcription or RNA metabolism. Considering the CI-protection induced by HT, 23-heat-responsive genes were selected and analyzed during and after short-term cold storage of peach fruit. More than 90% of the genes selected resulted modified by cold, from which nearly 60% followed the same and nearly 40% opposite response to heat and cold. Moreover, by using available Arabidopsis microarray data, it was found that nearly 70% of the peach-heat responsive genes also respond to cold in Arabidopsis, either following the same trend or showing an opposite response. Overall, the high number of common responsive genes to heat and cold identified in the present work indicates that HT of peach fruit after harvest induces a cold response involving complex cellular processes; identifying genes that are involved in the better preparation of peach fruit for cold-storage and unraveling the basis for the CI protection

  16. Transcriptomic profiling during the post-harvest of heat-treated Dixiland Prunus persica fruits: common and distinct response to heat and cold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauxmann, Martin A; Brun, Bianca; Borsani, Julia; Bustamante, Claudia A; Budde, Claudio O; Lara, María V; Drincovich, María F

    2012-01-01

    Cold storage is extensively used to slow the rapid deterioration of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) fruit after harvest. However, peach fruit subjected to long periods of cold storage develop chilling injury (CI) symptoms. Post-harvest heat treatment (HT) of peach fruit prior to cold storage is effective in reducing some CI symptoms, maintaining fruit quality, preventing softening and controlling post-harvest diseases. To identify the molecular changes induced by HT, which may be associated to CI protection, the differential transcriptome of peach fruit subjected to HT was characterized by the differential display technique. A total of 127 differentially expressed unigenes (DEUs), with a presence-absence pattern, were identified comparing peach fruit ripening at 20°C with those exposed to a 39°C-HT for 3 days. The 127 DEUs were divided into four expression profile clusters, among which the heat-induced (47%) and heat-repressed (36%) groups resulted the most represented, including genes with unknown function, or involved in protein modification, transcription or RNA metabolism. Considering the CI-protection induced by HT, 23-heat-responsive genes were selected and analyzed during and after short-term cold storage of peach fruit. More than 90% of the genes selected resulted modified by cold, from which nearly 60% followed the same and nearly 40% opposite response to heat and cold. Moreover, by using available Arabidopsis microarray data, it was found that nearly 70% of the peach-heat responsive genes also respond to cold in Arabidopsis, either following the same trend or showing an opposite response. Overall, the high number of common responsive genes to heat and cold identified in the present work indicates that HT of peach fruit after harvest induces a cold response involving complex cellular processes; identifying genes that are involved in the better preparation of peach fruit for cold-storage and unraveling the basis for the CI protection induced by HT. PMID

  17. Induced mutation breeding as a tool for the genetic improvement of cassava landraces for high starch and delayed post harvest deterioration (PPD) in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassava a major staple in Ghana that contributes 22% of Agricultural Gross Domestic Product provides high and reliable cheap source of carbohydrates for over 200 million people has assumed an industrial and cash crop status in Sub- Sahara Africa. However, cassava suffers from pest and diseases, with the starchy roots rapidly deteriorating within 24 to 72 hours after harvest resulting in close to 20% loss in the fresh roots. Cassava crosses for the introgression of useful genes for delayed Post harvest Deterioration where Molecular Markers Assisted selected (MAS) inter-specific hybrids with delayed PPD properties were crossed with preferred land races. Inter-specific hybrids of walkererea evaluated showed remarkable disease resistance in all ecological zones tested, PPD score Clone CR 52A-25 additionally showed no signs of post harvest physiological deterioration after the seventh day of harvest and AR 14-10 had unique starch properties for potential industrial use. Induced mutation of tissue culture plantlets of four preferred cassava landraces 'Cedi bankye', 'Sisipe 166', 'Debor' (ancient variety) and 'Dabodabo' (zigzag plant architecture with stay green properties) at two levels of doses 15Gy and 12 Gy were at V5 stage hardened and established in a replicated field trial in three locations. Initial results showed high root yields for doses of 12Gy and remarkable resistance for ACMD (1.5 score) for all mutants at 3MAP, Debor at both doses showed the best vigour for all locations. Induced mutation of botanical seeds from landraces and inter-specific hybrids of walkererea at 200 and 300Gy showed moderate disease reaction and plant vigor. The mutants would be tested alongside the control for starch and PPD at 9MAP and 12MAP. (author)

  18. Investigations into the shelf life and nutritional quality of fresh tomato fruit (solanum Lycopersicon) following two post-harvest treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomato production in Ghana is characterized by a glut and high post - harvest losses during the major season followed by scarcity and high prices during the off season. This is the result of the absence of a standard method for preservation of fresh fruits. This research was conducted to determine an effective method for the post - harvest treatment of fresh tomato fruits to enhance shelf life while preserving its physiochemical and nutritional properties. Two experiments were conducted, each with a factorial design of 5x2. In experiment one, the fruits were subjected to 0,1,2,3,and 4 kGy gamma radiation and stored at 10±1°C and 28±1°C. In experiment two, CaCl2 dissolved in distilled water at 0, 1.00, 1.50, 2.00 and 2.50% concerntrations were used to coat tomato fruits and stored at 10±1°C and 28±1°C. Gamma radiation at 4kGy extended the shelf life of tomato by 5 and 9 days above control when stored at 28±1°C and 10±1°C respectively. The use of CaCl2 at 2.5% greatly extended the shelf life of tomato by 11days and 18 days above control when stored at 28±1°C and 10±1°C respectively. For both treatments, shelf life increased with increasing dose of radiation/ concentraionn of CaCl2. Weight loss was higher in control fruits as well as fruits treated with gamma radiation or CaCl2 coating stored at 28±1°C temperature than treated fruits stored at 10±1°C. Tomato fruits treated with gamma radiation at 1 and 2 kGy and untreated fruits showed an increased in pH and Total Soluble Solids (TSS) which was paralleled by a decrease in Total Titratable Acidity (TTA) as storage period advance at both storage temperatures. However, fruits treated with CaCl2 at 1.00% had little effect on pH and TTA of tomato during the storage period. Nutritionally, CaCl2 coating significantly maintained the vitamin C and Iycopene concentrations in tomato fruit more than control and gamma irradiation which reduced vitamin C and Iycopene contents in the fruits significantly with

  19. Late-Season Grass Weed Management with In-Crop and Post-Harvest Herbicides in Twin-Row Glyphosate-Resistant Soybean

    OpenAIRE

    Reddy, Krishna N.; Charles T. Bryson; Vijay K. Nandula

    2015-01-01

    Emergence of grasses late in the season has become a problem in glyphosate-resistant (GR) soybean production in the southern US. A 3-yr field study was conducted from 2011 to 2013 at Stoneville, MS to determine efficacy of post-harvest and pyroxasulfone-based in-crop herbicides on late-season grasses and yield in twin-row glyphosate-resistant soybean. Experiments were conducted in a split-plot arrangement of treatments in a randomized complete block design with fall herbicides (with and witho...

  20. Maximizing the Nutritional Value of Produce Post-Harvest: Consumer Knowledge Gaps, Interests, and Opinions Regarding Nutrition Education Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remley, Dan; Goard, Linnette Mizer; Taylor, Christopher A.; Ralston, Robin A.

    2015-01-01

    Although many consumers perceive locally produced, fresh fruits and vegetables to be healthier, they might not have the knowledge and skills to retain optimal nutritional quality following harvest or purchase. We surveyed Ohio farmers market consumers' and managers' knowledge and interests related to maximizing nutritional value of produce.…

  1. Peanut peg strength and post harvest pod scavenging for full phenotypic yield over digging date and variety

    Science.gov (United States)

    New peanut cultivars are available with very high yield potential and high levels of disease resistance. With rising input costs and shrinking return margins, all efforts must be made to harvest the full yield produced. Peanut crops are susceptible to high levels of pod loss during digging from a ...

  2. Thermal characteristics and mass absorption efficiency of carbonaceous aerosol measured during a post-harvest burning period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batmunkh, T.; Kim, Y. J.; Cayetano, M. G.; Lee, K.; Kim, K.; Park, K.

    2012-12-01

    In order to better understand the characteristics of carbonaceous aerosol time-resolved OC, EC, and BC were measured by a Sunset OC/EC analyzer and an Aethalometer, respectively, during a post-harvest burning period from November 22 to December 20, 2011 at a sub-urban site in Gwangju, Korea. OC and EC were analyzed by the thermal-optical transmittance (TOT) method with NIOSH temperature protocol. The spectral light absorption coefficient (babs) was determined based on the Aethalometer data. Overall average OC and EC concentrations were found to be 5.0±2.4 ugC/ m3 and 1.5±0.9 ugC/ m3, respectively for the sampling period. On average, babs at seven Aethalometer wavelengths was found to be 38.4±27.8 Mm-1, 24.3±17.8 Mm-1, 20.8±15.4 Mm-1, 17.9±13.3 Mm-1, 14.9±11.1 Mm-1, 9.9±7.4 Mm-1, and 8.8±6.6 Mm-1 at 370 nm, 470 nm, 520 nm, 590 nm, 660 nm, 880 nm, and 950 nm, respectively. Clear diurnal variations with morning (7:00 AM~9:00 AM) and evening (7:00 PM~11:00 PM) peaks were observed for OC, EC, and babs mostly due to local burning activities. Based on the 4-day back-trajectory analyses conducted using the HYSPLIT model. Event cases were classified into four categories, based on the 4-day air mass back trajectories, as Clean(C), Stagnant(ST), Continental(CC), and Local Burning(LB) events. In order to better investigate the characteristics of atmospheric carbonaceous aerosol, thermal evolution patterns of carbonaceous aerosol measured by the Sunset analyzer were characterized as OC1, OC2, and EC, which were detected in temperature steps of 600 C, 840 C in an non-oxidizing atmosphere, and 870 C in an oxidizing atmosphere, respectively. High ratio of OC2/OC1; 1.39~1.41 was observed in the evening 9:00~11:00 PM due to local burning event. Concentration of OC2 was higher up to 1.4 times than that of OC1 for the LB cases, showing that higher molecular weight fraction of organic aerosol was dominant for the time. As expected, higher correlation was found between EC and

  3. Comportamento pós-colheita de frutos de morangueiro após a aplicação pré-colheita de quitosana e acibenzolar-S-metil Post harvest behavior of strawberry fruits after pre harvest treatment with chitosan and acibenzolar-S-methyl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Miguel Mazaro

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available O uso de indutores de resistência em plantas representa um método alternativo e promissor no controle de podridões pós-colheita de frutos. Assim sendo, foi conduzido um experimento na Universidade Tecnológica Federal do Paraná - Câmpus Dois Vizinhos - PR, no ano de 2004, com objetivo de avaliar a aplicação pré-colheita de quitosana e acibenzolar-S-metil (ASM sobre o comportamento pós-colheita de frutos de morangueiro da cultivar Aromas. O efeito da aplicação de quitosana (0,5; 1,0 e 2,0% e de uma dose de ASM (0,0025% foi verificado em relação à testemunha (água destilada e ao tratamento-controle com aplicação de fungicidas. A aplicação na pré-colheita de quitosana, nas três doses avaliadas, retardou a maturação dos frutos, manteve maior firmeza de polpa e acidez titulável e diminuiu a perda de massa. Esses tratamentos também diminuíram a produção de etileno, o teor de açúcares redutores e mantiveram mais elevado os teores de polifenóis totais. A aplicação de quitosana, nas três doses avaliadas, induziu maior resistência das plantas a patógenos, resultando na diminuição de podridão dos frutos em pós-colheita. No entanto, a concentração de 2% de quitosana causou dano aos frutos na pós-colheita, elevando a taxa respiratória e o teor de açúcares redutores. O ASM teve efeito na retenção da acidez titulável e na redução de podridões, similar ao tratamento com fungicidas. A aplicação de quitosana e ASM na pré-colheita não interferiu na qualidade organoléptica dos frutos em pós-colheita.The use of inductors of resistance in plants represents an alternative and a promising method to control fruit rots at post harvest. The experiment was carried out at Federal Technological University of Paraná - Dois Vizinhos - Campus, during 2004 with the objective to evaluate the induction of chitosan resistance and acibenzolar-S-methyl (ASM on strawberry plants. The treatments compared the effect of chitosan

  4. Gamma irradiation of Tetrapleura tetraptera fruit as a post-harvest technique and its subsequent effect on some phytochemicals, free scavenging activity and physicochemical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbs, spices and medicinal plants have been cherished by many ancient cultures for their use in curing common ailments and promoting good health. The dry fruit of Tetrapleura tetraptera has a pleasant aroma and hence used as a spice for seasoning in many parts of Ghana. Contamination of the fruit can occur at any stage during harvesting, drying, processing, transportation and storage. T. tetraptera is prone to microbial contamination and insect infestation resulting in quality deterioration and economic loss. The study aimed at establishing the effect of gamma irradiation as a post-harvest processing technique on T. tetraptera fruit and the subsequent effect of the gamma irradiation on some phytochemicals, free radical scavenging activity and physicochemical properties. The T. tetraptera powder was packed in polythene bags and gamma irradiated with Cobalt 60 source at 5 kGy and 10 kGy at room temperature at a dose rate of 2 kGy/h. The total phenolic content, total flavonoid and DPPH free radical scavenging activity, pH, lactic acid, vitamin C, moisture, carbohydrate, protein and trace element content of the samples were analysed. The antioxidant potential of the T. tetraptera extract was observed to be enhanced in the solvent used for the extraction after the irradiation but not the radiation dose used. Irradiation only had substantial impacts on carbohydrate and protein, Cu, Mg, and Mn. The T. tetraptera studied was safe for human consumption as far as trace metal levels are concerned. This study therefore suggest that gamma irradiation up to 10 kGy could be used as a post-harvest technique in T. tetraptera as a spice or herb. - Highlights: • The doses used did not affect the phytochemicals and radical scavenging activity. • The antioxidant potential were enhanced by the solvent used in extraction. • Irradiation had substantial impacts on carbohydrate and protein, Cu, Mg, and Mn. • Tetrapleura tetraptera is safe to consume as far as trace mental levels

  5. Gamma irradiation of Tetrapleura tetraptera fruit as a post-harvest technique and its subsequent effect on some phytochemicals, free scavenging activity and physicochemical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darfour, B.; Agbenyegah, S.; Ofosu, D. O.; Okyere, A. A.; Asare, I. K.

    2014-09-01

    Herbs, spices and medicinal plants have been cherished by many ancient cultures for their use in curing common ailments and promoting good health. The dry fruit of Tetrapleura tetraptera has a pleasant aroma and hence used as a spice for seasoning in many parts of Ghana. Contamination of the fruit can occur at any stage during harvesting, drying, processing, transportation and storage. T. tetraptera is prone to microbial contamination and insect infestation resulting in quality deterioration and economic loss. The study aimed at establishing the effect of gamma irradiation as a post-harvest processing technique on T. tetraptera fruit and the subsequent effect of the gamma irradiation on some phytochemicals, free radical scavenging activity and physicochemical properties. The T. tetraptera powder was packed in polythene bags and gamma irradiated with Cobalt 60 source at 5 kGy and 10 kGy at room temperature at a dose rate of 2 kGy/h. The total phenolic content, total flavonoid and DPPH free radical scavenging activity, pH, lactic acid, vitamin C, moisture, carbohydrate, protein and trace element content of the samples were analysed. The antioxidant potential of the T. tetraptera extract was observed to be enhanced in the solvent used for the extraction after the irradiation but not the radiation dose used. Irradiation only had substantial impacts on carbohydrate and protein, Cu, Mg, and Mn. The T. tetraptera studied was safe for human consumption as far as trace metal levels are concerned. This study therefore suggest that gamma irradiation up to 10 kGy could be used as a post-harvest technique in T. tetraptera as a spice or herb.

  6. Soluções conservantes em sorvetão pós-colheita Preservative solutions in beehive ginger post-harvest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Herbênia Lima Cruz Santos

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar alguns aspectos da fisiologia pós-colheita de inflorescências de sorvetão cultivadas no Submédio São Francisco. Hastes florais recém-colhidas foram submetidas a diferentes tratamentos (água destilada; 75mg L-1 de nitrato de prata - AgNO3; 1000mg L-1 de cloreto de cobalto - CoCl2; 5mg L-1 de ácido giberélico - GA3 - Progibb® e 10mg L-1 de 6-Benzilaminopurina - BAP, em ambiente com temperatura e umidade controlada por 15 dias. A vida pós-colheita foi acompanhada a partir da escala de notas, da massa da matéria fresca e do consumo da solução conservante. O tratamento com AgNO3 em hastes de sorvetão, foi o mais eficiente na manutenção da vida de vaso de sorvetão, porém, devido a sua toxidez, recomenda-se o uso de GA3.The objective of this research was to study some physiological post-harvest aspect of beehive ginger inflorescences grown in the lower middle San Francisco river basin. Flower stems just harvested were submitted to different treatments (distilled water; 75mg L-1 of silver nitrate - AgNO3; 1000mg L-1 of cobalt chloride - CoCl2; 5mg L-1 de GA3 - Progibb® and 10mg L-1 of 6-benzylamino purine - BAP, in an environment with controlled temperature and humidity, for 15 days. The post-harvest life was monitored from grading scale, fresh weight, and consumption of the preservative solution. The treatment with silver nitrate was the most efficient to keep the vase life of beehive ginger, however due to its toxity, the use of GA3 is recommended.

  7. 佛手采后致病青霉的分离鉴定%Identification of Penicillium species causing post-harvest diseases of finger citron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永强; 杨佳妮; 陈文荣; 路梅; 郭卫东

    2011-01-01

    Golden Finger citron (Citrusmedica var. Sarcodactylis Swingle), one of the traditional specialities of Jinhua.Zhejiang Province, has high ornamental and medicinal value. Green mould is the major fungus disease of Citrus fruits, causing substantial economic losses during the storage of post-harvest. To identify the exact species of the pathogenic fungus, an isolate belonged to genus Penicillium was isolated from the infected Golden Finger citron. Kochs postulation was completed by wounded-inoculation with the conidial suspension of Penicillium sp. On health Golden Finger. It was identified as Penicillium digitatum based on morphological characters and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) analysis. This result would be helpful for controlling post-harvest disease.%佛手(Citrusmedica var.sarcodactylis Swingle)又名九爪木、五指橘、佛手柑,为芸香科柑橘属常绿小乔木.主产于闽、粤、川、浙等省,其中浙江金华“金佛手”最为著名,被称为“果中之仙品,世上之奇卉”.其果形美观、色泽金黄、香味浓郁,具有药用价值高、贮藏期长的特点[1],是金华地区的传统特产之一.

  8. Effect of colour of light on the opening of inflorescence buds and post-harvest longevity of pot chrysanthemums (Chrysanthemum × grandiflorum (Ramat. Kitam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Jerzy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The pot cultivar of Chrysanthemum × grandiflorum 'Leticia Time Yellow' was cultivated and stored in a growth room under fluorescent light of white, blue, green, yellow and red colour. Quantum irradiance was 30 μmol · m-2 × s-1. The colour of light exerted a significant influence on the opening of closed inflorescence buds and on post-harvest longevity of pot chrysanthemums grown earlier in an unheated plastic tunnel. Under florescent lamps emitting blue light at a wavelength of 400-580 nm, inflorescence buds opened and coloured the earliest. The number of developed flower heads was the greatest under blue and white light. Flower heads developing in blue light were bigger than flower heads developing in white and green light. In red light at a wavelength of 600-700 nm, plants flowered latest and they produced the smallest flower heads. Post-harvest longevity was preserved longest in chrysanthemums kept under blue, white and green light. In red and yellow light, the flowers were overblown earliest.

  9. Effect of tomato post-harvest fungicide treatment and storage conditions on the quality of fruits, and biological value of tomato pulp and concentrated pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Parynow

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of storage conditions on the quality of tomato fruits was tested. The rate of ripening was established in normal air, where tomatoes ripen quickly, under controlled atmosphere where they ripen more slowly and under low pressure, where they ripen slowest. The influence of post-harvest benomyl or methylthiophanate treatment on tomato rot, ripening, and biological value were examined. Post-harvest tomato treatment did not reduce fruit rot. The color of fruits and the processed products depended on the fungicide treatment. Concentrated tomato pulp made of fruits treated with methylthiophanate was redder than the others. The fungicide treatment increased or decreased the level of some chemical substances in the fruits in dependence on the applied fungicide, storage conditions and the length of storage, e.g. tomatoes treated with benomyl and stored for 14 days contained the highest level of vitamin C under 0% CO2:3%O2 and tomatoes treated with methylthiophanate contained the highest level of vitamin C under 38 mm Hg. Degradation of vitamin C in pulp was faster than in the concentrated pulp. Tomato pulp made of tomatoes treated with methylthiophanate contained the lowest level of vitamin C.

  10. Changes to Stream Water and Soil Temperature Regimes Pre and Post Forest Harvesting in Low Order Boreal Forest Watersheds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, C. J.; Najaf, P.; Mackereth, R.; Steedman, R.

    2014-12-01

    Soil and stream water temperatures were logged at 15 minute intervals (1995-2008) pre and post logging at four intensively monitored zero order boreal forest watersheds in NW Ontario, Canada. Trends in post logging changes to daily average, maximum and diurnal ranges in stream water and soil temperatures are presented. Changes to the soil temperature regime were found to be spatially variable and dependent upon aspect, hill slope position and soil moisture regime. In general, soil temperature displayed a hysteretic behavior in relation to reference sites during the post logging period with significantly warmer spring and summer temperatures and similar autumn temperatures. Stream water temperature appeared to be controlled by post logging surface soil temperatures (0-15 cm) as opposed to deeper (30-40 cm) soil temperatures during the pretreatment period. Results are compared to previous studies and implications for soil microbial processes and stream benthic communities are highlighted.

  11. Use of plant growth regulators in the conservation of grapes “Italy” as aids in post-harvest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Correa de Almeida Fabiane

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of plant growth regulators on postharvest fine table grapes “Italy”. The grapes were harvested at a commercial vineyard in the city of Canguçu, RS, Brazil and transported to the UNIPAMPA-Campus Dom Pedrito. The treatments were: distilled water (control; 500 ppb of 1-methylcyclopropene [MCP-1 (12 h at 20 °C]; 10 μM of salicylic acid and; 100 ppm of ethylene. The design was randomized, where each treatment had three replicates, and each replicate consisted of 3 bunches (about 2 kg. The evaluations were performed on the day of harvest (characterization – day zero and at 7 and 14 days of storage at 18 °C controlled. It was evaluated: browning of stems, loss of fresh bunch weight, percentage of abscission of berries, rot incidence, total soluble solids – SS (° Brix, percentage of dehydration of the stem, titratable acidity – AT (% tartaric acid, gluconic acid, “ratio” (SS/TA and density. It was found that the application of 10 mM of salicylic acid in postharvest fine table grapes “Italy” can help a smaller abscission of berries and less dehydration of the stem, which may prolong the shelf life of these grapes.

  12. Framework for Assessing the Rainwater Harvesting Potential of Residential Buildings at a National Level as an Alternative Water Resource for Domestic Water Supply in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Hsien Liaw

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Domestic rainwater harvesting (DRWH is widely recognized as an alternative source of water in Taiwan because of water shortages. This suggests that rainwater potential should be maximized and quantified. In this article, we assess the potential of DRWH at a national level. To consider the climatic, building characteristic, economic, and ecological aspects of DRWH, we propose three categories: (1 theoretical; (2 available; and (3 environmental bearable rainwater potential. Four main steps were followed to develop the proposed framework: (1 Fifteen rainfall zones across Taiwan were generated through cluster analysis based on the average annual 10-day rainfall distributions of rainfall stations and administrative districts; (2 The roof area in each rainfall zone was estimated using a geographic information system (GIS and land use classification database; (3 The weighted percentage of rainwater use in each rainfall zone was determined by the optimal point on the storage capacity and rainwater supply reliability curve for an equivalent building from each building type; (4 The percentage of the total roof area used to harvest rainwater in each region depends on the downstream impact of the stream flow. The procedures developed in this study constitute an effective tool for preliminarily estimation of the national DRWH potential.

  13. Post-harvest quality of fresh-marketed tomatoes as a function of harvest periods Qualidade do tomate de mesa em função da época de colheita

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos David Ferreira; André Toshiro Oshima Franco; Ricardo Freitas Kasper; Antonio Carlos Oliveira Ferraz; Sylvio Luiz Honório; Marcelo Tavares

    2005-01-01

    Losses on tomato business chain start at harvest, a two-months period. At the beginning of the harvest, fruits concentrate at the basal part of the plant, then in the middle, and finally at the top, and undergo changes in diameter and maturity indexes as harvest progresses. The aim of this work was to evaluate the impact of handling at three different periods: (I) 15 days, (II) 30 days, and (III) 45 days after the beginning of harvest. Tomatoes were ordinarily grown and harvested in to bamboo...

  14. Antimicrobial Activity of Some Synthetic Compounds on Fungi Associated with Post Harvest Rot of Red Pepper (Capsicum annum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew O. KOLAWOLE

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Rhizopus sp, Mucor sp, Collectotrichum capsici and Geotrichum candidum were isolated but pathogenic test revealed that Collectotrichum capsici and Geotrichum candidum were the most pathogenic of all the isolates. Ni2+ + Azo has the highest inhibitory effect, closely followed by Ni2+ + PAN while Copper (II complex of Thiourea has the lowest inhibitory effect. However, 10mg/ml concentration proved to be the most effective when radial mycelial growth of the test fungi was measured. The inhibitory effects of each complex on the isolates increases with increase in incubation period. There is the feasibility of using synthetic associated with the symptoms. The three synthetic compounds, Copper (II complex of Thiourea, Ni2+ + compounds as preservatives for harvested red pepper.

  15. 凉山州鲜食杏采果后的管理技术措施%Post-Harvest Management of Fresh-Edible Apricot in Liang Shan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李元良; 陈雪梅; 王凤屏; 李瑞成; 余启茂

    2012-01-01

    简述四川凉山州鲜食杏金太阳、凯特等优良品种在采果后、落叶前应采用的肥水管理、整形修剪、病虫害防治、促花等管理技术措施,以促进树体的生长发育,提高产量。%In this paper, post-harvest management of two fresh-edible apricot cuhivars ( Golden Sun and Kate ) was described briefly. Fertilizer and water management, training and pruning, disease and insect prevention and promoting flowering are very important for tree growth and yield.

  16. Use of TD-GC-TOF-MS to assess volatile composition during post-harvest storage in seven accessions of rocket salad (Eruca sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Luke; Spadafora, Natasha D; Müller, Carsten T; Wagstaff, Carol; Rogers, Hilary J

    2016-03-01

    An important step in breeding for nutritionally enhanced varieties is determining the effects of the post-harvest supply chain on phytochemicals and the changes in VOCs produced over time. TD-GC-TOF-MS was used and a technique for the extraction of VOCs from the headspace using portable tubes is described. Forty-two compounds were detected; 39 were identified by comparison to NIST libraries. Thirty-five compounds had not been previously reported in Eruca sativa. Seven accessions were assessed for changes in headspace VOCs over 7days. Relative amounts of VOCs across 3 time points were significantly different - isothiocyanate-containing molecules being abundant on 'Day 0'. Each accession showed differences in proportions/types of volatiles produced on each day. PCA revealed a separation of VOC profiles according to the day of sampling. Changes in VOC profiles over time could provide a tool for assessment of shelf life. PMID:26471601

  17. The influence of the fungal pathogen Mycocentrospora acerina on the proteome and polyacetylenes and 6-methoxymellein in organic and conventionally cultivated carrots (Daucus carota) during post harvest storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Louarn, Sébastien; Nawrocki, Arkadiusz; Edelenbos, Merete;

    2012-01-01

    Many carrots are discarded during post harvest cold storage due to development of fungal infections, caused by, e.g., Mycocentrospora acerina (liquorice rot). We compared the susceptibility of carrots grown under conventional and organic agricultural practices. In one year, organically cultivated...... metabolism. This combined metabolic and proteomic study indicates that roots respond to fungal infection through altered metabolism: simultaneous induction of 6-methoxymellein and synthesis of defence related proteins....... carrots showed 3× to 7× more symptoms than conventionally cultivated, when studying naturally occurring disease at 4 and 6 months, respectively. On the other hand, we have developed a bioassay for infection studies of M. acerina on carrots and observed that organic roots were more susceptible after one...

  18. Use of TD-GC–TOF-MS to assess volatile composition during post-harvest storage in seven accessions of rocket salad (Eruca sativa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Luke; Spadafora, Natasha D.; Müller, Carsten T.; Wagstaff, Carol; Rogers, Hilary J.

    2016-01-01

    An important step in breeding for nutritionally enhanced varieties is determining the effects of the post-harvest supply chain on phytochemicals and the changes in VOCs produced over time. TD-GC–TOF-MS was used and a technique for the extraction of VOCs from the headspace using portable tubes is described. Forty-two compounds were detected; 39 were identified by comparison to NIST libraries. Thirty-five compounds had not been previously reported in Eruca sativa. Seven accessions were assessed for changes in headspace VOCs over 7 days. Relative amounts of VOCs across 3 time points were significantly different – isothiocyanate-containing molecules being abundant on ‘Day 0’. Each accession showed differences in proportions/types of volatiles produced on each day. PCA revealed a separation of VOC profiles according to the day of sampling. Changes in VOC profiles over time could provide a tool for assessment of shelf life. PMID:26471601

  19. Risk Assessment on Dietary Exposure to Aflatoxin B1 in Post-Harvest Peanuts in the Yangtze River Ecological Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxia Ding

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Based on the 2983 peanut samples from 122 counties in six provinces of China’s Yangtze River ecological region collected between 2009–2014, along with the dietary consumption data in Chinese resident nutrition and health survey reports from 2002 and 2004, dietary aflatoxin exposure and percentiles in the corresponding statistics were calculated by non-parametric probability assessment, Monte Carlo simulation and bootstrap sampling methods. Average climatic conditions in the Yangtze River ecological region were calculated based on the data from 118 weather stations via the Thiessen polygon method. The survey results found that the aflatoxin contamination of peanuts was significantly high in 2013. The determination coefficient (R2 of multiple regression reflected by the aflatoxin B1 content with average precipitation and mean temperature in different periods showed that climatic conditions one month before harvest had the strongest impact on aflatoxin B1 contamination, and that Hunan and Jiangxi provinces were greatly influenced. The simulated mean aflatoxin B1 intake from peanuts at the mean peanut consumption level was 0.777–0.790 and 0.343–0.349 ng/(kg·d for children aged 2–6 and standard adults respectively. Moreover, the evaluated cancer risks were 0.024 and 0.011/(100,000 persons·year respectively, generally less than China’s current liver cancer incidence of 24.6 cases/(100,000 persons·year. In general, the dietary risk caused by peanut production and harvest was low. Further studies would focus on the impacts of peanut circulation and storage on aflatoxin B1 contamination risk assessment in order to protect peanut consumers’ safety and boost international trade.

  20. Risk Assessment on Dietary Exposure to Aflatoxin B₁ in Post-Harvest Peanuts in the Yangtze River Ecological Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xiaoxia; Wu, Linxia; Li, Peiwu; Zhang, Zhaowei; Zhou, Haiyan; Bai, Yizhen; Chen, Xiaomei; Jiang, Jun

    2015-10-01

    Based on the 2983 peanut samples from 122 counties in six provinces of China's Yangtze River ecological region collected between 2009-2014, along with the dietary consumption data in Chinese resident nutrition and health survey reports from 2002 and 2004, dietary aflatoxin exposure and percentiles in the corresponding statistics were calculated by non-parametric probability assessment, Monte Carlo simulation and bootstrap sampling methods. Average climatic conditions in the Yangtze River ecological region were calculated based on the data from 118 weather stations via the Thiessen polygon method. The survey results found that the aflatoxin contamination of peanuts was significantly high in 2013. The determination coefficient (R²) of multiple regression reflected by the aflatoxin B₁ content with average precipitation and mean temperature in different periods showed that climatic conditions one month before harvest had the strongest impact on aflatoxin B₁ contamination, and that Hunan and Jiangxi provinces were greatly influenced. The simulated mean aflatoxin B₁ intake from peanuts at the mean peanut consumption level was 0.777-0.790 and 0.343-0.349 ng/(kg·d) for children aged 2-6 and standard adults respectively. Moreover, the evaluated cancer risks were 0.024 and 0.011/(100,000 persons·year) respectively, generally less than China's current liver cancer incidence of 24.6 cases/(100,000 persons·year). In general, the dietary risk caused by peanut production and harvest was low. Further studies would focus on the impacts of peanut circulation and storage on aflatoxin B₁ contamination risk assessment in order to protect peanut consumers' safety and boost international trade. PMID:26501322

  1. Organic aerosols and inorganic species from post-harvest agricultural-waste burning emissions over northern India: impact on mass absorption efficiency of elemental carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajput, Prashant; Sarin, M M; Sharma, Deepti; Singh, Darshan

    2014-01-01

    Atmospheric PM2.5 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter of ≤ 2.5 μm), collected from a source region [Patiala: 30.2 °N; 76.3 °E; 250 m above mean sea level] of emissions from post-harvest agricultural-waste (paddy-residue) burning in the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP), North India, has been studied for its chemical composition and impact on regional atmospheric radiative forcing. On average, organic aerosol mass accounts for 63% of PM2.5, whereas the contribution of elemental carbon (EC) is ∼3.5%. Sulphate, nitrate and ammonium contribute up to ∼85% of the total water-soluble inorganic species (WSIS), which constitutes ∼23% of PM2.5. The potassium-to-organic carbon ratio from paddy-residue burning emissions (KBB(+)/OC: 0.05 ± 0.01) is quite similar to that reported from Amazonian and Savanna forest-fires; whereas non-sea-salt-sulphate-to-OC ratio (nss-SO4(2-)/OC: 0.21) and nss-SO4(2-)/EC ratio of 2.6 are significantly higher (by factor of 5 to 8). The mass absorption efficiency of EC (3.8 ± 1.3 m(2) g(-1)) shows significant decrease with a parallel increase in the concentrations of organic aerosols and scattering species (sulphate and nitrate). A cross plot of OC/EC and nss-SO4(2-)/EC ratios show distinct differences for post-harvest burning emissions from paddy-residue as compared to those from fossil-fuel combustion sources in south-east Asia. PMID:25124269

  2. Ion nitriding post-oxidation as an alternative technique to electrolytic chromium; Nitruracion post-oxidacion ionica como tecnica alternativa al cromado electrolitico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz-Guillen, J. C.; Granda-Gutierrez, E.E.; Campa-Castilla, A.; Perez-Aguilar, S.I.; Garza-Gomez, A.; Candelas-Ramirez, J.; Mendez-Mendez, R. [COMIMSA. Corporacion Mexicana de Investigacion en Materiales S.A. de C.V., Saltillo, Coahuila (Mexico)]. E-mail: jcarlos@comimsa.com

    2010-11-15

    The effect of temperature and processing time during post-oxidation on hardness and corrosion resistance of AISI 1045 samples treated through nitriding and post-oxidation in a pulsed plasma discharge is evaluated in this paper. Also, a comparative analysis of the mechanical properties obtained with the dual nitriding - post oxidation process versus those properties of typical hard chrome coatings was performed with an aim to propose an alternative technique to the processes of galvanic coatings. The latter revealed that the process of ion nitriding and post-oxidation provides similar properties in hardness and improves the corrosion resistance compared to the hard chrome case. It is conclude that the technique of ion nitriding and post-oxidation is a non environmental harmful technology with strong potential to replace highly polluting electroplating techniques for application of hard chrome coatings. [Spanish] En el presente trabajo se evalua el efecto del tiempo y la temperatura de post-oxidacion sobre las propiedades de dureza y resistencia a la corrosion de muestras de acero AISI 1045 sometido al proceso de nitruracion post-oxidacion ionica en plasmas pulsados. Asi mismo, con el objetivo de fundamentar la propuesta de utilizacion de la nitruracion post-oxidacion ionica como una tecnica alternativa a los procesos galvanicos para aplicacion de recubrimientos de cromo duro, se realizo un analisis comparativo de propiedades, evidenciando que, mediante el proceso nitruracion postoxidacion ionica, es posible obtener caracteristicas similares en dureza y mejores en resistencia a la corrosion que las tipicas obtenidas para el cromo duro. Los resultados obtenidos permiten postular una tecnica que no dana al medio ambiente, como lo es la nitruracion post-oxidacion ionica, como candidata potencial para sustituir las tecnicas galvanicas altamente contaminantes para aplicacion de cromo duro.

