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Sample records for alternative pathogenetic mechanism

  1. MYC translocation-negative classical Burkitt lymphoma cases: an alternative pathogenetic mechanism involving miRNA deregulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leucci, E; Cocco, M; Onnis, A

    2008-01-01

    at the standardization of FISH procedures in lymphoma diagnosis, we found that five cases out of 35 classic endemic BLs were negative for MYC translocations by using a split-signal as well as a dual-fusion probe. Here we investigated the expression pattern of miRNAs predicted to target c-Myc, in BL cases, to clarify...... whether alternative pathogenetic mechanisms may be responsible for lymphomagenesis in cases lacking the MYC translocation. miRNAs are a class of small RNAs that are able to regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Several studies have reported their involvement in cancer...

  2. CURRENT IDEAS ABOUT THE PATHOGENETIC MECHANISMS OF PAIN IN OSTEOARTHROSIS

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The literature review presents the current idea about the mechanisms of chronic pain. Experimental and clinical studies of the mechanism of chronic pain in osteoarthrosis (OA), which show that dysfunction of pain systems themselves (the so-called dysfunctional pain) along with the nociceptive mechanisms caused by chronic inflammation and degenerative changes in the joint area plays an important role in the chronization of pain syndrome, are considered in detail. Identification of the dysfunct...

  3. Molecular pathogenetic mechanisms and new therapeutic perspectives in anthracycline-induced cardiomyopathy

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    Distefano Giuseppe

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Anthracyclines are among the most powerful drugs for the treatment of oncologic diseases both in childhood and in adulthood. Nevertheless, their major antineoplastic efficacy can be seriously impaired by collateral toxic cardiac effects causing cardiomyopathy with chronic heart failure that is refractory to conventional medical therapy. This article reports possible subcellular molecular alterations of anthracycline-induced cardiomyopathy (reactive oxygen species formation, apoptosis, inflammatory signalling, altered expression of cardiomyocytes specific genes, etc and indicates some new therapeutic perspectives resulting from a better understanding of the molecular pathogenetic mechanisms.

  4. Frontotemporal lobar degeneration: old knowledge and new insight into the pathogenetic mechanisms of tau mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Giacomina; Tagliavini, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    Frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) is a group of heterogeneous neurodegenerative diseases which includes tauopathies. In the central nervous system (CNS) tau is the major microtubule-associated protein (MAP) of neurons, promoting assembly and stabilization of microtubules (MTs) required for morphogenesis and axonal transport. Primary tauopathies are characterized by deposition of abnormal fibrils of tau in neuronal and glial cells, leading to neuronal death, brain atrophy and eventually dementia. In genetic tauopathies mutations of tau gene impair the ability of tau to bind to MTs, alter the normal ratio among tau isoforms and favor fibril formation. Recently, additional functions have been ascribed to tau and different pathogenetic mechanisms are then emerging. In fact, a role of tau in DNA protection and genome stability has been reported and chromosome aberrations have been found associated with tau mutations. Furthermore, newly structurally and functionally characterized mutations have suggested novel pathological features, such as a tendency to form oligomeric rather than fibrillar aggregates. Tau mutations affecting axonal transport and plasma membrane interaction have also been described. In this article, we will review the pathogenetic mechanisms underlying tau mutations, focusing in particular on the less common aspects, so far poorly investigated.

  5. Pathogenetic Regulation of Female Precocious Puberty and the Mechanism of Therapy with Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    cai; de-pei

    2001-01-01

    In recent ten-odd years the pathogenetic regulation of female idiopathic precocious puberty was studied in our hospital, in terms of the function of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis (HPG axis) and the status of skeletal development as indicators. The therapy with Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) in predominance was formulated, according to our understanding of the regulation and Syndrome Differentiation of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). It has been clinically verified that the therapy could successfully modulate the course of pubertal development and optimize skeletal development in children with precocious puberty. The mechanism of effectiveness of the drugs has been further studied focusing on the neuroendocrine regulation and gene expression with modern medical techniques.……

  6. Pathogenetic Regulation of Female Precocious Puberty and the Mechanism of Therapy with Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡德培; 季志英; 陈伯英; 张炜

    2001-01-01

    @@In recent ten-odd years the pathogenetic regulation of female idiopathic precocious puberty was studied in our hospital, in terms of the function of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis (HPG axis) and the status of skeletal development as indicators. The therapy with Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) in predominance was formulated, according to our understanding of the regulation and Syndrome Differentiation of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). It has been clinically verified that the therapy could successfully modulate the course of pubertal development and optimize skeletal development in children with precocious puberty. The mechanism of effectiveness of the drugs has been further studied focusing on the neuroendocrine regulation and gene expression with modern medical techniques.

  7. A new theory to explain the underlying pathogenetic mechanism of sudden infant death syndrome

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    Anna Maria Lavezzi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Author, on the basis of her long experience on the neuropathology of SIDS, acquired through the study of a very wide set of cases, firstly identifies the neuronal centers of the human brainstem involved in the breathing control in perinatal life, with the pontine Kölliker-Fuse nucleus as main coordinator. What emerges from this analysis is that the prenatal respiratory movements differ from those post-natally in two respects: 1 they are episodic, only aimed at the lung development, and 2 they are abolished by hypoxia, not being of vital importance in utero, mainly to limit the consumption of oxygen. Then, as this fetal inhibitory reflex represents an important defense expedient, the Author proposes a new original interpretation of the pathogenetic mechanism leading to SIDS. Infants, in a critical moment of the autonomic control development, in hypoxic conditions could awaken the reflex left over from fetal life and arrest breathing, as he did in similar situations in prenatal life, rather than promote the hyperventilation usually occurring to restore the normal concentration of oxygen, with obviously a devastating outcome. This hypothesis is supported by immunohistochemical results showing in high percentage of SIDS victims, and not in age-matched infant controls, neurochemical alterations of the Kölliker-Fuse neurons, potentially indicative of inactivation. The new explanation of SIDS blames a sort of auto-inhibition of the KFN functionality, wrongly arisen with the same protective purpose to preserve life in utero, as trigger of the sudden infant death.

  8. Pathogenetics. An introductory review

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    Mohammad Saad Zaghloul Salem

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pathogenetics refers to studying the different aspects of initiation/development/progression and pathogenesis of genetic defects. It comprises the study of mutagens or factors capable of affecting the structural integrity of the genetic material leading to mutational changes that, in the majority of cases, result in harmful effects due to the resulting disturbances of functions of mutated components of the genome. The study of mutagens depicts different types of mutagenic factors, their nature, their classification according to their effects on the genetic material and their different modes of action. The study of mutation involves different types of mutations classified according to various parameters, e.g. magnitude, severity, target of mutational event as well as its nature, which can be classified, in turn, according to whether it is spontaneous or induced, static or dynamic, somatic or germinal mutation etc. Finally, pathogenetics comprises studying and delineating the different and innumerable pathophysiological alterations and pathogenetic mechanisms that are directly and indirectly involved in, and leading to, the development of genetic disorders, coupled with a parallel study of various anti-mutation mechanisms that play critical roles in minimizing the drastic effects of mutational events on the genetic material and in effective protection against the development of these diseases.

  9. Peripheral neuropathies in Sjögren's syndrome: a critical update on clinical features and pathogenetic mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlakis, P P; Alexopoulos, H; Kosmidis, M L; Mamali, I; Moutsopoulos, H M; Tzioufas, A G; Dalakas, M C

    2012-08-01

    Sjögren's syndrome is a systemic autoimmune disease that, apart from exocrine glands, may affect every organ or system. Involvement of different sections of the peripheral nervous system results in a wide spectrum of neuropathic manifestations. Based on distinct clinical, electrophysiological and histological criteria, the types of neuropathies seen in Sjögren's syndrome include: a) pure sensory which presents with distal symmetric sensory loss due to axonal degeneration of sensory fibers; sensory ataxia due to loss of proprioceptive large fibers (ganglionopathy); or with painful dysethesias (small fiber sensory neuropathy) due to degeneration of cutaneous axons. The latter appears to be the most common neuropathy in Sjögren's syndrome and requires skin biopsy for diagnosis to document loss or reduction of nerve fiber density; b) sensorimotor polyneuropathy affecting sensory and motor axons, often associated with severe systemic or pro-lymhomatous manifestations, such as palpable purpura and cryoglobulinemia, and c) rare types that include autoimmune demyelinating neuropathy, mononeuropathy, mononeuropathy multiplex and autonomic neuropathy. In this review, the frequency, prevalence and diagnostic criteria for each neuropathy subset are discussed and possible pathogenetic mechanisms are outlined.

  10. Pathogenetic Mechanisms of Hepatitis C Virus-Induced B-Cell Lymphomagenesis

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    Fabio Forghieri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is probably the most common chronic viral infection and affects an estimated 180 million people worldwide, accounting for 3% of the global population. Although the liver is considered to be the primary target, extrahepatic manifestations are well recognized among patients with chronic HCV infection. Epidemiological studies have clearly demonstrated a correlation between chronic HCV infection and occurrence of B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (B-NHL. The clinical evidence that antiviral therapy has a significant role in the treatment at least of some HCV-associated lymphoproliferative disorders, especially indolent B-NHL, further supports the existence of an etiopathogenetic link. However, the mechanisms exploited by HCV to induce B-cell lymphoproliferation have so far not completely clarified. It is conceivable that different biological mechanisms, namely, chronic antigen stimulation, high-affinity interaction between HCV-E2 protein and its cellular receptors, direct HCV infection of B-cells, and “hit and run” transforming events, may be combined themselves and cooperate in a multifactorial model of HCV-associated lymphomagenesis.

  11. A Glimpse of the Pathogenetic Mechanisms of Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling in Diabetic Nephropathy

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    Li Xiao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Wnt family of proteins belongs to a group of secreted lipid-modified glycoproteins with highly conserved cysteine residues. Prior results indicate that Wnt/β-catenin signaling plays a prominent role in cell differentiation, adhesion, survival, and apoptosis and is involved in organ development, tumorigenesis, and tissue fibrosis, among other functions. Accumulating evidence has suggested that Wnt/β-catenin exhibits a pivotal function in the progression of diabetic nephropathy (DN. In this review, we focused on discussing the dual role of Wnt/β-catenin in apoptosis and epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT formation of mesangial cells. Moreover, we also elucidated the effect of Wnt/β-catenin in podocyte dysfunction, tubular EMT formation, and renal fibrosis under DN conditions. In addition, the molecular mechanisms involved in this process are introduced. This information provides a novel molecular target of Wnt/β-catenin for the protection of kidney damage and in delay of the progression of DN.

  12. Role of zinc and copper ions in the pathogenetic mechanisms of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelmashook, E V; Isaev, N K; Genrikhs, E E; Amelkina, G A; Khaspekov, L G; Skrebitsky, V G; Illarioshkin, S N

    2014-05-01

    Disbalance of zinc (Zn2+) and copper (Cu2+) ions in the central nervous system is involved in the pathogenesis of numerous neurodegenerative disorders such as multisystem atrophy, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, Wilson-Konovalov disease, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease. Among these, Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) are the most frequent age-related neurodegenerative pathologies with disorders in Zn2+ and Cu2+ homeostasis playing a pivotal role in the mechanisms of pathogenesis. In this review we generalized and systematized current literature data concerning this problem. The interactions of Zn2+ and Cu2+ with amyloid precursor protein (APP), β-amyloid (Abeta), tau-protein, metallothioneins, and GSK3β are considered, as well as the role of these interactions in the generation of free radicals in AD and PD. Analysis of the literature suggests that the main factors of AD and PD pathogenesis (oxidative stress, structural disorders and aggregation of proteins, mitochondrial dysfunction, energy deficiency) that initiate a cascade of events resulting finally in the dysfunction of neuronal networks are mediated by the disbalance of Zn2+ and Cu2+.

  13. ANALYSIS OF THE PATHOGENETIC MECHANISMS OF CHRONIC JOINT PAIN IN PATIENTS WITH RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS AND KNEE OSTEOARTHRITIS

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    E. S. Filatova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to reveal neurogenic mechanisms in the pathogenesis of chronic pain syndrome in rheumatoid arthritis (RA and knee osteoarthritis (OA in order to develop individualized pharmacotherapy.Subjects and methods. One hundred and eighty-three patients with RA and 80 with knee OA were examined. By using the neuropathic pain diagnostic questionnaire (DN4, all the patients were divided into 2 groups with and without a neuropathic pain component (NPC.Results. NPC was found in 43% of the patients with RA and it was connected with involvement of the peripheral somatosensory system. In RA, NPC was common in older patients with longer disease duration, higher X-ray stage, and severe functional insufficiency. 30% of patients with knee OA also had NPC, however the signs of nervous system involvement were absent. In OA, NPC was associated with hyperalgesia, higher pain intensity, more marked joint dysfunction on the WOMAC, and anxiety.Discussion. This investigation revealed a mixed pattern of chronic pain syndrome in patients with RA and knee OA; some patients were found to have a NPC in the presence of predominantly a nociceptive component

  14. Immunocompromentation of persons from groups with high risk of parenteral contamination with hepatitis B and C viruses: mechanisms of development and clinical pathogenetical significance

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    M. K. Mamedov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains data demonstrated that majority of persons belonged to groups with high risk of parenteral contamination with hepatitis B and C viruses yet before contamination with these viruses have complex of immunological disorders. In the article is presented the data reflecting main causes of these disorders development at different categories of such persons and main aspects of their pathogenetical and clinical significance are discussed.

  15. Alternative perturbation approaches in classical mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amore, Paolo [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Colima, Bernal DIaz del Castillo 340, Colima, Colima (Mexico); Raya, Alfredo [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Colima, Bernal DIaz del Castillo 340, Colima, Colima (Mexico); Fernandez, Francisco M [INIFTA (Conicet, UNLP), Blvd. 113 y 64 S/N, Sucursal 4, Casilla de Correo 16, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)

    2005-11-01

    We discuss two alternative methods, based on the Lindstedt-Poincare technique, for the removal of secular terms from the equations of perturbation theory. We calculate the period of an anharmonic oscillator by means of both approaches and show that one of them is more accurate for all values of the coupling constant. We believe that present discussion and comparison may be a suitable exercise for teaching perturbation theory in advanced undergraduate courses on classical mechanics.

  16. CLINICAL-DIAGNOSTIC AND PATHOGENETIC ASPECTS OF CERVICAL DIZZINESS

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    O.V. Zelentsova

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Questions of occurrence of cervical dizziness at 190 patients with cervical osteochondrosis, anomalies ofcraniovertebral transition and "switch" trauma of a cervical partof the backbone are discussed. On the basis of the results of complex examination with use of ultrasonic and neurovisualization techniques pathogenetic mechanisms of the developmentof cervical dizziness are discussed.

  17. Autoimmune uveitis: clinical, pathogenetic, and therapeutic features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prete, Marcella; Dammacco, Rosanna; Fatone, Maria Celeste; Racanelli, Vito

    2016-05-01

    Autoimmune uveitis (AU), an inflammatory non-infectious process of the vascular layer of the eye, can lead to visual impairment and, in the absence of a timely diagnosis and suitable therapy, can even result in total blindness. The majority of AU cases are idiopathic, whereas fewer than 20 % are associated with systemic diseases. The clinical severity of AU depends on whether the anterior, intermediate, or posterior part of the uvea is involved and may range from almost asymptomatic to rapidly sight-threatening forms. Race, genetic background, and environmental factors can also influence the clinical picture. The pathogenetic mechanism of AU is still poorly defined, given its remarkable heterogeneity and the many discrepancies between experimental and human uveitis. Even so, the onset of AU is thought to be related to an aberrant T cell-mediated immune response, triggered by inflammation and directed against retinal or cross-reactive antigens. B cells may also play a role in uveal antigen presentation and in the subsequent activation of T cells. The management of AU remains a challenge for clinicians, especially because of the paucity of randomized clinical trials that have systematically evaluated the effectiveness of different drugs. In addition to topical treatment, several different therapeutic options are available, although a standardized regimen is thus far lacking. Current guidelines recommend corticosteroids as the first-line therapy for patients with active AU. Immunosuppressive drugs may be subsequently required to treat steroid-resistant AU and for steroid-sparing purposes. The recent introduction of biological agents, such as those targeting tumor necrosis factor-α, is expected to remarkably increase the percentages of responders and to prevent irreversible sight impairment. This paper reviews the clinical features of AU and its crucial pathogenetic targets in relation to the current therapeutic perspectives. Also, the largest clinical trials

  18. Vascular liver calcification in infants. A case report with some pathogenetic considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Filippi, G.; Betta, P.G.

    1988-07-01

    A case of calcified portal vein thromboemboli in a neonate is described with special regard to the radiological and histological features. A possible pathogenetic mechanism involves a disseminated intravascular coagulation subsequent to placental release of thromboplastin.

  19. Mechanism for alternating access in neurotransmitter transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Lucy R; Zhang, Yuan-Wei; Jacobs, Miriam T; Gesmonde, Joan; Xie, Li; Honig, Barry H; Rudnick, Gary

    2008-07-29

    Crystal structures of LeuT, a bacterial homologue of mammalian neurotransmitter transporters, show a molecule of bound substrate that is essentially exposed to the extracellular space but occluded from the cytoplasm. Thus, there must exist an alternate conformation for LeuT in which the substrate is accessible to the cytoplasm and a corresponding mechanism that switches accessibility from one side of the membrane to the other. Here, we identify the cytoplasmic accessibility pathway of the alternate conformation in a mammalian serotonin transporter (SERT) (a member of the same transporter family as LeuT). We also propose a model for the cytoplasmic-facing state that exploits the internal pseudosymmetry observed in the crystal structure. LeuT contains two structurally similar repeats (TMs1-5 and TMs 6-10) that are inverted with respect to the plane of the membrane. The conformational differences between them result in the formation of the extracellular pathway. Our model for the cytoplasm-facing state exchanges the conformations of the two repeats and thus exposes the substrate and ion-binding sites to the cytoplasm. The conformational change that connects the two states primarily involves the tilting of a 4-helix bundle composed of transmembrane helices 1, 2, 6, and 7. Switching the tilt angle of this bundle is essentially equivalent to switching the conformation of the two repeats. Extensive mutagenesis of SERT and accessibility measurements, using cysteine reagents, are accommodated by our model. These observations may be of relevance to other transporter families, many of which contain internal inverted repeats.

  20. Pathogenetic aspects of alcoholic encephalopathy treatment

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    Shchetinin S.G.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol is considered to be the most common exogenous toxins, causing encephalopathy. The defeat of almost all parts of the nervous system should be assigned to the special features of ethanol. Neurophysiological mechanisms of development of substance dependence are based in the stem and limbic structures of the brain that are involved in ensuring the regulation of emotional state, mood, motivation sphere, psychophysical tone of human behavior in general and its adaptation to the environment. Stress or disruption of the normal functioning of these structures can lead to the formation of abstinence syndrome, affective disorders in remission and craving for alcohol. Dopaminergic and opioid (endorphin system play an important role in the genesis of various mental and motor disorders. In some way alcohol dependence can be regarded as an endorfinodefitsitnoe disease with a pathogenetic point of view. Activating of opioidereal system by trans-cranial electrical stimulation promotes the restoration of disturbed emotional, cognitive and autonomic functions, reduces craving for alcohol and in that way increases the effectiveness of rehabilitation treatment

  1. 边缘性人格障碍发病机制研究进展%Recent Development of Pathogenetic Mechanisms on the Borderline Personality Disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玖菊; 屈英; 刘华清; 马颖; 刘洋

    2008-01-01

    目的 回顾最近几年有关边缘性人格障碍的研究,探讨边缘性人格障碍的发病机制.方法 应用Medline和中国知网期刊文献检索2008年2月之前关于边缘性人格障碍的相关文献,检索词为边缘性人格障碍(borderline personality disorder)和发病机制(mechanisms).结果 选择以边缘性人格障碍发病机制相关的文献有46篇,分别涉及到边缘性人格障碍的神经传递素、素附特点、神经成像、遗传学、认知以及分型.结论 边缘性人格障碍是指一群异质的个体,他们在症状表现、病因、心理病理机制的反应等方面可能都存在着很大的差异,它是受生物、心理和社会多方面影响的.

  2. Peripheral neuropathy: pathogenic mechanisms and alternative therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Kathleen A

    2006-12-01

    Peripheral neuropathy (PN), associated with diabetes, neurotoxic chemotherapy, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/antiretroviral drugs, alcoholism, nutrient deficiencies, heavy metal toxicity, and other etiologies, results in significant morbidity. Conventional pain medications primarily mask symptoms and have significant side effects and addiction profiles. However, a widening body of research indicates alternative medicine may offer significant benefit to this patient population. Alpha-lipoic acid, acetyl-L-carnitine, benfotiamine, methylcobalamin, and topical capsaicin are among the most well-researched alternative options for the treatment of PN. Other potential nutrient or botanical therapies include vitamin E, glutathione, folate, pyridoxine, biotin, myo-inositol, omega-3 and -6 fatty acids, L-arginine, L-glutamine, taurine, N-acetylcysteine, zinc, magnesium, chromium, and St. John's wort. In the realm of physical medicine, acupuncture, magnetic therapy, and yoga have been found to provide benefit. New cutting-edge conventional therapies, including dual-action peptides, may also hold promise.

  3. PATHOGENETIC MECHANISMS OF CHRONIC ACQUIRED TOXOPLASMOSIS

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    Kotsyna S.S.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular protozoan that infects approximately one-third of the world’s population. Infection in human generally occurs through consuming food or drink contaminated with oocysts and tissue cysts from undercooked meat. Although latent infection with Toxoplasma gondii is among the most prevalent of human infections, it has been generally assumed that, except for congenital transmission, it is asymptomatic. Different conditions such as, number of parasite, virulence of the organism, genetic background, sex, and immunological status seem to affect the course of infection The demonstration that Toxoplasma infections can alter behavior, reproductive function in patients has led to a reconsideration of this assumption. During chronic acquired toxoplasmosis (САT identified the regularities of changes in the ratio of the immune system and the basal levels of sex hormones available informative methods, which made it possible to evaluate the severity of the flow chart and predict treatment outcome without resorting to complex research methods. Found that the host-parasite relationships and clinical manifestations of chronic toxoplasmosis depend largely on protective and adaptive responses and compensatory abilities of the human body. Material & methods. 112 patients attended in the 6 Department of Kharkiv Regional Infectious Diseases Hospital №22 (Department of Medical Parasitology and Tropical Diseases of Kharkiv Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education, in Kharkiv, Ukraine were enrolled in the study. Forty four patients (39,3±4,6% were male and sixty eight (60,7±4,6% were female. The age of the patients was 18 till 72 years. Results & discussion. All of 112 CAT patients had subjective clinical symptoms in various combinations: increased fatigue 99,1 ± 0,9%, headache and tiredness 95,5 ± 1,9%, pain in the liver 88,4 ± 3,1%, bitter taste in the mouth 93,8 ± 2,2%, muscle pain 81,3 ± 3,7% and joint pain 69,6 ± 4,3%. Women complained of painful menstruation (57,4 ± 4,7%, irregular menstrual cycle (85,3 ± 3,4%. In the anamnesis of diseases 10,3 ± 2,8% of women had miscarriages and 27,9 ± 4,2% of women had fetal fading. 47,7 ± 4,7% men complained of the decrease in potency. Objective examination: All of 112 CAT patients had lymphadenopathy, 89,3 ± 3,0% patients had subfibryle temperature, 64,3 ± 4,5% of patients had increased sweating, 53.6 ± 4,7% patients had hypertension, increase in liver size was founded in 21,4 ± 3,8% of patients, skin rashes 10,7 ± 3,0%, spleen was enlarged in 66,9 ± 4,4% of patients. Hormonal status: 59 ± 7,4% men have an increased levels of progesterone, 41 ± 7,4% men have an increased levels of estradіol, 13 ± 5,1% men have an decreased levels of testosterone. Women 22±5,0% have an increased levels of testosterone, women 7,0±3,1% have an increased levels of progesterone, 10±3,6% women have an decreased levels of estradіol. Conclusion. The response of host organism to CAT invasion occurs is not the same. It depends on the initial state protective and adaptive capacity of the organism and the liver diseases. This is one of the determining factors of the host-parasite relationship and clinical manifestations of the disease. Prognostic Criterias that determine adaptive-compensatory capacity of the organism in CAT can be basal levels of estradiol, testosterone and progesterone. Physiological differences between men and women play an important role in determining susceptibility to parasitic diseases. The dichotomy in the incidence and severity of many diseases infectious etiology are a strong arguments that the characteristics of men’s physiology and characteristics of women’s physiology are the important factors of the determining susceptibility to disease.

  4. Telomere recombination and alternative telomere lengthening mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Draskovic, I.; Londono Vallejo, A.

    2013-01-01

    Telomeres are nucleoprotein structures at the ends of linear chromosomes that protect them from being recognized as DNA double stranded breaks. Telomeres shorten with every cell division and in the absence of the checkpoint mechanisms critical telomere shortening leads to chromosome end fusions and

  5. Anencephaly: MRI findings and pathogenetic theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzolari, Ferdinando; Gambi, Beatrice; Garani, Giampaolo; Tamisari, Lalla

    2004-12-01

    We describe the MRI appearances of an anencephalic newborn who survived for 13 h; particularities of this case are male gender and the absence of other associated malformations. Moreover, we discuss the pathogenetic theories of anencephaly, correlating MRI findings with embryological data. An exencephaly-anencephaly sequence due to amnion rupture is hypothesized.

  6. Anencephaly: MRI findings and pathogenetic theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calzolari, Ferdinando [Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria, Department of Neuroradiology, Ferrara (Italy); Gambi, Beatrice [Ospedale S. Donato, Neonatal Unit, Arezzo (Italy); Garani, Giampaolo; Tamisari, Lalla [Universita degli Studi, Neonatal Unit, Ferrara (Italy)

    2004-12-01

    We describe the MRI appearances of an anencephalic newborn who survived for 13 h; particularities of this case are male gender and the absence of other associated malformations. Moreover, we discuss the pathogenetic theories of anencephaly, correlating MRI findings with embryological data. An exencephaly-anencephaly sequence due to amnion rupture is hypothesized. (orig.)

  7. Possible pathogenetic types of sporadical ovarian cancer

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    L. A. Ashrafyan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article in question dwells on a possible pathogenetic model ovarian cancer, it’s histogenesis speciality, the role of ovulation, chronic in- flammation and stem cells. The scheme of two variant of avarian cancer progress and possible ways of prevention it are represented as well.

  8. Empirical Research of College Students' Alternative Frameworks of Particle Mechanics

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    Wang, Hongmei

    2010-01-01

    Based on the constructive theory, about 300 college students of grade 05 of the electronic information specialty of Dezhou University are surveyed for their alternative frameworks of particle mechanics in college physics in this article. In the survey, the questionnaires are used to find out college students' alternative frameworks, and the…

  9. Pathogenetic relationship between coronary heart disease and osteopenic syndrome

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    N. S. Mykhailovskaya

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The importance of the comorbidity problem of coronary heart disease and osteoporosis is caused by the rising prevalence, lack of early detection, prevention, severe complications and significant impact on the quality of life of the patients. Aim. In order to compile and submit a current point of view on the pathogenetic relationship between the coronary heart disease and the osteopenic syndrome we reviewed specialized literature. Conclusion. We established that coronary heart disease and osteoporosis have common mechanisms of progression involving a cascade of proinflammatory cytokines, osteoprotegerin, endothelial dysfunction, estrogen, calcium deficiency, the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone and sympathetic nervous system.

  10. Pathogenetic treatment for knee osteoarthrosis

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    Marina Stanislavovna Svetlova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of studying the impact of long-term treatment with theraflex (a 3-year follow-up or alflutop (a 5-year follow-up in patients with knee osteoarthosis. Both drugs have been shown to exert a positive effect on the symptoms of the disease. It has been concluded that theraflex affects more actively the pathogenic mechanisms in the progression of gonarthrosis.

  11. Pathogenetic treatment for knee osteoarthrosis

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    Marina Stanislavovna Svetlova

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of studying the impact of long-term treatment with theraflex (a 3-year follow-up or alflutop (a 5-year follow-up in patients with knee osteoarthosis. Both drugs have been shown to exert a positive effect on the symptoms of the disease. It has been concluded that theraflex affects more actively the pathogenic mechanisms in the progression of gonarthrosis.

  12. PATHOGENETIC ASPECTS OF MYELODISPLASTIC SYNDROMES

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    F. Lauria

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The patogenesis of MDS is complex and remain elusive. The proposed models agree that a multistep process occurs through which a hematopoietic stem cell is mutated and attains a growth advantage. This may occur as a result of environmental damage or inherited predisposition. The mutated clone is associated with morphological dysplasia, impaired differentiation and genomic instability. Cytokine secretion and apoptotic pathways are altered and as well as may be impairment of immune responses. Presumably,in the early stages, increased production of proapoptotic cytokines leads to excessive apoptosis, correlating clinically with cytopenias and a cellular bone marrow. As the disease progresses, further genetic and epigenetic events occur, resulting in decreased apoptosis, clonal expansion and progression to AML. Clinical testing of a number of molecules that affect these myriad molecular mechanisms is currently being done, characterization of genomic expression patterns will inform both diagnosis and prognostication. Further insight into the molecular mechanisms of MDS will provide an avenue for more tailored and effective therapy in the future.

  13. Spinodal decomposition: An alternate mechanism of phase conversion

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Shukla; A K Mohanty

    2003-05-01

    The scenario of homogeneous nucleation is investigated for a first-order quark–hadron phase transition in a rapidly expanding background of quark gluon plasma. It is found that significant supercooling is possible before hadronization begins. This study also suggests that spinodal decomposition competes with nucleation and may provide an alternative mechanism for phase conversion.

  14. Diuretics as pathogenetic treatment for heart failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglin, Maya

    2011-01-01

    Increased intracardiac filling pressure or congestion causes symptoms and leads to hospital admissions in patients with heart failure, regardless of their systolic function. A history of hospital admission, in turn, predicts further hospitalizations and morbidity, and a higher number of hospitalizations determine higher mortality. Congestion is therefore the driving force of the natural history of heart failure. Congestion is the syndrome shared by heart failure with preserved and reduced systolic function. These two conditions have almost identical morbidity, mortality, and survival because the outcomes are driven by congestion. A small difference in favor of heart failure with preserved systolic function comes from decreased ejection fraction and left ventricular remodeling which is only present in heart failure with decreased systolic function. The magnitude of this difference reflects the contribution of decreased systolic function and ventricular remodeling to the progression of heart failure. The only treatment available for congestion is fluid removal via diuretics, ultrafiltration, or dialysis. It is the only treatment that works equally well for heart failure with reduced and preserved systolic function because it affects congestion, the main pathogenetic feature of the disease. Diuretics are pathogenetic therapy for heart failure. PMID:21403798

  15. Diuretics as pathogenetic treatment for heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya Guglin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Maya GuglinUniversity of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USAAbstract: Increased intracardiac filling pressure or congestion causes symptoms and leads to hospital admissions in patients with heart failure, regardless of their systolic function. A history of hospital admission, in turn, predicts further hospitalizations and morbidity, and a higher number of hospitalizations determine higher mortality. Congestion is therefore the driving force of the natural history of heart failure. Congestion is the syndrome shared by heart failure with preserved and reduced systolic function. These two conditions have almost identical morbidity, mortality, and survival because the outcomes are driven by congestion. A small difference in favor of heart failure with preserved systolic function comes from decreased ejection fraction and left ventricular remodeling which is only present in heart failure with decreased systolic function. The magnitude of this difference reflects the contribution of decreased systolic function and ventricular remodeling to the progression of heart failure. The only treatment available for congestion is fluid removal via diuretics, ultrafiltration, or dialysis. It is the only treatment that works equally well for heart failure with reduced and preserved systolic function because it affects congestion, the main pathogenetic feature of the disease. Diuretics are pathogenetic therapy for heart failure.Keywords: heart failure, diuretics, congestion, systolic function, diastolic function, ejection fraction

  16. Pancreatic carcinoma development: new etiological and pathogenetic evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirio Fiorino

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PAC is a very aggressive cancer with a poor prognosis. To date, the causes and pathogenetic mechanisms involved in the development of this malignancy remain largely unknown. Therefore, additional studies are required to improve our knowledge of the events that occur during the process of pancreatic carcinogenesis. The purpose of this article is to describe the most recent evidence, concerning the possible risk factors and mechanisms that may contribute to determine the development of PAC, as well as models, such as the tensegrity model, that may explain this complex process. Available studies suggest that approximately 15-20% of human malignancies are somehow associated with chronic infection. Some epidemiological research has shown that some infectious agents represent risk factors for PAC. In particular, several reports showed that the infection caused by some micro-organisms, including helicobacter pylori and some bacterial species of oral microbiota, as well as by viral agents, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, and hepatitis B (HBV and C (HCV viruses, is associated with an increased probability of developing PAC. For the first time, observational studies and meta-analyses have suggested that HBV and HCV, two hepatotropic viruses with oncogenic properties, may be also risk factors for PAC. However, the small number of available reports, nearly all performed in Asian populations, limits their validity to these ethnic groups. Therefore, additional studies focusing on populations of different geographical areas and enrolling larger series of patients are required to confirm this association. Furthermore, an accurate description and a better understanding of the events and of the pathogenetic mechanisms involved in the process of pancreatic carcinogenesis, as proposed by the tensegrity model, might be a useful approach to effectively deal with this pathology.

  17. Pathogenetic determinants in Kawasaki disease: the haematological point of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Principe, Domenico; Pietraforte, Donatella; Gambardella, Lucrezia; Marchesi, Alessandra; Tarissi de Jacobis, Isabella; Villani, Alberto; Malorni, Walter; Straface, Elisabetta

    2017-04-01

    Kawasaki disease is a multisystemic vasculitis that can result in coronary artery lesions. It predominantly affects young children and is characterized by prolonged fever, diffuse mucosal inflammation, indurative oedema of the hands and feet, a polymorphous skin rash and non-suppurative lymphadenopathy. Coronary artery involvement is the most important complication of Kawasaki disease and may cause significant coronary stenosis resulting in ischemic heart disease. The introduction of intravenous immunoglobulin decreases the incidence of coronary artery lesions to less than 5%. The etiopathogenesis of this disease remains unclear. Several lines of evidence suggest that an interplay between a microbial infection and a genetic predisposition could take place in the development of the disease. In this review, we summarize the state of the art of pathogenetic mechanisms of Kawasaki disease underscoring the relevance of haematological features as a novel field of investigation.

  18. Alternative end-joining mechanisms: a historical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anabelle eDecottignies

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the presence of functional DNA repair pathways, DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs are mainly repaired by non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ or homologous recombination (HR, two conserved pathways that protect cells from aberrant chromosomal rearrangements. During the past two decades however, unusual and presumably distinct DNA end-joining repair activities have been unraveled in NHEJ-deficient cells and these are likely to operate in various chromosomal contexts and species. Most alternative DNA end-joining events reported so far appear to involve microhomologous sequences and are likely to rely on a subset of HR enzymes, namely those responsible for the single-strand annealing mechanism of HR, and on DNA Ligase III. Usually, microhomologies are not initially present at DSB ends and thus need to be unmasked through DNA end resection, a process that can lead to extensive nucleotide loss and is therefore highly mutagenic. In addition to microhomology-mediated end-joining events, recent studies in mammalian cells point towards the existence of a distinct and still ill defined alternative end-joining pathway that does not appear to rely on pre-existing microhomologies and may possibly involve DNA Ligase I.Whether dependent on microhomologies or not, alternative DNA end-joining mechanisms are likely to be highly mutagenic in vivo, being able to drive telomere fusion events and cancer-associated chromosomal translocations in mouse models. In the future, it will be important to better characterize the genetic requirements of these mutagenic alternative mechanisms of DNA end-joining.

  19. Transcranial Alternating Current and Random Noise Stimulation: Possible Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Antal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS is a relatively recent method suited to noninvasively modulate brain oscillations. Technically the method is similar but not identical to transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS. While decades of research in animals and humans has revealed the main physiological mechanisms of tDCS, less is known about the physiological mechanisms of tACS. Method. Here, we review recent interdisciplinary research that has furthered our understanding of how tACS affects brain oscillations and by what means transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS that is a special form of tACS can modulate cortical functions. Results. Animal experiments have demonstrated in what way neurons react to invasively and transcranially applied alternating currents. Such findings are further supported by neural network simulations and knowledge from physics on entraining physical oscillators in the human brain. As a result, fine-grained models of the human skull and brain allow the prediction of the exact pattern of current flow during tDCS and tACS. Finally, recent studies on human physiology and behavior complete the picture of noninvasive modulation of brain oscillations. Conclusion. In future, the methods may be applicable in therapy of neurological and psychiatric disorders that are due to malfunctioning brain oscillations.

  20. Quantitative Financial Analysis of Alternative Energy Efficiency Shareholder Incentive Mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappers, Peter; Goldman, Charles; Chait, Michele; Edgar, George; Schlegel, Jeff; Shirley, Wayne

    2008-08-03

    Rising energy prices and climate change are central issues in the debate about our nation's energy policy. Many are demanding increased energy efficiency as a way to help reduce greenhouse gas emissions and lower the total cost of electricity and energy services for consumers and businesses. Yet, as the National Action Plan on Energy Efficiency (NAPEE) pointed out, many utilities continue to shy away from seriously expanding their energy efficiency program offerings because they claim there is insufficient profit-motivation, or even a financial disincentive, when compared to supply-side investments. With the recent introduction of Duke Energy's Save-a-Watt incentive mechanism and ongoing discussions about decoupling, regulators and policymakers are now faced with an expanded and diverse landscape of financial incentive mechanisms, Determining the 'right' way forward to promote deep and sustainable demand side resource programs is challenging. Due to the renaissance that energy efficiency is currently experiencing, many want to better understand the tradeoffs in stakeholder benefits between these alternative incentive structures before aggressively embarking on a path for which course corrections can be time-consuming and costly. Using a prototypical Southwest utility and a publicly available financial model, we show how various stakeholders (e.g. shareholders, ratepayers, etc.) are affected by these different types of shareholder incentive mechanisms under varying assumptions about program portfolios. This quantitative analysis compares the financial consequences associated with a wide range of alternative incentive structures. The results will help regulators and policymakers better understand the financial implications of DSR program incentive regulation.

  1. [EBOLA HEMORRHAGIC FEVER: DIAGNOSTICS, ETIOTROPIC AND PATHOGENETIC THERAPY, PREVENTION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhdanov, K V; Zakharenko, S M; Kovalenko, A N; Semenov, A V; Fisun, A Ya

    2015-01-01

    The data on diagnostics, etiotropic and pathogenetic therapy, prevention of Ebola hemorrhagic fever are presented including diagnostic algorithms for different clinical situations. Fundamentals of pathogenetic therapy are described. Various groups of medications used for antiviral therapy of conditions caused by Ebola virus are characterized. Experimental drugs at different stages of clinical studies are considered along with candidate vaccines being developed for the prevention of the disease.

  2. Assessment of Alternative Funding Mechanisms for the IAEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toomey, Christopher; Wyse, Evan T.; Kurzrok, Andrew J.; Ford, Benjamin E.

    2012-06-15

    While the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has enjoyed substantial success and prestige in the international community, there is growing concern that global demographic trends, advances in technology and the trend towards austerity in Member State budgets will stretch the Agency’s resources to a point where it may no longer be possible to execute its multifaceted mission in its entirety. As part of an ongoing effort by the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative to evaluate the IAEA’s long-term budgetary concerns , this paper proposes a series of alternate funding mechanisms that have the potential to sustain the IAEA in the long-term, including endowment, charity, and fee-for-service funding models.

  3. Mathematical model of alternative mechanism of telomere length maintenance

    CERN Document Server

    Kollár, Richard; Nosek, Jozef; Tomaska, Lubomir

    2014-01-01

    Biopolymer length regulation is a complex process that involves a large number of subprocesses acting simultaneously across multiple spatial and temporal scales. An illustrative example important for genomic stability is the length regulation of telomeres---nucleo-protein structures at the ends of linear chromosomes. Maintenance of telomeres is often facilitated by the enzyme telomerase but, particularly in telomerase-free systems, the maintenance of chromosomal termini depends on alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) mechanisms mediated by recombination. Various linear and circular DNA structures were identified to participate in ALT, however, dynamics of the whole process is still poorly understood. We propose a chemical kinetics model of ALT with kinetic rates systematically derived from the biophysics of DNA diffusion and looping. The reaction system is reduced to a coagulation-fragmentation system by quasi-steady state approximation. The detailed treatment of kinetic rates yields explicit formulae f...

  4. 45 CFR 148.128 - State flexibility in individual market reforms-alternative mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-alternative mechanisms. 148.128 Section 148.128 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... reforms—alternative mechanisms. (a) Waiver of requirements. The requirements of § 148.120, which set forth... implements an acceptable alternative mechanism in accordance with the following criteria: (1) The...

  5. Alternative splicing: An important mechanism in stem cellbiology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kenian Chen; Xiaojing Dai; Jiaqian Wu

    2015-01-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) is an essential mechanismin post-transcriptional regulation and leads to proteindiversity. It has been shown that AS is prevalentin metazoan genomes, and the splicing pattern isdynamically regulated in different tissues and cell types,including embryonic stem cells. These observationssuggest that AS may play critical roles in stem cellbiology. Since embryonic stem cells and inducedpluripotent stem cells have the ability to give rise to alltypes of cells and tissues, they hold the promise of futurecell-based therapy. Many efforts have been devoted tounderstanding the mechanisms underlying stem cell selfrenewaland differentiation. However, most of the studiesfocused on the expression of a core set of transcriptionfactors and regulatory RNAs. The role of AS in stem celldifferentiation was not clear. Recent advances in highthroughputtechnologies have allowed the profilingof dynamic splicing patterns and cis-motifs that areresponsible for AS at a genome-wide scale, and providednovel insights in a number of studies. In this review, wediscuss some recent findings involving AS and stem cells.An emerging picture from these findings is that AS isintegrated in the transcriptional and post-transcriptionalnetworks and together they control pluripotencymaintenance and differentiation of stem cells.

  6. Carcinogenesis ofnasopharyngeal carcinoma:an alternate hypothetical mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sharon Shuxian Poh; Melvin Lee Kiang Chua; Joseph TS Wee

    2016-01-01

    Current proposed mechanisms implicate both early and latent Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) infection in the carcinogenic cascade, whereas epidemiological studies have always associated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) with early child-hood EBV infection and with chronic ear, nose, and sinus conditions. Moreover, most patients with NPC present with IgA antibody titers to EBV capsid antigen (VCA-IgA), which can precede actual tumor presentation by several years. If early childhood EBV infection indeed constitutes a key event in NPC carcinogenesis, one would have to explain the inability to detect the virus in normal nasopharyngeal epithelium of patients at a high risk for EBV infection. It is perhaps possible that EBV resides within the salivary glands, instead of the epithelium, during latency. This claim is indirectly supported by observations that the East Asian phenotype shares the characteristics of an increased sus-ceptibility to NPC and immature salivary gland morphogenesis, the latter of which is inlfuenced by the association of salivary gland morphogenesis with an evolutionary variant of the human ectodysplasin receptor gene (EDAR), EDARV370A. Whether the immature salivary gland represents a more favorable nidus for EBV is uncertain, but in patients with infectious mononucleosis, EBV has been isolated in this anatomical organ. The presence of EBV-induced lymphoepitheliomas in the salivary glands and lungs further addresses the possibility of submucosal spread of the virus. Adding to the fact that the fossa of Rosen Müller contains a transformative zone active only in the ifrst decade of life, one might be tempted to speculate the possibility of an alternative carcinogenic cascade for NPC that is perhaps not dissimilar to the model of human papillomavirus and cervical cancer.

  7. Mathematical model of alternative mechanism of telomere length maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollár, Richard; Bod'ová, Katarína; Nosek, Jozef; Tomáška, L'ubomír

    2014-03-01

    Biopolymer length regulation is a complex process that involves a large number of biological, chemical, and physical subprocesses acting simultaneously across multiple spatial and temporal scales. An illustrative example important for genomic stability is the length regulation of telomeres—nucleoprotein structures at the ends of linear chromosomes consisting of tandemly repeated DNA sequences and a specialized set of proteins. Maintenance of telomeres is often facilitated by the enzyme telomerase but, particularly in telomerase-free systems, the maintenance of chromosomal termini depends on alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) mechanisms mediated by recombination. Various linear and circular DNA structures were identified to participate in ALT, however, dynamics of the whole process is still poorly understood. We propose a chemical kinetics model of ALT with kinetic rates systematically derived from the biophysics of DNA diffusion and looping. The reaction system is reduced to a coagulation-fragmentation system by quasi-steady-state approximation. The detailed treatment of kinetic rates yields explicit formulas for expected size distributions of telomeres that demonstrate the key role played by the J factor, a quantitative measure of bending of polymers. The results are in agreement with experimental data and point out interesting phenomena: an appearance of very long telomeric circles if the total telomere density exceeds a critical value (excess mass) and a nonlinear response of the telomere size distributions to the amount of telomeric DNA in the system. The results can be of general importance for understanding dynamics of telomeres in telomerase-independent systems as this mode of telomere maintenance is similar to the situation in tumor cells lacking telomerase activity. Furthermore, due to its universality, the model may also serve as a prototype of an interaction between linear and circular DNA structures in various settings.

  8. Intestinal endotoxemia as a pathogenetic mechanism in liver failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    De-Wu Han

    2002-01-01

    Liver injury induced by various pathogenic factors (such as hepatitis virus, ethanol, drugs and hepatotoxicants, etc.)through their respective special pathogenesis is referred to as "primary liver injury" (PLI). Liver injury resultedfrom endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) and the activation of Kupffer cells by LPS while intestinal endotoxemia (IETM) occurred during the occurrence and development of hepatitis is named the "secondary liver injury" (SLI).The latter which has lost their own specificities of primary pathogenic factors is ascribed to IETM. The "secondary liver injury" is of important action and impact on development and prognosis of hepatitis. More severe IETM commonly results in excessive inflammatory responses, with serious hepatic necrosis,further severe hepatitis and even induces acute liver failure.The milder IETM successively precipitates a cascade,including repeated and persistent hepatocytic impairment accompanied by infiltration of inflammatory cells, hepatic fibrosis, cirrhosis and hepatocarcinoma. Generally, the milder IETM ends with chronic hepatic failure. If PLI caused by various pathogenic factors through their independent specific mechanismis regarded as "the first hit" on liver, then SLI mediated by different chemical mediators from KCs activated by IETM in the course of hepatitis is "the second hit" on liver. Thus, fusing and overlapping of the primary and scondary liver injuries determine and influeuce the complexity of the illness and outcome of the patient with hepatitis. For this reason, the viewpoint of "SLI" induced by the "second hit" on liver inflicted by IFTM suggests that medical professionals should attach great importance to both "PLI"and "SLI" caused by IETM. That is, try to adjust the function of KSs and eliminate endotoxemia of the patient.

  9. Intestinal endotoxemia as a pathogenetic mechanism in liver failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    De-WuHan

    2002-01-01

    Liver injury induced by various pathogenic factors(such as hepatitis virus,ethanol,drugs and hepatotoxicants,etc.)through their respective special pathogenesis is referred to as“primary liver injury”(LPS)and the activation of kupffer cells by LPS while intestinal endotoxemia(IETM)occurted during the occurrence and development of hepatitis is named the“secondary liver injury”(SLI).The latter which has lost their own specificities of primary pathogenic factors is ascribed to IETM.The“secondary liver injury”is of important action and impact on development and prognosis of hepatitis.More severe IETM commonly results in excessive inflammatory responses,with serious hepatic necrosis,further severe hepatitis and even induces acute liver failure.The milder IETM successively precipitates a cascade,including repeated and persistent hepatocytic impairment accompanied by infiltration of inflammatory cells,hepatic fibrosis,cirrhosis and hepatocarcinoma.Generally,the milder IETM ends with chronic hepatic failure.If PLI caused by various pathogenic factors through their independent specific mechanismis regarded as“the first hit”on liver,then SLI mediated by different chemical mediators from KC,activated by IETMin the course of hepatitis is “the second hit”on liver.Thus,fusing and overlapping of the primary and scorndary liver injunies determine and influeuce the complexity of the illness and outcome of the patient with hepatitis.For this reason,the viewpoint of “SLI”induced by the “second hit”on liver inflicted by IETM suggests that medical professionals should attach great importance to both“PLI”and“SLI”caused by IETM.That is,try to adjust the function of KS,and eliminate endotoxemia ofthe patient.

  10. Human Tuberculosis I. Epidemiology, Diagnosis and Pathogenetic Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgaragli, Giampietro; Frosini, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis), an almost genetically monomorphic pathogen is a human parasite, transmitted mostly by humans and causes tuberculosis (TB). TB is firmly associated to poverty, although lack of proper nutrition and lowered immune status are contributing factors for disease development. TB remains second only to HIV/AIDS as the leading cause of mortality worldwide due to a single infectious agent and is responsible for nearly 1.5 million deaths annually. Some steps of the progress of our knowledge of M. tuberculosis physiology and its interactions with human beings, are reviewed here. This progress has provided fertile ground for improving diagnosis and cure of TB infection. For TB diagnostics laboratories in high-burden countries, primary isolation is the first step before performing drug susceptibility testing (DST) of M. tuberculosis. IGRA (interferon-γ release assay)-based tests for diagnosis of active TB are sufficiently fast, specific and sensitive to allow to contain infection and distinguish among latent TB infection and BCG vaccination individuals from those who have clinically resolved M. tuberculosis infection after anti-TB treatment.

  11. Fibromyalgia--from syndrome to disease. Overview of pathogenetic mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksson, Karl G

    2003-05-01

    According to the classification criteria proposed by the American College of Rheumatology, fibromyalgia is a long-standing multifocal pain condition combined with generalised allodynia/hyperalgesia. It is the generalised allodynia/hyperalgesia that distinguishes fibromyalgia from other conditions with chronic musculoskeletal pain. Central sensitisation of nociceptive neurons in the dorsal horn due to activation of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptors and disinhibition of pain due to deficient function of the descending inhibitory system are probable pathogenic factors for allodynia/hyperalgesia. Furthermore, chronic pain is a chronic emotional and physical stressor. Chronic stress and chronic sleep disturbance are not specific for fibromyalgia but could be the causes of symptoms like fatigue, cognitive difficulties and other stress-related symptoms. They may also cause neuroendocrinological and immunological aberrations.

  12. Regulatory and pathogenetic mechanisms of autoantibodies in SLE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radic, M.; Herrmann, M.; Vlag, J. van der; Rekvig, O.P.

    2011-01-01

    In the 53 years since the discovery of anti-DNA autoantibodies in lupus [1, 2, 3] , recalcitrant questions have been pondered and possible answers have been debated. The discovery of anti-DNA autoantibodies presented many puzzles: How is immunological tolerance to native B-form DNA broken? What elic

  13. Regulatory and pathogenetic mechanisms of autoantibodies in SLE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radic, Marko; Herrmann, Martin; van der Vlag, Johan; Rekvig, Ole Petter

    2011-08-01

    In the 53 years since the discovery of anti-DNA autoantibodies in lupus [1, 2, 3] , recalcitrant questions have been pondered and possible answers have been debated. The discovery of anti-DNA autoantibodies presented many puzzles: How is immunological tolerance to native B-form DNA broken? What elicits characteristic systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) autoantibodies? Which of the diverse anti-nuclear reactivities are pathogenic? What is the role of autoantibodies in the clinical presentation of disease? How do genetic predisposition and environmental triggers contribute to SLE? These questions were brought into focus by Professor David Stollar in an introductory presentation to an intense, three-day meeting set among the rugged and inspiring scenery of the Norwegian arctic coastline (the Scientific Program is included as supplemental File 1). Other participants presented and discussed topics directed to understanding the origin and clinico-pathological impact of autoantibodies to chromatin and phospholipid antigens. In the following, several aspects of the workshop are discussed.

  14. Neisseria meningitidis, pathogenetic mechanisms to overcome the human immune defences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparini, R; Amicizia, D; Lai, P L; Panatto, D

    2012-06-01

    Neisseria meningitidis is hosted only by humans and colonizes the nasopharynx; it survives in the human body by reaching an equilibrium with its exclusive host. Indeed, while cases of invasive disease are rare, the number of asymptomatic Neisseria meningitides carriers is far higher. The aim of this paper is to summarize the current knowledge of survival strategies of Neisseria meningitides against the human immune defences. Neisseria meningitidis possesses a variety of adaptive characteristics which enable it to avoid being killed by the immune system, such as the capsule, the lipopolysaccharide, groups of proteins that block the action of the antimicrobial proteins (AMP), proteins that inhibit the complement system, and components that prevent both the maturation and the perfect functioning of phagocytes. The main means of adhesion of Neisseria meningitides to the host cells are Pili, constituted by several proteins of whom the most important is Pilin E. Opacity-associated proteins (Opa) and (Opc) are two proteins that make an important contribution to the process of adhesion to the cell. Porins A and B contribute to neisserial adhesion and penetration into the cells, and also inhibit the complement system. Factor H binding protein (fhbp) binds factor H, allowing the bacteria to survive in the blood. Neisserial adhesin A (NadA) is a minor adhesin that is expressed by 50% of the pathogenic strains. NadA is known to be involved in cell adhesion and invasion and in the induction of proinflammatory cytokines. Neisserial heparin binding antigen (NHBA) binds heparin, thus increasing the resistance of the bacterium in the serum.

  15. Alternative Approach to Noncommutative Quantum Mechanics on a Curved Space

    CERN Document Server

    Nakamura, M

    2015-01-01

    Starting with the first-order singular Lagrangian containing the redundant variables, the noncommutative quantum mechanics on a curved space is investigated by the constraint star-product quantization formalism of the projection operator method. Imposing the additional constraints to eliminate the reduntant degrees of freedom, the noncommutative quantum system with noncommutativity among the coordinates on the curved space is exactly constructed. Then, it is shown that the resultant Hamiltonian contains the quantum corrections in the exact form. We further discuss the additional constraints to realize the noncommutativities both of coordinates and momenta on the curved space.

  16. Perifollicular fibrosis: pathogenetic role in androgenetic alopecia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Hyeon Gyeong; Kim, Jin Sook; Lee, Se Rah; Pyo, Hyun Keol; Moon, Hyung In; Lee, Jong Hee; Kwon, Oh Sang; Chung, Jin Ho; Kim, Kyu Han; Eun, Hee Chul; Cho, Kwang Hyun

    2006-06-01

    Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is a dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-mediated process, characterized by continuous miniaturization of androgen reactive hair follicles and accompanied by perifollicular fibrosis of follicular units in histological examination. Testosterone (T: 10(-9)-10(-7) M) treatment increased the expression of type I procollagen at mRNA and protein level. Pretreatment of finasteride (10(-8) M) inhibited the T-induced type I procollagen expression at mRNA (40.2%) and protein levels (24.9%). T treatment increased the expression of transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta1) at protein levels by 81.9% in the human scalp dermal fibroblasts (DFs). Pretreatment of finasteride decreased the expression of TGF-beta1 protein induced by an average of T (30.4%). The type I procollagen expression after pretreatment of neutralizing TGF-beta1 antibody (10 microg/ml) was inhibited by an average of 54.3%. Our findings suggest that T-induced TGF-beta1 and type I procollagen expression may contribute to the development of perifollicular fibrosis in the AGA, and the inhibitory effects on T-induced procollagen and TGF-beta1 expression may explain another possible mechanism how finasteride works in AGA.

  17. Alternative Contrast Mechanisms in High Field MR Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, Robert Thomas

    1995-01-01

    In high-field MR Microscopy, the T_1 relaxation times may become long and converge while the T_2 relaxation times may become short and converge. As a result, much of the contrast is due solely to differences in spin density. The use of T_{1rho} as an alternative contrast parameter in high-field MR Microscopy has been explored here. To this end, MR Microscopy experiments have been performed using 2.0 and 9.4 Tesla Bruker MRI systems. Spectroscopy experiments at 9.4 Tesla were performed on several phantoms (5.75% agar gel, 1.0 mM MnCl_2, 7.3% and 20% gelatin). Imaging experiments were performed on two, 17.5 day old, perfusion fixed, mouse embryos, embedded in 7.3% gelatin to minimize drying and susceptibility differences. The relaxation times, T_1, T _2, and T_{1rho }, the signal to noise ratios (SNR) and contrast to noise ratios (CNR), have been measured for several types of tissue. The T_{1rho} relaxation times were measured at four locking field strengths, 0.7, 0.9, 1.3 and 1.7 G. T_1 and T_2 imaging experiments were performed using a conventional spin warp imaging sequence. T_{1rho } imaging experiments were performed using a presaturating spin locking pulse, followed by a conventional spin warp imaging sequence. Muscle, diencephalon, lung and liver were chosen for the relaxation time measurements as they offered both good tissue specificity and size. Both static and locking field dispersion of T _{1rho} were observed in the selected mouse embryo tissues. The observed T _{1rho} relaxation times were generally longer than the T_2 relaxation times, increased with locking field strength, and were consistently shorter at 9.4 Tesla than at 2.0 Tesla. The static field dispersion of T_ {1rho} and T_2 are both believed to be due, in part, to diffusion losses through susceptibility induced gradients. The losses are much smaller in the T_{1rho} images, and decrease as the locking pulse is increased. Finally, under certain circumstances, T_{1rho }-weighting could produce

  18. Cross-dressing: an alternative mechanism for antigen presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campana, Stefania; De Pasquale, Claudia; Carrega, Paolo; Ferlazzo, Guido; Bonaccorsi, Irene

    2015-12-01

    Cross-dressing involves the transfer of preformed functional peptide-MHC complexes from the surface of donor cells to recipient cells, such as dendritic cells (DCs). These cross-dressed cells might eventually present the intact, unprocessed peptide-MHC complexes to T lymphocytes. In this review we will discuss some recent findings concerning the intercellular transfer of preformed MHC complexes and the possible mechanisms by which the transfer may occur. We will report evidences showing that both MHC class I and MHC class II functional complexes might be transferred, highlighting the physiological relevance of these cross-dressed cells for the presentation of exogenous antigens to both cytotoxic and helper T lymphocytes.

  19. Pathogenetic correlations androgen deficiency and uronephrological kidneys diseases at men (the literary review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Tyuzikov

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Mechanisms of pathophysiological interactions of androgen deficiency, associated with it the metabolic disorders (components of a metabolic syndrome and the homeostasis disorders caused by uronephrological kidneys diseases at men based on the modern epidemiological, clinical and experimental investigations are considered in the literary review. There are described either androgen deficiency development mechanisms in kidneys pathology or mutual androgen deficiency influence an anatomic and functional condition of kidneys at men. The information about mechanisms and diagnostics and prognostic role of hyperprolactinaemia in kidneys diseases at men is presented, and also questions of a current state of a problem of expediency and carrying out possibility androgen re-placement therapies at this patients category are covered in the short form too. Kidneys diseases at men represent as the difficult interdisciplinary problem, therefore for the successful decision of modern questions of their early diagnostics, pathogenetic therapy and prevention unconditional interaction of various medical specialties is required.

  20. Pathogenetic correlations androgen deficiency and uronephrological kidneys diseases at men (the literary review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Tyuzikov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanisms of pathophysiological interactions of androgen deficiency, associated with it the metabolic disorders (components of a metabolic syndrome and the homeostasis disorders caused by uronephrological kidneys diseases at men based on the modern epidemiological, clinical and experimental investigations are considered in the literary review. There are described either androgen deficiency development mechanisms in kidneys pathology or mutual androgen deficiency influence an anatomic and functional condition of kidneys at men. The information about mechanisms and diagnostics and prognostic role of hyperprolactinaemia in kidneys diseases at men is presented, and also questions of a current state of a problem of expediency and carrying out possibility androgen re-placement therapies at this patients category are covered in the short form too. Kidneys diseases at men represent as the difficult interdisciplinary problem, therefore for the successful decision of modern questions of their early diagnostics, pathogenetic therapy and prevention unconditional interaction of various medical specialties is required.

