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Sample records for alternative pathogenetic mechanism

  1. MYC translocation-negative classical Burkitt lymphoma cases: an alternative pathogenetic mechanism involving miRNA deregulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leucci, E; Cocco, M; Onnis, A;

    2008-01-01

    , to clarify whether alternative pathogenetic mechanisms may be responsible for lymphomagenesis in cases lacking the MYC translocation. miRNAs are a class of small RNAs that are able to regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Several studies have reported their involvement in cancer...... and their association with fragile sites in the genome. They have also been shown to control cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis, suggesting that these molecules could act as tumour suppressors or oncogenes. Our results demonstrated a modulation of specific miRNAs. In particular, down-regulation...... of hsa-let-7c was observed in BL cases, compared to normal controls. More interestingly, hsa-mir-34b was found to be down-regulated only in BL cases that were negative for MYC translocation, suggesting that this event might be responsible for c-Myc deregulation in such cases. This hypothesis was...

  2. Pseudohyperaldosteronism: pathogenetic mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armanini, Decio; Calò, Lorenzo; Semplicini, Andrea

    2003-06-01

    Pseudohyperaldosteronism is characterized by a clinical picture of hyperaldosteronism with suppression of plasma renin activity and aldosterone. Pseudohyperaldosteronism can be due to a direct mineralocorticoid effect, as with desoxycorticosterone, fluorohydrocortisone, fluoroprednisolone, estrogens, and the ingestion of high amounts of glycyrrhetinic acid. A block of 11-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase type 2 (11HSD2), the enzyme that converts cortisol into cortisone, at the level of epithelial target tissues of aldosterone, is involved in other cases. This mechanism is related either to a mutation of the gene, which encodes 11HSD2 (apparent mineralocorticoid excess syndrome and some cases of low renin hypertension) or to an acquired reduction of the activity of the enzyme due to glycyrrhetinic acid, carbenoxolone, and grapefruit juice. In other cases saturation of 11HSD2 may be involved as in severe Cushing's syndrome and chronic therapy with some corticosteroids. Recently, an activating mutation of the mineralocorticoid receptor gene has been described. Another genetic cause of pseudohyperaldosteronism is the syndrome of Liddle, which is due to a mutation of the gene encoding for beta and gamma subunits of the sodium channels. PMID:12892318

  3. Epidemiology and basic pathogenetic mechanisms of environmental and iatrogenic diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumayr, A.

    1983-09-01

    In the first part environmental diseases caused by air pollution, water contamination and dietary factors are discussed. The important role of the combustion of coal and petrol and the increasing confrontation with carcinogenic substances, especially with those originated by smoking of tobacco are stressed and underlined by epidemiologic data. Other epidemiologic evidence is mentioned concerning the development of cardiovascular diseases, neoplastic diseases of the colon or liver diseases caused by dietary factors. In the second part epidemiologic facts of drug induced reactions and iatrogenic cases of death in hospitalized and out-patients are reported. The main responsible pathogenetic factors for such events, prevailing in elder persons, are seen in the reduced hepatic metabolic capacity, the decreasing tubular or glomerular function of the kidneys and above all the different and often unpredictable drug interactions. The most important pathogenetic mechanisms for drug interactions are changes of drug binding to albumin or competitive disturbance of renal excretion and particularly alterations of the biotransformation processes as enzyme induction or enzyme inhibition. The clinical relevance of these theoretical considerations is demonstrated by some practical examples referring to the importance of a solid knowledge of the many possible interactions in drug therapy especially in elderly patients.

  4. The pathogenetic mechanisms of lesion and reconstruction of hematosis at critical radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this chapter author made conclusion that for understanding pathogenetic mechanisms lead to critical radiation sickness after influence ionizing radiation it is necessary to take into account the consecution of all reactions beginning from physical and chemical processes of interaction radiation with matter till displaying final radiation effect on cell level and organism

  5. HIV virology and pathogenetic mechanisms of infection: a brief overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele Fanales-Belasio

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Studies on HIV virology and pathogenesis address the complex mechanisms that result in the HIV infection of the cell and destruction of the immune system. These studies are focused on both the structure and the replication characteristics of HIV and on the interaction of the virus with the host. Continuous updating of knowledge on structure, variability and replication of HIV, as well as the characteristics of the host immune response, are essential to refine virological and immunological mechanisms associated with the viral infection and allow us to identify key molecules in the virus life cycle that can be important for the design of new diagnostic assays and specific antiviral drugs and vaccines. In this article we review the characteristics of molecular structure, replication and pathogenesis of HIV, with a particular focus on those aspects that are important for the design of diagnostic assays.

  6. Role of growth factors in molecular pathogenetic mechanism of radiation pulmonary fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the role of growth factors and their receptors in radiation pulmonary fibrosis(RPF). Methods: Immunohistochemistry, immunocytochemistry and in situ hybridization were used. Results: The normal rat lung tissue weakly expressed TGFβ1 and TGFβ receptor (TGFβR).The expression of TGFβ1 in rat lung increased at 2 weeks after irradiation and its highest level maintained from 8 weeks to 3 months. The positive localization of TGFβ1 in lung was the epithelial cells of bronchi, alveolar macrophages, alveolar epithelial cells, smooth muscle cells of the bronchial and arteriolar wall and fibroblasts. The expression of TGFβ2 was similar to that of TGFβ1. The time of increased expression of TGFβR was later than that of TGFβ1.i,e. It increased at 8 weeks and kept a higher level of expression throughout one year. Stronger expressions of the bFGF and PDGF were also observed in 2-3 months postirradiation. The expression of TGFβ1 in the cells of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was investigated. The results showed that macrophages were one of the earliest cells showing positive reaction,i,e. they presented positive at 1 week. For the cultured Wistar rat lung fibroblasts, TGFβ1 expression was stronger at 3 months postirradiation. By means of in situ hybridization with TGFβ1 probe and α1(I) oligonucleotide probe, the expression of TGFβ1 mRNA was increased at 2-8 weeks and α1(I) pro-collagen mRAN was increased at 6 weeks, but the expression peak appeared at 3 months postirradiation. The expressions of TGFβ1 and α1(I) pro-collagen were mutually connected and overlapped both in time and space. Conclusion: TGFβ1 may play an important role in the pathogenesis of RPF. TGFβ2, TGFβR, bFGF and PDGF-A also participate in the pathogenetic process

  7. Peripheral neuropathies in Sjögren's syndrome: a critical update on clinical features and pathogenetic mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlakis, P P; Alexopoulos, H; Kosmidis, M L; Mamali, I; Moutsopoulos, H M; Tzioufas, A G; Dalakas, M C

    2012-08-01

    Sjögren's syndrome is a systemic autoimmune disease that, apart from exocrine glands, may affect every organ or system. Involvement of different sections of the peripheral nervous system results in a wide spectrum of neuropathic manifestations. Based on distinct clinical, electrophysiological and histological criteria, the types of neuropathies seen in Sjögren's syndrome include: a) pure sensory which presents with distal symmetric sensory loss due to axonal degeneration of sensory fibers; sensory ataxia due to loss of proprioceptive large fibers (ganglionopathy); or with painful dysethesias (small fiber sensory neuropathy) due to degeneration of cutaneous axons. The latter appears to be the most common neuropathy in Sjögren's syndrome and requires skin biopsy for diagnosis to document loss or reduction of nerve fiber density; b) sensorimotor polyneuropathy affecting sensory and motor axons, often associated with severe systemic or pro-lymhomatous manifestations, such as palpable purpura and cryoglobulinemia, and c) rare types that include autoimmune demyelinating neuropathy, mononeuropathy, mononeuropathy multiplex and autonomic neuropathy. In this review, the frequency, prevalence and diagnostic criteria for each neuropathy subset are discussed and possible pathogenetic mechanisms are outlined. PMID:22318209

  8. Radiation-induced genome instability: the phenomenon, molecular mechanisms, pathogenetic significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data on the radiation-induced genome instability as a special state of progeny of cells irradiated in vitro as well as after a whole body exposure to ionizing radiation, that make these cells considerably different from normal, unirradiated ones, were considered. This state present a number of cytogenetic, molecular-biological, cytological and biochemical manifestations untypical for normal cells. This state is controlled by the mechanisms of regulation of checkpoints of cell cycle, and apoptosis, that is under gene p53 control. The proof has been found that this state transfers from irradiated maternal cells to their surviving progeny by the epigenetic mechanisms and would exist until the cells restore the original state of response on the DNA damage

  9. Insulin Resistance and Cancer Risk: An Overview of the Pathogenetic Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biagio Arcidiacono

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Insulin resistance is common in individuals with obesity or type 2 diabetes (T2D, in which circulating insulin levels are frequently increased. Recent epidemiological and clinical evidence points to a link between insulin resistance and cancer. The mechanisms for this association are unknown, but hyperinsulinaemia (a hallmark of insulin resistance and the increase in bioavailable insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I appear to have a role in tumor initiation and progression in insulin-resistant patients. Insulin and IGF-I inhibit the hepatic synthesis of sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG, whereas both hormones stimulate the ovarian synthesis of sex steroids, whose effects, in breast epithelium and endometrium, can promote cellular proliferation and inhibit apoptosis. Furthermore, an increased risk of cancer among insulin-resistant patients can be due to overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS that can damage DNA contributing to mutagenesis and carcinogenesis. On the other hand, it is possible that the abundance of inflammatory cells in adipose tissue of obese and diabetic patients may promote systemic inflammation which can result in a protumorigenic environment. Here, we summarize recent progress on insulin resistance and cancer, focusing on various implicated mechanisms that have been described recently, and discuss how these mechanisms may contribute to cancer initiation and progression.

  10. A Glimpse of the Pathogenetic Mechanisms of Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling in Diabetic Nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xiao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Wnt family of proteins belongs to a group of secreted lipid-modified glycoproteins with highly conserved cysteine residues. Prior results indicate that Wnt/β-catenin signaling plays a prominent role in cell differentiation, adhesion, survival, and apoptosis and is involved in organ development, tumorigenesis, and tissue fibrosis, among other functions. Accumulating evidence has suggested that Wnt/β-catenin exhibits a pivotal function in the progression of diabetic nephropathy (DN. In this review, we focused on discussing the dual role of Wnt/β-catenin in apoptosis and epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT formation of mesangial cells. Moreover, we also elucidated the effect of Wnt/β-catenin in podocyte dysfunction, tubular EMT formation, and renal fibrosis under DN conditions. In addition, the molecular mechanisms involved in this process are introduced. This information provides a novel molecular target of Wnt/β-catenin for the protection of kidney damage and in delay of the progression of DN.

  11. Alternative conformal quantum mechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Shih-Hao

    2011-01-01

    We investigate a one dimensional quantum mechanical model, which is invariant under translations and dilations but does not respect the conventional conformal invariance. We describe the possibility of modifying the conventional conformal transformation such that a scale invariant theory is also invariant under this new conformal transformation.

  12. Pathogenetic mechanisms in radiation fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deregulation of normal regenerative responses to physical, chemical and biological toxins in susceptible individuals leads to abnormal remodelling of extracellular matrix with pathological fibrosis. Processes deregulated after radiotherapy have much in common with processes associated with fibrotic diseases affecting the heart, skin, lungs, kidneys, gastro-intestinal tract and liver. Among the secreted factors driving fibrosis, transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFβ1) produced by a wide range of inflammatory, mesenchymal and epithelial cells converts fibroblasts and other cell types into matrix-producing myofibroblasts. Even if required for the initiation of fibrosis, inflammation and the continued stimulus of TGFβ1 may not be needed to maintain it. After myofibroblast activation, collagen production can be perpetuated independently of TGFβ1 by autocrine induction of a cytokine called connective tissue growth factor. The role of inflammation, the origins and activation of myofibroblasts as biosynthetic cells and the downstream pathways of extracellular matrix synthesis in common fibrotic states are reviewed. Oxidative stress, hypoxia and microvascular damage are also considered, before examining the same processes in the context of radiotherapy. One of the main uncertainties is the relevance of very early events, including inflammatory responses in blood vessels, to fibrosis. Despite the power of animal models, including genetic systems, the potential contribution of research based on human tissue samples has never been greater. A closer interaction between scientists researching fibrosis and radiation oncologists holds enormous promise for therapeutic advances.

  13. Immunocompromentation of persons from groups with high risk of parenteral contamination with hepatitis B and C viruses: mechanisms of development and clinical pathogenetical significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Mamedov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains data demonstrated that majority of persons belonged to groups with high risk of parenteral contamination with hepatitis B and C viruses yet before contamination with these viruses have complex of immunological disorders. In the article is presented the data reflecting main causes of these disorders development at different categories of such persons and main aspects of their pathogenetical and clinical significance are discussed.

  14. Autoimmune uveitis: clinical, pathogenetic, and therapeutic features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prete, Marcella; Dammacco, Rosanna; Fatone, Maria Celeste; Racanelli, Vito

    2016-05-01

    Autoimmune uveitis (AU), an inflammatory non-infectious process of the vascular layer of the eye, can lead to visual impairment and, in the absence of a timely diagnosis and suitable therapy, can even result in total blindness. The majority of AU cases are idiopathic, whereas fewer than 20 % are associated with systemic diseases. The clinical severity of AU depends on whether the anterior, intermediate, or posterior part of the uvea is involved and may range from almost asymptomatic to rapidly sight-threatening forms. Race, genetic background, and environmental factors can also influence the clinical picture. The pathogenetic mechanism of AU is still poorly defined, given its remarkable heterogeneity and the many discrepancies between experimental and human uveitis. Even so, the onset of AU is thought to be related to an aberrant T cell-mediated immune response, triggered by inflammation and directed against retinal or cross-reactive antigens. B cells may also play a role in uveal antigen presentation and in the subsequent activation of T cells. The management of AU remains a challenge for clinicians, especially because of the paucity of randomized clinical trials that have systematically evaluated the effectiveness of different drugs. In addition to topical treatment, several different therapeutic options are available, although a standardized regimen is thus far lacking. Current guidelines recommend corticosteroids as the first-line therapy for patients with active AU. Immunosuppressive drugs may be subsequently required to treat steroid-resistant AU and for steroid-sparing purposes. The recent introduction of biological agents, such as those targeting tumor necrosis factor-α, is expected to remarkably increase the percentages of responders and to prevent irreversible sight impairment. This paper reviews the clinical features of AU and its crucial pathogenetic targets in relation to the current therapeutic perspectives. Also, the largest clinical trials

  15. Osteoarthritis - histology and pathogenetic concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osteoarthitis is the most common joint disease affecting over 60% of the elderly population. It is characterized by the progressive erosion of articular cartilage leading to incapacity of movement. In the great majority of instances, osteoarthritis appears insidiously, without apparent initiating cause. This primary form is usually oligoarticular involving hip, knee, cervical vertebrae, interphalangeal joints of the fingers or tarsometatarsal joints of the feet. In case of an underlying systemic diasease or local injury the cartilage destruction is considered as secondary osteoarthritis. The pathogenesis of primary osteoarthritis suggests an intrinsic disease of cartilage in which biochemical and metabolic alterations result in its breakdown. Within the last decades different models were stablished which also concentrated on other joint structures such as bone or ligaments. Changes of the subchondral bone were found to precide cartilage damage suggesting a primary alteration of the subchondral region. Other studies concentrated on the metabolic activity of chondrocytes in healthy cartilage of osteoarthritis patients. The precise event that leads to these changes is still not clear. This review concentrates on the histological features in the course of the disease and tries to provide a summary on different pathogenetic concepts. (orig.)

  16. Pathogenetic aspects of alcoholic encephalopathy treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shchetinin S.G.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol is considered to be the most common exogenous toxins, causing encephalopathy. The defeat of almost all parts of the nervous system should be assigned to the special features of ethanol. Neurophysiological mechanisms of development of substance dependence are based in the stem and limbic structures of the brain that are involved in ensuring the regulation of emotional state, mood, motivation sphere, psychophysical tone of human behavior in general and its adaptation to the environment. Stress or disruption of the normal functioning of these structures can lead to the formation of abstinence syndrome, affective disorders in remission and craving for alcohol. Dopaminergic and opioid (endorphin system play an important role in the genesis of various mental and motor disorders. In some way alcohol dependence can be regarded as an endorfinodefitsitnoe disease with a pathogenetic point of view. Activating of opioidereal system by trans-cranial electrical stimulation promotes the restoration of disturbed emotional, cognitive and autonomic functions, reduces craving for alcohol and in that way increases the effectiveness of rehabilitation treatment

  17. Negative regulation of erythroblast maturation by Fas-L(+)/TRAIL(+) highly malignant plasma cells: a major pathogenetic mechanism of anemia in multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestris, Franco; Cafforio, Paola; Tucci, Marco; Dammacco, Franco

    2002-02-15

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is associated with severe normochromic/normocytic anemia. This study demonstrates that the abnormal up-regulation of apoptogenic receptors, including both Fas ligand (L) and tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), by highly malignant myeloma cells is involved in the pathogenesis of the ineffective erythropoiesis and chronic exhaustion of the erythroid matrix. By measuring Fas-L and TRAIL in plasma cells and the content of glycophorin A (GpA) in erythroblasts from a cohort of 28 untreated, newly diagnosed patients with MM and 7 with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), selected in relation to their peripheral hemoglobin values, results showed that both receptors occurred at high levels in 15 severely anemic MM patients. Their marrow erythropoietic component was low and included predominantly immature GpA(+dim) erythroblasts, in contrast with the higher relative numbers of mature GpA(+bright) erythroid cells observed in the nonanemic patients and those with MGUS. In cocultures with autologous Fas-L(+)/TRAIL(+) myeloma cells, the expanded GpA(+dim) erythroid population underwent prompt apoptosis after direct exposure to malignant plasma cells, whereas erythroblasts from nonanemic patients were scarcely affected. The evidence that Fas-L(+)/TRAIL(+) malignant plasma cells prime erythroblast apoptosis by direct cytotoxicity was also supported by the increase of FLICE in fresh immature GpA(+dim) erythroid cells, whereas ICE and caspase-10 increased in subsequent maturative forms. In addition, GATA-1, a survival factor for erythroid precursors, was remarkably down-regulated in fresh erythroblasts from the severely anemic patients. These results indicate that progressive destruction of the erythroid matrix in aggressive MM is due to cytotoxic mechanisms based on the up-regulation in myeloma cells of Fas-L, TRAIL, or both. It is conceivable that the altered regulation of these receptors defines a peculiar

  18. PATHOGENETIC MECHANISMS OF CHRONIC ACQUIRED TOXOPLASMOSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Kotsyna S.S.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular protozoan that infects approximately one-third of the world’s population. Infection in human generally occurs through consuming food or drink contaminated with oocysts and tissue cysts from undercooked meat. Although latent infection with Toxoplasma gondii is among the most prevalent of human infections, it has been generally assumed that, except for congenital transmission, it is asymptomatic. Different conditions ...

  19. PATHOGENETIC MECHANISMS OF CHRONIC ACQUIRED TOXOPLASMOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotsyna S.S.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular protozoan that infects approximately one-third of the world’s population. Infection in human generally occurs through consuming food or drink contaminated with oocysts and tissue cysts from undercooked meat. Although latent infection with Toxoplasma gondii is among the most prevalent of human infections, it has been generally assumed that, except for congenital transmission, it is asymptomatic. Different conditions such as, number of parasite, virulence of the organism, genetic background, sex, and immunological status seem to affect the course of infection The demonstration that Toxoplasma infections can alter behavior, reproductive function in patients has led to a reconsideration of this assumption. During chronic acquired toxoplasmosis (САT identified the regularities of changes in the ratio of the immune system and the basal levels of sex hormones available informative methods, which made it possible to evaluate the severity of the flow chart and predict treatment outcome without resorting to complex research methods. Found that the host-parasite relationships and clinical manifestations of chronic toxoplasmosis depend largely on protective and adaptive responses and compensatory abilities of the human body. Material & methods. 112 patients attended in the 6 Department of Kharkiv Regional Infectious Diseases Hospital №22 (Department of Medical Parasitology and Tropical Diseases of Kharkiv Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education, in Kharkiv, Ukraine were enrolled in the study. Forty four patients (39,3±4,6% were male and sixty eight (60,7±4,6% were female. The age of the patients was 18 till 72 years. Results & discussion. All of 112 CAT patients had subjective clinical symptoms in various combinations: increased fatigue 99,1 ± 0,9%, headache and tiredness 95,5 ± 1,9%, pain in the liver 88,4 ± 3,1%, bitter taste in the mouth 93,8 ± 2,2%, muscle pain 81,3 ± 3,7% and joint pain 69,6 ± 4,3%. Women complained of painful menstruation (57,4 ± 4,7%, irregular menstrual cycle (85,3 ± 3,4%. In the anamnesis of diseases 10,3 ± 2,8% of women had miscarriages and 27,9 ± 4,2% of women had fetal fading. 47,7 ± 4,7% men complained of the decrease in potency. Objective examination: All of 112 CAT patients had lymphadenopathy, 89,3 ± 3,0% patients had subfibryle temperature, 64,3 ± 4,5% of patients had increased sweating, 53.6 ± 4,7% patients had hypertension, increase in liver size was founded in 21,4 ± 3,8% of patients, skin rashes 10,7 ± 3,0%, spleen was enlarged in 66,9 ± 4,4% of patients. Hormonal status: 59 ± 7,4% men have an increased levels of progesterone, 41 ± 7,4% men have an increased levels of estradіol, 13 ± 5,1% men have an decreased levels of testosterone. Women 22±5,0% have an increased levels of testosterone, women 7,0±3,1% have an increased levels of progesterone, 10±3,6% women have an decreased levels of estradіol. Conclusion. The response of host organism to CAT invasion occurs is not the same. It depends on the initial state protective and adaptive capacity of the organism and the liver diseases. This is one of the determining factors of the host-parasite relationship and clinical manifestations of the disease. Prognostic Criterias that determine adaptive-compensatory capacity of the organism in CAT can be basal levels of estradiol, testosterone and progesterone. Physiological differences between men and women play an important role in determining susceptibility to parasitic diseases. The dichotomy in the incidence and severity of many diseases infectious etiology are a strong arguments that the characteristics of men’s physiology and characteristics of women’s physiology are the important factors of the determining susceptibility to disease.

  20. Pathogenetic Mechanisms of Neurogenic Pulmonary Edema

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šedý, Jiří; Kuneš, Jaroslav; Zicha, Josef

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 15 (2015), s. 1135-1145. ISSN 0897-7151 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP304/12/0259 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : baroreflex-induced bradycardia * blood pressure rise * blood volume redistribution * neurogenic pulmonary edema * spinal cord injury * sympathetic nervous system Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 3.714, year: 2014

  1. Anencephaly: MRI findings and pathogenetic theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calzolari, Ferdinando [Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria, Department of Neuroradiology, Ferrara (Italy); Gambi, Beatrice [Ospedale S. Donato, Neonatal Unit, Arezzo (Italy); Garani, Giampaolo; Tamisari, Lalla [Universita degli Studi, Neonatal Unit, Ferrara (Italy)

    2004-12-01

    We describe the MRI appearances of an anencephalic newborn who survived for 13 h; particularities of this case are male gender and the absence of other associated malformations. Moreover, we discuss the pathogenetic theories of anencephaly, correlating MRI findings with embryological data. An exencephaly-anencephaly sequence due to amnion rupture is hypothesized. (orig.)