  3. Comparative Proteomics of Oxalate Downregulated Tomatoes Points toward Cross Talk of Signal Components and Metabolic Consequences during Post-harvest Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narula, Kanika; Ghosh, Sudip; Aggarwal, Pooja R.; Sinha, Arunima; Chakraborty, Niranjan; Chakraborty, Subhra

    2016-01-01

    Fruits of angiosperms evolved intricate regulatory machinery for sensorial attributes and storage quality after harvesting. Organic acid composition of storage organs forms the molecular and biochemical basis of organoleptic and nutritional qualities with metabolic specialization. Of these, oxalic acid (OA), determines the post-harvest quality in fruits. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit has distinctive feature to undergo a shift from heterotrophic metabolism to carbon assimilation partitioning during storage. We have earlier shown that decarboxylative degradation of OA by FvOXDC leads to acid homeostasis besides increased fungal tolerance in E8.2-OXDC tomato. Here, we elucidate the metabolic consequences of oxalate down-regulation and molecular mechanisms that determine organoleptic features, signaling and hormonal regulation in E8.2-OXDC fruit during post-harvest storage. A comparative proteomics approach has been applied between wild-type and E8.2-OXDC tomato in temporal manner. The MS/MS analyses led to the identification of 32 and 39 differentially abundant proteins associated with primary and secondary metabolism, assimilation, biogenesis, and development in wild-type and E8.2-OXDC tomatoes, respectively. Next, we interrogated the proteome data using correlation network analysis that identified significant functional hubs pointing toward storage related coinciding processes through a common mechanism of function and modulation. Furthermore, physiochemical analyses exhibited reduced oxalic acid content with concomitant increase in citric acid, lycopene and marginal decrease in malic acid in E8.2-OXDC fruit. Nevertheless, E8.2-OXDC fruit maintained an optimal pH and a steady state acid pool. These might contribute to reorganization of pectin constituent, reduced membrane leakage and improved fruit firmness in E8.2-OXDC fruit with that of wild-type tomato during storage. Collectively, our study provides insights into kinetically controlled protein network

  4. Comparative Proteomics of Oxalate Downregulated Tomatoes Points toward Cross Talk of Signal Components and Metabolic Consequences during Post-harvest Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narula, Kanika; Ghosh, Sudip; Aggarwal, Pooja R; Sinha, Arunima; Chakraborty, Niranjan; Chakraborty, Subhra

    2016-01-01

    Fruits of angiosperms evolved intricate regulatory machinery for sensorial attributes and storage quality after harvesting. Organic acid composition of storage organs forms the molecular and biochemical basis of organoleptic and nutritional qualities with metabolic specialization. Of these, oxalic acid (OA), determines the post-harvest quality in fruits. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit has distinctive feature to undergo a shift from heterotrophic metabolism to carbon assimilation partitioning during storage. We have earlier shown that decarboxylative degradation of OA by FvOXDC leads to acid homeostasis besides increased fungal tolerance in E8.2-OXDC tomato. Here, we elucidate the metabolic consequences of oxalate down-regulation and molecular mechanisms that determine organoleptic features, signaling and hormonal regulation in E8.2-OXDC fruit during post-harvest storage. A comparative proteomics approach has been applied between wild-type and E8.2-OXDC tomato in temporal manner. The MS/MS analyses led to the identification of 32 and 39 differentially abundant proteins associated with primary and secondary metabolism, assimilation, biogenesis, and development in wild-type and E8.2-OXDC tomatoes, respectively. Next, we interrogated the proteome data using correlation network analysis that identified significant functional hubs pointing toward storage related coinciding processes through a common mechanism of function and modulation. Furthermore, physiochemical analyses exhibited reduced oxalic acid content with concomitant increase in citric acid, lycopene and marginal decrease in malic acid in E8.2-OXDC fruit. Nevertheless, E8.2-OXDC fruit maintained an optimal pH and a steady state acid pool. These might contribute to reorganization of pectin constituent, reduced membrane leakage and improved fruit firmness in E8.2-OXDC fruit with that of wild-type tomato during storage. Collectively, our study provides insights into kinetically controlled protein network

  5. Influence of microwave radiation on the post harvest decay and quality of peach fruits in cold storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research has been carried out in Khorasan Agricultural and Natural Resources research center to study the effect of microwave radiation on storage time and control of peach fruit rot. Peach cultivars (Alberta, Red, White and Green of Mashad) were harvested in the first and second decades of June, July and September, sorted and stored at 4°C for 12 hours. Then fruits were treated with a Microwave with the Frequency at 2450 MHZ and two intensities, low (200 w) and high (800 w) for 30, 60 and 120 seconds, the treated and control fruits were laid on in plastic trays, packed in perforated polyethylene bags and stored in cold storage (0°C and 90-95% relative humidity) for 2 months. The qualitative tests including fruit rot, total soluble solids, titrable acidity, weight loss, firmness and color were assayed after 15, 30, 45 and 60 days. Sensory attributes were measured after 60 days storage. The experimental design was factorial in frame of completely randomized design. Multiple range test (Duncan) were used to compare the means. The results showed that treating the fruit with microwave decreased the fruit rot and increased pH, flesh firmness and total soluble solids of treated peach. Microwave radiation with the 800w for 60 seconds maintained the qualitative characteristics of fruits. Panel test confirmed these results. (author)

  6. Ultraviolet radiation (UV-C) on the post harvest control of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides in 'niagara rosada' grapes;Radiacao ultravioleta no controle pos-colheita de Colletotrichum gloeosporides em uva 'niagara rosada'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cia, Patricia; Sanches, Juliana, E-mail: pcia@iac.sp.gov.b [Instituto Agronomico de Campinas (IAC), Jundiai, SP (Brazil). Centro de Engenharia e Automacao; Benato, Eliane Aparecida; Valentini, Silvia Regina de Toledo; Anjos, Valeria Delgado de Almeida [Instituto de Tecnologia de Alimentos (ITAL), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Grupo de Engenharia e Pos-Colheita; Ponzo, Francine Scolfaro [Instituto Agronomico de Campinas (IAC), SP (Brazil); Terra, Maurilo Monteiro [Instituto Agronomico de Campinas (IAC), SP (Brazil). Centro de Ecofisiologia e Biofisica

    2009-07-01

    Most of the post harvest losses of 'Niagara Rosada' grapes are caused by rot and detached berries. Recently, many researches on alternative methods, such as physical treatments, have been carried out in order to control rots and extend the shelf life of fruits. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of ultraviolet radiation (UV-C) on the control of C. gloeosporioides in 'Niagara Rosada' grapes stored at room condition and under refrigeration. Clusters of 'Niagara Rosada' grapes were inoculated with the pathogen and submitted 2 hours later to different doses of UV-C, 0, 1.05, 2.09, 4.18, and 8.35 kJ m{sup -}2, during the periods of 0, 1, 2, 4, and 8 min, respectively. Then, the clusters were stored under two conditions: 25 +- 1 deg C / 80 +- 5 % RH for 7 days, and at 1 +- 1 deg C / 90 +- 5 % RH for 16 days followed by storage at 25 +- 1 deg C / 80 +- 5 %RH for 5 more days. The grapes were evaluated for rot incidence, stem browning, color of the berries, percentage of detached berries, titratable acidity, total soluble solids, and ratio. It was observed that UV-C radiation was effective in reducing the incidence of C. gloeosporioides on inoculated 'Niagara Rosada' grapes and did not change the physicochemical characteristics of the grapes. (author)

  7. Effect of 'oxygen and carbon-dioxide' on the post-harvest management in tree-ripe mango storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is an increasing niche market demand for tree-ripe mango fruit due to their pleasant level of sweetness and flavour than artificially ripened fruits. However, tree-ripe mango fruits normally have a short storage life therefore, some time these fruits can not be reached to the ultimate consumers and heavy losses occurred. To avoid this problem growers try to harvest the mangoes at early stage of maturity which directly affect the physico-chemical constituents of fruit. Research was carried out to investigate the Controlled atmosphere (CA) storage feasibility and optimum storage conditions for tree-ripe cv. Chaunsa mangoes in order to extend their shelf life without compromising their quality. Tree ripe mangoes were stored in 1, 3, or 5% O/sub 2/ combined with 3, 6, and 9 % CO/sub 2/ at 10 deg. C for two weeks and compared with those stored in 21% O/sub 2/ and 0% CO/sub 2/ as control. It was found that the rate of fruit weight loss decreased with an increase of CO/sub 2/ in the storage atmosphere. Higher acidity was found in the fruit which were stored at lower concentration of O/sub 2/ and higher concentration of CO/sub 2/ which might be due to the accumulation of higher concentration of CO/sub 2/ in the fruit tissues. CA storage showed better retention of Ascorbic acid but did not show any systematic trend regarding citric acid, tartaric acid and malic acid. Fruits stored under controlled atmosphere showed better retention of freshness, colour, firmness, total soluble solids and flavour in comparison with the fruit stored in air (control). Mangoes stored in 3% O/sub 2/ with 6% CO/sub 2/ were highly acceptable by the panellists due to their better sweetness, flavour as compared to others. (author

  8. Whole-Metagenome-Sequencing-Based Community Profiles of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Corvina Berries Withered in Two Post-harvest Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvetti, Elisa; Campanaro, Stefano; Campedelli, Ilenia; Fracchetti, Fabio; Gobbi, Alex; Tornielli, Giovanni Battista; Torriani, Sandra; Felis, Giovanna E

    2016-01-01

    Vitis vinifera L. cv. Corvina grape forms the basis for the production of unique wines, such as Amarone, whose distinctive sensory features are strongly linked to the post-harvest grape withering process. Indeed, this process increases sugar concentration and changes must characteristics. While microorganisms involved in must fermentation have been widely investigated, few data are available on the microbiota of withered grapes. Thus, in this paper, a whole metagenome sequencing (WMS) approach was used to analyse the microbial consortium associated with Corvina berries at the end of the withering process performed in two different conditions ("traditional withering," TW or "accelerated withering," AW), and to unveil whether changes of drying parameters could have an impact on microbial diversity. Samples of healthy undamaged berries were collected and washed, to recover microorganisms from the surface and avoid contamination with grapevine genetic material. Isolated DNA was sequenced and the data obtained were analyzed with several bioinformatics methods. The eukaryotic community was mainly composed by members of the phylum Ascomycota, including Eurotiomycetes, Sordariomycetes, and Dothideomycetes. Moreover, the distribution of the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium (class Eurotiomycetes) varied between the withered berry samples. Instead, Botryotinia, Saccharomyces, and other wine technologically useful microorganisms were relatively scarce in both samples. For prokaryotes, 25 phyla were identified, nine of which were common to both conditions. Environmental bacteria belonging to the class Gammaproteobacteria were dominant and, in particular, the TW sample was characterized by members of the family Pseudomonadaceae, while members of the family Enterobacteriaceae dominated the AW sample, in addition to Sphyngobacteria and Clostridia. Finally, the binning procedure discovered 15 putative genomes which dominated the microbial community of the two samples, and

  9. Whole-metagenome-sequencing-based community profiles of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Corvina berries withered in two post-harvest conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa eSalvetti

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Vitis vinifera L. cv. Corvina grape forms the basis for the production of unique wines, such as Amarone, whose distinctive sensory features are strongly linked to the post-harvest grape withering process. Indeed, this process increases sugar concentration and changes must characteristics. While microorganisms involved in must fermentation have been widely investigated, few data are available on the microbiota of withered grapes. Thus, in this paper, a whole metagenome sequencing (WMS approach was used to analyse the microbial consortium associated with Corvina berries at the end of the withering process performed in two different conditions (traditional withering, TW or accelerated withering, AW, and to unveil whether changes of environmental drying parameters could have an impact on microbial diversity.Samples of healthy undamaged berries were collected and washed, to recover microorganisms from the surface and avoid contamination with grapevine genetic material. Isolated DNA was sequenced and the data obtained were analyzed with several bioinformatics methods. The eukaryotic community was mainly composed by members of the phylum Ascomycota, including Eurotiomycetes, Sordariomycetes and Dothideomycetes. Moreover, the distribution of the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium (class Eurotiomycetes varied between the withered berry samples. Instead, Botryotinia, Saccharomyces and other wine technologically useful microorganisms were relatively scarce in both samples.For prokaryotes, 25 phyla were identified, nine of which were common to both conditions. Environmental bacteria belonging to the class Gammaproteobacteria were dominant and, in particular, the TW sample was characterized by members of the family Pseudomonadaceae, while members of the family Enterobacteriaceae dominated the AW sample, in addition to Sphyngobacteria and Clostridia. Finally, the binning procedure discovered 15 putative genomes which dominated the microbial community of the

  10. Whole-Metagenome-Sequencing-Based Community Profiles of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Corvina Berries Withered in Two Post-harvest Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvetti, Elisa; Campanaro, Stefano; Campedelli, Ilenia; Fracchetti, Fabio; Gobbi, Alex; Tornielli, Giovanni Battista; Torriani, Sandra; Felis, Giovanna E.

    2016-01-01

    Vitis vinifera L. cv. Corvina grape forms the basis for the production of unique wines, such as Amarone, whose distinctive sensory features are strongly linked to the post-harvest grape withering process. Indeed, this process increases sugar concentration and changes must characteristics. While microorganisms involved in must fermentation have been widely investigated, few data are available on the microbiota of withered grapes. Thus, in this paper, a whole metagenome sequencing (WMS) approach was used to analyse the microbial consortium associated with Corvina berries at the end of the withering process performed in two different conditions (“traditional withering,” TW or “accelerated withering,” AW), and to unveil whether changes of drying parameters could have an impact on microbial diversity. Samples of healthy undamaged berries were collected and washed, to recover microorganisms from the surface and avoid contamination with grapevine genetic material. Isolated DNA was sequenced and the data obtained were analyzed with several bioinformatics methods. The eukaryotic community was mainly composed by members of the phylum Ascomycota, including Eurotiomycetes, Sordariomycetes, and Dothideomycetes. Moreover, the distribution of the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium (class Eurotiomycetes) varied between the withered berry samples. Instead, Botryotinia, Saccharomyces, and other wine technologically useful microorganisms were relatively scarce in both samples. For prokaryotes, 25 phyla were identified, nine of which were common to both conditions. Environmental bacteria belonging to the class Gammaproteobacteria were dominant and, in particular, the TW sample was characterized by members of the family Pseudomonadaceae, while members of the family Enterobacteriaceae dominated the AW sample, in addition to Sphyngobacteria and Clostridia. Finally, the binning procedure discovered 15 putative genomes which dominated the microbial community of the two samples, and

  11. Antifungal Screening of Lavender Essential oils and Essential Oil Constituents on three Post-harvest Fungal Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erland, Lauren A E; Bitcon, Christopher R; Lemke, Ashley D; Mahmoud, Soheil S

    2016-04-01

    A growing body of literature indicates that many synthetic pesticides have adverse effects on human, animal, and environmental health. As a result, plant-derived natural products are quickly gaining momentum as safer and less ecologically damaging alternatives due to their low toxicity, high biodegradability, and good specificity. Essential oils of Lavandula angustifolia, Lavandula x intermedia cv Grosso, and Lavandida x intermedia cv Provence as well as various mono- and sesquiterpene essential oil constituents were tested in order to assess their antifungal potential on three important agricultural pathogens: Botrytis cinerea, Mucor piriformis, and Penicillium expansum. Fungal susceptibility testing was performed using disk diffusion assays. The majority of essential oil constituents tested did not have a significant effect; however, 3-carene, carvacrol, geraniol, nerol and perillyl alcohol demonstrated significant inhibition at concentrations as low as 1 µ/mL. In vivo testing using strawberry fruit as a model system supported in vitro results and revealed that perillyl alcohol, carvacrol and 3-carene were effective in limiting infection by postharvest pathogens. PMID:27396210

  12. Effect of Post-Harvest Acetic Acid and Plant Essential Oils on Shelf-Life Extension of Tomato Fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In vitro effect of different concentrations of acetic acid on linear growth of Alternaria alternate was studied. The causal agent of tomato black rots in contact and fumigation showed that acetic acid inhibit A. alternata growth at 2 ml/L and on 0.8 ml/L in contact and fumigation, respectively. In vivo effect showed that acetic acid at 6 ml/L reduced severity of infection of tomato fruits from 53.5% to 4.8% after 3 weeks of storage in dipping method but at the strongest fumigation methods, acetic acid inhibit tomato fruits rot at 0.4 ml/L after 3 weeks of storage. In vitro effect of camphore (Eucalyptus globulus Labill), caraway (Carium carvum L.) and peppermint oil (Mentha piperita L.) at different concentrations were tested against Alternaria alternata, since caraway oil is the strongest oil effect on fungal growth followed by peppermint and camphore respectively. Similarly in in vivo caraway oil inhibit tomato fruits rots at 6 ml/L followed by peppermint that inhibited tomato rots at 8 ml / L but camphore reduced tomato rots at 8 ml/L from 40% to 8.1%. Accepted April 2013

  13. Radio frequency heating:a potential method for post-harvest pest control in nuts and dry products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shao-jin; TANG Ju-ming

    2004-01-01

    The multi-billion dollar US tree nut industries rely heavily on methyl bromide fumigation for postharvest insect control and are facing a major challenge with the mandated cessation by 2005 of its use for most applications. There is an urgent need to develop effective and economically viable alternative treatments to replace current phytosanitary and quarantine practices in order to maintain the competitiveness of US agriculture in domestic and international markets. With the reliable heating block system, the thermal death kinetics for fifth-instar codling moth, Indianmeal moth, and navel orangeworm were determined at a heating rate of 18℃/min. A practical process protocol was developed to control the most heat resistant insect pest, fifth-instar navel orangeworm, in in-shell walnuts using a 27 MHz pilot scale radio frequency (RF)system. RF heating to 55℃ and holding in hot air for at least 5 min resulted in 100% mortality of the fifth-instar navel orangeworm. Rancidity, sensory qualities and shell characteristics were not affected by the treatments. If this method can be economically integrated into the handling process, it should have excellent potential as a disinfestation method for in-shell walnuts.

  14. Science Letters: Radio frequency heating: a potential method for post-harvest pest control in nuts and dry products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGShao-jin; TANGJu-ming

    2004-01-01

    The multi-billion dollar US tree nut industries rely heavily on methyl bromide fumigation for postharvest insect control and are facing a major challenge with the mandated cessation by 2005 of its use for most applications. There is an urgent need to develop effective and economically viable alternative treatments to replace current phytosanitary and quarantine practices in order to maintain the competitiveness of US agriculture in domestic and international markets. With the reliable heating block system, the thermal death kinetics for fifth-instar codling moth, lndianmeal moth, and navel orangeworm were determined at a heating rate of 18℃/min. A practical process protocol was developed to control the most heat resistant insect pest, fifth-instar navel orangeworm, in in-shell walnuts using a 27MHz pilot scale radio frequency (RF) system. RF heating to 55℃ and holding in hot air for at least 5min resulted in 100% mortality of the fifth-instar navel orangeworm. Rancidity, sensory qualities and shell characteristics were not affected by the treatments. If this method can be economically integrated into the handling process, it should have excellent potential as a disinfestation method for in-shell walnuts.

  15. Study of visual, sensorial and physicochemical characteristics of tommy atkins mangoes submitted to ionizing radiation as a method of post-harvest conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the objective of evaluating the effect of ionising radiation on the main characteristics of post-harvest quality of mango, fruits of the variety Tommy Atkins have been irradiated with a Co-60 source at dose levels of 200, 400 and 600 Gy. The fruits were later stored in a refrigeration chamber at 11,5 deg C for fifteen days, to simulate transport conditions for an external market. Visual analysis of the fruits was carried out every five days. After that the fruits were kept stored under a temperature of 21 deg C for nine days, to simulate shelf-life conditions. During this period, visual, sensorial and physicochemical analyses were performed after three, six and nine days. Results of the visual analyses along the 24-day storage period have shown that irradiated fruits displayed greater firmness of the pulp and greener rind when compared with control. However, the presence of dark dots on the surface of the rind was detrimental to their overall appearance. Sensorial analyses have shown significant differences between the different applied doses, with a better index of acceptability for control fruits, certainly due to the dark dots on the irradiated mango. On the other hand, physicochemical analyses showed best results for irradiated fruits. (author)

  16. Biocontrol ability and action mechanism of food-isolated yeast strains against Botrytis cinerea causing post-harvest bunch rot of table grape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parafati, Lucia; Vitale, Alessandro; Restuccia, Cristina; Cirvilleri, Gabriella

    2015-05-01

    Strains belonging to the species Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Wickerhamomyces anomalus, Metschnikowia pulcherrima and Aureobasidium pullulans, isolated from different food sources, were tested in vitro as biocontrol agents (BCAs) against the post-harvest pathogenic mold Botrytis cinerea. All yeast strains demonstrated antifungal activity at different levels depending on species and medium. Killer strains of W. anomalus and S. cerevisiae showed the highest biocontrol in vitro activity, as demonstrated by largest inhibition halos. The competition for iron and the ability to form biofilm and to colonize fruit wounds were hypothesized as the main action mechanisms for M. pulcherrima. The production of hydrolytic enzymes and the ability to colonize the wounds were the most important mechanisms for biocontrol activity in A. pullulans and W. anomalus, which also showed high ability to form biofilm. The production of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with in vitro and in vivo inhibitory effect on pathogen growth was observed for the species W. anomalus, S. cerevisiae and M. pulcherrima. Our study clearly indicates that multiple modes of action may explain as M. pulcherrima provide excellent control of postharvest botrytis bunch rot of grape. PMID:25583341

  17. Post-harvest nutraceutical behaviour during ripening and senescence of 8 highly perishable fruit species from the Northern Brazilian Amazon region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Leandro Camargo; Tosin, Jéssica Milanez; Benedette, Ronaldo Moreno; Cisneros-Zevallos, Luis

    2015-05-01

    The post-harvest nutraceutical characteristics of highly perishable native fruits species from the Northern Brazilian Amazon region were studied during 12 day at 15 ± 1 °C and 95 ± 3% RH. Uxi and caja fruit showed climacteric behaviour while caju, açai de terra firme, camu-camu, inajá, murici and araçá-boi were non-climacteric. Soluble solids and sugars increased for climacteric fruit while total acidity remained constant for all fruits. In general, all fruit species had high levels of total phenolics (121-9889 mg GAE 100 g(-1) dry weight pulp), vitamin C (31-1532 mg AA 100 mL(-1) juice) and antioxidant activity (AOX) (75-288 1 μmol Trolox Eq 100 g(-1) dry weight, ORAC value), however, camu-camu, acai and murici were among the highest. All fruits showed an increase in phenolic content (15-82%), a simultaneous decrease in ascorbic acid in both peel (88-98%) and pulp (89-97%), while AOX increased or decreased depending on the fruit species, very likely due to the specific phenolic profile being synthesized. We propose a hypothetical model where ripening/senescence induced a redox homeostasis imbalance which in turn triggered the responses. PMID:25529669

  18. Processed vs. Non-Processed Biowastes for Agriculture: Effects of Post-Harvest Tomato Plants and Biochar on Radish Growth, Chlorophyll Content and Protein Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozzetti Monterumici, Chiara; Rosso, Daniele; Montoneri, Enzo; Ginepro, Marco; Baglieri, Andrea; Novotny, Etelvino Henrique; Kwapinski, Witold; Negre, Michèle

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to address the issue of processed vs. non-processed biowastes for agriculture, by comparing materials widely differing for the amount of process energy consumption. Thus, residual post harvest tomato plants (TP), the TP hydrolysates obtained at pH 13 and 60 °C, and two known biochar products obtained by 650 °C pyrolysis were prepared. All products were characterized and used in a cultivation of radish plants. The chemical composition and molecular nature of the materials was investigated by solid state 13C NMR spectrometry, elemental analysis and potentiometric titration. The plants were analysed for growth and content of chlorophyll, carotenoids and soluble proteins. The results show that the TP and the alkaline hydrolysates contain lignin, hemicellulose, protein, peptide and/or amino acids moieties, and several mineral elements. The biochar samples contain also similar mineral elements, but the organic fraction is characterized mainly by fused aromatic rings. All materials had a positive effect on radish growth, mainly on the diameter of roots. The best performances in terms of plant growth were given by miscanthus originated biochar and TP. The most significant effect was the enhancement of soluble protein content in the plants treated with the lowest energy consumption non processed TP. The significance of these findings for agriculture and the environment is discussed. PMID:25906472

  19. 水杨酸对冷藏板栗贮藏效果的影响%Storage effects of salicylic acid on post-harvest chestnut

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶利民; 徐芬芬

    2011-01-01

    Effects of physiological and biochemical changes of the post-harvest chestnut fruit were studied with different concentrations of salicylic acid to dipping fruit at different times during storage. Main results were as follows: salicylic acid treatment could inhibit respiration rate of the chestnut during storage,delay the arrival of climacteric. Salicylic acid could inhibit the decreasing of the vitamin C content and the starch content. In addition, salicylic acid treatment decreased chestnut rot rate and weight loss rate.The best treatment condition by salicylic acid was O. 5 g/L for 10 min.%以不同浓度水杨酸、不同浸果时间研究水杨酸对板栗果实冷藏效果的影响.结果表明:水杨酸可抑制贮藏期间栗果呼吸强度,推迟呼吸跃变的到来;还可抑制VC含量和淀粉含量;水杨酸处理后栗果腐烂率和质量损失率均降低.最佳处理方式为0.5 g/L水杨酸浸果10 min.

  20. Conservação pós-colheita de frutos de goiabeira, variedade Paluma Post-harvest conservation of fruit of guava, var. Paluma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Gonzaga Neto

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivando aumentar a vida útil de frutos da goiabeira (Psidium guajava L., variedade Paluma, nos primeiros dezesseis dias pós-colheita, foi realizado, no município de Petrolina, PE, região do Vale do São Francisco, um estudo para determinar o efeito da concentração de cálcio (Ca, do ambiente de armazenamento e do tipo de embalagem, na vida útil da goiaba. Foram estudados dois ambientes de armazenamento (condições naturais e ambiente refrigerado, três concentrações de Ca (0,5, 1,0 e 1,5% e dois tipos de embalagem do fruto (saco de polietileno transparente e saco de papel- manteiga. Doze tratamentos foram testados no delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com três repetições, num arranjo fatorial 3x2x2. Foram determinados os parâmetros: perda de peso e da cor verde da casca do fruto, e o teor de sólidos solúveis totais. Verificou-se que frutos da variedade Paluma colhidos "de vez" (frutos completamente desenvolvidos, mas com a casca verde mantiveram suas características comerciais por até dezesseis dias de armazenamento quando foram embalados em saco de polietileno transparente e sem furo, e armazenado em ambiente refrigerado a 10ºC, e 90% de umidade relativa.The study was undertaken to increase the shelf life of fruits of guava (Psidium guajava L. var. Paluma in the post-harvest period in the São Francisco River Valley (Petrolina, PE, Brazil. Effects of calcium (Ca concentration, storing condition and fruit wrapping material in the shelf life of fruit of guava were studied. Twelve treatments were tested in a randomized complete block design, in a 2 x 3 x2 factorial arrangement, comprising the following variables: two storing conditions (natural temperature and refrigerated, three Ca concentrations (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% and two fruit wrapping materials (transparent poliethylene bag and impervious paper bag. The following guava parameters were evaluated: weight and peel green color losses and total soluble solids. It was observed

  1. Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting for Roadways

    OpenAIRE

    Xiong, Haocheng

    2015-01-01

    Energy harvesting technologies have drawn much attention as an alternative power source of roadway accessories in different scales. Piezoelectric energy harvesting consisting of PZT piezoceramic disks sealed in a protective package is developed in this work to harness the deformation energy of pavement induced by traveling vehicles and generate electrical energy. Six energy harvesters are fabricated and installed at the weigh station on I-81 at Troutville, VA to perform on-site evaluation. T...

  2. Effect of zero energy cool chamber and post-harvest treatments on shelf-life of fruits under semi-arid environment of Western India. Part 2. Indian gooseberry fruits

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Sanjay; A. K. Singh; Joshi, H. K.; Bagle, B. G.; More, T. A.

    2010-01-01

    Effect of zero energy cool chamber (ZECC) along with post-harvest treatments including CaCl2, mustard oil and K2SO4 separately on shelf-life and fruit quality attributes of Indian gooseberry or aonla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn) during storage under semi-arid ecosystem of Gujarat was studied. Increase in physiological loss in weight (PLW), spoilage loss, total soluble solids, total sugar and reducing sugars, reduction in titratable acidity and ascorbic acid were observed during storage period...

  3. Loss of function of 1-FEH IIb has more impact on post-harvest inulin degradation in Cichorium intybus than copy number variation of its close paralog 1-FEH IIa

    OpenAIRE

    Dauchot, Nicolas; Raulier, Pierre; Maudoux, Olivier; Notté, Christine; Draye, Xavier; Van Cutsem, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Key Message: The loss of mini-exon 2 in the 1-FEH IIb glycosyl-hydrolase results in a putative non-functional allele. This loss of function has a strong impact on the susceptibility to post-harvest inulin depolymerization. Significant variation of copy number was identified in its close paralog 1-FEH IIa, but no quantitative effect of copy number on carbohydrates-related phenotypes was detected. Inulin polyfructan is the second most abundant storage carbohydrate in flowering plants. After ...

  4. Post harvest conservation of mangos ‘Tommy Atkins’ storaged under modified atmosphere/
    Conservação pós-colheita de mangas ‘Tommy Atkins’ armazenadas sob atmosfera modificada

    OpenAIRE

    Glauber José Castro Gava; Ivan Herman Fischer; Juliana Cristina Sodário Cruz; Maria Cecília de Arruda; Maria Amália Brunini; Elisangela Marques Jeronimo

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the post harvest conservation of mangos ‘Tommy Atkins’, during a storage, using different types of packings. The modified atmosphere corresponded to the following treatments: fruits conditioned individually in plastic trays, covered with plastic film of polivinila chloride (PVC) of 14 µm, without and with sachet of potassium permanganate (10 g); fruits conditioned individually in polyethylene bag of low density 25 µm of simple wall addictived o...

  5. Qualidade pós-colheita do mamão formosa armazenado sob refrigeração Post harvest quality of papaya storage under refrigeration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Railene Hérica Carlos Rocha

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a qualidade e vida útil pós-colheita do mamão Formosa 'Tainung 01' armazenado sob temperaturas refrigeradas. Os frutos foram provenientes de um plantio comercial no município de Baraúna-RN. O armazenamento ocorreu em câmaras a 8; 10 e 12ºC ± 1 ºC, mantidas a 90 ± 5% UR durante os períodos de 7; 14; 21 e 28 dias. Após cada período, os mesmos foram transferidos para a condição ambiente (20 ± 1ºC 60 ± 5% UR onde se simulou um período de prateleira de sete dias. Em seguida, os mamões foram avaliados quanto à aparência externa e interna, coloração da casca, perda de massa e firmeza de polpa. A melhor estimativa para a manutenção da qualidade e aumento da vida útil pós-colheita do mamão Formasa 'Tainung 01' foi observada nos frutos submetidos a 10°C, 90 ± 5% UR até 20 dias, com boa aparência externa e interna (notas acima de 3,0, desenvolvimento da coloração amarela na casca, firmeza de polpa superior a 20 N e perda de massa de 7%. Os frutos submetidos a 8°C e a 10°C, 90 ± 5% UR desenvolveram sintomas de danos pelo frio após 21 dias de armazenamento, agravando-se com a extensão do armazenamento. No armazenamento a 12°C, 90 ± 5% UR, observou-se um amadurecimento acelerado com amolecimento aquoso da polpa a partir de 28 dias. Aos 35 dias, os frutos estavam inaptos para o consumo, havendo grande incidência de Colletotrichum gloeosporioides.The purpose of this study was to evaluate the post harvest quality and shelf storage of 'Tainung 01' papaya fruit stored under different refrigerated temperatures. The fruits were from a commercial cultivation in the district of Baraúna-RN-Brazil. The fruits were storied in cold rooms at 8º, 10º and 12ºC ± 1ºC and 90 ± 5% RH during the period of 7, 14, 21 e 28 days. After each period, the fruits were put at environmental conditions (20º ± 1ºC 60 ± 5% RH where was simulated a shelf life period for seven days. Then, the papayas

  6. Eficácia de limpeza durante o beneficiamento do tomate de mesa Effectiveness of cleaning fresh market tomatoes during post harvest handling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria de Magalhães

    2009-12-01

    and fruit quality measured by weight loss (%, respiratory activity (CO2 and ethylene evolution. In the first case, the nylon and sisal fiber were more efficient at higher rotations. PET bristles at 40rpm rotation were inefficient, presenting a cleaning index (CI lower than 50%. The nylon brush treatment at 120rpm was the most efficient cleaning process (CI=91%. However, nylon brushes at 160rpm treatment showed the lowest CI (88%. These results were probably associated to the fact that, at higher speeds, fruits tended to jump, causing a poor contact between bristles and fruits. The lowest CI was observed on coconut fiber at 80 and 120rpm treatments. In general, cleaned fruits with nylon and sisal fiber at 120rpm demonstrated higher post-harvest quality alterations when compared to cleaned fruits in these brushes at 160rpm. More bristles flexibility provides better contact fruit/bristles increasing cleaning efficiency, however, it can cause changes on post-harvest fruit quality, but no significant.

