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Sample records for alternative phenol based

  1. Analysis of current and alternative phenol based RNA extraction methodologies for cyanobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindblad Peter

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The validity and reproducibility of gene expression studies depend on the quality of extracted RNA and the degree of genomic DNA contamination. Cyanobacteria are gram-negative prokaryotes that synthesize chlorophyll a and carry out photosynthetic water oxidation. These organisms possess an extended array of secondary metabolites that impair cell lysis, presenting particular challenges when it comes to nucleic acid isolation. Therefore, we used the NHM5 strain of Nostoc punctiforme ATCC 29133 to compare and improve existing phenol based chemistry and procedures for RNA extraction. Results With this work we identify and explore strategies for improved and lower cost high quality RNA isolation from cyanobacteria. All the methods studied are suitable for RNA isolation and its use for downstream applications. We analyse different Trizol based protocols, introduce procedural changes and describe an alternative RNA extraction solution. Conclusion It was possible to improve purity of isolated RNA by modifying protocol procedures. Further improvements, both in RNA purity and experimental cost, were achieved by using a new extraction solution, PGTX.

  2. Low molecular-weight phenols in Tannat wines made by alternative winemaking procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favre, Guzmán; Peña-Neira, Álvaro; Baldi, Cecilia; Hernández, Natalia; Traverso, Sofía; Gil, Graciela; González-Neves, Gustavo

    2014-09-01

    Low molecular weight phenols of Tannat red wines produced by Traditional Maceration (TM), Prefermentative Cold Maceration (PCM), Maceration Enzyme (ENZ) and grape-Seed Tannins additions (ST), were performed and discussed. Alternatives to TM increased wine phenolic contents but unequally, ST increased mainly smaller flavans-3-ol, PCM anthocyanins and ENZ proanthocyanidins (up to 2250 mg/L). However low molecular weight flavan-3-ols remained below 9 mg/L in all wines, showing that there is not necessarily a correspondence between wine richness in total tannins and flavan-3-ols contents at low molecular weight. PCM wines had particularly high concentrations of tyrosol and tryptophol, yeast metabolism derived compounds. The use of grape-seed enological tannins did not increase grape seed derived phenolic compounds such as gallic acid. Caftaric acid was found in concentrations much higher than those reported in other grape varieties. Wine phenolic content and composition was considerably affected by the winemaking procedures tested.

  3. Rapid determination of phenolic compounds in water samples by alternating-current oscillopolarographic titration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Jun-ping; WANG Xue-feng; ZHOU Qing-xiang; FAN Xiao-yuan; SU Xian-fa; Bai Hua-hua; DUAN Hai-jing

    2007-01-01

    A rapid, simple and sensitive method was demonstrated for the determination of phenolic compounds in water samples by alternating-current oscillopolarographic titration. With the presence of sulfuric acid, phenol could be transferred into a nitroso-compound by reacting with NaNO2. The titration end-point was obtained by the formation of a sharp cut in the oscillopolarographic with infinitesimal NaNO2 on double platinum electrodes. The results showed that phenol had an excellent linear relationship over the range of 4.82×10-6 -9.65×10-3 mol/L, the RSD of the proposed method was lower than 1.5%, and the spiked recoveries of three real water samples were in the range of 95.6%-106.9%.

  4. Potential application of hemoglobin as an alternative to peroxidase in a phenol biosensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kafi, A.K.M.; Lee, Dong-Yun; Park, Sang-Hyun [Dept. of Electrical Engineering and NTRC, Dong-A University, 840, Hadan-2dong, Saha-gu, Busan 604-714 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Young-Soo [Dept. of Electrical Engineering and NTRC, Dong-A University, 840, Hadan-2dong, Saha-gu, Busan 604-714 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: yskwon@dau.ac.kr

    2008-03-03

    This work describes a new amperometric biosensor for detecting phenolic compounds. The sensor was designed by immobilizing Hemoglobin (Hb) in a sol-gel matrix onto a carbon electrode. Using the peroxidase activity of Hb, the phenolic compound can be reduced in the presence of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. The biosensor's performance in phenolic compound detection was based on mediated electron transfer by Hb. The direct electron transfer of Hb can be avoided by use of the sol-gel matrix. The proposed biosensor presents a very sensitive response for phenolic compounds at an applied potential of 0.0 mV vs. Ag/AgCl. The parameters of the fabrication process for the electrode were optimized. Experimental conditions influencing the biosensor performance, such as pH and potential, were investigated and assessed. Various types of phenolic compounds were detected. Among them, using the optimized conditions, a linearity for the detection of the phenol was observed from 5 {mu}M to 50 {mu}M. Biosensor response levels after 30 days were at more than 80% of their initial response readings level. The response time of the biosensor was about 10 s.

  5. Application of protein-phenolic based coating on tomatoes (Lycopersicum esculentum

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    Eliane Pereira Cipolatti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the use of protein-phenolic based coating made from fermented rice bran on cherry tomatoes (Lycopersicum esculentum. Tests were performed with glycerol 3% (v/v, glycerol with protein-phenolic rice bran extract (5%, glycerol with protein-phenolic extract after 96 hours of fermentation (5%, and a control (without coating. The coated cherry tomatoes were kept at room temperature for 28 days. Mass loss, pH and acidity, total soluble solids, and carotenoids were determined every 96 hours. The coating made from the biomass extract reduced the carotenoid and acidity levels in the fruits studied by 17 and 21.1%, respectively, compared to the control. The coating proved an efficient barrier to water vapor with mass loss of 57% less than the control suggesting that it can be used as an alternative for vegetable tissue conservation.

  6. Synthesis of cardanol based phenolic resin with aid of microwaves.

    OpenAIRE

    Dileep Tiwari; Archana Devi; Ramesh Chandra

    2011-01-01

    Cardanol based novolac resin was prepared. Cardanol based novolac-type phenolic resin was prepared under microwave irradiation by the reaction of cardanol ( C ) and formaldehyde ( F ) with mole ratio 1:0.8 of C/F using tricarboxylic acid as catalyst. Analogical synthesize have been done using conventional heating for the comparison of the methods. The methylolation of cardanol was confirmed by Fourier-transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopic analysis and a reaction mechanism was proposed. The...

  7. Synthesis of cardanol based phenolic resin with aid of microwaves.

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    Dileep Tiwari

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Cardanol based novolac resin was prepared. Cardanol based novolac-type phenolic resin was prepared under microwave irradiation by the reaction of cardanol ( C and formaldehyde ( F with mole ratio 1:0.8 of C/F using tricarboxylic acid as catalyst. Analogical synthesize have been done using conventional heating for the comparison of the methods. The methylolation of cardanol was confirmed by Fourier-transform infra-red (FTIR spectroscopic analysis and a reaction mechanism was proposed. The numberaverage molecular weight was found by gel permeation chromatographic (GPC technique. On the basis of the calculated value of kinetic chain length, the structure of the novolac-type phenolic resin was proposed. The main advantage of the process is twofold reduction of reaction time of the process carried at microwave reactors in comparison to the conventional heating.

  8. Birches against mineral oils. Lignin - a renewable resource for the alternative production of phenols; Birke contra Erdoel. Lignin - ein nachwachsender Rohstoff zur alternativen Gewinnung von Phenolen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zehnpfund, C.; Bormann, J.; Wehrkamp zu Hoene, F. [Gymnasium Bersenbrueck (Germany)

    1998-02-01

    We wanted to offer an alternative for the `After-mineral oil time` with our work when we attempted to isolate phenols, which are won up to now from mineral oil, of a growing raw material. Phenols are economic important substances for production of epoxies, herbicides, artificial resins, dyes and drugs (e.g. aspirin or Paracetamol). We managed to isolate phenols with normal conditions of lignin, a component of wood. (orig.) [Deutsch] Wir wollten mit unserer Arbeit eine Alternative fuer die `Nach-Erdoel-Zeit` bieten, indem wir versuchten, Phenole, die bisher aus Erdoel gewonnen werden, aus einem nachwachsenden Rohstoff zu isolieren. Phenole sind volkswirtschaftlich bedeutsame Substanzen zur Herstellung von Kunststoffen, Herbiziden, Kunstharzen, Farbstoffen und Arzneimitteln (z.B. Aspirin oder Paracetamol). Es gelang uns, Phenole unter Normalbedingungen aus Lignin, einem Bestandteil des Holzes, zu isolieren. (orig.)

  9. ALTERNATIVE FOR PHENOL BIODEGRADATION IN OIL CONTAMINATED WASTEWATERS USING AN ADAPTED BACTERIAL BIOFILM LAYER

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    Maria Kopytko

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The project studied the biodegradation potential of phenols in an industrial wastewater from an oil field in the province of Santander, Colombia. An elevated potential was established, according to three important factors: the great abundance of microorganisms found in the wastewater and sludge samples collected, the bacterial adaptation to high phenol concentrations (10 mg/l and the elevated elimination efficiencies (up to 86% obtained in the laboratory tests. The laboratory scale treatment system, which consisted of fixed-bed bioreactors with adapted bacterial biofilm, was optimized using a 22 factorial experimental design. The selected variables, studied in their maximum and minimum level were: HRT (hydraulic retention time and the presence or absence of GAC (granular activated carbon layer. The response variable was phenol concentration. The optimum treatment conditions for low and high phenol concentrations (2.14 y 9.30 mg/l, were obtained with the presence of GAC and 18 hours of HRT. The best result for the intermediate phenol concentration (6.13 mg/l was obtained with a 24 hour HRT and the presence of GAC. Nevertheless, the presence of the GAC layer was not significantly important in terms of phenol removal. Moreover, the increase of HRT from 18 to 24 hours, showed no significant improvement in phenol removal.

  10. CHARACTERIZATION AND PROPERTIES OF A LIGNOSULFONATE-BASED PHENOLIC FOAM

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    Lihong Hu,

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Phenolated lignosulfonate was introduced into the synthesis of phenolic resol with phenol and formaldehyde in an alkaline condition. The modified resol was successfully applied to prepare phenolic foam using appropriate combinations of flowing agents. N-pentane was found to be suitable as the foaming agent. Sulphuric acid (50% aqueous solution, w/w and Tween-80 were used as catalyst and surfactant, respectively. The obtained foams were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, friability, and mechanical property tests. The experimental results showed the foam to have lower density, better toughness, and excellent thermal insulation compared to those of foams obtained from conventional resol resin. The properties of phenolated lignosulfonate modified phenolic foam can comply with the required specifications for its practical utilization.

  11. Chloride ions promoted the catalytic wet peroxide oxidation of phenol over clay-based catalysts.

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    Zhou, Shiwei; Zhang, Changbo; Xu, Rui; Gu, Chuantao; Song, Zhengguo; Xu, Minggang

    2016-01-01

    Catalytic wet peroxide oxidation (CWPO) of phenol over clay-based catalysts in the presence and absence of NaCl was investigated. Changes in the H2O2, Cl(-), and dissolved metal ion concentration, as well as solution pH during phenol oxidation, were also studied. Additionally, the intermediates formed during phenol oxidation were detected by liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy and the chemical bonding information of the catalyst surfaces was analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results showed that the presence of Cl(-) increased the oxidation rate of phenol to 155%, and this phenomenon was ubiquitous during the oxidation of phenolic compounds by H2O2 over clay-based catalysts. Cl(-)-assisted oxidation of phenol was evidenced by several analytical techniques such as mass spectroscopy (MS) and XPS, and it was hypothesized that the rate-limiting step was accelerated in the presence of Cl(-). Based on the results of this study, the CWPO technology appears to be promising for applications in actual saline phenolic wastewater treatment. PMID:26942523

  12. Phenolic extracts of coconut oil cake: a potential alternative for synthetic antioxidants

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    Kapila Nalawatta SENEVIRATNE

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Limitations of natural antioxidants include relatively low antioxidant activity, narrow range of food systems where the antioxidants are effective and limited thermal stability compared to synthetic antioxidants. In the present study, the phenolic extract of coconut oil cake (COCE was tested for antioxidant activity-related food stabilization. Heat stabilities of COCE and synthetic antioxidants were determined by measuring the indubbction time of sunflower oil enriched with heat-treated antioxidants. In the β-carotene-linoleate emulsion used for testing antioxidant activity, COCE can retain 96 ± 2% of initial colour intensity while BHT can retain 89 ± 2% of initial colour intensity at 60 µg mL–1 concentration after two hours. TBARS contents (MDA equivalents / kg of meat in COCE-treated and control pork samples after 14 days was 2.80 ± 0.57 and 22.55 ± 2.30 respectively. Heat stability varies in the order butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT < (butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA < COCE < tertiary butylhydroxyquinone (TBHQ. The results of these experiments suggest that COCE is a versatile and thermally stable natural antioxidant mixture effective in stabilizing many food systems.

  13. Application of protein-phenolic based coating on tomatoes (Lycopersicum esculentum)

    OpenAIRE

    Eliane Pereira Cipolatti; Larine Kupski; Meritaine da Rocha; Melissa dos Santos Oliveira; Jaqueline Garda Buffon; Eliana Badiale Furlong

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the use of protein-phenolic based coating made from fermented rice bran on cherry tomatoes (Lycopersicum esculentum). Tests were performed with glycerol 3% (v/v), glycerol with protein-phenolic rice bran extract (5%), glycerol with protein-phenolic extract after 96 hours of fermentation (5%), and a control (without coating). The coated cherry tomatoes were kept at room temperature for 28 days. Mass loss, pH and acidity, total soluble solids, and carote...

  14. Alternative castor oil-based polyurethane adhesive used in the production of plywood

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Plywood is normally produced with urea-formaldehyde and/or phenol-formaldehyde adhesives. However, the former is considerably toxic and environmentally damaging, while the latter is expensive, thus motivating the search for alternative raw materials in plywood production. The castor oil-based polyurethane adhesive developed at the São Carlos Institute of Chemistry, University of São Paulo, is an environmentally friendly vegetal oil-based polymer that is harmless to humans. The wood species Eu...

  15. Phenol determination on HDTMA-bentonite-based electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mojovic, Z., E-mail: zoricam@nanosys.ihtm.bg.ac.rs [University of Belgrade, Institute of Chemistry, Technology and Metallurgy, Department of Catalysis and Chemical Engineering, Njegoseva 12, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Jovic-Jovicic, N.; Milutinovic-Nikolic, A.; Bankovic, P.; Rabi-Stankovic, A. Abu; Jovanovic, D. [University of Belgrade, Institute of Chemistry, Technology and Metallurgy, Department of Catalysis and Chemical Engineering, Njegoseva 12, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2011-10-30

    Highlights: {yields} HDTMA-modified bentonites were tested as electrode materials in the electro-oxidation of phenol. {yields} The influences of the surfactant loading and pH of the supporting electrolyte were investigated. {yields} Rapid deactivation of electrodes occurred in an acidic environment. {yields} Good stability of the investigated electrodes was obtained in alkaline medium. {yields} The sensitivity toward phenol and stability of the electrodes was markedly improved with increasing HDTMA loading. - Abstract: The partial and complete substitution of cations in the interlayer region of clay with different amounts of hexadecyl trimethylammonium bromide (HDTMABr) was performed. The aim was to synthesize organo-bentonites to be used as constituents of porous electrodes for the electrooxidation of phenol. Domestic clay from Bogovina was subjected to a common procedure of the production of organo-bentonites. It included the following steps: grinding, sieving, Na-exchange, cation exchange and drying. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, while the textural properties were evaluated by nitrogen physisorption. The multisweep cyclic voltammetry was applied to analyze the behavior of the clay modified glassy carbon electrode. The influences of the surfactant loading and pH of the support electrolyte were investigated. Rapid deactivation of electrodes occurred in an acidic environment, while good stability of the investigated electrodes was obtained in alkaline medium.

  16. ADSORPTION OF PHENOL IN NON—AQUEOUS SYSTEM BASED ON HYDROGEN—BONDING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUMancai; SHIZuoqing; 等

    2000-01-01

    Two hydrogen-bonding adsorbents-macroporous crosslinked poly(P-nitrostyrene)and poly(p-vinylbenzyl amide)-were synthesized,and the adsorption property of phenol from cyclohexane solution onto the adsorbents was studied,The differential adsorption heasts for varied adsorption capacities calculated from the adsorption isotherms according to the Claperyron-Clausius equation lay in the range of hydrogen bond energy (8-50kJ/mol),The adsorption capaccity of o-nitrophenol in cyclohexane was moch less than that of phenol under the same condition.The adsorption capacity of phenol from cyclohexane onto polyacrylonitrile was much less than that onto poly(p-nitrostyrene)or poly(p-vinylbenzyl amide),All these results revealed that adsorption of phenol from cyclohexane by poly(p-nitrostyrene) or poly(p-vinylbenzyl amide)is based on hydrogen-bonding.

  17. Electro-catalytic oxidation of phenol with Ti-base lead dioxide electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王东田; 魏杰; 于秀娟; 杨红

    2003-01-01

    The Ti-base PbO2 electrode prepared by electrodeposition of PbO2 on the surface of titanium was used for electro-catalytic oxidation of phenol in waste water. The experimental results show that the electrodeposition of PbO2 at a higher current density for a short time, then followed by a lower current density can get a compact and combinative PbO2 layer. The properties of a Ti/PbO2 electrode with an interlayer of oxide are the best. When this kind of electrode is used to treat phenol containing waste water, the phenol-removal rate is higher and the slot voltage is lower. In addition, by using the phenol-removal rate as an index, the influences of electrolysis current density, mass transfer condition and pH were studied and the optimal condition was confirmed.

  18. Cinnamic acid, coumarin and vanillin: Alternative phenolic compounds for efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of the unicellular green alga, Nannochloropsis sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Thye-San; Chen, Chin-Fong; Yee, Willy; Aziz, Ahmad; Loh, Saw-Hong

    2011-03-01

    The use of acetosyringone in Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer into plant hosts has been favored for the past few decades. The influence of other phenolic compounds and their effectiveness in Agrobacterium-mediated plant transformation systems has been neglected. In this study, the efficacy of four phenolic compounds on Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of the unicellular green alga Nannochloropsis sp. (Strain UMT-M3) was assessed by using β-glucuronidase (GUS) assay. We found that cinnamic acid, vanillin and coumarin produced higher percentages of GUS positive cells as compared to acetosyringone. These results also show that the presence of methoxy group in the phenolic compounds may not be necessary for Agrobacterium vir gene induction and receptor binding as suggested by previous studies. These findings provide possible alternative Agrobacterium vir gene inducers that are more potent as compared to the commonly used acetosyringone in achieving high efficiency of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation in microalgae and possibly for other plants.

  19. Stable and sensitive flow-through monitoring of phenol using a carbon nanotube based screen printed biosensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A stable and sensitive biosensor for phenol detection based on a screen printed electrode modified with tyrosinase, multiwall carbon nanotubes and glutaraldehyde is designed and applied in a flow injection analytical system. The proposed carbon nanotube matrix is easy to prepare and ensures a very good entrapment environment for the enzyme, being simpler and cheaper than other reported strategies. In addition, the proposed matrix allows for a very fast operation of the enzyme, that leads to a response time of 15 s. Several parameters such as the working potential, pH of the measuring solution, biosensor response time, detection limit, linear range of response and sensitivity are studied. The obtained detection limit for phenol was 0.14 x 10-6 M. The biosensor keeps its activity during continuous FIA measurements at room temperature, showing a stable response (RSD 5%) within a two week working period at room temperature. The developed biosensor is being applied for phenol detection in seawater samples and seems to be a promising alternative for automatic control of seawater contamination. The developed detection system can be extended to other enzyme biosensors with interest for several other applications.

  20. Stable and sensitive flow-through monitoring of phenol using a carbon nanotube based screen printed biosensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alarcon, G; Guix, M; Ambrosi, A; Merkoci, A [Nanobioelectronics and Biosensors Group, Catalan Institute of Nanotechnology, Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Ramirez Silva, M T [Departamento de Quimica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana Iztapalapa, 09340 Mexico Distrito Federal (Mexico); Palomar Pardave, M E, E-mail: arben.merkoci.icn@uab.es [Departamento de Materiales, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Azcapotzalco, 02200 Mexico Distrito Federal (Mexico)

    2010-06-18

    A stable and sensitive biosensor for phenol detection based on a screen printed electrode modified with tyrosinase, multiwall carbon nanotubes and glutaraldehyde is designed and applied in a flow injection analytical system. The proposed carbon nanotube matrix is easy to prepare and ensures a very good entrapment environment for the enzyme, being simpler and cheaper than other reported strategies. In addition, the proposed matrix allows for a very fast operation of the enzyme, that leads to a response time of 15 s. Several parameters such as the working potential, pH of the measuring solution, biosensor response time, detection limit, linear range of response and sensitivity are studied. The obtained detection limit for phenol was 0.14 x 10{sup -6} M. The biosensor keeps its activity during continuous FIA measurements at room temperature, showing a stable response (RSD 5%) within a two week working period at room temperature. The developed biosensor is being applied for phenol detection in seawater samples and seems to be a promising alternative for automatic control of seawater contamination. The developed detection system can be extended to other enzyme biosensors with interest for several other applications.

  1. Ionic liquids based simultaneous ultrasonic and microwave assisted extraction of phenolic compounds from burdock leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ionic liquids based simultaneous ultrasonic and microwave assisted extraction (IL-UMAE) technique was first proposed and applied to isolate compounds. The ionic liquids comprising a range of four anions, five 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium derivatives were designed and prepared. The results suggested that varying the anion and cation both had apparent effects on the extraction of phenolics. The results also showed that irradiation power, time and solid–liquid ratio significantly affected the yields. The yields of caffeic acid and quercetin obtained by IL-UMAE were higher than those by regular UMAE. Compared with conventional heat-reflux extraction (HRE), the proposed approach exhibited higher efficiency (8–17% enhanced) and shorter extraction time (from 5 h to 30 s). The results indicated ILUMAE to be a fast and efficient extraction technique. Moreover, the proposed method was validated by the reproducibility and recovery experiments. The ILUMAE method provided good recoveries (from 96.1% to 105.3%) with RSD lower than 5.2%, which indicated that the proposed method was credible. Based on the designable nature of ionic liquids, and the rapid and highly efficient performance of the proposed approach, ILUMAE provided a new alternative for preparation of various useful substances from solid samples.

  2. A comparison of the effect of doxorubicin and phenol on the skeletal muscle. May doxorubicin be a new alternative treatment agent for spasticity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullu, Emre; Ozkan, Ilhan; Culhaci, Nil; Alparslan, Bulent

    2005-03-01

    Since spasticity is still an unsolved problem for orthopaedic surgeons, different chemical agents are tried before surgery. Phenol is a chemical agent which has been used for spasticity treatment for a long time. Doxorubicin is an antitumoral agent that has recently been used for chemomyectomy. The intramuscular effects of phenol and two different dose of doxorubicin were compared in that experimental study. In the first group 0.5 mg/0.5 cm3 doxorubicin, in the second group 1 mg/0.5 doxorubicin and in the third group 5% aqueous solution of fenol/0.5 injection were applied into left quadriceps muscle of rats. Degeneration areas were wider in the high dose doxorubicin group (29.9%; 8.5-61), in comparison with the low dose doxorubicin group (6.4%; 3.1-12) and phenol group (4%; 0-14) after 6 weeks. Differences in degeneration area among three groups were statistically significant (P<0.001). The difference was significant between the high dose doxorubicin group and the phenol group (P=0.001) and also between the high dose doxorubicin group and the low dose doxorubicin group (P<0.001). The results of this study suggested that doxorubicin could provide an alternative treatment modality for neuromuscular disease causing spasticity and it has a dose-dependent effect. Further studies are needed for long-term comparison and clinical use of doxorubicin for spasticity treatment. PMID:15703526

  3. Influence of pore size distribution on the adsorption of phenol on PET-based activated carbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenc-Grabowska, Ewa; Diez, María A; Gryglewicz, Grazyna

    2016-05-01

    The role of pore size distribution in the adsorption of phenol in aqueous solutions on polyethylene terephthalate (PET)-based activated carbons (ACs) has been analyzed. The ACs were prepared from PET and mixtures of PET with coal-tar pitch (CTP) by means of carbonization and subsequent steam and carbon dioxide activation at 850 and 950 °C, respectively. The resultant ACs were characterized on the basis of similarities in their surface chemical features and differences in their micropore size distributions. The adsorption of phenol was carried out in static conditions at ambient temperature. The pseudo-second order kinetic model and Langmuir model were found to fit the experimental data very well. The different adsorption capacities of the ACs towards phenol were attributed to differences in their micropore size distributions. Adsorption capacity was favoured by the volume of pores with a size smaller than 1.4 nm; but restricted by pores smaller than 0.8 nm.

  4. IMPROVED SELECTIVE ELECTROCATALYTIC OXIDATION OF PHENOLS BY TYROSINASE-BASED CARBON PASTE ELECTRODE BIOSENSOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrosinase-based carbon paste electrodes are evaluated with respect to the viscosity and polarity of the binder liquids. The electrodes constructed using a lower viscosity mineral oil yielded a greater response to phenol and catechol than those using a higher viscosity oil of s...

  5. Whole-cell method for phenol detection based on the color reaction of phenol with 4-aminoantipyrine catalyzed by CotA laccase on endospore surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Zhiming; Tian, Longjian; Li, Zheng; Jia, Lina; Zhang, Xinya; Xia, Miaomiao; Hu, Yonggang

    2015-07-15

    A green method for phenol spectrophotometric determination was developed based on the color reaction of phenol with 4-aminoantipyrine catalyzed by addition of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens endospores in the presence of O2. The catalytic activity of the endospores may be attributed to the presence of coat protein A on the cell surfaces. This deduction was confirmed by cotA gene knock-out from B. amyloliquefaciens using the homologous double-exchange method. Under optimal conditions, linear responses were obtained over phenol concentrations ranging from 5.0×10(-5)gL(-1) to 1.0×10(-2)gL(-1) (r=0.9984) with a detection limit of 2.1×10(-5)gL(-1) (3σ). Repeatability measurements of 1.0mgL(-1) phenol provided reproducible results with a relative standard deviation of 5.3% (n=11). Standard addition tests indicated recoveries ranging from 92.78% to 107.60%. The proposed whole-cell method was successfully used to detect total phenol in synthetic samples. Results confirmed the potential use of the developed method in practical applications.

  6. Standardization of Tragopogon graminifolius DC. Extract Based on Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hosein Farzaei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tragopogon graminifolius DC. (TG, Compositae family, is traditionally used for the treatment of various diseases like gastrointestinal and hepatic disorders. The aim of the present study is to standardize extracts from TG used for preparation of different dosage forms in traditional Iranian medicine (TIM based on phenolic compounds. For this purpose, total phenolic content and some phenolic compounds were determined in ethanolic extracts from aerial part and root of TG by HPLC method. Furthermore, antioxidant activity was evaluated using DPPH-HPLC methods. Caffeic acid, gallic acid, ρ-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, and catechin were detected in root and aerial part of TG. ρ-Coumaric acid (6.357 ± 0.014 mg·g−1 was dominant phenolic compound in aerial part followed by ferulic acid (1.24 ± 0.018 mg·g−1. Also, ρ-coumaric acid (2.685 ± 0.031 mg·g−1 was highly abundant in root, followed by catechin (2.067 ± 0.021 mg·g−1. Antioxidant activity of root extract (460.45 ± 0.78 µg Vit.E.E·mL−1 was better than that of aerial part. Generally, phenolic compounds are one of the major constituents of TG and could be used as markers for standardization of dosage forms prepared from this plant. Also, TG demonstrated significant antioxidant activity using DPPH-HPLC method. Phenolic compounds of TG may be responsible for its marked antioxidant properties.

  7. Identification of the Phenol Functionality in Deprotonated Monomeric and Dimeric Lignin Degradation Products via Tandem Mass Spectrometry Based on Ion-Molecule Reactions with Diethylmethoxyborane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hanyu; Max, Joann P.; Marcum, Christopher L.; Luo, Hao; Abu-Omar, Mahdi M.; Kenttämaa, Hilkka I.

    2016-11-01

    Conversion of lignin into smaller molecules provides a promising alternate and sustainable source for the valuable chemicals currently derived from crude oil. Better understanding of the chemical composition of the resulting product mixtures is essential for the optimization of such conversion processes. However, these mixtures are complex and contain isomeric molecules with a wide variety of functionalities, which makes their characterization challenging. Tandem mass spectrometry based on ion-molecule reactions has proven to be a powerful tool in functional group identification and isomer differentiation for previously unknown compounds. This study demonstrates that the identification of the phenol functionality, the most commonly observed functionality in lignin degradation products, can be achieved via ion-molecule reactions between diethylmethoxyborane (DEMB) and the deprotonated analyte in the absence of strongly electron-withdrawing substituents in the ortho- and para-positions. Either a stable DEMB adduct or an adduct that has lost a methanol molecule (DEMB adduct-MeOH) is formed for these ions. Deprotonated phenols with an adjacent phenol or hydroxymethyl functionality or a conjugated carboxylic acid functionality can be identified based on the formation of DEMB adduct-MeOH. Deprotonated compounds not containing the phenol functionality and phenols containing an electron-withdrawing ortho- or para-substituent were found to be unreactive toward diethylmethoxyborane. Hence, certain deprotonated isomeric compounds with phenol and carboxylic acid, aldehyde, carboxylic acid ester, or nitro functionalities can be differentiated via these reactions. The above mass spectrometry method was successfully coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography for the analysis of a complex biomass degradation mixture.

  8. Identification of the Phenol Functionality in Deprotonated Monomeric and Dimeric Lignin Degradation Products via Tandem Mass Spectrometry Based on Ion-Molecule Reactions with Diethylmethoxyborane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hanyu; Max, Joann P.; Marcum, Christopher L.; Luo, Hao; Abu-Omar, Mahdi M.; Kenttämaa, Hilkka I.

    2016-08-01

    Conversion of lignin into smaller molecules provides a promising alternate and sustainable source for the valuable chemicals currently derived from crude oil. Better understanding of the chemical composition of the resulting product mixtures is essential for the optimization of such conversion processes. However, these mixtures are complex and contain isomeric molecules with a wide variety of functionalities, which makes their characterization challenging. Tandem mass spectrometry based on ion-molecule reactions has proven to be a powerful tool in functional group identification and isomer differentiation for previously unknown compounds. This study demonstrates that the identification of the phenol functionality, the most commonly observed functionality in lignin degradation products, can be achieved via ion-molecule reactions between diethylmethoxyborane (DEMB) and the deprotonated analyte in the absence of strongly electron-withdrawing substituents in the ortho- and para-positions. Either a stable DEMB adduct or an adduct that has lost a methanol molecule (DEMB adduct-MeOH) is formed for these ions. Deprotonated phenols with an adjacent phenol or hydroxymethyl functionality or a conjugated carboxylic acid functionality can be identified based on the formation of DEMB adduct-MeOH. Deprotonated compounds not containing the phenol functionality and phenols containing an electron-withdrawing ortho- or para-substituent were found to be unreactive toward diethylmethoxyborane. Hence, certain deprotonated isomeric compounds with phenol and carboxylic acid, aldehyde, carboxylic acid ester, or nitro functionalities can be differentiated via these reactions. The above mass spectrometry method was successfully coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography for the analysis of a complex biomass degradation mixture.

  9. "Quinone Millipedes" Reconsidered: Evidence for a Mosaic-Like Taxonomic Distribution of Phenol-Based Secretions across the Julidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodner, Michaela; Vagalinski, Boyan; Makarov, Slobodan E; Antić, Dragan Ž; Vujisić, Ljubodrag V; Leis, Hans-Jörg; Raspotnig, Günther

    2016-03-01

    The defensive chemistry of juliformian millipedes is characterized mainly by benzoquinones ("quinone millipedes"), whereas the secretions of the putative close outgroup Callipodida are considered to be exclusively phenolic. We conducted a chemical screening of julid secretions for phenolic content. Most species from tribes Cylindroiulini (15 species examined), Brachyiulini (5 species examined), Leptoiulini (15 species examined), Uncigerini (2 species examined), Pachyiulini (3 species examined), and Ommatoiulini (2 species examined) had non-phenolic, in most cases exclusively benzoquinonic secretions. In contrast, tribes Cylindroiulini, Brachyiulini, and Leptoiulini also contained representatives with predominantly phenol-based exudates. In detail, p-cresol was a major compound in the secretions of the cylindroiulines Styrioiulus pelidnus and S. styricus (p-cresol content 93 %) and an undetermined Cylindroiulus species (p-cresol content 51 %), in the brachyiulines Brachyiulus lusitanus (p-cresol content 21 %) and Megaphyllum fagorum (p-cresol content 92 %), as well as in an undescribed Typhloiulus species (p-cresol content 32 %, Leptoiulini). In all species, p-cresol was accompanied by small amounts of phenol. The secretion of M. fagorum was exclusively phenolic, whereas phenols were accompanied by benzoquinones in all other species. This is the first incidence of clearly phenol-dominated secretions in the Julidae. We hypothesize a shared biosynthetic route to phenols and benzoquinones, with benzoquinones being produced from phenolic precursors. The patchy taxonomic distribution of phenols documented herein supports multiple independent regression events in a common pathway of benzoquinone synthesis rather than multiple independent incidences of phenol biosynthesis. PMID:26971956

  10. Multicenter Patch Testing With a Resol Resin Based on Phenol and Formaldehyde Within the International Contact Dermatitis Research Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isaksson, M.; Ale, I.; Andersen, Klaus Ejner;

    2015-01-01

    Background Contact allergy to phenol-formaldehyde resins (PFRs) based on phenol and formaldehyde is not detected by a p-tertiary-butylphenol-formaldehyde resin included in most baseline patch test series. Objective The aims of this study were to investigate the contact allergy rate to PFR-2...

  11. An electropolymerized aniline-based fiber coating for solid phase microextraction of phenols from water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagheri, Habib [Department of Chemistry, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11365-9516, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)]. E-mail: bagheri@sharif.edu; Mir, Ali [Department of Chemistry, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11365-9516, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Babanezhad, Esmaeil [Department of Chemistry, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11365-9516, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2005-03-07

    An aniline-based polymer was electrochemically prepared and applied as a new fiber coating for solid phase microextraction (SPME) of some priority phenols from water samples. The polyaniline (PANI) film was directly electrodeposited on the platinum wire surface in sulfuric acid solution using cyclic voltammetry (CV) technique. The efficiency of new coating was investigated using a laboratory-made SPME device and gas chromatography with flame ionization detection for the extraction of some phenols from the headspace of aqueous samples. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images showed the homogeneity and the porous surface structure of the film. The results obtained proved the ability of this polymer as a suitable SPME fiber coating for trapping the selected phenols. Influential parameters affecting the extraction process were optimized and an extraction time of 50 min at 50 deg. C gave maximum efficiency, when the aqueous sample was saturated with NaCl and adjusted at pH 2. This new coating can be prepared easily in a reproducible manner and it is rather inexpensive and stable against most of organic solvents. The PANI thickness can be precisely controlled by the number of CV cycles. At the optimum conditions, the R.S.D. for a double distilled water spiked with phenol and chlorophenols at ppb level were 4.8-17% (n = 3) and detection limits for the studied compounds were between 0.69 and 3.7 ng ml{sup -1}, except for phenol and 4-chlorophenol. The optimized method was successfully applied to some real-life water samples.

  12. Rapid determination of phenol content in extra virgin olive oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Favati, F.

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available A quick extraction methodology was developed to reduce the time usually required to determine the phenol content in olive oil. The validity of this method, based on SPE technique, was tested against two other phenol extraction techniques.
    The statistical analysis of the analytical data showed that over a phenol content range of 110-550 μg/g oil, the proposed method can be a reliable alternative for a rapid extraction of the phenols from olive oil.

    No disponible.

  13. Selective cleavage of phenolic tert-butyldimethylsilyl ethers using simple organic nitrogen bases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Simple organic nitrogen bases,such as Et_3N,pyridine,DBU,etc.,were found to be convenient and useful reagents for deprotection of TBDMS groups on acidic hydroxyl groups.The efficiency of these bases has an apparent order:1°amine>2°amine>3°amine and aliphatic base>aromatic base.In aqueous DMSO and at room temperature,phenolic TBDMS ethers were removed selectively in the presence of alcoholic TBDMS ethers.And catalytic base can make these reactions complete.This method is high-yielding,fast,clean,safe and ...

  14. Review of alternative fuels data bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harsha, P. T.; Edelman, R. B.

    1983-01-01

    Based on an analysis of the interaction of fuel physical and chemical properties with combustion characteristics and indicators, a ranking of the importance of various fuel properties with respect to the combustion process was established. This ranking was used to define a suite of specific experiments whose objective is the development of an alternative fuels design data base. Combustion characteristics and indicators examined include droplet and spray formation, droplet vaporization and burning, ignition and flame stabilization, flame temperature, laminar flame speed, combustion completion, soot emissions, NOx and SOx emissions, and the fuels' thermal and oxidative stability and fouling and corrosion characteristics. Key fuel property data is found to include composition, thermochemical data, chemical kinetic rate information, and certain physical properties.

  15. Phenol-Formaldehyde Resin-Based Carbons for CO2 Separation at Sub-Atmospheric Pressures

    OpenAIRE

    Noelia Álvarez-Gutiérrez; María Victoria Gil; María Martínez; Fernando Rubiera; Covadonga Pevida

    2016-01-01

    The challenge of developing effective separation and purification technologies that leave much smaller energy footprints is greater for carbon dioxide (CO2) than for other gases. In addition to its involvement in climate change, CO2 is present as an impurity in biogas and bio-hydrogen (biological production by dark fermentation), in post-combustion processes (flue gas, CO2-N2) and many other gas streams. Selected phenol-formaldehyde resin-based activated carbons prepared in our laboratory hav...

  16. A rapid phenol toxicity test based on photosynthesis and movement of the freshwater flagellate, Euglena agilis Carter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kottuparambil, Sreejith [Institute of Green Environmental Research Center, Incheon National University, Incheon 406 840 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Youn-Jung [Institute of Green Environmental Research Center, Incheon National University, Incheon 406 840 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Marine Science, Incheon National University, Incheon 406 840 (Korea, Republic of); Green-Pioneer (Ltd.), Incheon National University, Incheon 406 840 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Hoon; Kim, Mi-Sung; Park, Areum; Park, Jihae [Institute of Green Environmental Research Center, Incheon National University, Incheon 406 840 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Woongghi [Department of Biology, Chungnam University, Daejeon 306 764 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Taejun, E-mail: hanalgae@hanmail.net [Institute of Green Environmental Research Center, Incheon National University, Incheon 406 840 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Marine Science, Incheon National University, Incheon 406 840 (Korea, Republic of); Green-Pioneer (Ltd.), Incheon National University, Incheon 406 840 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Rapid phenol toxicity tests (1 h) were developed based on Chl a fluorescence and the movement parameters of Euglena agilis. • Phenol significantly reduced F{sub v}/F{sub m} of PS II and rETRmax with EC50 values of 8.94 and 4.67 mM, respectively. • Among the movement parameters tested, velocity was the most sensitive biomarker with an EC50 of 3.17 mM. • The EC50 values for F{sub v}/F{sub m}, motility, and velocity appear to overlap the environmental permissible levels of phenol. - Abstract: Phenol, a monosubstituted aromatic hydrocarbon with various commercial uses, is a major organic constituent in industrial wastewaters. The ecotoxic action of phenol for aquatic environment is well known. In this study, rapid phenol toxicity tests (1 h) were developed based on chlorophyll a (Chl a) fluorescence and the movement parameters of the freshwater flagellate, Euglena agilis Carter. Phenol significantly reduced the maximum quantum yield (F{sub v}/F{sub m}) of photosystem II (PS II) and the maximum photosynthetic electron transport rate (rETR{sub max}) with median effective concentration (EC{sub 50}) values of 8.94 and 4.67 mM, respectively. Phenol reduced the motility and triggered change in the swimming velocity of the test organism. Among the parameters tested, velocity was the most sensitive biomarker with an EC{sub 50} of 3.17 mM. The EC{sub 50} values for F{sub v}/F{sub m}, motility, and velocity appear to overlap the permitted levels of phenol. In conclusion, the photosynthesis and movement of E. agilis can be fast and sensitive risk assessment parameters for the evaluation of phenol toxicity in municipal and industrial effluents.

  17. Colorimetric biomimetic sensor systems based on molecularly imprinted polymer membranes for highly-selective detection of phenol in environmental samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergeyeva T. A.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Development of an easy-to-use colorimetric sensor system for fast and accurate detection of phenol in envi- ronmental samples. Methods. Technique of molecular imprinting, method of in situ polymerization of molecularly imprinted polymer membranes. Results. The proposed sensor is based on free-standing molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP membranes, synthesized by in situ polymerization, and having in their structure artificial binding sites capable of selective phenol recognition. The quantitative detection of phenol, selectively adsorbed by the MIP membranes, is based on its reaction with 4-aminoantipyrine, which gives a pink-colored product. The intensity of staining of the MIP membrane is proportional to phenol concentration in the analyzed sample. Phenol can be detected within the range 50 nM–10 mM with limit of detection 50 nM, which corresponds to the concentrations that have to be detected in natural and waste waters in accordance with environmental protection standards. Stability of the MIP-membrane-based sensors was assessed during 12 months storage at room temperature. Conclusions. The sensor system provides highly-selective and sensitive detection of phenol in both mo- del and real (drinking, natural, and waste water samples. As compared to traditional methods of phenol detection, the proposed system is characterized by simplicity of operation and can be used in non-laboratory conditions.

  18. Assay of phenolic compounds from four species of ber (Ziziphus mauritiana L.) fruits: comparison of three base hydrolysis procedure for quantification of total phenolic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memon, Ayaz Ali; Memon, Najma; Bhanger, Muhammad Iqbal; Luthria, Devanand L

    2013-08-15

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the flavonoid profile in four species of ber (Ziziphus mauritiana Lamk.) fruit. The 12 flavonoids identified were quercetin 3-O-robinobioside, quercetin 3-O-rutinoside, quercetin 3'-O-galactoside, quercetin 3'-O-glucoside, quercetin 3'-O-rhamnoside, quercetin 3'-O-pentosylhexoside, quercetin 3-O-6'malonylglucoside, quercetin 3'-O-malonylglucoside, luteolin 7-O-6'malonylglucoside, luteolin 7-O-malonylglucoside, myricetin 3-O-galactoside, and naringenin tri glycoside. This is the first report on extraction of nine additional flavonoids from the ber fruits. In addition, we also compared the impact of three different base hydrolysis techniques namely ultrasonic assisted base hydrolysis (UABH), microwave assisted base hydrolysis (MWABH), and pressurised liquid assisted base hydrolysis (PLABH) for the quantification of total phenolic acids. Nine phenolic acids, protocatechuic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, ferulic acid, chlorogenic acid, vanillic acid, caffeic acid, vanillin, ortho- and para-coumaric acids, were identified and quantified. The three major phenolic acids identified in all four ber species were p-coumaric acid, vanillin and ferulic acids. Higher amounts (pacids in all cultivars were obtained with the PLABH technique as compared to other two procedures (UABH and MWABH). PMID:23561136

  19. Cerium-based binary and ternary oxides in the transesterification of dimethylcarbonate with phenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibenedetto, Angela; Angelini, Antonella; di Bitonto, Luigi; De Giglio, Elvira; Cometa, Stefania; Aresta, Michele

    2014-04-01

    Diphenyl carbonate (DPC) plays a key role in phosgene-free carbonylation processes. It can be produced by transesterification of dimethyl carbonate (DMC) with phenol in the presence of catalysts. Methyl phenyl carbonate (MPC) is first produced that is then converted into DPC by either disproportionation or further transesterification with phenol. Cerium-based bimetallic oxides (with the heterometal being niobium, iron, palladium, or aluminum) are used as catalysts in the transesterification of DMC to synthesize MPC. The catalytic activity is affected by the type and concentration of the heterometal. XPS, IR and elementary analyses are employed to characterize the new catalysts. Differently from pure oxides, the mixed oxides produce a significant increase of the conversion and selectivity towards MPC. PMID:24616260

  20. A novel tyrosinase biosensor based on hydroxyapatite-chitosan nanocomposite for the detection of phenolic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel tyrosinase biosensor based on hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (nano-HA)-chitosan nanocomposite has been developed for the detection of phenolic compounds. The uniform and size controlled nano-HA was synthesized by hydrothermal method, and its morphological characterization was examined by transmission electron microscope (TEM). Tyrosinase was then immobilized on a nano-HA-chitosan nanocomposite-modified gold electrode. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry were used to characterize the sensing film. The prepared biosensor was applied to determine phenolic compounds by monitoring the reduction signal of the biocatalytically produced quinone species at -0.2 V (vs. saturated calomel electrode). The effects of the pH, temperature and applied potential on the biosensor performance were investigated, and experimental conditions were optimized. The biosensor exhibited a linear response to catechol over a wide concentration range from 10 nM to 7 μM, with a high sensitivity of 2.11 x 103 μA mM-1 cm-2, and a limit of detection down to 5 nM (based on S/N = 3). The apparent Michaelis-Menten constants of the enzyme electrode were estimated to be 3.16, 1.31 and 3.52 μM for catechol, phenol and m-cresol, respectively. Moreover, the stability and reproducibility of this biosensor were evaluated with satisfactory results.

  1. Phenolics, Flavonoids, Antioxidant Activity and Cyanogenic Glycosides of Organic and Mineral-base Fertilized Cassava Tubers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puteri Edaroyati Megat Wahab

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A field study was conducted to determine the effect of organic and mineral-based fertilizers on phytochemical contents in the tubers of two cassava varieties. Treatments were arranged in a split plot design with three replicates. The main plot was fertilizer source (vermicompost, empty fruit bunch compost and inorganic fertilizer and sub-plot was cassava variety (Medan and Sri Pontian. The amount of fertilizer applied was based on 180 kg K2O ha−1. The tubers were harvested and analyzed for total flavonoids, total phenolics, antioxidant activity and cyanogenic glucoside content. Total phenolic and flavonoid compounds were determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu assay and aluminium chloride colorimetric method, respectively. Different sources of fertilizer, varieties and their interactions were found to have a significant effect on phytochemical content. The phenolic and flavonoid content were significantly higher (p < 0.01 in the vermicompost treatment compared to mineral fertilizer and EFB compost. The total flavonoids and phenolics content of vermicompost treated plants were 39% and 38% higher, respectively, than those chemically fertilized. The antioxidant activity determined using the DPPH and FRAP assays were high with application of organic fertilizer. Cyanogenic glycoside levels were decreased with the application of organic fertilizer. Among the two types of compost, vermicompost resulted in higher nutritional value of cassava tubers. Medan variety with application of vermicompost showed the most promising nutritional quality. Since the nutritional quality of cassava can be improved by organic fertilization, organic fertilizer should be used in place of chemical fertilizer for environmentally sustainable production of better quality cassava.

  2. LC-MALDI-TOF MS-Based Rapid Identification of Phenolic Acids

    OpenAIRE

    Mandal, Santi M; Dey, Satyahari

    2008-01-01

    This study is the first on combined HPLC and MALDI-TOF MS analysis of phenolic acids. The analyses were carried out for phenolic acid mixtures and showed a unique, individual co-crystalline pattern for each phenolic acid. HPLC could distinguish phenolic acids and MALDI-TOF MS provided comparable mass (m/z) profiles for the samples. This combined study proved to be rapid in the accurate identification and structural analysis of phenolic acids with different masses.

  3. Flexural behavior of Sisal/Castor oil-Based Polyurethane and Sisal/Phenolic Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andressa Cecília Milanese

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Natural fibers used as reinforcement of polymeric composites are interesting research subjects in polymer technology. Nowadays, these materials are being considered as a way to reinforce timber structures improvement. Fibers with larger structural applications are glass and carbon fibers, however, the use of natural fibers is an economic alternative and present many advantages such as biodegradability and having its origin from a renewable source. Castor oil, a triglyceride vegetable with hydroxyl groups, was reacted with 4,4' methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI to produce the polyurethane matrix. The composites were prepared by compress molding at room temperature using woven sisal fiber as a reinforcement, with and without thermal treatment (at 60 ºC for 72 hours to the fabrics before the composites molding process. The present paper presents the preparation and a flexural caracterization of sisal/polyurethane and sisal/phenolic composites by using the three-point bending. The sisal fibers moisture content influence on the flexural behaviour was also analyzed. Experimental results showed a higher stiffness for the sisal/phenolic composite (11.2 MPa followed by the sisal/polyurethane (3.7 MPa, respectively.

  4. Polymeric membrane neutral phenol-sensitive electrodes for potentiometric G-quadruplex/hemin DNAzyme-based biosensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuewei; Ding, Zhaofeng; Ren, Qingwei; Qin, Wei

    2013-02-01

    The first potentiometric transducer for G-quadruplex/hemin DNAzyme-based biosensing has been developed by using potential responses of electrically neutral oligomeric phenols on polymeric membrane electrodes. In the presence of G-quadruplex/hemin DNAzyme and H(2)O(2), monomeric phenols (e.g., phenol, methylphenols, and methoxyphenols) can be condensed into oligomeric phenols. Because both substrates and products are nonionic under optimal pH conditions, these reactions are traditionally not considered in designing potentiometric biosensing schemes. However, in this paper, the electrically neutral oligomeric phenols have been found to induce highly sensitive potential responses on quaternary ammonium salt-doped polymeric membrane electrodes owing to their high lipophilicities. In contrast, the potential responses to monomeric phenolic substrates are rather low. Thus, the G-quadruplex/hemin DNAzyme-catalyzed oxidative coupling of monomeric phenols can induce large potential signals, and the catalytic activities of DNAzymes can be probed. A comparison of potential responses induced by peroxidations of 13 monomeric phenols indicates that p-methoxyphenol is the most efficient substrate for potentiometric detection of G-quadruplex/hemin DNAzymes. Finally, two label-free and separation-free potentiometric DNA assay protocols based on the G-quadruplex/hemin DNAzyme have been developed with sensitivities higher than those of colorimetric and fluorometric methods. Coupled with other features such as reliable instrumentation, low cost, ease of miniaturization, and resistance to color and turbid interferences, the proposed polymeric membrane-based potentiometric sensor promises to be a competitive transducer for peroxidase-mimicking DNAzyme-involved biosensing.

  5. Mesoporous Carbon-based Materials for Alternative Energy Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Kimberly Michelle

    /cm was measured for the composite without carbon nanotubes and the conductivity value improved by over an order of magnitude to 1 S/cm with the addition of 0.5 wt.% CNTs. Triggered by dispersion issues, the agglomeration of MWNTs during the drying process prevented each nanotube from being loaded over a maximum interfacial area. In order to improve the dispersion of carbon nanotubes within the carbon-silica network, electrospinning was explored as a method to improve the alignment of the carbon nanotubes. The electrospun fibers produced with the highest concentration of MWNTs at 1.0 wt.% produced the largest surface area and electrical conductivity values of 333.36 m2/g and 2.09 S/cm, respectively. Capacitance measurements were calculated to examine if improved conductivity results in higher capacitance values. The best capacitance performance was 148 F/g from a carbon-based mesoporous composite with 0.5 wt. % MWNTs in an aqueous electrolyte with a 2.0 mV/s scan rate. An 80% increase in capacitance occurs with the addition of 0.5 wt. % MWNTs. This is in the range of capacitance values produced by hierarchically ordered mesoporous-microporous carbons, reported at 180 F/g. Fibrous carbon tubes assembled from hydrofluoric acid etched perylenetetracarboxylic diimide bridged silsesquioxane (PDBS) were capable of hydrogen adsorption on the order of 1.3-2.5 wt. % at 77K. Lastly chemically activated phenol-formaldehyde resins produced microporous carbon with 1500 m3/g surface areas and pore sizes ranging from 0.3-0.5 nm, which has potential for asymmetric super-capacitor electrodes. Judicious control over the composition and pore structure of carbon-based nanocomposites can lead to improved performance of various alternative energy materials.

  6. The Electrical Properties for Phenolic Isocyanate-Modified Bisphenol-Based Epoxy Resins Comprising Benzoate Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Yong; Chae, Il Seok; Park, Dongkyung; Suh, Hongsuk; Kang, Sang Wook

    2016-03-01

    Epoxy resin has been required to have a low dielectric constant (D(k)), low dissipation factor (Df), low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), low water absorption, high mechanical, and high adhesion properties for various applications. A series of novel phenolic isocyanate-modified bisphenol-based epoxy resins comprising benzoate group were prepared for practical electronic packaging applications. The developed epoxy resins showed highly reduced dielectric constants (D(k)-3.00 at 1 GHz) and low dissipation values (Df-0.014 at 1 GHz) as well as enhanced thermal properties.

  7. The Electrical Properties for Phenolic Isocyanate-Modified Bisphenol-Based Epoxy Resins Comprising Benzoate Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Yong; Chae, Il Seok; Park, Dongkyung; Suh, Hongsuk; Kang, Sang Wook

    2016-03-01

    Epoxy resin has been required to have a low dielectric constant (D(k)), low dissipation factor (Df), low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), low water absorption, high mechanical, and high adhesion properties for various applications. A series of novel phenolic isocyanate-modified bisphenol-based epoxy resins comprising benzoate group were prepared for practical electronic packaging applications. The developed epoxy resins showed highly reduced dielectric constants (D(k)-3.00 at 1 GHz) and low dissipation values (Df-0.014 at 1 GHz) as well as enhanced thermal properties. PMID:27455751

  8. Study on the Soy Protein-Based Wood Adhesive Modified by Hydroxymethyl Phenol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Lei

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available To explain the reason why using phenol-formaldehyde (PF resin improves the water resistance of soy-based adhesive, the performance of soy-based adhesive cross-linked with hydroxymethyl phenol (HPF and the reaction between HPF and a common dipeptide N-(2-l-alanyl-l-glutamine (AG being used as a model compound were studied in this paper. The DSC and DMA results indicated the reaction between HPF and soy-based adhesive. The soy-based adhesive cross-linked with HPF cured at a lower temperature than the adhesive without HPF. The former showed better mechanical performance and heat resistance than the latter. The ESI-MS, FT-IR and 13C-NMR results proved the reaction between HPF and AG. Because of the existence of branched ether groups in the 13C-NMR results of HPF/AG, the reaction between HPF and AG might mainly happened between hydroxymethyl groups and amino groups under a basic condition.

  9. Anionic chromogenic chemosensors highly selective for fluoride or cyanide based on 4-(4-Nitrobenzylideneamine)phenol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicoleti, Celso R.; Marini, Vanderleia G.; Zimmermann, Lizandra M.; Machado, Vanderlei G., E-mail: vanderlei.machado@ufsc.br [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2012-08-15

    4-(4-Nitrobenzylideneamine)phenol was used in two strategies allowing the highly selective detection of F{sup -} and CN{sup -}. Firstly, the compound in acetonitrile acts as a chromogenic chemosensor based on the idea that more basic anions cause its deprotonation (colorless solution), generating a colored solution containing phenolate. The discrimination of CN{sup -} over F{sup -} was obtained by adding 1.4% water to acetonitrile: water preferentially solvates F{sup -}, leaving the CN{sup -} free to deprotonate the compound. Another strategy involved an assay comprised of the competition between phenolate dye and the analyte for calyx[4]pyrrole in acetonitrile, a receptor highly selective for F{sup -}. Phenolate and calyx[4]pyrrole form a hydrogen-bonded complex, which changes the color of the medium. On the addition of various anions, only F{sup -} was able to restore the original color corresponding to phenolate in solution due to the fact that the anion dislodges phenolate from the complexation site. (author)

  10. Phenolic Molding Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, Koji; Charles, Ted; de Keyser, Hendrik

    Phenolic Molding Compounds continue to exhibit well balanced properties such as heat resistance, chemical resistance, dimensional stability, and creep resistance. They are widely applied in electrical, appliance, small engine, commutator, and automotive applications. As the focus of the automotive industry is weight reduction for greater fuel efficiency, phenolic molding compounds become appealing alternatives to metals. Current market volumes and trends, formulation components and its impact on properties, and a review of common manufacturing methods are presented. Molding processes as well as unique advanced techniques such as high temperature molding, live sprue, and injection/compression technique provide additional benefits in improving the performance characterisitics of phenolic molding compounds. Of special interest are descriptions of some of the latest innovations in automotive components, such as the phenolic intake manifold and valve block for dual clutch transmissions. The chapter also characterizes the most recent developments in new materials, including long glass phenolic molding compounds and carbon fiber reinforced phenolic molding compounds exhibiting a 10-20-fold increase in Charpy impact strength when compared to short fiber filled materials. The role of fatigue testing and fatigue fracture behavior presents some insight into long-term reliability and durability of glass-filled phenolic molding compounds. A section on new technology outlines the important factors to consider in modeling phenolic parts by finite element analysis and flow simulation.

  11. Alternation of light/dark period priming enhances clomazone tolerance by increasing the levels of ascorbate and phenolic compounds and ROS detoxification in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) plantlets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwish, Majd; Lopez-Lauri, Félicie; Vidal, Véronique; El Maâtaoui, Mohamed; Sallanon, Huguette

    2015-07-01

    The effect of the alternation of light/dark periods (AL) (16/8 min light/dark cycles and a photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) of 50 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1) for three days) to clarify the mechanisms involved in the clomazone tolerance of tobacco plantlets primed with AL was studied. Clomazone decreased PSII activity, the net photosynthetic rate (Pn), and the ascorbate and total polyphenol contents and increased H2O2 and starch grain accumulation and the number of the cells that underwent programmed cell death (PCD). The pretreatment with AL reduced the inhibitory effect of clomazone on the PSII activity and photosynthesis, as indicated by the decreases in the H2O2 and starch grain accumulation and the PCD levels, and increased the content of ascorbate and certain phenolic compounds, such as chlorogenic acid, neochlorogenic acid and rutin. The AL treatment could promote photorespiration via post-illumination burst (PIB) effects. This alternative photorespiratory electron pathway may reduce H2O2 generation via the consumption of photochemical energy, such as NADH+H(+). At 10 days (D10) of AL treatment, this process induced moderate stress which stimulates H2O2 detoxification systems by increasing the activity of antioxidant enzymes and the biosynthesis of antioxidant components. Therefore, the PCD levels provoked by clomazone were noticeably decreased.

  12. Trimerization catalysis of phenylisocyanate in the presence of phenolic mannich bases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selivanov, A.V.; Zenitova, L.A.; Bakirova, I.N.; Kirpichnikov, P.A.

    1988-11-01

    The kinetics of the cyclic trimerization of phenylisocyanate in the presence of phenolic Mannich bases have been studied by IR spectroscopy; a catalysis mechanism for the reaction is proposed. It was found that in order for trimerization to occur the catalyst molecule must contain both a hydroxyl group and a tertiary nitrogen atom, which leads to reaction at the OH group of the catalyst and its conversion via a urethane derivative to an allophanate; the latter species undergoes tautomeric rearrangement to a bipolar ion, which is the actual catalysis site. The effects of the number of aminomethyl, hydroxyl, and other electron-donating and electron-withdrawing substituents on the structure of Mannich bases have also been investigated.

  13. Alternativas verdes para o preparo de amostra e determinação de poluentes fenólicos em água Green alternatives for sample preparation and determination of phenolic pollutants in water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Dias Rodrigues

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The restricted availability of water sources suitable for consumption and high costs for obtaining potable water has caused an increase of the conscience concerning the use. Thus, there is a high demand for "environmentally safe methods" which are according to the principles of Green Chemistry. Moreover, these methods should be able to provide reliable results for the analysis of water quality for various pollutants, such as phenol. In this work, greener alternatives for sample preparation for phenol determination in aqueous matrices are presented, which include: liquid phase microextraction, solid phase microextraction, flow analysis, cloud point extraction and aqueous two-phase systems.

  14. VISCOSITY AND BINDER COMPOSITION EFFECTS ON TYROSINASE-BASED CARBON PASTE ELECTRODE FOR DETECTION OF PHENOL AND CATECHOL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The systematic study of the effect of binder viscosity on the sensitivity of a tyrosinase-based carbon paste electrode (CPE) biosensor for phenol and catechol is reported. Silicon oil binders with similar (polydimethylsiloxane) chemical composition were used to represent a wid...

  15. TYROSINASE-BASED CARBON PASTE ELECTRODE BIOSENSOR FOR DETECTION OF PHENOLS: BINDER AND PRE-OXIDATION EFFECTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrosinase-based carbon paste electrodes are evaluated with respect to the viscosity and polarity of the binder liquids. The electrodes constructed using a lower viscosity mineral oil or paraffin wax oil yielded a greater response to phenol and catechol than those using the hi...

  16. Nano copper based high temperature solder alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Akshay

    Nano Cu an alternative to high temperature solder is developed by the Advance Technological Center at the Lockheed Martin Corporation. A printable paste of Cu nano particles is developed with an ability to fuse at 200°C in reflow oven. After reflow the deposited material has nano crystalline and nano porous structure which affects its properties. Accelerated test are performed on nano Cu deposition having nano porous and nano crystalline structure for assessment and prediction of reliability. Nano Cu assemblies with different bond layer thickness are sheared to calculate the strength of the material and are correlated with the porous and crystalline structure of nano Cu. Thermal and isothermal fatigue test are performed on nano Cu to see the dependency of life on stress and further surface of failed assemblies were observed to determine the type of failure. Creep test at RT are performed to find the type of creep mechanism and how they are affected when subjected to high temperature. TEM, SEM, X-ray, C-SAM and optical microscopy is done on the nano Cu sample for structure and surface analysis.

  17. Phenolic compounds and sensorial characterization of wines aged with alternative to barrel products made of Spanish oak wood (Quercus pyrenaica Willd.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, L; Del Alamo, M; Nevares, I; Fernández, J A; Fernández de Simón, B; Cadahía, E

    2012-04-01

    Wood of Quercus pyrenaica has suitable properties for the wine ageing process. However, the forest available for the barrel making from this particular type of tree is very limited. Nevertheless, it is highly advisable to use this kind of wood in order to manufacture alternative oak products. This study presents the results of ageing the same red wine using different pieces of wood (chips and staves) of Spanish oak (Q. pyrenaica), American oak (Quercus alba) and French oak (Quercus petraea) in conjunction with small, controlled amounts of oxygen. In addition, the phenolic parameters, colour and sensory analysis point out that wines aged with Q. pyrenaica pieces have similar enological characteristics to those aged with American or French oak pieces of wood (chips and staves). Furthermore, the total oxygen consumed and its relation with sensory properties also has been studied in this article in order to know how the oxygen behaves in these processes. Besides, it is going to put forward the fact that chips and staves from Q. pyrenaica oak are suitable for the ageing of red wines and better considered than American or French ones, showing higher aromatic intensity, complexity, woody, balsamic and cocoa. Finally, the tasters valued highly the wines with staves, pointing out its flavour and roundness in mouth.

  18. Phenolation of vegetable oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZORAN S. PETROVIĆ

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Novel bio-based compounds containing phenols suitable for the syn­thesis of polyurethanes were prepared. The direct alkylation of phenols with different vegetable oils in the presence of superacids (HBF4, triflic acid as ca­talysts was studied. The reaction kinetics was followed by monitoring the de­crease of the double bond content (iodine value with time. In order to under­stand the mechanism of the reaction, phenol was alkylated with model com­pounds. The model compounds containing one internal double bond were 9-oc­tadecene and methyl oleate and those with three double bonds were triolein and high oleic safflower oil (82 % oleic acid. It was shown that the best structures for phenol alkylation are fatty acids with only one double bond (oleic acid. Fatty acids with two double bonds (linoleic acid and three double bonds (lino­lenic acid lead to polymerized oils by a Diels–Alder reaction, and to a lesser extent to phenol alkylated products. The reaction product of direct alkylation of phenol with vegetable oils is a complex mixture of phenol alkylated with poly­merized oil (30–60 %, phenyl esters formed by transesterification of phenol with triglyceride ester bonds (<10 % and unreacted oil (30 %. The phenolated vegetable oils are new aromatic–aliphatic bio-based raw materials suitable for the preparation of polyols (by propoxylation, ethoxylation, Mannich reactions for the preparation of polyurethanes, as intermediates for phenolic resins or as bio-based antioxidants.

  19. Phenolic resin-based porous carbons for adsorption and energy storage applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramaratne, Nilantha P.

    The main objective of this dissertation research is to develop phenolic resin based carbon materials for range of applications by soft-templating and Stober-like synthesis strategies. Applications Studied in this dissertation are adsorption of CO2, bio-molecular and heavy metal ions, and energy storage devices. Based on that, our goal is to design carbon materials with desired pore structure, high surface area, graphitic domains, incorporated metal nanoparticles, and specific organic groups and heteroatoms. In this dissertation the organic-organic self-assembly of phenolic resins and triblock copolymers under acidic conditions will be used to obtain mesoporous carbons/carbon composites and Stober-like synthesis involving phenolic resins under basic condition will be used to prepare polymer/carbon particles and their composites. The structure of this dissertation consists of an introductory chapter (Chapter 1) discussing the general synthesis of carbon materials, particularly the soft-templating strategy and Stober-like carbon synthesis. Also, Chapter 1 includes a brief outline of applications namely adsorption of CO2, biomolecule and heavy metal ions, and supercapacitors. Chapter 2 discusses the techniques used for characterization of the carbon materials studied. This chapter starts with nitrogen adsorption analysis, which is used to measure the specific surface area, pore volume, distribution of pore sizes, and pore width. In addition to nitrogen adsorption, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution thermogravimetric analysis (HR-TGA), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and CHNS elemental analysis (EA) are mentioned too. Chapter 3 is focused on carbon materials for CO2 adsorption. There are different types of porous solid materials such as silicate, MOFs, carbons, and zeolites studied for CO2 adsorption. However, the carbon based materials are considered to be the best candidates for CO 2 adsorption to the industrial point of

  20. Wheat Bran Phenolic Acids: Bioavailability and Stability in Whole Wheat-Based Foods

    OpenAIRE

    Barbara Laddomada; Sofia Caretto; Giovanni Mita

    2015-01-01

    Wheat bran is generally considered a byproduct of the flour milling industry, but it is a great source of fibers, minerals, and antioxidants that are important for human health. Phenolic acids are a specific class of wheat bran components that may act as antioxidants to prevent heart disease and to lower the incidence of colon cancer. Moreover, phenolic acids have anti-inflammatory properties that are potentially significant for the promotion of gastrointestinal health. Evidence on the benefi...