  1. Beyond membrane channelopathies: alternative mechanisms underlying complex human disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Konstantinos Dean BOUDOULAS; Peter J MOHLER

    2011-01-01

    Over the past fifteen years, our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying human disease has flourished in large part due to the discovery of gene mutations linked with membrane ion channels and transporters. In fact, ion channel defects ("channelopathies" - the focus of this review series) have been associated with a spectrum of serious human disease phenotypes including cystic fibrosis, cardiac arrhythmia, diabetes, skeletal muscle defects, and neurological disorders. However, we now know that human disease, particularly excitable cell disease, may be caused by defects in non-ion channel polypeptides including in cellular components residing well beneath the plasma membrane. For example, over the past few years, a new class of potentially fatal cardiac arrhythmias has been linked with cytoplasmic proteins that include sub-membrane adapters such as ankyrin-B (ANK2),ankyrin-G (ANK3), and alpha-1 syntrophin, membrane coat proteins including caveolin-3 (CAV3), signaling platforms including yotiao (AKAPg), and cardiac enzymes (GPD1L). The focus of this review is to detail the exciting role of lamins, yet another class of gene products that have provided elegant new insight into human disease.

  2. Brief Homeopathic Pathogenetic Experimentation: A Unique Educational Tool in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Zulian Teixeira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In homeopathy, many difficulties are encountered in understanding theoretical presuppositions because they represent different paradigms from those of hegemonic science. In our medical school, we developed a brief homeopathic pathogenetic experimentation course to be added as curricular content and a didactic method in homeopathic disciplines to add practical experience to the theoretical approach of homeopathic presuppositions. In accordance with the premises laid out by Hahnemann, the father of homeopathy, brief pathogenetic experimentation was offered on a voluntary basis for students who were free of chronic diseases and who had not regularly used medication in the last 3 months. The clinical test, either crossed or sequential (randomized and blind, was used as a study model. Single weekly doses of a homeopathic medicine of 30 cH or placebo were taken by participants during 4 weeks after which crossover of the experimented substances took place for another 4 weeks. Polycrest medicines were used so that symptoms developed by the participants could be compared to those described in Homeopathic Materia Medica. Thirty-three of the 50 students who studied homeopathy as an elective discipline over the last 4 years at the School of Medicine of the University of São Paulo (FMUSP participated. Participants described symptoms according to specific methodology including many comments with peculiar characteristics and notable idiosyncrasies. All these students endorsed the course because it contributed to their understanding of how dynamized substances produced symptoms in healthy participants as well as the cure of symptoms according to the casual similitude principle. Brief homeopathic pathogenetic experimentation proved to be an effective method to observe the idiosyncratic manifestations of human individuality based on qualitative methodology, thus building a basis of understanding of homeopathy.

  3. 5-HT2B受体在不同亚型肠易激综合征模型大鼠发病中的作用%Effect of 5-HT2B receptor on the pathogenetic mechanism of irritable bowel syndrome subgroups in rat models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈燕; 李正阳; 杨焱; 林琳; 张红杰

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effect of changes in 5-HT28 receptor on the pathogenetic mechanism of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) subgroups in rat models. Methods.Forty-five SD rals were divided into the D-IBS group,C-IBS group and control group. The D-IBS model was established in rats by intracolonic instillation of acetic acid and by restraint stress. The C-IBS model was established in rats by gastric instillation of 0-4t cool water daily for 14 days. The control group was also made. Weight and water content of the feces expelled by the rats were calculated. Abdominal contractions induced by distension of a colonically inserted balloon (0-60 mmHg) were recorded in rats by implanting electrodes in the abdominal external oblique muscle. Histological analysis of colonic tissue was performed. The distributions of 5-HT2B receptor in colon tissues of the D-IBS,C-IBS and control groups were detected by immunohistochemistry. The expressions of S-HT2B receptor protein and mRNA in colon tissues in the D-IBS,C-IBS and control group were detected by Western blot and reverse transcription PCR,respectively. Results;The wet weight and water content of the feces expelled by the rats in the C-IBS were significantly lower than those in the control group (P < 0.05),while those of the D-IBS group were higher than the control group (P < 0.05). The amplitude of the abdominal muscle contraction was higher in the D-IBS group and C-IBS group compared with the control group when the balloon was distended at the pressure of 40 and 60 mmHg. The amplitude of the contraction in the D-IBS group was higher than the C-IBS group (P < 0.01). Histological analysis of the colon showed no colonic inflammation in any group. These aspects suggested that IBS subgroups were successfully made. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that the S-HTn receptor was mainly localized in the myenteric nerve plexus, longitudinal muscle and colon mucosa. Western blot and reverse transcription PCR analyses showed that the

  4. Pathogenetic Consequences of Cytomegalovirus-Host Co-evolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gerardo Abenes; Fenyong Liu

    2008-01-01

    Co-evolution has been shown to result in an adaptive reciprocal modification in the respective behaviors of interacting populations over time.In the case of host-parasite co-evolution,the adaptive behavior is most evident from the reciprocal change in fitness of host and parasite-manifested in terms of pathogen survival versus host resistance.Cytomegaloviruses and their hosts represent a pairing of populations that has co-evolved over hundreds of years.This review explores the pathogenetic consequences emerging from the behavioral changes caused by co-evolutionary forces on the virus and its host.

  5. Monoclonal gammopathy in hereditary spherocytosis: Possible pathogenetic relation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schafer, A.I. (Univ. of Chicago); Miller, J.B.; Lester, E.P.; Bowers, T.K.; Jacob, H.S.

    1978-01-01

    Two cases of monoclonal gammopathy in patients with hereditary spherocytosis led us to consider the possible pathogenetic relation between these two disorders. Twelve adult patients with hereditary spherocytosis had significant hypergammaglobulinemia in comparison to normal subjects. Retrospective analysis of previous illness in 140 patients with multiple myeloma showed a significant association between IgA myeloma and previous gallbladder disease. We propose that the chronic reticuloendothelial stimulation due to extravascular hemolysis, possibly potentiated by the inflammation associated with cholelithiasis and cholecystitis, may foster neoplastic transformation of immunocytes in patients with hereditary spherocytosis, ultimately leading to the development of monoclonal gammopathy.

  6. T-Cell Traffic Jam in Hodgkin's Lymphoma: Pathogenetic and Therapeutic Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fozza, Claudio; Longinotti, Maurizio

    2011-01-01

    In hematologic malignancies, the microenvironment is often characterized by nonneoplastic cells with peculiar phenotypic and functional features. This is particularly true in Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL), in which T lymphocytes surrounding Hodgkin's Reed-Sternberg cells are essentially polarized towards a memory T-helper type 2 phenotype. In this paper we will first evaluate the main processes modulating T-cell recruitment towards the lymph node microenvironment in HL, especially focusing on the role played by cytokines. We will then consider the most relevant mechanisms of immune escape exerted by neoplastic cells in order to evade antitumor immunity. The potential pathogenetic and prognostic impact of regulatory T cells in such a context will be also described. We will finally overview some of the strategies of cellular immunotherapy applied in patients with HL.

  7. T-Cell Traffic Jam in Hodgkin's Lymphoma: Pathogenetic and Therapeutic Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Fozza

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In hematologic malignancies, the microenvironment is often characterized by nonneoplastic cells with peculiar phenotypic and functional features. This is particularly true in Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL, in which T lymphocytes surrounding Hodgkin's Reed-Sternberg cells are essentially polarized towards a memory T-helper type 2 phenotype. In this paper we will first evaluate the main processes modulating T-cell recruitment towards the lymph node microenvironment in HL, especially focusing on the role played by cytokines. We will then consider the most relevant mechanisms of immune escape exerted by neoplastic cells in order to evade antitumor immunity. The potential pathogenetic and prognostic impact of regulatory T cells in such a context will be also described. We will finally overview some of the strategies of cellular immunotherapy applied in patients with HL.

  8. Mechanism for Alternating Electric Fields Induced-Effects on Cytosolic Calcium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Ming-Yan; SONG Kun; ZHANG Xu; LEE Imshik

    2009-01-01

    In this work, from the point of calcium ions in the cytosol, we extend a Vm-[Ca2+]cyt model to explain the changes of action potential Vm of the plasma membrane and the calcium concentration in the cytosol [Ca2+]cyt under an alternating electric field in cells. An alternating external electric field may exert an oscillating force to each of the free electrolytes, existing on both sides of the plasma membrane. The mechanism for the alternating electric field induced-effects on Vm and [Ca2+]cyt is elucidated. The simulation results show a correlation between the changes of [Ca2+]cyt and the alternating electric field. When the numerical ratio between the intensity Eo(mV/m) and the frequency ν, (Hz) of the field was about 1-2, the [Ca2+]cyt signal is changed dramatically. The bioactive changes of [Ca2+]cyt appear at low frequency, in the range of 0-100 Hz.

  9. [Osteoporosis and aterosclerosis--is there any pathogenetic association?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zofková, I

    2007-01-01

    Fundamental cytokine regulating remodelation of the skeleton is receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL). RANKL is counter regulated by soluble receptor osteoprotegerin (OPG). While RANKL activates osteoclastic bone resorption, the OPG stimulates bone formation. RANKL/OPG system (TRANCE axis) is activated in favour of RANKL in estrogen deficiency, inflammation, bone malignancies and during the treatment with glucocorticoids. TRANCE axis is functional also in other tissues including vessel wall, where dysbalance with superiority of RANKL leads to atherogenesis. Molecules blocking RANKL (specific antibodies and OPG) are potential drugs for treatment of osteoporosis, atherosclerosis, inflammation diseases, myeloma or osteolytic bone metastases. This review is focused on pathogenetic role of TRANCE axis in the development of osteoporosis and atherosclerosis and on its use in diagnosis and treatment of both degenerative diseases.

  10. DIABETIC POLYNEUROPATHY: CURRENT APPROACHES TO DIAGNOSIS AND PATHOGENETIC THERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Levin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the current views of the prevalence, clinical picture, approaches to the diagnosis and treatment of one of the most commonneurological complications of diabetes mellitus – diabetic polyneuropathy, and both its somatic and autonomous manifestations. Neuropathy ismost common in diabetic patients and its clinical forms reflect the severe course of diabetes mellitus and serve as an unfavorable prognostic signthat is associated with an approximately 5-fold increase in mortality. At the same time, the timely detection and adequate correction of the manifestations of neuropathy may substantially improve quality of life in the patients. The possibilities of pathogenetic therapy for diabetic polyneuropathy associated mainly with the use of benfotiamine and alpha-lipoic acid, as well as symptomatic therapy for its individual manifestationsare considered.

  11. Mechanism of alternating copolymerization of methyl methacrylate with styrene in the presence of diethylaluminum chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zubov, V.P.; Lachinov, M.B.; Ignatova, E.V.; Georgiev, G.S.; Golubev, V.B.; Kabanov, V.A.

    1982-03-01

    A kinetic study of the propagation mechanism of the alternating copolymerization of styrene (St) with methyl methacrylate (MMA) in the presence of a complexing agent (diethylaluminum chloride, DEAC) in bulk and in tetrachloroethylene solutions at a molar ratio DEAC/MMA = 0.5 has been carried out. It has been shown that the copolymerization is a chain radical process characterized by a short active-center lifetime, bimolecular termination, and high rate of chain transfer to the complexed MMA. A kinetic scheme has been proposed for the propagation mechanism of alternating copolymerization in the presence of a complexing agent not requiring independent measurements of the equilibrium constant of complexation. It has been found that spontaneous and uv-initiated copolymerizations in the system have different mechanisms of initiation and a common mechanism of propagation. The propagation proceeds by addition of single monomers as well as donor-acceptor complexes of the comonomers to the propagation radicals, with the first mechanism being predominant. Inclusion of the monomers in the complex leads to an increase of the St reactivity and to a decrease of the MMA reactivity in propagation to the corresponding macroradicals in comparison with the reactivity of the free monomers. A number of kinetic and statistical parameters of the propagation reaction have been calculated.

  12. A multicentric, double-blind randomized, homoeopathic pathogenetic trial of Allium sativum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj K Manchanda

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: The pathogenetic response elicited during the proving trial expands the scope of use of the drug A. sativum and will benefit the research scholars and clinicians. The generated symptoms of this drug will carry more value when verified clinically.

  13. Alternating access mechanisms of LeuT-fold transporters: trailblazing towards the promised energy landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazmier, Kelli; Claxton, Derek P; Mchaourab, Hassane S

    2016-12-29

    Secondary active transporters couple the uphill translocation of substrates to electrochemical ion gradients. Transporter conformational motion, generically referred to as alternating access, enables a central ligand binding site to change its orientation relative to the membrane. Here we review themes of alternating access and the transduction of ion gradient energy to power this process in the LeuT-fold class of transporters where crystallographic, computational and spectroscopic approaches have converged to yield detailed models of transport cycles. Specifically, we compare findings for the Na(+)-coupled amino acid transporter LeuT and the Na(+)-coupled hydantoin transporter Mhp1. Although these studies have illuminated multiple aspects of transporter structures and dynamics, a number of questions remain unresolved that so far hinder understanding transport mechanisms in an energy landscape perspective.

  14. Mammalian glutaminase Gls2 gene encodes two functional alternative transcripts by a surrogate promoter usage mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Martín-Rufián

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Glutaminase is expressed in most mammalian tissues and cancer cells, but the regulation of its expression is poorly understood. An essential step to accomplish this goal is the characterization of its species- and cell-specific isoenzyme pattern of expression. Our aim was to identify and characterize transcript variants of the mammalian glutaminase Gls2 gene. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We demonstrate for the first time simultaneous expression of two transcript variants from the Gls2 gene in human, rat and mouse. A combination of RT-PCR, primer-extension analysis, bioinformatics, real-time PCR, in vitro transcription and translation and immunoblot analysis was applied to investigate GLS2 transcripts in mammalian tissues. Short (LGA and long (GAB transcript forms were isolated in brain and liver tissue of human, rat and mouse. The short LGA transcript arises by a combination of two mechanisms of transcriptional modulation: alternative transcription initiation and alternative promoter. The LGA variant contains both the transcription start site (TSS and the alternative promoter in the first intron of the Gls2 gene. The full human LGA transcript has two in-frame ATGs in the first exon, which are missing in orthologous rat and mouse transcripts. In vitro transcription and translation of human LGA yielded two polypeptides of the predicted size, but only the canonical full-length protein displayed catalytic activity. Relative abundance of GAB and LGA transcripts showed marked variations depending on species and tissues analyzed. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first report demonstrating expression of alternative transcripts of the mammalian Gls2 gene. Transcriptional mechanisms giving rise to GLS2 variants and isolation of novel GLS2 transcripts in human, rat and mouse are presented. Results were also confirmed at the protein level, where catalytic activity was demonstrated for the human LGA protein. Relative abundance of GAB and

  15. Roles of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-αin acute liver failure and its pathogenetic mechanism in mice%过氧化物酶体增殖物激活受体α对小鼠急性肝衰竭的作用与机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦明静; 任锋; 周莉; 段钟平; 赵彩彦

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the protective effects of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α( PPAR α) in D-GalN/LPS-induced acute liver failure ( ALF ) and its pathogenetic mechanism.Methods C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into control ,ALF,WY14643,3-MA+WY14643,siAtg7 +WY14643 and control siRNA +WY14643 groups ( n =8 each ) .For inducing ALF , the mice were injected intraperitoneally with D-GalN ( 700 mg/kg ) and LPS ( 10 μg/kg ).The selective activator of PPAR α-WY14643 (6 mg/kg) and autophagy inhibitor 3-MA (10 mg/kg) were administered via tail vein at 2 hours prior to D-GalN/LPS exposure.The autophagy inhibitor siAtg7 (50 μmol· L-1 · kg -1 ) and control siRNA (50 μmol· L-1 · kg-1 ) were dosed via tail vein at 48 hours prior to D-GalN/LPS exposure.At 6 hours afterD-GalN/LPS dosing, the mice were anesthetized and blood sample collected.Liver samples were freshly harvested for preparing mRNA.Liver histology and serum levels of aminotransferase ( ALT ) , aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were measured as markers of hepatic damage.Autophagy related genes (ATG5, ATG7,LAMP1),inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α,IL-1β,IL-6) and chemokines (CXCL-1,CXCL-10) were detected by real-time quantitative PCR.Differential protein expressions of LC3, ATG5, ATG7, LAMP1 in autophagy pathways were detected by Western blotting.Results Compared with the model group , the hepatic architecture of WY 14643-treated mice was better preserved.And the serum levels of ALT and AST were significantly lower ((486 ±56)vs(2 705 ±423)U/L,(795 ±115)vs(3 709 ±820)U/L,both P<0.05) while the expression of autophagy related gene LAMP 1 and protein levels were significantly higher (mRNA:4.28 ±0.57 vs 2.67 ±0.43,P <0.05).As compared with WY14643-treated ALF,the mice receiving 3-MA or ATG7-specific siRNA suffered severe acute liver failure again as evidenced by worse preserved hepatic architecture,significantly higher levels of ALT and AST ((2 563 ±576),(2 148 ±221) U/L and (3 474 ±858),(3 305

  16. Mechanical modeling of innovative metamaterials alternating pentamode lattices and confinement plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraternali, F.; Amendola, A.

    2017-02-01

    This study examines the mechanical behavior of a novel class of mechanical metamaterials alternating pentamode lattices and stiffening plates. The unit cell of such lattices consists of a sub-lattice of the face cubic-centered unit cell typically analyzed in the current literature on pentamode materials. The studied systems exhibit only three soft deformation modes in the infinitesimal stretch-dominated regime, as opposed to the five zero-energy modes of unconfined pentamode lattices. We develop analytical formulae for the vertical and bending stiffness properties and study the dependence of such quantities on the main design parameters: the lattice constant, the solid volume fraction, the cross-section area of the rods, and the layer thickness. A noteworthy result is that the effective compression modulus of the analyzed structures is equal to two thirds of the Young modulus of the stiffest isotropic elastic networks currently available in the literature, being accompanied by zero-rigidity against infinitesimal shear and twisting mechanisms. The use of the proposed metamaterials as novel seismic-isolation devices and impact-protection equipment is discussed by drawing comparisons with the response of alternative devices already available or under development.

  17. Top-color jungle gym: An alternative to the seesaw mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgi, Howard; Grant, Aaron K.

    2001-01-01

    We discuss an alternative to the top-color seesaw mechanism. In our scheme, all the light quarks carry top-color, and there are many composite SU(2) doublets. This makes it possible to get the observed t quark mass and observed SU(2)×U(1) breaking in a way that is quite different from the classic seesaw mechanism. We discuss a model of this kind that arises naturally in the context of dynamically broken top-color. There are many composite scalars in a theory of this kind. This has important effects on the Pagels-Stokar relation and the Higgs boson mass. We find mHiggs<~330 GeV, lighter than in typical top-color models. We also show that the electroweak singlet quarks in such a model can be lighter than the corresponding quarks in a seesaw model.

  18. Towards nanomedicines of the future: Remote magneto-mechanical actuation of nanomedicines by alternating magnetic fields☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golovin, Yuri I.; Gribanovsky, Sergey L.; Golovin, Dmitry Y.; Klyachko, Natalia L.; Majouga, Alexander G.; Master, Alyssa M.; Sokolsky, Marina; Kabanov, Alexander V.

    2015-01-01

    The paper describes the concept of magneto-mechanical actuation of single-domain magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) in super-low and low frequency alternating magnetic fields (AMFs) and its possible use for remote control of nanomedicines and drug delivery systems. The applications of this approach for remote actuation of drug release as well as effects on biomacromolecules, biomembranes, subcellular structures and cells are discussed in comparison to conventional strategies employing magnetic hyperthermia in a radio frequency (RF) AMF. Several quantitative models describing interaction of functionalized MNPs with single macromolecules, lipid membranes, and proteins (e.g. cell membrane receptors, ion channels) are presented. The optimal characteristics of the MNPs and an AMF for effective magneto-mechanical actuation of single molecule responses in biological and bio-inspired systems are discussed. Altogether, the described studies and phenomena offer opportunities for the development of novel therapeutics both alone and in combination with magnetic hyperthermia. PMID:26407671

  19. Mechanism of Residual Stress Reduction in Low Alloy Steel by a Low Frequency Alternating Magnetic Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanli Song; Lin Hua

    2012-01-01

    Residual stress reduction in low alloy steel by a low frequency alternating magnetic treatment and its mechanism were investigated. Experimental results revealed that average stress reductions of 20%-24% were obtained in the welded samples. Moreover, compared with the zones with lower initial stress levels, more remarkable stress reductions were obtained in the stress concentration zones. The microstructures and magnetic domains were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Based on the analysis of the microstructure and magnetic domain changes, the mechanism of stress reduction by the magnetic treatment has been concluded: (1) the magneto-plastic deformations mainly due to the more uniform redistribution of dislocations are the fundamental cause of stress relaxation; and (2) surface topography is also proved to affect the magnetic treatment results to some degree by influencing magnetic domains.

  20. Separation Mechanism of Primary Silicon from Hypereutectic Al-Si Melts Under Alternating Electromagnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Haiyang; Lv, Guoqiang; Ma, Wenhui; Chen, Daotong; Yu, Jie

    2015-07-01

    Solar grade silicon (SOG-Si) and hypereutectic Al-Si alloys with low silicon (silicon composition below 25 pct) can be successfully obtained by separation of hypereutectic Al-Si alloy with high silicon (silicon composition above 30 pct) under an alternating electromagnetic field after post-processing. To explore the separation mechanism in detail, experiments were conducted in this study using a high-frequency induction furnace with different pulling conditions of the crucible which is loaded with Al-45 wt pct Si melt. Results demonstrate that the separation of hypereutectic Al-Si alloy is feasible through either a pull-up or drop-down process. The height of each separation interface between the compact and sparse parts of the primary silicon decrease as the pull-up distance rose. When the pulling rate is very low, resultant morphologies of compact primary silicon are rounded and polygonal, allowing for more effective separation of the primary silicon. A novel physical model is presented here based on the experimental results and simulation. The model can be used to effectively describe the separation mechanism of primary silicon from hypereutectic Al-Si melts under alternating electromagnetic fields.

  1. Attentional Biases toward Attractive Alternatives and Rivals: Mechanisms Involved in Relationship Maintenance among Chinese Women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yidan Ma

    Full Text Available A long-term romantic relationship can offer many benefits to committed individuals. Thus, humans possess relationship maintenance mechanisms to protect against threats from those who serve as attractive alternatives or intrasexual rivals. Many studies have indicated that romantic love can act as a commitment device to activate these mechanisms. To examine the attentional bias associated with relationship maintenance among 108 college students (49 single and 59 committed females in China, we used a semantic priming procedure to activate mental representations associated with romantic love and then asked participants to complete a dot-probe task for the purpose of making a distinction between the engage and disengage components of attention. No significant engaging effects toward attractive faces were observed among committed females, but the following significant disengaging effects were found: when primed with romantic love, single females showed increased attention toward and difficulty in disengaging from attractive male faces, whereas females already in a committed relationship did not alter their attention, remaining as inattentive to attractive alternatives as they were in the baseline condition. In addition, committed females responded to love priming by exhibiting difficulty in disengaging from attractive rivals. The present findings provide evidence in the Chinese cultural context for the existence of early-stage attentional processes in the domain of relationship maintenance that committed Chinese females protected an ongoing relationship by not only being inattentive to attractive males who could serve as attractive alternatives, but also being more attentive to attractive females who could be potential rivals when mental representations associated with romantic love were primed.

  2. [Clinical and pathogenetic significance of antibodies to antioxidative enzymes in patients with Raynaud's syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilova, L N; Gontar', I P; Zborovskaia, I A; Novikova, O V; Emel'ianov, N N

    2010-01-01

    Patients presenting with systemic scleroderma were found to have antibodies to antioxidative enzymes the levels of which increased with activity of the disease. Taking into account the important role of immune disorders in the development of systemic sclerosis, it can be conjectured that antienzyme antibodies may cause dysregulation of enzymatic systems. Serum antibodies were detected by the original modification of indirect enzyme immunoassay using immobilized antigenic forms of enzymes. All patients with high antibody titers presented with class II-IV Raynaud"s syndrome (RS). Pathogenetic mechanisms of RS are complicated and poorly known, it is supposed to be a multifactor pathology associated with disturbances in neural, vascular, mediator, and immune systems. Reperfusion and free oxygen radicals may also contribute to the development of ischemia in RS. The antioxidative system is known to involve a number of enzymes that neutralize pathogenic effects of free oxygen species. Disturbance of equilibrium between aggressive and protective factors under pathological conditions leads to further aggravation of tissue lesions. The presence of antienzyme antibodies in the blood of patients with primary RS may be regarded as an unfavourable prognostic factor preceding a systemic disease of connective tissue.

  3. Developmental alterations of the auditory brainstem centers--pathogenetic implications in Sudden Infant Death Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavezzi, Anna M; Ottaviani, Giulia; Matturri, Luigi

    2015-10-15

    Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS), despite the success of campaigns to reduce its risks, is the leading cause of infant death in the Western world. Even though the pathogenesis remains unexplained, brainstem abnormalities of the neuronal network that mediates breathing and protective responses to asphyxia, particularly in the arousal phase from sleep, are believed to play a fundamental role. This is the first study to identify, in SIDS, developmental defects of specific brainstem centers involved in hearing pathways, particularly in the cochlear and vestibular nuclei, in the superior olivary complex and in the inferior colliculus, suggesting a possible influence of the acoustic system on respiratory activity. In 49 SIDS cases and 20 controls an in-depth anatomopathological examination of the autonomic nervous system was performed, with the main aim of detecting developmental alterations of brainstem structures controlling both the respiratory and auditory activities. Overall, a significantly higher incidence of cytoarchitectural alterations of both the auditory and respiratory network components were observed in SIDS victims compared with matched controls. Even if there is not sufficient evidence to presume that developmental defects of brainstem auditory structures can affect breathing, our findings, showing that developmental deficit in the control respiratory areas are frequently accompanied by alterations of auditory structures, highlight an additional important element for the understanding the pathogenetic mechanism of SIDS.

  4. Mechanisms for alternative treatments in Parkinson's disease: acupuncture, tai chi, and other treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffari, Bijan D; Kluger, Benzi

    2014-06-01

    At least 40% of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) use one or more forms of alternative therapy (AT) to complement standard treatments. This article reviews the commonest forms of AT for PD, including acupuncture, tai chi, yoga, mindfulness, massage, herbal medicine, and cannabis. We discuss the current evidence for the clinical efficacy of each AT and discuss potential mechanisms, including those suggested by animal and human studies. With a few notable exceptions, none of the treatments examined were investigated rigorously enough to draw definitive conclusions about efficacy or mechanism. Tai chi, acupuncture, Mucuna pruriens, cannabinoids, and music therapy have all been proposed to work through specific mechanisms, although current evidence is insufficient to support or refute these claims, with the possible exception of Mucuna pruriens (which contains levodopa). It is likely that most ATs predominantly treat PD patients through general mechanisms, including placebo effects, stress reduction, and improved mood and sleep, and AT may provide patients with a greater locus of control regarding their illness.

  5. Osteoarthritis - histology and pathogenetic concepts; Arthrose - Histologie und pathogenetische Ansaetze

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sulzbacher, I. [Universitaetsklinik Wien (Austria). Klinisches Inst. fuer Klinische Pathologie

    2000-12-01

    Osteoarthitis is the most common joint disease affecting over 60% of the elderly population. It is characterized by the progressive erosion of articular cartilage leading to incapacity of movement. In the great majority of instances, osteoarthritis appears insidiously, without apparent initiating cause. This primary form is usually oligoarticular involving hip, knee, cervical vertebrae, interphalangeal joints of the fingers or tarsometatarsal joints of the feet. In case of an underlying systemic diasease or local injury the cartilage destruction is considered as secondary osteoarthritis. The pathogenesis of primary osteoarthritis suggests an intrinsic disease of cartilage in which biochemical and metabolic alterations result in its breakdown. Within the last decades different models were stablished which also concentrated on other joint structures such as bone or ligaments. Changes of the subchondral bone were found to precide cartilage damage suggesting a primary alteration of the subchondral region. Other studies concentrated on the metabolic activity of chondrocytes in healthy cartilage of osteoarthritis patients. The precise event that leads to these changes is still not clear. This review concentrates on the histological features in the course of the disease and tries to provide a summary on different pathogenetic concepts. (orig.) [German] Die Arthrosis deformans ist die haeufigste Gelenkerkrankung und betrifft ueber 60% der aelteren Population. Die Erkrankung ist durch fortschreitenden Knorpelverlust gekennzeichnet und fuehrt zu einer limitierteren Bewegungsfreiheit. In den meisten Faellen beginnt der Krankheitsverlauf heimtueckisch ohne ersichtlichen Grund. Diese primaere Form manifestiert sich oft polyartikulaer und betrifft vor allem die Huefte, das Knie, die Halswirbelsaeule, die interphalangealen Gelenke der Finger oder die tarsometatarsalen Gelenke. Bei einer zugrunde liegenden systemischen Erkrankung oder lokal destruierenden Faktoren ist der

  6. Alternative mechanisms of telomere lengthening: Permissive mutations, DNA repair proteins and tumorigenic progression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gocha, April Renee Sandy; Harris, Julia [Department of Molecular Virology, Immunology and Medical Genetics, The Ohio State University College of Medicine, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Groden, Joanna, E-mail: joanna.groden@osumc.edu [Department of Molecular Virology, Immunology and Medical Genetics, The Ohio State University College of Medicine, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► Neoplastic cells maintain telomeres by telomerase or ALT. ► Genetic mutations in p53, ATRX, DAXX or H3F3A may activate ALT. ► Many DNA repair proteins are involved in ALT. ► Tumor progression is favored by telomerase expression. - Abstract: Telomeres protect chromosome termini to maintain genomic stability and regulate cellular lifespan. Maintenance of telomere length is required for neoplastic cells after the acquisition of mutations that deregulate cell cycle control and increase cellular proliferation, and can occur through expression of the enzyme telomerase or in a telomerase-independent manner termed alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT). The precise mechanisms that govern the activation of ALT or telomerase in tumor cells are unknown, although cellular origin may favor one or the other mechanisms. ALT pathways are incompletely understood to date; however, recent publications have increasingly broadened our understanding of how ALT is activated, how it proceeds, and how it influences tumor growth. Specific mutational events influence ALT activation, as mutations in genes that suppress recombination and/or alterations in the regulation of telomerase expression are associated with ALT. Once engaged, ALT uses DNA repair proteins to maintain telomeres in the absence of telomerase; experiments that manipulate the expression of specific proteins in cells using ALT are illuminating some of its mechanisms. Furthermore, ALT may influence tumor growth, as experimental and clinical data suggest that telomerase expression may favor tumor progression. This review summarizes recent findings in mammalian cells and models, as well as clinical data, that identify the genetic mutations permissive to ALT, the DNA repair proteins involved in ALT mechanisms and the importance of telomere maintenance mechanisms for tumor progression. A comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms that permit tumor cell immortalization will be important for identifying

  7. Targeting N-cadherin through fibroblast growth factor receptor-4: distinct pathogenetic and therapeutic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezzat, Shereen; Zheng, Lei; Winer, Daniel; Asa, Sylvia L

    2006-11-01

    Several molecular aberrations have been implicated in the pathogenesis of pituitary tumors, but few have proven thus far to be of therapeutic value. Pituitary tumor-derived fibroblast growth factor receptor-4 (ptd-FGFR4) is an alternatively transcribed cytoplasmic isoform lacking most of the extracellular domain. This oncogene recapitulates the morphological features of human pituitary tumors in transgenic mice. To investigate the therapeutic potential of targeting ptd-FGFR4, we examined the impact of FGFR4 tyrosine kinase inhibition in xenografted mice. GH4 pituitary cells expressing ptd-FGFR4 develop into invasive tumors. Systemic treatment of mice bearing ptd-FGFR4 tumors with the FGFR-selective inhibitor PD173074 resulted in recovery of membranous N-cadherin staining and a significant reduction in tumor volume with less invasive growth behavior. Mutation of tyrosine Y754F in ptd-FGFR4 abrogated the effect of PD173074-mediated inhibition. The pivotal role of N-cadherin as a mediator of this pituitary cell growth was demonstrated by small interfering RNA mediated down-regulation, which promoted invasive growth in xenografted mice. To validate this model in primary human pituitary tumors, we examined the expression of ptd-FGFR4, N-cadherin, and clinical behavior. Loss of membranous N-cadherin correlated with cytoplasmic FGFR4 expression and with tumor invasiveness in surgically resected human pituitary tumors. Primary human pituitary tumor cells treated with PD173074 showed restoration of N-cadherin to the membrane with dephosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein. These data highlight the pathogenetic significance of N-cadherin misexpression and emphasize the importance of FGFR partnership in mediating its functions.

  8. ALTERNATIVE BINDERS TO BENTONITE FOR IRON ORE PELLETIZING: PART I: EFFECTS ON PHYSICAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Sivrikaya

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of conventional bentonite binder is favorable in terms of mechanical and metallurgical pellet properties, however, because of its acid constituents bentonite is considered as impurity especially for iron ores with high acidic content. Therefore, alternative binders to bentonite have been tested. Organic binders are the most studied binders and they yield pellets with good wet strength; they fail in terms of preheated and fired pellet strengths. This study was conducted to investigate how insufficient pellet strengths can be improved when organic binders are used as binder. The addition of a low-melting temperature and slag bonding/strength increasing constituent (free in acidic contents into pellet feed was proposed. Addition of boron compounds such as colemanite, tincal, borax pentahydrate, boric acid together with organic binders such as CMC, starch, dextrin and some organic based binders, into iron oxide pellet was tested. Wet and thermally treated pellet physical-mechanical qualities (balling - moisture content - size - shape - drop number - compressive strengths - porosity - dustiness were determined. The results showed that good quality wet, dry, preheated and fired pellets can be produced with combined binders (an organic binder plus a boron compound when compared with bentonite-bonded pellets. While organic binders provided sufficient wet and dry pellet strengths, the boron compounds provided the required preheated and fired pellet strengths at even lower firing temperature. Especially, the contribution of boron compound addition is most pronounced for hematite pellets which do not have strengthening mechanism through oxidation like magnetite pellets during firing. Therefore, addition of boron compound is beneficial to recover the low physical-mechanical qualities of pellets produced with organic binders through slag bonding mechanism. Furthermore, lowering the firing temperature thanks to low-melting boron compounds will be cost

  9. Alternative splicing modulates Kv channel clustering through a molecular ball and chain mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandany, Nitzan; Marciano, Shir; Magidovich, Elhanan; Frimerman, Teddy; Yehezkel, Rinat; Shem-Ad, Tzilhav; Lewin, Limor; Abdu, Uri; Orr, Irit; Yifrach, Ofer

    2015-03-01

    Ion channel clustering at the post-synaptic density serves a fundamental role in action potential generation and transmission. Here, we show that interaction between the Shaker Kv channel and the PSD-95 scaffold protein underlying channel clustering is modulated by the length of the intrinsically disordered C terminal channel tail. We further show that this tail functions as an entropic clock that times PSD-95 binding. We thus propose a ‘ball and chain’ mechanism to explain Kv channel binding to scaffold proteins, analogous to the mechanism describing channel fast inactivation. The physiological relevance of this mechanism is demonstrated in that alternative splicing of the Shaker channel gene to produce variants of distinct tail lengths resulted in differential channel cell surface expression levels and clustering metrics that correlate with differences in affinity of the variants for PSD-95. We suggest that modulating channel clustering by specific spatial-temporal spliced variant targeting serves a fundamental role in nervous system development and tuning.

  10. A mechanism that maintains alternative life histories in a loggerhead sea turtle population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatase, Hideo; Omuta, Kazuyoshi; Tsukamoto, Katsumi

    2013-11-01

    Intrapopulation variation in habitat use is commonly seen among mobile animals, yet the mechanisms maintaining it have rarely been researched among untrackable species. To investigate how alternative life histories are maintained in a population of the loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta), cumulative reproductive output was evaluated and compared between small planktivores inhabiting oceanic areas (with water depths > 200 m) and large benthivores inhabiting neritic areas (depths life history parameters (clutch size, clutch frequency, breeding frequency, and remigration intervals), with the exception of emergence success. We did not find evidence of life history trade-offs, nor age-related changes in fecundity. Over the 26-year study period, we calculated a 2.4-fold greater reproductive output for neritic foragers than for oceanic ones, accounting for breeding and clutch frequency. Temporal consistencies in stable isotope ratios and remigration intervals within females suggested that female Japanese loggerheads show fidelity to respective foraging habitats throughout the adult stage. The large difference in productivity between the two groups was unlikely to be offset by the difference in survival during the period from aboveground emergence to first reproduction, suggesting that oceanic foragers have a lower level of fitness than neritic ones. Together with an absence of genetic structure between foraging groups, we infer that alternative life histories in a loggerhead turtle population are maintained by a conditional strategy.

  11. Candida Infections, Causes, Targets, and Resistance Mechanisms: Traditional and Alternative Antifungal Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Spampinato

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Candida includes about 200 different species, but only a few species are human opportunistic pathogens and cause infections when the host becomes debilitated or immunocompromised. Candida infections can be superficial or invasive. Superficial infections often affect the skin or mucous membranes and can be treated successfully with topical antifungal drugs. However, invasive fungal infections are often life-threatening, probably due to inefficient diagnostic methods and inappropriate initial antifungal therapies. Here, we briefly review our current knowledge of pathogenic species of the genus Candida and yeast infection causes and then focus on current antifungal drugs and resistance mechanisms. An overview of new therapeutic alternatives for the treatment of Candida infections is also provided.

  12. Transcranial alternating current stimulation: a review of the underlying mechanisms and modulation of cognitive processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Christoph S; Rach, Stefan; Neuling, Toralf; Strüber, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Brain oscillations of different frequencies have been associated with a variety of cognitive functions. Convincing evidence supporting those associations has been provided by studies using intracranial stimulation, pharmacological interventions and lesion studies. The emergence of novel non-invasive brain stimulation techniques like repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) now allows to modulate brain oscillations directly. Particularly, tACS offers the unique opportunity to causally link brain oscillations of a specific frequency range to cognitive processes, because it uses sinusoidal currents that are bound to one frequency only. Using tACS allows to modulate brain oscillations and in turn to influence cognitive processes, thereby demonstrating the causal link between the two. Here, we review findings about the physiological mechanism of tACS and studies that have used tACS to modulate basic motor and sensory processes as well as higher cognitive processes like memory, ambiguous perception, and decision making.

  13. FOXO3 modulates endothelial gene expression and function by classical and alternative mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czymai, Tobias; Viemann, Dorothee; Sticht, Carsten; Molema, Grietje; Goebeler, Matthias; Schmidt, Marc

    2010-04-02

    FOXO transcription factors represent targets of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B survival pathway controlling important biological processes, such as cell cycle progression, apoptosis, vascular remodeling, stress responses, and metabolism. Recent studies suggested the existence of alternative mechanisms of FOXO-dependent gene expression beyond classical binding to a FOXO-responsive DNA-binding element (FRE). Here we analyzed the relative contribution of those mechanisms to vascular function by comparing the transcriptional and cellular responses to conditional activation of FOXO3 and a corresponding FRE-binding mutant in human primary endothelial cells. We demonstrate that FOXO3 controls expression of vascular remodeling genes in an FRE-dependent manner. In contrast, FOXO3-induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis occurs independently of FRE binding, albeit FRE-dependent gene expression augments the proapoptotic response. These findings are supported by bioinformatical analysis, which revealed a statistical overrepresentation of cell cycle regulators and apoptosis-related genes in the group of co-regulated genes. Molecular analysis of FOXO3-induced endothelial apoptosis excluded modulators of the extrinsic death receptor pathway and demonstrated important roles for the BCL-2 family members BIM and NOXA in this process. Although NOXA essentially contributed to FRE-dependent apoptosis, BIM was effectively induced in the absence of FRE-binding, and small interfering RNA-mediated BIM depletion could rescue apoptosis induced by both FOXO3 mutants. These data suggest BIM as a critical cell type-specific mediator of FOXO3-induced endothelial apoptosis, whereas NOXA functions as an amplifying factor. Our study provides the first comprehensive analysis of alternatively regulated FOXO3 targets in relevant primary cells and underscores the importance of such genes for endothelial function and integrity.

  14. PATHOGENETIC ROLE OF ABZYME-TYPE AUTOANTIBODIES IN THE ORGAN-SPECIFIC AUTOIMMUNE PATHOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. N. Luchverchyk

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The work deals with quantitative methods developed for estimation of nuclease and proteolytic activities  of  autoantibodies.  By  means  of  these  techniques,  appropriate  catalytic  activities  of  abzyme-type antibodies were studied in patients with diabetes mellitus type 1, and in subjects with autoimmune thyroiditis. Oppositely directed changes of the mentioned catalytic activities have been found for autoantibodies of different specificity.  Autoantibodies  occurring  in  autoimmune  thyroiditis  showed  an  increase  of  both  nuclease  and proteolytic activities. Meanwhile, the autoantibodies in diabetes mellitus had increased nuclease activity, along with decreased proteolytic activity. These findings are suggestive for existence of two pathogenetic mechanisms in organ-specific autoimmune pathology that are associated either with direct involvement of Fab fragments of auto-antibodies in autoimmune destruction, or with complement-dependent lysis mediated by Fc-fragments and  cytotoxic  destruction  of  target  cells  by  cytotoxic T-lymphocytes.  The  unique  site-specific  catalytic autoantibodies  were  established  to  exert  a  selective destructive effect upon target cells, thus making a major contribution to the antibody-dependent mechanisms of cytotoxicity in autoimmune diseases. (Med. Immunol., 2011, vol. 13, N 2-3, pp 145-150

  15. Hemp Thermal Insulation Concrete with Alternative Binders, Analysis of their Thermal and Mechanical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinka, M.; Sahmenko, G.; Korjakins, A.; Radina, L.; Bajare, D.

    2015-11-01

    One of the main challenges that construction industry faces today is how to address the demands for more sustainable, environmentally friendly and carbon neutral construction materials and building upkeep processes. One of the answers to these demands is lime-hemp concrete (LHC) building materials - carbon negative materials that have sufficient thermal insulation capabilities to be used as thermal insulation materials for new as well as for existing buildings. But one problem needs to be overcome before these materials can be used on a large scale - current manufacturing technology allows these materials to be used only as self-bearing thermal insulation material with large labour intensity in the manufacturing process. In order to lower the labour intensity and allow the material to be used in wider applications, a LHC block and board production is necessary, which in turn calls for the binders different from the classically used ones, as they show insufficient mechanical strength for this new use. The particular study focuses on alternative binders produced using gypsum-cement compositions ensuring they are usable in outdoor applications together with hemp shives. Physical, mechanical, thermal and water absorption properties of hemp concrete with various binders are addressed in the current study.

  16. Genomic Scars Generated by Polymerase Theta Reveal the Versatile Mechanism of Alternative End-Joining

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schendel, Robin; van Heteren, Jane; Welten, Richard; Tijsterman, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    For more than half a century, genotoxic agents have been used to induce mutations in the genome of model organisms to establish genotype-phenotype relationships. While inaccurate replication across damaged bases can explain the formation of single nucleotide variants, it remained unknown how DNA damage induces more severe genomic alterations. Here, we demonstrate for two of the most widely used mutagens, i.e. ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) and photo-activated trimethylpsoralen (UV/TMP), that deletion mutagenesis is the result of polymerase Theta (POLQ)-mediated end joining (TMEJ) of double strand breaks (DSBs). This discovery allowed us to survey many thousands of available C. elegans deletion alleles to address the biology of this alternative end-joining repair mechanism. Analysis of ~7,000 deletion breakpoints and their cognate junctions reveals a distinct order of events. We found that nascent strands blocked at sites of DNA damage can engage in one or more cycles of primer extension using a more downstream located break end as a template. Resolution is accomplished when 3’ overhangs have matching ends. Our study provides a step-wise and versatile model for the in vivo mechanism of POLQ action, which explains the molecular nature of mutagen-induced deletion alleles. PMID:27755535

  17. Genomic Scars Generated by Polymerase Theta Reveal the Versatile Mechanism of Alternative End-Joining.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin van Schendel

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available For more than half a century, genotoxic agents have been used to induce mutations in the genome of model organisms to establish genotype-phenotype relationships. While inaccurate replication across damaged bases can explain the formation of single nucleotide variants, it remained unknown how DNA damage induces more severe genomic alterations. Here, we demonstrate for two of the most widely used mutagens, i.e. ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS and photo-activated trimethylpsoralen (UV/TMP, that deletion mutagenesis is the result of polymerase Theta (POLQ-mediated end joining (TMEJ of double strand breaks (DSBs. This discovery allowed us to survey many thousands of available C. elegans deletion alleles to address the biology of this alternative end-joining repair mechanism. Analysis of ~7,000 deletion breakpoints and their cognate junctions reveals a distinct order of events. We found that nascent strands blocked at sites of DNA damage can engage in one or more cycles of primer extension using a more downstream located break end as a template. Resolution is accomplished when 3' overhangs have matching ends. Our study provides a step-wise and versatile model for the in vivo mechanism of POLQ action, which explains the molecular nature of mutagen-induced deletion alleles.

  18. Transcranial alternating current stimulation: A review of the underlying mechanisms and modulation of cognitive processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph S Herrmann

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Brain oscillations of different frequencies have been associated with a variety of cognitive functions. Convincing evidence supporting those associations has been provided by studies using intracranial stimulation, pharmacological interventions and lesion studies. The emergence of novel non-invasive brain stimulation techniques like repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS and transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS now allows to modulate brain oscillations directly. Particularly, tACS offers the unique opportunity to causally link brain oscillations of a specific frequency range to cognitive processes, because it uses sinusoidal currents that are bound to one frequency only. Using tACS allows to modulate brain oscillations and in turn to influence cognitive processes, thereby demonstrating the causal link between the two. Here, we review findings about the physiological mechanism of tACS and studies that have used tACS to modulate basic motor and sensory processes as well as higher cognitive processes like memory, ambiguous perception, and decision making.

  19. Climate change and shrinking salamanders: alternative mechanisms for changes in plethodontid salamander body size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connette, Grant M; Crawford, John A; Peterman, William E

    2015-08-01

    An increasing number of studies have demonstrated relationships between climate trends and body size change of organisms. In many cases, climate might be expected to influence body size by altering thermoregulation, energetics or food availability. However, observed body size change can result from a variety of ecological processes (e.g. growth, selection, population dynamics) or imperfect observation of biological systems. We used two extensive datasets to evaluate alternative mechanisms for recently reported changes in the observed body size of plethodontid salamanders. We found that mean adult body size of salamanders can be highly sensitive to survey conditions, particularly rainfall. This systematic bias in the detection of larger or smaller individuals could result in a signature of body size change in relation to reported climate trends when it is simply observation error. We also identify considerable variability in body size distributions among years and find that individual growth rates can be strongly influenced by weather. Finally, our study demonstrates that measures of mean adult body size can be highly variable among surveys and that large sample sizes may be required to make reliable inferences. Identifying the effects of climate change is a critical area of research in ecology and conservation. Researchers should be aware that observed changes in certain organisms can result from multiple ecological processes or systematic bias due to nonrandom sampling of populations.

  20. Alternative mechanism for coffee-ring deposition based on active role of free surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari Kang, Saeed; Vandadi, Vahid; Felske, James D.; Masoud, Hassan

    2016-12-01

    When a colloidal sessile droplet dries on a substrate, the particles suspended in it usually deposit in a ringlike pattern. This phenomenon is commonly referred to as the "coffee-ring" effect. One paradigm for why this occurs is as a consequence of the solutes being transported towards the pinned contact line by the flow inside the drop, which is induced by surface evaporation. From this perspective, the role of the liquid-gas interface in shaping the deposition pattern is somewhat minimized. Here, we propose an alternative mechanism for the coffee-ring deposition. It is based on the bulk flow within the drop transporting particles to the interface where they are captured by the receding free surface and subsequently transported along the interface until they are deposited near the contact line. That the interface captures the solutes as the evaporation proceeds is supported by a Lagrangian tracing of particles advected by the flow field within the droplet. We model the interfacial adsorption and transport of particles as a one-dimensional advection-generation process in toroidal coordinates and show that the theory reproduces ring-shaped depositions. Using this model, deposition patterns on both hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces are examined in which the evaporation is modeled as being either diffusive or uniform over the surface.

  1. Regulatory mechanisms for 3'-end alternative splicing and polyadenylation of the Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein, GFAP, transcript

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blechingberg, Jenny; Lykke-Andersen, Søren; Jensen, Torben Heick;

    2007-01-01

    The glial fibrillary acidic protein, GFAP, forms the intermediate cytoskeleton in cells of the glial lineage. Besides the common GFAP alpha transcript, the GFAP epsilon and GFAP kappa transcripts are generated by alternative mRNA 3'-end processing. Here we use a GFAP minigene to characterize...... molecular mechanisms participating in alternative GFAP expression. Usage of a polyadenylation signal within the alternatively spliced exon 7a is essential to generate the GFAP kappa and GFAP kappa transcripts. The GFAP kappa mRNA is distinct from GFAP epsilon mRNA given that it also includes intron 7a...... with the selection of the exon 7a polyadenylation site being the essential and primary event for regulating GFAP alternative processing. Udgivelsesdato: 2007...

  2. Structural basis of the alternating-access mechanism in a bile acid transporter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaoming; Levin, Elena J.; Pan, Yaping; McCoy, Jason G.; Sharma, Ruchika; Kloss, Brian; Bruni, Renato; Quick, Matthias; Zhou, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Bile acids are synthesized from cholesterol in hepatocytes and secreted through the biliary tract into the small intestine, where they aid in absorption of lipids and fat-soluble vitamins. Through a process known as enterohepatic recirculation, more than 90% of secreted bile acids are then retrieved from the intestine and returned to the liver for resecretion. In humans, there are two Na+-dependent bile acid transporters involved in enterohepatic recirculation, the Na+-taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide (NTCP; also known as SLC10A1) expressed in hepatocytes, and the apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT; also known as SLC10A2) expressed on enterocytes in the terminal ileum. In recent years, ASBT has attracted much interest as a potential drug target for treatment of hypercholesterolaemia, because inhibition of ASBT reduces reabsorption of bile acids, thus increasing bile acid synthesis and consequently cholesterol consumption. However, a lack of three-dimensional structures of bile acid transporters hampers our ability to understand the molecular mechanisms of substrate selectivity and transport, and to interpret the wealth of existing functional data. The crystal structure of an ASBT homologue from Neisseria meningitidis (ASBTNM) in detergent was reported recently, showing the protein in an inward-open conformation bound to two Na+ and a taurocholic acid. However, the structural changes that bring bile acid and Na+ across the membrane are difficult to infer from a single structure. To understand the structural changes associated with the coupled transport of Na+ and bile acids, here we solved two structures of an ASBT homologue from Yersinia frederiksenii (ASBTYf) in a lipid environment, which reveal that a large rigid-body rotation of a substrate-binding domain gives the conserved `crossover' region, where two discontinuous helices cross each other, alternating accessibility from either side of the cell membrane. This result has implications

  3. Regime shifts in exploited marine food webs: detecting mechanisms underlying alternative stable states using size- structured community dynamics theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gårdmark, A.; Casini, M.; Huss, M.; van Leeuwen, A.; Hjelm, J.; Persson, L.; de Roos, A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Many marine ecosystems have undergone ‘regime shifts’, i.e. abrupt reorgan- izations across trophic levels. Establishing whether these constitute shifts between alternative stable states is of key importance for the prospects of eco- system recovery and for management. We show how mechanisms underly

  4. Effect of Alternate Supply of Shielding Gases of Tungsten Inert Gas Welding on Mechanical Properties of Austenitic Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinde, Neelam Vilas; Telsang, Martand Tamanacharya

    2016-07-01

    In the present study, an attempt is made to study the effect of alternate supply of the shielding gas in comparison with the conventional method of TIG welding with pure argon gas. The two sets of combination are used as 10-10 and 40-20 s for alternate supply of the Argon and Helium shielding gas respectively. The effect of alternate supply of shielding gas is studied on the mechanical properties like bend test, tensile test and impact test. The full factorial experimental design is applied for three set of combinations. The ANOVA is used to find significant parameters for the process and regression analysis used to develop the mathematical model. The result shows that the alternate supply of the shielding gas for 10-10 s provides better result for the bend, tensile and impact test as compared with the conventional argon gas and the alternate supply of 40-20 s argon and helium gas respectively. Welding speed can be increased for alternate supply of the shielding gas that can reduce the total welding cost.

  5. Current pathogenetic aspects of hepatic encephalopathy and noncirrhotic hyperammonemic encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichoż-Lach, Halina; Michalak, Agata

    2013-01-07

    Hepatic encephalopathy is a medical phenomenon that is described as a neuropsychiatric manifestation of chronic or acute liver disease that is characterized by psychomotor, intellectual and cognitive abnormalities with emotional/affective and behavioral disturbances. This article focuses on the underlying mechanisms of the condition and the differences between hepatic encephalopathy and noncirrhotic hyperammonemic encephalopathy. Hepatic encephalopathy is a serious condition that can cause neurological death with brain edema and intracranial hypertension. It is assumed that approximately 60%-80% of patients with liver cirrhosis develop hepatic encephalopathy. This review explores the complex mechanisms that lead to hepatic encephalopathy. However, noncirrhotic hyperammonemic encephalopathy is not associated with hepatic diseases and has a completely different etiology. Noncirrhotic hyperammonemic encephalopathy is a severe occurrence that is connected with multiple pathogeneses.

  6. Diagnostic cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers for Parkinson's disease: a pathogenetically based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Karin D; Teunissen, Charlotte E; Drukarch, Benjamin; Jimenez, Connie R; Groenewegen, Henk J; Berendse, Henk W; van de Berg, Wilma D J

    2010-09-01

    The inaccuracy of the early diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD) has been a major incentive for studies aimed at the identification of biomarkers. Brain-derived cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) proteins are potential biomarkers considering the major role that proteins play in PD pathogenesis. In this review, we discuss the current hypotheses about the pathogenesis of PD and identify the most promising candidate biomarkers among the CSF proteins studied so far. The list of potential markers includes proteins involved in various pathogenetic processes, such as oxidative stress and protein aggregation. This list will undoubtedly grow in the near future by application of CSF proteomics and subsequent validation of identified proteins. Probably a single biomarker will not suffice to reach high sensitivity and specificity, because PD is pathogenetically heterogeneous and shares etiological factors with other neurodegenerative diseases. Furthermore, identified candidate biomarkers will have to be thoroughly validated before they can be implemented as diagnostic aids.

  7. Mechanical pipe couplings. The alternative jointing method for PE gas pipes up to 10 bar; Mechanische Rohrkupplungen. Die alternative Verbindung fuer PE-Gas-Rohre bis 10 bar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroeger, Axel; Johnson, Alexander [PSI Products GmbH, Moessingen (Germany)

    2010-11-15

    Increasing competition nowadays obliges natural gas suppliers to adopt continuous cost-optimization. Many utilities are therefore rethinking their existing methods for jointing of plastic pipes. Around the world, mechanical pipe couplings are becoming established in this field as a rational-cost, safe and easy-to-install alternative to conventional welding methods. For this project, PSI Products GmbH and Elster Perfection are pursuing new routes for the development of solutions to problems in plastic-pipe jointing technology. As a specialist in accessories for the field of pipeline engineering, PSI Products GmbH has now also unveiled, in the form of the Permasert {sup registered} and PermaLock {sup registered} pipe-coupling and jointing systems, a complete product range, with DVGW approval, for mechanical jointing of gas supply pipelines for the German natural gas market. This system has proven its capabilities since its market launch in the USA more than thirty years ago, and is now one of the world's most widely used mechanical PE-pipe jointing methods. Simple and fast installation is the basis of this success. More than 45 million Permasert {sup registered} couplings and PermaLock {sup registered} tapping valves are now in use under virtually all conceivable climatic and soil conditions, and not only in North America and Europe, but also in Asia, Australia, the Middle East, and Central and South America. (orig.)

  8. Analysis of the Pathogenetic Basis for Shedding and Transmission of Ovine Gamma Herpesvirus 2

    OpenAIRE

    Hüssy, Daniela; Janett, Fredi; Albini, Sarah; Stäuber, Norbert; Thun, Rico; Ackermann, Mathias

    2002-01-01

    Ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2), a member of the viral subfamily Gammaherpesvirinae, shares numerous similarities with human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8). Both viruses are apathogenic in their healthy original host, may cause lymphoprolipherative diseases, cannot routinely be propagated in cell culture, and may be sexually transmitted. However, the pathways of sexual transmission of these viruses, as well as the underlying pathogenetic dynamics, are not well understood. Organs from naturally OvHV-2-inf...

  9. Post-stroke disorders: pathogenetic, clinical, and therapeutic aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Damulin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the clinical features and mechanisms of recovery of motor and cognitive functions after stroke. It is emphasized that the earliest therapy of stroke appreciably determines the success of further rehabilitation measures. There may be the most significant recovery in the first 3 months after stroke and generally only an insignificant improvement following 6 months. However, the process of recovery can last longer in a number of patients. Data are given on the use of nicergoline (sermion in this category of patients.

  10. Differential transcriptional regulation by alternatively designed mechanisms: A mathematical modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Necmettin; Aktas, Mehmet Emin; Ozcan, Seyma Nur; Akbas, Esra; Ay, Ahmet

    2016-08-02

    Cells maintain cellular homeostasis employing different regulatory mechanisms to respond external stimuli. We study two groups of signal-dependent transcriptional regulatory mechanisms. In the first group, we assume that repressor and activator proteins compete for binding to the same regulatory site on DNA (competitive mechanisms). In the second group, they can bind to different regulatory regions in a noncompetitive fashion (noncompetitive mechanisms). For both competitive and noncompetitive mechanisms, we studied the gene expression dynamics by increasing the repressor or decreasing the activator abundance (inhibition mechanisms), or by decreasing the repressor or increasing the activator abundance (activation mechanisms). We employed delay differential equation models. Our simulation results show that the competitive and noncompetitive inhibition mechanisms exhibit comparable repression effectiveness. However, response time is fastest in the noncompetitive inhibition mechanism due to increased repressor abundance, and slowest in the competitive inhibition mechanism by increased repressor level. The competitive and noncompetitive inhibition mechanisms through decreased activator abundance show comparable and moderate response times, while the competitive and noncompetitive activation mechanisms by increased activator protein level display more effective and faster response. Our study exemplifies the importance of mathematical modeling and computer simulation in the analysis of gene expression dynamics.

  11. Mechanical Color Reading of Wood-Staining Fungal Pigment Textile Dyes: An Alternative Method for Determining Colorfastness

    OpenAIRE

    Eric M. Hinsch; Robinson, Sara C

    2016-01-01

    Colorfastness to washing and crocking (color loss due to rubbing) are essential qualities for any dye/fabric combination that will be used for garments or upholstery. In this study, colorfastness to washing and crocking of fabrics dyed with wood-staining fungal pigments was compared to colorfastness of commercial dyes using an alternative mechanical testing method. Overall, wood-staining fungal pigments out performed commercial dyes for colorfastness to washing and wet and dry crocking. Xylin...