  7. Effect of post-harvest calcium chloride dip treatment and gamma irradiation on storage quality and shelf-life extension of Red delicious apple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, P R; Meena, R S; Dar, M A; Wani, A M

    2012-08-01

    Freshly harvested Red delicious apples were dipped in calcium chloride solution of varying concentrations (0.5-2.0% w/v) for 1 h prior to irradiation at dose level of 0.4 kGy. Fruits after radiation treatment were stored at 2 ± 1°C, RH 90% and evaluated at intervals of 30 days for various quality parameters. Results revealed significant (p ≤ 0.05) retention in firmness, juice yield and ascorbic acid content in samples treated with combination of calcium chloride at 2.0% w/v and gamma irradiation (0.4 kGy) during storage. Water soluble pectin was inversely correlated with firmness (r = 0.88) and was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) lower in samples subjected to combination treatment of 2.0% w/v CaCl2 and 0.4 kGy irradiation throughout the storage. The combination treatment of 2.0% CaCl2 and 0.4 kGy irradiation gave about 4.3 log reduction in yeast and mold count of apple samples. Results of the post refrigeration weight loss, firmness and overall acceptability revealed that combination treatment was helpful in extending the shelf-life of Red Delicious apples by around 20-25 days at 17 ± 2°C, RH 75% following 90 days of refrigeration. PMID:23904650

  8. Biocontrol of Botrytis allii Munn the Causal Agent of Neck Rot, the Post Harvest Disease in Onion, by use of a New Iranian Isolate of Streptomyces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jorjandi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Soil actinomycetes particularly Streptomyces spp. showed antagonistic activity against wide range of plant pathogens. In the recent decades they have attracted high interests as biocontrol agents. Onion neck rot or gray mold caused by Botrytis allii have imposed economic post harvest damages to onion bulbs and decreased its storage durability and market value. Approach: To investigate for biocontrol means against the pathogen, antagonistic activity of 50 isolates of soil Actinomycetes were assayed through agar disk method and dual culture bioassays. Active isolates were exposed to chloroform for detection of antibiotic. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC value and solubility of active crude extract in organic solvents were determined for Streptomyces isolate No. 347 which showed a unique and stable property of inhibiting Botrytis allii. To investigate the antagonistic effect of Streptomyces isolate No. 347 on control of onion gray mold, 4 different treatments were tested by means of Tukey HSD test. Results: From the tested isolates, 13 showed anti gray mold activities. Exposure of active isolates to chloroform revealed that Streptomyces isolates No. 347, 263 and 350 retained their antifungal activities. The active metabolite(s of Streptomyces isolate No. 347 was polar, soluble in H2O but insoluble in chloroform and methanol. MIC of the crude was determined as 0.05 mg mL-1 against B. allii. Stability of the active crude in distilled water at room temperature (12-30°C was about 6 months. Statistical studies indicated that Streptomyces isolates No. 347 can decrease losses of neck rot with significant level (pConclusion: The future goals include investigation of the antifungal genes in active isolates as candidates for genetic engineering of onion for increased tolerance against B. allii.

  9. Atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from post-harvest biomass burning emissions in the Indo-Gangetic Plain: Isomer ratios and temporal trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajput, Prashant; Sarin, M. M.; Rengarajan, R.; Singh, Darshan

    2011-12-01

    Atmospheric concentrations of particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their isomer ratios have been studied for two distinct biomass burning emissions (post-harvest burning of paddy-residue in Oct-Nov and wheat-residue burning during April-May) in the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP). The mass concentrations of PM 2.5 (Av: 246 μg m -3), OC (92 μg m -3), EC (7 μg m -3) and ΣPAHs (40 ng m -3) are significantly higher from the paddy-residue burning. In contrast, for wheat-residue burning emissions, concentrations of PM 2.5 (53 μg m -3), OC (15 μg m -3), EC (4 μg m -3) and ΣPAHs (7 ng m -3) are about 4-5 times lower. The large temporal variability in the concentrations of particulate species and OC/EC ratio (range: 1.9-25.7) is attributed to differences in the two biomass burning emissions and their relative source strength. The mass fraction of EC (Av: 3.1%), associated with the poor combustion efficiency of moist paddy-residue, is significantly lower than that from the wheat-residue burning (EC/PM 2.5 = 7.6%) during dry weather conditions. Furthermore, OC mass fractions from paddy- and wheat-residue burning emissions are 37% and 28% respectively; whereas ΣPAHs/EC ratios are significantly different, 5.7 and 1.6 mg g -1, from the two emission sources. The particulate concentrations of 5- and 6-ring isomers (normalized to EC) from paddy-residue burning are about 3-5 times higher than those from the wheat-residue burning emissions. The cross plots of PAHs show distinct differences in isomer ratios from agricultural-waste burning emissions vis-à-vis fossil-fuel combustion.

  10. 78 FR 11174 - Recent Postings of Broadly Applicable Alternative Test Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-15

    ... published at 72 FR 4257 (January 30, 2007) and found on the EPA's Web site at www.epa.gov/ttn/emc/approalt... alternative test methods are outlined at 72 FR 4257 (January 30, 2007). We will continue to announce approvals... questions about this notice, contact Ms. Lula H. Melton, Air Quality Assessment Division, Office of...

  11. Post reactor researches of fuel pins, tested under alternating NEMF reactor functioning modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changing of rod ceramic fuel pins state under their exploitation conditions changing influence at alternating of three-mode nuclear energy-moving facility reactor functioning has been examined. There are presented the results of researches of fuel pins, tested in the reactor IRGIT and RA, firstly under moving mode, then - under energy mode of minor power of NEMF reactor. (author)

  12. Post-harvest quality of fresh-marketed tomatoes as a function of harvest periods Qualidade do tomate de mesa em função da época de colheita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos David Ferreira

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Losses on tomato business chain start at harvest, a two-months period. At the beginning of the harvest, fruits concentrate at the basal part of the plant, then in the middle, and finally at the top, and undergo changes in diameter and maturity indexes as harvest progresses. The aim of this work was to evaluate the impact of handling at three different periods: (I 15 days, (II 30 days, and (III 45 days after the beginning of harvest. Tomatoes were ordinarily grown and harvested in to bamboo baskets, and transferred to plastics boxes. Fruits were classified according to ripening stage and diameter, and evaluated for mechanical damage and external defects caused by harvesting procedures. The time required for the harvest operation was measured; damage to fruits (% and weight loss (%, caused either in the field and/or during the harvesting process, were taken into consideration and related to the final quality of fruit after storage for 21 days. The same methodology was used all through the production and harvest cycle. The highest % fruit damage occurred during period II, a longer harvest time than the other two periods. Fruits not submitted to handling showed lower weight loss than handled fruits. Fruits harvested in period II and stored for 21 days showed higher losses due to mechanical injury.As perdas na cadeia produtiva do tomate de mesa iniciam-se no campo durante a colheita, a qual ocorre por cerca de dois meses. No inicio da colheita frutos concentram-se na parte basal da planta, posteriormente na região mediana e finalizam na parte superior. Frutos durante o período de colheita apresentam alterações quanto ao diâmetro e estádio de maturidade. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do manuseio durante a colheita na qualidade do tomate de mesa, cultivar 'Fanny' após 15, 30 e 45 dias, depois de iniciada a colheita. Tomates foram colhidos no sistema tradicional, utilizando-se de uma cesta de bambu e transferidos para caixas pl

  13. The Alternative to Post-Hegemony: Reproduction and Austerity’s Social Factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kylie Jarrett

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the transitions to advanced liberal States and post-Fordist economic paradigms, it is argued that the distinction between work and sociality has become blurred. This marks the emergence of the ’social factory’ where sociality is industrialised and industrialisation has become increasingly centred on immaterial, social activity. It is further argued that this regime has generated a new articulation of socio-economic relations based on biopower and systems of control alongside the irruptive agency of multitude. Consequently, it is often suggested that the concept of hegemony can no longer adequately explain manifestations of power and resistance. The argument is that we live today in a state of post-hegemony. This paper challenges the theoretical and pragmatic underpinnings of this position at a number of levels, arguing that the lived politics associated with the imposition of Austerity economics across Europe, but particularly as manifest in Ireland, undermine the assertion that hegemony is no longer a relevant conceptualisation of power dynamics. In particular it uses feminist thinking to challenge the epochalisation inherent to arguments of post-hegemony, arguing instead for a return to engagement with the reproductive logic of hegemonic discipline.

  14. Loss of function of 1-FEH IIb has more impact on post-harvest inulin degradation in Cichorium intybus than copy number variation of its close paralog 1-FEH IIa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauchot, Nicolas; Raulier, Pierre; Maudoux, Olivier; Notté, Christine; Draye, Xavier; Van Cutsem, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Key Message: The loss of mini-exon 2 in the 1-FEH IIb glycosyl-hydrolase results in a putative non-functional allele. This loss of function has a strong impact on the susceptibility to post-harvest inulin depolymerization. Significant variation of copy number was identified in its close paralog 1-FEH IIa, but no quantitative effect of copy number on carbohydrates-related phenotypes was detected. Inulin polyfructan is the second most abundant storage carbohydrate in flowering plants. After harvest, it is depolymerized by fructan exohydrolases (FEHs) as an adaptive response to end-season cold temperatures. In chicory, the intensity of this depolymerization differs between cultivars but also between individuals within a cultivar. Regarding this phenotypic variability, we recently identified statistically significant associations between inulin degradation and genetic polymorphisms located in three FEHs. We present here new results of a systematic analysis of copy number variation (CNV) in five key members of the chicory (Cichorium intybus) GH32 multigenic family, including three FEH genes and the two inulin biosynthesis genes: 1-SST and 1-FFT. qPCR analysis identified a significant variability of relative copy number only in the 1-FEH IIa gene. However, this CNV had no quantitative effect. Instead, cloning of the full length gDNA of a close paralogous sequence (1-FEH IIb) identified a 1028 bp deletion in lines less susceptible to post-harvest inulin depolymerization. This region comprises a 9 bp mini-exon containing one of the three conserved residues of the active site. This results in a putative non-functional 1-FEH IIb allele and an observed lower inulin depolymerization. Extensive genotyping confirmed that the loss of mini-exon 2 in 1-FEH IIb and the previously identified 47 bp duplication located in the 3'UTR of 1-FEH IIa belong to a single haplotype, both being statistically associated with reduced susceptibility to post-harvest inulin depolymerization

  15. Efeito do retardamento da colheita, na qualidade e na vida útil do melão Orange Flesh Effect of the harvest delay on the quality and post-harvest shelf-life of Orange Flesh melons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Vinícius de S. Mendonça

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available O efeito do retardamento da colheita na qualidade e na vida útil dos frutos do meloeiro foi avaliado. Os frutos, tipo Honey Dew Orange Flesh, foram colhidos no dia adotado pelos produtores como maturidade comercial, um, dois, três e quatro dias após e, foram armazenados a 7 ± 1ºC e UR de 90 ± 5%. O experimento foi conduzido obedecendo delineamento inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 5 x 5, com cinco repetições, cinco tempos de retardamento (0; 1; 2; 3 e 4 dias após o adotado para a colheita e cinco tempos de armazenamento (0; 7; 14; 21 e 28 dias após a colheita. Foram avaliado a aparência externa e interna, firmeza de polpa, conteúdo de sólidos solúveis e incidência de rachadura no pedúnculo. Foi observada perda gradativa de firmeza da polpa para todos os retardamentos durante o armazenamento. Ao final do experimento os frutos ainda apresentavam aparência própria à comercialização. O conteúdo de sólidos solúveis ficou entre 9 e 12% e a incidência de rachaduras foi menor para os frutos colhidos aos 59; 60 e 61 dias após o plantio.The effect of harvesting delay on quality and postharvest shelf-life of Honey Dew Orange Flesh melons was examined. Fruits were harvested at the stage of commercial maturity and, one, two, three and four days after this period. Fruits were kept at 7 ± 1ºC and 90 ± 5% relative humidity. A 5 x 5 factorial scheme in a completely randomized design with five replications was used, with five harvesting dates (0; 1; 2; 3 and 4 days after the stage of commercial harvest and five storage periods (0; 7; 14; 21 and 28 days. During this period we evaluated the external and internal appearances, flesh firmness, soluble solid content and crack incidence of the peduncle. There occurred reduction of the flesh firmness for all harvest delaying dates. Fruits presented appropriate marketing appearance until the end of the experiment. The soluble solids content varied from 9 to 12%, and the cracking

  16. Bumper Harvest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A large summer grain crop is helping to ease food security concerhs in China,despite rising global prices Five consecutive years of bumper grain harvests, including an abundant yield this summer, have enabled

  17. Alternatives for managing wastes from reactors and post-fission operations in the LWR fuel cycle. Volume 4. Alternatives for waste isolation and disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-05-01

    Volume IV of the five-volume report contains information on alternatives for final storage and disposal of radioactive wastes. Section titles include: basic concepts for geologic isolation; geologic storage alternatives; geologic disposal alternatives; extraterrestrial disposal; and, transmutation. (JGB)

  18. Seawater: an alternative grassy weed control method for post emergence herbicides in tropical turfgrass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research was designed to reduce herbicide use by replacing post emergence herbicides with readily available sea water to control tropical turfgrass weeds. In studies evaluating the use of saline solutions for weed control, four salinity levels (0, 24, 48 and 72 dS m/sup -1/) were applied once to 30 grassy weed species, along with seashore paspalum (Paspalum vaginatum Swartz) (as a control) during December, 2007 to March, 2008. The results on injury ratings for salt tolerant weeds were categorized as highly susceptible, moderately susceptible and extremely tolerant. C. dactylon, E. indica, E. virescense, E. unioloides and I. globosa were very susceptible and found to be effectively controlled (100%) at 72 dS m/sup -1/ salinity treatment. However, two most serious weeds viz. wiry eragrostis (E. atrovirens) and lesser dropseed (S. diander), were found to be extremely tolerant, and were not controlled even at the highest salinity level of 72 dS m/sup -1/. P. vaginatum and E. atrovirens did not show significant decrease in shoot and root dry weight at highest salinity levels (72 dS m/sup -1/). The results indicate that sea water has excellent potential for sustainable control of several common grassy weeds in tropical turf. (author)

  19. Determination and control of the main pathogens of post-harvest fruit and vegetables rot disease in Ningxia%果蔬采后致腐病菌检测及防治

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾沛雯; 张光弟; 王华荣; 丁波

    2012-01-01

    It was showed that the main pathogens of post-harvest fruit and vegetables rot disease postharvest fruit and vegetables rot disease were Botrytis, Aspergillus, Penicillium, Rhizopus and Alternaria through isolating, purifing, pathogenicity determination, identification and ways of infection in Ningxia. Among these pathogens, Aspergillus sp. and Rhizopus sp. were the chief pathogens during post-harvest transportation and marketing because they cause rot disease during high temperature, yet Botrytis sp. , Alternaria sp. , and Penicillium sp. were the major pathogens during transportation and storage under 10-15℃. Through two preservation tests of post-harvest fruit and vegetables with 2-butanamine fumigating and chlorine dioxide immersing, it is showed that combination of low temperature and antistaling agent can obviously prolong 9-11 days delivery period and shelf life.%引起果蔬采后腐烂的病原菌主要分属于葡萄孢属(Botrytis)、曲霉属(Aspergillus)、青霉属(Penicillium)、根霉属(Rhizopus)和链格孢属(Alternaria).其中A.sp.和R.sp.是果蔬常温运输过程中的主要致腐菌,B.sp.、A.sp.和P.sp.是果蔬低温贮运条件下的主要致腐菌.采用仲丁胺和二氧化氯2种药剂对采后蔬菜进行熏蒸和浸泡保鲜处理.结果表明:低温与保鲜剂处理相结合,可明显提高果蔬采后运输及货架期9~11d.

  20. Effect of zero energy cool chamber and post-harvest treatments on shelf-life of fruits under semi-arid environment of Western India. Part 1. Ber fruits

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Sanjay; A. K. Singh; Joshi, H. K.; Lata, K.; Bagle, B. G.; More, T. A.

    2010-01-01

    Effect of zero energy cool chamber (ZECC) along with post-harvest treatments (including CaCl2, mustard oil and K2SO4 separately) on shelf-life and fruit quality attributes of ber (Zizyphus mauritiana Lamk.) cv ‘Gola’ during storage under semi-arid ecosystem of Gujarat was studied. Increase in physiological loss in weight (PLW), spoilage loss, total soluble solids, total sugars, reducing sugar and reduction in titratable acidity, and ascorbic acid during storage were observed in all treatments...

  1. Influence of post-harvest crop residue fires on surface ozone mixing ratios in the N.W. IGP analyzed using 2 years of continuous in situ trace gas measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, V.; Sarkar, C.; Sinha, V.

    2016-04-01

    O3, CO, and NOx affect air quality and tropospheric chemistry but factors that control them in the densely populated N.W. Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) are poorly understood. This work presents the first simultaneous 2 year long in situ data set acquired from August 2011 to September 2013 at a N.W. IGP site (30.667°N, 76.729°E; 310 m asl). We investigate the impact of emissions and meteorology on the diel and seasonal variability of O3, CO, and NOx. Regional post-harvest crop residue fires contribute majorly to an enhancement of 19 ppb in hourly averaged ozone concentrations under similar meteorological conditions in summer and 7 ppb under conditions of lower radiation during the post monsoon. d[O3]/dt (from sunrise to daytime O3 maxima) was highest during periods influenced by post-harvest fires in post monsoon season (9.2 ppb h-1) and lowest during monsoon season (4.1 ppb h-1). Analysis of air mass clusters revealed that enhanced chemical formation of O3 and not transport was the driver of the summertime and post monsoon ambient O3 maxima. Despite having high daytime NOx (>12 ppb) and CO (>440 ppb) in winter, average daytime O3 was less than 40 ppb due to reduced photochemistry and fog. Average daytime O3 during the monsoon was less than 45 ppb due to washout of precursors and suppressed photochemistry due to cloud cover. The 8 h ambient air quality O3 standard was violated on 451 days in the period August 2011-September 2013. The results show that substantial mitigation efforts are required to reduce regional O3 pollution in the N.W. IGP.

  2. Alternative security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book contains the following chapters: The Military and Alternative Security: New Missions for Stable Conventional Security; Technology and Alternative Security: A Cherished Myth Expires; Law and Alternative Security: Toward a Just World Peace; Politics and Alternative Security: Toward a More Democratic, Therefore More Peaceful, World; Economics and Alternative Security: Toward a Peacekeeping International Economy; Psychology and Alternative Security: Needs, Perceptions, and Misperceptions; Religion and Alternative Security: A Prophetic Vision; and Toward Post-Nuclear Global Security: An Overview

  3. Energy Harvesting via Piezoelectricity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanvi Dikshit

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present era, wireless data transmission techniques are commonly used in electronic devices. For powering them connection needs to be made to the power supply through wires else power may be supplied from batteries. Batteries require charging, replacement and other maintenance efforts. For example, in the applications such as villages, border areas, forests, hilly areas, where generally remote controlled devices are used, continuous charging of the microcells is not possible by conventional charging methods .So, some alternative methods needs to be developed to keep the batteries full time charged and to avoid the need of any consumable external energy source to charge the batteries.. To resolve such problems, Energy harvesting technique is proposed as the best alternative. There exists variety of energy harvesting techniques but mechanical energy harvesting happens to be the most prominent. This technique utilizes piezoelectric components where deformations produced by different means are directly converted to electrical charge via piezoelectric effect. Subsequently the electrical energy can be regulated or stored for further use. The proposed work in this research recommends Piezoelectricity as a alternate energy source. The motive is to obtain a pollution-free energy source and to utilize and optimize the energy being wasted. In this paper two important techniques are stressed upon to harness the energy viz Piezoelectric Windmill and Increased Bandwidth Piezoelectric Crystal. Current work also illustrates the working principle of piezoelectric crystal and various sources of vibration for the crystal.

  4. Pre- and Post-Harvest Carbon Dioxide Fluxes from an Upland Boreal Aspen (Populus tremuloides) Forest in Western Boreal Plain, Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giroux, Kayla

    The Utikuma Region Study Area (URSA) is located in north-central Alberta, Canada, in a region where aspen (Populus tremuloides) dominate the upland vegetation of the Western Boreal Plain Due to the heterogeneity of the surficial geology as well as the sub-humid climate where the water balance is dominated by evapotranspiration, the carbon balance across this landscape is highly variable. Moreover, the upland aspen regions represent significant stores of carbon. More recently, aspen stands have become valuable commercial resources for pulp and paper processing. These stands are harvested through a clear cutting process and are generally left to regenerate on their own, a process which occurs rapidly in clonal species like aspen. Since clonal species establish very quickly following harvest, information on the key ecohydrological controls on stand carbon dioxide (CO2) exchange from the years immediately following harvest are essential to understand the successional trajectory. However, most information currently available on these interactions are obtained several years following a disturbance. Thus, to determine the effects of harvest on aspen regeneration and productivity, ecosystem level fluxes of CO2 three years before and three years after timber harvest were analyzed. Prior to harvest, the ecosystem sequestered 1216 to 1286 g CO2 m-2period-1 over the growing season. Immediately after harvest, the ecosystem became a significant source of CO2 ranging from -874 to -1183 g CO2 m -2period-1, while the second growing season ranged from -233 to -577 g CO2 m-2period-1. The third growing season resulted in a net sink (76 g CO2 m -2period-1) over the same period, but if extrapolated over the whole year, the ecosystem would remain a source of carbon. The magnitude of Gross Ecosystem Productivity (GEP) returned pre-harvest range within two growing seasons. Ecosystem respiration (RE), on the other hand, increased year over year after harvest had taken place. Forest floor

  5. Loss of function of 1-FEH IIb has more impact on post-harvest inulin degradation in Cichorium intybus than copy number variation of its close paralog 1-FEH IIa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas eDauchot

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Inulin polyfructan is the second most abundant storage carbohydrate in flowering plants. After harvest, it is depolymerized by fructan exohydrolases (FEHs as an adaptive response to end-season cold temperatures. In chicory, the intensity of this depolymerization differs between cultivars but also between individuals within a cultivar. Regarding this phenotypic variability, we recently identified statistically significant associations between inulin degradation and genetic polymorphisms located in three fructan exohydrolases. We present here new results of a systematic analysis of copy number variation (CNV in five key members of the chicory (Cichorium intybus GH32 multigenic family, including three FEH genes and the two inulin biosynthesis genes: 1-SST and 1-FFT. qPCR analysis identified a significant variability of relative copy number only in the 1-FEH IIa gene. However, this CNV had no quantitative effect. Instead, cloning of the full length gDNA of a close paralogous sequence (1-FEH IIb identified a 1028 bp deletion in lines less susceptible to post-harvest inulin depolymerization. This region comprises a 9 bp mini-exon containing one of the three conserved residues of the active site. This results in a putative non-functional 1-FEH IIb allele and an observed lower inulin depolymerization. Extensive genotyping confirmed that the loss of mini-exon 2 in 1-FEH IIb and the previously identified 47 bp duplication located in the 3’UTR of 1-FEH IIa belong to a single haplotype, both being statistically associated with reduced susceptibility to post-harvest inulin depolymerization. Emergence of these haplotypes is discussed.

  6. SPLIT SKIN GRAFT HARVESTING UNDER LOCAL ANESTHESIA INFILTRATION VERSUS TOPICAL LOCAL ANESTHESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the effectiveness of topical local anesthesia using PRILOX cream versus local anesthesia infiltration using lignocaine and adrenaline in harvesting split skin graft. METHODS: A prospective study of 58 patients requiring split skin graft was carried. One group comprising 29 patients underwent harvesting of split skin graft under topical local anesthesia using PRILOX cream while the other group had local anesthesia infiltration using lignocaine and adrenaline. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between the 2 groups in terms of operating time, per operative pain, post-operative pain and post-operative requirement of analgesia. There was significant difference in time and pain during administration of local anesthesia and patient’s acceptability/ satisfaction with method of anesthesia. CONCLUSION: Topical local anesthesia using PRILOX cream can be used effectively for harvesting of split skin graft and is good alternative to local anesthesia infiltration.

  7. Qualidade pós-colheita de frutos de tomateiro submetidos a preparados em altas diluições Post-harvest quality of tomato fruits treated with high dilution preparations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiani A Modolon

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Frutos de tomateiro são sensíveis ao manuseio e sua qualidade é afetada pelo sistema de cultivo e pelas práticas de conservação pós-colheita. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de preparados em altas diluições nos atributos indicadores da conservação pós-colheita de frutos de tomateiro. O trabalho consistiu em experimento a campo no ciclo produtivo 2009/2010 e ensaio de laboratório em pós-colheita. Os preparados avaliados, em aplicações a campo, foram os nosódios de tomateiro e de juá (Solanum aculeatissimum nas dinamizações 12 e 24DH e os preparados homeopáticos Arnica montana e Sulphur nas dinamizações 12DH e 24DH. Frutos provenientes de tomateiro não tratados foram submetidos a imersão em preparações de Calcarea carbonica nas dinamizações 6, 12 e 24CH. O nosódio de juá 12 e 24DH aumentaram o teor de SS (ºBrix, atributo que melhora a palatabilidade e a qualidade para a industrialização. Calcarea carbonica em tratamento pós-colheita não interferiu nos atributos químicos e físicos de frutos de tomate, embora Calcarea carbonica 24CH retardasse a formação de frutos tipo molho.Tomato fruits are sensitive to handling and its quality is determined by the crop system and the post-harvest conservation practices. The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of high dilution preparations in the post-harvest attributes of tomato fruits. The research consisted of one field experiment in the 2009/2010 crop cycle and laboratory assay in post-harvest. The high dilution preparations studied under field conditions were nosodes of tomato plant and Solanum aculeatissimum at 12 and 24DH (decimal hahnemanian dilutions and the homeopathies Arnica montana and Sulphur at 12 and 24DH. In the post-harvest treatments, Calcarea carbonica was evaluated at 6, 12, and 24CH (centesimal hahnemanian dilution fruits being deaped into the respective treatment. The nosode of S. aculeatissimum at 12 and 24DH increased the

  8. Alternative Oxidase Gene Family in Hypericum perforatum L.: Characterization and Expression at the Post-germinative Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velada, Isabel; Cardoso, Hélia G.; Ragonezi, Carla; Nogales, Amaia; Ferreira, Alexandre; Valadas, Vera; Arnholdt-Schmitt, Birgit

    2016-01-01

    Alternative oxidase (AOX) protein is located in the inner mitochondrial membrane and is encoded in the nuclear genome being involved in plant response upon a diversity of environmental stresses and also in normal plant growth and development. Here we report the characterization of the AOX gene family of Hypericum perforatum L. Two AOX genes were identified, both with a structure of four exons (HpAOX1, acc. KU674355 and HpAOX2, acc. KU674356). High variability was found at the N-terminal region of the protein coincident with the high variability identified at the mitochondrial transit peptide. In silico analysis of regulatory elements located at intronic regions identified putative sequences coding for miRNA precursors and trace elements of a transposon. Simple sequence repeats were also identified. Additionally, the mRNA levels for the HpAOX1 and HpAOX2, along with the ones for the HpGAPA (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase A subunit) and the HpCAT1 (catalase 1), were evaluated during the post-germinative development. Gene expression analysis was performed by RT-qPCR with accurate data normalization, pointing out HpHYP1 (chamba phenolic oxidative coupling protein 1) and HpH2A (histone 2A) as the most suitable reference genes (RGs) according to GeNorm algorithm. The HpAOX2 transcript demonstrated larger stability during the process with a slight down-regulation in its expression. Contrarily, HpAOX1 and HpGAPA (the corresponding protein is homolog to the chloroplast isoform involved in the photosynthetic carbon assimilation in other plant species) transcripts showed a marked increase, with a similar expression pattern between them, during the post-germinative development. On the other hand, the HpCAT1 (the corresponding protein is homolog to the major H2O2-scavenging enzyme in other plant species) transcripts showed an opposite behavior with a down-regulation during the process. In summary, our findings, although preliminary, highlight the importance to

  9. Alternative Oxidase Gene Family in Hypericum perforatum L.: Characterization and Expression at the Post-germinative Phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velada, Isabel; Cardoso, Hélia G; Ragonezi, Carla; Nogales, Amaia; Ferreira, Alexandre; Valadas, Vera; Arnholdt-Schmitt, Birgit

    2016-01-01

    Alternative oxidase (AOX) protein is located in the inner mitochondrial membrane and is encoded in the nuclear genome being involved in plant response upon a diversity of environmental stresses and also in normal plant growth and development. Here we report the characterization of the AOX gene family of Hypericum perforatum L. Two AOX genes were identified, both with a structure of four exons (HpAOX1, acc. KU674355 and HpAOX2, acc. KU674356). High variability was found at the N-terminal region of the protein coincident with the high variability identified at the mitochondrial transit peptide. In silico analysis of regulatory elements located at intronic regions identified putative sequences coding for miRNA precursors and trace elements of a transposon. Simple sequence repeats were also identified. Additionally, the mRNA levels for the HpAOX1 and HpAOX2, along with the ones for the HpGAPA (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase A subunit) and the HpCAT1 (catalase 1), were evaluated during the post-germinative development. Gene expression analysis was performed by RT-qPCR with accurate data normalization, pointing out HpHYP1 (chamba phenolic oxidative coupling protein 1) and HpH2A (histone 2A) as the most suitable reference genes (RGs) according to GeNorm algorithm. The HpAOX2 transcript demonstrated larger stability during the process with a slight down-regulation in its expression. Contrarily, HpAOX1 and HpGAPA (the corresponding protein is homolog to the chloroplast isoform involved in the photosynthetic carbon assimilation in other plant species) transcripts showed a marked increase, with a similar expression pattern between them, during the post-germinative development. On the other hand, the HpCAT1 (the corresponding protein is homolog to the major H2O2-scavenging enzyme in other plant species) transcripts showed an opposite behavior with a down-regulation during the process. In summary, our findings, although preliminary, highlight the importance to

  10. Teores do óleo essencial de cidrão [Aloysia triphylla (L'Hérit Britton (Verbenaceae] em diferentes horários de colheita e processamentos pós-colheita Lemon verbena's [Aloysia triphylla (L'Hérit Britton (Verbenaceae] essential oil content in different harvest periods and post-harvesting process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata da Silva Brant

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o teor do óleo essencial de cidrão [Aloysia triphylla (L´Hérit Britton] em diferentes horários de colheita e processamentos pós-colheita. O delineamento utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado. As colheitas foram realizadas em três horários distintos (8 h, 12 h e 16 h, com três repetições. Os processamentos pós-colheita foram cinco: T1- folhas frescas fragmentadas em 1cm; T2- folhas frescas processadas em liquidificador; T3- folhas frescas inteiras; T4- folhas secas inteiras; T5- folhas secas pulverizadas em moinho, com três repetições. O óleo essencial de cada tratamento foi extraído pela técnica de hidrodestilação, utilizando o aparelho modificado de Clevenger, por uma hora e trinta minutos. Os horários de colheita quando se detectou maior teor de óleo foram 8 h e 16 h. Os maiores teores de óleo essencial foram encontrados em folhas frescas fragmentadas em 1cm, folhas frescas processadas em liquidificador, folhas frescas inteiras e folhas secas inteiras.This study was carried out in order to evaluate the essential oil content of lemon verbena at different harvest times and post-harvest processings. The experimental design used was completely randomized. The harvested material was collected at three different hours (8:00, 12:00 and 16:00 pm, and it was taken three times. In post-harvest processings, three replications and five treatments were us do: 1 cm fresh leaf fragments, blended fresh leaves, whole fresh leaves, whole dry leaves and dry leaves ground in mill. The essential oil was determined in Clevenger's modified apparatus for 1 hour and 30 minutes. The periods of the day that detected high essential oil content were at 8:00 am and 16:00 pm. The high essential oil level was in 1 cm fresh leaf fragments, blender processed fresh leaves, whole fresh leaves and whole dry leaves.

  11. Características pós-colheita de frutos de genótipos de bananeira (Musa spp. Post-harvest fruit characteristics of different banana (Musa spp. genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginaldo Conceição Cerqueira

    2002-12-01

    íbridos da Prata São Tomé (ST42-08 e Pacovan (PV42-85, PV42-81, PV42-68, PV42-53, PV42-129 e PV42-143 podem substituir as cultivares Prata Comum e Pacovan nos sitemas produção.The knowledge of the post-harvest characteristics of new banana hybrids is an important information that helps the breeder in making his decision. This work has the objective to evaluate banana genotypes in relation to their post-harvest characteristics and resistance to fruit drop. Fruits of the second hand of 16 hybrids (Calipso, Bucaneiro, Ambrosia, YB42-21, PV42-53, PV42-68, PV42-81, PV42-85, PV42-129, PV42-142, PV42-143, ST12-31, ST42-08, PV03-44, FHIA-03 and SH 3640 and four cultivars (Pacovan, Prata Comum, Nam and Figue Pomme Naine were evaluated according to their weight, length, circumference, pulp/peel ratio, resistance to fruit drop, firmness, total soluble solids (TSS, total titratable acidity (TTA, TSS/TTA ratio and maturation period. A completely randomized experimental design was used, with five replications, except fruit firmness with ten replications, each unit was constituted by one fruit. The data were submitted to the analysis of variance and the means were compared by the Scott & Knott test at 5% of probability. The cultivar Nam had the lowest TTA and the highest TSS/TTA ratio, while the highest fruit firmness was observed in PV42-81 and PV42-53. The SH 3640 produced the heaviest fruits, and Bucaneiro and PV42-81 produced the longest ones. PV42-85 and ST42-08 showed high resistance to fruit drop, with no statistical difference from 'Pacovan'. 'Prata Comum' showed the lowest resistance. The genotypes ' Nam', PV42-143 and PV42-129 showed longer shelf life when compared to 'Prata Comum'. 'Nam' genotype can be considered as alternative in banana production. SH3640 the Prata dwarf hybrid, might be considered as a new cultivar. Hybrids from Prata São Tomé (ST42-08 and from Pacovan (PV42-68, PV42-81, PV42-85, PV42-129 e PV42-143 can replace Prata Comum and Pacovan in the banana

  12. Light-harvesting complex gene expression is controlled by both transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms during photoacclimation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    CERN Document Server

    Durnford Dion, G; McKim, Sarah M; Sarchfield, Michelle L

    2003-01-01

    To compensate for increases in photon flux density (PFD), photosynthetic organisms possess mechanisms for reversibly modulating their photosynthetic apparatus to minimize photodamage. The photoacclimation response in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was assessed following a 10-fold increase in PFD over 24h. In addition to a 50% reduction in the amount of chlorophyll and light-harvesting complexes (LHC) per cell, the expression of genes encoding polypeptides of the light-harvesting antenna were also affected. The abundance of Lhcb (a LHCH gene), Lhcb4 (a CP29-like gene), and Lhca (a LHCI gene) transcripts were reduced by 65 to 80%, within 1-2 h; however, the RNA levels of all three genes recovered to their low-light (LL) concentrations within 6-8 h. To determine the role of transcript turnover in this transient decline in abundance, the stability of all transcripts was measured. Although there was no change in the Lhcb or Lhca transcript turnover time, the Lhcb4 mRNA stability decreased 2.5-fold immediately following...