  1. Strontium PVC-membrane sensor based on 2-[(2-mercaptophenylimino)methyl]phenol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamani, Hassan Ali [Young Researchers Club, Quchan branch, Islamic Azad University, Quchan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: haszamani@yahoo.com; Ganjali, Mohammad Reza; Norouzi, Parviz [Center of Excellence in Electrochemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Endocrine and Metabolism Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Adib, Mahdi [Center of Excellence in Electrochemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2008-01-10

    The 2-[(2-mercaptophenylimino)methyl]phenol (MPMP) was used as an excellent ionophore in the construction of a Sr{sup 2+} PVC-based membrane sensor. The best performance was obtained with a membrane composition of 30% poly(vinyl chloride), 62% nitrobenzen (NB), 5.5% MPMP and 2.5% sodium tetraphenyl borate (NaTBP). This sensor demonstrates a good selectivity and sensitivity towards the strontium ion for many cations, including alkali, alkaline earth, transition and heavy metal ions. The sensor revealed a great enhancement in selectivity coefficients for strontium ions in comparison with the previously reported strontium sensors. The proposed sensor exhibits a Nernstian behavior (with a slope of 29.6 {+-} 0.3 mV per decade) for the concentration range of (1.0 x 10{sup -6}-1.0 x 10{sup -1} M) with a detection limit of 5.5 x 10{sup -7} M (48.2 ng/mL). It illustrates a relatively fast response time in the whole concentration range (< 10 s) and it can be used for at least 10 weeks in a pH range of 2.8-9.6. The developed sensor was successfully used as an indicator electrode in the Sr(II) titration with EDTA and the Sr{sup 2+} ion recovery from binary mixtures.

  2. Production and characterization of composite material based on ablative phenolic resin and carbon fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The optimisation of technology for production of moulding compound based on short carbon fibers and ablative phenolic resin is carried out. The characterisation of the starting raw materials is performed and moulding compounds With different fiber/matrix ratios and different fiber lengths are prepared. From the different samples, mouldings are produced by thermal compression. All physical, mechanical and thermal properties of the composites are tested. From the obtained results the optimal fiber/matrix ratio, for high temperature moulding compounds production are determined. Also, in order to meet the request for high thermal and mechanics properties of the composite, optimization is carded out on the moulding process itself. The optimization is fulfilled by a planned experiment. The full factorial experimental design is applied in which the following parameters are varied: fiber length, temperature and time of the press cycle. Regression equations for the influence of the parameters to the impact resistance, compression strength, flexural strength and the modulus of elasticity of the molding, are obtained. The obtained mechanical properties of the composite rate this material for potential application in the automotive, leisure, military and other industries.(Author)

  3. Technology-Based Classroom Assessments: Alternatives to Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salend, Spencer J.

    2009-01-01

    Although many teachers are using new technologies to differentiate instruction and administer tests, educators are also employing a range of technology-based resources and strategies to implement a variety of classroom assessments as alternatives to standardized and teacher-made testing. Technology-based classroom assessments focus on the use of…

  4. Wheat Bran Phenolic Acids: Bioavailability and Stability in Whole Wheat-Based Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laddomada, Barbara; Caretto, Sofia; Mita, Giovanni

    2015-08-28

    Wheat bran is generally considered a byproduct of the flour milling industry, but it is a great source of fibers, minerals, and antioxidants that are important for human health. Phenolic acids are a specific class of wheat bran components that may act as antioxidants to prevent heart disease and to lower the incidence of colon cancer. Moreover, phenolic acids have anti-inflammatory properties that are potentially significant for the promotion of gastrointestinal health. Evidence on the beneficial effects of phenolic acids as well as of other wheat bran components is encouraging the use of wheat bran as an ingredient of functional foods. After an overview of the chemistry, function, and bioavailability of wheat phenolic acids, the discussion will focus on how technologies can allow the formulation of new, functional whole wheat products with enhanced health-promoting value and safety without renouncing the good-tasting standards that are required by consumers. Finally, this review summarizes the latest studies about the stability of phenolic acids in wheat foods fortified by the addition of wheat bran, pearled fractions, or wheat bran extracts.

  5. Wheat Bran Phenolic Acids: Bioavailability and Stability in Whole Wheat-Based Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Laddomada

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Wheat bran is generally considered a byproduct of the flour milling industry, but it is a great source of fibers, minerals, and antioxidants that are important for human health. Phenolic acids are a specific class of wheat bran components that may act as antioxidants to prevent heart disease and to lower the incidence of colon cancer. Moreover, phenolic acids have anti-inflammatory properties that are potentially significant for the promotion of gastrointestinal health. Evidence on the beneficial effects of phenolic acids as well as of other wheat bran components is encouraging the use of wheat bran as an ingredient of functional foods. After an overview of the chemistry, function, and bioavailability of wheat phenolic acids, the discussion will focus on how technologies can allow the formulation of new, functional whole wheat products with enhanced health-promoting value and safety without renouncing the good-tasting standards that are required by consumers. Finally, this review summarizes the latest studies about the stability of phenolic acids in wheat foods fortified by the addition of wheat bran, pearled fractions, or wheat bran extracts.

  6. Alternative castor oil-based polyurethane adhesive used in the production of plywood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabricio Moura Dias

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Plywood is normally produced with urea-formaldehyde and/or phenol-formaldehyde adhesives. However, the former is considerably toxic and environmentally damaging, while the latter is expensive, thus motivating the search for alternative raw materials in plywood production. The castor oil-based polyurethane adhesive developed at the São Carlos Institute of Chemistry, University of São Paulo, is an environmentally friendly vegetal oil-based polymer that is harmless to humans. The wood species Eucalyptus grandis offers favorable properties for plywood the manufacture. The study reported on here involved the use of castor oil-based polyurethane adhesive to produce plywood with Eucalyptus grandis layers. The plywood's performance was evaluated based on the results of physical and mechanical tests recommended by the Brazilian code, ABNT. Tests results showed higher values than those reported in the literature and recommended by the ABNT, indicating that the castor oil-based polyurethane adhesive is a promising glue for the manufacture of plywood.

  7. High Selectively Catalytic Conversion of Lignin-Based Phenols into para-/m-Xylene over Pt/HZSM-5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guozhu Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available High selectively catalytic conversion of lignin-based phenols (m-cresol, p-cresol, and guaiacol into para-/m-xylene was performed over Pt/HZSM-5 through hydrodeoxygenation and in situ methylation with methanol. It is found that the p-/m-xylene selectivity is uniformly higher than 21%, and even increase up to 33.5% for m-cresol (with phenols/methanol molar ratio of 1/8. The improved p-/m-xylene selectivity in presence of methanol is attributed to the combined reaction pathways: methylation of m-cresol into xylenols followed by HDO into p-/m-xylene, and HDO of m-cresol into toluene followed by methylation into p-/m-xylene. Comparison of the product distribution over a series of catalysts indicates that both metals and supporters have distinct effect on the p-/m-xylene selectivity.

  8. Enzymatic surface erosion of high tensile strength polycarbonates based on natural phenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommerfeld, Sven D; Zhang, Zheng; Costache, Marius C; Vega, Sebastián L; Kohn, Joachim

    2014-03-10

    Surface erosion has been recognized as a valuable design tool for resorbable biomaterials within the context of drug delivery devices, surface coatings, and when precise control of strength retention is critical. Here we report on high tensile strength, aromatic-aliphatic polycarbonates based on natural phenols, tyrosol (Ty) and homovanillyl alcohol (Hva), that exhibit enzymatic surface erosion by lipase. The Young's moduli of the polymers for dry and fully hydrated samples are 1.0 to 1.2 GPa and 0.8 to 1.2 GPa, respectively. Typical characteristics of enzymatic surface erosion were confirmed for poly(tyrosol carbonate) films with concomitant mass-loss and thickness-loss at linear rates of 0.14 ± 0.01 mg cm(-2) d(-1) and 3.0 ± 0.8 μm d(-1), respectively. The molecular weight and the mechanical properties of the residual films remained constant. Changing the ratio of Ty and Hva provided control over the glass transition temperature (T(g)) and the enzymatic surface erosion: increasing the Hva content in the polymers resulted in higher T(g) and lower enzymatic erosion rate. Polymers with more than 50 mol % Hva were stable at 37 °C in enzyme solution. Analysis on thin films using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) demonstrated that the onset temperature of the enzymatic erosion was approximately 20 °C lower than the wet T(g) for all tested polymers. This new finding demonstrates that relatively high tensile strength polycarbonates can undergo enzymatic surface erosion. Moreover, it also sheds light on the connection between T(g) and enzymatic degradation and explains why few of the high strength polymers follow an enzyme-meditated degradation pathway.

  9. Phenol-Formaldehyde Resin-Based Carbons for CO2 Separation at Sub-Atmospheric Pressures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelia Álvarez-Gutiérrez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The challenge of developing effective separation and purification technologies that leave much smaller energy footprints is greater for carbon dioxide (CO2 than for other gases. In addition to its involvement in climate change, CO2 is present as an impurity in biogas and bio-hydrogen (biological production by dark fermentation, in post-combustion processes (flue gas, CO2-N2 and many other gas streams. Selected phenol-formaldehyde resin-based activated carbons prepared in our laboratory have been evaluated under static conditions (adsorption isotherms as potential adsorbents for CO2 separation at sub-atmospheric pressures, i.e., in post-combustion processes or from biogas and bio-hydrogen streams. CO2, H2, N2, and CH4 adsorption isotherms at 25 °C and up to 100 kPa were obtained using a volumetric equipment and were correlated by applying the Sips model. Adsorption equilibrium was then predicted for multicomponent gas mixtures by extending the multicomponent Sips model and the Ideal Adsorbed Solution Theory (IAST in conjunction with the Sips model. The CO2 uptakes of the resin-derived carbons from CO2-CH4, CO2-H2, and CO2-N2 at atmospheric pressure were greater than those of the reference commercial carbon (Calgon BPL. The performance of the resin-derived carbons in terms of equilibrium of adsorption seems therefore relevant to CO2 separation in post-combustion (flue gas, CO2-N2 and in hydrogen fermentation (CO2-H2, CO2-CH4.

  10. COSMO-RS-based extractant screening for phenol extraction as model system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burghoff, B.; Goetheer, E.L.V.; Haan, A.B. de

    2008-01-01

    The focus of this investigation is the development of a fast and reliable extractant screening approach. Phenol extraction is selected as the model process. A quantum chemical conductor-like screening model for real solvents (COSMO-RS) is combined with molecular design considerations. For this purpo

  11. Syntheses, characterization, and anti-cancer activities of pyridine-amide based compounds containing appended phenol or catechol groups

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Afsar Ali; Deepak Bansal; Nagendra K Kaushik; Neha Kaushik; Neha Kaushik; Eun Ha Choi; Rajeev Gupta

    2014-07-01

    Several pyridine-amide compounds appended with phenol/catechol groups are synthesized. These compounds consist of protected or deprotected phenol/catechol groups and offer pyridine, amide, and phenol/catechol functional groups. All compounds have been well-characterized by various spectroscopic methods, elemental analysis, thermal studies, and crystallography. The biological activities of all compounds were investigated while a few compounds significantly decreased the metabolic viability, growth and clonogenicity of T98G cells in dose dependent manner. Accumulation of ROS was observed in T98G cells, which displayed a compromised redox status as evident from increased cellular Caspase 3/7 activity and formation of micronuclei. The in silico pharmacokinetic studies suggest that all compounds have good bioavailability, water solubility and other drug-like parameters. A few compounds were identified as the lead molecules for future investigation due to their: (a) high activity against T98G brain, H-460 lung, and SNU-80 thyroid cancer cells; (b) low cytotoxicity in non-malignant HEK and MRC-5 cells; (c) low toxic risks based on in silico evaluation; (d) good theoretical oral bioavailability according to Lipinski ‘rule of five’ pharmacokinetic parameters; and (e) better drug-likeness and drug-score values.

  12. Amperometric Biosensor Based on Zirconium Oxide/Polyethylene Glycol/Tyrosinase Composite Film for the Detection of Phenolic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Monica Ahmad

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A phenolic biosensor based on a zirconium oxide/polyethylene glycol/tyrosinase composite film for the detection of phenolic compounds has been explored. The formation of the composite film was expected via electrostatic interaction between hexacetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB, polyethylene glycol (PEG, and zirconium oxide nanoparticles casted on screen printed carbon electrode (SPCE. Herein, the electrode was treated by casting hexacetyltrimethylammonium bromide on SPCE to promote a positively charged surface. Later, zirconium oxide was mixed with polyethylene glycol and the mixture was dropped cast onto the positively charged SPCE/CTAB. Tyrosinase was further immobilized onto the modified SPCE. Characterization of the prepared nanocomposite film and the modified SPCE surface was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS, and Cyclic voltamogram (CV. The developed biosensor exhibits rapid response for less than 10 s. Two linear calibration curves towards phenol in the concentrations ranges of 0.075–10 µM and 10–55 µM with the detection limit of 0.034 µM were obtained. The biosensor shows high sensitivity and good storage stability for at least 30 days.

  13. Amperometric Biosensor Based on Zirconium Oxide/Polyethylene Glycol/Tyrosinase Composite Film for the Detection of Phenolic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Nor Monica; Abdullah, Jaafar; Yusof, Nor Azah; Ab Rashid, Ahmad Hazri; Abd Rahman, Samsulida; Hasan, Md. Rakibul

    2016-01-01

    A phenolic biosensor based on a zirconium oxide/polyethylene glycol/tyrosinase composite film for the detection of phenolic compounds has been explored. The formation of the composite film was expected via electrostatic interaction between hexacetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), polyethylene glycol (PEG), and zirconium oxide nanoparticles casted on screen printed carbon electrode (SPCE). Herein, the electrode was treated by casting hexacetyltrimethylammonium bromide on SPCE to promote a positively charged surface. Later, zirconium oxide was mixed with polyethylene glycol and the mixture was dropped cast onto the positively charged SPCE/CTAB. Tyrosinase was further immobilized onto the modified SPCE. Characterization of the prepared nanocomposite film and the modified SPCE surface was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS), and Cyclic voltamogram (CV). The developed biosensor exhibits rapid response for less than 10 s. Two linear calibration curves towards phenol in the concentrations ranges of 0.075–10 µM and 10–55 µM with the detection limit of 0.034 µM were obtained. The biosensor shows high sensitivity and good storage stability for at least 30 days. PMID:27367738

  14. Insights into secondary organic aerosol formed via aqueous-phase reactions of phenolic compounds based on high resolution mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Sun

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent work has shown that aqueous-phase reactions of phenolic compounds – phenol (C6H6O, guaiacol (C7H8O2, and syringol (C8H10O3 – can form secondary organic aerosol (SOA at high yields. Here we examine the chemical characteristics of this SOA and its formation mechanisms using a High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-AMS, an Ion Chromatograph (IC, and a Total Organic Carbon (TOC analyzer. The phenolic SOA are highly oxygenated with oxygen-to-carbon (O/C ratios in the range of 0.80–1.06 and carbon oxidation states (=2×O/C–H/C between −0.14 and +0.47. The organic mass-to-carbon (OM/OC ratios determined by the HR-AMS (=2.21���2.55 agree well with values determined based on the SOA mass measured gravimetrically and the OC mass from the TOC analyzer. Both the O/C and OM/OC ratios of the phenolic SOA are similar to the values observed for ambient low-volatility oxygenated/secondary OA (LV-OOA. Oxalate is a minor, but ubiquitous, component of the SOA formed from all three phenolic precursors, accounting for 1.4–5.2% of the SOA mass, with generally higher yields in experiments with H2O2 added as an ·OH source compared to without. The AMS spectra show evidence for the formation of syringol and guaiacol dimers and higher oligomers via C–C and C–O coupling of phenoxyl radicals, which are formed through oxidation pathways such as abstraction of the phenolic hydrogen atom or ·OH addition to the aromatic ring. This latter pathway leads to hydroxylation of the aromatic ring, which is one mechanism that increases the degree of oxidation of the SOA products. Compared to direct photochemical reactions of the phenols, ·OH-initiated reactions favor the formation of smaller oxidation products but less dimers or higher oligomers. Two unique and prominent ions in the syringol and guaiacol SOA spectra,

  15. Insights into secondary organic aerosol formed via aqueous-phase reactions of phenolic compounds based on high resolution mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. L. Sun

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent work has shown that aqueous-phase reactions of phenolic compounds – phenol (C6H6O, guaiacol (C7H8O2, and syringol (C8H10O3 – can form secondary organic aerosol (SOA at high yields. Here we examine the chemical characteristics of this SOA and its formation mechanisms using a High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-AMS, an Ion Chromatography system (IC, and a Total Organic Carbon (TOC analyzer. The phenolic SOA are highly oxygenated with oxygen-to-carbon (O/C ratios in the range of 0.80–1.06 and carbon oxidation states (=2×O/C-H/C between −0.14 and +0.47. The organic mass-to-carbon (OM/OC ratios determined by the HR-AMS (=2.21–2.55 agree well with values determined based on the SOA mass measured gravimetrically and the OC mass from the TOC analyzer. Both the O/C and OM/OC ratios of the phenolic SOA are similar to the values observed for ambient low-volatility oxygenated/secondary OA (LV-OOA. Oxalate is a minor, but ubiquitous, component of the SOA formed from all three phenolic precursors, accounting for 1.4−5.2% of the SOA mass, with generally higher yields in experiments with H2O2 added as an OH source compared to without. The AMS spectra show evidence for the formation of syringol and guaiacol dimers and higher oligomers via C-C and C-O coupling of phenoxyl radicals, which are formed through oxidation pathways such as abstraction of the phenolic hydrogen atom or OH addition to the aromatic ring. This latter pathway leads to hydroxylation of the aromatic ring, which is one mechanism that increases the degree of oxidation of the SOA products. Compared to direct photochemical reactions of the phenols, OH-initiated reactions favor the formation of smaller oxidation products but less dimers or higher oligomers. Two unique and prominent ions in the syringol and guaiacol SOA spectra, m/z 306 (C

  16. The Extrusion Process as an Alternative for Improving the Biological Potential of Sorghum Bran: Phenolic Compounds and Antiradical and Anti-Inflammatory Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar Lopez, Norma Julieta; Loarca-Piña, Guadalupe; Campos-Vega, Rocío; Gaytán Martínez, Marcela; Morales Sánchez, Eduardo; Esquerra-Brauer, J. Marina; Gonzalez-Aguilar, Gustavo A.

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 80% of sorghum phenolic compounds are linked to arabinoxylans by ester bonds, which are capable of resisting the digestion process in the upper gastrointestinal tract, compromising their bioaccessibility and biological potential. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the extrusion process on the content of phenolic compounds in sorghum bran and its impact on phenolic compounds and antiradical and anti-inflammatory capacity. Results revealed that the extrusion process increased total phenol content in sorghum bran compared to nonextruded sorghum, particularly for extrusion at 180°C with 20% moisture content (2.0222 ± 0.0157 versus 3.0729 ± 0.0187 mg GAE/g +52%), which positively affected antiradical capacity measured by the DPPH and TEAC assays. The percentage of inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) production by RAW cells due to the presence of extruded sorghum bran extract was significantly higher than that of nonextruded sorghum bran extract (90.2 ± 1.9% versus 76.2 ± 1.3%). The results suggest that extruded sorghum bran could be used as a functional ingredient and provide advantages to consumers by reducing diseases related to oxidative stress and inflammation. PMID:27738445

  17. Application of protein-phenolic based coating on tomatoes (Lycopersicum esculentum Aplicação de coberturas proteicas e fenólicas em tomates (Lycopersicum esculentum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Pereira Cipolatti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the use of protein-phenolic based coating made from fermented rice bran on cherry tomatoes (Lycopersicum esculentum. Tests were performed with glycerol 3% (v/v, glycerol with protein-phenolic rice bran extract (5%, glycerol with protein-phenolic extract after 96 hours of fermentation (5%, and a control (without coating. The coated cherry tomatoes were kept at room temperature for 28 days. Mass loss, pH and acidity, total soluble solids, and carotenoids were determined every 96 hours. The coating made from the biomass extract reduced the carotenoid and acidity levels in the fruits studied by 17 and 21.1%, respectively, compared to the control. The coating proved an efficient barrier to water vapor with mass loss of 57% less than the control suggesting that it can be used as an alternative for vegetable tissue conservation.Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a utilização de películas, à base de compostos proteicos e fenólicos provenientes de farelo de arroz fermentado, em tomates (Lycopersicum esculentum. Foram realizados testes com: glicerol 3% (v/v; glicerol com extrato fenólico e proteico do farelo de arroz (5%; glicerol com extrato fenólico e proteico da biomassa gerada em 96 hours (5%, e um controle (sem a película. Os tomates revestidos foram mantidos à temperatura ambiente durante 28 dias, sendo determinados, a cada 96 horas, os seguintes aspectos: a perda de massa, o pH e a acidez, os sólidos solúveis totais e os carotenoides. A película elaborada com os extratos da biomassa reduziu os níveis de carotenoides e acidez dos frutos estudados em 17 e 21,1%, respectivamente, em relação ao controle. A película também foi eficiente como barreira ao vapor de água; assim, com perda de massa 57% inferior à do controle, sugere-se que esta poderá ser utilizada como alternativa para conservação desse tecido vegetal.

  18. Autoindicating optical properties of laccase as the base of an optical biosensor film for phenol determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanz, J.; Marcos, S. de; Galban, J. [University of Zaragoza, Analytical Biosensors Group (GBA), Analytical Chemistry Department, Faculty of Sciences, Zaragoza (Spain)

    2012-08-15

    In the context of sustainable analytical chemistry, phenol has been determined through its enzymatic reaction with laccase. The method has been studied and optimized through the autoindicating optical properties of laccase both by intrinsic molecular absorption and fluorescence. The method shows a linear range from 9.79.10{sup -6} to 7.50.10{sup -4} M with a relative standard deviation of 1.07 %. The molecular absorption methodology has been implemented in a polyacrylamide film for the design of an autoindicating optical sensor. In order to increase the lifetime of the sensor, the reversibility study of the enzymatic reaction has proposed, as a novelty, the regeneration of laccase with an oxidase-type enzyme (glucose oxidase). The lifetime of the sensor film has improved from 15 to 30 measurements. The reaction mechanism has also been studied and confirmed by fluorescence and molecular absorption. The method leads to the determination of phenol in environmental samples. (orig.)

  19. ADSORPTION OF PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS ONTO THE SPHERICAL MACROPOROUS ADSORBENT BASED ON UREA—FORMALDEHYDE CONDENSED POLYMER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XuMingcheng; XUMancai; 等

    2000-01-01

    Adsorption of phenol,catechol and resorcinol,which vary in their ability to interact with the adsorbent through hydrogen bond,were used to investigate the adsorption mechanistic interaction.The adsorption enthalpies of the above mentioned compound onto the adsorbent were calculated and thermodynamic analysis was carried out.The results showed the adsorbent with the lowest adsorption enthalpies for the sorbate such as catechol with intermolecular hydrogen bond also display the lowest adsorption affinity.On the other hand,the more of the groups available for hydrogen bond interaction,the higher of the adsorption affinity.These observations support the contention that phenol adsorption is driven predominantly by specific interaction of the solute with active sites on the surface of the adsorbent.

  20. Flavonoids and phenolic acids from pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) based foods and their functional implications

    OpenAIRE

    Vanisha S Nambiar; Neha Sareen; Mammen Daniel; Erick B Gallego

    2012-01-01

    Background: Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum), considered a poor man’s cereal, may be a repository of dietary antioxidants, especially flavonoids and phenolic acids, which provide bioactive mechanisms to reduce free radical induced oxidative stress and probably play a role in the prevention of ageing and various diseases associated with oxidative stress, such as cancer, cardiovascular, and neurodegenerative diseases.Objective: The present study focused on the identification of individual f...

  1. Phenolic carbon cloth-based electric double-layer capacitors with conductive interlayers and graphene coating

    OpenAIRE

    Lei, C.; F. Markoulidis; Wilson, P; Lekakou, C.

    2015-01-01

    Phenolic resin-derived activated carbon (AC) cloths are used as electrodes for large-scale electric double-layer capacitors or supercapacitors. To increase the energy and power density of the supercapacitor, the contact resistance between the carbon cloth and the aluminium foil current collector is reduced by modifying the Al current collectors. Different modified Al current collectors, including Toyal-Carbo®(surface-modified Al), DAG® (deflocculated Acheson™ graphite) coating and poly(3,4-et...

  2. Biossensores amperométricos para determinação de compostos fenólicos em amostras de interesse ambiental Amperometric biosensors for phenolic compounds determination in the environmental interess samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Soares Rosatto

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Phenols are widely used in many areas and commonly found as industrial by-products. A great number of agricultural and industrial activities realise phenolic compounds in the environmental. Waste phenols are produced mainly by the wood-pulp industry and during production of synthetic polymers, drugs, plastics, dyes, pesticides and others. Phenols are also released into the environmental by the degradation of pesticides with phenolic skeleton. The phenols level control is very important for the environmental protection. Amperometric biosensor has shown the feasibility to complement laboratory-based analytical methods for the determination of phenolic compounds, providing alternatives to conventional methods which have many disadvantages. This brief review considers the evolution of an approach to amperometric measurement using the catalytic properties of some enzymes for phenolic compounds monitoring.

  3. Quantification of individual phenolic compounds' contribution to antioxidant capacity in apple: a novel analytical tool based on liquid chromatography with diode array, electrochemical, and charged aerosol detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza, Merichel; Kariuki, James; Turner, Charlotta

    2014-01-15

    Phenolics, particularly from apples, hold great interest because of their antioxidant properties. In the present study, the total antioxidant capacity of different apple extracts obtained by pressurized hot water extraction (PHWE) was determined by cyclic voltammetry (CV), which was compared with the conventional antioxidant assays. To measure the antioxidant capacity of individual antioxidants present in apple extracts, a novel method was developed based on high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with photodiode array (DAD), electrochemical (ECD), and charged aerosol (CAD) detection. HPLC-DAD-ECD-CAD enabled rapid, qualitative, and quantitative determination of antioxidants in the apple extracts. The main advantage of using CAD was that this detector enabled quantification of a large number of phenolics using only a few standards. The results showed that phenolic acids and flavonols were mainly responsible for the total antioxidant capacity of apple extracts. In addition, protocatechuic acid, chlorogenic acid, hyperoside, an unidentified phenolic acid, and a quercetin derivative presented the highest antioxidant capacities. PMID:24345041

  4. A chiral photochromic Schiff base: (R)-4-meth-oxy-2-[(1-phenyl-ethyl)imino-meth-yl]phenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Yukie; Aritake, Yoshikazu; Akitsu, Takashiro

    2009-01-01

    The title chiral photochromic Schiff base compound, C(16)H(17)NO(2), was synthesized from (R)-1-phenyl-ethyl-amine and 5-methoxy-salicylaldehyde. The mol-ecule of the title compound exists in the phenol-imine tautomeric form. The dihedral angle between the two aromatic rings is 62.61 (11)°. An intra-molecular O-H⋯N hydrogen bond with an O⋯N distance of 2.589 (2) Å is observed. The crystal packing is stabilized by C-H⋯π inter-actions involving the aromatic ring. PMID:21577845

  5. Variety-based research on the phenolic content in the aerial parts of organically and conventionally grown buckwheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žvikas, V; Pukelevičienė, V; Ivanauskas, L; Pukalskas, A; Ražukas, A; Jakštas, V

    2016-12-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of different farming types-organic and conventional-on phenolic content in buckwheat varieties grown in Lithuania. Rutin was identified as the dominant phenolic compound in contrast to both phenolic acids (chlorogenic and neochlorogenic acids) and other flavonoids (quercetin and quercitrin). It was determined that variety had the highest impact (pPanda, Zaleika, and VB Nojai were found to accumulate the highest amounts of phenolics. PMID:27451232

  6. Probiotics and pharmabiotics: alternative medicine or an evidence-based alternative?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Colin

    2010-01-01

    That commensal bacteria play an important role in human health is beyond doubt, and it is now widely accepted that humans function as super organisms, whose collective metabolic potential exceeds the sum of our individual eukaryotic and prokaryotic components. However, while it is has been established that the prokaryotic component of the human superorganism is amenable to manipulation by chemotherapeutic, dietary or microbial interventions, the significance of such alterations in terms of human health or well being is less well established. Prebiotics (non- digestible food ingredients that stimulate the growth and/or activity of bacteria in the digestive system) and probiotics (live microorganisms that when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host) are often bracketed among 'alternative' approaches to influencing human health, such as homeopathy, naturopathy, acupuncture and hypnotherapy. Others believe that prebiotics and probiotics have proven their effectiveness in properly conducted, clinically controlled human trials and therefore can be considered as evidence-based alternatives or adjuncts to conventional medicines. My journey from a position of total skepticism to 'reluctant convert' is the basis of this article, which should not be considered in any sense as a review of the literature but simply a personal account of this transition. While I am not bent on converting other doubters, I will recount some of the thought processes and evidence that has helped to form my current opinion. PMID:21326932

  7. Probiotics and pharmabiotics: alternative medicine or an evidence-based alternative?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Colin

    2010-01-01

    That commensal bacteria play an important role in human health is beyond doubt, and it is now widely accepted that humans function as super organisms, whose collective metabolic potential exceeds the sum of our individual eukaryotic and prokaryotic components. However, while it is has been established that the prokaryotic component of the human superorganism is amenable to manipulation by chemotherapeutic, dietary or microbial interventions, the significance of such alterations in terms of human health or well being is less well established. Prebiotics (non- digestible food ingredients that stimulate the growth and/or activity of bacteria in the digestive system) and probiotics (live microorganisms that when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host) are often bracketed among 'alternative' approaches to influencing human health, such as homeopathy, naturopathy, acupuncture and hypnotherapy. Others believe that prebiotics and probiotics have proven their effectiveness in properly conducted, clinically controlled human trials and therefore can be considered as evidence-based alternatives or adjuncts to conventional medicines. My journey from a position of total skepticism to 'reluctant convert' is the basis of this article, which should not be considered in any sense as a review of the literature but simply a personal account of this transition. While I am not bent on converting other doubters, I will recount some of the thought processes and evidence that has helped to form my current opinion.

  8. One-to-one encapsulation based on alternating droplet generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirama, Hirotada; Torii, Toru

    2015-10-01

    This paper reports the preparation of encapsulated particles as models of cells using an alternating droplet generation encapsulation method in which the number of particles in a droplet is controlled by a microchannel to achieve one-to-one encapsulation. Using a microchannel in which wettability is treated locally, the fluorescent particles used as models of cells were successfully encapsulated in uniform water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) emulsion droplets. Furthermore, 20% of the particle-containing droplets contained one particle. Additionally, when a surfactant with the appropriate properties was used, the fluorescent particles within each inner aqueous droplet were enclosed in the merged droplet by spontaneous droplet coalescence. This one-to-one encapsulation method based on alternating droplet generation could be used for a variety of applications, such as high-throughput single-cell assays, gene transfection into cells or one-to-one cell fusion.

  9. Alternating current organic light emitting diodes based on polymer heterojunction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yewen Jiang(蒋业文); Haishu Tan(谭海曙); Jianquan Yao(姚建铨)

    2003-01-01

    Most alternating current (ac) polymer EL (electroluminescent) devices to date are based on symmetricalstructure. Here novel alternating current EL devices with asymmetric structure are successfully fabricatedby using a hole type polymer PDDOPV [poly (2,5-bis (dodecyloxy)-phenylenevinylene)] and an electrontype polymer PPQ [poly (phenyl quinoxaline)]. We report that performance of polymer devices withheterojunction in ac operation is not so sensitive to thickness of the two polymer layers as in direct current(dc) operation. This new advantage of ac operation mode over dc means easy production and cheapfacilities in large-scale production in the near future. Different emission spectra are obtained when ourac devices operate in ac mode, forward and reverse bias. Emission spectrum at reverse bias includes twoparts: one is from PDDOPV, the other is from PPQ.

  10. Bio-Based Nanocomposites: An Alternative to Traditional Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Jitendra S.; Akinola, Adekunle T.; Kabakov, Dmitri

    2009-01-01

    Polymer matrix composites (PMC), often referred to as fiber reinforced plastics (FRP), consist of fiber reinforcement (E-glass, S2-glass, aramid, carbon, or natural fibers) and polymer matrix/resin (polyester, vinyl ester, polyurethane, phenolic, and epoxies). Eglass/ polyester and E-glass/vinyl ester composites are extensively used in the marine,…

  11. Incompatible Ages for Clearwing Butterflies Based on Alternative Secondary Calibrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzón-Orduña, Ivonne J; Silva-Brandão, Karina L; Willmott, Keith R; Freitas, André V L; Brower, Andrew V Z

    2015-09-01

    The recent publication of a time-tree for the plant family Solanaceae (nightshades) provides the opportunity to use independent calibrations to test divergence times previously inferred for the diverse Neotropical butterfly tribe Ithomiini. Ithomiini includes clades that are obligate herbivores of Solanaceae, with some genera feeding on only one genus. We used 8 calibrations extracted from the plant tree in a new relaxed molecular-clock analysis to produce an alternative temporal framework for the diversification of ithomiines. We compared the resulting age estimates to: (i) a time-tree obtained using 7 secondary calibrations from the Nymphalidae tree of Wahlberg et al. (2009), and (ii) Wahlberg et al.'s (2009) original age estimates for the same clades. We found that Bayesian clock estimates were rather sensitive to a variety of analytical parameters, including taxon sampling. Regardless of this sensitivity however, ithomiine divergence times calibrated with the ages of nightshades were always on average half the age of previous estimates. Younger dates for ithomiine clades appear to fit better with factors long suggested to have promoted diversification of the group such as the uplifting of the Andes, in the case of montane genera. Alternatively, if ithomiines are as old as previous estimates suggest, the recent ages inferred for the diversification of Solanaceae seem likely to be seriously underestimated. Our study exemplifies the difficulty of testing hypotheses of divergence times and of choosing between alternative dating scenarios, and shows that age estimates based on seemingly plausible calibrations may be grossly incongruent.

  12. Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine简介

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李霄茜; 周庆辉

    2009-01-01

    Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine(eCAM,《循证补充替代医学》)于2004年创刊。ISSN:1741—427X;e—ISSN:1741—4288。此杂志为牛津大学出版社旗下的一本国际性同行评议杂志,现任主编为其创立者Edwin L.Cooper教授,杂志当前的SCI影响因子为2.535。

  13. [Alternative medicines and "Evidence-Based Medicine" a possible reconciliation?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanherweghem, J-L

    2015-09-01

    The contrast between the efficiency of Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM), a scientific fact, and the popularity of Complementary and Alternative Medicines (CAM) is a paradox of the art of healing. EBM is based on the paradigm of positivism and materialism while CAM are based on those of relativism and vitalism. These paradigms are diametrically opposed and the aim of an integrative medicine is aporetic. However, EBM is today in a dead end. The objective proof of a disease according to the rules of EBM is often lacking face to the expectations of patients demanding their illness to be taken into account. EBM and CAM have thus to coexist. Lessons can be drawn from CAM : patient expectations should be given a meaning and be integrated in his or her psychosocial context. PMID:26591330

  14. Development of a phenol-enriched olive oil with both its own phenolic compounds and complementary phenols from thyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubió, Laura; Motilva, Maria-José; Macià, Alba; Ramo, Tomás; Romero, Maria-Paz

    2012-03-28

    Besides affecting the oil's sensorial characteristics, the presence of herbs and spices has an impact on the nutritional value of the flavored oils. The aim of the study was to develop a new product based on the phenol-enrichment of a virgin olive oil with both its own phenolic compounds (secoiridoid derivatives) plus additional complementary phenols from thyme (flavonoids). We studied the effect of the addition of phenolic extracts (olive cake and thyme) on phenolic composition, oxidative stability, antioxidant activity, and bitter sensory attribute of olive oils. Results showed that flavonoids from thyme appeared to have higher transference ratios (average 89.7%) from the phenolic extract to oil, whereas secoiridoids from olive presented lower transference ratios (average 35.3%). The bitter sensory attribute of the phenol-enriched oils diminished with an increase of the concentration of phenols from thyme, which might denote an improvement in the consumer acceptance.

  15. Differentiation of Wines Treated with Wood Chips Based on Their Phenolic Content, Volatile Composition, and Sensory Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyraleou, Maria; Kallithraka, Stamatina; Chira, Kleopatra; Tzanakouli, Eleni; Ligas, Ioannis; Kotseridis, Yorgos

    2015-12-01

    The effects of both wood chips addition and contact time on phenolic content, volatile composition, color parameters, and organoleptic character of red wine made by a native Greek variety (Agiorgitiko) were evaluated. For this purpose, chips from American, French, Slavonia oak, and Acacia were added in the wine after fermentation. A mixture consisting of 50% French and 50% Americal oak chips was also evaluated. In an attempt to categorize wine samples, various chemical parameters of wines and sensory parameters were studied after 1, 2, and 3 mo of contact time with chips. The results showed that regardless of the type of wood chips added in the wines, it was possible to differentiate the samples according to the contact time based on their phenolic composition and color parameters. In addition, wood-extracted volatile compounds seem to be the critical parameter that could separate the samples according to the wood type. The wines that were in contact with Acacia and Slavonia chips could be separated from the rest mainly due to their distinct sensory characters.

  16. Techniques for Analysis of Plant Phenolic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas H. Roberts

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds are well-known phytochemicals found in all plants. They consist of simple phenols, benzoic and cinnamic acid, coumarins, tannins, lignins, lignans and flavonoids. Substantial developments in research focused on the extraction, identification and quantification of phenolic compounds as medicinal and/or dietary molecules have occurred over the last 25 years. Organic solvent extraction is the main method used to extract phenolics. Chemical procedures are used to detect the presence of total phenolics, while spectrophotometric and chromatographic techniques are utilized to identify and quantify individual phenolic compounds. This review addresses the application of different methodologies utilized in the analysis of phenolic compounds in plant-based products, including recent technical developments in the quantification of phenolics.

  17. [Separation of bases, phenols and pharmaceuticals on ionic liquid-modified silica stationary phase with pure water as mobile phase].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xusheng; Qiu, Hongdeng; Liu, Xia; Jiang, Shengxiang

    2011-03-01

    N-methylimidazolium ionic liquid (IL) -modified silica was prepared with the reaction of 3-chloropropyl modified silica and N-methylimidazole using toluene as solvent. Based on the multiple interactions between N-methylimidazolium IL-modified silica and analytes such as hydrophobic interaction, electrostatic attraction, repulsion interaction, hydrogen-bonding, etc., the bases (cytosine, thymine, 2-aminopyrimidine and 6-chloroguanine), phenols (m-aminophenol, resorcinol and m-nitrophenol) and three pharmaceuticals (moroxydine hydrochloride, acyclovir and cephalexin hydrate) were separated successfully with only pure water as the mobile phase. These chromatographic separations are environmental friendly, economical and convenient, without any organic solvent or buffer additive. The retention mechanism of these samples on the stationary phase was also investigated. PMID:21657060

  18. SCIENTIFIC BASED OF ACUPUNCTURE AS ALTERNATIVE TREATMENT OF DIABETES MELLITUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koosnadi Saputra

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acupuncture its traditional form is based upon the stimulation of well defined points on the body by insertion of metal needles, such needling is considered necessary influenced biological mechanism by intrinsic and extrinsic activation after acupuncture points stimulation. Many clinical report therapeutic effect acupuncture treatment of Diabetes Mellitus especially Non Insulin dependent, the effectiveness of mild or middle type of disease is better that severe one and accompanying With controlling diet and doing more exercise will contribute recovery. Methods: Modem research indicates that acupuncture treatment can control blood sugar level, mainly by adjusting insulin molecular level, enhance insulin secretion and recontrol insulin by regulating central nervous system. Of the all, the improved function of the receptor of insulin target cells is probably the most important one. Results: The basic research approach to animal laboratory (rabbit,rat and mice by electro stimulation, streptozotocin and alloxan monohydrate injection visualizing correlation 13 cell pancreas inorphofunction, insulin receptor and electrical profile of specific pancreas point in body surface. Conclusion: Relationship between biophysical, morphology and physiological study of acupuncture points in diabetic animal and diabetic patient tobase acupuncture model as alternative treatment to diabetes mellitus. Key words: acupuncture, alternative treatment, diabetes mellitus

  19. Sorption of phenol and phenol derivatives in hydrotalcite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the main problems in Mexico and in the World is the waste water pollution of a great variety of industrial processes by organic compounds. Among those ones the phenol compounds which are highly toxic, refractories (to the chemical degradation) and poorly biodegradable. This is due in a large extent to the problem created by the accelerated increase in the environmental pollution in the cities and industrial centers. The phenol compounds are used in a great variety of industries such as the production of resins, plasticizers, antioxidants, pesticides, colourings, disinfectants, etc. These phenol compounds are specially harmful, since they have repercussions on the flora of plants of biological treatment of water affecting its operation. The main objective of this work is to evaluate the capacities of phenol detention and its derivatives in an hydrotalcite type compound and diminishing with it the presence in water, in this case, of solutions prepared in the laboratory. In order to analyse this elimination process was used a methodology based in the carrying out in batch experiments and in the elaboration of a sorption isotherm. It is worth pointing out that this work was realized at laboratory scale, at relatively high phenol concentration ratio. With the obtained results when the sorption properties are evaluated the calcined hydrotalcite (HTC) for detaining phenol and p-chloro phenol it was observed that it is detained greater quantity of p-chloro phenol than phenol in the HTC. The detention of these phenol compounds in the HTC is due to the memory effect by the hydrotalcite regeneration starting from the oxides which are formed by the burning material. (Author)

  20. An Alternating Current Electroosmotic Pump Based on Conical Nanopore Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaojian; Ramiah Rajasekaran, Pradeep; Martin, Charles R

    2016-04-26

    Electroosmotic flow (EOF) is used to pump solutions through microfluidic devices and capillary electrophoresis columns. We describe here an EOF pump based on membrane EOF rectification, an electrokinetic phenomenon we recently described. EOF rectification requires membranes with asymmetrically shaped pores, and conical pores in a polymeric membrane were used here. We show here that solution flow through the membrane can be achieved by applying a symmetrical sinusoidal voltage waveform across the membrane. This is possible because the alternating current (AC) carried by ions through the pore is rectified, and we previously showed that rectified currents yield EOF rectification. We have investigated the effect of both the magnitude and frequency of the voltage waveform on flow rate through the membrane, and we have measured the maximum operating pressure. Finally, we show that operating in AC mode offers potential advantages relative to conventional DC-mode EOF pumps. PMID:27046145

  1. Studies on the blends of cardanol-based epoxidized novolac type phenolic resin and carboxyl-terminated polybutadiene (CTPB), I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Six blend samples were prepared by physical mixing of epoxidized cardanol-based novolac type phenolic resin with different weight ratios of carboxyl-terminated polybutadiene (CTPB) liquid rubber ranging between 0 and 25 wt% with an interval of 5 wt%. Blend sample containing 15 wt% CTPB showed least cure time at 150 deg. C amongst all other blend samples. The formation of various products during the curing of blend samples has been studied by Fourier-transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopic analysis. The tensile strength and elongation-at-break of the cured samples increased up to 15 wt% in the blend and decreased thereafter. This blend sample was also found to be the most thermally stable system. The blend morphology, studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis, was finally correlated with the structural and property changes in the blends

  2. Studies on the blends of cardanol-based epoxidized novolac type phenolic resin and carboxyl-terminated polybutadiene (CTPB), I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devi, Archana [Department of Plastic Technology, H.B. Technological Institute, Kanpur 208002, UP (India); Srivastava, Deepak [Department of Plastic Technology, H.B. Technological Institute, Kanpur 208002, UP (India)], E-mail: deepak_sri92@rediffmail.com

    2007-06-15

    Six blend samples were prepared by physical mixing of epoxidized cardanol-based novolac type phenolic resin with different weight ratios of carboxyl-terminated polybutadiene (CTPB) liquid rubber ranging between 0 and 25 wt% with an interval of 5 wt%. Blend sample containing 15 wt% CTPB showed least cure time at 150 deg. C amongst all other blend samples. The formation of various products during the curing of blend samples has been studied by Fourier-transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopic analysis. The tensile strength and elongation-at-break of the cured samples increased up to 15 wt% in the blend and decreased thereafter. This blend sample was also found to be the most thermally stable system. The blend morphology, studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis, was finally correlated with the structural and property changes in the blends.

  3. Potential of genetically engineered hybrid poplar for pyrolytic production of bio-based phenolic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toraman, Hilal E; Vanholme, Ruben; Borén, Eleonora; Vanwonterghem, Yumi; Djokic, Marko R; Yildiz, Guray; Ronsse, Frederik; Prins, Wolter; Boerjan, Wout; Van Geem, Kevin M; Marin, Guy B

    2016-05-01

    Wild-type and two genetically engineered hybrid poplar lines were pyrolyzed in a micro-pyrolysis (Py-GC/MS) and a bench scale setup for fast and intermediate pyrolysis studies. Principal component analysis showed that the pyrolysis vapors obtained by micro-pyrolysis from wood of caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT) and caffeoyl-CoA O-methyltransferase (CCoAOMT) down-regulated poplar trees differed significantly from the pyrolysis vapors obtained from non-transgenic control trees. Both fast micro-pyrolysis and intermediate pyrolysis of transgenic hybrid poplars showed that down-regulation of COMT can enhance the relative yield of guaiacyl lignin-derived products, while the relative yield of syringyl lignin-derived products was up to a factor 3 lower. This study indicates that lignin engineering via genetic modifications of genes involved in the phenylpropanoid and monolignol biosynthetic pathways can help to steer the pyrolytic production of guaiacyl and syringyl lignin-derived phenolic compounds such as guaiacol, 4-methylguaiacol, 4-ethylguaiacol, 4-vinylguaiacol, syringol, 4-vinylsyringol, and syringaldehyde present in the bio-oil. PMID:26890798

  4. Pros, Cons, and Alternatives to Weight Based Cost Estimating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyner, Claude R.; Lauriem, Jonathan R.; Levack, Daniel H.; Zapata, Edgar

    2011-01-01

    Many cost estimating tools use weight as a major parameter in projecting the cost. This is often combined with modifying factors such as complexity, technical maturity of design, environment of operation, etc. to increase the fidelity of the estimate. For a set of conceptual designs, all meeting the same requirements, increased weight can be a major driver in increased cost. However, once a design is fixed, increased weight generally decreases cost, while decreased weight generally increases cost - and the relationship is not linear. Alternative approaches to estimating cost without using weight (except perhaps for materials costs) have been attempted to try to produce a tool usable throughout the design process - from concept studies through development. This paper will address the pros and cons of using weight based models for cost estimating, using liquid rocket engines as the example. It will then examine approaches that minimize the impct of weight based cost estimating. The Rocket Engine- Cost Model (RECM) is an attribute based model developed internally by Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne for NASA. RECM will be presented primarily to show a successful method to use design and programmatic parameters instead of weight to estimate both design and development costs and production costs. An operations model developed by KSC, the Launch and Landing Effects Ground Operations model (LLEGO), will also be discussed.

  5. Renewable resources as reinforcement of polymeric matrices: composites based on phenolic thermosets and chemically modified sisal fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megiatto, Jackson D; Oliveira, Franciéli B; Rosa, Derval S; Gardrat, Christian; Castellan, Alain; Frollini, Elisabete

    2007-09-11

    Lignocellulosic materials can significantly contribute to the development of composites, since it is possible to chemically and/or physically modify their main components, cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin. This may result in materials more stable and with more uniform properties. It has previously been shown that chemically modified sisal fibers by ClO(2) oxidation and reaction with FA and PFA presented a thin coating layer of PFA on their surface. FA and PFA were chosen as reagents because these alcohols can be obtained from renewable sources. In the present work, the effects of the polymeric coating layer as coupling agent in phenolic/sisal fibers composites were studied. For a more detailed characterization of the fibers, IGC was used to evaluate the changes that occurred at the sisal fibers surface after the chemical modifications. The dispersive and acid-base properties of untreated and treated sisal fibers surfaces were determined. Biodegradation experiments were also carried out. In a complementary study, another PFA modification was made on sisal fibers, using K2Cr2O(7) as oxidizing agent. In this case the oxidation effects involve mainly the cellulose polymer instead of lignin, as observed when the oxidation was carried out with ClO(2). The SEM images showed that the oxidation of sisal fibers followed by reaction with FA or PFA favored the fiber/phenolic matrix interaction at the interface. However, because the fibers were partially degraded by the chemical treatment, the impact strength of the sisal-reinforced composites decreased. By contrast, the chemical modification of fibers led to an increase of the water diffusion coefficient and to a decrease of the water absorption of the composites reinforced with modified fibers. The latter property is very important for certain applications, such as in the automotive industry. PMID:17676656

  6. Classification and characterization of manuka honeys based on phenolic compounds and methylglyoxal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oelschlaegel, Stefanie; Gruner, Margit; Wang, Pang-Ning; Boettcher, Anja; Koelling-Speer, Isabelle; Speer, Karl

    2012-07-25

    Manuka honey from New Zealand is often considered to be a medicinal product of special value due to its high level of antimicrobial activity. Therefore, the distinct authentication of its botanical origin is of great importance. Aside from the common pollen analysis, it is in this respect particularly the analysis of the phenolic acids, flavonoids, and norisoprenoids that is described as useful. In the present study, numerous manuka honeys were analyzed by UPLC-PDA-MS/MS after solid-phase extraction and compared to other kinds of honey to define marker substances characteristic for manuka honeys. The PDA profiles obtained differed markedly from each other so that the individual honey samples could be assigned to three groups. For the honeys of group 1 the comparably high concentrations of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, dehydrovomifoliol, and benzoic acid proved to be typical, whereas the profiles of group 2 showed high kojic acid and 2-methoxybenzoic acid intensities. The manuka honeys of group 3, on the other hand, yielded high amounts of syringic acid, 4-methoxyphenyllactic acid, and methyl syringate. Furthermore, the comprehensive comparison of manuka honeys to other unifloral honeys revealed that especially kojic acid, 5-methyl-3-furancarboxylic acid, leptosin, unedone, 2-methoxybenzoic acid, 4-methoxyphenyllactic acid, 3-hydroxy-1-(2-methoxyphenyl)penta-1,4-dione, and methyl syringate were useful for distinguishing manuka honeys from the other kinds of investigated honeys. Moreover, kojic acid, unedone, 5-methyl-3-furancarboxylic acid, 3-hydroxy-1-(2-methoxyphenyl)penta-1,4-dione, and lumichrome were identified in manuka honey for the first time. PMID:22676798

  7. Investigation of the antioxidant and radical scavenging activities of some phenolic Schiff bases with different free radicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marković, Zoran; Đorović, Jelena; Petrović, Zorica D; Petrović, Vladimir P; Simijonović, Dušica

    2015-11-01

    The antioxidant properties of some phenolic Schiff bases in the presence of different reactive particles such as (•)OH, (•)OOH, (CH2=CH-O-O(•)), and (-•)O2 were investigated. The thermodynamic values, ΔH BDE, ΔH IP, and ΔH PA, were used for this purpose. Three possible mechanisms for transfer of hydrogen atom, concerted proton-electron transfer (CPET), single electron transfer followed by proton transfer (SET-PT), and sequential proton loss electron transfer (SPLET) were considered. These mechanisms were tested in solvents of different polarity. On the basis of the obtained results it was shown that SET-PT antioxidant mechanism can be the dominant mechanism when Schiff bases react with radical cation, while SPLET and CPET are competitive mechanisms for radical scavenging of hydroxy radical in all solvents under investigation. Examined Schiff bases react with the peroxy radicals via SPLET mechanism in polar and nonpolar solvents. The superoxide radical anion reacts with these Schiff bases very slowly.

  8. Removal of organic micro-pollutants (phenol, aniline and nitrobenzene) via forward osmosis (FO) process: Evaluation of FO as an alternative method to reverse osmosis (RO)

    KAUST Repository

    Cui, Yue

    2016-01-05

    In this study, we have explored and compared the effectiveness of using (1) lab-fabricated forward osmosis (FO) membranes under both FO and reverse osmosis (RO) modes and (2) commercially available RO membranes under the RO mode for the removal of organic micro-pollutants. The lab-fabricated FO membranes are thin film composite (TFC) membranes consisting of a polyamide layer and a porous substrate cast from three different materials; namely, Matrimid, polyethersulfone (PESU) and sulfonated polyphenylene sulfone (sPPSU). The results show that the FO mode is superior to the RO mode in the removal of phenol, aniline and nitrobenzene from wastewater. The rejections of all three TFC membranes to all the three organic micro-pollutants under the FO processes are higher than 72% and can be even higher than 90% for aniline when a 1000 ppm aromatic aqueous solution and 1 M NaCl are employed as feeds. These performances outperform the results obtained from themselves and commercially available RO membranes under the RO mode. In addition, the rejection can be maintained even when treating a more concentrated feed solution (2000 ppm). The removal performance can be further enhanced by using a more concentrated draw solution (2 M). The water flux is almost doubled, and the rejection increment can reach up to 17%. Moreover, it was observed that annealing as a post-treatment would help compact the membrane selective layer and further enhance the separating efficiency. The obtained organic micro-pollutant rejections and water fluxes under various feasible operating conditions indicate that the FO process has potential to be a viable treatment for wastewater containing organic micro-pollutants.

  9. Removal of organic micro-pollutants (phenol, aniline and nitrobenzene) via forward osmosis (FO) process: Evaluation of FO as an alternative method to reverse osmosis (RO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yue; Liu, Xiang-Yang; Chung, Tai-Shung; Weber, Martin; Staudt, Claudia; Maletzko, Christian

    2016-03-15

    In this study, we have explored and compared the effectiveness of using (1) lab-fabricated forward osmosis (FO) membranes under both FO and reverse osmosis (RO) modes and (2) commercially available RO membranes under the RO mode for the removal of organic micro-pollutants. The lab-fabricated FO membranes are thin film composite (TFC) membranes consisting of a polyamide layer and a porous substrate cast from three different materials; namely, Matrimid, polyethersulfone (PESU) and sulfonated polyphenylene sulfone (sPPSU). The results show that the FO mode is superior to the RO mode in the removal of phenol, aniline and nitrobenzene from wastewater. The rejections of all three TFC membranes to all the three organic micro-pollutants under the FO processes are higher than 72% and can be even higher than 90% for aniline when a 1000 ppm aromatic aqueous solution and 1 M NaCl are employed as feeds. These performances outperform the results obtained from themselves and commercially available RO membranes under the RO mode. In addition, the rejection can be maintained even when treating a more concentrated feed solution (2000 ppm). The removal performance can be further enhanced by using a more concentrated draw solution (2 M). The water flux is almost doubled, and the rejection increment can reach up to 17%. Moreover, it was observed that annealing as a post-treatment would help compact the membrane selective layer and further enhance the separating efficiency. The obtained organic micro-pollutant rejections and water fluxes under various feasible operating conditions indicate that the FO process has potential to be a viable treatment for wastewater containing organic micro-pollutants. PMID:26773492

  10. Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior in Center-Based Classrooms: Evaluation of Pre-Teaching the Alternative Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeGray, Matthew W.; Dufrene, Brad A.; Mercer, Sterett; Olmi, D. Joe; Sterling, Heather

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of a differential reinforcement of alternative behavior procedure in decreasing disruptive behavior while simultaneously increasing the appropriate behavior of four children of typical development between the ages of 4 and 6 in center-based classrooms. We began with brief functional analyses for each…

  11. RSM based optimized enzyme-assisted extraction of antioxidant phenolics from underutilized watermelon (Citrullus lanatus Thunb.) rind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushtaq, Muhammad; Sultana, Bushra; Bhatti, Haq Nawaz; Asghar, Muhammad

    2015-08-01

    Enzyme assisted solvent extraction (EASE) of phenolic compounds from watermelon (C. lanatus) rind (WMR) was optimized using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) with Rotatable Central Composite Design (RCCD). Four variables each at five levels i.e. enzyme concentration (EC) 0.5-6.5 %, pH 6-9, temperature (T) 25-75 °C and treatment time (t) 30-90 min, were augmented to get optimal yield of polyphenols with maximum retained antioxidant potential. The polyphenol extracts obtained under optimum conditions were evaluated for their in-vitro antioxidant activities and characterized for individual phenolic profile by RP-HPLC-DAD. The results obtained indicated that optimized EASE enhanced the liberation of antioxidant phenolics up to 3 folds on fresh weight basis (FW) as compared to conventional solvent extraction (CSE), with substantial level of total phenolics (173.70 mg GAE/g FW), TEAC 279.96 mg TE/g FW and DPPH radical scavenging ability (IC50) 112.27 mg/mL. Chlorogenic acid (115.60-1611.04), Vanillic acid (26.13-2317.01) and Sinapic acid (113.01-241.12 μg/g) were major phenolic acid found in EASEx of WMR. Overall, it was concluded that EASE might be efficient and green technique to revalorize under-utilized WMR into potent antioxidant phenolic for their further application in food and nutraceutical industries.

  12. Toughening of phenolic foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hongbin

    2003-06-01

    Phenolic foam has excellent FST performance with relatively low cost, and thus is an attractive material for many applications. However, it is extremely brittle and fragile, precluding it from load-bearing applications. In order to make it tougher and more viable for structural purposes, an effective approach has been proposed and investigated in this study. Composite phenolic foam with short fiber reinforcements resulted in significant improvement in mechanical performance while retaining FST properties comparable to conventional phenolic foam. For example, composite phenolic foam with aramid fibers exhibited a seven-fold increase in peel resistance together with a five-fold reduction in friability. In shear tests, aramid composite foam endured prolonged loading to high levels of strain, indicating the potential for use in structural applications. On the other hand, glass fiber-reinforced phenolic foam produced substantial improvement in the stiffness and strength relative to the unreinforced counterpart. In particular, the Young's modulus of the glass fiber composite foam was increased by as much as 100% relative to the plain phenolic foam in the foam rise direction. In addition, different mechanical behavior was observed for aramid and glass fiber-reinforced foams. In an attempt to understand the mechanical behavior of composite foam, a novel NDT technique, micro-CT, was used to acquire information on fiber length distribution (FLD) and fiber orientation distribution (FOD). Results from micro-CT measurements were compared with theoretical distribution models, achieving various degrees of agreement. Despite some limitations of current micro-CT technology, the realistic observation and measurement of cellular morphology and fiber distribution within composite foams portend future advances in modeling of reinforced polymer foam. To explain the discrepancy observed in shear stiffness between traditional shear test results and those by the short sandwich beam test, a

  13. Alternative modeling methods for plasma-based Rf ion sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veitzer, Seth A., E-mail: veitzer@txcorp.com; Kundrapu, Madhusudhan, E-mail: madhusnk@txcorp.com; Stoltz, Peter H., E-mail: phstoltz@txcorp.com; Beckwith, Kristian R. C., E-mail: beckwith@txcorp.com [Tech-X Corporation, Boulder, Colorado 80303 (United States)

    2016-02-15

    Rf-driven ion sources for accelerators and many industrial applications benefit from detailed numerical modeling and simulation of plasma characteristics. For instance, modeling of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) internal antenna H{sup −} source has indicated that a large plasma velocity is induced near bends in the antenna where structural failures are often observed. This could lead to improved designs and ion source performance based on simulation and modeling. However, there are significant separations of time and spatial scales inherent to Rf-driven plasma ion sources, which makes it difficult to model ion sources with explicit, kinetic Particle-In-Cell (PIC) simulation codes. In particular, if both electron and ion motions are to be explicitly modeled, then the simulation time step must be very small, and total simulation times must be large enough to capture the evolution of the plasma ions, as well as extending over many Rf periods. Additional physics processes such as plasma chemistry and surface effects such as secondary electron emission increase the computational requirements in such a way that even fully parallel explicit PIC models cannot be used. One alternative method is to develop fluid-based codes coupled with electromagnetics in order to model ion sources. Time-domain fluid models can simulate plasma evolution, plasma chemistry, and surface physics models with reasonable computational resources by not explicitly resolving electron motions, which thereby leads to an increase in the time step. This is achieved by solving fluid motions coupled with electromagnetics using reduced-physics models, such as single-temperature magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), extended, gas dynamic, and Hall MHD, and two-fluid MHD models. We show recent results on modeling the internal antenna H{sup −} ion source for the SNS at Oak Ridge National Laboratory using the fluid plasma modeling code USim. We compare demonstrate plasma temperature equilibration in two

  14. Alternative modeling methods for plasma-based Rf ion sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veitzer, Seth A; Kundrapu, Madhusudhan; Stoltz, Peter H; Beckwith, Kristian R C

    2016-02-01

    Rf-driven ion sources for accelerators and many industrial applications benefit from detailed numerical modeling and simulation of plasma characteristics. For instance, modeling of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) internal antenna H(-) source has indicated that a large plasma velocity is induced near bends in the antenna where structural failures are often observed. This could lead to improved designs and ion source performance based on simulation and modeling. However, there are significant separations of time and spatial scales inherent to Rf-driven plasma ion sources, which makes it difficult to model ion sources with explicit, kinetic Particle-In-Cell (PIC) simulation codes. In particular, if both electron and ion motions are to be explicitly modeled, then the simulation time step must be very small, and total simulation times must be large enough to capture the evolution of the plasma ions, as well as extending over many Rf periods. Additional physics processes such as plasma chemistry and surface effects such as secondary electron emission increase the computational requirements in such a way that even fully parallel explicit PIC models cannot be used. One alternative method is to develop fluid-based codes coupled with electromagnetics in order to model ion sources. Time-domain fluid models can simulate plasma evolution, plasma chemistry, and surface physics models with reasonable computational resources by not explicitly resolving electron motions, which thereby leads to an increase in the time step. This is achieved by solving fluid motions coupled with electromagnetics using reduced-physics models, such as single-temperature magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), extended, gas dynamic, and Hall MHD, and two-fluid MHD models. We show recent results on modeling the internal antenna H(-) ion source for the SNS at Oak Ridge National Laboratory using the fluid plasma modeling code USim. We compare demonstrate plasma temperature equilibration in two-temperature MHD

  15. [The 'paper-based' preoperative evaluation: sometimes, a suitable alternative].

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bucx, M.J.L.; Wolff, A.P.; Scheffer, G.J.

    2012-01-01

    In the Netherlands, the majority of elective-surgery patients are evaluated by the anaesthesiologist at the preoperative assessment clinic. We believe that this visit can be omitted in selected patients as it has only minimal benefit, whereas its disadvantages can be substantial. Alternatively, the

  16. Replacing animal experiments in developmental toxicity testing of phenols by combining in vitro assays with physiologically based kinetic (PBK) modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Strikwold, Marije

    2016-01-01

    Many efforts have been undertaken over the past decades to develop in vitro tests for a wide range of toxicological endpoints as an alternative to animal testing. The principle application of in vitro toxicity assays still lies in the hazard assessment and the prioritisation of chemicals for further toxicity testing. The in vitro toxicity outcomes are hardly used in quantitative risk assessment of chemicals, for example to predict health-based guidance values like an acceptable or tolerable d...

  17. Olive Mill Wastewater (OMW) Phenol Compounds Degradation by Means of a Visible Light Activated Titanium Dioxide-Based Photocatalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuomo, Francesca; Venditti, Francesco; Cinelli, Giuseppe; Ceglie, Andrea; Lopez, Francesco

    2016-09-01

    The use of titanium dioxide as heterogeneous photocatalyst is drawing considerable attention for water and air purification and remediation. Recently, TiO2 particles have been modified in order to make this material attractive for industrial and environmental remediation usage. In the present study, phenolic compounds of olive mill wastewater (OMW) were degraded in the presence of glucose-doped titanium particles (CDT) through a photocatalysis process activated by visible light. The photocatalyst effectiveness towards the polluted wastewater from olive oil industry was tested on systems having different initial concentrations of phenols and in the presence of different amounts of CDT. For kinetic analysis the role of Ti/TPh ratio (amount of catalyst/amount of total phenols) was investigated. The rate constant (k2) and the amounts of species adsorbed on adsorbent at equilibrium (qe) of each reaction were calculated by fitting kinetics data to a second-order kinetic adsorption model. The results collected at different Ti/TPh ratios showed that the amount of phenols that can be removed from the water solution linearly increases with the Ti/TPh ratio till a maximum value (optimal ratio) at which no further degradation of phenolic compounds was obtainable. Such kind of parameter allows to identify the optimal value of catalyst and the initial substrate concentration for a high level of degradation. The results showed in this study can have an important impact for an applicative point of view.

  18. O-methylation of natural phenolic compounds based on green chemistry using dimethyl carbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakoso, N. I.; Pangestu, P. H.; Wahyuningsih, T. D.

    2016-02-01

    The alkyl aryl ether compounds, of which methyl eugenol and veratraldehyde are the simplest intermediates can be synthesized by reacting eugenol and vanillin with the green reagent dimethyl carbonate (DMC). The reaction was carried out under mild of temperature and pressure. Excellent yields and selective products were obtained (95-96%) after a few hours. In the end of the reaction, the catalysts (base and Phase Transfer Catalyst) can be recovered and regenerated.

  19. A chaos-based image encryption algorithm using alternate structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG YiWei; WANG YuMin; SHEN XuBang

    2007-01-01

    Combined with two chaotic maps, a novel alternate structure is applied to image cryptosystem. In proposed algorithm, a general cat-map is used for permutation and diffusion, as well as the OCML (one-way coupled map lattice), which is applied for substitution. These two methods are operated alternately in every round of encryption process, where two subkeys employed in different chaotic maps are generated through the masterkey spreading. Decryption has the same structure with the encryption algorithm, but the masterkey in each round should be reversely ordered in decryption. The cryptanalysis shows that the proposed algorithm bears good immunities to many forms of attacks. Moreover, the algorithm features high execution speed and compact program, which is suitable for various software and hardware applications.

  20. Quotient correlation: A sample based alternative to Pearson's correlation

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Zhengjun

    2008-01-01

    The quotient correlation is defined here as an alternative to Pearson’s correlation that is more intuitive and flexible in cases where the tail behavior of data is important. It measures nonlinear dependence where the regular correlation coefficient is generally not applicable. One of its most useful features is a test statistic that has high power when testing nonlinear dependence in cases where the Fisher’s Z-transformation test may fail to reach a right conclusion. Unlike most asymptotic t...

  1. Alternating polyesteramides based on 1,4-butylene terephthalamide: 2. alternating polyesteramides based on a single, linear diol (4NTm)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serrano, P.J.M.; Thuss, E.H.L.; Gaymans, R.J.