  2. Coronaviridae, pathogenetic and clinical aspects: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möstl, K

    1990-01-01

    A review is given about pathogenetic and clinical aspects of the well-known as well as of recently detected members of the family Coronaviridae. Special attention is paid to coronavirus infections of domestic cattle and pets, whereas avian, murine, rat and human coronaviruses are summarized briefly. PMID:1963836

  3. Anencephaly: MRI findings and pathogenetic theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe the MRI appearances of an anencephalic newborn who survived for 13 h; particularities of this case are male gender and the absence of other associated malformations. Moreover, we discuss the pathogenetic theories of anencephaly, correlating MRI findings with embryological data. An exencephaly-anencephaly sequence due to amnion rupture is hypothesized. (orig.)

  4. The pathogenetic bases of sarcopenia

    OpenAIRE

    Budui, Simona L.; Rossi, Andrea P.; Zamboni, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    Aging is accompanied by involuntary loss of skeletal muscle mass, strength and function, called sarcopenia. The mechanisms underlying the development of sarcopenia are not completely understood and most likely multi-factorial, but significant progress has been made over the past few years to identify some of the major contributors.

  5. [The pathogenetic bases of cardiorenal syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beloglazova, I P; Mogutova, P A; Poteshkina, N G

    2012-01-01

    The term "cardiorenal syndrome" has been introduced to denote the mutual influences of the cardiovascular system and kidneys. According to the definition, the cardiorenal syndrome is a pathophysiological condition of the heart and kidney, in which acute or chronic dysfunction of one of these organs leads to that of the other. The community of pathogenetic components allows one to apply a comprehensive approach to diagnosing, treating, and preventing cardiovascular and renal diseases. PMID:23091862

  6. PATHOGENETIC ASPECTS OF MYELODISPLASTIC SYNDROMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Lauria

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The patogenesis of MDS is complex and remain elusive. The proposed models agree that a multistep process occurs through which a hematopoietic stem cell is mutated and attains a growth advantage. This may occur as a result of environmental damage or inherited predisposition. The mutated clone is associated with morphological dysplasia, impaired differentiation and genomic instability. Cytokine secretion and apoptotic pathways are altered and as well as may be impairment of immune responses. Presumably,in the early stages, increased production of proapoptotic cytokines leads to excessive apoptosis, correlating clinically with cytopenias and a cellular bone marrow. As the disease progresses, further genetic and epigenetic events occur, resulting in decreased apoptosis, clonal expansion and progression to AML. Clinical testing of a number of molecules that affect these myriad molecular mechanisms is currently being done, characterization of genomic expression patterns will inform both diagnosis and prognostication. Further insight into the molecular mechanisms of MDS will provide an avenue for more tailored and effective therapy in the future.

  7. Telomere recombination and alternative telomere lengthening mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Draskovic, I.; Londono Vallejo, A.

    2013-01-01

    Telomeres are nucleoprotein structures at the ends of linear chromosomes that protect them from being recognized as DNA double stranded breaks. Telomeres shorten with every cell division and in the absence of the checkpoint mechanisms critical telomere shortening leads to chromosome end fusions and

  8. Molecular mechanisms of alternative estrogen receptor signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Björnström, Linda

    2003-01-01

    Estrogen is a key regulator of growth, differentiation and function in a broad range of target tissues, including the male and female reproductive tracts, mammary gland, bone, brain and the cardiovascular system. The biological effects of estrogen are mediated through estrogen receptor a (ERalpha) and estrogen receptor beta (ERbeta), which belong to a large superfamily of nuclear receptors that act as ligand-activated transcription factors. The classical mechanism of ER acti...

  9. Empirical Research of College Students' Alternative Frameworks of Particle Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongmei

    2010-01-01

    Based on the constructive theory, about 300 college students of grade 05 of the electronic information specialty of Dezhou University are surveyed for their alternative frameworks of particle mechanics in college physics in this article. In the survey, the questionnaires are used to find out college students' alternative frameworks, and the…

  10. Simulating the effectiveness of an alternative salary auction mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Pei Yin

    2006-01-01

    This research simulates the effectiveness of an alternative auction mechanism for Assignment Incentive Pay (AIP) that has the potential for reducing the U.S. Department of Defense's (DoD's) cost. A recent student thesis studying the application of salary auctions and matching an an assignment setting determined that there arer two major complications in an assignment auction which affect the incentive of bidders to submit a truthful valuation of the jobs. An alternative auction mechanism th...

  11. Pancreatic carcinoma development: new etiological and pathogenetic evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirio Fiorino

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PAC is a very aggressive cancer with a poor prognosis. To date, the causes and pathogenetic mechanisms involved in the development of this malignancy remain largely unknown. Therefore, additional studies are required to improve our knowledge of the events that occur during the process of pancreatic carcinogenesis. The purpose of this article is to describe the most recent evidence, concerning the possible risk factors and mechanisms that may contribute to determine the development of PAC, as well as models, such as the tensegrity model, that may explain this complex process. Available studies suggest that approximately 15-20% of human malignancies are somehow associated with chronic infection. Some epidemiological research has shown that some infectious agents represent risk factors for PAC. In particular, several reports showed that the infection caused by some micro-organisms, including helicobacter pylori and some bacterial species of oral microbiota, as well as by viral agents, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, and hepatitis B (HBV and C (HCV viruses, is associated with an increased probability of developing PAC. For the first time, observational studies and meta-analyses have suggested that HBV and HCV, two hepatotropic viruses with oncogenic properties, may be also risk factors for PAC. However, the small number of available reports, nearly all performed in Asian populations, limits their validity to these ethnic groups. Therefore, additional studies focusing on populations of different geographical areas and enrolling larger series of patients are required to confirm this association. Furthermore, an accurate description and a better understanding of the events and of the pathogenetic mechanisms involved in the process of pancreatic carcinogenesis, as proposed by the tensegrity model, might be a useful approach to effectively deal with this pathology.

  12. Spinodal decomposition: An alternate mechanism of phase conversion

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Shukla; A K Mohanty

    2003-05-01

    The scenario of homogeneous nucleation is investigated for a first-order quark–hadron phase transition in a rapidly expanding background of quark gluon plasma. It is found that significant supercooling is possible before hadronization begins. This study also suggests that spinodal decomposition competes with nucleation and may provide an alternative mechanism for phase conversion.

  13. Exactly Solvable Quantum Mechanical Potentials: An Alternative Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pronchik, Jeremy N.; Williams, Brian W.

    2003-01-01

    Describes an alternative approach to finding exactly solvable, one-dimensional quantum mechanical potentials. Differs from the usual approach in that instead of starting with a particular potential and seeking solutions to the related Schrodinger equations, it begins with known solutions to second-order ordinary differential equations and seeks to…

  14. Vulvar cancer: pathogenetic types, diagnosis, treatment, plastic operations

    OpenAIRE

    V. G. Cherenkov; I. V. Aleksandrova; A. A. Shpenkova

    2014-01-01

    The morbidity rates and pathogenetic types of vulvar cancer (VC) and reasons for its advance were studied in the Novgorod Region. The condylomatous type of VC (that has developed in the presence of vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia) was stated in 18% of patients; 48 (75%) had a classical pathogenetic type 2 of VC (caused by significant vulvar dystrophy and lichen sclerosus). The tumor process had an intermediate variant in 9.4% of patients with VC. The reason for untimely diagnosis is that obs...

  15. A unified framework and an alternative mechanism for allosteric regulation

    CERN Document Server

    Xing, J

    2007-01-01

    Allosteric regulation is an important property for many proteins. Several models have been proposed to explain the allosteric effect, such as the concerted MWC (Monod, Wyman, Changeux) model, the sequential KNF (Koshland, Nemethy, Filmer) model, and recent population shift models. Here we discuss a unified theoretical framework to describe allosteric effects. The existing models appear as special cases of the framework. The theoretical work also reveals an alternative mechanism currently overlooked. Theoretically it is possible that the reactivity of a protein is limited by some internal conformational change step (due to slow effective diffusion along rugged potential surfaces). Effector binding may modify the ruggedness and thus the protein dynamics and reactivity. Compared to conventional models, the new mechanism has less requirements on the mechanical properties of an allosteric protein to propagate mechanical signals over long distances. Thus some signal transduction proteins may adopt the new mechanism...

  16. An Alternative Mechanism for Accelerated Carbon Sequestration in Concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haselbach, Liv M.; Thomle, Jonathan N.

    2014-07-01

    The increased rate of carbon dioxide sequestration (carbonation) is desired in many primary and secondary life applications of concrete in order to make the life cycle of concrete structures more carbon neutral. Most carbonation rate studies have focused on concrete exposed to air under various conditions. An alternative mechanism for accelerated carbon sequestration in concrete was investigated in this research based on the pH change of waters in contact with pervious concrete which have been submerged in carbonate laden waters. The results indicate that the concrete exposed to high levels of carbonate species in water may carbonate faster than when exposed to ambient air, and that the rate is higher with higher concentrations. Validation of increased carbon dioxide sequestration was also performed via thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). It is theorized that the proposed alternative mechanism reduces a limiting rate effect of carbon dioxide dissolution in water in the micro pores of the concrete.

  17. Millimeter wave detection of nuclear radiation: An alternative detection mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a nuclear radiation detection mechanism using millimeter waves as an alternative to conventional detection. It is based on the concept that nuclear radiation causes ionization of air and that if we place a dielectric material near the radiation source, it acts as a charge accumulator of the air ions. We have found that millimeter waves can interrogate the charge cloud on the dielectric material remotely. This concept was tested with a standoff millimeter wave system by monitoring the charge levels on a cardboard tube placed in an x-ray beam.

  18. Transcranial Alternating Current and Random Noise Stimulation: Possible Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antal, Andrea; Herrmann, Christoph S.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) is a relatively recent method suited to noninvasively modulate brain oscillations. Technically the method is similar but not identical to transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). While decades of research in animals and humans has revealed the main physiological mechanisms of tDCS, less is known about the physiological mechanisms of tACS. Method. Here, we review recent interdisciplinary research that has furthered our understanding of how tACS affects brain oscillations and by what means transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS) that is a special form of tACS can modulate cortical functions. Results. Animal experiments have demonstrated in what way neurons react to invasively and transcranially applied alternating currents. Such findings are further supported by neural network simulations and knowledge from physics on entraining physical oscillators in the human brain. As a result, fine-grained models of the human skull and brain allow the prediction of the exact pattern of current flow during tDCS and tACS. Finally, recent studies on human physiology and behavior complete the picture of noninvasive modulation of brain oscillations. Conclusion. In future, the methods may be applicable in therapy of neurological and psychiatric disorders that are due to malfunctioning brain oscillations. PMID:27242932

  19. Assessment of Alternative Funding Mechanisms for the IAEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toomey, Christopher; Wyse, Evan T.; Kurzrok, Andrew J.; Ford, Benjamin E.

    2012-06-15

    While the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has enjoyed substantial success and prestige in the international community, there is growing concern that global demographic trends, advances in technology and the trend towards austerity in Member State budgets will stretch the Agency’s resources to a point where it may no longer be possible to execute its multifaceted mission in its entirety. As part of an ongoing effort by the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative to evaluate the IAEA’s long-term budgetary concerns , this paper proposes a series of alternate funding mechanisms that have the potential to sustain the IAEA in the long-term, including endowment, charity, and fee-for-service funding models.

  20. Mathematical model of alternative mechanism of telomere length maintenance

    CERN Document Server

    Kollár, Richard; Nosek, Jozef; Tomaska, Lubomir

    2014-01-01

    Biopolymer length regulation is a complex process that involves a large number of subprocesses acting simultaneously across multiple spatial and temporal scales. An illustrative example important for genomic stability is the length regulation of telomeres---nucleo-protein structures at the ends of linear chromosomes. Maintenance of telomeres is often facilitated by the enzyme telomerase but, particularly in telomerase-free systems, the maintenance of chromosomal termini depends on alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) mechanisms mediated by recombination. Various linear and circular DNA structures were identified to participate in ALT, however, dynamics of the whole process is still poorly understood. We propose a chemical kinetics model of ALT with kinetic rates systematically derived from the biophysics of DNA diffusion and looping. The reaction system is reduced to a coagulation-fragmentation system by quasi-steady state approximation. The detailed treatment of kinetic rates yields explicit formulae f...

  1. Effect of variable mechanical resistance on electrodynamic alternator efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Quantitative analysis on how the main parameters affect ηEA has been performed. • The significant role of frictional losses on ηEA was demonstrated. • The simulation confirms the analytical model and clarifies the gap impact on Zc. • A new evaluation method of Rm, based on direct measurement of Zc has been proposed. • The new method allows finding the system natural frequency before field operation. - Abstract: The rapidly growing energy market constantly discovers new alternatives for generating environmentally-friendly electricity from sustainable energy sources. An externally-heated traveling wave thermo acoustic Stirling heat engine is a leading candidate, operating using a variety of viable heat sources. Although this engine holds great promise for a low-cost and maintenance-free solution, its current reported efficiency still inhibits its market penetration, probably owing to the friction introduced by the single moving element – the linear alternator. This research quantifies the main parameters affecting the complex thermal–acoustical–electrical system, clarifying the critical role of frictional losses. An analytical model has been developed, enabling examination of the influence of the critical physical parameters on the electro-acoustic conversion efficiency. A measurement method for precise determination of the mechanical friction constant has been developed, which enables measuring the friction at the engine’s working frequency. A direct measurement of an engine’s transfer impedance at room temperature enables to find the exact natural frequency before field operation, and calibrate external hardware accordingly. A detailed simulation using DeltaEC™ indicates that the tight seal gap between the moving piston and its cylinder has a significant impact on the system’s overall efficiency

  2. Lorentz-violating alternative to the Higgs mechanism?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider a four-dimensional field-theory model with two massless fermions, coupled to an Abelian vector field without flavor mixing, and to another Abelian vector field with flavor mixing. Both Abelian vectors have a Lorentz-violating kinetic term, introducing a Lorentz-violation mass scale M, from which fermions and the flavor-mixing vector get their dynamical masses, whereas the vector coupled without flavor mixing remains massless. When the two coupling constants have similar values in order of magnitude, a mass hierarchy pattern emerges, in which one fermion is very light compared to the other, while the vector mass is of the order of the heavy fermion mass. The work presented here may be considered as a Lorentz-symmetry-violating alternative to the Higgs mechanism, in the sense that no scalar particle (fundamental or composite) is necessary for the generation of the vector-meson mass. However, the model is not realistic given that, as a result of Lorentz violation, the maximal (light-cone) speed seen by the fermions is smaller than that of the massless gauge boson (which equals the speed of light in vacuo) by an amount which is unacceptably large to be compatible with the current tests of Lorentz invariance, unless the gauge couplings assume unnaturally small values. Possible ways out of this phenomenological drawback are briefly discussed, postponing a detailed construction of more realistic models for future work.

  3. A Lorentz-Violating Alternative to Higgs Mechanism?

    CERN Document Server

    Alexandre, Jean

    2011-01-01

    We consider a four-dimensional field-theory model with two massless fermions, coupled to an Abelian vector field without flavour mixing, and to another Abelian vector field with flavour mixing. Both Abelian vectors have a Lorentz-violating kinetic term, introducing a Lorentz-violation mass scale $M$, from which fermions and the flavour-mixing vector get their dynamical masses, whereas the vector coupled without flavour mixing remains massless. When the two coupling constants have similar values in order of magnitude, a mass hierarchy pattern emerges, in which one fermion is very light compared to the other, whilst the vector mass is larger than the mass of the heavy fermion. The work presented here may be considered as a Lorentz-symmetry-Violating alternative to the Higgs mechanism, in the sense that no scalar particle (fundamental or composite) is necessary for the generation of the vector-meson mass. However, the model is not realistic given that, as a result of Lorentz Violation, the maximal (light-cone) s...

  4. Alternative splicing: An important mechanism in stem cellbiology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kenian Chen; Xiaojing Dai; Jiaqian Wu

    2015-01-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) is an essential mechanismin post-transcriptional regulation and leads to proteindiversity. It has been shown that AS is prevalentin metazoan genomes, and the splicing pattern isdynamically regulated in different tissues and cell types,including embryonic stem cells. These observationssuggest that AS may play critical roles in stem cellbiology. Since embryonic stem cells and inducedpluripotent stem cells have the ability to give rise to alltypes of cells and tissues, they hold the promise of futurecell-based therapy. Many efforts have been devoted tounderstanding the mechanisms underlying stem cell selfrenewaland differentiation. However, most of the studiesfocused on the expression of a core set of transcriptionfactors and regulatory RNAs. The role of AS in stem celldifferentiation was not clear. Recent advances in highthroughputtechnologies have allowed the profilingof dynamic splicing patterns and cis-motifs that areresponsible for AS at a genome-wide scale, and providednovel insights in a number of studies. In this review, wediscuss some recent findings involving AS and stem cells.An emerging picture from these findings is that AS isintegrated in the transcriptional and post-transcriptionalnetworks and together they control pluripotencymaintenance and differentiation of stem cells.

  5. RNA structure and the mechanisms of alternative splicing

    OpenAIRE

    McManus, C. Joel; Graveley, Brenton R.

    2011-01-01

    Alternative splicing is a widespread means of increasing protein diversity and regulating gene expression in eukaryotes. Much progress has been made in understanding the proteins involved in regulating alternative splicing, the sequences they bind to, and how these interactions lead to changes in splicing patterns. However, several recent studies have identified other players involved in regulating alternative splicing. A major theme emerging from these studies is that RNA secondary structure...

  6. CT findings and pathogenetic mechanisms of hemorrhagic infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty-five patients were diagnosed as having hemorrhagic infarction by autopsy (4 cases), by an operation (3 cases), or by the combination of CT and a spinal tap (18 cases). Angiography was repeated to identify the recanalization as far as possible. The progression or resolution of the mass sign (brain edema) and the contrast enhancement were observed by CT, which was performed at intervals of from one to seven days in almost all cases. The CT findings of hemorrhagic infarction were as follows: 1) Appearance of the foci of an increased density in the low-density area; Generally the foci were indicated as a high-density area, but sometimes they were presented as isodensity in the acute stage of a stroke. Adjacent severe brain edema in the acute stage was supposed to be the main cause of the reduction in the CT number. 2) Ring-formed contrast enhancement in the subacute stage; a ring-formed contrast enhancement was seen on post-contrast scans after the resorption of the hemorrhage. According to our data, hemorrhagic infarction was found not only in the acute stage (within 4 days of the stroke, 9 cases) but also in the subacute stage (over 7 days after the stroke, 19 cases). The acute type of hemorrhage was usually associated with marked cerebral edema. On the other hand, the subacute type of hemorrhage usually appeared when enhancement after contrast infusion was observed and the cerebral edema was being resolved. On angiograms, a recanalization of the occlusion was frequently observed (18 cases, 68%). A comparative study of angiography and CT revealed the difference in the timing of the hemorrhage between the acute and subacute types of hemorrhages. The acute type of hemorrhage usually appeared in response to the angiographical recanalization, but the subacute type of hemorrhage sometimes occurred unrelated to that of angiographical recanalization. (author)

  7. Intestinal endotoxemia as a pathogenetic mechanism in liver failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    De-Wu Han

    2002-01-01

    Liver injury induced by various pathogenic factors (such as hepatitis virus, ethanol, drugs and hepatotoxicants, etc.)through their respective special pathogenesis is referred to as "primary liver injury" (PLI). Liver injury resultedfrom endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) and the activation of Kupffer cells by LPS while intestinal endotoxemia (IETM) occurred during the occurrence and development of hepatitis is named the "secondary liver injury" (SLI).The latter which has lost their own specificities of primary pathogenic factors is ascribed to IETM. The "secondary liver injury" is of important action and impact on development and prognosis of hepatitis. More severe IETM commonly results in excessive inflammatory responses, with serious hepatic necrosis,further severe hepatitis and even induces acute liver failure.The milder IETM successively precipitates a cascade,including repeated and persistent hepatocytic impairment accompanied by infiltration of inflammatory cells, hepatic fibrosis, cirrhosis and hepatocarcinoma. Generally, the milder IETM ends with chronic hepatic failure. If PLI caused by various pathogenic factors through their independent specific mechanismis regarded as "the first hit" on liver, then SLI mediated by different chemical mediators from KCs activated by IETM in the course of hepatitis is "the second hit" on liver. Thus, fusing and overlapping of the primary and scondary liver injuries determine and influeuce the complexity of the illness and outcome of the patient with hepatitis. For this reason, the viewpoint of "SLI" induced by the "second hit" on liver inflicted by IFTM suggests that medical professionals should attach great importance to both "PLI"and "SLI" caused by IETM. That is, try to adjust the function of KSs and eliminate endotoxemia of the patient.

  8. Intestinal endotoxemia as a pathogenetic mechanism in liver failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    De-WuHan

    2002-01-01

    Liver injury induced by various pathogenic factors(such as hepatitis virus,ethanol,drugs and hepatotoxicants,etc.)through their respective special pathogenesis is referred to as“primary liver injury”(LPS)and the activation of kupffer cells by LPS while intestinal endotoxemia(IETM)occurted during the occurrence and development of hepatitis is named the“secondary liver injury”(SLI).The latter which has lost their own specificities of primary pathogenic factors is ascribed to IETM.The“secondary liver injury”is of important action and impact on development and prognosis of hepatitis.More severe IETM commonly results in excessive inflammatory responses,with serious hepatic necrosis,further severe hepatitis and even induces acute liver failure.The milder IETM successively precipitates a cascade,including repeated and persistent hepatocytic impairment accompanied by infiltration of inflammatory cells,hepatic fibrosis,cirrhosis and hepatocarcinoma.Generally,the milder IETM ends with chronic hepatic failure.If PLI caused by various pathogenic factors through their independent specific mechanismis regarded as“the first hit”on liver,then SLI mediated by different chemical mediators from KC,activated by IETMin the course of hepatitis is “the second hit”on liver.Thus,fusing and overlapping of the primary and scorndary liver injunies determine and influeuce the complexity of the illness and outcome of the patient with hepatitis.For this reason,the viewpoint of “SLI”induced by the “second hit”on liver inflicted by IETM suggests that medical professionals should attach great importance to both“PLI”and“SLI”caused by IETM.That is,try to adjust the function of KS,and eliminate endotoxemia ofthe patient.