  13. Harvest season influences on the quality of tomato grown in alternative systems / Influência das épocas de colheita na qualidade de tomate cultivado em sistemas alternativos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Marta Evangelista

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available On tomato production in Brazil, around two/thirties is designated to consume “in nature”. Thus, the skin aspect and its quality became an important factor on buying decision. Tomato presents high mass of water, and its quality depends on temperature and humidity variation. Water loss brings weight and fruit aspect loss, affecting the quality. This work aimed to verify the influence of harvest season on the fruit quality grown in alternative, organic and biodynamic systems. It was evaluated tomato quality characteristics, including mass loss, texture, pH, titratable acidity, soluble solids. The cycle stage of the tomato plant interferes on fruit quality. The third, fourth and fifth harvests were those which showed the highest values to quality parameters, with more fresh mass fruit. The sixth harvest showed fruits with high total soluble solids and sugar contents. On the evaluation of mass loss on the three harvest seasons, it was observed that on the first harvest there was a smaller loss. The period of harvest cycle interferes on the time of storage, and fruitd harvested on the first have more conservation time in relation to the other onesNa produção de tomate no Brasil, aproximadamente dois terços são destinados ao consumo “in natura”. Assim, o aspecto externo e a sua qualidade tornam-se um fator importante na decisão de compra. O tomate apresenta elevado conteúdo de água, estando sujeito às variações de temperatura e umidade relativa do ambiente onde se encontra. A perda de água ocasiona perda de peso e aparência do fruto, afetando a qualidade. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a influência das épocas de colheita na qualidade de frutos de tomateiro cultivados em sistemas alternativos, orgânico e biodinâmico. Foram avaliadas características de qualidade dos frutos de tomate, que incluíram perda de massa, textura, pH, sólidos solúveis, acidez titulável e açúcares redutores. O estádio do ciclo do tomateiro

  14. Hurdle technology to preserve the 'Golden' papaya post harvest quality;Metodos combinados para preservar a qualidade pos-colheita do mamao 'Golden' tipo exportacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molinari, Andrea Cristina Fialho, E-mail: molinari_af@yahoo.co

    2007-07-01

    With the purpose of evaluating a combination of post harvest techniques on papaya Golden storage, the following treatments were investigated: carton boxes packaging (CP); CP + plastic bag of PEBD - low density polyethylene film, with 0.05mm of thickness (PE); CP + PEBD with 0.025mm of thickness impregnated with mineral ethylene scavenger (PEAbs); gamma-irradiation (0.4 kGy and 0.7 kGy); and refrigerated storage at 10 deg C e 90% of relative humidity for 2, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 days plus five days under environmental conditions to allow ripening and to simulate the product marketing. To evaluate the effects on fruit quality the following measurements were taken: - first experiment, disease incidence, skin color and loss of turgidity (as visual variables); skin and flesh color, weight loss, flesh firmness, total soluble solids, total titratable acidity, pH, lycopene and beta-carotene composition; - second experiment, sensorial analysis on samples submitted to the treatments with better results from the first experiment. Post harvest diseases were the main factor responsible for discarding fruits. Percentage of weight loss was higher on papayas stored without plastic packaging. Time affected the flesh firmness (F = 95%). However, there wasn't influence of the treatments on that parameter. A significant effect on skin color was observed with interaction between irradiation (0.4 and 0.7 kGy) and storage period. Once reached the edible stage, irradiated papayas presented more uniformity on skin color. For beta-carotene and Lycopene, the mean values were 1.27 to 1.79 and 19.16 to 23.90 mug/ml of flesh, respectively. But those substances weren't affected by the combined methods or the time. The same behavior were observed for total soluble solids, total titratable acidity and pH (mean values of 11.53 to 12.20 deg Brix, 0.117 to 0.136 g of citric acid/100g of flesh and 4.91 to 5.04, respectively). On sensory evaluation, the judges didn't get to detect

  15. Harvesting of microalgae by bio-flocculation

    OpenAIRE

    Salim, S.; Bosma, R.; Vermuë, M.H.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2011-01-01

    The high-energy input for harvesting biomass makes current commercial microalgal biodiesel production economically unfeasible. A novel harvesting method is presented as a cost and energy efficient alternative: the bio-flocculation by using one flocculating microalga to concentrate the non-flocculating microalga of interest. Three flocculating microalgae, tested for harvesting of microalgae from different habitats, improved the sedimentation rate of the accompanying microalga and increased the...

  16. The effect of ionizing radiation and storage temperature on the post-harvest growth and some quality properties of mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kryspina Śmierzchalska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of a dose of 2.0 kGy (Co-60 and three ranges of storage temperature (0-4°C, 9-11°C, 18-19°C on increasing the shelf-life and some quality properties of the mushrooms were investigated. The retardation of mushroom growth and ageing by ionizing radiation was estimated by measurements of the cap diameter, stem elongation, cap opening and discoloration of cap surface. The control of fungal and bacterial diseases was also evaluated. The effect of lower doses, 0.5 and 1.0 kGy, was compared at the storage temperature of 10°C. The irradiation of mushrooms soon after harvest and storage at temperatures of 10 and 16°C allowed the retention of quality and increased the shelf-life to 8 days; at 18-19°C to 6 days.

  17. Harvesting of microalgae by bio-flocculation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salim, S.; Bosma, R.; Vermuë, M.H.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2011-01-01

    The high-energy input for harvesting biomass makes current commercial microalgal biodiesel production economically unfeasible. A novel harvesting method is presented as a cost and energy efficient alternative: the bio-flocculation by using one flocculating microalga to concentrate the non-flocculati

  18. Diagnosis of the generation, harvesting and leached treatment of the Relleno Sanitario Rio Azul and proposal of technological alternatives for its improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An environmental diagnosis was conduced in the Relleno Sanitario Rio Azul to evaluate the state of the generation, the harvesting and the leached treatment system. Besides, the corrective measures for each case were determined. The physicochemical characterization of the leached generated has been established through the collection of historical analysis conduced and the implementation of an environmental monitoring plan. As a consequence of said characterization, it was concluded that the leached generated at present possesses the specific characteristics of backfills that are found in mature stage (methanogenic), to know: low relation DBO/DQO, slightly basic pH, low concentration of heavy metals and low biodegradability. Even so these liquids must be treated to fulfill the permissible maximum parameters that establish the Reglamento de Uso y Vertido de Aguas Residuales. A seasonal variation linked with the generation of leached was determined, by effects of infiltration, toward the mass of waste and the combination of pluvial water with leached, mainly due to the absence of adequate infrastructure and unfinished works. The amount of leached that was generated and that will be generated until year 2025 it was managed to consider by means of the modeling a hydric balance. The volume is significant and is due to adopt the respective sanitary measures to guarantee to long term the adapted treatment of the leached and the fulfillment of the effective legislation. A series of improvements are proposed to the leached treatment system that functions at present, as a consequence of the diagnosis carried out to achieve that the quality of the effluent treated comply with the parameters of poured established; such as: filtration of heavy particles, implementation of a physicochemical treatment and treatment of muds. (author)

  19. Longer-term Stream Nitrogen Dynamics after Wildfire and Salvage Harvesting: Implications for Management Concepts based on Trajectories of Post-disturbance Watershed Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silins, U.; Emelko, M. B.; Bladon, K. D.; Stone, M.; Williams, C.; Martens, A. M.; Wagner, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    Biogeochemical processes reflecting interaction of vegetation and hydrology govern long-term export of nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus, and carbon over successional time scales. While management concepts of watershed "recovery" from disturbance back towards pre-disturbance conditions are often considered over much shorter timescales, few studies have directly explored watershed biogeochemical responses to disturbance long enough to directly document the longer-term trajectory of responses to severe land disturbance on nitrogen export. The objectives of this study were to document both the initial magnitude and patterns of longer-term recovery of stream nitrogen after the 2003 Lost Creek wildfire over nine years in front ranges of the Rocky Mountains in south-west Alberta, Canada. The study was conducted in seven instrumented catchments (4-14 km2), including burned, burned and salvage logged, and unburned (reference) conditions since 2004. Total nitrogen (TN) and nitrate (NO3-) concentrations and area-normalized yields were greater and more variable in burned and post-fire salvage logged catchments when compared with unburned catchments. Large initial increases in stream TN and NO3- production 1-3 years after both wildfire and post-fire salvage logging declined strongly to levels similar to, or below that of unburned watersheds 4-6 years after the fire, and continued to decline (although more slowly) 7-9 years after the wildfire. Post-fire salvage logging produced lower impacts on TN and NO3- in streams and these effects declined even more rapidly compared to the effects of wildfire alone. These changes closely corresponded to the early trajectory of establishment and rapid juvenile growth of post-fire regenerating forest vegetation in both catchment groups. While the concept of hydrologic recovery from disturbance is both a practical and meaningful concept for integrated landscape management for protection of forest water resources, the benchmark for

  20. A Study of Sugarcane Leaf-Removal Machinery during Harvest

    OpenAIRE

    Sopa Cansee1,

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: Sugarcane leaf-removing tools could help speed up sugarcane harvest and reduce contamination. Moreover, leaf-removal machinery can solve the problems of sugarcane burning and workers can increase sugarcane harvest production too. The purpose of this research was to study the use of leaf-removal machinery in the post-harvest production of sugarcane to reduce harvest production time and contaminant. Approach: This study focused on the LK92-11 variety of sugarcane having a har...

  1. Alternative synthetic methodology for amide formation in the post-synthetic modification of Ti-MIL125-NH2

    OpenAIRE

    Smalley, AP; Reid, DG; Tan, JC; Lloyd, GO

    2013-01-01

    There are relatively few metal-organic framework materials that are robust enough to survive post-synthetic modification of their structures. We present test modifications of Ti-MIL125-NH2 leading towards tuning of the porous and catalytic properties of the material. We also present the first use of a mild amide synthesis method for post-synthetic modification. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  2. Helicônia "Golden Torch": produtividade e qualidade pós-colheita sob diferentes fontes e doses de silício Heliconia Golden Torch: productivity and post-harvest quality under different sources and doses of silicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademar da S. Paulino

    2013-06-01

    was lower with the interaction between Rocksil® and dose of 400 kg ha-1, the burning of bracts on the 8th day post-harvest was lowest with source Rocksil® under the dose of 800 kg ha-1 and Si content in the soil in the depth of 0-0.20 m increased with increasing dose of silicon. As for the variables length of flower stalks and mass of flower stalks on the day of harvest and on the 8th day after harvest, content of silicon in leaf and in soil in the depth of 0.20-0.40 m there was no significant difference between treatments by grouping test of Scott-Knott. The silicon fertilization increased production and post-harvest quality, especially the source Rocksil® in the dose of 800 kg ha-1.

  3. Alternatives for managing wastes from reactors and post-fission operations in the LWR fuel cycle. Volume 2. Alternatives for waste treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-05-01

    Volume II of the five-volume report is devoted to the description of alternatives for waste treatment. The discussion is presented under the following section titles: fuel reprocessing modifications; high-level liquid waste solidification; treatment and immobilization of chop-leach fuel bundle residues; treatment of noncombustible solid wastes; treatment of combustible wastes; treatment of non-high-level liquid wastes; recovery of transuranics from non-high-level wastes; immobilization of miscellaneous non-high-level wastes; volatile radioisotope recovery and off-gas treatment; immobilization of volatile radioisotopes; retired facilities (decontamination and decommissioning); and, modification and use of selected fuel reprocessing wastes. (JGB)

  4. Alternatives for managing wastes from reactors and post-fission operations in the LWR fuel cycle. Volume 2. Alternatives for waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volume II of the five-volume report is devoted to the description of alternatives for waste treatment. The discussion is presented under the following section titles: fuel reprocessing modifications; high-level liquid waste solidification; treatment and immobilization of chop-leach fuel bundle residues; treatment of noncombustible solid wastes; treatment of combustible wastes; treatment of non-high-level liquid wastes; recovery of transuranics from non-high-level wastes; immobilization of miscellaneous non-high-level wastes; volatile radioisotope recovery and off-gas treatment; immobilization of volatile radioisotopes; retired facilities (decontamination and decommissioning); and, modification and use of selected fuel reprocessing wastes

  5. Caracterização dos danos pós-colheita em citros procedentes de "packinghouse" Characterization of post-harvest damages in citrus fruits from the packinghouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan H. Fischer

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available As doenças pós-colheita representam um sério obstáculo à citricultura, uma vez que comprometem a qualidade e quantidade dos frutos colhidos. Este trabalho objetivou caracterizar as injúrias pós-colheita de frutos de laranja 'Pêra', 'Lima' e 'Natal' e de tangor 'Murcott', destinados ao mercado interno, após diferentes etapas do beneficiamento em "packinghouse". Foram coletados cem frutos na chegada ao "packinghouse", na banca de embalagem e no palete, após embalamento em caixas de madeira. Os frutos foram individualizados e submetidos à câmara úmida por 24 horas, permanecendo por mais 20 dias a 25ºC e 85% de umidade relativa. A incidência de podridões foi avaliada visualmente após a retirada da câmara úmida e a cada três dias. Os patógenos fúngicos encontrados tiveram a patogenicidade confirmada através da inoculação em frutos sadios. Não houve diferença significativa na incidência de doenças pós-colheita nas diferentes fases do processamento nas variedades Lima e Natal. Na variedade Pêra e no tangor 'Murcott', a incidência de doenças foi menor nas amostras coletadas na chegada ao "packinghouse". O bolor verde (Penicillium digitatum foi a principal doença encontrada nos diferentes frutos cítricos. Outras doenças importantes foram a antracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, as podridões pedunculares (Lasiodiplodia theobromae e Phomopsis citri e a podridão azeda (Geotrichum candidum.Post-harvest diseases represent a serious problem for citriculture, reducing fruit quality and crop yield. This work aimed to characterize the post-harvest injuries of oranges 'Pêra', 'Lima' and 'Natal' and tangor 'Murcott', during handling in the packinghouse. Samples of one hundred fruits were collected on arrival at the packinghouse, before culling and in the pallet, after hand packing into wood boxes. The fruits were individualized and submitted to humid chambers for 24 hours. Fruits were incubated for 20 days at 25ºC and 85

  6. The Viability of Harvesting Corn Cobs and Stover for Biofuel Production in North Dakota

    OpenAIRE

    Maung, Thein A.; Gustafson, Cole R.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the impact of stochastic harvest field time, corn cob and stover harvest technologies, increases in farm size, and alternative tillage practices on profit maximizing potential of corn cob and stover collection in North Dakota. Using three mathematical programming models, we analyze farmers’ harvest activities under 1) corn grain only harvest option, 2) simultaneous corn grain and cob harvest(one-pass) option 3) separate corn grain and stover harvest (two-pass) option. Unde...

  7. Differential fat harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Torres Farr

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Volume replacement with fillers is regularly performed with the use of diverse volumetric materials to correct different structures around the face, depending on the volume enhancement required and the thickness of the soft tissue envelope. Differential fat harvesting and posterior grafting is performed to place the correct fat parcel size for each target area, expanding the potential applications of fat. Methods: Sixty patients consecutively recruited on a first come basis undergone a facial fat grafting procedure, in private practice setting between March 2012 and October 2013. Fat grafting quantity and quality was predicted for each case. Differential harvesting was performed, with 2 fat parcels size. Processing was performed through washing. Fat infiltration was carried out through small cannulas or needles depending on the treated area. Outcomes were analysed both by the physicians and the patients at 7 days, 1 month, 3 months and 6 months through a perceived satisfaction questionnaire. Parameters considered were downtime or discomfort, skin benefits, volume restoration, reabsorption rate estimated and overall improvement. Results: Full facial differential fat grafting procedure lasted an average of 1.5-2.5 h. Average downtime was 3-4 days. Follow-up was performed to a minimum of 6 months. Both patient and physician overall satisfaction rates were mostly excellent. Adverse events like lumps or irregularities were not encountered. Conclusion: Differential fat harvesting and posterior grafting is a valid alternative, to expand the repertoire of fat use, allow a more homogeneous effect, reduce the potential complications, speed up the process, improve graft survival, and to enhance overall aesthetic outcome.

  8. A bio-economic approach to analyze the role of alternative seeding-harvesting schedules, water quality, stocking density and duration of cultivation in semi-intensive production of shrimp in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Estrada-Pérez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We used a bio-economic model to analyze the role that alternative seeding-harvesting schedules, temperature, dissolved oxygen, stocking density, and duration of cultivation play in the economic performance of semi-intensive shrimp cultivation in Mexico. The highest production was predicted for the May-August schedule (1130-2300 kg ha-1, while the lowest yields were obtained for the March-June schedule (949-1300 kg ha-1. The highest net revenues were projected for the August-November schedule (US$354-1444 ha-1, while the lowest was projected for the May-August schedule (US$330-923 ha-1. The highest annual net revenues were predicted for the combination of the March-June and August-November schedules (US$1432-2562 ha-1. Sensitivity analysis indicated temperature and dissolved oxygen were the most important factors determining net revenues in March-June schedule. For the May-August and August-November schedules, stocking density was the most important factor. Duration of cultivation was the least sensitive variable. Break-even production analysis confirmed that the combination of the March-June and August-November schedules were more efficient from an economic perspective. We recommend test some ponds with higher stocking density in the March-June and August-November schedules, and in the latter case, seeding in June or July rather than August.

  9. Vibration energy harvester optimization using artificial intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadas, Z.; Ondrusek, C.; Kurfurst, J.; Singule, V.

    2011-06-01

    This paper deals with an optimization study of a vibration energy harvester. This harvester can be used as autonomous source of electrical energy for remote or wireless applications, which are placed in environment excited by ambient mechanical vibrations. The ambient energy of vibrations is usually on very low level but the harvester can be used as alternative source of energy for electronic devices with an expected low level of power consumption of several mW. The optimized design of the vibration energy harvester was based on previous development and the sensitivity of harvester design was improved for effective harvesting from mechanical vibrations in aeronautic applications. The vibration energy harvester is a mechatronic system which generates electrical energy from ambient vibrations due to precision tuning up generator parameters. The optimization study for maximization of harvested power or minimization of volume and weight are the main goals of our development. The optimization study of such complex device is complicated therefore artificial intelligence methods can be used for tuning up optimal harvester parameters.

  10. A Recent Research Progress in the Post-harvest Processing and Functionality of the Gordon Euryale Seed%芡实采后加工与功能性的最新研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘静; 张爱民; 刘开伟; 李湘利

    2011-01-01

    芡实是一种营养价值极高的药食两用型水生植物,以芡实为原料开发的各类食品具有极高的营养价值和保健功能。该文对芡实的采后深加工及功能性等方面进行了综述,并对芡实的加工现状及开发利用前景做了分析与展望。%Gorgon nut was a pharmacal and edible aquatic plant rich in many kinds of nutrients.The Gordon euryale seed food had a highly nutritional value and health care functions.A recent research progress on gorgon nut about post-harvest processing and functionality were summarized in this paper.The current situation and further prospects on gorgon nut's processing and utilization were analyzed as well.

  11. Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting From Flutter

    OpenAIRE

    Norouzi, Soroush

    2012-01-01

    With the increasing need for alternative sources of energy, a great deal of attention is drawn to harvesting energy from ambient vibration. These vibrations may be caused by fluid forces acting upon a structure. When a flexible structure is subject to a fluid flow, it loses stability at a certain flow velocity and starts to vibrate. This self-induced motion is called flutter where energy is continuously transferred from the fluid to the structure. In this study a piezoelectric film sensor is ...

  12. Finishing post-primary education: a systematic review of contextual factors which contribute to student retention in alternative education.

    OpenAIRE

    O'Gorman, Eva

    2014-01-01

    peer-reviewed Background: The EU set a target of reducing early school leaving to no more than 10% by the year 2020. Previous research indicates that the school context contributes to early school leaving. This systematic review aims to identify factors within the physical, social, cultural and virtual contexts which may contribute to student retention in alternative educational settings. This study contributes an important synthesis of existing evidence for policy makers, educators and ot...

  13. Ultrathin Silicon Sheet in the Management of Unilateral Post-traumatic Temporo-Mandibuar Joint Ankylosis in Children: A Good Alternative to Conventional Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Sushil Kumar; Ankur, Bhatnagar; Jain, R K

    2015-09-01

    We have described a new technique of using ultra-thin silicon sheet (0.2 mm) between two transected bony ends for temporo-mandibular joint (TMJ) ankylosis in children with advantages of short operative time, minimal foreign material insertion and faster recovery time post-operatively which makes our technique a good alternative to conventional techniques. Our study is a non-randomized prospective study conducted on 10 children aged between 4 and 15 years who presented to our tertiary care institute with severe trismus after traumatic injury and were willing to undergo this new technique. The main outcome measure taken into consideration was difference between pre-operative, intra-operative (on table) and post-operative mouth opening (minimum 2 years follow-up). The pre-operative mouth opening in our cases varied from 1 to 5 mm. The intra-operative mouth opening achieved ranged from 2.8 to 3.2 cm. The mouth opening was about more than 2.7 cm in all our cases at 2 years of follow-up. Our technique is a good alternative to conventional techniques used for TMJ ankylosis in children but few more randomized controlled trials are required to assess its effectiveness in comparison to conventional techniques and for universal adoption of this technique. PMID:26405658

  14. 基于颜色参数变化的青花菜叶绿素含量预测模型%A Prediction Model for Chlorophyll Content in Post-harvest Broccoli Based on Color Parameter Changes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许凤; 杨震峰; 裴娇艳; 郑永华

    2011-01-01

    为研究青花菜贮藏期间叶绿素含量和颜色变化的关系,通过不同温度贮藏实验建立基于颜色参数-a/b值的叶绿素含量预测模型。将青花菜贮藏在273、278、283、293、303K条件下,测定花蕾-a/b值和叶绿素含量的变化。基于Arrhenius动力学方程分别建立青花菜-a/b值、叶绿素含量与贮藏时间和温度之间的动力学模型,再根据-a/b值与叶绿素含量变化的线性关系,进一步建立基于-a/b值的叶绿素含量预测模型。在275、280、285、295、305K贮藏温度条件下对基于-a/b值的叶绿素含量预测模型进行验证,%In order to explore the relationship between chlorophyll content and color change of post-harvest broccoli during storage,a prediction model for chlorophyll content was established based on color parameter changes.Freshly harvested broccoli was stored at different temperatures(273,278,283,293 K and 303 K),and the color parameter-a/b value and chlorophyll content of broccoli were determined.Kinetic models of-a/b value and chlorophyll content with respect to storage time and temperature were established on the basis of Arrhenius equation.In addition,a prediction model for chlorophyll content based on-a/b value was further developed according to the linear relationship between chlorophyll content and-a/b value.Moreover,the prediction model for chlorophyll content based on-a/b value was validated using broccoli stored at 275,280,285,295 K and 305 K with a relative prediction error of 4.31%.The chlorophyll content of broccoli can be accurately predicted at the storage temperature from 273 K to 305 K using this prediction model.Therefore,the prediction model is acceptable for applying the color parameter-a/b to evaluate broccoli quality.

  15. Rainwater Harvesting Design Uncertainty Using Fuzzy Logic

    OpenAIRE

    Supiah Bt Shamsudin.; Azmi Ab Rahman,; Zaiton Bt Haron,; Salisu Danazumi,; Siti Hawa bt Jalil,; Mohd Azizi B. Zakaria,

    2013-01-01

    One of the biggest environmental challenges that face Malaysia today is the scarcity of water. The increased need of water resources caused by population growth and rapid industrialization has created the need to manage water resources more efficiently and effectively. Many methods are developed to increase the source of water supply; one alternative source is rainwater harvesting. Rainfall harvesting from catchments has not received large attention in Malaysia. This method is one of the proa...

  16. SUSCEPTIBILIDAD A DAÑO POR ENFRIAMIENTO EN POSCOSECHA DE PIMIENTO Y TRATAMIENTOS PARA DISMINUIR SU EFECTO Susceptibility to post-harvest chilling damage in sweet peppers, and treatments to minimize its effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Kehr M.

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Se verificó la susceptibilidad a daño por enfriamiento (DPE en frutos de pimiento (Capsicum annuum L. del cultivar tolerante El Paso, y del cultivar sensible King Arthur. Se evaluó el efecto de diversos tratamientos de poscosecha en la disminución de DPE en frutos de pimiento. En diciembre de 2000, en la Estación Experimental Julio Ortúzar P. ubicada cerca de Santiago, de la Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile se realizó el trasplante, con una densidad de 31.250 plantas ha-1, 0,4 m y 0,8 m sobre y entre hileras, respectivamente, con riego por surcos. La fertilización se definió en base a análisis de suelos, y el control de plagas y enfermedades según calendario de aplicaciones definido previamente. Los experimentos se realizaron en el Laboratorio de Poscosecha del Departamento de Cultivos de la Facultad de Ciencias Agropecuarias y Forestales. Los resultados verificaron el grado de susceptibilidad varietal, con 18,6% de la superficie del fruto dañada en King Arthur y 7,7% en El Paso. La inmersión en agua caliente a 60ºC por 1 min significó una reducción de 58% del DPE y 91% con la cobertura con lámina de polietileno, con almacenaje posterior de 15 días a 0ºC y 90% de humedad relativa, manteniendo una buena apariencia del producto en la prolongación de almacenaje por 3 días a 20ºC y 50% de humedad relativa. Los productos químicos cloruro de calcio, metilciclopropeno (MCP y metil jasmonato no manifestaron efecto en la reducción del DPE.The susceptibility to chilling damage (DPE with sweet peppers (Capsicum annuum L. was evaluated in the tolerant cultivar El Paso, and in the susceptible cultivar ‘King Arthur’. The effect of different post-harvest treatments on the reduction of chilling injury was evaluated. Transplanting was carried out in December 2000, at the Julio Ortúzar P. Experimental Station located close to Santiago, of the Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, with a density of 31 250 plants ha-1, 0

  17. Controle pós-colheita da antracnose da banana -prata anã tratada com fungicidas e mantida sob refrigeração Dwarf silver banana post-harvest anthracnose control with fungicides and under refrigeration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Flávia Santos Coelho

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A antracnose é uma das principais doenças após a colheita da banana, causada pelas diferentes raças fisiológicas do fungo Colletotrichum musae, e que se manifesta na maioria das vezes na fruta madura, comprometendo a sua qualidade. Seu aparecimento está relacionado ao manuseio inadequado, ausência de controle químico em campo e de refrigeração. A aplicação de produtos químicos é efetuada durante o beneficiamento, sendo importante salientar que pode iniciar com a fruta ainda no campo. Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, verificar o efeito de fungicidas utilizados após a colheita, visando o controle da antracnose em bananas, cultivar Prata Anã, armazenadas a 20ºC e 12ºC. Para isso, foi testada a ação dos fungicidas tiabendazol e imazalil no controle de Colletotrichum musae. No teste, foram empregados isolados das cultivares Prata Anã, FHIA 02 e ST 4208, inoculados em bananas-prata anã. As avaliações foram efetuadas a cada 3 dias, por meio de medições do tamanho das lesões (mm², sendo as frutas inoculadas descartadas no estádio de maturação 7 (amarelo com pontas marrom. Os tratamentos mais eficientes no controle da doença foram aqueles em que as bananas foram tratadas com o fungicida tiabendazol. No estudo, também foi verificada diferença em relação à patogenicidade dos isolados utilizados, que demonstraram especificidade quanto a cultivar.Anthracnose is one of the main post-harvest disease of the banana, caused by different physiological races of Colletotrichum musae. It manifests itself mostly in ripe fruits, threatening its quality. Its appearance is related to the inadequate handling, absence of chemical control in field, and cooling. Application of chemical products is usually done during the processing, but it is important to point out that it can be done while the fruit is still in the field. This work had as an objective to verify the effect post-harvest application of fungicides to control anthracnose in

  18. Qualidade pós-colheita de banana Prata Anã armazenada sob diferentes condições Quality evaluation of post harvest banana 'Prata Anã'associated to packing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Viviani

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O manuseio inadequado na pós-colheita tem sido responsável pela desvalorização da banana no mercado interno e pela perda de oportunidade de exportação. Outro aspecto observado é que o comércio de banana é fortemente afetado pela má apresentação dos frutos e embalagens. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a qualidade pós-colheita de frutos da bananeira Prata-Anã, por análises físico-químicas e sensoriais, comparando o armazenamento refrigerado (13ºC e o realizado em temperatura ambiente, empregando-se diferentes tipos de embalagens (caixa de madeira tipo torito, com capacidade para 18kg, com revestimento de papelão para os frutos, caixa de madeira tipo ½ caixa, com capacidade para 13kg, com revestimento de papelão para os frutos e caixa de papelão com capacidade para 18kg. Também, foram avaliados os danos físicos que ocorrem na banana durante transporte até o centro de distribuição e após a climatização. A conservação em ambiente refrigerado aumentou sua vida útil. Não houve diferença significativa entre as embalagens quanto à conservação das frutas, tanto nos atributos indicativos de maturação, quanto no aumento dos danos físicos. Sendo assim, essas embalagens podem ser utilizadas como alternativa de proteção ao fruto.The inadequate handling during the post-harvest has been responsible by the lost of value of the product in the internal market, and lost of opportunity of exportation of this Brazilian fruit. The other observed aspect is that the commerce of banana is highly affected by the bad visual aspects of the fruits and inadequate packing. Inside of this context, this research has, as major objective, the evaluation of post-harvest quality of banana fruits, variety Prata Anã. Experiments were realized to evaluate the quality variation, appearance, and colorin until the fruits were inappropriate for consumption, using physical-chemical and sensorial analysis, by comparing cold storage at 13º

  19. Effect of 1-Hexanol Treatment on Physiology and Antioxidant Enzymes of Post-harvest Mulberry Fruits%正己醇处理对桑葚采后生理与抗氧化酶的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍宪起

    2012-01-01

    In order to achieve an optimal method for maintaining post-harvest quality and extending storage period of mulberry fruits,the effect of 1-hexanol treatment on respiratory intensity,vitamin C,peroxidase(POD),lipoxygenase(LOX),superoxide dismutase(SOD) and catalase(CAT) in mulberry fruits stored at low temperature of 0-2 ℃ was explored.The results indicated that 1-hexanol could reduce respiratory intensity and LOX activity,delay the reduction of vitamin C,and maintain POD and CAT activities of mulberry fruits.However,the 1-hexanol treatment could result in the reduction of SOD activity during first 4 days and increase after 4 days.%为保持桑葚采后品质,延长桑葚的贮藏期,研究采后低温(0~2℃)条件正己醇处理对桑葚呼吸强度、VC、过氧化物酶(POD)、脂氧合酶(LOX)、超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)和过氧化氢酶(CAT)的影响。结果表明:正已醇可以降低桑葚的呼吸强度和LOX比活力;延缓桑葚VC的减少;保持POD和CAT比活力;对SOD比活力影响则前后不一,前4d降低了桑葚中SOD比活力,4d后则提高了桑葚中SOD比活力,但各处理与对照差异不显著。

  20. Research Progresses of Asparagus in Cultivation Technology and Post-harvest Processing Technology in China%我国芦笋栽培及采后贮藏加工技术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭亮萍; 贺超兴; 戴雄泽; 孙超; 马庆辉; 李振泉

    2011-01-01

    The trend of asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) planting all over the world is that developed countries reduce the areas, but the developing countries expand the areas gradually.Planting asparagus developed rapidly in China.China is the biggest country of asparagus production and export in the world.Recent research progress on its cultivation technology, post-harvest physiology, preservation,nutritional and medical function are reviewed.The existing problems in asparagus production are analyzed,and the future development prospect for asparagus industry is expected in this paper.%全世界芦笋种植的趋势是发达国家面积不断减少,发展中国家面积逐渐扩大,绿芦笋种植面积增加,白芦笋面积减少.我国在20世纪80~90年代芦笋种植发展较快,截至2008年全世界芦笋栽培面积约为25.3万hm2,其中亚洲达12万hm2,而我国约占10万hm2,我国已成为世界上栽培面积最大的芦笋生产国和产品出口国.本文综述了我国芦笋栽培技术、采后贮藏加工技术及营养功能成分等方面的研究进展,并对生产中存在的问题进行了分析,对芦笋产业的发展前景进行了展望.

  1. 植酸对芦笋采后贮藏过程中生理变化及酶类的影响%Effect of the Phytic Acid on the Physiological Change and Enzyme of Post-harvest Asparagus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏云潇; 何良兴; 谢灵燕

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The effect of the phytic acid on the physiological change and enzyme of post-harvest asparagus was analyzed. [ Method] The content of chlorophyll, lignin, crude fiber, total soluble sugar and sucrose, and the activity of POD, CAT and PPO of the asparagus, treated with the phytic acid(0. 1% , 0.2% and 0.5% ) , were tested. [ Result] The application of the phytic acid could inhibit the decline in the content of chlorophyll, delay the increment in the content of total soluble sugar, lignin and crude fiber, and promote the formation of sugar. And also, it could intensify the activity of POD, PPO and CAT, which would improve the quality of asparagus through its senescence delaying. [Conclusion] The application of the phytic acid could better improve quality and prolong shift time of asparagus.%[目的]探讨植酸对芦笋采后贮藏过程中生理变化及酶类的影响.[方法]采用植酸3个浓度梯度(0.1%、0.2%、0.5%)处理芦笋,测定叶绿素、纤维素、木质素、可溶性总糖和蔗糖含量,以及POD、CAT、PPO活性的变化.[结果]植酸抑制芦笋叶绿素含量的下降,延缓木质素、粗纤维和可溶性总糖含量的上升,刺激蔗糖含量的升高,有效提高了芦笋CAT、POD和PPO活性,延缓了衰老,保持了绿芦笋的鲜嫩品质.[结论]植酸处理后能较好地保持芦笋的品质,延长保鲜期.