    1997-01-01

    Strictly alternating polyesteramides consisting of 1,4-butylene terephthalamide and aliphatic diols have been synthesized in the melt in the presence of a titanium catalyst. The influence of diol length on the thermal and mechanical properties was studied. Depending on its structure, the diol took p

  2. A selective detection of fluoride ions in DMSO by fluorescent and colorimetry competition assays based on 4-bromo-2,6-bis-(hydroxymethyl)phenol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hossein Tavallali; Gohar Deilamy-Rad; Mahboobe Tabandeh

    2011-01-01

    A novel and very simple colorimetric and fluorometric method for selectively sensing F-was proposed based on 4-bromo-2,6-bis(hydroxymethyl)phenol (BBHMP), which is a simple and available phenolic receptor the absence of any special chromophoric function and with over wide range of anions (Cl-, Br-, I-, AcO-, HSO4-, NO3-and BzO-) in DMSO media. The colorimetric method is described for naked-eye detection of F~ in the presence of the BBHMP. The BBHMP was found to show selective and sensitive fluorescence quenching response toward fluoride over than Cl-, Br-, I-, AcO-, HSO4-, NO3-and BzO-.

  3. Comparison of five agro-industrial waste-based composts as growing media for lettuce: Effect on yield, phenolic compounds and vitamin C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Francielly T; Goufo, Piebiep; Santos, Cátia; Botelho, Donzilia; Fonseca, João; Queirós, Aurea; Costa, Mônica S S M; Trindade, Henrique

    2016-10-15

    Overall phenolic content in plants is on average higher in organic farming, including when renewable resources such as composts are used as soil amendments. In most cases, however, the composting process needs to be optimized to reach the desired outcome. Using composts obtained from chestnut, red and white grapes, olive and broccoli wastes, the relative antioxidative abilities of lettuces cultivated in greenhouse were examined. Results clearly coupled high phenolic levels with high yield in lettuce grown on the chestnut-based compost. A huge accumulation of phenolics was observed with the white grape-based compost, but this coincided with low yield. Three compounds were identified as discriminating factors between treated samples, namely quercetin 3-O-glucoside, luteolin 7-O-glucoside, and cyanidin 3-O-(6″-malonyl)-β-d-glucoside; these are also some of the compounds receiving health claims on lettuce consumption. On a negative note, all composts led to decreased vitamin C levels. Collectively, the data suggest that compost amendments can help add value to lettuce by increasing its antioxidant activity as compared to other organic resources. PMID:27173566

  4. Chaos Analysis of Discharge Current Based on Tracking Test of Phenolic Resin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Boxue; ZHENG Xiaolei; DONG Dianshuai

    2009-01-01

    In tracking test,discharge is a complicated process and comparative tracking index(CTI)has wide variation.To evaluate tracking resistance,the chaos analysis of discharge current is presented based on the tracking test ofphenolic resin in accordance with IEC601 12.According to the characteristics of statistical self-similarity and complexity of discharge current,the largest Lyapunov exponent is calculated,and the 2-dimensional attractor ofdischarge current is reconstructed.Moreover,the attractors of discharge current and recurrence plots of different discharge states are reconstructed.The results indicate that the chaos attractors have different characteristics in evolutionary tracks,the topological structure and grain direction of recurrence plots show significant differences.The chaos attractor can describe the tracking process,the recurrence plot can identify the tracking state clearly,while its arithmetic is simple.

  5. 40 CFR 268.46 - Alternative treatment standards based on HTMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alternative treatment standards based on HTMR. 268.46 Section 268.46 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) LAND DISPOSAL RESTRICTIONS Treatment Standards § 268.46 Alternative treatment standards based on HTMR. For the...

  6. Biodegradation of phenolic compounds by Basidiomycota and its phenol oxidases: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínková, L; Kotik, M; Marková, E; Homolka, L

    2016-04-01

    The phylum Basidiomycota include organisms with enormous bioremediation potential. A variety of processes were proposed at the lab scale for using these fungi and their phenol oxidases in the degradation of phenolics. Here we present a survey of this topic using literature published mostly over the last 10 years. First, the sources of the enzymes are summarized. The laccase and tyrosinase were mainly from Trametes versicolor and Agaricus bisporus, respectively. Recently, however, new promising wild-type producers of the enzymes have emerged and a number of recombinant strains were also constructed, based mainly on yeasts or Aspergillus strains as hosts. The next part of the study summarizes the enzyme and whole-cell applications for the degradation of phenols, polyphenols, cresols, alkylphenols, naphthols, bisphenols and halogenated (bis)phenols in model mixtures or real wastewaters from the food, paper and coal industries, or municipal and hospital sewage. The enzymes were applied as free (crude or purified) enzymes or as enzymes immobilized in various supports or CLEAs, and optionally recycled or used in continuous mode. Alternatively, growing cultures or harvested mycelia were used instead. The products, which were characterized as quinones and their polymers in some cases, could be eliminated by filtration, flocculation or adsorption onto chitosan. The purity of a treated wastewater was monitored using a sensitive aquatic organism. It is concluded that low-cost sources of these enzymes should be searched for and the benefits of enzymatic, biological and physico-chemical methods could be combined to make the processes fit for industrial use. PMID:26874626

  7. Synthesis, molecular structure, and properties of a neutral Schiff base phenolic complex of magnesium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polyakov, V.R.; Sharma, V.; Crankshaw, C.L.; Piwnica-Worms, D. [Washington University Medical School, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    1998-09-07

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) in cancer mediated by the MDR1 P-glycoprotein (Pgp), a 140--180 kDa plasma membrane protein, renders chemotherapeutic treatment ineffective by pumping a variety of natural product cytotoxic agents and xenobiotic compounds out of cancer cells. Pgp has been a major target for synthesis and development of both therapeutic antagonists that block its transport function and diagnostic radiopharmaceuticals that are transported by the protein for use in functional imaging of Pgp transport activity in tumors in vivo. Most, but not all, compounds that interact with Pgp are hydrophobic and cationic at physiological pH. To further understand the Pgp targeting properties, the authors sought to directly evaluate the effect of charge of the complex on Pgp interactions. This could be done by comparing the cytotoxicity profile of a neutral complex to that of an identical, but positively charged, complex in both drug-sensitive and multidrug-resistant cancer cells. Thus, a neutral analogue of the Ga(III) and Fe(III) complexes was desired. Herein the authors describe the synthesis and structure of a novel neutral Schiff base Mg complex and evaluate its cytotoxic potency in human drug-sensitive KB-3-1 and multi-drug-resistant KB-8-5 tumor cells.

  8. Composite material based on an ablative phenolic resin and carbon fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIMKO DIMESKI

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a technological procedure for the production of a molding compound based on short carbon fibers and an ablative phenol–formaldehyde resin for high temperature application was optimized. The starting raw materials were characterized and molding compounds with different fiber/matrix ratios and different fiber lengths were obtained. From the different laboratory samples, molded parts were made by thermocompression. The basic mechanical and thermal properties of the composites were determined. From the obtained results, the optimal fiber/matrix ratio was determined for a production of molding compound for high temperature application. The molding process of the composite material was optimized and all the parameters for good mechanical properties and high thermal stability of the composite were obtained. Optimization of the composite molding process was performed by the application of a numerical method for a planned experiment, i.e., a full three-factorial experimental design with variance of all three parameters (fiber length, temperature and time of the press cycle on two levels. The obtained mechanical properties (flexural strength: 247 MPa, modulus: 27.6 GPa, impact resistance: 110 (for test moldings 10 mm´10 mm and 91 kJ/m2 (for test moldings 15 mm´15 mm justified the application of this composite material in the automotive, leisure, military and other industries where high temperature resistance and high mechanical strength is required.

  9. Genetic Algorithm Based Production Planning for Alternative Process Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Fa-ping; SUN Hou-fang; SHAHID I. Butt

    2009-01-01

    Production planning under flexible job shop environment is studied. A mathematic model is formulated to help improve alternative process production. This model, in which genetic algorithm is used, is expected to result in better production planning, hence towards the aim of minimizing production cost under the constraints of delivery time and other scheduling conditions. By means of this algorithm, all planning schemes which could meet all requirements of the constraints within the whole solution space are exhaustively searched so as to find the optimal one. Also, a case study is given in the end to support and validate this model. Our results show that genetic algorithm is capable of locating feasible process routes to reduce production cost for certain tasks.

  10. UAV-based NDVI calculation over grassland: An alternative approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia-Aguilar, Abraham; Tomelleri, Enrico; Asam, Sarah; Zebisch, Marc

    2016-04-01

    The Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) is one of the most widely used indicators for monitoring and assessing vegetation in remote sensing. The index relies on the reflectance difference between the near infrared (NIR) and red light and is thus able to track variations of structural, phenological, and biophysical parameters for seasonal and long-term monitoring. Conventionally, NDVI is inferred from space-borne spectroradiometers, such as MODIS, with moderate resolution up to 250 m ground resolution. In recent years, a new generation of miniaturized radiometers and integrated hyperspectral sensors with high resolution became available. Such small and light instruments are particularly adequate to be mounted on airborne unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) used for monitoring services reaching ground sampling resolution in the order of centimetres. Nevertheless, such miniaturized radiometers and hyperspectral sensors are still very expensive and require high upfront capital costs. Therefore, we propose an alternative, mainly cheaper method to calculate NDVI using a camera constellation consisting of two conventional consumer-grade cameras: (i) a Ricoh GR modified camera that acquires the NIR spectrum by removing the internal infrared filter. A mounted optical filter additionally obstructs all wavelengths below 700 nm. (ii) A Ricoh GR in RGB configuration using two optical filters for blocking wavelengths below 600 nm as well as NIR and ultraviolet (UV) light. To assess the merit of the proposed method, we carry out two comparisons: First, reflectance maps generated by the consumer-grade camera constellation are compared to reflectance maps produced with a hyperspectral camera (Rikola). All imaging data and reflectance maps are processed using the PIX4D software. In the second test, the NDVI at specific points of interest (POI) generated by the consumer-grade camera constellation is compared to NDVI values obtained by ground spectral measurements using a

  11. An environmentally safe water-based alternative to oil muds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, a mechanism describing the onset of bit balling is given. On the basis of this mechanism, a new copolymer/polypropylene glycol (COP/PPG) water-based drilling fluid was developed. The properties of this fluid are described, and field test comparisons are made with water- and oil-based fluids

  12. Phenol removal efficiencies of sewage treatment processes and ecological risks associated with phenols in effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Wenjue; Wang, Donghong; Xu, Xiaowei

    2012-05-30

    Phenols pose a risk to the environment and to human health. Phenols found in rivers mainly originate from sewage treatment plants (STPs). In this paper, analytical procedures, based on deconvolution technology and retention time locking technology, were investigated to simultaneously identify and determine the concentrations of fifty different phenols in sewage water and effluents. Seventeen different phenols were found in sewage and five - including two regulated phenols (phenol and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol) and three un-regulated phenols (2-chlorophenol, 2,5-dichlorophenol and 2,4-dichloro-3-ethyl-6-nitrophenol) - were identified in effluents of five STPs. A number of processes undertaken in five STPs were also investigated. These processes can be used to remove phenols at efficiency levels of between 88.95% and 99.97%. Among the processes tested, a combination of anaerobic/anoxic/oxic (A(2)/O), continuous microfiltration (CMF), ozone oxidation (O(3)), and chlorination, appeared to be the best option for the removal of key phenols. Among the five phenols identified in effluents, 2,5-dichlorophenol (1.89 μg/L) and 2,4-dichloro-3-ethyl-6-nitrophenol (22.6 μg/L) pose the greatest ecological risk to receiving waters.

  13. Discrimination of olive oils and fruits into cultivars and maturity stages based on phenolic and volatile compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalua, Curtis M; Allen, Malcolm S; Bedgood, Danny R; Bishop, Andrea G; Prenzler, Paul D

    2005-10-01

    Olive oil and fruit samples from six cultivars sampled at four different maturity stages were discriminated into cultivars and maturity stages. The variables-volatile and phenolic compounds-that significantly (p Manzanilla olive cultivar was separated from cultivars Leccino, Barnea, Mission, Corregiola, and Paragon, whereas cultivars Corregiola and Paragon formed a cluster. The volatile compounds hexanol, hexanal, and 1-penten-3-ol were responsible for the discrimination of cultivars. All maturity stages were discriminated, with the separation of early stages attributed to oil phenolic compounds, tyrosol and oleuropein derivatives, whereas the volatile compounds (E)-2-hexenal, hexanol, 1-penten-3-ol, and (Z)-2-penten-3-ol characterized the separation of all maturity stages and in particular the late stages. Hexanol and 1-penten-3-ol characterized the separation of both cultivars and maturity stages. PMID:16190670

  14. Analysis of Phenolic and Cyclic Compounds in Plants Using Derivatization Techniques in Combination with GC-MS-Based Metabolite Profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Rohloff

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Metabolite profiling has been established as a modern technology platform for the description of complex chemical matrices and compound identification in biological samples. Gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS in particular is a fast and accurate method widely applied in diagnostics, functional genomics and for screening purposes. Following solvent extraction and derivatization, hundreds of metabolites from different chemical groups can be characterized in one analytical run. Besides sugars, acids, and polyols, diverse phenolic and other cyclic metabolites can be efficiently detected by metabolite profiling. The review describes own results from plant research to exemplify the applicability of GC-MS profiling and concurrent detection and identification of phenolics and other cyclic structures.

  15. An approach to determination of phenolic compounds in seawater using SPME-GC-MS based on SWCNTs coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jia; Wang, Ying; Zeng, Lin

    2016-08-01

    Phenolic compounds have become one kind of the important pollutants of the marine environment. Single-walled Carbon nanotubes, as one-dimensional nano materials, have light weight and perfect hexagonal structure of connections, with many unusual mechanical, chemical and electrical properties. In recent years, with the research of carbon nanotubes and other nano materials, the application prospect is also constantly discussed. In this paper, homemade single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) coating was used for establishing an analytical approach to the determination of five kinds of phenolic compounds in seawater using SPME-GC-MS. Optimal conditions: After saturation was conducted with NaCl, and pH was adjusted to 2.0 with H2SO4, the extract was immersed in a water bath at 40°C for GC-MS determination through 40-min agitating extraction at 500 rmin-1 and 3-min desorption at 280°C. The liniearities ranged between 0.01-100 μg L-1, and the determination limits ranged between 1.5-10 ng L-1. The relative standard deviation (RSD, n = 5) was less than 6.5%. For the phenolic compounds obtained from the spiked recovery test for actual seawater samples, the rates of recovery were 87.5%-101.7%, and the RSDs were less than 8.8%, which met the requirements of determination. Due to its simplicity, high efficiency and low consumption, this approach is suitable for the analysis of trace amounts of phenolic compounds in marine waters.

  16. Microporous phenol-formaldehyde resin-based adsorbents for pre-combustion CO{sub 2} capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C.F. Martin; M.G. Plaza; S. Garcia; J.J. Pis; F. Rubiera; C. Pevida [Instituto Nacional del Carbon (INCAR), Oviedo (Spain)

    2011-05-15

    Different types of phenolic resins were used as precursor materials to prepare adsorbents for the separation of CO{sub 2} in pre-combustion processes. In order to obtain highly microporous carbons with suitable characteristics for the separation of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} under high pressure conditions, phenol-formaldehyde resins were synthesised under different conditions. Resol resins were obtained by using an alkaline environment while Novolac resins were synthesised in the presence of acid catalysts. In addition, two organic additives, ethylene glycol (E) and polyethylene glycol (PE) were included in the synthesis. The phenolic resins thus prepared were carbonised at different temperatures and then physically activated with CO{sub 2}. The carbons produced were characterised in terms of texture, chemical composition and surface chemistry. Maximum CO{sub 2} adsorption capacities at atmospheric pressure were determined in a thermogravimetric analyser. Values of up to 10.8 wt.% were achieved. The high-pressure adsorption of CO{sub 2} at room temperature was determined in a high-pressure magnetic suspension balance. The carbons tested showed enhanced CO{sub 2} uptakes at high pressures (up to 44.7 wt.% at 25 bar). In addition, it was confirmed that capture capacities depend highly on the microporosity of the samples, the narrow micropores (pore widths of less than 0.7 nm) being the most active in CO{sub 2} adsorption at atmospheric pressure. The results presented in this work suggest that phenol-formaldehyde resin-derived activated carbons, particularly those prepared with the addition of ethylene glycol, show great potential as adsorbents for pre-combustion CO{sub 2} capture. 39 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Exploration of cardanol-based phenolated and epoxidized resins by size exclusion chromatography and MALDI mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouquet, Thierry; Puchot, Laura; Verge, Pierre; Bomfim, João A S; Ruch, David

    2014-09-16

    Cardanol and cardanol derivatives are among the most important biobased materials currently investigated in green chemistry, as renewable and promising building blocks in lieu of traditional raw materials from non renewable resources, in particular owing to the olefinic linkages on the C15 alkyl side-chain. Despite the increasing interest they arouse, analytical chemistry dedicated to cardanol and associated resins has been rarely reported in the literature, found even poorer when dealing with chromatography and mass spectrometry. In this work, a thorough molecular characterization was conducted using matrix assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry, size exclusion chromatography (SEC), and SEC-MALDI coupling to gain insights into the composition of phenolated, epoxidized, and epoxidized phenolated cardanol. A nomenclature was proposed to properly describe the numerous species found in these materials, while simulations of the unsaturation patterns and their comparison with the detected patterns in MALDI-MS gave useful details about the phenolation treatment expected to occur on the polyunsaturated C15 side chain. Finally, the SEC-MALDI off-line coupling allowed SEC peaks to be deconvoluted by mass spectrometry and MALDI artefacts related to matrix adduction to be pointed out. PMID:25150696

  18. Extraction of phenol using trialkylphosphine oxides (Cyanex 923) in kerosene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urtiaga, A.M.; Ortiz, I. [Universidad de Cantabria, Santander (Spain)

    1997-04-01

    A group of extractants based on phosphine oxides have been reported as an alternative to conventional polar solvents for phenol-liquid-liquid extraction. Among phosphoryl extractants, Cyanex 923 (a mixture of four trialkylphosphine oxides, alkyl = normal, C{sub 6}, C{sub 8}) has proved to combine high extraction efficiency and low water solubility, obviating the necessity of removing the solvent from the aqueous raffinate, a need associated with the use of methyl isobutyl ketone and isopropyl ether, the solvents most widely employed for this application. Phosphoryl extractants are solvating extractants, and are known to form relatively strong and reversible hydrogen bonds with phenols. The fact that most of these systems show a strong nonideality in the organic phase makes a general theoretical treatment of the equilibria almost impossible, leading to the necessity of obtaining a large number of data in order to describe the equilibria for design purposes. In this work the effect of the concentration of phenol in the aqueous phase on the partition coefficient for phenol in Cyanex 923-kerosene/water systems is investigated at six different concentrations of the extractant in the organic phase: 1, 5, 10, 20, 50, and 70% v/v of Cyanex 923-kerosene/water systems is investigated at six different concentrations of the extractant in the organic phase: 1, 5, 10, 20, 50, and 70% v/v of Cyanex 923 in kerosene. The initial concentrations of phenol in the aqueous phase were in the 1000 mg/L < C{sub PhOH} < 50,000 mg/L range.

  19. Preparation and properties of bisphenol-F based boron-phenolic resin/modified silicon nitride composites and their usage as binders for grinding wheels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Chun-Te [Department of Polymer Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, 43, Sec 4, Keelung Rd, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Lee, Hsun-Tsing [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Vanung University, Chung-Li, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan (China); Chen, Jem-Kun, E-mail: jkchen@mail.ntust.edu.tw [Department of Polymer Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, 43, Sec 4, Keelung Rd, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)

    2015-03-01

    Highlights: • Bisphenol-F based boron-phenolic resins (B-BPF) with B−O bonds were synthesized. • The modified silicon nitride (m-SiN) was well dispersed and adhered in the B-BPF. • B-BPF/m-SiN composites have good thermal resistance and mechanical properties. • The grinding wheels bound by B-BPF/m-SiN have excellent grinding quality. - Abstract: In this study, phenolic resins based on bisphenol-F (BPF) were synthesized. Besides, ammonium borate was added in the synthesis process of BPF to form the bisphenol-F based boron-phenolic resins (B-BPF). The glass transition temperature, thermal resistance, flexural strength and hardness of B-BPF are respectively higher than those of BPF. This is due to the presence of new cross-link B−O bonds in the B-BPF. In addition, the 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane modified silicon nitride powders (m-SiN) were fully mixed with B-BPF to form the B-BPF/m-SiN composites. The thermal resistance and mechanical properties of the B-BPF/m-SiN are promoted by the well-dispersed and well-adhered m-SiN in these novel polymer/ceramics composites. The results of grinding experiments indicate that the grinding wheels bound by the B-BPF/m-SiN have better grinding quality than those bound by the BPF. Thus the B-BPF/m-SiN composites are better binding media than the BPF resins.

  20. Preparation and properties of bisphenol-F based boron-phenolic resin/modified silicon nitride composites and their usage as binders for grinding wheels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Bisphenol-F based boron-phenolic resins (B-BPF) with B−O bonds were synthesized. • The modified silicon nitride (m-SiN) was well dispersed and adhered in the B-BPF. • B-BPF/m-SiN composites have good thermal resistance and mechanical properties. • The grinding wheels bound by B-BPF/m-SiN have excellent grinding quality. - Abstract: In this study, phenolic resins based on bisphenol-F (BPF) were synthesized. Besides, ammonium borate was added in the synthesis process of BPF to form the bisphenol-F based boron-phenolic resins (B-BPF). The glass transition temperature, thermal resistance, flexural strength and hardness of B-BPF are respectively higher than those of BPF. This is due to the presence of new cross-link B−O bonds in the B-BPF. In addition, the 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane modified silicon nitride powders (m-SiN) were fully mixed with B-BPF to form the B-BPF/m-SiN composites. The thermal resistance and mechanical properties of the B-BPF/m-SiN are promoted by the well-dispersed and well-adhered m-SiN in these novel polymer/ceramics composites. The results of grinding experiments indicate that the grinding wheels bound by the B-BPF/m-SiN have better grinding quality than those bound by the BPF. Thus the B-BPF/m-SiN composites are better binding media than the BPF resins

  1. Efficient Enzymatic Synthesis of Phenolic Ester by Increasing Solubility of Phenolic Acids in Ionic Liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhiyong; Guo, Zheng; Xu, Xuebing

    Compounds from phenolic acid family are well known natural antioxidants, but the application of phenolic acids as antioxidants in industry is limited due to the relatively low solubility in oil-based media. The properties of phenolic acids can be modified through enzymatic lipophilization...... and modified phenolic acids will have amphiphilic property, therefore they can be localized at oil-water or water-oil phase where oxidation is considered to occur frequently. It had been reported that immobilized Candida Antarctica lipase B was the most effective biocatalyst for the various esterification...... reactions, and it had been widely used for esterification of various phenolic acids with fatty alcohol or triglycerides. However, the conversion of phenolic acids is low due to low solubility in hydrophobic solvents and hindrance effect of unsaturated side chain towards the enzyme. Our studies show...

  2. Catalytic Oxidation of Phenol over Zeolite Based Cu/Y-5 Catalyst: Part 1: Catalyst Preparation and Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Maduna Valkaj

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The necessity to remove organic pollutants from the industrial wastewater streams has forced the development of new technologies that can produce better results in terms of pollutant removal and process efficiency in combination with low investment and operating costs. One of the new emerging processes with a potential to fulfil these demands is catalytic wet peroxide oxidation, commonly known as the CWPO process. The oxidative effect of the hydrogen peroxide is intensified by the addition of a heterogeneous catalyst that can reduce the operating conditions to atmospheric pressure and temperatures below 383 K. Zeolites, among others, are especially appealing as catalysts for selective oxidation processes due to their unique characteristics such as shape selectivity, thermal and chemical stability, and benign effect on nature and the living world. In this work, catalytic activity, selectivity and stability of Cu/Y-5 zeolite in phenol oxidation with hydrogen peroxide was examined. Catalyst samples were prepared by ion exchange method of the protonic form of commercial zeolite. The catalysts were characterized with powder X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and AAS elemental analysis, while the adsorption techniques were used for the measurement of the specific surface area. The catalytic tests were carried out in a stainless steel Parr reactor in batch operation mode at the atmospheric pressure and in the temperature range from 323 to 353 K. The catalyst was prepared in powdered form and the mass fraction of the active metal component on the zeolite was 3.46 %. The initial concentration of phenol solution was equal to 0.01 mol dm−3 and the concentration of hydrogen peroxide ranged from 0.01 to 0.10 mol dm−3. The obtained experimental data was tested to a proposed kinetic model for phenol oxidation r = k1 cF cVP and hydrogen peroxide decomposition rHP = k2 cHP. The kinetic parameters were estimated using the Nelder

  3. SCIENTIFIC BASED OF ACUPUNCTURE AS ALTERNATIVE TREATMENT OF DIABETES MELLITUS

    OpenAIRE

    Koosnadi Saputra; Suhariningsih Suhariningsih; RTS Adikara; Sagiran Sagiran; Felix Tirtakusumanah

    2012-01-01

    Background: Acupuncture its traditional form is based upon the stimulation of well defined points on the body by insertion of metal needles, such needling is considered necessary influenced biological mechanism by intrinsic and extrinsic activation after acupuncture points stimulation. Many clinical report therapeutic effect acupuncture treatment of Diabetes Mellitus especially Non Insulin dependent, the effectiveness of mild or middle type of disease is better that severe one and accompanyin...

  4. Green extraction of grape skin phenolics by using deep eutectic solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvjetko Bubalo, Marina; Ćurko, Natka; Tomašević, Marina; Kovačević Ganić, Karin; Radojčić Redovniković, Ivana

    2016-06-01

    Conventional extraction techniques for plant phenolics are usually associated with high organic solvent consumption and long extraction times. In order to establish an environmentally friendly extraction method for grape skin phenolics, deep eutectic solvents (DES) as a green alternative to conventional solvents coupled with highly efficient microwave-assisted and ultrasound-assisted extraction methods (MAE and UAE, respectively) have been considered. Initially, screening of five different DES for proposed extraction was performed and choline chloride-based DES containing oxalic acid as a hydrogen bond donor with 25% of water was selected as the most promising one, resulting in more effective extraction of grape skin phenolic compounds compared to conventional solvents. Additionally, in our study, UAE proved to be the best extraction method with extraction efficiency superior to both MAE and conventional extraction method. The knowledge acquired in this study will contribute to further DES implementation in extraction of biologically active compounds from various plant sources. PMID:26830574

  5. A clinically based service limitation option for alternative model rural hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscovice, I; Wellever, A; Sales, A; Chen, M M; Christianson, J

    1993-01-01

    Alternative model rural hospitals are designed to address problems faced by small, isolated rural hospitals. Typically, hospital regulations are reduced in exchange for a limit on the services that alternative models may offer. The most common service limitation is a limit on length of stay (LOS), a method with little empirical or conceptual support. The purpose of this article is to present a clinically based service limitation for alternative model rural hospitals, such as the rural primary care hospital. The proposal is based on an analysis of Medicare discharges from rural hospitals most likely to convert and the judgments of a technical advisory panel of rural clinicians. PMID:10135339

  6. Uso de resíduo industrial a base de resina fenólica como carga para o polipropileno Use of industrial waste based on phenolic resin as filler for polypropylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André P. Cavalcante

    2012-01-01

    acted as nucleating agents for PP crystallization. The composites showed greater thermal degradation resistance as compared to PP. The composites showed a balance of stiffness and mechanical strength with increase of the flexural module and decrease of the tensile strength. The notched impact strength was not altered and the heat distortion temperature (HDT of the composites was increased as compared to PP. The performance of the composites developed here showed that the industrial waste based on phenolic resin can be used as functional filler for PP. Furthermore, these composites are an alternative for the recycling of the phenolic resin industrial waste.

  7. Phenolics and Plant Allelopathy

    OpenAIRE

    De-An Jiang; Cun-De Pan; Xiao Ruan; Qiang Wang; Zhao-Hui Li

    2010-01-01

    Phenolic compounds arise from the shikimic and acetic acid (polyketide) metabolic pathways in plants. They are but one category of the many secondary metabolites implicated in plant allelopathy. Phenolic allelochemicals have been observed in both natural and managed ecosystems, where they cause a number of ecological and economic problems, such as declines in crop yield due to soil sickness, regeneration failure of natural forests, and replanting problems in orchards. Phenolic allelochemical ...

  8. STUDIES ON THE ADSORPTION OF PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS ON A PS-BASED RESIN MODIFIED BY NITRO FUNCTIONAL GROUPS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-nan Wang; Ai-min Li; Sheng Zhong; Wei-ben Yan; Quan-xing Zhang

    2008-01-01

    A new adsorbent (JN-01) was prepared by modifying resin NDA-1800 with nitro functional groups.The adsorption capacities of resins XAD-4,NDA-1800 and JN-01 were investigated,and the results indicated that the modified resin JN-01 was much better in adsorbing phenol,p-nitrophenol and p-cresol.The adsorption capacities of the resin JN-01 were higher than those of the resins XAD-4 and NDA-1800 within a temperature range of 283-323 K,which might be attributed to the higher surface area and the partial polarity on its matrix.The new adsorbent could be widely used in wastewater treatment.

  9. Agent-based simulation of alternative classroom evacuation scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runjiao Liu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to the growing number of emergency accidents occurring around students, evacuation issues have become significantly important for both school officials and architects. Simply following construction codes cannot ensure that a building׳s layout is suitable for evacuation behaviors; therefore, to discover the suitable planning schemes, we have introduced an agent-based simulation model via Netlogo to investigate the interrelationships between evacuation efficiency and classroom layouts. Before conducting modeling experiments, both the simulation structure and the sensitivity to its parameter settings are examined by validation research and sensitivity analysis. Furthermore, to demonstrate the importance of conducting fire drills with students, two different types of behavior rules are designed to reflect the distinctive characteristics of students evacuating without instructions and students evacuating in good order. The general comparison results show us that the classroom layout with two exits shortens students׳ evacuation time, and the premeditated behavior rules, meaning that students who follow preset instructions to arrange their activities, not only escape faster but also have some advantages in ensuring their safety during the evacuation process. Moreover, at the end of this paper, several methods of improving this simulation model are proposed for more complex research in the future.

  10. Qualitative and quantitative electroanalysis of synthetic phenolic antioxidant mixtures in edible oils based on their acid-base properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel Robledo, Sebastian; Alicia Zón, María; Daniel Ceballos, Claudio; Fernández, Héctor

    2011-08-01

    A simple electroanalytical method using square wave voltammetry at a Pt band ultramicroelectrode to perform a qualitative and quantitative analysis of different synthetic antioxidant mixtures permitted by official regulations in edible oils is proposed. The methodology was based on the comparison of voltammetric signals obtained in acetonitrile+0.1M (C4H9)4NF6P with those recorded in the same reaction medium when different aliquots of (C4H9)4NOH were added to allow a qualitative differentiation between antioxidants. Firstly, studies on solutions prepared from commercial reagents were carried out. Then, the results obtained were transferred to the analysis of a real matrix, i.e., an edible olive oil. From real samples spiked with a known amount of different synthetic antioxidant mixtures, we could deduce the presence of these antioxidants by comparing results obtained in the neutral medium with those obtained after the successive addition of base. The standard addition method was used to quantify the individually spiked synthetic antioxidants in the real sample. Recovery percentages were between 88% and 118%. The reproducibility was 1.5%, 3.1%, 4.1% and 4.1% in ACN+0.1M TBAHFP and 1.5%, 4.6%, 6.6% and 2.5% in Bz/EtOH (1:2)+0.1M H2SO4 for TBHQ, BHA, BHT and PG, respectively. The repeatability was 1% for PG in both media. These parameters show a good system performance.

  11. Preparation and properties of bisphenol-F based boron-phenolic resin/modified silicon nitride composites and their usage as binders for grinding wheels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chun-Te; Lee, Hsun-Tsing; Chen, Jem-Kun

    2015-03-01

    In this study, phenolic resins based on bisphenol-F (BPF) were synthesized. Besides, ammonium borate was added in the synthesis process of BPF to form the bisphenol-F based boron-phenolic resins (B-BPF). The glass transition temperature, thermal resistance, flexural strength and hardness of B-BPF are respectively higher than those of BPF. This is due to the presence of new cross-link Bsbnd O bonds in the B-BPF. In addition, the 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane modified silicon nitride powders (m-SiN) were fully mixed with B-BPF to form the B-BPF/m-SiN composites. The thermal resistance and mechanical properties of the B-BPF/m-SiN are promoted by the well-dispersed and well-adhered m-SiN in these novel polymer/ceramics composites. The results of grinding experiments indicate that the grinding wheels bound by the B-BPF/m-SiN have better grinding quality than those bound by the BPF. Thus the B-BPF/m-SiN composites are better binding media than the BPF resins.

  12. Phenolic Acids in Plant-Soil-Microbe System: A Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Phenolic acids are very common compounds in pedosphere. The objective of this review was to summarize the current knowledge of the behaviors of phenolic acids in plant-soil-microbe system. When phenolic acids originated from leaching, decomposition and exudation of living and dead plant tissues enter soils, they can react physicochemically with soil particle surfaces and/or incorporate into humic matter. Phenolic acids desorbed from soil particle surfaces and remained in solution phase can be utilized by microbe as carbon sources and absorbed by plants. The degradation products of phenolic acids by microbe include some organic and/or inorganic compounds such as new phenolic acids. In addition, phenolic acids in soils can stimulate population and activity of microbe. Phenolic acids can inhibit plants growth by affecting ion leakage, phytohormone activity, membrane permeability, hydraulic conductivity, net nutrient uptake, and enzyme activity. Behaviors of phenolic acids in soils are influenced by other organic compounds (phenolic acids, methionine, glucose, etc.) and/or inorganic ions. The role of phenolic acids as allelopathic agents should not be neglected only based on their low specific concentrations in natural soils, because numbers and interactions of phenolic acids will increase their allelopathic activities.

  13. Significantly Improved Catalytic Performance of Ni-Based MgO Catalyst in Steam Reforming of Phenol by Inducing Mesostructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxuan Yang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A Ni/meso-MgO catalyst with high surface area and small Ni nanoparticles was synthesized and investigated for hydrogen production by steam reforming of phenol for the first time. Compared to conventional Ni/MgO, the Ni/meso-MgO catalyst showed higher catalytic activity and stability. X-ray Diffraction, N2 adsorption, hydrogen temperature programmed reduction, transmission electron microscopy and thermal gravimetry results indicated that the Ni/meso-MgO catalyst had higher surface area than Ni/MgO and Ni particles of Ni/meso-MgO were narrowly distributed in the range of 5~6 nm with an average size of 5.3 nm, while Ni particles of Ni/MgO were in the range of 6~10 nm with an average size of 7.92 nm. The small and uniform Ni nanoparticles in Ni/meso-MgO were attributed to the high surface area and the confinement effect of the mesoporous structure of meso-MgO, which could effectively limit the growth of the active metal and stabilize Ni particles during the procedure of NiO reduction. The mesoporous structure of Ni/meso-MgO also played an important role in suppressing Ni nanoparticle sintering and carbon deposition during the steam reforming of phenol reaction.

  14. Bases, Assumptions, and Results of the Flowsheet Calculations for the Decision Phase Salt Disposition Alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimenna, R.A.; Jacobs, R.A.; Taylor, G.A.; Durate, O.E.; Paul, P.K.; Elder, H.H.; Pike, J.A.; Fowler, J.R.; Rutland, P.L.; Gregory, M.V.; Smith III, F.G.; Hang, T.; Subosits, S.G.; Campbell, S.G.

    2001-03-26

    The High Level Waste (HLW) Salt Disposition Systems Engineering Team was formed on March 13, 1998, and chartered to identify options, evaluate alternatives, and recommend a selected alternative(s) for processing HLW salt to a permitted wasteform. This requirement arises because the existing In-Tank Precipitation process at the Savannah River Site, as currently configured, cannot simultaneously meet the HLW production and Authorization Basis safety requirements. This engineering study was performed in four phases. This document provides the technical bases, assumptions, and results of this engineering study.

  15. INEEL Subsurface Disposal Area CERCLA-based Decision Analysis for Technology Screening and Remedial Alternative Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parnell, G. S.; Kloeber, Jr. J.; Westphal, D; Fung, V.; Richardson, John Grant

    2000-03-01

    A CERCLA-based decision analysis methodology for alternative evaluation and technology screening has been developed for application at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory WAG 7 OU13/14 Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA). Quantitative value functions derived from CERCLA balancing criteria in cooperation with State and Federal regulators are presented. A weighted criteria hierarchy is also summarized that relates individual value function numerical values to an overall score for a specific technology alternative.

  16. Bromination of Phenol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    This "Science note" examines the bromination of phenol, a reaction that is commonly taught at A-level and IB (International Baccalaureate) as an example of electrophilic substitution. Phenol undergoes bromination with bromine or bromine water at room temperature. A white precipitate of 2,4,6-tribromophenol is rapidly formed. This…

  17. Adhesion properties of styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR/Standard Malaysian Rubber (SMR L-based adhesives in the presence of phenol formaldehyde resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The adhesion properties, i. e. viscosity, tack and peel strength of styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR/Standard Malaysian Rubber (SMR L-based pressure-sensitive adhesive was studied using phenol formaldehyde resin as the tackifying resin. Toluene was used as the solvent throughout the experiment. SBR composition in SBR/SMR L blend used was 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100%. Three different resin loadings, i. e. 40, 80 and 120 parts per hundred parts of rubber (phr were used in the adhesive formulation. The viscosity of adhesive was determined by a HAAKE Rotary Viscometer whereas loop tack and peel strength of paper/polyethylene terephthalate (PET film were measured using a Lloyd Adhesion Tester operating at 30 cm/min. Results indicate that the viscosity of adhesive decreases with increasing % SBR whereas loop tack passes through a maximum value at 20% SBR for all resin loadings. Except for the control sample (without resin, the peel strength shows a maximum value at 60% SBR for the three modes of peel tests. For a fixed % SBR, adhesive sample containing 40 phr phenol formaldehyde resin always exhibits the highest loop tack and peel strength, an observation which is associated to the optimum wettability of adhesive on the substrate.

  18. Modulation of the phenolic composition and colour of red wines subjected to accelerated ageing by controlling process variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Sáiz, J M; Esteban-Díez, I; Rodríguez-Tecedor, S; Pérez-Del-Notario, N; Arenzana-Rámila, I; Pizarro, C

    2014-12-15

    The aim of the present work was to evaluate the effect of the main factors conditioning accelerated ageing processes (oxygen dose, chip dose, wood origin, toasting degree and maceration time) on the phenolic and chromatic profiles of red wines by using a multivariate strategy based on experimental design methodology. The results obtained revealed that the concentrations of monomeric anthocyanins and flavan-3-ols could be modified through the application of particular experimental conditions. This fact was particularly remarkable since changes in phenolic profile were closely linked to changes observed in chromatic parameters. The main strength of this study lies in the possibility of using its conclusions as a basis to make wines with specific colour properties based on quality criteria. To our knowledge, the influence of such a large number of alternative ageing parameters on wine phenolic composition and chromatic attributes has not been studied previously using a comprehensive experimental design methodology.

  19. Turnover capacity of coprinus cinereus peroxidase for phenol and monosubstituted phenols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken; Heck

    1998-05-01

    Coprinus cinereus peroxidase (CIP) and other peroxidases are susceptible to mechanism-based inactivation during the oxidation of phenolic substrates. The turnover capacity (defined as the molar or mass concentration of substrate oxidized per unit concentration of enzyme inactivated) of CIP was quantified for phenol and 11 monosubstituted phenols under conditions in which enzyme inactivation by mechanisms involving hydrogen peroxide alone were minimized. Turnover capacities varied by nearly 2 orders of magnitude (absolute values on the order of 10(5)-10(6) on a molar basis), depending on the substituent. On a mass basis, the enzyme consumption corresponding to the lowest turnover capacities is considerable and may influence the economic feasibility of proposed industrial applications of peroxidases. Within a range of substituent electronegativity values, molar turnover capacities correlated well (r2 = 0.89) with substituent effects quantified by radical sigma values and semiquantitatively with homolytic O-H bond dissociation energies of the phenolic substrates, suggesting that phenoxyl radical intermediates are probably involved in the suicide inactivation of CIP. The correlation range in each case did not include phenols with highly electron-withdrawing (nitro and cyano) substituents because they are not oxidized by CIP, nor phenols with highly electron-donating (hydroxy and amino) substituents because they led to virtually complete inactivation of the enzyme with minimal substrate removal. In the latter case we conclude that inactivation of CIP during the oxidation of hydroxy- and amino-substituted phenols occurs by a different mechanism than that of the other phenolic substrates.

  20. Peroxidase extraction from jicama skin peels for phenol removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiong, T.; Lau, S. Y.; Khor, E. H.; Danquah, M. K.

    2016-06-01

    Phenol and its derivatives exist in various types of industrial effluents, and are known to be harmful to aquatic lives even at low concentrations. Conventional treatment technologies for phenol removal are challenged with long retention time, high energy consumption and process cost. Enzymatic treatment has emerged as an alternative technology for phenol removal from wastewater. These enzymes interact with aromatic compounds including phenols in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, forming free radicals which polymerize spontaneously to produce insoluble phenolic polymers. This work aims to extract peroxidase from agricultural wastes materials and establish its application for phenol removal. Peroxidase was extracted from jicama skin peels under varying extraction conditions of pH, sample-to-buffer ratio (w/v %) and temperature. Experimental results showed that extraction process conducted at pH 10, 40% w/v and 25oC demonstrated a peroxidase activity of 0.79 U/mL. Elevated temperatures slightly enhanced the peroxidase activities. Jicama peroxidase extracted at optimum extraction conditions demonstrated a phenol removal efficiency of 87.5% at pH 7. Phenol removal efficiency was ∼ 97% in the range of 30 - 40oC, and H2O2 dosage has to be kept below 100 mM for maximum removal under phenol concentration tested.

  1. Molybdate based Alternatives to Chromating as a Passivation Treatment for Zinc

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Peter Torben; Bech-Nielsen, G.; Møller, Per

    1994-01-01

    Zinc-plated parts are typically passivated with chromate-based solutions to reduce corrosion. Chromates, however, are a cause of environmental concern, for their toxic effects on plants and wildlife, and allergic effects on workers who come in contact with them. A molybdate-based alternative has...... been developed that can be used to replace chromates in a wide range of applications. The process has been tested in a project set up by the Danish Government in 1989, at the Centre of Advanced Electroplating (CAG)in Denmark. Procedures used for the alternative process are similar to those used...... tests, but not as good in neutral tests, such as salt spray. This edited version of a presentation from the joint AESF/EAST Session at SUR/FIN(R) '94-Indianapolis, discusses the effectiveness, cost, stability, chemistry, layer composition, and performance of this alternative process....

  2. Demonstration of risk-based decision analysis in remedial alternative selection and design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, E.K.; Duffield, G.M. (Geraghty and Miller Modeling Group, Reston, VA (United States)); Massmann, J.W. (Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States)); Freeze, R.A. (Freeze (R.A.) Engineering, Inc., White Rock, BC (Canada)); Stephenson, D.E. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States))

    1993-01-01

    This study demonstrates the use of risk-based decision analysis (Massmann and Freeze 1987a, 1987b) in the selection and design of an engineering alternative for groundwater remediation at a waste site at the Savannah River Site, a US Department of Energy facility in South Carolina. The investigation focuses on the remediation and closure of the H-Area Seepage Basins, an inactive disposal site that formerly received effluent water from a nearby production facility. A previous study by Duffield et al. (1992), which used risk-based decision analysis to screen a number of ground-water remediation alternatives under consideration for this site, indicated that the most attractive remedial option is ground-water extraction by wells coupled with surface water discharge of treated effluent. The aim of the present study is to demonstrate the iterative use of risk-based decision analysis throughout the design of a particular remedial alternative. In this study, we consider the interaction between two episodes of aquifer testing over a 6-year period and the refinement of a remedial extraction well system design. Using a three-dimensional ground-water flow model, this study employs (1) geostatistics and Monte Carlo techniques to simulate hydraulic conductivity as a stochastic process and (2) Bayesian updating and conditional simulation to investigate multiple phases of aquifer testing. In our evaluation of a remedial alternative, we compute probabilistic costs associated with the failure of an alternative to completely capture a simulated contaminant plume. The results of this study demonstrate the utility of risk-based decision analysis as a tool for improving the design of a remedial alternative through the course of phased data collection at a remedial site.

  3. Demonstration of risk-based decision analysis in remedial alternative selection and design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, E.K.; Duffield, G.M. [Geraghty and Miller Modeling Group, Reston, VA (United States); Massmann, J.W. [Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States); Freeze, R.A. [Freeze (R.A.) Engineering, Inc., White Rock, BC (Canada); Stephenson, D.E. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1993-05-01

    This study demonstrates the use of risk-based decision analysis (Massmann and Freeze 1987a, 1987b) in the selection and design of an engineering alternative for groundwater remediation at a waste site at the Savannah River Site, a US Department of Energy facility in South Carolina. The investigation focuses on the remediation and closure of the H-Area Seepage Basins, an inactive disposal site that formerly received effluent water from a nearby production facility. A previous study by Duffield et al. (1992), which used risk-based decision analysis to screen a number of ground-water remediation alternatives under consideration for this site, indicated that the most attractive remedial option is ground-water extraction by wells coupled with surface water discharge of treated effluent. The aim of the present study is to demonstrate the iterative use of risk-based decision analysis throughout the design of a particular remedial alternative. In this study, we consider the interaction between two episodes of aquifer testing over a 6-year period and the refinement of a remedial extraction well system design. Using a three-dimensional ground-water flow model, this study employs (1) geostatistics and Monte Carlo techniques to simulate hydraulic conductivity as a stochastic process and (2) Bayesian updating and conditional simulation to investigate multiple phases of aquifer testing. In our evaluation of a remedial alternative, we compute probabilistic costs associated with the failure of an alternative to completely capture a simulated contaminant plume. The results of this study demonstrate the utility of risk-based decision analysis as a tool for improving the design of a remedial alternative through the course of phased data collection at a remedial site.

  4. NMR-based metabonomic analysis on effect of light on production of antioxidant phenolic compounds in submerged cultures of Inonotus obliquus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Weifa; Zhang, Meimei; Zhao, Yanxia; Miao, Kangjie; Jiang, Hong

    2009-10-01

    This study was designed to investigate the light effect on biosynthesis of antioxidant phenolic compounds by Inonotus obliquus grown in submerged cultures using (1)H NMR spectroscopy combining multivariate pattern recognition strategies. I. obliquus were exposed to a range of light conditions and resultant data were compared to those from field-grown sclerotia and the mycelia grown in daylight. Daylight illumination inhibited biosynthesis of davallialactone and phelligridins and other hispidin analogs. Continuous darkness enhanced the formation of phelligridins, davallialactone and inoscavins. Phelligridins and davallialactone also occurred in the mycelia grown in blue and red light with levels lower than those found in darkness. In addition, polyphenols synthesized under daylight conditions showed less potential antioxidant activity than those determined with other light regimes. These findings demonstrate that light regulates biosynthesis of polyphenols in I. obliquus and their subsequent antioxidant activities, and (1)H NMR-based metabolic profiling is a cost-effective approach for evaluating light effects on fungal metabolisms. PMID:19433352

  5. Serological tests in leprosy. The sensitivity, specificity and predictive value of ELISA tests based on phenolic glycolipid antigens, and the implications for their use in epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, P J; Fine, P E; Ponnighaus, J M; Draper, C

    1988-08-01

    This paper examines the sensitivity and specificity of two ELISA assays for IgM antibodies to Mycobacterium leprae, one employing natural phenolic glycolipid and the other employing a synthetic disaccharide glycoconjugate as antigen. Estimates of sensitivity and specificity are derived, based on a panel of sera from leprosy cases in Malawi and various non-leprosy controls from the UK. Though both assays were able to identify a high proportion of multibacillary patients, neither was able to detect a high proportion of paucibacillary patients without considerable loss of specificity. The implications of the inverse relationship between sensitivity and specificity are discussed with reference to the predictive value of such tests in such areas as Malawi, where the large majority of cases are paucibacillary.

  6. Single-Case Research Design: An Alternative Strategy for Evidence-Based Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Drue; Hawkins, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The trend of utilizing evidence-based practice (EBP) in athletic training is now requiring clinicians, researchers, educators, and students to be equipped to both engage in and make judgments about research evidence. Single-case design (SCD) research may provide an alternative approach to develop such skills and inform clinical and…

  7. Ranking alternatives based on imprecise multi-criteria data and pairwise overlap dominance relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franco de los Rios, Camilo Andres; Hougaard, Jens Leth; Nielsen, Kurt

    This paper explores a multi-criteria outranking methodology that is designed to both handle uncertain and imprecise data in describing alternatives as well as treating the decision maker's preference information in a sensible way that re flects the difficulties in articulating preferences. Based...

  8. A study of the diffusion of alternative fuel vehicles : An agent-based modeling approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Ting; Gensler, Sonja; Garcia, Rosanna

    2011-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the use of an agent-based model (ABM) to investigate factors that can speed the diffusion of eco-innovations, namely alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs). The ABM provides the opportunity to consider the interdependencies inherent between key participants in the automotive indust

  9. Accelerating the Use of Weblogs as an Alternative Method to Deliver Case-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Charlie; Wu, Jiinpo; Yang, Samuel C.

    2008-01-01

    Weblog technology is an alternative medium to deliver the case-based method of learning business concepts. The social nature of this technology can potentially promote active learning and enhance analytical ability of students. The present research investigates the primary factors contributing to the adoption of Weblog technology by students to…

  10. Complexity of transformation-based optimizers and duplicate-free generation of alternatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pellenkoft, A.J.; Galindo-Legaria, C.A.; Kersten, M.L.

    1996-01-01

    Transformation-based optimizers that explore a search space exhaustively usually apply all possible transformation rules on each alternative, and stop when no new information is produced. In general, different sequences of transformations may end up deriving the same element. The optimizer must dete

  11. Integrated detoxification methodology of hazardous phenolic wastewaters in environmentally based trickle-bed reactors: Experimental investigation and CFD simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Rodrigo J.G., E-mail: rodrigo@eq.uc.pt [Centro de Investigacao em Engenharia dos Processos Quimicos e Produtos da Floresta (CIEPQPF), GERSE - Group on Environmental, Reaction and Separation Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Coimbra, Rua Silvio Lima, Polo II - Pinhal de Marrocos, 3030-790 Coimbra (Portugal); Almeida, Teresa S.A.; Quinta-Ferreira, Rosa M. [Centro de Investigacao em Engenharia dos Processos Quimicos e Produtos da Floresta (CIEPQPF), GERSE - Group on Environmental, Reaction and Separation Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Coimbra, Rua Silvio Lima, Polo II - Pinhal de Marrocos, 3030-790 Coimbra (Portugal)

    2011-05-15

    Centralized environmental regulations require the use of efficient detoxification technologies for the secure disposal of hazardous wastewaters. Guided by federal directives, existing plants need reengineering activities and careful analysis to improve their overall effectiveness and to become environmentally friendly. Here, we illustrate the application of an integrated methodology which encompasses the experimental investigation of catalytic wet air oxidation and CFD simulation of trickle-bed reactors. As long as trickle-bed reactors are determined by the flow environment coupled with chemical kinetics, first, on the optimization of prominent numerical solution parameters, the CFD model was validated with experimental data taken from a trickle bed pilot plant specifically designed for the catalytic wet oxidation of phenolic wastewaters. Second, several experimental and computational runs were carried out under unsteady-state operation to evaluate the dynamic performance addressing the TOC concentration and temperature profiles. CFD computations of total organic carbon conversion were found to agree better with experimental data at lower temperatures. Finally, the comparison of test data with simulation results demonstrated that this integrated framework was able to describe the mineralization of organic matter in trickle beds and the validated consequence model can be exploited to promote cleaner remediation technologies of contaminated waters.

  12. Integrated detoxification methodology of hazardous phenolic wastewaters in environmentally based trickle-bed reactors: Experimental investigation and CFD simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Rodrigo J G; Almeida, Teresa S A; Quinta-Ferreira, Rosa M

    2011-05-15

    Centralized environmental regulations require the use of efficient detoxification technologies for the secure disposal of hazardous wastewaters. Guided by federal directives, existing plants need reengineering activities and careful analysis to improve their overall effectiveness and to become environmentally friendly. Here, we illustrate the application of an integrated methodology which encompasses the experimental investigation of catalytic wet air oxidation and CFD simulation of trickle-bed reactors. As long as trickle-bed reactors are determined by the flow environment coupled with chemical kinetics, first, on the optimization of prominent numerical solution parameters, the CFD model was validated with experimental data taken from a trickle bed pilot plant specifically designed for the catalytic wet oxidation of phenolic wastewaters. Second, several experimental and computational runs were carried out under unsteady-state operation to evaluate the dynamic performance addressing the TOC concentration and temperature profiles. CFD computations of total organic carbon conversion were found to agree better with experimental data at lower temperatures. Finally, the comparison of test data with simulation results demonstrated that this integrated framework was able to describe the mineralization of organic matter in trickle beds and the validated consequence model can be exploited to promote cleaner remediation technologies of contaminated waters. PMID:21377790

  13. Physico-mechanical properties and thermal stability of thermoset nanocomposites based on styrene-butadiene rubber/phenolic resin blend

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shojaei, Akbar, E-mail: akbar.shojaei@sharif.edu [Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11155-9465, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Faghihi, Morteza [Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11155-9465, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-02-15

    Effect of organoclay (OC) on the performance of styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR)/phenolic resin (PH) blend prepared by two-roll mill was investigated. The influence of OC content ranging between 2.5 and 30 phr on the performance of SBR/PH was investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), interfacial energy analysis, tensile, dynamic mechanical, swelling, cure rheometry and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). It was found that the OC is mainly localized in the SBR phase of SBR/PH blend through the kinetically favored mechanism relevant to rubber chains. The results also demonstrated the positive role of PH on the dispersion of OC. Both PH and OC showed accelerating role on the cure rate of SBR and increased the crosslinking density of the rubber phase. Additionally, the mechanical and dynamic mechanical properties of SBR were influenced by incorporation of both PH and OC. TGA showed that the OC improves thermal stability of SBR vulcanizate, while it exhibits a catalytic role in presence of PH.

  14. Influence of industrial and alternative farming systems on contents of sugars, organic acids, total phenolic content, and the antioxidant activity of red beet (Beta vulgaris L. ssp. vulgaris Rote Kugel).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavec, Martina; Turinek, Matjaz; Grobelnik-Mlakar, Silva; Slatnar, Ana; Bavec, Franc

    2010-11-24

    The contents of sugars, organic acids, total phenolic content, and the antioxidant activity were quantified in the flesh of red beet from conventional (CON), integrated (INT), organic (ORG), biodynamic (BD), and control farming systems using established methods. Significant differences were measured for malic acid, total phenolic content (TPC), and total antioxidant activity, where malic acid content ranged from 2.39 g kg(-1) FW (control) to 1.63 g kg(-1) FW (CON, ORG, and INT). The highest TPC was measured in BD and control samples (0.677 and 0.672 mg GAE g(-1), respectively), and the lowest in CON samples (0.511 mg GAE g(-1)). Antioxidant activity was positively correlated with TPC (r2=0.6187) and ranged from 0.823 μM TE g(-1) FW to 1.270 μM TE g(-1) FW in CON and BD samples, respectively, whereas total sugar content ranged from 21.03 g kg(-1) FW (CON) to 31.58 g kg(-1) FW (BD). The importance of sugars, organic acids, phenols, and antioxidants for human health, as well as for plant resilience and health, gained from this explorative study, is discussed and put into perspective. PMID:20964342

  15. Phenolic compounds in flaxseed

    OpenAIRE

    Johnsson, Pernilla

    2004-01-01

    The dietary lignan secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG), present in high concentrations in flaxseed, and its metabolites enterolactone and enterodiol are thought to decrease the risk of hormone dependent cancers, cardiovascular disease and other “welfare” diseases. Flaxseed also contains other biologically active phenolic compounds, such as phenolic acids. The understanding of the nature of these compounds is crucial for their possible exploitation in drugs and functional foods. Until the m...

  16. Liquefaction of cornstalk in hot-compressed phenol-water medium to phenolic feedstock for the synthesis of phenol-formaldehyde resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingcun; Xu, Chunbao Charles; Leitch, Mathew

    2009-04-01

    Cornstalk powders were effectively liquefied in a hot-compressed phenol-water medium (1:4 wt/wt). The optimum liquefaction temperature was around 350 degrees C, where the liquid yield attained a maximum at about 70 wt%. The addition of sodium carbonate showed negligible effect over the Liquefaction product yields. When liquefied in phenol-water medium, essentially no phenol was combined with the liquid products, and the cornstalk-derived bio-oils were partially degraded monomeric and oligomeric products with a broad molecular distribution. Resol type bio-based phenol formaldehyde resins were readily synthesized from the cornstalk-derived bio-oils catalyzed by sodium hydroxide.

  17. Replacing animal experiments in developmental toxicity testing of phenols by combining in vitro assays with physiologically based kinetic (PBK) modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strikwold, Marije

    2016-01-01

    Many efforts have been undertaken over the past decades to develop in vitro tests for a wide range of toxicological endpoints as an alternative to animal testing. The principle application of in vitro toxicity assays still lies in the hazard assessment and the prioritisation of chemicals for further

  18. Protocol: A simple phenol-based method for 96-well extraction of high quality RNA from Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coustham Vincent

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many experiments in modern plant molecular biology require the processing of large numbers of samples for a variety of applications from mutant screens to the analysis of natural variants. A severe bottleneck to many such analyses is the acquisition of good yields of high quality RNA suitable for use in sensitive downstream applications such as real time quantitative reverse-transcription-polymerase chain reaction (real time qRT-PCR. Although several commercial kits are available for high-throughput RNA extraction in 96-well format, only one non-kit method has been described in the literature using the commercial reagent TRIZOL. Results We describe an unusual phenomenon when using TRIZOL reagent with young Arabidopsis seedlings. This prompted us to develop a high-throughput RNA extraction protocol (HTP96 adapted from a well established phenol:chloroform-LiCl method (P:C-L that is cheap, reliable and requires no specialist equipment. With this protocol 192 high quality RNA samples can be prepared in 96-well format in three hours (less than 1 minute per sample with less than 1% loss of samples. We demonstrate that the RNA derived from this protocol is of high quality and suitable for use in real time qRT-PCR assays. Conclusion The development of the HTP96 protocol has vastly increased our sample throughput, allowing us to fully exploit the large sample capacity of modern real time qRT-PCR thermocyclers, now commonplace in many labs, and develop an effective high-throughput gene expression platform. We propose that the HTP96 protocol will significantly benefit any plant scientist with the task of obtaining hundreds of high quality RNA extractions.

  19. Selective nickel-catalyzed conversion of model and lignin-derived phenolic compounds to cyclohexanone-based polymer building blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutyser, Wouter; Van den Bosch, Sander; Dijkmans, Jan; Turner, Stuart; Meledina, Maria; Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf; Debecker, Damien P; Sels, Bert F

    2015-05-22

    Valorization of lignin is essential for the economics of future lignocellulosic biorefineries. Lignin is converted into novel polymer building blocks through four steps: catalytic hydroprocessing of softwood to form 4-alkylguaiacols, their conversion into 4-alkylcyclohexanols, followed by dehydrogenation to form cyclohexanones, and Baeyer-Villiger oxidation to give caprolactones. The formation of alkylated cyclohexanols is one of the most difficult steps in the series. A liquid-phase process in the presence of nickel on CeO2 or ZrO2 catalysts is demonstrated herein to give the highest cyclohexanol yields. The catalytic reaction with 4-alkylguaiacols follows two parallel pathways with comparable rates: 1) ring hydrogenation with the formation of the corresponding alkylated 2-methoxycyclohexanol, and 2) demethoxylation to form 4-alkylphenol. Although subsequent phenol to cyclohexanol conversion is fast, the rate is limited for the removal of the methoxy group from 2-methoxycyclohexanol. Overall, this last reaction is the rate-limiting step and requires a sufficient temperature (>250 °C) to overcome the energy barrier. Substrate reactivity (with respect to the type of alkyl chain) and details of the catalyst properties (nickel loading and nickel particle size) on the reaction rates are reported in detail for the Ni/CeO2 catalyst. The best Ni/CeO2 catalyst reaches 4-alkylcyclohexanol yields over 80 %, is even able to convert real softwood-derived guaiacol mixtures and can be reused in subsequent experiments. A proof of principle of the projected cascade conversion of lignocellulose feedstock entirely into caprolactone is demonstrated by using Cu/ZrO2 for the dehydrogenation step to produce the resultant cyclohexanones (≈80 %) and tin-containing beta zeolite to form 4-alkyl-ε-caprolactones in high yields, according to a Baeyer-Villiger-type oxidation with H2 O2 .

  20. Molecular Identifi cation of Phenol-Degrading and Biofi lm-Forming Bacteria from Wastewater and Peat Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arifah Khusnuryani

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Phenol is hazardous aromatic pollutant which needs to be treated to reduce its hazardous effects.Bioremediation using bacteria which can form biofi lm offer an alternative wastewater treatment that is cheaperand environmentally safe. Eighteen strains of phenol-degrading and biofi lm-forming bacteria were isolatedfrom peat soil, also hospital and textile wastewater. Screening for phenol degradation ability of isolates wereperformed using Folin-ciocalteau reagent, while for biofi lm formation ability were performed using microtiterplate and crystal violet dye. Based on the ability to degrade phenol and to form biofi lm, four isolates (HP3,DOK135, DL120, andATA6 were choosen as phenol-degrading bacteria as well as biofi lm-forming bacteria.Based on phenotypic and genotypic characterization, isolate HP3 was highly similar to Rhodococcus equi strainDSM20307T, while DOK135 was highly similar to Enterobacter mori strain R18-2.The results also suggested thatDL120 and ATA6 could be classifi ed to the genus of Micrococcus and Bacillus respectively

  1. Estimate of consumption of phenolic compounds by Brazilian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanesa Gesser Corrêa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Estimate the intake of phenolic compounds by the Brazilian population. METHODS: To estimate the average per capita food consumption, micro data from the National Dietary Survey and from the Household Budget Survey from 2008 to 2009 was analyzed. The phenolic content in food was estimated from the base of Phenol-Explorer. It was chosen according to compatibility and variety of food items and usual method of preparation. RESULTS: The Brazilian population consumed, on average, 460.15 mg/day of total phenolic compounds, derived mainly from beverages (48.9%, especially coffee and legumes (19.5%. Since this analysis of classes of phenolics it was possible to observe an intake of 314 mg/day of phenolic acids, 138.92 mg/day of flavonoids and 7.16 mg/ day of other kinds of phenolics. Regarding the variables studied this present study shows that those men who live in the countryside and in the northeastern region of the country had a higher consumption of phenolic compounds. Besides, consumption was higher by adults and the elderly, the medium income classes, the population with incomplete and complete primary education and those with adequate nutrition and also overweight status. CONCLUSION: The intake of phenolic compounds can be considered low, especially where consumption of fruit and vegetables is insufficient. We can conclude that coffee and black beans were the best contributors to phenolic intake.

  2. Improved AFEM algorithm for bioluminescence tomography based on dual-mesh alternation strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Li; Heng Zhao; Xiaochao Qu; Yanbin Hou; Xueli Chen; Duofang Chen; Xiaowei He; Qitan Zhang; Jimin Liang

    2012-01-01

    Adaptive finite element method (AFEM) is broadly adopted to recover the internal source in biological tissues.In this letter,a novel dual-mesh alternation strategy (dual-mesh AFEM) is developed for bioluminescence tomography.By comprehensively considering the error estimation of the finite element method solution on each mesh,two different adaptive strategies based on the error indicator of the reconstructed source and the photon flux density are used alternately in the process.Combined with the constantly adjusted permissible region in the adaptive process,the new algorithm can achieve a more accurate source location compared with the AFEM in the previous experiments.%Adaptive finite element method (AFEM) is broadly adopted to recover the internal source in biological tissues. In this letter, a novel dual-mesh alternation strategy (dual-mesh AFEM) is developed for biolumi-nescence tomography. By comprehensively considering the error estimation of the finite element method solution on each mesh, two different adaptive strategies based on the error indicator of the reconstructed source and the photon flux density are used alternately in the process. Combined with the constantly adjusted permissible region in the adaptive process, the new algorithm can achieve a more accurate source location compared with the AFEM in the previous experiments.

  3. Alternative diagnoses based on CT angiography of the chest in patients with suspected pulmonary thromboembolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Eleci Vaz; Gazzana, Marcelo Basso; Sarmento, Muriel Bossle; Guazzelli, Pedro Arends; Hoffmeister, Mariana Costa; Guerra, Vinicius André; Seligman, Renato; Knorst, Marli Maria

    2016-01-01

    Objective : To determine the prevalence of alternative diagnoses based on chest CT angiography (CTA) in patients with suspected pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) who tested negative for PTE, as well as whether those alternative diagnoses had been considered prior to the CTA. Methods : This was a cross-sectional, retrospective study involving 191 adult patients undergoing CTA for suspected PTE between September of 2009 and May of 2012. Chest X-rays and CTAs were reviewed to determine whether the findings suggested an alternative diagnosis in the cases not diagnosed as PTE. Data on symptoms, risk factors, comorbidities, length of hospital stay, and mortality were collected. Results : On the basis of the CTA findings, PTE was diagnosed in 47 cases (24.6%). Among the 144 patients not diagnosed with PTE via CTA, the findings were abnormal in 120 (83.3%). Such findings were consistent with an alternative diagnosis that explained the symptoms in 75 patients (39.3%). Among those 75 cases, there were only 39 (20.4%) in which the same alterations had not been previously detected on chest X-rays. The most common alternative diagnosis, made solely on the basis of the CTA findings, was pneumonia (identified in 20 cases). Symptoms, risk factors, comorbidities, and the in-hospital mortality rate did not differ significantly between the patients with and without PTE. However, the median hospital stay was significantly longer in the patients with PTE than in those without (18.0 and 9.5 days, respectively; p = 0.001). Conclusions : Our results indicate that chest CTA is useful in cases of suspected PTE, because it can confirm the diagnosis and reveal findings consistent with an alternative diagnosis in a significant number of patients. PMID:26982039

  4. Alternative diagnoses based on CT angiography of the chest in patients with suspected pulmonary thromboembolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleci Vaz Ferreira

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective : To determine the prevalence of alternative diagnoses based on chest CT angiography (CTA in patients with suspected pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE who tested negative for PTE, as well as whether those alternative diagnoses had been considered prior to the CTA. Methods : This was a cross-sectional, retrospective study involving 191 adult patients undergoing CTA for suspected PTE between September of 2009 and May of 2012. Chest X-rays and CTAs were reviewed to determine whether the findings suggested an alternative diagnosis in the cases not diagnosed as PTE. Data on symptoms, risk factors, comorbidities, length of hospital stay, and mortality were collected. Results : On the basis of the CTA findings, PTE was diagnosed in 47 cases (24.6%. Among the 144 patients not diagnosed with PTE via CTA, the findings were abnormal in 120 (83.3%. Such findings were consistent with an alternative diagnosis that explained the symptoms in 75 patients (39.3%. Among those 75 cases, there were only 39 (20.4% in which the same alterations had not been previously detected on chest X-rays. The most common alternative diagnosis, made solely on the basis of the CTA findings, was pneumonia (identified in 20 cases. Symptoms, risk factors, comorbidities, and the in-hospital mortality rate did not differ significantly between the patients with and without PTE. However, the median hospital stay was significantly longer in the patients with PTE than in those without (18.0 and 9.5 days, respectively; p = 0.001. Conclusions : Our results indicate that chest CTA is useful in cases of suspected PTE, because it can confirm the diagnosis and reveal findings consistent with an alternative diagnosis in a significant number of patients.