  12. Transcranial alternating current stimulation: a review of the underlying mechanisms and modulation of cognitive processes

    OpenAIRE

    Herrmann, Christoph S; Rach, Stefan; Neuling, Toralf; Strüber, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Brain oscillations of different frequencies have been associated with a variety of cognitive functions. Convincing evidence supporting those associations has been provided by studies using intracranial stimulation, pharmacological interventions and lesion studies. The emergence of novel non-invasive brain stimulation techniques like repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) now allows to modulate brain oscillations directly. Pa...

  13. Development and validation of an alternative disturbed skin model by mechanical abrasion to study drug penetration

    OpenAIRE

    Schlupp, P.; M. Weber; T. Schmidts; Geiger, K.; Runkel, F.

    2014-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals and cosmetics for dermal application are usually tested on healthy skin, although the primary permeation barrier, the stratum corneum, is often impaired by skin diseases or small skin lesions, especially on the hands. These skin conditions can considerably influence the permeation of chemicals and drugs. Furthermore, risk assessment for example of nanoparticles should be performed under various skin conditions to reflect the true circumstances. Therefore, an alternative and re...

  14. Means to an end: mechanisms of alternative polyadenylation of messenger RNA precursors

    OpenAIRE

    Gruber, Andreas R; Martin, Georges; Keller, Walter; Zavolan, Mihaela

    2013-01-01

    Expression of mature messenger RNAs (mRNAs) requires appropriate transcription initiation and termination, as well as pre-mRNA processing by capping, splicing, cleavage, and polyadenylation. A core 3′-end processing complex carries out the cleavage and polyadenylation reactions, but many proteins have been implicated in the selection of polyadenylation sites among the multiple alternatives that eukaryotic genes typically have. In recent years, high-throughput approaches to map both the 3′-end...

  15. Development and validation of an alternative disturbed skin model by mechanical abrasion to study drug penetration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Schlupp

    2014-01-01

    Skin permeation of the three substances was increased in tape-stripped and abraded skin compared to untreated skin due to the reduced barrier integrity. Enhancement of drug uptake was highest for the most hydrophilic substance, caffeine, followed by sorbic acid and lipophilic testosterone. No significant difference in drug uptake studies was observed between the new abrasion method with an aluminum-coated sponge and the tape-stripping method. The obtained results demonstrate that this abrasion method is an alternative way to achieve a disturbed skin barrier for drug and chemical uptake studies.

  16. Compact Kinetic Mechanisms for Petroleum-Derived and Alternative Aviation Fuels Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To be useful for computational combustor design and analysis using tools like the National Combustion Code (NCC), low-dimensional chemical kinetic mechanisms for...

  17. The Missing Link - Likely Pathogenetic Role of GM3 and Other Gangliosides in the Development of Diabetic Nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Vukovic

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite scientific advances, diabetic nephropathy remains both a therapeutical challenge, and one of the major diabetic complications. Chemical structure of gangliosides, the most complex of glycosphingolipids, is characterised by one or more sialic acids and carbohydrate groups linked to a ceramide structure. Their potential pathogenetic role in a number of disorders linked to diabetes mellitus has recently been conjectured, due to evidence of their negative modulation of the insulin-mediated signaling and general effects on key cell functions like proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, cellular signaling and adhesion. Elevated levels of advanced glycation products (AGE usually found in diabetic conditions seem to be responsible for increased concentration of a-series gangliosides in tissues, most notably GM3. GM3 was shown to compromise the renal pericyte and mesangial cell regeneration via the inactivation of VEGF receptor and the receptor-associated Akt signaling pathway. Likewise, the lipid raft theory opened a new research area for GM3 influence, since in the glycosynapse model glycosphingolipids have a key cell-to-cell communication unit with modulating capabilities on signaling receptors. The goal of this review is to provide insight into currently available theories on proposed mechanisms that mark the GM3 as a pathophysiological mediator in the development of diabetic nephropathy.

  18. Development and validation of an alternative disturbed skin model by mechanical abrasion to study drug penetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlupp, P; Weber, M; Schmidts, T; Geiger, K; Runkel, F

    2014-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals and cosmetics for dermal application are usually tested on healthy skin, although the primary permeation barrier, the stratum corneum, is often impaired by skin diseases or small skin lesions, especially on the hands. These skin conditions can considerably influence the permeation of chemicals and drugs. Furthermore, risk assessment for example of nanoparticles should be performed under various skin conditions to reflect the true circumstances. Therefore, an alternative and reproducible method for a high throughput of skin samples with impaired skin barrier was developed and verified by skin permeation studies (25 h) of caffeine, sorbic acid and testosterone compared to healthy (untreated) and tape-stripped skin. Skin barrier disruption was controlled by TEWL measurement. Skin permeation of the three substances was increased in tape-stripped and abraded skin compared to untreated skin due to the reduced barrier integrity. Enhancement of drug uptake was highest for the most hydrophilic substance, caffeine, followed by sorbic acid and lipophilic testosterone. No significant difference in drug uptake studies was observed between the new abrasion method with an aluminum-coated sponge and the tape-stripping method. The obtained results demonstrate that this abrasion method is an alternative way to achieve a disturbed skin barrier for drug and chemical uptake studies.

  19. Clinical and pathogenetic approaches to development of parodontitis therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis С

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.N. Blinnikova

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The research goal in to determine clinical and pathogenetic efficacy of Cycloferon liniment in the combined therapy of parodontitis in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Examination and treatment of 50 patients were conducted. It was revealed that the use of Cycloferon liniment in the combined treatment of patients with parodontitis accompanied by chronic hepatitis C allowed to accelerate process of normalization of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant potential of blood, to decrease infectious inflammation (herpes simplex virus I, candida albicans, staphylococcus aureus in parodontal recess and local inflammation. The described method of treatment provided process of recovery and decrease in frequency of parodontitis recurrences

  20. AUTOANTIBODIES TO GLUTAMIC ACID DECARBOXYLASE AS A PATHOGENETIC MARKER OF TYPE I DIABETES MELLITUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Piven

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. A new method of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (in solid-phase ELISA format has been developed to determine concentrations of autoantibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase, as well as an evidencebased methodology is proposed for its medical implications, as a quantitative pathogenetic predictive marker of autoimmune diagnostics in type 1 diabetes mellitus. This technique could be implied for serial production of diagnostic reagent kits, aimed for detection of autoantibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase by means of ELISA approach. (Med. Immunol., 2011, vol. 13, N 2-3, pp 257-260

  1. Nonlinear optics at low powers: Alternative mechanism of on-chip optical frequency comb generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogov, Andrei S.; Narimanov, Evgenii E.

    2016-12-01

    Nonlinear optical effects provide a natural way of light manipulation and interaction and form the foundation of applied photonics, from high-speed signal processing and telecommunication to ultrahigh-bandwidth interconnects and information processing. However, relatively weak nonlinear response at optical frequencies calls for operation at high optical powers or boosting efficiency of nonlinear parametric processes by enhancing local-field intensity with high-quality-factor resonators near cavity resonance, resulting in reduced operational bandwidth and increased loss due to multiphoton absorption. We present an alternative to this conventional approach, with strong nonlinear optical effects at low local intensities, based on period-doubling bifurcations near nonlinear cavity antiresonance and apply it to low-power optical frequency comb generation in a silicon chip.

  2. The Alternative complex III: properties and possible mechanisms for electron transfer and energy conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refojo, Patrícia N; Teixeira, Miguel; Pereira, Manuela M

    2012-10-01

    Alternative complexes III (ACIII) are recently identified membrane-bound enzymes that replace functionally the cytochrome bc(1/)b(6)f complexes. In general, ACIII are composed of four transmembrane proteins and three peripheral subunits that contain iron-sulfur centers and C-type hemes. ACIII are built by a combination of modules present in different enzyme families, namely the complex iron-sulfur molybdenum containing enzymes. In this article a historical perspective on the investigation of ACIII is presented, followed by an overview of the present knowledge on these enzymes. Electron transfer pathways within the protein are discussed taking into account possible different locations (cytoplasmatic or periplasmatic) of the iron-sulfur containing protein and their contribution to energy conservation. In this way several hypotheses for energy conservation modes are raised including linear and bifurcating electron transfer pathways. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: 17th European Bioenergetics Conference (EBEC 2012).

  3. Introducing Mechanics: II. Towards a Justified Choice between Alternative Theories of Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmett, Katrina; Klaassen, Kees; Eijkelhof, Harrie

    2009-01-01

    In an earlier article we presented an innovative approach for introducing mechanics at upper secondary level based on the idea of tapping core causal knowledge, and we described the working of the first part of the module. In this article we describe the second part of the module, in which we make use of the students' intuitive plausibility…

  4. RNA-sequencing analysis reveals the hepatotoxic mechanism of perfluoroalkyl alternatives, HFPO2 and HFPO4, following exposure in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianshe; Wang, Xiaoyang; Sheng, Nan; Zhou, Xiujuan; Cui, Ruina; Zhang, Hongxia; Dai, Jiayin

    2017-04-01

    The toxicological impact of traditional perfluoroalkyl chemicals has led to the elimination and restriction of these substances. However, many novel perfluoroalkyl alternatives remain unregulated and little is known about their potential effects on environmental and human health. Daily administration of two alternative perfluoroalkyl substances, HFPO2 and HFPO4 (1 mg kg(-1) body weight), for 28 days resulted in hepatomegaly and hepatic histopathological injury in mice, particularly in the HFPO4 group. We generated and compared high-throughput RNA-sequencing data from hepatic tissues in control and treatment group mice to clarify the mechanism of HFPO2 and HFPO4 hepatotoxicity. We identified 146 (101 upregulated, 45 downregulated) and 1295 (716 upregulated, 579 downregulated) hepatic transcripts that exhibited statistically significant changes (fold change ≥2 or ≤0.5, false discovery rate perfluoroalkyl alternatives may affect environmental and human health, and their biological effects need further exploration. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Blandford-Znajek mechanism in black holes in alternative theories of gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pei, Guancheng; Nampalliwar, Sourabh [Fudan University, Center for Field Theory and Particle Physics and Department of Physics, Shanghai (China); Bambi, Cosimo [Fudan University, Center for Field Theory and Particle Physics and Department of Physics, Shanghai (China); Eberhard-Karls Universitaet Tuebingen, Theoretical Astrophysics, Tuebingen (Germany); Middleton, Matthew J. [University of Cambridge, Institute of Astronomy, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2016-10-15

    According to the Blandford-Znajek mechanism, black hole jets are powered by the rotational energy of the compact object. In this work, we consider the possibility that the metric around black holes may not be described by the Kerr solution and we study how this changes the Blandford-Znajek model. If the Blandford-Znajek mechanism is responsible for the formation of jets, the estimate of the jet power in combination with another measurement can test the nature of black hole candidates and constrain possible deviations from the Kerr solution. However, this approach might become competitive with respect to other techniques only when it will be possible to have measurements much more precise than those available today. (orig.)

  6. Alternative mechanism for bacteriophage adsorption to the motile bacterium Caulobacter crescentus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero-Ferreira, Ricardo C; Viollier, Patrick H; Ely, Bert; Poindexter, Jeanne S; Georgieva, Maria; Jensen, Grant J; Wright, Elizabeth R

    2011-06-14

    2D and 3D cryo-electron microscopy, together with adsorption kinetics assays of Cb13 and CbK phage-infected Caulobacter crescentus, provides insight into the mechanisms of infection. Cb13 and CbK actively interact with the flagellum and subsequently attach to receptors on the cell pole. We present evidence that the first interaction of the phage with the bacterial flagellum takes place through a filament on the phage head. This contact with the flagellum facilitates concentration of phage particles around the receptor (i.e., the pilus portals) on the bacterial cell surface, thereby increasing the likelihood of infection. Phage head filaments have not been well characterized and their function is described here. Phage head filaments may systematically underlie the initial interactions of phages with their hosts in other systems and possibly represent a widespread mechanism of efficient phage propagation.

  7. Crystal structure of A. aeolicus LpxC with bound product suggests alternate deacetylation mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Matthew D; Gao, Ning; Ross, Philip L; Olivier, Nelson B

    2015-09-01

    UDP-3-O-acyl-N-acetylglucosamine deacetylase (LpxC) is the first committed step to form lipid A, an essential component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. As it is essential for the survival of many pathogens, LpxC is an attractive target for antibacterial therapeutics. Herein, we report the product-bound co-crystal structure of LpxC from the acheal Aquifex aeolicus solved to 1.6 Å resolution. We identified interactions by hydroxyl and hydroxymethyl substituents of the product glucosamine ring that may enable new insights to exploit waters in the active site for structure-based design of LpxC inhibitors with novel scaffolds. By using this product structure, we have performed quantum mechanical modeling on the substrate in the active site. Based on our results and published experimental data, we propose a new mechanism that may lead to a better understanding of LpxC catalysis and inhibition.

  8. Experimental Test of an Event-Based Corpuscular Model Modification as an Alternative to Quantum Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Brida, Giorgio; Genovese, Marco; Migdall, Alan; Piacentini, Fabrizio; Polyakov, Sergey V; Traina, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    We present the first experimental test that distinguishes between an event-based corpuscular model (EBCM) [H. De Raedt et al.: J. Comput. Theor. Nanosci. 8 (2011) 1052] of the interaction of photons with matter and quantum mechanics. The test looks at the interference that results as a single photon passes through a Mach-Zehnder interferometer [H. De Raedt et al.: J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 74 (2005) 16]. The experimental results, obtained with a low-noise single-photon source [G. Brida et al.: Opt. Expr. 19 (2011) 1484], agree with the predictions of standard quantum mechanics with a reduced $\\chi^2$ of 0.98 and falsify the EBCM with a reduced $\\chi^2$ of greater than 20.

  9. Discovering the best: Informational efficiency and liquidity of alternative trading mechanisms in experimental asset markets

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    This paper reports the results of 18 experimental asset markets with 262 subjects that explore the effects of liquidity and aggregation of information. The main focus lies on the comparison of different trading mechanisms of stock exchanges. Compared to most of financial markets experiments, reality is met by introducing long-living assets and integrating all subjects in a multi-period decision-making process. In accordance with the evidence from the empirical research in real financial marke...

  10. Mechanical Color Reading of Wood-Staining Fungal Pigment Textile Dyes: An Alternative Method for Determining Colorfastness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric M. Hinsch

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Colorfastness to washing and crocking (color loss due to rubbing are essential qualities for any dye/fabric combination that will be used for garments or upholstery. In this study, colorfastness to washing and crocking of fabrics dyed with wood-staining fungal pigments was compared to colorfastness of commercial dyes using an alternative mechanical testing method. Overall, wood-staining fungal pigments out performed commercial dyes for colorfastness to washing and wet and dry crocking. Xylindein was the most colorfast dye. Draconin red yielded inconsistent results, and the yellow pigment required a mordant to achieve any colorfastness. This study showed that the mechanical color reading method, along with statistical analysis, provided an objective, repeatable gauge of colorfastness, although visual inspection is also needed for practical purposes.

  11. End-stage renal disease in Nigeria: An overview of the epidemiology and the pathogenetic mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M O Odubanjo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There is paucity of information on the magnitude of the burden of renal disease in our environment. Obtaining accurate data is hampered by the poor socioeconomic status of most patients with lack of access to specialized care in tertiary institutions, where most of the data is generated. The incidence of chronic renal failure (CRF and end-stage renal disease (ESRD in any specified area is known to be influenced by the prevalence of specific disease entities resulting in CRF. Hypertension, glomerulonephritis (GN, sickle cell disease, quartan malaria nephropathy, urinary tract schistosomiasis and other parasite-related forms of chronic GN are known to contribute significantly to the incidence of CRF in Nigeria. As is the situation in other parts of the world, diabetic nephropathy appears to be of increasing importance in the causation of ESRD in Nigeria. Even though the underlying cause of renal disease can often not be treated, extensive studies in experimental animals and preliminary studies in humans suggest that progression in chronic renal disease may largely be due to secondary factors, attention to which may be important in the prevention and/or control of renal disease.

  12. GeneChip analyses point to novel pathogenetic mechanisms in mantle cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vater, Inga; Wagner, Florian; Kreuz, Markus; Berger, Hilmar; Martín-Subero, José I; Pott, Christiane; Martinez-Climent, Jose A; Klapper, Wolfram; Krause, Kristina; Dyer, Martin J S; Gesk, Stefan; Harder, Lana; Zamo, Alberto; Dreyling, Martin; Hasenclever, Dirk; Arnold, Norbert; Siebert, Reiner

    2009-02-01

    The translocation t(11;14)(q13;q32) is the genetic hallmark of mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) but is not sufficient for inducing lymphomagenesis. Here we performed genome-wide 100K GeneChip Mapping in 26 t(11;14)-positive MCL and six MCL cell lines. Partial uniparental disomy (pUPD) was shown to be a recurrent chromosomal event not only in MCL cell lines but also in primary MCL. Remarkably, pUPD affected recurrent targets of deletion like 11q, 13q and 17p. Moreover, we identified 12 novel regions of recurrent gain and loss as well as 12 high-level amplifications and eight homozygously deleted regions hitherto undescribed in MCL. Interestingly, GeneChip analyses identified different genes, encoding proteins involved in microtubule dynamics, such as MAP2, MAP6 and TP53, as targets for chromosomal aberration in MCL. Further investigation, including mutation analyses, fluorescence in situ hybridisation as well as epigenetic and expression studies, revealed additional aberrations frequently affecting these genes. In total, 19 of 20 MCL cases, which were subjected to genetic and epigenetic analyses, and five of six MCL cell lines harboured at least one aberration in MAP2, MAP6 or TP53. These findings provide evidence that alterations of microtubule dynamics might be one of the critical events in MCL lymphomagenesis contributing to chromosomal instability.

  13. Senescence hypothesis for the pathogenetic mechanism of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoshiba, Kazutetsu; Nagai, Atsushi

    2009-12-01

    We report herein that pulmonary emphysematous lesions appear to be a dynamic phenomenon that involves not only the gradual loss of alveolar structure but also apoptosis, cellular proliferation, and cellular senescence. Cellular proliferation compensates for increased alveolar cell apoptosis in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, smoking, age, and the increased cell cycle turnover that compensates for apoptosis accelerate alveolar cell senescence, thereby halting cellular proliferation and tipping the balance toward apoptosis, which, in turn, promotes the formation of emphysematous lesions. As a result, alveolar cells disappear and the emphysematous lesions progress. At the same time, cellular senescence is believed to induce inflammation. More specifically, senescent alveolar cells induce inflammation by producing various inflammatory cytokines in tissue. Lymphocytes and Clara cells may also age more rapidly in the lungs of patients with COPD. Lymphocyte senescence may induce an autoimmune reaction and increase susceptibility to infection, and Clara cell senescence may impair airway regeneration as well as sustain airway inflammation. Thus, cellular senescence may be involved in arrested tissue repair, chronic inflammation, and increased susceptibility to infection, which are the typical features of COPD.

  14. Hypertension in the course of insulin dependent diabetes mellitus and its pathogenetic mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt-Rasmussen, B; Nørgaard, K; Jensen, T

    1990-01-01

    All IDDM patients without late complications have blood pressures similar to the nondiabetic background population, and those who develop clinical nephropathy in Denmark have no familial predisposition to hypertension. Blood pressure remains normal until after development of microalbuminuria, ind...

  15. Molecular pathogenetic mechanisms and new therapeutic perspectives in anthracycline-induced cardiomyopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Distefano Giuseppe

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Anthracyclines are among the most powerful drugs for the treatment of oncologic diseases both in childhood and in adulthood. Nevertheless, their major antineoplastic efficacy can be seriously impaired by collateral toxic cardiac effects causing cardiomyopathy with chronic heart failure that is refractory to conventional medical therapy. This article reports possible subcellular molecular alterations of anthracycline-induced cardiomyopathy (reactive oxygen species formation, apoptosis...

  16. MAIN PATHOGENETIC MECHANISMS IN URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS AND UROSEPSIS AFTER ALLOGENIC KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Krstić

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This review presents recent data on urinary tract infections and urosepsis after allogeneic kidney transplantation. Urosepsis is an extremely serious complication in these patients. Differentiated approach to early etiological, pa- thogenetic diagnosis still remains a priority problem of modern transplantation, as mortality in urosepsis remains high and is at least 60%. 

  17. ss-siRNAs allele selectively inhibit ataxin-3 expression: multiple mechanisms for an alternative gene silencing strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Yu, Dongbo; Aiba, Yuichiro; Pendergraff, Hannah; Swayze, Eric E; Lima, Walt F; Hu, Jiaxin; Prakash, Thazha P; Corey, David R

    2013-11-01

    Single-stranded silencing RNAs (ss-siRNAs) provide an alternative approach to gene silencing. ss-siRNAs combine the simplicity and favorable biodistribution of antisense oligonucleotides with robust silencing through RNA interference (RNAi). Previous studies reported potent and allele-selective inhibition of human huntingtin expression by ss-siRNAs that target the expanded CAG repeats within the mutant allele. Mutant ataxin-3, the genetic cause of Machado-Joseph Disease, also contains an expanded CAG repeat. We demonstrate here that ss-siRNAs are allele-selective inhibitors of ataxin-3 expression and then redesign ss-siRNAs to optimize their selectivity. We find that both RNAi-related and non-RNAi-related mechanisms affect gene expression by either blocking translation or affecting alternative splicing. These results have four broad implications: (i) ss-siRNAs will not always behave similarly to analogous RNA duplexes; (ii) the sequences surrounding CAG repeats affect allele-selectivity of anti-CAG oligonucleotides; (iii) ss-siRNAs can function through multiple mechanisms and; and (iv) it is possible to use chemical modification to optimize ss-siRNA properties and improve their potential for drug discovery.

  18. τ-lepton as a Composition of Massless Preons: an Alternative to Higgs Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncharov, Yuri P.

    2015-09-01

    Within the framework of the confinement mechanism proposed earlier by the author in QCD the problem of masses for fundamental fermions in particle physics is discussed by the example of τ-lepton τ -. It is shown that the observed parameters of τ-lepton such as its mass and magnetic moment can be obtained in a preon model dynamically due to a preon gauge interaction. The radius of τ-lepton is also estimated. Under the circumstances preons might be massless in virtue of existence of the nonzero chiral limit for the preon interaction energy.

  19. Alternative Method for Determining the Feynman Propagator of a Non-Relativistic Quantum Mechanical Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Moshinsky

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available A direct procedure for determining the propagator associated with a quantum mechanical problem was given by the Path Integration Procedure of Feynman. The Green function, which is the Fourier Transform with respect to the time variable of the propagator, can be derived later. In our approach, with the help of a Laplace transform, a direct way to get the energy dependent Green function is presented, and the propagator can be obtained later with an inverse Laplace transform. The method is illustrated through simple one dimensional examples and for time independent potentials, though it can be generalized to the derivation of more complicated propagators.

  20. Mindfulness-Based Exposure Strategies as a Transdiagnostic Mechanism of Change: An Exploratory Alternating Treatment Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brake, C Alex; Sauer-Zavala, Shannon; Boswell, James F; Gallagher, Matthew W; Farchione, Todd J; Barlow, David H

    2016-03-01

    The present study explored whether distress reduction in response to strong negative emotions, a putative transdiagnostic mechanism of action, is facilitated by mindfulness strategies. Seven patients (mean age=31.14years, SD=12.28, range 19-48 years, 43% female, 86% Caucasian) with heterogeneous anxiety disorders (i.e., panic disorder with or without agoraphobia, social anxiety, generalized anxiety) were assigned a randomized order of weeklong blocks utilizing either mindfulness- or avoidance-based strategies while ascending a 6-week emotion exposure hierarchy. Participants completed three exposures per block and provided distress and avoidance use ratings following each exposure. Anxiety severity, distress aversion, and distraction/suppression tendencies were also assessed at baseline and the conclusion of each block. Visual, descriptive, and effect size results showing exposures utilizing mindfulness were associated with higher overall distress levels, compared with those utilizing avoidance. Within blocks, the majority of participants exhibited declining distress levels when employing mindfulness strategies, as opposed to more static distress levels in the avoidance condition. Systematic changes in anxiety severity, distress aversion, and distraction/suppression were not observed. These results suggest mindfulness strategies may be effective in facilitating emotion exposure; however, a minimum dosage may be necessary to overcome initial distress elevation. Potential transdiagnostic change mechanisms and clinical implications are discussed.

  1. Evidence for protonic communication at the speed of sound: An alternate mechanism for specific biological signaling

    CERN Document Server

    Fichtl, Bernhard; Schneider, Matthias F

    2015-01-01

    Local changes in pH are known to significantly alter the state and activity of proteins and in particular enzymes. pH variations induced by pulses propagating along soft interfaces (e.g. the lipid bilayer) would therefore constitute an important pillar towards a new physical mechanism of biochemical regulation and biological signaling. Here we investigate the pH-induced physical perturbation of a lipid interface and the physiochemical nature of the subsequent acoustic propagation. Pulses are stimulated by local acidification of a lipid monolayer and propagate, in analogy to sound, at velocities controlled by the two-dimensional compressibility of the interface. With transient local pH changes of 0.6 units directly observed at the interface and velocities up to 1.4 m/s this represents hitherto the fastest protonic communication observed. Furthermore simultaneously propagating mechanical and electrical changes in the lipid interface up to 8 mN/m and 100 mV are detected, exposing the thermodynamic nature of thes...

  2. New Experiments Call for a Continuous Absorption Alternative to Quantum Mechanics — The Unquantum Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reiter E. S.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A famous beam-split coincidence test of the photon model was performed with -rays instead of visible light. A similar test was performed to split -rays. In both tests, co- incidence rates greatly exceed chance, leading to an unquantum effect. In contradiction to quantum theory and the photon model, these new results are strong evidence of the long abandoned accumulation hypothesis, also known as the loading theory. Attention is drawn to assumptions applied to past key experiments that led to quantum mechan- ics. The history of the loading theory is outlined, and a few key experiment equations are derived, now free of wave-particle duality. Quantum theory usually works because there is a subtle difference between quantized and thresholded absorption.

  3. Failure of the Volume Function in Granular Statistical Mechanics and an Alternative Formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenfeld, Raphael; Amitai, Shahar; Jordan, Joe F; Hihinashvili, Rebecca

    2016-04-08

    We first show that the currently accepted statistical mechanics for granular matter is flawed. The reason is that it is based on the volume function, which depends only on a minute fraction of all the structural degrees of freedom and is unaffected by most of the configurational microstates. Consequently, the commonly used partition function underestimates the entropy severely. We then propose a new formulation, replacing the volume function with a connectivity function that depends on all the structural degrees of freedom and accounts correctly for the entire entropy. We discuss the advantages of the new formalism and derive explicit results for two- and three-dimensional systems. We test the formalism by calculating the entropy of an experimental two-dimensional system, as a function of system size, and showing that it is an extensive variable.

  4. TRENDS IN OFFICIAL DEVELOPMENT ASSISTANCE TO DEVELOPING COUNTRIES AND POSSIBILITIES OF ALTERNATIVE FINANCING MECHANISMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talknice Saungweme

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The study analyses trends in Official Development Assistance (ODA to developing countries, mainly Africa, and possibilities of new financing instruments. Economies of most developing countries, especially those in Sub-Saharan Africa, are characterised by low investment flows, huge import bills and lower exports. Subsequently, development assistance is the major source of external finance and has taken the form of budget support, humanitarian and development finance. However, the noted fall in ODA in 2005, 2009 and 2012 might adversely impact directly on the attainment of millennium development goals in 2015. This negative trend in ODA is a result of a combination of factors such as economic constraints in the donor countries (for example, the debt crisis and/or a new shift in financing mechanisms to developing countries.

  5. Designing instruction to support mechanical reasoning: Three alternatives in the simple machines learning environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Ann Frances

    2001-07-01

    Creating a classroom environment that fosters a productive learning experience and engages students in the learning process is a complex endeavor. A classroom environment is dynamic and requires a unique synergy among students, teacher, classroom artifacts and events to achieve robust understanding and knowledge integration. This dissertation addresses this complex issue by developing, implementing, and investigating the simple machines learning environment (SIMALE) to support students' mechanical reasoning and understanding. SIMALE was designed to support reflection, collaborative learning, and to engage students in generative learning through multiple representations of concepts and successive experimentation and design activities. Two key components of SIMALE are an original web-based software tool and hands-on Lego activities. A research study consisting of three treatment groups was created to investigate the benefits of hands-on and web-based computer activities on students' analytic problem solving ability, drawing/modeling ability, and conceptual understanding. The study was conducted with two populations of students that represent a diverse group with respect to gender, ethnicity, academic achievement and social/economic status. One population of students in this dissertation study participated from the Mathematics, Engineering, and Science Achievement (MESA) program that serves minorities and under-represented groups in science and mathematics. The second group was recruited from the Academic Talent Development Program (ATDP) that is an academically competitive outreach program offered through the University of California at Berkeley. Results from this dissertation show success of the SIMALE along several dimensions. First, students in both populations achieved significant gains in analytic problem solving ability, drawing/modeling ability, and conceptual understanding. Second, significant differences that were found on pre-test measures were eliminated

  6. A Homemade Snare: An Alternative Method for Mechanical Removal of Dirofilaria immitis in Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Margarida Alho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Canine dirofilariosis is a life-threatening parasitic disease that is increasingly reported worldwide. Once diagnosed the main treatment goals are to improve the animal’s clinical condition and to eliminate all life stages of the parasite with minimal posttreatment side effects. This can be achieved through mechanical, surgical, or chemotherapeutical approaches. Currently, manual extraction is the preferred method to remove adult heartworms due to its diminished invasiveness, reduced damage to the vascular endothelium, and shortened anaesthesia duration. However, it remains an expensive technique that can be highly traumatic. To address this issue, a nontraumatic homemade catheter-guided snare was developed for heartworm removal by adapting and folding a 0.014-inch coronary wire (BMW, Abbott Vascular. Transvenous heartworm extraction was performed on a dog severely infected with adult heartworms by inserting the modified snare into a 6-F Judkins right coronary guiding catheter BMW (Cordis and advancing it into the right ventricle under fluoroscopic guidance. Fifteen adult specimens of Dirofilaria immitis were successfully extracted from the pulmonary artery and right ventricle without complications. To assure the death of both larvae and adults, postoperative treatment was successfully managed using ivermectin, doxycycline, and melarsomine, with no recurrence after surgery.

  7. An alternate mechanism of abortive release marked by the formation of very long abortive transcripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chander, Monica; Austin, Karyn M; Aye-Han, Nwe-Nwe; Sircar, Piya; Hsu, Lilian M

    2007-11-01

    The Esigma70-dependent N25 promoter is rate-limited at promoter escape. Here, RNA polymerase repeatedly initiates and aborts transcription, giving rise to a ladder of short RNAs 2-11 nucleotides long. Certain mutations in the initial transcribed sequence (ITS) of N25 lengthen the abortive initiation program, resulting in the release of very long abortive transcripts (VLATs) 16-19 nucleotides long. This phenomenon is completely dependent on sequences within the first 20 bases of the ITS since altering sequences downstream of +20 has no effect on their formation. VLAT formation also requires strong interactions between RNA polymerase and the promoter. Mutations that change the -35 and -10 hexamers and the intervening 17 base pair spacer away from consensus decrease the probability of aborting at positions +16 to +19. An unusual characteristic of the VLATs is their undiminished levels in the presence of GreB, which rescues abortive RNAs (mechanism distinct from backtracking, which we propose entails polymerase molecules hyper forward translocating during the promoter escape transition. We discuss how certain features in the ITS, when combined with the N25 promoter, may lead to hyper forward translocation and abortive release at VLAT positions.

  8. Thermal/mechanical simulation and laboratory fatigue testing of an alternative yttria tetragonal zirconia polycrystal core-veneer all-ceramic layered crown design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfante, Estevam A; Rafferty, Brian; Zavanelli, Ricardo A; Silva, Nelson R F A; Rekow, Elizabeth D; Thompson, Van P; Coelho, Paulo G

    2010-04-01

    This study evaluated the stress levels at the core layer and the veneer layer of zirconia crowns (comprising an alternative core design vs. a standard core design) under mechanical/thermal simulation, and subjected simulated models to laboratory mouth-motion fatigue. The dimensions of a mandibular first molar were imported into computer-aided design (CAD) software and a tooth preparation was modeled. A crown was designed using the space between the original tooth and the prepared tooth. The alternative core presented an additional lingual shoulder that lowered the veneer bulk of the cusps. Finite element analyses evaluated the residual maximum principal stresses fields at the core and veneer of both designs under loading and when cooled from 900 degrees C to 25 degrees C. Crowns were fabricated and mouth-motion fatigued, generating master Weibull curves and reliability data. Thermal modeling showed low residual stress fields throughout the bulk of the cusps for both groups. Mechanical simulation depicted a shift in stress levels to the core of the alternative design compared with the standard design. Significantly higher reliability was found for the alternative core. Regardless of the alternative configuration, thermal and mechanical computer simulations showed stress in the alternative core design comparable and higher to that of the standard configuration, respectively. Such a mechanical scenario probably led to the higher reliability of the alternative design under fatigue.

  9. Alternative splicing mechanisms orchestrating post-transcriptional gene expression: intron retention and the intron-rich genome of apicomplexan parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunghi, Matteo; Spano, Furio; Magini, Alessandro; Emiliani, Carla; Carruthers, Vern B; Di Cristina, Manlio

    2016-02-01

    Apicomplexan parasites including Toxoplasma gondii and Plasmodium species have complex life cycles that include multiple hosts and differentiation through several morphologically distinct stages requiring marked changes in gene expression. This review highlights emerging evidence implicating regulation of mRNA splicing as a mechanism to prime these parasites for rapid gene expression upon differentiation. We summarize the most important insights in alternative splicing including its role in regulating gene expression by decreasing mRNA abundance via 'Regulated Unproductive Splicing and Translation'. As a related but less well-understood mechanism, we discuss also our recent work suggesting a role for intron retention for precluding translation of stage specific isoforms of T. gondii glycolytic enzymes. We additionally provide new evidence that intron retention might be a widespread mechanism during parasite differentiation. Supporting this notion, recent genome-wide analysis of Toxoplasma and Plasmodium suggests intron retention is more pervasive than heretofore thought. These findings parallel recent emergence of intron retention being more prevalent in mammals than previously believed, thereby adding to the established roles in plants, fungi and unicellular eukaryotes. Deeper mechanistic studies of intron retention will provide important insight into its role in regulating gene expression in apicomplexan parasites and more general in eukaryotic organisms.

  10. SUBPOPULATIONAL FEATURES OF PERIPHERAL BLOOD CELLS IN THE PATIENTS WITH AUTOIMMUNE MYOCARDITIS: CLINICAL AND PATHOGENETIC ASPECTS

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    N. N. Kekenadze

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The goal of our research was comparative study of the most important parameters of subset cytoarchitectonics in the patients with the different courses of myocarditis and evaluation of their pathogenetic and clinical value in the practice of the physician. We have investigated 99 patients with myocarditis and 40 healthy donors. In patients with malignant course of disease we revealed increased activation index of T/B-cells; increased expression of the activation markers on the both lines of differentiation; disproportion in the immunoregulatory subsets with increased role of dendric cells; decreased intensity of the autoreactive T-cells apoptosis. in the patient with the In patients with nonmalignant course of disease expressed signs of immunopathology were not found. Thus, study of activation markers on the cells of the peripheral blood is more informative and noninvasive method of diagnostics of myocarditis.

  11. SUBPOPULATIONAL FEATURES OF PERIPHERAL BLOOD CELLS IN THE PATIENTS WITH AUTOIMMUNE MYOCARDITIS: CLINICAL AND PATHOGENETIC ASPECTS

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    N. N. Kekenadze

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The goal of our research was comparative study of the most important parameters of subset cytoarchitectonics in the patients with the different courses of myocarditis and evaluation of their pathogenetic and clinical value in the practice of the physician. We have investigated 99 patients with myocarditis and 40 healthy donors. In patients with malignant course of disease we revealed increased activation index of T/B-cells; increased expression of the activation markers on the both lines of differentiation; disproportion in the immunoregulatory subsets with increased role of dendric cells; decreased intensity of the autoreactive T-cells apoptosis. in the patient with the In patients with nonmalignant course of disease expressed signs of immunopathology were not found. Thus, study of activation markers on the cells of the peripheral blood is more informative and noninvasive method of diagnostics of myocarditis.

  12. Inflammatory Mediators and Angiogenic Factors in Choroidal Neovascularization: Pathogenetic Interactions and Therapeutic Implications

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    Claudio Campa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Choroidal neovascularization (CNV is a common and severe complication in heterogeneous diseases affecting the posterior segment of the eye, the most frequent being represented by age-related macular degeneration. Although the term may suggest just a vascular pathological condition, CNV is more properly definable as an aberrant tissue invasion of endothelial and inflammatory cells, in which both angiogenesis and inflammation are involved. Experimental and clinical evidences show that vascular endothelial growth factor is a key signal in promoting angiogenesis. However, many other molecules, distinctive of the inflammatory response, act as neovascular activators in CNV. These include fibroblast growth factor, transforming growth factor, tumor necrosis factor, interleukins, and complement. This paper reviews the role of inflammatory mediators and angiogenic factors in the development of CNV, proposing pathogenetic assumptions of mutual interaction. As an extension of this concept, new therapeutic approaches geared to have an effect on both the vascular and the extravascular components of CNV are discussed.

  13. Pharmacological treatment of the pathogenetic defects in Type 2 Diabetes. The randomized multi-centre South Danish Diabetes study (SDDS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Jeppe; Henriksen, Jan Erik; Grodum, Ellen;

    2011-01-01

    AbstractObjective: To determine the effect of treatment with insulin Aspart as compared to NPH insulin, together with metformin/placebo and rosiglitazone/placebo. The hypothesis was that combined correction of major pathogenetic defects in type 2 diabetes would result in optimal glycemic control....

  14. Effects of weak transcranial Alternating Current Stimulation on brain activity – a review of known mechanisms from animal studies

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    Davide eReato

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Rhythmic neuronal activity is ubiquitous in the human brain. These rhythms originate from a variety of different network mechanisms, which give rise to a wide-ranging spectrum of oscillation frequencies. In the last few years an increasing number of clinical research studies have explored transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS with weak current as a tool for affecting brain function. The premise of these interventions is that tACS will interact with ongoing brain oscillations. However, the exact mechanisms by which weak currents could affect neuronal oscillations at different frequency bands are not well known and this, in turn, limits the rational optimization of human experiments. Here we review the available in vitro and in vivo animal studies that attempt to provide mechanistic explanations. The findings can be summarized into a few generic principles, such as periodic modulation of excitability, shifts in spike timing, modulation of firing rate, and shifts in the balance of excitation and inhibition. These effects result from weak but simultaneous polarization of a large number of neurons. Whether this can lead to an entrainment or a modulation of brain oscillations, or whether AC currents have no effect at all, depends entirely on the specific dynamic that gives rise to the different brain rhythms, as discussed here for slow wave oscillations (~1 Hz and gamma oscillations (~30 Hz. We conclude with suggestions for further experiments to investigate the role of AC stimulation for other physiologically relevant brain rhythms.

  15. A pathogenetic approach to autoimmune skin disease therapy: psoriasis and biological drugs, unresolved issues, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayroldi, Emira; Bastianelli, Alessandra; Cannarile, Lorenza; Petrillo, Maria Grazia; Delfino, Domenico V; Fierabracci, Alessandra

    2011-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disease with a complex pathophysiology and a multigenic background. Autoimmunity and genetic hallmarks couple to confer the disease, which is characterized by chronic plaques (85-90% of all cases) and/or psoriasis arthritis (PsA), and involve the peripheral and sacro-iliac joints, nails, and skeleton. Dissecting the ethiopathogenetic mechanisms of psoriasis and PsA is a major basic research challenge. One important question is whether a single inflammatory mediator can be responsible for the interactive network that forms between immune cells and cytokines in this disease. Despite much progress, no research has yet been able to define a single model to explain the multifaceted pathogenesis of psoriasis and PsA. It is known that both the innate and adaptive immune systems are involved, antigen presenting cells and T lymphocytes play a prominent role, and that the deregulation of the T helper (Th)- 1/Th-2/Th-17/Th-23 axis is directly implicated in disease pathogenesis. Pharmacological therapy for psoriasis has evolved with the development of human knowledge of the disease pathophysiology. Thus, the first "ethiopathogenetic" drugs (e.g., methotrexate, cyclosporin, and alefacept) inhibited T-cell activation directly or targeted co-accessory molecules implicated in T-cell activation. When the mechanism underlying psoriatic inflammation was accepted as a cytokine network disorder, more specific biologics were studied in murine models and were later used clinically. Tumor necrosis factor was the first successful target of cytokine inhibition therapy for psoriasis and PsA (e.g., infliximab, adalimumab, and etanercept). With the recently discovered role for Th-17 in autoimmunity, drugs targeting interleukin-23 (ustekinumab) have become accepted for the pharmacological treatment of psoriasis. The expansion of pharmacological treatment options for psoriasis is not complete. As the knowledge of pathogenetic mechanisms increases, it may be

  16. Msh2 blocks an alternative mechanism for non-homologous tail removal during single-strand annealing in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

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    Glenn M Manthey

    Full Text Available Chromosomal translocations are frequently observed in cells exposed to agents that cause DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs, such as ionizing radiation and chemotherapeutic drugs, and are often associated with tumors in mammals. Recently, translocation formation in the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, has been found to occur at high frequencies following the creation of multiple DSBs adjacent to repetitive sequences on non-homologous chromosomes. The genetic control of translocation formation and the chromosome complements of the clones that contain translocations suggest that translocation formation occurs by single-strand annealing (SSA. Among the factors important for translocation formation by SSA is the central mismatch repair (MMR and homologous recombination (HR factor, Msh2. Here we describe the effects of several msh2 missense mutations on translocation formation that suggest that Msh2 has separable functions in stabilizing annealed single strands, and removing non-homologous sequences from their ends. Additionally, interactions between the msh2 alleles and a null allele of RAD1, which encodes a subunit of a nuclease critical for the removal of non-homologous tails suggest that Msh2 blocks an alternative mechanism for removing these sequences. These results suggest that Msh2 plays multiple roles in the formation of chromosomal translocations following acute levels of DNA damage.

  17. PLAG1 alterations in lipoblastoma: involvement in varied mesenchymal cell types and evidence for alternative oncogenic mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisselsson, D; Hibbard, M K; Dal Cin, P; Sciot, R; Hsi, B L; Kozakewich, H P; Fletcher, J A

    2001-09-01

    Lipoblastomas are rare soft tissue tumors that occur primarily in young children. They typically contain variably differentiated adipocytes, primitive mesenchymal cells, myxoid matrix, and fibrous trabeculae. Abnormalities in chromosome 8, leading to rearrangements of the PLAG1 gene, were demonstrated recently in four lipoblastomas. In the present report, we determine the frequency of PLAG1 alterations in 16 lipoblastomas from children aged 13 years or younger, and we also evaluate the stages of lipoblastoma differentiation at which PLAG1 genomic alterations are found. Eleven lipoblastomas (69%), including those with either classic or lipoma-like histology, had rearrangements of the 8q12 PLAG1 region. Another three lipoblastomas had polysomy for chromosome 8 in the absence of PLAG1 rearrangement. Only two cases (13%) lacked a chromosome 8 abnormality. Notably, the lipoblastomas with chromosome 8 polysomy had up to five copies of chromosome 8 as an isolated cytogenetic finding in an otherwise diploid cell. We also demonstrate that PLAG1 alterations are found in a spectrum of mesenchymal cell types in lipoblastomas, including lipoblasts, mature adipocytes, primitive mesenchymal cells, and fibroblast-like cells. This finding is consistent with neoplastic origin in a primitive mesenchymal precursor and with variable differentiation to a mature adipocyte end-point. Hence, our studies provide biological validation for the clinical observation that lipoblastomas can evolve into mature, lipoma-like, lesions. They also suggest that PLAG1 dosage alterations caused by polysomy 8 might represent an alternative oncogenic mechanism in lipoblastoma.

  18. iPSC-Based Models to Unravel Key Pathogenetic Processes Underlying Motor Neuron Disease Development

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    Irene Faravelli

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Motor neuron diseases (MNDs are neuromuscular disorders affecting rather exclusively upper motor neurons (UMNs and/or lower motor neurons (LMNs. The clinical phenotype is characterized by muscular weakness and atrophy leading to paralysis and almost invariably death due to respiratory failure. Adult MNDs include sporadic and familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (sALS-fALS, while the most common infantile MND is represented by spinal muscular atrophy (SMA. No effective treatment is ccurrently available for MNDs, as for the vast majority of neurodegenerative disorders, and cures are limited to supportive care and symptom relief. The lack of a deep understanding of MND pathogenesis accounts for the difficulties in finding a cure, together with the scarcity of reliable in vitro models. Recent progresses in stem cell field, in particular in the generation of induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSCs has made possible for the first time obtaining substantial amounts of human cells to recapitulate in vitro some of the key pathogenetic processes underlying MNDs. In the present review, recently published studies involving the use of iPSCs to unravel aspects of ALS and SMA pathogenesis are discussed with an overview of their implications in the process of finding a cure for these still orphan disorders.

  19. Pathogenetic justification of dietary supplement TestogenonTM for complex impact on men's reproductive system

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    V. G. Liflyandsky

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The reasonable complex preparation TestogenonTM for prevention and treatment of frustration of reproductive system of men including extracts of plants (bark of a pidzheum, a dioskorea, a yokhimba, a ginseng root and biologically active agents (L-arginin, vitamins C and E, B5, B6 and B12 is created pathogenetic. Harmlessness and safety of a preparation are confirmed in pilot studies. Preclinical researches of specific pharmacological activity of dietary supplement to food TestogenonTM, allowed to establish stimulation at experimental animals of production of own testosterone which concentration was authentically above, than at control animals. Besides, at the rats receiving TestogenonTM activation of all indicators of sexual behavior was observed: average frequency a cage on females was 82 % higher, the quantity of intromissiya exceeded that control animals at 12–15 times, the latent period a cage and an interval between sessions authentically decreased. The preparation is recommended for strengthening of a libido, increase in duration of sexual intercourse, elimination of erektilny dysfunction, simplification of age manifestations of a man's climax, and also within complex therapy of a good-quality hyperplasiya of a prostate gland, chronic not bacterial prostatitis, man's infertility, an incontience of urine, testosterone synthesis stimulation. TestogenonTM is contraindicated at the increased nervous excitability, sleeplessness, arterial hypertension, decrease in coagulability of blood, arrhythmia, the expressed dysfunction of a liver and kidneys. 

  20. Angiogenesis in Interstitial Lung Diseases: a pathogenetic hallmark or a bystander?

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    Anevlavis Stavros

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The past ten years parallels have been drawn between the biology of cancer and pulmonary fibrosis. The unremitting recruitment and maintenance of the altered fibroblast phenotype with generation and proliferation of immortal myofibroblasts is reminiscent with the transformation of cancer cells. A hallmark of tumorigenesis is the production of new blood vessels to facilitate tumor growth and mediate organ-specific metastases. On the other hand several chronic fibroproliferative disorders including fibrotic lung diseases are associated with aberrant angiogenesis. Angiogenesis, the process of new blood vessel formation is under strict regulation determined by a dual, yet opposing balance of angiogenic and angiostatic factors that promote or inhibit neovascularization, respectively. While numerous studies have examined so far the interplay between aberrant vascular and matrix remodeling the relative role of angiogenesis in the initiation and/or progression of the fibrotic cascade still remains elusive and controversial. The current article reviews data concerning the pathogenetic role of angiogenesis in the most prevalent and studied members of ILD disease-group such as IIPs and sarcoidosis, presents some of the future perspectives and formulates questions for potential further research.

  1. SYNDROME-PATHOGENETIC APPROACH TO MEDICAL REHABILITATION OF PATIENTS AFTER THE TOTAL HIP AND KNEE REPLACEMENT

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    Y. Y. Udartsev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of treatment 103 patients in term of 4-6 months after total hip and knee replacement were examined. Established that in the operated limb disorders of regional blood flow in the form of chronic lympho-venous insufficiency and changes in the functional state of neuromuscular apparatus in the form of muscle dysfunction, autonomic dysfunction occured. According to detected characteristics the medical rehabilitation for patients of the 1st group (52 patients was based on the combination of therapeutic factors complex usage, each of which exerts a specific effect on pathogenesis of a certain syndrome or their different combinations, and developing therapeutic factors are summarized and potentiated. That is why balneo-radon-kinesiotherapy, intermittent pneumocompression, low-frequency magnetotherapy, transcranial electroanalgesia, electrical myostimulation, pelotherapy, taking of central myorelexanat tizanidine were included in the treatment program. Among the patients of the 2nd group medical rehabilitation was based exclusively on motion state and bodily exercises. The analysis of treatment showed the advantage of syndrome-pathogenetic approach, applied for the 1st group of patients: joint range of motions increased by 33,1%, venous drainage increased by 24,4%, neuromuscular apparatus duty improved by 51,8%, involuntary nervous system balance normalized, functional outcome of the medical rehabilitation improved by 73,1%.

  2. Analysis of the pathogenetic basis for shedding and transmission of ovine gamma herpesvirus 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hüssy, Daniela; Janett, Fredi; Albini, Sarah; Stäuber, Norbert; Thun, Rico; Ackermann, Mathias

    2002-12-01

    Ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2), a member of the viral subfamily Gammaherpesvirinae, shares numerous similarities with human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8). Both viruses are apathogenic in their healthy original host, may cause lymphoprolipherative diseases, cannot routinely be propagated in cell culture, and may be sexually transmitted. However, the pathways of sexual transmission of these viruses, as well as the underlying pathogenetic dynamics, are not well understood. Organs from naturally OvHV-2-infected, as well as OvHV-2-free, sheep were quantitatively analyzed for OvHV-2 by the DNA amplification techniques. The dynamics of OvHV-2 multiplication and excretion were monitored after experimental infections and, most importantly, subsequent to vasectomy. The OvHV-2 DNA load in various tissues and internal organs was not merely reflecting the viral DNA load in the bloodstream, which suggested compartmentalization of OvHV-2. Moreover, OvHV-2 DNA was detected at several portals for virus shedding, i.e., the respiratory, alimentary, and urogenital tracts. Transient OvHV-2 excretion was detected in ejaculates of experimentally infected rams. Upon vasectomy, OvHV-2 DNA reappeared in the ejaculatory plasma, but the titers did not decline after reaching a peak. Spiking and fractionation experiments revealed an inhibitory activity, associated with the spermatozoa, which was able to suppress detection of viral DNA but which was no longer present in samples from vasectomized animals. Therefore, epidemiological studies on viruses that may be transmitted by the ejaculatory pathway and for whose tracing nucleic acid amplification methods are used, i.e., OvHV-2, HHV-8, and the human immunodeficiency virus, should include vasectomized males.

  3. A multi-centric double blind homoeopathic pathogenetic trial of Hygrophila spinosa

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    G Rakshit

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The study was conducted to elicit the pathogenetic response of Hygrophila spinosa in homoeopathic potencies on healthy human volunteers. Methodology: The drug Hygrophila spinosa was proved by the Central Council for Research in Homoeopathy (CCRH through randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled method. The proving was conducted at three centres viz. Central Research Institute (H, [CRI (H] Noida, Drug Proving Unit [DPU], Bhubaneswar and Regional Research Institute (H [RRI (H], Kolkata. The drug was proved in two potencies (6C and 30C on 48 apparently healthy volunteers who were selected after conducting pre-trial medical examinations by the medical specialists and routine laboratory investigations. 32 of them where kept on interventional drug trial and remaining took placebo. At CRI (H, NOIDA, 56 dose schedule (i.e. 56 doses of drug/placebo were consumed in each batch was followed while at DPU, Bhubaneswar and at RRI (H, Kolkata, 12 dose schedule (i.e. 12 doses of drug/placebo were to be consumed in each batch was followed. The symptoms generated during the trial period were noted by the volunteers and elaborated by the Proving Masters which were compiled at Homoeopathic Drug Proving-cum-Data Processing cell of CCRH headquarters after decoding. Results: Out of 32 provers who were on interventional drug trial, only 14 manifested symptoms. The drug was able to produce symptoms in both the potencies. 92 symptoms appeared during the drug trial from various locations. Conclusion: The drug pathogenesis evolved indicates its therapeutic use for urticaria, frontal sinusitis, conjunctivitis, stomatitis, gastroenteritis, nausea (morning sickness, intermittent fever etc.

  4. SPECIFICITIES OF THE SUBSET PROFILE OF PERIPHERAL BLOOD IN PATIENTS WITH GLIOBLASTOMA: PATHOGENETIC AND CLINICAL ASSESSMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Chumakov

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. In glioblastoma (GB, it is necessary to take into consideration GB-associated secondary immunodeficiency (SID, so-called syndrome of tumor-associated SID (STASID. Cell subsets having effector and regulatory functions, play an important role in developing STASID, and their proportions in patients with different forms of GB can be of pathogenetic importance and have clinical value for treatment and rehabilitation scheduling as well. The most pathogenically and clinically important features of cell subsets profile of peripheral blood were analyzed in patients with different clinical and morphological types of GB. The patients were divided into three groups, i.e., groups I and II were formed by patients with STASID (marked and slightly marked SID, accordingly; group III – patients with SIDTAS (tumor-associated autoimmune syndrome, associated with SID. Marked suppression of cell immunity is typical of group I - imbalance in T-lymphocytes, in a number of specific subsets, and in subsets clusters, as well as disproportions in the immunoregulatory indexes. In group II, the subset profiles of blood were slightly different from the norm. In patients with SIDTAS, activation of cell immunity was evident, forming SID with signs of autoimmune syndrome, affecting effector and regulatory chains of immunity, and influencing the severity and forecast of the disease. Specific features of the immune status in patients with GB identified can be resulted from different clinicalmorphological types of the tumor; the latter are to be considered in differential diagnostics of clinical course of GB and in scheduling of clinical-immunological efficient anti-tumor pharmacotherapy in pre- and postoperative periods.

  5. The cytotoxicity of polycationic iron oxide nanoparticles: Common endpoint assays and alternative approaches for improved understanding of cellular response mechanism

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    Hoskins Clare

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (MNP's have an increasing number of biomedical applications. As such in vitro characterisation is essential to ensure the bio-safety of these particles. Little is known on the cellular interaction or effect on membrane integrity upon exposure to these MNPs. Here we synthesised Fe3O4 and surface coated with poly(ethylenimine (PEI and poly(ethylene glycol (PEG to achieve particles of varying surface positive charges and used them as model MNP's to evaluate the relative utility and limitations of cellular assays commonly applied for nanotoxicity assessment. An alternative approach, atomic force microscopy (AFM, was explored for the analysis of membrane structure and cell morphology upon interacting with the MNPs. The particles were tested in vitro on human SH-SY5Y, MCF-7 and U937 cell lines for reactive oxygen species (ROS production and lipid peroxidation (LPO, LDH leakage and their overall cytotoxic effect. These results were compared with AFM topography imaging carried out on fixed cell lines. Results Successful particle synthesis and coating were characterised using FTIR, PCS, TEM and ICP. The particle size from TEM was 30 nm (−16.9 mV which increased to 40 nm (+55.6 mV upon coating with PEI and subsequently 50 nm (+31.2 mV with PEG coating. Both particles showed excellent stability not only at neutral pH but also in acidic environment of pH 4.6 in the presence of sodium citrate. The higher surface charge MNP-PEI resulted in increased cytotoxic effect and ROS production on all cell lines compared with the MNP-PEI-PEG. In general the effect on the cell membrane integrity was observed only in SH-SY5Y and MCF-7 cells by MNP-PEI determined by LDH leakage and LPO production. AFM topography images showed consistently that both the highly charged MNP-PEI and the less charged MNP-PEI-PEG caused cell morphology changes possibly due to membrane disruption and cytoskeleton remodelling. Conclusions

  6. Alternate stresses and temperature variation as factors of influence of ultrasonic vibration on mechanical and functional properties of shape memory alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyaev, Sergey; Volkov, Alexander; Resnina, Natalia

    2014-01-01

    It is known that the main factors in a variation in the shape memory alloy properties under insonation are heating of the material and alternate stresses action. In the present work the experimental study of the mechanical behaviour and functional properties of shape memory alloy under the action of alternate stresses and varying temperature was carried out. The data obtained had demonstrated that an increase in temperature of the sample resulted in a decrease or increase in deformation stress depending on the structural state of the TiNi sample. It was shown that in the case of the alloy in the martensitic state, a decrease in stress was observed, and on the other hand, in the austenitic state an increase in stress took place. It was found that action of alternate stresses led to appearance of strain jumps on the strain-temperature curves during cooling and heating the sample through the temperature range of martensitic transformation under the constant stress. The value of the strain jumps depended on the amplitude of alternate stresses and the completeness of martensitic transformation. It was shown that the heat action of ultrasonic vibration to the mechanical behaviour of shape memory alloys was due to the non-monotonic dependence of yield stress on the temperature. The force action of ultrasonic vibration to the functional properties was caused by formation of additional oriented martensite.

  7. Structural Insight into Archaic and Alternative Chaperone-Usher Pathways Reveals a Novel Mechanism of Pilus Biogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pakharukova, Natalia; Garnett, J.A.; Tuittila, Minna; Paavilainen, Sari; Diallo, Mamou; Xu, Yingqi; Matthews, S.J.; Zavialov, A.V.

    2015-01-01

    Gram-negative pathogens express fibrous adhesive organelles that mediate targeting to sites of infection. The major class of these organelles is assembled via the classical, alternative and archaic chaperone-usher pathways. Although non-classical systems share a wider phylogenetic distribution an

  8. The development of an in vitro model for studying mechanisms of nephrotoxicity as an alternative for animal experiments.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mertens, J.J.W.M.

    1991-01-01

    SUMMARYPresently in our society animal tests still form the main starting point for the assessment of the possible risks of chemicals with regard to human and animal health. For scientific. economic, and ethical reasons. attempts are undertaken continuously to develop cell models as alternatives to

  9. PATHOGENETIC PROPERTIES OF IMMUNE STATUS AT CHRONIC VIRAL HEPATITIS B AND C IN CHILDREN

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    Rikalo N.A.

    2015-05-01

    +, which on the one hand contribute to the elimination of the virus from the microorganism, and the other - causing a progressive lesion of hepatocytes as enhance cytolysis syndrome are established. 3. Further study of the immune status of children of different age groups with CVH B and C supplement will allow immunopathogenesis of the disease, and improve data pathogenetic therapy of diseases.

  10. Ectopic Thyroid Tissue in the Adrenal Gland: A Report of Two Cases with Pathogenetic Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Rojas, Alfredo; Bella-Cueto, María Rosa; Meza-Cabrera, Ivonne A.; Cabezuelo-Hernández, Angeles; García-Rojo, Darío; Vargas-Uricoechea, Hernando

    2013-01-01

    Background: Ectopic thyroid tissue is usually found anywhere along the embryonic descent pathway of the medial thyroid anlage from the tongue to the trachea (Wölfler area). However, ectopic thyroid tissue in the adrenal gland (ETTAG) is not easy to understand on the basis of thyroid embryology; because it is so rare, the possibility of metastasis should first be considered. Here, we describe two cases of ETTAG with pathogenetic implications and review the associated literature. Patient findings: Two cases of ETTAG presented as incidental cystic adrenal masses in adult females, one having a congenital hernia of Morgagni. The ETTAG was histologically indistinguishable from normal orthotopic thyroid tissue, and its follicular nature was confirmed by immunohistochemical positivity for thyroglobulin, thyroperoxidase, thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1/Titf-1/Nkx2.1), cytokeratin AE1/AE3, cytokeratin 7, pendrin, human sodium iodide symporter, paired box gene 8, and forkhead box E1 (TTF-2), as well as positivity for the messenger RNA of the thyroglobulin gene by in situ hybridization analysis. No C cells (negativity for calcitonin, chromogranin, and synaptophysin) were present. Neither BRAF nor KRAS mutations were detected with real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis. Further work-up did not show evidence of thyroid malignancy. Summary: ETTAG is a rare finding, with only seven cases reported; women are much more frequently affected than men (8:1), and it usually presents in the fifth decade (mean age 54, range 38–67) as a cystic adrenal mass incidentally discovered on abdominal ultrasonography and/or in computed tomography images. ETTAG is composed of normal follicular cells without C cells. The expression of some transcription factors (TTF-1, paired box gene 8, and FOXE1) involved in development and/or migration of the medial thyroid anlage is preserved. Coexistence of a congenital hernia of Morgagni in one patient suggests an overdescent of medial thyroid

  11. Alternative Splicing of the Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide Receptor PAC1: Mechanisms of Fine Tuning of Brain Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janna eBlechman

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Alternative splicing of the precursor mRNA encoding for the neuropeptide receptor PAC1/ADCYAP1R1 generates multiple protein products that exhibit pleiotropic activities. Recent studies in mammals and zebrafish have implicated some of these splice isoforms in control of both cellular and body homeostasis. Here, we review the regulation of PAC1 splice variants and their underlying signal transduction and physiological processes in the nervous system.