  9. Mathematical model of alternative mechanism of telomere length maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollár, Richard; Bod'ová, Katarína; Nosek, Jozef; Tomáška, L'ubomír

    2014-03-01

    Biopolymer length regulation is a complex process that involves a large number of biological, chemical, and physical subprocesses acting simultaneously across multiple spatial and temporal scales. An illustrative example important for genomic stability is the length regulation of telomeres—nucleoprotein structures at the ends of linear chromosomes consisting of tandemly repeated DNA sequences and a specialized set of proteins. Maintenance of telomeres is often facilitated by the enzyme telomerase but, particularly in telomerase-free systems, the maintenance of chromosomal termini depends on alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) mechanisms mediated by recombination. Various linear and circular DNA structures were identified to participate in ALT, however, dynamics of the whole process is still poorly understood. We propose a chemical kinetics model of ALT with kinetic rates systematically derived from the biophysics of DNA diffusion and looping. The reaction system is reduced to a coagulation-fragmentation system by quasi-steady-state approximation. The detailed treatment of kinetic rates yields explicit formulas for expected size distributions of telomeres that demonstrate the key role played by the J factor, a quantitative measure of bending of polymers. The results are in agreement with experimental data and point out interesting phenomena: an appearance of very long telomeric circles if the total telomere density exceeds a critical value (excess mass) and a nonlinear response of the telomere size distributions to the amount of telomeric DNA in the system. The results can be of general importance for understanding dynamics of telomeres in telomerase-independent systems as this mode of telomere maintenance is similar to the situation in tumor cells lacking telomerase activity. Furthermore, due to its universality, the model may also serve as a prototype of an interaction between linear and circular DNA structures in various settings.

  10. Carcinogenesis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma: an alternate hypothetical mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poh, Sharon Shuxian; Chua, Melvin Lee Kiang; Wee, Joseph T S

    2016-01-01

    Current proposed mechanisms implicate both early and latent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection in the carcinogenic cascade, whereas epidemiological studies have always associated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) with early childhood EBV infection and with chronic ear, nose, and sinus conditions. Moreover, most patients with NPC present with IgA antibody titers to EBV capsid antigen (VCA-IgA), which can precede actual tumor presentation by several years. If early childhood EBV infection indeed constitutes a key event in NPC carcinogenesis, one would have to explain the inability to detect the virus in normal nasopharyngeal epithelium of patients at a high risk for EBV infection. It is perhaps possible that EBV resides within the salivary glands, instead of the epithelium, during latency. This claim is indirectly supported by observations that the East Asian phenotype shares the characteristics of an increased susceptibility to NPC and immature salivary gland morphogenesis, the latter of which is influenced by the association of salivary gland morphogenesis with an evolutionary variant of the human ectodysplasin receptor gene (EDAR), EDARV370A. Whether the immature salivary gland represents a more favorable nidus for EBV is uncertain, but in patients with infectious mononucleosis, EBV has been isolated in this anatomical organ. The presence of EBV-induced lymphoepitheliomas in the salivary glands and lungs further addresses the possibility of submucosal spread of the virus. Adding to the fact that the fossa of Rosen Müller contains a transformative zone active only in the first decade of life, one might be tempted to speculate the possibility of an alternative carcinogenic cascade for NPC that is perhaps not dissimilar to the model of human papillomavirus and cervical cancer. PMID:26738743

  11. Carcinogenesis ofnasopharyngeal carcinoma:an alternate hypothetical mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sharon Shuxian Poh; Melvin Lee Kiang Chua; Joseph TS Wee

    2016-01-01

    Current proposed mechanisms implicate both early and latent Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) infection in the carcinogenic cascade, whereas epidemiological studies have always associated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) with early child-hood EBV infection and with chronic ear, nose, and sinus conditions. Moreover, most patients with NPC present with IgA antibody titers to EBV capsid antigen (VCA-IgA), which can precede actual tumor presentation by several years. If early childhood EBV infection indeed constitutes a key event in NPC carcinogenesis, one would have to explain the inability to detect the virus in normal nasopharyngeal epithelium of patients at a high risk for EBV infection. It is perhaps possible that EBV resides within the salivary glands, instead of the epithelium, during latency. This claim is indirectly supported by observations that the East Asian phenotype shares the characteristics of an increased sus-ceptibility to NPC and immature salivary gland morphogenesis, the latter of which is inlfuenced by the association of salivary gland morphogenesis with an evolutionary variant of the human ectodysplasin receptor gene (EDAR), EDARV370A. Whether the immature salivary gland represents a more favorable nidus for EBV is uncertain, but in patients with infectious mononucleosis, EBV has been isolated in this anatomical organ. The presence of EBV-induced lymphoepitheliomas in the salivary glands and lungs further addresses the possibility of submucosal spread of the virus. Adding to the fact that the fossa of Rosen Müller contains a transformative zone active only in the ifrst decade of life, one might be tempted to speculate the possibility of an alternative carcinogenic cascade for NPC that is perhaps not dissimilar to the model of human papillomavirus and cervical cancer.

  12. Contrast-induced nephropathy: risks, pathogenetic, prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The aim of the presentation is to review the contrast induced nephropathy ? nature, mechanisms of development, risk factors. Summary of the most important ways of prevention, diagnostics and treatment. The definition of CIN according the European Association of Urogenital Radiology is: 'A condition, in which renal function is impaired (elevation of serum creatinine with more than 25% or 44 μmol/l above the initial level) due to intravasal application of contrast media (CM) within 3 days following the application and when no other etiology factors are present'. We summarize the main risk factors of developing CIN - renal failure, diabetic nephropathy, dehydration, congestive heart failure, high blood pressure, age above 70 yrs, nephrotoxic medicines. The most effective ways of preventing CIN are the good hydratation of the patients and the usage of low-osmolar or iso-osmolar CM. Therapeutic treatment is with no proven preventive effect and currently is not routinely recommended. An early hem dialysis does not decrease the risk level of CIN development in patients with chronic renal failure (CRF). In such patients complete elimination of CM is achieved only after several hem dialyses. Hem filtration reliably decreases the risk of CIN in CRF patients, but is expensive and not widely available. We present a case from our hospital of a patient with diabetic nephropathy, who developed CIN following a coronary angiography

  13. Pathogenetic Consequences of Cytomegalovirus-Host Co-evolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gerardo Abenes; Fenyong Liu

    2008-01-01

    Co-evolution has been shown to result in an adaptive reciprocal modification in the respective behaviors of interacting populations over time.In the case of host-parasite co-evolution,the adaptive behavior is most evident from the reciprocal change in fitness of host and parasite-manifested in terms of pathogen survival versus host resistance.Cytomegaloviruses and their hosts represent a pairing of populations that has co-evolved over hundreds of years.This review explores the pathogenetic consequences emerging from the behavioral changes caused by co-evolutionary forces on the virus and its host.

  14. Calcific Aortic Valve Disease: Part 1-Molecular Pathogenetic Aspects, Hemodynamics, and Adaptive Feedbacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasipoularides, Ares

    2016-04-01

    Aortic valvular stenosis (AVS), produced by calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) causing reduced cusp opening, afflicts mostly older persons eventually requiring valve replacement. CAVD had been considered "degenerative," but newer investigations implicate active mechanisms similar to atherogenesis-genetic predisposition and signaling pathways, lipoprotein deposits, chronic inflammation, and calcification/osteogenesis. Consequently, CAVD may eventually be controlled/reversed by lifestyle and pharmacogenomics remedies. Its management should be comprehensive, embracing not only the valve but also the left ventricle and the arterial system with their interdependent morphomechanics/hemodynamics, which underlie the ensuing diastolic and systolic LV dysfunction. Compared to even a couple of decades ago, we now have an increased appreciation of genomic and cytomolecular pathogenetic mechanisms underlying CAVD. Future pluridisciplinary studies will characterize better and more completely its pathobiology, evolution, and overall dynamics, encompassing intricate feedback processes involving specific signaling molecules and gene network cascades. They will herald more effective, personalized medicine treatments of CAVD/AVS. PMID:26891845

  15. Conditional genome engineering in Toxoplasma gondii uncovers alternative invasion mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Andenmatten, Nicole; Egarter, Saskia; Jackson, Allison J.; JULLIEN, Nicolas; Herman, Jean-Paul; Meissner, Markus

    2012-01-01

    We established a conditional site–specific recombination system based on dimerizable Cre–mediated recombination in the apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. Using a novel single vector strategy that allows ligand-dependent, efficient removal of a gene of interest, we generated three knockouts of apicomplexan genes considered essential for host-cell invasion. Our findings uncover the existence of an alternative invasion pathway in apicomplexan parasites.

  16. Mathematical model of alternative mechanism of telomere length maintenance

    OpenAIRE

    Kollár, Richard; Bodova, Katarina; Nosek, Jozef; Tomaska, Lubomir

    2014-01-01

    Biopolymer length regulation is a complex process that involves a large number of subprocesses acting simultaneously across multiple spatial and temporal scales. An illustrative example important for genomic stability is the length regulation of telomeres---nucleo-protein structures at the ends of linear chromosomes. Maintenance of telomeres is often facilitated by the enzyme telomerase but, particularly in telomerase-free systems, the maintenance of chromosomal termini depends on alternative...

  17. Vulvar cancer: pathogenetic types, diagnosis, treatment, plastic operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Cherenkov

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The morbidity rates and pathogenetic types of vulvar cancer (VC and reasons for its advance were studied in the Novgorod Region. The condylomatous type of VC (that has developed in the presence of vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia was stated in 18% of patients; 48 (75% had a classical pathogenetic type 2 of VC (caused by significant vulvar dystrophy and lichen sclerosus. The tumor process had an intermediate variant in 9.4% of patients with VC. The reason for untimely diagnosis is that obstetricians and gynecologists have no current knowledge of vulvar carcinogenesis, the standards for the diagnosis and treatment of vulvar dystrophies. Tumor cryodevitalization and the application of a radio-wave knife create optimal conditions for implementing the basic principles of ablastics and antiblastics. Reparative surgery using skin and fascial flaps from the posterior surface of the hip to close the organ-tissue defect resulting from vulvectomy, to reduce the risk for postoperative complications, and to form the appearance of the organ is the method of choice in treating VC.

  18. Mechanical behavior of alternative multicrystalline silicon for solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, Teresa Orellana

    2013-05-22

    The usage of more inexpensive silicon feedstock for the crystallization of multicrystalline silicon blocks promises cost reduction for the photovoltaic industry. Less expensive substrates made out of metallurgical silicon (MG-Si) are used as a mechanical support for the epitaxial solar cell. Moreover, conventional inert solar cells can be produced from up-graded metallurgical silicon (UMG-Si). This feedstock has higher content of impurities which influences cell performance and mechanical strength of the wafers. Thus, it is of importance to know these effects in order to know which impurities should be preferentially removed or prevented during the crystallization process. Solar cell processing steps can also exert a change in the values of mechanical strength of processed multicrystalline silicon wafers until the fabrication of a solar cell. Bending tests, fracture toughness and dynamic elastic modulus measurements are performed in this work in order to research the mechanical behavior of multicrystalline silicon crystallized with different qualities of silicon feedstock. Bending tests and residual stress measurements allows the quantification of the mechanical strength of the wafers after every solar cell processing step. The experimental results are compared with theoretical models found in the classical literature about the mechanical properties of ceramics. The influence of second phase particles and thermal processes on the mechanical strength of silicon wafers can be predicted and analyzed with the theoretical models. Metals like Al and Cu can decrease the mechanical strength due to micro-cracking of the silicon matrix and introduction of high values of thermal residual stress. Additionally, amorphous silicon oxide particles (SiOx) lower the mechanical strength of multicrystalline silicon due to thermal residual stresses and elastic mismatch with silicon. Silicon nitride particles (Si3N4) reduce fracture toughness and cause failure by radial cracking in its

  19. Mechanical behavior of alternative multicrystalline silicon for solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Orellana Pérez, Teresa

    2013-01-01

    The usage of more inexpensive silicon feedstock for the crystallization of multicrystalline silicon blocks promises cost reduction for the photovoltaic industry. Less expensive substrates made out of metallurgical silicon (MG-Si) are used as a mechanical support for the epitaxial solar cell. Moreover, conventional inert solar cells can be produced from up-graded metallurgical silicon (UMG-Si). This feedstock has higher content of impurities which influences cell performance and mechanical str...

  20. T-Cell Traffic Jam in Hodgkin's Lymphoma: Pathogenetic and Therapeutic Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Fozza

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In hematologic malignancies, the microenvironment is often characterized by nonneoplastic cells with peculiar phenotypic and functional features. This is particularly true in Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL, in which T lymphocytes surrounding Hodgkin's Reed-Sternberg cells are essentially polarized towards a memory T-helper type 2 phenotype. In this paper we will first evaluate the main processes modulating T-cell recruitment towards the lymph node microenvironment in HL, especially focusing on the role played by cytokines. We will then consider the most relevant mechanisms of immune escape exerted by neoplastic cells in order to evade antitumor immunity. The potential pathogenetic and prognostic impact of regulatory T cells in such a context will be also described. We will finally overview some of the strategies of cellular immunotherapy applied in patients with HL.

  1. Conformal neutrinos: An alternative to the see-saw mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We analyze a scenario where the right-handed neutrinos make part of a strongly coupled conformal field theory and acquire an anomalous dimension γ1/2 giving rise to an inverse see-saw mechanism. In this case light sterile neutrinos do appear and neutrino oscillation experiments are able to probe our model.

  2. Small molecules reveal an alternative mechanism of Bax activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahmbhatt, Hetal; Uehling, David; Al-Awar, Rima; Leber, Brian; Andrews, David

    2016-04-15

    The pro-apoptotic protein Bax commits a cell to death by permeabilizing the mitochondrial outer membrane (MOM). To obtain small-molecule probes for elucidating the molecular mechanism(s) of Bax activation, we screened for compounds that induced Bax-mediated liposome permeabilization. We identified five structurally different small molecules that promoted both Bax targeting to and oligomerization at membranes. All five compounds initiated Bax oligomerization in the absence of membranes by a mechanism unlike Bax activation by Bcl-2 homology 3 domain (BH3) proteins. Some of the compounds induced Bax/Bak-dependent apoptosis in cells. Activation of Bax by the most active compound was poorly inhibited by the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-XL and requires a cysteine residue at position 126 of Bax that is not required for activation by BH3 proteins. Our results reveal a novel pathway for Bax activation independent of pro-apoptotic BH3 proteins that may have important implications for the regulation of Bax activity in cells. PMID:26916338

  3. DIABETIC POLYNEUROPATHY: CURRENT APPROACHES TO DIAGNOSIS AND PATHOGENETIC THERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Levin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the current views of the prevalence, clinical picture, approaches to the diagnosis and treatment of one of the most commonneurological complications of diabetes mellitus – diabetic polyneuropathy, and both its somatic and autonomous manifestations. Neuropathy ismost common in diabetic patients and its clinical forms reflect the severe course of diabetes mellitus and serve as an unfavorable prognostic signthat is associated with an approximately 5-fold increase in mortality. At the same time, the timely detection and adequate correction of the manifestations of neuropathy may substantially improve quality of life in the patients. The possibilities of pathogenetic therapy for diabetic polyneuropathy associated mainly with the use of benfotiamine and alpha-lipoic acid, as well as symptomatic therapy for its individual manifestationsare considered.

  4. DIABETIC POLYNEUROPATHY: CURRENT APPROACHES TO DIAGNOSIS AND PATHOGENETIC THERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Levin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the current views of the prevalence, clinical picture, approaches to the diagnosis and treatment of one of the most commonneurological complications of diabetes mellitus – diabetic polyneuropathy, and both its somatic and autonomous manifestations. Neuropathy ismost common in diabetic patients and its clinical forms reflect the severe course of diabetes mellitus and serve as an unfavorable prognostic signthat is associated with an approximately 5-fold increase in mortality. At the same time, the timely detection and adequate correction of the manifestations of neuropathy may substantially improve quality of life in the patients. The possibilities of pathogenetic therapy for diabetic polyneuropathy associated mainly with the use of benfotiamine and alpha-lipoic acid, as well as symptomatic therapy for its individual manifestationsare considered.

  5. Beyond membrane channelopathies: alternative mechanisms underlying complex human disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Konstantinos Dean BOUDOULAS; Peter J MOHLER

    2011-01-01

    Over the past fifteen years, our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying human disease has flourished in large part due to the discovery of gene mutations linked with membrane ion channels and transporters. In fact, ion channel defects ("channelopathies" - the focus of this review series) have been associated with a spectrum of serious human disease phenotypes including cystic fibrosis, cardiac arrhythmia, diabetes, skeletal muscle defects, and neurological disorders. However, we now know that human disease, particularly excitable cell disease, may be caused by defects in non-ion channel polypeptides including in cellular components residing well beneath the plasma membrane. For example, over the past few years, a new class of potentially fatal cardiac arrhythmias has been linked with cytoplasmic proteins that include sub-membrane adapters such as ankyrin-B (ANK2),ankyrin-G (ANK3), and alpha-1 syntrophin, membrane coat proteins including caveolin-3 (CAV3), signaling platforms including yotiao (AKAPg), and cardiac enzymes (GPD1L). The focus of this review is to detail the exciting role of lamins, yet another class of gene products that have provided elegant new insight into human disease.

  6. Alternative Stable States in Size-Structured Communities : Patterns, Processes, and Mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Schröder, Arne

    2008-01-01

    Alternative stable states have been, based on theoretical findings, predicted to be common in ecological systems. Empirical data from a number of laboratory and natural studies strongly suggest that alternative stable states also occur in real populations, communities and ecosystems. Potential mechanisms involve population size-structure and food-dependent individual development. These features can lead to ontogenetic niche shifts, juvenile recruitment bottlenecks and emergent Allee effects; ...

  7. CONTEMPORARY PATHOGENETIC APPROACHES TO DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT FOR SARCOMAS OF VULVA

    OpenAIRE

    Ye. V. Korzhevskaya; V. V. Kuznetsov

    2008-01-01

    Etiology, clinical and morphologic particularities of various types of sarcomas of vulva is reviewed, their clinical classification and histopathologic grading are discussed and up-to-date pathogenetic approaches to diagnosis and treatment for sarcomas of vulva are described.

  8. Mechanism for Alternating Electric Fields Induced-Effects on Cytosolic Calcium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Ming-Yan; SONG Kun; ZHANG Xu; LEE Imshik

    2009-01-01

    In this work, from the point of calcium ions in the cytosol, we extend a Vm-[Ca2+]cyt model to explain the changes of action potential Vm of the plasma membrane and the calcium concentration in the cytosol [Ca2+]cyt under an alternating electric field in cells. An alternating external electric field may exert an oscillating force to each of the free electrolytes, existing on both sides of the plasma membrane. The mechanism for the alternating electric field induced-effects on Vm and [Ca2+]cyt is elucidated. The simulation results show a correlation between the changes of [Ca2+]cyt and the alternating electric field. When the numerical ratio between the intensity Eo(mV/m) and the frequency ν, (Hz) of the field was about 1-2, the [Ca2+]cyt signal is changed dramatically. The bioactive changes of [Ca2+]cyt appear at low frequency, in the range of 0-100 Hz.

  9. Attentional Biases toward Attractive Alternatives and Rivals: Mechanisms Involved in Relationship Maintenance among Chinese Women

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Yidan; Zhao, Guang; Tu, Shen; Zheng, Yong

    2015-01-01

    A long-term romantic relationship can offer many benefits to committed individuals. Thus, humans possess relationship maintenance mechanisms to protect against threats from those who serve as attractive alternatives or intrasexual rivals. Many studies have indicated that romantic love can act as a commitment device to activate these mechanisms. To examine the attentional bias associated with relationship maintenance among 108 college students (49 single and 59 committed females) in China, we ...

  10. Molecular and Cellular Evidence for the Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres (ALT) Mechanism in Chicken

    OpenAIRE

    O'Hare, T.H.; Delany, M. E.

    2011-01-01

    Telomere maintenance is an important genetic mechanism controlling cellular proliferation. Normally, telomeres are maintained by telomerase which is downregulated upon cellular differentiation in most somatic cell lineages. Telomerase activity is upregulated in immortalized cells and cancers to support an infinite lifespan and uncontrolled cell growth; however, some immortalized and transformed cells lack telomerase activity. Telomerase-negative tumors and immortalized cells utilize an altern...