  5. Alternative diagnoses based on CT angiography of the chest in patients with suspected pulmonary thromboembolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Eleci Vaz; Gazzana, Marcelo Basso; Seligman, Renato; Knorst, Marli Maria, E-mail: mknorst@gmail.com [Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Guerra, Vinicius Andre [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias Pneumologicas; Sarmento, Muriel Bossle; Guazzelli, Pedro Arends; Hoffmeister, Mariana Costa [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRS), Porto Alegre (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina

    2016-01-15

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of alternative diagnoses based on chest CT angiography (CTA) in patients with suspected pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) who tested negative for PTE, as well as whether those alternative diagnoses had been considered prior to the CTA. Methods: This was a cross-sectional, retrospective study involving 191 adult patients undergoing CTA for suspected PTE between September of 2009 and May of 2012. Chest X-rays and CTAs were reviewed to determine whether the findings suggested an alternative diagnosis in the cases not diagnosed as PTE. Data on symptoms, risk factors, comorbidities, length of hospital stay, and mortality were collected. Results: On the basis of the CTA findings, PTE was diagnosed in 47 cases (24.6%). Among the 144 patients not diagnosed with PTE via CTA, the findings were abnormal in 120 (83.3%). Such findings were consistent with an alternative diagnosis that explained the symptoms in 75 patients (39.3%). Among those 75 cases, there were only 39 (20.4%) in which the same alterations had not been previously detected on chest X-rays. The most common alternative diagnosis, made solely on the basis of the CTA findings, was pneumonia (identified in 20 cases). Symptoms, risk factors, comorbidities, and the in-hospital mortality rate did not differ significantly between the patients with and without PTE. However, the median hospital stay was significantly longer in the patients with PTE than in those without (18.0 and 9.5 days, respectively; p = 0.001). Conclusions: Our results indicate that chest CTA is useful in cases of suspected PTE, because it can confirm the diagnosis and reveal findings consistent with an alternative diagnosis in a significant number of patients. (author)

  6. DETERMINACIÓN DE FENOLES TOTALES EN DERIVADOS LÍGNICOS OBTENIDOS DEL “LICOR NEGRO” COMO ALTERNATIVA DE PRODUCCIÓN // DETERMINATION OF TOTAL PHENOL DERIVATIVES OBTAINED FROM LIGNIN "BLACK LIQUOR" AS ALTERNATIVE TO PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José López Villalobos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Lignin is an industrial waste being worthless in papermaking byproduct of black liquor obtained from the pulping process in some Venezuelan plants. The black liquor is obtained from the Kraft pulping process to extract lignin sulphite by acid precipitation and quantify the amount of total phenols in such lignin products used in this study. Spectrophotometry Molecular absorption in the UV-Visible and Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR region were used to carry out these study techniques. The products obtained in the study had the same signs than commercial lignin (LA, along with the extracted lignin present little degradation HCl, confirmed by infrared spectra. Also, the amount of total phenols was quantified in derivative lignin obtained using the Folin-Ciocalteu. In the sulphite process extracted lignin with acetic acid derivative contains more phenols, and in the Kraft process, the derivative lignin extracted with fewer nitric acid present. The amount of total phenolics present in these derivatives are good for making antiseptics, detergents, nylon, resin and many industrial products. // RESUMEN La lignina es un subproducto del licor negro obtenido del proceso de despulpado en algunas plantas de Venezuela, siendo un desecho industrial que carece de valor en la fabricación de papel. En este estudio se utilizó el licor negro obtenido de los procesos de pulpado Kraft y Sulfito para extraer la lignina mediante precipitaciones ácidas y cuantificar la cantidad de fenoles totales en dichos productos lígnicos. Para llevar a cabo este estudio, se utilizaron las técnicas de Espectrofotometría de Absorción Molecular en la región UV-Visible y la Espectroscopia de Infrarrojo (FTIR. Los productos obtenidos en el estudio presentaron señales similares que la lignina comercial (LA, además la lignina extraída con HCl presentó poca degradación, corroborado por los espectros infrarrojos. Asimismo, se cuantificó la cantidad de fenoles totales en los

  7. Macrocyclic effects upon isomeric CuIIMII and MIICuII cores. Formation with unsymmetric phenol-based macrocyclic ligands

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Masami Yonemura; Yuuki Nakamura; Naoki Usuki; Hisashi Okawa

    2000-06-01

    This paper discusses coordination-position isomeric MIICuII and CuIIMII complexes, using unsymmetric dinucleating macrocycles (Lm;n)2- ((L2;2)2-, (L2;3)2- and (L2;4)2- that comprise two 2-(N-methyl)-aminomethyl-6-iminomethyl-4-bromophenonate entities, combined through the ethylene chain ( = 2) between the two amine nitrogens and through the ethylene, trimethylene or tetramethylene chain ( = 2, 3 or 4) between the two imine nitrogens. The macrocycles have dissimilar N(amine)2O2 and N(imine)2O2 metal-binding sites sharing the phenolic oxygens. The reaction of the mononuclear CuII precursors, [Cu(L2;2)], [Cu(L2;2)] and [Cu(L2;2)], with a MII perchlorate and a MII acetate salt formed (acetato)MII CuII complexes:[CoCu(L2;2)(AcO)]ClO4 0 5H2O] (1), [NiCu(L2;2) (AcO)]ClO4 (2), [ZnCu(L2;2((AcO)]ClO4 (3), [CoCu(L2;3)(AcO)]ClO4 0 5H2O (4), [NiCu(L2;3)(AcO)]ClO4 (5), [ZnCu(L2;3)(AcO)]ClO4 0 5H2O (6), [CoCu(L2;4)(AcO)(DMF)]ClO4 (7), [NiCu(L2;4)(AcO)]ClO4 2DMF (8) and [ZnCu(L2;4)(AcO)]ClO4 (9) (the formulation [MM (Lm;n)]2+ means that M resides in the aminic site and M in the iminic site). The site selectivity of the metal ions is demonstrated by X-ray crystallographic studies for 2 MeOH, 3, 5, 7, and 9. An (acetato)CuIIZnII complex, [CuZn(L2;3)(AcO)]ClO4 (10), was obtained by the reaction of [PbCu(L2;3)]-(ClO4)2 with ZnSO4 4H2O, in the presence of sodium acetate. Other complexes of the CuIIMII type were thermodynamically unstable to cause a scrambling of metal ions. The Cu migration from the iminic site to the aminic site in the synthesis of 10 is explained by the `kinetic macrocyclic effect’. The coordination-position isomers, 6 and 10, are differentiated by physicochemical properties.

  8. Phenolics and Plant Allelopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De-An Jiang

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds arise from the shikimic and acetic acid (polyketide metabolic pathways in plants. They are but one category of the many secondary metabolites implicated in plant allelopathy. Phenolic allelochemicals have been observed in both natural and managed ecosystems, where they cause a number of ecological and economic problems, such as declines in crop yield due to soil sickness, regeneration failure of natural forests, and replanting problems in orchards. Phenolic allelochemical structures and modes of action are diverse and may offer potential lead compounds for the development of future herbicides or pesticides. This article reviews allelopathic effects, analysis methods, and allelopathic mechanisms underlying the activity of plant phenolic compounds. Additionally, the currently debated topic in plant allelopathy of whether catechin and 8-hydroxyquinoline play an important role in Centaurea maculata and Centaurea diffusa invasion success is discussed. Overall, the main purpose of this review is to highlight the allelopacthic potential of phenolic compounds to provide us with methods to solve various ecology problems, especially in regard to the sustainable development of agriculture, forestry, nature resources and environment conservation.

  9. Phenolic Compounds Analysis of Root, Stalk, and Leaves of Nettle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semih Otles

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Types of nettles (Urtica dioica were collected from different regions to analyze phenolic compounds in this research. Nettles are specially grown in the coastal part. According to this kind of properties, nettle samples were collected from coastal part of (Mediterranean, Aegean, Black sea, and Marmara Turkey. Phenolic profile, total phenol compounds, and antioxidant activities of nettle samples were analyzed. Nettles were separated to the part of root, stalk, and leaves. Then, these parts of nettle were analyzed to understand the difference of phenolic compounds and amount of them. Nettle (root, stalk and leaves samples were analyzed by using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Diode-Array Detection (HPLC-DAD to qualitative and quantitative determination of the phenolic compounds. Total phenolic components were measured by using Folin-Ciocalteu method. The antioxidant activity was measured by using DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl which is generally used for herbal samples and based on single electron transfer (SET.

  10. A Product Review of Alternative Oil-Based Intravenous Fat Emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biesboer, Ann N; Stoehr, Nancy A

    2016-10-01

    Soybean oil-based intravenous fat emulsions have long been used as the primary product for delivery of lipid-based calories in parenteral nutrition formulations in the United States. Proinflammatory properties of these products may be related with poor clinical outcomes and have led investigators to develop newer generations of intravenous fat emulsions. These alternative formulations are derivatives of medium-chain triglycerides, olive oil, and fish oil in hopes to reduce the inflammatory response and potentially produce a clinically beneficial anti-inflammatory response. Although surrogate markers support this reduction in inflammatory response, clinical data and outcomes are still limited but potentially promising in the literature. This product review provides a general overview of the alternative-generation intravenous fat emulsion products and the literature supporting the potential transition to such products. PMID:27528126

  11. A Product Review of Alternative Oil-Based Intravenous Fat Emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biesboer, Ann N; Stoehr, Nancy A

    2016-10-01

    Soybean oil-based intravenous fat emulsions have long been used as the primary product for delivery of lipid-based calories in parenteral nutrition formulations in the United States. Proinflammatory properties of these products may be related with poor clinical outcomes and have led investigators to develop newer generations of intravenous fat emulsions. These alternative formulations are derivatives of medium-chain triglycerides, olive oil, and fish oil in hopes to reduce the inflammatory response and potentially produce a clinically beneficial anti-inflammatory response. Although surrogate markers support this reduction in inflammatory response, clinical data and outcomes are still limited but potentially promising in the literature. This product review provides a general overview of the alternative-generation intravenous fat emulsion products and the literature supporting the potential transition to such products.

  12. Report on the Savannah River Site aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel alternatives cost study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Initial estimates of costs for the interim management and disposal of aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel (SNF) were developed during preparation of the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) on the Nuclear Weapons Nonproliferation Policy Concerning Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel. The Task Team evaluated multiple alternatives, assessing programmatic, technical, and schedule risks, and generated life-cycle cost projections for each alternative. The eight technology alternatives evaluated were: direct co-disposal; melt and dilute; reprocessing; press and dilute; glass material oxidation dissolution system (GMODS); electrometallurgical treatment; dissolve and vitrify; and plasma arc. In followup to the Business Plan that was developed to look at SNF dry storage, WSRC prepared an addendum to the cost study. This addendum estimated the costs for the modification and use of an existing (105L) reactor facility versus a greenfield approach for new facilities (for the Direct Co-Disposal and Melt and Dilute alternatives). WSRC assessed the impacts of a delay in reprocessing due to the potential reservation of H-Canyon for other missions (i.e., down blending HEU for commercial use or the conversion of plutonium to either MOX fuel or an immobilized repository disposal form). This report presents the relevant results from these WSRC cost studies, consistent with the most recent project policy, technology implementation, canyon utilization, and inventory assumptions. As this is a summary report, detailed information on the technical alternatives or the cost assumptions raised in each of the above-mentioned cost studies is not provided. A comparison table that briefly describes the bases used for the WSRC analyses is included as Appendix A

  13. Finding theory- and evidence-based alternatives to fear appeals: Intervention Mapping

    OpenAIRE

    Kok, Gerjo; Bartholomew, L Kay; Parcel, Guy S.; Gottlieb, Nell H; Fernández, María E.

    2013-01-01

    Fear arousal—vividly showing people the negative health consequences of life-endangering behaviors—is popular as a method to raise awareness of risk behaviors and to change them into health-promoting behaviors. However, most data suggest that, under conditions of low efficacy, the resulting reaction will be defensive. Instead of applying fear appeals, health promoters should identify effective alternatives to fear arousal by carefully developing theory- and evidence-based programs. The Interv...

  14. Alternative TRUEX-Based Pretreatment Processing of INEEL Sodium Bearing Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapko, Brian M.; Fiskum, Sandra K.; Lumetta, Gregg J.

    2000-09-27

    The goals of this study were to demonstrate a selective complexant for separating mercury from the transuranic (TRU) elements in the transuranic extraction (TRUEX) process and to demonstrate alternative stripping methods to eliminate phosphorus-containing, actinide stripping agents during TRUEX processing. The work described in this report provides the basis for implementing an improved TRUEX-based flowsheet for processing INEEL sodium-bearing waste using only minor modifications to the current Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) flowsheet design.

  15. Play Hard, Work Harder. Alternative Reality Game and Scenario Based Assessments for Learning.

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan, Barry

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, an evaluative case study is detailed as an example of alternative reality game and scenario based assessments for learning. This pedagogic approach is evaluated and recommendations for practice offered. Integrating technology into the assessment process, and final student product, influenced the chosen pedagogy. The use of technology permitted this assessment approach to be adopted for a medium sized (n=40) student cohort. The use of wikis, eportfolios and digital reflective di...

  16. Effects of Substrate Permeation on Kinetics of Phenol Biodegradation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冀秀玲; 张金利; 李Wei; 韩振亭; 王一平

    2003-01-01

    Based on the theory of substrate permeation through the cytoplasmic membrane,and considering the effect of initial concentration of substrate,a new kinetic model of phenol degradation process was proposed,Comparing with the widely used Haldane model,which is greatly dependent on the initial phenol concentration,our model can be used to simulate the phenol degradation process in a wide range of initial phenol concentration by using only one set of model parameters ,Therefore,this new kinetic model has much more potential applications to industrial design and operation.

  17. Bismuth nanoparticles for phenolic compounds biosensing application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayorga-Martinez, Carmen C; Cadevall, Miquel; Guix, Maria; Ros, Josep; Merkoçi, Arben

    2013-02-15

    The rapid determination of trace phenolic compounds is of great importance for evaluating the total toxicity of contaminated water samples. Nowadays, electrochemical tyrosinase (Tyr) based biosensors constitute a promising technology for the in situ monitoring of phenolic compounds because of their advantages such as high selectivity, low production cost, promising response speed, potential for miniaturization, simple instrumentation and easy automatization. A mediator-free amperometric biosensor for phenolic compounds detection based on the combination of bismuth nanoparticles (BiNPs) and Tyr for phenol detections will be hereby reported. This is achieved through the integration of BiNPs/Tyr onto the working electrode of a screen printed electrode (SPE) by using glutaraldehyde as a cross-linking agent. BiNPs/Tyr biosensor is evaluated by amperometric measurements at -200 mV DC and a linear range of up to 71 μM and 100 μM and a correlation coefficient of 0.995 and 0.996 for phenol and catechol, respectively. The very low DC working potential ensures the avoidance of interferences making this biosensor an advantageous device for real sample applications. In addition, the response mechanism including the effect of BiNPs based on electrochemical studies and optical characterizations will be also discussed. The obtained results may open the way to many other BiNPs applications in the biosensing field.

  18. MetaProm: a neural network based meta-predictor for alternative human promoter prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Junwen

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background De novo eukaryotic promoter prediction is important for discovering novel genes and understanding gene regulation. In spite of the great advances made in the past decade, recent studies revealed that the overall performances of the current promoter prediction programs (PPPs are still poor, and predictions made by individual PPPs do not overlap each other. Furthermore, most PPPs are trained and tested on the most-upstream promoters; their performances on alternative promoters have not been assessed. Results In this paper, we evaluate the performances of current major promoter prediction programs (i.e., PSPA, FirstEF, McPromoter, DragonGSF, DragonPF, and FProm using 42,536 distinct human gene promoters on a genome-wide scale, and with emphasis on alternative promoters. We describe an artificial neural network (ANN based meta-predictor program that integrates predictions from the current PPPs and the predicted promoters' relation to CpG islands. Our specific analysis of recently discovered alternative promoters reveals that although only 41% of the 3' most promoters overlap a CpG island, 74% of 5' most promoters overlap a CpG island. Conclusion Our assessment of six PPPs on 1.06 × 109 bps of human genome sequence reveals the specific strengths and weaknesses of individual PPPs. Our meta-predictor outperforms any individual PPP in sensitivity and specificity. Furthermore, we discovered that the 5' alternative promoters are more likely to be associated with a CpG island.

  19. A cell-based in vitro alternative to identify skin sensitizers by gene expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ethical and economic burden associated with animal testing for assessment of skin sensitization has triggered intensive research effort towards development and validation of alternative methods. In addition, new legislation on the registration and use of cosmetics and chemicals promote the use of suitable alternatives for hazard assessment. Our previous studies demonstrated that human CD34+ progenitor-derived dendritic cells from cord blood express specific gene profiles upon exposure to low molecular weight sensitizing chemicals. This paper presents a classification model based on this cell type which is successful in discriminating sensitizing chemicals from non-sensitizing chemicals based on transcriptome analysis of 13 genes. Expression profiles of a set of 10 sensitizers and 11 non-sensitizers were analyzed by RT-PCR using 9 different exposure conditions and a total of 73 donor samples. Based on these data a predictive dichotomous classifier for skin sensitizers has been constructed, which is referred to as . In a first step the dimensionality of the input data was reduced by selectively rejecting a number of exposure conditions and genes. Next, the generalization of a linear classifier was evaluated by a cross-validation which resulted in a prediction performance with a concordance of 89%, a specificity of 97% and a sensitivity of 82%. These results show that the present model may be a useful human in vitro alternative for further use in a test strategy towards the reduction of animal use for skin sensitization

  20. “Quinone Millipedes” Reconsidered: Evidence for a Mosaic-Like Taxonomic Distribution of Phenol-Based Secretions across the Julidae

    OpenAIRE

    Bodner, Michaela; Vagalinski, Boyan; Makarov, Slobodan E.; Antić, Dragan Ž.; Ljubodrag V. Vujisić; Leis, Hans-Jörg; Raspotnig, Günther

    2016-01-01

    The defensive chemistry of juliformian millipedes is characterized mainly by benzoquinones (”quinone millipedes”), whereas the secretions of the putative close outgroup Callipodida are considered to be exclusively phenolic. We conducted a chemical screening of julid secretions for phenolic content. Most species from tribes Cylindroiulini (15 species examined), Brachyiulini (5 species examined), Leptoiulini (15 species examined), Uncigerini (2 species examined), Pachyiulini (3 species examined...

  1. Investigations into Alternative Desorption Agents for Amidoxime-Based Polymeric Uranium Adsorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gill, Gary A.; Kuo, Li-Jung; Strivens, Jonathan E.; Wood, Jordana R.; Wai, Chien; Pan, Horng-Bin

    2015-06-15

    Amidoxime-based polymeric braid adsorbents that can extract uranium (U) from seawater are being developed to provide a sustainable supply of fuel for nuclear reactors. A critical step in the development of the technology is to develop elution procedures to selectively remove U from the adsorbents and to do so in a manner that allows the adsorbent material to be reused. This study investigates use of high concentrations of bicarbonate along with targeted chelating agents as an alternative means to the mild acid elution procedures currently in use for selectively eluting uranium from amidoxime-based polymeric adsorbents.

  2. Investigations into Alternative Desorption Agents for Amidoxime-Based Polymeric Uranium Adsorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gill, Gary A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kuo, Li-Jung [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Strivens, Jonathan E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wood, Jordana R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wai, Chien [LCW Supercritical Technologies, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States); Pan, Horng-Bin [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Amidoxime-based polymeric braid adsorbents that can extract uranium (U) from seawater are being developed to provide a sustainable supply of fuel for nuclear reactors. A critical step in the development of the technology is to develop elution procedures to selectively remove U from the adsorbents and to do so in a manner that allows the adsorbent material to be reused. This study investigates use of high concentrations of bicarbonate along with targeted chelating agents as an alternative means to the mild acid elution procedures currently in use for selectively eluting uranium from amidoxime-based polymeric adsorbents.

  3. Alternate transmission relaying based on interference alignment in 3-relay half-duplex MIMO systems

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Seongho

    2012-09-01

    In a half-duplex relaying, the capacity pre-log factor 1/2 is a major drawback in spectral efficiency. This paper proposes a linear precoding/decoding scheme and an alternate relaying protocol in a dual-hop half-duplex system where three relays help the communication between the source and the destination. In our proposed scheme, we consider a phase incoherent method in relays in which the source alternately transmits message signals to the different relays. In addition, we propose a linear interference alignment scheme which can suppress the inter-relay interference resulting from the phase incoherence of relaying. Based on our analysis of degrees of freedom and our simulation results, we show that our proposed scheme achieves additional degrees of freedom compared to the conventional half-duplex relaying. © 2012 IEEE.

  4. High reliable and stable organic field-effect transistor nonvolatile memory with a poly(4-vinyl phenol) charge trapping layer based on a pn-heterojunction active layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Lanyi; Ying, Jun; Han, Jinhua; Zhang, Letian; Wang, Wei

    2016-04-01

    In this letter, we demonstrate a high reliable and stable organic field-effect transistor (OFET) based nonvolatile memory (NVM) with a polymer poly(4-vinyl phenol) (PVP) as the charge trapping layer. In the unipolar OFETs, the inreversible shifts of the turn-on voltage (Von) and severe degradation of the memory window (ΔVon) at programming (P) and erasing (E) voltages, respectively, block their application in NVMs. The obstacle is overcome by using a pn-heterojunction as the active layer in the OFET memory, which supplied a holes and electrons accumulating channel at the supplied P and E voltages, respectively. Both holes and electrons transferring from the channels to PVP layer and overwriting the trapped charges with an opposite polarity result in the reliable bidirectional shifts of Von at P and E voltages, respectively. The heterojunction OFET exhibits excellent nonvolatile memory characteristics, with a large ΔVon of 8.5 V, desired reading (R) voltage at 0 V, reliable P/R/E/R dynamic endurance over 100 cycles and a long retention time over 10 years.

  5. Selective and sensitive optical chemosensor for detection of Ag(I) ions based on 2(4-hydroxy pent-3-en-2-ylideneamine) phenol in aqueous samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, Mohammad; Saeed, Jaber

    2011-11-01

    A selective and sensitive chemosensor, based on the 2(4-hydroxy pent-3-en-2-ylideneamine) phenol (HPYAP) as chromophore, has been developed for colorimetric and visual detection of Ag(I) ions. HPYAP shows a considerable chromogenic behavior toward Ag(I) ions by changing the color of the solution from pale-yellow to very chromatic-yellow, which can be easily detected with the naked-eye. The chemosensor exhibited selective absorbance enhancement to Ag(I) ions in water samples over other metal ions at 438 nm, with a linear range of 0.4-500 μM (r(2)=0.999) and a limit of detection 0.07 μM of Ag(I) ions with UV-vis spectrophotometer detection. The relative standard deviation (RSD) for 100 μM Ag(I) ions was 2.05% (n=7). The proposed method was applied for the determination Ag(I) ions in water and waste water samples.

  6. First web-based database on total phenolics and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) of fruits produced and consumed within the south Andes region of South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speisky, Hernan; López-Alarcón, Camilo; Gómez, Maritza; Fuentes, Jocelyn; Sandoval-Acuña, Cristian

    2012-09-12

    This paper reports the first database on antioxidants contained in fruits produced and consumed within the south Andes region of South America. The database ( www.portalantioxidantes.com ) contains over 500 total phenolics (TP) and ORAC values for more than 120 species/varieties of fruits. All analyses were conducted by a single ISO/IEC 17025-certified laboratory. The characterization comprised native berries such as maqui ( Aristotelia chilensis ), murtilla ( Ugni molinae ), and calafate ( Barberis microphylla ), which largely outscored all other studied fruits. Major differences in TP and ORAC were observed as a function of the fruit variety in berries, avocado, cherries, and apples. In fruits such as pears, apples, apricots, and peaches, a significant part of the TP and ORAC was accounted for by the antioxidants present in the peel. These data should be useful to estimate the fruit-based intake of TP and, through the ORAC data, their antioxidant-related contribution to the diet of south Andes populations. PMID:22512599

  7. Evaluation of alternatives for microalgae oil extraction based on exergy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Exergy analysis was used as decision-making tool for evaluation of microalgae oil extraction. ► A robust composition of Chlorella sp. biomass was modeled and used for simulation. ► Three solvent-based microalgae oil extraction methods at large scale were compared. ► Hexane based extraction presented the highest exergetic efficiency. -- Abstract: Several technologies for microalgae oil extraction are being evaluated in order to find the most adequate for large scale microalgae processing. In this work, exergy analysis was used as an instrument for screening three design alternatives for microalgae oil extraction in a large-scale process and as a decision-making tool for evaluation and selection of novel technologies from the energy point of view. Routes were simulated using dedicated industrial process simulation software, taking as feedstock a representative and robust modeled composition of Chlorella sp. microalgae biomass. Mass, energy and exergy balances were performed for each alternative, and physical and chemical exergies of streams and all specific microalgae constituents modeled were calculated with the help of the thermodynamic properties of biomass components and operating conditions of streams. Exergetic efficiencies, total process irreversibilities, energy consumption and exergy destruction were calculated for all solvent-based microalgae oil extraction pathways evaluated. It was shown that exergy analysis led to identify the hexane-based oil extraction (HBE) as the most adequate alternative of the routes assessed for scaling up from the energy point of view, presenting a maximum exergy efficiency of 51% and exergetic losses of 982,000 MJ considering a production of 104,000 t of microalgae oil per year.

  8. METHODS OF REDUCTION OF FREE PHENOL CONTENT IN PHENOLIC FOAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruyako Mikhail Gerasimovich

    2012-12-01

    method aimed at reduction of toxicity of phenolic foams consists in the introduction of a composite mixture of chelate compounds. Raw materials applied in the production of phenolic foams include polymers FRB-1A and VAG-3. The aforementioned materials are used to produce foams FRP-1. Introduction of 1% aluminum fluoride leads to the 40% reduction of the free phenol content in the foam. Introduction of crystalline zinc chloride accelerates the foaming and curing of phenolic foams. The technology that contemplates the introduction of zeolites into the mixture includes pre-mixing with FRB -1A and subsequent mixing with VAG-3; thereafter, the composition is poured into the form, in which the process of foaming is initiated. The content of free phenol was identified using the method of UV spectroscopy. The objective of the research was to develop methods of reduction of the free phenol content in the phenolic foam.

  9. Development of Alternative Power Industry Based on Nanotechnologies: Forecast Effects for Russian Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inshakova Elena Ivanovna

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aspiration of countries to achieve sustainable economic growth by reducing the energy dependence of the main suppliers of energy resources and by increasing national energy security induces in the conditions of increasing competition between participants in the global energy market the necessity to intensify the use of internal development resources, including the introduction of energy-saving technologies and development of alternative power industry. The urgency of the problems of international competitiveness achievement based on the energy security strengthening, solution of which largely determines the directions of the energy sector development, is increasingly recognized in many countries, including Russia. Timeliness of preparation to the use of substitute innovative energy resources and energy sources, while the traditional fossil fuels are dwindling, is marked as one of the most important principles of the state policy of Russia. All these factors update the development of domestic alternative energy in accordance with the megatrends of the world energy sector. The prospects for the development of modern energy, especially alternative, are associated by many experts with the use of nanotechnologies and nanomaterials. Nanotechnologies contribute to the new opportunities for the use of renewable energy sources and a significant contribution to the production and conservation of energy. The main directions of the effective use of nanotechnologies in the energy sector are: the use of renewable sources; energy storage; reducing the consumption of materials; the use of alternative materials. On the example of the world and Russian practice of nanotechnologies and nanomaterials use in the sphere of wind and solar energy the basic effects of their application, important for the development of alternative energy and of the Russian national economy as a whole, are identified in the article. The most important effects include strengthening

  10. Characterizing Spatial Dynamics of Bifurcation to Alternans in Isolated Whole Rabbit Hearts Based on Alternate Pacing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanchan Kulkarni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sudden cardiac death instigated by ventricular fibrillation (VF is the largest cause of natural death in the USA. Alternans, a beat-to-beat alternation in the action potential duration, has been implicated as being proarrhythmic. The onset of alternans is mediated via a bifurcation, which may occur through either a smooth or a border-collision mechanism. The objective of this study was to characterize the mechanism of bifurcation to alternans based on experiments in isolated whole rabbit hearts. High resolution optical mapping was performed and the electrical activity was recorded from the left ventricle (LV epicardial surface of the heart. Each heart was paced using an “alternate pacing protocol,” where the basic cycle length (BCL was alternatively perturbed by ±δ. Local onset of alternans in the heart, BCLstart, was measured in the absence of perturbations (δ=0 and was defined as the BCL at which 10% of LV exhibited alternans. The influences of perturbation size were investigated at two BCLs: one prior to BCLstart (BCLprior=BCLstart+20 ms and one preceding BCLprior (BCLfar=BCLstart+40 ms. Our results demonstrate significant spatial correlation of the region exhibiting alternans with smooth bifurcation characteristics, indicating that transition to alternans in isolated rabbit hearts occurs predominantly through smooth bifurcation.

  11. Alternative Node Based Energy Depletion and Expected Residual Lifetime Balancing Method for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuradha Banerjee

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A mobile ad hoc network is an infrastructure less network, where nodes are free to move independently in any direction. The nodes have limited battery power; hence we require efficient balancing techniques (energy depletion or expected residual lifetime, whichever is applicable under specific circumstances to reduce overload on the nodes, wherever possible, to enhance their lifetime and network performance. This kind of balance among network nodes increase the average lifetime of nodes and reduce the phenomenon of network partitioning due to excessive exhaustion of nodes. In this paper, we propose an alternative-node based balancing method (ANB that channels the forwarding load of a node to some other less exhausted alternative node provided that alternative node is capable of handling the extra load. This greatly reduces the number of link breakages and also the number of route-requests flooded in the network to repair the broken links. This, in turn, improves the data packet delivery ratio of the underlying routing protocol as well as average node lifetime.

  12. Infrared thermography based defect detection in ferromagnetic specimens using a low frequency alternating magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahiri, B. B.; Bagavathiappan, S.; Soumya, C.; Mahendran, V.; Pillai, V. P. M.; Philip, John; Jayakumar, T.

    2014-05-01

    A new active infrared thermography based technique is proposed for defect detection in ferromagnetic specimens using a low frequency alternating magnetic field induced heating. The test specimens (four mild steel specimens with artificial rectangular slots of 8.0, 5.0, 3.3 and 3.0 mm depths) are magnetized using a low frequency alternating magnetic field and by using an infrared camera, the surface temperature is remotely monitored in real time. An alternating magnetic field induces an eddy current in the specimen which increases the specimen temperature due to the Joule's heating. The experimental results show a thermal contrast in the defective region that decays exponentially with the defect depth. The observed thermal contrast is attributed to the reduction in induction heating due to the leakage of magnetic flux caused by magnetic permeability gradient in the defective region. The proposed technique is suitable for rapid non-contact wide area inspection of ferromagnetic materials and offers several advantages over the conventional active thermography techniques like fast direct heating, no frequency optimization, no dependence on the surface absorption coefficient and penetration depth.

  13. Microporosity development in phenolic resin-based mesoporous carbons for enhancing CO2 adsorption at ambient conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choma, Jerzy; Jedynak, Katarzyna; Fahrenholz, Weronika; Ludwinowicz, Jowita; Jaroniec, Mietek

    2014-01-01

    Soft-templating method was used to prepare mesoporous carbons. The synthesis in the presence of hydrochloric and citric acids involved resorcinol and formaldehyde as carbon precursors and triblock copolymer Pluronic F127 as a template. The as-synthesized samples underwent carbonization in flowing nitrogen at various temperatures; namely 600 °C, 700 °C and 800 °C. Two routes were used to develop microporosity in the mesoporous carbons studied. The first one involved introduction of tetraethyl orthosilicate to the reaction system. After silica dissolution with NaOH, an increase in microporosity was observed. The second method, chemical activation with KOH at 700 °C, was explored as an alternative approach to create microporosity. It is noteworthy that the TEOS addition not only led to the development of microporosity but also to some improvement of mesoporosity. The post-synthesis KOH activation resulted in more significant increase in the microporosity as compared to the samples obtained by TEOS-assisted synthesis. The mesopore volume was somewhat lower for activated carbons as compared to that in mesoporous carbons. Both methods resulted in micro-mesoporous carbons with good adsorption properties; for instance, in the case of carbons prepared in the presence of TEOS, the best sample exhibited BET surface area of 1463 m2/g and the total pore volume of 1.31 cm3/g. For the KOH activated carbons the best adsorption parameters were as follows: the specific surface area = 1906 m2/g, and the total pore volume = 0.98 cm3/g. Both procedures used for microporosity development afforded carbons with good adsorption properties that can be useful for applications such as CO2 adsorption, air and water purification.

  14. Stability Analysis of Ranking Alternatives Based on Subjective and Objective Weight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Yan; ZUO Bao-he; YUE Chao-yuan

    2002-01-01

    Weights of criteria are used to assess the relative importance of the different criteria in multicriteria analysis, which can influence ranking result more or less depending on the multicriteria decisionmaking method used. In this paper, the influences of alternatives' ranking result associated with the change of weight are discussed by making use of the concept of weight stability intervals based on subjective and objective integrated weighting approach. Meamwhile, A model of weight proportion stability intervals is proposed. a numeral example is used to illuminate how many increment of objective weight can change the ranking results determined by subjective weight.

  15. Alternating Laser Excitation for Solution-Based Single-Molecule FRET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapanidis, Achillefs; Majumdar, Devdoot; Heilemann, Mike; Nir, Eyal; Weiss, Shimon

    2015-11-01

    Single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer (smFRET) has been widely applied to the study of fluorescently labeled biomolecules on surfaces and in solution. Sorting single molecules based on fluorescent dye stoichiometry provides one with further layers of information and also enables "filtering" of unwanted molecules from the analysis. We accomplish this sorting by using alternating laser excitation (ALEX) in combination with smFRET measurements; here we describe the implementation of these methodologies for the study of biomolecules in solution. PMID:26527772

  16. Alternate site infusion: the physician-directed, office-based model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tice, A D

    1996-01-01

    The physician-directed, clinic-based system for alternate site infusion therapy offers the advantages of easy communication and integrated decision making through the close teamwork and particular expertise of the nurse, physician, and pharmacist. With this system, any type of delivery model for home or outpatient IV antibiotic can be administered safely and efficiently. Through the involvement of the physician, it is easy to do clinical outcomes studies and develop bundling of services for risk-sharing contracts under managed care. PMID:8852176

  17. Sequestration of phosphorus from wastewater by cement-based or alternative cementitious materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinjun; Chen, Jiding; Kong, Yaping; Shi, Xianming

    2014-10-01

    Cement-based and alternative cementitious materials were tested in the laboratory for their capability of removing phosphate from wastewater. The results demonstrated that both Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms were suitable for describing the adsorption characteristics of these materials. Among the four types of filter media tested, the cement-based mortar A has the highest value of maximum adsorption (30.96 mg g(-1)). The P-bonding energy (KL) and adsorption capacity (K) exhibited a positive correlation with the total content of Al2O3 and Fe2O3 in each mortar. The maximum amount of P adsorbed (Qm) and adsorption intensity (1/n) exhibited a positive correlation with the CaO content in each mortar. For three of them, the P-removal rates were in excess of 94 percent for phosphorus concentrations ranging from 20 to 1000 mg L(-1). The underlying mechanisms were examined using field emission scanning microscopy (FESEM), coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). The results reveal that the removal of phosphate predominantly followed a precipitation mechanism in addition to weak physical interactions between the surface of adsorbent filter media and the metallic salts of phosphate. The use of cement-based or alternative cementitious materials in the form of ground powder shows great promise for developing a cost-effective and environmentally sustainable technology for P-sequestration and for wastewater treatment.

  18. Phenolic Compounds in Brassica Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Velasco

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds are a large group of phytochemicals widespread in the plant kingdom. Depending on their structure they can be classified into simple phenols, phenolic acids, hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and flavonoids. Phenolic compounds have received considerable attention for being potentially protective factors against cancer and heart diseases, in part because of their potent antioxidative properties and their ubiquity in a wide range of commonly consumed foods of plant origin. The Brassicaceae family includes a wide range of horticultural crops, some of them with economic significance and extensively used in the diet throughout the world. The phenolic composition of Brassica vegetables has been recently investigated and, nowadays, the profile of different Brassica species is well established. Here, we review the significance of phenolic compounds as a source of beneficial compounds for human health and the influence of environmental conditions and processing mechanisms on the phenolic composition of Brassica vegetables.

  19. Complementary and Alternative Medicine and Cardiovascular Disease: An Evidence-Based Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Rabito

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM plays a significant role in many aspects of healthcare worldwide, including cardiovascular disease (CVD. This review describes some of the challenges of CAM in terms of scientific research. Biologically-based therapies, mind-body therapies, manipulative and body-based therapies, whole medical systems, and energy medicine are reviewed in detail with regard to cardiovascular risk factors and mediation or modulation of cardiovascular disease pathogenesis. CAM use among patients with CVD is prevalent and in many instances provides positive and significant effects, with biologically-based and mind-body therapies being the most commonly used treatment modalities. More rigorous research to determine the precise physiologic effects and long-term benefits on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality with CAM usage, as well as more open lines of communication between patients and physicians regarding CAM use, is essential when determining optimal treatment plans.

  20. Turnover capacity of Coprinus cinereus peroxidase for phenol and monosubstituted phenols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aitken, M.D.; Heck, P.E. [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    1998-05-01

    Coprinus cinereus peroxidase (CIP) and other peroxidases are susceptible to mechanism-based inactivation during the oxidation of phenolic substrates. The turnover capacity of CIP was quantified for phenol and 11 monosubstituted phenols under conditions in which enzyme inactivation by mechanisms involving hydrogen peroxide alone were minimized. Turnover capacities varied by nearly 2 orders of magnitude, depending on the substituent. On a mass basis, the enzyme consumption corresponding to the lowest turnover capacities is considerable and may influence the economic feasibility of proposed industrial applications of peroxidases. Within a range of substituent electronegativity values, molar turnover capacities correlated well (r{sup 2} = 0.89) with substituent effects quantified by radical {sigma} values and semiquantitatively with homolytic O-H bond dissociation energies of the phenolic substrates, suggesting that phenoxyl radical intermediates are probably involved in the suicide inactivation of CIP. The correlation range in each case did not include phenols with highly electron-withdrawing (nitro and cyano) substituents because they are not oxidized by CIP, nor phenols with highly electron-donating (hydroxy and amino) substituents because they led to virtually complete inactivation of the enzyme with minimal substrate removal.

  1. Paraplegia after intercostal neurolysis with phenol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gollapalli L

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Lakshman Gollapalli, Rudramanaidu Muppuri Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Wayne State University/Detroit Medical Center, Detroit, MI, USA Abstract: In patients with advanced stages of cancer, severe pain is commonly encountered and is very difficult to treat. It affects the quality of life of the patient and the families involved. Pain can be managed using analgesics and adjuvant therapy. However, studies have shown that at least 10%–15% of patients fail to control pain adequately and will experience severe pain. We discuss the case of a 66-year-old female with metastatic adenoid cystic carcinoma of the left submandibular gland and developed paraplegia following intercostal neurolysis with phenol. After a successful diagnostic T6 to T12 intercostal nerve block, the patient was scheduled for an intercostal neurolytic block. We injected 2 mL of 10% aqueous phenol at each level on the left from the T6 to T12 ribs. One hour after the procedure, the patient developed bilateral lower extremity weakness with difficulty moving. A physical examination showed the absence of sensation to pinpricks and vibration from T10 to S5 and an absence of anal sphincter tone and sensation. Magnetic resonance images of the thoracic and lumbar spine showed leptomeningeal metastatic disease and myelitis. We postulate that the paraplegia could be from phenol diffusing along either the spinal nerves or the paravertebral venous plexus into the subarachnoid space. This case report points to the risks involved with phenol neurolysis close to the spine, and we propose alternative methods to minimize neurological complications. Keywords: intercostal neurolysis, pain, phenol, paraplegia 

  2. Effectiveness of Phenolic Compounds against Citrus Green Mould

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona M. Sanzani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Stored citrus fruit suffer huge losses because of the development of green mould caused by Penicillium digitatum. Usually synthetic fungicides are employed to control this disease, but their use is facing some obstacles, such public concern about possible adverse effects on human and environmental health and the development of resistant pathogen populations. In the present study quercetin, scopoletin and scoparone—phenolic compounds present in several agricultural commodities and associated with response to stresses—were firstly tested in vitro against P. digitatum and then applied in vivo on oranges cv. Navelina. Fruits were wound-treated (100 µg, pathogen-inoculated, stored and surveyed for disease incidence and severity. Although only a minor (≤13% control effect on P. digitatum growth was recorded in vitro, the in vivo trial results were encouraging. In fact, on phenolic-treated oranges, symptoms appeared at 6 days post-inoculation (DPI, i.e., with a 2 day-delay as compared to the untreated control. Moreover, at 8 DPI, quercetin, scopoletin, and scoparone significantly reduced disease incidence and severity by 69%–40% and 85%–70%, respectively, as compared to the control. At 14 DPI, scoparone was the most active molecule. Based on the results, these compounds might represent an interesting alternative to synthetic fungicides.

  3. Well-To-Wheel based fiscal systems. Can a WTW fiscal basis accelerate the introduction of alternative fuels?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report explores to which extent alternative, (partially) Well-To-Wheel based fiscal systems may accelerate the introduction of low-carbon fuels and vehicles. The design of two alternative fiscal systems is described, as well as the challenges that any fiscal system must meet. The alternative systems are compared to the existing fiscal system with regard to (1) the extent to which they honour the 'polluter pays' principle, (2) the extent to which they are expected to accelerate the introduction of (alternative) gaseous fuels, liquid biofuels, and zero-emission vehicles, (3) their expected impact on the vehicle stock, and (4) a number of (undesired) side-effects. The results show that the alternative systems provide a stronger fiscal support for some alternative fuels and vehicles, but not for all.

  4. Enhancing Phenolic Contents and Antioxidant Potentials of Antidesma thwaitesianum by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Warut Poontawee; Surapol Natakankitkul; Orawan Wongmekiat

    2015-01-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) has increasingly gained attention as an alternative technique for extraction of natural products without leaving toxic residues in extracts. Antidesma thwaitesianum Muell. Arg. (Phyllanthaceae), or ma mao, has been reported to exhibit antioxidant health benefits due to its phenolic constituents. To determine whether SFE technique could impact on phenolic contents and associated antioxidant potentials, ripe fruits of Antidesma thwaitesianum (Phyllanthaceae)...

  5. Evaluation of tri-n-octylamine oxide as phenol extractant in a solvent impregnated resin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burghoff, B.; Cuypers, R.; Ettinger, van M.; Sudhölter, E.J.R.; Zuilhof, H.; Haan, de A.B.

    2009-01-01

    Tri-n-ocytlamine oxide (TOAO) is evaluated as alternative to the state-of-the-art phenol extractants tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO) and Cyanex 923. Liquid¿liquid equilibrium experiments show that TOAO in 1,3-dimethylnaphthalene achieves higher phenol distribution coefficients in an extractant con

  6. 68Ga-PET radiopharmacy: A generator-based alternative to 18F-radiopharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maecke, H R; André, J P

    2007-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is becoming a dominating method in the field of molecular imaging. Most commonly used radionuclides are accelerator produced 11C and 18F. An alternative method to label biomolecules is the use of metallic positron emitters; among them 68Ga is the most promising as it can be produced from a generator system consisting of an inorganic or organic matrix immobilizing the parent radionuclide 68Ge. Germanium-68 has a long half-life of 271 days which allows the production of long-lived, potentially very cost-effective generator systems. A commercial generator from Obninsk, Russia, is available which uses TiO2 as an inorganic matrix to immobilize 68Ge in the oxidation state IV+. 68Ge(IV) is chemically sufficiently different to allow efficient separation from 68Ga(III). Ga3+ is redox-inert; its coordination chemistry is dominated by its hard acid character. A variety of mono- and bifunctional chelators were developed which allow immobilization of 68Ga3+ and convenient coupling to biomolecules. Especially peptides targeting G-protein coupled receptors overexpressed on human tumour cells have been studied preclinically and in patient studies showing high and specific tumour uptake and specific localization. 68Ga-radiopharmacy may indeed be an alternative to 18F-based radiopharmacy. Freeze-dried, kit-formulated precursors along with the generator may be provided, similar to the 99Mo/99mTc-based radiopharmacy, still the mainstay of nuclear medicine. PMID:17172157

  7. A MILP-based flux alternative generation and NMR experimental design strategy for metabolic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phalakornkule, C; Lee, S; Zhu, T; Koepsel, R; Ataai, M M; Grossmann, I E; Domach, M M

    2001-04-01

    A mixed-integer linear program (MILP) is described that can enumerate all the ways fluxes can distribute in a metabolic network while still satisfying the same constraints and objective function. The multiple solutions can be used to (1) generate alternative flux scenarios that can account for limited experimental observations, (2) forecast the potential responses to mutation (e.g., new reaction pathways may be used), and (3) (as illustrated) design (13)C NMR experiments such that different potential flux patterns in a mutant can be distinguished. The experimental design is enabled by using the MILP results as an input to an isotopomer mapping matrices (IMM)-based program, which accounts for the network circulation of (13)C from a precursor such as glucose. The IMM-based program can interface to common plotting programs with the result that the user is provided with predicted NMR spectra that are complete with splittings and Lorentzian line-shape features. The example considered is the trafficking of carbon in an Escherichia coli mutant, which has pyruvate kinase activity deleted for the purpose of eliminating acetate production. Similar yields and extracellular measurements would be manifested by the flux alternatives. The MILP-IMM results suggest how NMR experiments can be designed such that the spectra of glutamate for two flux distribution scenarios differ significantly.

  8. MSWT-01, an alternative in combining Production Based Education (PBE) and student CSR program in Polman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananto, Gamawan; Setiawan, Albertus B.; Z, Darman M.

    2014-06-01

    MSWT-01, Mobile Surface Water Treatment, producing 1m3 per hour, is an alternative for providing clean water in flood disaster areas, and was developed at Bandung State Polytechnic for Manufacturing (Polman) as a part of institution research project. The combination of cartridge or membrane technology such as carbon block, MF, UF and filtration media is used for this machine, instead of coagulation-flocculation with chemical addition, due to emergency purposes related with its treatment processing time. The idea is that MSWT could be combined with Production Based Education (PBE) concept in Polman as a vocational education institution and students 'CSR', students social activities. With the number of implementation trials in real flood area condition, MSWT will be developed further based on the technical output result. The manufacturing process for improving or adding necessary features could be implemented as a student's project in PBE system. This might be an ideal combination alternative for such vocational institution that students get the product media for their PBE program and implement their work as a defined social activity. They will learn and experience related technical matters and more social interactions with the people and other disaster stakeholder as well.

  9. Planning Support Systems (PSS-Based Spatial Plan Alternatives and Environmental Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Sun Choi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Spatial planning is at the core of national land and urban development. Many countries and cities seek sustainable development through various means such as coordinated environmental planning, environmental assessment, and internalization of environmental analysis and planning. A Planning Support System (PSS is a GIS (Geographic Information System-based, spatial decision-making support system that incorporates a variety of theories and pertinent models. This study adopted the “What if?” model to design an alternative spatial plan that includes generation of predictive scenarios and is relatively easy to use. In the cities studied, we identified a total of six scenarios based on the main drivers of development—namely, population and spatial policies. Subsequently, we assessed the alternatives for their environmental impact, preparing sensitivity maps for each major environmental issue in the target area (natural ecosystem, air and microclimate, natural disasters. One projected advantage of the “What if?” model is that its digital visualization of proposed plans may improve public awareness and involvement. Furthermore, the tool is expected to be highly useful in ensuring the objectivity of quantitative analyses. However, it is necessary to develop a PSS that is both standardized and tailored to the particular needs of each area. Finally, the development of an e-governance system will be beneficial in ensuring public access to the decision making process.

  10. USING COMPUTER-BASED TESTING AS ALTERNATIVE ASSESSMENT METHOD OF STUDENT LEARNING IN DISTANCE EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalia SAPRIATI

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the use of computer-based testing in distance education, based on the experience of Universitas Terbuka (UT, Indonesia. Computer-based testing has been developed at UT for reasons of meeting the specific needs of distance students as the following: Ø students’ inability to sit for the scheduled test, Ø conflicting test schedules, and Ø students’ flexibility to take examination to improve their grades. In 2004, UT initiated a pilot project in the development of system and program for computer-based testing method. Then in 2005 and 2006 tryouts in the use of computer-based testing methods were conducted in 7 Regional Offices that were considered as having sufficient supporting recourses. The results of the tryouts revealed that students were enthusiastic in taking computer-based tests and they expected that the test method would be provided by UT as alternative to the traditional paper and pencil test method. UT then implemented computer-based testing method in 6 and 12 Regional Offices in 2007 and 2008 respectively. The computer-based testing was administered in the city of the designated Regional Office and was supervised by the Regional Office staff. The development of the computer-based testing was initiated with conducting tests using computers in networked configuration. The system has been continually improved, and it currently uses devices linked to the internet or the World Wide Web. The construction of the test involves the generation and selection of the test items from the item bank collection of the UT Examination Center. Thus the combination of the selected items compromises the test specification. Currently UT has offered 250 courses involving the use of computer-based testing. Students expect that more courses are offered with computer-based testing in Regional Offices within easy access by students.

  11. Fully bio-based epoxy resins

    OpenAIRE

    Ertl, Johanna

    2015-01-01

    Epoxy resins are mainly produced by reacting bisphenol A with epichlorohydrin. Growing concerns about the negative health effects of bisphenol A are urging researchers to find alternatives. In this work diphenolic acid is suggested, as it derives from levulinic acid, obtained from renewable resources. Nevertheless, it is also synthesized from phenol, from fossil resources, which, in the current paper has been substituted by plant-based phenols. Two interesting derivatives were identified: dip...

  12. Evaluation of antioxidant potential and HPLC based identification of phenolics in Polygonum amplexicaule extract and its fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batool, Salma; Gulfraz, Muhammad; Akram, Abida; Naqvi, Sm Saqlan; Haq, Ihsanul; Mirza, Bushra; Ahmad, M Sheeraz

    2015-03-01

    There is a growing interest for the plant-based medicines in pharmaceutical industry. Plant derived Antioxidants have gained huge importance regarding their medicinal value. The present study was designed to establish pharmaceutical value of Polygonum amplexicaule for their antioxidant activity using shoot, leaf and rhizome crude methanolic extract along with their n-butanolic, ethanolic, ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions. DPPH assay was used to assess antioxidants, which shows the maximum activity by crude methanolic extract of leaves (CMEL) having IC(50) 1.03 μg/ml where all other fractions showed IC(50) in a range of 1.03-58.2 μg/mL. The DNA plasmid protection assay showed that 10 ppm and 100 ppm concentrations of crude methanolic extracts (rhizome and leaf), aqueous fractions (shoot and leaf extract), n-butanolic fractions (shoot and leaf extract) and ethanolic fraction (rhizome extract) have DNA protection properties. TLC and HPLC based Identification of different antioxidants present in shoot, leaf and rhizome crude extracts and their fractions showed the presence of gallic acid, quercetin, catechin, caffeic acid, rutin, myricetin and kaempferol. This study suggested that this plant have high content of antioxidants, which needs to be investigated further for their medicinal and/cosmaceutical applications. PMID:25730800

  13. Fabrication of an Amperometric Flow-Injection Microfluidic Biosensor Based on Laccase for In Situ Determination of Phenolic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan C. Gonzalez-Rivera

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We aim to develop an in situ microfluidic biosensor based on laccase from Trametes pubescens with flow-injection and amperometry as the transducer method. The enzyme was directly immobilized by potential step chronoamperometry, and the immobilization was studied using cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The electrode response by amperometry was probed using ABTS and syringaldazine. A shift of interfacial electron transfer resistance and the electron transfer rate constant from 18.1 kΩ to 3.9 MΩ and 4.6 × 10−2 cm s−1 to 2.1 × 10−4 cm s−1, respectively, evidenced that laccase was immobilized on the electrode by the proposed method. We established the optimum operating conditions of temperature (55°C, pH (4.5, injection flow rate (200 µL min−1, and applied potential (0.4 V. Finally, the microfluidic biosensor showed better lower limit of detection (0.149 µM and sensitivity (0.2341 nA µM−1 for ABTS than previous laccase-based biosensors and the in situ operation capacity.

  14. Naturally occurring nanoparticles from English ivy: an alternative to metal-based nanoparticles for UV protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Zhili

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the last decade safety concerns have arisen about the use of metal-based nanoparticles in the cosmetics field. Metal-based nanoparticles have been linked to both environmental and animal toxicity in a variety of studies. Perhaps the greatest concern involves the large amounts of TiO2 nanoparticles that are used in commercial sunscreens. As an alternative to using these potentially hazardous metal-based nanoparticles, we have isolated organic nanoparticles from English ivy (Hedera helix. In this study, ivy nanoparticles were evaluated for their potential use in sunscreens based on four criteria: 1 ability to absorb and scatter ultraviolet light, 2 toxicity to mammalian cells, 3 biodegradability, and 4 potential for diffusion through skin. Results Purified ivy nanoparticles were first tested for their UV protective effects using a standard spectrophotometric assay. Next the cell toxicity of the ivy nanoparticles was compared to TiO2 nanoparticles using HeLa cells. The biodegradability of these nanoparticles was also determined through several digestion techniques. Finally, a mathematical model was developed to determine the potential for ivy nanoparticles to penetrate through human skin. The results indicated that the ivy nanoparticles were more efficient in blocking UV light, less toxic to mammalian cells, easily biodegradable, and had a limited potential to penetrate through human skin. When compared to TiO2 nanoparticles, the ivy nanoparticles showed decreased cell toxicity, and were easily degradable, indicating that they provided a safer alternative to these nanoparticles. Conclusions With the data collected from this study, we have demonstrated the great potential of ivy nanoparticles as a sunscreen protective agent, and their increased safety over commonly used metal oxide nanoparticles.

  15. Production of bio-based phenolic resin and activated carbon from bio-oil and biochar derived from fast pyrolysis of palm kernel shells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Gyung-Goo; Oh, Seung-Jin; Lee, Soon-Jang; Kim, Joo-Sik

    2015-02-01

    A fraction of palm kernel shells (PKS) was pyrolyzed in a fluidized bed reactor. The experiments were performed in a temperature range of 479-555 °C to produce bio-oil, biochar, and gas. All the bio-oils were analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively by GC-FID and GC-MS. The maximum content of phenolic compounds in the bio-oil was 24.8 wt.% at ∼500 °C. The maximum phenol content in the bio-oil, as determined by the external standard method, was 8.1 wt.%. A bio-oil derived from the pyrolysis of PKS was used in the synthesis of phenolic resin, showing that the bio-oil could substitute for fossil phenol up to 25 wt.%. The biochar was activated using CO2 at a final activation temperature of 900 °C with different activation time (1-3 h) to produce activated carbon. Activated carbons produced were microporous, and the maximum surface area of the activated carbons produced was 807 m(2)/g.

  16. Bioassay-based isolation and identification of phenolics from sweet cherry that promote active glucose consumption by HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jinping; Li, Xin; Liu, Yunxi; Leng, Feng; Li, Xian; Sun, Chongde; Chen, Kunsong

    2015-02-01

    A variety of phenolics had been found to be functional in promoting cellular glucose consumption that is important for blood glucose regulation. Sweet cherry (Prunus avium) is rich in such kinds of phenolics, including hydrocinnamic acids, anthocyanins, flavonols, and flavan-3-ols. Furthermore, a sweet cherry phenolics-rich extract (PRE) was found to be effective in promoting HepG2 glucose consumption. Seventeen components were preliminarily identified by HPLC-ESI-MS, including 9 hydrocinnamic acids, 4 anthocyanins, 3 flavonols, and 1 flavan-3-ol. To investigate the cellular glucose consumption-promotion activity of different phneolics subclasses, the phenolics were further fractionated into an anthocyanin-rich fraction (ARF), hydrocinnamic acid-rich fraction (HRF), and flavonol-rich fraction (FRF) through liquid-liquid extraction and mix-mode cation-exchange solid-phase extraction. The 3 fractions promoted HepG2 glucose consumption to different levels, with the promotion effects of HRF and FRF stronger than that of the ARF. The results provide guidance on the use of sweet cherry as a functional fruit. PMID:25559482

  17. Promoting functional foods as acceptable alternatives to doping: potential for information-based social marketing approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petróczi Andrea

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Substances with performance enhancing properties appear on a continuum, ranging from prohibited performance enhancing drugs (PED through dietary supplements to functional foods (FF. Anti-doping messages designed to dissuade athletes from using PEDs have been typically based on moralising sport competition and/or employing scare campaigns with focus on the negative consequences. Campaigns offering comparable and acceptable alternatives are nonexistent, nor are athletes helped in finding these for themselves. It is timely that social marketing strategies for anti-doping prevention and intervention incorporate media messages that complement the existing approaches by promoting comparable and acceptable alternatives to doping. To facilitate this process, the aim of this study was to ascertain whether a single exposure knowledge-based information intervention led to increased knowledge and subsequently result in changes in beliefs and automatic associations regarding performance enhancements. Methods In a repeated measure design, 115 male recreational gym users were recruited and provided with a brief information pamphlet on nitrite/nitrate and erythropoietin as a comparison. Measures of knowledge, beliefs and automatic associations were taken before and after the intervention with at least 24 hours between the two assessments. The psychological tests included explicit measures of beliefs and cognitive attitudes toward FF and PED using a self-reported questionnaire and computerised assessments of automatic associations using the modified and shortened version of the Implicit Association Test. Results The information based intervention significantly increased knowledge (p p p Conclusion Evidence was found that even a single exposure to a persuasive positive message can lead to belief change and can create new or alter existing associations - but only in the specific domain. Interventions to change outcome expectations in a positive

  18. Alternative model for administration and analysis of research-based assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Bethany R.; Zwickl, Benjamin M.; Hobbs, Robert D.; Aiken, John M.; Welch, Nathan M.; Lewandowski, H. J.

    2016-06-01

    Research-based assessments represent a valuable tool for both instructors and researchers interested in improving undergraduate physics education. However, the historical model for disseminating and propagating conceptual and attitudinal assessments developed by the physics education research (PER) community has not resulted in widespread adoption of these assessments within the broader community of physics instructors. Within this historical model, assessment developers create high quality, validated assessments, make them available for a wide range of instructors to use, and provide minimal (if any) support to assist with administration or analysis of the results. Here, we present and discuss an alternative model for assessment dissemination, which is characterized by centralized data collection and analysis. This model provides a greater degree of support for both researchers and instructors in order to more explicitly support adoption of research-based assessments. Specifically, we describe our experiences developing a centralized, automated system for an attitudinal assessment we previously created to examine students' epistemologies and expectations about experimental physics. This system provides a proof of concept that we use to discuss the advantages associated with centralized administration and data collection for research-based assessments in PER. We also discuss the challenges that we encountered while developing, maintaining, and automating this system. Ultimately, we argue that centralized administration and data collection for standardized assessments is a viable and potentially advantageous alternative to the default model characterized by decentralized administration and analysis. Moreover, with the help of online administration and automation, this model can support the long-term sustainability of centralized assessment systems.

  19. An alternative QSAR-based approach for predicting the bioconcentration factor for regulatory purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gissi, Andrea; Gadaleta, Domenico; Floris, Matteo; Olla, Stefania; Carotti, Angelo; Novellino, Ettore; Benfenati, Emilio; Nicolotti, Orazio

    2014-01-01

    The REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and restriction of Chemicals) and BPR (Biocide Product Regulation) regulations strongly promote the use of non-animal testing techniques to evaluate chemical risk. This has renewed the interest towards alternative methods such as QSAR in the regulatory context. The assessment of Bioconcentration Factor (BCF) required by these regulations is expensive, in terms of costs, time, and laboratory animal sacrifices. Herein, we present QSAR models based on the ANTARES dataset, which is a large collection of known and verified experimental BCF data. Among the models developed, the best results were obtained from a nine-descriptor highly predictive model. This model was derived from a training set of 608 chemicals and challenged against a validation and blind set containing 152 and 76 chemicals. The model's robustness was further controlled through several validation strategies and the implementation of a multi-step approach for the applicability domain. Suitable safety margins were used to increase sensitivity. The easy interpretability of the model is ensured by the use of meaningful biokinetics descriptors. The satisfactory predictive power for external compounds suggests that the new models could represent a reliable alternative to the in vivo assay, helping the registrants to fulfill regulatory requirements in compliance with the ethical and economic necessity to reduce animal testing. PMID:24247988

  20. Innovation based on value co-creation: An alternative for Brazilian wine?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borges Martiele Cortes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian wine industry has been facing obstacles such as competition and high tax rates. Innovation is an alternative towards this scenario being it a major factor for any company's survival and growth in the market. Besides this, technological advances and access to information provide consumers with a larger number of choices and knowledge for an informed decision making. Despite differentiation efforts consumers did not obtain satisfaction. Customer interaction provides another way to generate innovation from its involvement in the production process (co-creation of value. The research was held in an awarded winery located in Bento Gonçalves (Brazil with the objective of understanding how the process of value co-creation between Brazilian award-winning wineries and consumers influences innovation generation. It is an exploratory and qualitative study collected through in-depth interviews with a semi-structured script. The winery identifies beneficial effects in the production process resulting from interactions because it narrows the bond with the consumer creating a better understanding of the consumers as well as develop a more tailored offer regarding value. The innovations generated based on co-creation can be taken as an alternative to imposed barriers in the current Brazilian wine sector.

  1. Alternative landfill cover technology demonstration at Kaneohe Marine Corps Base Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karr, L.A.; Harre, B. [Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center, Port Hueneme, CA (United States); Hakonson, T.E. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Surface covers to control water infiltration to waste buried in landfills will be the remediation alternative of choice for most hazardous and sanitary landfills operated by the Department of Defense. Although surface covers are the least expensive method of remediation for landfills, they can still be expensive solutions. Conventional wisdom suggests that landfill capping technology is well developed as evidenced by the availability of EPA guidance for designing and constructing what has become known as the {open_quotes}RCRA Cap{close_quotes}. In practice, however, very little testing of the RCRA cap, or any other design, has been done to evaluate how effective these designs are in limiting infiltration of water into waste. This paper describes a low cost alternative to the {open_quotes}RCRA Cap{close_quotes} that is being evaluated at Marine Corps Base Hawaii (MCBH) Kaneohe Bay. This study uses an innovative, simple and inexpensive concept to manipulate the fate of water falling on a landfill. The infiltration of water through the cap will be controlled by combining the evaporative forces of vegetation to remove soil water, with engineered structures that limit infiltration of precipitation into the soil. This approach relies on diverting enough of the annual precipitation to runoff, so that the water that does infiltrate into the soil can easily be removed by evapotranspiration.

  2. 77 FR 48148 - Energy Alternatives Wholesale, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Energy Alternatives Wholesale, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market... in the above-referenced proceeding, of Energy Alternatives Wholesale, LLC's application for...

  3. Alternating polyesteramides based on 1,4-butylene terephthalamide: 3. Alternating polyesteramides based on mixtures of linear diols (4NTm,p)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serrano, P.J.M.; Werff, van der B.A.; Gaymans, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    Strictly alternating polyesteramides consisting of 1,4-butylene terephthalamide diester and mixtures of aliphatic diols have been synthesised in the melt in the presence of a titanium catalyst. To increase the molecular weight a solid state post condensation was applied. The composition was determin

  4. A Project-Based, STEM-Integrated Alternative Energy Team Challenge for Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, Allison; Harris, John

    2010-01-01

    The topic of alternative energy is not only relevant to a multitude of issues today, it is also an effective vehicle for developing instruction that applies across a variety of content disciplines and academic standards. Since many of the issues associated with alternative energy are open-ended, alternative energy also lends itself to…

  5. Bases, assumptions, and results of the flowsheet calculations for the decision phase salt disposition alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The High Level Waste Salt Disposition Systems Engineering Team was formed on March 13, 1998, under the sponsorship of the Westinghouse Savannah River Company High Level Waste (HLW) Vice President and General Manager. The Team is chartered to identify options, evaluate alternatives, and recommend a selected alternative(s) for processing HLW salt to a permitted waste form

  6. Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on amine-functionalized Fe₃O₄ nanoparticles for the determination of phenolic acids in vegetable oils by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhihong; Qiu, Lingna; Zhang, Dan; Sun, Mengyuan; Zhang, Hongyi

    2015-08-01

    A novel dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction method based on amine-functionalized Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles was developed for the determination of six phenolic acids in vegetable oils by high-performance liquid chromatography. Amine-functionalized Fe3O4 was synthesized by a one-pot solvothermal reaction between Fe3O4 and 1,6-hexanediamine and characterized by transmission electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry. A trace amount of phosphate buffer solution (extractant) was adsorbed on bare Fe3O4-NH2 nanoparticles by hydrophilic interaction to form the "magnetic extractant". Rapid extraction could be achieved while the "magnetic extractant" on amine-functionalized Fe3O4 nanoparticles was dispersed in the sample solution by vortexing. After extraction, the "magnetic extractant" was collected by application of an external magnet. Some important parameters, such as pH and volume of extraction and desorption solvents, the extraction and desorption time needed were carefully investigated and optimized to achieve the best extraction efficiency. Under the optimal conditions, satisfactory extraction recoveries were obtained for the six phenolic acids in the range of 84.2-106.3%. Relative standard deviations for intra- and inter-day precisions were less than 6.3 and 10.0%, respectively. Finally, the established method was successfully applied for the determination of six phenolic acids in eight kinds of vegetable oils.