  12. On the origin of Mount Etna eruptive cycles and Stromboli volcano paroxysms: implications for an alternative mechanism of volcanic eruption

    CERN Document Server

    Nechayev, Andrei

    2014-01-01

    New mechanism of imbalance between magma column and fluid volume, accumulated in the magmatic system, is considered as a driving force of the volcanic eruption. Conditions of eruption based on this mechanism are used to explain main features of the volcanic activity (eruptive cycles and paroxysms) of the volcanoes Etna and Stromboli (Italy).

  13. Woods with physical, mechanical and acoustic properties similar to those of Caesalpinia echinata have high potential as alternative woods for bow makers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Luiz Longui

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available For nearly two hundred years, Caesalpinia echinata wood has been the standard for modern bows. However, the threat of extinction and the enforcement of trade bans have required bow makers to seek alternative woods. The hypothesis tested was that woods with physical, mechanical and acoustic properties similar to those of C. echinata would have high potential as alternative woods for bows. Accordingly, were investigated Handroanthus spp., Mezilaurus itauba, Hymenaea spp., Dipteryx spp., Diplotropis spp. and Astronium lecointei. Handroanthus and Diplotropis have the greatest number of similarities with C. echinata, but only Handroanthus spp. showed significant results in actual bow manufacture, suggesting the importance of such key properties as specific gravity, speed of sound propagation and modulus of elasticity. In practice, Handroanthus and Dipteryx produced bows of quality similar to that of C. echinata.

  14. A Systems Biology Approach to Understanding the Mechanisms of Action of an Alternative Anticancer Compound in Comparison to Cisplatin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise P. Wright

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Many clinically available anticancer compounds are designed to target DNA. This commonality of action often yields overlapping cellular response mechanisms and can thus detract from drug efficacy. New compounds are required to overcome resistance mechanisms that effectively neutralise compounds like cisplatin and those with similar chemical structures. Studies have shown that 56MESS is a novel compound which, unlike cisplatin, does not covalently bind to DNA, but is more toxic to many cell lines and active against cisplatin-resistant cells. Furthermore, a transcriptional study of 56MESS in yeast has implicated iron and copper metabolism as well as the general yeast stress response following challenge with 56MESS. Beyond this, the cytotoxicity of 56MESS remains largely uncharacterised. Here, yeast was used as a model system to facilitate a systems-level comparison between 56MESS and cisplatin. Preliminary experiments indicated that higher concentrations than seen in similar studies be used. Although a DNA interaction with 56MESS had been theorized, this work indicated that an effect on protein synthesis/ degradation was also implicated in the mechanism(s of action of this novel anticancer compound. In contrast to cisplatin, the different mechanisms of action that are indicated for 56MESS suggest that this compound could overcome cisplatin resistance either as a stand-alone treatment or a synergistic component of therapeutics.

  15. Alternative energies; Energies alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonal, J.; Rossetti, P

    2007-07-01

    The earth took millions years to made the petroleum, the gas the coal and the uranium. Only a few centuries will be needed to exhaust these fossil fuels and some years to reach expensive prices. Will the wold continue on this way of energy compulsive consumption? The renewable energies and some citizen attitudes are sufficient to break this spiral. This book proposes to discuss these alternative energies. It shows that this attitude must be supported by the government. It takes stock on the more recent information concerning the renewable energies. it develops three main points: the electricity storage, the housing and the transports. (A.L.B.)

  16. Mechanical Stimulation (Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields "PEMF" and Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy "ESWT") and Tendon Regeneration: A Possible Alternative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosso, Federica; Bonasia, Davide E; Marmotti, Antonio; Cottino, Umberto; Rossi, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    The pathogenesis of tendon degeneration and tendinopathy is still partially unclear. However, an active role of metalloproteinases (MMP), growth factors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and a crucial role of inflammatory elements and cytokines was demonstrated. Mechanical stimulation may play a role in regulation of inflammation. In vitro studies demonstrated that both pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) and extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) increased the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine such as interleukin (IL-6 and IL-10). Moreover, ESWT increases the expression of growth factors, such as transforming growth factor β(TGF-β), (VEGF), and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1), as well as the synthesis of collagen I fibers. These pre-clinical results, in association with several clinical studies, suggest a potential effectiveness of ESWT for tendinopathy treatment. Recently PEMF gained popularity as adjuvant for fracture healing and bone regeneration. Similarly to ESWT, the mechanical stimulation obtained using PEMFs may play a role for treatment of tendinopathy and for tendon regeneration, increasing in vitro TGF-β production, as well as scleraxis and collagen I gene expression. In this manuscript the rational of mechanical stimulations and the clinical studies on the efficacy of extracorporeal shock wave (ESW) and PEMF will be discussed. However, no clear evidence of a clinical value of ESW and PEMF has been found in literature with regards to the treatment of tendinopathy in human, so further clinical trials are needed to confirm the promising hypotheses concerning the effectiveness of ESWT and PEMF mechanical stimulation.

  17. An alternative view on the role of the β-effect in the Rossby wave propagation mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyal Heifetz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The role of the β-effect in the Rossby wave propagation mechanism is examined in the linearised shallow water equations directly in momentum–height variables, without recourse to potential vorticity (PV. Rigorous asymptotic expansion of the equations, with respect to the small non-dimensionalised β parameter, reveals in detail how the Coriolis force acting on the small ageostrophic terms translates the geostrophic leading-order solution to propagate westward in concert. This information cannot be obtained directly from the conventional PV perspective on the propagation mechanism. Furthermore, a comparison between the β-effect in planetary Rossby waves and the sloping-bottom effect in promoting topographic Rossby waves shows that the ageostrophic terms play different roles in the two cases. This is despite the fact that from the PV viewpoint whether the advection of mean PV gradient is set up by changes in planetary vorticity or by mean depth is inconsequential.

  18. Alternative splicing and expression of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) gene in osteoblasts under mechanical stretch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAN Chengyu; WANG Yuanliang; ZHANG Bingbing; TANG Liling; PAN Jun; LUO Yanfeng; JIANG Peng; LI Dajun

    2006-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) promotes osteoblasts differentiation and bone formation,and its expression is induced by mechanical stretch,thus IGF-1 has been considered an effector molecule that links mechanical stimulation and local tissue responses. In this study, a mechanical stretching device was designed to apply physiological level static or cyclic stretching stimulation to osteoblasts.Different isoforms of IGF-1 mRNA were amplified by RT-PCR from the cells using respective primers and these amplified products were sequenced. An isoform of IGF-1 splicing product was found to be selectively produced by osteoblasts under stretching stimulation. This IGF-1 isoform had identical sequence with the mechano growth factor (MGF) which was originally identified in muscle cells. Regulations of the expression of the liver-type IGF (L.IGF-1) and MGF in osteoblasts under stretch stimulation were further studied using semi-quantitative RT-PCR.Stretch stimulation was found to promot the expression of IGF-1 (L.IGF-1 and MGF), and for both isoforms expression was more effectively stimulated by cyclic stretch than static stretch. MGF was detected only in osteoblasts subjected to mechanical stretch,suggesting MGF was a stretch sensitive growth factor.Expression of MGF peaked earlier than that of L.IGF-1, which was similar to their regulation in muscie and suggested similar roles of MGF and L.IGF-1in bone as in muscle cells. The functions of MGF and L.IGF-1 in osteoblasts shall be established by further experimental studies.

  19. Mechanical stimulation (pulsed electromagnetic fields "PEMF" and extracorporeal shock wave therapy "ESWT" and tendon regeneration: a possible alternative.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica eRosso

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of tendon degeneration and tendinopathy is still partially unclear. However, an active role of metalloproteinases (MMP, growth factors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and a crucial role of inflammatory elements and cytokines was demonstrated. Mechanical stimulation may play a role in regulation of inflammation. In vitro studies demonstrated that both pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF and extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT increased the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine such as interleukin (IL-6 and IL-10. Moreover ESWT increases the expression of growth factors, such as transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF, and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1, as well as the synthesis of collagen I fibers. These pre-clinical results, in association with several clinical studies, suggest a potential effectiveness of ESWT for tendinopathy treatment. Recently PEMF gained popularity as adjuvant for fracture healing and bone regeneration. Similarly to ESWT, the mechanical stimulation obtained using PEMFs may play a role for treatment of tendinopathy and for tendon regeneration, increasing in-vitro TGF-beta production, as well as scleraxis and collagen I gene expression. In this manuscript the rational of mechanical stimulations and the clinical studies on the efficacy of extracorporeal shock wave (ESW and PEMF will be discussed. However, no clear evidence of a clinical value of ESW and PEMF has been found in literature with regards to the treatment of tendinopathy in human, so further clinical trials are needed to confirm the promising hypotheses concerning the effectiveness of ESWT and PEMF mechanical stimulation.

  20. Effect of micrometer-scale metallic fillers on the mechanical and corrosion resistance properties of alternative materials for conservative dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luponio, C; Causa, F; Angelini, E; Pinasco, M R; Ambrosio, L

    2006-01-01

    In conservative dentistry, glass-ionomer cements (GICs) have been proposed as substitutes for composite resins. This is because the latter, although widely used over the last 10 yrs, exhibit inadequate physico-chemical properties. Although the performance of a typical commercial GIC is not yet optimal for restorative dentistry, the addition of metallic filler could improve this. In this study, a series of commercially available GICs were incorporated in trial dental amalgams, whose mechanical and calorimetric properties and morphologies, were examined. The metallic component of these amalgams comprised one of three metallic fillers, each including micrometer-scale metal particles of a different shape. The corrosion resistance of the amalgams, in fluids simulating the oral cavity environment, was also studied. The addition of metallic filler to GIC produced a general improvement in mechanical properties. Of particular note were increases in the elastic modulus, up to around sixfold, with the addition of Valiant metallic filler to the GIC Fuji II, and of the stress at break, up to around fourfold, for the New Gen metallic filler/GIC Fuji II amalgam. In these cases, the mechanical properties of dentine were studied. Micrographic observations showed a highly compact structure of the added GICs, thus reflecting a reduction in shrinkage. Calorimetric and dilatometric analyses further confirmed the suitability for applications in preservative dentistry. Finally, with respect to corrosion resistance, the effect of the introduction of the metallic filler was beneficial in samples with low porosity.

  1. Single-Cell Analyses of ESCs Reveal Alternative Pluripotent Cell States and Molecular Mechanisms that Control Self-Renewal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitri Papatsenko

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Analyses of gene expression in single mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs cultured in serum and LIF revealed the presence of two distinct cell subpopulations with individual gene expression signatures. Comparisons with published data revealed that cells in the first subpopulation are phenotypically similar to cells isolated from the inner cell mass (ICM. In contrast, cells in the second subpopulation appear to be more mature. Pluripotency Gene Regulatory Network (PGRN reconstruction based on single-cell data and published data suggested antagonistic roles for Oct4 and Nanog in the maintenance of pluripotency states. Integrated analyses of published genomic binding (ChIP data strongly supported this observation. Certain target genes alternatively regulated by OCT4 and NANOG, such as Sall4 and Zscan10, feed back into the top hierarchical regulator Oct4. Analyses of such incoherent feedforward loops with feedback (iFFL-FB suggest a dynamic model for the maintenance of mESC pluripotency and self-renewal.

  2. More about Neutron Majorana mass from Exotic Instantons: an alternative mechanism in Low-Scale String theory

    CERN Document Server

    Addazi, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Recently, we have proposed that Exotic instantons can generate a Majorana mass for the neutron, with emphasis to experimental researches in the next future. In this paper, we discuss an alternative model based on the same idea, in the contest of low scale string theory. In particular, with $M_{S}=10\\div 10^{3}\\rm TeV$, such a transition can be mediated by two color-triplets, through a quartic coupling with down-quarks, generated by exotic instantons, in a calculable and controllable way. Comparison with FCNCs imposes limits on color-triplet mass well compatible with $n-\\bar{n}$ oscillation ones. If a $n-\\bar{n}$ transition were found, this would be an indirect hint for our model. This would strongly motivate searches for direct channels in proton-proton colliders. In fact, our model can be directly tested in a experimentally challenging $100\\div 1000\\, \\rm TeV$ proton-proton collider, searching for our desired color-triplet states and an evidence for "exotic quartic couplings", in addition to Regge resonances...

  3. More about neutron Majorana mass from exotic instantons: An alternative mechanism in low-scale string theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addazi, Andrea

    2016-06-01

    We discuss an alternative for baryon-violating six quarks transition in the context of low scale string theory. In particular, with MS = 10-103 TeV, such a transition can be mediated by two color-triplets through a quartic coupling with down-quarks, generated by exotic instantons, in a calculable and controllable way. We show how flavor-changing neutral currents (FCNCs) limits on color-triplet mass are well compatible with n -n¯ oscillation ones. If an n -n¯ transition was found, this would be an indirect hint for our model. This would strongly motivate searches for direct channels in proton-proton colliders. In fact, our model can be directly tested in an experimentally challenging 100-1000 TeV proton-proton collider, searching for our desired color-triplet states and an evidence for exotic instantons resonances, in addition to stringy Regge resonances, anomalous Z‧-bosons and gauged megaxion. In particular, our scenario can be related to the 750 GeV diphoton hint identifying it with the gauged megaxion dual to the B-field. On the other hand, this scenario is compatible with TeV-ish color triplets visible at large hadron collider (LHC) and with 1-10 TeV string scale, i.e. stringy resonances at LHC.

  4. Alternative additives; Alternative additiver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-08-15

    In this project a number of industrial and agricultural waste products have been characterised and evaluated in terms of alkali-getter performance. The intended use is for biomass-fired power stations aiming at reducing corrosion or slagging related problems. The following products have been obtained, characterised and evaluated: 1) Brewery draff 2) Danish de-gassed manure 3) Paper sludge 4) Moulding sand 5) Spent bleaching earth 6) Anorthosite 7) Sand 8) Clay-sludge. Most of the above alternative additive candidates are deemed unsuitable due to insufficient chemical effect and/or expensive requirements for pre-treatment (such as drying and transportation). 3 products were selected for full-scale testing: de-gassed manure, spent bleaching earth and clay slugde. The full scale tests were undertaken at the biomass-fired power stations in Koege, Slagelse and Ensted. Spent bleaching earth (SBE) and clay sludge were the only tested additive candidates that had a proven ability to react with KCl, to thereby reduce Cl-concentrations in deposits, and reduce the deposit flux to superheater tubes. Their performance was shown to nearly as good as commercial additives. De-gassed manure, however, did not evaluate positively due to inhibiting effects of Ca in the manure. Furthermore, de-gassed manure has a high concentration of heavy metals, which imposes a financial burden with regard to proper disposal of the ash by-products. Clay-sludge is a wet clay slurring, and drying and transportation of this product entails substantial costs. Spent bleaching does not require much pre-treatment and is therefore the most promising alternative additive. On the other hand, bleaching earth contains residual plant oil which means that a range of legislation relating to waste combustion comes into play. Not least a waste combustion fee of 330 DKK/tonne. For all alternative (and commercial) additives disposal costs of the increase ash by-products represents a significant cost. This is

  5. AGEs-Induced IL-6 Synthesis Precedes RAGE Up-Regulation in HEK 293 Cells: An Alternative Inflammatory Mechanism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Iren Serban

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Advanced glycation end products (AGEs can activate the inflammatory pathways involved in diabetic nephropathy. Understanding these molecular pathways could contribute to therapeutic strategies for diabetes complications. We evaluated the modulation of inflammatory and oxidative markers, as well as the protective mechanisms employed by human embryonic kidney cells (HEK 293 upon exposure to 200 μg/mL bovine serum albumine (BSA or AGEs–BSA for 12, 24 and 48 h. The mRNA and protein expression levels of AGEs receptor (RAGE and heat shock proteins (HSPs 27, 60 and 70, the activity of antioxidant enzymes and the expression levels of eight cytokines were analysed. Cell damage via oxidative mechanisms was evaluated by glutathione and malondialdehyde levels. The data revealed two different time scale responses. First, the up-regulation of interleukin-6 (IL-6, HSP 27 and high catalase activity were detected as early as 12 h after exposure to AGEs–BSA, while the second response, after 24 h, consisted of NF-κB p65, RAGE, HSP 70 and inflammatory cytokine up-regulation, glutathione depletion, malondialdehyde increase and the activation of antioxidant enzymes. IL-6 might be important in the early ignition of inflammatory responses, while the cellular redox imbalance, RAGE activation and NF-κB p65 increased expression further enhance inflammatory signals in HEK 293 cells.

  6. Flow cytometry assay of myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs) in peripheral blood during acute hepatitis C: Possible pathogenetic mechanisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alessandro Perrella; Oreste Perrella; Luigi Atripaldi; Pasquale Bellopede; Tommaso Patarino; Costanza Sbreglia; Giovanni Tarantino; Paolo Sorrentino; Paolo Conca; Luca Ruggiero

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To asses the expression of myeloid dendritic cells (CD11c+) subset during acute HCV hepatitis and its possible involvement in natural history of the infection.METHODS: We enrolled 11 patients with acute hepatitis C (AHC) (Group A), 10 patients with acute hepatitis A (AHA) (as infective control-Group B) and 10 healthy donors (group C) in this study. All patients underwent selective flow cytometry gating strategies to assess the peripheral number of the myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs)to understand the possible role and differences during acute hepatitis.RESULTS: Eight of 11 patients with acute HCV hepatitis did not show any increase of mDCs compared to healthy individuals, while a significant decrease of mDCs was found in absolute cell count (z=-2.37; P<0.05) and percentage (z=-2.30; P<0.05) as compared with AHA.On the contrary, The remaining three patients of the group A had a higher mDCs number and percentage as occur in group B. Interestingly, after six months, those patients did not show any increase of mDCs subset were chronically infected. while the three subjects with an increase of peripheral mDCs, as in HAV acute infection,resolved the illness.CONCLUSION: The lack of increase of mDCs during acute hepatitis C might be an important factor involved in chronicization of the infection.

  7. [Systematization of diseases and lesions of the endometrium by etiological and pathogenetical mechanisms of development to choose an optimal treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boroda, A M

    2004-03-01

    Current clinical gynecology considers pathological states of endometrium (PSE) as one of the most challenging issue of the day. Many questions of etiology, pathogenesis, diagnostics, and treatment of PSE are still under discussion. Nowadays there isn't a whole agreed classification of PSE. Morphological classification remains the most widely used one, but morphological changes occurring in the endometrium don't show a wide variety of disorders related to these pathological states. A new clinicopathogenetic classification of PSE was proposed, which is based on choosing the optimal treatment with functional state of the disease taken into account. This classification helps us to perceive the problem as a whole with choosing functionally based treatment for each patient.

  8. The GH-IGF-SST system in hepatocellular carcinoma: biological and molecular pathogenetic mechanisms and therapeutic targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivonello, Claudia; De Martino, Maria Cristina; Negri, Mariarosaria; Cuomo, Gaia; Cariati, Federica; Izzo, Francesco; Colao, Annamaria; Pivonello, Rosario

    2014-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the sixth most common malignancy worldwide. Different signalling pathways have been identified to be implicated in the pathogenesis of HCC; among these, GH, IGF and somatostatin (SST) pathways have emerged as some of the major pathways implicated in the development of HCC. Physiologically, GH-IGF-SST system plays a crucial role in liver growth and development since GH induces IGF1 and IGF2 secretion and the expression of their receptors, involved in hepatocytes cell proliferation, differentiation and metabolism. On the other hand, somatostatin receptors (SSTRs) are exclusively present on the biliary tract. Importantly, the GH-IGF-SST system components have been indicated as regulators of hepatocarcinogenesis. Reduction of GH binding affinity to GH receptor, decreased serum IGF1 and increased serum IGF2 production, overexpression of IGF1 receptor, loss of function of IGF2 receptor and appearance of SSTRs are frequently observed in human HCC. In particular, recently, many studies have evaluated the correlation between increased levels of IGF1 receptors and liver diseases and the oncogenic role of IGF2 and its involvement in angiogenesis, migration and, consequently, in tumour progression. SST directly or indirectly influences tumour growth and development through the inhibition of cell proliferation and secretion and induction of apoptosis, even though SST role in hepatocarcinogenesis is still opened to argument. This review addresses the present evidences suggesting a role of the GH-IGF-SST system in the development and progression of HCC, and describes the therapeutic perspectives, based on the targeting of GH-IGF-SST system, which have been hypothesised and experimented in HCC.

  9. Is a mechanism such as the NCI's Clinical Alert ever an appropriate alternative to journal peer review?

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVita, V T

    1991-01-01

    Responsibly handled, a mechanism such as a Clinical Alert can provide physicians with enough information to deal with the early release of data to the public. The journal peer review system was established primarily as an academic tool to allow publication of scientific work for the purpose of communicating information among scientists and physicians. Since both the number of papers published by an investigator and the quality of the journal publishing them are important to academic advancement, bypassing this system naturally threatens many physicians and scientists. The Clinical Alert, however, served its purpose and was well received by the majority of practicing physicians and the public. In fact, a second Alert was issued by NCI in October 1989 when data became available on the effectiveness of a new adjuvant drug therapy for a common stage of colon cancer (Appendix B) and, at a workshop convened by the National Cancer Advisory Board, where the mechanism of the Clinical Alerts was discussed, it was apparent that most participants felt that maintaining this process was important. In light of the current revolution in biology, the public's interest in receiving the benefits of its financial support of the national research enterprise, and access by the press to both scientific literature and meetings, it seems appropriate for public officials, especially when mandated by Congress, to take the responsibility of releasing some types of data to the public before traditional peer review. Some visible public decision-making process must, however, be used where the pros and cons of early release of a particular data set can be discussed, as was done with the original NCI Clinical Alert.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Thalidomide inhibits alternative activation of macrophages in vivo and in vitro: a potential mechanism of anti-asthmatic effect of thalidomide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Seung Lee

    Full Text Available Thalidomide is known to have anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory actions. However, the effect and the anti-asthmatic mechanism of thalidomide in the pathogenesis of asthmatic airways are not fully understood.This study is designed to determine the effect and the potential mechanism of thalidomide in the pathogenesis of asthmatic airways using animal model of allergic asthma.Six-week-old female BALB/C mice were sensitized with alum plus ovalbumin (OVA and were exposed to OVA via intranasal route for 3 days for challenge. Thalidomide 200 mg/kg was given via gavage twice a day from a day before the challenge and airway hyperresponsivenss (AHR, airway inflammatory cells, and cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF were evaluated. The expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and other mediators were evaluated using ELISA, real time (RT-qPCR, and flow cytometry. CRL-2456, alveolar macrophage cell line, was used to test the direct effect of thalidomide on the activation of macrophages in vitro.The mice with thalidomide treatment showed significantly reduced levels of allergen-induced BALF and lung inflammation, AHR, and the expression of a number of pro-inflammatory cytokines and mediators including Th2 related, IL-17 cytokines, and altered levels of allergen-specific IgG1/IgG2a. Of interesting note, thalidomide treatment significantly reduced expression levels of allergen- or Th2 cytokine-stimulated alternative activation of macrophages in vivo and in vitro.These studies highlight a potential use of thalidomide in the treatment of allergic diseases including asthma. This study further identified a novel inhibitory effect of thalidomide on alternative activation of macrophages as a potential mechanism of anti-asthmatic effect of thalidomide.

  11. Chiral, J-Aggregate-Forming Dyes for Alternative Signal Modulation Mechanisms in Self-Immolative Enzyme-Activatable Optical Probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloniec-Myszk, Jagoda; Resch-Genger, Ute; Hennig, Andreas

    2016-02-11

    Enzyme-activatable optical probes are important for future advances in cancer imaging, but may easily suffer from low signal-to-background ratios unless not optimized. To address this shortcoming, numerous mechanisms to modulate the fluorescence signal have been explored. We report herein newly synthesized probes based on self-immolative linkers containing chiral J-aggregate-forming dyes. Signal modulation by formation of chiral J-aggregates is yet unexplored in optical enzyme probe design. The comprehensive characterization of the probes by absorption, CD, fluorescence, and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy revealed dye-dye interactions not observed for the free dyes in solution as well as dye-protein interactions with the enzyme. This suggested that J-aggregate formation is challenging to achieve with current probe design and that interactions of the dyes with the enzyme may interfere with achieving high signal-to-background ratios. The detailed understanding of the interactions provided herein provides valuable guidelines for the future design of similar probes.

  12. Identification of candidate genes for congenital splay leg in piglets by alternative analysis of DNA microarray data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Maak, Diana Boettcher, Jens Tetens, Monika Wensch-Dorendorf, Gerd Nürnberg, Klaus Wimmers, Hermann H. Swalve, Georg Thaller

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The congenital splay leg syndrome in piglets is characterized by a temporarily impaired functionality of the hind leg muscles immediately after birth. Etiology and pathogenetic mechanisms for the disease are still not well understood. We compared genome wide gene expression of three hind leg muscles (M. adductores, M. gracilis and M. sartorius between affected piglets and their healthy littermates with the GeneChip® Porcine Genome Array (Affymetrix in order to identify candidate genes for the disease. Data analysis with standard algorithms revealed no significant differences between both groups. By application of an alternative approach, we identified 63 transcripts with differences in two muscles and 5 genes differing between the groups in three muscles. The expression of six selected genes (SQSTM1, SSRP1, DDIT4, ENAH, MAF, and PDK4 was investigated with SYBRGreen RT - Real time PCR. The differences obtained with the microarray analysis could be confirmed and demonstrate the validity of the alternative approach to microarray data analysis. Four genes with different expression levels in at least two muscles (SQSTM1, SSRP1, DDIT4, and MAF are assigned to transcriptional cascades related to cell death and may thus indicate pathways for further investigations on congenital splay leg in piglets.

  13. Growth factor deprivation induces an alternative non-apoptotic death mechanism that is inhibited by Bcl2 in cells derived from neural precursor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas-Aguayo, María del Carmen; Santa-Olalla, Jesús; Baizabal, José-Manuel; Salgado, Luis-Miguel; Covarrubias, Luis

    2003-12-01

    Although apoptosis has been considered the typical mechanism for physiological cell death, presently alternative mechanisms need to be considered. We previously showed that fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2) could act as a survival factor for neural precursor cells. To study the death mechanism activated by the absence of this growth factor, we followed the changes in cell morphology and determined cell viability by staining with several dyes after FGF2 removal from mesencephalic neural-progenitor-cell cultures. The changes observed did not correspond to those associated with apoptosis. After 48 h in the absence of FGF2, cells began to develop vacuoles in their cytoplasm, a phenotype that became very obvious 3-5 days later. Double-membrane vacuoles containing cell debris were observed. Vacuolated cells did not stain with either ethidium bromide or trypan Blue, and did not show chromatin condensations. Nonetheless, during the course of culture, vacuolated cells formed aggregates with highly condensed chromatin and detached from the plate. Neural progenitor cells grown in the presence of FGF2 did not display any of those characteristics. The vacuolated phenotype could be reversed by the addition of FGF2. Typical autophagy inhibitors such as 3-MA and LY294002 inhibited vacuole development, whereas a broad-spectrum caspase inhibitor did not. Interestingly, Bcl-2 overexpression retarded vacuole development. In conclusion, we identified a death autophagy-like mechanism activated by the lack of a specific survival factor that can be inhibited by Bcl2. We propose that anti-apoptotic Bcl2 family members are key molecules controlling death activation independently of the cell degeneration mechanism used.

  14. Molecular mechanisms and pathways involved in bovine embryonic genome activation and their regulation by alternative in vivo and in vitro culture conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gad, Ahmed; Hoelker, Michael; Besenfelder, Urban; Havlicek, Vitezslav; Cinar, Ulas; Rings, Franca; Held, Eva; Dufort, Isabelle; Sirard, Marc-André; Schellander, Karl; Tesfaye, Dawit

    2012-10-01

    Understanding gene expression patterns in response to altered environmental conditions at different time points of the preimplantation period would improve our knowledge on regulation of embryonic development. Here we aimed to examine the effect of alternative in vivo and in vitro culture conditions at the time of major embryonic genome activation (EGA) on the development and transcriptome profile of bovine blastocysts. Four different blastocyst groups were produced under alternative in vivo and in vitro culture conditions before or after major EGA. Completely in vitro- and in vivo-produced blastocysts were used as controls. We compared gene expression patterns between each blastocyst group and in vivo blastocyst control group using EmbryoGENE's bovine microarray. The data showed that changing culture conditions from in vivo to in vitro or vice versa, either before or after the time of major EGA, had no effect on the developmental rates; however, in vitro conditions during that time critically influenced the transcriptome of the blastocysts produced. The source of oocyte had a critical effect on developmental rates and the ability of the embryo to react to changing culture conditions. Ontological classification highlighted a marked contrast in expression patterns for lipid metabolism and oxidative stress response between blastocysts generated in vivo versus in vitro, with opposite trends. Molecular mechanisms and pathways that are influenced by altered culture conditions during EGA were defined. These results will help in the development of new strategies to modify culture conditions at this critical stage to enhance the development of competent blastocysts.

  15. Sensitivity of ATLAS to Alternative Mechanisms of Electroweak Symmetry Breaking in Vector Boson Scattering qq → qq l nu l nu

    CERN Document Server

    Schumacher, Jan; Wermes, Norbert

    2010-01-01

    An analysis of the expected sensitivity of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN to alternative mechanisms of electroweak symmetry breaking in the dileptonic vector boson scattering channel is presented. With the generalized K-Matrix model of vector boson scattering recently implemented in the event generator Whizard, several additional resonances are investigated. Whizard is validated for ATLAS use and an interface for the Les Houches event format is adapted for the ATLAS software Athena. Systematic model and statistical Monte Carlo uncertainties are reduced with a signal definition using events reweighted in the couplings g of the new resonances. Angular correlations conserved by Whizard are used in the event selection. A multivariate analyzer is trained to take into account correlations between the selection variables and thereby to improve the sensitivity compared to cut analyses. The statistical analysis is implemented with a profile likelihood method taking into account systematic un...

  16. Controlling Chaos: The OGY Method, Its Use in Mechanics, and an Alternative Unified Framework for Control of Non-regular Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rega, G.; Lenci, S.; Thompson, J. M. T.

    In this chapter we review the development of the control of chaos theory subsequent to the seminal paper by Ott, Grebogi and Yorke in 1990. After summarizing the main characteristics of the OGY method, we analyze and discuss various applications in several fields of mechanics.We then illustrate the main aspects of an alternative control method which aims at controlling the overall system dynamics instead of stabilizing a single periodic orbit, as the OGY method does. The two methods are both based on the modern idea of exploiting the chaotic properties of systems, instead of simply eliminating chaos. This paper is one of a collection written in honour of Celso Grebogi, on the occasion of his 60th birthday. So we have thought it appropriate to start with short personal reminiscences by two of the present authors.

  17. Age-related macular degeneration--emerging pathogenetic and therapeutic concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrs, Karen M; Anderson, Don H; Johnson, Lincoln V; Hageman, Gregory S

    2006-01-01

    Today, the average life expectancy in developed nations is over 80 years and climbing. And yet, the quality of life during those additional years is often significantly diminished by the effects of age-related, degenerative diseases, including age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the leading cause of blindness in the elderly worldwide. AMD is characterized by a progressive loss of central vision attributable to degenerative and neovascular changes in the macula, a highly specialized region of the ocular retina responsible for fine visual acuity. Estimates gathered from the most recent World Health Organization (WHO) global eye disease survey conservatively indicate that 14 million persons are blind or severely visually impaired because of AMD. The disease has a tremendous impact on the physical and mental health of the geriatric population and their families and is becoming a major public health burden. Currently, there is neither a cure nor a means to prevent AMD. Palliative treatment options for the less prevalent, late-stage 'wet' form of the disease include anti-neovascular agents, photodynamic therapy and thermal laser. There are no current therapies for the more common 'dry' AMD, except for the use of antioxidants that delay progression in 20%-25% of eyes. New discoveries, however, are beginning to provide a much clearer picture of the relevant cellular events, genetic factors, and biochemical processes associated with early AMD. Recently, compelling evidence has emerged that the innate immune system and, more specifically, uncontrolled regulation of the complement alternative pathway plays a central role in the pathobiology of AMD. The complement Factor H gene--which encodes the major inhibitor of the complement alternative pathway--is the first gene identified in multiple independent studies that confers a significant genetic risk for the development of AMD. The emergence of this new paradigm of AMD pathogenesis should hasten the development of novel

  18. Alternative current conduction mechanisms of organic-inorganic compound [N(CH3)3H]2CuCl4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Bechir, M.; Karoui, K.; Tabellout, M.; Guidara, K.; Ben Rhaiem, A.

    2014-05-01

    The [N(CH3)3H]2CuCl4 single crystal has been analyzed by X-ray powder diffraction patterns, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and electrical impedance spectroscopy. [N(CH3)3H]2CuCl4 crystallizes at room temperature in the monoclinic system with P21/C space group. Three phase transitions at T1 = 226 K, T2 = 264 K, and T3 = 297 K have been evidenced by DSC measurements. The electrical technique was measured in the 10-1-107 Hz frequency range and 203-313 K temperature intervals. The frequency dependence of alternative current (AC) conductivity is interpreted in terms of Jonscher's law (developed). The AC electrical conduction in [N(CH3)3H]2CuCl4 compound is studied by two processes which can be attributed to a hopping transport mechanism: the correlated barrier hopping model in phases I, II, and III, the non-overlapping small polaron tunneling model in phase IV. The conduction mechanism is interpreted with the help of Elliot's theory, and the Elliot's parameters are found.

  19. [Current possibilities of correcting subchondral bone resorption as a major pathogenetic factor for progressive osteoarthrosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumov, A V

    2014-01-01

    The paper considers the current pathogenesis, by choosing the actual targets of pharmacotherapy with available drugs. It reflects the cytokine mechanisms responsible for lesion of the synovial membranes, cartilage, and subchondral bone. Particular emphasis is laid on the role of chondroitin sulfate, glucosamine, vitamin D3 as drugs that affect the key components of pathogenesis, including the volume of resorptive cavities in the subchondral bone.

  20. Projection of Need for Pathogenetic Testing for Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD Children of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Chowdhary

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background  Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD is a neurodevelopmental disorder. There is a large quantity of evidence which point towards a positive correlation between Autism and Mitochondrial disorders (MD. In addition to that, several published reports, indicate that people with neurological disorders exhibit pathological signs of mitochondrial disorders and vice versa. Screening for underlying MD is essential in ASD as the children (clinically appear and behave the same way in the both instances; however, their management is very different. Materials and Methods The current study examined biochemical, neuroimaging and genotyping technique in ASD patients to see which technique would be easier to interpret and indicate underlying MD. The analysis of the screening was based on several objectives like clinical, histological, biochemical, molecular, neuroimaging and enzymatic findings. Results We found out that pathogenetic analysis based on clinical and genotyping gives spontaneous results to analyse the possibility of MD in ASD patients. Conclusion  It does not necessarily require blood samples from ASD patients to accomplish this type of analysis.

  1. [Pathogenetic aspects of intra-abdominal hypertension in patients with abdominal sepsis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veliev, N A; Gasanova, D N

    2011-09-01

    The authors had offered the original estimated system with the points calculation, basing on analysis of the examination and treatment results in 150 patients, suffering abdominal sepsis. The system, alike others, includes not only determination of the inflammation factors and indices of endotoxicosis, but as well as those, concerning intraabdominal pressure, the anterior abdominal wall rigidity and the tissues elasticity. Among the important indices, needed to determine, were considered those, which categorize the syndrome of intraabdominal, intrathoracic and microregional hypertension as well as the mechanisms of endotoxicosis pathogenesis. The authors recommend to use the indices of pathological consequences of this two factors while doing assessment of the abdominal sepsis severity.

  2. A Novel Mechanism in Regulating the Alpha-Subunit of the Epithelial Sodium Channel (α ENaC by the Alternatively Spliced Form α ENaC-b

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene F. Shehata

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In Dahl rats’ kidney cortex, the alternatively spliced form of the epithelial sodium channel α subunit (α ENaC-b is the most abundant mRNA transcript (32+/-3 fold α ENaC-wt as was investigated by quantitative RT-PCR analysis. α ENaC-b mRNA levels were significantly higher in Dahl R versus S rats, and were further augmented by high salt diet.Objectives: In the present study, we described the molecular cloning and searched for a possible role of α ENaC-b by testing its potential expression in COS7 cells as well as its impact on α ENaC-wt expression levels when co-expressed in COS7 cells in a dose-dependent manner.Methods: Using RT-PCR strategy, the full-length wildtype α ENaC transcript and the alternatively spliced form α ENaC-b were amplified, sequenced, cloned, subcloned into PCMV-sport6 expression vector, expressed and co-expressed into COS7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. A combination of denaturing and native western blotting techniques was employed to examine the expression of α ENaC-b in vitro, and to determine if an interaction between α ENaC-b and α ENaC-wt occurs in vitro, and finally to demonstrate if degradation of α ENaC-wt protein does occur.Results: α ENaC-b is translated in COS7 cells. Co-expression of α ENaC-b together with α ENaC-wt reduced α ENaC-wt levels in a dose-dependent manner. α ENaC-wt and α ENaC-b appear to form a complex that enhances the degradation of α ENaC-wt.Conclusions: Western blots suggest a novel mechanism in α ENaC regulation whereby α ENaC-b exerts a dominant negative effect on α ENaC-wt expression. This is potentially by sequestering α ENaC-wt, enhancing its proteolytic degradation, and possibly explaining the mechanism of salt-resistance in Dahl R rats.

  3. Peripheral nervous system lesion syndromes and the mechanisms of their formation in connective tissue diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spirin, N N; Bulanova, V A; Pizova, N V; Shilkina, N P

    2007-01-01

    Systemic rheumatological diseases are often accompanied by the development of central and peripheral nervous system pathology. Data providing evidence of the high incidence of peripheral nervous system lesions in systemic lupus erythematosus and systemic scleroderma are presented. These diseases in particular are characterized by polyneuropathies and tunnel syndromes. Our own observations, along with published data, revealed the following major pathogenetic mechanisms of peripheral nervous system lesions in diffuse connective tissue diseases - ischemic, immunological, and metabolic. Consideration of these mechanisms will lead to pathogenetically based treatment and improved therapeutic outcomes.

  4. Environmental Isocyanate-Induced Asthma: Morphologic and Pathogenetic Aspects of an Increasing Occupational Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim Schirren

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Occupational diseases affect more and more people every year. According to the International Labour Organization (ILO, in 2000 an estimated amount of at least 160 million people became ill as a result of occupational-related hazards or injuries. Globally, occupational deaths, diseases and injuries account for an estimated loss of 4% of the Gross Domestic Product. Important substances that are related to occupational diseases are isocyanates and their products. These substances, which are used in a lot of different industrial processes, are not only toxic and irritant, but also allergenic. Although the exposure to higher concentrations could be monitored and restricted by technical means, very low concentrations are difficult to monitor and may, over time, lead to allergic reactions in some workers, ending in an occupational disease. In order to prevent the people from sickening, the mechanisms underlying the disease, by patho-physiological and genetical means, have to be known and understood so that high risk groups and early signs in the development of an allergic reaction could be detected before the exposure to isocyanates leads to an occupational disease. Therefore, this paper reviews the so far known facts concerning the patho-physiologic appearance and mechanisms of isocyanate-associated toxic reactions and possible genetic involvement that might trigger the allergic reactions.

  5. GRANULOMATOSIS WITH POLYANGIITIS, WHICH IS PATHOGENETICALLY ASSOCIATED WITH ANTINEUTROPHIL CYTOPLASMIC ANTIBODIES: CLINICAL FEATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Valentinovna Beketova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The author studied in detail the specific features of the clinical manifestations reflecting a granulomatous inflammatory response and necrotizing polyangiitis, by using her experience in following up 70 patients with granulomatosis and polyangiitis (Wegener's, and analyzed their early symptoms, premorbid background, and possible predictors. Granulomatous inflammation and its related clinical manifestations (primarily orbital pseudotumor and subfold granuloma of the larynx was demonstrated to tend over time to occupy a dominant place in the clinical picture of the disease while the proportion of the symptoms apparently related to necrotizing vasculitis was generally decreased. Interpretation of mechanisms for the development of granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener's may be of value for the further elaboration of an optimal treatment strategy.

  6. Surface topography, nano-mechanics and secondary structure of wheat gluten pretreated by alternate dual-frequency ultrasound and the correlation to enzymolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanyan; Wang, Bei; Zhou, Cunshan; Atungulu, Griffiths G; Xu, Kangkang; Ma, Haile; Ye, Xiaofei; Abdualrahman, Mohammed A Y

    2016-07-01

    The effects of alternate dual-frequency ultrasound (ADFU) pretreatment on the degree of hydrolysis (DH) of wheat gluten (WG) and angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity were investigated in this research. The surface topography, nano-mechanics and secondary structure of WG were also determined using atomic force microscope (AFM) and circular dichroism (CD). The correlations of ACE inhibitory activity and DH with surface topography, nano-mechanics and secondary structure of WG were determined using Pearson's correlation analysis. The results showed that with an increase in either pretreatment duration or power, the ACE inhibitory activity of the hydrolysate also increases, reaching maximum at 10 min and 150 W/L, respectively, and then decreases thereafter. Similarly, AFM analysis showed that as the pretreatment duration or power increases, the surface roughness also increase and again a decrease occurs thereafter. As the pretreatment duration or power increased, the Young's modulus and adhesion of WG also increased and then declined. Young's modulus and adhesions average values were compared with ACE inhibitory activity reversely. The result of the CD spectra analysis exhibited losses in the relative percentage of α-helix of WG. Pearson's correlation analysis showed that the average values of Young's modulus and the relative percentage of α-helix correlated with ACE inhibitory activity of the hydrolysates linearly and significantly (P<0.05); the relative percentage of β-sheet correlated linearly with DH of WG significantly (P<0.05). In conclusion, ADFU pretreatment is an efficient method in proteolysis due to its physical and chemical effect on the Young's modulus, α-helix and β-sheet of WG.

  7. Sensitivity of ATLAS to alternative mechanisms of electroweak symmetry breaking in vector boson scattering qq{yields}qql{nu}l{nu}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumacher, Jan W.

    2010-10-15

    An analysis of the expected sensitivity of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN to alternative mechanisms of electroweak symmetry breaking in the dileptonic vector boson scattering channel is presented. With the generalized K-Matrix model of vector boson scattering recently implemented in the event generator Whizard, several additional resonances are investigated. Whizard is validated for ATLAS use and an interface for the Les Houches event format is adapted for the ATLAS software Athena. Systematic model and statistical Monte Carlo uncertainties are reduced with a signal definition using events reweighted in the couplings g of the new resonances. Angular correlations conserved by Whizard are used in the event selection. A multivariate analyzer is trained to take into account correlations between the selection variables and thereby to improve the sensitivity compared to cut analyses. The statistical analysis is implemented with a profile likelihood method taking into account systematic uncertainties and statistical uncertainties from Monte Carlo. Ensemble tests are performed to assure the applicability of the method. Expected discovery significances and coupling limits for new additional resonances in vector boson scattering are determined. (orig.)

  8. Missense mutations in progranulin gene associated with frontotemporal lobar degeneration: study of pathogenetic features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karch, Celeste M; Ezerskiy, Lubov; Redaelli, Veronica; Giovagnoli, Anna Rita; Tiraboschi, Pietro; Pelliccioni, Giuseppe; Pelliccioni, Paolo; Kapetis, Dimos; D'Amato, Ilaria; Piccoli, Elena; Ferretti, Maria Giulia; Tagliavini, Fabrizio; Rossi, Giacomina

    2016-02-01

    GRN, the gene coding for the progranulin (PGRN) protein, was recognized as a gene linked to frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). The first mutations identified were null mutations giving rise to haploinsufficiency. Missense mutations were subsequently detected, but only a small subset has been functionally investigated. We identified missense mutations (C105Y, A199V, and R298H) in FTLD cases with family history and/or with low plasma PGRN levels. The aim of this study was to determine their pathogenicity. We performed functional studies, analyzing PGRN expression, secretion, and cleavage by elastase. GRN C105Y affected both secretion and elastase cleavage, likely representing a pathogenic mutation. GRN A199V did not alter the physiological properties of PGRN and GRN R298H produced only moderate effects on PGRN secretion, indicating that their pathogenicity is uncertain. In the absence of strong segregation data and neuropathological examinations, genetic, biomarker, and functional studies can be applied to an algorithm to assess the likelihood of pathogenicity for a mutation. This information can improve our understanding of the complex mechanisms by which GRN mutations lead to FTLD.

  9. A new trend in pathogenetic treatment of rheumatoid arthritis: tofacitinib, the first inhibitor of Janus kinase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Evgenyevich Karateev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Problem of effective treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA has not been solved yet. In patients with an inadequate response to the synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs, TNF inhibitors and other genetically engineered (GE drugs may give an incomplete effect or be totally ineffective in 20–40% of cases. The search for new therapeutic options is very active in many directions, including modulation of intracellular signaling pathways. The most impressive clinical results in RA patients have been achieved for Janus kinase (JAK inhibitor, tofacitinib, – Tofa (CP-690,550, a low molecular weight drug for oral administration. Unlike the conventional synthetic DMARD, Tofa belongs to targeted therapy drugs; its pharmacological effects largely resemble those of GE drugs (blockade of the biological effects of cytokines. In particular, some features of its mechanism of action (e.g., interleukin 6 inhibition make it similar to tocilizumab. In all trials, Tofa proved to exhibit high clinical efficacy and satisfactory safety. Tofa was shown to be significantly more effective than methotrexate and placebo (in monotherapy, as well as in combination with DMARDs in RA patients with an inadequate response to standard DMARDs and TNFa inhibitors (regarding response to treatment, individual parameters of disease activity, achievement of low disease activity and remission, functional impairment. Furthermore, Tofa can inhibit joint damage progression.

  10. Sonic Hedgehog, VACTERL, and Fanconi anemia: Pathogenetic connections and therapeutic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubinsky, Mark

    2015-11-01

    Three systems with VACTERL association findings- mutations of the Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) signaling pathway in mice, murine adriamycin teratogenicity, and human Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway mutations, may all involve a similar mechanism. SHH is up-regulated in irradiated cells, and DNA breaks common with radiation damage in the adriamycin and FA systems are plausible signals for such effects, which would affect development. Since FA related DNA breakage occurs throughout life, SHH disturbances may account for later FA related findings involving hematopoietic and malignancy issues. In support, androgen, a standard treatment for FA hematologic failure, down-regulates SHH, and common FA malignancies such as squamous cell carcinomas and acute myeloid leukemia have been linked to enhanced SHH function. This suggests that interventions lowering SHH levels may be useful therapeutically. Also supporting a connection between pre- and post- natal findings, the frequency and number of VACTERL anomalies with FA correlate with the severity and onset of hematopoietic and malignancy issues. In FA, radial anomalies are the most common of these defects, followed by renal findings, while vertebral and gastrointestinal anomalies are relatively uncommon, a pattern that differs from observations of the VACTERL association. Genes with more severe effects also show a greatly increased incidence of brain abnormalities, and a paucity of such findings with other FA genes suggests that brain development is relatively refractory to SHH related effects, accounting for the rarity of such findings with the association.

  11. TGR5: pathogenetic role and/or therapeutic target in fibrosing cholangitis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keitel, Verena; Reich, Maria; Häussinger, Dieter

    2015-06-01

    Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic inflammatory disease affecting the intrahepatic and extrahepatic biliary tree leading to bile duct strictures, progressive cholestasis, and development of liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. The pathogenesis of PSC is still elusive; however, both an immune-mediated injury of the bile ducts as well as increased recruitment of intestinal-primed T lymphocytes to the biliary tracts seem to contribute to disease development and progression. TGR5 (Gpbar-1) is a G-protein-coupled receptor responsive to bile acids, which is expressed in cholangiocytes, intestinal epithelial cells, and macrophages of the liver and intestine as well as in CD14-positive monocytes of the peripheral blood. Activation of TGR5 in biliary epithelial cells promotes chloride and bicarbonate secretion, triggers cell proliferation, and prevents apoptotic cell death. In immune cells, stimulation of TGR5 inhibits cytokine expression and secretion, thus reducing systemic as well as hepatic and intestinal inflammation. The expression pattern of TGR5 in the liver and intestine as well as the potential protective functions of TGR5 suggest a role for this receptor in the pathogenesis of PSC. While mutations in the coding region of the TGR5 gene are too rare to contribute to overall disease susceptibility, the expression and localization of the receptor have not been studied in PSC livers. Pharmacological activation of TGR5 in mice promotes protective mechanisms in biliary epithelial cells and reduces hepatic and systemic inflammation; however, it also provokes pruritus. Further studies are needed to predict the potential benefits as well as side effects of TGR5 agonist treatment in PSC patients.

  12. Alternative metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    As the old 'publish or perish' adage is brought into question, additional research-impact indices, known as altmetrics, are offering new evaluation alternatives. But such metrics may need to adjust to the evolution of science publishing.

  13. Unmasking of CD22 Co-receptor on Germinal Center B-cells Occurs by Alternative Mechanisms in Mouse and Man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macauley, Matthew S; Kawasaki, Norihito; Peng, Wenjie; Wang, Shui-Hua; He, Yuan; Arlian, Britni M; McBride, Ryan; Kannagi, Reiji; Khoo, Kay-Hooi; Paulson, James C

    2015-12-11

    CD22 is an inhibitory B-cell co-receptor whose function is modulated by sialic acid (Sia)-bearing glycan ligands. Glycan remodeling in the germinal center (GC) alters CD22 ligands, with as yet no ascribed biological consequence. Here, we show in both mice and humans that loss of high affinity ligands on GC B-cells unmasks the binding site of CD22 relative to naive and memory B-cells, promoting recognition of trans ligands. The conserved modulation of CD22 ligands on GC B-cells is striking because high affinity glycan ligands of CD22 are species-specific. In both species, the high affinity ligand is based on the sequence Siaα2-6Galβ1-4GlcNAc, which terminates N-glycans. The human ligand has N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) as the sialic acid, and the high affinity ligand on naive B-cells contains 6-O-sulfate on the GlcNAc. On human GC B-cells, this sulfate modification is lost, giving rise to lower affinity CD22 ligands. Ligands of CD22 on naive murine B-cells do not contain the 6-O-sulfate modification. Instead, the high affinity ligand for mouse CD22 has N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc) as the sialic acid, which is replaced on GC B-cells with Neu5Ac. Human naive and memory B-cells express sulfated glycans as high affinity CD22 ligands, which are lost on GC B-cells. In mice, Neu5Gc-containing glycans serve as high affinity CD22 ligands that are replaced by Neu5Ac-containing glycans on GC B-cells. Our results demonstrate that loss of high affinity CD22 ligands on GC B-cells occurs in both mice and humans through alternative mechanisms, unmasking CD22 relative to naive and memory B-cells.

  14. Scaled Quantum Mechanical scale factors for vibrational calculations using alternate polarized and augmented basis sets with the B3LYP density functional calculation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legler, C R; Brown, N R; Dunbar, R A; Harness, M D; Nguyen, K; Oyewole, O; Collier, W B

    2015-06-15

    The Scaled Quantum Mechanical (SQM) method of scaling calculated force constants to predict theoretically calculated vibrational frequencies is expanded to include a broad array of polarized and augmented basis sets based on the split valence 6-31G and 6-311G basis sets with the B3LYP density functional. Pulay's original choice of a single polarized 6-31G(d) basis coupled with a B3LYP functional remains the most computationally economical choice for scaled frequency calculations. But it can be improved upon with additional polarization functions and added diffuse functions for complex molecular systems. The new scale factors for the B3LYP density functional and the 6-31G, 6-31G(d), 6-31G(d,p), 6-31G+(d,p), 6-31G++(d,p), 6-311G, 6-311G(d), 6-311G(d,p), 6-311G+(d,p), 6-311G++(d,p), 6-311G(2d,p), 6-311G++(2d,p), 6-311G++(df,p) basis sets are shown. The double d polarized models did not perform as well and the source of the decreased accuracy was investigated. An alternate system of generating internal coordinates that uses the out-of plane wagging coordinate whenever it is possible; makes vibrational assignments via potential energy distributions more meaningful. Automated software to produce SQM scaled vibrational calculations from different molecular orbital packages is presented.

  15. Magnetostrictive Alternator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, Rodger; Bruder, Geoffrey

    2013-01-01

    This innovation replaces the linear alternator presently used in Stirling engines with a continuous-gradient, impedance-matched, oscillating magnetostrictive transducer that eliminates all moving parts via compression, maintains high efficiency, costs less to manufacture, reduces mass, and eliminates the need for a bearing system. The key components of this new technology are the use of stacked magnetostrictive materials, such as Terfenol-D, under a biased magnetic and stress-induced compression, continuous-gradient impedance-matching material, coils, force-focusing metallic structure, and supports. The acoustic energy from the engine travels through an impedancematching layer that is physically connected to the magnetostrictive mass. Compression bolts keep the structure under compressive strain, allowing for the micron-scale compression of the magnetostrictive material and eliminating the need for bearings. The relatively large millimeter displacement of the pressure side of the impedance-matching material is reduced to micron motion, and undergoes stress amplification at the magnetostrictive interface. The alternating compression and expansion of the magnetostrictive material creates an alternating magnetic field that then induces an electric current in a coil that is wound around the stack. This produces electrical power from the acoustic pressure wave and, if the resonant frequency is tuned to match the engine, can replace the linear alternator that is commonly used.

  16. Growing Alternatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger-Petersen, Mai Corlin

    2014-01-01

    From 2014, Anhui Province will pilot a reform of the residential land market in China, thus integrating rural Anhui in the national housing market. In contrast, artist and activist Ou Ning has proposed the Bishan time money currency, intending to establish an alternative economic circuit in Bishan...

  17. Alternative Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... triglyceride (fat) produced by processing coconut oil or palm kernel oil. The body breaks down caprylic acid into substances called “ketone bodies.” The theory behind Axona is that the ketone bodies derived from caprylic acid may provide an alternative energy source for brain cells that have lost ...

  18. Study of the main regulatory mechanisms to encourage renewable and alternative energy applied internationally and in Brazil; Estudo dos principais mecanismos regulatorios de incentivo as fontes renovaveis e alternativas de energia aplicados internacionalmente e no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Juliana M.C.; Cavaliero, Carla Kazue Nakao [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia], Emails: jumcm@fem.unicamp.br, cavaliero@fem.unicamp.br

    2009-07-01

    The investment in renewable and alternative energy sources has been stimulated by some countries in Europe and Americas through the introduction of encouragement regulatory mechanisms. This paper considers the most important international mechanisms such as Feed-in System, Tender System and Quota System with green certificates. In Brazil, there are three regulatory mechanisms in course: PROINFA, the 1. Tender of Renewable and 1. Tender Reserve. The carried out preliminary analysis made possible to classify PROINFA as a mechanism similar to Feed-in, while the auction of Renewable and Reserve are more like an auction system. This article points out the differences and similarities between the instruments and gives a preliminary analysis of their effectiveness, emphasizing national mechanisms, especially regarding the criteria for capacity increase and cost reduction of the technological bands, such as for biomass and small hydroelectric. (author)

  19. Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Hartog, J P Den

    1961-01-01

    First published over 40 years ago, this work has achieved the status of a classic among introductory texts on mechanics. Den Hartog is known for his lively, discursive and often witty presentations of all the fundamental material of both statics and dynamics (and considerable more advanced material) in new, original ways that provide students with insights into mechanical relationships that other books do not always succeed in conveying. On the other hand, the work is so replete with engineering applications and actual design problems that it is as valuable as a reference to the practicing e

  20. Association of neuroelectrophysiology and analysis of cerebrospinal fluid immunoglobulin with pathogenetic conditions of patients with Guillain-Barre syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haibin Huang; Xunliang Mai; Xiaohong Ye

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) is an autoimmune disease which is characterized by demyelination of peripheral nerve and nerve root, and inflammatory reaction of lymphocyte and macrophage. Neuroelectrophysiological examination and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis are of significance for its diagnosis.OBJECTIVE: To study the association of neuroelectrophysiology and cerebrospinal fluid immunoglobulin (CSF-Ig) with pathogenetic conditions of patients with GBS.DESIGN: Case control study.SETTING: Department of Neurology, Shenzhen Municipal Shekou Group Hospital; Department of Neuroelectrophysiology, People's Hospital of Guangdong Province.PARTICIPANTS: A total of 32 GBS patients including 18 males and 14 females who aged from 17 to 72 years were selected as experimental group from the Department of Neurology, People's Hospital of Guangdong Province from January 2004 to December 2005. All cases conformed with GBS diagnostic criteria established by Asbury in 1990 and they were divided into three types according to neurological criteria established by Chinese Neurology and Psychology Journal in 1993: mild, moderate and severe types. Another 30 patients with vascular headache were selected as control group from the same hospital including 14 males and 16 females who aged from 17 to 79 years.METHODS: ① Neuroelectrophysiological examination: Multiple-functional electromyography device provided by Nicolet Company, USA was used to measure nerve conduction velocity (NCV), including motor nerve conduction velocity (MCV) and sensory nerve conduction velocity (SCV); meanwhile, electromyologram (EMG), somatosensory evoked potential (SEP) and electroencephalogram (EEG) were also measured. ② Detection of CSF-Ig: Concentrations of IgG, IgA and IgM were measured with immunofixation electrophoresis. ③ Follow-up: Among 32 GBS patients, 14 cases received follow-up after treatment and the longest follow-up time was 1 year after onset. Among them, 8 cases were reexaminined

  1. Etiopathogenetic mechanisms of fibromyalgia syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.H. Gracely

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS is a common chronic condition of widespread pain with causal mechanisms that are largely unknown. It is characterized by moderate to severe musculoskel - etal pain and allodynia, but its pathogenesis appears confined to the nociceptive structures of the central nervous system. From a pathogenetic point of view, indeed, no clear muscle pathology has been demonstrated in FMS (1, 2, while increasing evidence suggests a disturbance in pain perception that is genetically conditioned. In our review we will consider five “keypoints” that we think determine the origin and maintenance of the pain syndrome that we define as fibromyalgia...

  2. Mechanisms of hyponatraemia in alcohol patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liamis, G L; Milionis, H J; Rizos, E C; Siamopoulos, K C; Elisaf, M S

    2000-01-01

    Hyponatraemia is commonly reported in chronic alcoholic patients. However, the underlying pathogenetic mechanisms are not well delineated. In the current study, we analysed the possible pathophysiological mechanisms of hyponatraemia in a group of alcoholic patients (n = 127) admitted to our hospital for causes related to alcohol misuse. Hyponatraemia (serum sodium potomania' syndrome, while in two others, hyponatraemia was due to reset osmostat or to cerebral salt wasting syndrome, not previously described in alcoholic patients. It is concluded that hyponatraemia is a frequently observed electrolyte disorder in hospitalized alcoholic patients and is related to various pathophysiological mechanisms.