  11. Beta-protein deposition: a pathogenetic link between Alzheimer's disease and cerebral amyloid angiopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coria, F; Prelli, F; Castaño, E M; Larrondo-Lillo, M; Fernandez-Gonzalez, J; van Duinen, S G; Bots, G T; Luyendijk, W; Shelanski, M L; Frangione, B

    1988-10-25

    Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) refers to a group of hereditary (hereditary cerebral hemorrhage with amyloidosis, HCHWA and sporadic (SCAA) disorders characterized by amyloid fibril deposition restricted to the leptomeningeal and cortical vasculature leading to recurrent hemorrhagic and/or ischemic accidents. On clinical and biochemical grounds, two forms of HCHWA can be distinguished. The amyloid subunit of the HCHWA of Icelandic origin is related to Cystatin C, while amyloid from patients of Dutch origin (HCHWA-D) is related to the beta-protein (or A4), the main component of vascular and plaque core amyloid in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Down's syndrome (DS) [corrected]. SCAA is an increasingly recognized cause of stroke in normotensive individual amounting to 5-10% of all cerebrovascular accidents. We now report the isolation and partial amino acid sequence of the amyloid subunit from a case of SCAA and a new case of HCHWA-D. The recognition that a heterogeneous group of diseases are linked by similar pathological and chemical features suggests that diversity of etiological factors may promote a common pathogenetic mechanism leading to amyloid-beta (A beta) deposition, and open new ways of research in AD and CAA as they are related to dementia and stroke. PMID:3058268

  12. Osteoarthritis - histology and pathogenetic concepts; Arthrose - Histologie und pathogenetische Ansaetze

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sulzbacher, I. [Universitaetsklinik Wien (Austria). Klinisches Inst. fuer Klinische Pathologie

    2000-12-01

    Osteoarthitis is the most common joint disease affecting over 60% of the elderly population. It is characterized by the progressive erosion of articular cartilage leading to incapacity of movement. In the great majority of instances, osteoarthritis appears insidiously, without apparent initiating cause. This primary form is usually oligoarticular involving hip, knee, cervical vertebrae, interphalangeal joints of the fingers or tarsometatarsal joints of the feet. In case of an underlying systemic diasease or local injury the cartilage destruction is considered as secondary osteoarthritis. The pathogenesis of primary osteoarthritis suggests an intrinsic disease of cartilage in which biochemical and metabolic alterations result in its breakdown. Within the last decades different models were stablished which also concentrated on other joint structures such as bone or ligaments. Changes of the subchondral bone were found to precide cartilage damage suggesting a primary alteration of the subchondral region. Other studies concentrated on the metabolic activity of chondrocytes in healthy cartilage of osteoarthritis patients. The precise event that leads to these changes is still not clear. This review concentrates on the histological features in the course of the disease and tries to provide a summary on different pathogenetic concepts. (orig.) [German] Die Arthrosis deformans ist die haeufigste Gelenkerkrankung und betrifft ueber 60% der aelteren Population. Die Erkrankung ist durch fortschreitenden Knorpelverlust gekennzeichnet und fuehrt zu einer limitierteren Bewegungsfreiheit. In den meisten Faellen beginnt der Krankheitsverlauf heimtueckisch ohne ersichtlichen Grund. Diese primaere Form manifestiert sich oft polyartikulaer und betrifft vor allem die Huefte, das Knie, die Halswirbelsaeule, die interphalangealen Gelenke der Finger oder die tarsometatarsalen Gelenke. Bei einer zugrunde liegenden systemischen Erkrankung oder lokal destruierenden Faktoren ist der

  13. Generation of spatially periodic patterns by a mechanical instability: a mechanical alternative to the Turing model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, A K; Stopak, D; Warner, P

    1984-04-01

    We have studied the generation of spatial patterns created by mechanical (rather than chemical) instabilities. When dissociated fibroblasts are suspended in a gel of reprecipitated collagen, and the contraction of the gel as a whole is physically restrained by attachment of its margin to a glass fibre meshwork, then the effect of the fibroblasts' traction is to break up the cell-matrix mixture into a series of clumps or aggregations of cells and compressed matrix. These aggregations are interconnected by linear tracts of collagen fibres aligned under the tensile stress exerted by fibroblast traction. The patterns generated by this mechanical instability vary depending upon cell population density and other factors. Over a certain range of cell concentrations, this mechanical instability yields geometric patterns which resemble but are usually much less regular than the patterns which develop normally in the dermis of developing bird skin. We propose that an equivalent mechanical instability, occurring during the embryonic development of this skin, could be the cause not only of the clumping of dermal fibroblasts to form the feather papillae, but also of the alignment of collagen fibres into the characteristic polygonal network of fibre bundles - which interconnect these papillae and which presage the subsequent pattern of the dermal muscles serving to control feather movements. More generally, we suggest that this type of mechanical instability can serve the morphogenetic functions for which Turing's chemical instability and other reaction-diffusion systems have been proposed. Mechanical instabilities can create physical structures directly, in one step, in contrast to the two or more steps which would be required if positional information first had to be specified by chemical gradients and then only secondarily implemented in physical form. In addition, physical forces can act more quickly and at much longer range than can diffusing chemicals and can generate a

  14. The alternating access mechanism of transport as observed in the sodium-hydantoin transporter Mhp1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crystal structures of a membrane protein transporter in three different conformational states provide insights into the transport mechanism. Secondary active transporters move molecules across cell membranes by coupling this process to the energetically favourable downhill movement of ions or protons along an electrochemical gradient. They function by the alternating access model of transport in which, through conformational changes, the substrate binding site alternately faces either side of the membrane. Owing to the difficulties in obtaining the crystal structure of a single transporter in different conformational states, relatively little structural information is known to explain how this process occurs. Here, the structure of the sodium-benzylhydantoin transporter, Mhp1, from Microbacterium liquefaciens, has been determined in three conformational states; from this a mechanism is proposed for switching from the outward-facing open conformation through an occluded structure to the inward-facing open state

  15. Alternative lengthening of telomeres pathway: recombination-mediated telomere maintenance mechanism in human cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Nabetani, Akira; Ishikawa, Fuyuki

    2011-01-01

    Unlimitedly proliferating cells need to acquire the telomere DNA maintenance mechanism, to counteract possible shortening through multiple rounds of replication and segregation of linear chromosomes. Most human cancer cells express telomerase whereas the other cells utilize the alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) pathway to elongate telomere DNA. It is suggested that ALT depends on the recombination between telomere repetitive DNAs. However, the molecular details remain unknown. Recent...

  16. Alternative mechanisms of telomere lengthening: permissive mutations, DNA repair proteins and tumorigenic progression

    OpenAIRE

    Sandy Gocha1, April Renee; Harris, Julia; Groden, Joanna

    2012-01-01

    Telomeres protect chromosome termini to maintain genomic stability and regulate cellular lifespan. Maintenance of telomere length is required for neoplastic cells after the acquisition of mutations that deregulate cell cycle control and increase cellular proliferation, and can occur through expression of the enzyme telomerase or in a telomerase-independent manner termed alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT). The precise mechanisms that govern the activation of ALT or telomerase in tumor ...

  17. The PHLAME (Promoting Healthy Lifestyles: Alternative Models’ Effects) Firefighter Study: Testing Mediating Mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Ranby, Krista W.; MacKinnon, David P.; Fairchild, Amanda J.; Elliot, Diane L.; Kuehl, Kerry S.; Goldberg, Linn

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the mechanisms by which PHLAME (Promoting Healthy Lifestyles: Alternative Models’ Effects), a health promotion intervention, improved healthy eating and exercise behavior among firefighters, a population at high risk for health problems due to occupational hazards. In a randomized trial, 397 firefighters participated in either the PHLAME team intervention with their work shift or a control condition. Intervention sessions taught benefits of a healthy diet and regular exerc...

  18. [Complex pathogenetic treatment schemes of vascular dyscirculatory disorders in the remote period after exposure to low dose radiation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Complex studies including modern methods of investigation of structures and functions of nervous system: electroencephalograsphy (EEG), coherent analysis, neuropsychological study and methods of neuroimaging were performed in 517 participants in liquidation of consequences of the accident (LCA) at the Chernobyl NPP in 1986-1987. Dyscirculatory metabolic encephalopathy was revealed to be the main pathology with the etiological mechanism based on dyscirculatorhypoxic and metabolic disorders. Complexity of the revealed symptoms testified to an early organism aging in remote periods after exposure to low dose radiation. Pathogenetic schemes were developed for treatment of dyscirculatory encephalopathy in liquidators, which include drugs improving blood supply, antiaggregants, antioxidants and metabolites of the brains in various combinations. Taking into consideration that early appearance of vascular dyscirculatory disorders observed in liquidators is the sign of early aging of the organism, geroprotectors were added to treatment schemes. PMID:25507773

  19. CONTEMPORARY PATHOGENETIC APPROACHES TO DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT FOR SARCOMAS OF VULVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye. V. Korzhevskaya

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Etiology, clinical and morphologic particularities of various types of sarcomas of vulva is reviewed, their clinical classification and histopathologic grading are discussed and up-to-date pathogenetic approaches to diagnosis and treatment for sarcomas of vulva are described.

  20. An alternative bactericidal mechanism of action for lantibiotic peptides that target lipid II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasper, Hester E; Kramer, Naomi E; Smith, James L; Hillman, J D; Zachariah, Cherian; Kuipers, Oscar P; de Kruijff, Ben; Breukink, Eefjan

    2006-09-15

    Lantibiotics are polycyclic peptides containing unusual amino acids, which have binding specificity for bacterial cells, targeting the bacterial cell wall component lipid II to form pores and thereby lyse the cells. Yet several members of these lipid II-targeted lantibiotics are too short to be able to span the lipid bilayer and cannot form pores, but somehow they maintain their antibacterial efficacy. We describe an alternative mechanism by which members of the lantibiotic family kill Gram-positive bacteria by removing lipid II from the cell division site (or septum) and thus block cell wall synthesis. PMID:16973881

  1. Mycobacterial escape from macrophage phagosomes to the cytoplasm represents an alternate adaptation mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamwal, Shilpa V; Mehrotra, Parul; Singh, Archana; Siddiqui, Zaved; Basu, Atanu; Rao, Kanury V S

    2016-01-01

    Survival of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) within the host macrophage is mediated through pathogen-dependent inhibition of phagosome-lysosome fusion, which enables bacteria to persist within the immature phagosomal compartment. By employing ultrastructural examination of different field isolates supported by biochemical analysis, we found that some of the Mtb strains were in fact poorly adapted for subsistence within endocytic vesicles of infected macrophages. Instead, through a mechanism involving activation of host cytosolic phospholipase A2, these bacteria rapidly escaped from phagosomes, and established residence in the cytoplasm of the host cell. Interestingly, by facilitating an enhanced suppression of host cellular autophagy, this translocation served as an alternate virulence acquisition mechanism. Thus, our studies reveal plasticity in the adaptation strategies employed by Mtb, for survival in the host macrophage. PMID:26980157

  2. Separation Mechanism of Primary Silicon from Hypereutectic Al-Si Melts Under Alternating Electromagnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Haiyang; Lv, Guoqiang; Ma, Wenhui; Chen, Daotong; Yu, Jie

    2015-07-01

    Solar grade silicon (SOG-Si) and hypereutectic Al-Si alloys with low silicon (silicon composition below 25 pct) can be successfully obtained by separation of hypereutectic Al-Si alloy with high silicon (silicon composition above 30 pct) under an alternating electromagnetic field after post-processing. To explore the separation mechanism in detail, experiments were conducted in this study using a high-frequency induction furnace with different pulling conditions of the crucible which is loaded with Al-45 wt pct Si melt. Results demonstrate that the separation of hypereutectic Al-Si alloy is feasible through either a pull-up or drop-down process. The height of each separation interface between the compact and sparse parts of the primary silicon decrease as the pull-up distance rose. When the pulling rate is very low, resultant morphologies of compact primary silicon are rounded and polygonal, allowing for more effective separation of the primary silicon. A novel physical model is presented here based on the experimental results and simulation. The model can be used to effectively describe the separation mechanism of primary silicon from hypereutectic Al-Si melts under alternating electromagnetic fields.

  3. Attentional Biases toward Attractive Alternatives and Rivals: Mechanisms Involved in Relationship Maintenance among Chinese Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yidan; Zhao, Guang; Tu, Shen; Zheng, Yong

    2015-01-01

    A long-term romantic relationship can offer many benefits to committed individuals. Thus, humans possess relationship maintenance mechanisms to protect against threats from those who serve as attractive alternatives or intrasexual rivals. Many studies have indicated that romantic love can act as a commitment device to activate these mechanisms. To examine the attentional bias associated with relationship maintenance among 108 college students (49 single and 59 committed females) in China, we used a semantic priming procedure to activate mental representations associated with romantic love and then asked participants to complete a dot-probe task for the purpose of making a distinction between the engage and disengage components of attention. No significant engaging effects toward attractive faces were observed among committed females, but the following significant disengaging effects were found: when primed with romantic love, single females showed increased attention toward and difficulty in disengaging from attractive male faces, whereas females already in a committed relationship did not alter their attention, remaining as inattentive to attractive alternatives as they were in the baseline condition. In addition, committed females responded to love priming by exhibiting difficulty in disengaging from attractive rivals. The present findings provide evidence in the Chinese cultural context for the existence of early-stage attentional processes in the domain of relationship maintenance that committed Chinese females protected an ongoing relationship by not only being inattentive to attractive males who could serve as attractive alternatives, but also being more attentive to attractive females who could be potential rivals when mental representations associated with romantic love were primed. PMID:26309232

  4. Attentional Biases toward Attractive Alternatives and Rivals: Mechanisms Involved in Relationship Maintenance among Chinese Women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yidan Ma

    Full Text Available A long-term romantic relationship can offer many benefits to committed individuals. Thus, humans possess relationship maintenance mechanisms to protect against threats from those who serve as attractive alternatives or intrasexual rivals. Many studies have indicated that romantic love can act as a commitment device to activate these mechanisms. To examine the attentional bias associated with relationship maintenance among 108 college students (49 single and 59 committed females in China, we used a semantic priming procedure to activate mental representations associated with romantic love and then asked participants to complete a dot-probe task for the purpose of making a distinction between the engage and disengage components of attention. No significant engaging effects toward attractive faces were observed among committed females, but the following significant disengaging effects were found: when primed with romantic love, single females showed increased attention toward and difficulty in disengaging from attractive male faces, whereas females already in a committed relationship did not alter their attention, remaining as inattentive to attractive alternatives as they were in the baseline condition. In addition, committed females responded to love priming by exhibiting difficulty in disengaging from attractive rivals. The present findings provide evidence in the Chinese cultural context for the existence of early-stage attentional processes in the domain of relationship maintenance that committed Chinese females protected an ongoing relationship by not only being inattentive to attractive males who could serve as attractive alternatives, but also being more attentive to attractive females who could be potential rivals when mental representations associated with romantic love were primed.

  5. Alternative mechanisms of telomere lengthening: Permissive mutations, DNA repair proteins and tumorigenic progression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gocha, April Renee Sandy; Harris, Julia [Department of Molecular Virology, Immunology and Medical Genetics, The Ohio State University College of Medicine, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Groden, Joanna, E-mail: joanna.groden@osumc.edu [Department of Molecular Virology, Immunology and Medical Genetics, The Ohio State University College of Medicine, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► Neoplastic cells maintain telomeres by telomerase or ALT. ► Genetic mutations in p53, ATRX, DAXX or H3F3A may activate ALT. ► Many DNA repair proteins are involved in ALT. ► Tumor progression is favored by telomerase expression. - Abstract: Telomeres protect chromosome termini to maintain genomic stability and regulate cellular lifespan. Maintenance of telomere length is required for neoplastic cells after the acquisition of mutations that deregulate cell cycle control and increase cellular proliferation, and can occur through expression of the enzyme telomerase or in a telomerase-independent manner termed alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT). The precise mechanisms that govern the activation of ALT or telomerase in tumor cells are unknown, although cellular origin may favor one or the other mechanisms. ALT pathways are incompletely understood to date; however, recent publications have increasingly broadened our understanding of how ALT is activated, how it proceeds, and how it influences tumor growth. Specific mutational events influence ALT activation, as mutations in genes that suppress recombination and/or alterations in the regulation of telomerase expression are associated with ALT. Once engaged, ALT uses DNA repair proteins to maintain telomeres in the absence of telomerase; experiments that manipulate the expression of specific proteins in cells using ALT are illuminating some of its mechanisms. Furthermore, ALT may influence tumor growth, as experimental and clinical data suggest that telomerase expression may favor tumor progression. This review summarizes recent findings in mammalian cells and models, as well as clinical data, that identify the genetic mutations permissive to ALT, the DNA repair proteins involved in ALT mechanisms and the importance of telomere maintenance mechanisms for tumor progression. A comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms that permit tumor cell immortalization will be important for identifying

  6. Alternative splicing modulates Kv channel clustering through a molecular ball and chain mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandany, Nitzan; Marciano, Shir; Magidovich, Elhanan; Frimerman, Teddy; Yehezkel, Rinat; Shem-Ad, Tzilhav; Lewin, Limor; Abdu, Uri; Orr, Irit; Yifrach, Ofer

    2015-03-01

    Ion channel clustering at the post-synaptic density serves a fundamental role in action potential generation and transmission. Here, we show that interaction between the Shaker Kv channel and the PSD-95 scaffold protein underlying channel clustering is modulated by the length of the intrinsically disordered C terminal channel tail. We further show that this tail functions as an entropic clock that times PSD-95 binding. We thus propose a ‘ball and chain’ mechanism to explain Kv channel binding to scaffold proteins, analogous to the mechanism describing channel fast inactivation. The physiological relevance of this mechanism is demonstrated in that alternative splicing of the Shaker channel gene to produce variants of distinct tail lengths resulted in differential channel cell surface expression levels and clustering metrics that correlate with differences in affinity of the variants for PSD-95. We suggest that modulating channel clustering by specific spatial-temporal spliced variant targeting serves a fundamental role in nervous system development and tuning.

  7. A preclinical mouse model of glioma with an alternative mechanism of telomere maintenance (ALT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeitany, Maya; Pineda, Jose Ramon; Liu, Qingyuan; Porreca, Rosa Maria; Hoffschir, Françoise; Desmaze, Chantal; Silvestre, David C; Mailliet, Patrick; Junier, Marie-Pierre; Londoño-Vallejo, Arturo; Ségal-Bendirdjian, Evelyne; Chneiweiss, Hervé; Boussin, François D

    2015-04-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme is the most aggressive primary tumor of the central nervous system. Glioma stem cells (GSCs), a small population of tumor cells with stem-like properties, are supposedly responsible for glioblastoma multiforme relapse after current therapies. In approximately thirty percent of glioblastoma multiforme tumors, telomeres are not maintained by telomerase but through an alternative mechanism, termed alternative lengthening of telomere (ALT), suggesting potential interest in developing specific therapeutic strategies. However, no preclinical model of ALT glioma was available until the isolation of TG20 cells from a human ALT glioma. Herein, we show that TG20 cells exhibit a high level of telomeric recombination but a stable karyotype, indicating that their telomeres retain their protective function against chromosomal instability. TG20 cells possess all of the characteristic features of GSCs: the expression of neural stem cell markers, the generation of intracerebral tumors in NOD-SCID-IL2Rγ (NSG) mice as well as in nude mice, and the ability to sustain serial intracerebral transplantations without expressing telomerase, demonstrating the stability of the ALT phenotype in vivo. Furthermore, we also demonstrate that 360B, a G-quadruplex ligand of the pyridine derivative series that impairs telomere replication and mitotic progression in cancer cells, prevents the development of TG20 tumors. Together, our results show that intracerebral grafts of TG20 cells in immunodeficient mice constitute an efficient preclinical model of ALT glioblastoma multiforme and that G-quadruplex ligands are a potential therapy for this specific type of tumor. PMID:25175359

  8. The Complementary and Alternative Medicine for Endometriosis: A Review of Utilization and Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sai Kong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Endometriosis (EM is one of the common gynecological conditions causing menstrual and pelvic pain and affects 10%–15% of women of reproductive age. In recent years, the complementary and alternative medical (CAM treatment for EM has become popular due to the few adverse reactions reported. The CAM therapy for EM includes several different treatments such as herbs (herbal prescription, extract, and patent, acupuncture, microwave physiotherapy, and Chinese herb medicine enema (CHM enema. These CAM therapies are effective at relieving dysmenorrhoea, shrinking adnexal masses, and promoting pregnancy, with less unpleasant side effects when compared to hormonal and surgical treatments. In this review, we focus on the status quo of CAM on EM and try to identify therapeutic efficacy and mechanisms based on some clinical and experimental studies. We hope to provide some instructive suggestions for clinical treatment and experimental research in the future.

  9. Pathogenetic Substantiation and Effectiveness of a Systemic Enzymotherapy at a Hepatitis C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sitnickov I.G.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim of investigation is a study of a vobenzyme systemic enzymotherapy preparation therapeutic effectiveness on experimental model of a tetrachloromethane hepatitis and in patients with a parenteral hepatitis C. Materials and Methods. 340 white male-rats with the acute and chronic hepatitis simulation according to a generally adopted model with a carbon tetrachloride use were used in experiment. A clinical investigation was conducted in 160 patients with an acute hepatitis C. The lipid metabolism values were detected by the enzymatic colorimetric method with a use of the ″Human″ firm standard sets (Germany. A detection of the lactic and pyruvic acid content was made by enzymatic method. Results. A hepatotropic activity of vobenzyme is manifested in a cytolysis reduction, an increase of the liver albumino-, glycogensynthetizing and antitoxic functions. A preparation use in a hepatitis C pathogenetic therapy has a positive effect on the carbohydrate, lipid, albuminous metabolisms. A vobenzyme inclusion into a pathogenetic therapy of patients with an acute hepatitis C reduces the hospitalization dates by 5—7 days. Conclusion. A two-stage pharmacological screening has defined a sufficient force and stability of a vobenzyme hepatoprotective effect. Its inclusion into a combined pathogenetic treatment is already substantiated in an acute period of a hepatitis C.

  10. Pathogenetic aspects of immune deficiency associated with beta-thalassemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmakis, Dimitrios; Giakoumis, Anastasios; Polymeropoulos, Evaggelos; Aessopos, Athanasios

    2003-01-01

    Infectious complications constitute the second most common cause of mortality and a main cause of morbidity in beta-thalassemia. Besides the high risk of blood-borne infections associated with multiple transfusions, the increased susceptibility of these patients to infectious diseases has been attributed to a coexistent immune deficiency. Immune abnormalities have also been held responsible for the frequent occurrence of malignancies in beta-thalassemia, especially leukemia and lymphomas. Recent studies on immune competence in beta-thalassemia have revealed numerous quantitative and functional defects, involving T and B lymphocytes, immunoglobulin production, neutrophils and macrophages, chemotaxis, and phagocytosis, as well as the complement system. Regarding pathogenesis, iron overload, a primary complication of both thalassemia itself and transfusion therapy, is thought to be the main precipitating mechanism, due to the important immunoregulatory properties of iron and its binding proteins; iron excess may derange the immune balance in favor of the growth of infectious organisms. Other factors include multiple transfusions, associated with constant allo-antigenic stimulation, as well as with transmission of immunosuppressive viruses; splenectomy, resulting in increased susceptibility to infections by encapsulated bacteria and to immune system modifications; low levels of zinc, another immune regulator; iron chelation therapy, which predisposes to serious infections by yersinia species; and the circulation of abnormal native thalassemic erythrocytes, forming another permanent immune stimulus. Thus surveillance for infections in patients with beta-thalassemia is crucial, while further studies are warranted on immune function abnormalities and the implicated mechanisms. PMID:12552254

  11. Hemp Thermal Insulation Concrete with Alternative Binders, Analysis of their Thermal and Mechanical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinka, M.; Sahmenko, G.; Korjakins, A.; Radina, L.; Bajare, D.

    2015-11-01

    One of the main challenges that construction industry faces today is how to address the demands for more sustainable, environmentally friendly and carbon neutral construction materials and building upkeep processes. One of the answers to these demands is lime-hemp concrete (LHC) building materials - carbon negative materials that have sufficient thermal insulation capabilities to be used as thermal insulation materials for new as well as for existing buildings. But one problem needs to be overcome before these materials can be used on a large scale - current manufacturing technology allows these materials to be used only as self-bearing thermal insulation material with large labour intensity in the manufacturing process. In order to lower the labour intensity and allow the material to be used in wider applications, a LHC block and board production is necessary, which in turn calls for the binders different from the classically used ones, as they show insufficient mechanical strength for this new use. The particular study focuses on alternative binders produced using gypsum-cement compositions ensuring they are usable in outdoor applications together with hemp shives. Physical, mechanical, thermal and water absorption properties of hemp concrete with various binders are addressed in the current study.

  12. Pathogenetic significance of biochemical markers in evaluation of nail destruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urazovskaya E.V. Mikashinovich Z.I.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to evaluate the state of metabolic status of patients with distal onycholysis of hands. Materials and methods: Evaluation of hemoglobin, red blood cells, neutrophil granulocytes, the level of glycolytic processes of lactate and pyruvate, the activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase, myeloperoxidase, neutrophil elastase, serum alkaline phosphatase activity, as well as degradation products content of collagen structures to relative fractions of the blood free and peptide bound oxyproline. Results: It has been shown that free fraction oxyproline in 18 women with distal onycholysis of hands and hemoglobinemia prevails over peptide bound oxyproline fraction in blood, activated glycolytic processes on the modulation mechanism of adaptation with a slight increase of the lactate and pyruvate, the inhibition of activity of antioxidant enzymes, alkaline phosphatase and serum first phase elongation of blood coagulation as a result of the activated plasma recalcification time. Conclusion: The functional state of red blood cells, neutrophil granulocytes in the oppression of the first line of antioxidant enzyme defense and extension in patients with distal onycholysis of hands points to the formation of a mixed type of chronic hypoxia.