  7. Flexible Phenolic Impregnated Felt Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — During this program Fiber Materials, Inc. (FMI) will develop innovative yet practical methods for preparing Phenolic Impregnated Felt (PIF) materials for thermal...

  8. Frequency-based image analysis of random patterns: an alternative way to classical stereocorrelation

    CERN Document Server

    Molimard, Jérôme; Zahouani, Hassan

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents an alternative way to classical stereocorrelation. First, 2D image processing of random patterns is described. Sub-pixel displacements are determined using phase analysis. Then distortion evaluation is presented. The distortion is identified without any assumption on the lens model because of the use of a grid technique approach. Last, shape measurement and shape variation is caught by fringe projection. Analysis is based on two pin-hole assumptions for the video-projector and the camera. Then, fringe projection is coupled to in-plane displacement to give rise to 3D measurement set-up. Metrological characterization shows a resolution comparable to classical (stereo) correlation technique (1/100th pixel). Spatial resolution seems to be an advantage of the method, because of the use of temporal phase stepping (shape measurement, 1 pixel) and windowed Fourier transform (in plane displacements measurement, 9 pixels). Two examples are given. First one is the study of skin properties; second one ...

  9. Towards for Analyzing Alternatives of Interaction Design Based on Verbal Decision Analysis of User Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Soares Mendes

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In domains (as digital TV, smart home, and tangible interfaces that represent a new paradigm of interactivity, the decision of the most appropriate interaction design solution is a challenge. HCI researchers have promoted in their works the validation of design alternative solutions with users before producing the final solution. User experience with technology is a subject that has also gained ground in these works in order to analyze the appropriate solution(s. Following this concept, a study was accomplished under the objective of finding a better interaction solution for an application of mobile TV. Three executable applications of mobile TV prototypes were built. A Verbal Decision Analysis model was applied on the investigations for the favorite characteristics in each prototype based on the user’s experience and their intentions of use. This model led a performance of a qualitative analysis which objectified the design of a new prototype.

  10. The feedback negativity reflects favorable compared to nonfavorable outcomes based on global, not local, alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujawa, Autumn; Smith, Ezra; Luhmann, Christian; Hajcak, Greg

    2013-02-01

    The feedback negativity (FN) has been shown to reflect the binary evaluation of possible outcomes in a context-dependent manner, but it is unclear whether context dependence is based on global or local alternatives. A cued gambling task was used to examine whether the FN is sensitive to possible outcomes on a given trial, or the range of outcomes across trials. On 50% of trials, participants could break even or lose money; on remaining trials, participants could win or break even. Breaking even was an unfavorable outcome relative to all possibilities in the current task, but the best possible outcome on 50% of trials. Results indicated that breaking even elicited an FN in both contexts, and reward feedback was uniquely associated with an enhanced positivity. Results suggest that the magnitude of the FN depends on all possible outcomes within the current task and are consistent with the view that the FN reflects reward-related neural activity. PMID:23241216

  11. Alternative Fuzzy Cluster Segmentation of Remote Sensing Images Based on Adaptive Genetic Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jing; TANG Jilong; LIU Jibin; REN Chunying; LIU Xiangnan; FENG Jiang

    2009-01-01

    Remote sensing image segmentation is the basis of image understanding and analysis. However, the precision and the speed of segmentation can not meet the need of image analysis, due to strong uncertainty and rich texture details of remote sensing images. We proposed a new segmentation method based on Adaptive Genetic Algorithm (AGA) and Alternative Fuzzy C-Means (AFCM). Segmentation thresholds were identified by AGA. Then the image was segmented by AFCM. The results indicate that the precision and the speed of segmentation have been greatly increased, and the accuracy of threshold selection is much higher compared with traditional Otsu and Fuzzy C-Means (FCM) segmentation methods. The segmentation results also show that multi-thresholds segmentation has been achieved by combining AGA with AFCM.

  12. Microstructure Assessment of Metakaolin Based-Geopolymers Produced with Alternative Silica Sources Exposed to High Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villaquirán-Caicedo Mónica Alejandra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ceramic materials more environment friendly and with similar or even better performance than traditional ones can be produced by alkali activation of natural minerals, wastes or industrial by-products. The present study assesses the effect of exposure at 600° and 1200°C of a MK-based geopolymers. Rice husk ash (RHA and silica fume were modified chemically in order to obtain an alternative alkali activator. Exposure to elevated temperatures leads to dehydration of the reaction products and structural reorganization associated with the crystallization of the gel to leucite (KAlSi2O6 and kalsilite (KAlSiO4. The structural changes associated with the thermal treatment also promote a densification and reduction of porosity. The unreacted MK particles embedded into the geopolymeric gel lead to the formation of mullite (2Al2O3 × SiO2 after the thermal treatment at 1200°C.

  13. Antioxidant activity and phenolic composition of Lavandin (Lavandula x intermedia Emeric ex Loiseleur) waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torras-Claveria, Laura; Jauregui, Olga; Bastida, Jaume; Codina, Carles; Viladomat, Francesc

    2007-10-17

    The phenolic content of lavandin waste obtained after the distillation of essential oils for the perfume industry was investigated to find an alternative use for this material. The antioxidant activity of different fractions as well as their total phenolic content were evaluated by different methods. Twenty-three phenolic compounds were identified by liquid chromatography coupled to ionspray mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS), including phenolic acids, hydroxycinnamoylquinic acid derivatives, glucosides of hydroxycinnamic acids, and flavonoids, none of which have previously been reported in lavandin waste. Some structure-activity relationships were proposed by relating the type of scavenging activity of different fractions with the identified phenolic compounds. Contents of representative phenolic acids of Lamiaceae (chlorogenic and rosmarinic) were evaluated by high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) and compared with those of other plant species. PMID:17927148

  14. Phenolic Compounds in the Potato and Its Byproducts: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyol, Hazal; Riciputi, Ylenia; Capanoglu, Esra; Caboni, Maria Fiorenza; Verardo, Vito

    2016-01-01

    The potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is a tuber that is largely used for food and is a source of different bioactive compounds such as starch, dietary fiber, amino acids, minerals, vitamins, and phenolic compounds. Phenolic compounds are synthetized by the potato plant as a protection response from bacteria, fungi, viruses, and insects. Several works showed that these potato compounds exhibited health-promoting effects in humans. However, the use of the potato in the food industry submits this vegetable to different processes that can alter the phenolic content. Moreover, many of these compounds with high bioactivity are located in the potato's skin, and so are eliminated as waste. In this review the most recent articles dealing with phenolic compounds in the potato and potato byproducts, along with the effects of harvesting, post-harvest, and technological processes, have been reviewed. Briefly, the phenolic composition, main extraction, and determination methods have been described. In addition, the "alternative" food uses and healthy properties of potato phenolic compounds have been addressed. PMID:27240356

  15. Teaching physics using project-based engineering curriculum with a theme of alternative energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasior, Bryan

    The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) provide a new set of science standards that, if adopted, shift the focus from content knowledge-based to skill-based education. Students will be expected to use science to investigate the natural world and solve problems using the engineering design process. The world also is facing an impending crisis related to climate, energy supply and use, and alternative energy development. Education has an opportunity to help provide the much needed paradigm shift from our current methods of providing the energy needs of society. The purpose of this research was to measure the effectiveness of a unit that accomplishes the following objectives: uses project-based learning to teach the engineering process and standards of the NGSS, addresses required content expectations of energy and electricity from the HSCE's, and provides students with scientific evidence behind issues (both environmental and social/economic) relating to the energy crisis and current dependence of fossil fuels as our primary energy source. The results of the research indicate that a physics unit can be designed to accomplish these objectives. The unit that was designed, implemented and reported here also shows that it was highly effective at improving students' science content knowledge, implementing the engineering design standards of the NGSS, while raising awareness, knowledge and motivations relating to climate and the energy crisis.

  16. Analysis of organic acids and phenols of interest in the wine industry using Langmuir–Blodgett films based on functionalized nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • For the first time functionalized NPs immobilized in LB films have been used as voltammetric sensors. • Films showed excellent electrocatalytic properties toward phenols and acids found in wines. • Improved performance is due to combination of electrocatalytic NPs with the high surface/volume of LB films. • The potential applications in the wine industry have been evidenced. - Abstract: A chemically modified electrode consisting of Langmuir–Blodgett (LB) films of n-dodecanethiol functionalized gold nanoparticles (SDODAuNP-LB), was investigated as a voltammetric sensor of organic and phenolic acids of interest in the wine industry. The nanostructured films demonstrated interfacial properties being able to detect the main organic acids present in grapes and wines (tartaric, malic, lactic and citric). Compared to a bare ITO electrode, the modified electrodes exhibited a shift of the reduction potential in the less positive direction and a marked enhancement in the current response. Moreover, the increased electrocatalytic properties made it possible to distinguish between the different dissociable protons of polyprotic acids. The SDODAuNP-LB sensor was also able to provide enhanced responses toward aqueous solutions of phenolic acids commonly found in wines (caffeic and gallic acids). The presence of nanoparticles increased drastically the sensitivity toward organic acids and phenolic compounds. Limits of detection as low as 10−6 mol L−1 were achieved. Efficient catalytic activity was also observed in mixtures of phenolic acid/tartaric in the range of pHs typically found in wines. In such mixtures, the electrode was able to provide simultaneous information about the acid and the phenol concentrations with a complete absence of interferences. The excellent sensing properties shown by these sensors could be attributed to the electrocatalytic properties of the nanoparticles combined with the high surface to volume ratio and homogeneity

  17. Analysis of organic acids and phenols of interest in the wine industry using Langmuir–Blodgett films based on functionalized nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina-Plaza, C. [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Engineers School, Universidad de Valladolid (Spain); García-Cabezón, C. [Department of Materials Science, Engineers School, Universidad de Valladolid (Spain); García-Hernández, C.; Bramorski, C. [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Engineers School, Universidad de Valladolid (Spain); Blanco-Val, Y.; Martín-Pedrosa, F. [Department of Materials Science, Engineers School, Universidad de Valladolid (Spain); Kawai, T. [Department of Industrial Chemistry, Tokyo University of Science (Japan); Saja, J.A. de [Department of Condensed Matter Physics, Universidad de Valladolid (Spain); Rodríguez-Méndez, M.L., E-mail: mluz@eii.uva.es [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Engineers School, Universidad de Valladolid (Spain)

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • For the first time functionalized NPs immobilized in LB films have been used as voltammetric sensors. • Films showed excellent electrocatalytic properties toward phenols and acids found in wines. • Improved performance is due to combination of electrocatalytic NPs with the high surface/volume of LB films. • The potential applications in the wine industry have been evidenced. - Abstract: A chemically modified electrode consisting of Langmuir–Blodgett (LB) films of n-dodecanethiol functionalized gold nanoparticles (S{sub DOD}AuNP-LB), was investigated as a voltammetric sensor of organic and phenolic acids of interest in the wine industry. The nanostructured films demonstrated interfacial properties being able to detect the main organic acids present in grapes and wines (tartaric, malic, lactic and citric). Compared to a bare ITO electrode, the modified electrodes exhibited a shift of the reduction potential in the less positive direction and a marked enhancement in the current response. Moreover, the increased electrocatalytic properties made it possible to distinguish between the different dissociable protons of polyprotic acids. The S{sub DOD}AuNP-LB sensor was also able to provide enhanced responses toward aqueous solutions of phenolic acids commonly found in wines (caffeic and gallic acids). The presence of nanoparticles increased drastically the sensitivity toward organic acids and phenolic compounds. Limits of detection as low as 10{sup −6} mol L{sup −1} were achieved. Efficient catalytic activity was also observed in mixtures of phenolic acid/tartaric in the range of pHs typically found in wines. In such mixtures, the electrode was able to provide simultaneous information about the acid and the phenol concentrations with a complete absence of interferences. The excellent sensing properties shown by these sensors could be attributed to the electrocatalytic properties of the nanoparticles combined with the high surface to volume ratio

  18. Preparation of phenol formaldehyde resin from phenolated wood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIGai-yun; QINTe-fu; TohmuraShin-ichiro; IkedaAtsushi

    2004-01-01

    The technique for preparing phenol formaldehyde resin from phenolated wood (PWF) and its characters were studied and analyzed. Poplar (Populus spp.) wood meal was liquefied by phenol in the presence of sulfuric acid as a catalyst. After the liquefied products were cooled, alkaline catalyst and formaldehyde were added. The mixture was kept at (60±2)℃ for lh and then was heated to (85±2)℃ for lh. The influence of molar ratio of formaldehyde to phenol (F/P) was investigated. The results showed when the molar ratio of formaldehyde to phenol was over 1.8, the PWF adhesives had high bond quality, bond durability and extremely low aldehydes emissions.

  19. Sorption of phenol and phenol derivatives in hydrotalcite; Sorcion de fenol y derivados de fenol en hidrotalcita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avina G, E.I

    2002-07-01

    One of the main problems in Mexico and in the World is the waste water pollution of a great variety of industrial processes by organic compounds. Among those ones the phenol compounds which are highly toxic, refractories (to the chemical degradation) and poorly biodegradable. This is due in a large extent to the problem created by the accelerated increase in the environmental pollution in the cities and industrial centers. The phenol compounds are used in a great variety of industries such as the production of resins, plasticizers, antioxidants, pesticides, colourings, disinfectants, etc. These phenol compounds are specially harmful, since they have repercussions on the flora of plants of biological treatment of water affecting its operation. The main objective of this work is to evaluate the capacities of phenol detention and its derivatives in an hydrotalcite type compound and diminishing with it the presence in water, in this case, of solutions prepared in the laboratory. In order to analyse this elimination process was used a methodology based in the carrying out in batch experiments and in the elaboration of a sorption isotherm. It is worth pointing out that this work was realized at laboratory scale, at relatively high phenol concentration ratio. With the obtained results when the sorption properties are evaluated the calcined hydrotalcite (HTC) for detaining phenol and p-chloro phenol it was observed that it is detained greater quantity of p-chloro phenol than phenol in the HTC. The detention of these phenol compounds in the HTC is due to the memory effect by the hydrotalcite regeneration starting from the oxides which are formed by the burning material. (Author)

  20. Dienone-phenol Rearrangement of C-9 Oxygenated Decalinic Dienone and Analogs through B-Ring Cleavage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Dehydrogenation of 9-hydroxy decalinic enones and analogs with DDQ resulted in a formal dienone-phenol type rearrangement via B-ring cleavage, while the corresponding dienone acetates underwent base-catalyzed formal dienone-phenol type rearrangement analogously.

  1. A systematic review of the effectiveness of alternative cadres in community based rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mannan Hasheem

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs aim to improve population health and the quality and dignity of people’s lives, but their achievement is constrained by the crisis in human resources for health. An important potential contribution towards achieving the MDGs for persons with disabilities will be the newly developed Guidelines for Community Based Rehabilitation (CBR, launched in 2010. Given the global shortage of medical and nursing personnel and highly skilled rehabilitation practitioners, effective implementation of the CBR guidelines will require additional health workers, with improved distribution and a new skill set, allowing them to work across the health, education, livelihoods, social, and development sectors. Methods We conducted a systematic review to evaluate existing evidence regarding the effectiveness of alternative cadres working in CBR in low and middle income countries. We searched the following databases: PUBMED, LILACS, SCIE, ISMEAR, WHOLIS, AFRICAN MED IND. We also searched the online archive of the Asia Pacific Disability Rehabilitation Journal (available from 2002 to 2010, which was not covered by any of the other databases. There was no limit set on inclusion with regard to how recent a publication was in the general search. Results The search yielded 235 abstracts, only 6 of which addressed CBR through some type of evaluative component. Three of the studies explored the effects of CBR interventions, mainly related to physical disabilities, while three explored issues concerned with the work performance of rehabilitation workers. Altogether the studies covered four different countries. Conclusion All six studies related to specific service delivery in local contexts, using outcome measures that were not comparable across studies. We do not, therefore, feel that the current results provide adequate methodology or evidence for reliably generalizing their results. Due to the dearth of evidence

  2. Synthesis and highly potent hypolipidemic activity of alpha-asarone- and fibrate-based 2-acyl and 2-alkyl phenols as HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendieta, Aarón; Jiménez, Fabiola; Garduño-Siciliano, Leticia; Mojica-Villegas, Angélica; Rosales-Acosta, Blanca; Villa-Tanaca, Lourdes; Chamorro-Cevallos, Germán; Medina-Franco, José L; Meurice, Nathalie; Gutiérrez, Rsuini U; Montiel, Luisa E; Cruz, María Del Carmen; Tamariz, Joaquín

    2014-11-01

    In the search for new potential hypolipidemic agents, the present study focused on the synthesis of 2-acyl phenols (6a-c and 7a-c) and their saturated side-chain alkyl phenols (4a-c and 5a-c), and on the evaluation of their hypolipidemic activity using a murine Tyloxapol-induced hyperlipidemic protocol. The whole series of compounds 4-7 greatly and significantly reduced elevated serum levels of total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides, with series 6 and 7 showing the greatest potency ever found in our laboratory. At the minimum dose (25mg/kg/day), the latter compounds lowered cholesterol by 68-81%, LDL by 72-86%, and triglycerides by 59-80%. This represents a comparable performance than that shown by simvastatin. Experimental evidence and docking studies suggest that the activity of these derivatives is associated with the inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase.

  3. 木质素基酚醛树脂泡沫塑料的结构与性能研究%Structure and Properties of Lignin Based Phenolic Foam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴强林; 方红霞; 丁运生; 刘东银; 郑雨; 晏秀男

    2012-01-01

    The structure and performances of lignin based phenolic resin ( LPF ) and LPF foam were studied. Results showed that LPF had lower free formaldehyde content of 0.35%, and lower free phenol content of 0.59% compared with the traditional type of phenolic resin ( PF ). Phenolic of lignin and resinic reactions of LPF foam were conformed by FTIR analyses. Stereoscopic microscope observation results showed that LPF foam had more closed-cell foam with fine cell structures than that of PF foam. The results of TGA and oxygen index determination showed that LPF foam had better thermostability and flame retardance. The results of determination of compressive strength, thermal conductivity and water absorption also indicated that LPF foam had improved mechanical property, thermal insulation property and waterproof performance as well. Compared with the traditional PF foam, LPF foam prepared by thermo-chemical phenolic reactions had better mechanical property, thermal insulation property, waterproof and fireproof performances. It was also more economical, environmentally friendly and safer.%研究了木质素基可发性酚醛树脂(LPF)及LPF泡沫塑料的结构与性能.结果表明,采用酚化木质素制备的LPF具有比酚醛树脂(PF)更低的游离甲醛(质量分数为0.35%)和更低的游离苯酚(质量分数为0.59%);傅立叶变换红外光谱(FTIR)分析证明了木质素的酚化及参与树脂固化反应;体视显微镜观测结果表明,LPF泡沫塑料具有比PF泡沫塑料更高的闭孔结构;热重分析及氧指数分析结果表明,LPF泡沫塑料具有更好的热稳定性和阻燃性能;压缩强度、导热系数和吸水率测定结果表明,LPF泡沫塑料具有更好的力学性能、保温性能和防水性能.相比于传统的PF泡沫塑料,采用热化学酚化技术制备的LPF泡沫塑料,具有更加优良的力学、保温、防火、防水性能,且更加安全、环保、经济.

  4. Model‐Based Assessment of Alternative Study Designs in Pediatric Trials. Part II: Bayesian Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smania, G; Baiardi, P; Ceci, A; Magni, P

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a pharmacokinetic‐pharmacodynamic based clinical trial simulation framework for evaluating the performance of a fixed‐sample Bayesian design (BD) and two alternative Bayesian sequential designs (BSDs) (i.e., a non‐hierarchical (NON‐H) and a semi‐hierarchical (SEMI‐H) one). Prior information was elicited from adult trials and weighted based on the expected similarity of response to treatment between the pediatric and adult populations. Study designs were evaluated in terms of: type I and II errors, sample size per arm (SS), trial duration (TD), and estimate precision. No substantial differences were observed between NON‐H and SEMI‐H. BSDs require, on average, smaller SS and TD compared to the BD, which, on the other hand, guarantees higher estimate precision. When large differences between children and adults are expected, BSDs can return very large SS. Bayesian approaches appear to outperform their frequentist counterparts in the design of pediatric trials even when little weight is given to prior information from adults. PMID:27530374

  5. Web-based teaching in point-of-care ultrasound: an alternative to the classroom?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang TL

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Tarina Lee Kang,1 Kristin Berona,1 Marsha A Elkhunovich,2 Roberto Medero-Colon,1 Dina Seif,1 Mikael L Chilstrom,1 Tom Mailhot1 1Department of Emergency Medicine, Los Angeles County and the University of Southern California (LAC + USC Medical Center, 2Department of Emergency Medicine, Children’s Hospital Los Angeles, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA Objectives: To evaluate two educational methods for point-of-care ultrasound (POC US in order to: 1 determine participant test performance and attitudes in using POC US and 2 compare cost and preparation time to run the courses.Methods: This was a pilot study conducted at a county teaching hospital. Subjects were assigned to participate in either a large group course with live classroom lectures (Group A or a group asked to watch 4.5 hours of online prerecorded lectures (Group B. Both groups participated in small-group hands-on training after watching the lectures. Both groups took a pre- and post-course exam, and completed course surveys. Cost and time spent running the courses were also compared.Results: Forty-seven physicians participated in the study. The pre-test and post-test scores between the two groups did not differ significantly. Of those with prior ultrasound experience, the majority of both groups preferred to continue classroom-based teaching for future courses. Interestingly, in the groups who had no ultrasound experience prior to their course participation, there was a higher percentage who preferred web-based teaching. Lastly, Group B was shown to have the potential to take less preparatory time when compared to Group A.Conclusion: A web-based curriculum in POC US appears to be a promising and potentially time saving alternative to live classroom lectures and seems to offer similar educational benefits for the postgraduate learner. Keywords: attending education, classroom-based teaching, hands-on training

  6. On the Prevalence of Alternative Conceptions on Acid-Base Chemistry among Secondary Students: Insights from Cognitive and Confidence Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoe, Kai Yee; Subramaniam, R.

    2016-01-01

    This study presents an analysis of alternative conceptions (ACs) on acid--base chemistry harbored by grade 9 students in Singapore. The ACs were obtained by the development and validation of a 4-tier diagnostic instrument. It is among the very few studies in the science education literature that have focused on examining results based also on…

  7. Community Analysis and Recovery of Phenol-degrading Bacteria from Drinking Water Biofilters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Qihui; Wu, Qingping; Zhang, Jumei; Guo, Weipeng; Wu, Huiqing; Sun, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Phenol is a ubiquitous organic contaminant in drinking water. Biodegradation plays an important role in the elimination of phenol pollution in the environment, but the information about phenol removal by drinking water biofilters is still lacking. Herein, we study an acclimated bacterial community that can degrade over 80% of 300 mg/L phenol within 3 days. PCR detection of genotypes involved in bacterial phenol degradation revealed that the degradation pathways contained the initial oxidative attack by phenol hydroxylase, and subsequent ring fission by catechol 1,2-dioxygenase. Based on the PCR denatured gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) profiles of bacteria from biological activated carbon (BAC), the predominant bacteria in drinking water biofilters including Delftia sp., Achromobacter sp., and Agrobacterium sp., which together comprised up to 50% of the total microorganisms. In addition, a shift in bacterial community structure was observed during phenol biodegradation. Furthermore, the most effective phenol-degrading strain DW-1 that correspond to the main band in denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profile was isolated and identified as Acinetobacter sp., according to phylogenetic analyses of the 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) gene sequences. The strain DW-1 also produced the most important enzyme, phenol hydroxylase, and it also exhibited a good ability to degrade phenol when immobilized on granular active carbon (GAC). This study indicates that the enrichment culture has great potential application for treatment of phenol-polluted drinking water sources, and the indigenous phenol-degrading microorganism could recover from drinking water biofilters as an efficient resource for phenol removal. Therefore, the aim of this study is to draw attention to recover native phenol-degrading bacteria from drinking water biofilters, and use these native microorganisms as phenolic water remediation in drinking water sources.

  8. Community analysis and recovery of phenol-degrading bacteria from drinking water biofilters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qihui eGu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Phenol is a ubiquitous organic contaminant in drinking water. Biodegradation plays an important role in the elimination of phenol pollution in the environment, but the information about phenol removal by drinking water biofilters is still lacking. Herein, we study an acclimated bacterial community that can degrade over 80% of 300 mg/L phenol within 3 d. PCR detection of genotypes involved in bacterial phenol degradation revealed that the degradation pathways contained the initial oxidative attack by phenol hydroxylase, and subsequent ring fission by catechol 1,2-dioxygenase. Based on the PCR denatured gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE profiles of bacteria from biological activated carbon (BAC, the predominant bacteria in drinking water biofilters including Delftia sp., Achromobacter sp., and Agrobacterium sp., which together comprised up to 50% of the total microorganisms. In addition, a shift in bacterial community structure was observed during phenol biodegradation. Furthermore, the most effective phenol-degrading strain DW-1 that correspond to the main band in DGGE profile was isolated and identified as Acinetobacter sp., according to phylogenetic analyses of the 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA gene sequences. The strain DW-1 also produced the most important enzyme, phenol hydroxylase, and it also exhibited a good ability to degrade phenol when immobilized on GAC. This study indicates that the enrichment culture has great potential application for treatment of phenol-polluted drinking water sources, and the indigenous phenol-degrading microorganism could recover from drinking water biofilters as an efficient resource for phenol removal. Therefore, the aim of this study is to draw attention to recover native phenol-degrading bacteria from drinking water biofilters, and use these native microorganisms as phenolic water remediation in drinking water sources.

  9. Community Analysis and Recovery of Phenol-degrading Bacteria from Drinking Water Biofilters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Qihui; Wu, Qingping; Zhang, Jumei; Guo, Weipeng; Wu, Huiqing; Sun, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Phenol is a ubiquitous organic contaminant in drinking water. Biodegradation plays an important role in the elimination of phenol pollution in the environment, but the information about phenol removal by drinking water biofilters is still lacking. Herein, we study an acclimated bacterial community that can degrade over 80% of 300 mg/L phenol within 3 days. PCR detection of genotypes involved in bacterial phenol degradation revealed that the degradation pathways contained the initial oxidative attack by phenol hydroxylase, and subsequent ring fission by catechol 1,2-dioxygenase. Based on the PCR denatured gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) profiles of bacteria from biological activated carbon (BAC), the predominant bacteria in drinking water biofilters including Delftia sp., Achromobacter sp., and Agrobacterium sp., which together comprised up to 50% of the total microorganisms. In addition, a shift in bacterial community structure was observed during phenol biodegradation. Furthermore, the most effective phenol-degrading strain DW-1 that correspond to the main band in denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profile was isolated and identified as Acinetobacter sp., according to phylogenetic analyses of the 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) gene sequences. The strain DW-1 also produced the most important enzyme, phenol hydroxylase, and it also exhibited a good ability to degrade phenol when immobilized on granular active carbon (GAC). This study indicates that the enrichment culture has great potential application for treatment of phenol-polluted drinking water sources, and the indigenous phenol-degrading microorganism could recover from drinking water biofilters as an efficient resource for phenol removal. Therefore, the aim of this study is to draw attention to recover native phenol-degrading bacteria from drinking water biofilters, and use these native microorganisms as phenolic water remediation in drinking water sources. PMID:27148185

  10. Electrokinetic transport behavior of phenol in upper Permian soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haus, R.; Zorn, R.; Czurda, K.; Ruthe, H. [Dept. of Applied Geology, Univ. Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    Electrokinetic experiments with upper Permian, phenol contaminated soils ('Solaris'-area Chemnitz) were performed. Bench scale results show the successful removal of phenol. The developing soil-pH during electroremediation tests is found to affect the transport behavior of phenol strongly. If buffer solutions are used at the electrode compartments, phenol could be removed from the soils. By neutralizing the generating hydrogen ions at the anode reservoir the hydroxyl ions developing at the cathode by the electrolysis of water enter the soil and propagate to the anode by increasing the soil pH. The pH dependent dehydroxylation of phenol promotes the electromigration of negative charged phenolate ions from the cathode to the anode. At the anode the coupling of phenoxyl-radicals supports the formation of non toxic, water insoluble polyoxyphenylene by electro-polymerization. In the case of buffering the pH at the cathode uncharged phenol is transported by electroosmosis from the anode to the cathode because of the nonexisting base front and the unhindered production of hydrogen ions at the anode. (orig.)

  11. Complementary & alternative management of Parkinson's disease: an evidence-based review of eastern influenced practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bega, Danny; Zadikoff, Cindy

    2014-10-01

    The prevalence of Parkinson's disease (PD) appears to be lower in Asia compared to the Western world. It is unclear if this is related to the ubiquitous use of traditional medicine in Eastern healthcare, but the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) modalities in countries like Korea may be as high as 76%. Among patients with PD, herbal medicines, health supplement foods, and acupuncture are interventions which are increasingly used throughout the world. Countries like Korea, China, India, and Japan have long embraced and incorporated traditional medicine into modern management of conditions such as PD, but research into various CAM modalities remains in its infancy limiting evidence-based recommendations for many treatments. We reviewed the literature on CAM treatments for PD, focusing on mind-body interventions and natural products. Based on evidence limited to randomized-controlled trials we found that mind-body interventions are generally effective forms of physical activity that are likely to foster good adherence and may reduce disability associated with PD. Based on the current data, modalities like Tai Chi and dance are safe and beneficial in PD, but better studies are needed to assess the effects of other frequently used modalities such as yoga and acupuncture. Furthermore, despite centuries of experience using medicinal herbs and plants in Eastern countries, and despite substantial preclinical data on the beneficial effects of nutritional antioxidants as neuroprotective agents in PD, there is insufficient clinical evidence that any vitamin, food additive, or supplement, can improve motor function or delay disease progression in PD. PMID:25360229

  12. Finding Alternatives to the Dogma of Power Based Sample Size Calculation: Is a Fixed Sample Size Prospective Meta-Experiment a Potential Alternative?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavernier, Elsa; Trinquart, Ludovic; Giraudeau, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Sample sizes for randomized controlled trials are typically based on power calculations. They require us to specify values for parameters such as the treatment effect, which is often difficult because we lack sufficient prior information. The objective of this paper is to provide an alternative design which circumvents the need for sample size calculation. In a simulation study, we compared a meta-experiment approach to the classical approach to assess treatment efficacy. The meta-experiment approach involves use of meta-analyzed results from 3 randomized trials of fixed sample size, 100 subjects. The classical approach involves a single randomized trial with the sample size calculated on the basis of an a priori-formulated hypothesis. For the sample size calculation in the classical approach, we used observed articles to characterize errors made on the formulated hypothesis. A prospective meta-analysis of data from trials of fixed sample size provided the same precision, power and type I error rate, on average, as the classical approach. The meta-experiment approach may provide an alternative design which does not require a sample size calculation and addresses the essential need for study replication; results may have greater external validity. PMID:27362939

  13. Zein based oil-in-glycerol emulgels enriched with β-carotene as margarine alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Wei; Fu, Shi-Yao; Hou, Jun-Jie; Guo, Jian; Wang, Jin-Mei; Yang, Xiao-Quan

    2016-11-15

    Structuring edible oils into solid lipids without saturated and trans fats has attracted increasing interest due to the benefits for human health and promises potential as novel delivery systems for lipophilic bioactive ingredients. The study shows that a zein stabilized high (ϕ=0.6) oil-in-glycerol (O/G) emulgels enriched with β-carotene was performed, by a facile one-step homogenization. Rheological measurements and morphologies observations indicated that increasing β-carotene resulted in a progressive strengthening of gel-like network and improving their spreadability in the O/G emulgels stabilized by zein, which was closely related to the hydrophobic interaction of zein and β-carotene. The formation of emulgels significantly enhanced the UV photo-stability of β-carotene, and more than 88% of β-carotene was retained in 64h storage under UV exposure, and consequently retarded oil oxidation while storage. Further, cakes prepared using zein-based O/G emulgels as a margarine alternative showed comparable functionalities (texture and sensory attributes) to the standard cake. PMID:27283703

  14. Multi-dimensional scavenging analysis of a free-piston linear alternator based on numerical simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao, Jinlong; Zuo, Zhengxing; Li, Wen; Feng, Huihua [School of Mechanical Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2011-04-15

    A free-piston linear alternator (FPLA) is being developed by the Beijing Institute of Technology to improve the thermal efficiency relative to conventional crank-driven engines. A two-stroke scavenging process recharges the engine and is crucial to realizing the continuous operation of a free-piston engine. In order to study the FPLA scavenging process, the scavenging system was configured using computational fluid dynamics. As the piston dynamics of the FPLA are different to conventional crank-driven two-stroke engines, a time-based numerical simulation program was built using Matlab to define the piston's motion profiles. A wide range of design and operating options were investigated including effective stroke length, valve overlapping distance, operating frequency and charging pressure to find out their effects on the scavenging performance. The results indicate that a combination of high effective stroke length to bore ratio and long valve overlapping distance with a low supercharging pressure has the potential to achieve high scavenging and trapping efficiencies with low short-circuiting losses. (author)

  15. Improving adhesion between luting cement and zirconia-based ceramic with an alternative surface treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Aurealice Rosa Maria; Gotti, Valéria Bisinoto; Shimano, Marcos Massao; Borges, Gilberto Antônio; Gonçalves, Luciano de Souza

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of an alternative surface treatment on the microshear bond strength (μsbs) of zirconia-based ceramic. Thirty-five zirconia disks were assigned to five groups according to the following treatments: Control (CO), glass and silane were not applied to the zirconia surface; G1, air blasted with 100μm glass beads + glaze + silane; G2, a gel containing 15% (by weight) glass beads applied to the ceramic surface + glaze + silane; G3, a gel containing 25% (by weight) glass beads applied to the ceramic surface + glaze + silane; and G4, a gel containing 50% (by weight) glass beads applied to the ceramic surface + glaze + silane. The specimens were built up using RelyX ARC®, according to the manufacturer's recommendations, and inserted in an elastomeric mold with an inner diameter of 0.8 mm. The μsbs test was performed using a testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. ANOVA and Tukey's test (p ceramic and the luting cement. PMID:25859635

  16. Hypersensitivity reaction studies of a polyethoxylated castor oil-free, liposome-based alternative paclitaxel formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongbo; Cheng, Guang; Du, Yuan; Ye, Liang; Chen, Wenzhong; Zhang, Leiming; Wang, Tian; Tian, Jingwei; Fu, Fenghua

    2013-03-01

    The commercial drug paclitaxel (Taxol) may introduce hypersensitivity reactions associated with the polyethoxylated castor oil-ethanol solvent. To overcome these problems, we developed a polyethoxylated castor oil-free, liposome-based alternative paclitaxel formulation, known as Lipusu. In this study, we performed in vitro and in vivo experiments to compare the safety profiles of Lipusu and Taxol, with special regard to hypersensitivity reactions. First, Swiss mice were used to determine the lethal dosages, and then to evaluate hypersensitivity reactions, followed by histopathological examination and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) of serum SC5b-9 and lung histamine. Additionally, healthy human serum was used to analyze in vitro complement activation. Finally, an MTT assay was used to determine the in vitro anti-proliferation activity. Our data clearly showed that Lipusu displayed a much higher safety margin and did not induce hypersensitivity or hypersensitivity-related lung lesions, which may be associated with the fact that Lipusu did not activate complement or increase histamine release in vivo. Moreover, Lipusu did not promote complement activation in healthy human serum in vitro, and demonstrated anti-proliferative activity against human cancer cells, similar to that of Taxol. Therefore, the improved formulation of paclitaxel, which exhibited a much better safety profile and comparable cytotoxic activity to Taxol, may bring a number of benefits to cancer patients.

  17. Alternative 3D Modeling Approaches Based on Complex Multi-Source Geological Data Interpretation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明超; 韩彦青; 缪正建; 高伟

    2014-01-01

    Due to the complex nature of multi-source geological data, it is difficult to rebuild every geological struc-ture through a single 3D modeling method. The multi-source data interpretation method put forward in this analysis is based on a database-driven pattern and focuses on the discrete and irregular features of geological data. The geological data from a variety of sources covering a range of accuracy, resolution, quantity and quality are classified and inte-grated according to their reliability and consistency for 3D modeling. The new interpolation-approximation fitting construction algorithm of geological surfaces with the non-uniform rational B-spline (NURBS) technique is then pre-sented. The NURBS technique can retain the balance among the requirements for accuracy, surface continuity and data storage of geological structures. Finally, four alternative 3D modeling approaches are demonstrated with reference to some examples, which are selected according to the data quantity and accuracy specification. The proposed approaches offer flexible modeling patterns for different practical engineering demands.

  18. Economical analysis of an alternative strategy for CO2 mitigation based on nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many countries are pursuing greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation policies resulting in the increase of use of renewable sources in the electricity sector to mitigate CO2 emissions. Nuclear energy is a non-emitting CO2 source that could be used as part of that policy. However, its main drawback is the high investment required for its deployment. On the other hand, wind power is the clean source preferred option to mitigate CO2 emissions. However, due to its intermittence backup power is needed, in most of the cases it must be provided with combined cycle thermal plants using natural gas. This study performs an economical comparison of a hypothetical implementation of a nuclear strategy to meet the same CO2 emissions reduction goal that has been obtained by the actual Spaniard strategy (2005–2010) based on wind power. The investment required in both strategies is assessed under different investment scenarios and electricity production conditions for nuclear power. Also, the cost of electricity generation is compared for both strategies. - Highlights: ► Wind power electricity cost including its backup in Spain is assessed. ► Nuclear power is proposed as an alternative to produce the same CO2 reduction. ► Nuclear power requires less installed capacity deployment. ► Investment to produce the same CO2 reduction is smaller using nuclear power. ► Electricity generating cost is less expensive using the nuclear option

  19. External Collection Devices as an Alternative to the Indwelling Urinary Catheter: Evidence-Based Review and Expert Clinical Panel Deliberations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Mikel; Skinner, Claudia; Kaler, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Multiple evidence-based guidelines have suggested clinicians consider external collection devices (ECD) as alternatives to indwelling catheters. Nevertheless, there is a dearth of evidence-based resources concerning their use. An expert consensus panel was convened to review the current state of the evidence, indications for ECDs as an alternative to an indwelling urinary catheter, identify knowledge gaps, and areas for future research. This article presents the results of the expert consensus panel meeting and a systematic literature review regarding ECD use in the clinical setting.

  20. Quantitative analysis of phenol and alkylphenols in Brazilian coal tar

    OpenAIRE

    Elina Bastos Caramão; Irajá do Nascimento Filho

    2004-01-01

    The main purpose of this work is the identification and quantification of phenolic compounds in coal tar samples from a ceramics factory in Cocal (SC), Brazil. The samples were subjected to preparative scale liquid chromatography, using Amberlyst A-27TM ion-exchange resin as stationary phase. The fractions obtained were classified as "acids" and "BN" (bases and neutrals). The identification and quantification of phenols, in the acid fraction, was made by gas chromatography coupled to mass spe...

  1. A Biologically-Based Alternative Water Processor for Long Duration Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, Daniel J.; Pickering, Karen D.; Meyer, Caitlin; Pensinger, Stuart; Vega, Leticia; Flynn, Michael; Jackson, Andrew; Wheeler, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    A wastewater recovery system has been developed that combines novel biological and physicochemical components for recycling wastewater on long duration space missions. Functionally, this Alternative Water Processor (AWP) would replace the Urine Processing Assembly on the International Space Station and reduce or eliminate the need for the multifiltration beds of the Water Processing Assembly (WPA). At its center are two unique game changing technologies: 1) a biological water processor (BWP) to mineralize organic forms of carbon and nitrogen and 2) an advanced membrane processor (Forward Osmosis Secondary Treatment) for removal of solids and inorganic ions. The AWP is designed for recycling larger quantities of wastewater from multiple sources expected during future exploration missions, including urine, hygiene (hand wash, shower, oral and shave) and laundry. The BWP utilizes a single-stage membrane-aerated biological reactor for simultaneous nitrification and denitrification. The Forward Osmosis Secondary Treatment (FOST) system uses a combination of forward osmosis (FO) and reverse osmosis (RO), is resistant to biofouling and can easily tolerate wastewaters high in non-volatile organics and solids associated with shower and/or hand washing. The BWP was operated continuously for over 300 days. After startup, the mature biological system averaged 85% organic carbon removal and 44% nitrogen removal, close to maximum based on available carbon. The FOST has averaged 93% water recovery, with a maximum of 98%. If the wastewater is slighty acidified, ammonia rejection is optimal. This paper will provide a description of the technology and summarize results from ground-based testing using real wastewater.

  2. Engineering and comparison of non-natural pathways for microbial phenol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Brian; Machas, Michael; Nielsen, David R

    2016-08-01

    The non-renewable petrochemical phenol is used as a precursor to produce numerous fine and commodity chemicals, including various pharmaceuticals and phenolic resins. Microbial phenol biosynthesis has previously been established, stemming from endogenous tyrosine via tyrosine phenol lyase (TPL). TPL, however, suffers from feedback inhibition and equilibrium limitations, both of which contribute to reduced flux through the overall pathway. To address these limitations, two novel and non-natural phenol biosynthesis pathways, both stemming instead from chorismate, were constructed and comparatively evaluated. The first proceeds to phenol in one heterologous step via the intermediate p-hydroxybenzoic acid, while the second involves two heterologous steps and the associated intermediates isochorismate and salicylate. Maximum phenol titers achieved via these two alternative pathways reached as high as 377 ± 14 and 259 ± 31 mg/L in batch shake flask cultures, respectively. In contrast, under analogous conditions, phenol production via the established TPL-dependent route reached 377 ± 23 mg/L, which approaches the maximum achievable output reported to date under batch conditions. Additional strain development and optimization of relevant culture conditions with respect to each individual pathway is ultimately expected to result in further improved phenol production. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 1745-1754. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26804162

  3. Experimentation and problem-based learning as alternative for the science teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.B. Soares

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Experimentation  and  problem-based  learning  may  aid  to  diminish  the  lack  of student  interest  in  science  teaching  and  its  contents.  These  tools  help  in understanding and in approaches in the scientific method to contextualize and give meaning to science teaching. Thus, this descriptive study presents an alternative developed from experimental activities carried out in short courses to 185 students from public schools in Uruguaiana-RS. With the problem-based learning, seven courses were offered in the period 2010-2011 lasting for five days. The courses were divided into four stages: problematization, with the theme "The food and our health";  experiment  and  theory,  these  phases  occur  together,  where  students define  the  protocol  to  be  followed  in  order  to  try  to  answer  questions experimentally using books and internet to sustain the practice theoretically; and closing, the students show the results of experiments carried out during the course through  theater,  music,  posters  or  slides.  Since  students  are  the  agents responsible for the development of this work the experimental activities through learning situations based on problems triggered a strong interest and involvement of students in the school contents. In conclusion, this method of experimentation and problem-based learning instigates the interest by scientific knowledge and turns the teaching of science in a practice innovative teaching.

  4. A Visual Analytics Based Decision Support Methodology For Evaluating Low Energy Building Design Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Ranojoy

    The ability to design high performance buildings has acquired great importance in recent years due to numerous federal, societal and environmental initiatives. However, this endeavor is much more demanding in terms of designer expertise and time. It requires a whole new level of synergy between automated performance prediction with the human capabilities to perceive, evaluate and ultimately select a suitable solution. While performance prediction can be highly automated through the use of computers, performance evaluation cannot, unless it is with respect to a single criterion. The need to address multi-criteria requirements makes it more valuable for a designer to know the "latitude" or "degrees of freedom" he has in changing certain design variables while achieving preset criteria such as energy performance, life cycle cost, environmental impacts etc. This requirement can be met by a decision support framework based on near-optimal "satisficing" as opposed to purely optimal decision making techniques. Currently, such a comprehensive design framework is lacking, which is the basis for undertaking this research. The primary objective of this research is to facilitate a complementary relationship between designers and computers for Multi-Criterion Decision Making (MCDM) during high performance building design. It is based on the application of Monte Carlo approaches to create a database of solutions using deterministic whole building energy simulations, along with data mining methods to rank variable importance and reduce the multi-dimensionality of the problem. A novel interactive visualization approach is then proposed which uses regression based models to create dynamic interplays of how varying these important variables affect the multiple criteria, while providing a visual range or band of variation of the different design parameters. The MCDM process has been incorporated into an alternative methodology for high performance building design referred to as

  5. Electropolymerization treatment of phenol wastewater and the reclamation of phenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen; Bao, Liyin; Zhang, Xiaoyu; He, Jun; Wei, Gang

    2012-11-01

    Electrochemical treatment of phenol wastewater was carried out with stainless steel anodes, and phenol removal was achieved through the electropolymerization process. The effects of phenol concentration and bath voltage were discussed. The original chemical oxygen demand (COD) value was approximately 500 mg/L. After electropolymerization treatment, phenol concentration was 0.087 mmol/ L with a removal efficiency of 95.6%, and COD was 68 mg/L with a removal efficiency of 86.5%. During treatment, the average current efficiency was 60.36% and power consumption was 27.62 kJ/kg (6.96 kWh/ton). The electropolymerization reaction was analyzed by cyclic voltammetry, and the polyphenol product was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and infrared spectroscopy. PMID:23356018

  6. Novel polyamide-based nanofibers prepared by electrospinning technique for headspace solid-phase microextraction of phenol and chlorophenols from environmental samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagheri, Habib, E-mail: bagheri@sharif.edu [Environmental and Bio-Analytical Laboratories, Department of Chemistry, Sharif University of Technology, Azadi Av., P.O. Box 11365-9516, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Aghakhani, Ali; Baghernejad, Masoud; Akbarinejad, Alireza [Environmental and Bio-Analytical Laboratories, Department of Chemistry, Sharif University of Technology, Azadi Av., P.O. Box 11365-9516, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-02-24

    A novel solid phase microextraction (SPME) fiber was fabricated by electrospinning method in which a polymeric solution was converted to nanofibers using high voltages. A thin stainless steel wire was coated by the network of polymeric nanofibers. The polymeric nanofiber coating on the wire was mechanically stable due to the fine and continuous nanofibers formation around the wire with a three dimensional structure. Polyamide (nylon 6), due to its suitable characteristics was used to prepare the unbreakable SPME nanofiber. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of this new coating showed a diameter range of 100-200 nm for polyamide nanofibers with a homogeneous and porous surface structure. The extraction efficiency of new coating was investigated for headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) of some environmentally important chlorophenols from aqueous samples followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. Effect of different parameters influencing the extraction efficiency including extraction temperature, extraction time, ionic strength and polyamide amount were investigated and optimized. In order to improve the chromatographic behavior of phenolic compounds, all the analytes were derivatized prior to the extraction process using basic acetic anhydride. The detection limits of the method under optimized conditions were in the range of 2-10 ng L{sup -1}. The relative standard deviations (RSD) (n = 3) at the concentration level of 1.7-6.7 ng mL{sup -1} were obtained between 1 and 7.4%. The calibration curves of chlorophenols showed linearity in the range of 27-1330 ng L{sup -1} for phenol and monochlorophenols and 7-1000 ng L{sup -1} for dichloro and trichlorophenols. Also, the proposed method was successfully applied to the extraction of phenol and chlorophenols from real water samples and relative recoveries were between 84 and 98% for all the selected analytes except for 2,4,6 tricholophenol which was between 72 and 74%.

  7. Thermally reversible thermoset materials based on the chemical modification of alternating aliphatic polyketones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Araya Hermosilla, Rodrigo Andrés

    2016-01-01

    This thesis focused on the synthesis and characterization of different kinds of reversible thermosets and thermoset nanocomposite materials by using alternating aliphatic polyketone (PK) as raw material. Fundamental knowledge was generated regarding the molecular design of new polymers via chemical

  8. Bioavailability of phenols from a phenol-enriched olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez, Manuel; Valls, Rosa M; Romero, Maria-Paz; Macià, Alba; Fernández, Sara; Giralt, Montse; Solà, Rosa; Motilva, Maria-José

    2011-12-01

    Phenolic compounds are one of the main reasons behind the healthy properties of virgin olive oil (VOO). However, their daily intake from VOO is low compared with that obtained from other phenolic sources. Therefore, the intake of VOO enriched with its own phenolic compounds could be of interest to increase the daily dose of these beneficial compounds. To evaluate the effectiveness of enrichment on their bioavailability, the concentration of phenolic compounds and their metabolites in human plasma (0, 60, 120, 240 and 300 min) from thirteen healthy volunteers (seven men and six women, aged 25 and 69 years) was determined after the ingestion of a single dose (30 ml) of either enriched virgin olive oil (EVOO) (961·17 mg/kg oil) or control VOO (288·89 mg/kg oil) in a cross-over study. Compared with VOO, EVOO increased plasma concentration of the phenol metabolites, particularly hydroxytyrosol sulphate and vanillin sulphate (P phenols are highly dependent on the individual.

  9. Promotion of Phenol Photodecomposition over TiO2 Using Au, Pd, and AuPd Nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Su, Ren; Tiruvalam, Ramchandra; He, Qian;

    2012-01-01

    using phenol as a probe molecule. A different phenol degradation pathway was observed when using M/TiO2 catalysts as compared to pristine TiO2.We propose a mechanism to illustrate how the noble metal nanoparticles enhance the efficiency of phenol decomposition based on photoreduction of p......Pd decorated TiO2 materials exhibit excellent long-term photoactivity, in which ∼90% of the phenol can be fully decomposed to CO2 in each cycle....

  10. Quantitative analysis of phenol and alkylphenols in Brazilian coal tar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elina Bastos Caramão

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this work is the identification and quantification of phenolic compounds in coal tar samples from a ceramics factory in Cocal (SC, Brazil. The samples were subjected to preparative scale liquid chromatography, using Amberlyst A-27TM ion-exchange resin as stationary phase. The fractions obtained were classified as "acids" and "BN" (bases and neutrals. The identification and quantification of phenols, in the acid fraction, was made by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS. Nearly twenty-five phenols were identified in the samples and nine of them were also quantified. The results showed that coal tar has large quantities of phenolic compounds of industrial interest.

  11. Efficient Enzyme-Free Biomimetic Sensors for Natural Phenol Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira Garcia, Luane; Ribeiro Souza, Aparecido; Sanz Lobón, Germán; Dos Santos, Wallans Torres Pio; Alecrim, Morgana Fernandes; Fontes Santiago, Mariângela; de Sotomayor, Rafael Luque Álvarez; de Souza Gil, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The development of sensors and biosensors based on copper enzymes and/or copper oxides for phenol sensing is disclosed in this work. The electrochemical properties were studied by cyclic and differential pulse voltammetry using standard solutions of potassium ferrocyanide, phosphate/acetate buffers and representative natural phenols in a wide pH range (3.0 to 9.0). Among the natural phenols herein investigated, the highest sensitivity was observed for rutin, a powerful antioxidant widespread in functional foods and ubiquitous in the plant kingdom. The calibration curve for rutin performed at optimum pH (7.0) was linear in a broad concentration range, 1 to 120 µM (r = 0.99), showing detection limits of 0.4 µM. The optimized biomimetic sensor was also applied in total phenol determination in natural samples, exhibiting higher stability and sensitivity as well as distinct selectivity for antioxidant compounds. PMID:27529208

  12. Copper-catalyzed oxidative C-O bond formation of 2-acyl phenols and 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds with ethers: direct access to phenol esters and enol esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jihye; Han, Sang Hoon; Sharma, Satyasheel; Han, Sangil; Shin, Youngmi; Mishra, Neeraj Kumar; Kwak, Jong Hwan; Lee, Cheong Hoon; Lee, Jeongmi; Kim, In Su

    2014-05-16

    A copper-catalyzed oxidative coupling of 2-carbonyl-substituted phenols and 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds with a wide range of dibenzyl or dialkyl ethers is described. This protocol provides an efficient preparation of phenol esters and enol esters in good yields with high chemoselectivity. This method represents an alternative protocol for classical esterification reactions.

  13. Teacher Implementation of Trial-Based Functional Analysis and Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior for Students with Challenging Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Susan D.; Lo, Ya-yu

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a training package on three middle school special education teachers' accurate implementation of trial-based functional analysis (TBFA) and differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA) with their students with autism spectrum disorders or emotional and behavioral disorders in the…

  14. Improving adhesion between luting cement and zirconia-based ceramic with an alternative surface treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurealice Rosa Maria MARTINS

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the influence of an alternative surface treatment on the microshear bond strength (μsbs of zirconia-based ceramic. Thirty-five zirconia disks were assigned to five groups according to the following treatments: Control (CO, glass and silane were not applied to the zirconia surface; G1, air blasted with 100μm glass beads + glaze + silane; G2, a gel containing 15% (by weight glass beads applied to the ceramic surface + glaze + silane; G3, a gel containing 25% (by weight glass beads applied to the ceramic surface + glaze + silane; and G4, a gel containing 50% (by weight glass beads applied to the ceramic surface + glaze + silane. The specimens were built up using RelyX ARC®, according to the manufacturer’s recommendations, and inserted in an elastomeric mold with an inner diameter of 0.8 mm. The μsbs test was performed using a testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. ANOVA and Tukey’s test (p < 0.05 were applied to the bond strength values (in MPa. CO (15.6 ± 4.1 showed the lowest μsbs value. There were no statistical differences between the G1 (24.9 ± 7.4, G2 (24.9 ± 2.3, G3 (35.0 ± 10.3 and G4 (35.3 ± 6.0 experimental groups. Those groups submitted to surface treatments with higher concentrations of glass showed a lower frequency of adhesive failures. In conclusion, the glass application improved the interaction between the ceramic and the luting cement.

  15. Ethanol based foamed asphalt as potential alternative for low emission asphalt technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Rosli Mohd Hasan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Foamed asphalt typically relies on water as a foaming agent because water becomes gaseous at elevated temperatures, generating numerous tiny bubbles in the asphalt and causing spontaneous foaming. In this study, ethanol was used as a potential alternative to water as a foaming agent. Ethanol is expected to be a physical blowing agent in the same manner as water, except it requires less energy to foam due to its 78 °C boiling point. This study compares the performance of water and ethanol as foaming agents through the measurements of rotational viscosity, the reduction in temperature during foaming, and volatile loss. The ethanol-foamed asphalt binders were prepared at 80 °C and 100 °C, while the water-foamed asphalt binders were prepared at 100 °C and 120 °C. Additionally, the rolling thin film oven (RTFO was used to generate short-term aging of the foamed asphalt binders. A rotational viscometer was used to determine the viscosity of the asphalt binders at 80 °C, 100 °C, 120 °C, 140 °C, and 160 °C. Overall, ethanol can function in the same manner as water but requires less energy to foam. It is proven based on the smaller drop in temperature of the asphalt binder foamed using ethanol compared with that prepared with water. This is due to the lower latent heat capacity of ethanol, which requires less energy to vaporize compared with water. Through the rotational viscometer test, ethanol performs better in lowering the viscosity of asphalt binders, which is essential in allowing production processes at low temperatures, as well as a better workability and aggregate coating. Ethanol can be expelled from the foamed asphalt binders at a higher rate due to its lower boiling point and latent heat.

  16. Characterization of coastal urban watershed bacterial communities leads to alternative community-based indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, C.H.; Sercu, B.; Van De Werhorst, L.C.; Wong, J.; DeSantis, T.Z.; Brodie, E.L.; Hazen, T.C.; Holden, P.A.; Andersen, G.L.

    2010-03-01

    Microbial communities in aquatic environments are spatially and temporally dynamic due to environmental fluctuations and varied external input sources. A large percentage of the urban watersheds in the United States are affected by fecal pollution, including human pathogens, thus warranting comprehensive monitoring. Using a high-density microarray (PhyloChip), we examined water column bacterial community DNA extracted from two connecting urban watersheds, elucidating variable and stable bacterial subpopulations over a 3-day period and community composition profiles that were distinct to fecal and non-fecal sources. Two approaches were used for indication of fecal influence. The first approach utilized similarity of 503 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) common to all fecal samples analyzed in this study with the watershed samples as an index of fecal pollution. A majority of the 503 OTUs were found in the phyla Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria. The second approach incorporated relative richness of 4 bacterial classes (Bacilli, Bacteroidetes, Clostridia and a-proteobacteria) found to have the highest variance in fecal and non-fecal samples. The ratio of these 4 classes (BBC:A) from the watershed samples demonstrated a trend where bacterial communities from gut and sewage sources had higher ratios than from sources not impacted by fecal material. This trend was also observed in the 124 bacterial communities from previously published and unpublished sequencing or PhyloChip- analyzed studies. This study provided a detailed characterization of bacterial community variability during dry weather across a 3-day period in two urban watersheds. The comparative analysis of watershed community composition resulted in alternative community-based indicators that could be useful for assessing ecosystem health.

  17. Demand for Phenol Increases Steadily

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Dramatic growth in output By the end of 2006 China's capacity to produce phenol had reached more than 600 thousand t/a. The total output was 523 thousand tons in 2006,an increase of 18.1% over 2005.

  18. Synthesis and characterization of N, N'-bis[2-hydroxyethyl]-1,4,6,8-naphthalenediimide with para substituted of phenols based on charge-transfer complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refat, Moamen S.; Killa, Hamada M. A.; Grabchev, Ivo; El-Sayed, Mohamed Y.

    2007-09-01

    The interaction of charge-transfer (CT) complexes resulted from the reaction of N, N'-bis[2-hydroxyethyl]-1,4,6,8-naphthalenediimide (BHENDI) with some various acceptors like as substituted phenols in para position; 4-aminophenol (4AP), 4-methylphenol (4MP) and 4-nitrophenol (4NP) have been studied in methanol at room temperature. The reaction was studied using electronic (UV-vis), mid infrared, and 1H NMR spectra and thermal measurements (TGA and DTG) as well as elemental analysis CHN. The chemical analysis data of the resulted CT-complexes, BHENDI-acceptors, reveal that the formation of a 1:2 CT complexes in all cases. The interaction of N, N'-bis[2-hydroxyethyl]-1,4,6,8-naphthalenediimide and phenolic acceptors were investigated spectrophotometrically and found two detected CT bands have n-π * transition. The donor site involved in CT interaction is the diimide two nitrogen atoms by forming hydrogen bonding. The kinetic thermodynamic parameters like Δ E, Δ H, Δ S and Δ G are calculated from the DTG diagrams using Coats-Redfern method. The electrical conductivity properties for the solid CT complexes were measured within the temperature of room 25 °C.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of mono- and bimetallic complexes of Zn(II and Cu(II; new multifunctional unsymmetrical acyclic and macrocyclic phenol-based ligand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Golchoubian

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The dicompartmental macrocyclic ligand (L22- was prepared by [1:1] cyclic condensation of N,N′-dimethyacetate-N,N′-ethylene-di(5-methyl-3-formyl-2-hydroxybenzylamine with 1,3-diaminopropane. The ligand includes dissimilar N(amine2O2 and N(imine2O2 coordination sites sharing two phenolic oxygen atoms and containing two methyl acetate pedant arms on the amine nitrogen donor atoms. A series of mono- and bimetallic complexes were synthesized and characterized on the basis of elemental analysis, molar conductance measurement, IR and UV-Vis spectroscopy techniques. It was found that during the cyclization process the copper (II displaced from the N(amine2O2 to the N(imine2O2 coordination site and one of the methyl acetate pedant arms is dissociated. The heterodinuclear complex of [ZnL2Cu(-OAc]+ was prepared by a transmetallation reaction on the [ZnL2Zn(-OAc]+ by Cu(II. The characterization results showed that the two metal ions are bridged by two phenolic oxygen atoms and an acetate group, providing distorted five-coordination geometries for the both metal ions.

  20. Is case-based learning an effective teaching strategy to challenge students' alternative conceptions regarding chemical kinetics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalçınkaya, Eylem; Taştan-Kırık, Özgecan; Boz, Yezdan; Yıldıran, Demet

    2012-07-01

    Background: Case-based learning (CBL) is simply teaching the concept to the students based on the cases. CBL involves a case, which is a scenario based on daily life, and study questions related to the case, which allows students to discuss their ideas. Chemical kinetics is one of the most difficult concepts for students in chemistry. Students have generally low levels of conceptual understanding and many alternative conceptions regarding it. Purpose: This study aimed to explore the effect of CBL on dealing with students' alternative conceptions about chemical kinetics. Sample: The sample consists of 53 high school students from one public high school in Turkey. Design and methods : Nonequivalent pre-test and post-test control group design was used. Reaction Rate Concept Test and semi-structured interviews were used for data collection. Convenience sampling technique was followed. For data analysis, the independent samples t-test and ANOVA was performed. Results : Both concept test and interview results showed that students instructed with cases had better understanding of core concepts of chemical kinetics and had less alternative conceptions related to the subject matter compared to the control group students, despite the fact that it was impossible to challenge all the alternative conceptions in the experimental group. Conclusions: CBL is an effective teaching method for challenging students' alternative conceptions in the context of chemical kinetics. Since using cases in small groups and whole class discussions has been found to be an effective way to cope with the alternative conceptions, it can be applied to other subjects and grade levels in high schools with a higher sample size. Furthermore, the effect of this method on academic achievement, motivation and critical thinking skills are other variables that can be investigated for future studies in the subject area of chemistry.

  1. Prebiotic effects of yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius Poepp. & Endl), a source of fructooligosaccharides and phenolic compounds with antioxidant activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campos, D.; Betalleluz-Pallardel, I.; Chirinos, R.; Aguilar-Glalvez, A.; Noratto, G.; Pedreschi, R.

    2012-01-01

    Thirty-five different yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius Poepp. & Endl) accessions were evaluated as potential alternative sources of fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and phenolic type natural antioxidants. FOS, total phenolics (TPC) and antioxidant capacity (AC) contents in the ranges of 6.4–65 g/100

  2. Solid/liquid extraction equilibria of phenolic compounds with trioctylphosphine oxide impregnated in polymeric membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praveen, Prashant; Loh, Kai-Chee

    2016-06-01

    Trioctylphosphine oxide based extractant impregnated membranes (EIM) were used for extraction of phenol and its methyl, hydroxyl and chloride substituted derivatives. The distribution coefficients of the phenols varied from 2 to 234, in the order of 1-napthol > p-chlorophenol > m-cresol > p-cresol > o-cresol > phenol > catechol > pyrogallol > hydroquinone, when initial phenols loadings was varied in 100-2000 mg/L. An extraction model, based on the law of mass action, was formulated to predict the equilibrium distribution of the phenols. The model was in excellent agreement (R(2) > 0.97) with the experimental results at low phenols concentrations ( 0.95), which signified high mass transfer resistance in the EIMs. Examination of the effects of ring substitution on equilibrium, and bivariate statistical analysis between the amounts of phenols extracted into the EIMs and factors affecting phenols interaction with TOPO, indicated the dominant role of hydrophobicity in equilibrium determination. These results improve understanding of the solid/liquid equilibrium process between phenols and the EIMs, and these will be useful in designing phenol recovery process from wastewater. PMID:27031803

  3. Base de Gröbner de l'idéal galoisien du groupe alterné

    OpenAIRE

    Valibouze, Annick

    2011-01-01

    nombre de pages : 11 International audience This article proposes an efficient and simple algebraic method of computation of a Gröbner basis generating the alternating galoisian ideal of a univariate separable polynomial. We named this method “the descent of the Vandermonde determinants”. Cet article propose une méthode algébrique efficace et simple pour obtenir une base de Gröbner engendrant l'idéal galoisien des relations alternées d'un polynôme univarié séparable de groupe de Galo...

  4. Incentivising effort in governance of public hospitals: Development of a delegation-based alternative to activity-based remuneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søgaard, Rikke; Kristensen, Søren Rud; Bech, Mickael

    2015-08-01

    This paper is a first examination of the development of an alternative to activity-based remuneration in public hospitals, which is currently being tested at nine hospital departments in a Danish region. The objective is to examine the process of delegating the authority of designing new incentive schemes from the principal (the regional government) to the agents (the hospital departments). We adopt a theoretical framework where, when deciding about delegation, the principal should trade off an initiative effect against the potential cost of loss of control. The initiative effect is evaluated by studying the development process and the resulting incentive schemes for each of the departments. Similarly, the potential cost of loss of control is evaluated by assessing the congruence between focus of the new incentive schemes and the principal's objectives. We observe a high impact of the effort incentive in the form of innovative and ambitious selection of projects by the agents, leading to nine very different solutions across departments. However, we also observe some incongruence between the principal's stated objectives and the revealed private interests of the agents. Although this is a baseline study involving high uncertainty about the future, the findings point at some issues with the delegation approach that could lead to inefficient outcomes.

  5. A Web-based Alternative Non-animal Method Database for Safety Cosmetic Evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung Won; Kim, Bae-Hwan

    2016-07-01

    Animal testing was used traditionally in the cosmetics industry to confirm product safety, but has begun to be banned; alternative methods to replace animal experiments are either in development, or are being validated, worldwide. Research data related to test substances are critical for developing novel alternative tests. Moreover, safety information on cosmetic materials has neither been collected in a database nor shared among researchers. Therefore, it is imperative to build and share a database of safety information on toxicological mechanisms and pathways collected through in vivo, in vitro, and in silico methods. We developed the CAMSEC database (named after the research team; the Consortium of Alternative Methods for Safety Evaluation of Cosmetics) to fulfill this purpose. On the same website, our aim is to provide updates on current alternative research methods in Korea. The database will not be used directly to conduct safety evaluations, but researchers or regulatory individuals can use it to facilitate their work in formulating safety evaluations for cosmetic materials. We hope this database will help establish new alternative research methods to conduct efficient safety evaluations of cosmetic materials. PMID:27437094

  6. A Web-based Alternative Non-animal Method Database for Safety Cosmetic Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung Won; Kim, Bae-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Animal testing was used traditionally in the cosmetics industry to confirm product safety, but has begun to be banned; alternative methods to replace animal experiments are either in development, or are being validated, worldwide. Research data related to test substances are critical for developing novel alternative tests. Moreover, safety information on cosmetic materials has neither been collected in a database nor shared among researchers. Therefore, it is imperative to build and share a database of safety information on toxicological mechanisms and pathways collected through in vivo, in vitro, and in silico methods. We developed the CAMSEC database (named after the research team; the Consortium of Alternative Methods for Safety Evaluation of Cosmetics) to fulfill this purpose. On the same website, our aim is to provide updates on current alternative research methods in Korea. The database will not be used directly to conduct safety evaluations, but researchers or regulatory individuals can use it to facilitate their work in formulating safety evaluations for cosmetic materials. We hope this database will help establish new alternative research methods to conduct efficient safety evaluations of cosmetic materials. PMID:27437094

  7. Alternating Coordinate-Momentum Representation for Quantum States Based on Bopp Operators for Modelling Long-Distance Coherence Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezzat G. Bakhoum

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an alternating coordinate-momentum representation for propagation and transition of associated wave function, based on Bopp operators and on a certain symbolic determinant corresponding to a set of two linear equations with null free terms. It is shown that this alternating representation can justify in a good manner the patterns created through reflection/refraction of waves on nonperfectly smooth interfaces and phase correspondence of diffracted beams without the need of supplementary support functions. Correlations with Lorentz transformation of wave functions by interaction with a certain material medium (the space-time origin of a wave-train being adjusted are also presented, and supplementary aspects regarding the use of electromagnetic scalar and vector potentials for modelling evolution within this alternating representation are added.