  3. Alternative Energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Planting, A.; De saint Jacob, Y.; Verwijs, H.; Belin, H.; Preesman, L.

    2009-03-15

    In two articles, one interview and one column attention is paid to alternative energies. The article 'A new light on saving energy' discusses the option to save energy by modernising lighting systems in urban areas. The column 'View from Paris' focuses on investment decisions in France with regard to renewable energy and energy savings. The article 'Europe turns a blind eye to big battery' discusses developments in batteries to store energy. The interview concerns fuel cell expert and formerly President of UTC Power Jan van Dokkum. The last article gives a brief overview of the European Energy Research Alliance (EERA) and the challenges this alliance will have to face with regard to climate change and energy security.

  4. Pathogenetic, Clinical, and Prognostic Features of Adult t(4;11(q21;q23/MLL-AF4 Positive B-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Marchesi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Translocation t(4;11(q21;q23 leading to formation of MLL-AF4 fusion gene is found in about 10% of newly diagnosed B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL in adult patients. Patients expressing this chromosomal aberration present typical biological, immunophenotypic, and clinical features. This form of leukemia is universally recognized as high-risk leukemia and treatment intensification with allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT in first complete remission (CR could be a valid option to improve prognosis, but data obtained from the literature are controversial. In this review, we briefly describe pathogenetic, clinical, and prognostic characteristics of adult t(4;11(q21;q23/MLL-AF4 positive ALL and provide a review of the clinical outcome reported by the most important cooperative groups worldwide.

  5. Correction of androgen deficiency in chronic infectious prostatitis as pathogenetic method of overcoming inefficiencies standard antibiotics against the growing antibiotic resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Tyuzikov

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The chronic prostatitis occupies the big relative density in structure of an out-patient urological pathology in our country, however, results of its standard pharmacotherapy remain unsatisfactory that is accompanied by high risk clinical recurrence and progressing of anatomic and functional disorders in prostata. Modern methods of diagnostics of the chronic infectious prostatitis, which share in the general structure of inflammatory prostata diseases does not exceed 10 %, are based on the recommended volume of the standard tests directed only on revealing of the infectious agent in a prostatic secret, and do not consider degree of disorders of the prostatic homeostasis which key moment is prostata androgen-dependence. It leads to mainly symptomatic approach in treatment of a chronic infectious prostatitis in the modern urological practice, based exclusively on antibacterial therapy that promotes the further growth of prostate pathogens antibiotics resistance, inefficiencies of unreasonable repeated courses of antibacterial therapy and are supported by a myth about incurability of a chronic prostatitis. At the same time, intraprostatic androgen balance defines all basic functions of gland, and its safety essentially depends on testosterone blood level, therefore endogenic testosterone level it is possible to consider as universal predictor of prostata metabolic homeostasis disorders, leading to decrease in bactericidal function of gland and infections. This author’s concept allows to consider correction of an adverse hormonal and metabolic background on which the clinical picture of a chronic prostatitis (first of all, deficiency of sexual hormones as pathogenetic therapy of all infectious chronic prostatitises against which realisation of effects of antibacterial therapy is essentially facilitated is developed or last is not so necessary, to what own clinical supervision resulted in article testify. Such interdisciplinary approach will lead

  6. Vasculitis: the main pathogenetic reason of Restless leg syndrome%血管炎:不宁腿的一个常见原因

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨欢; 谢光洁; 肖波

    2001-01-01

    Objective To investigate the main pathogenetic reason inducing restless leg syndrome and the relationship about vasculitis with it. Method The laboratory examinations, electromyogramms and gastrocnemius biopsies were studied in 37 patients with restless leg syndrome who were not found other primary disease . Result It was shown that 2 of 37 cases were caused by diabetes, 1 was anemia and 1 was rheumatoid arthritis. 25 case gastrocnemius biopsies were all found vasculitic changes, and 7 of them were reported that the lectrogramms had myopathic changes , others laboratory examinations were normal . Conclusion These findings suggest that the vasculitis is one of the main pathogenetic reason of restless leg syndrome.%目的 探讨不宁腿的常见原因及其与血管炎的关系。方法 观察37例临床表现为不宁腿而暂未发现其它原发病患者的实验室检查、肌电图及腓肠肌活检情况。结果 检查发现37例患者中2例糖尿病;1例贫血;1例类风湿性关节炎;25例患者腓肠肌活检发现存在血管炎性改变,其中7例EMG报告有肌源性损害,其它实验室检查均未发现异常。结论 血管炎是不宁腿的一个较常见原因。

  7. Correction of androgen deficiency in chronic infectious prostatitis as pathogenetic method of overcoming inefficiencies standard antibiotics against the growing antibiotic resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Tyuzikov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The chronic prostatitis occupies the big relative density in structure of an out-patient urological pathology in our country, however, results of its standard pharmacotherapy remain unsatisfactory that is accompanied by high risk clinical recurrence and progressing of anatomic and functional disorders in prostata. Modern methods of diagnostics of the chronic infectious prostatitis, which share in the general structure of inflammatory prostata diseases does not exceed 10 %, are based on the recommended volume of the standard tests directed only on revealing of the infectious agent in a prostatic secret, and do not consider degree of disorders of the prostatic homeostasis which key moment is prostata androgen-dependence. It leads to mainly symptomatic approach in treatment of a chronic infectious prostatitis in the modern urological practice, based exclusively on antibacterial therapy that promotes the further growth of prostate pathogens antibiotics resistance, inefficiencies of unreasonable repeated courses of antibacterial therapy and are supported by a myth about incurability of a chronic prostatitis. At the same time, intraprostatic androgen balance defines all basic functions of gland, and its safety essentially depends on testosterone blood level, therefore endogenic testosterone level it is possible to consider as universal predictor of prostata metabolic homeostasis disorders, leading to decrease in bactericidal function of gland and infections. This author’s concept allows to consider correction of an adverse hormonal and metabolic background on which the clinical picture of a chronic prostatitis (first of all, deficiency of sexual hormones as pathogenetic therapy of all infectious chronic prostatitises against which realisation of effects of antibacterial therapy is essentially facilitated is developed or last is not so necessary, to what own clinical supervision resulted in article testify. Such interdisciplinary approach will lead

  8. Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Chester, W

    1979-01-01

    When I began to write this book, I originally had in mind the needs of university students in their first year. May aim was to keep the mathematics simple. No advanced techniques are used and there are no complicated applications. The emphasis is on an understanding of the basic ideas and problems which require expertise but do not contribute to this understanding are not discussed. How­ ever, the presentation is more sophisticated than might be considered appropri­ ate for someone with no previous knowledge of the subject so that, although it is developed from the beginning, some previous acquaintance with the elements of the subject would be an advantage. In addition, some familiarity with element­ ary calculus is assumed but not with the elementary theory of differential equations, although knowledge of the latter would again be an advantage. It is my opinion that mechanics is best introduced through the motion of a particle, with rigid body problems left until the subject is more fully developed. Howev...

  9. Alcohol-induced headaches: Evidence for a central mechanism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Panconesi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcoholic drinks (ADs have been reported as a migraine trigger in about one-third of the migraine patients in retrospective studies. Some studies found that ADs trigger also other primary headaches. The studies concerning the role of ADs in triggering various types of primary headaches published after the International Headache Society classification criteria of 1988 were reviewed, and the pathophysiological mechanisms were discussed. Many studies show that ADs are a trigger of migraine without aura (MO, migraine with aura (MA, cluster headache (CH, and tension-type headache (TH. While data on MO and CH are well delineated, those in MA and TH are discordant. There are sparse reports that ADs are also triggers of less frequent types of primary headache such as familial hemiplegic migraine, hemicrania continua, and paroxysmal hemicrania. However, in some countries, the occurrence of alcohol as headache trigger is negligible, perhaps determined by alcohol habits. The frequency estimates vary widely based on the study approach and population. In fact, prospective studies report a limited importance of ADs as migraine trigger. If ADs are capable of triggering practically all primary headaches, they should act at a common pathogenetic level. The mechanisms of alcohol-provoking headache were discussed in relationship to the principal pathogenetic theories of primary headaches. The conclusion was that vasodilatation is hardly compatible with ADs trigger activity of all primary headaches and a common pathogenetic mechanism at cortical, or more likely at subcortical/brainstem, level is more plausible.

  10. Alcohol-induced headaches: Evidence for a central mechanism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panconesi, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Alcoholic drinks (ADs) have been reported as a migraine trigger in about one-third of the migraine patients in retrospective studies. Some studies found that ADs trigger also other primary headaches. The studies concerning the role of ADs in triggering various types of primary headaches published after the International Headache Society classification criteria of 1988 were reviewed, and the pathophysiological mechanisms were discussed. Many studies show that ADs are a trigger of migraine without aura (MO), migraine with aura (MA), cluster headache (CH), and tension-type headache (TH). While data on MO and CH are well delineated, those in MA and TH are discordant. There are sparse reports that ADs are also triggers of less frequent types of primary headache such as familial hemiplegic migraine, hemicrania continua, and paroxysmal hemicrania. However, in some countries, the occurrence of alcohol as headache trigger is negligible, perhaps determined by alcohol habits. The frequency estimates vary widely based on the study approach and population. In fact, prospective studies report a limited importance of ADs as migraine trigger. If ADs are capable of triggering practically all primary headaches, they should act at a common pathogenetic level. The mechanisms of alcohol-provoking headache were discussed in relationship to the principal pathogenetic theories of primary headaches. The conclusion was that vasodilatation is hardly compatible with ADs trigger activity of all primary headaches and a common pathogenetic mechanism at cortical, or more likely at subcortical/brainstem, level is more plausible.

  11. Looking for an Alternative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Jack

    1999-01-01

    Argues that high school newspapers might do well to create stronger ties with alternative weeklies. Discusses issues of niche marketing, alternative content, and alternative presentation. Notes that high school papers could learn a lot from alternative newspapers. (SR)

  12. Alternative splicing: an important mechanism for myometrial gene regulation that can be manipulated to target specific genes associated with preterm labour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyson-Capper Alison

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Considerable effort has been expended in attempting to distinguish genes that contribute to initiating the onset of term and preterm labour (PTL from those that change in expression as a consequence of the progression of labour. The ability to define more clearly the genes involved in triggering labour contractions should lead to the development of new effective and safer strategies to prevent preterm birth. There is ample evidence to suggest that specific genes are co-ordinately regulated within the upper and lower regions of the myometrium prior to and during parturition and many of these genes are regulated by alternative pre-mRNA splicing. This mini-review highlights that expression of a range of different splicing factors, with defined roles in pre-mRNA splicing, is both temporally and spatially regulated within the uterine smooth muscle during pregnancy and labour. Moreover, several of these splicing factors play key roles in controlling the differential expression of specific regulatory proteins involved in uterine signalling and uterine quiescence. In addition, antisense morpholino oligonucleotide manipulation of pre-mRNA splicing may have potential in defining and targeting uterine pro-labour genes and thus contribute to the development of new therapeutic approaches to prevent PTL.

  13. Alternate Realities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Robert

    2010-02-01

    Two identical learners, observing different example input, or the same examples, but in different order, can form different categories and so judge newer/later input differently. (Machine Learning, T. Mitchell, McGraw Hill, 1997 and Asa H., R. Jones, Trans. Kansas Acad. Sci., vol 109, # 3/4, pg 159, 2006) It seems certain that each of us experiences a somewhat different reality, the question is just how widely these realities can vary one from another. Perhaps 4% of people exhibit synesthesia, perceiving letters or numbers as colored, numbers and dates as having personalities or occupying locations in space. (Synesthesia, R. Cytowic, MIT Press, 2002) The Sapir- Whorf hypothesis claims that a speakers language influences his category structure and the way he thinks. (Language, thought, and reality, B. Whorf, MIT Press, 1956) Those who are skillful at mathematics may know an additional language and be able to think thoughts that the layman can not. The philosophers Plato and Descartes claimed to have had, at certain moments in their lives, a new view of the world, its basic constituents, and its rules which were totally different from our conventional view of reality. (Reflections on Kurt Godel, H. Wang, MIT Press, 1987, pg. 46) Fairly large scale differences are experienced by those who believe in (make use of) concepts like spirit(s), soul(s), god(s), life after death, platonism or Everett's many worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics (The Physics of Immortality, F. Tipler, Doubleday, 1994, pg. 176) )

  14. The TIC complex uncovered: The alternative view on the molecular mechanism of protein translocation across the inner envelope membrane of chloroplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakai, Masato

    2015-09-01

    Chloroplasts must import thousands of nuclear-encoded preproteins synthesized in the cytosol through two successive protein translocons at the outer and inner envelope membranes, termed TOC and TIC, respectively, to fulfill their complex physiological roles. The molecular identity of the TIC translocon had long remained controversial; two proteins, namely Tic20 and Tic110, had been proposed to be central to protein translocation across the inner envelope membrane. Tic40 also had long been considered to be another central player in this process. However, recently, a novel 1-megadalton complex consisting of Tic20, Tic56, Tic100, and Tic214 was identified at the chloroplast inner membrane of Arabidopsis and was demonstrated to constitute a general TIC translocon which functions in concert with the well-characterized TOC translocon. On the other hand, direct interaction between this novel TIC transport system and Tic110 or Tic40 was hardly observed. Consequently, the molecular model for protein translocation across the inner envelope membrane of chloroplasts might need to be extensively revised. In this review article, I intend to propose such alternative view regarding the TIC transport system in contradistinction to the classical view. I also would emphasize importance of reevaluation of previous works in terms of with what methods these classical Tic proteins such as Tic110 or Tic40 were picked up as TIC constituents at the very beginning as well as what actual evidence there were to support their direct and specific involvement in chloroplast protein import. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Chloroplast Biogenesis.

  15. Theoretical insights into the cycloaddition reaction mechanism between ketenimine and methyleneimine: An alternative approach to the formation of pyrazole and imidazole

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nana Wang; Xiaojun Tan; Weihua Wang; Fangfang Wang; Ping Li

    2016-02-01

    The cycloaddition reaction mechanism between interstellar molecules, ketenimine and methyleneimine, has been systematically investigated employing the second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2) method in order to better understand the reactivity of nitrogenous cumulene ketenimine with the C=N double bond compound methyleneimine. Geometry optimizations and vibrational analyses have been performed for the stationary points on the potential energy surfaces of the system. Calculations show that five-membered cyclic carbene intermediates could be produced through pericyclic reaction processes between ketenimine and methyleneimine. Through the subsequent hydrogen transfer processes, carbene intermediates can be isomerized to the pyrazole and imidazole compounds, respectively. The present study is helpful to understand the formation of prebiotic species in interstellar space.

  16. Advancement of Pathogenetic Mechanism and Treatment in Children with Nocturnal Enuresis%小儿夜间遗尿症发病机制及诊治进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨霁云

    2005-01-01

    遗尿症(enuresis)指小儿已达到应自主控制排尿的年龄,但仍不能自主随意排尿,“遗尿”在临床上多指此年龄后小儿夜间不能从睡眠中醒来而发生无意识的排屎,即夜间遗尿症(nocturnal enuresis,NE),俗称尿床(1bedwetting)。本症不仅临床常见,且随着人们对生活质量、精神心理状态、参与社会活动等方面的要求日益提高,遗尿日益受到关注。另一方面近年对其发病机制病理生理的研究深入,使人们不仅更好地理解其不同的临床表现,而且可进行更具针对性的治疗,从而提高疗效。现对近年对发病机制病理生理及治疗进展综述如下。

  17. Molecular pathogenetic mechanism of Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy%Leber's遗传性视神经病变分子致病机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    瞿佳; 管敏鑫

    2006-01-01

    Leber's遗传性视神经病变(Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy,LHON)是一种较常见的引起视神经萎缩的遗传性疾病.该病主要引起双侧中心视力丧失,造成永久性的严重视觉障碍,常常发生在一些即将或已工作或上学的年轻人身上,以及在对该病患者家系中其他成员进行遗传病检查时发现.在一些LHON家系中,视觉障碍的患者呈现母系遗传方式,这表明线粒体DNA(mitochondrial DNA,mtDNA)是该病的分子遗传基础.至今为止,在世界各地不同家系报道中已经发现大约有35个与LHON相关的灾变位点,其中ND1 G3460A、ND4 G11778A、ND6 T14484C为三个公认的原发突变位点,均参与呼吸链复合体I的亚基编码.在不同种族发病统计中,其中大约50%的LHON由三个原发致病突变中的一个所致,尤为G11778A突变为主.引人注意的是,LHON家系携带相同突变的母系成员表现出不同的外显率、表现度(如发病严重程度、发病年龄、视力丧失进展程度).不完全和不同的外显率以及轻度的生化影响说明mtDNA突变本身不足以产生临床表型,其他因素(如环境、核修饰基因、线粒体单体型等)可能影响LHON的外显率和表型表达.%Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is the most common hereditary optic atrophies. The disease causes the bilateral loss of central vision. The importance of LHON lies in it ability to cause such severe and usually permanent vision loss in young adults who are about to start or have recently begun employrent or higher education, and the ramification of diagnosing an inherited disease to other members of the patient's family. The maternal transmission of visual dysfunction in families with LHON suggested the mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) are the molecular bases of this disorder. Up to date, 35 LHON-associated mtDNA mutations have been identified in many pedigrees worldwide. Of these, three primary mutations: ND1 G3460A, ND4 G11778A and ND6 T14484C, which involve genes encoding the subunits of respiratory chain complex I, aocounts for more than 50% of LHON pedigrees in different ethnic origins. In particular,the G11778A mutation is the most common LHON-associated mtDNA mutation. Strikingly, matrilineal relatives within families or among families carrying the same LHON-associated mtDNA mutations exhibited variable penetrance and expressivity including the severity, age-of-onset and progression in vision loss. Incomplete and variable penetrance of vision loss as well as mild biochemical defects associated with these mtDNA mutations indicated that the LHON-associated mtDNA mutation(s) itself is not sufficient to produce the clinical phenotype. Therefore, other modifier factors including environmental factors, nuclear modifier genes and mitochondrial haplotypes are required for the phenotypic expression of vision loss associated with these mtDNA mutations, Most eye diseases are tmulti-factorial in etiology. These diseases are caused by complex and interactive effects of personal factors, environmental conditions and gene aberrations. Some of these disorders are known to have a genetic etiology or predisposition with autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, X-linked or maternally-transmitted pattern of inheritance. Recently, these have rapidly been defined at the molecular levels. In some cases, the maternal transmission of visual dysfunctions suggested the mitochondrial involvement. In fact, mtDNA mutations fiequently manifest with neuro-ophthalmoligcal symptoms. Of these,acute-onset and bilateral optic atrophy is the primary clinical sign of LHON, which is caused by missense mutations in mtDNA[1 -15].

  18. Supercritical CO2 fluid-foaming of polymers to increase porosity: a method to improve the mechanical and biocompatibility characteristics for use as a potential alternative to allografts in impaction bone grafting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayton, Edward; Purcell, M; Aarvold, A; Smith, J O; Kalra, S; Briscoe, A; Shakesheff, K; Howdle, S M; Dunlop, D G; Oreffo, R O C

    2012-05-01

    Disease transmission, availability and cost of allografts have resulted in significant efforts to find an alternative for use in impaction bone grafting (IBG). Recent studies identified two polymers with both structural strength and biocompatibility characteristics as potential replacements. The aim of this study was to assess whether increasing the polymer porosity further enhanced the mechanical and cellular compatibility characteristics for use as an osteogenic biomaterial alternative to allografts in IBG. Solid and porous poly(DL-lactide) (P(DL)LA) and poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) (P(DL)LGA) scaffolds were produced via melt processing and supercritical CO(2) foaming, and the differences characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Mechanical testing included milling and impaction, with comparisons made using a shear testing rig as well as a novel agitation test for cohesion. Cellular compatibility tests for cell number, viability, and osteogenic differentiation using WST-1 assays, fluorostaining, and ALP assays were determined following 14 day culture with skeletal stem cells. SEM showed excellent porosity throughout both of the supercritical-foam-produced polymer scaffolds, with pores between 50 and 200 μm. Shear testing showed that the porous polymers exceeded the shear strength of allograft controls (P<0.001). Agitation testing showed greater cohesion between the particles of the porous polymers (P<0.05). Cellular studies showed increased cell number, viability, and osteogenic differentiation on the porous polymers compared to solid block polymers (P<0.05). The use of supercritical CO(2) to generate porous polymeric biodegradable scaffolds significantly improves the cellular compatibility and cohesion observed compared to non-porous counterparts, without substantial loss of mechanical shear strength. These improved characteristics are critical for clinical translation as a potential osteogenic composite for use in IBG.

  19. Quantum mechanical alternative to Arrhenius equation in the interpretation of proton spin-lattice relaxation data for the methyl groups in solids

    KAUST Repository

    Bernatowicz, Piotr

    2015-10-01

    Theory of nuclear spin-lattice relaxation in methyl groups in solids has been a recurring problem in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The current view is that, except for extreme cases of low torsional barriers where special quantum effects are at stake, the relaxation behaviour of the nuclear spins in methyl groups is controlled by thermally activated classical jumps of the methyl group between its three orientations. The temperature effects on the relaxation rates can be modelled by Arrhenius behaviour of the correlation time of the jump process. The entire variety of relaxation effects in protonated methyl groups has recently been given a consistently quantum mechanical explanation not invoking the jump model regardless of the temperature range. It exploits the damped quantum rotation (DQR) theory originally developed to describe NMR line shape effects for hindered methyl groups. In the DQR model, the incoherent dynamics of the methyl group include two quantum rate, i.e., coherence-damping processes. For proton relaxation only one of these processes is relevant. In this paper, temperature-dependent proton spin-lattice relaxation data for the methyl groups in polycrystalline methyltriphenyl silane and methyltriphenyl germanium, both deuterated in aromatic positions, are reported and interpreted in terms of the DQR model. A comparison with the conventional approach exploiting the phenomenological Arrhenius equation is made. The present observations provide further indications that incoherent motions of molecular moieties in condensed phase can retain quantum character over much broad temperature range than is commonly thought.

  20. The mechanism of pseudouridine synthases from a covalent complex with RNA, and alternate specificity for U2605 versus U2604 between close homologs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czudnochowski, Nadine; Ashley, Gary W; Santi, Daniel V; Alian, Akram; Finer-Moore, Janet; Stroud, Robert M

    2014-02-01

    RluB catalyses the modification of U2605 to pseudouridine (Ψ) in a stem-loop at the peptidyl transferase center of Escherichia coli 23S rRNA. The homolog RluF is specific to the adjacent nucleotide in the stem, U2604. The 1.3 Å resolution crystal structure of the complex between the catalytic domain of RluB and the isolated substrate stem-loop, in which the target uridine is substituted by 5-fluorouridine (5-FU), reveals a covalent bond between the isomerized target base and tyrosine 140. The structure is compared with the catalytic domain alone determined at 2.5 Å resolution. The RluB-bound stem-loop has essentially the same secondary structure as in the ribosome, with a bulge at A2602, but with 5-FU2605 flipped into the active site. We showed earlier that RluF induced a frame-shift of the RNA, moving A2602 into the stem and translating its target, U2604, into the active site. A hydrogen-bonding network stabilizes the bulge in the RluB-RNA but is not conserved in RluF and so RluF cannot stabilize the bulge. On the basis of the covalent bond between enzyme and isomerized 5-FU we propose a Michael addition mechanism for pseudouridine formation that is consistent with all experimental data.

  1. Alternative medicine - pain relief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternative medicine refers to treatments that are used instead of conventional (standard) ones. If you use an alternative ... with conventional medicine or therapy, it is considered complementary therapy. There are many forms of alternative medicine. Acupuncture ...

  2. Disturbance maintains alternative biome states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas, Vinícius de L; Hirota, Marina; Oliveira, Rafael S; Pausas, Juli G

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms controlling the distribution of biomes remains a challenge. Although tropical biome distribution has traditionally been explained by climate and soil, contrasting vegetation types often occur as mosaics with sharp boundaries under very similar environmental conditions. While evidence suggests that these biomes are alternative states, empirical broad-scale support to this hypothesis is still lacking. Using community-level field data and a novel resource-niche overlap approach, we show that, for a wide range of environmental conditions, fire feedbacks maintain savannas and forests as alternative biome states in both the Neotropics and the Afrotropics. In addition, wooded grasslands and savannas occurred as alternative grassy states in the Afrotropics, depending on the relative importance of fire and herbivory feedbacks. These results are consistent with landscape scale evidence and suggest that disturbance is a general factor driving and maintaining alternative biome states and vegetation mosaics in the tropics.

  3. Pathogenetic and Therapeutic Applications of Tumor Necrosis Factor-α (TNF-α) in Major Depressive Disorder: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ke; Zhang, Hongxiu; Baloch, Zulqarnain

    2016-05-14

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is characterized by mood, vegetative, cognitive, and even psychotic symptoms and signs that can cause substantial impairments in quality of life and functioning. Up to now, the exact pathogenesis of MDD remains poorly understood. Recent research has begun to reveal that the pro-inflammatory cytokines, particularly, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), play an integral role in the pathophysiology of depressive disorders and the mechanism of antidepressant treatment. On the base of several observations: it is found that subsets of MDD patients have enhanced plasma levels TNF-α; antidepressant treatments had linked with the decline of TNF-α; central administration of TNF-α gives rise to sickness behavior which shares features with depression; and a blockade of it can ameliorate depressive symptomatology in animal models and clinical trials. In this review article, we focus on recent evidence linking TNF-α and MDD looking at data from animal and clinical studies, illustrating the pathophysiological role, susceptibility and its therapeutic application in depression. We conclude by discussing future directions for research, in particular the opportunities for the development of novel therapeutics that target TNF-α. This will be very important for designing preventative strategies and for the identification of new drug targets and preventative strategies.

  4. All About Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Robert D.; And Others

    1972-01-01

    A primer on alternative schools. Described are existing programs in different areas, philosophy of the alternative schools, funding, student behavior, community relations, accountability, State regulations, management, and the environment of the alternative school. A list of sources of additional information on alternative schools is included.…

  5. BWR Steam Dryer Alternating Stress Assessment Procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morante, R. J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Hambric, S. A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Ziada, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-12-01

    This report presents an overview of Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) steam dryer design; the fatigue cracking failures that occurred at the Quad Cities (QC) plants and their root causes; a history of BWR Extended Power Uprates (EPUs) in the USA; and a discussion of steam dryer modifications/replacements, alternating stress mechanisms on steam dryers, and structural integrity evaluations (static and alternating stress).

  6. Consumer Health: Alternative Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Consumer health What's considered an alternative therapy is a moving target. Get the facts about what CAM means and ... Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/consumer-health/in-depth/alternative-medicine/art-20045267 . Mayo ...

  7. Alcoholism and alternative splicing of candidate genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasabe, Toshikazu; Ishiura, Shoichi

    2010-04-01

    Gene expression studies have shown that expression patterns of several genes have changed during the development of alcoholism. Gene expression is regulated not only at the level of transcription but also through alternative splicing of pre-mRNA. In this review, we discuss some of the evidence suggesting that alternative splicing of candidate genes such as DRD2 (encoding dopamine D2 receptor) may form the basis of the mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology of alcoholism. These reports suggest that aberrant expression of splice variants affects alcohol sensitivities, and alcohol consumption also regulates alternative splicing. Thus, investigations of alternative splicing are essential for understanding the molecular events underlying the development of alcoholism.

  8. Study of the main mechanisms for incentive alternative sources of renewable energy for power generation in Chile, Argentina and Brazil; Estudo dos principais mecanismos de incentivo as fontes alternativas de energia para geracao renovavel de eletricidade no Chile, Argentina e Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Larissa Goncalves [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEM/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia; Dedecca, Joao Gorestein; Jannuzzi, Gilberto de Martinno; Gomes, Rodolfo Dourado [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    From the experience of developed countries, Brazil, Chile and Argentina are implementing some important mechanisms for encouraging alternative sources of renewable energy for power generation and thus manage to incorporate these power sources in their power matrix. However, the obstacles faced are not insignificant. This study will present and analyze the Chilean, Argentinean and Brazilian experience when it comes to implementing programs and policies based on feed-in tariffs, renewable portfolio standard and bidding mechanisms. (author)

  9. Biochemical mechanisms underlying atherogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.P.V.L.N. Srinivasa Rao

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis remains one of the major causes of death and premature disability in developed countries. Though atherosclerosis was formerly considered a bland lipid storage disease, substantial advances in basic and experimental sciences have illuminated the role of endothelium, inflammation and immune mechanisms in its pathogenesis. Current concept of atherosclerosis is that of a dynamic and progressive disease arising from in- jury to endothelium, also known as endothelial dysfunction and an inflammatory response to that injury. The lesions of atherosclerosis occur principally in large and medium sized arteries. Atherosclerosis affects various regions of the circulation preferentially and can lead to ischemia of heart, brain or extremities resulting in in- farction.This produces distinct clinical manifestations depending on the vessel involved. Several predisposing factors to cardiovascular diseases such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, obesity, infections act as triggers to the devel- opment of atherosclerosis by causing endothelial dysfunction and/or promoting inflammatory response. The evolution of pathogenetic mechanisms has passed through various directions such as oxidative stress, inflam- mation and immune responses. It is now known that all these are not acting independently but are interrelated and getting unified in the current concept of atherogenesis. The following discussion aims at providing an in- sight into these developments which can help in a better comprehension of the disease and management of its clinical complications

  10. Alternative Compression Garments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenger, M. B.; Lee, S. M. C.; Ribeiro, L. C.; Brown, A. K.; Westby, C. M.; Platts, S. H.

    2011-01-01

    Orthostatic intolerance after spaceflight is still an issue for astronauts as no in-flight countermeasure has been 100% effective. Future anti-gravity suits (AGS) may be similar to the Shuttle era inflatable AGS or may be a mechanical compression device like the Russian Kentavr. We have evaluated the above garments as well as elastic, gradient compression garments of varying magnitude and determined that breast-high elastic compression garments may be a suitable replacement to the current AGS. This new garment should be more comfortable than the AGS, easy to don and doff, and as effective a countermeasure to orthostatic intolerance. Furthermore, these new compression garments could be worn for several days after space flight as necessary if symptoms persisted. We conducted two studies to evaluate elastic, gradient compression garments. The purpose of these studies was to evaluate the comfort and efficacy of an alternative compression garment (ACG) immediately after actual space flight and 6 degree head-down tilt bed rest as a model of space flight, and to determine if they would impact recovery if worn for up to three days after bed rest.

  11. On alternating quantum walks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseva, Jenia; Kovchegov, Yevgeniy

    2017-03-01

    We study an inhomogeneous quantum walk on a line that evolves according to alternating coins, each a rotation matrix. For the quantum walk with the coin alternating between clockwise and counterclockwise rotations by the same angle, we derive a closed form solution for the propagation of probabilities, and provide its asymptotic approximation via the method of stationary phase. Finally, we observe that for a x03c0;/4 angle, this alternating rotation walk will replicate the renown Hadamard walk.

  12. Alternative Solar Indices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lantz, L.J.

    1980-07-01

    Possible alternative Solar Indices which could either be a perturbation from the currently defined Solar Index or possible indices based on current technologies for other media markets are discussed. An overview is given of the current project, including the logic that was utilized in defining its current structure and then alternative indices and definitions are presented and finally, recommendations are made for adopting alternative indices.

  13. On an Alternative Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Vankov, A

    1998-01-01

    The suggested alternative cosmology is based on the idea of barion symmetric universe, in which our home universe is a representative of multitude of typical matter and antimatter universes. This alternative concept gives a physically reasonable explanation of all major problems of the Standard Cosmological Model. Classification Code MSC: Cosmology 524.8 Key words: standard cosmological model, alternative cosmology, barionic symmetry, typical universe, quasars, cosmic rays.

  14. Brandmodstandsbidrag for alternative isoleringsmaterialer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place

    2001-01-01

    Resume af rapport om alternative isoleringsmaterialers brandmodstandsbidrag, udarbejdet af Dansk Brandteknisk Institut under Energistyrelsens udviklingsprogram "Miljø- og arbejdsmiljøvenlig isolering"...

  15. Depolarization-mediated regulation of alternative splicing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok eSharma

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Alternative splicing in eukaryotes plays an important role in regulating gene expression by selectively including alternative exons. A wealth of information has been accumulated that explains how alternative exons are selected in a developmental stage- or tissue-specific fashion. However, our knowledge of how cells respond to environmental changes to alter alternative splicing is very limited. For example, although a number of alternative exons have been shown to be regulated by calcium level alterations, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. As calcium signaling in neurons plays a crucial role in essential neuronal functions such as learning and memory formation, it is important to understand how this process is regulated at every level in gene expression. The significance of the dynamic control of alternative splicing in response to changes of calcium levels has been largely unappreciated. In this communication, we will summarize the recent advances in calcium signaling-mediated alternative splicing that have provided some insights into the important regulatory mechanisms. In addition to describing the cis-acting RNA elements on the pre-mRNA molecules that respond to changes of intracellular calcium levels, we will summarize how splicing regulators change and affect alternative splicing in this process. We will also discuss a novel mode of calcium-mediated splicing regulation at the level of chromatin structure and transcription.

  16. Transient coupled characteristics study on mechanical seals end faces under the alternative load function%交变载荷作用下端面密封瞬态耦合特性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严国平; 刘正林

    2012-01-01

    In the article, one mathematical model with given boundary conditions in detail was established to solve the question about the transient thermal-structure coupling characteristics of the mechanical seals end faces. The function expression was derived between the opening gap and fluid film pressure on the seals end faces. The fluid film pressure under the corresponding condition was loaded by the way of the discrete nodes loading in the computational program. The spring force was expressed in the form of some given alternative function. Combined with the time-history dynamic and transient analysis, some characteristics such as temperature and pressure and other parameters were achieved. The results indicate that in most of computational time, seals end faces characteristics investigated in the transient analysis are similar to those in the steady analysis. There are contact areas and higher temperature exiting on the local seals end faces. The seals end faces of static ring and rotating ring separates each other and present the shape of some form of tapered opening. With the time-varying spring ratio pressure which changes the force loaded on the sealing device, seals end faces characteristics such as temperature and contact pressure and so on are all alternate and transient, too.%建立了机械密封热一结构耦合计算的数学模型并给出详细的求解边界条件,推导了密封端面开口间隙与端面液膜压力的函数关系。利用离散节点加载的方法完成了对应工况下端面液膜压力的加载,给出了弹簧作用力的交变函数表达形式,通过与载荷时间结合的动力学瞬态分析,获得了密封端面的温度和压力等特性参数。结果表明,瞬态分析中密封端面各特性在多数时刻点仍表现出与稳态相似的特征,端面局部接触且其处于高温区,静环与动环端面分离并呈一定形式的锥形开口形状;随时间变化的弹簧比压,改变了密封装置

  17. Alternative Schools, Mainstream Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Jan; Conner, Evguenia

    2007-01-01

    Alternative education has its own history. Having emerged in the sixties as a response to the social crisis, its goal was primarily to fight increasing bureaucracy and the depersonalization of public education by giving students more freedom and minimal adult supervision. In the eighties, the understanding of "alternative education" narrowed to…

  18. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-06-01

    Fact sheet describes the Alternative Fuels Data Center, which provides information, data, and tools to help fleets and other transportation decision makers find ways to reduce petroleum consumption through the use of alternative and renewable fuels, advanced vehicles, and other fuel-saving measures.

  19. Acquisition of Voicing Alternations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhoff, Annemarie

    2004-01-01

    "Morpho-phonological alternations are central to phonological theory, but little is known about how they are acquired. Acquiring alternations amounts to dealing with variation in a morpheme’s shape depending on its morphological context. It is generally assumed that children start with an initial st

  20. Alternative health insurance schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Hans; Hansen, Bodil O.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we present a simple model of health insurance with asymmetric information, where we compare two alternative ways of organizing the insurance market. Either as a competitive insurance market, where some risks remain uninsured, or as a compulsory scheme, where however, the level...... competitive insurance; this situation turns out to be at least as good as either of the alternatives...

  1. Potential alternative approaches to xenotransplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mou, Lisha; Chen, Fengjiao; Dai, Yifan; Cai, Zhiming; Cooper, David K C

    2015-11-01

    There is an increasing worldwide shortage of organs and cells for transplantation in patients with end-stage organ failure or cellular dysfunction. This shortage could be resolved by the transplantation of organs or cells from pigs into humans. What competing approaches might provide support for the patient with end-stage organ or cell failure? Four main approaches are receiving increasing attention - (i) implantable mechanical devices, although these are currently limited almost entirely to devices aimed at supporting or replacing the heart, (ii) stem cell technology, at present directed mainly to replace absent or failing cells, but which is also fundamental to progress in (iii) tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, in which the ultimate aim is to replace an entire organ. A final novel potential approach is (iv) blastocyst complementation. These potential alternative approaches are briefly reviewed, and comments added on their current status and whether they are now (or will soon become) realistic alternative therapies to xenotransplantation.

  2. Pathogenic Mechanisms of Atrial Fibrillation in Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Drapkina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Atrial fibrillation (AF is one of the most common arrhythmias. It reduces quality of life and its duration due to thromboembolic complications. Obesity contributes to the structural and electrical remodeling of atrial myocardium. This leads to occurrence of ectopic foci in the mouths of the pulmonary veins and the disruption of normal electrical conduction in the atria. Systemic inflammation, myocardial fibrosis, cardiomyocyte overload by Na+ and Ca2+ ions, accumulation in the cells of unoxidized metabolic products, imbalance of the autonomic regulation are considered as the main mechanisms of arrhythmogenic substrate formation. Hypertension, insulin resistance, and obstructive sleep apnea, associated with obesity, increase the risk of development and progression of the arrhythmia. Study of pathogenetic mechanisms of AF in obesity is necessary to develop new strategies for its prevention and the creation of more effective methods of treatment of these patients.

  3. Alcoholism and Alternative Splicing of Candidate Genes

    OpenAIRE

    Toshikazu Sasabe; Shoichi Ishiura

    2010-01-01

    Gene expression studies have shown that expression patterns of several genes have changed during the development of alcoholism. Gene expression is regulated not only at the level of transcription but also through alternative splicing of pre-mRNA. In this review, we discuss some of the evidence suggesting that alternative splicing of candidate genes such as DRD2 (encoding dopamine D2 receptor) may form the basis of the mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology of alcoholism. These reports sugg...

  4. Experiment and Analysis of Car Alternator for Wind Turbine Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pudji Irasari

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses experiment and analysis to find out the feasibility of a car alternator to be used as a generator for wind turbine. The experiment was conducted twice. The first experiment was to characterize the alternator to determine the mechanical transmission ratio. In this experiment the alternator was driven by a lathe machine and its output power was supplied to charge a battery. In the second experiment the alternator was integrated with the turbine blades and they were tested as a unit system. In both experiments, the electric generation of alternator was executed with fixed excitation current method. The correlation between the alternator characteristic and the tip speed ratio gives the mechanical transmission ratio of 1 : 3. The experiment results show that the efficiency of alternator is around 50% and cut-in wind speed (after correction is 6.35 m/s indicating that alternator is not feasible for wind turbine system application. 

  5. HL-LHC alternatives

    CERN Document Server

    Tomás, R; White, S

    2014-01-01

    The HL-LHC parameters assume unexplored regimes for hadron colliders in various aspects of accelerator beam dynamics and technology. This paper reviews three alternatives that could potentially improve the LHC performance: (i) the alternative filling scheme 8b+4e, (ii) the use of a 200 MHz RF system in the LHC and (iii) the use of proton cooling methods to reduce the beam emittance (at top energy and at injection). The alternatives are assessed in terms of feasibility, pros and cons, risks versus benefits and the impact on beam availability.

  6. Alternative loop rings

    CERN Document Server

    Goodaire, EG; Polcino Milies, C

    1996-01-01

    For the past ten years, alternative loop rings have intrigued mathematicians from a wide cross-section of modern algebra. As a consequence, the theory of alternative loop rings has grown tremendously. One of the main developments is the complete characterization of loops which have an alternative but not associative, loop ring. Furthermore, there is a very close relationship between the algebraic structures of loop rings and of group rings over 2-groups. Another major topic of research is the study of the unit loop of the integral loop ring. Here the interaction between loop rings and group ri

  7. Alternative disinfectant water treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternative disinfestant water treatments are disinfestants not as commonly used by the horticultural industry. Chlorine products that produce hypochlorous acid are the main disinfestants used for treating irrigation water. Chlorine dioxide will be the primary disinfestant discussed as an alternativ...

  8. Alternative fuel information sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    This short document contains a list of more than 200 US sources of information (Name, address, phone number, and sometimes contact) related to the use of alternative fuels in automobiles and trucks. Electric-powered cars are also included.

  9. Seal design alternatives study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Sambeek, L.L. [RE/SPEC Inc., Rapid City, SD (US); Luo, D.D.; Lin, M.S.; Ostrowski, W.; Oyenuga, D. [Parsons Brinckerhoff Quade & Douglas, Inc., San Francisco, CA (US)

    1993-06-01

    This report presents the results from a study of various sealing alternatives for the WIPP sealing system. Overall, the sealing system has the purpose of reducing to the extent possible the potential for fluids (either gas or liquid) from entering or leaving the repository. The sealing system is divided into three subsystems: drift and panel seals within the repository horizon, shaft seals in each of the four shafts, and borehole seals. Alternatives to the baseline configuration for the WIPP seal system design included evaluating different geometries and schedules for seal component installations and the use of different materials for seal components. Order-of-magnitude costs for the various alternatives were prepared as part of the study. Firm recommendations are not presented, but the advantages and disadvantages of the alternatives are discussed. Technical information deficiencies are identified and studies are outlined which can provide required information.

  10. Alternatives to Nursing Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this website may not be available. Alternatives to nursing homes Before you make any decisions about long ... live and what help you may need. A nursing home may not be your only choice. Discharge ...

  11. Breast Reconstruction Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Breast Reconstruction Surgery Breast Cancer Breast Reconstruction Surgery Breast Reconstruction Alternatives Some women who have had a ... chest. What if I choose not to get breast reconstruction? Some women decide not to have any ...

  12. Vaginal dryness alternative treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternative treatments for vaginal dryness ... Question: Is there a drug-free treatment for vaginal dryness? Answer: There are many causes of vaginal dryness . It may be caused by reduced estrogen level, infection, medicines, and ...

  13. Renewal, resurgence, and alternative reinforcement context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Mary M; Shahan, Timothy A

    2015-07-01

    Resurgence, relapse induced by the removal of alternative reinforcement, and renewal, relapse induced by a change in contextual stimuli, are typically studied separately in operant conditioning paradigms. In analogous treatments of operant problem behavior, aspects of both relapse phenomena can operate simultaneously. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine a novel method for studying resurgence and renewal in the same experimental preparation. An alternative source of reinforcement was available during extinction for one group of rats (a typical resurgence preparation). Another group experienced an operant renewal preparation in which the extinction context was distinguished via olfactory and visual stimuli. A third group experienced alternative reinforcement delivery in the new context, a novel combination of typical resurgence and renewal preparations. Removal of alternative reinforcement and/or a change in context induced relapse relative to an extinction-only control group. When alternative reinforcement was delivered in a novel context, the alternative response was less persistent relative to when extinction of the alternative response took place in the context in which it was trained. This methodology might be used to illustrate shared (or distinct) mechanisms of resurgence and renewal, and to determine how delivering alternative reinforcement in another context may affect persistence and relapse.

  14. [Syndromes of peripheral nervous system lesions and mechanisms of their formation in disorders of connective tissue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spirin, N N; Bulanova, V A; Pizova, N V; Shilkina, N P

    2005-01-01

    Systemic rheumatoid diseases are often concomitant with the development of central and peripheral systems pathologies. Presented are the results revealing high frequency of peripheral nervous system lesions (lupus erythematosus and systemic scleroderma), which characterized by polyneuropathy and tunnel syndromes. Based on the results of literature and own studies, pathological mechanisms of peripheral nervous system lesions in diffusion disorders of connective tissue were singled out as follows: ischemic, immunological and metabolic. Taking these mechanisms into account will permit to conduct pathogenetically valid therapy and to improve its results.

  15. Alternative energy in Nepal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiwari, H.B.; Bhandari, K.P.

    2011-05-15

    Renewable energy Technology (RET) becomes the mainstream option for rural Nepal to access modern source of energy. It focuses on the trend of RET applications consisting of biogas technology, solar thermal, micro and Pico hydropower, biomass technology bio fuel technology, wind power technology etc. The RET's which provide both electricity based as well as non electricity based services, have been shown to most immediately meet the needs of a cleaner indoor environment, better quality lightning for education and income generating, activities, alternative cooking fuels and agro processing as well as rural industries. Improved cooking stoves and much more beneficial than other technologies. Wind energy utilization is still not popular. Solar thermal to generate thermal energy to cook, warm and dry, biogas for lighting and cooking services. Micro hydropower for electric as well as mechanical use and solar PV mainly for domestic lighting may become choice. The most important Renewable Energy Technology (RET's) in Nepal are related to Pico hydropower and micro-hydropower, biomass energy (biogas, briquettes, gasifies, improved cooking stoves, bio-fuels etc.) solar photovoltaic energy, solar PV water pumping, solar thermal energy (solar heater, solar dryers, solar cookers etc.) and wind energy (such as wind generators, wind mills etc.). One renowned Non-governmental organization has been established in the Jhapa and Mornag Bhutanese refugee camp. Two families from all the seven camps in Nepal received one solar cooker, one hay box and two cooking posts to each family. Under this programme, a total of 6,850 solar cookers, 12600 hay boxes and 25,200 cooking pots have been distributed 2009. The number of beneficiaries from this program has reached 85,000. Before the distribution of the cookers and the utensils, the instruction and orientation training for the maintenance and repair and operation method was improved. The refugees were divided in 315 groups of 40

  16. Uma alternativa mecânica com emprego de forças magnéticas para a desimpactação dentária A mechanical alternative with employment of magnetic force for the tooth desimpactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sisenando Itabaiana Sobrinho

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: o presente trabalho teve como finalidade avaliar clinicamente uma nova alternativa mecânica para a erupção guiada ao plano oclusal de um dente pré-molar impactado empregando magnetos atrativos da liga samário-cobalto. METODOLOGIA: o tratamento cirúrgico-ortodôntico foi realizado em uma paciente jovem de 11 anos portadora de oclusão de Classe I de Angle, com impactação do segundo pré-molar inferior direito. O sistema magnético empregado consistiu de um magneto colado com resina fotopolimerizável sobre a superfície vestibular do dente impactado e um outro pólo magnético rígido incrustado em um aparelho banda alça. Previamente à instalação do sistema magnético no meio bucal, os magnetos foram caracterizados através de análise de fluorescência, difração de raios X e nível de magnetização. A relação força/distância empregada foi quantificada, os magnetos foram medidos e a geometria magnética bucal estabelecida. RESULTADOS: o tempo empregado na desimpactação foi de 40 dias e foram necessárias duas ativações magnéticas por aproximação dos magnetos neste intervalo. A opção magnética neste caso clínico foi bastante eficaz tanto em relação ao tempo de tratamento quanto em relação ao conforto proporcionado ao paciente. Os magnetos empregados geraram um campo de força contínuo e autônomo não sendo necessária a utilização de fios metálicos como guias de orientação na erupção e nem elásticos de tracionamento. CONCLUSÃO: esta possibilidade terapêutica poderá ser útil em desimpactações mais profundas tais como os caninos ectópicos, cuja ocorrência é freqüente.AIM: the present work evaluated a new mechanical alternative to guide the eruption to the oclusal plan of a impacted bicuspid tooth using attractive cobalt-samarium magnets. METHODS: the treatment was accomplished in a 11 years old Class I young patient, with a impacted right inferior second premolar. The magnetic system

  17. Alternative fuels for vehicles; Alternative drivmidler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-02-15

    Up until 2020 and onwards the analysis indicates that especially electricity, biogas and natural gas as propellants is economically attractive compared to conventional gasoline and diesel while other fuels have the same or higher costs for petrol and diesel. Especially biogas and electricity will also offer significant reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions, but also hydrogen, methanol, DME and to a lesser extent the second generation bioethanol and most of the other alternative fuels reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. Use of the traditional food-based first generation biofuels involves, at best, only modest climate benefits if land use changes are counted, and at worst, significant negative climate effects. Natural gas as a propellant involves a moderate climate gain, but may play a role for building infrastructure and market for gaseous fuels in large fleets, thereby contributing to the phasing in of biogas for transport. The electric-based automotive fuels are the most effective due to a high efficiency of the engine and an increasing proportion of wind energy in the electricity supply. The methanol track also has a relatively high efficiency. Among the others, the track based on diesel engines (biodiesel) is more effective than the track based on gasoline/Otto engines (gas and ethanol) as a result of the diesel engine's better efficiency. For the heavy vehicles all the selected alternative fuels to varying degrees reduce emissions of CO{sub 2}, particularly DME based on wood. The only exception to this is - as for passenger cars - the propellant synthetic diesel based on coal. (LN).

  18. Alternative Green Solvents Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Phillip R.

    2012-01-01

    Necessary for safe and proper functioning of equipment. Mainly halogenated solvents. Tetrachloride, Trichloroethylene (TCE), CFC-113. No longer used due to regulatory/safety concerns. Precision Cleaning at KSC: Small % of total parts. Used for liquid oxygen (LOX) systems. Dual solvent process. Vertrel MCA (decafluoropentane (DFP) and trons-dichloroethylene) HFE-7100. DFP has long term environmental concerns. Project Goals: a) Identify potential replacements. b) 22 wet chemical processes. c) 3 alternative processes. d) Develop test procedures. e) Contamination and cleaning. f) Analysis. g) Use results to recommend alternative processes. Conclusions: a) No alternative matched Vertrel in this study. b) No clear second place solvent. c) Hydrocarbons- easy; Fluorinated greases- difficult. d) Fluorinated component may be needed in replacement solvent. e) Process may need to make up for shortcoming of the solvent. f) Plasma and SCC02 warrant further testing.

  19. Catalysis for alternative energy generation

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Summarizes recent problems in using catalysts in alternative energy generation and proposes novel solutions  Reconsiders the role of catalysis in alternative energy generation  Contributors include catalysis and alternative energy experts from across the globe

  20. Mechanical engineering education

    CERN Document Server

    Davim, J Paulo

    2012-01-01

    Mechanical Engineering is defined nowadays as a discipline "which involves the application of principles of physics, design, manufacturing and maintenance of mechanical systems". Recently, mechanical engineering has also focused on some cutting-edge subjects such as nanomechanics and nanotechnology, mechatronics and robotics, computational mechanics, biomechanics, alternative energies, as well as aspects related to sustainable mechanical engineering.This book covers mechanical engineering higher education with a particular emphasis on quality assurance and the improvement of academic

  1. [Alternative scaffold proteins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovskaia, L E; Shingarova, L N; Dolgikh, D A; Kirpichnikov, M P

    2011-01-01

    Review is devoted to the challenging direction in modem molecular biology and bioengineering - the properties of alternative scaffold proteins (ASP) and methods for obtaining ASP binding molecules. ASP molecules incorporate conservative protein core and hypervariable regions, providing for the binding function. Structural classification of ASP includes several types which differ also in their molecular targets and potential applications. Construction of artificial binding proteins on the ASP basis implies a combinatorial library design with subsequent selection of specific binders with the use of phage display or the modem cell-free systems. Alternative binding proteins on non-immunoglobulin scaffolds find broad applications in different fields ofbiotechnology and molecular medicine.

  2. Alcoholism and Alternative Splicing of Candidate Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshikazu Sasabe

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Gene expression studies have shown that expression patterns of several genes have changed during the development of alcoholism. Gene expression is regulated not only at the level of transcription but also through alternative splicing of pre-mRNA. In this review, we discuss some of the evidence suggesting that alternative splicing of candidate genes such as DRD2 (encoding dopamine D2 receptor may form the basis of the mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology of alcoholism. These reports suggest that aberrant expression of splice variants affects alcohol sensitivities, and alcohol consumption also regulates alternative splicing. Thus, investigations of alternative splicing are essential for understanding the molecular events underlying the development of alcoholism.

  3. A functional alternative splicing mutation in AIRE gene causes autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junyu Zhang

    Full Text Available Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1 (APS-1 is a rare autosomal recessive disease defined by the presence of two of the three conditions: mucocutaneous candidiasis, hypoparathyroidism, and Addison's disease. Loss-of-function mutations of the autoimmune regulator (AIRE gene have been linked to APS-1. Here we report mutational analysis and functional characterization of an AIRE mutation in a consanguineous Chinese family with APS-1. All exons of the AIRE gene and adjacent exon-intron sequences were amplified by PCR and subsequently sequenced. We identified a homozygous missense AIRE mutation c.463G>A (p.Gly155Ser in two siblings with different clinical features of APS-1. In silico splice-site prediction and minigene analysis were carried out to study the potential pathological consequence. Minigene splicing analysis and subsequent cDNA sequencing revealed that the AIRE mutation potentially compromised the recognition of the splice donor of intron 3, causing alternative pre-mRNA splicing by intron 3 retention. Furthermore, the aberrant AIRE transcript was identified in a heterozygous carrier of the c.463G>A mutation. The aberrant intron 3-retaining transcript generated a truncated protein (p.G155fsX203 containing the first 154 AIRE amino acids and followed by 48 aberrant amino acids. Therefore, our study represents the first functional characterization of the alternatively spliced AIRE mutation that may explain the pathogenetic role in APS-1.

  4. Alternative Energy Busing

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaFee, Scott

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, school districts have converted portions of their bus fleets to cleaner-burning, sometimes cheaper, alternative fossil fuels, such as compressed natural gas or propane. Others have adopted biodiesel, which combines regular diesel with fuel derived from organic sources, usually vegetable oils or animal fats. The number of biodiesel…

  5. Alternate dispute resolution.

    OpenAIRE

    Webb, Paul F.

    1994-01-01

    In an effort to save taxpayer dollars and ease an overburdened administrative and judicial court system, this report presents evidence to encourage the use of alternate dispute resolution (ADR) in construction contracting within the Naval Facilities Engineering Command. Information is presented detailing the primary factors that contribute to this expensive and overburdened system, including: costs associated with litigation, contractual document formation, experience level ...

  6. Alternatives in solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schueler, D. G.

    1978-01-01

    Although solar energy has the potential of providing a significant source of clean and renewable energy for a variety of applications, it is expected to penetrate the nation's energy economy very slowly. The alternative solar energy technologies which employ direct collection and conversion of solar radiation as briefly described.

  7. Environment and Alternative Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothari, Rajni

    Stressing the global dimension to the adversary relationship between economic development and environmental conservation, this monograph examines the philosophical, historical, cultural, and ethnic underpinnings of modern science and technology. In addition, the monograph spells out policy implications of an alternative concept of development and…

  8. Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the practitioner to ask about the risks and benefits of treatment — the same kinds of things you'd do if you were interviewing a new doctor. You may have already used a complementary or alternative practice, like yoga or massage, and not even thought about it! ...

  9. Monopole star products are non-alternative

    CERN Document Server

    Bojowald, Martin; Buyukcam, Umut; Strobl, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Non-associative algebras appear in some quantum-mechanical systems, for instance if a charged particle in a distribution of magnetic monopoles is considered. Using methods of deformation quantization it is shown here, that algebras for such systems cannot be alternative, i.e. their associator cannot be completely anti-symmetric.

  10. A structural bridge between alternant and non-alternant hydrocarbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Francis Langler

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available A simple set of trimethylene-substituted even, fully-pi-bonded, non-alternant monocycles is shown to have several key features in common with acyclic, even alternant polyenes at the Hückel level. These non-alternant molecules provide a bridge between alternant and non-alternant hydrocarbons. This topic might serve as a useful addition to Hückel theory courses targeted at senior undergraduate students.

  11. Virological Mechanisms in the Coinfection between HIV and HCV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Carla Liberto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to shared transmission routes, coinfection with Hepatitis C Virus (HCV is common in patients infected by Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV. The immune-pathogenesis of liver disease in HIV/HCV coinfected patients is a multifactorial process. Several studies demonstrated that HIV worsens the course of HCV infection, increasing the risk of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Also, HCV might increase immunological defects due to HIV and risk of comorbidities. A specific cross-talk among HIV and HCV proteins in coinfected patients modulates the natural history, the immune responses, and the life cycle of both viruses. These effects are mediated by immune mechanisms and by a cross-talk between the two viruses which could interfere with host defense mechanisms. In this review, we focus on some virological/immunological mechanisms of the pathogenetic interactions between HIV and HCV in the human host.

  12. Chemical photoallergy: photobiochemical mechanisms, classification, and risk assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onoue, Satomi; Seto, Yoshiki; Sato, Hideyuki; Nishida, Hayato; Hirota, Morihiko; Ashikaga, Takao; Api, Anne Marie; Basketter, David; Tokura, Yoshiki

    2017-01-01

    Chemical photosensitivity can be elicited by exposure of the skin to various pharmaceutical substances, foods, cosmetics and other environmental chemicals, followed by exposure to sunlight. There are at least three types of chemical photosensitivity, i.e., photoirritancy (narrowly defined as phototoxicity), photogenotoxicity and photoallergenicity, and their clinical characteristics and mechanisms are quite different. Concerns about chemical photoallergy is increasing, and various studies have been made to clarify the photobiochemical characteristics of photoallergens and the mechanisms involved. Various methodologies, including in silico prediction models, photochemical assay systems, and in vitro phototoxicity prediction tools, have been developed to predict the photoallergenic potential of chemicals over the past few years. The aim of this manuscript is to review the clinical characteristics, pathogenetic mechanisms and photobiochemical features of photoallergens, with special emphasis on the current status about development of screening systems for predicting photoallergenic potential of chemicals.

  13. Nature and main kinds of psychopathological mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis Oulis

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with two central issues in the philosophy of neuroscience and psychiatry, namely those of the nature and the major kinds and types of psychopathological mechanisms. Contrary to a widespread view, I argue that mechanisms are not kinds of systems but kinds of processes unfolding in systems or between systems. More precisely, I argue that psychopathological mechanisms are sets of actions and interactions between brain-systems or circuits as well as between the latter and other systems in one's body and external environment, both physical and social, involved in human psychopathology. According to the kinds of properties of the interacting systems or their component-parts, psychopathological mechanisms may be physical, chemical, biological, psychological, social, or, typically, mixed ones. Furthermore, I focus on two main kinds of psychopathological mechanisms involved in the causation of mental disorders, namely the pathogenetic and pathophysiological ones, stressing the importance of their careful distinction for the integrative understanding of otherwise disparate and apparently incommensurable psychiatric research findings. I illustrate my analysis with an example drawn from contemporary research on the mechanisms of acute psychosis. Finally, I stress the relevance of psychopathological mechanisms to a more scientifi cally-grounded classifi cation of mental disorders.

  14. Alternative propulsion for automobiles

    CERN Document Server

    Stan, Cornel

    2017-01-01

    The book presents – based on the most recent research and development results worldwide - the perspectives of new propulsion concepts such as electric cars with batteries and fuel cells, and furthermore plug in hybrids with conventional and alternative fuels. The propulsion concepts are evaluated based on specific power, torque characteristic, acceleration behaviour, specific fuel consumption and pollutant emissions. The alternative fuels are discussed in terms of availability, production, technical complexity of the storage on board, costs, safety and infrastructure. The book presents summarized data about vehicles with electric and hybrid propulsion. The propulsion of future cars will be marked by diversity – from compact electric city cars and range extender vehicles for suburban and rural areas up to hybrid or plug in SUV´s, Pick up´s and luxury class automobiles.