  13. An alternative mechanism for international health aid: evaluating a Global Social Protection Fund.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Sanjay; Stuckler, David; McKee, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Several public health groups have called for the creation of a global fund for 'social protection'-a fund that produces the international equivalent of domestic tax collection and safety net systems to finance care for the ill and disabled and related health costs. All participating countries would pay into a global fund based on a metric of their ability to pay and withdraw from the common pool based on a metric of their need for funds. We assessed how alternative strategies and metrics by which to operate such a fund would affect its size and impact on health system financing. Using a mathematical model, we found that common targets for health funding in low-income countries require higher levels of aid expenditures than presently distributed. Some mechanisms exist that may incentivize reduction of domestic health inequalities, and direct most funds towards the poorest populations. Payments from high-income countries are also likely to decrease over time as middle-income countries' economies grow. PMID:23335466

  14. Samples of HDR Soultz Injection Microearthquakes: Mechanism Using Alternative Source Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jechumtalova, Z.; Sileny, J.

    2011-12-01

    offered by the seismicity induced during the massive fluid injection experiments at the Hot Dry Rock (HDR) site Soultz-sous-Forêts. The site is located in Alsace (France) within the hottest geothermal surface anomaly of the Upper Rhine Graben. From the bulk of the seismicity recorded, we have processed several microearthquakes with magnitudes between M = 1.4 and 1.5 which occurred during the first phase of 2003 fluid injection, when only the borehole GPK3 was stimulated. Mechanisms resulting from the alternative approaches offer the clue to estimate the reliability of the shear vs. non-shear source components, thus indicating the type of the fracturing.

  15. Cytokeratin and protein expression patterns in squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity provide evidence for two distinct pathogenetic pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    FROHWITTER, GESCHE; BUERGER, HORST; VAN DIEST, PAUL J.; KORSCHING, EBERHARD; KLEINHEINZ, JOHANNES; FILLIES, THOMAS

    2016-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oral cavity is a morphological heterogeneous disease. Various cytokeratin (CK) expression patterns with different prognostic values have been described, but little is known concerning the underlying biological cell mechanisms. Therefore, the present study investigated 193 cases of oral SCCs using immunohistochemistry for α/β/γ-catenin, glucose transporter 1, caspase-3, X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein, hypoxia inducible factor-1α, carbonic anhydrase 9, heat shock protein (hsp) 70, mast/stem cell growth factor receptor, p21, p27, p16, p53, B-cell lymphoma 6, epidermal growth factor receptor, cyclin D1 and CK1, 5/6, 8/18, 10, 14 and 19. Expression patterns were analyzed with biomathematical permutation analysis. The present results revealed a significant association between the expression of low-molecular weight CK8/18 and 19 and a high-tumor grade, β and γ-catenin expression, deregulated cell cycle proteins and a predominant localization of the tumor on the floor of the mouth. By contrast, expression of high-molecular weight CK1, 5/6, 10 and 14 was significantly associated with the expression of p21 and hsp70. In conclusion, the current study presents evidence for the existence of two parallel pathogenetic pathways in oral SCCs, characterized by the expression of low- and high-molecular weight CKs. Additional studies are required to demonstrate the extent that these results may be used to improve therapeutic regimens. PMID:27347109

  16. Alternative mating tactics in the yellow dung fly: resolving mechanisms of small-male advantage off pasture

    OpenAIRE

    Gress, Brian E.; Waltzer, Ryan J.; Lüpold, Stefan; Droge-Young, Elizabeth M.; Manier, Mollie K.; Pitnick, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Recent work suggests that the yellow dung fly mating system may include alternative patroller–competitor mating tactics in which large males compete for gravid females on dung, whereas small, non-competitive males search for females at foraging sites. Small males obtain most matings off pasture, yet the behavioural mechanism(s) giving rise to this pattern are unknown. We investigated the male and female behaviours that determine mating success in this environment by conducting field mating ex...

  17. AUTOANTIBODIES TO GLUTAMIC ACID DECARBOXYLASE AS A PATHOGENETIC MARKER OF TYPE I DIABETES MELLITUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Piven

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. A new method of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (in solid-phase ELISA format has been developed to determine concentrations of autoantibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase, as well as an evidencebased methodology is proposed for its medical implications, as a quantitative pathogenetic predictive marker of autoimmune diagnostics in type 1 diabetes mellitus. This technique could be implied for serial production of diagnostic reagent kits, aimed for detection of autoantibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase by means of ELISA approach. (Med. Immunol., 2011, vol. 13, N 2-3, pp 257-260

  18. Structural basis of the alternating-access mechanism in a bile acid transporter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaoming; Levin, Elena J.; Pan, Yaping; McCoy, Jason G.; Sharma, Ruchika; Kloss, Brian; Bruni, Renato; Quick, Matthias; Zhou, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Bile acids are synthesized from cholesterol in hepatocytes and secreted through the biliary tract into the small intestine, where they aid in absorption of lipids and fat-soluble vitamins. Through a process known as enterohepatic recirculation, more than 90% of secreted bile acids are then retrieved from the intestine and returned to the liver for resecretion. In humans, there are two Na+-dependent bile acid transporters involved in enterohepatic recirculation, the Na+-taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide (NTCP; also known as SLC10A1) expressed in hepatocytes, and the apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT; also known as SLC10A2) expressed on enterocytes in the terminal ileum. In recent years, ASBT has attracted much interest as a potential drug target for treatment of hypercholesterolaemia, because inhibition of ASBT reduces reabsorption of bile acids, thus increasing bile acid synthesis and consequently cholesterol consumption. However, a lack of three-dimensional structures of bile acid transporters hampers our ability to understand the molecular mechanisms of substrate selectivity and transport, and to interpret the wealth of existing functional data. The crystal structure of an ASBT homologue from Neisseria meningitidis (ASBTNM) in detergent was reported recently, showing the protein in an inward-open conformation bound to two Na+ and a taurocholic acid. However, the structural changes that bring bile acid and Na+ across the membrane are difficult to infer from a single structure. To understand the structural changes associated with the coupled transport of Na+ and bile acids, here we solved two structures of an ASBT homologue from Yersinia frederiksenii (ASBTYf) in a lipid environment, which reveal that a large rigid-body rotation of a substrate-binding domain gives the conserved `crossover' region, where two discontinuous helices cross each other, alternating accessibility from either side of the cell membrane. This result has implications

  19. Effect of Alternate Supply of Shielding Gases of Tungsten Inert Gas Welding on Mechanical Properties of Austenitic Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinde, Neelam Vilas; Telsang, Martand Tamanacharya

    2016-07-01

    In the present study, an attempt is made to study the effect of alternate supply of the shielding gas in comparison with the conventional method of TIG welding with pure argon gas. The two sets of combination are used as 10-10 and 40-20 s for alternate supply of the Argon and Helium shielding gas respectively. The effect of alternate supply of shielding gas is studied on the mechanical properties like bend test, tensile test and impact test. The full factorial experimental design is applied for three set of combinations. The ANOVA is used to find significant parameters for the process and regression analysis used to develop the mathematical model. The result shows that the alternate supply of the shielding gas for 10-10 s provides better result for the bend, tensile and impact test as compared with the conventional argon gas and the alternate supply of 40-20 s argon and helium gas respectively. Welding speed can be increased for alternate supply of the shielding gas that can reduce the total welding cost.

  20. Pathogenetic and physiological mechanisms of poplar ice nucleation active bacterial canker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Using the methods introduced by Bier, X.H., Buchinock, Wang Jing-wen, Shi Rihe et al., different varieties of poplar (poplar-Mei×Qing, Poplar-A100, Poplar-Xiaohe14 et al.) were inoculated with poplar ice nucleation active (INA) bacteria respectively in 1997-1999. The water content, relative turgidity, lignin content, phenylalanine ammonialyase (PAL) activity, electrolyte effusion rate, and inorganic element content of poplar bark were measured before and after inoculating. The results showed that after the poplar trees were inoculated with INA bacteria, the moisture content of bark decreased but relative turgidity increased, electrolyte effusion rate increased and had a peak at temperatures of -4 and 5 °C, lignin content increased and positively corre-lated with poplars' disease-resistance, and the plenylalanine ammonialyase activity increased and also showed a significant positive correlation with poplars' disease-resistance. For the contents of inorganic element, Cu and Fe decreased but K and Zn increased obviously, while Mn, Ca and Mg changed little.

  1. Etanercept-Associated Transient Bone Marrow Aplasia: A Review of the Literature and Pathogenetic Mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Kozak, Natasha; Friedman, Joshua; Schattner, Ami

    2014-01-01

    A patient with rheumatoid arthritis presented with increasing fatigue, fever, gingival bleeding, and petechial rash. Her symptoms started 1 week after the first injection of etanercept (Enbrel). Her only other medications (methotrexate and hydroxychloroquine) had been unchanged for years. Tests revealed severe pancytopenia and bone marrow aplasia. She recovered with supportive treatment within 12 days. The literature on serious blood dyscrasias associated with anti-tumor necrosis factor-α the...

  2. Hypertension in the course of insulin dependent diabetes mellitus and its pathogenetic mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt-Rasmussen, B; Nørgaard, K; Jensen, T;

    1990-01-01

    All IDDM patients without late complications have blood pressures similar to the nondiabetic background population, and those who develop clinical nephropathy in Denmark have no familial predisposition to hypertension. Blood pressure remains normal until after development of microalbuminuria, ind...

  3. End-stage renal disease in Nigeria: An overview of the epidemiology and the pathogenetic mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M O Odubanjo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There is paucity of information on the magnitude of the burden of renal disease in our environment. Obtaining accurate data is hampered by the poor socioeconomic status of most patients with lack of access to specialized care in tertiary institutions, where most of the data is generated. The incidence of chronic renal failure (CRF and end-stage renal disease (ESRD in any specified area is known to be influenced by the prevalence of specific disease entities resulting in CRF. Hypertension, glomerulonephritis (GN, sickle cell disease, quartan malaria nephropathy, urinary tract schistosomiasis and other parasite-related forms of chronic GN are known to contribute significantly to the incidence of CRF in Nigeria. As is the situation in other parts of the world, diabetic nephropathy appears to be of increasing importance in the causation of ESRD in Nigeria. Even though the underlying cause of renal disease can often not be treated, extensive studies in experimental animals and preliminary studies in humans suggest that progression in chronic renal disease may largely be due to secondary factors, attention to which may be important in the prevention and/or control of renal disease.

  4. Mechanical pipe couplings. The alternative jointing method for PE gas pipes up to 10 bar; Mechanische Rohrkupplungen. Die alternative Verbindung fuer PE-Gas-Rohre bis 10 bar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroeger, Axel; Johnson, Alexander [PSI Products GmbH, Moessingen (Germany)

    2010-11-15

    Increasing competition nowadays obliges natural gas suppliers to adopt continuous cost-optimization. Many utilities are therefore rethinking their existing methods for jointing of plastic pipes. Around the world, mechanical pipe couplings are becoming established in this field as a rational-cost, safe and easy-to-install alternative to conventional welding methods. For this project, PSI Products GmbH and Elster Perfection are pursuing new routes for the development of solutions to problems in plastic-pipe jointing technology. As a specialist in accessories for the field of pipeline engineering, PSI Products GmbH has now also unveiled, in the form of the Permasert {sup registered} and PermaLock {sup registered} pipe-coupling and jointing systems, a complete product range, with DVGW approval, for mechanical jointing of gas supply pipelines for the German natural gas market. This system has proven its capabilities since its market launch in the USA more than thirty years ago, and is now one of the world's most widely used mechanical PE-pipe jointing methods. Simple and fast installation is the basis of this success. More than 45 million Permasert {sup registered} couplings and PermaLock {sup registered} tapping valves are now in use under virtually all conceivable climatic and soil conditions, and not only in North America and Europe, but also in Asia, Australia, the Middle East, and Central and South America. (orig.)

  5. The development of an in vitro model for studying mechanisms of nephrotoxicity as an alternative for animal experiments.

    OpenAIRE

    Mertens, J.J.W.M.

    1991-01-01

    SUMMARYPresently in our society animal tests still form the main starting point for the assessment of the possible risks of chemicals with regard to human and animal health. For scientific. economic, and ethical reasons. attempts are undertaken continuously to develop cell models as alternatives to animal testing. However, the predictive value of in vitro test systems is often limited due to the unawareness about the mechanisms of toxicity and the complexity of organisms. As a consequence, a ...

  6. Verisimilitude (or “truthlikeness”) as an alternative to pro and cons: migraine and cluster headache mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Tfelt-Hansen, Peer Carsten

    2010-01-01

    Calculating verisimilitude (or “truthlikeness”) ad modum Popper is a quantitative alternative to the usual pros and cons in migraine and cluster headache mechanisms. The following items were evaluated: dilation of large cranial arteries during migraine; CGRP increase during migraine; migraine as a brain disorder; aura and migraine headache; brain stem activation during migraine; rCBF in migraine without aura; NO and pathophysiology of migraine; neurogenic inflammation and migraine; aura in cl...

  7. EFFECTS OF ALTERNATIVE RAW MATERIALS AND VARYING RESIN CONTENT ON MECHANICAL AND FRACTURE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF PARTICLE BOARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörn Rathke,

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Particle boards were produced from different types of wood particles, i.e. spruce, recovered particles, willow, poplar, and locust. Effects of raw material, as well as varying resin content on mechanical and fracture mechanical properties were investigated. For the analysis of mechanical properties, specific fracture energy, stress intensity factors, and the industrial European standard methods internal bond strength according to EN 319 and bending strength according to EN 310 were used. The total fracture energy was measured, and the stress intensity factor was calculated by means of data achieved through finite element simulations. Results of the fracture energy analysis were compared to internal bond strength (IB and bending strength. While IB and the modulus of elasticity (MOE showed a high variability, data scattering for fracture energy tests and modulus of rupture (MOR were smaller, which are due to significant differences between the resin contents of the various board types.

  8. Measuring the Cost-effectiveness of Conservation Auctions Relative to Alternate Policy Mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    White, Benedict; Burton, Michael P.

    2010-01-01

    The principle motivation for using price-discriminating conservation auctions is that they are expected to be significantly more cost-effective than fixed-price mechanisms. This paper measures cost effectiveness for tenders from two rounds of the Auction for Landscape Recovery in Western Australia relative to counterfactual fixed-price mechanisms. If we assume that the bid equals the compliance cost, the auction gives a significant cost saving over fixed-price mechanisms. If instead we assume...

  9. Alternative Basic Income Mechanisms: An Evaluation Exercise with a Microeconometric Model

    OpenAIRE

    Colombino, Ugo; Locatelli, Marilena; Narazani, Edlira; Donoghue, Cathal

    2010-01-01

    We develop and estimate a microeconometric model of household labour supply in four European countries representative of different economies and welfare policy regimes: Denmark, Italy, Portugal and the United Kingdom. We then simulate, under the constraint of constant total net tax revenue (fiscal neutrality), the effects of various hypothetical tax-transfer reforms which include alternative versions of a Basic Income policy: Guaranteed Minimum Income, Work Fare, Participation Basic Income an...

  10. An alternating copolymer of maleimide and atropic acid with narrow molecular weight distribution prepared by radical mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万德成; 黄兆华; 黄骏廉

    1999-01-01

    Three basic conditions for preparation of alternating copolymer with narrow molecular weight distribution were derived from the element kinetic equations of binary radical copolymerization. Using maleimide (MI) and atropie acid (ATA) as model monomer pairs and dioxane as the solvent the alternating copolymer with molecular weight distribution in the range of 1.09--1.20 was prepared successfully by charger transfer complex (CTC) mechanism in the presence of benzoyl peroxide at 85℃. The monomer reactivity ratioes r1(MI)=0.05±0.01 and r2(ATA)=0.03±0.02 were measured. The alternating eopolymerization was carried out through formation of a contact-type CTG and then alternating addition of MI and ATA monomers. The molecular weight of the copolymers is nearly independent of the feed ratio in a large range and the polymerization rate dropped with an increase in ATA in feed ratio.

  11. Molecular mechanisms of activity and derepression of alternative lengthening of telomeres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickett, Hilda A; Reddel, Roger R

    2015-11-01

    Alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) involves homology-directed telomere synthesis. This multistep process is facilitated by loss of the ATRX or DAXX chromatin-remodeling factors and by abnormalities of the telomere nucleoprotein architecture, including altered DNA sequence and decreased TRF2 saturation. Induction of telomere-specific DNA damage triggers homology-directed searches, and NuRD-ZNF827 protein-protein interactions provide a platform for the telomeric recruitment of homologous recombination (HR) proteins. Telomere lengthening proceeds by strand exchange and template-driven DNA synthesis, which culminates in dissolution of HR intermediates. PMID:26581522

  12. Compact Kinetic Mechanisms for Petroleum-Derived and Alternative Aviation Fuels Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To be useful for computational combustor design and analysis using tools like the National Combustion Code (NCC), low-dimensional chemical kinetic mechanisms for...

  13. Mechanical and piezoelectric properties of zinc oxide nanorods grown on conductive textile fabric as an alternative substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Azam; Hussain, Mushtaque; Nur, Omer; Willander, Magnus

    2014-08-01

    The present research is devoted to understanding the mechanism and causes of variation in the piezoelectric potential generated from vertically aligned zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods (NRs), which were grown on a conductive textile fabric as an alternative substrate by using the aqueous chemical growth method. The piezoelectric voltage was harvested from vertically aligned ZnO NRs having different physical parameters by using atomic force microscopy in contact mode and the variation in the generated piezoelectricity was investigated. The generated output potential indicates that different physical parameters such aspect ratio, crystal size and lattice internal crystal strain have a strong influence on the piezoelectric properties of vertically aligned ZnO NRs, which were grown on a textile fabric. Presented results indicate that textiles can be used as an alternative substrate just like the other conventional substrates, because our results are similar/better than many reported works on conventional substrates.

  14. Mechanical and piezoelectric properties of zinc oxide nanorods grown on conductive textile fabric as an alternative substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present research is devoted to understanding the mechanism and causes of variation in the piezoelectric potential generated from vertically aligned zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods (NRs), which were grown on a conductive textile fabric as an alternative substrate by using the aqueous chemical growth method. The piezoelectric voltage was harvested from vertically aligned ZnO NRs having different physical parameters by using atomic force microscopy in contact mode and the variation in the generated piezoelectricity was investigated. The generated output potential indicates that different physical parameters such aspect ratio, crystal size and lattice internal crystal strain have a strong influence on the piezoelectric properties of vertically aligned ZnO NRs, which were grown on a textile fabric. Presented results indicate that textiles can be used as an alternative substrate just like the other conventional substrates, because our results are similar/better than many reported works on conventional substrates. (paper)

  15. Regulatory mechanisms for 3'-end alternative splicing and polyadenylation of the Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein, GFAP, transcript

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blechingberg, Jenny; Lykke-Andersen, Søren; Jensen, Torben Heick;

    2007-01-01

    molecular mechanisms participating in alternative GFAP expression. Usage of a polyadenylation signal within the alternatively spliced exon 7a is essential to generate the GFAP kappa and GFAP kappa transcripts. The GFAP kappa mRNA is distinct from GFAP epsilon mRNA given that it also includes intron 7a....... Polyadenylation at the exon 7a site is stimulated by the upstream splice site. Moreover, exon 7a splice enhancer motifs supported both exon 7a splicing and polyadenylation. SR proteins increased the usage of the exon 7a polyadenylation signal but not the exon 7a splicing, whereas the polypyrimidine tract binding...... (PTB) protein enhanced both exon 7a polyadenylation and exon 7a splicing. Finally, increasing transcription by the VP16 trans-activator did not affect the frequency of use of the exon 7a polyadenylation signal whereas the exon 7a splicing frequency was decreased. Our data suggest a model with the...

  16. A Comparison between Mechanisms of Multi-Alternative Perceptual Decision Making: Ability to Explain Human Behavior, Predictions for Neurophysiology, and Relationship with Decision Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Ditterich, Jochen

    2010-01-01

    While there seems to be relatively wide agreement about perceptual decision making relying on integration-to-threshold mechanisms, proposed models differ in a variety of details. This study compares a range of mechanisms for multi-alternative perceptual decision making, including integration with and without leakage, feedforward and feedback inhibition for mediating the competition between integrators, as well as linear and non-linear mechanisms for combining signals across alternatives. It i...

  17. Corrosion protection of metals by phosphate coatings and ecologically beneficial alternatives. Properties and mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The corrosion and protection characteristics of inorganic zinc and manganese phosphate coatings in aqueous solution have been examined by physical methods, accelerated corrosion tests and electrochemical polarization and impedance measurements. Some water-soluble organic films have been evaluated for the temporary protection of metal parts as the ecologically beneficial alternatives to phosphate coatings. The results show that zinc phosphate is a better insulator than manganese phosphate, but the porosity of the former is inferior to that of the latter. In neutral and alkaline solutions the anodic current of both zinc and manganese phosphates decreases and their open potential moves in a positive direction. In acidic medium both the polarization current and the open potential are close to those of the substrate. Confirmed by the impedance measurements, the corrosion of phosphated steel in acidic solution is controlled by a dissolution reaction, in neutral medium is first reaction controlled then diffusion controlled, and in alkaline environment only diffusion controlled. The insulation of acrylate+copolymer, epoxy and inhibitor+bonding materials is superior to that of zinc or manganese phosphates. In general, most of the alternatives can afford a better temporary protection for metal parts compared to inorganic phosphate coatings. The corrosion failure of inorganic phosphate coatings is mainly induced by the electrochemical dissolution of the substrate. This electrochemical process initiates at the bottom of the pores within the coating. In neutral solution, the hydrolysis of corrosion products decrease the pH value of the solution in the anodic zone, resulting in an acidic dissolution of phosphate coatings. At the same time, the depolarization of oxygen increases the pH value in the cathodic zone, causing an alkaline hydrolysis of phosphates. (author) figs., tabs., 149 refs

  18. Dynamic ranking with n + 1 dimensional vector space models: An alternative search mechanism for world wide web

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Lakshminarayana, S.

    Letters to the Editor Dynamic Ranking with n H11001 1 Dimensional Vector Space Models: An Alternative Search Mechanism for World Wide Web Sir: The World Wide Web (WWW) has grown both in depth and width of technology typically giving scope for new databases.../links based on the algo- rithm characteristics. To optimize the results we need to apply dynamically extendable vector based ranking techniques because of the properties that depend for ranking a page are growing and not finite. Kleinberg (1998) classified...

  19. Structural differences within the loop E motif imply alternative mechanisms of viroid processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viroids replicate via a rolling circle mechanism, and cleavage/ligation requires extensive rearrangement of the highly base-paired native structure. For Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd), the switch from cleavage to ligation is driven by the change from a multi-branched tetraloop structure to a l...