  2. Comportamento pós-colheita de mamões Formosa 'Tainung 01' acondicionados em diferentes embalagens para o transporte Post harvest behavior of Papaya Formosa 'Tainung 01' conditioned in different packings for transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Magalhães dos Santos

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a comportamento pós-colheita de mamões do grupo Formosa híbrido 'Tainung 01', submetidos a diferentes formas de acondicionamento para o transporte rodoviário, desde o local da produção até o mercado atacadista. Foram utilizados mamões colhidos nos estádios 1 (até 10% da área superficial da casca com cor amarela e 3 (25 a 40% da área superficial da casca com cor amarela, acondicionados sob diferentes formas: a granel, em caixas de madeira, em caixas de papelão ondulado e em caixas plásticas forradas com plástico-bolha (controle, e transportados a Viçosa-MG, distante 750 km da produção, onde os frutos foram avaliados. Após seleção e novo acondicionamento, os frutos foram armazenamento a 24,5 ± 2ºC por 8 dias, com amostragens a cada 2 dias, para avaliação de índice de cor da casca, perda de massa fresca, taxa respiratória, firmeza da polpa e o índice de injúrias mecânicas. Os resultados evidenciaram os efeitos depreciativos das injúrias mecânicas na qualidade final do mamão, sendo que o transporte de frutos a granel, em relação ao controle, promoveu alterações na qualidade pós-colheita dos frutos, com aumento do índice de cor da casca, redução na firmeza da polpa, elevada perda de massa fresca e taxa respiratória, e maiores percentagens de área da casca injuriada, nos dois estádios de coloração estudados (1,14 e 1,21%, respectivamente. As caixas de papelão ondulado e caixas plásticas forradas com plástico-bolha mantiveram baixa a percentagem de área injuriada em relação aos transportados a granel, constituindo-se em alternativas promissoras na manutenção da qualidade pós-colheita de mamão Formosa destinado ao mercado interno.The aim of this study was to evaluate the post harvest behavior of papaya from the hybrid group Formosa 'TAINUNG 01' stored in different packages for road transportation, from the farm to the wholesale market. It was used papaya picked

  3. Alternative splicing mechanisms orchestrating post-transcriptional gene expression: intron retention and the intron-rich genome of apicomplexan parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunghi, Matteo; Spano, Furio; Magini, Alessandro; Emiliani, Carla; Carruthers, Vern B; Di Cristina, Manlio

    2016-02-01

    Apicomplexan parasites including Toxoplasma gondii and Plasmodium species have complex life cycles that include multiple hosts and differentiation through several morphologically distinct stages requiring marked changes in gene expression. This review highlights emerging evidence implicating regulation of mRNA splicing as a mechanism to prime these parasites for rapid gene expression upon differentiation. We summarize the most important insights in alternative splicing including its role in regulating gene expression by decreasing mRNA abundance via 'Regulated Unproductive Splicing and Translation'. As a related but less well-understood mechanism, we discuss also our recent work suggesting a role for intron retention for precluding translation of stage specific isoforms of T. gondii glycolytic enzymes. We additionally provide new evidence that intron retention might be a widespread mechanism during parasite differentiation. Supporting this notion, recent genome-wide analysis of Toxoplasma and Plasmodium suggests intron retention is more pervasive than heretofore thought. These findings parallel recent emergence of intron retention being more prevalent in mammals than previously believed, thereby adding to the established roles in plants, fungi and unicellular eukaryotes. Deeper mechanistic studies of intron retention will provide important insight into its role in regulating gene expression in apicomplexan parasites and more general in eukaryotic organisms. PMID:26194054

  4. Aerobic/anoxic post-treatment of anaerobically digested sewage sludge as an alternative to biological nitrogen removal from reject water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morras, Mikel; Dosta, J; García-Heras, J L

    2015-05-01

    Stabilisation and biological nitrogen removal (BNR) of anaerobically digested sewage sludge were studied in a post-aeration reactor at pilot scale working under alternating anoxic-aerobic conditions. Digested sludge came from a two-stage anaerobic digestion (thermophilic + mesophilic). The best post-aerator performance was achieved when working at an HRT of 10 days (4 days aerobic; dissolved oxygen of 1.8 mg L(-1)) and VS content in the feed no lower than 6.7 g L(-1). Free ammonia concentration values in the effluent above 1.5 mg N L(-1) (around 150 mg NH4 (+)-N L(-1) at pH 7) were necessary to promote the BNR over nitrite. Removal efficiencies up to 80 % NH4 (+)-N, 50-55 % total nitrogen and 15-20 % VS were recorded in this study, with no external addition of chemicals. A nitrogen mass balance revealed that the high percent of NH4 (+)-N assimilated in heterotrophic growth was counteracted with that released in ammonification and fermentation, leading to a NH4 (+)-N removal mainly related to biological nitritation/denitritation. PMID:25407727

  5. Post-keynésiens et régulationnistes :Une alternative à la crise de l’économie standard ? Post-keynesian and Regulationnist: a theoretical alternative to the crisis of standard economics thought Post-Kenesianos y Regulacionistas: Una alternativa a la crisis de la economía standard?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Boyer

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Les deux programmes de recherche, post-keynésien et régulationniste, ont en commun de proposer une alternative à l’économie standard dont l’incapacité à rendre compte des faits stylisés observés, depuis les années 1970 et plus encore dans la crise actuelle, est manifeste. Une possible convergence s’est manifestée d’abord dans la formalisation du régime économique de l’après-guerre, comme forme particulière de croissance cumulative, puis dans l’analyse des emballements spéculatifs qui se succèdent depuis les années quatre-vingt-dix, enfin par l’usage de modèles stock-flux afin de cerner les canaux de transmission de la politique monétaire et la soutenabilté des déséquilibres observés au niveau de l’économie mondiale et de l’Union européenne. La relative rareté de ces convergences s’explique d’abord par une référence plus kalekienne et marxiste que keynésienne chez les régulationnistes. Ensuite, du fait d’une posture épistémologique différente : grande théorie à vocation universelle d’un côté, analyse historiquement et spatialement située de l’autre. La profondeur de la crise que traverse l’économie standard dans son épistémologie implicite, ses concepts fondateurs et ses méthodes ouvre un espace à la collaboration entre post-keynésiens et régulationnistes. L’article propose quatre pistes : reconnaissance du rôle déterminant des institutions et pas seulement de la politique économique dans la compensation des failles de marché ; examen systématique de la pertinence des diverses classes de modèles et pas seulement de leur cohérence théorique ; enrichissement des mécanismes typiquement keynésiens afin de rendre compte de la multiplicité des interdépendances observées dans les économies contemporaines ; enfin association à tout modèle de croissance de long terme des facteurs susceptibles de le déstabiliser, selon un processus d’endométabolisme caract

  6. Evaluation of vegetable extracts for control of the pathogenic fungi in banana and strawberry in post harvest storage Evaluación de extractos vegetales para manejo de hongos patógenos en banano y fresa almacenados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonilla Correa Carmen Rosa

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available

    This study was carried out get knowledge about fungicidal properties of vegetable extracts to the control of the pathogenyc fungi (Colletotrichum musae and Botrytis cinerea in banana (Musa sapientum and strawberry (Fragaria sp during the pos harvest storage, at the National University of Colombia headquarters in Palmira. Ethanolics extracts of the following vegetable species were evaluated: Plantago major L, Ruta graveolens L, Lippia alba (Mill NE BROS, Pteridium aquilinum (Kaulf Maxon. The extracts were obtained by the percolation method starting from the macerated material (100 g and 1000 ml of solvent. The fungi was isolated from the strawberry (Fragaria sp affected by B. cinerea and banana Gross mitchel affected by C. musae. To evaluate the control of the fungi C. musae and B. cinerea sixteen treatments were used (four extracts of plants, two extraction media, two dilutions and three repetitions. Three control treatments were added: absolute (PDA; solvent (PDA + ethanol or water; and chemical (PDA + chemical fungicide. The dilutions were prepared with the solvent used to obtain the extract. The evaluation in vitro was maid with ethanolics extracts diluted at 25%, because these presented the best results in the previous tests. The results indicate that the ethanolic solvent decreased the development of the fungi in 68%. The fruits in which the etanolic extract of ruda and pronto alivio was applied presented bigger incidence and grade of severity.

    Keys words: Vegetable extract; patogenic fungi; Colletotrichum musae; Botrytis cinérea; post harvest

    En la Universidad Nacional de Colombia -Sede Palmira, se obtuvieron extractos etanólicos (1.000 ml, macerados (100 g de llantén (Plantago major L, ruda (Ruta graveolens L, pronto alivio [Lippia alba (Mill NE BROS] y helecho marranero [Pteridium aquilinum (Kaulf Maxon]. Para la evaluación del control

  7. Broadband pendulum energy harvester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Changwei; Wu, You; Zuo, Lei

    2016-09-01

    A novel electromagnetic pendulum energy harvester with mechanical motion rectifier (MMR) is proposed and investigated in this paper. MMR is a mechanism which rectifies the bidirectional swing motion of the pendulum into unidirectional rotation of the generator by using two one-way clutches in the gear system. In this paper, two prototypes of pendulum energy harvester with MMR and without MMR are designed and fabricated. The dynamic model of the proposed MMR pendulum energy harvester is established by considering the engagement and disengagement of the one way clutches. The simulation results show that the proposed MMR pendulum energy harvester has a larger output power at high frequencies comparing with non-MMR pendulum energy harvester which benefits from the disengagement of one-way clutch during pendulum vibration. Moreover, the proposed MMR pendulum energy harvester is broadband compare with non-MMR pendulum energy harvester, especially when the equivalent inertia is large. An experiment is also conducted to compare the energy harvesting performance of these two prototypes. A flywheel is attached at the end of the generator to make the disengagement more significant. The experiment results also verify that MMR pendulum energy harvester is broadband and has a larger output power at high frequency over the non-MMR pendulum energy harvester.

  8. Fat Harvest Using a Closed-Suction Drain

    OpenAIRE

    Amin, Kavit; Zakeri, Roxana; Mallucci, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    We propose a safe, simple, and novel method to harvest fat using a standard liposuction cannula and a Redivac or alternative closed-suction drain. The authors have used this technique for both 'dry' and 'wet' liposuction. This technique is both easy to perform and cost-effective whilst providing both a silent and relatively atraumatic fat harvest. The lower negative pressure compared with traditional harvesting systems likely preserves fat integrity for lipofilling. This method maximises reso...

  9. Selenastrum Capricornutum: Harvesting and Oil Extraction, for Biodiesel Production

    OpenAIRE

    Leticia Pérez; Ángeles Cancela; Rocío Maceiras; J.L. Salgueiro; Ángel Sánchez

    2015-01-01

    An alternative for biodiesel production is the use of lipids from microalgae. Although all steps to obtain this biofuel are important, harvesting and extraction are the most important. Advances in these areas are necessary in order to obtain third-generation fuels. The purpose of the present study is to compare different methods of lipids extraction and harvesting for freshwater Selenastrum Capricornutum microalgae. The method used for harvesting was flocculation with inorganic agent. Copper ...

  10. Qualidade de sementes de quiabeiro em função da idade e do repouso pós-colheita dos frutos Okra seed quality as a function of age and fruit post harvest rest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Maria Castro

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi conduzido na FCA-UNESP, em Botucatu (SP, objetivando-se estudar o efeito da idade do fruto e o período de repouso pós-colheita sobre a qualidade de sementes de quiabeiro cv. Santa Cruz-47 (Abelmoschus esculentus Moench.. No dia da antese, as flores foram etiquetadas e os frutos foram colhidos com 34, 41, 48 e 55 dias após a antese (DAA. Para cada idade, em metade dos frutos as sementes foram extraídas imediatamente e a outra metade ficou em repouso por quatorze dias, antes da extração das sementes. Para verificar a qualidade das sementes os seguintes testes foram realizados: teor de água no dia da extração das sementes, massa de 100 sementes, teste de germinação, primeira contagem do teste de germinação e condutividade elétrica. Pode-se concluir que o armazenamento para qualquer idade do fruto melhora o vigor das sementes. Para germinação final, o armazenamento é favorável quando os frutos são colhidos ainda novos (34 e 41 DAA.The work was carried out at FCA-UNESP, in Botucatu (SP, with the aim of studying the effect of fruit age and post harvest rest on quality of okra seeds cv. Santa Cruz-47 (Abelmoschus esculentus Moench.. At the day of the anthesis, the flowers were labeled and fruits were picked with 34,41,48 and 55 days after the anthesis (DAA. For each age, in half of the fruits the seeds were immediately extracted and the another half was stored for fourteen days before seed extraction. To verify the quality of seeds the following tests were accomplished: seed water content at extraction, weight of 100 seeds, germination test, first counted of germinated seeds and eletrical conductivity. It may be concluded that the fruit storage for any fruit age increases seed vigour, and for final germination, the rest is favorable when fruits are picked still new (34 and 41 DAA.

  11. Productive characteristics of maize hybrids at different cutting heights for silage and organic matter and mineral rates in post-harvest residues - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v35i2.16642

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Simili da Silva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Current trial evaluated yield, organic matter and mineral composition of the residual harvest of five maize hybrids at three cutting heights (15, 35 and 55 cm. The experimental design consisted of a randomized block split plot with three replications. Concentrations of N, P, K, Ca, MS, MM and MO in the samples were evaluated. No difference among hybrids occurred in stem diameter (22.4 mm, ear production (8.0 ton DM ha-1, grain harvest index (37.3% and total forage yield (15.0 ton DM ha-1. Hybrid effect occurred for variables of mineral composition of harvest residues. With the exception of calcium, a rise in cutting height from 15 to 55 cm failed to increase the concentration of minerals in the residue. The amount of organic matter and mineral residues that remained in the field increased in proportion to crop height.  

  12. Variance estimation for the Federal Waterfowl Harvest Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geissler, P.H.

    1988-01-01

    The Federal Waterfowl Harvest Surveys provide estimates of waterfowl harvest by species for flyways and states, harvests of most other migratory game bird species (by waterfowl hunters), crippling losses for ducks, geese, and coots, days hunted, and bag per hunter. The Waterfowl Hunter Questionnaire Survey separately estimates the harvest of ducks and geese using cluster samples of hunters who buy duck stamps at sample post offices. The Waterfowl Parts Collection estimates species, age, and sex ratios from parts solicited from successful hunters who responded to the Waterfowl Hunter Questionnaire Survey in previous years. These ratios are used to partition the duck and goose harvest into species, age, and sex specific harvest estimates. Annual estimates are correlated because successful hunters who respond to the Questionnaire Survey in one year may be asked to contribute to the Parts Collection for the next three years. Bootstrap variance estimates are used because covariances among years are difficult to estimate.

  13. Incidência de fungos em pós-colheita de banana 'Prata anã'(Musa AAB Incidence of mushroons in post harvest of banana (Musa spp. 'Prata Anã' (AAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson da Silva Moraes

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo determinar a ocorrência e a freqüência de fungos em banana 'Prata anã' e elucidar o agente causal das podridões em pós-colheita de frutos provenientes do norte de Minas Gerais. Dois métodos de isolamento foram adotados: diluição em placas, a partir da lavagem de frutos verdes, e direto de frutos maduros. Os fungos Colletotrichum musae, Trichoderma harzianum, Fusarium equisetii, Penicillium sp. Aspergillus parasiticus, Trichothecium roseum, Colletotrichum acutatum, Alternaria sp., Cladosporium musae e Curvularia lunata foram os mais freqüentemente associados aos frutos. A patogenicidade desses fungos foi testada pela substituição de discos da casca de frutos verdes por discos de micélio. Colletotrichum musae apresentou área média lesionada em torno do ponto de inoculação igual a 5,8 cm², enquanto para os demais fungos testados não passou de 1,50 cm². Os resultados mostraram que C. musae é o agente primário das podridões dos frutos examinados com 100 % de incidência e os demais fungos limitaram-se a necrosar os ferimentos em torno do ponto de inoculação. O modo de infecção latente, causada por C. musae, parece favorecer, primeiramente, a colonização interna dos tecidos e, posteriormente, a ação dos fungos oportunistas, que aceleram as podridões nos frutos e na coroa.The objetive of this work were to determine the occurrence and frequency of fungus in 'Prata anã' banana and to elucidate the causal agent of post harvest rots on fruits from Jaíba, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Two isolation methods were used: diluition in placs from whashed green fruits and direct of mature fruits. The fungus Colletotrichum musae, Trichoderma harzianum, Fusarium equisetii, Penicillium sp., Aspergillus parasiticus, Trichothecium roseum, Colletotrichum acutatum, Alternaria sp., Cladosporium musae and Curvularia lunata were the more freqüentilly associated to fruits. The fungus pathogenicity were tested by

  14. Vegetation Responses to Seven Silvicultural Treatments in the Southern Appalachians One-Year After Harvesting

    OpenAIRE

    Hood, Sharon M.

    2001-01-01

    The vegetation responses to seven silvicultural treatments one growing season after harvesting were examined on seven sites in the southern Appalachian mountains of Virginia and West Virginia. Treatments included: 1) control, 2) understory control by herbicide, 3) group selection, 4) high-leave shelterwood, 5) low-leave shelterwood, 6) leave tree, and 7) clearcut. The effects of harvesting were compared between treatments and between pre-harvest and post-harvest samplings. Species richness...

  15. Bundling harvester; Nippukorjausharvesteri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koponen, K. [Eko-Log Oy, Kuopio (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The staring point of the project was to design and construct, by taking the silvicultural point of view into account, a harvesting and processing system especially for energy-wood, containing manually driven bundling harvester, automatizing of the harvester, and automatized loading. The equipment forms an ideal method for entrepreneur`s-line harvesting. The target is to apply the system also for owner`s-line harvesting. The profitability of the system promotes the utilization of the system in both cases. The objectives of the project were: to construct a test equipment and prototypes for all the project stages, to carry out terrain and strain tests in order to examine the usability and durability, as well as the capacity of the machine, to test the applicability of the Eko-Log system in simultaneous harvesting of energy and pulp woods, and to start the marketing and manufacturing of the products. The basic problems of the construction of the bundling harvester have been solved using terrain-tests. The prototype machine has been shown to be operable. Loading of the bundles to form sufficiently economically transportable loads has been studied, and simultaneously, the branch-biomass has been tried to be utilized without loosing the profitability of transportation. The results have been promising, and will promote the profitable utilization of wood-energy

  16. Resistência induzida em frutos de videira 'Isabel' (Vitis Labrusca e seus efeitos sobre a qualidade pós-colheita Induced resistance in fruits of 'Isabel' vine (Vitis labrusca and its effects on post-harvest quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kedma Maria Silva Pinto

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A indução de resistência tem sido apontada como alternativa sustentável para o manejo de doenças, mas pouco se sabe sobre a interferência de tais produtos na qualidade pós-colheita dos frutos. Assim, o presente trabalho tem por objetivo avaliar a produção e a maturação de frutos de videira 'Isabel' (Vitis labrusca, oriundos de plantas tratadas com elicitores de resistência, em Natuba-PB. Os experimentos foram realizados nos períodos de setembro de 2009 a janeiro de 2010 (safra 1 e de fevereiro a junho de 2010 (safra 2. Foram utilizados oito tratamentos (Testemunha; Fungicida (Metiram + Piraclostrobina; Fosfito de potássio; Agro-Mós®; Fungicida + Fosfito de potássio; Fungicida + Agro-Mós®; Fosfito de potássio + Agro-Mós® e Fungicida + Fosfito de potássio + Agro-Mós® e quatro repetições de 5 plantas. As aplicações foram realizadas a cada 10 dias, iniciando-se 20 dias após a poda, totalizando 12 aplicações. As coletas de frutos foram realizadas aos 45; 60;90 e 120 dias após a poda. As variáveis analisadas foram: massa dos cachos, comprimento e diâmetro dos cachos, rendimento de polpa, sólidos solúveis (SS, pH, acidez titulável (AT e relação SS/AT. O tratamento com fosfito de potássio promoveu o aumento de 24% no comprimento dos cachos, em relação à testemunha, na primeira safra. O rendimento de polpa e a relação SS/AT não foram influenciados pelos tratamentos, e o teor de sólidos solúveis foi influenciado positivamente pela aplicação de fosfito de potássio, com incrementos superiores a 60%, em ambas as safras avaliadas.Induction of resistance has been identified as a sustainable alternative for disease management, but little information is known about the interference of such products in the postharvest fruit. Thus, the present study aims to evaluate the production and ripening of grapes 'Isabel' (Vitis labrusca from plants treated with resistance elicitors in Natuba-PB, Brazil. The experiments

  17. Energy harvesting materials

    CERN Document Server

    Andrews, David L

    2005-01-01

    The science of energy harvesting materials is experiencing phenomenal growth and attracting huge interest. Exploiting recently acquired insights into the fundamental mechanisms and principles of photosynthesis, it is now possible to forge entirely new and distinctive molecular materials and devise artificial photosystems and applications far remote from conventional solar cell technology. In this comprehensive treatment of energy harvesting, a team of internationally acclaimed scientists at the forefront of the subject paint a state-of-the-art picture of modern energy harvesting materials scie

  18. Medical students’ knowledge, attitude, and practice of complementary and alternative medicine: a pre- and post-exposure survey in Majmaah University, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Mansour MA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mohammed Abdullah Al Mansour,1 Abdullah MN Al-Bedah,2 Mohammed Othman AlRukban,3 Ibrahim S Elsubai,2 Elsadiq Yousif Mohamed,4 Ahmed Tawfik El Olemy,2 Asim AH Khalil,2 Mohamed KM Khalil,2 Meshari Saleh Alqaed,2 Abdullah Almudaiheem,2 Waqas Sami Mahmoud,4 Khalid Altohami Medani,4 Naseem Akhtar Qureshi2 1College of Medicine, Majmaah University, Al Majma’ah, 2National Center of Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Ministry of Health, 3Department of Family Medicine and Community Medicine, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, 4Department of Community Medicine and Public Health, College of Medicine, Majmaah University, Al Majma’ah, Saudi Arabia Background: Evidently, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM is a recognized medical practice that efficiently uses multiple treatment therapies and techniques in the prevention and management of a variety of human disorders. Many medical schools have integrated CAM curriculum in medical education system worldwide. Research in knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP of diverse health professionals exposed to CAM courses is important from many perspectives including improvement in KAP and teaching skills of faculty, together with capacity building and curriculum development.Objective and setting: This pre- and post-design cross-sectional study aimed to assess CAM-KAP of two intakes of medical students in Majmaah University, Saudi Arabia.Methods: The second-year medical students of the first (year 2012–2013 and second (year 2013–2014 intake (n=26 and 39, respectively were selected for this study. A reliable, 16-item self-administered questionnaire was distributed among all the students for answering before and after the 48-hour CAM course. The data were analyzed using appropriate statistical test of significance.Results: Medical students’ knowledge and attitude toward CAM significantly improved across some subitems of CAM questionnaire with a positive trend in the rest of its items

  19. Energy Harvesting. Energy harvesting with prosthetic feet

    OpenAIRE

    Gunnar Páll Halldórsson 1990

    2016-01-01

    This thesis reviews the principles and state-of-art of miniature energy harvesting systems and how they can be a suitable application for powering low-power wireless electronic devices used in prosthetic legs by the company Össur. There is an expansion in wireless sensors networks and the development of low power consumption devices has created a field for researching micro-generators converting ambient energy into electricity to replace batteries that require costly maintenance. By harvestin...

  20. Machine (bulk) harvest

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a summary of machine harvesting activities on Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge between 1991 and 2008. Information is provided for each year about...

  1. Power Harvesting from Rotation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicone, Carmen; Feng, Z. C.

    2008-01-01

    We show the impossibility of harvesting power from rotational motions by devices attached to the rotating object. The presentation is suitable for students who have studied Lagrangian mechanics. (Contains 2 figures.)

  2. Hand collection - hand harvest

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a summary of activities related to the collection and harvest of seeds on Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge between 1992 and 2009. Information about hand...

  3. Final cutting of shelterwood. Harvesting techniques and effects on the Picea abies regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the last decade, environmental and biological aspects have grown increasingly important in forestry. At the same time conventional planting after clear-cutting has failed on many sites with a high ground water table, abundant competitive vegetation and frequent frosts. Therefore, on these sites the use of the shelterwood system for regeneration of Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.) has increased in Sweden. The main objective of the thesis is to study if it is possible to final-cut shelterwoods at acceptable harvesting costs, logging damage and release effects in the regeneration. Final cutting of three shelterwoods (180-200 m3/ha) in Sweden were carried out with single- and double-grip harvester systems in 1-1.5 m high regeneration (6 400-26 700 seedlings/ha). In a fourth shelterwood (140-165 m3/ha), also situated in Sweden, conventional felling with a single-grip harvester was compared with a more concentrated felling according to a method named 'tossing the caber', where the trees were felled top-end first over the 1.2-1.3 m high regeneration (9 530-11 780 seedlings/ha) and into the striproad. No differences in productivity and cost between single- and double-grip harvesters in final cutting of shelterwood were found. Despite few stems/ha and extensive regeneration the harvesting cost was considered low (33.5 SEK/m3). Approximately one third of the seedlings suffered mortal logging damage, which was considered acceptable. No differences between conventional felling and the tossing the caber method were found regarding productivity, cost and damage to the regeneration. However, tossing the caber may be a more productive alternative in final cutting of pine-dominated shelterwood or seed tree stands. Seedling growth and survival after shelterwood removal was not influenced by the choice of harvester system. Seedling height and vitality were found to be good estimators of post-release survival and growth which, in total, was found to be acceptable in the

  4. Piezoelectric energy harvesting

    CERN Document Server

    Erturk, Alper

    2011-01-01

    The transformation of vibrations into electric energy through the use of piezoelectric devices is an exciting and rapidly developing area of research with a widening range of applications constantly materialising. With Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting, world-leading researchers provide a timely and comprehensive coverage of the electromechanical modelling and applications of piezoelectric energy harvesters. They present principal modelling approaches, synthesizing fundamental material related to mechanical, aerospace, civil, electrical and materials engineering disciplines for vibration-

  5. Millimeter Wave Energy Harvesting

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Talha Ahmed; Alkhateeb, Ahmed; Heath Jr, Robert W.

    2015-01-01

    The millimeter wave (mmWave) band, which is a prime candidate for 5G cellular networks, seems attractive for wireless energy harvesting. This is because it will feature large antenna arrays as well as extremely dense base station (BS) deployments. The viability of mmWave for energy harvesting though is unclear, due to the differences in propagation characteristics such as extreme sensitivity to building blockages. This paper considers a scenario where low-power devices extract energy and/or i...

  6. Thermal pulse energy harvesting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a new method to enhance thermal energy harvesting with pulsed heat transfer. By creating a phase shift between the hot and cold sides of an energy harvester, periodically pulsed heat flow can allow an available temperature gradient to be concentrated over a heat engine during each thermal pulse, rather than divided between the heat engine and a heat sink. This effect allows the energy harvester to work at maximum power and efficiency despite an otherwise unfavorable heat engine–heat sink thermal resistance ratio. In this paper, the analysis of a generalized energy harvester model and experiments with a mechanical thermal switch demonstrate how the pulse mode can improve the efficiency of a system with equal engine and heat sink thermal resistances by over 80%, although at reduced total power. At a 1:2 engine–sink resistance ratio, the improvement can simultaneously exceed 60% in power and 15% in efficiency. The thermal pulse strategy promises to enhance the efficiency and power density of a variety of systems that convert thermal energy, from waste heat harvesters to the radioisotope power systems on many spacecraft. - Highlights: • A thermal pulse operating mode can increase the maximum power of many thermal energy harvesting systems. • Two modes of pulsed heat transfer were modeled and compared to proof-of-concept experiments. • At a 1:2 heat engine–heat sink thermal resistance ratio, the enhancement exceeds 60% in power and 15% in efficiency

  7. Influence of harvester type and harvesting time on quality of harvested chamomile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajić Miloš B.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is the result of studying effects of mechanical chamomile harvesting on yield and quality of harvested chamomile. Chamomile (Chamomilla recutita (L Rausch. was harvested at three time intervals (T1 - 240 days, T2 - 250 days and T3 - 260 days after sowing by three conceptually different harvesters. The results achieved indicate that the harvester type significantly influences quality of harvested chamomile, whereas it is not influenced by chamomile harvesting time. Quality of harvested chamomile was classified into four categories, and it was observed that the greater number of rotations of a picking device increased the content of the first category of quality. The harvester A achieved 54.79% of the first category of quality in respect to the harvester B achieving 50.26% and the harvester C with 42.93%. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31051

  8. Classified Ads Harvesting Agent and Notification System

    CERN Document Server

    Doomun, Razvi; Nadeem, Auleear; Aukin, Mozafar

    2010-01-01

    The shift from an information society to a knowledge society require rapid information harvesting, reliable search and instantaneous on demand delivery. Information extraction agents are used to explore and collect data available from Web, in order to effectively exploit such data for business purposes, such as automatic news filtering, advertisement or product searching and price comparing. In this paper, we develop a real-time automatic harvesting agent for adverts posted on Servihoo web portal and an SMS-based notification system. It uses the URL of the web portal and the object model, i.e., the fields of interests and a set of rules written using the HTML parsing functions to extract latest adverts information. The extraction engine executes the extraction rules and stores the information in a database to be processed for automatic notification. This intelligent system helps to tremendously save time. It also enables users or potential product buyers to react more quickly to changes and newly posted sales...

  9. Influência de manejos pós-colheita do arroz irrigado sobre o banco de sementes de arroz-vermelho Influence of post-harvest management of rice crop on red rice seed bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.F.S Massoni

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A incorporação da palha após a colheita do arroz dificulta a redução do banco de sementes; por outro lado, favorece a decomposição da palha e, consequentemente, possibilita o preparo antecipado da área, viabilizando a semeadura do arroz no período recomendado. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a interferência de diferentes manejos após a colheita em áreas cultivadas com arroz irrigado na redução da viabilidade de sementes de arroz-vermelho. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi de blocos ao acaso, em parcelas subdivididas no tempo, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram dispostos em esquema fatorial (7x6, sendo o fator A composto por: [1] lâmina de água permanente, [2] incorporação da palha com preparo do solo seco logo após a colheita do arroz, [3] incorporação da palha com preparo do solo alagado após a colheita, [4] incorporação da palha com o solo seco somente em julho, [5] incorporação da palha com solo alagado logo após a colheita e gradagem da área em julho com solo seco, [6] incorporação da palha com solo seco logo após a colheita e gradagem da área em julho com solo seco e [7] sem incorporação. O fator B foi composto por seis épocas de amostragem do banco de sementes quanto à presença de arroz-vermelho; a amostragem iniciou-se a partir da colheita, ocorrendo a cada 30 dias e finalizando no mês de outubro. O maior efeito sobre a redução do banco de sementes ocorreu quando se utilizaram implementos que incorporaram superficialmente a palha, como o rolo-faca, o qual atua sobre a quebra da dormência, a inviabilidade e o estímulo à germinação das sementes de arroz-vermelho.The incorporation of straw after rice harvest makes rice seed reduction difficult. On the other hand, it favors the decomposition of straw, enabling the preparation of the area in advance, thus allowing the preparation of the recommended planting period. The objective of this work was to assess the interference of

  10. Produtividade e qualidade pós-colheita de cebola adubada com doses crescentes de nitrogênio e potássio Yield and post-harvest quality of onion fertilized with increasing levels of nitrogen and potassium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo M de Resende

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido de março a setembro de 2000, em campo experimental da Embrapa Semi-Árido, em Petrolina-PE com o objetivo de avaliar a influência de doses de nitrogênio e potássio sobre as características produtivas e qualidade pós-colheita da cebola (Allium cepa L.. Utilizou-se a cultivar Franciscana IPA-10 e o delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 4 x 3, compreendendo quatro doses de nitrogênio (0; 60; 120 e 180 kg ha-1 e três doses de potássio (0; 90 e 180 kg ha-1 de K2O, com três repetições. A produtividade comercial apresentou comportamento linear na ausência da adubação potássica, enquanto as doses de 90 e 180 kg ha-1 de potássio proporcionaram máximas produtividades nas doses de 175,8 e 169,4 kg ha-1 de nitrogênio. Observou-se com o aumento das doses de nitrogênio uma redução gradativa na produção de bulbos refugos (não comerciais. Na ausência da adubação potássica obteve-se um efeito linear em função das doses de nitrogênio para massa fresca do bulbo. Para as doses de 90 e 180 kg ha-1 de potássio, o maior rendimento de massa fresca do bulbo foi obtido com a dose de 153,3 kg ha-1 de nitrogênio. A classificação de bulbos comerciais de cebola foi influenciada pelas doses de nitrogênio, sendo que a maior porcentagem de bulbos da classe 3 (85,8 % correspondeu à dose de 153,6 kg ha-1 de nitrogênio. Não se constatou efeitos significativos aos 20 dias para perda de massa, evidenciando-se efeitos significativos apenas aos 40 e 60 dias após cura (DAC, e não houve interação entre as doses de nitrogênio e potássio.This study was carried out from March to September 2000, in Petrolina, Pe rnambuco State, Brazil, to evaluate the influence of nitrogen and potassium levels on yield characteristics and post-harvest quality of onion bulbs (Allium cepa L.. The cultivar Franciscana IPA-10 was used. The experimental design was a randomized complete block in a 4 x 3 factorial

  11. Rooftop level rainwater harvesting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traboulsi, Hayssam; Traboulsi, Marwa

    2015-05-01

    Unfortunately, in Lebanon and other countries in the Middle East region, water becomes scarcer than ever before, and over the last decades the demand on domestic water has increased due to population and economic growth. Although rainwater harvesting is considered to be a safe and reliable alternative source for domestic water, the inconvenience or impracticalities related to the cost and space needed for the construction of ground or underground storage tanks makes this practice not widely common in rural areas and rarely implemented in urban cities. This paper introduces a new technique to rainwater harvesting which can be easily used in both rural and urban areas: it collects and stores rainwater directly in tanks already installed on building roofs and not necessarily in special ground or underground ones. If widely adopted in Lebanon, this technique could help in: (1) collecting around 23 MCM (70 % of the current deficit in the domestic water supply) of rainwater and thus increasing the available water per m2 of building by 0.4 m3 per year, (2) saving around 7 % of the amount of electric energy usually needed to pump water from an aquifer well and ground or underground tank, and (3) considerably reducing the rate of surface runoff of rainwater at the coastal zones where rainwater is not captured at all and goes directly to the sea.

  12. Study on Pyroelectric Harvesters Integrating Solar Radiation with Wind Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Ching Hsiao

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Pyroelectric harvesters use temperature fluctuations to generate electrical outputs. Solar radiation and waste heat are rich energy sources that can be harvested. Pyroelectric energy converters offer a novel and direct energy-conversion technology by transforming time-dependent temperatures directly into electricity. Moreover, the great challenge for pyroelectric energy harvesting lies in finding promising temperature variations or an alternating thermal loading in real situations. Hence, in this article, a novel pyroelectric harvester integrating solar radiation with wind power by the pyroelectric effect is proposed. Solar radiation is a thermal source, and wind is a dynamic potential. A disk generator is used for harvesting wind power. A mechanism is considered to convert the rotary energy of the disk generator to drive a shutter for generating temperature variations in pyroelectric cells using a planetary gear system. The optimal period of the pyroelectric cells is 35 s to harvest the stored energy, about 70 μJ, while the rotary velocity of the disk generator is about 31 RPM and the wind speed is about 1 m/s. In this state, the stored energy acquired from the pyroelectric harvester is about 75% more than that from the disk generator. Although the generated energy of the proposed pyroelectric harvester is less than that of the disk generator, the pyroelectric harvester plays a complementary role when the disk generator is inactive in situations of low wind speed.

  13. Influência do manejo do solo na conservação, qualidade sensorial, teor de nutrientes e incidência de fitopatias e fisiopatias pós-colheita de pêssegos cv. Cerrito Soil management effects in respect to conservation and sensorial quality, nutrients levels and incidence of rot and physiological disorders of peaches in post harvest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLOS ROBERTO MARTINS

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o efeito do manejo do solo mantido com cobertura vegetal, na linha de plantio, na qualidade pós-colheita de pêssegos cv. Cerrito durante o armazenamento refrigerado. Os tratamentos constaram de frutas colhidas em pomares com solo com cobertura vegetal (aveia e com cultivo tradicional (sem cobertura, em três estádios de maturação. O armazenamento foi feito em câmara fria a 0ºC e umidade relativa do ar acima de 90%. As avaliações da presença de fisiopatias e fitopatias, análise sensorial e análise de nutrientes foram feitas na colheita e após 6; 12 e 18 dias de armazenamento, mais três dias de simulação de comercialização. A análise sensorial demonstrou que as frutas colhidas em pomares com manejo do solo com cobertura vegetal apresentaram aparência, aroma, qualidade e sabor ao final do período de armazenamento superior às frutas de cultivo tradicional. Os atributos aceitação comercial e desidratação não apresentaram diferenças significativas. A coloração demonstrou ser superior em pêssegos provenientes de pomar com manejo do solo tradicional. A análise de nutrientes demonstrou maior conteúdo de N, Ca e B em frutas provenientes de pomar com manejo do solo com cobertura vegetal.The effect of soil management, with mulching on the planting line on the quality of post harvest of peaches, cv. Cerrito, during cold storage was studied. The treatments were consisted by fruits harvested on orchards with mulching (oat and without mulching (traditional cultivation on three stages of maturation. The storage was performed at temperature 0º C and above 90% of air humidity. The presence of physiological disorders and rot evaluations, sensorial analysis and analysis of nutrients were performed at harvest and after 6, 12 and 18 days of storage, plus three days of commercialization simulation. The sensorial analysis showed that the fruits harvested on orchard management soil with mulching presented, on the final of

  14. Description of Extended Pre-Harvest Pig Salmonella Surveillance-and-Control Programme and its Estimated Effect on Food Safety Related to Pork

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alban, L.; Barfod, Kristen; Petersen, J. V.; Dahl, J.; Ajufo, J. C.; Sandø, G.; Krog, H. H.; Aabo, Søren

    2010-01-01

    Salmonella in pork can be combated during pre- or post-harvest. For large slaughterhouses, post-harvest measures like decontamination might be cost-effective while this is less likely with small-to-medium sized slaughterhouses. In this study, pre-harvest measures might be more relevant. We describe...