  15. Adaptive Alternating Minimization Algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Niesen, Urs; Wornell, Gregory

    2007-01-01

    The classical alternating minimization (or projection) algorithm has been successful in the context of solving optimization problems over two variables or equivalently of finding a point in the intersection of two sets. The iterative nature and simplicity of the algorithm has led to its application to many areas such as signal processing, information theory, control, and finance. A general set of sufficient conditions for the convergence and correctness of the algorithm is quite well-known when the underlying problem parameters are fixed. In many practical situations, however, the underlying problem parameters are changing over time, and the use of an adaptive algorithm is more appropriate. In this paper, we study such an adaptive version of the alternating minimization algorithm. As a main result of this paper, we provide a general set of sufficient conditions for the convergence and correctness of the adaptive algorithm. Perhaps surprisingly, these conditions seem to be the minimal ones one would expect in ...

  16. [Alternatives to animal testing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabre, Isabelle

    2009-11-01

    The use of alternative methods to animal testing are an integral part of the 3Rs concept (refine, reduce, replace) defined by Russel & Burch in 1959. These approaches include in silico methods (databases and computer models), in vitro physicochemical analysis, biological methods using bacteria or isolated cells, reconstructed enzyme systems, and reconstructed tissues. Emerging "omic" methods used in integrated approaches further help to reduce animal use, while stem cells offer promising approaches to toxicologic and pathophysiologic studies, along with organotypic cultures and bio-artificial organs. Only a few alternative methods can so far be used in stand-alone tests as substitutes for animal testing. The best way to use these methods is to integrate them in tiered testing strategies (ITS), in which animals are only used as a last resort.

  17. Alternative nanostructures for thermophones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Nathanael; Aliev, Ali; Baughman, Ray

    2015-03-01

    There is a large promise for thermophones in high power sonar arrays, flexible loudspeakers, and noise cancellation devices. So far, freestanding aerogel-like carbon nanotube sheets demonstrate the best performance as a thermoacoustic heat source. However, the limited accessibility of large size freestanding carbon nanotube sheets and other even more exotic materials published recently, hampers the field. We present here new alternative materials for a thermoacoustic heat source with high energy conversion efficiency, additional functionalities, environmentally friendly and cost effective production technologies. We discuss the thermoacoustic performance of alternative nanoscale materials and compare their spectral and power dependencies of sound pressure in air. The study presented here focuses on engineering thermal gradients in the vicinity of nanostructures and subsequent heat dissipation processes from the interior of encapsulated thermoacoustic projectors. Applications of thermoacoustic projectors for high power SONAR arrays, sound cancellation, and optimal thermal design, regarding enhanced energy conversion efficiency, are discussed.

  18. Metamaterials critique and alternatives

    CERN Document Server

    Munk, Ben A

    2009-01-01

    A Convincing and Controversial Alternative Explanation of Metamaterials with a Negative Index of Refraction In a book that will generate both support and controversy, one of the world's foremost authorities on periodic structures addresses several of the current fashions in antenna design-most specifically, the popular subject of double negative metamaterials. Professor Munk provides a comprehensive theoretical electromagnetic investigation of the issues and concludes that many of the phenomena claimed by researchers may be impossible. While denying the existence of negative refractio

  19. Outlook for alternative transportation fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gushee, D.E. [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This presentation provides a brief review of regulatory issues and Federal programs regarding alternative fuel use in automobiles. A number of U.S. DOE initiatives and studies aimed at increasing alternative fuels are outlined, and tax incentives in effect at the state and Federal levels are discussed. Data on alternative fuel consumption and alternative fuel vehicle use are also presented. Despite mandates, tax incentives, and programs, it is concluded alternative fuels will have minimal market penetration. 7 refs., 5 tabs.

  20. Alternative Fuels: Research Progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maher A.R. Sadiq Al-Baghdadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chapter 1: Pollutant Emissions and Combustion Characteristics of Biofuels and Biofuel/Diesel Blends in Laminar and Turbulent Gas Jet Flames. R. N. Parthasarathy, S. R. Gollahalli Chapter 2: Sustainable Routes for The Production of Oxygenated High-Energy Density Biofuels from Lignocellulosic Biomass. Juan A. Melero, Jose Iglesias, Gabriel Morales, Marta Paniagua Chapter 3: Optical Investigations of Alternative-Fuel Combustion in an HSDI Diesel Engine. T. Huelser, M. Jakob, G. Gruenefeld, P. Adomeit, S. Pischinger Chapter 4: An Insight into Biodiesel Physico-Chemical Properties and Exhaust Emissions Based on Statistical Elaboration of Experimental Data. Evangelos G. Giakoumis Chapter 5: Biodiesel: A Promising Alternative Energy Resource. A.E. Atabani Chapter 6: Alternative Fuels for Internal Combustion Engines: An Overview of the Current Research. Ahmed A. Taha, Tarek M. Abdel-Salam, Madhu Vellakal Chapter 7: Investigating the Hydrogen-Natural Gas Blends as a Fuel in Internal Combustion Engine. ?lker YILMAZ Chapter 8: Conversion of Bus Diesel Engine into LPG Gaseous Engine; Method and Experiments Validation. M. A. Jemni , G. Kantchev , Z. Driss , R. Saaidia , M. S. Abid Chapter 9: Predicting the Combustion Performance of Different Vegetable Oils-Derived Biodiesel Fuels. Qing Shu, ChangLin Yu Chapter 10: Production of Gasoline, Naphtha, Kerosene, Diesel, and Fuel Oil Range Fuels from Polypropylene and Polystyrene Waste Plastics Mixture by Two-Stage Catalytic Degradation using ZnO. Moinuddin Sarker, Mohammad Mamunor Rashid

  1. Alternative Energy Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Michaelides, Efstathios E (Stathis)

    2012-01-01

    Alternative Energy Sources is designed to give the reader, a clear view of the role each form of alternative energy may play in supplying the energy needs of the human society in the near and intermediate future (20-50 years).   The two first chapters on energy demand and supply and environmental effects, set the tone as to why the widespread use of alternative energy is essential for the future of human society. The third chapter exposes the reader to the laws of energy conversion processes, as well as the limitations of converting one energy form to another. The sections on exergy give a succinct, quantitative background on the capability/potential of each energy source to produce power on a global scale. The fourth, fifth and sixth chapters are expositions of fission and fusion nuclear energy. The following five chapters (seventh to eleventh) include detailed descriptions of the most common renewable energy sources – wind, solar, geothermal, biomass, hydroelectric – and some of the less common sources...

  2. MECHANISMS IN ENDOCRINOLOGY: Mechanisms and evaluation of bone fragility in type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hough, F S; Pierroz, D D; Cooper, C; Ferrari, S L

    2016-04-01

    Subjects with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) have decreased bone mineral density and an up to sixfold increase in fracture risk. Yet bone fragility is not commonly regarded as another unique complication of diabetes. Both animals with experimentally induced insulin deficiency syndromes and patients with T1DM have impaired osteoblastic bone formation, with or without increased bone resorption. Insulin/IGF1 deficiency appears to be a major pathogenetic mechanism involved, along with glucose toxicity, marrow adiposity, inflammation, adipokine and other metabolic alterations that may all play a role on altering bone turnover. In turn, increasing physical activity in children with diabetes as well as good glycaemic control appears to provide some improvement of bone parameters, although robust clinical studies are still lacking. In this context, the role of osteoporosis drugs remains unknown.

  3. Persisting complaints attributed to chronic Lyme disease: possible mechanisms and implications for management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigal, L H

    1994-04-01

    A better understanding of the natural history of Lyme disease and of possible causes for persisting symptoms other than active infection is needed to optimize management of patients with persistent symptoms. Review of patients seen at a Lyme disease referral center and of the immunologic and clinical literature on Lyme disease suggests most symptoms that persist after therapy can be explained by one or more of seven proposed pathogenetic mechanisms, only one of which includes active ongoing infection. Individualization of care and reanalysis of patients problems are crucial if misdiagnosis and overtreatment of Lyme disease are to be avoided.

  4. [The concomitance of pericarditis constrictiva in patient with Silver-Russell syndrome, primary hyperparathyroidism and oncologic history: causal coincidence or pathogenetic sequence?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banach, Monika; Zapolski, Tomasz; Drozd, Jakub; Wysokiński, Andrzej

    2011-01-01

    The most common cause of calcific pericarditis is idiopathic. We report a case of a 24 year-old woman with Silver-Russell syndrome, history of Wilms' tumour in childhood, constrictive pericarditis and primary hyperparathyroidism. We analyse pathologic mechanisms of disseminated calcification and possible genetic factors that may contribute to aetiology and clinical presentation of calcific pericarditis.

  5. Conserved and species-specific alternative splicing in mammalian genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Favorov Alexander V

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alternative splicing has been shown to be one of the major evolutionary mechanisms for protein diversification and proteome expansion, since a considerable fraction of alternative splicing events appears to be species- or lineage-specific. However, most studies were restricted to the analysis of cassette exons in pairs of genomes and did not analyze functionality of the alternative variants. Results We analyzed conservation of human alternative splice sites and cassette exons in the mouse and dog genomes. Alternative exons, especially minor-isofom ones, were shown to be less conserved than constitutive exons. Frame-shifting alternatives in the protein-coding regions are less conserved than frame-preserving ones. Similarly, the conservation of alternative sites is highest for evenly used alternatives, and higher when the distance between the sites is divisible by three. The rate of alternative-exon and site loss in mouse is slightly higher than in dog, consistent with faster evolution of the former. The evolutionary dynamics of alternative sites was shown to be consistent with the model of random activation of cryptic sites. Conclusion Consistent with other studies, our results show that minor cassette exons are less conserved than major-alternative and constitutive exons. However, our study provides evidence that this is caused not only by exon birth, but also lineage-specific loss of alternative exons and sites, and it depends on exon functionality.

  6. Recent advances in 2D and 3D in vitro systems using primary hepatocytes, alternative hepatocyte sources and non-parenchymal liver cells and their use in investigating mechanisms of hepatotoxicity, cell signaling and ADME

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Godoy, Patricio; Hewitt, Nicola J.; Albrecht, Ute; Andersen, Melvin E.; Ansari, Nariman; Bhattacharya, Sudin; Bode, Johannes Georg; Bolleyn, Jennifer; Borner, Christoph; Boettger, Jan; Braeuning, Albert; Budinsky, Robert A.; Burkhardt, Britta; Cameron, Neil R.; Camussi, Giovanni; Cho, Chong-Su; Choi, Yun-Jaie; Rowlands, J. Craig; Dahmen, Uta; Damm, Georg; Dirsch, Olaf; Teresa Donato, Maria; Dong, Jian; Dooley, Steven; Drasdo, Dirk; Eakins, Rowena; Ferreira, Karine Sa; Fonsato, Valentina; Fraczek, Joanna; Gebhardt, Rolf; Gibson, Andrew; Glanemann, Matthias; Goldring, Chris E. P.; Jose Gomez-Lechon, Maria; Groothuis, Geny M. M.; Gustavsson, Lena; Guyot, Christelle; Hallifax, David; Hammad, Seddik; Hayward, Adam; Haeussinger, Dieter; Hellerbrand, Claus; Hewitt, Philip; Hoehme, Stefan; Holzhuetter, Hermann-Georg; Houston, J. Brian; Hrach, Jens; Ito, Kiyomi; Jaeschke, Hartmut; Keitel, Verena; Kelm, Jens M.; Park, B. Kevin; Kordes, Claus; Kullak-Ublick, Gerd A.; LeCluyse, Edward L.; Lu, Peng; Luebke-Wheeler, Jennifer; Lutz, Anna; Maltman, Daniel J.; Matz-Soja, Madlen; McMullen, Patrick; Merfort, Irmgard; Messner, Simon; Meyer, Christoph; Mwinyi, Jessica; Naisbitt, Dean J.; Nussler, Andreas K.; Olinga, Peter; Pampaloni, Francesco; Pi, Jingbo; Pluta, Linda; Przyborski, Stefan A.; Ramachandran, Anup; Rogiers, Vera; Rowe, Cliff; Schelcher, Celine; Schmich, Kathrin; Schwarz, Michael; Singh, Bijay; Stelzer, Ernst H. K.; Stieger, Bruno; Stoeber, Regina; Sugiyama, Yuichi; Tetta, Ciro; Thasler, Wolfgang E.; Vanhaecke, Tamara; Vinken, Mathieu; Weiss, Thomas S.; Widera, Agata; Woods, Courtney G.; Xu, Jinghai James; Yarborough, Kathy M.; Hengstler, Jan G.

    2013-01-01

    This review encompasses the most important advances in liver functions and hepatotoxicity and analyzes which mechanisms can be studied in vitro. In a complex architecture of nested, zonated lobules, the liver consists of approximately 80 % hepatocytes and 20 % non-parenchymal cells, the latter being

  7. Alternate fuels; Combustibles alternos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero Paredes R, Hernando; Ambriz G, Juan Jose [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana. Iztapalapa (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    In the definition and description of alternate fuels we must center ourselves in those technological alternatives that allow to obtain compounds that differ from the traditional ones, in their forms to be obtained. In this article it is tried to give an overview of alternate fuels to the conventional derivatives of petroleum and that allow to have a clear idea on the tendencies of modern investigation and the technological developments that can be implemented in the short term. It is not pretended to include all the tendencies and developments of the present world, but those that can hit in a relatively short term, in accordance with agreed with the average life of conventional fuels. Nevertheless, most of the conversion principles are applicable to the spectrum of carbonaceous or cellulosic materials which are in nature, are cultivated or wastes of organic origin. Thus one will approach them in a successive way, the physical, chemical and biological conversions that can take place in a production process of an alternate fuel or the same direct use of the fuel such as burning the sweepings derived from the forests. [Spanish] En la definicion y descripcion de combustibles alternos nos debemos centrar en aquellas alternativas tecnologicas que permitan obtener compuestos que difieren de los tradicionales, al menos en sus formas de ser obtenidos. En este articulo se pretende dar un panorama de los combustibles alternos a los convencionales derivados del petroleo y que permita tener una idea clara sobre las tendencias de la investigacion moderna y los desarrollos tecnologicos que puedan ser implementados en el corto plazo. No se pretende abarcar todas las tendencias y desarrollos del mundo actual, sino aquellas que pueden impactar en un plazo relativamente corto, acordes con la vida media de los combustibles convencionales. Sin embargo, la mayor parte de los principios de conversion son aplicables al espectro de materiales carbonaceos o celulosicos los cuales se

  8. Mechanisms Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Restrepo-Giraldo, John Dairo

    2006-01-01

    Most products and machines involve some kind of controlled movement. From window casements to DVD players, from harbor cranes to the shears to prune your garden, all these machines require mechanisms to move. This course intends to provide the analytical and conceptual tools to design such mechan......Most products and machines involve some kind of controlled movement. From window casements to DVD players, from harbor cranes to the shears to prune your garden, all these machines require mechanisms to move. This course intends to provide the analytical and conceptual tools to design...... such mechanisms. This is a horizontal subject, which means you will be asked to make use of your knowledge in different disciplines, specially statics and dynamics, but also material selection, general product development, etc. At the end of this course you will be able to: • Generate alternative configurations...... for mechanisms that follow a particular trajectory, that need to occupy certain positions or that perform special functions using synthesis tools. • Analyze a mechanism from its kinematic characteristics (speed, velocity and acceleration) • Evaluate the best solution from different mechanisms configurations...

  9. Reactivation of latently infected HIV-1 viral reservoirs and correction of aberrant alternative splicing in the LMNA gene via AMPK activation: Common mechanism of action linking HIV-1 latency and Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, Jahahreeh

    2015-09-01

    Although the use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) has proven highly effective in controlling and suppressing HIV-1 replication, the persistence of latent but replication-competent proviruses in a small subset of CD4(+) memory T cells presents significant challenges to viral eradication from infected individuals. Attempts to eliminate latent reservoirs are epitomized by the 'shock and kill' approach, a strategy involving the combinatorial usage of compounds that influence epigenetic modulation and initiation of proviral transcription. However, efficient regulation of viral pre-mRNA splicing through manipulation of host cell splicing machinery is also indispensible for HIV-1 replication. Interestingly, aberrant alternative splicing of the LMNA gene via the usage of a cryptic splice site has been shown to be the cause of most cases of Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS), a rare genetic condition characterized by an accelerated aging phenotype due to the accumulation of a truncated form of lamin A known as progerin. Recent evidence has shown that inhibition of the splicing factors ASF/SF2 (or SRSF1) and SRp55 (or SRSF6) leads to a reduction or an increase in progerin at both the mRNA and protein levels, respectively, thus altering the LMNA pre-mRNA splicing ratio. It is also well-established that during the latter stages of HIV-1 infection, an increase in the production and nuclear export of unspliced viral mRNA is indispensible for efficient HIV-1 replication and that the presence of ASF/SF2 leads to excessive viral pre-mRNA splicing and a reduction of unspliced mRNA, while the presence of SRp55 inhibits viral pre-mRNA splicing and aids in the generation and translation of unspliced HIV-1 mRNAs. The splicing-factor associated protein and putative mitochondrial chaperone p32 has also been shown to inhibit ASF/SF2, increase unspliced HIV-1 viral mRNA, and enhance mitochondrial DNA replication and oxidative phosphorylation. It is our hypothesis that activation of

  10. Quantitative regulation of alternative splicing in evolution and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Irimia, Manuel; Rukov, Jakob L; Roy, Scott W;

    2009-01-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) is a widespread mechanism with an important role in increasing transcriptome and proteome diversity by generating multiple different products from the same gene. Evolutionary studies of AS have focused primarily on the conservation of alternatively spliced sequences...... layer in complex gene regulatory networks and in the emergence of genetic novelties....

  11. MSAT an alternative choice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, K. E.; Elmer, C.

    A number of potential applications are described of MSAT that use the unique properties of this transportation mechanism. Emphasis is placed on the market introduction strategy for the North American system.

  12. Alternative Therapies for PKU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Spécola MD

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The phenylalanine (PHE-restricted diet has improved in quality and diversity over time and has proven to be effective in all patients. Nevertheless, this treatment imposes a heavy social and economic burden to patient and family and impacts quality of life. Sustained adherence to PHE restriction is difficult to maintain. Moreover, even patients with phenylketonuria (PKU with normal intelligence quotient (IQ have lower IQ than matched individuals without PKU and can have deficits in multiple other aspects of neuropsychological function, including cognitive and executive function, working memory. They can also have behavior problems, depression, and low self-esteem. In recent years, alternative treatments for PKU have been developed and their use has been indicated for some patients who are candidates for options besides traditional treatment. Sapropterindihydrochloride, large neutral amino acids, and glycomacropeptide are alternative treatment options in use for selected patients. The aim of this article is to review the current knowledge of these new approaches to PKU treatment.

  13. Alternative Medicine and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1- to 2-Year-Old Complementary and Alternative Medicine KidsHealth > For Parents > Complementary and Alternative Medicine A ... works. previous continue How CAM Differs From Traditional Medicine CAM is frequently distinguished by its holistic methods, ...

  14. Pathogenetic Evaluation of Dysfunction in the Erythron System of Experimental Animals during Modeling of Iron Deficiency Anemia in the Gestation Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhdanov, V V; Udut, E V; Sotnikova, L S; Burmina, Ya V; Miroshnichenko, L A; Simanina, E V; Polyakova, T Yu; Zyuz'kov, G N; Chaikovskii, A V; Stavrova, L A; Fedorova, E P; Dygai, A M

    2016-02-01

    We studied the dynamics of erythropoiesis in CBA mice during gestation against the background of treatment with iron-binding drug. The mechanisms of suppression of the bone marrow erythroid stem were evaluated. Administration of deferoxamine in a dose of 1 g/kg induced hypoplasia of the erythroid hemopoietic lineage. Suppression of bone marrow erythropoiesis manifested in a decrease of hemoglobin concentration and counts of reticulocytes, erythrocytes, and erythrokaryocytes. These changes were accompanied by a decrease in functional activity of erythropoietic precursors and secretion of erythropoietically active humoral factors by bone marrow myelokaryocytes. These data indicate that deferoxamine can be used for modeling of iron defi ciency anemia in pregnancy.

  15. A genome-wide survey of alternative translational initiation events in Homo sapiens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Alternative translational initiation is an important mechanism to increase the diversity of gene products. Although some of alternative translational initiation events have been reported, such information remains anecdotal and does not allow for any generalizations. The number of the known alternative translational initiation genes is so few that we know little about its mechanism. There is a great demand to discover more alternative translational initiation genes. However, it is arduously time-consuming to discover novel alternative translational initiation genes by the experimental method. Therefore we systematically analyzed protein sequences available in public database and predicted 1237 protein clusters as potential alternative translational initiation events. We concluded that about 8%—10% of human genes have alternative translational initiation sites. The results significantly increased the number of alternative translation initiation events and indicated that alternative translation initiation is an important and general regulation mechanism in the cellular process.

  16. A genome-wide survey of alternative translational initiation events in Homo sapiens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jing; CAI Jun; LI YanDa

    2007-01-01

    Alternative translational initiation is an important mechanism to increase the diversity of gene products.Although some of alternative translational initiation events have been reported, such information remains anecdotal and does not allow for any generalizations. The number of the known alternative translational initiation genes is so few that we know little about its mechanism. There is a great demand to discover more alternative translational initiation genes. However, it is arduously time-consuming to discover novel alternative translational initiation genes by the experimental method. Therefore we systematically analyzed protein sequences available in public database and predicted 1237 protein clusters as potential alternative translational initiation events. We concluded that about 8%-10% of human genes have alternative translational initiation sites. The results significantly increased the number of alternative translation initiation events and indicated that alternative translation initiation is an important and general regulation mechanism in the cellular process.

  17. Global Genetic Robustness of the Alternative Splicing Machinery in Caenorhabditis elegans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Yang; Breitling, Rainer; Snoek, L. Basten; van der Velde, K. Joeri; Swertz, Morris A.; Riksen, Joost; Jansen, Ritsert C.; Kammenga, Jan E.; Borevitz, J.

    2010-01-01

    Alternative splicing is considered a major mechanism for creating multicellular diversity from a limited repertoire of genes. Here, we performed the first study of genetic variation controlling alternative splicing patterns by comprehensively identifying quantitative trait loci affecting the differe

  18. Altern als Widerstand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Maierhofer

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Gullettes kulturwissenschaftliche Untersuchung Aged by Culture ist wie bereits ihre zwei vorangehenden Werke, die sich mit Altern beschäftigen – Safe at Last in the Middle Years: The Invention of the Midlife Progress Novel (1988 und Declining to Decline. Cultural Combat and the Politics of the Middle (1997 –, von großem persönlichen Engagement und durch ein politisches Anliegen motiviert. Sowohl die Dringlichkeit als auch der Widerstand, den Gullette, die sich als „age critic“ definiert, als moralische und politische Notwendigkeit postuliert, werden in der Zweiteilung der Abhandlung angesprochen: „Cultural Urgencies“ und „Theorizing Age Resistantly“. Während Gullette den Begriff „aged by culture“ bereits in Declining to Decline einführt, stellt sie ihn nun in den Mittelpunkt ihrer Untersuchung. Das Buch ist einerseits einer gesellschaftspolitischen Analyse der USA gewidmet, andererseits wird eine Theorie des Widerstands gegenüber Altersdiskriminierung entwickelt.

  19. Alternatives to neoliberalism?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warring, Niels; Ahrenkiel, Annegrethe; Nielsen, Birger Steen;

    This paper will discuss the consequences of neoliberal governance in Danish day care centres, the social educators’ response, and the possible development of alternatives based on collective participation of social educators and union representatives. We will show how important and unnoticed...... professional competencies come under pressure, and how collective interest representation is challenged. We will discuss how concepts of “gestural knowledge”, “coherence” and “rhythm” open for a new understanding of professional competence. And we will conclude that the social educators and their unions have...... the possibility to contribute to the development of a new welfare paradigm. The paper is based on material from two research projects (Ahrenkiel et al. 2009, 2011) involving social educators and union representatives in day care institutions. We have observed everyday work activities in day care centres...

  20. Multimedia communications: architectural alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarty, Terrence P.; Treves, S. T.

    1992-03-01

    Multimedia communications systems are a combination of human interfaces and end users interacting with multimedia data bases and highly disparate but interconnected communications networks. This paper discusses several architectural alternatives and system requirements that will assist in the design and development of MMCS in actual environments. The approaches taken in this paper are based upon the development of such systems in both medical and printing and publishing environments. This paper develops several key concepts as how best to define and structure data in a multimedia environment, how best to integrate the communications elements, and how best to permit the maximum flexibility to the end user to utilize the system's capabilities in the context of a fully conversational environment.

  1. Alternating grain orientation and weld solidification cracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, S.; Le, Y.

    1985-10-01

    A new mechanism for reducing weld solidification cracking was proposed, based on the concept of the crack path and resistance to crack propagation, and its effectiveness was verified in magnetically oscillated GTA welds of a rather crack susceptible material 2014 aluminum alloy. This mechanism, i.e., alternating grain orientation, was most pronounced in welds made with transverse arc oscillation of low frequency and high amplitude, and solidification cracking was dramatically reduced in these welds. The effect of the arc oscillation pattern, amplitude, and frequency on the formation of alternating columnar grains and the reduction of solidification cracking in GTA welds of 2014 aluminum alloy was examined and explained. The present study demonstrated for the first time that columnar grains can, in fact, be very effective in reducing solidification cracking, provided that they are oriented favorably.

  2. THE ALTERNATE REALITIES OF PHILIP K. DICK

    OpenAIRE

    Mladen M. Jakovljević

    2012-01-01

    The science fiction of Philip K. Dick examines the issues of authenticity of reality and ontologicalpluralism through unique theories and mechanisms that Dick developed by using his ownunderstanding of alternate realities, time, simulations and cognitive processes, which all play animportant role in the perception of reality. Dick’s fiction describes a search for truth and highlightsthat reality might be fake and that it may be a construct, an illusion among numerous levels of theinauthentici...

  3. Sediment Movement in Periodic Alternating Current

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Zude; KONG Lingshuang; LIU Defu

    2002-01-01

    The present paper summarizes the results of previous studies, including the structure and principle of the rotaryring flume for researching the fine sediment movement, the mechanism of the flume, method of eliminating the influence ofthe centrifugal force and sediment movement experiments with periodic alternating current. Also included are the experi-ment-based relationship among sediment concentration, bed shear stress and silt carrying capacity, a proposed erosion-depo-sition function and bed erosion-deposition calculation together with the results of verification.

  4. Mechanism and Experiment of Flammability and Inert Effect of New Alternative Refrigerant%新一代替代制冷剂燃爆惰化机理及实验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨昭; 刘焕卫; 张奎

    2011-01-01

    二甲醚(DME)以其较好的热力学、传热学和环境特性决定了其有可能成为环境友好型制冷剂或混合工质的组元.不足的是DME具有可燃性,需要对其可燃性及可惰化性进行评估.通过基团贡献法和燃烧学相关理论对含有DME的二元混合工质阻燃剂的抑制系数进行了分析,提出了阻燃制冷剂最小惰化浓度的理论估算公式.对以一定体积配比的A/DME和B/DME混合制冷剂的可燃性进行了实验研究,得到了混合制冷剂的临界爆炸曲线图.结果表明:A和B对DME的惰化体积分数分别为7.04%和9.97%,理论估算值和实验值基本吻合;并得到了三元混合工质A/C/DME和B/D/DME的爆炸浓度分数图.实验结果对新一代替代制冷剂燃爆惰化及安全使用具有现实指导意义.%The dimethyl ether (DME) is potentially developed as an alternative refrigerant or a group member of mixture refrigerants because of its high thermodynamic efficiency and good environmental protection features. The flammability and inert effect of DEM need to be evaluated due to its flammability. The inhibition coefficient of nonflammable refrigerants was analyzed and a novel equation for predicting the minimum inert concentration of nonflammable refrigerant was proposed by analyzing the group contribution method and the theory of combustion in binary mixtures. At the same time, the explosive experiments of the mixture refrigerants A/DME and B/DME in different volume ratios were studied and the explosion limit curves were plotted. Analysis result shows that the inert concentrations of nonflammable A and B are 7.04% and 9.97% respectively, and the theoretical results were basically in agreement with experimental data. Furthermore, based on the results of binary mixture, the explosion ranges of ternary mixtures of A/C/DME and B/D/DME were obtained. The results have practical significance on the safety utilization of the mixture refrigerant.

  5. Ordering alternatives in MCDM problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Baets, B. [Ghent Univ. (Belgium). Dept. of Applied Mathematics and Computer Science

    1994-12-31

    A new approach to the study of a set of alternatives in a multi-criteria decision making problem is presented. Alternatives are described by means of fuzzy sets in the set of criteria, expressing the degrees to which they fulfill the different criteria. The concept of a fuzzy inclusion is introduced and is discussed from an axiomatic point of view. To each implication operator corresponds a fuzzy inclusion. The fuzzy inclusion corresponding to the Goedel operator is used to measure the degree to which the scores of one alternative are contained in the scores of another one. Repeating this for all couples of alternatives yields a fuzzy quasi-order relation in a set of alternatives. The cuts of this fuzzy relation are then classical quasi-order relations: they express orderings of the alternatives, allowing alternatives to be indifferent or incomparable, corresponding to different degrees of confidence.

  6. Erythroleukemia cells acquire an alternative mitophagy capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Fang, Yixuan; Yan, Lili; Yuan, Na; Zhang, Suping; Xu, Li; Nie, Meilan; Zhang, Xiaoying; Wang, Jianrong

    2016-04-19

    Leukemia cells are superior to hematopoietic cells with a normal differentiation potential in buffering cellular stresses, but the underlying mechanisms for this leukemic advantage are not fully understood. Using CRISPR/Cas9 deletion of the canonical autophagy-essential gene Atg7, we found that erythroleukemia K562 cells are armed with two sets of autophagic machinery. Alternative mitophagy is functional regardless of whether the canonical autophagic mechanism is intact or disrupted. Although canonical autophagy defects attenuated cell cycling, proliferation and differentiation potential, the leukemia cells retained their abilities for mitochondrial clearance and for maintaining low levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptosis. Treatment with a specific inducer of mitophagy revealed that the canonical autophagy-defective erythroleukemia cells preserved a mitophagic response. Selective induction of mitophagy was associated with the upregulation and localization of RAB9A on the mitochondrial membrane in both wild-type and Atg7(-/-) leukemia cells. When the leukemia cells were treated with the alternative autophagy inhibitor brefeldin A or when the RAB9A was knocked down, this mitophagy was prohibited. This was accompanied by elevated ROS levels and apoptosis as well as reduced DNA damage repair. Therefore, the results suggest that erythroleukemia K562 cells possess an ATG7-independent alternative mitophagic mechanism that functions even when the canonical autophagic process is impaired, thereby maintaining the ability to respond to stresses such as excessive ROS and DNA damage.

  7. Quantum Mechanics As A Limiting Case of Classical Mechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Ghose, Partha

    2000-01-01

    In spite of its popularity, it has not been possible to vindicate the conventional wisdom that classical mechanics is a limiting case of quantum mechanics. The purpose of the present paper is to offer an alternative point of view in which quantum mechanics emerges as a limiting case of classical mechanics in which the classical system is decoupled from its environment.

  8. CD20+ B Cell Depletion in Systemic Autoimmune Diseases: Common Mechanism of Inhibition or Disease-Specific Effect on Humoral Immunity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis Pateinakis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Autoimmunity remains a complex physiologic deviation, enabled and perpetuated by a variety of interplayers and pathways. Simplistic approaches, targeting either isolated end-effectors of more centrally placed interactors of these mechanisms, are continuously tried in an effort to comprehend and halt cascades with potential disabling and deleterious effects in the affected individuals. This review focuses on theoretical and clinically proved effects of rituximab-induced CD20+ B cell depletion on different systemic autoimmune diseases and extrapolates on pathogenetic mechanisms that may account for different interindividual or interdisease responses.

  9. Detecting alternative graph clusterings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandala, Supreet; Kumara, Soundar; Yao, Tao

    2012-07-01

    The problem of graph clustering or community detection has enjoyed a lot of attention in complex networks literature. A quality function, modularity, quantifies the strength of clustering and on maximization yields sensible partitions. However, in most real world networks, there are an exponentially large number of near-optimal partitions with some being very different from each other. Therefore, picking an optimal clustering among the alternatives does not provide complete information about network topology. To tackle this problem, we propose a graph perturbation scheme which can be used to identify an ensemble of near-optimal and diverse clusterings. We establish analytical properties of modularity function under the perturbation which ensures diversity. Our approach is algorithm independent and therefore can leverage any of the existing modularity maximizing algorithms. We numerically show that our methodology can systematically identify very different partitions on several existing data sets. The knowledge of diverse partitions sheds more light into the topological organization and helps gain a more complete understanding of the underlying complex network.

  10. Alternative nuclear technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, E.

    1981-10-01

    The lead times required to develop a select group of nuclear fission reactor types and fuel cycles to the point of readiness for full commercialization are compared. Along with lead times, fuel material requirements and comparative costs of producing electric power were estimated. A conservative approach and consistent criteria for all systems were used in estimates of the steps required and the times involved in developing each technology. The impact of the inevitable exhaustion of the low- or reasonable-cost uranium reserves in the United States on the desirability of completing the breeder reactor program, with its favorable long-term result on fission fuel supplies, is discussed. The long times projected to bring the most advanced alternative converter reactor technologies the heavy water reactor and the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor into commercial deployment when compared to the time projected to bring the breeder reactor into equivalent status suggest that the country's best choice is to develop the breeder. The perceived diversion-proliferation problems with the uranium plutonium fuel cycle have workable solutions that can be developed which will enable the use of those materials at substantially reduced levels of diversion risk.

  11. Hospital diversification: evaluating alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, L

    1987-05-01

    The appropriateness of diversification as a growth strategy for hospitals is discussed, and planning for diversification is described. Because new forms of health-care delivery are now in direct competition with hospitals, many hospitals are confronting environmental pressures and preparing for future survival through diversification. To explore the potential risks and benefits of diversification, the hospital must identify opportunities for new business ventures. Diversification can be "related," through an expansion of the primary product line (health care), or "unrelated," into areas not directly associated with health care. The hospital must establish specific criteria for evaluating each diversification alternative, and the two or three most attractive options should be analyzed further through a financial feasibility study. The hospital should also seek legal advice to determine the implications of diversification for maintenance of tax status, antitrust limitations, and applicability of certificate of need. Although diversification may not be appropriate for every institution, hospitals should consider it as a strategy for increasing their revenue base, confronting environmental pressures, and securing future survival.

  12. Alternating hemiplegia of childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansagra, Sujay; Mikati, Mohamad A; Vigevano, Federico

    2013-01-01

    Alternating hemiplegia of childhood (AHC) is a very rare disease characterized by recurrent attacks of loss of muscular tone resulting in hypomobility of one side of the body. The etiology of the disease due to ATP1A3 gene mutations in the majority of patients. Few familial cases have been described. AHC has an onset in the first few months of life. Hemiplegic episodes are often accompanied by other paroxysmal manifestations, such as lateral eyes and head deviation toward the hemiplegic side and a very peculiar monocular nystagmus. As the attack progresses, hemiplegia can shift to the other side of the body. Sometimes the attack can provoke bilateral paralysis, and these patients may have severe clinical impairment, with difficulty in swallowing and breathing. Hemiplegic attacks may be triggered by different stimuli, like bath in warm water, motor activity, or emotion. The frequency of attacks is high, usually several in a month or in a week. The duration is variable from a few minutes to several hours or even days. Sleep can stop the attack. Movement disorders such as dystonia and abnormal movements are frequent. Cognitive delay of variable degree is a common feature. Epilepsy has been reported in 50% of the cases, but seizure onset is usually during the third or fourth year of life. Many drugs have been used in AHC with very few results. Flunarizine has the most supportive anecdotal evidence regarding efficacy.

  13. Alternative HTS coated conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaugher, R. D.; Bhattacharya, R. N.; Chen, J.; Padmanabhan, R.

    2002-10-01

    The availability of Bi-2223 high-temperature-superconductor (HTS) powder-in-tube (PIT) tape, with acceptable performance for long lengths, has provided the ability to construct a wide range of HTS electric power components. As a result, there are major worldwide projects in developing HTS electric power components for demonstration in a utility environment. Utility acceptance for superconducting power equipment will depend on several key factors: improved system performance, lower life-cycle costs, higher efficiency versus conventional technology, reliability and maintenance comparable to conventional power equipment, and a competitive installed cost. The latter is impacted by the current high cost of HTS conductors, which must be lowered to costs comparable to conventional Nb-Ti wire, i.e., $2-5/kAm. The present performance and cost of state-of-the-art Bi-2223 HTS tape, although acceptable for prototype construction, is viewed as a major deterrent that may compromise eventual commercialization for most of these electric power devices. The so-called second-generation coated conductor development, with emphasis on conductors employing HTS YBCO films, is viewed as the solution to this performance and cost issue. The potential for the Tl, Hg, and Bi-oxide superconductors for producing an HTS tape as alternatives to Bi-2223 PIT (and YBCO) will be discussed with some recent results on Bi-2212 “coated conductor” development.

  14. Enhanced Design Alternative IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N. E. Kramer

    1999-05-18

    This report evaluates Enhanced Design Alternative (EDA) IV as part of the second phase of the License Application Design Selection (LADS) effort. The EDA IV concept was compared to the VA reference design using criteria from the ''Design Input Request for LADS Phase II EDA Evaluations'' (CRWMS M&O 1999b) and (CRWMS M&O 1999f). Briefly, the EDA IV concept arranges the waste packages close together in an emplacement configuration known as ''line load''. Continuous pre-closure ventilation keeps the waste packages from exceeding the 350 C cladding and 200 C (4.3.13) drift wall temperature limits. This EDA concept keeps relatively high, uniform emplacement drift temperatures (post-closure) to drive water away from the repository and thus dry out the pillars between emplacement drifts. The waste package is shielded to permit human access to emplacement drifts and includes an integral filler inside the package to reduce the amount of water that can contact the waste form. Closure of the repository is desired 50 years after first waste is emplaced. Both backfill and a drip shields will be emplaced at closure to improve post-closure performance.

  15. Canonical and alternative MAPK signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimienta, Genaro; Pascual, Jaime

    2007-11-01

    The archetype of MAPK cascade activation is somewhat challenged by the most recent discovery of unexpected phosphorylation patterns, alternative activation mechanisms and sub-cellular localization, in various members of this protein kinase family. In particular, activation by autophosphorylation pathways has now been described for the three best understood MAPK subgroups: ERK1/2; JNK1/2 and p38 alpha/beta. Also, a form of dosage compensation between homologs has been shown to occur in the case of ERK1/2 and JNK1/2. In this paper we summarize the MAPK activation pathway, with an emphasis on non-canonical examples. We use this information to propose a model for MAPK signal transduction that considers a cross-talk between MAPKs with different activation loop sequence motifs and unique C-terminal extensions. We highlight the occurrence of non-canonical substrate specificity during MAPK auto-activation, in strong connection with MAPK homo- and hetero-dimerization events.

  16. Telomere elongation chooses TERRA ALTernatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Rajika; Azzalin, Claus M

    2015-01-01

    Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres (ALT) mechanisms allow telomerase-negative immortal cells to buffer replicative telomere shortening. ALT is naturally active in a number of human cancers and might be selected upon telomerase inactivation. ALT is thought to operate through homologous recombination (HR) occurring between telomeric repeats from independent chromosome ends. Indeed, suppression of a number of HR factors impairs ALT cell proliferation. Yet, how HR is initiated at ALT telomeres remains elusive. Mounting evidence suggests that the long noncoding telomeric RNA TERRA renders ALT telomeres recombinogenic by forming RNA:DNA hybrids with the telomeric C-rich strand. TERRA and telomeric hybrids act in concert with a number of other factors, including the RNA endoribonuclease RNaseH1 and the single stranded DNA binding protein RPA. The functional interaction network built upon these different players seems indispensable for ALT telomere maintenance, and digging into the molecular details of this previously unappreciated network might open the way to novel avenues for cancer treatments.

  17. 齿龈内阿米巴引起牙周炎及其致病机制的研究%STUDIES ON PERIODONTITIS CAUSED BY ENTAMOEBA GINGIVALIS AND ITS PATHOGENETIC MECHANISM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘光英; 陈金富; 陈文列; 温旺荣; 林立群; 洪航

    2003-01-01

    目的研究齿龈内阿米巴(Entamoeba gingivalis,E.g.)与牙周炎的关系及其致病机制. 方法给大鼠免疫抑制剂,于下颌切牙颈部结扎细钢丝,在E.g.组和对照组大鼠龈缘涂抹E.g.或生理盐水,观察大鼠发病和病理改变情况;检测感染E.g.的牙周炎患者唾液中的超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、过氧化氢酶(CAT)、酸性磷酸酶(ACP)和丙二醛(MDA)含量;应用电镜细胞化学技术观察E.g.的细胞器. 结果大鼠牙龈上皮组织溃疡、炎症细胞浸润、牙龈沟内上皮增生、牙周脓肿形成、牙槽骨吸收和脓液查见活E.g.,对照组未见病理改变;感染E.g.的牙周炎患者的SOD较正常组低(P0.05),ACP与MDA含量显著高于正常组(均P<0.01);E.g.的伪足粘附、伸入口腔上皮细胞微绒毛之间,溶酶体标志酶反应阳性. 结论当宿主免疫力降低时,E.g.可致宿主牙周炎.虫体伪足的活动,溶酶体含ACP等水解酶对牙周组织的溶解、破坏与氧自由基对细胞膜的损害是虫体引起牙周炎的重要致病机制.

  18. Allogeneic transplantation following non-myeloablative conditioning in renal carcinoma. New evidence of the immune mechanisms responsible for the activity of this form of immunotherapy and the pathogenetic role of endogenous retroviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camillo Porta

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2000, the influential New England Journal of Medicine published the first impressive results of the use of allogeneic stem cell transplantation following nonmyeloblative conditioning (the so-called ‘mini-allo transplant’ in the treatment of patients with advanced kidney cancer...

  19. The pathogenetic factors, molecular mechanism and the management strategies of postburn inflammatory reaction%烧伤后炎症反应的病因、分子机制及防治对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭代智

    2005-01-01

    烧伤后的炎症反应本质上是机体对烧伤所致组织损伤的一种防御反应,有助于清除创面坏死组织,限制组织损伤扩大和加速组织的修复。受伤部位因微血管通透性增高而出现明显的局部水肿:当烧伤面积≥30%TBSA时,还可引起全身性的微血管通透性升高,并伴有不同程度的全身反立,如发热、血中自细胞增多、肝脏合成急性期反立蛋白等。这时大量炎症介质的释放可激活中性粒细胞(PMN)和血管内皮细胞(VEC),若抗炎介质产生相对不足则可造成组织和器官的损伤,引发多脏器功能不全甚至死亡。可见,严重烧伤是以全身性炎症反应为特征的全身性疾病,在宏观上仔细分析严重烧伤后全身性炎症反应的发病原因,在徽观上深入探讨各发病原因的分子机制及其相互联系,再回到整体上制定相应的临床措施,将有利于进一步提高大面积烧伤的治愈率。

  20. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF UNLOADING CREEP MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF ALTERNATIVELY DISTRIBUTED SOFT AND HARD ROCKMASS%软硬互层岩体卸荷蠕变力学特性试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋昱州; 朱杰兵; 王瑞红

    2012-01-01

    利用岩石全自动三轴蠕变仪对锦屏二级水电站辅助交通洞典型灰白色细晶大理岩与绿片岩软硬互层岩样开展卸荷蠕变试验,得到岩样轴向、侧向典型的蠕变全程曲线.蠕变试验结果表明:围压较高时,试样的轴向与侧向变形随时间的推移变化不大,蠕变现象不明显;随着围压逐渐减小,试样的蠕变变形越来越显著,在最后一级出现了典型的蠕变3个阶段并发生了非线性加速蠕变现象直至试样破坏.软硬互层岩样三轴卸荷蠕变破裂形式主要以剪切破坏为主,局部伴随着一定程度的张拉破坏,主裂纹与水平面大致呈45°角,剪切破裂面较为单一平整,且破坏面基本是沿着强度较低的绿片岩层理内部并平行于层理而产生和扩展贯通而形成的.在加速蠕变阶段之前,其侧向蠕变变形比轴向蠕变变形小,但试样处于加速蠕变阶段时,侧向蠕变变形量与蠕变速率均要高于轴向蠕变;这表明随着时间的增长和围压的降低,岩样的侧向蠕变比轴向蠕变更为灵敏,而且体积扩容效应显著.卸荷条件下,蠕变力学参数表现出较为显著的非定常性规律,当外荷载小于岩样长期强度时,岩石卸荷蠕变力学参数与卸荷量有关,随着卸荷量的增大逐渐弱化;当外荷载大于岩样长期强度时,岩石卸荷蠕变力学参数不仅与卸荷量有关,而且还与蠕变时间有关.%Triaxial unloading creep tests with alternatively distributed soft and hard rock specimen from auxiliary traffic tunnel of Jinping II hydropower station are carried out by the rock servo-controlled rheological testing machine. The creep laws of axial and lateral deformations under unloading confining pressure are obtained. According to creep test results, axial and lateral deformations are both unchangeable under high confining pressure with time; and the creep phenomenon of rock specimen is not obvious. As confining pressure decreases

  1. ALTERNATIVE REFRIGERANT R-134A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasim KARABACAK

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available Because of the big damages on the ozone layer given by the refrigerants cloroflorocarbons that has been used up to now, new alternative gases should be developped and product at once. In this study, some informations about alternative to presently used CFCs, R-134A refrigerant's characteristics and its suitability to cooling systems is given. As it would be understood from these informations there is no objection on using alternative R-134A refrigerant

  2. Alternative fuelds in urban fleets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsay, T.

    1994-12-31

    In this presentation the author addresses four main objectives. They are to: discuss programs that are driving the introduction of alternative fuels into fleet operations in urban areas around the country; define alternative fuels; quantify the present use and future projections on alternative fuel vehicles (AVFs) in the Chicago metropolitan statistical area; and discuss benefits of increased use of alternative fuels in urban areas. Factors which touch on these points include: present domestic dependence on petroleum for autos, with usage exceeding production; the large populations in urban areas which do not meet Clean Air Standards; recent legislative initiatives which give guidance and aid in the adoption of such strategies.

  3. Private Housing or Alternative Financing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Nick

    1999-01-01

    Explores the history of privatizing university housing and some current financing options, including use of developer and private foundations. Examples of successful alternative financing methods are highlighted. (GR)

  4. Obesity-related hypertension: possible pathophysiological mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaněčková, Ivana; Maletínská, Lenka; Behuliak, Michal; Nagelová, Veronika; Zicha, Josef; Kuneš, Jaroslav

    2014-12-01

    Hypertension is one of the major risk factors of cardiovascular diseases, but despite a century of clinical and basic research, the discrete etiology of this disease is still not fully understood. The same is true for obesity, which is recognized as a major global epidemic health problem nowadays. Obesity is associated with an increasing prevalence of the metabolic syndrome, a cluster of risk factors including hypertension, abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, and hyperglycemia. Epidemiological studies have shown that excess weight gain predicts future development of hypertension, and the relationship between BMI and blood pressure (BP) appears to be almost linear in different populations. There is no doubt that obesity-related hypertension is a multifactorial and polygenic trait, and multiple potential pathogenetic mechanisms probably contribute to the development of higher BP in obese humans. These include hyperinsulinemia, activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, sympathetic nervous system stimulation, abnormal levels of certain adipokines such as leptin, or cytokines acting at the vascular endothelial level. Moreover, some genetic and epigenetic mechanisms are also in play. Although the full manifestation of both hypertension and obesity occurs predominantly in adulthood, their roots can be traced back to early ontogeny. The detailed knowledge of alterations occurring in the organism of experimental animals during particular critical periods (developmental windows) could help to solve this phenomenon in humans and might facilitate the age-specific prevention of human obesity-related hypertension. In addition, better understanding of particular pathophysiological mechanisms might be useful in so-called personalized medicine.

  5. Alternative Genres of IS Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avital, Michel; Mathiassen, Lars; Crowston, Kevin;

    2012-01-01

    The potential value of alternative genres in IS research is the core question that drives this panel discussion. The term “Alternative Genres” refers to unconventional forms of thinking, doing, and communicating scholarship and practice. It relates to innovation with respect to epistemological pe...

  6. Difficulties of Alternatively Certified Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonfeld, Irvin Sam; Feinman, Samantha J.

    2012-01-01

    This daily diary study followed, over a 2-week period, 252 beginning New York City public school teachers. Seventy percent were alternatively certified (New York City Teaching Fellows) and the rest, traditionally certified teachers. Alternatively certified teachers were more likely to experience stressors such as violent incidents and classroom…

  7. Orion Project: Alternate Attitude Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Hernandez, A.; Miller, Stephen W.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the study done on alternate attitudes for the Orion project's crew exploration vehicle. The analysis focused on the thermal performance of the vehicle with the alternate attitudes. The pressure vessel heater power, other vehicle heaters and radiator sink temperatures were included in the analysis.

  8. Titin Diversity—Alternative Splicing Gone Wild

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Guo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Titin is an extremely large protein found in highest concentrations in heart and skeletal muscle. The single mammalian gene is expressed in multiple isoforms as a result of alternative splicing. Although titin isoform expression is controlled developmentally and in a tissue specific manner, the vast number of potential splicing pathways far exceeds those described in any other alternatively spliced gene. Over 1 million human splice pathways for a single individual can be potentially derived from the PEVK region alone. A new splicing pattern for the human cardiac N2BA isoform type has been found in which the PEVK region includes only the N2B type exons. The alterations in splicing and titin isoform expression in human heart disease provide impetus for future detailed study of the splicing mechanisms for this giant protein.

  9. Alternative Fuels in Cement Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Morten Boberg

    for the most significant alternative fuel energy contributors in the German cement industry. Solid alternative fuels are typically high in volatile content and they may differ significantly in physical and chemical properties compared to traditional solid fossil fuels. From the process point of view......The substitution of alternative for fossil fuels in cement production has increased significantly in the last decade. Of these new alternative fuels, solid state fuels presently account for the largest part, and in particular, meat and bone meal, plastics and tyre derived fuels (TDF) accounted......, considering a modern kiln system for cement production, the use of alternative fuels mainly influences 1) kiln process stability (may accelerate build up of blockages preventing gas and/or solids flow), 2) cement clinker quality, 3) emissions, and 4) decreased production capacity. Kiln process stability...

  10. Verb aspect, alternations and quantification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetla Koeva

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Verb aspect, alternations and quantification In this paper we are briefly discuss the nature of Bulgarian verb aspect and argue that the verb aspect pairs are different lexical units with different (although related meaning, different argument structure (reflecting categories, explicitness and referential status of arguments and different sets of semantic and syntactic alternations. The verb prefixes resulting in perfective verbs derivation in some cases can be interpreted as lexical quantifiers as well. Thus the Bulgarian verb aspect is related (in different way both with the potential for the generation of alternations and with the prefixal lexical quantification. It is shown that the scope of the lexical quantification by means of verbal prefixes is the quantified verb phrase and the scope remains constant in all derived alternations. The paper concerns the basic issues of these complex problems, while the detailed description of the conditions satisfying particular alternation or particular lexical quantification are subject of a more detailed study.

  11. Intrasplicing coordinates alternative first exons with alternative splicing in the protein 4.1R gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conboy, John G.; Parra, Marilyn K.; Tan, Jeff S.; Mohandas, Narla; Conboy, John G.

    2008-11-07

    In the protein 4.1R gene, alternative first exons splice differentially to alternative 3' splice sites far downstream in exon 2'/2 (E2'/2). We describe a novel intrasplicing mechanism by which exon 1A (E1A) splices exclusively to the distal E2'/2 acceptor via two nested splicing reactions regulated by novel properties of exon 1B (E1B). E1B behaves as an exon in the first step, using its consensus 5' donor to splice to the proximal E2'/2 acceptor. A long region of downstream intron is excised, juxtaposing E1B with E2'/2 to generate a new composite acceptor containing the E1B branchpoint/pyrimidine tract and E2 distal 3' AG-dinucleotide. Next, the upstream E1A splices over E1B to this distal acceptor, excising the remaining intron plus E1B and E2' to form mature E1A/E2 product. We mapped branch points for both intrasplicing reactions and demonstrated that mutation of the E1B 5' splice site or branchpoint abrogates intrasplicing. In the 4.1R gene, intrasplicing ultimately determines N-terminal protein structure and function. More generally, intrasplicing represents a new mechanism whereby alternative promoters can be coordinated with downstream alternative splicing.

  12. Potential Alternatives Report for Validation of Alternative Low-Emission Surface PreparationlDepainting Technologies for Structural Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Pattie

    2006-01-01

    For this project, particulates and solvents used during the depainting process of steel structures were the identified hazardous material (HazMat) targeted for elimination or reduction. This Potential Alternatives Report (PAR) provides technical analyses of identified alternatives to the current coating removal processes, criteria used to select alternatives for further analysis, and a list of those alternatives recommended for testing. The initial coating removal alternatives list was compiled using literature searches and center participant recommendations. The involved project participants initially considered fifteen (15) alternatives. In late 2004, stakeholders down-selected the list and identified specific processes as potential alternatives to the current depainting methods. The selected alternatives were: 1. Plastic Blast Media 2. Hard Abrasive Media 3. Sponge Blast Media 4. Mechanical Removal with Vacuum Attachment 5. Liquid Nitrogen 6. Laser Coating Removal Available information about these processes was used to analyze the technical merits and the potential environmental, safety, and occupational health (ESOH) impacts of these methods. A preliminary cost benefit analysis will be performed to determine if implementation of alternative technologies is economically justified. NASA AP2

  13. Pathogenetic studies on feline eosinophilic granuloma complex

    OpenAIRE

    Fondati, Alessandra

    2004-01-01

    Descripció del recurs: el 12 de juliol de 2004 En el gat, encara que amb freqüència es parla dels desordres associats a eosinòfils, inclòs el EGC, són poc coneguts i en general s'associen a causes immuno-mediades o parasitàries, anàlegs als seus equivalents humans. Tot i així, el contingut i les funcions dels eosinòfils dels gats, encara que es consideren similars als eosinòfils humans, no es coneixen. Per tot això, els objectius d'aquesta tesi varen ser estudiar el EGC felí i obtenir info...

  14. Lupus vasculopathy: Diagnostic, pathogenetic and therapeutic considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Suarez, M L; Waheed, A A; Andrews, D M; Ascherman, D P; Zeng, X; Nayer, A

    2014-04-01

    A rare form of vascular disease in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), lupus vasculopathy is characterized by necrosis and accumulation of immunoglobulins (IGs) and complements in the wall of arterioles and small arteries resulting in luminal narrowing. Lupus vasculopathy often accompanies lupus nephritis and portends a poor prognosis. Although there is general agreement on the treatment of lupus nephritis, effective treatment strategies for lupus vasculopathy remain to be defined. We report a 20-year-old woman with SLE who presented with generalized tonic-clonic seizure. Her immunosuppressive regimen consisted of mycophenolate mofetil, prednisone and hydroxychloroquine. On physical examination, she was Cushingoid in appearance and hypertensive. Laboratory tests indicated renal disease. Coagulation studies disclosed de novo lupus anticoagulant. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain demonstrated acute focal cerebral hemorrhage. Echocardiography revealed reduced ejection fraction and severe mitral regurgitation. Despite high-dose glucocorticoids and mycophenolate mofetil, renal function remained poor. Kidney biopsy demonstrated lupus vasculopathy and glomerulonephritis. Plasma exchange therapy and intravenous cyclophosphamide were administered. Over the ensuing four weeks, renal function improved, complement levels increased, autoantibody titers decreased and lupus anticoagulant disappeared. In conclusion, lupus vasculopathy can occur in SLE despite a heavy immunosuppressive regimen. Antiphospholipid antibodies might be involved in the pathogenesis of lupus vasculopathy. Plasma exchange therapy in conjunction with intravenous cyclophosphamide may represent an effective treatment strategy for lupus vasculopathy.

  15. [Parodontitis pathogenetic factors, their interaction and effects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipiani, Nana V; Iverieli, M; Mosemgvdlishvili, N; Kipiani, Nino V; Jafaridze, S

    2014-03-01

    Induced by microbial intervention oxidative stress causes electronic transport disorder in gingival cells mitochondrias as well as decrease of energogenesis and increase of lipoperoxidation. In oral cavity local immunity is decreased in parodontitis, that is related with immunoglobulin A deficiency and lysozyme activity decrease. Against this background, microbial factors damaging effect on periodont is intensified. In parodontitis the free nitric oxide (NO) content decrease in gingival tissues and its appearance in saliva is related with transformation of NO into toxic peroxinitrite, that on its turn enhances oxidation, parodontal injury, cell degra dation and necrosis. Nitrooxide defficiency in gingival mucosal cells is characterized by decreased protein P-53 expression and terminal differentiation disorder of the cells. Mitochodria related energogenesis disorder in gums causes inhibition of their cell regeneration, which together with apoptotic changes is characterized with parodontal tissue destruction and depletion.

  16. Central serous chorioretinopathy: a pathogenetic model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    et al

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Antonio Caccavale1, Filippo Romanazzi1, Manuela Imparato1, Angelo Negri2, Anna Morano3, Fabio Ferentini21Department of Ophthalmology, Neuropthalmology and Ocular Immunology Service, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Hospital “C. Cantù”, Abbiategrasso, Milan, Italy; 3University Eye Clinic, Foundation IRCCS San Matteo Hospital, Pavia, ItalyAbstract: Despite numerous studies describing predominantly its demography and clinical course, many aspects of central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR remain unclear. Perhaps the major impediment to finding an effective therapy is the difficulty of performing studies with large enough cohorts, which has meant that clinicians have focused more on therapy than on a deeper understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease. Hypotheses on the pathogenesis of CSCR have ranged from a basic alteration in the choroid to an involvement of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE. Starting from evidence that affected subjects often present a personality prone to stress with altered pituitary–hypothalamic axis response (HPA and that they have higher levels of serum and urinary cortisol and catecholamines than healthy subjects, we hypothesize a cascade of events that may lead to CSCR through hypercoagulability and augmented platelet aggregation. In particular we investigated the role of tissue plasminogen activator, increasing plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1, and plasmin-α2- plasmin inhibitor complexes. We reviewed the different therapeutic approaches, including adrenergic antagonists, carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, mifepristone, ketoconazole, laser photocoagulation, intravitreal injection of bevacizumab, and photodynamic therapy with verteporfin (PDT and our model of pathogenesis seems to be in agreement with the clinical effects obtained from these treatments. In accord with our thesis, we began to treat a group of patients affected by CSCR with low-dose aspirin (75–100 mg, because of its effectiveness in other vascular diseases and its low ocular and general toxicity with prolonged use. The formulation of a causative model of CSCR enables us to understand how the therapeutic approach cannot be based on a generalized therapy but should be individualized for each patient, and that sometimes a combined strategy of treatment is required. Moreover a complete knowledge of the disease will help to identify patients prone to the most persistent forms of CSCR, and thus help to find a treatment.Keywords: CSCR, aspirin, PAI-1, glucocorticoid, macula, pathogenesis 

  17. Fibromyalgia: pathogenetic, diagnostic and therapeutic concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podolecki, Tomasz; Podolecki, Andrzej; Hrycek, Antoni

    2009-03-01

    Musculoskeletal pains are one of the most common complaints reported by patients. In 1972, Smythe described the generalized pain and tenderness on palpation at specific points and, 4 years later, the term fibromyalgia was introduced for determining the disease syndrome. The etiology and pathogenesis of fibromyalgia are still unknown. This disease appears probably multi-factorial. It is considered that the changes in the neuronal activity in the central nervous system, abnormal metabolism of biogenic amines and immunological disorders may among other things, contribute to the development of the disease. The complaints are non characteristic and highly sujective, which makes it substantially difficult to differentiate between fibromialgia and both chronic fatigue syndrome and psychosomatic diseases. The treatment of fibromyalgia is complex and long-term. The antidepressants and psychotherapy is of vital importance. The effectiveness of locally used agents is also being emphasized. Fibromyalgia has become a serious social problem in the well developed countries in the recent years. Therefore, of importance are efforts to appropriately diagnose fibromyalgia and to implement its appropriate treatment that resolves disease symptoms in a possibly maximum degree.