  20. Blandford-Znajek mechanism in black holes in alternative theories of gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Pei, Guancheng; Bambi, Cosimo; Middleton, Matthew J

    2016-01-01

    According to the Blandford-Znajek mechanism, black hole jets are powered by the rotational energy of the compact object. In this work, we consider the possibility that the metric around black holes may not be described by the Kerr solution and we study how this changes the Blandford-Znajek model. If the Blandford-Znajek mechanism is responsible for the formation of jets, the estimate of the jet power in combination with another measurement can test the nature of black hole candidates and constrain possible deviations from the Kerr solution. However, this approach might become competitive with respect to other techniques only when it will be possible to have measurements much more precise than those available today.

  1. Upright position mechanical ventilation: an alternative strategy for ALI/ARDS patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Min; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Jia-Ning; Yan, Hua; Li, Yang-Kai; Ai, Bo; Fu, Sheng-Lin; Fu, Xiang-Ning

    2009-11-01

    Use of body positioning to improve oxygenation in mechanically ventilated patients with acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) has been well documented. However, neither prone position ventilation nor side lying ventilation has been reported to improve the survival. Whether there is a body position superior to routine supine position or other positions as therapeutic adjunct for ventilated patients with ALI and ARDS? We propose the hypothesis that upright position ventilation may be helpful to improve oxygenation and benefit patients with ALI/ARDS. According to the existing physiologic and pathophysiologic data of upright position investigation, we suppose that improvement of V/Q matching, increased functional residual capacity, alveolar recruitment, accelerated diaphragm recovery, early gastric emptying and enteric feeding may be a potential protect mechanism of upright position ventilation. Whether this can be translated into improvement in patient outcome should be further tested in clinical trial. PMID:19683402

  2. Application of thermo-mechanically treated drill cuttings as an alternative to bentonite in spud muds

    OpenAIRE

    Taghiyev, Farid

    2014-01-01

    Drill cuttings recovered after drilling with OBM today are treated and deposited at onshore facilities. The TWMA Company offers a new technology, which recovers drilled subsurface materials together with oil and water rests. Due to the similarity between subsurface rock mineralogy and conventional bentonite used in the drilling fluid industry an extended laboratory study was carried out to evaluate the possibility of spud mud development using thermo-mechanically treated drill cuttings. Pr...

  3. Mechanical Color Reading of Wood-Staining Fungal Pigment Textile Dyes: An Alternative Method for Determining Colorfastness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric M. Hinsch

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Colorfastness to washing and crocking (color loss due to rubbing are essential qualities for any dye/fabric combination that will be used for garments or upholstery. In this study, colorfastness to washing and crocking of fabrics dyed with wood-staining fungal pigments was compared to colorfastness of commercial dyes using an alternative mechanical testing method. Overall, wood-staining fungal pigments out performed commercial dyes for colorfastness to washing and wet and dry crocking. Xylindein was the most colorfast dye. Draconin red yielded inconsistent results, and the yellow pigment required a mordant to achieve any colorfastness. This study showed that the mechanical color reading method, along with statistical analysis, provided an objective, repeatable gauge of colorfastness, although visual inspection is also needed for practical purposes.

  4. Alternative mechanisms of increased eggshell hardness of avian brood parasites relative to host species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igic, Branislav; Braganza, Kim; Hyland, Margaret M; Silyn-Roberts, Heather; Cassey, Phillip; Grim, Tomas; Rutila, Jarkko; Moskát, Csaba; Hauber, Mark E

    2011-11-01

    Obligate brood parasitic birds lay their eggs in nests of other species and parasite eggs typically have evolved greater structural strength relative to host eggs. Increased mechanical strength of the parasite eggshell is an adaptation that can interfere with puncture ejection behaviours of discriminating hosts. We investigated whether hardness of eggshells is related to differences between physical and chemical traits from three different races of the parasitic common cuckoo Cuculus canorus, and their respective hosts. Using tools developed for materials science, we discovered a novel correlate of increased strength of parasite eggs: the common cuckoo's egg exhibits a greater microhardness, especially in the inner region of the shell matrix, relative to its host and sympatric non-host species. We then tested predictions of four potential mechanisms of shell strength: (i) increased relative thickness overall, (ii) greater proportion of the structurally harder shell layers, (iii) higher concentration of inorganic components in the shell matrix, and (iv) elevated deposition of a high density compound, MgCO(3), in the shell matrix. We confirmed support only for hypothesis (i). Eggshell characteristics did not differ between parasite eggs sampled from different host nests in distant geographical sites, suggesting an evolutionarily shared microstructural mechanism of stronger parasite eggshells across diverse host-races of brood parasitic cuckoos. PMID:21561966

  5. Nonribosomal peptide synthetase with a unique iterative-alternative-optional mechanism catalyzes amonabactin synthesis in Aeromonas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeel, Qassim; Chevalier, Mickael; Chataigné, Gabrielle; Subashkumar, Rathinasamy; Jacques, Philippe; Leclère, Valérie

    2016-10-01

    Based on the exploration of data generated by genome sequencing, a bioinformatics approach has been chosen to identify the biosynthetic pathway of the siderophores produced by Aeromonas species. The amonabactins, considered as a virulence factor, represent a family of four variants of catechol peptidic siderophores containing Dhb, Lys, Gly, and an aromatic residue either Trp or Phe in a D-configuration. The synthesis operon is constituted of seven genes named amoCEBFAGH and is iron-regulated. The cluster includes genes encoding proteins involved in the synthesis and incorporation of the Dhb monomer, and genes encoding specific nonribosomal peptide synthetases, which are responsible for the building of the peptidic moiety. The amonabactin assembly line displays a still so far not described atypical mode of synthesis that is iterative, alternative, and optional. A disruption mutant in the adenylation domain of AmoG was unable to synthesize any amonabactin and to grow in iron stress conditions while a deletion of amoH resulted in the production of only two over the four forms. The amo cluster is widespread among most of the Aeromonas species, only few species produces the enterobactin siderophore. PMID:27531515

  6. Alternative mating tactics in the yellow dung fly: resolving mechanisms of small-male advantage off pasture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gress, Brian E; Waltzer, Ryan J; Lüpold, Stefan; Droge-Young, Elizabeth M; Manier, Mollie K; Pitnick, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Recent work suggests that the yellow dung fly mating system may include alternative patroller-competitor mating tactics in which large males compete for gravid females on dung, whereas small, non-competitive males search for females at foraging sites. Small males obtain most matings off pasture, yet the behavioural mechanism(s) giving rise to this pattern are unknown. We investigated the male and female behaviours that determine mating success in this environment by conducting field mating experiments and found small males to benefit from several attributes specific to the off-pasture mating environment. First, small males from foraging sites exhibited higher mating propensity, indicating that large males away from dung may be depleted of energy and/or sperm. Second, small males were more discriminating, being significantly less likely to attempt with non-gravid females, which are absent on dung but common off pasture. Third, non-gravid females were generally more likely to actively struggle and reject mating attempts; however, such behaviours occurred disproportionately more often with large males. Female Scathophaga stercoraria thus appear to preferentially mate with small males when off pasture. These findings challenge assumptions about male-female interactions in systems with alternative mating tactics and reveal hidden processes that may influence selection patterns in the field. PMID:24225455

  7. Crystal structure of A. aeolicus LpxC with bound product suggests alternate deacetylation mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Matthew D; Gao, Ning; Ross, Philip L; Olivier, Nelson B

    2015-09-01

    UDP-3-O-acyl-N-acetylglucosamine deacetylase (LpxC) is the first committed step to form lipid A, an essential component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. As it is essential for the survival of many pathogens, LpxC is an attractive target for antibacterial therapeutics. Herein, we report the product-bound co-crystal structure of LpxC from the acheal Aquifex aeolicus solved to 1.6 Å resolution. We identified interactions by hydroxyl and hydroxymethyl substituents of the product glucosamine ring that may enable new insights to exploit waters in the active site for structure-based design of LpxC inhibitors with novel scaffolds. By using this product structure, we have performed quantum mechanical modeling on the substrate in the active site. Based on our results and published experimental data, we propose a new mechanism that may lead to a better understanding of LpxC catalysis and inhibition. PMID:26177919

  8. Mindfulness-Based Exposure Strategies as a Transdiagnostic Mechanism of Change: An Exploratory Alternating Treatment Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brake, C Alex; Sauer-Zavala, Shannon; Boswell, James F; Gallagher, Matthew W; Farchione, Todd J; Barlow, David H

    2016-03-01

    The present study explored whether distress reduction in response to strong negative emotions, a putative transdiagnostic mechanism of action, is facilitated by mindfulness strategies. Seven patients (mean age=31.14years, SD=12.28, range 19-48 years, 43% female, 86% Caucasian) with heterogeneous anxiety disorders (i.e., panic disorder with or without agoraphobia, social anxiety, generalized anxiety) were assigned a randomized order of weeklong blocks utilizing either mindfulness- or avoidance-based strategies while ascending a 6-week emotion exposure hierarchy. Participants completed three exposures per block and provided distress and avoidance use ratings following each exposure. Anxiety severity, distress aversion, and distraction/suppression tendencies were also assessed at baseline and the conclusion of each block. Visual, descriptive, and effect size results showing exposures utilizing mindfulness were associated with higher overall distress levels, compared with those utilizing avoidance. Within blocks, the majority of participants exhibited declining distress levels when employing mindfulness strategies, as opposed to more static distress levels in the avoidance condition. Systematic changes in anxiety severity, distress aversion, and distraction/suppression were not observed. These results suggest mindfulness strategies may be effective in facilitating emotion exposure; however, a minimum dosage may be necessary to overcome initial distress elevation. Potential transdiagnostic change mechanisms and clinical implications are discussed. PMID:26956654

  9. Evidence for protonic communication at the speed of sound: An alternate mechanism for specific biological signaling

    CERN Document Server

    Fichtl, Bernhard; Schneider, Matthias F

    2015-01-01

    Local changes in pH are known to significantly alter the state and activity of proteins and in particular enzymes. pH variations induced by pulses propagating along soft interfaces (e.g. the lipid bilayer) would therefore constitute an important pillar towards a new physical mechanism of biochemical regulation and biological signaling. Here we investigate the pH-induced physical perturbation of a lipid interface and the physiochemical nature of the subsequent acoustic propagation. Pulses are stimulated by local acidification of a lipid monolayer and propagate, in analogy to sound, at velocities controlled by the two-dimensional compressibility of the interface. With transient local pH changes of 0.6 units directly observed at the interface and velocities up to 1.4 m/s this represents hitherto the fastest protonic communication observed. Furthermore simultaneously propagating mechanical and electrical changes in the lipid interface up to 8 mN/m and 100 mV are detected, exposing the thermodynamic nature of thes...

  10. Pathogenetic justification of dietary supplement TestogenonTM for complex impact on men's reproductive system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Liflyandsky

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The reasonable complex preparation TestogenonTM for prevention and treatment of frustration of reproductive system of men including extracts of plants (bark of a pidzheum, a dioskorea, a yokhimba, a ginseng root and biologically active agents (L-arginin, vitamins C and E, B5, B6 and B12 is created pathogenetic. Harmlessness and safety of a preparation are confirmed in pilot studies. Preclinical researches of specific pharmacological activity of dietary supplement to food TestogenonTM, allowed to establish stimulation at experimental animals of production of own testosterone which concentration was authentically above, than at control animals. Besides, at the rats receiving TestogenonTM activation of all indicators of sexual behavior was observed: average frequency a cage on females was 82 % higher, the quantity of intromissiya exceeded that control animals at 12–15 times, the latent period a cage and an interval between sessions authentically decreased. The preparation is recommended for strengthening of a libido, increase in duration of sexual intercourse, elimination of erektilny dysfunction, simplification of age manifestations of a man's climax, and also within complex therapy of a good-quality hyperplasiya of a prostate gland, chronic not bacterial prostatitis, man's infertility, an incontience of urine, testosterone synthesis stimulation. TestogenonTM is contraindicated at the increased nervous excitability, sleeplessness, arterial hypertension, decrease in coagulability of blood, arrhythmia, the expressed dysfunction of a liver and kidneys. 

  11. ERAP1 structure, function and pathogenetic role in ankylosing spondylitis and other MHC-associated diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Navarro, Carlos; López de Castro, José A

    2014-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase 1 (ERAP1) is a multifunctional enzyme involved in the final processing of Major Histocompatibility Complex class I (MHC-I) ligands and with a significant influence in the stability and immunological properties of MHC-I proteins. ERAP1 polymorphism is associated with ankylosing spondylitis among HLA-B27-positive individuals and the altered enzymatic activity of natural variants has significant effects on the HLA-B27 peptidome, suggesting a critical pathogenetic role of peptides in this disease. Likewise, the association of ERAP1 with other MHC-I associated disorders and its epistasis with their susceptibility MHC alleles point out to a general role of the MHC-I peptidome in these diseases. The functional interaction between ERAP1 and HLA-B27 or other MHC-I molecules may be related to the processing of specific epitopes, or to a more general peptide-dependent influence on other biological features of the MHC-I proteins. In addition, from a consideration of the reported functions of ERAP1, including its involvement in angiogenesis and macrophage activation, a more complex and multi-level influence in the inflammatory and immune pathways operating in these diseases cannot be ruled out. PMID:23916068

  12. Pathogenetic and therapeutic implications of the histamine H4 receptor in inflammatory skin diseases and pruritus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutzmer, Ralf; Gschwandtner, Maria; Rossbach, Kristine; Mommert, Susanne; Werfel, Thomas; Kietzmann, Manfred; Baeumer, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Chronic inflammatory skin diseases such as atopic dermatitis (AD) are clinically characterized by erythematous and pruritic skin lesions, immunologically mediated by an inflammatory infiltrate consisting of T-cells, antigen presenting cells (APC) and eosinophilic granulocytes. Histamine levels are increased in lesions of inflammatory skin diseases. It is likely that histamine also plays a pathogenetic role since various relevant cell types such as T-cells and APC express functional histamine receptors. However, therapeutic blockade of the histamine H1 and H2 receptor is inefficient at least in the treatment of atopic dermatitis. We summarize here current data on the role of the recently described histamine H4 receptor (H4R) in chronic inflammatory skin diseases. The H4R is functionally expressed on relevant cell types such as T-cells, APC and keratinocytes. In murine models of contact hypersensitivity and pruritus, H4R blockade had significant in vivo effects. Taken together, several lines of evidence suggest a role of the H4R in chronic inflammatory skin disease and the H4R might be a therapeutic target for diseases such as AD. PMID:21622248

  13. iPSC-Based Models to Unravel Key Pathogenetic Processes Underlying Motor Neuron Disease Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Faravelli

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Motor neuron diseases (MNDs are neuromuscular disorders affecting rather exclusively upper motor neurons (UMNs and/or lower motor neurons (LMNs. The clinical phenotype is characterized by muscular weakness and atrophy leading to paralysis and almost invariably death due to respiratory failure. Adult MNDs include sporadic and familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (sALS-fALS, while the most common infantile MND is represented by spinal muscular atrophy (SMA. No effective treatment is ccurrently available for MNDs, as for the vast majority of neurodegenerative disorders, and cures are limited to supportive care and symptom relief. The lack of a deep understanding of MND pathogenesis accounts for the difficulties in finding a cure, together with the scarcity of reliable in vitro models. Recent progresses in stem cell field, in particular in the generation of induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSCs has made possible for the first time obtaining substantial amounts of human cells to recapitulate in vitro some of the key pathogenetic processes underlying MNDs. In the present review, recently published studies involving the use of iPSCs to unravel aspects of ALS and SMA pathogenesis are discussed with an overview of their implications in the process of finding a cure for these still orphan disorders.

  14. Hahnemann and the methodology of pathogenetic trials in healthy volunteers: a reappraisal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Rogers

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This article assesses the guidelines and protocols that Hahnemann developed for homeopathic pathogenetic trials (HPTs - often referred to as proving - and reappraise them in the light of more recent knowledge and protocols for clinical trials involving human subjects. Innovative features and methods introduced by Hahnemann and aimed at reducing bias are noted. A number of features which are now known to lead to bias in trials and which may be included in the reporting of symptoms are discussed in relation to HPTs. These features include: absence of control groups, absence of random allocation, absence of blinding, the inclusion of trivial and pre-existing symptoms, the inclusion of well-known acquaintances as trial participants, and the lack of definition of the healthy state. Advice from experts and papers published in recent decades related to the design of HPTs are discussed. The importance of developing methods to screen participants in HPTs for susceptibility to the tested medicine is discussed. The absence of trials meeting high quality standards in their design is highlighted. The article concludes with a plea for researchers to show the same desire for rigour and innovation that Hahnemann did in the development of HPTs, whilst fully recognising the requirements and protocols necessary for any trial of medicines on human beings, so that, as Hahnemann wanted, only reliable symptoms from HPTs will be admitted in the materia medica and clinical practice.

  15. Clinic-like animal model for causal-pathogenetical investigations of hypoxic-ischemic brain injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The complex nature of the pathogenesis in hypoxic-ischemic brain injuries equires the combined determination of the dynamics of main factors in these disturbing processes. The application of suitable methods for registration of such pathogenetic processes is shown in an adequate animal model for simulating the early hypoxic-ischemic brain injuries. That the radioactive labelled microsphere technique is suitable to comprehend quantitively the dynamics of the intracerebral redistribution of the circulating blood due to hypoxia/hypercapnia by simultaneous-multiple measuring of the regional cerebral blood flow. Therefore, at the first time an inadequate hypoxic-induced blood flow increase was shown in large parts of the forebrain in intrauterine growth retarded newborn piglets. For estimation of the regional cerebral glucose utilization in newborn piglets, the 18F-FDG Positron Emission Tomography is introduced. The measurements were carried out on a stationary high-density avalanche chamber (HIDAC) camera and yielded the fundamental application of this camera model for PET investigations also in the newborn brain due to the very good spatial resolution. (orig.)

  16. Coding Psychological Constructs in Text Using Mechanical Turk: A Reliable, Accurate, and Efficient Alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosti-Kharas, Jennifer; Conley, Caryn

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we evaluate how to effectively use the crowdsourcing service, Amazon's Mechanical Turk (MTurk), to content analyze textual data for use in psychological research. MTurk is a marketplace for discrete tasks completed by workers, typically for small amounts of money. MTurk has been used to aid psychological research in general, and content analysis in particular. In the current study, MTurk workers content analyzed personally-written textual data using coding categories previously developed and validated in psychological research. These codes were evaluated for reliability, accuracy, completion time, and cost. Results indicate that MTurk workers categorized textual data with comparable reliability and accuracy to both previously published studies and expert raters. Further, the coding tasks were performed quickly and cheaply. These data suggest that crowdsourced content analysis can help advance psychological research. PMID:27303321

  17. Coding Psychological Constructs in Text Using Mechanical Turk: A Reliable, Accurate, and Efficient Alternative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosti-Kharas, Jennifer; Conley, Caryn

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we evaluate how to effectively use the crowdsourcing service, Amazon's Mechanical Turk (MTurk), to content analyze textual data for use in psychological research. MTurk is a marketplace for discrete tasks completed by workers, typically for small amounts of money. MTurk has been used to aid psychological research in general, and content analysis in particular. In the current study, MTurk workers content analyzed personally-written textual data using coding categories previously developed and validated in psychological research. These codes were evaluated for reliability, accuracy, completion time, and cost. Results indicate that MTurk workers categorized textual data with comparable reliability and accuracy to both previously published studies and expert raters. Further, the coding tasks were performed quickly and cheaply. These data suggest that crowdsourced content analysis can help advance psychological research. PMID:27303321

  18. TRENDS IN OFFICIAL DEVELOPMENT ASSISTANCE TO DEVELOPING COUNTRIES AND POSSIBILITIES OF ALTERNATIVE FINANCING MECHANISMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talknice Saungweme

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The study analyses trends in Official Development Assistance (ODA to developing countries, mainly Africa, and possibilities of new financing instruments. Economies of most developing countries, especially those in Sub-Saharan Africa, are characterised by low investment flows, huge import bills and lower exports. Subsequently, development assistance is the major source of external finance and has taken the form of budget support, humanitarian and development finance. However, the noted fall in ODA in 2005, 2009 and 2012 might adversely impact directly on the attainment of millennium development goals in 2015. This negative trend in ODA is a result of a combination of factors such as economic constraints in the donor countries (for example, the debt crisis and/or a new shift in financing mechanisms to developing countries.

  19. New Experiments Call for a Continuous Absorption Alternative to Quantum Mechanics — The Unquantum Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reiter E. S.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A famous beam-split coincidence test of the photon model was performed with -rays instead of visible light. A similar test was performed to split -rays. In both tests, co- incidence rates greatly exceed chance, leading to an unquantum effect. In contradiction to quantum theory and the photon model, these new results are strong evidence of the long abandoned accumulation hypothesis, also known as the loading theory. Attention is drawn to assumptions applied to past key experiments that led to quantum mechan- ics. The history of the loading theory is outlined, and a few key experiment equations are derived, now free of wave-particle duality. Quantum theory usually works because there is a subtle difference between quantized and thresholded absorption.