  8. Optimization of phenolics and dietary fibre extraction from date seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Farsi, Mohamed Ali; Lee, Chang Yong

    2008-06-01

    This work was conducted to optimise extraction conditions of phenolics and dietary fibre from date seeds. The effects of solvent to sample ratio, temperature, extraction time, number of extractions and solvent type on phenolic extraction efficiency were studied. At two-stage extraction, each stage 1h duration at 45°C with a solvent to sample ratio of 60:1, is considered optimum. Acetone (50%), and butanone were the most efficient solvents for extraction and purification, increasing the yield and phenolic contents of seed concentrate to 18.10 and 36.26g/100g, respectively. The total dietary fibre of seeds (57.87g/100g) increased after water and acetone extractions to 83.50 and 82.17g/100g, respectively. Nine phenolic acids (free and liberated) were detected in seeds with p-hydroxybenzoic (9.89mg/100g), protocatechuic (8.84mg/100g), and m-coumaric (8.42mg/100g) acids found to be among the highest. After extraction and purification, total phenolic acid content increased significantly from 48.64 to 193.83mg/100g. Protocatechuic, caffeic and ferulic acids were the major phenolic acids found in the concentrates. Based on this study, we believe date seed concentrates could potentially be an inexpensive source of natural dietary fibre and antioxidants and possibly used as a functional food ingredient. PMID:26065761

  9. Phenolic recovery and bioaccessibility from milled and finished whole grain oat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Koecher, Katie; Hansen, Laura; Ferruzzi, Mario G

    2016-08-10

    While much is known about the benefits of oat fiber, the relevance of phenolics from oat based food products remains unclear. To gain insight into the relevance of phenolics from consumer oat products, the content of phenolics and avenanthramides (AVEs) was followed in 10 oat cultivars as well as milled oat ingredients and ready to eat (RTE) consumer products (puffed cereals and snack bars). Free phenolic content ranged from 17.2 to 228.1 μg g(-1) DW with AVEs accounting for 57.3-90.6% of the total free phenolics. Bound phenolic content ranged from 141.4 to 680.9 μg g(-1) DW with ferulic acid accounting for 62-94% of the bound phenolics. Select oat groats were ground to flour and prepared as wet cooked porridges (∼20% oat flour in boiling water) or introduced as RTE products into a three stage in vitro digestion to determine phenolic bioaccessibility. The relative bioaccessibility for wet cooked porridges ranged from 0.3-2.6% and from 2.9-28.8% for individual phenolic acids and AVEs, respectively. Puffed oat cereal had significantly higher bioaccessibility compared to matching wet-cook porridge made from the same oat flour (e.g. 83.8% versus 19.1% for AVE A; p cereal may have a positive impact on the digestive release and bioaccessibility of oat phenolics in the upper GI tract. PMID:27406420

  10. Brassicacea-based management strategies as an alternative to combat nematode pests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fourie, Hendrika; Ahuja, Preeti; Lammers, Judith; Daneel, Mieke

    2016-01-01

    Nematode pests parasitise and cause substantial crop yield and quality losses to a wide range of crops worldwide. To minimize such damage, the exploitation and development of alternative nematode control strategies are becoming increasingly important, particularly as a result of global efforts to

  11. Alternatives to Custody: A Ten-Year Review of a Community-Based Program in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Barbara Christine

    1996-01-01

    Describes the development of a community forensic psychology service during its first 10 years of service. Service emphasizes cooperation among psychologists, probation officers, and others in establishing alternatives to custody for sex offenders, shoplifters, drug and alcohol abusers, and young criminals. Discusses theoretical orientation of the…

  12. Methodology for Evaluating an Adaptation of Evidence-Based Drug Abuse Prevention in Alternative Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopson, Laura M.; Steiker, Lori K. H.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to set forth an innovative methodological protocol for culturally grounding interventions with high-risk youths in alternative schools. This study used mixed methods to evaluate original and adapted versions of a culturally grounded substance abuse prevention program. The qualitative and quantitative methods…

  13. Removal of Phenol from Synthetic and Industrial Wastewater by Potato Pulp Peroxidases

    OpenAIRE

    Kurnik, Katarzyna; Treder, Krzysztof; Skorupa-Kłaput, Monika; Tretyn, Andrzej; Tyburski, Jarosław

    2015-01-01

    Plant peroxidases have strong potential utility for decontamination of phenol-polluted wastewater. However, large-scale use of these enzymes for phenol depollution requires a source of cheap, abundant, and easily accessible peroxidase-containing material. In this study, we show that potato pulp, a waste product of the starch industry, contains large amounts of active peroxidases. We demonstrate that potato pulp may serve as a tool for peroxidase-based remediation of phenol pollution. The phen...

  14. Evaluation of Antioxidant Properties of Phenolics Extracted from Ananas comosus L.

    OpenAIRE

    Adhikarimayum HARIPYAREE; Kshetrimayum GUNESHWOR; Maibam DAMAYANTI

    2010-01-01

    Phenolics were extracted from the fruit tissues of Ananas comosus L. var. queen, cv. �Meitei Keehom�, a variety of pineapple grown in Manipur, India, after skin peeling, purified and their antioxidant properties were analyzed. The antioxidant properties were assessed based on the ability of fruit phenolics in absolute methanol to scavenge DPPH, superoxide anion radicals and hydroxyl radicals and compared to antioxidant compounds like ascorbic acid and pyragallol. Pineapple fruit phenolics sca...

  15. 4-Nitrocatecholato iron(III) complexes of 2-aminomethyl pyridine-based bis(phenol) amine as structural models for catechol-bound 3,4-PCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaei, Elham; Heidari, Sima; Wojtczak, Andrzej; Cotič, Patricia; Kozakiewicz, Anna

    2016-02-01

    Two nitrocatecholato(HNC) iron(III) complexes, [FeLAMPX(H-NC)]. NEt3, of the tetradendate ligand (2-aminomethylpyridine)bis(2-pyridylmethyl)amine (H2LAMPX) were synthesized and structurally characterized. These structural models for catechol-bound 3,4-PCD were characterized by IR, UV-vis, elemental analysis and magnetic measurements. X-ray crystallography studies revealed that in both complexes the iron(III) centers are distorted octahedral and coordinated by two phenolate oxygen's, two amine nitrogen's of the ligand and mono anionic nitrocatecholate group (HNC). The variable-temperature magnetic susceptibility studies revealed paramagnetic properties of the reported complexes. The effective magnetic moments for the complexes lie between 5.3 and 5.4 BM correspond to the reported values for high spin Fe(III) center. The ligand-centered oxidation and metal-centered reduction of complexes was studies using cyclic voltammetry (CV) technique.

  16. Bienzymatic sensor based on the use of redox enzymes and chitosan-MWCNT nanocomposite. Evaluation of total phenolic content in plant extracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We are presenting a bienzymatic sensor for the determination of polyphenols. An ITO electrode was modified with multiwalled carbon nanotubes, and the enzymes laccase and tyrosinase were co-entrapped into a chitosan matrix. The resulting biosensor was calibrated at -50 mV (vs. the Ag/AgCl reference electrode) using rosmarinic acid, caffeic acid and gallic acid as the substrates. The new biosensor resulted in a 10.7-fold increase in response sensitivity and a considerable improvement of the detection limit (42 nM for rosmarinic acid). Fouling of the surface of the biosensor was prevented by applying the surfactant Tween 20. The data recorded in surfactant medium revealed a significant improvement of the operational stability and an enlarged linear concentration ranges (up to 12 μM for rosmarinic acid). The sensor was used to evaluate the total phenolic content from extracts of Salvia officinalis and cultures of Basilicum callus. (author)

  17. Comparative anti-inflammatory activities of curcumin and tetrahydrocurcumin based on the phenolic O-H bond dissociation enthalpy, ionization potential and quantum chemical descriptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Yukio; Ishii, Hiroaki; Takada, Naoki; Tanaka, Shoji; Machino, Mamoru; Ito, Shigeru; Fujisawa, Seiichiro

    2008-01-01

    Curcumin and its reduced derivative tetrahydrocurcumin have been shown to exhibit chemopreventive activity. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibition in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- or Porphyromonas gingivalis fimbria-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells was investigated using Northern blot analysis. The fimbria-stimulated expression of the COX-2 gene was inhibited by curcumin but not by tetrahydrocurcumin. LPS-stimulated COX-2 gene expression was completely inhibited by curcumin, but an increase in the concentration of tetrahydrocurcumin did not cause complete inhibition of COX-2 expression. The inhibitory effect of curcumin on nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) activation in the cells was clearly observed, but that of tetrahydrocurcumin was incomplete even at a concentration of 20 microM. To explain the difference in effect between the two compounds, analysis of the frontier orbital was performed using ab initio 6-31G* wave function. The calculated chemical hardness (eta) for curcumin was clearly smaller, whereas its electronegativity (chi) and electrophilicity (omega) were clearly greater than the corresponding values for the curcumin-related compounds tetrahydrocurcumin, isoeugenol and eugenol. This suggested that the anti-inflammatory activities of curcumin may be related to eta-, chi- and/or omega-controlled enzymes. In addition, the bond dissociation enthalpy (BDE) of the phenolic OH was calculated using the density function theory (DFT)/B3LY. The total BDE values of curcumin and tetrahydrocurcumin were almost identical, but the BDE of one-electron oxidation and ionization potential (IP) for curcumin were lower than those for tetrahydrocurcumin, suggesting the highly pro-oxidative activity of curcumin. Curcumin has both oxidant and antioxidant properties. A causal link between the anti-inflammatory activities and molecular properties of phenolic antioxidants is suggested. PMID:18507010

  18. Sulfomethylated phenolic material useful in post primary oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stapp, P.R.; Pardue, J.E.

    1986-12-30

    This patent describes a sulfomethylated alkyl phenol compound chosen from among the group consisting of sulfomethylated alkyl phenol, sulfomethylated alkylated bis-phenol, and sulfomethylated alkylated naphthol.

  19. The influence of base rates on correlations: An evaluation of proposed alternative effect sizes with real-world data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babchishin, Kelly M; Helmus, Leslie-Maaike

    2016-09-01

    Correlations are the simplest and most commonly understood effect size statistic in psychology. The purpose of the current paper was to use a large sample of real-world data (109 correlations with 60,415 participants) to illustrate the base rate dependence of correlations when applied to dichotomous or ordinal data. Specifically, we examined the influence of the base rate on different effect size metrics. Correlations decreased when the dichotomous variable did not have a 50 % base rate. The higher the deviation from a 50 % base rate, the smaller the observed Pearson's point-biserial and Kendall's tau correlation coefficients. In contrast, the relationship between base rate deviations and the more commonly proposed alternatives (i.e., polychoric correlation coefficients, AUCs, Pearson/Thorndike adjusted correlations, and Cohen's d) were less remarkable, with AUCs being most robust to attenuation due to base rates. In other words, the base rate makes a marked difference in the magnitude of the correlation. As such, when using dichotomous data, the correlation may be more sensitive to base rates than is optimal for the researcher's goals. Given the magnitude of the association between the base rate and point-biserial correlations (r = -.81) and Kendall's tau (r = -.80), we recommend that AUCs, Pearson/Thorndike adjusted correlations, Cohen's d, or polychoric correlations should be considered as alternate effect size statistics in many contexts. PMID:26182856

  20. The influence of base rates on correlations: An evaluation of proposed alternative effect sizes with real-world data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babchishin, Kelly M; Helmus, Leslie-Maaike

    2016-09-01

    Correlations are the simplest and most commonly understood effect size statistic in psychology. The purpose of the current paper was to use a large sample of real-world data (109 correlations with 60,415 participants) to illustrate the base rate dependence of correlations when applied to dichotomous or ordinal data. Specifically, we examined the influence of the base rate on different effect size metrics. Correlations decreased when the dichotomous variable did not have a 50 % base rate. The higher the deviation from a 50 % base rate, the smaller the observed Pearson's point-biserial and Kendall's tau correlation coefficients. In contrast, the relationship between base rate deviations and the more commonly proposed alternatives (i.e., polychoric correlation coefficients, AUCs, Pearson/Thorndike adjusted correlations, and Cohen's d) were less remarkable, with AUCs being most robust to attenuation due to base rates. In other words, the base rate makes a marked difference in the magnitude of the correlation. As such, when using dichotomous data, the correlation may be more sensitive to base rates than is optimal for the researcher's goals. Given the magnitude of the association between the base rate and point-biserial correlations (r = -.81) and Kendall's tau (r = -.80), we recommend that AUCs, Pearson/Thorndike adjusted correlations, Cohen's d, or polychoric correlations should be considered as alternate effect size statistics in many contexts.

  1. Synthesis, characterization and self-assembly of Co3+ complexes appended with phenol and catechol groups

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Afsar Ali; Deepak Bansal; Rajeev Gupt

    2014-09-01

    This work presents the syntheses, characterization and hydrogen bonding based self-assembly of Co3+ complexes of pyridine-amide based bidentate ligands containing appended phenol and catechol groups. Placement of multiple hydrogen bond donors (phenolic OH and amidic NH groups) and acceptors (Oamide groups) in these molecules results in interesting self-assembled architectures.

  2. DETECTION OF PHENOL DEGRADING BACTERIA AND PSEUDOMONAS PUTIDA IN ACTIVATED SLUDGE BY POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Movahedyan ، H. Khorsandi ، R. Salehi ، M. Nikaeen

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Phenol is one of the organic pollutants in various industrial wastewaters especially petrochemical and oil refining. Biological treatment is one of the considerable choices for removing of phenol present in these wastewaters. Identification of effective microbial species is considered as one of the important priorities for production of the biomass in order to achieve desirable kinetic of biological reactions. Basic purpose of this research is identification of phenol-degrading Pseudomonas Putida in activated sludge by polymerase chain reaction (PCR that has high speed and specificity. In this research, 10 various colonies of phenol-degrading bacteria were isolated from municipal activated sludge and the rate of phenol removal and growth rate of these bacteria were assessed in different concentrations of phenol (200 – 900 mg/L. Confirmation of the largest subunit of multicomponent phenol hydroxylase (LmPH gene and gene coding the N fragment in Pseudomonas Putida-derived methyl phenol operon (DmpN gene through PCR were used for general identification of phenol-degrading bacteria and Pseudomonas Putida, respectively. Presence of a 600 bp (base pairs bond in all of isolated strains indicated that they contain phenol hydroxylase gene. 6 of 10 isolated bacteria were Pseudomonas Putida because they produced a 199 bp PCR product by DmpN primers. According to PCR results in this study, the best phenol-degrading bacteria that can utilize 500 – 600 mg/L phenol completely after 48 hours incubation, belong to Pseudomonas Putida strains. It is clear that use of isolated bacteria can lead to considerable decrease of treatment time as well as promotion of phenol removal rate.

  3. Simultaneous removal of phenol, Cu and Cd from water with corn cob silica-alginate beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Jaehong; Lim, Jeong-Muk; Shea, Patrick J; Oh, Byung-Taek

    2014-05-15

    Phenol and heavy metals in petroleum waste are environmental and human health concerns, but physicochemical removal is often cost-prohibitive and can produce toxic secondary products and treatment residues. An environmentally benign alternative combines corn cob silica with alginate and immobilized bacteria into beads for treating contaminated water. The concentration of phenol was decreased >92% by Pseudomonas putida YNS1 on aliginate-silica beads (2%, w/v) after equilibrating for 96h with water containing 214mg phenol/L. GC-MS analysis indicated formation of benzoquinone and other polar products. Beads containing corn cob silica decreased Cu concentrations by 84-88% and Cd by 83-87% within 24h. In a mixture of 114mg phenol, 43mg Cu and 51mg Cd/L, phenol removal (93% within 96h) only occurred with beads containing the silica and bacterial strain. Beads containing corn cob silica removed >97% of the Cu and >99% of the Cd, critical for reducing toxicity to the bacteria. Beads with the immobilized strain removed phenol when zeolite was used instead of corn cob silica, but beads with silica were more effective for Cu and Cd removal. Results show the potential of corn cob silica combined with alginate and immobilized bacteria for removing phenol and heavy metals from contaminated water. PMID:24685529

  4. Bioconversion of Biomass-Derived Phenols Catalyzed by Myceliophthora thermophila Laccase

    OpenAIRE

    Anastasia Zerva; Nikolaos Manos; Stamatina Vouyiouka; Paul Christakopoulos; Evangelos Topakas

    2016-01-01

    Biomass-derived phenols have recently arisen as an attractive alternative for building blocks to be used in synthetic applications, due to their widespread availability as an abundant renewable resource. In the present paper, commercial laccase from the thermophilic fungus Myceliophthora thermophila was used to bioconvert phenol monomers, namely catechol, pyrogallol and gallic acid in water. The resulting products from catechol and gallic acid were polymers that were partially characterized i...

  5. Frameless Stereotactic Radiosurgery, a Feasible Alternative to the Frame-Based Technique for the Treatment of Refractory Trigeminal Neuralgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, Andrew E; Thomas, Andrew S; Reed, Aaron D; Skinner, William K

    2016-01-01

    Classic trigeminal neuralgia (TN) causes severe facial pain. Several treatment options exist for classic TN refractory to medical therapy, including stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Most studies in the medical literature used a frame-based SRS technique. Improvements in linear accelerator-based treatment systems and image guidance have led to the use of frameless SRS as a safe and feasible alternative to the frame-based technique for the treatment of refractory TN. We present a case of refractory TN successfully treated with frameless SRS. PMID:27186453

  6. Alternative security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book contains the following chapters: The Military and Alternative Security: New Missions for Stable Conventional Security; Technology and Alternative Security: A Cherished Myth Expires; Law and Alternative Security: Toward a Just World Peace; Politics and Alternative Security: Toward a More Democratic, Therefore More Peaceful, World; Economics and Alternative Security: Toward a Peacekeeping International Economy; Psychology and Alternative Security: Needs, Perceptions, and Misperceptions; Religion and Alternative Security: A Prophetic Vision; and Toward Post-Nuclear Global Security: An Overview

  7. Evaluation of alternative age-based methods for estimating relative abundance from survey data in relation to assessment models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Casper Willestofte; Nielsen, Anders; Kristensen, Kasper

    2014-01-01

    Indices of abundance from fishery-independent trawl surveys constitute an important source of information for many fish stock assessments. Indices are often calculated using area stratified sample means on age-disaggregated data, and finally treated in stock assessment models as independent...... observations. We evaluate a series of alternative methods for calculating indices of abundance from trawl survey data (delta-lognormal, delta-gamma, and Tweedie using Generalized Additive Models) as well as different error structures for these indices when used as input in an age-based stock assessment model...... different indices produced. The stratified mean method is found much more imprecise than the alternatives based on GAMs, which are found to be similar. Having time-varying index variances is found to be of minor importance, whereas the independence assumption is not only violated but has significant impact...

  8. Scientific Opinion on the toxicological evaluation of phenol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available EFSA was asked by the German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR to re-evaluate the TDI for phenol of 1.5 mg/kg bw/day, since this value is within the same dose range which was reported to be associated with some haematotoxic and immunotoxic effects in an oral study on phenol. The Panel comprehensively reviewed the available toxicological studies, mainly those using an oral route of exposure. The CEF experts did not consider immunotoxicity as a suitable endpoint on which to base a new TDI for phenol, given the study limitations and the lack of confirmation of phenol-induced immunotoxic effects in other studies. The Panel considered a gavage developmental toxicity study and an oral two-generation reproduction toxicity study as the two most robust toxicity studies, and performed a dose-response analysis of these data using the benchmark dose (BMD approach. The lower 95 % confidence bound (one-sided of the BMD, denoted BMDL, was then taken as the reference point. The lowest reference point for deriving a health based guidance value was provided by the BMDL10 of 52 mg/kg bw/day for reduced maternal body weight gain from a developmental toxicity study where rats were exposed to phenol by gavage from gestational day 6 to 16. The CEF Panel set a TDI for phenol to 0.5 mg/kg bw/day, by applying a standard uncertainty factor of 100 (for inter- and intra-species differences to this BMDL10 value. The Panel did not assess the hazards related to the possible oxidation products of phenol, e.g. quinones/hydroquinones. Therefore, the above TDI only covers phenol. Exposure to phenol may occur via sources other than food contact materials, e.g. flavourings, smoke flavourings, traditionally smoked foods, floor waxes, cosmetics, disinfectants, etc.. The European Commission may wish to take note of all these sources of exposure if setting a restriction for phenol in food contact materials.

  9. Evaluation of new alternative strategies to predict neurotoxicity with human based test systems

    OpenAIRE

    Krug, Anne-Kathrin

    2013-01-01

    Animal experiments are still the ‘gold standard’ in safety evaluation defined by the OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) or the US EPA (Environmental Protection Agency). Millions of animals are used each year to assess the risk of chemical toxicities for human health. But animal experiments are expensive, time-consuming and have a restricted prediction capacity regarding human toxicity. Hence the demand for validated alternative strategies is high. Validated differen...

  10. MetaProm: a neural network based meta-predictor for alternative human promoter prediction

    OpenAIRE

    Wang Junwen; Ungar Lyle H; Tseng Hung; Hannenhalli Sridhar

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background De novo eukaryotic promoter prediction is important for discovering novel genes and understanding gene regulation. In spite of the great advances made in the past decade, recent studies revealed that the overall performances of the current promoter prediction programs (PPPs) are still poor, and predictions made by individual PPPs do not overlap each other. Furthermore, most PPPs are trained and tested on the most-upstream promoters; their performances on alternative promot...

  11. An Error Recoverable Structure Based on Complementary Logic and Alternating-Retry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Hui Jiang

    2005-01-01

    Modern VLSI circuits provide adequate on-chip resources. So that online testing and retry integrated into a chip are absolutely necessary for system-on-a-chip technology. This paper firstly proposes a general online testing plus retrying structure. Obviously, although retry can mask transient or intermittent faults, it is useless for handling permanent faults generally. To solve this problem, this paper presents a novel dual modular redundancy (DMR) structure using complementary logic-alternating-complementary logic (CL-ACL) switching mode. During error-free operation, the CLACL structure operates by complementary logic mode. After an error is detected, it retries by alternating logic mode. If all errors belong to single or multiple temporary 0/1-error or stuck-at-error produced by one module, then these errors can be corrected effectively. The results obtained from the simulation validate the correctness of the CL-ACL structure.Analytic results show that the delay of the CL-ACL structure is dramatically less than that of a DMR structure using alternating-complementary logic mode.

  12. Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Help a Friend Who Cuts? Complementary and Alternative Medicine KidsHealth > For Teens > Complementary and Alternative Medicine Print ... replacement. continue How Is CAM Different From Conventional Medicine? Conventional medicine is based on scientific knowledge of ...

  13. The potential of standards-based agriculture biology as an alternative to traditional biology in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellu, George Sahr

    schools. Thoron & Meyer (2011) suggested that research into the contribution of integrated science courses toward higher test scores yielded mixed results. This finding may have been due in part to the fact that integrated science courses only incorporate select topics into agriculture education courses. In California, however, agriculture educators have developed standards-based courses such as Agriculture Biology (AgBio) that cover the same content standards as core traditional courses such as traditional biology. Students in both AgBio and traditional biology take the same standardized biology test. This is the first time there has been an opportunity for a fair comparison and a uniform metric for an agriscience course such as AgBio to be directly compared to traditional biology. This study will examine whether there are differences between AgBio and traditional biology with regard to standardized test scores in biology. Furthermore, the study examines differences in perception between teachers and students regarding teaching and learning activities associated with higher achievement in science. The findings of the study could provide a basis for presenting AgBio as a potential alternative to traditional biology. The findings of this study suggest that there are no differences between AgBio and traditional biology students with regard to standardized biology test scores. Additionally, the findings indicate that co-curricular activities in AgBio could contribute higher student achievement in biology. However, further research is required to identify specific activities in AgBio that contribute to higher achievement in science.

  14. Alternative energies; Energies alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonal, J.; Rossetti, P

    2007-07-01

    The earth took millions years to made the petroleum, the gas the coal and the uranium. Only a few centuries will be needed to exhaust these fossil fuels and some years to reach expensive prices. Will the wold continue on this way of energy compulsive consumption? The renewable energies and some citizen attitudes are sufficient to break this spiral. This book proposes to discuss these alternative energies. It shows that this attitude must be supported by the government. It takes stock on the more recent information concerning the renewable energies. it develops three main points: the electricity storage, the housing and the transports. (A.L.B.)

  15. The protective effects of total phenols in magnolia officinalix rehd. et wils on gastrointestinal tract dysmotility is mainly based on its influence on interstitial cells of cajal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hui; Huang, Dazhi; Li, Tao; Huang, Lihua; Zheng, Xingguang; Tang, Danxia; Zhang, Lu; Wang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Magnolia officinalix Rehd. et Wils is a kind of herb which is widely used for gastrointestinal tract mobility disorder in Asian countries. In this study, we investigated whether the total phenols of Magnolia officinalix Rehd. et Wils (TPM) treatment improves gastrointestinal tract dysmobility induced by intraperitoneal injection of atropine (5 mg/kg) in rats. Rats were randomly grouped into three units: TPM-pretreated/atropine-treated group, atropinetreated group and control group. TPM were administrated for 7 days. Gastric residual rate and intestinal transit were measured 20 min after atropine injected, and gastrointestinal hormones (including: gastrin (GAS), motilin (MTL), somatostatin (SS) and p substance (PS) levels in serum were also measured by ELISA kits. The number and distribution of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) in stomach were detected by immunohistochemistry analysis, while c-kit and stem cell factor (SCF) expressions in stomach were also measured by western blotting. We found that TPM pretreatment significantly improved atropine-induced gastric residual rate increase, while had no significantly effects on intestinal transit; it also significantly normalized GAS, MTL and PS serum levels. Atropine-induced ICCs numbers decreased in both sinuses ventriculi and body of stomach, which is improved by TPM pretreatment. Western blotting results showed the expressions of c-kit and SCF were down-regulated after atropine injection, which can be reversed with TPM pretreatment. These results above indicates that TPM treatment can significantly protected atropine-induced gastric dysmoblility, which may owed to its regulation on c-kit/SCF signing pathway.

  16. Synthesis and Demulsification of Cardanol Based Phenol-Amine Resin PPO-PEO Block Polyethers%腰果酚胺树脂接枝PPO-PEO嵌段聚醚的合成与破乳性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王俊; 宁萌萌; 李翠勤; 李云; 张怀志

    2011-01-01

    Two phenol-amine resin were synthesized using cardanol as raw materials, and then four amphiphilic cardanol - based phenol-amine resin block polyethers(CPAE) of different molecular weight were further synthesized using phenol - amine resin as initiator through addition reaction with epoxyethane and epoxypropane respectively. Four CPAE were characterizad by FT-IR. The surface tension and interfacial tension were measured, and demulsification performance were studied using bottle test. The results show that the cmc and γcmc of CPAE increased with the increasing of EO content. The interfacial tension of CPAE aqueous decreased and dewatering rate increased as the concentration increased. Under the conditions of 80 mg/L, 35 "C and 100 min, the dewatering rates of four CPAE are all above 70%, far superior to that of commercial demulsifiers SP169, BP169 and TA1031.%以腰果酚、甲醛和多乙烯多胺为原料合成腰果酚胺树脂起始剂,再与环氧乙烷(EO)和环氧丙烷(PO)聚合,合成了分子质量各异的4种腰果酚胺树脂型嵌段聚醚(CPAE)表面活性剂.采用FT- IR对其结构进行了表征,采用表面张力法和瓶试法分别研究了系列CPAE的表面性能和破乳性能.结果表明,随着EO含量的增加,CPAE的临界胶束质量浓度(cmc)及此时的表面张力(γcmc)增加;随着相对分子质量的增加,cmc及γcmc降低.随着CPAE浓度的增加,CPAE水溶液的界面张力降低,脱水率增大.在80 mg/L,35℃,100 min的条件下,CPAE的脱水率即可达到70%以上,破乳效果远优于商用破乳剂SP169,BP169及TA1031.

  17. 40 CFR 721.7210 - Epoxidized copolymer of phenol and substituted phenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Epoxidized copolymer of phenol and substituted phenol. 721.7210 Section 721.7210 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7210 Epoxidized copolymer of phenol and substituted phenol. (a)...

  18. Alternative bio-based fuels for aviation: the clean airports program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Renewable Aviation Fuels Development Center at Baylor University in Waco, Texas, has been designated as the national coordinator of the Clean Airports Program. The U.S. Dept. of Energy (US DOE) conferred this designation in March 1996. This program, a spin-off of the Clean Cities Program, was initiated to increase the use of alternative fuels in aviation. The two major fuels used in aviation are the current piston engine aviation gasoline and the current turbine engine fuel. The environmental impact of each of these fuels is significant. Aviation gasoline (100LL), currently used in the general aviation piston engine fleet, contributes 100% of the emissions containing lead in the U.S. today. Turbine engine fuel (jet fuel) produces two major environmental impacts: a local one, in the vicinity of the airports, and a global impact on climate change. The Clean Airports Program was established to achieve and maintain clean air at and in the vicinity of airports, through the use of alternative fuel-powered air and ground transportation vehicles. (author)

  19. Techniques for Analysis of Plant Phenolic Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Thomas H.; Meredith A. Wilkes; Ali Khoddami

    2013-01-01

    Phenolic compounds are well-known phytochemicals found in all plants. They consist of simple phenols, benzoic and cinnamic acid, coumarins, tannins, lignins, lignans and flavonoids. Substantial developments in research focused on the extraction, identification and quantification of phenolic compounds as medicinal and/or dietary molecules have occurred over the last 25 years. Organic solvent extraction is the main method used to extract phenolics. Chemical procedures are used to detect the pre...

  20. Use of solar energy in the treatment of water contaminated with phenol by photochemical processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. R. B. Nogueira

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The solar driven photo-Fenton process for treating water containing phenol as a contaminant has been evaluated by means of pilot-scale experiments with a parabolic trough solar reactor (PTR. The effects of Fe(II (0.04-1.0 mmol L-1, H2O2 (7-270 mmol L-1, initial phenol concentration (100 and 500 mg C L-1, solar radiation, and operation mode (batch and fed-batch on the process efficiency were investigated. More than 90% of the dissolved organic carbon (DOC was removed within 3 hours of irradiation or less, a performance equivalent to that of artificially-irradiated reactors, indicating that solar light can be used either as an effective complementary or as an alternative source of photons for the photo-Fenton degradation process. A non-linear multivariable model based on a neural network was fit to the experimental results of batch-mode experiments in order to evaluate the relative importance of the process variables considered on the DOC removal over the reaction time. This included solar radiation, which is not a controlled variable. The observed behavior of the system in batch-mode was compared with fed-batch experiments carried out under similar conditions. The main contribution of the study consists of the results from experiments under different conditions and the discussion of the system behavior. Both constitute important information for the design and scale-up of solar radiation-based photodegradation processes.

  1. An Alternative to Synthetic Acid Base Indicator-Tagetes Erecta Linn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    *A. Elumalai

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work highlights the use of the methanolic extract of the flowers of Tagetes erecta as an acid-base indicator in acid-base titrations. This natural indicator is easy to extract as well as easily available. Indicators used in titration show well marked changes of colour in certain intervals of pH. Most of these indicators are organic dyes and are of synthetic origin. Today synthetic indicators are the choice of acid-base titrations. But due to environmental pollution, availability and cost, the search for natural compounds as an acid-base indicator was started. Herbal indicators are evaluated by using strong acid-strong base, strong acid-weak base, weak acid-strong base and weak acid weak base. In all these titrations the methanolic extract of the flowers of Tagetes erecta was found to be very useful, economical, simple and accurate for acid base titration.

  2. Degradation of phenol wastewater by a new electromagnetic induction photo-catalytic reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, X. C.; Meng, Q. H.; Sun, J. Y.; Yan, Y.; Li, L.; Li, G. C.; Li, D.

    2016-08-01

    A new inductive photo-catalytic reactor was obtained by the alternative magnetic field and optical coupling, which was driven by AC supply. In the cylinder reactor, UV-LED lights with the wavelength of 375-380nm were evenly distributed, and the phenol solution was used as simulated wastewater. The effects of initial phenol concentration, pH, TiO2, H2O2, alternative magnetic frequency, current, and reaction time on the phenol degradation were investigated under an imposed alternative magnetic field. The optimized conditions and results were as follows: phenol concentrations of 15mg/L, pH of 7, H2O2 of 15μL, TiO2 of 0.18g and alternative magnetic frequency of 12 KHz and current of 2A. With these conditions, the phenol degradation ratio reached 47.1% in 1 h reaction time. The new reactor is very promising for the effective treatment of refractory organic pollutants.

  3. 40 CFR 721.5867 - Substituted phenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted phenol. 721.5867 Section... Substances § 721.5867 Substituted phenol. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance generically identified as substituted phenol (PMNs P-89-1125,...

  4. Alternative additives; Alternative additiver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-08-15

    In this project a number of industrial and agricultural waste products have been characterised and evaluated in terms of alkali-getter performance. The intended use is for biomass-fired power stations aiming at reducing corrosion or slagging related problems. The following products have been obtained, characterised and evaluated: 1) Brewery draff 2) Danish de-gassed manure 3) Paper sludge 4) Moulding sand 5) Spent bleaching earth 6) Anorthosite 7) Sand 8) Clay-sludge. Most of the above alternative additive candidates are deemed unsuitable due to insufficient chemical effect and/or expensive requirements for pre-treatment (such as drying and transportation). 3 products were selected for full-scale testing: de-gassed manure, spent bleaching earth and clay slugde. The full scale tests were undertaken at the biomass-fired power stations in Koege, Slagelse and Ensted. Spent bleaching earth (SBE) and clay sludge were the only tested additive candidates that had a proven ability to react with KCl, to thereby reduce Cl-concentrations in deposits, and reduce the deposit flux to superheater tubes. Their performance was shown to nearly as good as commercial additives. De-gassed manure, however, did not evaluate positively due to inhibiting effects of Ca in the manure. Furthermore, de-gassed manure has a high concentration of heavy metals, which imposes a financial burden with regard to proper disposal of the ash by-products. Clay-sludge is a wet clay slurring, and drying and transportation of this product entails substantial costs. Spent bleaching does not require much pre-treatment and is therefore the most promising alternative additive. On the other hand, bleaching earth contains residual plant oil which means that a range of legislation relating to waste combustion comes into play. Not least a waste combustion fee of 330 DKK/tonne. For all alternative (and commercial) additives disposal costs of the increase ash by-products represents a significant cost. This is

  5. Trichlorinated phenols from Hypholoma elongatum.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swarts, H.J.; Verhagen, F.J.M.; Field, J.A.; Wijnberg, J.B.P.A.

    1998-01-01

    Three trichlorinated phenols, 2,4,6-trichloro-3-methoxyphenol, 3,5,6-trichloro-2,4-dimethoxyphenol and 3,4,6-trichloro-2,5-dimethoxyphenol, were detected as novel metabolites in the ethyl acetate extract from the culture medium of the Basidiomycete, Hypholoma elongatum (strain WIJS94-28).

  6. Using Computer-Based Testing as Alternative Assessment Method of Student Learning in Distance Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapriati, Amalia; Zuhairi, Aminudin

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses the use of computer-based testing in distance education, based on the experience of Universitas Terbuka (UT), Indonesia. Computer-based testing has been developed at UT for reasons of meeting the specific needs of distance students as the following: (1) students' inability to sit for the scheduled test; (2) conflicting…

  7. Aptamer-based analysis: a promising alternative for food safety control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaya-González, Sonia; de-los-Santos-Alvarez, Noemí; Miranda-Ordieres, Arturo J; Lobo-Castañón, Maria Jesús

    2013-01-01

    Ensuring food safety is nowadays a top priority of authorities and professional players in the food supply chain. One of the key challenges to determine the safety of food and guarantee a high level of consumer protection is the availability of fast, sensitive and reliable analytical methods to identify specific hazards associated to food before they become a health problem. The limitations of existing methods have encouraged the development of new technologies, among them biosensors. Success in biosensor design depends largely on the development of novel receptors with enhanced affinity to the target, while being stable and economical. Aptamers fulfill these characteristics, and thus have surfaced as promising alternatives to natural receptors. This Review describes analytical strategies developed so far using aptamers for the control of pathogens, allergens, adulterants, toxins and other forbidden contaminants to ensure food safety. The main progresses to date are presented, highlighting potential prospects for the future. PMID:24287543

  8. Novel Alternating Current Electroluminescent Devices with an Asymmetric Structure Based on a Polymer Heterojunction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭海曙; 姚建铨; 王昕; 王鹏; 谢洪泉

    2002-01-01

    Novel alternating current electroluminescent devices with an asymmetric structure are successfully fabricated by using a hole-type polymer, poly(2,5-bis (dodecyloxy)-phenylenevinylene) (PDDOPV), and an electron-type polymer, poly(phenyl quinoxaline) (PPQ). The performance of the polymer devices with heteto junctions under ac operation is insensitive to the thickness of the two polymer layers, compared to that under dc operation. This new advantage means easy and cheap production facility on a large scale in the near future. Different emission spectra are obtained when our ac devices are operated in an ac mode, forward or reverse bias. The emission spectrum at reverse bias includes two parts: one from PDDOPV and the other from PPQ.

  9. Complexity-based learning—An alternative learning design for the twenty-first century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foo Seong David Ng

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In programme delivery, while the international trend in education has seen a shift from teacher-centred to student-centred learning and from transmission to reflective approaches, most leadership programmes have remained heavily teacher-centred. A key feature of teacher-centred learning relies on practices of course-driven programmes. This feature has been remarkably resilient over the years in the face of efforts to effect change in programme delivery and a new understanding of complexity in the world of education. The complexity theoretical framework provides us the advantage of an alternative design for leadership development programmes that is able to meet current and future challenges. Yearly, billions of dollars are spent on training and development. It is important to ensure that the outcome of training, learning and development must yield practical outcomes that are relevant, innovative and implementable solutions.

  10. Aptamer-Based Analysis: A Promising Alternative for Food Safety Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Amaya-González

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Ensuring food safety is nowadays a top priority of authorities and professional players in the food supply chain. One of the key challenges to determine the safety of food and guarantee a high level of consumer protection is the availability of fast, sensitive and reliable analytical methods to identify specific hazards associated to food before they become a health problem. The limitations of existing methods have encouraged the development of new technologies, among them biosensors. Success in biosensor design depends largely on the development of novel receptors with enhanced affinity to the target, while being stable and economical. Aptamers fulfill these characteristics, and thus have surfaced as promising alternatives to natural receptors. This Review describes analytical strategies developed so far using aptamers for the control of pathogens, allergens, adulterants, toxins and other forbidden contaminants to ensure food safety. The main progresses to date are presented, highlighting potential prospects for the future.

  11. Aptamer-based analysis: a promising alternative for food safety control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaya-González, Sonia; de-los-Santos-Alvarez, Noemí; Miranda-Ordieres, Arturo J; Lobo-Castañón, Maria Jesús

    2013-01-01

    Ensuring food safety is nowadays a top priority of authorities and professional players in the food supply chain. One of the key challenges to determine the safety of food and guarantee a high level of consumer protection is the availability of fast, sensitive and reliable analytical methods to identify specific hazards associated to food before they become a health problem. The limitations of existing methods have encouraged the development of new technologies, among them biosensors. Success in biosensor design depends largely on the development of novel receptors with enhanced affinity to the target, while being stable and economical. Aptamers fulfill these characteristics, and thus have surfaced as promising alternatives to natural receptors. This Review describes analytical strategies developed so far using aptamers for the control of pathogens, allergens, adulterants, toxins and other forbidden contaminants to ensure food safety. The main progresses to date are presented, highlighting potential prospects for the future.

  12. An alternative method based on enzymatic fat hydrolysis to quantify volatile compounds in wheat bread crumb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pico, Joana; Nozal, María Jesús; Gómez, Manuel; Bernal, José Luis

    2016-09-01

    An alternative method to quantify 40 volatile compounds in wheat bread crumb is proposed. It consists of a Soxhlet extraction with a mixture of dichloromethane and diethyl ether containing lipases and a subsequent concentration with Vigreux column. It is the first time that lipases are added to transform the fat into free fatty acids and glycerol, which elute at the end of the chromatogram after the analytes, avoiding problems in the chromatography due to fat residues, such as dirtiness in the injector, column clogging or overlapping peaks. The extract is most easily analysed by GC/MS, using a standard addition method to correct matrix effect. The method was fully validated, with extraction efficiencies between 70% and 100% and precision RSD lower than 15%. The method was applied to a commercial crumb, with acetoin, phenylethyl alcohol and acetic acid as highly abundant compounds, which are considered main volatiles in crumb. PMID:27041305

  13. The protective effects of total phenols in magnolia officinalix rehd. et wils on gastrointestinal tract dysmotility is mainly based on its influence on interstitial cells of cajal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hui; Huang, Dazhi; Li, Tao; Huang, Lihua; Zheng, Xingguang; Tang, Danxia; Zhang, Lu; Wang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Magnolia officinalix Rehd. et Wils is a kind of herb which is widely used for gastrointestinal tract mobility disorder in Asian countries. In this study, we investigated whether the total phenols of Magnolia officinalix Rehd. et Wils (TPM) treatment improves gastrointestinal tract dysmobility induced by intraperitoneal injection of atropine (5 mg/kg) in rats. Rats were randomly grouped into three units: TPM-pretreated/atropine-treated group, atropinetreated group and control group. TPM were administrated for 7 days. Gastric residual rate and intestinal transit were measured 20 min after atropine injected, and gastrointestinal hormones (including: gastrin (GAS), motilin (MTL), somatostatin (SS) and p substance (PS) levels in serum were also measured by ELISA kits. The number and distribution of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) in stomach were detected by immunohistochemistry analysis, while c-kit and stem cell factor (SCF) expressions in stomach were also measured by western blotting. We found that TPM pretreatment significantly improved atropine-induced gastric residual rate increase, while had no significantly effects on intestinal transit; it also significantly normalized GAS, MTL and PS serum levels. Atropine-induced ICCs numbers decreased in both sinuses ventriculi and body of stomach, which is improved by TPM pretreatment. Western blotting results showed the expressions of c-kit and SCF were down-regulated after atropine injection, which can be reversed with TPM pretreatment. These results above indicates that TPM treatment can significantly protected atropine-induced gastric dysmoblility, which may owed to its regulation on c-kit/SCF signing pathway. PMID:26884941

  14. A novel sol-gel-based amino-functionalized fiber for headspace solid-phase microextraction of phenol and chlorophenols from environmental samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagheri, Habib [Department of Chemistry, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11365-9516, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: Bagheri@sharif.edu; Babanezhad, Esmaeil; Khalilian, Faezeh [Department of Chemistry, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11365-9516, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2008-05-26

    A novel amino-functionalized polymer was synthesized using 3-(trimethoxysilyl) propyl amine (TMSPA) as precursor and hydroxy-terminated polydimethylsiloxane (OH-PDMS) by sol-gel technology and coated on fused-silica fiber. The synthesis was designed in a way to impart polar moiety into the coating network. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of this new coating showed the homogeneity and the porous surface structure of the film. The efficiency of new coating was investigated for headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME) of some environmentally important chlorophenols from aqueous samples followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. Effect of different parameters influencing the extraction efficiency such as extraction temperature, extraction time, ionic strength and pH was investigated and optimized. In order to improve the separation efficiency of phenolic compounds on chromatography column all the analytes were derivatized prior to extraction using acetic anhydride at alkaline condition. The detection limits of the method under optimized conditions were in the range of 0.02-0.05 ng mL{sup -1}. The relative standard deviations (R.S.D.) (n = 6) at a concentration level of 0.5 ng mL{sup -1} were obtained between 6.8 and 10%. The calibration curves of chlorophenols showed linearity in the range of 0.5-200 ng mL{sup -1}. The proposed method was successfully applied to the extraction from spiked tap water samples and relative recoveries were higher than 90% for all the analytes.

  15. Antioxidant capacity and phenolic acids of virgin coconut oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marina, A M; Man, Y B Che; Nazimah, S A H; Amin, I

    2009-01-01

    The antioxidant properties of virgin coconut oil produced through chilling and fermentation were investigated and compared with refined, bleached and deodorized coconut oil. Virgin coconut oil showed better antioxidant capacity than refined, bleached and deodorized coconut oil. The virgin coconut oil produced through the fermentation method had the strongest scavenging effect on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and the highest antioxidant activity based on the beta-carotene-linoleate bleaching method. However, virgin coconut oil obtained through the chilling method had the highest reducing power. The major phenolic acids detected were ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid. Very high correlations were found between the total phenolic content and scavenging activity (r=0.91), and between the total phenolic content and reducing power (r=0.96). There was also a high correlation between total phenolic acids and beta-carotene bleaching activity. The study indicated that the contribution of antioxidant capacity in virgin coconut oil could be due to phenolic compounds.

  16. The ‘Alternative Quality Contract’ in Massachusetts, Based on Global Budgets, Lowered Medical Spending and Improved Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zirui; Safran, Dana Gelb; Landon, Bruce E.; Landrum, Mary Beth; He, Yulei; Mechanic, Robert E.; Day, Matthew P.; Chernew, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    Seven provider organizations in Massachusetts entered the Blue Cross Blue Shield Alternative Quality Contract in 2009, followed by four more organizations in 2010. This contract, based on a global budget and pay-for-performance for achieving certain quality benchmarks, places providers at risk for excessive spending and rewards them for quality, similar to the new Pioneer Accountable Care Organizations in Medicare. We analyzed changes in spending and quality associated with the Alternative Quality Contract and found that the rate of increase in spending slowed compared to control groups. Overall, participation in the contract over two years led to a savings of 3.3% (1.9% in year-1, 3.3% in year-2) compared to spending in groups not participating in the contract. The savings were even higher for groups whose previous experience had been only in fee-for-service contracting. Such groups’ quarterly savings over two years averaged 8.2% (6.3% in year-1, 9.9% in year-2). Quality of care also improved within organizations participating in the Alternative Quality Contract compared to control organizations in both years. Chronic care management, adult preventive care, and pediatric care improved from year 1 to year 2 within the contracting groups. These results suggest that global budgets coupled with pay-for-performance can begin to slow the underlying growth in medical spending while improving quality. PMID:22786651

  17. Influence of Non-Thermal Plasma Species on the Structure and Functionality of Isolated and Plant-based 1,4-Benzopyrone Derivatives and Phenolic Acids

    OpenAIRE

    Grzegorzewski, Franziska

    2011-01-01

    Die Anwendung herkömmlicher thermischer Verfahren zur Lebensmittelsterilisation ist aufgrund der Empfindlichkeit der Nahrungsmittel starken Einschränkungen unterworfen. Unter der Einwirkung von Temperaturen über 100 °C (373 K) werden nicht nur unerwünschte Mikroorganismen, sondern auch wertvolle Nährstoffe verändert. Eine vielversprechende Alternative zu konventionellen Sterilisationsverfahren sind Niedertemperaturplasmen (NTP), für die eine effektive Inaktivierung von Mikroorganismen bei gle...

  18. Implications to Postsecondary Faculty of Alternative Calculation Methods of Gender-Based Wage Differentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagedorn, Linda Serra

    1998-01-01

    A study explored two distinct methods of calculating a precise measure of gender-based wage differentials among college faculty. The first estimation considered wage differences using a formula based on human capital; the second included compensation for past discriminatory practices. Both measures were used to predict three specific aspects of…

  19. Investigating Impacts of Alternative Crop Market Scenarios on Land Use Change with an Agent-Based Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng Ding

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We developed an agent-based model (ABM to simulate farmers’ decisions on crop type and fertilizer application in response to commodity and biofuel crop prices. Farm profit maximization constrained by farmers’ profit expectations for land committed to biofuel crop production was used as the decision rule. Empirical parameters characterizing farmers’ profit expectations were derived from an agricultural landowners and operators survey and integrated in the ABM. The integration of crop production cost models and the survey information in the ABM is critical to producing simulations that can provide realistic insights into agricultural land use planning and policy making. Model simulations were run with historical market prices and alternative market scenarios for corn price, soybean to corn price ratio, switchgrass price, and switchgrass to corn stover ratio. The results of the comparison between simulated cropland percentage and crop rotations with satellite-based land cover data suggest that farmers may be underestimating the effects that continuous corn production has on yields. The simulation results for alternative market scenarios based on a survey of agricultural land owners and operators in the Clear Creek Watershed in eastern Iowa show that farmers see cellulosic biofuel feedstock production in the form of perennial grasses or corn stover as a more risky enterprise than their current crop production systems, likely because of market and production risks and lock in effects. As a result farmers do not follow a simple farm-profit maximization rule.

  20. DEVELOPMENT ASSESSMENT OF ALTERNATIVE PRACTICUM II BASIC CHEMICAL THROUGH CHEMISTRY FAIR PROJECT ( CFP BASED CONSERVATION USING CHEMICAL DAILY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Urwatin Wusqo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to (1 develop an alternative assessment on the 2nd General Chemistry Experiment through conservation-based chemistry fair project by utilizing the daily chemical (2 Determine the level of validity, practicality and effectiveness. This research is the development (Research Development development model applied Dick and Carey (1985. The subject of limited testing and field trials is subject lecturers and students of Science Education UNNES. Determined by purposive sample, the lecturers and the students who take the course 2nd General Chemistry Experiment. The data obtained from this trial are: (1 input from experts, to determine the content and construct validity of the assessment feature; (2 input from a limited sample testing, to determine the practicality of chemistry clue fair project (CFP based conservation by utilizing chemical daily; Instrument data collectors in the form of a questionnaire legibility chemistry making instructions fair project (CFP based conservation by utilizing daily chemical, scoring guidelines. (3 student learning outcomes data to determine the effectiveness of the assessment. Input from experts student questionnaire, and the value of chemistry fair project (CFP limited test samples analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. Assessment of 2nd General Chemistry Experiment alternative developed is successful well-developed assessment if valid, practical, and effective.

  1. Enhanced anaerobic biological treatment of phenolic wastewaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kindzierski, W.B.

    1989-01-01

    The combined treatment requirements for a high strength phenolic wastewater were examined in batch and semicontinuous anaerobic methanogenic bioassays. Solvent extraction pretreatment and in-situ addition of activated carbon during anaerobic treatment were effective in removing phenol from a coal liquefaction wastewater from the H-coal process. The selective pH adjustment of high strength phenolic wastewater followed by diisopropyl ether extraction reduced the phenolic concentration to non-inhibitory levels, and removed non-phenolic inhibitory compounds. The weakly acid nature of phenol and substituted phenols allows for their selective removal by solvent extraction. Anaerobic bacteria were able to degrade phenol in the solvent extracted wastwater, however, the bacteria exhibited instability under semicontinuous feeding conditions. The addition of activated carbon to the stressed phenol-degrading cultures improved their ability to remove phenol from solution. Further investigation into the role activated carbon performed during anaerobic phenol treatment demonstrated its importance as a biological support, in addition to providing adsorptive capacity for organic (including inhibitory) compounds. The similar study of other support materials (ion exchange resins) which did not possess an adsorptive capacity for organic compounds supported these findings. Excellent agreement was demonstrated among physical evaluation methods, performance bioassays, radiolabelled cell adsorption studies, and scanning electron microscopy observations in judging the value of the materials as biological supports.

  2. The mechanism of Fe (Ⅲ)-catalyzed ozonation of phenol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    竹湘锋; 徐新华

    2004-01-01

    Fe (Ⅲ)-catalyzed ozonation yielded better degradation rate and extent of COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) or oxalic acid as compared with oxidation by ozone alone. Two parameters with strong effects on the efficiency of ozonation are pH of the solution and the catalyst (Fe3+) dosage. The existence of a critical pH value determining the catalysis of Fe (Ⅲ) in acid conditions was observed in phenol and oxalic acid systems. The best efficiency of catalysis was obtained at a moderate concentration of the catalyst. A reasonable mechanism of Fe (Ⅲ)-catalyzed ozonation of phenol was obtained based on the results and literature.

  3. Bound phenolics in foods, a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta-Estrada, Beatriz A; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A; Serna-Saldívar, Sergio O

    2014-01-01

    Among phytochemicals, phenolic compounds have been extensively researched due to their diverse health benefits. Phenolic compounds occur mostly as soluble conjugates and insoluble forms, covalently bound to sugar moieties or cell wall structural components. Absorption mechanisms for bound phenolic compounds in the gastrointestinal tract greatly depend on the liberation of sugar moieties. Food processes such as fermentation, malting, thermoplastic extrusion or enzymatic, alkaline and acid hydrolyses occasionally assisted with microwave or ultrasound have potential to release phenolics associated to cell walls. Different kinds of wet chemistry methodologies to release and detect bound phenolic have been developed. These include harsh heat treatments, chemical modifications or biocatalysis. New protocols for processing and determining phenolics in food matrices must be devised in order to release bound phenolics and for quality control in the growing functional food industry.

  4. Fourier-based reconstruction via alternating direction total variation minimization in linear scan CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, we consider a novel form of computed tomography (CT), that is, linear scan CT (LCT), which applies a straight line trajectory. Furthermore, an iterative algorithm is proposed for pseudo-polar Fourier reconstruction through total variation minimization (PPF-TVM). Considering that the sampled Fourier data are distributed in pseudo-polar coordinates, the reconstruction model minimizes the TV of the image subject to the constraint that the estimated 2D Fourier data for the image are consistent with the 1D Fourier transform of the projection data. PPF-TVM employs the alternating direction method (ADM) to develop a robust and efficient iteration scheme, which ensures stable convergence provided that appropriate parameter values are given. In the ADM scheme, PPF-TVM applies the pseudo-polar fast Fourier transform and its adjoint to iterate back and forth between the image and frequency domains. Thus, there is no interpolation in the Fourier domain, which makes the algorithm both fast and accurate. PPF-TVM is particularly useful for limited angle reconstruction in LCT and it appears to be robust against artifacts. The PPF-TVM algorithm was tested with the FORBILD head phantom and real data in comparisons with state-of-the-art algorithms. Simulation studies and real data verification suggest that PPF-TVM can reconstruct higher accuracy images with lower time consumption

  5. Alginate Production from Alternative Carbon Sources and Use of Polymer Based Adsorbent in Heavy Metal Removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çiğdem Kıvılcımdan Moral

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Alginate is a biopolymer composed of mannuronic and guluronic acids. It is harvested from marine brown algae; however, alginate can also be synthesized by some bacterial species, namely, Azotobacter and Pseudomonas. Use of pure carbohydrate sources for bacterial alginate production increases its cost and limits the chance of the polymer in the industrial market. In order to reduce the cost of bacterial alginate production, molasses, maltose, and starch were utilized as alternative low cost carbon sources in this study. Results were promising in the case of molasses with the maximum 4.67 g/L of alginate production. Alginates were rich in mannuronic acid during early fermentation independent of the carbon sources while the highest guluronic acid content was obtained as 68% in the case of maltose. The polymer was then combined with clinoptilolite, which is a natural zeolite, to remove copper from a synthetic wastewater. Alginate-clinoptilolite beads were efficiently adsorbed copper up to 131.6 mg Cu2+/g adsorbent at pH 4.5 according to the Langmuir isotherm model.

  6. Behavior of hydrophobic ionic liquids as liquid membranes on phenol removal: Experimental study and optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Ng, Y S; Hashim, M A

    2014-01-01

    Room temperature ionic liquids show potential as an alternative to conventional organic membrane solvents mainly due to their properties of low vapor pressure, low volatility and they are often stable. In the present work, the technical feasibilities of room temperature ionic liquids as bulk liquid membranes for phenol removal were investigated experimentally. Three ionic liquids with high hydrophobicity were used and their phenol removal efficiency, membrane stability and membrane loss were studied. Besides that, the effects of several parameters, namely feed phase pH, feed concentration, NaOH concentration and stirring speeds on the performance of best ionic liquid membrane were also evaluated. Lastly, an optimization study on bulk ionic liquid membrane was conducted and the maximum phenol removal efficiency was compared with the organic liquid membranes. The preliminary study shows that high phenol extraction and stripping efficiencies of 96.21% and 98.10%, respectively can be achieved by ionic liquid memb...

  7. Optimization of extraction of apple pomace phenolics with water by response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çam, Mustafa; Aaby, Kjersti

    2010-08-25

    Response surface methodology was employed to optimize the extraction of apple pomace phenolics with water. The constructed models were adequate to explain the behavior of the extraction system and predict the responses, total phenolics, and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural. Among the studied factors, temperature, extraction time, and solvent to solid ratio had the greatest influence on the responses. Water extraction using a combination of 100 °C for temperature, 37 min for extraction time, and 100 mL/g for solvent to solid ratio provided an opportunity to extract the antioxidants of apple pomace by limiting the formation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural. Twenty-nine phenolic compounds were characterized in apple pomace by HPLC-MS. Phenolic content of apple pomace was 8341 mg/kg of dry matter at optimized conditions, which offer an alternative, safer way to extract antioxidants than by use of organic solvents. PMID:20666366

  8. Phenolic-Compound-Extraction Systems for Fruit and Vegetable Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Segura-Carretero

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the phenolic-compound-extraction systems used to analyse fruit and vegetable samples over the last 10 years. Phenolic compounds are naturally occurring antioxidants, usually found in fruits and vegetables. Sample preparation for analytical studies is necessary to determine the polyphenolic composition in these matrices. The most widely used extraction system is liquid-liquid extraction (LLE, which is an inexpensive method since it involves the use of organic solvents, but it requires long extraction times, giving rise to possible extract degradation. Likewise, solid-phase extraction (SPE can be used in liquid samples. Modern techniques, which have been replacing conventional ones, include: supercritical fluid extraction (SFE, pressurized liquid extraction (PLE, microwave-assisted extraction (MAE and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE. These alternative techniques reduce considerably the use of solvents and accelerate the extraction process.

  9. Complementary and alternative medicines and childhood eczema: a US population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverberg, Jonathan I; Lee-Wong, Mary; Silverberg, Nanette B

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use in US children with eczema is unknown. Furthermore, it is unknown whether CAM use in the United States is associated with higher eczema prevalence. We sought to determine the eczema prevalence in association with CAM usage. We analyzed data from the 2007 National Health Interview Survey that included a nationally representative sample of 9417 children ages 0 to 17 years. Overall, 46.9% (95% confidence interval, 45.6%-48.2%) of children in the United States used 1 or more CAM, of which 0.99% (0.28%-1.71%) used CAM specifically to treat their eczema, including herbal therapy (0.46%), vitamins (0.33%), Ayurveda (0.28%), naturopathy (0.24%), homeopathy (0.20%), and traditional healing (0.12%). Several CAMs used for other purposes were associated with increased eczema prevalence, including herbal therapy (survey logistic regression; adjusted odds ratio [95% confidence interval], 2.07 [1.40-3.06]), vitamins (1.45 [1.21-1.74]), homeopathic therapy (2.94 [1.43-6.00]), movement techniques (3.66 [1.62-8.30]), and diet (2.24 [1.10-4.58]), particularly vegan diet (2.53 [1.17-5.51]). In conclusion, multiple CAMs are commonly used for the treatment of eczema in US children. However, some CAMs may actually be harmful to the skin and be associated with higher eczema prevalence in the United States. PMID:25207686

  10. Passion-based learning:the design and implementation of a new approach to project-based learning (PBL) for alternative education

    OpenAIRE

    Robertson, Joanne Amelia

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the factors that influence the design and implementation of a project-based learning (PBL) curriculum within an alternative education program in a suburban public school district. The study sought to tell the story of the implementation of PBL from the perspectives of staff and students at the school. A narrative inquiry methodology was selected. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with twelve staff members and eight students. Data also included field notes made ...

  11. Isoconiferoside, a New Phenolic Glucoside from Seeds of Panax ginseng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seo Young Yang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A new phenolic glucoside, isoconiferoside (1, was isolated from the seeds of Panax ginseng (Araliaceae. The structure was determined to be 9-O-[b-D-glucopyranosyl-(1®6-b-D-glucopyranosyl]-trans-coniferyl alcohol based on spectroscopic analyses (1H- and 13C-NMR, DEPT, COSY, HMQC, and HMBC and acid hydrolysis.

  12. Bending of Light Near a Star and Gravitational Red/Blue Shift Alternative Explanation Based on Refraction of Light

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, D R C

    2004-01-01

    Many of the general-relativity-tests such as bending of light near a star and gravitational red/blue shift are explained without general-relativity and without Newtonian-approach. The author first casts doubts on both, the Newtonian and the relativistic approach; and proposes a novel alternative-explanation. The new alternative-explanation is based on refraction-phenomenon of optics. It predicts that as the ray passes through/near the stars atmospheric-medium, it bends due to refraction-phenomenon towards star-core, like a ray bends while passing through a prism or water-drop. A semi-empirical estimation of the atmospheric-height and its refractive-index are made to find the refraction-results. The refraction-based theory also suggests new explanation for gravitational red/blue shift; it tells that frequency remains constant (as it is so in refraction-phenomenon) and the red/blue shift is due to change in wavelength due to change in velocity of light in the medium . Estimated results for bending of light and ...

  13. Primary healthcare provider knowledge, beliefs and clinic-based practices regarding alternative tobacco products and marijuana: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bascombe, Ta Misha S; Scott, Kimberly N; Ballard, Denise; Smith, Samantha A; Thompson, Winifred; Berg, Carla J

    2016-06-01

    Use prevalence of alternative tobacco products and marijuana has increased dramatically. Unfortunately, clinical guidelines have focused on traditional cigarettes with limited attention regarding these emerging public health issues. Thus, it is critical to understand how healthcare professionals view this issue and are responding to it. This qualitative study explored knowledge, beliefs and clinic-based practices regarding traditional and alternative tobacco products (cigar-like products, smokeless tobacco, hookah, e-cigarettes) and marijuana among rural and urban Georgia primary healthcare providers. The sample comprised 20 healthcare providers in primary care settings located in the Atlanta Metropolitan area and rural southern Georgia who participated in semi-structured interviews. Results indicated a lack of knowledge about these products, with some believing that some products were less harmful than traditional cigarettes or that they may be effective in promoting cessation or harm reduction. Few reported explicitly assessing use of these various products in clinic. In addition, healthcare providers reported a need for empirical evidence to inform their clinical practice. Healthcare providers must systematically assess use of the range of tobacco products and marijuana. Evidence-based recommendations or information sources are needed to inform clinical practice and help providers navigate conversations with patients using or inquiring about these products. PMID:26802106

  14. Alternatives to accuracy and bias metrics based on percentage errors for radiation belt modeling applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morley, Steven Karl [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-07-01

    This report reviews existing literature describing forecast accuracy metrics, concentrating on those based on relative errors and percentage errors. We then review how the most common of these metrics, the mean absolute percentage error (MAPE), has been applied in recent radiation belt modeling literature. Finally, we describe metrics based on the ratios of predicted to observed values (the accuracy ratio) that address the drawbacks inherent in using MAPE. Speci cally we de ne and recommend the median log accuracy ratio as a measure of bias and the median symmetric accuracy as a measure of accuracy.

  15. Alternatives to accuracy and bias metrics based on percentage errors for radiation belt modeling applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morley, Steven Karl [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-07-01

    This report reviews existing literature describing forecast accuracy metrics, concentrating on those based on relative errors and percentage errors. We then review how the most common of these metrics, the mean absolute percentage error (MAPE), has been applied in recent radiation belt modeling literature. Finally, we describe metrics based on the ratios of predicted to observed values (the accuracy ratio) that address the drawbacks inherent in using MAPE. Specifically we define and recommend the median log accuracy ratio as a measure of bias and the median symmetric accuracy as a measure of accuracy.

  16. Alternatives to accuracy and bias metrics based on percentage errors for radiation belt modeling applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morley, Steven Karl [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-07-01

    This report reviews existing literature describing forecast accuracy metrics, concentrating on those based on relative errors and percentage errors. We then review how the most common of these metrics, the mean absolute percentage error (MAPE), has been applied in recent radiation belt modeling literature. Finally, we describe metrics based on the ratios of predicted to observed values (the accuracy ratio) that address the drawbacks inherent in using MAPE. Specifically, we define and recommend the median log accuracy ratio as a measure of bias and the median symmetric accuracy as a measure of accuracy.

  17. The phenolic complex in flaxseed

    OpenAIRE

    Strandås, Christina

    2008-01-01

    Flaxseed is the richest plant source of the lignan secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG). In flaxseed, SDG exists in an oligomeric structure with 3-hydroxy-3-methyl glutaric acid (HMGA) forming a phenolic complex together with p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid glucosides and herbacetin diglucoside (HDG). Epidemiological and animal studies indicate protective effects of flaxseed and SDG towards hormone-dependent cancers and cardiovascular diseases, and reducing effect toward cholesterol levels...

  18. Determination of Radical Scavenging Activity and Total Phenols of Wine and Spices: A Randomized Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulgentius Nelson Lugemwa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Thirty eight bottles of red wine (Carbanet Sauvignon were randomly selected based on vintage, region, price, and age (number of months in a barrel. The total phenolic content of each wine was determined using Folin-Ciocalteau assay. The radical scavenging activity was evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH assay. Apart from a few bottles that exhibited above average radical scavenging activity and phenolic content, there was no good correlation of those two quantities with region, price or vintage. The average phenolic amount was 2874 mg/L. The lowest phenolic content was found to be 1648 mg/L for an eight dollar wine. Wine with the highest amount of phenol of 4495 mg/L was a 2007, nine dollar bottle from South America. High amount of phenols did not translate into high radical scavenging activity. Barrel-aging did not increase the amount of phenols or the radical scavenging activity of wine. In order to discover new and potent sources of antioxidants from plants, the following spices were studied: ginger, cilantro, cumin, anise, linden, eucalyptus, marjoram, oregano, sage, thyme and rosemary. Whole spices were crushed and extracted for 96 h at room temperature using a combination of ethyl acetate, ethyl alcohol and water in the ratio of 4.5:4.5:1 (v/v/v. The radical scavenging activity of extracts was evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH assay. The total phenolic content of each spice was also determined using the Folin-Ciocalteau assay. Eucalyptus was found to be the most potent antioxidant with an LC50 of 324.1 mg of phenol/L, followed by marjoram with an LC50 of 407.5 mg of phenol/L, and rosemary with an LC50 of 414.0 mg/L. The least potent antioxidants were ginger and cilantro with LC50 of 7604 mg/L of phenol and 7876 mg of phenol/L, respectively.