  15. Effects of timber harvests and silvicultural edges on terrestrial salamanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNeil, Jami E; Williams, Rod N

    2014-01-01

    Balancing timber production and conservation in forest management requires an understanding of how timber harvests affect wildlife species. Terrestrial salamanders are useful indicators of mature forest ecosystem health due to their importance to ecosystem processes and sensitivity to environmental change. However, the effects of timber harvests on salamanders, though often researched, are still not well understood. To further this understanding, we used artificial cover objects to monitor the relative abundance of terrestrial salamanders for two seasons (fall and spring) pre-harvest and five seasons post-harvest in six forest management treatments, and for three seasons post-harvest across the edge gradients of six recent clearcuts. In total, we recorded 19,048 encounters representing nine species of salamanders. We observed declines in mean encounters of eastern red-backed salamanders (Plethodon cinereus) and northern slimy salamanders (P. glutinosus) from pre- to post-harvest in group selection cuts and in clearcuts. However, we found no evidence of salamander declines at shelterwoods and forested sites adjacent to harvests. Edge effects induced by recent clearcuts influenced salamanders for approximately 20 m into the forest, but edge influence varied by slope orientation. Temperature, soil moisture, and canopy cover were all correlated with salamander counts. Our results suggest silvicultural techniques that remove the forest canopy negatively affect salamander relative abundance on the local scale during the years immediately following harvest, and that the depth of edge influence of clearcuts on terrestrial salamanders is relatively shallow (harvests (<4 ha) and techniques that leave the forest canopy intact may be compatible with maintaining terrestrial salamander populations across a forested landscape. Our results demonstrate the importance of examining species-specific responses and monitoring salamanders across multiple seasons and years. Long

  16. Evolución de Madurez en Pre y Postcosecha y Potencialidad de Almacenaje de Peras Packham's Triumph Pre and Post-Harvest Maturity Evolution and Storage Potential of Packham’s Triumph Pears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Moggia

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Peras (Pyrus communis L. Packham’s Triumph fueron evaluadas en madurez y producción de etileno desde cuatro semanas previo a la cosecha. Firmeza y sólidos solubles obtuvieron las mayores correlaciones (r = -0,97 y 0,98, respectivamente con días después de plena flor (DDPF. La producción de etileno fue baja (Packham’s Triumph pears (Pyrus communis L. were evaluated from four weeks before harvest for maturity and ethylene production. Firmness and soluble solids showed the highest correlations (r = -0.97 y 0.98, respectively with days after full bloom (DDPF. Ethylene production was low (< 0.07 mg kg-1 and was not correlated with DDPF. Fruit harvested with 7.8 (E1 and 7.0 kg (E2 were stored in conventional cold air (0°C and two controlled atmosphere conditions (AC1: 2-2.5% O2 /1-1.5% CO2 and AC2: 1-1.3% O2/0.5-0.8% CO2, -1°C, for six months. Changes in maturity, and ethylene production were measured (monthly and incidence of physiological disorders was assessed (after four and six months. Additionally, the ethylene production rate (TPE was monitored for seven days at room temperature, after each storage period. Fruit from both harvests, stored under AC1 and AC2 were firmer, greener and had lower ethylene production than those of FC. There were no significant differences in ripening between AC1 and AC2. Ethylene accumulation was exponential and occurred earlier and with higher values in FC (900 mg kg-1 maximum at the 5th month, with respect to AC (146 and 230 mg kg-1 for E1 and E2 at the end of the storage period. At room temperature, the TPE of the three storage conditions increased from the second month, but the climacteric peak was observed only in FC. After six months, fruit from FC and from both harvests developed superficial scald (17% for E1 and 20% for E2.

  17. Breeding bird response to partially harvested riparian management zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chizinski, Christopher J.; Peterson, Anna; Hanowski, JoAnn; Blinn, Charles R.; Vondracek, Bruce C.; Niemi, Gerald

    2011-01-01

    We compared avian communities among three timber harvesting treatments in 45-m wide even-age riparian management zones (RMZs) placed between upland clearcuts and along one side of first- or second-order streams in northern Minnesota, USA. The RMZs had three treatments: (1) unharvested, (2) intermediate residual basal area (RBA) (targeted goal 11.5 m2/ha, realized 16.0 m2/ha), and (3) low RBA (targeted goal 5.7 m2/ha, realized 8.7 m2/ha). Surveys were conducted one year pre-harvest and three consecutive years post-harvest. There was no change in species richness, diversity, or total abundance associated with harvest but there were shifts in the types of birds within the community. In particular, White-throated Sparrows (Zonotrichia albicollis) and Chestnut-sided Warblers (Dendroica pensylvanica) increased while Ovenbirds (Seiurus aurocapilla) and Red-eyed Vireos (Vireo olivaceus) decreased. The decline of avian species associated with mature forest in the partially harvested treatments relative to controls indicates that maintaining an unharvested RMZ adjacent to an upland harvest may aid in maintaining avian species associated mature forest in Minnesota for at least three years post-harvest. However, our observations do not reflect reproductive success, which is an area for future research.

  18. Combine Harvester Simulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilmann, Ole; Sørlie, James Arnold

    1999-01-01

    A simulator for training pilots in the operation of a modern high-tech combine harvester is presented. The new simulator application is based on DMI´s well-known DMS maritime simulator architecture. Two major challenges have been encountered in the development of the simulator: 1) interfacing the...... simulator software and the harvester hardware, and 2) the visual image generation system. Aims of the project have been to promote technology transfer from DMI´s maritime simulator to new application areas, to develop a state-of-the-art pilot training environment, and to utilise the state-of-the-art in...

  19. Energy harvesting for microsystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruichao Xu

    2012-05-15

    The purpose of this project is to design and fabricate piezoelectric energy harvesters based on integration of Pb(ZrxTi1-x)O3 (PZT) thick film technology and silicon microtechnology. The fabrication processes are carried out in close collaboration with Meggitt Sensing Systems (MSS) who has the unique expertise to screen print piezoelectric thick film layers, thus all screen printing steps are done by MSS while the silicon micromachining is carried out at Danchip facility at DTU. The presented energy harvesters are all based on using piezoelectric thick film operating in the 31-mode to generate power when strained. Three archetypes of the numerous fabricated energy harvesters will be presented in detail, they represent three major milestones in this project. The first energy harvester archetype has an unimorph cantilever beam, which consists of a 20 {mu}m silicon layer and 10-30 {mu}m screen printed PZT layer, anchored on a silicon frame at one end and attached to a silicon proof mass at the other. Electrodes will cover both side of the PZT layer, so the harvested energy can be collected electrically. The second archetype has a bimorph cantilever beam, which consists of two 15-35 {mu}m PZT layers, anchored on a silicon frame at the one end and attached to a silicon proof mass at the other. Electrodes are deposited below, between and above the two PZT layers. The root mean square (RMS) power output measured on this type of harvesters is as high as 37.1{mu}W at 1 g. The third archetype is similar to the first one, the screen printed PZT layer is replaced by a lead free piezoelectric material, (KxNa1-x)NbO3 (KNN). Some of the major challenges encountered during the development processes are bad adhesion, fragile structures and short circuiting through the PZT layer. All of which have being fully or partially solved in this project. The final energy harvesters are designed to be used in an energy harvester powered wireless sensing system. (Author)

  20. Changes in mineral soil biogeochemical cycling and environmental conditions following tree harvest in the Northeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vario, C.; Friedland, A.

    2012-12-01

    In the northeastern United States, reductions in carbon dioxide emissions have been attempted by using local wood as a renewable alternative to oil. Although woody biomass products are readily available, recent findings suggest that forest disturbance may cause release of carbon from the deeper mineral soil. Worldwide, deep soils sequester more than half of soil carbon, making it critical in the global carbon cycle; however, most studies on the effect of harvesting have focused on the organic soil horizon. Our research aimed to uncover changes in biogeochemistry and environmental conditions in deeper, mineral soil after clear cutting forests. We quantified post-harvest mineral soil carbon pools through a regional study. We utilized stands of different ages to measure the recovery of soil carbon over time since harvest. Stands included in this study were cut approximately 5, 12, 25, 50, or 120 ybp, in order to identify changes in soil carbon over time since harvest. We sampled harvested stands in six research or protected forests across New York, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, and Vermont. Soil samples were collected to a depth of 60 cm below the surface of the mineral soil using a gas-powered augur and 9.5 cm diameter drill bit. Soil samples were analyzed at Dartmouth College. In order to understand specific changes in mineral soil carbon dynamics following harvest, measurements of carbon fluxes, such as soil respiration and DOC transport were conducted at five different-aged stands at Bartlett Experimental Forest, NH. While parameters that may influence carbon storage—such as pH, clay content, tree cover and elevation— did not vary across the different-aged stands in each forest, carbon pools did vary over time. We found changes in carbon pools in at least three experimental forests across the northeast. At Bartlett Experimental Forest, we found a gradual decline in mineral soil carbon storage from between 85-87 Mg ha-1 in 120 year old and primary forest stands

  1. Kenaf harvest decision matrix or how should I harvest kenaf?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The correct harvest method for kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L., Malvaceae) is dependent on many factors, including production location, equipment availability, storage options, processing plans, plant utilization, and economics. Since its first domestication, kenaf has consistently been hand-harveste...

  2. Rainwater harvesting case study: FCT/UNL campus

    OpenAIRE

    Quadros, Carlos Schmidt

    2010-01-01

    With increasing pressure on the environment, particularly on water resources, due to outside forces such as climate change and population growth, water is nowadays a scarce and a valuable resource. With the need to find new alternatives, rainwater harvesting should be seen as an important strategy for better management of water resources, once it constitutes a free source of potable water. Rainwater harvesting systems, which already have a global implementation, are a recognised way for ur...

  3. Fat Harvest Using a Closed-Suction Drain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakeri, Roxana; Mallucci, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    We propose a safe, simple, and novel method to harvest fat using a standard liposuction cannula and a Redivac or alternative closed-suction drain. The authors have used this technique for both 'dry' and 'wet' liposuction. This technique is both easy to perform and cost-effective whilst providing both a silent and relatively atraumatic fat harvest. The lower negative pressure compared with traditional harvesting systems likely preserves fat integrity for lipofilling. This method maximises resources already held within a hospital environment. PMID:27218029

  4. Fat Harvest Using a Closed-Suction Drain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Kavit; Zakeri, Roxana; Mallucci, Patrick

    2016-05-01

    We propose a safe, simple, and novel method to harvest fat using a standard liposuction cannula and a Redivac or alternative closed-suction drain. The authors have used this technique for both 'dry' and 'wet' liposuction. This technique is both easy to perform and cost-effective whilst providing both a silent and relatively atraumatic fat harvest. The lower negative pressure compared with traditional harvesting systems likely preserves fat integrity for lipofilling. This method maximises resources already held within a hospital environment. PMID:27218029

  5. Mammary artery harvesting using the Da Vinci Si robotic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Secchin Canale

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Internal mammary artery harvesting is an essential part of any coronary artery bypass operation. Totally endoscopic coronary artery bypass graft surgery has become reality in many centers as a safe and effective alternative to conventional surgery in selected patients. Internal mammary artery harvesting is the initial part of the procedure and should be performed equally safely if one wants to achieve excellence in patency rates for the bypass. We here describe the technique for mammary harvesting with the Da Vinci Si robotic system.

  6. Energy harvesting for microsystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Ruichao

    power when strained. Three archetypes of the numerous fabricated energy harvesters will be presented in detail, they represent three major milestones in this project. The first energy harvester archetype has an unimorph cantilever beam, which consists of a 20 µm silicon layer and 10-30 µm screen printed...... PZT layer, anchored on a silicon frame at one end and attached to a silicon proof mass at the other. Electrodes will cover both side of the PZT layer, so the harvested energy can be collected electrically. The second archetype has a bimorph cantilever beam, which consists of two 15-35 µm PZT layers......, anchored on a silicon frame at the one end and attached to a silicon proof mass at the other. Electrodes are deposited below, between and above the two PZT layers. The root mean square (RMS) power output measured on this type of harvesters is as high as 37.1µW at 1 g. The third archetype is similar to the...

  7. Workshop on SG Harvester

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QingPeng

    1994-01-01

    The Workshop on Stripper-Gatherer Harvester. co-sponsored by CNRRI and IRRI was held at CNRRI's experimental station from Jul 12-14, 1994. At the workshop, head of IRRI's Agricultural Engineering Dept, Dr Quick and his staff member, a consultant of Agricultural Engineering Division ,

  8. Combine Harvester Simulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilmann, Ole; Sørlie, James Arnold

    1999-01-01

    A simulator for training pilots in the operation of a modern high-tech combine harvester is presented. The new simulator application is based on DMI´s well-known DMS maritime simulator architecture. Two major challenges have been encountered in the development of the simulator: 1) interfacing the...

  9. Tratamento térmico e prochloraz no controle da antracnose em pós-colheita de frutos de banana 'Prata Anã' Thermotherapy and prochloraz to control of anthracnose on 'Prata Anã' bananas in post harvest conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Barreto da Silva

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O controle químico, térmico e a refrigeração são os processos mais utilizados no tratamento pós-colheita das bananas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do tratamento térmico, químico e da combinação dos dois métodos e estes associados à baixa temperatura de conservação no controle da antracnose na pós-colheita da banana. Para tanto os experimentos foram realizados em três épocas quando, bananas (Musa sp da variedade 'Prata Anã' (AAB no estádio pré-climatérico eram coletadas e suas pencas individualizadas. As pencas foram submetidas a quatro tratamentos com cinco repetições cada: 1. Tratamento térmico (imersão em água a 56ºC por seis minutos, seguido de resfriamento em água à temperatura ambiente; 2. Tratamento químico por seis minutos (imersão em calda fungicida (prochloraz 2,5 mL.L-1; 3. Tratamento térmico seguido do químico; 4. Testemunha, imersão em água por seis minutos. Após os tratamentos, as pencas eram divididas em duas partes iguais, sendo que uma parte ficou em câmara fria (14ºC com variação de 2ºC e a outra permaneceu à temperatura ambiente. O tratamento térmico não foi eficiente no controle da doença. O fungicida prochloraz a 2,5 mL.L-1 foi eficiente no controle da podridão pós-colheita. A refrigeração retardou o surgimento da doença em até 12 dias. Os resultados indicam que a baixa temperatura, associada ou não ao controle químico, é capaz de controlar a podridão pós-colheita dos frutos por 12 dias.Chemical control and refrigeration are two processes usually adopted in the treatment of the banana post harvest rot. This work has for objective to evaluate the effect on the control of the anthracnose in banana post harvest of the chemotherapy, of the thermotherapy, of the combination of the two listed methods and these all associated to the low conservation temperature. The experiments were replicate three times where banana fruit (Musa sp of the variety 'Prata An

  10. Avaliação de algumas características pós-colheita e índice de aceitação pelos consumidores de novas cultivares de banana Evaluation of some post-harvest characteristics and consumer acceptance index of new banana cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lair Victor Pereira

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO - As cultivares Nam, Pioneira, Caipira, SH 3640, FHIA 01, FHIA 18, Mysore, Nanicão, Grande Naine, Maçã, Prata e Prata Anã foram avaliadas quanto às características de pós-colheita (longevidade pós-colheita, período de comercialização e resistência ao despencamento dos frutos, aspectos visuais (tamanho do fruto e coloração da casca e da polpa, índice de aceitação pelos consumidores por meio da degustação da fruta madura (sabor, aroma, consistência da polpa e semelhança de sabor e aroma com as cultivares tradicionais Prata, Prata Anã, Maçã e Nanicão. O trabalho foi conduzido por meio de ensaios de laboratório usando 6 pencas de bananas de cada cultivar e entrevistas após os testes de degustação com 80 consumidores de Lavras e Maria da Fé-MG, no período de outubro de 2000 a abril de 2001. Pelos resultados, verifica-se que, quanto aos aspectos visuais, somente a cv. Caipira obteve baixo índice de aceitação pelos consumidores (ABSTRACT - The banana cultivars Nam, Pioneira, Caipira, SH 3640, FHIA 01, FHIA 18, Mysore, Nanicão, Grande Naine, Maçã, Prata and Prata Anã were evaluated as to their post-harvest characteristics (post-harvest longevity, marketing period and resistance to fruit dropping, visual aspects (fruit size and coloration of the peel and pulp and consumer acceptance index through tasting of the ripe fruit (flavor, pulp firmness and similarity of flavor with the traditional cultivars Prata, Prata Anã, Maçã and Nanicão. The work was conducted through laboratory trials by using six banana hands of each cultivar and interviews after the tasting tests with 80 consumers of Lavras and Maria da Fé-MG over the period of October 2000 to April 2001.The results pointed out that as to the visual aspects only the cultivar Caipira obtained a low consumer acceptance index (< 50%. As to the post-harvest characteristics the cultivars Prata Anã, Maçã, Prata and SH 3640 stood out with longer post-harvest

  11. Kinematics and Dynamics of a Tensegrity-Based Water Wave Energy Harvester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Lin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A tensegrity-based water wave energy harvester is proposed. The direct and inverse kinematic problems are investigated by using a geometric method. Afterwards, the singularities and workspaces are discussed. Then, the Lagrangian method was used to develop the dynamic model considering the interaction between the harvester and water waves. The results indicate that the proposed harvester allows harvesting 13.59% more energy than a conventional heaving system. Therefore, tensegrity systems can be viewed as one alternative solution to conventional water wave energy harvesting systems.

  12. Influência do manejo do solo na conservação e na qualidade pós-colheita de pêssegos cv. Cerrito Soil management effects in respect to conservation and to quality post harvest of peaches variety Cerrito

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLOS ROBERTO MARTINS

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o efeito do manejo do solo, mantido com cobertura vegetal, na linha de plantio, na qualidade pós-colheita de pêssegos cv. Cerrito durante o armazenamento refrigerado. Os tratamentos constaram de frutas colhidas em pomares com solo com cobertura vegetal (aveia e com cultivo tradicional (sem cobertura em três estádios de maturação. O armazenamento foi a 0ºC e umidade relativa do ar acima de 90%. As avaliações de firmeza, acidez (ATT, sólido solúvel total (SST e coloração foram feitas na colheita e após 6; 12 e 18 dias de armazenamento, mais 3 dias de simulação de comercialização. As frutas colhidas em pomares com solo com cobertura vegetal apresentaram maiores firmezas que as do cultivo tradicional. O teor de SST foi maior em pêssegos produzidos em pomares com manejo do solo tradicional. Já a acidez e a relação SST/ATT não foi influenciada pelo manejo do solo. Os pêssegos produzidos em pomar com aveia apresentaram predomínio da coloração mais esverdeada no início do armazenamento.The effect of soil management, with mulching on the planting line, on the quality of post-harvest of peaches cv. Cerrito during cold storage was studied. The treatments were consisted by fruits harvested on orchards with mulching (oats and without mulching (traditional cultivation on three stages of maturation. The storage was performed at temperature 0º C and above 90% of air humidity. Evaluations of firmness, acidity (TTA, total soluble solid (TSS and coloration, were performed at harvest and after 6, 12 and 18 days of storage, plus 3 days of commercialization simulation. The fruits harvested on orchards with mulching presented a larger firmness than the others. The percentage of TSS was larger in peaches produced in the orchards with traditional cultivation. The management of the soil didn't influenced the relation TSS/TTA and acidity. The peaches produced in the orchard with mulching of oat presented prevalence of the greenish

  13. Características físico-químicas de abacaxi submetido à tecnologia de radiação ionizante como método de conservação pós-colheita Physico-chemical characteristics of pineapple submitted to ionizing radiation technology as a method of post-harvest conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josenilda Maria da Silva

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A qualidade pós-colheita do abacaxi da cultivar Smooth Cayenne foi avaliada quando os frutos foram irradiados com doses de 100 e 150 Gy, tendo a dose 0 como controle, e os frutos armazenados durante os períodos de 10, 20 e 30 dias, à temperatura de 12 °C (±1 e 85% (±5 de umidade relativa. Os frutos foram colhidos quando fisiologicamente desenvolvidos. Análises físico-químicas foram realizadas a cada período de armazenamento com o objetivo de obter informações dos efeitos da radiação ionizante sobre as características de qualidade do fruto. As doses de radiação ionizante aplicadas tiveram pouca influência significativa nas características físico-químicas do abacaxi, porém, com melhores resultados quando comparados com a dose controle. O período de 20 dias de armazenamento mostrou ser ideal para o desenvolvimento das principais características de qualidade pós-colheita do fruto, enquanto que o armazenamento por 30 dias foi considerado longo por prejudicar a qualidade do abacaxi.The post-harvest quality of pineapple, Smooth Cayenne variety, was evaluated after fruits were gamma-irradiated at 100 and 150 Gy doses. Control samples were non-treated fruits (0 Gy dose. Fruits were stored for 10, 20 and 30 days at 12 °C (±1, at a relative humidity of 85% (±5. Pineapples were harvested at the physiologic developmental stage. Physico-chemical analyses were conducted for each storage period to obtain information on the effects of the irradiation treatment on fruit quality. The doses of ionizing radiation applied had little significant influence on the physico-chemical characteristics of the pineapple. However, they exhibited better results when compared to the control dose. The period of twenty days of storage was ideal for the development of the main post-harvest quality characteristics of the fruit, while storage for thirty days was considered too long, being deleterious to pineapple quality.

  14. Electromagnetic energy harvester for harvesting acoustic energy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    FARID U KHAN; IZHAR

    2016-04-01

    This paper reports a suspended coil, electromagnetic acoustic energy harvester (AEH) for extracting acoustical energy. The developed AEH comprises Helmholtz resonator (HR), a wound coil bonded to a flexible membrane and a permanent magnet placed in a magnet holder. The harvester’s performance is analyzed under different sound pressure levels (SPLs) both in laboratory and in real environment. In laboratory, when connected to 50 &Omega load resistance and subjected to an SPL of 100 dB, the AEH generated a peak load voltage of 198.7 mV at the resonant frequency of 319 Hz. When working under the optimum load resistance, the AEH generated an optimum load power of 789.65 &muv. In real environment, the developed AEH produced a maximum voltage of25 mV when exposed to the acoustic noise of a motorcycle and generated an optimum voltage of 60 mV when it is placed in the surroundings of a domestic electrical generator.

  15. Nonlinear energy harvesting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lallart, Mickael; Guyomar, Daniel, E-mail: mickael.lallart@insa-lyon.fr [LGEF, INSA-Lyon, Universite de Lyon, 8 rue de la Physique, F-69621 (France)

    2011-10-29

    The proliferation of wearable and left-behind devices has raised the issue of powering such systems. While primary batteries have been widely used in order to address this issue, recent trends have focused on energy harvesting products that feature high reliability and low maintenance issues. Among all the ambient sources available for energy harvesting, vibrations and heat have been of significant interest among the research community for small-scale devices. However, the conversion abilities of materials are still limited when dealing with systems featuring small dimensions. The purpose of this paper is to presents an up-to-date view of nonlinear approaches for increasing the efficiency of electromechanical and electrocaloric conversion mechanisms. From the modeling of the operation principles of the different architectures, a comparative analysis will be exposed, emphasizing the advantages and drawbacks of the presented concepts, in terms of maximal output power (under constant vibration magnitude or taking into account the damping effect), load independence, and implementation easiness.

  16. A critical review of the methodology for assessing farm-level grain losses after harvest (G191)

    OpenAIRE

    Boxall, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    In 1976, the American Association of Cereal Chemists, with a grant from the US Agency for International Development to the League for International Food Education, began to assemble a methodology for assessing post-harvest grain losses. As a result of this initiative, a manual (Post-harvest Grain Loss Assessment Methods, by K. L. Harris and C. J. Lindblad) was published in 1978, detailing the techniques available for the measurement and interpretation of losses which occur after harvest at th...

  17. Harvesting contaminants from liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, John T.; Hunter, Scott R.

    2016-05-31

    Disclosed are examples of apparatuses for evaporative purification of a contaminated liquid. In each example, there is a vessel for storing the contaminated fluid. The vessel includes a surface coated with a layer of superhydrophobic material and the surface is at least partially in contact with the contaminated liquid. The contaminants do not adhere to the surface as the purified liquid evaporates, thus allowing the contaminants to be harvested.

  18. More energy wood from forestry operations through integrated harvesting and multi-products processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abundant supplies of forest biomass that could potentially be used for energy wood are not being accessed because of marginal economics, inadequate harvest methods, and restrictive land management practices. Future forestry objectives may impose even more restrictive conditions. Improvements in efficiency and effectiveness of harvest methods, marketing, and bureaucratic processes may, however, render more energy wood while meeting new post-harvest stand conditions. Some improvements have been achieved while others lie on the horizon

  19. Learning and adaptation in the management of waterfowl harvests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Fred A.

    2011-01-01

    A formal framework for the adaptive management of waterfowl harvests was adopted by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service in 1995. The process admits competing models of waterfowl population dynamics and harvest impacts, and relies on model averaging to compute optimal strategies for regulating harvest. Model weights, reflecting the relative ability of the alternative models to predict changes in population size, are used in the model averaging and are updated each year based on a comparison of model predictions and observations of population size. Since its inception the adaptive harvest program has focused principally on mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), which constitute a large portion of the U.S. waterfowl harvest. Four competing models, derived from a combination of two survival and two reproductive hypotheses, were originally assigned equal weights. In the last year of available information (2007), model weights favored the weakly density-dependent reproductive hypothesis over the strongly density-dependent one, and the additive mortality hypothesis over the compensatory one. The change in model weights led to a more conservative harvesting policy than what was in effect in the early years of the program. Adaptive harvest management has been successful in many ways, but nonetheless has exposed the difficulties in defining management objectives, in predicting and regulating harvests, and in coping with the tradeoffs inherent in managing multiple waterfowl stocks exposed to a common harvest. The key challenge now facing managers is whether adaptive harvest management as an institution can be sufficiently adaptive, and whether the knowledge and experience gained from the process can be reflected in higher-level policy decisions.

  20. Effects of Low Temperature Storage on Post-harvest Physiology and Quality of ‘ Changying' Chinese Olive Fruit%低温贮藏对"长营"橄榄果实采后生理和品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔祥佳; 林河通; 陈雅平; 王春辉; 林艺芬; 陈艺晖

    2011-01-01

    The changes of respiration rate, cell membrane permeability and quality of harvested ‘ Changying' Chinese olive( Canarium album (Lour.) Raeusch cv. Changying)fruit stored at (15 ± 1 )。C and (8 ±1 )℃ were investigated in this paper. The results showed as follows: When Chinese olive fruit stored at (15 ±1 ) C, fruit respiration rate was higher and the peak in respiration appeared earlier, fruit cell membrane permeability, fruit weight loss rate and pericarp browning index increased, fruit health rate was lower. While,low temperature storage at ( 8 ± 1 ) ℃ could decrease respiration rate and delay the peak in respiration of Chinese olive fruit, inhibit increases of cell membrane permeability of fruit and browning index of pericarp, reduce fruit weight loss rate, increase health rate of fruit, delay fruit senescence and maintain fruit with higher quality.%研究了"长营"橄榄果实在(15±1)℃和(8±1)℃下贮藏的果实呼吸强度、细胞膜透性和品质的变化.结果表明:在(15±1)℃下贮藏的橄榄果实呼吸强度高,呼吸高峰较旱出现,果实细胞膜透性、失重率和果皮褐变指数增加,果实好果率低.而(8±1)℃低温贮藏可降低橄榄果实呼吸强度,延缓呼吸高峰出现,抑制果实细胞膜透性和果皮褐变指数增加,减少果实失重率,提高果实好果率,延缓果实衰老并保持果实较高的品质.

  1. Alternativas de controle pós-colheita da podridão-parda e da podridão-mole em frutos de pessegueiro Alternatives for post-harvest control of brown rot and soft rot in peach fruits

    OpenAIRE

    Vicente Luiz de Carvalho; Rodrigo Luz da Cunha; Nilton Nagib Jorge Chalfun; Pedro Henrique Abreu Moura

    2009-01-01

    As exigências do consumidor são cada vez maiores com relação à qualidade de produtos in natura. As podridões, além de causar perdas na produção, reduzem a qualidade final do fruto, interferindo significativamente na comercialização. Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, avaliar a eficiência de produtos alternativos, aplicados na pós-colheita, no controle da podridão-parda (Monilinia fructicola) e da podridão-mole (Rhizopus spp.) em pêssegos. O experimento foi conduzido no município de Nepomuceno-M...

  2. Efeito de produtos alternativos para o controle do bolor verde (Penicillium digitatum) em pós-colheita de citros Effect of the alternative products for control of green mold (Penicillium digitatum) in post-harvest citrus fruit

    OpenAIRE

    DANIEL ANDRADE DE SIQUEIRA FRANCO; WAGNER BETTIOL

    2002-01-01

    O objetivo do trabalho foi verificar a ocorrência de sinergismo entre misturas de produtos alternativos aos fungicidas, para o controle do bolor verde (Penicillium digitatum) em pós-colheita de citros. Foram testados dez produtos individualmente e trinta e cinco combinações destes produtos dois a dois, em comparação com tiabendazole e testemunha, com e sem inoculação. Os produtos testados não apresentaram efeito de sinergismo, exceto a mistura carbonato de Na + ácido bórico. Carbonato de Na e...

  3. Degradation of Piezoelectric Materials for Energy Harvesting Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of energy harvesting is to provide long term alternatives to replaceable batteries across a number of applications. Piezoelectric vibration harvesting provides advantages over other transduction methods due to the ability to generate large voltages even on a small scale. However, the operation in energy harvesting is different from typical sensors or actuators. The applied stress is often at the material limit in order to generate the maximum power output. Under these conditions, the degradation of the materials becomes an important factor for long term deployment. In this work bimorph piezoelectric beams were sub jected to lifetime testing through electromagnetic tip actuation for a large number of cycles. The results of two measurement series at different amplitudes are discussed. The dominant effect observed was a shift in mechanical resonance frequencies of the beams which could be very detrimental to resonant harvesters

  4. Deliberation on Design Strategies of Automatic Harvesting Systems: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivaji Bachche

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In Asia, decreasing farmer and labor populations due to various factors is a serious problem that leads to increases in labor costs, higher harvesting input energy consumption and less resource utilization. To solve these problems, researchers are engaged in providing long term and low-tech alternatives in terms of mechanization and automation of agriculture by way of efficient, low cost and easy to use solutions. This paper reviews various design strategies in recognition and picking systems, as well as developments in fruit harvesting robots during the past 30 years in several countries. The main objectives of this paper are to gather all information on fruit harvesting robots; focus on the technical developments so far achieved in picking devices; highlight the problems still to be solved; and discuss the future prospects of fruit harvesting robots.

  5. Modeling and experimental characterization of a fluttering windbelt for energy harvesting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wind energy harvesters based on fluttering offer a valuable and efficient alternative to the traditional wind turbines. A longer life expectancy and cheaper fabrication is attained through the absence of gears or bearings. This article presents the theoretical and experimental study of a novel windbelt-based energy harvester, designed to harvest from continuously changing low-speed winds. A theoretical model is derived to explore the scaling effect on the critical flutter frequency, and experimental results validate the theoretical predictions

  6. Biomechanical energy harvesting from human motion: theory, state of the art, design guidelines, and future directions

    OpenAIRE

    Shapiro Amir; Riemer Raziel

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Biomechanical energy harvesting from human motion presents a promising clean alternative to electrical power supplied by batteries for portable electronic devices and for computerized and motorized prosthetics. We present the theory of energy harvesting from the human body and describe the amount of energy that can be harvested from body heat and from motions of various parts of the body during walking, such as heel strike; ankle, knee, hip, shoulder, and elbow joint motio...

  7. Harvesting biomechanical energy or carrying batteries? An evaluation method based on a comparison of metabolic power

    OpenAIRE

    Schertzer, Eliran; Riemer, Raziel

    2015-01-01

    Background Harvesting energy from human motion is an innovative alternative to using batteries as a source of electrical power for portable devices. Yet there are no guidelines as to whether energy harvesting should be preferred over batteries. This paper introduces an approach to determine which source of energy should be preferred. The proposed approach compares the metabolic power while harvesting energy and while using batteries (or any other power supply, e.g., solar panels), which provi...

  8. Irradiation as an alternative treatment to methyl bromide for insect control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turkey is the leading country in the world, in production and exports of dried fig, apricot, raisin and hazelnut. One of main problem in the export trade is infestation by stored product insects. Using MB is very effective for controlling stored product insects in Turkey. MB has also listed as an ozone depleting substance and worldwide production will be phased out in the near future, than Turkey will be faced very serious problem for export dry fruits and hazelnut. Use of irradiation to disinfest agricultural products has obvius advantages, most of which are influenced by environmental, cultural, economic, commercial and govermental factors. The first two factors, effectiveness and economy, are adressed principally. Research conducted world-wide in the past four decades have shown that radiation processing is an effective and safe method for controlling insect pests of stored products. Irradiation offers an effective alternative quarantine treatment which is more environmentally friendly and sustainable as compared to fumigants. In view of the phasing out of the currently used post harvest chemical fumigants, irradiation either alone or in conjuction with other post-harvest procedures can contribute towards the goals of achieving food security in developing and less developed countries by effectively reducing post-harvest losses

  9. Qualidade de manga 'tommy atkins' pós-colheita com uso de cloreto de cálcio na pré-colheita Quality of 'tommy atkins' mangoes in post-harvest with calcium choride spray use in the pre-harvest period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Hissayuki Hojo

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Mangas da cultivar Tommy Atkins produzidas em Livramento de Nossa Senhora, Bahia, foram analisadas com o objetivo de verificar a influência da aplicação pré-colheita de cloreto de cálcio na vida útil pós-colheita e em relação ao distúrbio fisiológico. As pulverizações de CaC1(2 foram realizadas em três épocas: 35; 65 e 95 dias após o florescimento. Os tratamentos foram concentrações de cloreto de cálcio: 0,0%; 2,0%; 3,5%; 5,0% e 6,5%. Frutos foram colhidos, transportados para o Laboratório de Biotecnologia da UESB, armazenados em câmara fria a 10ºC e 90% UR e avaliados por período de 35 dias. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 5 x 6 (concentração x tempo de armazenamento, com 3 repetições e 2 frutos por parcela. Os parâmetros analisados foram: perda de massa, firmeza, acidez titulável, pH, sólidos solúveis, relação sólidos solúveis/acidez, incidência e severidade de colapso interno. Durante o período de armazenamento, observou-se que, a partir do 28º dia de armazenamento, a perda de massa dos frutos foi menor em doses maiores de cloreto de cálcio. A firmeza e o teor de sólidos solúveis foram influenciados em maiores concentrações de CaC1(2, enquanto as demais características não foram influenciadas significativamente. A incidência e a severidade do colapso interno dos frutos não foram afetadas com uso de cloreto de cálcio. Verificou-se que a aplicação pré-colheita de cloreto de cálcio, em doses maiores (> 3,5%, aumenta a vida útil pós-colheita da manga, contudo não reduz a incidência do colapso interno.The fruits produced in Livramento de Nossa Senhora, Bahia, had been analyzed with the objective to verify the influence of spraying application of calcium chloride in pre-harvest period on shelf life of 'Tommy Atkins' mangoes. The sprayings of CaC1(2 were made three times: 35, 65 and 95 days after mango flowering. The used treatments were composed

  10. Nanostructured piezoelectric energy harvesters

    CERN Document Server

    Briscoe, Joe

    2014-01-01

    This book covers a range of devices that use piezoelectricity to convert mechanical deformation into electrical energy and relates their output capabilities to a range of potential applications. Starting with a description of the fundamental principles and properties of piezo- and ferroelectric materials, where applications of bulk materials are well established, the book shows how nanostructures of these materials are being developed for energy harvesting applications. The authors show how a nanostructured device can be produced, and put in context some of the approaches that are being invest

  11. Micro energy harvesting

    CERN Document Server

    Briand, Danick; Roundy, Shad

    2015-01-01

    With its inclusion of the fundamentals, systems and applications, this reference provides readers with the basics of micro energy conversion along with expert knowledge on system electronics and real-life microdevices. The authors address different aspects of energy harvesting at the micro scale with a focus on miniaturized and microfabricated devices. Along the way they provide an overview of the field by compiling knowledge on the design, materials development, device realization and aspects of system integration, covering emerging technologies, as well as applications in power management, e

  12. A Study of Sugarcane Leaf-Removal Machinery during Harvest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sopa Cansee

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Sugarcane leaf-removing tools could help speed up sugarcane harvest and reduce contamination. Moreover, leaf-removal machinery can solve the problems of sugarcane burning and workers can increase sugarcane harvest production too. The purpose of this research was to study the use of leaf-removal machinery in the post-harvest production of sugarcane to reduce harvest production time and contaminant. Approach: This study focused on the LK92-11 variety of sugarcane having a harvesting period of 12 months, a density of 9,387 stems/rai and could produce 14.01 tons/rai including cane top and, leaves and leaf sheaths of 1675.2 and 180 kg/rai. Sugarcane leaf-removal machinery was applied to a small engine power from a grass-cutting machine. A rotate dish applied 4 different materials, tendon string, soft wire, medium wire and sling for sugarcane leaf-removing. The machine was operated at a constant speed. The efficiency of the sugarcane leaf-removal machinery indicated the capacity of sugarcane leaf-removing by area and operation time. Results: The quantity of leaves and leaf sheaths affect the speed of harvest production. Moreover, leaves and leaf sheaths increase the waste material in production and also contaminate the sugar and the sugar production system with clay, sand, and mud from the fields. Traditional methods for sugarcane harvest without removing leaf took 37 h/rai to complete, but sugarcane leaf-removing could reduce the sugarcane harvest process to 11.4 h/rai. Conclusion: The material of the blades in de-leafing machine is crucial to the efficiency of harvest production time. Blades made from poor materials can cause tangling and clogging in the rotator dish, which increases maintenance time. Further developments in sugarcane leaf removal systems will create dramatic improvement in sugarcane production.