  20. Designing instruction to support mechanical reasoning: Three alternatives in the simple machines learning environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Ann Frances

    2001-07-01

    Creating a classroom environment that fosters a productive learning experience and engages students in the learning process is a complex endeavor. A classroom environment is dynamic and requires a unique synergy among students, teacher, classroom artifacts and events to achieve robust understanding and knowledge integration. This dissertation addresses this complex issue by developing, implementing, and investigating the simple machines learning environment (SIMALE) to support students' mechanical reasoning and understanding. SIMALE was designed to support reflection, collaborative learning, and to engage students in generative learning through multiple representations of concepts and successive experimentation and design activities. Two key components of SIMALE are an original web-based software tool and hands-on Lego activities. A research study consisting of three treatment groups was created to investigate the benefits of hands-on and web-based computer activities on students' analytic problem solving ability, drawing/modeling ability, and conceptual understanding. The study was conducted with two populations of students that represent a diverse group with respect to gender, ethnicity, academic achievement and social/economic status. One population of students in this dissertation study participated from the Mathematics, Engineering, and Science Achievement (MESA) program that serves minorities and under-represented groups in science and mathematics. The second group was recruited from the Academic Talent Development Program (ATDP) that is an academically competitive outreach program offered through the University of California at Berkeley. Results from this dissertation show success of the SIMALE along several dimensions. First, students in both populations achieved significant gains in analytic problem solving ability, drawing/modeling ability, and conceptual understanding. Second, significant differences that were found on pre-test measures were eliminated

  1. A Homemade Snare: An Alternative Method for Mechanical Removal of Dirofilaria immitis in Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alho, Ana Margarida; Fiarresga, António; Landum, Miguel; Lima, Clara; Gamboa, Óscar; Meireles, José; Sales Luís, José; Madeira de Carvalho, Luís

    2016-01-01

    Canine dirofilariosis is a life-threatening parasitic disease that is increasingly reported worldwide. Once diagnosed the main treatment goals are to improve the animal's clinical condition and to eliminate all life stages of the parasite with minimal posttreatment side effects. This can be achieved through mechanical, surgical, or chemotherapeutical approaches. Currently, manual extraction is the preferred method to remove adult heartworms due to its diminished invasiveness, reduced damage to the vascular endothelium, and shortened anaesthesia duration. However, it remains an expensive technique that can be highly traumatic. To address this issue, a nontraumatic homemade catheter-guided snare was developed for heartworm removal by adapting and folding a 0.014-inch coronary wire (BMW, Abbott Vascular). Transvenous heartworm extraction was performed on a dog severely infected with adult heartworms by inserting the modified snare into a 6-F Judkins right coronary guiding catheter BMW (Cordis) and advancing it into the right ventricle under fluoroscopic guidance. Fifteen adult specimens of Dirofilaria immitis were successfully extracted from the pulmonary artery and right ventricle without complications. To assure the death of both larvae and adults, postoperative treatment was successfully managed using ivermectin, doxycycline, and melarsomine, with no recurrence after surgery. PMID:26981316

  2. A Homemade Snare: An Alternative Method for Mechanical Removal of Dirofilaria immitis in Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Margarida Alho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Canine dirofilariosis is a life-threatening parasitic disease that is increasingly reported worldwide. Once diagnosed the main treatment goals are to improve the animal’s clinical condition and to eliminate all life stages of the parasite with minimal posttreatment side effects. This can be achieved through mechanical, surgical, or chemotherapeutical approaches. Currently, manual extraction is the preferred method to remove adult heartworms due to its diminished invasiveness, reduced damage to the vascular endothelium, and shortened anaesthesia duration. However, it remains an expensive technique that can be highly traumatic. To address this issue, a nontraumatic homemade catheter-guided snare was developed for heartworm removal by adapting and folding a 0.014-inch coronary wire (BMW, Abbott Vascular. Transvenous heartworm extraction was performed on a dog severely infected with adult heartworms by inserting the modified snare into a 6-F Judkins right coronary guiding catheter BMW (Cordis and advancing it into the right ventricle under fluoroscopic guidance. Fifteen adult specimens of Dirofilaria immitis were successfully extracted from the pulmonary artery and right ventricle without complications. To assure the death of both larvae and adults, postoperative treatment was successfully managed using ivermectin, doxycycline, and melarsomine, with no recurrence after surgery.

  3. Photofunctionalization of Titanium: An Alternative Explanation of Its Chemical-Physical Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompella, Alfonso; Kubacki, Jerzy; Szade, Jacek; Roy, Robert A.; Hedzelek, Wieslaw

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To demonstrate that titanium implant surfaces as little as 4 weeks from production are contaminated by atmospheric hydrocarbons. This phenomenon, also known as biological ageing can be reversed by UVC irradiation technically known as photofunctionalization. To propose a new model from our experimental evidence to explain how the changes in chemical structure of the surface will affect the adsorption of amino acids on the titanium surface enhancing osteointegration. Methods In our study XPS and AES were used to analyze the effects of UVC irradiation (photofunctionalization) in reversing biological ageing of titanium. SEM was used to analyze any possible effects on the topography of the surface. Results UVC irradiation was able to reverse biological ageing of titanium by greatly reducing the amount of carbon contamination present on the implant surface by up to 4 times, while the topography of the surface was not affected. UVC photon energy reduces surface H2O and increases TiOH with many –OH groups being produced. These groups explain the super-hydrophilic effect from photofunctionalization when these groups come into contact with water. Significance Photofunctionalization has proven to be a valid method to reduce the amount of hydrocarbon contamination on titanium dental implants and improve biological results. The chemisorption mechanisms of amino acids, in our study, are dictated by the chemical structure and electric state present on the surface, but only in the presence of an also favourable geometrical composition at the atomical level. PMID:27309723

  4. Alternative splicing mechanisms orchestrating post-transcriptional gene expression: intron retention and the intron-rich genome of apicomplexan parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunghi, Matteo; Spano, Furio; Magini, Alessandro; Emiliani, Carla; Carruthers, Vern B; Di Cristina, Manlio

    2016-02-01

    Apicomplexan parasites including Toxoplasma gondii and Plasmodium species have complex life cycles that include multiple hosts and differentiation through several morphologically distinct stages requiring marked changes in gene expression. This review highlights emerging evidence implicating regulation of mRNA splicing as a mechanism to prime these parasites for rapid gene expression upon differentiation. We summarize the most important insights in alternative splicing including its role in regulating gene expression by decreasing mRNA abundance via 'Regulated Unproductive Splicing and Translation'. As a related but less well-understood mechanism, we discuss also our recent work suggesting a role for intron retention for precluding translation of stage specific isoforms of T. gondii glycolytic enzymes. We additionally provide new evidence that intron retention might be a widespread mechanism during parasite differentiation. Supporting this notion, recent genome-wide analysis of Toxoplasma and Plasmodium suggests intron retention is more pervasive than heretofore thought. These findings parallel recent emergence of intron retention being more prevalent in mammals than previously believed, thereby adding to the established roles in plants, fungi and unicellular eukaryotes. Deeper mechanistic studies of intron retention will provide important insight into its role in regulating gene expression in apicomplexan parasites and more general in eukaryotic organisms. PMID:26194054

  5. Cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, two alternative mechanisms for PMKT2 killer activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Antonio; Alonso, Alejandro; Belda, Ignacio; Marquina, Domingo

    2013-01-01

    Pichia membranifaciens CYC 1086 secretes a unique 30kDa killer toxin (PMKT2) that inhibits a variety of spoilage yeasts and fungi of agronomical interest. The cytocidal effect of PMKT2 on Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells was studied. Metabolic events associated with the loss of S. cerevisiae viability caused by PMKT2 were qualitatively identical to those reported for K28 killer toxin activity, but different to those reported for PMKT. At higher doses, none of the cellular events accounting for the action of PMKT, the killer toxin secreted by P. membranifaciens CYC 1106, was observed for PMKT2. Potassium leakage, sodium influx and the decrease of intracellular pH were not among the primary effects of PMKT2. We report here that this protein is unable to form ion-permeable channels in liposome membranes, suggesting that channel formation is not the mechanism of cytotoxic action of PMKT2. Nevertheless, flow cytometry studies have revealed a cell cycle arrest at an early S-phase with an immature bud and pre-replicated 1n DNA content. By testing the sensitivity of cells arrested at different stages in the cell cycle, we hoped to identify the execution point for lethality more precisely. Cells arrested at the G1-phase by α-factor or arrested at G2-phase by the spindle poison methyl benzimidazol-2-yl-carbamate (MBC) were protected against the toxin. Cells released from the arrest in both cases were killed by PMKT2 at a similar rate. Nevertheless, cells released from MBC-arrest were able to grow for a short time, and then viability dropped rapidly. These findings suggest that cells released from G2-phase are initially able to divide, but die in the presence of PMKT2 after initiating the S-phase in a new cycle, adopting a terminal phenotype within that cycle. By contrast, low doses of PMKT and PMKT2 were able to generate the same cellular response. The evidence presented here shows that treating yeast with low doses of PMKT2 leads to the typical membranous, cytoplasmic

  6. Mechanism of a high-Tc superconducting flux pump: Using alternating magnetic field to trigger flux flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Jianzhao; Coombs, T. A.

    2015-10-01

    High-Tc Superconducting (HTS) magnets operating in persistent current mode suffer a current decay due to flux creep of superconductor and joint resistance. Flux pumps are able to inject direct current into superconducting circuit to compensate the current decay, without the thermal loss caused by current leads. In this work, we proposed a flux pumping mechanism for HTS coils, with an experimental verification and an analytical model. The basic principle we have used is that flux flow can be triggered when the superconductor carrying a direct current is subjected to a perpendicular AC magnetic field. Low frequency alternating current is induced in a loop of YBCO tape using an AC field. A portion of the tape which we refer to as the "bridge" shorts a superconducting coil. A high frequency AC field is applied perpendicular to the bridge tape when alternating current in the tape reaches one polarity. This triggers a net flux flow and results in a current increase in the coil. The proposed flux pump has clear physics and is easily controllable, which may make it promising in practical use.

  7. Leprosy pathogenetic background: a review and lessons from other mycobacterial diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulart, Luiz Ricardo; Goulart, Isabela Maria Bernardes

    2009-02-01

    Leprosy is a disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae that initially affects the peripheral nervous system with patients exhibiting contrasting clinical, immunological, and pathological manifestations despite minimal genetic variation among bacilli isolates. Its clinical manifestations are related to M. leprae survival, innate and acquired immune responses, and interactions between host and bacterial proteins, preventing their invasion and infection, or promoting their development and pathogenesis. The complex molecular interactions in affected individuals influenced by the pathogenetic background will be explored in this review. However, the great genetic diversity imposes difficulty for understanding disease development, and it is likely that many factors and metabolic pathways regulating the immense and contrasting symptomatology will yet be revealed. Four pathways may play a central role in leprosy, including the TLR/LIR-7, VDR, TNF-alpha, and TGF-beta1 for which a large amount of gene polymorphisms have been described that could potentially affect the clinical outcome. Cross-talk pathways may significantly change the course of the disease, depending on the specific disequilibrium of genic homeostasis, which is highly dependent on the environment, antigens that are presented to the host cell, and specific polymorphisms that interact with other genes, external factors, and pathogen survival, culminating in leprosy occurrence. Currently, the microarray-based genomic survey of gene polymorphisms, multiple gene expression analyses, and proteomic technologies, such as mass spectrometry and phage display applied in the discovery of antigens, represent a great potential for evaluating individual responses of leprosy patients and contacts to predict the outcome and progression of the disease. At present, none of the genes is good prognostic marker; however, in the near future we may use multiple targets to predict infection and leprosy development. PMID:19043725

  8. [Impact of tobacco use on the periodontium--an update (I)--Part 1: Epidemiologic und pathogenetic aspects of tobacco-related periodontal diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Clemens; Saxer, Ulrich P; Bornstein, Michael M; Klingler, Karl; Ramseier, Christoph A

    2007-01-01

    This literature review represents the second in a series of articles from the Swiss task force "Smoking--Intervention in the private dental office" on the topic "tobacco use and dental medicine". In this article, the epidemiological background as well as some pathogenetic processes are described and discussed critically for tobacco-related periodontal diseases. Earlier publications confirmed tobacco consumption as a risk factor for periodontal diseases. Over the last few years, oral health research has significantly contributed to the understanding of the mechanisms leading to the deterioration of the hard and soft tissues supporting the teeth. With the recording of the number of cigarettes smoked per day and the amount of years tobacco was used, a dose response relationship was established. Various, potentially significant pathogenic effects of tobacco-related substances may exist on the periodontal tissues, the immune response system or the composition of the oral flora. Moreover, there is reference that tobacco consumption may change the genetically determined susceptibility for periodontal diseases. PMID:17330664

  9. Homeopathic pathogenetic trial of Plumbum metallicum: the complete 2000 trial with a synthesis of the original 1828 trial

    OpenAIRE

    Christa Pichler; Andrea Maria Signorini

    2011-01-01

    Background: in a previous paper we reported the statistical analysis and other distribution data of a homeopathic pathogenetic trial (HPT) of Plumbum metallicum 30cH carried out by our group. However, at that time we did not report the resulting pure materia medica, i.e., the totality of symptoms elicited by the tested medicine on healthy volunteers. Aim: to communicate to the homeopathic community the full record of symptoms collected in our HPT of Plb. Methods: methods to collect and select...

  10. Pharmacological treatment of the pathogenetic defects in Type 2 Diabetes. The randomized multi-centre South Danish Diabetes study (SDDS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Jeppe; Henriksen, Jan Erik; Grodum, Ellen;

    2011-01-01

    AbstractObjective: To determine the effect of treatment with insulin Aspart as compared to NPH insulin, together with metformin/placebo and rosiglitazone/placebo. The hypothesis was that combined correction of major pathogenetic defects in type 2 diabetes would result in optimal glycemic control....... Research Design and Methods: A 2-year investigator driven, randomized, partly placebo controlled, multicenter trial in 371 patients with type 2 diabetes on at least oral antiglycemic treatment. Patients were assigned to one of eight treatment groups in a factorial design with insulin aspart at mealtimes vs...

  11. [Pathogenetic and clinical significance of the adhesion molecule expression on T cells of the lung in sarcoid alveolitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerli, R; Galandrini, R; Agea, E; Bini, P; Tognellini, R

    1990-01-01

    A double immunofluorescence analysis of CD4+ cell population from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid samples of patients with active pulmonary sarcoidosis was carried out. The results showed that, unlike BAL and peripheral blood CD4+ cells of healthy subjects, almost all BAL CD4+ cells of the patients highly express, besides CDw29 antigen, LFA-1 and ICAM-1 adhesion molecules. The co-expression of these molecules on BAL CD4+ cells during high intensity sarcoid alveolitis could represent a marker of immunological memory. The relevant pathogenetic and clinical implications of this observation are discussed. PMID:2199744

  12. Linking self-incompatibility, dichogamy, and flowering synchrony in two Euphorbia species: alternative mechanisms for avoiding self-fertilization?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Narbona

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Plant species have several mechanisms to avoid selfing such as dichogamy or a self-incompatibility response. Dichogamy in a single flower may reduce autogamy but, to avoid geitonogamy, plants must show flowering synchronization among all their flowers (i.e. synchronous dichogamy. It is hypothesized that one species would not simultaneously show synchronous dichogamy and self-incompatibility because they are redundant mechanisms to reduce selfing; however, this has not been accurately assessed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This expectation was tested over two years in two natural populations of the closely related Mediterranean spurges Euphorbia boetica and E. nicaeensis, which completely avoid autogamy by protogyny at the cyathia level. Both spurges showed a high population synchrony (Z<79, and their inflorescences flower synchronously. In E. nicaeensis, there was no overlap among the cyathia in anthesis of successive inflorescence levels and the overlap between sexual phases of cyathia of the same inflorescence level was uncommon (4-16%. In contrast, E. boetica showed a high overlap among consecutive inflorescence levels (74-93% and between sexual phases of cyathia of the same inflorescence level (48-80%. The flowering pattern of both spurges was consistent in the two populations and over the two successive years. A hand-pollination experiment demonstrated that E. nicaeensis was strictly self-compatible whereas E. boetica was partially self-incompatible. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We propose that the complex pattern of synchronized protogyny in E. nicaeensis prevents geitonogamous crosses and, consequently, avoids selfing and inbreeding depression. In E. boetica, a high probability of geitonogamous crosses may occur but, alternatively, this plant escapes selfing through a self-incompatibility response. We posit that synchronous dichogamy and physiological self-incompatibility do not co-occur in the same species because each

  13. Sensitivity of ATLAS to alternative mechanisms of electroweak symmetry breaking in vector boson scattering qq→qqlνlν

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analysis of the expected sensitivity of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN to alternative mechanisms of electroweak symmetry breaking in the dileptonic vector boson scattering channel is presented. With the generalized K-Matrix model of vector boson scattering recently implemented in the event generator Whizard, several additional resonances are investigated. Whizard is validated for ATLAS use and an interface for the Les Houches event format is adapted for the ATLAS software Athena. Systematic model and statistical Monte Carlo uncertainties are reduced with a signal definition using events reweighted in the couplings g of the new resonances. Angular correlations conserved by Whizard are used in the event selection. A multivariate analyzer is trained to take into account correlations between the selection variables and thereby to improve the sensitivity compared to cut analyses. The statistical analysis is implemented with a profile likelihood method taking into account systematic uncertainties and statistical uncertainties from Monte Carlo. Ensemble tests are performed to assure the applicability of the method. Expected discovery significances and coupling limits for new additional resonances in vector boson scattering are determined. (orig.)

  14. Incautious Reasoning as a Pathogenetic Factor for the Development of Psychotic Symptoms in Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Moritz, Steffen; Woodward, Todd S.; Hausmann, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that schizophrenia patients draw decisions more hastily than controls. The aim of the present study was to obtain convergent evidence with a new paradigm, designed after the Who Wants to Be a Millionaire television game show. Thirty-two schizophrenia patients and 38 healthy subjects were administered 20 knowledge questions, along with 4 response alternatives. Participants were required to provide probability estimates for each alternative. Whenever a subject was conf...

  15. The cytotoxicity of polycationic iron oxide nanoparticles: Common endpoint assays and alternative approaches for improved understanding of cellular response mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoskins Clare

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (MNP's have an increasing number of biomedical applications. As such in vitro characterisation is essential to ensure the bio-safety of these particles. Little is known on the cellular interaction or effect on membrane integrity upon exposure to these MNPs. Here we synthesised Fe3O4 and surface coated with poly(ethylenimine (PEI and poly(ethylene glycol (PEG to achieve particles of varying surface positive charges and used them as model MNP's to evaluate the relative utility and limitations of cellular assays commonly applied for nanotoxicity assessment. An alternative approach, atomic force microscopy (AFM, was explored for the analysis of membrane structure and cell morphology upon interacting with the MNPs. The particles were tested in vitro on human SH-SY5Y, MCF-7 and U937 cell lines for reactive oxygen species (ROS production and lipid peroxidation (LPO, LDH leakage and their overall cytotoxic effect. These results were compared with AFM topography imaging carried out on fixed cell lines. Results Successful particle synthesis and coating were characterised using FTIR, PCS, TEM and ICP. The particle size from TEM was 30 nm (−16.9 mV which increased to 40 nm (+55.6 mV upon coating with PEI and subsequently 50 nm (+31.2 mV with PEG coating. Both particles showed excellent stability not only at neutral pH but also in acidic environment of pH 4.6 in the presence of sodium citrate. The higher surface charge MNP-PEI resulted in increased cytotoxic effect and ROS production on all cell lines compared with the MNP-PEI-PEG. In general the effect on the cell membrane integrity was observed only in SH-SY5Y and MCF-7 cells by MNP-PEI determined by LDH leakage and LPO production. AFM topography images showed consistently that both the highly charged MNP-PEI and the less charged MNP-PEI-PEG caused cell morphology changes possibly due to membrane disruption and cytoskeleton remodelling. Conclusions

  16. Homeopathic pathogenetic trial of Plumbum metallicum: the complete 2000 trial with a synthesis of the original 1828 trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christa Pichler

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: in a previous paper we reported the statistical analysis and other distribution data of a homeopathic pathogenetic trial (HPT of Plumbum metallicum 30cH carried out by our group. However, at that time we did not report the resulting pure materia medica, i.e., the totality of symptoms elicited by the tested medicine on healthy volunteers. Aim: to communicate to the homeopathic community the full record of symptoms collected in our HPT of Plb. Methods: methods to collect and select symptoms have been reported in the previous paper. In synthesis were excluded all previous common symptoms of volunteers, even with slight differences, and selected only those that were really unknown, never seen, unusual or very strange for the prover. In this paper special emphasis was given to new symptoms as well as unusual or repeated dreams, while in the previous paper special emphasis was given to repeated and crossed symptoms. Results: symptoms are reported in their chronological order of appearance in each volunteer. 37 new symptoms were found, useful to update Homeopathic Repertories. It is also included a synthesis of the original HPT of Plb carried out in 1828 in order to make available the full experimental materia medica currently existing. Conclusions: the new HPT, besides widening the pathogenetic picture of Plb (skin and mucosae symptoms, also allowed us to give new and deeper meanings to some of the symptoms reported in the original trial, such as Anxiety, Activity, Depression, Slowness, Gastro-oesophageal problems, Colitis. The dreams complete the remedy image, mainly in work, religion and sexual themes. Up to the present time there is no peer-reviewed publication devoted to HPTs. For this reason, researchers are compelled to publish HPTs as private editions. This results in poor control of the quality of publications and a lack of standards on how to present the results of HPTs.

  17. Multi-dimensional regional inequality as an alternative allocation mechanism for eu structural funds remittances: the case of Spain and Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    Folmer, H.; Heijman, W.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    We propose a multidimensional approach to regional inequality as an alternative allocation mechanism for EU Structural Funds remittances based on per capita GDP, particularly after EU enlargement. The indicators of regional inequality are combined to a composite index by means of Maasoumi's aggregator function. We propose Partial Common Principal Component Aanalysis as the estimator of the weights for the aggregator function. Application of the multidimensional approach to Spain shows that th...

  18. Alternative Splicing of the Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide Receptor PAC1: Mechanisms of Fine Tuning of Brain Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GilLevkowitz

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Alternative splicing of the precursor mRNA encoding for the neuropeptide receptor PAC1/ADCYAP1R1 generates multiple protein products that exhibit pleiotropic activities. Recent studies in mammals and zebrafish have implicated some of these splice isoforms in control of both cellular and body homeostasis. Here, we review the regulation of PAC1 splice variants and their underlying signal transduction and physiological processes in the nervous system.

  19. On the origin of Mount Etna eruptive cycles and Stromboli volcano paroxysms: implications for an alternative mechanism of volcanic eruption

    CERN Document Server

    Nechayev, Andrei

    2014-01-01

    New mechanism of imbalance between magma column and fluid volume, accumulated in the magmatic system, is considered as a driving force of the volcanic eruption. Conditions of eruption based on this mechanism are used to explain main features of the volcanic activity (eruptive cycles and paroxysms) of the volcanoes Etna and Stromboli (Italy).

  20. Woods with physical, mechanical and acoustic properties similar to those of Caesalpinia echinata have high potential as alternative woods for bow makers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Luiz Longui

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available For nearly two hundred years, Caesalpinia echinata wood has been the standard for modern bows. However, the threat of extinction and the enforcement of trade bans have required bow makers to seek alternative woods. The hypothesis tested was that woods with physical, mechanical and acoustic properties similar to those of C. echinata would have high potential as alternative woods for bows. Accordingly, were investigated Handroanthus spp., Mezilaurus itauba, Hymenaea spp., Dipteryx spp., Diplotropis spp. and Astronium lecointei. Handroanthus and Diplotropis have the greatest number of similarities with C. echinata, but only Handroanthus spp. showed significant results in actual bow manufacture, suggesting the importance of such key properties as specific gravity, speed of sound propagation and modulus of elasticity. In practice, Handroanthus and Dipteryx produced bows of quality similar to that of C. echinata.

  1. Age-related macular degeneration—emerging pathogenetic and therapeutic concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    GEHRS, KAREN M.; ANDERSON, DON H.; JOHNSON, LINCOLN V.; HAGEMAN, GREGORY S.