  19. Determination of Radical Scavenging Activity and Total Phenols of Wine and Spices: A Randomized Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugemwa, Fulgentius Nelson; Snyder, Amanda L; Shaikh, Koonj

    2013-01-01

    Thirty eight bottles of red wine (Carbanet Sauvignon) were randomly selected based on vintage, region, price, and age (number of months in a barrel). The total phenolic content of each wine was determined using Folin-Ciocalteau assay. The radical scavenging activity was evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. Apart from a few bottles that exhibited above average radical scavenging activity and phenolic content, there was no good correlation of those two quantities with region, price or vintage. The average phenolic amount was 2874 mg/L. The lowest phenolic content was found to be 1648 mg/L for an eight dollar wine. Wine with the highest amount of phenol of 4495 mg/L was a 2007, nine dollar bottle from South America. High amount of phenols did not translate into high radical scavenging activity. Barrel-aging did not increase the amount of phenols or the radical scavenging activity of wine. In order to discover new and potent sources of antioxidants from plants, the following spices were studied: ginger, cilantro, cumin, anise, linden, eucalyptus, marjoram, oregano, sage, thyme and rosemary. Whole spices were crushed and extracted for 96 h at room temperature using a combination of ethyl acetate, ethyl alcohol and water in the ratio of 4.5:4.5:1 (v/v/v). The radical scavenging activity of extracts was evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. The total phenolic content of each spice was also determined using the Folin-Ciocalteau assay. Eucalyptus was found to be the most potent antioxidant with an LC50 of 324.1 mg of phenol/L, followed by marjoram with an LC50 of 407.5 mg of phenol/L, and rosemary with an LC50 of 414.0 mg/L. The least potent antioxidants were ginger and cilantro with LC50 of 7604 mg/L of phenol and 7876 mg of phenol/L, respectively. PMID:26784340

  20. Novel Fourier-based iterative reconstruction for sparse fan projection using alternating direction total variation minimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jin; Han-Ming, Zhang; Bin, Yan; Lei, Li; Lin-Yuan, Wang; Ai-Long, Cai

    2016-03-01

    Sparse-view x-ray computed tomography (CT) imaging is an interesting topic in CT field and can efficiently decrease radiation dose. Compared with spatial reconstruction, a Fourier-based algorithm has advantages in reconstruction speed and memory usage. A novel Fourier-based iterative reconstruction technique that utilizes non-uniform fast Fourier transform (NUFFT) is presented in this work along with advanced total variation (TV) regularization for a fan sparse-view CT. The proposition of a selective matrix contributes to improve reconstruction quality. The new method employs the NUFFT and its adjoin to iterate back and forth between the Fourier and image space. The performance of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated through a series of digital simulations and experimental phantom studies. Results of the proposed algorithm are compared with those of existing TV-regularized techniques based on compressed sensing method, as well as basic algebraic reconstruction technique. Compared with the existing TV-regularized techniques, the proposed Fourier-based technique significantly improves convergence rate and reduces memory allocation, respectively. Projected supported by the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2012AA011603) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61372172).

  1. 40 CFR 63.1215 - What are the health-based compliance alternatives for total chlorine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... may select total chlorine emission concentrations as you choose to demonstrate eligibility for the... (c)(4) of this section to demonstrate eligibility for the health-based limits. (i) Proactive review... reason to know of changes that would decrease the annual average or 1-hour average...

  2. Activity-Based Costing Models for Alternative Modes of Delivering On-Line Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbett, Chris

    2011-01-01

    In recent years there has been growth in online distance learning courses. This has been prompted by; new technology such as the Internet, mobile learning, video and audio conferencing: the explosion in student numbers in Higher Education, and the need for outreach to a world wide market. Web-based distance learning is seen as a solution to…

  3. Effectiveness in practice-based research: Looking for alternatives to the randomized controlled trial (RCT)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Tavecchio

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decade, the status of the randomized controlled trial (RCT), hallmark of evidence-based medicine (research), has been growing strongly in general practice, social work and public health. But this type of research is only practicable under strictly controlled and well-defined settings a

  4. Taurine supplemented plant protein based diets with alternative lipid sources for juvenile sea bream, sparus aurata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two lipid sources were evaluated as fish oil replacements in fishmeal free, plant protein based diets for juvenile gilthead sea bream, Sparus aurata. A twelve week feeding study was undertaken to examine the performance of fish fed the diets with different sources of essential fatty acids (canola o...

  5. Casein and soybean protein-based thermoplastics and composites as alternative biodegradable polymers for biomedical applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaz, C.M.; Fossen, M.; Tuil, van R.F.; Graaf, de L.A.; Reis, R.L.; Cunha, A.M.

    2003-01-01

    This work reports on the development and characterization of novel meltable polymers and composites based on casein and soybean proteins. The effects of inert (Al2O3) and bioactive (tricalcium phosphate) ceramic reinforcements over the mechanical performance, water absorption, and bioactivity behavi

  6. Alternative Model for Administration and Analysis of Research-Based Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Bethany R.; Zwickl, Benjamin M.; Hobbs, Robert D.; Aiken, John M.; Welch, Nathan M.; Lewandowski, H. J.

    2016-01-01

    Research-based assessments represent a valuable tool for both instructors and researchers interested in improving undergraduate physics education. However, the historical model for disseminating and propagating conceptual and attitudinal assessments developed by the physics education research (PER) community has not resulted in widespread adoption…

  7. Theoretical understanding of an alternating dielectric multilayer-based fiber optic SPR sensor and its application to gas sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, A K; Mohr, G J [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Friedrich-Schiller University, Lessingstrasse 10, 07743 Jena (Germany)], E-mail: anuj.sharma@uni-jena.de

    2008-02-15

    In the present work, a detailed theoretical analysis of a surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based fiber optic sensor with an alternating dielectric multilayer system is carried out. The dielectric system consists of silica and titanium oxide layers. The effect of critical design parameters on the sensor's sensitivity and detection accuracy is studied. The results are explained in terms of appropriate physical phenomena, wherever required. Based on the analysis, a new design of a fiber optic SPR sensor for gas detection is proposed. The analysis of such a gas sensor is carried out for four metals separately for a clear understanding. The proposed gas sensor is able to provide reasonably high values of all the performance parameters simultaneously, as required for an efficient detection of gaseous media.

  8. mRAISE: an alternative algorithmic approach to ligand-based virtual screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Behren, Mathias M; Bietz, Stefan; Nittinger, Eva; Rarey, Matthias

    2016-08-01

    Ligand-based virtual screening is a well established method to find new lead molecules in todays drug discovery process. In order to be applicable in day to day practice, such methods have to face multiple challenges. The most important part is the reliability of the results, which can be shown and compared in retrospective studies. Furthermore, in the case of 3D methods, they need to provide biologically relevant molecular alignments of the ligands, that can be further investigated by a medicinal chemist. Last but not least, they have to be able to screen large databases in reasonable time. Many algorithms for ligand-based virtual screening have been proposed in the past, most of them based on pairwise comparisons. Here, a new method is introduced called mRAISE. Based on structural alignments, it uses a descriptor-based bitmap search engine (RAISE) to achieve efficiency. Alignments created on the fly by the search engine get evaluated with an independent shape-based scoring function also used for ranking of compounds. The correct ranking as well as the alignment quality of the method are evaluated and compared to other state of the art methods. On the commonly used Directory of Useful Decoys dataset mRAISE achieves an average area under the ROC curve of 0.76, an average enrichment factor at 1 % of 20.2 and an average hit rate at 1 % of 55.5. With these results, mRAISE is always among the top performing methods with available data for comparison. To access the quality of the alignments calculated by ligand-based virtual screening methods, we introduce a new dataset containing 180 prealigned ligands for 11 diverse targets. Within the top ten ranked conformations, the alignment closest to X-ray structure calculated with mRAISE has a root-mean-square deviation of less than 2.0 Å for 80.8 % of alignment pairs and achieves a median of less than 2.0 Å for eight of the 11 cases. The dataset used to rate the quality of the calculated alignments is freely available

  9. Vibrational analysis of phenol/(methanol)1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhards, M.; Beckmann, K.; Kleinermanns, K.

    1994-09-01

    Ab initio calculations at the Hartree-Fock 4-31G* level were performed in order to calculate binding energies and vibrational frequencies of the phenol/CH3OH-cluster and two deuterated isotopomers ( d-phenol/CH3OD, d-phenol-CD3OD). The minimum energy structure is trans-linear, as for the phenol/H2O-cluster. The calculated frequencies of phenol and methanol as well as the intramolecular frequencies of the phenol/CH3OH-cluster are assigned to experimental values. The calculated intermolecular frequencies of the phenol/CH3OH-cluster are compared with the available experimental frequencies of the S 0 (and S 1)-state of the phenol/methanol-cluster and the similar p-cresol/methanol-cluster. Assignments are suggested for the σ and p 1-mode. In order to clarify the assignment of the low frequency vibration at 22 cm-1 anharmonic corrections for the β2-mode of the phenol/CH3OH-cluster are calculated. These calculations show only slight anharmonicity compared with the β2-mode calculations carried out for the phenol/H2O-cluster.

  10. Ruthenium(II) carbonyl complexes bearing quinoline-based NNO tridentate ligands as catalyst for one-pot conversion of aldehydes to amides and o-allylation of phenols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikandan, R.; Prakash, G.; Kathirvel, R.; Viswanathamurthi, P.

    2013-12-01

    Six new octahedral ruthenium(II) carbonyl complexes having the general molecular formula [RuCl(CO)(B)L1-2] (B = PPh3, AsPh3 or py; L1-2 = quinoline based NNO ligand) were synthesized. The quinoline based ligands behave as monoanionic tridentate donor and coordinated to ruthenium via ketoenolate oxygen, azomethine nitrogen and quinoline nitrogen. The composition of the complexes has been established by elemental analysis and spectral methods (FT-IR, electronic, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, 31P NMR and ESI-Mass). The complexes were used as efficient catalysts for one-pot conversion of various aldehydes to their corresponding primary amides in presence of NH2OH·HCl and NaHCO3. The effect of catalyst loading and reaction temperature on catalytic activity of the ruthenium(II) carbonyl complexes were also investigated. The synthesized complexes also possess good catalytic activity for the o-allylation of phenols in the presence of K2CO3 under mild conditions. The complexes afforded branched allyl aryl ethers according to a regioselective reaction.

  11. Evaluation of neem-based nanoformulations as alternative to control fall armyworm

    OpenAIRE

    Angelina Maria Marcomini Giongo; José Djair Vendramim; Moacir Rossi Forim

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) based insecticides are efficient for the control of various pest species, but their low residual effect and the lack of standardized formulations are problems for field use. Nanoformulations of neem in colloidal suspension or powder, containing the polymers poly (ε-caprolactone) (PCL), poly (β-hidroxibutirate) (PHB) or poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), in capsules or spheres, were developed in order to reduce biodegradation of the active neem compo...

  12. Aqueous extracts of Mozambican plants as alternative and environmentally safe acid-base indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macuvele, Domingos Lusitaneo Pier; Sithole, Gerre Zebedias Samo; Cesca, Karina; Macuvele, Suzana Lília Pinare; Matsinhe, Jonas Valente

    2016-06-01

    Indicators are substances that change color as the pH of the medium. Many of these substances are dyes of synthetic origin. The mulala plant (Euclea natalensis), which roots are commonly used by rural communities for their oral hygiene, and roseira (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis), an ornamental plant, are abundant in Mozambique. Currently, synthetic acid-base indicators are most commonly used but have environmental implications and, on the other hand, are expensive products, so the demand for natural indicators started. This study investigated the applicability of aqueous extracts of H. rosa-sinensis and E. natalensis as acid-base indicators. Ground on this work, the extracts can be used as acid-base indicators. On the basis of the absorption spectroscopy in both the UV-Vis region and previous studies, it was possible to preliminarily pinpoint anthocyanins and naphthoquinones as responsible for the shifting of colors depending on the pH range of aqueous extracts of H. rosa-sinensis and E. natalensis. These natural indicators are easily accessible, inexpensive, easy to extract, environmentally safe, and locally available. PMID:26936478

  13. Adsorption of phenol on formaldehyde-pretreated Pinus pinaster bark: equilibrium and kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, G; González-Alvarez, J; García, A I; Freire, M S; Antorrena, G

    2007-05-01

    This work studies phenol adsorption on Pinus pinaster bark that has been previously treated with formaldehyde in acid medium. The influence of several variables such as solid/liquid ratio, pH and initial concentration of phenol in the solution on the adsorption capacity of the bark has been analysed. A kinetic model based on phenol diffusion within the pores of the adsorbent was in agreement with the results obtained for high initial concentrations of phenol, allowing the determination of diffusion coefficients. Adsorption equilibrium data were fitted by the Freundlich and BET isotherms. From their parameters phenol adsorption capacity and intensity, as well as the specific surface (BET) of the adsorbent, were determined.

  14. Separation of phenolic acids from natural plant extracts using molecularly imprinted anion-exchange polymer confined ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Wentao; Tian, Minglei; Row, Kyung Ho

    2012-04-01

    Polymer-confined ionic liquids were used for the separation of phenolic acids from natural plant extract by utilizing an anion-exchange mechanism. They were synthesized using molecular imprinting technique to reduce non-directional ion-ion interactions during anion-exchange and other interactions with interference substances that could decrease selectivity. A suitable sorbent for phenolic acid separation could be identified based on the adsorption behaviors of phenolic acids on different polymer-confined ionic liquids. Thus, the developed ionic liquid-based molecularly imprinted anion-exchange polymer (IMAP) achieved high recovery rates by solid-phase extraction of phenolic acids from Salicornia herbacea L. extract: 90.1% for protocatechuic acid, 95.5% for ferulic acid and 96.6% for caffeic acid. Moreover, the phenolic acids were separable from each other by repeated solid phase extraction cycles. The proposed method could be used to separate other phenolic acids or organic acids from complex samples. PMID:21903215

  15. Energy alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    English. A special committe of the Canadian House of Commons was established on 23 May 1980 to investigate the use of alternative energy sources such as 'gasohol', liquified coal, solar energy, methanol, wind and tidal power, biomass, and propane. In its final report, the committee envisions an energy system for Canada based on hydrogen and electricity, using solar and geothermal energy for low-grade heat. The committe was not able to say which method of generating electricty would dominate in the next century, although it recommends that fossil fuels should not be used. The fission process is not specifically discussed, but the outlook for fusion was investigated, and continued governmental support of fusion research is recommended. The report proposes some improvements in governmental energy organizations and programs

  16. Phenolic Acids Composition of Fruit Extracts of Ber (Ziziphus mauritiana L., var. Golo Lemai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devanand L. Luthria

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Fruits of Ziziphus mauritiana L. (ber are consumed in fresh and dried/processed form in many countries across Asia including Pakistan. In the present study, we analyzed the composition of total phenolic acids (free, soluble-bound and insoluble-bound from ber fruit extracts by applying a pressurized liquid base hydrolysis extraction (PLBHE using Dionium cells. Nine phenolic acids (protocatechuic, p-hydroxybenzoic, ferulic, chlorogenic, vanillic, caffeic, vanillin, o- and p-coumaric acids were extracted, separated, and quantified by HPLC-DAD. Identification of phenolic acids was achieved by comparison of retention times, ultraviolet, and mass spectral data with authentic commercial standards. Results showed that p-coumaric acid (3719 ± 22 µg/g was the predominant phenolic acid extracted from ber samples. In addition, four phenolic acids, namely p-hydroxybenzoic (2187 ± 71 µg/g, vanillin (2128 ± 20 µg/g, ferulic (2629 ± 96 µg/g, and o-coumaric acids (2569 ± 41 µg/g were obtained in intermediate amounts from dried Ziziphus mauritiana L. fruit. The total phenolic acids content was determined as 18231 ± 306 µg/g dry matter basis (DMB. This study indicates that ber fruit is a good natural source of phenolic acids and that PLBHE can be used for the assay of phenolic acids.

  17. Comparative effectiveness of extraction and adsorption methods in treatment of phenolic effluents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehppel, C.A.; Kochetkova, R.P.

    1982-01-01

    This paper compares two methods of decontamination and refinement of industrial phenolic effluents: first, extraction by means of butyl acetate; second, adsorption on activated semicoke. The method of adsorption is valid for phenols in water, but not valid for pyroligneous effluents containing various homologs: ketones, fatty acids, pyridine bases and ammonia. The effectiveness of the two methods of purifying industrial effluents was investigated and effects of the treatment of waste water containing a mixture of phenols and homologs were studied in an industrial setting, with negative results, and under laboratory conditions. In the laboratory, effectiveness of refinement by both methods was determined according to the coefficients of distribution of summary phenols (Kr). A table presents the results of this laboratory investigation, and shows that the coefficients of distribution (Kr) are very close in number in both the extractive and adsorbent methods of refinement. However, in the extraction of phenols by butyl acetate 25 kg per ton of phenols are lost constituting 20-25% of the cost. In dephenolization by semicoke the adsorbent regenerates the solvent by means of benzol resulting in the production of marketable phenols. Activated semicoke is recommended for refining industrial effluents in the production of phenol, several plastic masses and additives for fuels and lubricants. (In Russian)

  18. Spectrophotometric Determination of Phenolic Antioxidants in the Presence of Thiols and Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avan, Aslı Neslihan; Demirci Çekiç, Sema; Uzunboy, Seda; Apak, Reşat

    2016-01-01

    Development of easy, practical, and low-cost spectrophotometric methods is required for the selective determination of phenolic antioxidants in the presence of other similar substances. As electron transfer (ET)-based total antioxidant capacity (TAC) assays generally measure the reducing ability of antioxidant compounds, thiols and phenols cannot be differentiated since they are both responsive to the probe reagent. In this study, three of the most common TAC determination methods, namely cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC), 2,2′-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt/trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (ABTS/TEAC), and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), were tested for the assay of phenolics in the presence of selected thiol and protein compounds. Although the FRAP method is almost non-responsive to thiol compounds individually, surprising overoxidations with large positive deviations from additivity were observed when using this method for (phenols + thiols) mixtures. Among the tested TAC methods, CUPRAC gave the most additive results for all studied (phenol + thiol) and (phenol + protein) mixtures with minimal relative error. As ABTS/TEAC and FRAP methods gave small and large deviations, respectively, from additivity of absorbances arising from these components in mixtures, mercury(II) compounds were added to stabilize the thiol components in the form of Hg(II)-thiol complexes so as to enable selective spectrophotometric determination of phenolic components. This error compensation was most efficient for the FRAP method in testing (thiols + phenols) mixtures. PMID:27529232

  19. Spectrophotometric Determination of Phenolic Antioxidants in the Presence of Thiols and Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslı Neslihan Avan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Development of easy, practical, and low-cost spectrophotometric methods is required for the selective determination of phenolic antioxidants in the presence of other similar substances. As electron transfer (ET-based total antioxidant capacity (TAC assays generally measure the reducing ability of antioxidant compounds, thiols and phenols cannot be differentiated since they are both responsive to the probe reagent. In this study, three of the most common TAC determination methods, namely cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC, 2,2′-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid diammonium salt/trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (ABTS/TEAC, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP, were tested for the assay of phenolics in the presence of selected thiol and protein compounds. Although the FRAP method is almost non-responsive to thiol compounds individually, surprising overoxidations with large positive deviations from additivity were observed when using this method for (phenols + thiols mixtures. Among the tested TAC methods, CUPRAC gave the most additive results for all studied (phenol + thiol and (phenol + protein mixtures with minimal relative error. As ABTS/TEAC and FRAP methods gave small and large deviations, respectively, from additivity of absorbances arising from these components in mixtures, mercury(II compounds were added to stabilize the thiol components in the form of Hg(II-thiol complexes so as to enable selective spectrophotometric determination of phenolic components. This error compensation was most efficient for the FRAP method in testing (thiols + phenols mixtures.

  20. Local understandings of conservation in southeastern Mexico and their implications for community-based conservation as an alternative paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Garcia, Victoria; Ruiz-Mallen, Isabel; Porter-Bolland, Luciana; Garcia-Frapolli, Eduardo; Ellis, Edward A; Mendez, Maria-Elena; Pritchard, Diana J; Sanchez-Gonzalez, María-Consuelo

    2013-08-01

    Since the 1990s national and international programs have aimed to legitimize local conservation initiatives that might provide an alternative to the formal systems of state-managed or otherwise externally driven protected areas. We used discourse analysis (130 semistructured interviews with key informants) and descriptive statistics (679 surveys) to compare local perceptions of and experiences with state-driven versus community-driven conservation initiatives. We conducted our research in 6 communities in southeastern Mexico. Formalization of local conservation initiatives did not seem to be based on local knowledge and practices. Although interviewees thought community-based initiatives generated less conflict than state-managed conservation initiatives, the community-based initiatives conformed to the biodiversity conservation paradigm that emphasizes restricted use of and access to resources. This restrictive approach to community-based conservation in Mexico, promoted through state and international conservation organizations, increased the area of protected land and had local support but was not built on locally relevant and multifunctional landscapes, a model that community-based conservation is assumed to advance.

  1. AN ALTERNATIVE HOST MATRIX BASED ON IRON PHOSPHATE GLASSES FOR THE VITRIFICATION OF SPECIALIZED WASTE FORMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As mentioned above, the overall goal of this research project was to collect the scientific information essential to develop iron phosphate glass based nuclear wasteforms. The specific objectives of the project were: (1) Investigate the structure of binary iron phosphate glasses and it's dependence on the composition and melting atmosphere: Understand atomic arrangements and nature of the bonding. Establish structure-property relationships. Determine the compositions and melting conditions which optimize the critical properties of the base glass. (2) Understand the structure of iron phosphate wasteforms and it's dependence on the composition and melting atmosphere: Investigate how the waste elements are bonded and coordinated within the glass structure. Establish structure-property relationships for the waste glasses. Determine the compositions and melting atmosphere for which the critical properties of the waste forms would be optimum. (3) Determine the role(s) played by the valence states of iron ions and it's dependence on the composition and melting atmosphere: Understand the different roles of iron(II) and iron(III) ions in determining the critical properties of the base glass and the waste forms. Investigate how the iron valence and its significance depend on the composition and melting atmosphere. (4) Investigate glass forming and crystallization processes of the iron phosphate glasses and their waste forms: Understand the dependence of the glass forming and crystallization characteristics on overall glass composition and valence states of iron ions. Identify the products of devitrification and investigate the critical properties of these crystalline compounds which may adversely affect the chemical and physical properties of the waste forms

  2. Alternative ethanol based cooling carriers with corrosion inhibitors in geothermal heat pump systems

    OpenAIRE

    Gustafsson, Isac

    2015-01-01

    Ground source heat pumps are very popular in the Nordic countries. The method of exchanging heat with the ground is based on the principle that a secondary fluid is circulating through a U-pipe borehole heat exchanger inserted into energy wells. Water is a very good secondary fluid, but aqueous solutions of ethanol are recommended in Sweden as a secondary fluid for such application. One reason is the fact that addition of ethanol decreases the freezing point of the fluid, which is preferred s...

  3. Not just chlorthalidone: evidence-based, single tablet, diuretic alternatives to hydrochlorothiazide for hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roush, George C; Ernst, Michael E; Kostis, John B; Kaur, Ramandeep; Sica, Domenic A

    2015-04-01

    Accounting for 15 % of deaths worldwide, hypertension is often treated with hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) (50 million prescriptions annually). HCTZ has a perindopril versus placebo in three populations. Additionally, chlorthalidone-azilsartan and spironolactone-HCTZ are potent combinations The aldosterone antagonist component of the latter combination has been shown to reduce total mortality by 30 % in heart failure. Five of these seven have multiple dose formulations. Six cost $4-$77 monthly. In conclusion, based on both scientific and practical grounds, new prescriptions for HCTZ are rarely justified. PMID:25821163

  4. Patient's Attitudes Towards the Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Finland: an Ethnomedical Insight Based on Cancer Narratives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piret Paal

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available As in many other countries, the second half of the 19th century and the first half of the 20th century marked times of modernisation in Finland. Rapid changes also took place in the health care system at this time. Until the 1920s most health concerns were addressed using the ethnomedical practices. New legislation gave the dominant position in health care to the Western (evidence based health care system. According to the official record, the majority of ethnomedical treatments were declared marginal and generally useless and the state began to support the construction of hospitals. The slow pace of development in social health care held up the treatments given by legally approved medical practitioners. All of which supported a deliberate shift towards the modernisation of the health care system leading to primary health concerns being solved in local health care centres by doctors trained according to the conventions of evidence based medicine. Unlike many other countries, where the representatives of conventional medicine also consider complementary and alternative medicine as a part of their treatment, the use of non-evidence based medicine is extremely unusual in Finland. However, patients with long-term illnesses are eager to try all available cures in their desire to become well and this leads to a situation in which complementary treatments are used in a somewhat secretive manner. The article follows the discussion concerning the use of complementary and alternative medicine in cancer narratives in order to point out its significance as a part of a self-negotiation process characteristic to the patients with long-term illnesses.

  5. Fractal reactor: An alternative nuclear fusion system based on nature's geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author presents his concept of the Fractal Reactor, which explores the possibility of building a plasma fusion power reactor based on the real geometry of nature [fractals], rather than the virtual geometry that Euclid postulated around 330 BC; nearly every architect of our plasma fusion devices has been influenced by his three-dimensional geometry. The idealized points, lines, planes, and spheres of this classical geometry continue to be used to represent the natural world and to describe the properties of all geometrical objects, even though they neither accurately nor fully convey nature's structures and processes. The Fractal Reactor concept contrasts the current containment mechanisms of both magnetic and inertial containment systems for confining and heating plasmas. All of these systems are based on Euclidean geometry and use geometrical designs that, ultimately, are inconsistent with the Non-Euclidean geometry and irregular, fractal forms of nature (3). The author explores his premise that a controlled, thermonuclear fusion energy system might be more effective if it more closely embodies the physics of a star

  6. An American knowledge base in England - Alternate implementations of an expert system flight status monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, G. F.; Graves, A. T.; Disbrow, J. D.; Duke, E. L.

    1989-01-01

    A joint activity between the Dryden Flight Research Facility of the NASA Ames Research Center (Ames-Dryden) and the Royal Aerospace Establishment (RAE) on knowledge-based systems has been agreed. Under the agreement, a flight status monitor knowledge base developed at Ames-Dryden has been implemented using the real-time AI (artificial intelligence) toolkit MUSE, which was developed in the UK. Here, the background to the cooperation is described and the details of the flight status monitor and a prototype MUSE implementation are presented. It is noted that the capabilities of the expert-system flight status monitor to monitor data downlinked from the flight test aircraft and to generate information on the state and health of the system for the test engineers provides increased safety during flight testing of new systems. Furthermore, the expert-system flight status monitor provides the systems engineers with ready access to the large amount of information required to describe a complex aircraft system.

  7. Ternary rare-earth based alternative gate-dielectrics for future integration in MOSFETs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, Juergen; Lopes, Joao Marcelo; Durgun Oezben, Eylem; Luptak, Roman; Lenk, Steffi; Zander, Willi; Roeckerath, Martin [IBN 1-IT, Forschungszentrum Juelich, 52425 Juelich (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    The dielectric SiO{sub 2} has been the key to the tremendous improvements in Si-based metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) device performance over the past four decades. It has, however, reached its limit in terms of scaling since it exhibits a leakage current density higher than 1 A/cm{sup 2} and does not retain its intrinsic physical properties at thicknesses below 1.5 nm. In order to overcome these problems and keep Moore's law ongoing, the use of higher dielectric constant (k) gate oxides has been suggested. These high-k materials must satisfy numerous requirements such as the high k, low leakage currents, suitable band gap und offsets to silicon. Rare-earth based dielectrics are promising materials which fulfill these needs. We will review the properties of REScO{sub 3} (RE = La, Dy, Gd, Sm, Tb) and LaLuO{sub 3} thin films, grown with pulsed laser deposition, e-gun evaporation or molecular beam deposition, integrated in capacitors and transistors. A k > 20 for the REScO{sub 3} (RE = Dy, Gd) and around 30 for (RE = La, Sm, Tb) and LaLuO{sub 3} are obtained. Transistors prepared on SOI and sSOI show mobility values up to 380 cm{sup 2}/Vs on sSOI, which are comparable to such prepared with HfO{sub 2}.

  8. Alternative industrial carbon emissions benchmark based on input-output analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Mengyao; Ji, Xi

    2016-05-01

    Some problems exist in the current carbon emissions benchmark setting systems. The primary consideration for industrial carbon emissions standards highly relate to direct carbon emissions (power-related emissions) and only a portion of indirect emissions are considered in the current carbon emissions accounting processes. This practice is insufficient and may cause double counting to some extent due to mixed emission sources. To better integrate and quantify direct and indirect carbon emissions, an embodied industrial carbon emissions benchmark setting method is proposed to guide the establishment of carbon emissions benchmarks based on input-output analysis. This method attempts to link direct carbon emissions with inter-industrial economic exchanges and systematically quantifies carbon emissions embodied in total product delivery chains. The purpose of this study is to design a practical new set of embodied intensity-based benchmarks for both direct and indirect carbon emissions. Beijing, at the first level of carbon emissions trading pilot schemes in China, plays a significant role in the establishment of these schemes and is chosen as an example in this study. The newly proposed method tends to relate emissions directly to each responsibility in a practical way through the measurement of complex production and supply chains and reduce carbon emissions from their original sources. This method is expected to be developed under uncertain internal and external contexts and is further expected to be generalized to guide the establishment of industrial benchmarks for carbon emissions trading schemes in China and other countries.

  9. Protein domain architectures provide a fast, efficient and scalable alternative to sequence-based methods for comparative functional genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehorst, Jasper J.; Saccenti, Edoardo; Schaap, Peter J.; Martins dos Santos, Vitor A. P.; Suarez-Diez, Maria

    2016-01-01

    A functional comparative genome analysis is essential to understand the mechanisms underlying bacterial evolution and adaptation. Detection of functional orthologs using standard global sequence similarity methods faces several problems; the need for defining arbitrary acceptance thresholds for similarity and alignment length, lateral gene acquisition and the high computational cost for finding bi-directional best matches at a large scale. We investigated the use of protein domain architectures for large scale functional comparative analysis as an alternative method. The performance of both approaches was assessed through functional comparison of 446 bacterial genomes sampled at different taxonomic levels. We show that protein domain architectures provide a fast and efficient alternative to methods based on sequence similarity to identify groups of functionally equivalent proteins within and across taxonomic bounderies. As the computational cost scales linearly, and not quadratically with the number of genomes, it is suitable for large scale comparative analysis. Running both methods in parallel pinpoints potential functional adaptations that may add to bacterial fitness.

  10. MOVPE and characterization of GaN-based structures on alternative substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dikme, Y.

    2006-06-20

    This study involves growth experiments of GaN-based layer structures on silicon (Si), lithium aluminate (LiAlO{sub 2}) and the composite substrate SiCOI. Substrate specific preparation and growth procedures were developed. Because of the different lattice constants and thermal expansion coefficients between GaN and the substrate materials and because of the high depositions temperatures (>1000 C) complex interlayers are required to create a crossover from the substrate to the GaN layer and to prevent substrate/layer bowing and cracks developing in the epitaxial layers. Crystallographic, thermal and electronic properties of these materials were investigated and the developed layers were used as buffer layers for electronic and opto electronic devices. On Si AlN/GaN distributed Bragg reflectors (DBR), InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well (MQW) and AlGaN/GaN HEMT (high electron mobility transistor) were demonstrated. The transistor structures showed high power densities, which were comparable to industrially fabricated devices. As well as the reflection of a certain wavelength region, the DBR layers additionally showed positive influence on succeeding GaN top layer optical properties. For the first time laser emission of an optically pumped InGaN/GaN MQW on Si was demonstrated with low excitation density and a high operating temperature. GaN-based structures were deposited on LiAlO2 in the m-plane crystal orientation; that do not exhibit polarization mechanisms in growth direction. For the deposition of coalesced GaN films a seal-coating of the LiAlO{sub 2} surface was developed and finally LED structures were grown on these substrates. For the first time electroluminescence of LED structures on LiAlO{sub 2} was achieved. The growth on the composite substrate SiCOI was initiated with an HT AlN layer and it was demonstrated that SiCOI is comparable to a bulk SiC substrate for the GaN-based epitaxy. The developed and investigated layer structure served as buffer for the

  11. Zeolite Based SCR Catalysts - An Interesting Alternative To Vanadia-Titania Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devadas, M.; Kroecher, O.; Wokaun, A.

    2004-03-01

    Metal exchanged zeolite catalysts were tested for the selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x} with ammonia (NH{sub 3}-SCR) and compared with a vanadia based catalyst. With pure NO in the feed Cu-ZSM5 exhibited a better NO{sub x} conversion than Fe-ZSM5 and V{sub 2}O{sub 5}/WO{sub 3}-TiO{sub 2} at all temperatures. The main drawback of Cu-ZSM5 is the required excess of ammonia due to oxidation of NH{sub 3} to N{sub 2} (SCO). For a feed ratio of NO:NO{sub 2} = 0.5, all catalysts showed a high activity at elevated temperatures, but Fe-ZSM5 and Cu-ZSM5 performed better than the vanadia catalyst at lower temperatures. (author)

  12. SIMULATION MODEL BASED ON IACS DATA; ALTERNATIVE APPROACH TO ANALYSE SECTORAL INCOME RISK IN AGRICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaka ZGAJNAR

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We develop a static simulation model to analyse income losses and income risks at aggregated agriculture sector level. Our empirical case study is based on farm level records for direct payments claims (IACS data and covers the period 2010–2011. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we investigate the impact of different levels of risk on income trends. Results show that 80% of farms are extremely dependent on direct payments. Farm production types highly supported by direct payments consequentially fall into the low-risk group. Results show that a significant share of income loss at sector level is carried by small farms (by economic class. Average probability of larger losses at the sector level ranges between 2% and 64%. Our results also indicate that larger farms often have better risk-return ratios and thus face lower relative income risks.

  13. Connectivity as an alternative to boundary integral equations: Construction of bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Ismael; Sabina, Federico J.

    1978-01-01

    In previous papers Herrera developed a theory of connectivity that is applicable to the problem of connecting solutions defined in different regions, which occurs when solving partial differential equations and many problems of mechanics. In this paper we explain how complete connectivity conditions can be used to replace boundary integral equations in many situations. We show that completeness is satisfied not only in steady-state problems such as potential, reduced wave equation and static and quasi-static elasticity, but also in time-dependent problems such as heat and wave equations and dynamical elasticity. A method to obtain bases of connectivity conditions, which are independent of the regions considered, is also presented. PMID:16592522

  14. Alternative Tuples Based Probabilistic Skyline Query Processing in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqiong Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As uncertainty is the inherent character of sensing data, the processing and optimization techniques for Probabilistic Skyline (PS in wireless sensor networks (WSNs are investigated. It can be proved that PS is not decomposable after analyzing its properties, so in-network aggregation techniques cannot be used directly to improve the performance. In this paper, an efficient algorithm, called Distributed Processing of Probabilistic Skyline (DPPS query in WSNs, is proposed. The algorithm divides the sensing data into candidate data (CD, irrelevant data (ID, and relevant data (RD. The ID in each sensor node can be filtered directly to reduce data transmissions cost, since, only according to both CD and RD, PS result can be correctly obtained on the base station. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can effectively reduce data transmissions by filtering the unnecessary data and greatly prolong the lifetime of WSNs.

  15. Experimental Test of an Event-Based Corpuscular Model Modification as an Alternative to Quantum Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Brida, Giorgio; Genovese, Marco; Migdall, Alan; Piacentini, Fabrizio; Polyakov, Sergey V; Traina, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    We present the first experimental test that distinguishes between an event-based corpuscular model (EBCM) [H. De Raedt et al.: J. Comput. Theor. Nanosci. 8 (2011) 1052] of the interaction of photons with matter and quantum mechanics. The test looks at the interference that results as a single photon passes through a Mach-Zehnder interferometer [H. De Raedt et al.: J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 74 (2005) 16]. The experimental results, obtained with a low-noise single-photon source [G. Brida et al.: Opt. Expr. 19 (2011) 1484], agree with the predictions of standard quantum mechanics with a reduced $\\chi^2$ of 0.98 and falsify the EBCM with a reduced $\\chi^2$ of greater than 20.

  16. Influence of nanometric silicon carbide on phenolic resin composites properties

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    GEORGE PELIN; CRISTINA-ELISABETA PELIN; ADRIANA STEFAN; ION DINC\\u{A}; ANTON FICAI; ECATERINA ANDRONESCU; ROXANA TRUSC\\u{A}

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a preliminary study on obtaining and characterization of phenolic resin-based composites modified with nanometric silicon carbide. The nanocomposites were prepared by incorporating nanometric silicon carbide (nSiC) into phenolic resin at 0.5, 1 and 2 wt% contents using ultrasonication to ensure uniform dispersion of the nanopowder, followed by heat curing of the phenolic-based materials at controlled temperature profile up to 120$^{\\circ}$C. The obtained nanocomposites were characterized by FTIR spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy analysis and evaluated in terms of mechanical, tribological and thermal stability under load. The results highlight the positive effect of the nanometric silicon carbide addition in phenolic resin on mechanical, thermo-mechanical and tribological performance, improving their strength, stiffness and abrasive properties. The best results were obtained for 1 wt% nSiC, proving that this value is the optimum nanometric silicon carbide content. The results indicate that these materials could be effectively used to obtain ablative or carbon–carbon composites in future studies.

  17. Phenolic substances in Ailanthus glandulosa Desf

    OpenAIRE

    Pekala Karolina; Wawrzusiszyn Katarzyna; Bogucka-Kocka Anna

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work was the isolation and identification of phenolic acids from fruit and leaves of Ailanthus glandulosa Desf. The methods used in the isolation and identification of the compounds were: isolation of phenolic acids modified by Ibrahim and Towers, acidic and alkaline hydrolysis by Schmidtlein and Herrmann and identification of phenolic acids in the isolated fraction of two-dimensional thin layer chromatography (TLC) on cellulose plates. In the course of the study, the presence...

  18. Maintaining Coral Snakes (Micrurus nigrocinctus, Serpentes: Elapidae) for venom production on an alternative fish-based diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacón, Danilo; Rodríguez, Santos; Arias, Jazmín; Solano, Gabriela; Bonilla, Fabián; Gómez, Aarón

    2012-09-01

    American Elapid snakes (Coral Snakes) comprise the genera Leptomicrurus, Micruroides and Micrurus, which form a vast taxonomic assembly of 330 species distributed from the South of United States to the southern region of South America. In order to obtain venom for animal immunizations aimed at antivenom production, Coral Snakes must be kept in captivity and submitted periodically to venom extraction procedures. Thus, to maintain a snake colony in good health for this purpose, a complete alternative diet utilizing an easily obtained prey animal is desirable. The development of a diet based on fish is compared to the wild diet based on colubrid snakes, and assessed in terms of gain in body weight rate (g/week), longevity (weeks), venom yield (mg/individual), venom median lethal dose (LD₅₀) and venom chromatographic profiles. The animals fed with the fish-based diet gained more weight, lived longer, and produced similar amount of venom whose biological and biochemical characteristics were similar to those of venom collected from specimens fed with the wild diet. This fish-based diet appears to be suitable (and preferable to the wild diet) to supply the nutritional requirements of a Micrurus nigrocinctus snake collection for the production of antivenom.

  19. METHODS TO IMPROVE LIGNIN’S REACTIVITY AS A PHENOL SUBSTITUTE AND AS REPLACEMENT FOR OTHER PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS: A BRIEF REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Yonghong Zhou; Meng Zhang; Hui Pan; Lihong Hu

    2011-01-01

    Lignin is readily available as a by-product from the pulp and paper industry. It is considered to be a promising substitute for phenol in phenol-formaldehyde (PF) resin synthesis, given the increasing concerns of the shortage of fossil resources and the environmental impact from petroleum-based products. One hurdle that prevents the commercial utilization of lignin is its low reactivity due to its chemical structure. Many efforts have been made to improve its reactivity by modification and/or...

  20. Mindfulness-Based Exposure Strategies as a Transdiagnostic Mechanism of Change: An Exploratory Alternating Treatment Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brake, C Alex; Sauer-Zavala, Shannon; Boswell, James F; Gallagher, Matthew W; Farchione, Todd J; Barlow, David H

    2016-03-01

    The present study explored whether distress reduction in response to strong negative emotions, a putative transdiagnostic mechanism of action, is facilitated by mindfulness strategies. Seven patients (mean age=31.14years, SD=12.28, range 19-48 years, 43% female, 86% Caucasian) with heterogeneous anxiety disorders (i.e., panic disorder with or without agoraphobia, social anxiety, generalized anxiety) were assigned a randomized order of weeklong blocks utilizing either mindfulness- or avoidance-based strategies while ascending a 6-week emotion exposure hierarchy. Participants completed three exposures per block and provided distress and avoidance use ratings following each exposure. Anxiety severity, distress aversion, and distraction/suppression tendencies were also assessed at baseline and the conclusion of each block. Visual, descriptive, and effect size results showing exposures utilizing mindfulness were associated with higher overall distress levels, compared with those utilizing avoidance. Within blocks, the majority of participants exhibited declining distress levels when employing mindfulness strategies, as opposed to more static distress levels in the avoidance condition. Systematic changes in anxiety severity, distress aversion, and distraction/suppression were not observed. These results suggest mindfulness strategies may be effective in facilitating emotion exposure; however, a minimum dosage may be necessary to overcome initial distress elevation. Potential transdiagnostic change mechanisms and clinical implications are discussed.

  1. Utilization of plant-based natural coagulants as future alternatives towards sustainable water clarification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choy, Sook Yan; Prasad, Krishna Murthy Nagendra; Wu, Ta Yeong; Raghunandan, Mavinakere Eshwaraiah; Ramanan, Ramakrishnan Nagasundara

    2014-11-01

    Rapid industrial developments coupled with surging population growth have complicated issues dealing with water scarcity as the quest for clean and sanitized water intensifies globally. Existing fresh water supplies could be contaminated with organic, inorganic and biological matters that have potential harm to the society. Turbidity in general is a measure of water cloudiness induced by such colloidal and suspended matters and is also one of the major criteria in raw water monitoring to meet the stipulated water quality guidelines. Turbidity reduction is often accomplished using chemical coagulants such as alum. The use of alum is widely associated with potential development of health issues and generation of voluminous sludge. Natural coagulants that are available in abundance can certainly be considered in addressing the drawbacks associated with the use of chemical coagulants. Twenty one types of plant-based natural coagulants categorized as fruit waste and others are identified and presented collectively with their research summary in this review. The barriers and prospects of commercialization of natural coagulants in near future are also discussed.

  2. BODIPY-Based Donor-Acceptor Pi-Conjugated Alternating Copolymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popere, Bhooshan C.; Della Pelle, Andrea M.; Thayumanavan, S.

    2011-06-28

    Four novel π-conjugated copolymers incorporating 4,4-difluoro-4-borata-3a-azonia-4a-aza-s-indacene (BODIPY) core as the “donor” and quinoxaline (Qx), 2,1,3-benzothiadiazole (BzT), N,N'-di(2'-ethyl)hexyl-3,4,7,8-naphthalenetetracarboxylic diimide (NDI), and N,N'-di(2'-ethyl)hexyl-3,4,9,10-perylene tetracarboxylic diimide (PDI) as acceptors were designed and synthesized via Sonogashira polymerization. The polymers were characterized by ¹H NMR spectroscopy, gel permeation chromatography (GPC), UV–vis absorption spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed on polymer repeat units, and the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energy levels were estimated from the optimized geometry using B3LYP functional and 6-311g(d,p) basis set. Copolymers with Qx and BzT possessed HOMO and LUMO energy levels comparable to those of BODIPY homopolymer, while PDI stabilized both HOMO and LUMO levels. Semiconductor behavior of these polymers was estimated in organic thin-film transistors (OTFT). While the homopolymer, Qx, and BzT-based copolymers showed only p-type semiconductor behavior, copolymers with PDI and NDI showed only n-type behavior.

  3. Mindfulness-Based Exposure Strategies as a Transdiagnostic Mechanism of Change: An Exploratory Alternating Treatment Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brake, C Alex; Sauer-Zavala, Shannon; Boswell, James F; Gallagher, Matthew W; Farchione, Todd J; Barlow, David H

    2016-03-01

    The present study explored whether distress reduction in response to strong negative emotions, a putative transdiagnostic mechanism of action, is facilitated by mindfulness strategies. Seven patients (mean age=31.14years, SD=12.28, range 19-48 years, 43% female, 86% Caucasian) with heterogeneous anxiety disorders (i.e., panic disorder with or without agoraphobia, social anxiety, generalized anxiety) were assigned a randomized order of weeklong blocks utilizing either mindfulness- or avoidance-based strategies while ascending a 6-week emotion exposure hierarchy. Participants completed three exposures per block and provided distress and avoidance use ratings following each exposure. Anxiety severity, distress aversion, and distraction/suppression tendencies were also assessed at baseline and the conclusion of each block. Visual, descriptive, and effect size results showing exposures utilizing mindfulness were associated with higher overall distress levels, compared with those utilizing avoidance. Within blocks, the majority of participants exhibited declining distress levels when employing mindfulness strategies, as opposed to more static distress levels in the avoidance condition. Systematic changes in anxiety severity, distress aversion, and distraction/suppression were not observed. These results suggest mindfulness strategies may be effective in facilitating emotion exposure; however, a minimum dosage may be necessary to overcome initial distress elevation. Potential transdiagnostic change mechanisms and clinical implications are discussed. PMID:26956654

  4. Focused ultrasound-mediated sonochemical internalization: an alternative to light-based therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Jonathan; Nair, Rohit Kumar; Madsen, Steen J.; Krasieva, Tatiana; Hirschberg, Henry

    2016-07-01

    Activation of sonosensitizers via focused ultrasound (FUS), i.e., sonodynamic therapy has been proposed as an extension to light-activated photodynamic therapy for the treatment of brain as well as other tumors. The use of FUS, as opposed to light, allows treatment to tumor sites buried deep within tissues as well as through the intact skull. We have examined ultrasonic activation of sonosensitizers together with the anticancer agent bleomycin (BLM), i.e., sonochemical internalization (SCI). SCI is a technique that utilizes FUS for the enhanced delivery of endo-lysosomal trapped macromolecules into the cell cytoplasm in a similar manner to light-based photochemical internalization. The released agent can, therefore, exert its full biological activity, in contrast to being degraded by lysosomal hydrolases. Our results indicate that, compared to drug or FUS treatment alone, FUS activation of the sonosensitizer AlPcS2a together with BLM significantly inhibits the ability of treated glioma cells to grow as three-dimensional tumor spheroids in vitro.

  5. Casein and soybean protein-based thermoplastics and composites as alternative biodegradable polymers for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, C M; Fossen, M; van Tuil, R F; de Graaf, L A; Reis, R L; Cunha, A M

    2003-04-01

    This work reports on the development and characterization of novel meltable polymers and composites based on casein and soybean proteins. The effects of inert (Al(2)O(3)) and bioactive (tricalcium phosphate) ceramic reinforcements over the mechanical performance, water absorption, and bioactivity behavior of the injection-molded thermoplastics were examined. It was possible to obtain materials and composites with a range of mechanical properties, which might allow for their application in the biomedical field. The incorporation of tricalcium phosphate into the soybean thermoplastic decreased its mechanical properties but lead to the nucleation of a bioactive calcium-phosphate film on their surface when immersed in a simulated body fluid solution. When compounded with 1% of a zirconate coupling agent, the nucleation and growth of the bioactive films on the surface of the referred to composites was accelerated. The materials degradation was studied for ageing periods up to 60 days in an isotonic saline solution. Both water uptake and weight loss were monitored as a function of the immersion time. After 1 month of immersion, the materials showed signal of chemical degradation, presenting weight losses up to 30%. However, further improvement on the mechanical performance and the enhancement of the hydrolytic stability of those materials will be highly necessary for applications in the biomedical field.

  6. Alternative Alkaline Conditioning of Amidoxime Based Adsorbent for Uranium Extraction from Seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, S.; Liao, W. -P.; Flicker Byers, M.; Tsouris, C.; Janke, C. J.; Mayes, R. T.; Schneider, E.; Kuo, L. -J.; Wood, J. R.; Gill, G. A.; Dai, S.

    2016-04-20

    Alkaline conditioning of the amidoxime based adsorbents is a significant step in the preparation of the adsorbent for uranium uptake from seawater. The effects of various alkaline conditioning parameters such as the type of alkaline reagent, reaction temperature, and reaction time were investigated with respect to uranium adsorption capacity from simulated seawater (spiked with 8 ppm uranium) and natural seawater (from Sequim Bay, WA). An adsorbent (AF1) was prepared at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory by radiation-induced graft polymerization (RIGP) with acrylonitrile and itaconic acid onto high-surface-area polyethylene fibers. For the AF1 adsorbent, sodium hydroxide emerged as a better reagent for alkaline conditioning over potassium hydroxide, which has typically been used in previous studies, because of higher uranium uptake capacity and lower cost over the other candidate alkaline reagents investigated in this study. Use of sodium hydroxide in place of potassium hydroxide is shown to result in a 21-30% decrease in the cost of uranium recovery.

  7. Electrohydrodynamic bubbling: an alternative route to fabricate porous structures of silk fibroin based materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekemen, Zeynep; Ahmad, Zeeshan; Stride, Eleanor; Kaplan, David; Edirisinghe, Mohan

    2013-05-13

    Conventional fabrication techniques and structures employed in the design of silk fibroin (SF) based porous materials provide only limited control over pore size and require several processing stages. In this study, it is shown that, by utilizing electrohydrodynamic bubbling, not only can new hollow spherical structures of SF be formed in a single step by means of bubbles, but the resulting bubbles can serve as pore generators when dehydrated. The bubble characteristics can be controlled through simple adjustments to the processing parameters. Bubbles with diameters in the range of 240-1000 μm were fabricated in controlled fashion. FT-IR characterization confirmed that the rate of air infused during processing enhanced β-sheet packing in SF at higher flow rates. Dynamic mechanical analysis also demonstrated a correlation between air flow rate and film tensile strength. Results indicate that electrohydrodynamically generated SF and their composite bubbles can be employed as new tools to generate porous structures in a controlled manner with a range of potential applications in biocoatings and tissue engineering scaffolds.

  8. Effect of adaptation to phenol on biodegradation of monosubstituted phenols by aquatic microbial communities.

    OpenAIRE

    Shimp, R J; Pfaender, F K

    1987-01-01

    The adaptation of a mixed aquatic microbial community to phenol was examined in microcosms receiving phenol as a sole carbon source. Extended exposure (adaptation) to phenol resulted in adaptation of the microbial community to the structurally related aromatic compounds m-cresol, m-aminophenol, and p-chlorophenol. The increased biodegradation potential of the phenol-adapted microbial community was accompanied by a concurrent increase in the number of microorganisms able to degrade the three t...

  9. Low-density-solvent-based air-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction followed by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection for the determination of synthetic phenolic antioxidants in milk samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farajzadeh, Mir Ali; Afshar Mogaddam, Mohammad Reza

    2016-03-01

    A simple and rapid sample pretreatment technique termed low-density-solvent-based air-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction has been developed for the extraction and preconcentration of three synthetic phenolic antioxidants including butylated hydroxyanisole, butylated hydroxytoluene, and tert-butyl hydroquinone from milk samples prior to their analysis by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. In this method, initially trichloroacetic acid as a proteins precipitation agent is added to the sample, and then it is sonicated and centrifuged. The obtained aqueous phase is removed and the analytes extracted by the proposed method using a low-density organic solvent. Some important parameters such as type and volume of extraction solvent, ionic strength, pH, and centrifugation rate and time were studied. Under the optimum conditions, enrichment factors were obtained in the range of 501-614. LODs and quantification were between 0.76-1.16 and 2.66-3.96 ng mL(-1) , respectively. This method is rapid and requires less than 15 min for sample preparation. PMID:26763356

  10. Potential of LC Coupled to Fluorescence Detection in Food Metabolomics: Determination of Phenolic Compounds in Virgin Olive Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romina P. Monasterio

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A powerful chromatographic method coupled to a fluorescence detector was developed to determine the phenolic compounds present in virgin olive oil (VOO, with the aim to propose an appropriate alternative to liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. An excitation wavelength of 285 nm was selected and four different emission wavelengths (316, 328, 350 and 450 nm were simultaneously recorded, working therefore on “multi-emission” detection mode. With the use of commercially available standards and other standards obtained by semipreparative high performance liquid chromatography, it was possible to identify simple phenols, lignans, several complex phenols, and other phenolic compounds present in the matrix under study. A total of 26 phenolic compounds belonging to different chemical families were identified (23 of them were susceptible of being quantified. The proposed methodology provided detection and quantification limits within the ranges of 0.004–7.143 μg·mL−1 and 0.013–23.810 μg·mL−1, respectively. As far as the repeatability is concerned, the relative standard deviation values were below 0.43% for retention time, and 9.05% for peak area. The developed methodology was applied for the determination of phenolic compounds in ten VOOs, both monovarietals and blends. Secoiridoids were the most abundant fraction in all the samples, followed by simple phenolic alcohols, lignans, flavonoids, and phenolic acids (being the abundance order of the latter chemical classes logically depending on the variety and origin of the VOOs.

  11. Potential of LC Coupled to Fluorescence Detection in Food Metabolomics: Determination of Phenolic Compounds in Virgin Olive Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monasterio, Romina P; Olmo-García, Lucía; Bajoub, Aadil; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Carrasco-Pancorbo, Alegría

    2016-01-01

    A powerful chromatographic method coupled to a fluorescence detector was developed to determine the phenolic compounds present in virgin olive oil (VOO), with the aim to propose an appropriate alternative to liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. An excitation wavelength of 285 nm was selected and four different emission wavelengths (316, 328, 350 and 450 nm) were simultaneously recorded, working therefore on "multi-emission" detection mode. With the use of commercially available standards and other standards obtained by semipreparative high performance liquid chromatography, it was possible to identify simple phenols, lignans, several complex phenols, and other phenolic compounds present in the matrix under study. A total of 26 phenolic compounds belonging to different chemical families were identified (23 of them were susceptible of being quantified). The proposed methodology provided detection and quantification limits within the ranges of 0.004-7.143 μg·mL(-1) and 0.013-23.810 μg·mL(-1), respectively. As far as the repeatability is concerned, the relative standard deviation values were below 0.43% for retention time, and 9.05% for peak area. The developed methodology was applied for the determination of phenolic compounds in ten VOOs, both monovarietals and blends. Secoiridoids were the most abundant fraction in all the samples, followed by simple phenolic alcohols, lignans, flavonoids, and phenolic acids (being the abundance order of the latter chemical classes logically depending on the variety and origin of the VOOs). PMID:27669238

  12. Alternative Evaluation Designs for Data-Centered Technology-Based Geoscience Education Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalles, D. R.

    2012-12-01

    This paper will present different strategies for how to evaluate contrasting K-12 geoscience classroom-based interventions with different goals, leveraging the first author's experiences as principal investigator of four NSF and NASA-funded geoscience education projects. Results will also be reported. Each project had its own distinctive features but all had in common the broad goal of bringing to high school classrooms uses of real place-based geospatial data to study the relationships of Earth system phenomena to climate change and sustainability. The first project's goal was to produce templates and exemplars for curriculum and assessment designs around studying contrasting geoscience topics with different data sets and forms of data representation. The project produced a near transfer performance assessment task in which students who studied climate trends in Phoenix turned their attention to climate in Chicago. The evaluation looked at the technical quality of the assessment instrument as measured by inter-rater reliability. It then analyzed the assessment results against student responses to the instructional tasks about Phoenix. The evaluation proved useful in pinpointing areas of student strength and weakness on different inquiry tasks, from simple map interpretation to analysis of contrasting claims about what the data indicate. The goal of the second project was to produce an exemplar curriculum unit that bridges Western science and traditional American Indian ecological knowledge for student learning and skill building about local environmental sustainability issues. The evaluation looked at the extent to which Western and traditional perspectives were incorporated into the design of the curriculum. The curriculum was not constructed with a separate assessment, yet evidence centered design was utilized to extrapolate from the exemplar unit templates for future instructional and assessment tasks around other places, other sustainability problems, and

  13. Alcohol based-deep eutectic solvent (DES) as an alternative green additive to increase rotenone yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) are basically molten salts that interact by forming hydrogen bonds between two added components at a ratio where eutectic point reaches a melting point lower than that of each individual component. Their remarkable physicochemical properties (similar to ionic liquids) with remarkable green properties, low cost and easy handling make them a growing interest in many fields of research. Therefore, the objective of pursuing this study is to analyze the potential of alcohol-based DES as an extraction medium for rotenone extraction from Derris elliptica roots. DES was prepared by a combination of choline chloride, ChCl and 1, 4-butanediol at a ratio of 1/5. The structure of elucidation of DES was analyzed using FTIR, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR. Normal soaking extraction (NSE) method was carried out for 14 hours using seven different types of solvent systems of (1) acetone; (2) methanol; (3) acetonitrile; (4) DES; (5) DES + methanol; (6) DES + acetonitrile; and (7) [BMIM] OTf + acetone. Next, the yield of rotenone, % (w/w), and its concentration (mg/ml) in dried roots were quantitatively determined by means of RP-HPLC. The results showed that a binary solvent system of [BMIM] OTf + acetone and DES + acetonitrile was the best solvent system combination as compared to other solvent systems. It contributed to the highest rotenone content of 0.84 ± 0.05% (w/w) (1.09 ± 0.06 mg/ml) and 0.84 ± 0.02% (w/w) (1.03 ± 0.01 mg/ml) after 14 hours of exhaustive extraction time. In conclusion, a combination of the DES with a selective organic solvent has been proven to have a similar potential and efficiency as of ILs in extracting bioactive constituents in the phytochemical extraction process

  14. Alcohol based-deep eutectic solvent (DES) as an alternative green additive to increase rotenone yield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Othman, Zetty Shafiqa; Hassan, Nur Hasyareeda; Zubairi, Saiful Irwan [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-09-25

    Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) are basically molten salts that interact by forming hydrogen bonds between two added components at a ratio where eutectic point reaches a melting point lower than that of each individual component. Their remarkable physicochemical properties (similar to ionic liquids) with remarkable green properties, low cost and easy handling make them a growing interest in many fields of research. Therefore, the objective of pursuing this study is to analyze the potential of alcohol-based DES as an extraction medium for rotenone extraction from Derris elliptica roots. DES was prepared by a combination of choline chloride, ChCl and 1, 4-butanediol at a ratio of 1/5. The structure of elucidation of DES was analyzed using FTIR, {sup 1}H-NMR and {sup 13}C-NMR. Normal soaking extraction (NSE) method was carried out for 14 hours using seven different types of solvent systems of (1) acetone; (2) methanol; (3) acetonitrile; (4) DES; (5) DES + methanol; (6) DES + acetonitrile; and (7) [BMIM] OTf + acetone. Next, the yield of rotenone, % (w/w), and its concentration (mg/ml) in dried roots were quantitatively determined by means of RP-HPLC. The results showed that a binary solvent system of [BMIM] OTf + acetone and DES + acetonitrile was the best solvent system combination as compared to other solvent systems. It contributed to the highest rotenone content of 0.84 ± 0.05% (w/w) (1.09 ± 0.06 mg/ml) and 0.84 ± 0.02% (w/w) (1.03 ± 0.01 mg/ml) after 14 hours of exhaustive extraction time. In conclusion, a combination of the DES with a selective organic solvent has been proven to have a similar potential and efficiency as of ILs in extracting bioactive constituents in the phytochemical extraction process.

  15. Alcohol based-deep eutectic solvent (DES) as an alternative green additive to increase rotenone yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Zetty Shafiqa; Hassan, Nur Hasyareeda; Zubairi, Saiful Irwan

    2015-09-01

    Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) are basically molten salts that interact by forming hydrogen bonds between two added components at a ratio where eutectic point reaches a melting point lower than that of each individual component. Their remarkable physicochemical properties (similar to ionic liquids) with remarkable green properties, low cost and easy handling make them a growing interest in many fields of research. Therefore, the objective of pursuing this study is to analyze the potential of alcohol-based DES as an extraction medium for rotenone extraction from Derris elliptica roots. DES was prepared by a combination of choline chloride, ChCl and 1, 4-butanediol at a ratio of 1/5. The structure of elucidation of DES was analyzed using FTIR, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR. Normal soaking extraction (NSE) method was carried out for 14 hours using seven different types of solvent systems of (1) acetone; (2) methanol; (3) acetonitrile; (4) DES; (5) DES + methanol; (6) DES + acetonitrile; and (7) [BMIM] OTf + acetone. Next, the yield of rotenone, % (w/w), and its concentration (mg/ml) in dried roots were quantitatively determined by means of RP-HPLC. The results showed that a binary solvent system of [BMIM] OTf + acetone and DES + acetonitrile was the best solvent system combination as compared to other solvent systems. It contributed to the highest rotenone content of 0.84 ± 0.05% (w/w) (1.09 ± 0.06 mg/ml) and 0.84 ± 0.02% (w/w) (1.03 ± 0.01 mg/ml) after 14 hours of exhaustive extraction time. In conclusion, a combination of the DES with a selective organic solvent has been proven to have a similar potential and efficiency as of ILs in extracting bioactive constituents in the phytochemical extraction process.

  16. Comparative study of alternative ORC-based combined power systems to exploit high temperature waste heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Three ORC-based combined systems for ICE exhaust waste heat recovery are studied. • A parametric investigation is conducted under several typical engine conditions. • Performance is evaluated considering six thermodynamic, techno-economic indexes. • DORC distinguishes among other solutions for its highest energy recovery capacity. • TEG–ORC system becomes attractive when exhaust temperature is relatively low. - Abstract: In this paper, various combined power systems which regard organic Rankine cycle (ORC) as bottoming cycle to recover engine’s high temperature exhaust heat are proposed. The topping recovery cycle includes steam Rankine cycle (RC), Brayton cycle (BC) and thermoelectric generator (TEG). Comprehensive evaluations are conducted under five typical engine conditions, ranging from high load to low load, and system performance is assessed in terms of many thermodynamic indexes, such as net output power, thermal efficiency, recovery efficiency and exergy efficiency. Besides that, the irreversibility of each component is also discussed in detail. R123, R245fa and R600a for ORC system are considered to analyze the influence of working fluids. Considering the system techno-economy, the turbine size parameter (SP) and heat transfer capacity (UA) are chosen as key indicators. The results show that compared with the other two investigated approaches, dual-loop ORC (DORC) possesses the highest energy exploitation capacity under the whole operating region, with a 5.57% increase of fuel economy under the rated condition, but its values of SP and UA are large as well. TEG–ORC becomes appealing while under the relatively low load

  17. Influence of abiotic stress during soybean germination followed by recovery on the phenolic compounds of radicles and their antioxidant capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Sylwia Swigonska; Ryszard Amarowicz; Angelika Król; Agnieszka Mostek; Anna Badowiec; Stanisław Weidner

    2014-01-01

    Abiotic stress factors are among the major causes of lower crop yields. It is known, that in response to cold and/or osmotic stress, crops activate various defense mechanisms, including morphological, physiological and metabolic adaptations. Secondary metabolism, especially phenolic compounds, seem to be an important factor of stress-induced metabolic re-engineering as their levels are alternated by abiotic stress in plants. Despite the fact, that the nature and function of phenolic compounds...