  18. NASA Alternative Aviation Fuel Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, B. E.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Thornhill, K. L., II; Moore, R.; Shook, M.; Winstead, E.; Ziemba, L. D.; Crumeyrolle, S.

    2015-12-01

    We present an overview of research conducted by NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate to evaluate the performance and emissions of "drop-in" alternative jet fuels, highlighting experiment design and results from the Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiments (AAFEX-I & -II) and Alternative Fuel-Effects on Contrails and Cruise Emissions flight series (ACCESS-I & II). These projects included almost 100 hours of sampling exhaust emissions from the NASA DC-8 aircraft in both ground and airborne operation and at idle to takeoff thrust settings. Tested fuels included Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthetic kerosenes manufactured from coal and natural-gas feedstocks; Hydro-treated Esters and Fatty-Acids (HEFA) fuels made from beef-tallow and camelina-plant oil; and 50:50 blends of these alternative fuels with Jet A. Experiments were also conducted with FT and Jet A fuels doped with tetrahydrothiophene to examine the effects of fuel sulfur on volatile aerosol and contrail formation and microphysical properties. Results indicate that although the absence of aromatic compounds in the alternative fuels caused DC-8 fuel-system leaks, the fuels did not compromise engine performance or combustion efficiency. And whereas the alternative fuels produced only slightly different gas-phase emissions, dramatic reductions in non-volatile particulate matter (nvPM) emissions were observed when burning the pure alternative fuels, particularly at low thrust settings where particle number and mass emissions were an order of magnitude lower than measured from standard jet fuel combustion; 50:50 blends of Jet A and alternative fuels typically reduced nvPM emissions by ~50% across all thrust settings. Alternative fuels with the highest hydrogen content produced the greatest nvPM reductions. For Jet A and fuel blends, nvPM emissions were positively correlated with fuel aromatic and naphthalene content. Fuel sulfur content regulated nucleation mode aerosol number and mass concentrations within aging

  19. Alternative promoter usage of the membrane glycoprotein CD36

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whatling Carl

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CD36 is a membrane glycoprotein involved in a variety of cellular processes such as lipid transport, immune regulation, hemostasis, adhesion, angiogenesis and atherosclerosis. It is expressed in many tissues and cell types, with a tissue specific expression pattern that is a result of a complex regulation for which the molecular mechanisms are not yet fully understood. There are several alternative mRNA isoforms described for the gene. We have investigated the expression patterns of five alternative first exons of the CD36 gene in several human tissues and cell types, to better understand the molecular details behind its regulation. Results We have identified one novel alternative first exon of the CD36 gene, and confirmed the expression of four previously known alternative first exons of the gene. The alternative transcripts are all expressed in more than one human tissue and their expression patterns vary highly in skeletal muscle, heart, liver, adipose tissue, placenta, spinal cord, cerebrum and monocytes. All alternative first exons are upregulated in THP-1 macrophages in response to oxidized low density lipoproteins. The alternative promoters lack TATA-boxes and CpG islands. The upstream region of exon 1b contains several features common for house keeping gene and monocyte specific gene promoters. Conclusion Tissue-specific expression patterns of the alternative first exons of CD36 suggest that the alternative first exons of the gene are regulated individually and tissue specifically. At the same time, the fact that all first exons are upregulated in THP-1 macrophages in response to oxidized low density lipoproteins may suggest that the alternative first exons are coregulated in this cell type and environmental condition. The molecular mechanisms regulating CD36 thus appear to be unusually complex, which might reflect the multifunctional role of the gene in different tissues and cellular conditions.

  20. Pheromone based alternative route planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangbing Feng

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we propose an improved alternative route calculation based on alternative figures, which is suitable for practical environments. The improvement is based on the fact that the main traffic route is the road network skeleton in a city. Our approach using nodes may generate a higher possibility of overlapping. We employ a bidirectional Dijkstra algorithm to search the route. To measure the quality of an Alternative Figures (AG, three quotas are proposed. The experiment results indicate that the improved algorithm proposed in this paper is more effective than others.

  1. Alternative splicing: a pivotal step between eukaryotic transcription and translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornblihtt, Alberto R; Schor, Ignacio E; Alló, Mariano; Dujardin, Gwendal; Petrillo, Ezequiel; Muñoz, Manuel J

    2013-03-01

    Alternative splicing was discovered simultaneously with splicing over three decades ago. Since then, an enormous body of evidence has demonstrated the prevalence of alternative splicing in multicellular eukaryotes, its key roles in determining tissue- and species-specific differentiation patterns, the multiple post- and co-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms that control it, and its causal role in hereditary disease and cancer. The emerging evidence places alternative splicing in a central position in the flow of eukaryotic genetic information, between transcription and translation, in that it can respond not only to various signalling pathways that target the splicing machinery but also to transcription factors and chromatin structure.

  2. Replacing chemicals in recycle mills with mechanical alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Institute of Paper Science Technology

    2002-07-01

    A high-intensity spark fired underwater decomposes a small amount of the water into hydroxyl radicals, which are strong oxidants. These are able to oxidize contaminants such as glue and wood pitch that enter paper recycling mills as a part of the incoming furnish and cost the industry several hundred million dollars. The sparking technique is safe, inexpensive, and is capable of treating large volumes of water, which makes it attractive for mill applications. Several mill trials were run. Sparking caused a decrease in the tack of the deposits in one case. Lower bleach use occurred in two other mills; sparking reduced the degree of ink reattachment to fiber. The payback for either application is attractive. Sparking induced deposition of contaminants in another mill, which is a positive development--if it can be controlled. The technique is also able to degas water and to oxidize odor-causing sulfur compounds. Although one unit has been purchased by a mill, second-order effects caused by the technology needs to be defined further before the technology can be broadly applied.

  3. Mexico: Reducing Energy Subsidies and Analyzing Alternative Compensation Mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    María Eugenia Ibarrarán Viniegra; Roy Boyd; Alejandra Elizondo

    2015-01-01

    Los subsidios a la energía son un tema políticamente sensible. En México estos subsidios se otorgan a la electricidad, gasolina, diésel y gas licuado de petróleo. Entre 2005 y 2009 los subsidios fueron, en promedio, equivalentes a $200.4 miles de millones de pesos anuales. Los subsidios a la electricidad representan aproximadamente 1% del PIB y los subsidios a la gasolina al 25% de los ingresos del IVA. Estos subsidios tienen implicaciones fiscales, distributivas y ambientales. Este ensayo an...

  4. Alternative backing up pump for turbomolecular pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myneni, Ganapati Rao

    2003-04-22

    As an alternative to the use of a mechanical backing pump in the application of wide range turbomolecular pumps in ultra-high and extra high vacuum applications, palladium oxide is used to convert hydrogen present in the evacuation stream and related volumes to water with the water then being cryo-pumped to a low pressure of below about 1.e.sup.-3 Torr at 150.degree. K. Cryo-pumping is achieved using a low cost Kleemenco cycle cryocooler, a somewhat more expensive thermoelectric cooler, a Venturi cooler or a similar device to achieve the required minimization of hydrogen partial pressure.

  5. Bacteriocins - a viable alternative to antibiotics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotter, Paul D; Ross, R Paul; Hill, Colin

    2013-02-01

    Solutions are urgently required for the growing number of infections caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Bacteriocins, which are antimicrobial peptides produced by certain bacteria, might warrant serious consideration as alternatives to traditional antibiotics. These molecules exhibit significant potency against other bacteria (including antibiotic-resistant strains), are stable and can have narrow or broad activity spectra. Bacteriocins can even be produced in situ in the gut by probiotic bacteria to combat intestinal infections. Although the application of specific bacteriocins might be curtailed by the development of resistance, an understanding of the mechanisms by which such resistance could emerge will enable researchers to develop strategies to minimize this potential problem.

  6. Alternative Perspectives on Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, Jeannie; Orasanu, J.; Connors, Mary M. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The goal of the commercial air transport system is to provide air transportation to the flying public at an acceptable cost with minimal risk. in an ideal situation these three goals would support each other. In fact, it is sometimes the case that the goals conflict: getting passengers to their destinations on time may conflict with fixing a minor mechanical malfunction that may or may not impact safety; flying a route that will avoid turbulence, thereby providing passengers with a more comfortable ride, may consume more fuel; managing traffic density may mean aircraft are delayed or must use an approach that will result in a long taxi to their gates, costing time and fuel. Various players in the system--pilots, dispatchers, controllers, as well as managers in the airline carriers and traffic management system--make decisions every day that involve trade-offs of benefits and costs. The prospect of revisions in the air traffic management system, with shifts in responsibilities from controllers to users, including airline operations center personnel and pilots, means that individuals may be performing either new jobs or old jobs under new guidance. It will be essential to know how the various players (a) perceive the risks and benefits associated with the decisions they will make under the old and new control structures, and (b) how much risk they are willing to accept in making decisions. Risk is here defined as the probability and magnitude of negative events (after Slovic, 1987). Of primary interest are risks associated with traffic, weather, and operational factors such as schedule, fuel consumption, and passenger service. Previous research has documented differences between groups in perceptions of risks associated with both everyday and aviation related situations. Risk perception varies as a function of familiarity with the situation, degree to which one is potentially affected by the risk, the level of control one has over the situation, and one's level of

  7. Oncogenic Alternative Splicing Switches: Role in Cancer Progression and Prospects for Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Serena Bonomi; Stefania Gallo; Morena Catillo; Daniela Pignataro; Giuseppe Biamonti; Claudia Ghigna

    2013-01-01

    Alterations in the abundance or activities of alternative splicing regulators generate alternatively spliced variants that contribute to multiple aspects of tumor establishment, progression and resistance to therapeutic treatments. Notably, many cancer-associated genes are regulated through alternative splicing suggesting a significant role of this post-transcriptional regulatory mechanism in the production of oncogenes and tumor suppressors. Thus, the study of alternative splicing in cancer ...

  8. Alternative Hamiltonian representation for gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosas-RodrIguez, R [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Apdo. Postal J-48, 72570, Puebla, Pue. (Mexico)

    2007-11-15

    By using a Hamiltonian formalism for fields wider than the canonical one, we write the Einstein vacuum field equations in terms of alternative variables. This variables emerge from the Ashtekar's formalism for gravity.

  9. Alternative medicine among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaedeke, R M; Tootelian, D H; Holst, C

    1999-01-01

    The use of "alternative" medicine has become increasingly popular in the United States. Books devoted to alternative medicine, e.g., Spontaneous Healing and 8 Weeks to Optimum Health, have become best sellers. Nevertheless, relatively few research studies have focused on the subject. This study examined the role of alternative medicine among college students. Issues addressed included students' familiarity with, use of, and perceptions regarding unconventional health therapies. The study substantiated a phenomenon health care providers across the country are discovering: a growing number of Americans with interest and financial resources support the development of "mainstream" alternative medicine programs. Results of the study also suggest that well-respected traditional health care organizations would not suffer reputation damage if they were to offer such programs.

  10. Cornflakes, Vouchers and Educational Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrick, W. Roberts

    1978-01-01

    In Cupertino, California, a growing "back to basics" alternative called Academics Plus (A+) is flourishing and is seen as a major source of strength in helping public education to survive. (Author/RK)

  11. Alternate Propellant Thermal Rocket Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Alternate Propellant Thermal Rocket (APTR) is a novel concept for propulsion of space exploration or orbit transfer vehicles. APTR propulsion is provided by...

  12. An Envoy for Alternative Energy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN WEI

    2010-01-01

    @@ The United States stands poised to cash in on China's growing appetite for alternative energy.This message rang loud and clear during a recent visit to China by U.S.Secretary of Commerce Gary Locke.

  13. The study, design and simulation of a free piston Stirling engine linear alternatorThe study, design and simulation of a free piston Stirling engine linear alternator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodora Susana Oros

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study, design and simulation of a Free Piston Stirling Engine Linear Alternator. There are presented the main steps of the magnetic and electric calculations for a permanent magnet linear alternator of fixed coil and moving magnets type. Finally, a detailed thermal, mechanical and electrical model for a Stirling engine linear alternator have been made in SIMULINK simulation program. The linear alternator simulation model uses a controllable DC voltage which simulates the linear alternator combined with a rectifier, a variable load and a DC-DC converter, which compensates for the variable nature of Stirling engine operation, and ensures a constant voltage output regardless of the load.

  14. A Technique: Generating Alternative Thoughts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan AKKOYUNLU

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the basic techniques of cognitive therapy is examination of automatic thoughts and reducing the belief in them. By employing this, we can overcome the cognitive bias apparent in mental disorders. Despite this view, according to another cognitive perspective in a given situation, there are distinct cognitive representations competing for retrieval from memory just like positive and negative schemas. In this sense generating or strengthening alternative explanations or balanced thoughts that explain the situation better than negative automatic thoughts is one of the important process goals of cognitive therapy.Objective: Aim of this review is to describe methods used to generate alternative/balanced thoughts that are used in examining automatic thoughts and also a part of automatic thought records. Alternative/balanced thoughts are the summary and end point of automatic thought work. In this text different ways including listing alternative thoughts, using examining the evidence for generating balanced thoughts, decatastrophizing in anxiety and a meta-cognitive method named two explanations are discussed. Different ways to use this technique as a homework assignment is also reviewed. Remarkable aspects of generating alternative explanations and realistic/balanced thoughts are also reviewed and exemplified using therapy transcripts. Conclusion: Generating alternative explanations and balanced thoughts are the end point and important part of therapy work on automatic thoughts. When applied properly and rehearsed as homework between sessions, these methods may lead to improvement in many mental disorders

  15. Autocratic strategies for alternating games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAvoy, Alex; Hauert, Christoph

    2017-02-01

    Repeated games have a long tradition in the behavioral sciences and evolutionary biology. Recently, strategies were discovered that permit an unprecedented level of control over repeated interactions by enabling a player to unilaterally enforce linear constraints on payoffs. Here, we extend this theory of "zero-determinant" (or, more generally, "autocratic") strategies to alternating games, which are often biologically more relevant than traditional synchronous games. Alternating games naturally result in asymmetries between players because the first move matters or because players might not move with equal probabilities. In a strictly-alternating game with two players, X and Y, we give conditions for the existence of autocratic strategies for player X when (i) X moves first and (ii) Y moves first. Furthermore, we show that autocratic strategies exist even for (iii) games with randomly-alternating moves. Particularly important categories of autocratic strategies are extortionate and generous strategies, which enforce unfavorable and favorable outcomes for the opponent, respectively. We illustrate these strategies using the continuous Donation Game, in which a player pays a cost to provide a benefit to the opponent according to a continuous cooperative investment level. Asymmetries due to alternating moves could easily arise from dominance hierarchies, and we show that they can endow subordinate players with more autocratic strategies than dominant players.

  16. Alternative splicing interference by xenobiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaharieva, Emanuela; Chipman, J Kevin; Soller, Matthias

    2012-06-14

    The protein coding sequence of most eukaryotic genes (exons) is interrupted by non-coding parts (introns), which are excised in a process termed splicing. To generate a mature messenger RNA (mRNA) hundreds of combinatorial protein-protein and RNA-protein interactions are required to splice out often very large introns with high fidelity and accuracy. Inherent to splicing is the use of alternative splice sites generating immense proteomic diversity from a limited number of genes. In humans, alternative splicing is a major mode of regulating gene expression, occurs in over 90% of genes and is particularly abundant in the brain. Only recently, it has been recognized that the complexity of the splicing process makes it susceptible to interference by various xenobiotics. These compounds include antineoplastic substances, commonly used drugs and food supplements and cause a spectrum of effects ranging from deleterious inhibition of general splicing to highly specific modifications of alternative splicing affecting only certain genes. Alterations in splicing have been implicated in numerous diseases such as cancer and neurodegeneration. Splicing regulation plays an important role in the execution of programmed cell death. The switch between anti- and pro-apoptotic isoforms by alternative splice site selection and misregulation of a number of splicing factors impacts on cell survival and disease. Here, our current knowledge is summarized on compounds interfering with general and alternative splicing and of the current methodology to study changes in these processes relevant to the field of toxicology and future risk assessments.

  17. The "alternative" choice of constitutive exons throughout evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galit Lev-Maor

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Alternative cassette exons are known to originate from two processes-exonization of intronic sequences and exon shuffling. Herein, we suggest an additional mechanism by which constitutively spliced exons become alternative cassette exons during evolution. We compiled a dataset of orthologous exons from human and mouse that are constitutively spliced in one species but alternatively spliced in the other. Examination of these exons suggests that the common ancestors were constitutively spliced. We show that relaxation of the 5' splice site during evolution is one of the molecular mechanisms by which exons shift from constitutive to alternative splicing. This shift is associated with the fixation of exonic splicing regulatory sequences (ESRs that are essential for exon definition and control the inclusion level only after the transition to alternative splicing. The effect of each ESR on splicing and the combinatorial effects between two ESRs are conserved from fish to human. Our results uncover an evolutionary pathway that increases transcriptome diversity by shifting exons from constitutive to alternative splicing.

  18. The functional modulation of epigenetic regulators by alternative splicing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-Balbás Marian

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epigenetic regulators (histone acetyltransferases, methyltransferases, chromatin-remodelling enzymes, etc play a fundamental role in the control of gene expression by modifying the local state of chromatin. However, due to their recent discovery, little is yet known about their own regulation. This paper addresses this point, focusing on alternative splicing regulation, a mechanism already known to play an important role in other protein families, e.g. transcription factors, membrane receptors, etc. Results To this end, we compiled the data available on the presence/absence of alternative splicing for a set of 160 different epigenetic regulators, taking advantage of the relatively large amount of unexplored data on alternative splicing available in public databases. We found that 49 % (70 % in human of these genes express more than one transcript. We then studied their alternative splicing patterns, focusing on those changes affecting the enzyme's domain composition. In general, we found that these sequence changes correspond to different mechanisms, either repressing the enzyme's function (e.g. by creating dominant-negative inhibitors of the functional isoform or creating isoforms with new functions. Conclusion We conclude that alternative splicing of epigenetic regulators can be an important tool for the function modulation of these enzymes. Considering that the latter control the transcriptional state of large sets of genes, we propose that epigenetic regulation of gene expression is itself strongly regulated by alternative splicing.

  19. Star Products for Relativistic Quantum Mechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Henselder, P.

    2007-01-01

    The star product formalism has proved to be an alternative formulation for nonrelativistic quantum mechanics. We want introduce here a covariant star product in order to extend the star product formalism to relativistic quantum mechanics in the proper time formulation.

  20. ALTERNATIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HUMBERTO ESCALANTE H.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En Colombia, el procesamiento agroindustrial de fique genera aproximadamente 20 800 kg de residuos/ha sembrada que corresponden a. jugo y bagazo. Estos residuos son descartados al ambiente generando problemas de contaminación. El bagazo de fique tiene un valor calorífico de 3 297.91 kcal/kg, altas concentraciones de celulosa, hemicelulosa y una relación C/N favorable para tratar este residuo mediante conversión anaerobia. Sin embargo, la presencia de lignina en el bagazo hace que se requiera un consorcio microbiano específico para llevar a cabo la degradación. En este trabajo se estudio la producción de biogás a partir del bagazo de fique, empleando como inóculo una mezcla de líquido ruminal y lodo estiércol de cerdo. Se alcanzó una producción de metano de 0.35 m3CH4/kg Sólidos Volátiles (SV adicionados durante quince días de digestión, equivalente a 1.38 kWh/kg SV adicionado, indicando que el bagazo de fique es un residuo atractivo para ser usado como fuente de energía renovable.

  1. Revisiting the solar hydrogen alternative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomkiewicz, M. [Brooklyn College of CUNY, NY (United States)

    1996-09-01

    Research aimed at the development of technology to advance the solar-hydrogen alternative is per definition mission oriented. The priority that society puts on such research rise and fall with the priorities that we associate with the mission. The mission that we associate with the hydrogen economy is to provide a technological option for an indefinitely sustainable energy and material economies in which society is in equilibrium with its environment. In this paper we try to examine some global aspects of the hydrogen alternative and recommend formulation of a {open_quotes}rational{close_quotes} tax and regulatory system that is based on efforts needed to restore the ecological balance. Such a system, once entered into the price structure of the alternative energy schemes, will be used as a standard to compare energy systems that in turn will serve as a base for prioritization of publicly supported research and development.

  2. Alternative Fuels in Cement Production

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Substitutionen af fossilt med alternativt brændsel i cement produktionen er steget betydeligt i den sidste dekade. Af disse nye alternative brændsler, udgør de faste brændsler p.t. den største andel, hvor kød- og benmel, plastic og dæk i særdeleshed har været de alternative brændsler der har bidraget med mest alternativ brændsels energi til den tyske cement industri. De nye alternative brændsler er typisk karakteriseret ved et højt indhold af flygtige bestanddele og adskiller sig typisk fra t...

  3. Experiences in mainstreaming alternative energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabraal, A.

    1997-12-01

    The author discusses efforts by the Asia Alternative Energy Unit (ASTAE) of the World Bank in supporting alternative energy source projects in Asia. Energy growth rates have been as high as 18% per year, with power capacity doubling each decade in the 1960`s, 70`s and 80`s. Much of this has come from fossil fuel projects coupled with major hydroelectric projects. One consequence is developing air pollution loads originating in Asia. ASTAE has been supporting pilot programs in applying alternative energy sources. The goal has been to mainstream renewable energy sources in World Bank operations, by working with managers from different countries to: include renewable energy in country assistance strategies and sectorial development plans; provide assistance to renewable energy initiatives; expand initiatives to new countries, sectors and technologies.

  4. Public opinion regarding alternative medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hammond

    1982-09-01

    Full Text Available Fairly widespread disillusionment in medicine since the 1950s (when many wonder drugs proved themselves either ineffective or harmful - or both, and when disease was found to be as prevalent as ever, even if in degenerative and stress-related guises, seems to have coincided with considerable public interest in alternative forms of healing. Some authors have given sympathetic attention to alternatives like homeopathy, chiropractic, herbalism and so on, but most of the literature still deals with these healers in a patronising if not blatantly biased manner. The abundance of emotive, highly critical reporting in the popular press, coupled with the relative lack of detailed, up-to-date studies and the persistence of ideas put forward by those in positions of power and status has caused a situation where most common knowledge about alternatives is nothing short of mythical.

  5. Gasohol - Analysis and biomass alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-11-01

    The economics of fermentation ethanol as a near-term alternative to liquid hydrocarbon fuels are analyzed and alternatives to grain-fermented ethanol are examined. Based on estimates of raw material and production costs and energy consumption, it is shown that net production costs for alcohol fuel from corn amount to $2.14/gallon, with no significant net consumption or gain in energy. It is also pointed out that the use of grain for alcohol production will influence quantities available for livestock production and export, and that land available for grain production is limited. Consideration is then given to the economic potential of using cellulosic biomass from agricultural and forest residues in the production of ethanol fuels and coal gasification for methanol production, and it is pointed out that these alternatives offer economic, energy and oil-savings advantages over ethanol production from grains.

  6. Genetics Home Reference: alternating hemiplegia of childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions alternating hemiplegia of childhood alternating hemiplegia of childhood Enable Javascript to view the expand/ ... Download PDF Open All Close All Description Alternating hemiplegia of childhood is a neurological condition characterized by ...

  7. FMDP reactor alternative summary report: Volume 4, Evolutionary LWR alternative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    Significant quantities of weapons-usable fissile materials [primarily plutonium and highly enriched uranium (HEU)] have become surplus to national defense needs both in the United States and Russia. These stocks of fissile materials pose significant dangers to national and international security. The dangers exist not only in the potential proliferation of nuclear weapons but also in the potential for environmental, safety, and health (ES&H) consequences if surplus fissile materials are not properly managed. The purpose of this report is to provide schedule, cost, and technical information that will be used to support the Record of Process (ROD). Following the screening process, DOE/MD via its national laboratories initiated a more detailed analysis activity to further evaluate each of the ten plutonium disposition alternatives that survived the screening process. Three ``Alternative Teams,`` chartered by DOE and comprised of technical experts from across the DOE national laboratory complex, conducted these analyses. One team was chartered for each of the major disposition classes (borehole, immobilization, and reactors). During the last year and a half, the Fissile Materials Disposition Program (FMDP) Reactor Alternative Team (RxAT) has conducted extensive analyses of the cost, schedule, technical maturity, S&S, and other characteristics of reactor-based plutonium disposition. The results of the RxAT`s analyses of the existing LWR, CANDU, and partially complete LWR alternatives are documented in Volumes 1-3 of this report. This document (Volume 4) summarizes the results of these analyses for the ELWR-based plutonium disposition option.

  8. GLOBAL TRENDS OF ALTERNATIVE INVESTMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan LUCHIAN

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available An alternative investment is an investment product other than the traditional investments of stocks, bonds, cash, or property. The term is a relatively loose one and includes tangible assets such as art, wine, antiques, coins, or stamps and some financial assets such as commodities, hedge funds, venture capital,and others. At the moment it was created a global industry opportunities for making investments in nontraditional form. The aim of this paper consists in demonstrating the possibilities of these investments. For this have been studied related main international markets, a fter then deducted world dominant trends. This article is concerned to present some details of alternative investments global market.

  9. Spent-fuel-storage alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    The Spent Fuel Storage Alternatives meeting was a technical forum in which 37 experts from 12 states discussed storage alternatives that are available or are under development. The subject matter was divided into the following five areas: techniques for increasing fuel storage density; dry storage of spent fuel; fuel characterization and conditioning; fuel storage operating experience; and storage and transport economics. Nineteen of the 21 papers which were presented at this meeting are included in this Proceedings. These have been abstracted and indexed. (ATT)

  10. Bell's inequality without alternative settings

    CERN Document Server

    Cabello, A

    2003-01-01

    A suitable generalized measurement described by a four-element positive operator valued measure (POVM) on each particle of a two-qubit system in the singlet state is, from the point of view of Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen's (EPR's) criterion of elements of reality, equivalent to a random selection between two alternative projective measurements. It is shown that an EPR-experiment with a fixed POVM on each particle provides a violation of Bell's inequality without requiring local observers to choose between the alternatives. This approach could be useful for designing a loophole-free test of Bell's inequality.

  11. Millimeter Wave Alternate Route Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-04-01

    A0-AI02 303 HARRIS CORP MELBOURNE FL GOVERNMENT COMMUNICATION ST--ETC FIG 17/2.1 MILLIMETER WAVE ALENT ROUTE STUDT.(U) APR W C ADAMS J J PAN, W C...481-487. 4-7 abm ADAOO0 303 HARRIS CORP MELBOURNE FL GOVERNMENT COMMUNICATION S -ETC F/G 17/2.1 MILLIMETER WAVE ALTERNATE ROUTE STUDY.(U) APR 81 W C...7-21L’j r AD-A102 303 HARRIS CORP MELBOURNE FL GOVERNMENT COMMUNICATION ST--ETC F/A 17/2.1 MILLIMETER WAVE ALTERNATE ROUTE STUDY(U) APR 81 W C ADAMS

  12. Special Issue: Aviation Alternative Fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of aviation alternative fuels has increased significantly in recent years in an effort to reduce the environment and climate impact by aviation industry. Special requirements have to be met for qualifying as a suitable aviation fuel. The fuel has to be high in energy content per unit of mass and volume, thermally stable and avoiding freezing at low temperatures. There are also many other special requirements on viscosity, ignition properties and compatibility with the typical aviation materials. There are quite a few contending alternative fuels which can be derived from coal, natural gas and biomass.[...

  13. Placental perfusion - a human alternative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mose, Tina; Knudsen, Lisbeth E

    2006-01-01

    Foetal exposures to environmental and medicinal products have impact on the growth of the foetus (e.g. cigarette smoke) and development of organs (e.g. methylmercury and Thalidomide). Perfusion studies of the human term placenta enable investigation of placental transport of chemical substances...... and represents a supplement and alternative to animal testing, bypassing the animal to human extrapolation. Placentas are readily obtainable from most births upon informed consent from the mothers and are considered a promising tissue alternative/supplement to animal experiments. The system is validated...

  14. Black Afrikaans: An alternative use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna P. Maritz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a first look at the nature of the alternative functions of Black Afrikaans. These functions realise when Black Afrikaans is imitated by Afrikaans mother-tongue speakers. The functions of the alternative use of Black Afrikaans centre on: the social nature of the variety, sensitivity as a deciding role-player, identity, humour, inclusivity and exclusivity, language repertoire and similar variety. Furthermore, because of the direct relationship between Black Afrikaans, Pidginised Afrikaans and the imitation of Black Afrikaans, these varieties are compared to establish a starting point description for the imitation of Black Afrikaans, as the variety has not yet been described.

  15. Tolerating diabetes: an alternative therapeutic approach for diabetic neuropathy

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    It is becoming apparent that a number of pathogenic mechanisms contribute to diabetic neuropathy, so that therapeutic interventions that target one particular mechanism may have limited success. A recently published preclinical study has adopted an alternative approach by using a novel small molecule to induce heat-shock protein 70. This confers upon neurons, and perhaps other cells of the nervous system, the ability to better tolerate the diverse stresses associated with diabetes rather than...

  16. Tolerating diabetes: an alternative therapeutic approach for diabetic neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel A Calcutt

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available It is becoming apparent that a number of pathogenic mechanisms contribute to diabetic neuropathy, so that therapeutic interventions that target one particular mechanism may have limited success. A recently published preclinical study has adopted an alternative approach by using a novel small molecule to induce heat-shock protein 70. This confers upon neurons, and perhaps other cells of the nervous system, the ability to better tolerate the diverse stresses associated with diabetes rather than intervening in their production.

  17. Tolerating diabetes: an alternative therapeutic approach for diabetic neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcutt, Nigel A

    2010-09-09

    It is becoming apparent that a number of pathogenic mechanisms contribute to diabetic neuropathy, so that therapeutic interventions that target one particular mechanism may have limited success. A recently published preclinical study has adopted an alternative approach by using a novel small molecule to induce heat-shock protein 70. This confers upon neurons, and perhaps other cells of the nervous system, the ability to better tolerate the diverse stresses associated with diabetes rather than intervening in their production.

  18. Praktiske erfaringer med alternative isoleringsmaterialer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn; Hansen, Klavs Feilberg

    Borup Seniorby er et demonstrationsbyggeri hvori der både er anvendt alternative isoleringsmaterialer og mineraluld. Denne rapport introducerer byggeriet og redegør for byggeprocessen samt håndteringen af de valgte isoleringsprodukter. Ni forskellige produkter, enten i form af løsfyld eller forms...

  19. An Overview of Alternative Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aron, Laudan Y.

    2006-01-01

    This publication represents the first in a series of papers on alternative education for the U.S. Department of Labor. The main focus of this review is community- or district-based programs that have as their primary focus the re-engagement of out-of-school youth in learning in order to better prepare these youth to successfully enter high growth…

  20. An Alternative to Process Recording

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Joan; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Some disadvantages in the use of process recordings as an assessment and teaching tool for evaluating the communication skills of the student in nurse-client interactions are discussed. A more useful alternative process requires actual observation and subsequent participation by the instructor during student-client interviews. (EC)

  1. Towards an Alternative Educational Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, Roger; Nunan, E. E.

    1978-01-01

    Outlines an alternative form of educational technology based on an analysis of criticism levelled at the subject, both from within and without. Article contends that the future of educational technology rests on an expansion of its concerns, rather than a refinement or modification of its existing content. (Author)

  2. Alternative energies. Updates on progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, German (ed.) [CIRCE - Centre of Research for Energy Resources and Consumption, Zaragoza (Spain)

    2013-07-01

    Presents fundamental and applied research of alternative energies. Address key pillars in the alternative energy field, such as: biomass energy, hydrogen energy, solar energy, wind energy, hydroelectric power, geothermal energy and their environmental implications, with the most updated progress. Includes the life cycle assessment and thermoeconomic analysis as tools for evaluating and optimising environmental and cost subjects. This book presents nine chapters based on fundamental and applied research of alternative energies. At the present time, the challenge is that technology has to come up with solutions that can provide environmentally friendly energy supply options that are able to cover the current world energy demand. Experts around the world are working on these issues for providing new solutions that will break the existing technological barriers. This book aims to address key pillars in the alternative energy field, such as: biomass energy, hydrogen energy, solar energy, wind energy, hydroelectric power, geothermal energy and their environmental implications, with the most updated progress for each pillar. It also includes the life cycle assessment (LCA) and thermoeconomic analysis (TA) as tools for evaluating and optimising environmental and cost subjects. Chapters are organized into fundamental research, applied research and future trends; and written for engineers, academic researches and scientists.

  3. Mobile Alternative Fueling Station Locator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-04-01

    The Department of Energy's Alternative Fueling Station Locator is available on-the-go via cell phones, BlackBerrys, or other personal handheld devices. The mobile locator allows users to find the five closest biodiesel, electricity, E85, hydrogen, natural gas, and propane fueling sites using Google technology.

  4. [Delusional thematic alternation and cyclothymia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sizaret, P; Degiovanni, A; Chevrollier, J P; Gaillard, P

    1983-01-01

    The authors discuss the case of a 36 year old woman who, for several years, has been delirious and who has shown signs of an affective disorder, alternatively suffering from hypomanic and depressive episodes. What is most interesting is that she expresses erotomaniac delusions while she is elated and persecutory delusions while she is depressed. The authors propose an psychopathological explanation for her disorder.

  5. A Simple Alternative to Grading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, Glenda

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author investigates whether an alternative grading system (contract grading) would yield the same final grades as traditional grading (letter grading), and whether or not it would be accepted by students. The author states that this study demonstrated that contract grading was widely, and for the most part, enthusiastically…

  6. Alternative instruments for the CAP?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silvis, H.J.; Rijswick, van C.W.J.; Bont, de C.J.A.M.

    2001-01-01

    With parallel negotiations taking place on enlargement of the EU and a new WTO agreement, EU's Common Agricultural Policy is facing further reforms. This report addresses the issue of whether any alternatives can be found for the instruments of this policy, and looks at decoupled payments, a net inc

  7. Alternative Design of Boat Fenders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banke, Lars

    1996-01-01

    On offshore platforms the purpose of fenders is to protect the oil-risers against minor accidental collisions with supply vessels. Normally, the fender is designed by use of thin-walled tubes. However, the tube itself is not capable of resisting the impact load of the boat. Therefore, alternative...

  8. Alternative engines for road vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poulton, M.L. [Transport Research Lab., Crowthorne (United Kingdom)

    1994-12-31

    The book discusses the development of each alternative engine and discloses current manufacturing research and experimental testing, together with the results where available. Prospects for further development of conventional engines are discussed and comparisons are made with reference to fuel economy and exhaust emissions. Cost issues are made generally, with definitive data where it exists. (UK)

  9. Some Alternating Double Binomial Sums

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG De-yin; TANG Pei-pei

    2013-01-01

    We consider some new alternating double binomial sums. By using the Lagrange inversion formula, we obtain explicit expressions of the desired results which are related to a third-order linear recursive sequence. Furthermore, their recursive relation and generating functions are obtained.

  10. Alternate Theory Formation by Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, R. Keith

    Video tapes of student teachers micro-teaching in a high school biology class were analyzed. Attention was focussed on students' interpretations of data and the teacher's responses to these interpretations. Examples are given of student explanations which teachers find unsatisfactory but which are valid alternatives based on the data available to…

  11. The Commons Problem: Alternative Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edney, Julian J.

    1980-01-01

    Reviews four contrasting theories bearing on the concept of the commons dilemma, which deals with conflicts of individual v group interests over time. Focuses on the threats that commons problems pose to democratic principles in community structure. Discusses alternative directions for the resolution of resource crises. (Author/GC)

  12. Not Just Another Alternative School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulson, Kalervo N.; Webb, P. Taylor

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we problematize the establishment of an Africentric Alternative School in Toronto, Canada. We argue that policy, and race and racializations cannot be understood outside of, or immune to, neoliberalism. We contend that policy is a form of racial biopolitics, and race is now produced through neoliberal markets, in conjunction with…

  13. Traditional Assessment versus Alternative Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belle, Dana

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether a teacher can use one type of assessment to evaluate students' abilities fairly. The question is whether or not alternative assessment strategies are necessary to meet students' individual needs. The research, conducted with 28 fifth-grade students, compared their traditional and alternative…

  14. The Use of Alternative Algorithms in Whole Number Computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Pedagogical reform in Australia over the last few decades has resulted in a reduced emphasis on the teaching of computational algorithms and a diversity of alternative mechanisms to teach students whole number computations. The effect of these changes upon student recording of whole number computations has had little empirical investigation. As…

  15. Alternate Conceptions and History of Science in Physics Teacher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sequeira, Manuel; Leite, Laurinda

    1991-01-01

    Authors describe some alternative conceptions held by Portuguese physics students about mechanics and compare students' scientific conceptions with the evolution of historical ideas. Authors contend that teacher knowledge about the history of science can facilitate teaching for conceptual change in physics. (over 20 references) (Authors/PR)

  16. Meritocratic Epistemic Communities: An Alternative Policy Paradigm for Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seungchan

    2015-01-01

    This paper attempts to propose an alternative policy frame for higher education policy by demonstrating the inadequacy of the market approach adopted by the 2011 English higher education policy in addressing the economic and social agenda, and by reframing higher education as a mechanism that selects and distributes talents to vocational sectors…

  17. Assessment of alternative disposal concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Autio, J.; Saanio, T.; Tolppanen, P. [Saanio and Riekkola Consulting Engineers, Helsinki (Finland); Raiko, H.; Vieno, T. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Salo, J.P. [Posiva Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    Four alternative repository designs for the disposal of spent nuclear in the Finnish crystalline bedrock were assessed in the study. The alternatives were: (1) the basic KBS-3 design in which copper canisters are emplaced in vertical deposition holes bored in the floors of horizontal tunnels, (2) the KBS-3-2C design with two canisters in a deposition hole, (3) Short Horizontal Holes (SHH) in the side walls of the tunnels, and (4) the Medium Long Holes (MLH) concept in which approximately 25 canisters are emplaced in a horizontal deposition hole about 200 metres in length bored between central and side tunnels. In all the alternatives considered, the thickness of the layer of compacted bentonite between copper canister and bedrock is 35 cm. Two different copper canister designs were also assessed. Technical feasibility and flexibility, post-closure safety and repository cost were assessed for each of the alternative canister and repository designs. On the basis of this assessment it is recommended that further development and studies should focus on the vacuum- or inert gas-filled cast insert type copper canister and the basic KBS-3 type repository design with a single canister in a vertical deposition hole. The KBS-3 design is robust and flexible and provides excellent post-closure safety. The transfer, emplacement and sealing operations are technically uncomplicated. The alternative options assessed do not offer any significant benefits in safety or cost over the basic design, but they are technically more complex and also in some respects more vulnerable to malfunction during the emplacement of canisters and buffer, as well as common mode failures. (60 refs.).

  18. ATRX represses alternative lengthening of telomeres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napier, Christine E; Huschtscha, Lily I; Harvey, Adam; Bower, Kylie; Noble, Jane R; Hendrickson, Eric A; Reddel, Roger R

    2015-06-30

    The unlimited proliferation of cancer cells requires a mechanism to prevent telomere shortening. Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres (ALT) is an homologous recombination-mediated mechanism of telomere elongation used in tumors, including osteosarcomas, soft tissue sarcoma subtypes, and glial brain tumors. Mutations in the ATRX/DAXX chromatin remodeling complex have been reported in tumors and cell lines that use the ALT mechanism, suggesting that ATRX may be an ALT repressor. We show here that knockout or knockdown of ATRX in mortal cells or immortal telomerase-positive cells is insufficient to activate ALT. Notably, however, in SV40-transformed mortal fibroblasts ATRX loss results in either a significant increase in the proportion of cell lines activating ALT (instead of telomerase) or in a significant decrease in the time prior to ALT activation. These data indicate that loss of ATRX function cooperates with one or more as-yet unidentified genetic or epigenetic alterations to activate ALT. Moreover, transient ATRX expression in ALT-positive/ATRX-negative cells represses ALT activity. These data provide the first direct, functional evidence that ATRX represses ALT.

  19. Alternative algebraic approaches in quantum chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezey, Paul G.

    2015-01-01

    Various algebraic approaches of quantum chemistry all follow a common principle: the fundamental properties and interrelations providing the most essential features of a quantum chemical representation of a molecule or a chemical process, such as a reaction, can always be described by algebraic methods. Whereas such algebraic methods often provide precise, even numerical answers, nevertheless their main role is to give a framework that can be elaborated and converted into computational methods by involving alternative mathematical techniques, subject to the constraints and directions provided by algebra. In general, algebra describes sets of interrelations, often phrased in terms of algebraic operations, without much concern with the actual entities exhibiting these interrelations. However, in many instances, the very realizations of two, seemingly unrelated algebraic structures by actual quantum chemical entities or properties play additional roles, and unexpected connections between different algebraic structures are often giving new insight. Here we shall be concerned with two alternative algebraic structures: the fundamental group of reaction mechanisms, based on the energy-dependent topology of potential energy surfaces, and the interrelations among point symmetry groups for various distorted nuclear arrangements of molecules. These two, distinct algebraic structures provide interesting interrelations, which can be exploited in actual studies of molecular conformational and reaction processes. Two relevant theorems will be discussed.

  20. NICKEL AS AN ALTERNATIVE AUTOMOTIVE BODY MATERIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Joseph Sahaya Anand

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of the thermal, chemical and mechanical properties of pure nickel as an alternative automotive body material is presented in this paper. Current automotive components mainly use steel as the body material. Due to the increasing demand for high performance and related issues, interest is moving towards alternative materials to steel. The hardness values of both heat-treated and non-heat treated pure nickel do not change after annealing; the hardness values are in the range of 118 to 123 HV. As the annealing temperature increases, the ultimate tensile strength, yield strength and Young’s modulus decrease, which indicates that the ductility increases. The highest ultimate tensile strength of pure nickel at 300 °C annealed temperature is 758.78 MPa. X-ray diffraction (XRD studies confirmed pure nickel as a face centred cubic (FCC structure with a lattice constant measured as 0.3492 nm for the unannealed sample, which increases to 0.3512 nm for the annealed samples. The corrosion rate of both annealed and non-heat treated pure nickel is in the range of 0.0266 to 0.048 mm/year.

  1. Murcha de fusário em helicônia: fontes de resistência, método alternativo de detecção e defesa estrutural Heliconia’s Fusarium wilt: resistance sources, alternative method of detection and structural mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neilza Reis Castro

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O cultivo das helicônias vem sendo afetado pela murcha, causada por Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense. Este trabalho objetivou identificar fontes de resistência, verificar a detecção da resistência através de método alternativo e avaliar a lignificação como mecanismo de defesa do hospedeiro ao patógeno. As espécies utilizadas na identificação de resistência foram Heliconia bihai, H. psittacorum cvs. Golden Torch e Golden Torch Adrian, H. rostrata, H. stricta cvs. Capri e Fire Bird, H. psittacorum cvs. Sassy e Alan Carle, H. caribea, H. latispatha, H. wagneriana e H. chartacea cv. Sexy Pink. A avaliação dos sintomas foi realizada aos 40 dias após a inoculação baseada em escala de notas variando de 1 a 6. As espécies consideradas resistentes foram H. bihai, H. psittacorum cvs. Golden Torch e Golden Torch Adrian, H. rostrata, H. stricta cv. Capri, H. psittacorum cv. Sassy e H. caribea. O método alternativo de detecção de resistência consistiu na utilização de filtrado fúngico obtido a partir do cultivo em meio Czapek, utilizando várias concentrações do mesmo depositando em folhas destacadas das cultivares resistentes e suscetíveis H. psittacorum cvs. Golden Torch e Alan Carle, respectivamente. A avaliação foi feita após 48 horas de incubação, onde a concentração em 50% do filtrado foi a mais eficiente na distinção da resistência. O mecanismo estrutural foi observado em secções histológicas nas raízes das espécies utilizadas no estudo de resistência, inoculadas com o método de injeção e não inoculadas, que permitiram verificar a ausência de relação entre a resistência e a lignificação.Heliconia grown as a crop has been affected by wilt, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense. This work aimed to identify genetic resistances sources, to evaluated the detection of resistance with an alternative method and to verify the effects of structural mechanisms in pathogen resistance. The genotypes

  2. Wetting behavior of alternative solder alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosking, F.M.; Vianco, P.T.; Hernandez, C.L.; Rejent, J.A.

    1993-07-01

    Recent economic and environmental issues have stimulated interest in solder alloys other than the traditional Sn-Pb eutectic or near eutectic composition. Preliminary evaluations suggest that several of these alloys approach the baseline properties (wetting, mechanical, thermal, and electrical) of the Sn-Pb solders. Final alloy acceptance will require major revisions to existing industrial and military soldering specifications. Bulk alloy and solder joint properties are consequently being investigated to validate their producibility and reliability. The work reported in this paper examines the wetting behavior of several of the more promising commercial alloys on copper substrates. Solder wettability was determined by the meniscometer and wetting balance techniques. The wetting results suggest that several of the alternative solders would satisfy pretinning and surface mount soldering applications. Their use on plated through hole technology might be more difficult since the alloys generally did not spread or flow as well as the 60Sn-40Pb solder.

  3. Alternative Structures for Water Rights Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eheart, J. Wayland; Lyon, Randolph M.

    1983-08-01

    This paper examines the design of systems of marketable permits for water consumption from natural watercourses. The most important considerations for the work reported upon here are those associated with (1) uncertainty of future streamflows and economic conditions, (2) locational issues, and (3) efficient and effective functioning of the markets. Particular attention is given to the problem of implementing marketable rights systems in regions presently following the riparian doctorine. In these regions the most important design decisions include the basis of definition of permits, the means for initially distributing them, the type of market mechanism used for their transfer after they are issued, and the restrictions placed on their use and transfer. These design decisions are examined here with respect to program objectives, including economic efficiency, equity, ease of administration and implementation, and maintenance of instream flows. Alternative approaches to the design problems are discussed, and trade-offs implied by the decisions are identified.

  4. Cohabitainos as alternative to marriage

    OpenAIRE

    Papa Olesya Mikhaylovna

    2012-01-01

    This article is devoted consideration of some features to creation of "alternative" forms of a family and marriage, namely, to studying of such phenomenon as, co-habitation which conducts to loss of values of traditional forms of marriage, and also growth of process of illegitimate birth rate and other consequences. Now in a modern society "civil marriage" has got the certain legitimacy, with the given relations already to surprise nobody, and many justify its existence. In Russia "civil marr...

  5. Alternative to Nitric Acid Passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessel, Kurt R.

    2016-01-01

    Corrosion is an extensive problem that affects the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and European Space Agency (ESA). The deleterious effects of corrosion result in steep costs, asset downtime affecting mission readiness, and safety risks to personnel. It is vital to reduce corrosion costs and risks in a sustainable manner. The primary objective of this effort is to qualify citric acid as an environmentally-preferable alternative to nitric acid for passivation of stainless steel alloys.

  6. SISTEMAS INMUNES ALTERNATIVOS Alternative Immune Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUIS F. CADAVID

    Full Text Available El sistema inmune en animales es una red compleja de moléculas, células y tejidos que de manera conjunta mantienen la integridad fisiológica y genética de los organismos. Convencionalmente se ha considerado la existencia de dos clases de inmunidad, la innata y la adaptativa. La primera es ancestral, con variabilidad limitada y baja discriminación, mientras que la segunda es altamente variable, específica y restringida a vertebra-dos mandibulados. La inmunidad adaptativa se basa en receptores de antígeno que se rearreglan somáticamente para generar una diversidad casi ilimitada de moléculas. Este mecanismo de recombinación somática muy probablemente emergió como consecuencia de un evento de transferencia horizontal de transposones y transposasas bacterianas en el ancestro de los vertebrados mandibulados. El reciente descubrimiento en vertebrados no mandibulados e invertebrados de mecanismos alternativos de inmunidad adaptativa, sugiere que en el transcurso de la evolución distintos grupos animales han encontrado soluciones alternativas al problema del reconocimiento inmunológico.The immune system in animals is a complex network of molecules, cells and tissues that coordinately maintain the physiological and genetic integrity of the organism. Traditionally, two classes of immunity have been considered, the innate immunity and the adaptive immunity. The former is ancestral, with limited variability and low discrimination. The latter is highly variable, specific and limited to jawed vertebrates. Adaptive immunity is based on antigen receptors that rearrange somatically to generate a nearly unlimited diversity of molecules. Likely, this mechanism of somatic recombination arose as a consequence of horizontal transfer of transposons and transposases from bacterial genomes in the ancestor of jawed vertebrates. The recent discovery in jawless vertebrates and invertebrates of alternative adaptive immune mechanisms, suggests that during

  7. Alternative bufferlayers for CIGS solarcells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beleanu, A.; Gruhn, T.; Blum, C.G.F.; Balke, B.; Felser, C. [Institute of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Johannes Gutenberg - University, Mainz (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Cadmium sulfide is a highly efficient buffer layer material in Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se2)[CIGS] solar devices, but for environmental reasons and possible gains in efficiency there is a great interest in replacing CdS by a cadmium-free alternative buffer layer. Using standard density functional theory (DFT) methods possible candidates like LiZnP and LiCuS have been proposed as alternative buffer layers. The experimental verification of the DFT results was quite challenging due to the fact that LiCuS was an unknow and completely new material. In a first step, we tried to synthesize LiCuS through solid state reactions in a corund crucible. After optimizing the parameters and successfully synthesizing the material its properties were investigated. In a second step, huge amounts of LiCuS and LiZnP were synthesized and pressed using Spark Plasma Sintering as 3 inch targets. LiCuS and LiZnP films were grown by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering from these target and their properties as an alternative buffer layer in CIGS solar cells were investigated. The 1:1:1 stoichiometry of the films was delivered from in-situ XPS measurements. Absorption measurements show a band gap of {approx}2.0 eV which is in good agreement with the theoretical estimates.

  8. Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiment (AAFEX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, B. E.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Hudgins, C. H.; Plant, J. V.; Thornhill, K. L.; Winstead, E. L.; Ziemba, L. D.; Howard, R.; Corporan, E.; Miake-Lye, R. C.; Herndon, S. C.; Timko, M.; Woods, E.; Dodds, W.; Lee, B.; Santoni, G.; Whitefield, P.; Hagen, D.; Lobo, P.; Knighton, W. B.; Bulzan, D.; Tacina, K.; Wey, C.; VanderWal, R.; Bhargava, A.

    2011-01-01

    The rising cost of oil coupled with the need to reduce pollution and dependence on foreign suppliers has spurred great interest and activity in developing alternative aviation fuels. Although a variety of fuels have been produced that have similar properties to standard Jet A, detailed studies are required to ascertain the exact impacts of the fuels on engine operation and exhaust composition. In response to this need, NASA acquired and burned a variety of alternative aviation fuel mixtures in the Dryden Flight Research Center DC-8 to assess changes in the aircraft s CFM-56 engine performance and emission parameters relative to operation with standard JP-8. This Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiment, or AAFEX, was conducted at NASA Dryden s Aircraft Operations Facility (DAOF) in Palmdale, California, from January 19 to February 3, 2009 and specifically sought to establish fuel matrix effects on: 1) engine and exhaust gas temperatures and compressor speeds; 2) engine and auxiliary power unit (APU) gas phase and particle emissions and characteristics; and 3) volatile aerosol formation in aging exhaust plumes

  9. Intronic Alus influence alternative splicing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galit Lev-Maor

    Full Text Available Examination of the human transcriptome reveals higher levels of RNA editing than in any other organism tested to date. This is indicative of extensive double-stranded RNA (dsRNA formation within the human transcriptome. Most of the editing sites are located in the primate-specific retrotransposed element called Alu. A large fraction of Alus are found in intronic sequences, implying extensive Alu-Alu dsRNA formation in mRNA precursors. Yet, the effect of these intronic Alus on splicing of the flanking exons is largely unknown. Here, we show that more Alus flank alternatively spliced exons than constitutively spliced ones; this is especially notable for those exons that have changed their mode of splicing from constitutive to alternative during human evolution. This implies that Alu insertions may change the mode of splicing of the flanking exons. Indeed, we demonstrate experimentally that two Alu elements that were inserted into an intron in opposite orientation undergo base-pairing, as evident by RNA editing, and affect the splicing patterns of a downstream exon, shifting it from constitutive to alternative. Our results indicate the importance of intronic Alus in influencing the splicing of flanking exons, further emphasizing the role of Alus in shaping of the human transcriptome.

  10. 40 CFR 258.74 - Allowable mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allowable mechanisms. 258.74 Section... MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Financial Assurance Criteria § 258.74 Allowable mechanisms. The mechanisms... operator establishes a trust fund after having used one or more alternate mechanisms specified in...

  11. Economic assessment of alternatives for glyphosate application in arable farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kehlenbeck, Hella

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Application and sales of herbicides with glyphosate have strongly increased in Germany during the past 10 years. This has raised a number of questions and discussions concerning glyphosate use. Therefore, this paper identifies and evaluates alternatives with an efficacy almost equivalent to glyphosate for different treatmentareas in terms of economic consequences for farms in comparison to glyphosate use by way of example. With the help of exemplary crop rotations uses in arable farming for winter wheat, winter oilseed rape, winter barley, maize and summer barley were analyzed. Within a “worst case scenario” a complete abandonment of glyphosate applications was assumed. Different tillage systems (plough, no-plough were considered. The only alternatives with an efficacy almost equivalent to glyphosate were mechanical measures. For the analyzed treatment-areas (desiccation, pre-sowing, stubble no approved and efficient chemical alternative could be identified. The economic advantages and disadvantages of substituting glyphosate by mechanical alternatives were strongly depending on the treatment-area, the efficacy concerning yield expectations (in comparison to glyphosate use, the tillage system, the necessity of grain drying as well as further operational factors such as the availability of sufficient field work days and mechanical equipment.

  12. Thyroid Disease and Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alternative Medicine (CAM) Thyroid Disease and Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) WHAT IS COMPLEMENTARY AND ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE (CAM)? Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) is defined ...

  13. FMDP reactor alternative summary report. Volume 1 - existing LWR alternative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, S.R.; Bevard, B.B. [and others

    1996-10-07

    Significant quantities of weapons-usable fissile materials [primarily plutonium and highly enriched uranium (HEU)] are becoming surplus to national defense needs in both the United States and Russia. These stocks of fissile materials pose significant dangers to national and international security. The dangers exist not only in the potential proliferation of nuclear weapons but also in the potential for environmental, safety, and health (ES&H) consequences if surplus fissile materials are not properly managed. This document summarizes the results of analysis concerned with existing light water reactor plutonium disposition alternatives.

  14. 注意缺陷多动障碍者的内省观察报告及其发病特征%Introspective reports of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and its pathogenetic characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    费敏华; 林健功; 何晨; 赵菊芳; 江竦峙

    2005-01-01

    AIM:To reveal the characteristics and patterns of mental activity in the cerebral cortex of patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and explore the pathogenetic characteristics of ADHD.METHODS: The ADHD patients were asked to record their mental activity, general health condition and obsessions before the onset of pathological symptoms by means of psychological introspective reports.RESULTS: The direct cause of attention distraction and failure of attention focus is the patients' inability to perform cognitive tasks (including perception, memory and recollection, imagination, association and thought)in a continuously ongoing manner in relaxation. The frequent stagnancy and pause during the course of recognition precipitated the patients in a stressful state, which contributed to the onset of various hyperactivities and also resulted in the acquisition of "silent verbal thinking". This is an important psychopathological phenomenon long been neglected. All theses abnormalities caused the patients much discomfort, which was naturally relieved by means of impulsive and irritable behaviors.CONCLUSION: A series of clinical symptoms of ADHD arises from the same pathogenic factor of difficulty in mental activity and inability to carry out the activities in the cerebral cortex in a relaxed manner. The difficulty in mental activity is the key problem of ADHD and the source of various synptoms, which should be ;reated for the first place. The cause of this key problem is possibly lowered metabolism of the cerebral cortex, and the effect of "instinct" can not be neglected in the attempt to explain the pathogenesis of ADHD.%目的:揭开注意缺陷多动障碍者的心灵在大脑皮质中运行特点、活动规律的真相及探讨注意缺陷多动障碍的发病特征.方法:由注意缺陷多动障碍者采用心理学的内省法详细观察记录自己心灵的运行状态以及一系列病理性症状出现前的机体状态与心灵困境.结

  15. An alternate side coupled structure for the Fermilab LINAC upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jurgens, T.G.; Kerns, Q.A.; Fritz, J.R.; May, M.A.

    1988-10-01

    An alternate side coupled structure (SCS) is being investigated. Comparisons are made to the traditional SCS. Mechanical comparisons include the relative cost and ease of fabrication. This discussion also addresses the use of CNC machining. Electrical comparisons include field distributions and coupling constants. Measured and numerical data are presented. The coupling constant of the alternate SCS is adjusted by independently changing either the separation of the coupling and accelerating cavity centers or the length of the slot. These two parameters are not independent in the traditional SCS design. 4 refs., 5 figs

  16. Mechanism of acute pancreatitis complicated with injury of intestinal mucosa barrier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a common acute abdomen in clinic with a rapid onset and dangerous pathogenetic condition.AP can cause an injury of intestinal mucosa barrier, leading to translocation of bacteria or endotoxin through multiple routes,bacterial translocation (BT), gutorigin endotoxaemia, and secondary infection of pancreatic tissue, and then cause systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) or multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS), which are important factors influencing AP's severity and mortality. Meanwhile, the injury of intestinal mucosa barrier plays a key role in AP's process. Therefore, it is clinically important to study the relationship between the injury of intestinal mucosa barrier and AP. In addition, many factors such as microcirculation disturbance, ischemical reperfusion injury, excessive release of inflammatory mediators and apoptosis may also play important roles in the damage of intestinal mucosa barrier. In this review, we summarize studies on mechanisms of AP.

  17. Alternative sintering methods compared to conventional thermal sintering for inkjet printed silver nanoparticle ink

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niittynen, Juha, E-mail: juha.niittynen@tut.fi [Department of Electronics and Communications Engineering, Tampere University of Technology, Korkeakoulunkatu 3, 33720 Tampere (Finland); Abbel, Robert [Holst Centre, High Tech Campus 31, 5656 AE Eindhoven (Netherlands); Mäntysalo, Matti [Department of Electronics and Communications Engineering, Tampere University of Technology, Korkeakoulunkatu 3, 33720 Tampere (Finland); Perelaer, Jolke; Schubert, Ulrich S. [Laboratory of Organic and Macromolecular Chemistry (IOMC), Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Humboldtstrasse 10, D-07743 Jena (Germany); Jena Center for Soft Matter (JCSM), Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Humboldtstrasse 10, D-07743 Jena (Germany); Lupo, Donald [Department of Electronics and Communications Engineering, Tampere University of Technology, Korkeakoulunkatu 3, 33720 Tampere (Finland)

    2014-04-01

    In this contribution several alternative sintering methods are compared to traditional thermal sintering as high temperature and long process time of thermal sintering are increasing the costs of inkjet-printing and preventing the use of this technology in large scale manufacturing. Alternative sintering techniques are evaluated based on the electrical and mechanical performance they enable on inkjet-printed structures as well as their potential feasibility for large scale manufacturing. Photonic sintering was identified as the most promising alternative to thermal sintering. - Highlights: • Comparison of alternative sintering techniques for large-scale electronics manufacturing • Laser, plasma and photonic sintering of nanoparticle silver ink tested • Electrical and mechanical properties of sintered inks tested • Microstructure analysis used to explain the different electrical and mechanical properties • Photonic sintering identified as the most promising alternative technique.