  13. 不同预处理对富贵鸟鹤蕉切花的贮运保鲜效果%Post-harvest Handling of Cut Flowers of Heliconia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙君梅; 杨光穗; 王存; 杨珺; 李静

    2009-01-01

    通过不同预处理方法对鹤蕉'富贵鸟'3个时期(蕾期、初花期、开花期)的花枝进行处理,研究富贵鸟鹤蕉切花的贮藏保鲜技术及贮藏过程中衰老生理的特性.结果表明:花枝在浓度为90 g/L.蔗糖+1 mmol/L STS中浸泡9min的效果最佳;对不同采收期而言,采后贮藏寿命:蕾期>初花期>开花期,其中蕾期和初花期的贮藏寿命差异不显著,均可视为最佳采收期;富贵鸟切花衰老过程中.其花青素含量整体呈下降趋势,可溶性糖和可溶性蛋白含量也整体呈下降趋势,但对于某些处理的某一阶段稍有上升,POD酶活性从贮藏之日起,其活性呈不断上升趋势.%Cut flower branches of Heliconia bihai 'Lobster Claw' at three stages,bud,initial bloom and bloom,were treated with different levels of sugar and STS to observe quality of the cut flower branches and the characteristics of their senescence physiology. The results showed that the flower branches treated with 90 g/L Suc and 1 mmol/L STS for 9 min were best in quality and storage life. The treated cut flower branches were about 3.1 ~4.5 days longer in storage life than the control. The storage life of the flower branches cut at different stages varied and was in the order of bud stage>initial bloom stage>bloom stage,and there was no obvious difference in the storage life between the bud and initial bloom stages. The bud and initial stages are hence considered as optimum stages for harvesting. The cut flower branches generally tended to decline in their anthocyanidin content during their storage,as well as the soluble sugar content and the soluble protein content,but some of the flower branches showed a rising trend in the anthocyanidin,soluble sugar content and soluble protein content in some treatments at given stages. POD activity was in a rising trend starting from the storage of the cut flower branches.

  14. A Feasibility Analysis of Wind Power as an Alternative Post-mining Land Use in Surface Coal Mines in West Virginia

    OpenAIRE

    Duerksen, Alek Charles

    2011-01-01

    Surface coal mining in West Virginia has supplied energy to the eastern coast of the United States for over a century. Over the years, the coal mining industry has been forced to adapt as societal demands regarding health, safety, and environmental impacts have changed. More recent pressure has called for another iteration of change: long-term post-mining sustainability. The research presented in this thesis investigates one potential solutionâ or component of a solutionâ to improve the sus...

  15. Pilot Rainwater Harvesting Study Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    McCarton, Liam; O'Hogain, Sean; Reid, Anna; McIntyre, Niamh; Pender, Jenny

    2009-01-01

    There are no National Water Quality Standards for Rainwater Harvesting supply in Ireland. The Development Technology Centre (DTC) at the Dublin Institute of Technology was commissioned by the National Rural Water Monitoring Committee in 2005 to assess the feasibility of using rainwater harvesting to supplement treated mains water for non-potable uses. The project involved the design, installation, commissioning and monitoring of rainwater harvesting facilities for rural domestic and agricultu...

  16. Minimally Invasive Posterior Hamstring Harvest

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Trent J.; Lubowitz, James H.

    2013-01-01

    Autogenous hamstring harvesting for knee ligament reconstruction is a well-established standard. Minimally invasive posterior hamstring harvest is a simple, efficient, reproducible technique for harvest of the semitendinosus or gracilis tendon or both medial hamstring tendons. A 2- to 3-cm longitudinal incision from the popliteal crease proximally, in line with the semitendinosus tendon, is sufficient. The deep fascia is bluntly penetrated, and the tendon or tendons are identified. Adhesions ...

  17. Weight training and appropriate nutrient supplementation as an alternative method to pharmacological treatment in rehabilitation of post-myocardial infarction patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gąsiorowski, Adam; Dutkiewicz, Jacek

    2012-01-01

    The article describes the impact of weight training, micro-elements and vitamins on rehabilitation in post-myocardial infarction patients. Cardiac rehabilitation is a multi-disciplinary and multi-faceted intervention aimed at restoring well-being and retarding disease progression in patients with heart disease. It has been shown that exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation is effective in reducing total and cardiovascular mortality. Intake of vitamins and other diet supplements was reported to exert beneficial effects. Pharmacological medication is associated with an increased risk of severe arrhythmia, and many adverse outcomes. Therefore, since conventional medicine only relieves the symptoms, cellular nutrition should be used in order to improve the quality of life in post-myocardial infarction patients. These elements prevent another infarction. The following nutrients are reported to have beneficial effects on general and cardiovascular health: amino acids, vitamins, coenzyme Q10, pycnogenol, inositol, omega-3 fatty acids, macromineral elements, and trace mineral elements. In conclusion, the review indicates that appropriate weight training and diet supplementation ensure full recovery and elimination of risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. PMID:23020020

  18. Characterisation of an Electrostatic Vibration Harvester

    CERN Document Server

    Sterken, T; Fiorini, P; Puers, R

    2008-01-01

    Harvesting energy from ambient vibration is proposed as an alternative to storage based power supplies for autonomous systems. The system presented converts the mechanical energy of a vibration into electrical energy by means of a variable capacitor, which is polarized by an electret. A lumped element model is used to study the generator and design a prototype. The device has been micromachined in silicon, based on a two-wafer process. The prototype was successfully tested, both using an external polarization source and an electret.

  19. Energy Harvesting System for aerospace application

    OpenAIRE

    Ccorimanya Becerra, Hernan Manuel

    2013-01-01

    [ANGLÈS] The Energy Harvesting is really interesting concept nowadays because it consists in get energy from the environment that is already there. Nowadays application and commons such as nodes of a wireless network self-powered, the flexibility to locate them give an interesting advantages to allocate the network in strategic points or even to difficult places. Alternatively, it can be set out from this energy source a sub-system inside the other sub-system more big, that can be self-powere...

  20. Efeito da atmosfera modificada e da refrigeração na conservação pós-colheita de manga espada vermelha The effect of modified atmosphere and refrigeration on post-harvest of mango red espada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Bittencourt Pfaffenbach

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho visou avaliar o comportamento pós-colheita da variedade de manga Espada Vermelha em refrigeração e o potencial da tecnologia de atmosfera modificada na conservação pós-colheita. A atmosfera modificada foi conseguida através do uso de PVC (6µm, PEBD (25µm, PEBD (25µm com sachê absorvedor de etileno de permanganato de potássio, filme de permeabilidade seletiva aditivado com absorvedor de etileno (Conservax e controle (sem filme plástico. Os frutos foram mantidos a 12°C e 90% UR. A avaliação da qualidade foi feita semanalmente logo após a saída dos frutos da refrigeração e após a sua permanência por 4 dias, em temperatura ambiente. Foram feitas determinações de perda de peso individual dos frutos, evolução da cor da casca e da polpa, taxa de firmeza dos frutos, ocorrência de manchas deteriorativas, pH da polpa, teores de sólidos solúveis (°Brix, porcentagem de acidez (% de ácido cítrico e cálculo da relação °Brix/acidez. PEBD+sachê influenciou positivamente a manutenção da qualidade e o Conservax prejudicou a maturação dos frutos de manga.The present research was aimed to evaluate the post-harvest behavior of mango Red Espada in refrigeration and the potencial of the modified atmosphere technology, tending to permit a best post-harvest conservation of mangoes. The modified atmosphere was obtained using PVC (6µm, PEBD (25µm, PEBD (25µm with ethylene absorber sachet, permeable selective film with ethylene absorber in its structure (Conservax and control (without film. The fruits were maintained at 12°C and 90% RH. The quality valuation occurred weekly after refrigeration and after permanence of fruits at ambient air temperature. Parameters as fruit weight loss, peel and fresh color, firmness, decay incidence, pH, total soluble solids, titratable acidity and their ratios were evaluated. PEBD+sachet affected positively the quality maintainence and Conservax harmed the maturity of mangos.

  1. Efficacy of Aureobasidium pullulans YW1 in Suppression of Gray Mold on Post-harvest Strawberry Fruits%出芽短梗霉菌株YW1防治储藏期草莓灰霉病的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄蓉; 杨龙; 张静; 李国庆

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated efficacy of Aureobasidium pullulans strain YW1 in suppression of post-harvest strawberry Botrytis fruit rot (BFR) caused by Botrytis cinerea and investigated its biocontrol mechanism. Results showed that strain YW1 effectively suppressed BFR on post-harvest strawberry fruits, and the disease incidence depressed from 95.1% to 30.5%-55.6%. The volatile organic compounds released by strain YW1 effectively suppressed mycelial growth of B. cinerea and the suppression ratio was 52.1%. Cell free supernatant of the YEPD culture of strain YW1 could not suppress the BFR, so may be strain YW1 out-compete B. cinerea on strawberry fruits depend on viable cells. This study suggests that the strain YW1 of A. pullulans is a promising agent for control of B. cinerea and further research is worthy.%本文研究了出芽短梗霉Aureobasidium pullulans菌株YW1防治储藏期草莓果实灰霉病Botrytis cinerea的效果,并对其防病机制进行了初步探索。结果表明,菌株 YW1可以有效的控制储藏期草莓灰霉病的发生,发病率可由95.1%降至30.5%~55.6%,菌株YW1产生的挥发性物质可以抑制灰葡萄孢菌丝生长,抑制率达到52.1%。去除菌体的上清液对灰霉菌无明显抑制活性,说明其抗菌作用机制可能是活菌的竞争作用。由此可见,菌株YW1是1株有应用潜力的生防菌。

  2. 1-MCP处理对不同成熟度甜柿采后品质和生理的影响%Effect of Post-harvest 1-MCP Treatment on Quality and Physiology of Sweet Persimmons of Varying Ripeness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶玲; 李冬香; 王威; 谢倩; 陈清西

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of the pre-storage 1-Methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) treatment on the physiology and quality of sweet persimmons (Diospyros kaki L. cv. Fuyou' and Diospyros kaki L. cv. Cilang') harvested at different stages of ripeness and stored at different temperatures. The treatments were conducted with the 1-MCP concentration of 0. 50 μL · L-1 or 1.0 μL o L-1 and the fruits stored under either room (approximately 20℃) or refrigerated temperature (approximately 5℃). The results showed that the shelf life of the fruits at Stage I Ripeness could be extended for 14 days stored at room temperature, or 21 days under refrigeration. The 0. 50 μL o L-1 1-MCP application kept the fruits, especially those in Stage I Ripeness, fresh in the duration of storage. And, the percentage of acceptable fruits was significantly higher than the control. By combining the low temperature and 0. 50 μL o L-1 1-MCP treatment, the textural softening and peel color change to red on the fruits were delayed. The soluble sugar conversion, soluble tannin content, respiration rate, as well as the activities of PG and Cx in the fruits were also reduced. The results suggested that the sweet persimmons at Stage I Ripeness had a better potential than at Stage II Ripeness for an extended shelf life, and that the low temperature and 0. 50 μL o L-1 1-MCP treatment could postpone the ripening, and thus, the changes on the fruit' s texture and color.%为了探讨不同贮藏温度下1-MCP处理对不同成熟度的甜柿采后生理的影响.方法:以甜柿品种‘富有,、‘次郎’为材料,分别在低温(5℃)和室温(20℃)的贮藏条件下研究不同浓度(0.50 μL·L-1和1.00 μL·L-1)1-MCP(1-甲基环丙烯)处理对不同成熟度(成熟度Ⅰ与成熟度Ⅱ)甜柿好果率、硬度和若干生理指标的影响.结果表明,在贮藏期间,成熟度Ⅰ果实在室温下贮藏时间可延长14 d,低温下贮藏可延长21 d;0.50 μL·L-1 1

  3. Winter Dew Harvest in Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arias-Torres Jorge Ernesto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study presents experimental and theoretical results of winter dew harvest in México City in terms of condensation rate. A simplified theoretical model based on a steady-state energy balance on a radiator-condenser was fitted, as a function of the ambient temperature, the relative humidity and the wind velocity. A glass sheet and aluminum sheet white-painted were used as samples over the outdoor experiments. A good correlation was obtained between the theoretical and experimental data. The experimental results show that there was condensation in 68% of the winter nights on both condensers. The total winter condensed mass was 2977 g/m2 and 2888 g/m2 on the glass sheet and aluminum sheet white-painted, respectively. Thus, the condensed mass on the glass was only 3% higher than that on the painted surface. The maximum nightly dew harvests occurred during December, which linearly reduced from 50 g/m2 night to 22 g/m2 night as the winter months went by. The condensation occurred from 1:00 a.m. to 9:00 a.m., with maximum condensation rates between 6:00 a.m. and 7:00 a.m. The dew harvest can provide a partial alternative to the winter water shortage in certain locations with similar climates to the winter in Mexico City, as long as pollution is not significant.

  4. The hydrological effects of harvesting at Boreal Plain, Alberta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyani, Ghasemali; Yew Gan, Thian; Devito, Kevin

    2010-05-01

    Unique hydrological characteristics of Boreal Plain environment such as sub-humid climate, deep glacial deposits, and significant heterogeneity in soil and vegetation type creates a complicated hydrology in the region. The study of hydrological effects of harvesting in Boreal Plain, which is occurring at an unprecedented rate for oil and gas exploration and timber harvesting, is necessary for a sustainable forest management. However there are a few previous studies addressing the hydrological effects of harvesting on quantity and quality of water in Boreal Plain. This paper reports on an on-going paired catchments experimental study at Alpac Catchment Experiment (ACE: 55N 112W) area near Lac La Biche, Alberta started in early 2005. A 2-km2 catchment (H2) was harvested almost 70% in winter 2006. Later, the harvesting occurred sequentially within the bigger catchment (H1, 10 km2) i.e. 29% in 2007 and 19% in 2008 totally account for about 80% of aspen forest. Finally, the smallest catchments was harvested approximately 90% in summer 2008. The collected pre- and post harvest data have been used to assess the effect of harvesting on the catchment overall responses and soil moisture. The pre-harvest streamflow data collected at H1 and its reference catchment R1 show that unit area runoff of both catchments are matched fairly good, and may be used to assess changes in streamflow after harvesting. An increase in soil moisture and soil temperature after harvesting was observed in H2, but little to no change in streamflow response. This suggests the dominance of soil moisture in the catchment, which might be a promising indicator for tracking the effect of harvesting. The field data is then used to drive the hydrological model MISBA to simulate the water and energy cycling in the Boreal Plain. By adding a reservoir to MISBA to simulate the significant soil storage characteristic of the Boreal Plain, and by applying different catchment discretization schemes based on soil

  5. Combine harvester : threshing process description

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carton, Denis Manuel

    1999-01-01

    The harvest consists of two mains opertions : cutting the crop and extracting the grain.This report is a general description of a model for this mechanism.......The harvest consists of two mains opertions : cutting the crop and extracting the grain.This report is a general description of a model for this mechanism....

  6. Development of willow harvesting machinery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    Advanced development of a device for harvesting willow up to 50 mm diameter x 4 m length, driven from the power take off of a standard tractor.......Advanced development of a device for harvesting willow up to 50 mm diameter x 4 m length, driven from the power take off of a standard tractor....

  7. RF Energy Harvesting in WSNs

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Lizzie Zuowen

    2008-01-01

    As a vital factor affecting system cost and lifetime, energy consumption in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) has been paid much attention to. This article reviews existing energy harvesting technology applied in WSNs, and analyzes advantages of harvesting radio frequency (RF) energy in WSNs.

  8. Equivalent circuit model of an impact-based piezoelectric energy harvester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an equivalent circuit model of an impact-based piezoelectric energy harvester. The harvester alternately generates two different shapes of damped- oscillating signals due to the asymmetric structure of the device. Those signals have strong high frequency components through mechanical impact from low frequency vibration. Equivalent circuit model with dual voltage source is proposed to precisely describe the behaviour of the harvester. The simulation results of the harvester with typical conversion circuits were compared with measurement data to verify the correctness of proposed model

  9. Development of an Energy Harvesting Device using Piezoceramic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Vainatey

    Piezoelectric energy harvesters are increasingly being pursued for their potential to replace finite-life batteries in wireless sensor modules and for their potential to create self-powered devices. This work presents the development of a novel piezoelectric harvester that attempts to improve upon the power output limitations of current piezoelectric harvesting technology. This novel harvester uses the concept of torsion on a tube to produce shear stresses and hence uses improved piezoelectric properties of the shear mode of piezoceramics to generate higher power outputs. This concept is first presented in this work and a proof-of-concept prototype is utilized to experimentally demonstrate the validity of this novel device. After this, the behaviour of the novel harvester is explored through an investigation into three cross-section geometries of the torsion tube and varying geometries of the eccentric mass using three different comparison metrics. Through this, it is observed that configurations with higher torsional compliance and high eccentric mass inertias have the potential for the highest power output and highest harvester effectiveness. However, the mechanical damping in the system is also found to significantly impact the harvester output resulting in prototypes of the various configurations not performing as expected. As a result of this discrepancy, the factors affecting the performance of the harvester are analyzed in greater detail through the development of a mathematical model that is then used to develop a set of guidelines to direct the design of a torsion harvester for a desired application. These guidelines are then used to develop an improved torsion harvester with a demonstrated ability to produce 1.2 mW of output power at its resonant frequency to power a wireless sensor module. Finally, the use of alternative materials such as single crystals of PMN-PT in the torsion harvester is also examined. Through finite element simulations and with

  10. Electrochemically driven mechanical energy harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sangtae; Choi, Soon Ju; Zhao, Kejie; Yang, Hui; Gobbi, Giorgia; Zhang, Sulin; Li, Ju

    2016-01-01

    Efficient mechanical energy harvesters enable various wearable devices and auxiliary energy supply. Here we report a novel class of mechanical energy harvesters via stress-voltage coupling in electrochemically alloyed electrodes. The device consists of two identical Li-alloyed Si as electrodes, separated by electrolyte-soaked polymer membranes. Bending-induced asymmetric stresses generate chemical potential difference, driving lithium ion flux from the compressed to the tensed electrode to generate electrical current. Removing the bending reverses ion flux and electrical current. Our thermodynamic analysis reveals that the ideal energy-harvesting efficiency of this device is dictated by the Poisson's ratio of the electrodes. For the thin-film-based energy harvester used in this study, the device has achieved a generating capacity of 15%. The device demonstrates a practical use of stress-composition-voltage coupling in electrochemically active alloys to harvest low-grade mechanical energies from various low-frequency motions, such as everyday human activities.

  11. Feasibility study of thermal energy harvesting using lead free pyroelectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Hasanul; Sarker, Md Rashedul H.; Shahriar, Shaimum; Arif Ishtiaque Shuvo, Mohammad; Delfin, Diego; Hodges, Deidra; (Bill Tseng, Tzu-Liang; Roberson, David; Love, Norman; Lin, Yirong

    2016-05-01

    Energy harvesting has significant potential for applications in energizing wireless sensors and charging energy storage devices. To date, one of the most widely investigated materials for mechanical and thermal energy harvesting is lead zirconate titanate (PZT). However, lead has detrimental effects on the environment and on health. Hence, alternative materials are required for this purpose. In this paper, a lead free material, lithium niobate (LNB) is investigated as a potential material for pyroelectric energy harvesting. Although its theoretical pyroelectric properties are lower compared to PZT, it has better properties than other lead free alternatives such as ZnO. In addition, LNB has a high Curie temperature of about 1142 °C, which makes it applicable for high temperature energy harvesting, where other pyroelectric ceramics are not suitable. Herein, an energy harvesting and storage system composed of a single crystal LNB and a porous carbon-based super-capacitor was investigated. It is found that with controlled heating and cooling, a single wafer of LNB (75 mm diameter and 0.5 mm thickness) could generate 437.72 nW cm–3 of power and it could be used to charge a super-capacitor with a charging rate of 2.63 mV (h cm3)–1.

  12. Research article Role of uterine compression suture techniques as an alternative to obstetric hysterectomy for severe post partum haemorrhage during cesarean section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sapana Shah

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the efficacy of a transmural uterine compression suturing technique in reducing primary postpartum haemorrhage(PPPH due to severe uterine atony, which does not respond to manual compression, ecbolics or bilateral uterine artery ligation. This study evaluated the effectiveness of CHO (multiple square suturing technique for uterine compression in patients with PPPH after cesarean section to conserve uterus. Design: Prospective study. Methods: Between January 2008 and December 2012, 9748 women underwent cesarean section. Out of them 65 cases had PPPH, of which fifteen patients underwent uterine compression with CHO sutures after PPPH. The medical records of patients with PPPH after cesarean section who had undergone this treatment, and results of follow-up and our experience with this method were analyzed. Results: Uterine compression suturing was sufficient to stop the bleeding in all women. The technique was simple to perform in an emergency situation. One of the women developed uterine synechie. Normal menstruation patterns returned in all the women except one. One patient lost for follow up. Since uterine compression suturing, six women tried to conceive and four (66.7% have had a term delivery. Conclusion: Uterine compression with CHO sutures is a simple conservative procedure to control post partum haemorrhage in case of failure of the usual management. It is highly effective and straightforward emergency procedure which conserves the uterus in these patients and can be performed by each and every gynecologist.

  13. Pine Harvest Impact on Soil Structure of a Dystric Cambisol (Humic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano da Costa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Traffic of heavy machinery at harvest and log extraction causes structural degradation of the soil, but studies on the effects of forest harvesting on soils with high organic matter content and exchangeable Al are scarce. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of mechanized forest harvesting operations on a Dystric Cambisol (Humic with high organic matter (more 50 g kg1 content and exchangeable Al (more 6,0 cmolc kg-1, reforested with Pinus taeda L. The evaluated harvesting system were the whole-tree, in which the feller-buncher cuts and lays the trees down in bundles; the skidder drags the tree bundles up near a road; and the harvester delimbs and cuts the trees into short logs, stacking them on the roadside to be loaded onto trucks. The areas were evaluated for soil conditions at pre-harvest, prior to harvest, and at post-harvest, consisting of areas of low disturbance, high disturbance, forest residues and log yards. The effects of compaction after forest harvesting are observed by the decrease in total porosity (especially biopores and macropores, soil saturated hydraulic conductivity, and stability of aggregates. After forest harvesting, soil compaction was observed in all evaluated situations, but with different depths depending on operation type and the intensity of traffic carried in each area.

  14. Mourning dove hunting regulation strategy based on annual harvest statistics and banding data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otis, D.L.

    2006-01-01

    Although managers should strive to base game bird harvest management strategies on mechanistic population models, monitoring programs required to build and continuously update these models may not be in place. Alternatively, If estimates of total harvest and harvest rates are available, then population estimates derived from these harvest data can serve as the basis for making hunting regulation decisions based on population growth rates derived from these estimates. I present a statistically rigorous approach for regulation decision-making using a hypothesis-testing framework and an assumed framework of 3 hunting regulation alternatives. I illustrate and evaluate the technique with historical data on the mid-continent mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) population. I evaluate the statistical properties of the hypothesis-testing framework using the best available data on mourning doves (Zenaida macroura). I use these results to discuss practical implementation of the technique as an interim harvest strategy for mourning doves until reliable mechanistic population models and associated monitoring programs are developed.

  15. Design and experimental evaluation of flextensional-cantilever based piezoelectric transducers for flow energy harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyeong Jae; Sherrit, Stewart; Tosi, Luis Phillipe; Colonius, Tim

    2016-04-01

    Cantilever type piezoelectric harvesters, such as bimorphs, are typically used for vibration induced energy harvesting. However, a major drawback of a piezoelectric bimorph is its brittle nature in harsh environments, precipitating short life-times as well as output power degradation. The emphasis in this work is to design robust, highly efficient piezoelectric harvesters that are capable of generating electrical power in the milliwatt range. Various harvesters were modeled, designed and prototyped, and the flextensional actuator based harvester, where the metal cantilever is mounted and coupled between two flextensional actuators, was found to be a viable alternative to the cantilever type piezoelectric harvesters. Preliminary tests show that these devices equipped with 5x5x36 mm two piezoelectric PZT stacks can produce greater than 50 mW of power under air flow induced vibrations.

  16. Response of a Wild Edible Plant to Human Disturbance: Harvesting Can Enhance the Subsequent Yield of Bamboo Shoots.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noboru Katayama

    Full Text Available Wild edible plants, ecological foodstuffs obtained from forest ecosystems, grow in natural fields, and their productivity depends on their response to harvesting by humans. Addressing exactly how wild edible plants respond to harvesting is critical because this knowledge will provide insights into how to obtain effective and sustainable ecosystem services from these plants. We focused on bamboo shoots of Sasa kurilensis, a popular wild edible plant in Japan. We examined the effects of harvesting on bamboo shoot productivity by conducting an experimental manipulation of bamboo shoot harvesting. Twenty experimental plots were prepared in the Teshio Experimental Forest of Hokkaido University and were assigned into two groups: a harvest treatment, in which newly emerged edible bamboo shoots were harvested (n = 10; and a control treatment, in which bamboo shoots were maintained without harvesting (n = 10. In the first year of harvesting (2013, bamboo shoot productivities were examined twice; i.e., the productivity one day after harvesting and the subsequent post-harvest productivity (2-46 days after harvesting, and we observed no difference in productivity between treatments. This means that there was no difference in original bamboo shoot productivity between treatments, and that harvesting did not influence productivity in the initial year. In contrast, in the following year (2014, the number of bamboo shoots in the harvested plots was 2.4-fold greater than in the control plots. These results indicate that over-compensatory growth occurred in the harvested plots in the year following harvesting. Whereas previous research has emphasized the negative impact of harvesting, this study provides the first experimental evidence that harvesting can enhance the productivity of a wild edible plant. This suggests that exploiting compensatory growth, which really amounts to less of a decline in productivity, may be s a key for the effective use of wild edible

  17. Influência da adubação potássica na produção e na atividade de enzimas pós-colheita em escarola (Cichorium endivia L. / Influence of potassium fertilization in endive (Cichorium endiviaL. production and enzyme post-harvest activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sérgio Pavinato

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available ResumoO potássio é um dos nutrientes mais abundantes no citoplasma das células vegetais, e sua alta contribuição no metabolismo das plantas está relacionada ao controle osmótico das células e à ativação de inúmeras enzimas. Sendo de conhecimento que a produção e manutenção da qualidade pós-colheita de sementes, frutos e hortaliças depende da boa nutrição potássica, o presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito de doses de potássio na produção e qualidade pós-colheita de escarola. A escarola, variedade Malan, foi cultivada em vasos com capacidade de 10 kg de solo, em casa de vegetação, na Fazenda Experimental Lajeado, Departamento de Produção Vegetal/Horticultura da FCA-UNESP, Botucatu-SP. Os tratamentos consistiram em cinco doses de potássio, correspondentes a 0, 75, 150, 300 e 600 kg ha-1 de K2O, aplicadas 1/3 no plantio e o restante em três coberturas (8, 16 e 28 dias após o transplante. Por ocasião do transplante, aplicou-se a adubação nitrogenada e fosfatada recomendadas para a cultura. Aos 35 dias após o transplante, as plantas foram colhidas e se efetuaram as avaliações de diâmetro de cabeça, massa fresca e área foliar. Ainda utilizando plantas frescas, determinou-se a atividade das enzimas polifenol oxidase e peroxidase. Em plantas secas, em estufa a 60°C por 72 h, foram determinadas a massa seca, o teor de K no tecido e o acúmulo total de proteínas. De maneira geral, a aplicação de 150 kg ha-1 de K2O, correspondente à dose recomendada pelos boletins de adubação para a escarola, resultou em máxima produção e qualidade pós-colheita, não respondendo a doses mais elevadas.AbstractPotassium is one of the nutrients that is present in higher levels in the cytoplasm of plant cells, and its contribution in plant metabolism is related to cell osmotic regulation and the activation of many enzymes. Given the knowledge that production and post-harvest quality maintenance of seeds, fruit

  18. A bountiful spring harvest

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Although we recently put the clocks forward and spring has officially begun, the view from my window looks more autumnal – befitting of the season of mists and mellow fruitfulness, rather than that of sowing seeds for the future. Which, in a way is appropriate. With the LHC paused, we are reaping a kind of harvest in the form of recognition for our efforts.   Two weeks ago, I was in Edinburgh, on behalf of everyone at CERN, to collect the Edinburgh medal, which we shared with Peter Higgs. I particularly like the citation for this honour: “The Edinburgh Medal is awarded each year to men and women of science and technology whose professional achievements are judged to have made a significant contribution to the understanding and well-being of humanity.” I like this, because it underlines a fact that needs to be shouted louder – that fundamental science does more than build the sum of human knowledge, it is also the foundation of human well-being. A few d...

  19. Compatability Determination for Timber Harvesting

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a compliance document which pertains to allowing commercial and noncommercial timber harvesting to conserve, restore and rehabilitate forest ecosystems at...

  20. US Forest Service Timber Harvests

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www that depicts the area planned and accomplished acres treated as a part of the timber harvest program of work, funded through the budget...

  1. Magnetic Nanocomposite Cilia Energy Harvester

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Mohammed Asadullah

    2016-02-11

    An energy harvester capable of converting low frequency vibrations into electrical energy is presented. The operating principle, fabrication process and output characteristics at different frequencies are discussed. The harvester is realized by fabricating an array of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) - iron nanowire nanocomposite cilia on a planar coil array. Each coil element consists of 14 turns and occupies an area of 600 μm x 600μm. The cilia are arranged in a 12x5 array and each cilium is 250 μm wide and 2 mm long. The magnetic characteristics of the fabricated cilia indicate that the nanowires are well aligned inside of the nanocomposite, increasing the efficiency of energy harvesting. The energy harvester occupies an area of 66.96 mm2 and produces an output r.m.s voltage of 206.47μV, when excited by a 40 Hz vibration of 1 mm amplitude.

  2. Energy Harvesting from Mechanical Shocks Using A Sensitive Vibration Energy Harvester

    OpenAIRE

    Zdenek Hadas; Vojtech Vetiska; Vladislav Singule; Ondrej Andrs; Jiri Kovar; Jan Vetiska

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with a unique principle of energy harvesting technologies. An energy harvesting device generates electric energy from its surroundings using some kind of energy conversion method. Therefore, the considered energy harvesting device does not consume any fuel or substance. The presented energy harvesting system is used forenergy harvesting of electrical energy from mechanical shocks. The presented energy harvesting system uses a very sensitive vibration energy harvester, which w...

  3. Lateral Ridge Augmentation with Autogenous Bone Harvested Using Trephine Drills: A Noninvasive Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arab, H. R.; Moeintaghavi, A.; Taheri, M.; Sargolzaie, N.; Aghasizadeh, D.; Shiezadeh, F.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the success rate of a chairside ridge augmentation procedure using bone autografts harvested with trephine drills and placed without the use of screws. Methods: Thirty patients were recruited for the study. After the surgical site was anesthetized and a crestal incision was made, an envelope flap was retracted using blunt dissection limited to the graft site, and the periosteum was raised intact and undamaged from the bone. The flap was extended laterally to obtain sufficient space for the bone graft. At the donor site, bone was obtained from the external oblique ridge area. A #5 or #6 trephine drill was used to harvest one or two pieces of bone. The bone blocks were placed inside the envelope flap at the recipient site, which was then sutured and covered with periodontal dressing. Antibiotics, analgesics, and mouthwash were prescribed. Measurements of ridge width were performed using CBCT before and 3 months after surgery. The pre- and post operative results were compared using paired t test. Results: Pre- and post-operative mean ridge widths were 2.23 ± 0.79 and 5.16 ± 0.68 mm, respectively. The mean increase in width was 2.92 ± 0.89 mm(P < 0.001). Conclusion: This non-invasive and simple technique provided an acceptable increase in ridge width. As the sample was small, we recommend further clinical investigation with larger samples to confirm that this technique may be used successfully as an alternative to current invasive augmentation methods. PMID:27006718

  4. Alternatives to Rare Earth Permanent Magnets for Energy Harvesting Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazdozian, Helena; Hadimani, Ravi; Jiles, David

    Direct-drive permanent magnet generators (DDPMGs) offer increased reliability and efficiency over the more commonly used geared doubly-fed induction generator, yet are only employed in less than 1 percent of utility scale wind turbines in the U.S. One major barrier to increased deployment of DDPMGs in the U.S. wind industry is NdFeB permanent magnets (PMs), which contain critical rare earth elements Nd and Dy. To allow for the use of rare earth free PMs, the magnetic loading, defined as the average magnetic flux density over the rotor surface, must be maintained. Halbach cylinders are employed in 3.5kW Halbach PMGs (HPMGs) of varying slot-to-pole ratio to concentrate the magnetic flux output by a lower energy density PM over the rotor surface. We found that for high pole and slot number, the increase in magnetic loading is sufficient to allow for the use of strontium iron oxide hard ferrite PMs and achieved rated performance. Joule losses in the stator windings were found to increase for the hard ferrite PMs due to increased inductance in the stator windings. However, for scaling of the HPMG designs to 3MW, rated performance and high efficiency were achieved, demonstrating the potential for elimination for rare earth PMs in commercial scale wind turbines. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 1069283 and a Barbara and James Palmer Endowment at Iowa State University.

  5. 50 CFR 640.21 - Harvest limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Harvest limitations. 640.21 Section 640.21... § 640.21 Harvest limitations. (a) Berried lobsters. A berried (egg-bearing) spiny lobster or slipper... immediately to the water unharmed. (2) No person may harvest or attempt to harvest a spiny lobster by...