  18. Bio-Root and Implant-Based Restoration as a Tooth Replacement Alternative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Z H; Hu, L; Liu, G L; Wei, F L; Liu, Y; Liu, Z H; Fan, Z P; Zhang, C M; Wang, J S; Wang, S L

    2016-06-01

    We previously reported that dental stem cell-mediated bioengineered tooth root (bio-root) regeneration could restore tooth loss in a miniature pig model. As a potential new method for tooth restoration, it is essential to compare this method with the widely used commercial dental implant-based method of tooth restoration. Tooth loss models were created by extracting mandibular incisors from miniature pigs. Allogeneic periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) and dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) were isolated and cultured. A PDLSC sheet was prepared by adding 20.0 µg/mL vitamin C to the culture medium; in addition, a hydroxyapatite tricalcium phosphate (HA/TCP)/DPSC graft was fabricated and cultured in a 3-dimensional culture system. A total of 46 bio-root implantations and 9 dental implants were inserted, and crown restorations were performed 6 mo after implantation. Histological, radiological, biomechanical, and elemental analyses were used to evaluate and compare tissue-engineered bio-roots and dental implants to the natural tooth roots. After 6 mo, both computed tomography scans and histological examinations showed that root-like structures and dentin-like tissues had formed. Three months after crown restoration, clinical assessments revealed that tooth function was equivalent in the regenerated bio-root and the dental implant. Biomechanical testing showed that the bio-roots were similar to natural tooth roots in compressive strength, modulus of elasticity, and torsional force; however, these properties were significantly higher in the dental implants. Elemental analysis revealed a higher similarity in elemental composition between bio-roots and natural tooth roots than between bio-roots and dental implants. However, the dental implant success rate was 100% (9 of 9) and the bio-root success rate was only 22% (10 of 46). Taken together, we showed that an allogeneic HA/TCP/DPSC/PDLSC sheet could successfully build a bio-root with structure and function similar to

  19. Bio-Root and Implant-Based Restoration as a Tooth Replacement Alternative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Z H; Hu, L; Liu, G L; Wei, F L; Liu, Y; Liu, Z H; Fan, Z P; Zhang, C M; Wang, J S; Wang, S L

    2016-06-01

    We previously reported that dental stem cell-mediated bioengineered tooth root (bio-root) regeneration could restore tooth loss in a miniature pig model. As a potential new method for tooth restoration, it is essential to compare this method with the widely used commercial dental implant-based method of tooth restoration. Tooth loss models were created by extracting mandibular incisors from miniature pigs. Allogeneic periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) and dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) were isolated and cultured. A PDLSC sheet was prepared by adding 20.0 µg/mL vitamin C to the culture medium; in addition, a hydroxyapatite tricalcium phosphate (HA/TCP)/DPSC graft was fabricated and cultured in a 3-dimensional culture system. A total of 46 bio-root implantations and 9 dental implants were inserted, and crown restorations were performed 6 mo after implantation. Histological, radiological, biomechanical, and elemental analyses were used to evaluate and compare tissue-engineered bio-roots and dental implants to the natural tooth roots. After 6 mo, both computed tomography scans and histological examinations showed that root-like structures and dentin-like tissues had formed. Three months after crown restoration, clinical assessments revealed that tooth function was equivalent in the regenerated bio-root and the dental implant. Biomechanical testing showed that the bio-roots were similar to natural tooth roots in compressive strength, modulus of elasticity, and torsional force; however, these properties were significantly higher in the dental implants. Elemental analysis revealed a higher similarity in elemental composition between bio-roots and natural tooth roots than between bio-roots and dental implants. However, the dental implant success rate was 100% (9 of 9) and the bio-root success rate was only 22% (10 of 46). Taken together, we showed that an allogeneic HA/TCP/DPSC/PDLSC sheet could successfully build a bio-root with structure and function similar to

  20. Rapid and alternative fabrication method for microfluidic paper based analytical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malekghasemi, Soheil; Kahveci, Enver; Duman, Memed

    2016-10-01

    A major application of microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (µPADs) includes the field of point-of-care (POC) diagnostics. It is important for POC diagnostics to possess properties such as ease-of-use and low cost. However, µPADs need multiple instruments and fabrication steps. In this study, two different chemicals (Hexamethyldisilazane and Tetra-ethylorthosilicate) were used, and three different methods (heating, plasma treatment, and microwave irradiation) were compared to develop µPADs. Additionally, an inkjet-printing technique was used for generating a hydrophilic channel and printing certain chemical agents on different regions of a modified filter paper. A rapid and effective fabrication method to develop µPADs within 10min was introduced using an inkjet-printing technique in conjunction with a microwave irradiation method. Environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used for morphology characterization and determining the surface chemical compositions of the modified filter paper, respectively. Contact angle measurements were used to fulfill the hydrophobicity of the treated filter paper. The highest contact angle value (141°±1) was obtained using the microwave irradiation method over a period of 7min, when the filter paper was modified by TEOS. Furthermore, by using this method, the XPS results of TEOS-modified filter paper revealed Si2p (23%) and Si-O bounds (81.55%) indicating the presence of Si-O-Si bridges and Si(OEt) groups, respectively. The ESEM results revealed changes in the porous structures of the papers and decreases in the pore sizes. Washburn assay measurements tested the efficiency of the generated hydrophilic channels in which similar water penetration rates were observed in the TEOS-modified filter paper and unmodified (plain) filter paper. The validation of the developed µPADs was performed by utilizing the rapid urease test as a model test system. The detection limit of

  1. Antimicrobial and cytotoxic phenolics and phenolic glycosides from Sargentodoxa cuneata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiaobin; Wang, Hai; Gong, Zhongqing; Huang, Jinghui; Pei, Weijing; Wang, Xueyan; Zhang, Jingzhao; Tang, Xudong

    2015-03-01

    Five new phenolic glycosides, Sargentodosides A-E, and two new dihydronaphthalene lignans, Sargentodognans F-G, together with thirty-two known phenolic compounds were isolated from the 60% ethanol extracts of Sargentodoxa cuneata. Their structures including absolute configurations were determined by spectroscopic analysis and electronic circular dichroism experiments. In bioscreening experiments, twelve compounds (22-26, 29, 33-34, 36, 38) exhibited antibacterial activities against S. aureus ATCC 29213 with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 2-516μg/mL. And compound 29 showed the highest antibacterial activity against S. aureus ATCC 29213 with MIC values of 2μg/mL, while the MIC values of levofloxacin was 8μg/mL. Three compounds (29, 33, 36) exhibited antibacterial activities against S. aureus ATCC 25923 with MIC values of 256-516μg/mL. Two compounds (29, 33) exhibited antibacterial activities against A. baumanii ATCC 19606 with MIC values of 128-516μg/mL. However, no compound exhibited antimicrobial activities against C. albicans ATCC 10231. Moreover, three compounds (10, 25, 36) exhibited significant inhibition of proliferation in the two cell lines Hela and Siha, and showed stronger inhibitive activity of these two selected cell lines than cisplatin in the cytotoxic assay. Thus, S. cuneata is a potential plant source for further research targeting bacteria and cancer diseases. PMID:25598187

  2. Proton transfer in hydrogen-bonded network of phenol molecules: intracluster formation of water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengyel, Jozef; Gorejová, Radka; Herman, Zdeněk; Fárník, Michal

    2013-11-01

    Electron ionization and time-of-flight mass spectrometry was used to investigate the phenol clusters (PhOH)n of different size from single molecule to large clusters: in coexpansion with He, the dimers n = 2 are mostly generated; in Ar, large species of n ≥ 10 also occur. Besides [(PhOH)n](+•) cluster ion series, hydrated phenol cluster ions [(PhOH)n·xH2O](+•) with up to x = 3 water molecules and dehydrated phenol clusters [(PhOH)n-H2O](+•) were observed. The hydrated phenol series exhibits minima and maxima that are interpreted as evidence for proton transfer between the hydrogen bonded cluster ions of cyclic structures. The proton transfer leads to a water generation within the clusters, and subsequent elimination of the diphenyl ether molecule(s) from the cluster yields the hydrated phenol cluster ions. Alternatively, a water molecule release yields a series of dehydrated phenols, among which the diphenyl ether ion [PhOPh](+•) (n = 2) constitutes the maximum.

  3. A genomic biomarker signature can predict skin sensitizers using a cell-based in vitro alternative to animal tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albrekt Ann-Sofie

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Allergic contact dermatitis is an inflammatory skin disease that affects a significant proportion of the population. This disease is caused by an adverse immune response towards chemical haptens, and leads to a substantial economic burden for society. Current test of sensitizing chemicals rely on animal experimentation. New legislations on the registration and use of chemicals within pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries have stimulated significant research efforts to develop alternative, human cell-based assays for the prediction of sensitization. The aim is to replace animal experiments with in vitro tests displaying a higher predictive power. Results We have developed a novel cell-based assay for the prediction of sensitizing chemicals. By analyzing the transcriptome of the human cell line MUTZ-3 after 24 h stimulation, using 20 different sensitizing chemicals, 20 non-sensitizing chemicals and vehicle controls, we have identified a biomarker signature of 200 genes with potent discriminatory ability. Using a Support Vector Machine for supervised classification, the prediction performance of the assay revealed an area under the ROC curve of 0.98. In addition, categorizing the chemicals according to the LLNA assay, this gene signature could also predict sensitizing potency. The identified markers are involved in biological pathways with immunological relevant functions, which can shed light on the process of human sensitization. Conclusions A gene signature predicting sensitization, using a human cell line in vitro, has been identified. This simple and robust cell-based assay has the potential to completely replace or drastically reduce the utilization of test systems based on experimental animals. Being based on human biology, the assay is proposed to be more accurate for predicting sensitization in humans, than the traditional animal-based tests.

  4. Cresols utilization by Trametes versicolor and substrate interactions in the mixture with phenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexieva, Zlatka; Yemendzhiev, Hyusein; Zlateva, Plamena

    2010-07-01

    The ability of the white rot fungus Trametes versicolor strain 1 to degrade and utilize methylated phenols (cresols) was established for the first time in a medium not containing any other carbon components. The data obtained demonstrated the better potential of the strain to assimilate p-cresol instead of o- or m- cresol. The 0.5 g/l p-cresol provided was degraded in full after 96 h. The effect of a dual substrate mixture (0.3 g/l phenol + 0.2 g/l p-cresol) on the growth behavior and degradation capacity of the investigated strain was examined. The cell-free supernatants were analyzed by HPLC. It was established that the presence of p-cresol had not prevented complete phenol degradation but had a significant delaying effect on the phenol degradation dynamics. Phenol hydroxylase, catechol 1.2-dioxygenase and cis,cis-muconate cyclase activities were obtained in conditions of single and mixed substrates cultivation. The influence of different phenolic substrates on phenol hydroxylase activity in Trametes versicolor 1 was established. The mathematical models describing the dynamics of single substrates' utilization as well as the mutual influence of phenol and p-cresol in the mixture were developed on the bases of Haldane kinetics. The estimated interaction coefficients (I(ph/cr) = 4.72, I(cr/ph) = 7.46) demonstrated the significant inhibition of p-cresol on phenol biodegradation and comparatively low level of influence of phenol presence on the p-cresol degradation. Molecular 18S RNA gene taxonomy of the investigated strain was performed.

  5. Fiber reinforced hybrid phenolic foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Amit

    Hybrid composites in recent times have been developed by using more than one type of fiber reinforcement to bestow synergistic properties of the chosen filler and matrix and also facilitating the design of materials with specific properties matched to end use. However, the studies for hybrid foams have been very limited because of problems related to fiber dispersion in matrix, non uniform mixing due to presence of more than one filler and partially cured foams. An effective approach to synthesize hybrid phenolic foam has been proposed and investigated here. Hybrid composite phenolic foams were reinforced with chopped glass and aramid fibers in varied proportions. On assessing mechanical properties in compression and shear several interesting facts surfaced but overall hybrid phenolic foams exhibited a more graceful failure, greater resistance to cracking and were significantly stiffer and stronger than foams with only glass and aramid fibers. The optimum fiber ratio for the reinforced hybrid phenolic foam system was found to be 1:1 ratio of glass to aramid fibers. Also, the properties of hybrid foam were found to deviate from rule of mixture (ROM) and thus the existing theories of fiber reinforcement fell short in explaining their complex behavior. In an attempt to describe and predict mechanical behavior of hybrid foams a statistical design tool using analysis of variance technique was employed. The utilization of a statistical model for predicting foam properties was found to be an appropriate tool that affords a global perspective of the influence of process variables such as fiber weight fraction, fiber length etc. on foam properties (elastic modulus and strength). Similar approach could be extended to study other fiber composite foam systems such as polyurethane, epoxy etc. and doing so will reduce the number of experimental iterations needed to optimize foam properties and identify critical process variables. Diffusivity, accelerated aging and flammability

  6. Phenolic Compounds from Scutellaria pontica

    OpenAIRE

    ERSÖZ, Tayfun; HARPUT, Ü. Şebnem; SARACOĞLU, İclal; ÇALIŞ, İhsan

    2002-01-01

    From the aerial parts of Scutellaria pontica, a phenolic glucoside, 3,5-dihydroxyphenyl b -D-glucopyranoside (1); as well as a C-glucosyl flavon, isovitexin (2); flavones and flavone glycosides, 5-hydroxy-7,3',4'-trimethoxyflavone (3); apigenin (4); apigenin-7-O-b-D-glucopyranoside (5); and apigenin-7-O-b-D-glucopyranoside-4'-O-methylether (6) were isolated in addition to two phenylethanoid glycosides, martynoside (7) and verbascoside (= acteoside) (8). The structures...

  7. Antioxidant potential of microalgae in relation to their phenolic and carotenoid content

    OpenAIRE

    Goiris, Koen; Muylaert, Koenraad; Fraeye, Ilse; Foubert, Imogen; De Brabanter, Joseph; De Cooman, Luc

    2012-01-01

    In the past decades, food scientists have been searching for natural alternatives to replace synthetic antioxidants. In order to evaluate the potential of microalgae as new source of safe antioxidants, 32 microalgal biomass samples were screened for their antioxidant capacity using three antioxidant assays, and both total phenolic content and carotenoid content were measured. Microalgae were extracted using a one-step extraction with ethanol/water, and alternatively, a three-step fractionatio...

  8. The Molecular Immunology of Mucositis: Implications for Evidence-Based Research in Alternative and Complementary Palliative Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Chiappelli

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The terms ‘mucositis’ and ‘stomatitis’ are often used interchangeably. Mucositis, however, pertains to pharyngeal-esophago-gastrointestinal inflammation that manifests as red, burn-like sores or ulcerations throughout the mouth. Stomatitis is an inflammation of the oral tissues proper, which can present with or without sores, and is made worse by poor dental hygiene. Mucositis is observed in a variety of immunosuppressed patients, but is most often consequential to cancer therapy. It appears as early as the third day of intervention, and is usually established by Day 7 of treatment. Mucositis increases mortality and morbidity and contributes to rising health care costs. The precise immune components involved in the etiology of mucositis are unclear, but evidence-based research (EBR data has shown that applications of granulocyte–macrophage-colony stimulating factor prevent the onset or the exacerbation of oropharyngeal mucositis. The molecular implications of this observation are discussed from the perspective of future developments of complementary and alternative treatments for this condition. It must be emphasized that this article is meant to be neither a review on mucositis and the various treatments for it, nor a discussion paper on its underlying molecular immunology. It is a statement of the implications of EBR for CAM-based interventions for mucositis. It explores and discusses the specific domain of molecular immunology in the context of mucositis and its direct implications for EBR research in CAM-based treatments for mucositis.

  9. The paradox of non-evidence based, publicly funded complementary alternative medicine in the English National Health Service: An explanation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Maria K

    2015-10-01

    Despite the unproven effectiveness of many practices that are under the umbrella term 'complementary alternative medicine' (CAM), there is provision of CAM within the English National Health Service (NHS). Moreover, although the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence was established to promote scientifically validated medicine in the NHS, the paradox of publicly funded, non-evidence based CAM can be explained as linked with government policy of patient choice and specifically patient treatment choice. Patient choice is useful in the political and policy discourse as it is open to different interpretations and can be justified by policy-makers who rely on the traditional NHS values of equity and universality. Treatment choice finds expression in the policy of personalised healthcare linked with patient responsibilisation which finds resonance in the emphasis CAM places on self-care and self-management. More importantly, however, policy-makers also use patient choice and treatment choice as a policy initiative with the objective of encouraging destabilisation of the entrenched healthcare institutions and practices considered resistant to change. This political strategy of system reform has the unintended, paradoxical consequence of allowing for the emergence of non-evidence based, publicly funded CAM in the NHS. The political and policy discourse of patient choice thus trumps evidence based medicine, with patients that demand access to CAM becoming the unwitting beneficiaries.

  10. Efficient and robust 3D CT image reconstruction based on total generalized variation regularization using the alternating direction method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianlin; Wang, Linyuan; Yan, Bin; Zhang, Hanming; Cheng, Genyang

    2015-01-01

    Iterative reconstruction algorithms for computed tomography (CT) through total variation regularization based on piecewise constant assumption can produce accurate, robust, and stable results. Nonetheless, this approach is often subject to staircase artefacts and the loss of fine details. To overcome these shortcomings, we introduce a family of novel image regularization penalties called total generalized variation (TGV) for the effective production of high-quality images from incomplete or noisy projection data for 3D reconstruction. We propose a new, fast alternating direction minimization algorithm to solve CT image reconstruction problems through TGV regularization. Based on the theory of sparse-view image reconstruction and the framework of augmented Lagrange function method, the TGV regularization term has been introduced in the computed tomography and is transformed into three independent variables of the optimization problem by introducing auxiliary variables. This new algorithm applies a local linearization and proximity technique to make the FFT-based calculation of the analytical solutions in the frequency domain feasible, thereby significantly reducing the complexity of the algorithm. Experiments with various 3D datasets corresponding to incomplete projection data demonstrate the advantage of our proposed algorithm in terms of preserving fine details and overcoming the staircase effect. The computation cost also suggests that the proposed algorithm is applicable to and is effective for CBCT imaging. Theoretical and technical optimization should be investigated carefully in terms of both computation efficiency and high resolution of this algorithm in application-oriented research.

  11. On an Alternative Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Vankov, A

    1998-01-01

    The suggested alternative cosmology is based on the idea of barion symmetric universe, in which our home universe is a representative of multitude of typical matter and antimatter universes. This alternative concept gives a physically reasonable explanation of all major problems of the Standard Cosmological Model. Classification Code MSC: Cosmology 524.8 Key words: standard cosmological model, alternative cosmology, barionic symmetry, typical universe, quasars, cosmic rays.

  12. Alternative Solar Indices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lantz, L.J.

    1980-07-01

    Possible alternative Solar Indices which could either be a perturbation from the currently defined Solar Index or possible indices based on current technologies for other media markets are discussed. An overview is given of the current project, including the logic that was utilized in defining its current structure and then alternative indices and definitions are presented and finally, recommendations are made for adopting alternative indices.

  13. Phenol oxidase activity in secondary transformed peat-moorsh soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styła, K.; Szajdak, L.

    2009-04-01

    et al. (2000). In peat the highest activities of phenol oxidase was observed in the combinations marked as Shelterbelt and whereas the lowest - in Zbechy, Bridge and Hirudo. Activities of this enzyme in peat ranged from 15.35 to 38.33 μmol h-1g d.m soil. Increased activities of phenol oxidase have been recorded on the depth 50-100cm - catotelm (21.74-38.33 μmol h-1g d.m soil) in comparison with the depth 0-50cm - acrotelm (15.35-28.32 μmol h-1g d.m soil). References Freeman, C., Ostle N.J., Fener, N., Kang H. 2004. A regulatory role for phenol oxidase during decomposition in peatlands. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 36, 1663-1667. Matocha Ch.J., Haszler G.R., Grove J.H. 2004. Nitrogen fertilization suppresses soil phenol oxidase enzyme activity in no-tillage systems. Soil Science, 169/10, 708-714. Perucci P., Casucci C., Dumontet S. 2000. An improved method to evaluate the o-diphenol oxidase activity of soil. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 32, 1927-1933. Sokolowska Z., Szajdak L., Matyka-Sarzyńska D. 2005. Impact of the degree of secondary transformation on amid-base properties of organic compounds in mucks. Geoderma, 127, 80-90. Szajdak L., Szczepański M., Bogacz A. 2007. Impact of secondary transformation of peat-moorsh soils on the decrease of nitrogen and carbon compounds in ground water. Agronomy Research, 5/2, 189-200.

  14. Anaerobic degradation of increased phenol concentrations in batch assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Benjamin; Krebs, Maria; Andert, Janet

    2015-12-01

    Phenol is a wastewater contaminant depicting an environmental hazard. It can be found in effluents from various industrial processes and becomes even more common as a waste by-product of biomass-based bioenergy concepts. Because of its toxicity to anaerobic microorganisms, it can be recalcitrant during biogas production and anaerobic wastewater treatment. This study tested increased phenol loads (100 to 5000 mg L(-1)) as the sole carbon source in a semi-continuous mesophilic anaerobic adaption experiment using an unadapted microbial community from a standard biogas plant. Phenol was completely degraded at starting concentrations of up to 2000 mg L(-1). At 5000 mg L(-1), complete inhibition of the anaerobic community was observed. Lag times were reduced down to less than a day treating 2000 mg L(-1) after 16 weeks of adaption to gradually increased phenol concentrations. Specific degradation rates increased consecutively up to 7.02 mg gVS (-1) day(-1) at 2000 mg L(-1). This concentration was completely degraded within less than 12 days. The microbial community composition was assessed using 16S rRNA gene-based terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis. In the bacterial community, no clear shift was visible. Clostridia were with the highest relative abundance of 27 %, the most prominent bacterial class. T-RFs representing Clostridia, Anaerolinaceae, Flavobacteria, and Bacteroidea appeared at similar relative abundance level throughout the experiment. The archaeal community, however, changed from a Methanosarcinales-dominated community (57%) to a community with a nearly even distribution of Methanobacteriales (21%) and Methanosarcinales (34%) with increasing starting phenol concentration.

  15. Phenolic compounds and total antioxidant activity determination in rosemary and oregano extracts and its use in cheese spread
    Determinação de compostos fenólicos e atividade antioxidante total de extratos de alecrim e orégano e sua aplicação em queijo à base de ricota

    OpenAIRE

    Lucia Helena da Silva Miglioranza; Alessandra Lourenço Cecchini; Kalidas Shetty; Renata Dinnies Santos

    2012-01-01

    Natural antioxidants added to foods may have a physiological impact on human health, particularly because they may reduce the risk of illnesses or they promote the delay of damaging free radicals effect, like cardiovascular diseases, intestinal cancer or infections symptoms. The best conditions for the extraction of phenolic compounds from Rosmarinus officinalis L. (rosemary) and Origanum vulgare (oregano) was established, and the antioxidant activity from raw extracts was demonstrated based ...

  16. Biopolymer nano-particles and natural nano-carriers for nano-encapsulation of phenolic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faridi Esfanjani, Afshin; Jafari, Seid Mahdi

    2016-10-01

    Phenolic compounds are major micronutrients in our diet,(1) and evidence for their role in the prevention of degenerative diseases such as cancer, inflammation and neurodegenerative diseases is emerging. The easily destruction against environment stresses and low bioavailability of phenolics are main limitations of their application. Therefore, nano-encapsulated phenolics as a fine delivery system can solve their restrictions. Polymeric nanoparticles and natural nano-carriers are one of the most effective and industrial techniques which can be used for protection and delivery of phenolics. In this review, preparation, application and characterization of polymeric based nano-capsules and natural nano-carriers for phenolics have been considered and discussed including polymeric nanoparticles, polymeric complex nanoparticles, cyclodextrins, nano-caseins, nanocrystals, electrospun nano-fibers, electro-sprayed nano-particles, and nano-spray dried particles. Our main goal was to cover the relevant recent studies in the past few years. Although a number of different types of polymeric and natural based nano-scale delivery systems have been developed, there are relatively poor quantitative understanding of their in vivo absorption, permeation and release. Also, performing toxicity experiments, residual solvent analysis and studying their biological fate during digestion, absorption, and excretion of polymeric nanoparticle and natural nano-carriers containing phenolics should be considered in future researches. In addition, future investigations could focus on application of phenolic nano-scale delivery systems in pharmaceuticals and functional foods.

  17. Biopolymer nano-particles and natural nano-carriers for nano-encapsulation of phenolic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faridi Esfanjani, Afshin; Jafari, Seid Mahdi

    2016-10-01

    Phenolic compounds are major micronutrients in our diet,(1) and evidence for their role in the prevention of degenerative diseases such as cancer, inflammation and neurodegenerative diseases is emerging. The easily destruction against environment stresses and low bioavailability of phenolics are main limitations of their application. Therefore, nano-encapsulated phenolics as a fine delivery system can solve their restrictions. Polymeric nanoparticles and natural nano-carriers are one of the most effective and industrial techniques which can be used for protection and delivery of phenolics. In this review, preparation, application and characterization of polymeric based nano-capsules and natural nano-carriers for phenolics have been considered and discussed including polymeric nanoparticles, polymeric complex nanoparticles, cyclodextrins, nano-caseins, nanocrystals, electrospun nano-fibers, electro-sprayed nano-particles, and nano-spray dried particles. Our main goal was to cover the relevant recent studies in the past few years. Although a number of different types of polymeric and natural based nano-scale delivery systems have been developed, there are relatively poor quantitative understanding of their in vivo absorption, permeation and release. Also, performing toxicity experiments, residual solvent analysis and studying their biological fate during digestion, absorption, and excretion of polymeric nanoparticle and natural nano-carriers containing phenolics should be considered in future researches. In addition, future investigations could focus on application of phenolic nano-scale delivery systems in pharmaceuticals and functional foods. PMID:27419648

  18. A comprehensive evaluation of three microfluidic chemiluminescence methods for the determination of the total phenolic contents in fruit juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Haddabi, Buthaina; Al Lawati, Haider A J; Suliman, FakhrEldin O

    2017-01-01

    Three recently reported microfluidic chemiluminescence (MF-CL) methods (based on reactions with acidic permanganate enhanced by formaldehyde (KMnO4-COH), acidic cerium (IV) and rhodamine B (Ce-RB), and acidic cerium (IV) and rhodamine 6G (Ce-R6G) enhanced by SDS) for the determination of the total phenolic content (TPC) in juices were critically evaluated in terms of their selectivity. The evaluation was carried out using 86 analytes, including 22 phenolic compounds (phenolic acids and polyphenols), 6 known non-phenolic antioxidants, 9 amino acids and a number of proteins, carbohydrates, nucleotide bases, inorganic salts and other compounds. Each method was sensitive toward phenolic compounds (PCs). However, the KMnO4-COH CL system showed a higher sensitivity toward phenolic acids and also responded to non-phenolic antioxidants. The other two systems showed higher sensitivity toward polyphenolic compounds than to phenolic acids and did not responded to all other compounds including non-phenolic antioxidants. PMID:27507524

  19. Renewable phenols production by catalytic microwave pyrolysis of Douglas fir sawdust pellets with activated carbon catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Quan; Lei, Hanwu; Wang, Lu; Wei, Yi; Zhu, Lei; Liu, Yupeng; Liang, Jing; Tang, Juming

    2013-08-01

    The effects of different activated carbon (AC) catalysts based on various carbon sources on products yield and chemical compositions of upgraded pyrolysis oils were investigated using microwave pyrolysis of Douglas fir sawdust pellets. Results showed that high amounts of phenols were obtained (74.61% and 74.77% in the upgraded bio-oils by DARCO MRX (wood based) and DARCO 830 (lignite coal based) activated carbons, respectively). The catalysts recycling test of the selected catalysts indicated that the carbon catalysts can be reused for at least 3-4 times and produced high concentrations of phenol and phenolic compounds. The chemical reaction mechanism for phenolics production during microwave pyrolysis of biomass was analyzed.

  20. Olive oil phenols are absorbed in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, M.N.; Zock, P.L.; Roodenburg, A.J.C.; Leenen, R.; Katan, M.B.

    2002-01-01

    Animal and in vitro studies suggest that olive oil phenols are effective antioxidants. The most abundant phenols in olive oil are the nonpolar oleuropein- and ligstroside-aglycones and the polar hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol. The aim of this study was to gain more insight into the metabolism of those p

  1. Principal component analysis of phenolic acid spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phenolic acids are common plant metabolites that exhibit bioactive properties and have applications in functional food and animal feed formulations. The ultraviolet (UV) and infrared (IR) spectra of four closely related phenolic acid structures were evaluated by principal component analysis (PCA) to...

  2. Two new phenolic compounds from Artemisia sphaerocephala

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Bao Zhao; Lin Xi Li; Xiu Hua Liu; Ming Jing Li; Wen Ling Wang

    2007-01-01

    Two new phenolic compounds were isolated from whole plant of Artemisia sphaerocephala. The structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods as 4-(1-hydroxylethyl)-phenol-1-O-β-D-glucopyranoside and 4-O-acetophenone-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-3)-β-D-glucopyranoside.

  3. Sorbents for Phenol Removal from Contaminated Waters

    OpenAIRE

    Papežová, Barbora

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, contamination of underground and surface water by various pollutants is serious environmental problem. Phenol and phenolic compounds belong to the most common organic pollutants. Huge sources of contamination are industrial waste waters (from chemical, rubber, pharmaceutical, petrochemical and other industry), which are necessary to purify. Various techniques (oxidation, enzymatic purification, sorption, photocatalysis, or their combination) are used for water treatment. This study ...

  4. Treatment of Fibromyalgia Syndrome: Recommendations of Recent Evidence-Based Interdisciplinary Guidelines with Special Emphasis on Complementary and Alternative Therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Ablin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Current evidence indicates that there is no single ideal treatment for fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS. First choice treatment options remain debatable, especially concerning the importance of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM treatments. Methods. Three evidence-based interdisciplinary guidelines on FMS in Canada, Germany, and Israel were compared for their first choice and CAM-recommendations. Results. All three guidelines emphasized a patient-tailored approach according to the key symptoms. Aerobic exercise, cognitive behavioral therapy, and multicomponent therapy were first choice treatments. The guidelines differed in the grade of recommendation for drug treatment. Anticonvulsants (gabapentin, pregabalin and serotonin noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (duloxetine, milnacipran were strongly recommended by the Canadian and the Israeli guidelines. These drugs received only a weak recommendation by the German guideline. In consideration of CAM-treatments, acupuncture, hypnosis/guided imagery, and Tai Chi were recommended by the German and Israeli guidelines. The Canadian guidelines did not recommend any CAM therapy. Discussion. Recent evidence-based interdisciplinary guidelines concur on the importance of treatment tailored to the individual patient and further emphasize the need of self-management strategies (exercise, and psychological techniques.

  5. Influence of various phenolic compounds on phenol hydroxylase activity of a Trichosporon cutaneum strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerginova, Maria; Manasiev, Jordan; Shivarova, Nedka; Alexieva, Zlatka

    2007-01-01

    The phenol-degrading strain Trichosporon cutaneum R57 utilizes various aromatic and aliphatic compounds as a sole carbon and energy source. The intracellular activities of phenol hydroxylase [EC 1.14.13.7] of a Trichosporon cutaneum R57 strain grown on phenol (0.5 g/l) were measured. Different toxic phenol derivatives (cresols, nitrophenols and hydroxyphenols) were used as substrates in the reaction mixture for determination of the enzyme activity. The data obtained showed that the investigated enzyme was capable to hydroxylate all applied aromatic substrates. The measured activities of phenol hydroxylase varied significantly depending on the aromatic compounds used as substrates. The rate of phenol hydroxylase activity with phenol as a substrate (1.0 U/mg total cell protein) was accepted as 100%.

  6. Effect of phenol and halogenated phenols on energy transfer reactions of rat liver mitochondria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izushi,Fumio

    1988-02-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro effects of phenol and p-halogenated phenols on mitochondrial energy transfer reactions were examined using isolated rat liver mitochondria. The relationship between physiochemical properties of phenolic compounds and their effects on mitochondria were studied. Phenol and p-halogenated phenols induced the release of K+ ions from mitochondria, suggesting a change in permeability to K+ ions. A decrease in the respiratory control index, an increase in K+ release and stimulation of latent ATPase activity were observed with these compounds in the descending order of p-iodophenol, p-bromophenol, p-chlorophenol, p-fluorophenol and phenol. The concentrations of the phenolic compounds resulting in fifty percent inhibition of the respiratory control index and those resulting in fifty percent release of K+ ions significantly correlated with Hammett's substituent constant (sigma and the hydrophobic binding constant (pi of the compounds.

  7. Determination of Phenolic Compounds in Wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charalampos Proestos

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Wine contains natural antioxidants such as phenolic compounds also known as bioactive compounds. Samples of commercially available Greek wines were analyzed in order to determine this phenolic content. For the analysis, Reversed Phase-High Performance Liquid Chromatography (RP-HPLC coupled with a multiwavelength Ultraviolet/visible (UV/vis detector was used. The most abundant phenolic substances detected were (+-catechin (13.5-72.4 mg L-1 , gallic acid (0.40-99.47 mg L-1 and caffeic acid (0.87-33.48 mg L-1. The principal component analysis (PCA technique was used to study differentiation among wines according to their production area. Red wines contained more phenolic substances than white ones. Differences of the phenolic composition in wines of the same cultivar were investigated too.

  8. Rapid architecture alternative modeling (RAAM): A framework for capability-based analysis of system of systems architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacobucci, Joseph V.

    problem domain by establishing an effective means to communicate the semantics from the RAAM framework. These techniques make it possible to include diverse multi-metric models within the RAAM framework in addition to system and operational level trades. A canonical example was used to explore the uses of the methodology. The canonical example contains all of the features of a full system of systems architecture analysis study but uses fewer tasks and systems. Using RAAM with the canonical example it was possible to consider both system and operational level trades in the same analysis. Once the methodology had been tested with the canonical example, a Suppression of Enemy Air Defenses (SEAD) capability model was developed. Due to the sensitive nature of analyses on that subject, notional data was developed. The notional data has similar trends and properties to realistic Suppression of Enemy Air Defenses data. RAAM was shown to be traceable and provided a mechanism for a unified treatment of a variety of metrics. The SEAD capability model demonstrated lower computer runtimes and reduced model creation complexity as compared to methods currently in use. To determine the usefulness of the implementation of the methodology on current computing hardware, RAAM was tested with system of system architecture studies of different sizes. This was necessary since system of systems may be called upon to accomplish thousands of tasks. It has been clearly demonstrated that RAAM is able to enumerate and evaluate the types of large, complex design spaces usually encountered in capability based design, oftentimes providing the ability to efficiently search the entire decision space. The core algorithms for generation and evaluation of alternatives scale linearly with expected problem sizes. The SEAD capability model outputs prompted the discovery a new issue, the data storage and manipulation requirements for an analysis. Two strategies were developed to counter large data sizes, the use

  9. A chiral photochromic Schiff base: (R)-4-meth­oxy-2-[(1-phenyl­ethyl)imino­meth­yl]phenol

    OpenAIRE

    Yukie Miura; Yoshikazu Aritake; Takashiro Akitsu

    2009-01-01

    The title chiral photochromic Schiff base compound, C16H17NO2, was synthesized from (R)-1-phenylethylamine and 5-methoxysalicylaldehyde. The molecule of the title compound exists in the phenol–imine tautomeric form. The dihedral angle between the two aromatic rings is 62.61 (11)°. An intramolecular O—H...N hydrogen bond with an O...N distance of 2.589 (2) Å is observed. The crystal packing is stabilized by C—H...&am...

  10. Removal of phenol from synthetic waste water using Gemini micellar-enhanced ultrafiltration (GMEUF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenxiang; Huang, Guohe; Wei, Jia; Li, Huiqin; Zheng, Rubing; Zhou, Ya

    2012-10-15

    Comprehensive studies were conducted on the phenol wastewater ultrafiltration (UF) with the help of various concentrations of cationic Gemini surfactant (N1-dodecyl-N1,N1,N2,N2-tetramethyl-N2-octylethane-1,2-diaminium bromide, CG), conventional cationic surfactant (dodecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide, DTAB), anionic surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate, SDS) and nonionic surfactant ((dodecyloxy)polyethoxyethanol, Brij35). A flat sheet module with polyethersulfone (PES) membrane was employed in this investigation. The effects of feed concentration (phenol and surfactant) on the retention of phenol and surfactant, permeate flux and membrane fouling by micelles were evaluated. The distribution coefficient (D), the loading of the micelles (L(m)) and the equilibrium distribution constant (K) were also utilized to estimate the micellar-enhanced ultrafiltration ability for phenol. Scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectrometer with attenuated total reflectance accessory (ATR-FTIR) and mercury porosimeter were applied to analyze membrane surface morphology, membrane material characteristics and membrane fouling for the original and fouled membranes. Based on the above analysis, the performance of the selected Gemini surfactant was proved superior in the following aspects: retention of phenol/surfactant (peak value is 95.8% for phenol retention), permeate flux and membrane fouling with respect to other conventional surfactants possessing equal alkyl chain length. These results demonstrated that CG surfactant with exceptional structure has favorable prospects in the treatment of phenol wastewater by the micellar-enhanced ultrafiltration.

  11. Alternative certification science teachers' understanding and implementation of inquiry-based instruction in their beginning years of teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Abdulkadir

    The purpose of this phenomenographic study was to: (a) understand how beginning science teachers recruited from various science disciplines and prepared in an Alternative Teacher Certification Program (ATCP) implemented inquiry during their initial years of teaching; (b) describe constraints and needs that these beginning science teachers perceived in implementing inquiry-based science instruction; and (c) understand the relation between what they learned in their ATCP and their practice of teaching science through inquiry. The participants of this study consisted of four ATCP teachers who are in their beginning years of teaching. Semi-structured interviews, classroom observation, field notes, and artifacts used as source of data collection. The beginning science teachers in this study held incomplete views of inquiry. These views of inquiry did not reflect inquiry as described in NRC (2000)---essential features of inquiry,---nor did they reflect views of faculty members involved in teaching science methods courses. Although the participants described themselves as reform-oriented, there were inconsistencies between their views and practices. Their practice of inquiry did not reflect inquiry either as outlined by essential features of inquiry (NRC, 2000) or inquiry as modeled in activities used in their ATCP. The research participants' perceived constraints and needs in their implementation of inquiry-based activities. Their perceived constraints included logistical and student constraints and school culture. The perceived needs included classroom management, pedagogical skills, practical knowledge, discipline, successful grade-specific models of inquiry, and access to a strong support system. Prior professional work experience, models and activities used in the ATCP, and benefits of inquiry to student learning were the declared factors that facilitated the research participants' practice of inquiry-based teaching.

  12. Complementary & Alternative Management of Parkinson’s Disease: An Evidence-Based Review of Eastern Influenced Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Bega

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of Parkinson’s disease (PD appears to be lower in Asia compared to the Western world. It is unclear if this is related to the ubiquitous use of traditional medicine in Eastern healthcare, but the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM modalities in countries like Korea may be as high as 76%. Among patients with PD, herbal medicines, health supplement foods, and acupuncture are interventions which are increasingly used throughout the world. Countries like Korea, China, India, and Japan have long embraced and incorporated traditional medicine into modern management of conditions such as PD, but research into various CAM modalities remains in its infancy limiting evidence-based recommendations for many treatments. We reviewed the literature on CAM treatments for PD, focusing on mind-body interventions and natural products. Based on evidence limited to randomized-controlled trials we found that mind-body interventions are generally effective forms of physical activity that are likely to foster good adherence and may reduce disability associated with PD. Based on the current data, modalities like Tai Chi and dance are safe and beneficial in PD, but better studies are needed to assess the effects of other frequently used modalities such as yoga and acupuncture. Furthermore, despite centuries of experience using medicinal herbs and plants in Eastern countries, and despite substantial preclinical data on the beneficial effects of nutritional antioxidants as neuroprotective agents in PD, there is insufficient clinical evidence that any vitamin, food additive, or supplement, can improve motor function or delay disease progression in PD.

  13. A two-dimensional Riemann solver with self-similar sub-structure - Alternative formulation based on least squares projection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsara, Dinshaw S.; Vides, Jeaniffer; Gurski, Katharine; Nkonga, Boniface; Dumbser, Michael; Garain, Sudip; Audit, Edouard

    2016-01-01

    Just as the quality of a one-dimensional approximate Riemann solver is improved by the inclusion of internal sub-structure, the quality of a multidimensional Riemann solver is also similarly improved. Such multidimensional Riemann problems arise when multiple states come together at the vertex of a mesh. The interaction of the resulting one-dimensional Riemann problems gives rise to a strongly-interacting state. We wish to endow this strongly-interacting state with physically-motivated sub-structure. The self-similar formulation of Balsara [16] proves especially useful for this purpose. While that work is based on a Galerkin projection, in this paper we present an analogous self-similar formulation that is based on a different interpretation. In the present formulation, we interpret the shock jumps at the boundary of the strongly-interacting state quite literally. The enforcement of the shock jump conditions is done with a least squares projection (Vides, Nkonga and Audit [67]). With that interpretation, we again show that the multidimensional Riemann solver can be endowed with sub-structure. However, we find that the most efficient implementation arises when we use a flux vector splitting and a least squares projection. An alternative formulation that is based on the full characteristic matrices is also presented. The multidimensional Riemann solvers that are demonstrated here use one-dimensional HLLC Riemann solvers as building blocks. Several stringent test problems drawn from hydrodynamics and MHD are presented to show that the method works. Results from structured and unstructured meshes demonstrate the versatility of our method. The reader is also invited to watch a video introduction to multidimensional Riemann solvers on http://www.nd.edu/~dbalsara/Numerical-PDE-Course.

  14. Simultaneous heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification at high initial phenol concentration by isolated bacterium Diaphorobacter sp. PD-7

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qilong Ge; Xiuping Yue; Guoying Wang

    2015-01-01

    A strain capable of phenol degradation, heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification was isolated from activated sludge of coking-plant wastewater ponds under aerobic condition. Based on its morphology, physiology, biochemical analysis and phylogenetic characteristics, the isolate was identified as Diaphorobacter sp. PD-7. Biodegradation tests of phenol showed that the maximum phenol degradation occurred at the late phase of exponential growth stages, with 1400 mg·L-1 phenol completely degraded within 85 h. Diaphorobacter sp. PD-7 accumulated a vast quantity of phenol hydroxylase in this physiological phase, ensuring that the cel s quickly utilize phenol as a sole carbon and energy source. The kinetic behavior of Diaphorobacter sp. PD-7 in batch cultures was investigated over a wide range of initial phenol concentrations (0–1400 mg·L-1) by using the Haldane model, which adequately describes the dynamic behavior of phenol biodegradation by strain Diaphorobacter sp. PD-7. At initial phenol concentration of 1400 mg·L-1, batch experiments (0.25 L flask) of nitrogen removal under aerobic condition gave almost entirely removal of 120.69 mg·L-1 ammonium nitrogen within 75 h, while nitrate nitrogen removal reached 91%within 65 h. Moreover, hydroxylamine oxidase, periplasmic nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase were successful y expressed in the isolate.

  15. 酚醛纤维的研究进展及应用%Research progress and application of phenolic fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭金海; 齐鲁

    2009-01-01

    综述了国内外酚醛纤维的研究发展情况;介绍了酚醛纤维在阻燃、增强、耐烧蚀绝热材料、抗菌、制备酚醛基碳纤维以及酚醛基活性炭纤维等方面的应用;指出加快发展我国酚醛纤维产品的必要性,各种高性能、功能化酚醛纤维、酚醛基碳纤维以及酚醛基活性炭纤维将是未来研究开发的重点.%The research progress of phenolic fiber in China and abroad was reviewed.The application of phenolic fiber was introduced in the fields of flame-retardant,reinforced and ablation resistance insulation material,antibacterial material,phenolic-based carbon fiber and phenolic-based activated carbon fiber.The necessity of accelerating the development of China phenolic fiber products was put forward.The research would be focussed on the development of high-performance and functional phenolic fibers,phenolic-based carbon fiber and phenolic-based activated carbon fiber.

  16. Research of phenolic fiber and its performance%酚醛纤维及其性能的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任蕊; 皇甫慧君; 王燕; 石磊

    2013-01-01

    The research progress of phenolic fiber in China and abroad was reviewed. The preparation technology and curing methods of phenolic fiber are analysized. Various application of phenolic fiber in the several fields, such as flame-retardant, ablation resistance, corrosion resistance, phenolic resin based carbon fiber and phenolic resin based activated carbon fiber are also discussed. The research in the future would be focussed on the development of high performance and functional phenolic fibers, phenolic resin based carbon fiber and phenolic resin based activated carbon fiber.%综述了酚醛纤维在国内外的研究状况;分析了酚醛纤维的制备工艺及固化方法;阐述了酚醛纤维的主要性能及应用,包括阻燃、耐烧蚀隔热、耐腐蚀及酚醛基碳纤维以及酚醛基活性炭纤维前体;指出各种高性能、功能化酚醛纤维、酚醛基碳纤维以及酚醛基活性炭纤维将是未来研究开发的重点.

  17. Rapid determination of thiabendazole in orange extract using excitation-emission matrix fluorescence and second-order calibration based on alternating trilinear decomposition/alternating normalization-weighted error algorithms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A novel approach is proposed for direct quantitative analysis of thiabendazole in the orange extract by using excitation-emission matrix fluorescence coupled with second-order calibration methods based on the alternating trilinear decomposition(ATLD) and the alternating normalization-weighted error(ANWE) algorithms,respectively. The average recoveries of thiabendazole in the orange extract by using ATLD and ANWE with an estimated component number of two were 99.7 ± 3.3% and 103.5 ± 4.1%,respectively. Furthermore,the accuracy of the two algorithms was also evaluated through elliptical joint confidence region(EJCR) tests as well as figures of merit,such as sensitivity(SEN),selectivity(SEL) and limit of detection(LOD). The experimental results demonstrate that both algorithms have been satisfactorily applied to the determination of thiabendazole in orange extract,and the perform-ance of ANWE is slightly better than that of ATLD.

  18. Rapid determination of thiabendazole in orange extract using excitation-emission matrix fluorescence and second-order calibration based on alternating trilinear decomposition/alternating normalization-weighted error algorithms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG XueMei; WU HaiLong; NIE JinFang; LI YuanNa; YU YongJie; YU RuQin

    2008-01-01

    A novel approach is proposed for direct quantitative analysis of thiabendazole in the orange extract by using excitation-emission matrix fluorescence coupled with second-order calibration methods based on the alternating trilinear decomposition (ATLD) and the alternating normalization-weighted error (ANWE) algorithms, respectively. The average recoveries of thiabendazole in the orange extract by using ATLD and ANWE with an estimated component number of two were 99.7 ± 3.3% and 103.5 ± 4.1%, respectively. Furthermore, the accuracy of the two algorithms was also evaluated through elliptical joint confidence region (EJCR) tests as well as figures of merit, such as sensitivity (SEN), selectivity (SEL) and limit of detection (LOD). The experimental results demonstrate that both algorithms have been satisfactorily applied to the determination of thiabendazole in orange extract, and the perform-ance of ANWE is slightly better than that of ATLD.

  19. Catalytic Graphitization of Phenolic Resin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mu Zhao; Huaihe Song

    2011-01-01

    The catalytic graphitization of thermal plastic phenolic-formaldehyde resin with the aid of ferric nitrate (FN) was studied in detail. The morphologies and structural features of the products including onion-like carbon nanoparticles and bamboo-shaped carbon nanotubes were investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy measurements. It was found that with the changes of loading content of FN and residence time at 1000℃, the products exhibited various morphologies. The TEM images showed that bamboo-shaped carbon nanotube consisted of tens of bamboo sticks and onion-like carbon nanoparticle was made up of quasi-spherically concentrically closed carbon nanocages.

  20. Alternative Splice in Alternative Lice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovar-Corona, Jaime M; Castillo-Morales, Atahualpa; Chen, Lu; Olds, Brett P; Clark, John M; Reynolds, Stuart E; Pittendrigh, Barry R; Feil, Edward J; Urrutia, Araxi O

    2015-10-01

    Genomic and transcriptomics analyses have revealed human head and body lice to be almost genetically identical; although con-specific, they nevertheless occupy distinct ecological niches and have differing feeding patterns. Most importantly, while head lice are not known to be vector competent, body lice can transmit three serious bacterial diseases; epidemictyphus, trench fever, and relapsing fever. In order to gain insights into the molecular bases for these differences, we analyzed alternative splicing (AS) using next-generation sequencing data for one strain of head lice and one strain of body lice. We identified a total of 3,598 AS events which were head or body lice specific. Exon skipping AS events were overrepresented among both head and body lice, whereas intron retention events were underrepresented in both. However, both the enrichment of exon skipping and the underrepresentation of intron retention are significantly stronger in body lice compared with head lice. Genes containing body louse-specific AS events were found to be significantly enriched for functions associated with development of the nervous system, salivary gland, trachea, and ovarian follicle cells, as well as regulation of transcription. In contrast, no functional categories were overrepresented among genes with head louse-specific AS events. Together, our results constitute the first evidence for transcript pool differences in head and body lice, providing insights into molecular adaptations that enabled human lice to adapt to clothing, and representing a powerful illustration of the pivotal role AS can play in functional adaptation. PMID:26169943

  1. Alternative Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find your chapter: search by state Home > Alzheimer's Disease > Treatments > Alternative Treatments Overview What Is Dementia? What Is Alzheimer's? Younger/Early Onset Facts and Figures Know the 10 Signs Stages Inside the Brain: ...

  2. Life-Cycle Analyses of Energy Consumption and GHG Emissions of Natural Gas-Based Alternative Vehicle Fuels in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xunmin Ou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tsinghua life-cycle analysis model (TLCAM has been used to examine the primary fossil energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG emissions for natural gas- (NG- based alternative vehicle fuels in China. The results show that (1 compress NG- and liquid NG-powered vehicles have similar well-to-wheels (WTW fossil energy uses to conventional gasoline- and diesel-fueled vehicles, but differences emerge with the distance of NG transportation. Additionally, thanks to NG having a lower carbon content than petroleum, CNG- and LNG-powered vehicles emit 10–20% and 5–10% less GHGs than gasoline- and diesel-fueled vehicles, respectively; (2 gas-to-liquid- (GTL- powered vehicles involve approximately 50% more WTW fossil energy uses than conventional gasoline- and diesel-fueled vehicles, primarily because of the low efficiency of GTL production. Nevertheless, since NG has a lower carbon content than petroleum, GTL-powered vehicles emit approximately 30% more GHGs than conventional-fuel vehicles; (3 The carbon emission intensity of the LNG energy chain is highly sensitive to the efficiency of NG liquefaction and the form of energy used in that process.

  3. Alternative Methods for Defining Osteoarthritis and the Impact on Estimating Prevalence in a US Population-Based Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisternas, Miriam G.; Murphy, Louise; Sacks, Jeffrey J.; Solomon, Daniel H.; Pasta, David J.; Helmick, Charles G.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Provide a contemporary estimate of osteoarthritis (OA) by comparing accuracy and prevalence of alternative definitions of OA. Methods The Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) household component (HC) records respondent-reported medical conditions as open-ended responses; professional coders translate these responses into ICD-9-CM codes for the medical conditions files. Using these codes and other data from the MEPS-HC medical conditions files, we constructed three case definitions of OA and assessed them against medical provider diagnoses of ICD-9-CM 715 [osteoarthrosis and allied disorders] in a MEPS subsample. The three definitions were: 1) strict = ICD-9-CM 715; 2) expanded = ICD-9-CM 715, 716 [other and unspecified arthropathies], OR 719 [other and unspecified disorders of joint]); and 3) probable = strict OR expanded + respondent-reported prior diagnosis of OA or other arthritis excluding rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Results Sensitivity and specificity of the three definitions were: strict – 34.6% and 97.5%; expanded – 73.8% and 90.5%; and probable – 62.9% and 93.5%. Conclusion The strict definition for OA (ICD-9-CM 715) excludes many individuals with OA. The probable definition of OA has the optimal combination of sensitivity and specificity relative to the two other MEPS-based definitions and yields a national annual estimate of 30.8 million adults with OA (13.4% of US adult population) for 2008 – 2011. PMID:26315529

  4. Multicenter trial of desirudin for the prophylaxis of thrombosis: an alternative to heparin-based anticoagulation (DESIR-ABLE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergese, Sergio D; Minkowitz, Harold S; Arpino, Paul A; Sane, David C; Levy, Jerrold H

    2013-01-01

    Desirudin, a subcutaneously (SC) administered direct thrombin inhibitor, is indicated for prevention of venous thromboembolic events (VTEs) after total joint replacement surgery. DESIR-ABLE (multicenter trial of desirudin for the prophylaxis of thrombosis: an alternative to heparin-based anticoagulation) was a multicenter, open-label, single-arm study of hospitalized patients requiring VTE protection designed to extend the safety profile for desirudin to include a broad population of perioperative/critically ill patients. The primary end point was major bleeding. A total of 516 patients undergoing major surgery (378, 73%) or who were medically ill with prolonged immobility (138, 27%) were enrolled at 19 centers and received desirudin 15 mg Q12H. Many patients had high-risk features for bleeding and thrombosis such as thrombocytopenia (35, n = 145), and renal impairment (creatinine clearance bleeds and no VTE-related deaths in this study. The DESIR-ABLE demonstrated the safety of desirudin in critically ill perioperative and medical patients. Trials in specific surgical or medically ill patients are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:22802554

  5. Image reconstruction based on total-variation minimization and alternating direction method in linear scan computed tomography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Han-Ming; Wang Lin-Yuan; Yah Bin; Li Lei; Xi Xiao-Qi; Lu Li-Zhong

    2013-01-01

    Linear scan computed tomography (LCT) is of great benefit to online industrial scanning and security inspection due to its characteristics of straight-line source trajectory and high scanning speed.However,in practical applications of LCT,there are challenges to image reconstruction due to limited-angle and insufficient data.In this paper,a new reconstruction algorithm based on total-variation (TV) minimization is developed to reconstruct images from limited-angle and insufficient data in LCT.The main idea of our approach is to reformulate a TV problem as a linear equality constrained problem where the objective function is separable,and then minimize its augmented Lagrangian function by using alternating direction method (ADM) to solve subproblems.The proposed method is robust and efficient in the task of reconstruction by showing the convergence of ADM.The numerical simulations and real data reconstructions show that the proposed reconstruction method brings reasonable performance and outperforms some previous ones when applied to an LCT imaging problem.

  6. A Reduction-Based Sensor for Acrolein Conjugates with the Inexpensive Nitrobenzene as an Alternative to Monoclonal Antibody

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamatsu, Masayuki; Fukase, Koichi; Oka, Ritsuko; Kitazume, Shinobu; Taniguchi, Naoyuki; Tanaka, Katsunori

    2016-01-01

    Acrolein, a highly toxic α, β–unsaturated aldehyde, has been a longstanding key biomarker associated with a range of disorders related to oxidative stresses. One of the most promising methods for detecting acrolein involves the use of antibodies that can recognize the acrolein–lysine conjugate, 3-formyl-3, 4-dehydropiperidines (FDP), within oxidatively stressed cells and tissues from various disease states. We have uncovered here that FDP could reduce nitroarenes in high yields at 100 °C in the presence of excess CaCl2 as a Lewis acid promoter. This unique transformation allowed for the development of a de novo method for detecting levels of FDPs generated from proteins in urine or blood serum samples. Thus we successfully converted a non-fluorescent and inexpensive 4-nitrophthalonitrile probe to the corresponding fluorescent aniline, thereby constituting the concept of fluorescent switching. Its sensitivity level (0.84 nmol/mL) is more than that of ELISA assays (3.13 nmol/mL) and is already equally reliable and reproducible at this early stage of development. More importantly, this method is cost effective and simple to operate, requiring only mixing of samples with a kit solution. Our method thus possesses potential as a future alternative to the more costly and operatively encumbered conventional antibody-based methods. PMID:27782170

  7. An electric generator using living Torpedo electric organs controlled by fluid pressure-based alternative nervous systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yo; Funano, Shun-Ichi; Nishizawa, Yohei; Kamamichi, Norihiro; Nishinaka, Masahiro; Kitamori, Takehiko

    2016-05-01

    Direct electric power generation using biological functions have become a research focus due to their low cost and cleanliness. Unlike major approaches using glucose fuels or microbial fuel cells (MFCs), we present a generation method with intrinsically high energy conversion efficiency and generation with arbitrary timing using living electric organs of Torpedo (electric rays) which are serially integrated electrocytes converting ATP into electric energy. We developed alternative nervous systems using fluid pressure to stimulate electrocytes by a neurotransmitter, acetylcholine (Ach), and demonstrated electric generation. Maximum voltage and current were 1.5 V and 0.64 mA, respectively, with a duration time of a few seconds. We also demonstrated energy accumulation in a capacitor. The current was far larger than that using general cells other than electrocytes (~pA level). The generation ability was confirmed against repetitive cycles and also after preservation for 1 day. This is the first step toward ATP-based energy harvesting devices.

  8. An electric generator using living Torpedo electric organs controlled by fluid pressure-based alternative nervous systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yo; Funano, Shun-ichi; Nishizawa, Yohei; Kamamichi, Norihiro; Nishinaka, Masahiro; Kitamori, Takehiko

    2016-01-01

    Direct electric power generation using biological functions have become a research focus due to their low cost and cleanliness. Unlike major approaches using glucose fuels or microbial fuel cells (MFCs), we present a generation method with intrinsically high energy conversion efficiency and generation with arbitrary timing using living electric organs of Torpedo (electric rays) which are serially integrated electrocytes converting ATP into electric energy. We developed alternative nervous systems using fluid pressure to stimulate electrocytes by a neurotransmitter, acetylcholine (Ach), and demonstrated electric generation. Maximum voltage and current were 1.5 V and 0.64 mA, respectively, with a duration time of a few seconds. We also demonstrated energy accumulation in a capacitor. The current was far larger than that using general cells other than electrocytes (~pA level). The generation ability was confirmed against repetitive cycles and also after preservation for 1 day. This is the first step toward ATP-based energy harvesting devices. PMID:27241817

  9. Full-vectorial finite-difference beam propagation method based on the modified alternating direction implicit method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Jin-Biao; Sun Xiao-Han

    2006-01-01

    A modified alternating direction implicit algorithm is proposed to solve the full-vectorial finite-difference beam propagation method formulation based on H fields. The cross-coupling terms are neglected in the first sub-step, but evaluated and doubly used in the second sub-step. The order of two sub-steps is reversed for each transverse magnetic field component so that the cross-coupling terms are always expressed in implicit form, thus the calculation is very efficient and stable. Moreover, an improved six-point finite-difference scheme with high accuracy independent of specific structures of waveguide is also constructed to approximate the cross-coupling terms along the transverse directions. The imaginary-distance procedure is used to assess the validity and utility of the present method. The field patterns and the normalized propagation constants of the fundamental mode for a buried rectangular waveguide and a rib waveguide are presented. Solutions are in excellent agreement with the benchmark results from the modal transverse resonance method.

  10. Vaginal dryness alternative treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a day. Soybeans contain plant-based substances called isoflavones. These substances have an effect on the body ... soy for vasomotor symptoms: the Herbal Alternatives for Menopause (HALT) Study. Menopause . 2008;15(1):51-58. ...

  11. [Growth kinetics and phenol degradation of highly efficient phenol-degrading Ochrobactrum sp. CH10].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Hua; Wei, Gang; Liu, Si-Yuan; Sun, Jiang-Man; Wang, Fang-Fang; Li, Hao-Yuan; Liu, Yu-Jun

    2012-11-01

    The strain Ochrobactrum sp. CH10 was a highly efficient phenol degrading bacterial strain isolated from soil in a constructed wetland in Yuan Dynasty Capital City Wall Relics in Beijing. Growth and biodegradation were investigated in details with phenol as the sole carbon and energy source. The best growth and most efficient phenol biodegradation occurred when the strain was cultured in medium containing 400 mg x L(-1) phenol at initial pH of 7.0 and 30 degrees C, with 5% inoculation volume. The phenol degradation rate was around 100% , 92.3 and 82.2% with an initial concentration of 400, 900 and 1 000 mg x L(-1) phenol in 24, 44 and 48 h, respectively. Phenol degradation kinetic studies indicated that the strain followed Haldane's model, and the parameters were: upsilon(max) (maximum specific rate) = 0.126 h(-1), K(s) (half-saturation constant) = 23.53 mg x L(-1) and K(I) (inhibition constant) = 806.1 mg x L(-1). The phenol-limited growth kinetics of CH10 by Andrews's model also followed a similar trend to that of phenol degradation. Among all the strains belonging to Ochrobactrum genus, this strain is the most efficient at present. The strain has a good application potential for the phenolic wastewater treatment. PMID:23323431

  12. Heterogeneous activation of peroxymonosulphate by supported ruthenium catalysts for phenol degradation in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► RuO2/ZSM5 and RuO2/AC exhibited higher activity in Oxone activation with stable performance. ► RuO2/AC presented higher activity than RuO2/ZSM5. ► Phenol degradation on RuO2/AC and RuO2/ZSM5 followed first order kinetics. - Abstract: Activated carbon (AC) and Zeolite Socony Mobil-5 (ZSM5) supported ruthenium oxide catalysts were prepared and tested to degrade aqueous phenol in the presence of peroxymonosulphate. The physicochemical properties of ruthenium oxide based catalysts were characterised by several techniques such as XRD (X-ray diffraction), SEM-EDS (scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy), and N2 adsorption. It was found that RuO2/AC was highly effective in heterogeneous activation of peroxymonosulphate to produce sulphate radicals, presenting higher reaction rate in phenol degradation compared with RuO2/ZSM-5. Degradation efficiency of phenol could be achieved at 100% of phenol decomposition and 60% of total organic carbon (TOC) removal in 1 h at the conditions of 50 ppm phenol, 0.2 g catalyst, 1 g Oxone® in 500 mL solution at 25 °C using the two catalysts. It was also found that phenol degradation was strongly influenced by catalyst loading, phenol concentration, Oxone® concentration and temperature. Kinetic studies proved that a pseudo first order kinetics would fit to phenol decomposition and the activation energies for RuO2/AC and RuO2/ZSM5 were obtained to be 61.4 and 42.2 kJ/mol, respectively.

  13. Degradation of Malaysian peatlands decreases levels of phenolics in soil and in leaves of Macaranga pruinosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yule, Catherine; Lim, Yau; Lim, Tse

    2016-04-01

    Indo-Malaysian tropical peat swamp forests (PSF) sequester enormous stores of carbon in the form of phenolic compounds, particularly lignin as well as tannins. These phenolic compounds are crucial for ecosystem functioning in PSF through their inter-related roles in peat formation and plant defenses. Disturbance of PSF causes destruction of the peat substrate, but the specific impact of disturbance on phenolic compounds in peat and its associated vegetation has not previously been examined. A scale was developed to score peatland degradation based on the three major human impacts that affect tropical PSF - logging, drainage and fire. The objectives of this study were to compare the amount of phenolic compounds in Macaranga pruinosa, a common PSF tree, and in the peat substrate along a gradient of peatland degradation from pristine peat swamp forest to cleared, drained and burnt peatlands. We examined phenolic compounds in M. pruinosa and in peat and found that levels of total phenolic compounds and total tannins decrease in the leaves of M.pruinosa and also in the surface peat layers with an increase in peatland degradation. We conclude that waterlogged conditions preserve the concentration of phenolic compounds in peat, and that even PSF that has been previously logged but which has recovered a full canopy cover will have high levels of total phenolic content (TPC) in peat. High levels of TPC in peat and in the flora are vital for the inhibition of decomposition of organic matter and this is crucial for the accretion of peat and the sequestration of carbon. Thus regional PSF flourish despite the phenolic rich, toxic, waterlogged, nutrient poor, conditions, and reversal of such conditions is a sign of degradation.

  14. Degradation of Malaysian peatlands decreases levels of phenolics in soil and in leaves of Macaranga pruinosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CATHERINE MARY YULE

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Indo-Malaysian tropical peat swamp forests (PSF sequester enormous stores of carbon in the form of phenolic compounds, particularly lignin as well as tannins. These phenolic compounds are crucial for ecosystem functioning in PSF through their inter-related roles in peat formation and plant defenses. Disturbance of PSF causes destruction of the peat substrate, but the specific impact of disturbance on phenolic compounds in peat and its associated vegetation has not previously been examined. A scale was developed to score peatland degradation based on the three major human impacts that affect tropical PSF – logging, drainage and fire. The objectives of this study were to compare the amount of phenolic compounds in Macaranga pruinosa, a common PSF tree, and in the peat substrate along a gradient of peatland degradation from pristine peat swamp forest to cleared, drained and burnt peatlands. We examined phenolic compounds in M. pruinosa and in peat and found that levels of total phenolic compounds and total tannins decrease in the leaves of M.pruinosa and also in the surface peat layers with an increase in peatland degradation. We conclude that waterlogged conditions preserve the concentration of phenolic compounds in peat, and that even PSF that has been previously logged but which has recovered a full canopy cover will have high levels of total phenolic content (TPC in peat. High levels of TPC in peat and in the flora are vital for the inhibition of decomposition of organic matter and this is crucial for the accretion of peat and the sequestration of carbon. Thus regional PSF flourish despite the phenolic rich, toxic, waterlogged, nutrient poor, conditions, and reversal of such conditions is a sign of degradation.

  15. ULTRASONIC-ASSISTED EXTRACTION OF ANTIOXIDANT PHENOLIC COUMPOUNDS FROM EUCHEUMA COTTONII

    OpenAIRE

    Dyah Hesti Wardhani; Denni Kartika Sari; Aji Prasetyaningrum

    2014-01-01

    The influences of ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) conditions on phenolic compounds of Eucheuma cottonii seaweeed were investigated. The effects of temperature, time and liquid-solid ratio were evaluated based on the total phenolic content (TPC). The result showed a significant variability of effect of temperature, time, and liquid-solid ratio on TPC. Application of ultrasound reduced the optimum temperature, time and liquid-solid ratio of the extraction when compared to the conventional ...

  16. Componential Profile and Amylase Inhibiting Activity of Phenolic Compounds from Calendula officinalis L. Leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Olennikov, Daniil N.; Nina I. Kashchenko

    2014-01-01

    An ethanolic extract and its ethyl acetate-soluble fraction from leaves of Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae) were found to show an inhibitory effect on amylase. From the crude extract fractions, one new phenolic acid glucoside, 6′-O-vanilloyl- β -D-glucopyranose, was isolated, together with twenty-four known compounds including five phenolic acid glucosides, five phenylpropanoids, five coumarins, and nine flavonoids. Their structures were elucidated based on chemical and spectral data. Th...

  17. Componential Profile and Amylase Inhibiting Activity of Phenolic Compounds from Calendula officinalis L. Leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Olennikov, Daniil N.; Nina I. Kashchenko

    2014-01-01

    An ethanolic extract and its ethyl acetate-soluble fraction from leaves of Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae) were found to show an inhibitory effect on amylase. From the crude extract fractions, one new phenolic acid glucoside, 6′-O-vanilloyl-β-D-glucopyranose, was isolated, together with twenty-four known compounds including five phenolic acid glucosides, five phenylpropanoids, five coumarins, and nine flavonoids. Their structures were elucidated based on chemical and spectral data. The ...

  18. Phenolic Acids Composition of Fruit Extracts of Ber (Ziziphus mauritiana L., var. Golo Lemai)

    OpenAIRE

    LUTHRIA, DEVANAND L.; Muhammad Iqbal Bhanger; Ayaz Ali Memon; Najma Memon

    2012-01-01

    Fruits of Ziziphus mauritiana L. (ber) are consumed in fresh and dried/processed form in many countries across Asia including Pakistan. In the present study, we analyzed the composition of total phenolic acids (free, soluble-bound and insoluble-bound) from ber fruit extracts by applying a pressurized liquid base hydrolysis extraction (PLBHE) using Dionium cells. Nine phenolic acids (protocatechuic, p-hydroxybenzoic, ferulic, chlorogenic, vanillic, caffeic, vanillin, o- and p-coumaric acids) w...

  19. Determination of Radical Scavenging Activity and Total Phenols of Wine and Spices: A Randomized Study

    OpenAIRE

    Fulgentius Nelson Lugemwa; Snyder, Amanda L; Koonj Shaikh

    2013-01-01

    Thirty eight bottles of red wine (Carbanet Sauvignon) were randomly selected based on vintage, region, price, and age (number of months in a barrel). The total phenolic content of each wine was determined using Folin-Ciocalteau assay. The radical scavenging activity was evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. Apart from a few bottles that exhibited above average radical scavenging activity and phenolic content, there was no good correlation of those two quantities with regi...

  20. Importance of phenols structure on their activity as antinitrosating agents: A kinetic study

    OpenAIRE

    Marcia Pessego; Rosa da Costa, Ana M.; Jose A Moreira

    2011-01-01

    Objective : Nitrosative deamination of DNA bases induced by reaction with reactive nitrogen species (RNS) has been pointed out as a probable cause of mutagenesis. (Poly)phenols, present in many food items from the Mediterranean diet, are believed to possess antinitrosating properties due to their RNS scavenging ability, which seems to be related to their structure. It has been suggested that phenolic compounds will react with the above-mentioned species more rapidly than most amino compounds,...