  18. Impact of alternate fuels on industrial refractories and refractory insulation applications. An Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, G.C.; Tennery, V.J.

    1976-09-01

    The effects of use of alternate fuels such as distillate oils, residual oils, coal, producer gas, and electricity on refractory insulation are evaluated. Sections are included on alternate fuels for 1976 to 1980, assessment by industry of fuel conversion impact on industrial refractories in the period 1976 to 1980, interactions of alternate fuel combustion products with refractories and refractory insulation, and analysis of degradation mechanisms in refractories and refractory materials. (JRD)

  19. [Alternative medicine: really an alternative to academic medicine?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happle, R

    2000-06-01

    Numerous courses on alternative medicine are regularly advertised in Deutsches Arzteblatt, the organ of the German Medical Association. The present German legislation likewise supports this form of medicine, and this explains why Iscador, an extract of the mistletoe, is found in the Rote Liste, a directory of commercially available medical drugs, under the heading "cytostatic and antimetastatic drugs" although such beneficial effect is unproven. To give another example, a German health insurance fund was sentenced to pay for acupuncture as a treatment for hepatic failure. This judgement is characteristic of the present German judicial system and represents a victory of "oracling irrationalism" (Popper). The astonishing popularity of alternative medicine can be explained by a revival of romanticism. An intellectually fair opposite position has been delineated by Karl Popper in the form of critical rationalism. It is important to realize, however, that our decision to adhere to rational thinking is made in the innermost depth of our heart but not on the basis of rational arguing. Rather, the decision in favor of reason has a moral dimension.

  20. Analysis of the Reliability of the "Alternator- Alternator Belt" System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Mavrin

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Before starting and also during the exploitation of va1ioussystems, it is vety imp011ant to know how the system and itsparts will behave during operation regarding breakdowns, i.e.failures. It is possible to predict the service behaviour of a systemby determining the functions of reliability, as well as frequencyand intensity of failures.The paper considers the theoretical basics of the functionsof reliability, frequency and intensity of failures for the twomain approaches. One includes 6 equal intetvals and the other13 unequal intetvals for the concrete case taken from practice.The reliability of the "alternator- alternator belt" system installedin the buses, has been analysed, according to the empiricaldata on failures.The empitical data on failures provide empirical functionsof reliability and frequency and intensity of failures, that arepresented in tables and graphically. The first analysis perfO!med by dividing the mean time between failures into 6 equaltime intervals has given the forms of empirical functions of fa ilurefrequency and intensity that approximately cotTespond totypical functions. By dividing the failure phase into 13 unequalintetvals with two failures in each interval, these functions indicateexplicit transitions from early failure inte1val into the randomfailure interval, i.e. into the ageing intetval. Functions thusobtained are more accurate and represent a better solution forthe given case.In order to estimate reliability of these systems with greateraccuracy, a greater number of failures needs to be analysed.

  1. Alternative lengthening of telomeres and loss of ATRX are frequent events in pleomorphic and dedifferentiated liposarcomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jen-Chieh; Jeng, Yung-Ming; Liau, Jau-Yu; Tsai, Jia-Huei; Hsu, Hung-Han; Yang, Ching-Yao

    2015-08-01

    Telomerase activation and alternative lengthening of telomeres are two major mechanisms of telomere length maintenance. Soft tissue sarcomas appear to use the alternative lengthening of telomeres more frequently. Loss of α-thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked (ATRX) or death domain-associated protein 6 (DAXX) expression has been implicated in the pathogenesis of alternative telomere lengthening in pancreatic endocrine neoplasm and glioma. The mechanism leading to the alternative lengthening of telomeres in liposarcoma remains unknown. Whereas alternative telomere lengthening was determined to be an indicator of poor prognosis in liposarcomas as a whole, its prognostic power has not been verified in any subtype of liposarcoma. In this study, we characterized the status of alternative telomere lengthening and expression of ATRX and DAXX in 111 liposarcomas (28 well-differentiated, 52 dedifferentiated, 20 myxoid or round cell, and 11 pleomorphic liposarcomas) by telomere fluorescence in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Alternative lengthening of telomere was observed in 0% (0/16) of well-differentiated, 30% (14/46) of dedifferentiated, 5% (1/19) of myxoid or round cell, and 80% (8/10) of pleomorphic liposarcomas. Eighteen (16%) and one (1%) tumors were negative for ATRX and DAXX immunostaining, respectively. Remarkably, all cases with loss of either ATRX or DAXX expression had alternative lengthening of telomeres, and 83% (19/23) of tumors that had alternative lengthening of telomeres showed loss of either protein. The correlation between loss of either ATRX or DAXX and alternative telomere lengthening was 100% in dedifferentiated liposarcoma. The presence of alternative telomere lengthening in dedifferentiated liposarcoma suggested poor overall survival (hazard ratio=1.954, P=0.077) and was the most significant indicator of short progression-free survival (hazard ratio=3.119, P=0.003). In conclusion, we found that ATRX loss was

  2. Learning the sequence determinants of alternative splicing from millions of random sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Alexander B; Patwardhan, Rupali P; Shendure, Jay; Seelig, Georg

    2015-10-22

    Most human transcripts are alternatively spliced, and many disease-causing mutations affect RNA splicing. Toward better modeling the sequence determinants of alternative splicing, we measured the splicing patterns of over two million (M) synthetic mini-genes, which include degenerate subsequences totaling over 100 M bases of variation. The massive size of these training data allowed us to improve upon current models of splicing, as well as to gain new mechanistic insights. Our results show that the vast majority of hexamer sequence motifs measurably influence splice site selection when positioned within alternative exons, with multiple motifs acting additively rather than cooperatively. Intriguingly, motifs that enhance (suppress) exon inclusion in alternative 5' splicing also enhance (suppress) exon inclusion in alternative 3' or cassette exon splicing, suggesting a universal mechanism for alternative exon recognition. Finally, our empirically trained models are highly predictive of the effects of naturally occurring variants on alternative splicing in vivo.

  3. Alternative routes of insulin delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnankutty, Ranjith K; Mathew, Aju; Sedimbi, Saikiran K; Suryanarayan, Shrikumar; Sanjeevi, Carani B

    2009-10-01

    Parenteral route of insulin administration has been the mode of treatment for all Type 1 diabetics and Type 2 diabetics with complications. Patient compliance has really been a major concern for this route of administration. Several alternative routes of administration are under consideration for effective glycemic control, including oral, inhaled, buccal, nasal, and patch routes. One of the approaches involving inhaled insulin has now reached the market. Several other candidates may reach the market in the near future, the promising one being oral insulin.

  4. Alternative routes of insulin delivery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ranjith K. Krishnankutty; Aju Mathew; Saikiran K. Sedimbi; Shrikumar Suryanarayan; Carani B. Sanjeevi

    2009-01-01

    Parenteral route of insulin administration has been the mode of treatment for all Type 1 diabetics and Type 2 diabetics with complications. Patient compliance has really been a major concern for this route of administration. Several alternative routes of administration are under consideration for effective glycemic control, including oral, inhaled, buccal, nasal, and patch routes. One of the approaches involving inhaled insulin has now reached the market. Several other candidates may reach the market in the near future, the promising one being oral insulin.

  5. Ash Properties of Alternative Biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capablo, Joaquin; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Pedersen, Kim Hougaard

    2009-01-01

    The ash behavior during suspension firing of 12 alternative solid biofuels, such as pectin waste, mash from a beer brewery, or waste from cigarette production have been studied and compared to wood and straw ash behavior. Laboratory suspension firing tests were performed on an entrained flow...... analysis into three main groups depending upon their ash content of silica, alkali metal, and calcium and magnesium. To further detail the biomass classification, the relative molar ratio of Cl, S, and P to alkali were included. The study has led to knowledge on biomass fuel ash composition influence...... on ash transformation, ash deposit flux, and deposit chlorine content when biomass fuels are applied for suspension combustion....

  6. Bayesian Alternation During Tactile Augmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caspar Mathias Goeke

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A large number of studies suggest that the integration of multisensory signals by humans is well described by Bayesian principles. However, there are very few reports about cue combination between a native and an augmented sense. In particular, we asked the question whether adult participants are able to integrate an augmented sensory cue with existing native sensory information. Hence for the purpose of this study we build a tactile augmentation device. Consequently, we compared different hypotheses of how untrained adult participants combine information from a native and an augmented sense. In a two-interval forced choice (2 IFC task, while subjects were blindfolded and seated on a rotating platform, our sensory augmentation device translated information on whole body yaw rotation to tactile stimulation. Three conditions were realized: tactile stimulation only (augmented condition, rotation only (native condition, and both augmented and native information (bimodal condition. Participants had to choose one out of two consecutive rotations with higher angular rotation. For the analysis, we fitted the participants’ responses with a probit model and calculated the just notable difference (JND. Then we compared several models for predicting bimodal from unimodal responses. An objective Bayesian alternation model yielded a better prediction (χred2 = 1.67 than the Bayesian integration model (χred2= 4.34. Slightly higher accuracy showed a non-Bayesian winner takes all model (χred2= 1.64, which either used only native or only augmented values per subject for prediction. However the performance of the Bayesian alternation model could be substantially improved (χred2= 1.09 utilizing subjective weights obtained by a questionnaire. As a result, the subjective Bayesian alternation model predicted bimodal performance most accurately among all tested models. These results suggest that information from augmented and existing sensory modalities in

  7. Cost-Benefit Analysis For Alternative Low-Emission Surface Preparation/ Depainting Technologies for Structural Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Pattie

    2007-01-01

    Stennis Space Center (SSC), Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Air Force Space Command (AFSPC) identified particulate emissions and waste generated from the depainting process of steel structures as hazardous materials to be eliminated or reduced. A Potential Alternatives Report, Potential Alternatives Report for Validation of Alternative Low Emission Surface Preparation/Depainting Technologies for Structural Steel, provided a technical analyses of identified alternatives to the current coating removal processes, criteria used to select alternatives for further analysis, and a list of those alternatives recommended for testing. The initial coating removal alternatives list was compiled using literature searches and stakeholder recommendations. The involved project participants initially considered approximately 13 alternatives. In late 2003, core project members selected the following depainting processes to be further evaluated: (1) Plastic Blast Media-Quickstrip(R)-A. (2) Hard Abrasive-Steel-Magic(R). (3) Sponge Blasting-Sponge-Jet(R). (4) Liquid Nitrogen-NItroJet(R). (5) Mechanical Removal with Vacuum Attachment-DESCO and OCM Clean-Air (6) Laser Coating Removal Alternatives were tested in accordance with the Joint Test Protocol for Validation of Alternative Low-Emission Surface Preparation/Depainting Technologies for Structural Steel, and the Field Evaluation Test Plan for Validation of Alternative Low-Emission Surface Preparation/Depainting Technologies for Structural Steel. Results of the testing are documented in the Joint Test Report. This Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) focuses on the three alternatives (Quickstrip(R)-A, SteelMagic (R), and Sponge-Jet(R)) that were considered viable alternatives for large area operations based on the results of the field demonstration and lab testing. This CBA was created to help participants determine if implementation of the candidate alternatives is economically justified. Each of the alternatives examined reduced Environmental

  8. Alternative-splicing-mediated gene expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qianliang; Zhou, Tianshou

    2014-01-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) is a fundamental process during gene expression and has been found to be ubiquitous in eukaryotes. However, how AS impacts gene expression levels both quantitatively and qualitatively remains to be fully explored. Here, we analyze two common models of gene expression, each incorporating a simple splice mechanism that a pre-mRNA is spliced into two mature mRNA isoforms in a probabilistic manner. In the constitutive expression case, we show that the steady-state molecular numbers of two mature mRNA isoforms follow mutually independent Poisson distributions. In the bursting expression case, we demonstrate that the tail decay of the steady-state distribution for both mature mRNA isoforms that in general are not mutually independent can be characterized by the product of mean burst size and splicing probability. In both cases, we find that AS can efficiently modulate both the variability (measured by variance) and the noise level of the total mature mRNA, and in particular, the latter is always lower than the noise level of the pre-mRNA, implying that AS always reduces the noise. These results altogether reveal that AS is a mechanism of efficiently controlling the gene expression noise.

  9. Banking union and the future of alternative banks: revival, stagnation or decline?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deeg, Richard; Donnelly, Shawn

    2016-01-01

    Banking union challenges the institutional mechanisms that alternative banks use to retain their status, goals, identity and carry out their operations. Yet the impact of banking union on them varies considerably and systematically: those alternative banks that held most closely to the traditional m

  10. Alternative multiplications and non-associativity in physics

    CERN Document Server

    Kupriyanov, V G

    2016-01-01

    Some physical systems like the quantum mechanics with magnetic charges or field theoretical models appearing in the context of string theory are formulated in terms of non-associative algebras. Hence, demand non-associative star products for its description. However, unlike its associative counterpart the situation with non-associative star products is quite unclear. At the moment it is not evident which condition should be used instead of the associativity in the definition of the non-associative star multiplication. In mathematics, the natural generalization of the associativity is the requirement that the multiplication should be alternative, the associator of three elements should vanish if each two of them are equal. We show that for the alternative closed star product the integrated associator vanishes. In particular, it means that on-shell there will be no violation of associativity in string scattering amplitudes. We discuss the examples of the alternative and closed star products. In particular, it i...

  11. Experimental Evaluation of the Free Piston Engine - Linear Alternator (FPLA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leick, Michael T. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Moses, Ronald W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report describes the experimental evaluation of a prototype free piston engine - linear alternator (FPLA) system developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The opposed piston design wa developed to investigate its potential for use in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). The system is mechanically simple with two - stroke uniflow scavenging for gas exchange and timed port fuel injection for fuel delivery, i.e. no complex valving. Electrical power is extracted from piston motion through linear alternators wh ich also provide a means for passive piston synchronization through electromagnetic coupling. In an HEV application, this electrical power would be used to charge the batteries. The engine - alternator system was designed, assembled and operated over a 2 - year period at Sandia National Laboratories in Livermore, CA. This report primarily contains a description of the as - built system, modifications to the system to enable better performance, and experimental results from start - up, motoring, and hydrogen combus tion tests.

  12. Assessment of alternative power sources for mobile mining machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairelli, J. E.; Tomazic, W. A.; Evans, D. G.; Klann, J. L.

    1981-12-01

    Alternative mobile power sources for mining applications were assessed. A wide variety of heat engines and energy systems was examined as potential alternatives to presently used power systems. The present mobile power systems are electrical trailing cable, electrical battery, and diesel - with diesel being largely limited in the United States to noncoal mines. Each candidate power source was evaluated for the following requirements: (1) ability to achieve the duty cycle; (2) ability to meet Government regulations; (3) availability (production readiness); (4) market availability; and (5) packaging capability. Screening reduced the list of candidates to the following power sources: diesel, stirling, gas turbine, rankine (steam), advanced electric (batteries), mechanical energy storage (flywheel), and use of hydrogen evolved from metal hydrides. This list of candidates is divided into two classes of alternative power sources for mining applications, heat engines and energy storage systems.

  13. Experimental Evaluation of the Free Piston Engine - Linear Alternator (FPLA).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leick, Michael T. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Moses, Ronald W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report describes the experimental evaluation of a prototype free piston engine - linear alternator (FPLA) system developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The opposed piston design wa developed to investigate its potential for use in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). The system is mechanically simple with two - stroke uniflow scavenging for gas exchange and timed port fuel injection for fuel delivery, i.e. no complex valving. Electrical power is extracted from piston motion through linear alternators wh ich also provide a means for passive piston synchronization through electromagnetic coupling. In an HEV application, this electrical power would be used to charge the batteries. The engine - alternator system was designed, assembled and operated over a 2 - year period at Sandia National Laboratories in Livermore, CA. This report primarily contains a description of the as - built system, modifications to the system to enable better performance, and experimental results from start - up, motoring, and hydrogen combus tion tests.

  14. Prediction of skin sensitizers using alternative methods to animal experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Henrik; Lindstedt, Malin

    2014-07-01

    Regulatory frameworks within the European Union demand that chemical substances are investigated for their ability to induce sensitization, an adverse health effect caused by the human immune system in response to chemical exposure. A recent ban on the use of animal tests within the cosmetics industry has led to an urgent need for alternative animal-free test methods that can be used for assessment of chemical sensitizers. To date, no such alternative assay has yet completed formal validation. However, a number of assays are in development and the understanding of the biological mechanisms of chemical sensitization has greatly increased during the last decade. In this MiniReview, we aim to summarize and give our view on the recent progress of method development for alternative assessment of chemical sensitizers. We propose that integrated testing strategies should comprise complementary assays, providing measurements of a wide range of mechanistic events, to perform well-educated risk assessments based on weight of evidence.

  15. Alternative financial institutions? Sustainability, development, social reproduction, and gender analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidder, T

    1999-08-01

    This paper proposes a conceptual framework for alternative financial institutions in Nicaragua. The article includes a discussion on innovative services and policies, which differentiate CARUNA (National Savings and Credit Cooperative ¿Caja Rural¿), and other financial institutions from conventional banks. It further examines theories that have altered the way development practitioners think about the economy, poverty reduction, and the positions of men and women in the society. These theories are the feminist economic theory and alternative development theories. Specific ways to incorporate the concepts of alternative and feminist economic theories in the design of financial institutions include open credit, savings, and remittance mechanisms, and coordinating councils. The gender analysis approach was used to evaluate the design of financial institutions.

  16. Alternative therapies for postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speroff, Leon

    2005-01-01

    Alternative therapies are being used by postmenopausal women in attempts to treat all of the complaints and medical conditions of the menopause. One-fifth of those who take prescription drugs for these indications also take herbal remedies and/or high-dose vitamins, most often without disclosing the fact to the physician. Although studies of alternative therapies are short-term and rarely focused on safety--let alone efficacy--in the long-term, there are many studies spread over the large number of substances involved. More than 130 studies, including meta-analyses, are reviewed in this article under the headings of phytoestrogens, especially from soy; therapies for hot flushes; and preventives for cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, and breast cancer. Special attention is given to the recently recognized daidzein metabolite equol, and for the sake of completeness there are reviews of the unconventional, but not botanical, treatments estriol, transdermal progesterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone. The total picture produced by conscientious review of the studies is bleak overall, but there seems to be good reason to pursue the possibilities inherent in soy protein with phytoestrogens in populations of women who endogenously produce equol.

  17. Alternate Energy for National Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, Bhakta

    2010-02-01

    Recent price fluctuations at the gas pump have brought our attention to the phenomenal increase of global energy consumption in recent years. It is now evident that we have almost reached a peak in global oil production. Several projections indicate that total world consumption of oil will rise by nearly 60 per cent between 1999 and 2020. In 1999 consumption was equivalent to 86 million barrels of oil per day, which has reached a peak of production extracted from most known oil reserves. These projections, if accurate, will present an unprecedented crisis to the global economy and industry. As an example, in the US, nearly 40 per cent of energy usage is provided by petroleum, of which nearly a third is used in transportation. The US Department of Defense (DOD) is the single largest buyer of fuel, amounting to, on the average, 13 million gallons per day. Additionally, these fuels have to meet different requirements that prevent use of ethanol additives and biodiesel. An aggressive search for alternate energy sources, both renewable and nonrenewable, is vital. The presentation will review national and DOD perspectives on the exploration of alternate energy with a focus on energy derivable from the ocean. )

  18. Alternatives for nuclear fuel disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez S, J. R.; Badillo A, V.; Palacios H, J.; Celis del Angel, L., E-mail: ramon.ramirez@inin.gob.m [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, Ocoyoacac 52750, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2010-10-15

    The spent fuel is one of the most important issues in the nuclear industry, currently spent fuel management is been cause of great amount of research, investments in the construction of repositories or constructing the necessary facilities to reprocess the fuel, and later to recycle the plutonium recovered in thermal reactors. What is the best solution? or, What is the best technology for a specific solution? Many countries have deferred the decision on selecting an option, while other works actively constructing repositories and others implementing the reprocessing facilities to recycle the plutonium obtained from nuclear spent fuel. In Mexico the nuclear power is limited to two reactors BWR type and medium size. So the nuclear spent fuel discharged has been accommodated at reactor's spent fuel pools. Originally these pools have enough capacity to accommodate spent fuel for the 40 years of designed plant operation. However, currently is under process an extended power up rate to 20% of their original power and also there are plans to extend operational life for 20 more years. Under these conditions there will not be enough room for spent fuel in the pools. So this work describes some different alternatives that have been studied in Mexico to define which will be the best alternative to follow. (Author)

  19. Three-dimensional gait analysis system in ankylosing spondylitis pathogenetic condition evaluation%三维步态分析系统在强直性脊柱炎病情评价中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朴雪梅; 孙晏舲; 薛鸾; 胡建东; 吴香香; 李国陵; 王丹; 姜淑云

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the value of the three-dimensional gait analysis system in evaluating ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients' pathogenetic condition.Method Using the three-dimensional gait analysis,we investigated 31 patients with AS,collected spinal mobility parameters,spatial and temporal parameters,time parameters,and assessed patients' quality of life (HAQ score),the disease activity index (BASDI),functional index (BASFI) and measurement index (BASMI).Then,we deal data with correlation analysis.Results ①During AS patients walking,the spine roll rate has significantly increased than normal comparison (P<0.01); the spine forward rate has been increasing trend than normal comparison; stationary state spine rotation has obvious reduced rate than normal (P<0.01).②AS patients with lower limb step,stride,pace,data reduction is particularly evident (P<0.05),contralateral lower limb step length and stride are reduced (P<0.05).③Ipsilateral lower limb single support phase time is decreasing,while double support phase time trend is increasing.④Ipsilateral lower limb step,stride,pace,stride frequency are shorter (P<0.05) than the contralateral lower extremity.Ipsilateral lower limb single support phrase shortened compared to healthy limbs.While the double support phrase extended compared to healthy limbs,the swing phrase shortened (P<0.05).⑤Ipsilateral lower limb,the contralateral lower limb step length,stride length,walking speed and step frequency are correlated negatively with HAQ,BASDI,BASFI and BASMI.The time parameter of lower limbs support phase correlated positively with HAQ and BASFI; the double support phase correlated positively with HAQ,BASFI and BASMI.The single support phase correlated negatively with BASMI,swing phase correlated negatively with HAQ and BASFI.The time parameter of the contralateral lower extremity support phase and BASMI are correlated positively,while single-support phase and HAQ,BASFI are negatively correlated

  20. Probability in quantum mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. G. Gilson

    1982-01-01

    Full Text Available By using a fluid theory which is an alternative to quantum theory but from which the latter can be deduced exactly, the long-standing problem of how quantum mechanics is related to stochastic processes is studied. It can be seen how the Schrödinger probability density has a relationship to time spent on small sections of an orbit, just as the probability density has in some classical contexts.

  1. 7 CFR 982.36 - Alternates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Hazelnut Control Board § 982.36 Alternates. An alternate for a member...

  2. LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF ELECTRICITY GENERATION ALTERNATIVES

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation summarizes various electricity and electricity/steam cogeneration alternatives. Among these alternatives, are fossil fuel and biomass power generation plants. These plants have different designs due to the need in fossil fuel (coal) plants to include process u...

  3. EJSCREEN Version 1, EJ Index Alternatives

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This map service displays alternative environmental justice (EJ) indexes used in EJSCREEN. The alternative EJ indexes combine each of the 12 environmental indicators...

  4. Dynamically assisted Schwinger mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schützhold, Ralf; Gies, Holger; Dunne, Gerald

    2008-09-26

    We study electron-positron pair creation from the Dirac vacuum induced by a strong and slowly varying electric field (Schwinger effect) which is superimposed by a weak and rapidly changing electromagnetic field (dynamical pair creation). In the subcritical regime where both mechanisms separately are strongly suppressed, their combined impact yields a pair creation rate which is dramatically enhanced. Intuitively speaking, the strong electric field lowers the threshold for dynamical particle creation--or, alternatively, the fast electromagnetic field generates additional seeds for the Schwinger mechanism. These findings could be relevant for planned ultrahigh intensity lasers.

  5. The Nature and Variability of Children's Alternative Conceptions of Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Uyen Adelyn

    In recent years a large amount of research has focused on the alternative conceptions about evolution found among secondary and university students, but few studies have investigated younger students' ideas on this subject. The present study examines the alternative conceptions of evolution harbored by second and third-grade students who participated in a summer instructional course that scaffolded the mechanisms of natural selection through cases of microevolution. In order to identify the categories of alternative conceptions that students expressed, 60 sets of pre- and posttest structured interviews were analyzed, and these showed that participants in this study expressed alternative conceptions closely related to those identified in studies conducted using high school and college-age participants. The results demonstrated a variability of alternative conceptions across a range of interview items, and also revealed how contextual features in the assessment tasks may account for the patterns that emerged in students' responses. Students' evocations of alternative conceptions declined after their participation in the instructional course. The analyses of the four case study students, whose pre-and posttest patterns were representative of their cohorts, provided a detailed within-subject look at how these alternative conceptions occurred in the context of the interview items and how they changed from pre- to posttest. These findings have broad relevance to understanding conceptual development in young children and important implications both for considering at how early an age instruction about evolutionary biology should begin and for evaluating the potential long-term impact of a curriculum that targets sources of student difficulty at earlier grade levels.

  6. Methylation of an intragenic alternative promoter regulates transcription of GARP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haupt, Sonja; Söntgerath, Viktoria Sophie Apollonia; Leipe, Jan; Schulze-Koops, Hendrik; Skapenko, Alla

    2016-02-01

    Alternative promoter usage has been proposed as a mechanism regulating transcriptional and translational diversity in highly elaborated systems like the immune system in humans. Here, we report that transcription of human glycoprotein A repetitions predominant (GARP) in regulatory CD4 T cells (Tregs) is tightly regulated by two alternative promoters. An intragenic promoter contains several CpGs and acts as a weak promoter that is demethylated and initiates transcription Treg-specifically. The strong up-stream promoter containing a CpG-island is, in contrast, fully demethylated throughout tissues. Transcriptional activity of the strong promoter was surprisingly down-regulated upon demethylation of the weak promoter. This demethylation-induced transcriptional attenuation regulated the magnitude of GARP expression and correlated with disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis. Treg-specific GARP transcription was initiated by synergistic interaction of forkhead box protein 3 (Foxp3) with nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) and was underpinned by permissive chromatin remodeling caused by release of the H3K4 demethylase, PLU-1. Our findings describe a novel function of alternative promoters in regulating the extent of transcription. Moreover, since GARP functions as a transporter of transforming growth factor β (TGFβ), a cytokine with broad pleiotropic traits, GARP transcriptional attenuation by alternative promoters might provide a mechanism regulating peripheral TGFβ to avoid unwanted harmful effects.

  7. ADAPTABLE ALTERNATE REALITY GAMES PLATFORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu-Adrian Cotfas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present an alternate reality games platform that facilitates the creation of ARG projects with different themes and sizes. The platform is well integrated with the most important social media networks, thus facilitating both the involvement of the public and the creation of a more engaging interaction for the participants. A cloud-based architecture was used in order to allow the platform to easily accommodate projects of various sizes and to provide a good level of scalability. The platform is fully localizable in any language and multiple languages can be used at once to create projects that target users from different countries. An initial project that uses gamification to create an immersive learning environment has been created around the developed platform. The project combines professional and public feedback in order to provide an enhanced learning experience.

  8. Alternative approaches to plasma confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    The paper discusses 20 plasma confinement schemes each representing an alternative to the tokamak fusion reactor. Attention is given to: (1) tokamak-like devices (TORMAC, Topolotron, and the Extrap concept), (2) stellarator-like devices (Torsatron and twisted-coil stellarators), (3) mirror machines (Astron and reversed-field devices, the 2XII B experiment, laser-heated solenoids, the LITE experiment, the Kaktus-Surmac concept), (4) bumpy tori (hot electron bumpy torus, toroidal minimum-B configurations), (5) electrostatically assisted confinement (electrostatically stuffed cusps and mirrors, electrostatically assisted toroidal confinement), (6) the Migma concept, and (7) wall-confined plasmas. The plasma parameters of the devices are presented and the advantages and disadvantages of each are listed.

  9. Alternative Medicine Review简介

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李霄茜; 周庆辉

    2009-01-01

    @@ Alternative Medicine Review(;ISSN:1089-5159)是由美国Thorne Research公司于1996年出版发行的一本同行评议补充替代医学杂志,旨在为预防保健从业者提供准确、及时并且与临床相关的各类原创文章、摘要及文献综述等.该杂志现已被Index Medicus/Medline、EMBASE、CINAHL、Current Contents/Clinical Medicine及Science Citation Index Expanded等多个数据库收录.最新影响因子为3.111.

  10. Recent advances in alternative therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziment, I

    2000-01-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is becoming more popular, and CAM remedies are used instead of, or integrated with, orthodox allopathic therapies by many patients with asthma. Although most CAM remedies may have no discernible effects when analyzed by conventional medical techniques, some double-blind controlled studies do suggest that a meaningful benefit can be obtained with acupunture and homeopathic management in asthma. Herbal medicine is more popular, despite little evidence that the vast majority of herbs for asthma have any useful effects other than a nonspecific expectorant action. Dietary adjustment may benefit a small percentage of patients with asthma, but extreme measures are very rarely indicated. Formal pyschologic approaches can help some patients by reducing anxiety. Although most CAM approaches are harmless, the lack of benefit of many remedies and the potential harm from some of them must be recognized.

  11. An alternative to Zoe's Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalmau, James

    2015-03-01

    Under the criminal law of New South Wales, the destruction of a foetus (other than in the course of a medical procedure) constitutes grievous bodily harm to the pregnant woman. Charges can be laid for offences against the woman, but not against the foetus. Many are dissatisfied with this. The Crimes Amendment (Zoe's Law) Bill 2013 (No 2) (NSW) aimed to change this by providing that a foetus is taken to be a living person for the purposes of certain offences. The Bill was strongly opposed on the basis that according personhood to a foetus in this way will have undesirable consequences that could erode the reproductive rights of women. The public debate over how the criminal law addresses the destruction of a foetus has centred on Zoe's Law. This article proposes an alternative amendment. that aims, to accommodate the concerns of the Bill's supporters and its detractors.

  12. Alternative calcination development status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boardman, R.D.

    1997-12-01

    The Programmatic Spent Nuclear Fuel and (INEEL) Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programs Environmental Impact Statement Record of Decision, dated June 1, 1995, specifies that high-level waste stored in the underground tanks at the ICPP continue to be calcined while other options to treat the waste are studied. Therefore, the High-Level Waste Program has funded a program to develop new flowsheets to increase the liquid waste processing rate. Simultaneously, a radionuclide separation process, as well as other options, are also being developed, which will be compared to the calcination treatment option. Two alternatives emerged as viable candidates; (1) elevated temperature calcination (also referred to as high temperature calcination), and (2) sugar-additive calcination. Both alternatives were determined to be viable through testing performed in a lab-scale calcination mockup. Subsequently, 10-cm Calciner Pilot Plant scoping tests were successfully completed for both flowsheets. The results were compared to the standard 500 C, high-ANN flow sheet (baseline flowsheet). The product and effluent streams were characterized to help elucidate the process chemistry and to investigate potential environmental permitting issues. Several supplementary tests were conducted to gain a better understanding of fine-particles generation, calcine hydration, scrub foaming, feed makeup procedures, sugar/organic elimination, and safety-related issues. Many of the experiments are only considered to be scoping tests, and follow-up experiments will be required to establish a more definitive understanding of the flowsheets. However, the combined results support the general conclusion that flowsheet improvements for the NWCF are technically viable.

  13. Alternative Crops and Biofuel Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenkel, Philip [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States); Holcomb, Rodney B. [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States)

    2013-03-01

    In order for the biofuel industry to meet the RFS benchmarks for biofuels, new feedstock sources and production systems will have to be identified and evaluated. The Southern Plains has the potential to produce over a billion gallons of biofuels from regionally produced alternative crops, agricultural residues, and animal fats. While information on biofuel conversion processes is available, it is difficult for entrepreneurs, community planners and other interested individuals to determine the feasibility of biofuel processes or to match production alternatives with feed stock availability and community infrastructure. This project facilitates the development of biofuel production from these regionally available feed stocks. Project activities are concentrated in five major areas. The first component focused on demonstrating the supply of biofuel feedstocks. This involves modeling the yield and cost of production of dedicated energy crops at the county level. In 1991 the DOE selected switchgrass as a renewable source to produce transportation fuel after extensive evaluations of many plant species in multiple location (Caddel et al,. 2010). However, data on the yield and cost of production of switchgrass are limited. This deficiency in demonstrating the supply of biofuel feedstocks was addressed by modeling the potential supply and geographic variability of switchgrass yields based on relationship of available switchgrass yields to the yields of other forage crops. This model made it possible to create a database of projected switchgrass yields for five different soil types at the county level. A major advantage of this methodology is that the supply projections can be easily updated as improved varieties of switchgrass are developed and additional yield data becomes available. The modeling techniques are illustrated using the geographic area of Oklahoma. A summary of the regional supply is then provided.

  14. Contributions of microdialysis to new alternative therapeutics for hepatic encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Espinosa, Liliana; Floriano-Sánchez, Esaú; Pedraza-Chaverrí, José; Coballase-Urrutia, Elvia; Sampieri, Aristides Iii; Ortega-Cuellar, Daniel; Cárdenas-Rodríguez, Noemí; Carmona-Aparicio, Liliana

    2013-08-05

    Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a common complication of cirrhosis, of largely reversible impairment of brain function occurring in patients with acute or chronic liver failure or when the liver is bypassed by portosystemic shunts. The mechanisms causing this brain dysfunction are still largely unclear. The need to avoid complications caused by late diagnosis has attracted interest to understand the mechanisms underlying neuronal damage in order to find markers that will allow timely diagnosis and to propose new therapeutic alternatives to improve the care of patients. One of the experimental approaches to study HE is microdialysis; this technique allows evaluation of different chemical substances in several organs through the recollection of samples in specific places by semi-permeable membranes. In this review we will discuss the contributions of microdialysis in the understanding of the physiological alterations in human hepatic encephalopathy and experimental models and the studies to find novel alternative therapies for this disease.

  15. Contributions of Microdialysis to New Alternative Therapeutics for Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Carmona-Aparicio

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic encephalopathy (HE is a common complication of cirrhosis, of largely reversible impairment of brain function occurring in patients with acute or chronic liver failure or when the liver is bypassed by portosystemic shunts. The mechanisms causing this brain dysfunction are still largely unclear. The need to avoid complications caused by late diagnosis has attracted interest to understand the mechanisms underlying neuronal damage in order to find markers that will allow timely diagnosis and to propose new therapeutic alternatives to improve the care of patients. One of the experimental approaches to study HE is microdialysis; this technique allows evaluation of different chemical substances in several organs through the recollection of samples in specific places by semi-permeable membranes. In this review we will discuss the contributions of microdialysis in the understanding of the physiological alterations in human hepatic encephalopathy and experimental models and the studies to find novel alternative therapies for this disease.

  16. Contributions of Microdialysis to New Alternative Therapeutics for Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Espinosa, Liliana; Floriano-Sánchez, Esaú; Pedraza-Chaverrí, José; Coballase-Urrutia, Elvia; Sampieri, Aristides; Ortega-Cuellar, Daniel; Cárdenas-Rodríguez, Noemí; Carmona-Aparicio, Liliana

    2013-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a common complication of cirrhosis, of largely reversible impairment of brain function occurring in patients with acute or chronic liver failure or when the liver is bypassed by portosystemic shunts. The mechanisms causing this brain dysfunction are still largely unclear. The need to avoid complications caused by late diagnosis has attracted interest to understand the mechanisms underlying neuronal damage in order to find markers that will allow timely diagnosis and to propose new therapeutic alternatives to improve the care of patients. One of the experimental approaches to study HE is microdialysis; this technique allows evaluation of different chemical substances in several organs through the recollection of samples in specific places by semi-permeable membranes. In this review we will discuss the contributions of microdialysis in the understanding of the physiological alterations in human hepatic encephalopathy and experimental models and the studies to find novel alternative therapies for this disease. PMID:23921686

  17. Interplay between mechanisms of damage and repair in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadelmann, Christine; Brück, Wolfgang

    2008-03-01

    The neuropathology of multiple sclerosis is characterised by focal damage to white matter. However, tissue damage is also present in the cortical grey matter, with a particularly high prevalence of cortical demyelination being observed in secondary progressive and primary progressive forms of the disease. The presence of meningeal B-cell follicle-like structures, which frequently appear during the secondary progressive phase of disease, may be involved in the formation of these subpial cortical lesions. Diffuse white matter inflammation accompanied by axonal damage can also be observed in normal appearing white matter and, again, this is more prominent in chronic progressive forms of multiple sclerosis than in acute stages of disease. Axonal damage is a particularly important component of the pathology of multiple sclerosis and appears to be a critical determinant of clinical outcome. Axons appear to become vulnerable to injury as a result of loss of their myelin sheaths. Remyelination represents an important mechanism of tissue repair in multiple sclerosis and already occurs at an early stage of lesion development and in both white and grey matter lesions. The extent of remyelination appears to be greater in cortical lesions and in lesions further from the ventricles. There is important heterogeneity between patients in terms of the extent of remyelination, which may reflect underlying differences in pathogenetic mechanisms between patients.

  18. Mechanisms of protein misfolding in conformational lung diseases.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McElvaney, N G

    2012-08-01

    Genetic or environmentally-induced alterations in protein structure interfere with the correct folding, assembly and trafficking of proteins. In the lung the expression of misfolded proteins can induce a variety of pathogenetic effects. Cystic fibrosis (CF) and alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency are two major clinically relevant pulmonary disorders associated with protein misfolding. Both are genetic diseases the primary causes of which are expression of mutant alleles of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and SERPINA1, respectively. The most common and best studied mutant forms of CFTR and AAT are ΔF508 CFTR and the Glu342Lys mutant of AAT called ZAAT, respectively. Non-genetic mechanisms can also damage protein structure and induce protein misfolding in the lung. Cigarette-smoke contains oxidants and other factors that can modify a protein\\'s structure, and is one of the most significant environmental causes of protein damage within the lung. Herein we describe the mechanisms controlling the folding of wild type and mutant versions of CFTR and AAT proteins, and explore the consequences of cigarette-smoke-induced effects on the protein folding machinery in the lung.

  19. Puzzling Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Deventer, M. Oskar

    2009-01-01

    The basis of a good mechanical puzzle is often a puzzling mechanism. This article will introduce some new puzzling mechanisms, like two knots that engage like gears, a chain whose links can be interchanged, and flat gears that do not come apart. It illustrates how puzzling mechanisms can be transformed into real mechanical puzzles, e.g., by…

  20. COMMUNICATION: Alternative splicing and genomic stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Kevin

    2004-06-01

    Alternative splicing allows an organism to make different proteins in different cells at different times, all from the same gene. In a cell that uses alternative splicing, the total length of all the exons is much shorter than in a cell that encodes the same set of proteins without alternative splicing. This economical use of exons makes genes more stable during reproduction and development because a genome with a shorter exon length is more resistant to harmful mutations. Genomic stability may be the reason why higher vertebrates splice alternatively. For a broad class of alternatively spliced genes, a formula is given for the increase in their stability.

  1. Alternative solutions for public and private catastrophe funding in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gruber

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of natural hazards as well as their frequency of occurrence during the last decades have increased decisively. Therefore, the public as well as the private sector are expected to react to this development by providing sufficient funds, in particular for the improvement of protection measures and an enhanced funding of damage compensation for affected private individuals, corporate and public entities.

    From the public stance, the establishment of an appropriate regulatory environment seems to be indispensable. Structural and legal changes should, on the one hand, renew and improve the current distribution system of public catastrophe funds as well as the profitable investment of these financial resources, and on the other hand, facilitate the application of alternative mechanisms provided by the capital and insurance markets.

    In particular, capital markets have developed alternative risk transfer and financing mechanisms, such as captive insurance companies, risk pooling, contingent capital solutions, multi-trigger products and insurance securitisation for hard insurance market phases. These instruments have already been applied to catastrophic (re-insurance in other countries (mainly the US and off-shore domiciles, and may contribute positively to the insurability of extreme weather events in Austria by enhancing financial capacities. Not only private individuals and corporate entities may use alternative mechanisms in order to retain, thus, to finance certain risks, but also public institutions.

    This contribution aims at analysing potential solutions for an improved risk management of natural hazards in the private and the public sector by considering alternative mechanisms of the capital and insurance markets. Also the establishment of public-private-partnerships, which may contribute to a more efficient cat funding system in Austria, is considered.

  2. Alternative solutions for public and private catastrophe funding in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, M.

    2008-07-01

    The impacts of natural hazards as well as their frequency of occurrence during the last decades have increased decisively. Therefore, the public as well as the private sector are expected to react to this development by providing sufficient funds, in particular for the improvement of protection measures and an enhanced funding of damage compensation for affected private individuals, corporate and public entities. From the public stance, the establishment of an appropriate regulatory environment seems to be indispensable. Structural and legal changes should, on the one hand, renew and improve the current distribution system of public catastrophe funds as well as the profitable investment of these financial resources, and on the other hand, facilitate the application of alternative mechanisms provided by the capital and insurance markets. In particular, capital markets have developed alternative risk transfer and financing mechanisms, such as captive insurance companies, risk pooling, contingent capital solutions, multi-trigger products and insurance securitisation for hard insurance market phases. These instruments have already been applied to catastrophic (re-)insurance in other countries (mainly the US and off-shore domiciles), and may contribute positively to the insurability of extreme weather events in Austria by enhancing financial capacities. Not only private individuals and corporate entities may use alternative mechanisms in order to retain, thus, to finance certain risks, but also public institutions. This contribution aims at analysing potential solutions for an improved risk management of natural hazards in the private and the public sector by considering alternative mechanisms of the capital and insurance markets. Also the establishment of public-private-partnerships, which may contribute to a more efficient cat funding system in Austria, is considered.

  3. Anyone but Him: The Complexity of Precluding an Alternative

    OpenAIRE

    Hemaspaandra, Edith; Hemaspaandra, Lane A.; Rothe, Joerg

    2005-01-01

    Preference aggregation in a multiagent setting is a central issue in both human and computer contexts. In this paper, we study in terms of complexity the vulnerability of preference aggregation to destructive control. That is, we study the ability of an election's chair to, through such mechanisms as voter/candidate addition/suppression/partition, ensure that a particular candidate (equivalently, alternative) does not win. And we study the extent to which election systems can make it impossib...

  4. Alternative and Efficient Extraction Methods for Marine-Derived Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Clara Grosso; Patrícia Valentão; Federico Ferreres; Paula B. Andrade

    2015-01-01

    Marine ecosystems cover more than 70% of the globe’s surface. These habitats are occupied by a great diversity of marine organisms that produce highly structural diverse metabolites as a defense mechanism. In the last decades, these metabolites have been extracted and isolated in order to test them in different bioassays and assess their potential to fight human diseases. Since traditional extraction techniques are both solvent- and time-consuming, this review emphasizes alternative extracti...

  5. Alternative Sigma Factors and Their Roles in Bacterial Virulence

    OpenAIRE

    Kazmierczak, Mark J.; Wiedmann, Martin; Boor, Kathryn J.

    2005-01-01

    Sigma factors provide promoter recognition specificity to RNA polymerase holoenzyme, contribute to DNA strand separation, and then dissociate from the core enzyme following transcription initiation. As the regulon of a single sigma factor can be composed of hundreds of genes, sigma factors can provide effective mechanisms for simultaneously regulating expression of large numbers of prokaryotic genes. One newly emerging field is identification of the specific roles of alternative sigma factors...

  6. SISTEMAS INMUNES ALTERNATIVOS - Alternative Immune Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cadavid Gutierrez Luis Fernando

    2011-12-01

    vertebrates and invertebrates of alternative adaptive immune mechanisms, suggests during evolution different animal groups have found alternative solutions to the problem of immune recognition.

  7. Cascade filtration for TTP: an effective alternative to plasma exchange with cryodepleted plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruni, R; Giannini, G; Lercari, G; Bo, A; Florio, G; De Luigi, M C; Marmont, A; Gobbi, A; Damasio, E; Valbonesi, M

    1999-12-01

    compares sufficiently well with those required by our historical control group of 47 cases (14 +/- 13). Of course the patient's exposure to allogenic plasma was significantly lower for patients in the CF only group (1.4 +/- 1.2 plasma U/session) compared to the PE + CF group (4.4 +/- 2.3 plasma U/session) or for the controls treated by PE only (10.8 +/- 4.6 plasma U/session). There were no deaths in the CF or PE + CF groups and no untoward effect was observed. On the contrary there were 5 deaths (1 on the day of presentation) in the PE group, and 1 HBV and 2 HCV infections as well as 4 severe allergic reactions to plasma proteins (or passive antibody infusion). We conclude that CF is presently the best treatment to offer to patients suffering from sporadic TTP and that CF may contribute to expanding the knowledge of the pathogenetic mechanisms of this uncommon multisystem disorder.

  8. ALTERNATIVE SOURCES OF ENERGY - ALTERNATIVE SOURCES OF POLLUTION?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius-Razvan SURUGIU

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In many countries of the world investments are made for obtaining energy efficiency, pursuing to increase the generation of non-polluting fuels due to the fact that energy is vital for any economy. The increase in non-polluting fuels and in renewable energy generation might lead to diminishing the dependence of countries less endowed with conventional energy resources on oil and natural gas from Russia or from Arab countries. Nevertheless, environmental issues represent serious questions facing the mankind, requiring the identification, prevention, and why not, their total solving.European Union countries depend on imports of energy, especially on oil imports. At the same time, the European Union countries record a high volume of greenhouse gas emissions, substances adding to global warming. The transport sector is the main consumer of fossil fuels and generator of greenhouse gas emissions. Therefore, diversifying the energy supply used in the transport sector with less polluting sources is an essential objective of the European Union policy in the transport, energy and environment sector. Road transports’ is the sector recording the highest consumption of energy and the highest volume of greenhouse gas emissions.The use of ecologic fuels in the transport sector is an important factor for achieving the objectives of European policies in the field. It is yet to be seen to what extent alternative energy sources are damaging to the environment, as it is a known fact that even for them is recorded a certain level of negative externalities.

  9. Expression of alternative oxidase in tomato

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakefuda, M.; McIntosh, L. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (USA))

    1990-05-01

    Tomato fruit ripening is characterized by an increase in ethylene biosynthesis, a burst in respiration (i.e. the climacteric), fruit softening and pigmentation. As whole tomatoes ripened from mature green to red, there was an increase in the alternative oxidase capacity. Aging pink tomato slices for 24 and 48 hrs also showed an increase of alternative oxidase and cytochrome oxidase capacities. Monoclonal antibodies prepared to the Sauromatum guttatum alternative oxidase were used to follow the appearance of alternative oxidase in tomato fruits. There is a corresponding increase in a 36kDa protein with an increase in alternative oxidase capacity. Effects of ethylene and norbornadiene on alternative oxidase capacity were also studied. We are using an alternative oxidase cDNA clone from potato to study the expression of mRNA in ripening and wounded tomatoes to determine if the gene is transcriptionally regulated.

  10. Vitamin D and alternative splicing of RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Rui; Chun, Rene F; Lisse, Thomas S; Garcia, Alejandro J; Xu, Jianzhong; Adams, John S; Hewison, Martin

    2015-04-01

    The active form of vitamin D (1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, 1,25(OH)2D) exerts its genomic effects via binding to a nuclear high-affinity vitamin D receptor (VDR). Recent deep sequencing analysis of VDR binding locations across the complete genome has significantly expanded our understanding of the actions of vitamin D and VDR on gene transcription. However, these studies have also promoted appreciation of the extra-transcriptional impact of vitamin D on gene expression. It is now clear that vitamin D interacts with the epigenome via effects on DNA methylation, histone acetylation, and microRNA generation to maintain normal biological functions. There is also increasing evidence that vitamin D can influence pre-mRNA constitutive splicing and alternative splicing, although the mechanism for this remains unclear. Pre-mRNA splicing has long been thought to be a post-transcription RNA processing event, but current data indicate that this occurs co-transcriptionally. Several steroid hormones have been recognized to coordinately control gene transcription and pre-mRNA splicing through the recruitment of nuclear receptor co-regulators that can both control gene transcription and splicing. The current review will discuss this concept with specific reference to vitamin D, and the potential role of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein C (hnRNPC), a nuclear factor with an established function in RNA splicing. hnRNPC, has been shown to be involved in the VDR transcriptional complex as a vitamin D-response element-binding protein (VDRE-BP), and may act as a coupling factor linking VDR-directed gene transcription with RNA splicing. In this way hnRNPC may provide an additional mechanism for the fine-tuning of vitamin D-regulated target gene expression. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled '17th Vitamin D Workshop'.

  11. Alternative Water Processor Test Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Karen D.; Mitchell, Julie L.; Adam, Niklas M.; Barta, Daniel; Meyer, Caitlin E.; Pensinger, Stuart; Vega, Leticia M.; Callahan, Michael R.; Flynn, Michael; Wheeler, Ray; Birmele, Michele; Lunn, Griffin; Jackson, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    The Next Generation Life Support Project is developing an Alternative Water Processor (AWP) as a candidate water recovery system for long duration exploration missions. The AWP consists of biological water processor (BWP) integrated with a forward osmosis secondary treatment system (FOST). The basis of the BWP is a membrane aerated biological reactor (MABR), developed in concert with Texas Tech University. Bacteria located within the MABR metabolize organic material in wastewater, converting approximately 90% of the total organic carbon to carbon dioxide. In addition, bacteria convert a portion of the ammonia-nitrogen present in the wastewater to nitrogen gas, through a combination of nitrification and denitrification. The effluent from the BWP system is low in organic contaminants, but high in total dissolved solids. The FOST system, integrated downstream of the BWP, removes dissolved solids through a combination of concentration-driven forward osmosis and pressure driven reverse osmosis. The integrated system is expected to produce water with a total organic carbon less than 50 mg/l and dissolved solids that meet potable water requirements for spaceflight. This paper describes the test definition, the design of the BWP and FOST subsystems, and plans for integrated testing.

  12. Alternative to Nitric Acid Passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessel, Kurt R.

    2015-01-01

    The Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) Program at NASA John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Florida, has the primary objective of modernizing and transforming the launch and range complex at KSC to benefit current and future NASA programs along with other emerging users. Described as the launch support and infrastructure modernization program in the NASA Authorization Act of 2010, the GSDO Program will develop and implement shared infrastructure and process improvements to provide more flexible, affordable, and responsive capabilities to a multi-user community. In support of NASA and the GSDO Program, the objective of this project is to qualify citric acid as an environmentally-preferable alternative to nitric acid for passivation of stainless steel alloys. This project is a direct follow-on to United Space Alliance (USA) work at KSC to optimize the parameters for the use of citric acid and verify effectiveness. This project will build off of the USA study to further evaluate citric acids effectiveness and suitability for corrosion protection of a number of stainless steels alloys used by NASA, the Department of Defense (DoD), and the European Space Agency (ESA).

  13. Alternative Modernities for Colonial Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Lee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Sunyoung Park. The Proletarian Wave: Literature and Leftist Culture in Colonial Korea, 1910–1945. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2015. 348 pp. $50 (cloth. Vladimir Tikhonov. Modern Korea and Its Others: Perceptions of the Neighbouring Countries and Korean Modernity. London: Routledge, 2016. 218 pp. $160 (cloth. It has become a global scholarly undertaking: how to rethink modernity so as to decouple it from Westernization (Chakrabarty 2000. Strategies have included foregrounding the plurality of history to disrupt linear progress; positing non-Western centers of modernity in, say, Moscow or Shanghai; and tracing anticolonial circuits connecting Asia to Africa to Latin America. The two recent books under review here add colonial-era Korea to such far-reaching discussions by situating the country across national boundaries. Interestingly, one connecting thread here is the alternative world system provided by the interwar, Soviet-oriented Left. The result is an unsettling of binaries that subsequently became entrenched during the Cold War: for example, north-south, socialist-nationalist, and, for literature, realist-modernist. But more broadly, pervading both books is the sense that history could have turned out differently—that revisiting northeast Asia’s porous borders in the early twentieth century reveals the Korean peninsula’s lost, internationalist potential...

  14. Alternative systematic approaches to training

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-01-01

    This handbook is approved for use by all DOE Components and contractors. The handbook was prepared primarily for DOE nuclear facilities, but the information can be effectively used by any other type of facility. DOE nuclear, DOE non-nuclear, commercial nuclear reactor, fuel fabrication, chemical processing, or other types of facilities may also apply the principles of this approach and find it useful and applicable to local needs. The handbook provides DOE and contractor operating organizations with concepts and guidance regarding the use of alternative techniques to implement a systematic approach to training (SAT). The techniques described in this handbook are endorsed by DOE and use of the guidance in this handbook is appropriate for establishment of technical training programs at DOE nuclear facilities. The use of guidance on selection and implementation of appropriate training approaches after consideration of job complexity, the consequences of error based on risk/hazard potential, and available training media should result in effective and efficient training programs. The information presented in this handbook can be used to grade the level of effort and formality used in developing training programs.

  15. ALTERNATE PRICING STRATEGIES IN CONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Mochtar

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent research findings on pricing strategies both in general and in construction are reviewed and explored. First%2C pricing strategy in general%2C mostly in the manufacturing industry%2C is reviewed. It includes the concepts of pricing strategy%2C predatory pricing%2C price wars%2C and price policy development. Second%2C pricing strategy in construction is explored. It includes various pricing models for bid price determination%2C such as the Friedman-Gates models%2C expected utility models%2C risk-pricing model%2C and the crew-day%2C multiple regression%2C and fuzzy-set pricing models. In conclusion%2C pricing strategies in construction are still predominantly based on a cost-based approach. More recent models try to close the gap between the models and the real life conditions of a bidder%5C%27s decision-making process. It appears that there are more problems in cost-based pricing as opposed to market-based pricing. Consequently%2C it is highly recommended that%2C alternative pricing approach such as that are closer to the proposed market-based pricing model need to be explored and developed for use in the construction industry. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Pricing+strategy%2C+cost-based+pricing%2C+market-based+pricing.

  16. Alternative Energy for Higher Education

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Cherney, PhD

    2012-02-22

    This project provides educational opportunities creating both a teaching facility and center for public outreach. The facility is the largest solar array in Nebraska. It was designed to allow students to experience a variety of technologies and provide the public with opportunities for exposure to the implementation of an alternative energy installation designed for an urban setting. The project integrates products from 5 panel manufacturers (including monocrystalline, polycrystalline and thin film technologies) mounted on both fixed and tracking structures. The facility uses both micro and high power inverters. The majority of the system was constructed to serve as an outdoor classroom where panels can be monitored, tested, removed and replaced by students. As an educational facility it primarily serves students in the Creighton University and Metropolitan Community College, but it also provides broader educational opportunities. The project includes a real-time dashboard and a historical database of the output of individual inverters and the corresponding meteorological data for researcher and student use. This allows the evaluation of both panel types and the feasibility of installation types in a region of the country subject to significant temperature, wind and precipitation variation.

  17. Beyond LCDM: a viable alternative?

    CERN Document Server

    Gough, Michael Paul

    2016-01-01

    We are encouraged to look beyond LCDM as there are still no satisfactory explanations for either dark energy or dark matter. A data centred phenomenological approach supports an alternative explanation in which dark energy is not a universe-wide constant energy density, but the Holographic Dark Information Energy, HDIE, naturally centred around galaxies. HDIE can explain many of the effects attributed separately to Lambda and CDM. HDIE mimics Lambda with sufficient overall total energy and an equation of state parameter, w = -1.03+-0.05 for z 1.35, HDIE was phantom, w = -1.82+-0.08, providing a clear prediction that will enable the model to be verified or falsified. HDIE is shown to fit Planck dark energy wo-wa plots at least as well as Lambda, and to be consistent with other results that suggest dark energy was phantom at earlier times. A new w parameterisation is proposed here, as the usual CPL parameterisation is found to be biased and unsuitable for distinguishing between the HDIE/baryon and LCDM models.

  18. Beckett and Coetzee: alternative identities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.C.T. Meihuizen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Coetzee’s scholarly interest in Beckett, and his aesthetic interest in the same (which carries a strong measure of readily acknowledged influence, diverge in the case Coetzee presents in a recent mini-biography cum autobiography, “Samuel Beckett in Cape Town – an imaginary history” (Coetzee, 2006:74-77, where both he and Beckett are imagined as having experienced alternative pasts in South Africa. Considering this acknowledged influence, which Coetzee (1992b mentions in an interview with David Attwell in “Doubling the point”, one might assume that it followed an initial scholarly interest in Beckett(Coetzee’s Ph.D. was on Beckett, and was completed years before he himself became a creative writer. However, in the case at hand this causal sequence is broken, because the doubled Coetzee, though under the spell of Beckett’s prose, does not wish to do scholarly work on the doubled Beckett. What is it about Coetzee’s imagined Beckett that has this effect on him? And why is it that Coetzee engages in such metafictional blurred doubling when it comes to himself and Beckett? This article attempts to shed light on the problems that surround Coetzee’s crafted interaction between authors who are also (in this rather odd context characters.

  19. HFIR spent fuel management alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Begovich, J.M.; Green, V.M.; Shappert, L.B.; Lotts, A.L.

    1992-10-15

    The High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Martin Marietta Energy Systems' Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been unable to ship its spent fuel to Savannah River Site (SRS) for reprocessing since 1985. The HFIR storage pools are expected to fill up in the February 1994 to February 1995 time frame. If a management altemative to existing HFIR pool storage is not identified and implemented before the HFIR pools are full, the HFIR will be forced to shut down. This study investigated several alternatives for managing the HFIR spent fuel, attempting to identify options that could be implemented before the HFIR pools are full. The options investigated were: installing a dedicated dry cask storage facility at ORNL, increasing HFIR pool storage capacity by clearing the HFIR pools of debris and either close-packing or stacking the spent fuel elements, storing the spent fuel at another ORNL pool, storing the spent fuel in one or more hot cells at ORNL, and shipping the spent fuel offsite for reprocessing or storage elsewhere.

  20. Alternative Water Processor Test Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Karen D.; Mitchell, Julie; Vega, Leticia; Adam, Niklas; Flynn, Michael; Wjee (er. Rau); Lunn, Griffin; Jackson, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    The Next Generation Life Support Project is developing an Alternative Water Processor (AWP) as a candidate water recovery system for long duration exploration missions. The AWP consists of biological water processor (BWP) integrated with a forward osmosis secondary treatment system (FOST). The basis of the BWP is a membrane aerated biological reactor (MABR), developed in concert with Texas Tech University. Bacteria located within the MABR metabolize organic material in wastewater, converting approximately 90% of the total organic carbon to carbon dioxide. In addition, bacteria convert a portion of the ammonia-nitrogen present in the wastewater to nitrogen gas, through a combination of nitrogen and denitrification. The effluent from the BWP system is low in organic contaminants, but high in total dissolved solids. The FOST system, integrated downstream of the BWP, removes dissolved solids through a combination of concentration-driven forward osmosis and pressure driven reverse osmosis. The integrated system is expected to produce water with a total organic carbon less than 50 mg/l and dissolved solids that meet potable water requirements for spaceflight. This paper describes the test definition, the design of the BWP and FOST subsystems, and plans for integrated testing.