  6. Indução de resistência à podridão-parda em pêssegos pelo uso de eliciadores em pós-colheita Induction of resistance to brown-rot on peaches by elicitors use in post-harvest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moeses Andrigo Danner

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito dos eliciadores acibenzolar-S-metil e proteína harpina, aplicados em pós-colheita, na indução de resistência sistêmica à podridão-parda em pêssegos. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições, em parcelas subdivididas - com e sem ferimentos provocados aos frutos -, e os tratamentos foram constituídos por: acibenzolar-S-metil (50 mg do i.a. L-1, dois produtos comerciais com proteína harpina (80 mg do i.a. L-1 e uma testemunha (água destilada. Os frutos foram pulverizados, individualmente, com 1 mL de solução aquosa com os tratamentos e, após 12 horas, efetuou-se a inoculação com Monilinia fructicola (0,2 mL da suspensão com concentração de 10(5 esporos mL-1, em cada lado do fruto. Após 60 horas da inoculação, avaliaram-se: a área lesionada, a esporulação e o percentual de controle. Determinaram-se os teores de proteínas totais, açúcares redutores e totais, fenóis, além da atividade da enzima fenilalanina amônia-liase (FAL. Os eliciadores induziram resistência dos frutos a M. fructicola, com redução do desenvolvimento do fungo. O uso dos eliciadores aumentou os teores dos parâmetros bioquímicos avaliados e a atividade da FAL, que esteve relacionada à redução da área lesionada em pêssegos. Os indutores podem contribuir para o manejo integrado da podridão-parda em pêssegos, em pós-colheita.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of acibenzolar-S-methyl and harpin protein elicitors, applied in post-harvest, in systemic resistance induction to brown-rot, on peaches. A completely randomized design was utilized, with four replicates, in a split plot scheme - injured or noninjured peaches -, and treatments were constituted of : acibenzolar-S-methyl (50 mg of a.i. L-1, two commercial products with harpin protein (80 mg of a.i. L-1; and control (distilled water. Peaches were sprayed individually with 1 mL of

  7. Teor de nitrato em alface hidropônica em função de vazões e períodos de pós-colheita Nitrate content in hydroponic lettuce in function of flow rate and post-harvest periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Aprígio

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi determinar o teor de nitrato (NO3- presente em plantas de alface (Lactuca sativa L. da cultivar Vera, conduzida por hidroponia, em função de vazões e períodos de pós-colheita. O experimento foi realizado no município de Cascavel, PR, em casa de vegetação da Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná (UNIOESTE. As plantas foram nutridas mediante utilização de uma solução nutritiva caracterizada por possuir condutividade elétrica média de 1,2 dS m-1 e que, ao percorrer toda a bancada de cultivo, retornava ao tanque de irrigação e reiniciava o processo, constituindo, desta forma, um sistema fechado. No experimento, utilizou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado com oito repetições que foram representadas, individualmente, por duas plantas de alface, no esquema fatorial (3 x 4. Os tratamentos resultaram da combinação entre três vazões (0,5; 1,0 e 1,5 L min-1 e quatro períodos de armazenamento pós-colheita (0; 24; 48 e 72 h. A determinação do teor de nitrato foi realizada por meio do método colorimétrico e os valores obtidos foram inferiores ao limite máximo exigido pela Comunidade Europeia. Os fatores investigados influenciaram significativamente os teores médios de nitrato.The objective of this study was to determine the nitrate (NO3- content present in lettuce plants (Lactuca sativa L. of the Vera cultivar, produced under hydroponic system, in function of different flow rates and post-harvest periods. The experiment was conducted in the city of Cascavel-PR, in a greenhouse of the Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná (UNIOESTE. The plants were nourished by the use of a nutrient solution, characterized by mean electrical conductivity of 1.2 dS m-1 which after passing the entire growing bench, returned to the irrigation tank and restarted the process, forming a closed system. The experiment was conducted in completely randomized design with eight replications, which were represented

  8. Uso de películas de fécula de mandioca e pvc na conservação pós-colheita de pimentão Use cassava starch films and pvc on post-harvest conservation of bell pepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Toews Doll Hojo

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Os produtos hortícolas apresentam vida útil pós-colheita limitada, devido às reações bioquímicas de natureza catabólica, que aumentam com a senescência, causando a morte dos tecidos. Avaliou-se o uso de películas de fécula de mandioca e PVC na manutenção da qualidade pós-colheita de pimentões (Capsicum annuum L. armazenados em condições ambiente. Pimentões cv. Ikeda foram submetidos a 4 tratamentos: PVC, biofilmes nas concentrações de 3,5%, 4% e 4,5% de fécula de mandioca. Como testemunha foram utilizados frutos sem recobrimento de filme. As análises químicas foram realizadas a cada 2 dias, durante 8 dias de armazenamento, sendo avaliados a perda de massa, firmeza, acidez titulável (AT, pH, sólidos solúveis (SS, pectina total e pectina solúvel, coloração da casca e clorofila. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial com 25 tratamentos, 3 repetições e 2 frutos por parcela. Em todos os tratamentos, a firmeza e o pH diminuíram, enquanto a AT e os SS aumentaram no final do período de armazenamento em condições ambiente. Os tratamentos utilizados não ocasionaram alterações significativas no teor de pectina total durante o período de armazenamento, entretanto, menor teor de pectina solúvel foi observado nos frutos envoltos em PVC. Os frutos recobertos com biofilmes a 4 e 4,5% de fécula de mandioca apresentaram descamação da película a partir do sexto dia de armazenamento. A aplicação de PVC foi efetiva na manutenção da qualidade de pimentões cv. Ikeda, armazenados em condições ambiente por 8 dias.Horticultural products present limited post-harvest life due to catabolic biochemical reactions, which increase with age. The use of cassava starch films and PVC on the maintenance of post-harvest quality of bell peppers cv. Ikeda stored at room temperature was evaluated. The bell peppers (Capsicum annuum L. were submitted to 4 modified atmospheres: PVC, edible coatings at

  9. An Innovative Controller to Increase Harvested Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper proposes an innovative energy-harvesting controller to increase energy harvested from vibrations. Energy harvesting is a process that removes mechanical energy from a vibrating structure, which necessarily results in damping. The damping associated with piezoelectric energy harvesting suppresses the amplitude of mechanical vibration and reduces the harvested energy. To address this critical problem, we devise an energy-harvesting controller that maintains the vibration amplitude as high as possible to increase the harvested energy. Our proposed switching controller is designed to intentionally stop the switching action intermittently. We experimentally demonstrate that the proposed control scheme successfully increases the harvested energy. The piezoelectric voltage with the proposed controller is larger than that with the original synchronized switching harvesting on inductor (SSHI) technique, which increases the harvested energy. The stored energy with our controller is up to 5.7 times greater than that with the conventional SSHI control scheme

  10. Development of a biomechanical energy harvester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donelan J Maxwell

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biomechanical energy harvesting–generating electricity from people during daily activities–is a promising alternative to batteries for powering increasingly sophisticated portable devices. We recently developed a wearable knee-mounted energy harvesting device that generated electricity during human walking. In this methods-focused paper, we explain the physiological principles that guided our design process and present a detailed description of our device design with an emphasis on new analyses. Methods Effectively harvesting energy from walking requires a small lightweight device that efficiently converts intermittent, bi-directional, low speed and high torque mechanical power to electricity, and selectively engages power generation to assist muscles in performing negative mechanical work. To achieve this, our device used a one-way clutch to transmit only knee extension motions, a spur gear transmission to amplify the angular speed, a brushless DC rotary magnetic generator to convert the mechanical power into electrical power, a control system to determine when to open and close the power generation circuit based on measurements of knee angle, and a customized orthopaedic knee brace to distribute the device reaction torque over a large leg surface area. Results The device selectively engaged power generation towards the end of swing extension, assisting knee flexor muscles by producing substantial flexion torque (6.4 Nm, and efficiently converted the input mechanical power into electricity (54.6%. Consequently, six subjects walking at 1.5 m/s generated 4.8 ± 0.8 W of electrical power with only a 5.0 ± 21 W increase in metabolic cost. Conclusion Biomechanical energy harvesting is capable of generating substantial amounts of electrical power from walking with little additional user effort making future versions of this technology particularly promising for charging portable medical devices.

  11. Adaptive threshold harvesting and the suppression of transients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura, Juan; Hilker, Frank M; Franco, Daniel

    2016-04-21

    Fluctuations in population size are in many cases undesirable, as they can induce outbreaks and extinctions or impede the optimal management of populations. We propose the strategy of adaptive threshold harvesting (ATH) to control fluctuations in population size. In this strategy, the population is harvested whenever population size has grown beyond a certain proportion in comparison to the previous generation. Taking such population increases into account, ATH intervenes also at smaller population sizes than the strategy of threshold harvesting. Moreover, ATH is the harvesting version of adaptive limiter control (ALC) that has recently been shown to stabilize population oscillations in both experiments and theoretical studies. We find that ATH has similar stabilization properties as ALC and thus offers itself as a harvesting alternative for the control of pests, exploitation of biological resources, or when restocking interventions required from ALC are unfeasible. We present numerical simulations of ATH to illustrate its performance in the presence of noise, lattice effect, and Allee effect. In addition, we propose an adjustment to both ATH and ALC that restricts interventions when control seems unnecessary, i.e. when population size is too small or too large, respectively. This adjustment cancels prolonged transients. PMID:26854876

  12. Accounting for tagging-to-harvest mortality in a Brownie tag-recovery model by incorporating radio-telemetry data

    OpenAIRE

    Buderman, Frances E; Diefenbach, Duane R; Casalena, Mary Jo; Rosenberry, Christopher S; Wallingford, Bret D

    2014-01-01

    The Brownie tag-recovery model is useful for estimating harvest rates but assumes all tagged individuals survive to the first hunting season; otherwise, mortality between time of tagging and the hunting season will cause the Brownie estimator to be negatively biased. Alternatively, fitting animals with radio transmitters can be used to accurately estimate harvest rate but may be more costly. We developed a joint model to estimate harvest and annual survival rates that combines known-fate data...

  13. Carbendazim and metalaxyl residues in post-harvest treated apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yirong; Mitchell, S H; Mac AntSaoir, S

    2003-08-01

    Bramley apples were treated with Ridomil mbc 60 WP, containing carbendazim and metalaxyl, at half and full rate application at 10 and 20 degrees C, and with diphenylamine to control disease during storage. Carbendazim and metalaxyl residues were determined by HPLC and GC/MS, respectively, in apple core, flesh and peel at the initial time, 3 and 6 months after storage under controlled atmosphere conditions of 4.5 degrees C, 5% CO(2) and 1% O(2). The concentration of carbendazim residues in apple flesh was metalaxyl residues in apple flesh was metalaxyl in apple was 1.0 mg kg(-1). The temperature of the fungicide solution had little effect on the carbendazim residues but did have some effect on metalaxyl residues. Carbendazim residue content per apple was decreased when diphenylamine was included. A change in the ratio of carbendazim to metalaxyl was noted in the flesh, core and peel of the stored apple. The ratio of carbendazim to metalaxyl was 5:1 in the fungicide mix as applied. The ratio remained fairly constant in the core during storage. However, the ratio changed significantly in the peel and, to a lesser extent, and in a different direction, in the flesh. In the peel, the ratio was around 15:1 at 3 months of storage and 12:1 after 6 months of storage, whereas for flesh the ratios were 2:1 and 4:1, respectively. PMID:13129789

  14. Input of sugarcane post-harvest residues into the soil

    OpenAIRE

    João Luís Nunes Carvalho; Rafael Otto; Henrique Coutinho Junqueira Franco; Paulo Cesar Ocheuze Trivelin

    2013-01-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) crops provide carbon (C) for soil through straw and root system decomposition. Recently, however, sugarcane producers are considering straw to be removed for electricity or second generation ethanol production. To elucidate the role of straw and root system on the carbon supply into the soil, the biomass inputs from sugarcane straw (tops and dry leaves) and from root system (rhizomes and roots) were quantified, and its contribution to provide C to the soil was estim...

  15. Automatic Grading of the Post-Harvest Fruit: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Haisheng; Cai, Jinxing; Liu, Xiufeng

    2010-01-01

    Mechanical fruit grading and automatic fruit grading have been detailed in this paper. The studies and applications of mechanical fruit grading, and computer visual and automatic fruit grading were also particularized. Computer vision technology for detecting fruit size, color, bruise and surface defects and evaluation of fruit overall quality were discussed. The primary problems and development in the future in application of automatic fruit grading in China were pointed out in the end.

  16. Irradiation potential for eliminating post-harvest spoilage and decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article discusses the use of irradiation for food preservation. Attention is given to the safety aspects, nutritional value and wholesomeness of irradiated food. The highlights of mango radurisation experiments during the period 1975-1981 are discussed, as well as the advantages of irradiation treatment and the use of combination treatments

  17. Reducing decay using pre- and post harvest sanitizer application

    Science.gov (United States)

    The application of sanitizers to fruit surfaces reduces the microbial populations and therefore reduces contamination by these organisms thus increasing shelf life and increasing the quality of food for consumption. However, the type of fruit, the topography of the peel and other field factors affe...

  18. Energy Harvesting from the Stray Electromagnetic Field around the Electrical Power Cable for Smart Grid Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    For wireless sensor node (WSN) applications, this paper presents the harvesting of energy from the stray electromagnetic field around an electrical power line. Inductive and capacitive types of electrodynamic energy harvesters are developed and reported. For the produced energy harvesters, solid core and split-core designs are adopted. The inductive energy harvester comprises a copper wound coil which is produced on a mild steel core. However, the capacitive prototypes comprise parallel, annular discs separated by Teflon spacers. Moreover, for the inductive energy harvesters' wound coil and core, the parametric analysis is also performed. A Teflon housing is incorporated to protect the energy harvester prototypes from the harsh environmental conditions. Among the inductive energy harvesters, prototype-5 has performed better than the other harvesters and produces a maximum rms voltage of 908 mV at the current level of 155 A in the power line. However, at the same current flow, the capacitive energy harvesters produce a maximum rms voltage of 180 mV. The alternating output of the prototype-5 is rectified, and a super capacitor (1 F, 5.5 V) and rechargeable battery (Nickel-Cadmium, 3.8 V) are charged with it. Moreover, with the utilization of a prototype-5, a self-powered wireless temperature sensing and monitoring system for an electrical transformer is also developed and successfully implemented. PMID:27579343

  19. Exploring the roles of standard rectifying circuits on the performance of a nonlinear piezoelectric energy harvester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Lihua; Han, Yue; Hand, James; Harne, Ryan L.

    2016-04-01

    To enhance the energy conversion performance of piezoelectric vibration energy harvesters, such structures have been recently designed to leverage bandwidth-enhancing nonlinear dynamics. While key findings have been made, the majority of researchers have evaluated the opportunities when the harvesters are connected to pure resistive loads (AC interface). The alternating voltage generated by such energy harvesting systems cannot be directly utilized to power conventional electronics. Rectifying circuits are required to interface the device and electronic load but few efforts have considered how a standard rectifying DC interface circuit (DC interface) connected to a nonlinear piezoelectric energy harvester influences the system performance. The aim of this research is to begin exploring this critical feature of the nonlinear energy harvesting system. A nonlinear, monostable piezoelectric energy harvester (MPEH) is fabricated and evaluated to determine the generated power and useful operating bandwidth when connected to a DC interface. The nonlinearity is introduced into the harvester design by tuneable magnetic force. An equivalent circuit model of the MPEH is implemented with a user-defined nonlinear behavioral voltage source representative of the magnetic interaction. The model is validated comparing the open circuit voltage from circuit simulation and experiment. The practical energy harvesting capability of the MPEH connected to the AC and DC interface circuits are then investigated and compared, focusing on the influence of the varying load on the nonlinear dynamics and subsequent bandwidth and harvested power.

  20. Energy Harvesting from the Stray Electromagnetic Field around the Electrical Power Cable for Smart Grid Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Farid Ullah

    2016-01-01

    For wireless sensor node (WSN) applications, this paper presents the harvesting of energy from the stray electromagnetic field around an electrical power line. Inductive and capacitive types of electrodynamic energy harvesters are developed and reported. For the produced energy harvesters, solid core and split-core designs are adopted. The inductive energy harvester comprises a copper wound coil which is produced on a mild steel core. However, the capacitive prototypes comprise parallel, annular discs separated by Teflon spacers. Moreover, for the inductive energy harvesters' wound coil and core, the parametric analysis is also performed. A Teflon housing is incorporated to protect the energy harvester prototypes from the harsh environmental conditions. Among the inductive energy harvesters, prototype-5 has performed better than the other harvesters and produces a maximum rms voltage of 908 mV at the current level of 155 A in the power line. However, at the same current flow, the capacitive energy harvesters produce a maximum rms voltage of 180 mV. The alternating output of the prototype-5 is rectified, and a super capacitor (1 F, 5.5 V) and rechargeable battery (Nickel-Cadmium, 3.8 V) are charged with it. Moreover, with the utilization of a prototype-5, a self-powered wireless temperature sensing and monitoring system for an electrical transformer is also developed and successfully implemented. PMID:27579343

  1. heteroHarvest: Harvesting Information from Heterogeneous Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qureshi, Pir Abdul Rasool; Memon, Nasrullah; Wiil, Uffe Kock;

    2011-01-01

    The abundance of information regarding any topic makes the Internet a very good resource. Even though searching the Internet is very easy, what remains difficult is to automate the process of information extraction from the available online information due to the lack of structure and the diversity...... in the sharing methods. Most of the times, information is stored in different proprietary formats, complying with different standards and protocols which makes tasks like data mining and information harvesting very difficult. In this paper, an information harvesting tool (heteroHarvest) is presented...... with objectives to address these problems by filtering the useful information and then normalizing the information in a singular non hypertext format. Finally we describe the results of experimental evaluation. The results are found promising with an overall error rate equal to 6.5% across...

  2. A molecular approach to pre-harvest impact on post-harvest quality of trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Michael Engelbrecht; Hyldig, Grethe; Nielsen, Henrik Hauch;

    Fish meat quality is influenced by many biological and physical factors like e.g. rearing, feeding, slaughtering, processing and storage. Observations from the commercial aquaculture industry indicate that infections in e.g. salmon caused by Moritella viscosus or Pancreas Disease (PD) results...... cell types, extracellular matrix molecules, soluble mediators and cytokines. In order to describe the molecular mechanisms and processes of wound repair, a panel of genes covering immunological factors and tissue regeneration were used to measure changes at the mRNA level following mechanical tissue...

  3. MEMS based pyroelectric thermal energy harvester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Scott R; Datskos, Panagiotis G

    2013-08-27

    A pyroelectric thermal energy harvesting apparatus for generating an electric current includes a cantilevered layered pyroelectric capacitor extending between a first surface and a second surface, where the first surface includes a temperature difference from the second surface. The layered pyroelectric capacitor includes a conductive, bimetal top electrode layer, an intermediate pyroelectric dielectric layer and a conductive bottom electrode layer. In addition, a pair of proof masses is affixed at a distal end of the layered pyroelectric capacitor to face the first surface and the second surface, wherein the proof masses oscillate between the first surface and the second surface such that a pyroelectric current is generated in the pyroelectric capacitor due to temperature cycling when the proof masses alternately contact the first surface and the second surface.

  4. Investigation of folded spring structures for vibration-based piezoelectric energy harvesting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a fixed-fixed folded spring as an alternative elastic element for beam-based piezoelectric energy harvesting. In order to harvest energy from low frequency vibration in an optimal manner, the natural/operational frequencies of harvesters must be reduced to match low frequency input vibrations. Therefore, natural frequency reduction of vibration-based energy harvesters is critical to maximize output power at low operational frequency. The mechanical optimization of cantilever-based piezoelectric energy harvesters is limited by residual stress-based beam curling that produced through microfabrication adding additional mechanical stiffness to the system. The fixed-fixed folded spring structure presented in this paper allows for increased effective beam length and residual stress relaxation, without out of plane beam curling to further reducing the natural frequency. Multiple designs of folded spring energy harvesters are presented to demonstrate the effect of important design parameters. It is shown that the folded spring harvesters were capable of harvesting electricity at low natural frequencies, ranging from 45 Hz to 3667 Hz. Additionally, the harvesters were shown to be insensitive to microfabrication-based residual stress beam curling. The maximum power output achieved by the folded spring harvesters was 690.5 nW at 226.3 Hz for a single harvesting element of an array, with a PZT layer thickness of 0.24 μm. The work presented in this paper demonstrates that the fixed-fixed folded spring can be used as a viable structural element for low frequency piezoelectric energy harvesting to take advantage of ambient vibrations found in low frequency applications. (paper)

  5. Energy harvesting from an exercise bike using a switch-mode converter controlled generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knott, Arnold; Lindberg-Poulsen, Kristian; Andersen, Thomas;

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the feasibility of using an alternator as means of harvesting energy from a stationary exercise bicycle. A switch mode converter was designed to regulate the current in the alternator rotor winding, thus regulating the power required to pedal, and consequently the power...

  6. Harvesting Information from Heterogeneous Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qureshi, Pir Abdul Rasool; Memon, Nasrullah; Wiil, Uffe Kock;

    2011-01-01

    The abundance of information regarding any topic makes the Internet a very good resource. Even though searching the Internet is very easy, what remains difficult is to automate the process of information extraction from the available online information due to the lack of structure and the diversity...... in the sharing methods. Most of the times, information is stored in different proprietary formats, complying with different standards and protocols which makes tasks like data mining and information harvesting very difficult. In this paper, an information harvesting tool (heteroHarvest) is presented...... with objectives to address these problems by filtering the useful information and then normalizing the information in a singular non hypertext format. We also discuss state of the art tools along with the shortcomings and present the results of an analysis carried out over different heterogeneous...

  7. Computer Vision for Timber Harvesting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Anders Lindbjerg

    The goal of this thesis is to investigate computer vision methods for timber harvesting operations. The background for developing computer vision for timber harvesting is to document origin of timber and to collect qualitative and quantitative parameters concerning the timber for efficient harvest...... segments. The purpose of image segmentation is to make the basis for more advanced computer vision methods like object recognition and classification. Our second method concerns image classification and we present a method where we classify small timber samples to tree species based on Active Appearance...... to the development of the logTracker system the described methods have a general applicability making them useful for many other computer vision problems....

  8. Minimally invasive posterior hamstring harvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Trent J; Lubowitz, James H

    2013-01-01

    Autogenous hamstring harvesting for knee ligament reconstruction is a well-established standard. Minimally invasive posterior hamstring harvest is a simple, efficient, reproducible technique for harvest of the semitendinosus or gracilis tendon or both medial hamstring tendons. A 2- to 3-cm longitudinal incision from the popliteal crease proximally, in line with the semitendinosus tendon, is sufficient. The deep fascia is bluntly penetrated, and the tendon or tendons are identified. Adhesions are dissected. Then, an open tendon stripper is used to release the tendon or tendons proximally; a closed, sharp tendon stripper is used to release the tendon or tendons from the pes. Layered, absorbable skin closure is performed, and the skin is covered with a skin sealant, bolster dressing, and plastic adhesive bandage for 2 weeks. PMID:24266003

  9. Efeito do óleo de soja no controle da antracnose e na conservação da manga cv. Palmer em pós-colheita Effect of soybean oil in the control of anthracnose and on post-harvest conservation of mango, cv. Palmer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton Tadeu Vilela Junqueira

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Na fase de pós-colheita da manga, a antracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Penz. é a doença mais importante em termos de expressão econômica. Seu controle vem sendo feito pela imersão dos frutos por 5 minutos, em água a 55 ºC, acrescida de thiabendazo1 a 0,2%. Embora seja eficaz no controle dessa doença, esse fungicida pode deixar resíduo, o que não satisfaz os consumidores que vêm, a cada ano, aumentando as suas exigências por frutos livres de resíduos de agroquímicos e ambientalmente corretos. Dessa forma, esses experimentos foram conduzidos visando à seleção de produtos biológicos que tenham potencial para o controle da antracnose e para a conservação da manga na pós-colheita. Os frutos, colhidos no estádio de maturação 3 e 4, foram imersos por 5 minutos em thiabendazol a 0,24% e benomil a 0,1 % a 22 ºC, 40 ºC ou 45 ºC e em diferentes concentrações de óleo de soja isolado ou em mistura com benomil, thiabendazol e com extrato etanólico de sucupira (Pterodon pubescens Benth.. Após os tratamentos, os frutos foram mantidos em câmaras a 27 ± 1 ºC, 72 % a 85 % de UR (Experimento nº 1 e a 17ºC a 85% a 100% de UR (experimento nº 2. As avaliações foram efetuadas aos 15 dias (experimento nº 1 e aos 30 dias (experimento nº 2 após os tratamentos, determinando-se as porcentagens da superfície dos frutos cobertas com lesões, de frutos verdes, maduros e de vez, ºBrix e textura. O óleo de soja, isolado ou misturado com benomil ou thiabendazol, a 22 ºC ou a 40 ºC, aumentou o tempo de prateleira da manga Palmer e foi eficaz no controle da antracnose.The anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Penz. is the most important post-harvest disease of mango fruit. Its control has been done by immersion of fruits for 5 minutes in hot water at 55ºC containing the fungicide thiabendazole at 200 g/100 liters. Although efficient in the control of mango anthracnose, this fungicide can leave residues. This fact does

  10. Powering wireless sensor nodes: primary batteries versus energy harvesting

    OpenAIRE

    Penella López, María Teresa; Albesa, Joan; Gasulla Forner, Manuel

    2009-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are increasingly used in many fields. Still, power supply of the nodes remains a challenge. Primary batteries are mainly used but energy harvesting offers an alternative, although not free of problems. This paper compares the use of primary batteries against solar cells. Basic principles are first enunciated, then generic design examples are presented and finally actual deployed nodes of a WSN are illustrated.

  11. Harvesting energy from a water flow through ionic polymer metal composites' buckling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cellini, Filippo; Cha, Youngsu; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2014-03-01

    This study seeks to investigate the feasibility of energy harvesting from mechanical buckling of ionic polymer metal composites (IPMCs) induced by a steady fluid flow. In particular, we propose a harvesting device composed of a paddle wheel, a slider-crank mechanism, and two IPMCs clamped at both their ends. We test the system in a water tunnel to estimate the effects of the flow speed and the shunting resistance on power harvesting. The classical post-buckling theory of inextensible rods is utilized, in conjunction with a black-box model for IPMC sensing, to interpret experimental results.

  12. Bulk micromachined energy harvesters employing (K, Na)NbO3 thin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, a micromachined energy harvester employing a lead-free (K, Na)NbO3 (KNN) thin film was reported. KNN is one of the lead-free piezoelectric materials. It is a promising alternative to Pb(Zr, Ti)O3 (PZT). In a micromachined energy harvester, a 2 µm thick KNN film was deposited on a silicon cantilever integrated with a proof mass. The energy harvester achieved an output power of 731 nW and a normalized power density (NPD) of 2.29 μW (g−2 mm−3) at the resonant frequency of 1509 Hz with the acceleration of 10 m s−2. The harvested energy was enhanced considerably by applying bulk micromachining, and was comparable to the PZT-based energy harvesters. (paper)

  13. Caracterização pós-colheita de frutos de bananeira 'BRS Platina' de primeiro ciclo, sob regulação do déficit de irrigação Post harvest characterization of bananas 'BRS Platina' first cycle under regulation of irrigation deficit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariane Castricini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo a caracterização pós-colheita de bananas cv BRS Platina (PA42-44, que é um híbrido tetraploide (AAAB desenvolvido pela Embrapa. As mesmas foram produzidas no norte de Minas Gerais, com redução das lâminas (L de água utilizadas na irrigação,a partir dos cinco meses após o plantio. Foram sete os tratamentos avaliados, com combinações de redução da lâmina (55%, 70% e 85% nas fases II e III de desenvolvimento da planta (5 a 7 meses, e 7 a 12 meses após o plantio, caracterizados quanto a: teor de sólidos solúveis totais (sst, despencamento, firmeza da polpa, comprimento e diâmetro do fruto, relação polpa/casca e coloração da casca, definida pelos parâmetros L*, C* e ºh, avaliados quando os frutos estavam totalmente amarelos. O teor de sólidos solúveis totais foi maior nos frutos do tratamento T3, onde houve redução da lâmina de irrigação na fase II (floração para 70% da ETc. A maior relação polpa/casca foi obtida quando a ETc foi reduzida em 25% na fase III, resistência ao despencamento. Os frutos mais firmes foram produzidos quando a ETc na fase II foi reduzida em 45%; já o menor despencamento foi obtido quando esta redução foi de 45% e 30% na fase II, e de 30% na fase III. Os maiores (comprimento e diâmetro e mais pesados frutos foram produzidos na ausência de déficit hídrico durante todo o ciclo da cultura.The study had as objective the post harvest characterization of bananas cultivar BRS Platina that is a tetraployd hybrid AAAB developed by Embrapa. The crop was grown at North of Minas Gerais with reduction of irrigation water depths (L from five months after planting. Seven treatments were evaluated with different combinations of water depth reductions (55%, 70% and 85% during two phases of crop development (5 to 7 months and 7 to 12 months after planting where fruits were characterized when completely yellow by: total soluble solids (tss, dropping, pulp strength

  14. Harvesting of algae by froth flotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LEVIN, G V; CLENDENNING, J R; GIBOR, A; BOGAR, F D

    1962-03-01

    A highly efficient froth flotation procedure has been developed for harvesting algae from dilute suspensions. The method does not depend upon the addition of flotants. Harvesting is carried out in a long column containing the feed solution which is aerated from below. A stable column of foam is produced and harvested from a side arm near the top of the column. The cell concentration of the harvest is a function of pH, aeration rate, aerator porosity, feed concentration, and height of foam in the harvesting column. The economic aspects of this process seem favorable for mass harvesting of algae for food or other purposes. PMID:14464557

  15. Designing and Evaluating Bamboo Harvesting Methods for Local Needs: Integrating Local Ecological Knowledge and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darabant, András; Rai, Prem Bahadur; Staudhammer, Christina Lynn; Dorji, Tshewang

    2016-08-01

    Dendrocalamus hamiltonii, a large, clump-forming bamboo, has great potential to contribute towards poverty alleviation efforts across its distributional range. Harvesting methods that maximize yield while they fulfill local objectives and ensure sustainability are a research priority. Documenting local ecological knowledge on the species and identifying local users' goals for its production, we defined three harvesting treatments (selective cut, horseshoe cut, clear cut) and experimentally compared them with a no-intervention control treatment in an action research framework. We implemented harvesting over three seasons and monitored annually and two years post-treatment. Even though the total number of culms positively influenced the number of shoots regenerated, a much stronger relationship was detected between the number of culms harvested and the number of shoots regenerated, indicating compensatory growth mechanisms to guide shoot regeneration. Shoot recruitment declined over time in all treatments as well as the control; however, there was no difference among harvest treatments. Culm recruitment declined with an increase in harvesting intensity. When univariately assessing the number of harvested culms and shoots, there were no differences among treatments. However, multivariate analyses simultaneously considering both variables showed that harvested output of shoots and culms was higher with clear cut and horseshoe cut as compared to selective cut. Given the ease of implementation and issues of work safety, users preferred the horseshoe cut, but the lack of sustainability of shoot production calls for investigating longer cutting cycles.

  16. Designing and Evaluating Bamboo Harvesting Methods for Local Needs: Integrating Local Ecological Knowledge and Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darabant, András; Rai, Prem Bahadur; Staudhammer, Christina Lynn; Dorji, Tshewang

    2016-08-01

    Dendrocalamus hamiltonii, a large, clump-forming bamboo, has great potential to contribute towards poverty alleviation efforts across its distributional range. Harvesting methods that maximize yield while they fulfill local objectives and ensure sustainability are a research priority. Documenting local ecological knowledge on the species and identifying local users' goals for its production, we defined three harvesting treatments (selective cut, horseshoe cut, clear cut) and experimentally compared them with a no-intervention control treatment in an action research framework. We implemented harvesting over three seasons and monitored annually and two years post-treatment. Even though the total number of culms positively influenced the number of shoots regenerated, a much stronger relationship was detected between the number of culms harvested and the number of shoots regenerated, indicating compensatory growth mechanisms to guide shoot regeneration. Shoot recruitment declined over time in all treatments as well as the control; however, there was no difference among harvest treatments. Culm recruitment declined with an increase in harvesting intensity. When univariately assessing the number of harvested culms and shoots, there were no differences among treatments. However, multivariate analyses simultaneously considering both variables showed that harvested output of shoots and culms was higher with clear cut and horseshoe cut as compared to selective cut. Given the ease of implementation and issues of work safety, users preferred the horseshoe cut, but the lack of sustainability of shoot production calls for investigating longer cutting cycles. PMID:27113084

  17. THE POSSIBILITY OF INCREASING THE EFFICIENCY OF HARVESTING AND TRANSPORT PROCESS OF FRUITS AND VEGETABLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uspensky I. A.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available An integral part of technological process for the cultivation of agricultural crop is the transportation. It requires significant energy and labor costs. The statistics show that the proportion of expenses for transportation of goods in agriculture reaches 25-40% of the total costs for the production made, when the proportion of farm tractor transportations reaches 60% of the total. Thus there are considerable losses of production, reaching in separate cases up to 50%. They are especially high in the harvesting and post-harvest cycles of crop production which is connected with crop damage during transportation. The quality of fruits and vegetables during the harvest depends on the technology of its collection and transportation. Due to the rapid deterioration of most agricultural products, agricultural producers have the task in careful transportation of the fruit. A huge role in the preservation of the product is its harvesting and packing into containers. In Russia we use wooden boxes, and foreign farmers use containers, whereby they have higher productivity and preservation of fruits. The type of vehicle, the time of a day and the air temperature also have a large impact on crop damage. In Soviet times, various technologies have been developed for harvesting and transportation of the harvest to consumers using various types of forklifts, harvesters and vehicles. In our time, it requires the development of new technologies for harvesting and transportation of agricultural products to achieve a higher level of automation and high profitability of agricultural production

  18. Briquetting of wastes from coffee plants conducted in zero harvest system

    OpenAIRE

    Oberdan Everton Zerbinatti; Adriano Bortolotti Silva; Ademir José Pereira; José Messias Miranda

    2014-01-01

    The briquetting process consists of lignocellulosic residues densification in solid biofuel with high calorific value denominated briquette. Coffee crop is one of the most important Brazilian commodities and according to the cultural practices produces plant residues in different amounts. The zero harvest system in coffee crop is based in pruning of plagiotropic branches in alternated years to make possible to concentrate the harvest and to avoid coffee biannual production. The aim of the pre...

  19. Circuit area optimization in energy temporal sparse scenarios for multiple harvester powered systems

    OpenAIRE

    Gomez Cid-Fuentes, Raül; Cabellos Aparicio, Alberto; Alarcón Cot, Eduardo José

    2014-01-01

    Multi-source energy harvesters are gaining interest as a robust alternative to power wireless sensors, since the sensor node can maintain its operation regardless of the fact that one of its energy sources might be temporarily unavailable. Interestingly, and less explored, when the energy availability of the energy sources present large temporal variations, combining multiple energy sources reduce the overall sparsity. As a result, the performance of a multiple energy harvester powered sensor...

  20. A Comparison of Chipper Productivity, Chip Characteristics, and Nutrient Removals from Two Woody Biomass Harvesting Treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Groover, Miles Clark

    2011-01-01

    Increased costs of fossil fuels, regulatory policies, and investments by federal and state governments have caused increased interest and incentive for the use of wood as a renewable form of energy. As a result, landowners and forest managers are considering chipping whole trees and harvesting residues as a means to meet increased demand of wood chips as a renewable source of energy. However, the profitability, productivity gains, and sustainability of these alternative harvesting methods c...