    2014-01-01

    Today, the average life expectancy in developed nations is over 80 years and climbing. And yet, the quality of life during those additional years is often significantly diminished by the effects of age-related, degenerative diseases, including age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the leading cause of blindness in the elderly worldwide. AMD is characterized by a progressive loss of central vision attributable to degenerative and neovascular changes in the macula, a highly specialized region of the ocular retina responsible for fine visual acuity. Estimates gathered from the most recent World Health Organization (WHO) global eye disease survey conservatively indicate that 14 million persons are blind or severely visually impaired because of AMD. The disease has a tremendous impact on the physical and mental health of the geriatric population and their families and is becoming a major public health burden. Currently, there is neither a cure nor a means to prevent AMD. Palliative treatment options for the less prevalent, late-stage ‘wet’ form of the disease include anti-neovascular agents, photodynamic therapy and thermal laser. There are no current therapies for the more common ‘dry’ AMD, except for the use of antioxidants that delay progression in 20%–25% of eyes. New discoveries, however, are beginning to provide a much clearer picture of the relevant cellular events, genetic factors, and biochemical processes associated with early AMD. Recently, compelling evidence has emerged that the innate immune system and, more specifically, uncontrolled regulation of the complement alternative pathway plays a central role in the pathobiology of AMD. The complement Factor H gene—which encodes the major inhibitor of the complement alternative pathway—is the first gene identified in multiple independent studies that confers a significant genetic risk for the development of AMD. The emergence of this new paradigm of AMD pathogenesis should hasten the development

  2. Diabetes and cancer: A critical appraisal of the pathogenetic and therapeutic links

    Science.gov (United States)

    GRISTINA, VALERIO; CUPRI, MARIA GRAZIA; TORCHIO, MARTINA; MEZZOGORI, CLAUDIO; CACCIABUE, LAURA; DANOVA, MARCO

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes and cancer represent two common, multifactorial, chronic and potentially fatal diseases, not infrequently co-diagnosed in the same patient. Epidemiological data demonstrate significant increases of the cancer incidence in patients with obesity and diabetes, which is more evident for certain site-specific cancers. Although there is increasing evidence that strongly indicates an augmented risk of cancer in diabetic patients, several confounding factors complicate the ability to precisely assess the risk. Mainly in insulin-resistant states (such as in type 2 diabetes mellitus and in metabolic syndrome), direct associations between obesity-related hyperinsulinemia and increasing circulating insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels have been implicated as key factors in the mechanisms involved in carcinogenesis. Whilst anti-diabetic drugs can increase the cancer risk, anti-proliferative drugs may cause diabetes or aggravate pre-existing diabetes. Additionally, an increasing number of targeted anti-cancer therapies may interfere with the pathways shared by IGF-1 and insulin receptors, showing a adverse effect on glucose metabolism through various mechanisms. Although there is a requirement for large-scale randomized evidence, the present review summarizes the majority of the epidemiological association studies between diabetes and various types of cancer, discussing the pathophysiological mechanisms that may be involved in promoting carcinogenesis in diabetes and the potential impact of different anti-diabetic therapies on cancer risk. PMID:25798235

  3. Alternative Toxicity Testing: Analyses on Skin Sensitization, ToxCast Phases I and II, and Carcinogenicity Provide Indications on How to Model Mechanisms Linked to Adverse Outcome Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benigni, Romualdo; Battistelli, Chiara Laura; Bossa, Cecilia; Giuliani, Alessandro; Tcheremenskaia, Olga

    2015-01-01

    This article studies alternative toxicological approaches, with new (skin sensitization, ToxCast) and previous (carcinogenicity) analyses. Quantitative modeling of rate-limiting steps in skin sensitization and carcinogenicity predicts the majority of toxicants. Similarly, successful (Quantitative) Structure-Activity Relationships models exploit the quantification of only one, or few rate-limiting steps. High-throughput assays within ToxCast point to promising associations with endocrine disruption, whereas markers for pathways intermediate events have limited correlation with most endpoints. Since the pathways may be very different (often not simple linear chains of events), quantitative analysis is necessary to identify the type of mechanism and build the appropriate model. PMID:26398111

  4. Intrinsic and extrinsic factors influencing the clinical course of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia: prognostic markers with pathogenetic relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaidano Gianluca

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL, the most frequent leukemia in the Western world, is characterized by extremely variable clinical courses with survivals ranging from 1 to more than 15 years. The pathogenetic factors playing a key role in defining the biological features of CLL cells, hence eventually influencing the clinical aggressiveness of the disease, are here divided into "intrinsic factors", mainly genomic alterations of CLL cells, and "extrinsic factors", responsible for direct microenvironmental interactions of CLL cells; the latter group includes interactions of CLL cells occurring via the surface B cell receptor (BCR and dependent to specific molecular features of the BCR itself and/or to the presence of the BCR-associated molecule ZAP-70, or via other non-BCR-dependent interactions, e.g. specific receptor/ligand interactions, such as CD38/CD31 or CD49d/VCAM-1. A putative final model, discussing the pathogenesis and the clinicobiological features of CLL in relationship of these factors, is also provided.

  5. An alternative view on the role of the β-effect in the Rossby wave propagation mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyal Heifetz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The role of the β-effect in the Rossby wave propagation mechanism is examined in the linearised shallow water equations directly in momentum–height variables, without recourse to potential vorticity (PV. Rigorous asymptotic expansion of the equations, with respect to the small non-dimensionalised β parameter, reveals in detail how the Coriolis force acting on the small ageostrophic terms translates the geostrophic leading-order solution to propagate westward in concert. This information cannot be obtained directly from the conventional PV perspective on the propagation mechanism. Furthermore, a comparison between the β-effect in planetary Rossby waves and the sloping-bottom effect in promoting topographic Rossby waves shows that the ageostrophic terms play different roles in the two cases. This is despite the fact that from the PV viewpoint whether the advection of mean PV gradient is set up by changes in planetary vorticity or by mean depth is inconsequential.

  6. Application of TCF bleaching in mixtures of chemical and mechanics fibers recycled: alternative for the paper industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we study the technical feasibility of using mixtures composed by mechanical and chemical fibers recycled in the production of tissue paper, using TCF bleaching sequences that improve the optical properties of this raw material. At present, chemical fibers recycled are used, but their limited availability and high cost,stimulate the search for raw materials which replace them partially. Bleaching stages were carried out at atmospheric pressure, with the oxidative process made with hydrogen peroxide at 80 celsius degrade in 1.5 hours and the reductive stage with FAS, VBrite, Thiourea Dioxide in situ or Chromaclear at 60 celsius degrade for 1 hour. The obtained results allow to deduce that the addition of mechanical recycled fiber significantly affects the optical properties of mixtures. However, some of the bleaching sequences applied manage to compensate, at least partly, the effect of adding this raw material of lower quality and cost.

  7. Mechanical Stimulation (Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields "PEMF" and Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy "ESWT") and Tendon Regeneration: A Possible Alternative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosso, Federica; Bonasia, Davide E; Marmotti, Antonio; Cottino, Umberto; Rossi, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    The pathogenesis of tendon degeneration and tendinopathy is still partially unclear. However, an active role of metalloproteinases (MMP), growth factors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and a crucial role of inflammatory elements and cytokines was demonstrated. Mechanical stimulation may play a role in regulation of inflammation. In vitro studies demonstrated that both pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) and extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) increased the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine such as interleukin (IL-6 and IL-10). Moreover, ESWT increases the expression of growth factors, such as transforming growth factor β(TGF-β), (VEGF), and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1), as well as the synthesis of collagen I fibers. These pre-clinical results, in association with several clinical studies, suggest a potential effectiveness of ESWT for tendinopathy treatment. Recently PEMF gained popularity as adjuvant for fracture healing and bone regeneration. Similarly to ESWT, the mechanical stimulation obtained using PEMFs may play a role for treatment of tendinopathy and for tendon regeneration, increasing in vitro TGF-β production, as well as scleraxis and collagen I gene expression. In this manuscript the rational of mechanical stimulations and the clinical studies on the efficacy of extracorporeal shock wave (ESW) and PEMF will be discussed. However, no clear evidence of a clinical value of ESW and PEMF has been found in literature with regards to the treatment of tendinopathy in human, so further clinical trials are needed to confirm the promising hypotheses concerning the effectiveness of ESWT and PEMF mechanical stimulation. PMID:26617513

  8. Mechanical stimulation (pulsed electromagnetic fields "PEMF" and extracorporeal shock wave therapy "ESWT" and tendon regeneration: a possible alternative.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica eRosso

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of tendon degeneration and tendinopathy is still partially unclear. However, an active role of metalloproteinases (MMP, growth factors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and a crucial role of inflammatory elements and cytokines was demonstrated. Mechanical stimulation may play a role in regulation of inflammation. In vitro studies demonstrated that both pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF and extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT increased the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine such as interleukin (IL-6 and IL-10. Moreover ESWT increases the expression of growth factors, such as transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF, and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1, as well as the synthesis of collagen I fibers. These pre-clinical results, in association with several clinical studies, suggest a potential effectiveness of ESWT for tendinopathy treatment. Recently PEMF gained popularity as adjuvant for fracture healing and bone regeneration. Similarly to ESWT, the mechanical stimulation obtained using PEMFs may play a role for treatment of tendinopathy and for tendon regeneration, increasing in-vitro TGF-beta production, as well as scleraxis and collagen I gene expression. In this manuscript the rational of mechanical stimulations and the clinical studies on the efficacy of extracorporeal shock wave (ESW and PEMF will be discussed. However, no clear evidence of a clinical value of ESW and PEMF has been found in literature with regards to the treatment of tendinopathy in human, so further clinical trials are needed to confirm the promising hypotheses concerning the effectiveness of ESWT and PEMF mechanical stimulation.

  9. Alternative splicing and expression of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) gene in osteoblasts under mechanical stretch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAN Chengyu; WANG Yuanliang; ZHANG Bingbing; TANG Liling; PAN Jun; LUO Yanfeng; JIANG Peng; LI Dajun

    2006-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) promotes osteoblasts differentiation and bone formation,and its expression is induced by mechanical stretch,thus IGF-1 has been considered an effector molecule that links mechanical stimulation and local tissue responses. In this study, a mechanical stretching device was designed to apply physiological level static or cyclic stretching stimulation to osteoblasts.Different isoforms of IGF-1 mRNA were amplified by RT-PCR from the cells using respective primers and these amplified products were sequenced. An isoform of IGF-1 splicing product was found to be selectively produced by osteoblasts under stretching stimulation. This IGF-1 isoform had identical sequence with the mechano growth factor (MGF) which was originally identified in muscle cells. Regulations of the expression of the liver-type IGF (L.IGF-1) and MGF in osteoblasts under stretch stimulation were further studied using semi-quantitative RT-PCR.Stretch stimulation was found to promot the expression of IGF-1 (L.IGF-1 and MGF), and for both isoforms expression was more effectively stimulated by cyclic stretch than static stretch. MGF was detected only in osteoblasts subjected to mechanical stretch,suggesting MGF was a stretch sensitive growth factor.Expression of MGF peaked earlier than that of L.IGF-1, which was similar to their regulation in muscie and suggested similar roles of MGF and L.IGF-1in bone as in muscle cells. The functions of MGF and L.IGF-1 in osteoblasts shall be established by further experimental studies.

  10. Novel mechanisms in functional dyspepsia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rok Son Choung; Nicholas J Talley

    2006-01-01

    Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a highly prevalent but heterogeneous disorder in which multiple pathogenetic mechanisms are involved. Although there are many studies that have investigated various pathophysiologic mechanisms, the underlying casual pathways associated with FD remain obscure. The currently proposed pathophysiologic mechanisms associated with FD include genetic susceptibility, delayed as well as accelerated gastric emptying, visceral hypersensitivity to acid or mechanical distention, impaired gastric accommodation,abnormal fundic phasic contractions, abnormal antroduodenal motility, acute and chronic infections, and psychosocial comorbidity. A greater understanding of the abnormalities underlying FD may lead to improved management. The aim of this editorial is to provide a critical overview of current pathophysiologic concepts in functional dyspepsia.

  11. Environmental Isocyanate-Induced Asthma: Morphologic and Pathogenetic Aspects of an Increasing Occupational Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim Schirren

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Occupational diseases affect more and more people every year. According to the International Labour Organization (ILO, in 2000 an estimated amount of at least 160 million people became ill as a result of occupational-related hazards or injuries. Globally, occupational deaths, diseases and injuries account for an estimated loss of 4% of the Gross Domestic Product. Important substances that are related to occupational diseases are isocyanates and their products. These substances, which are used in a lot of different industrial processes, are not only toxic and irritant, but also allergenic. Although the exposure to higher concentrations could be monitored and restricted by technical means, very low concentrations are difficult to monitor and may, over time, lead to allergic reactions in some workers, ending in an occupational disease. In order to prevent the people from sickening, the mechanisms underlying the disease, by patho-physiological and genetical means, have to be known and understood so that high risk groups and early signs in the development of an allergic reaction could be detected before the exposure to isocyanates leads to an occupational disease. Therefore, this paper reviews the so far known facts concerning the patho-physiologic appearance and mechanisms of isocyanate-associated toxic reactions and possible genetic involvement that might trigger the allergic reactions.

  12. Alternative security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book contains the following chapters: The Military and Alternative Security: New Missions for Stable Conventional Security; Technology and Alternative Security: A Cherished Myth Expires; Law and Alternative Security: Toward a Just World Peace; Politics and Alternative Security: Toward a More Democratic, Therefore More Peaceful, World; Economics and Alternative Security: Toward a Peacekeeping International Economy; Psychology and Alternative Security: Needs, Perceptions, and Misperceptions; Religion and Alternative Security: A Prophetic Vision; and Toward Post-Nuclear Global Security: An Overview

  13. More about Neutron Majorana mass from Exotic Instantons: an alternative mechanism in Low-Scale String theory

    CERN Document Server

    Addazi, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Recently, we have proposed that Exotic instantons can generate a Majorana mass for the neutron, with emphasis to experimental researches in the next future. In this paper, we discuss an alternative model based on the same idea, in the contest of low scale string theory. In particular, with $M_{S}=10\\div 10^{3}\\rm TeV$, such a transition can be mediated by two color-triplets, through a quartic coupling with down-quarks, generated by exotic instantons, in a calculable and controllable way. Comparison with FCNCs imposes limits on color-triplet mass well compatible with $n-\\bar{n}$ oscillation ones. If a $n-\\bar{n}$ transition were found, this would be an indirect hint for our model. This would strongly motivate searches for direct channels in proton-proton colliders. In fact, our model can be directly tested in a experimentally challenging $100\\div 1000\\, \\rm TeV$ proton-proton collider, searching for our desired color-triplet states and an evidence for "exotic quartic couplings", in addition to Regge resonances...

  14. Single-Cell Analyses of ESCs Reveal Alternative Pluripotent Cell States and Molecular Mechanisms that Control Self-Renewal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitri Papatsenko

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Analyses of gene expression in single mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs cultured in serum and LIF revealed the presence of two distinct cell subpopulations with individual gene expression signatures. Comparisons with published data revealed that cells in the first subpopulation are phenotypically similar to cells isolated from the inner cell mass (ICM. In contrast, cells in the second subpopulation appear to be more mature. Pluripotency Gene Regulatory Network (PGRN reconstruction based on single-cell data and published data suggested antagonistic roles for Oct4 and Nanog in the maintenance of pluripotency states. Integrated analyses of published genomic binding (ChIP data strongly supported this observation. Certain target genes alternatively regulated by OCT4 and NANOG, such as Sall4 and Zscan10, feed back into the top hierarchical regulator Oct4. Analyses of such incoherent feedforward loops with feedback (iFFL-FB suggest a dynamic model for the maintenance of mESC pluripotency and self-renewal.

  15. More about neutron Majorana mass from exotic instantons: An alternative mechanism in low-scale string theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addazi, Andrea

    2016-06-01

    We discuss an alternative for baryon-violating six quarks transition in the context of low scale string theory. In particular, with MS = 10-103 TeV, such a transition can be mediated by two color-triplets through a quartic coupling with down-quarks, generated by exotic instantons, in a calculable and controllable way. We show how flavor-changing neutral currents (FCNCs) limits on color-triplet mass are well compatible with n ‑n¯ oscillation ones. If an n ‑n¯ transition was found, this would be an indirect hint for our model. This would strongly motivate searches for direct channels in proton-proton colliders. In fact, our model can be directly tested in an experimentally challenging 100-1000 TeV proton-proton collider, searching for our desired color-triplet states and an evidence for exotic instantons resonances, in addition to stringy Regge resonances, anomalous Z‧-bosons and gauged megaxion. In particular, our scenario can be related to the 750 GeV diphoton hint identifying it with the gauged megaxion dual to the B-field. On the other hand, this scenario is compatible with TeV-ish color triplets visible at large hadron collider (LHC) and with 1-10 TeV string scale, i.e. stringy resonances at LHC.

  16. Acceleration of Ca(2+) repletion in the junctional sarcoplasmic reticulum and alternation of the Ca(2+)-induced Ca(2+)-release mechanism in hypertensive rat (SHR) cardiac muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Midori; Tameyasu, Tsukasa

    2008-04-01

    We estimated the time taken for a repletion of the junctional sarcoplasmic reticulum (JSR) Ca(2+) stores from a family of mechanical restitution curves after twitches of various magnitudes in the cardiac muscle of hypertensive rats (SHR), using a method described previously (Tameyasu et al. Jpn J Physiol. 2004;54:209-19), to evaluate abnormality in Ca(2+) handling by cardiac JSR in hypertension. We found no differences in contractility or in the time course of mechanical restitution between SHR and the controls (WKY) at 3 weeks of age. In comparison to WKY, 7- and 20-week-old SHR showed a greater rested state contraction (RST) and similar or smaller rapid cooling contracture, suggesting that their JSR contains a similar amount of Ca(2+) at saturation, but releases more Ca(2+) upon stimulation. The adult SHR and WKY showed similar mechanical restitution time courses, but the adults had longer pretwitch latencies. The function G(t) representing the time course of JSR Ca(2+) store repletion in adult SHR exceeded the WKY value at t JSR [Ca(2+)] change corresponding to the mechanical restitution after RST was smaller in the adult SHR at t JSR Ca(2+) store repletion and an alternation of the Ca(2+)-induced release of Ca(2+ )from the JSR in young adult SHR. PMID:18312741

  17. A new trend in pathogenetic treatment of rheumatoid arthritis: tofacitinib, the first inhibitor of Janus kinase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Evgenyevich Karateev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Problem of effective treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA has not been solved yet. In patients with an inadequate response to the synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs, TNF inhibitors and other genetically engineered (GE drugs may give an incomplete effect or be totally ineffective in 20–40% of cases. The search for new therapeutic options is very active in many directions, including modulation of intracellular signaling pathways. The most impressive clinical results in RA patients have been achieved for Janus kinase (JAK inhibitor, tofacitinib, – Tofa (CP-690,550, a low molecular weight drug for oral administration. Unlike the conventional synthetic DMARD, Tofa belongs to targeted therapy drugs; its pharmacological effects largely resemble those of GE drugs (blockade of the biological effects of cytokines. In particular, some features of its mechanism of action (e.g., interleukin 6 inhibition make it similar to tocilizumab. In all trials, Tofa proved to exhibit high clinical efficacy and satisfactory safety. Tofa was shown to be significantly more effective than methotrexate and placebo (in monotherapy, as well as in combination with DMARDs in RA patients with an inadequate response to standard DMARDs and TNFa inhibitors (regarding response to treatment, individual parameters of disease activity, achievement of low disease activity and remission, functional impairment. Furthermore, Tofa can inhibit joint damage progression.

  18. Mechanical induction of cough in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Richard M; Hilldrup, Simon; Hope-Gill, Benjamin DM; Eccles, Ronald; Harrison, Nicholas K

    2011-01-01

    Background Patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) frequently develop a dry, irritating cough which often proves refractory to anti-tussive therapies. The precise pathogenetic mechanisms responsible for this cough are unknown. We hypothesised that changes in nerves modulating mechanical sensitivity in areas of interstitial fibrosis might lead to enhanced cough response to mechanical stimulation of the chest in IPF. Methods We studied 27 non-smoking subjects with IPF (63% male), mean...

  19. 板栗贮藏中的病原菌及其控制%Pathogenetic Fungi Stored Chestnuts Putrid in China and Controlling Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴桂馥; 李宗伟; 王雁萍; 王付转; 吴健; 刘建华

    2001-01-01

    Five kinds of pathogenetic fungi seperated from Chinese chestnutsin storage are identified. They are Dothiorelle gregria, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Papularia sp, Penicillium sp and yeast. After having studied some infecting conditions and the ecological environment in storing, knew that four of them can be effectively inhibited when chestnucts are stored in modified atmosphere at low temperature, except for penicillium sp. Some nonpoison and nonpollution agents, for example patassium sorbate, can decline the loss caused by penicillum sp. Base on the study, a scheme for storing chustnuts is set up, in which the pathogenetic fungi infecting chestnus in their growth period are inhibited stored in modified atmosphere at low temperature, and the pathogenetic fungi infecting chestnuts after harvest are inhibited by appling antifungus agent.%从贮藏板栗中分离并鉴定出5种主要病原菌,它们是Dothiorella gregria,Colletotrichumgloeosporioides,Papulariasp,Penicilliumsp和yeast.通过对这些病原菌的侵染条件和贮藏生态环境的研究发现除青霉外,低温自发气调能有效地抑制其它4种病原菌的蔓延,而无毒无污染的山梨酸钾又可使青霉的危害大为降低,从而确立了低温气调控制生长期感染病原菌的蔓延,以及适当的药剂防止采后感染病原菌扩散的防霉策略.

  20. Alternative current conduction mechanisms of organic-inorganic compound [N(CH3)3H]2ZnCl4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Bechir, M.; Karoui, K.; Tabellout, M.; Guidara, K.; Ben Rhaiem, A.

    2014-04-01

    [N(CH3)3H]2ZnCl4 has been studied by X-ray powder diffraction patterns, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and impedance spectroscopy. The [N(CH3)3H]2ZnCl4 hybrid compound is crystallized at room temperature (T ≈ 300 K) in the orthorhombic system with Pnma space group. Five phase transitions (T1 = 255 K, T2 = 282 K, T3 = 302 K, T4 = 320 K, and T5 = 346 K) have been proved by DSC measurements. The electrical technique was measured in the 10-1-107 Hz frequency range and 233-363 K temperature interval. The frequency dependence of alternative current (AC) conductivity is interpreted in terms of Jonscher's law. The AC electrical conduction in [N(CH3)3H]2ZnCl4 is analyzed by different processes, which can be attributed to several models: the correlated barrier hopping model in phase I, the overlapping large polaron tunneling model in phase II, the quantum mechanical tunneling model in phase IV, and the non-overlapping small polaron tunneling model in phases III, V, and VI. The conduction mechanism is studied with the help of Elliot's theory, and the Elliot's parameters are determined.

  1. The differential expression of alternatively polyadenylated transcripts is a common stress-induced response mechanism that modulates mammalian mRNA expression in a quantitative and qualitative fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollerer, Ina; Curk, Tomaz; Haase, Bettina; Benes, Vladimir; Hauer, Christian; Neu-Yilik, Gabriele; Bhuvanagiri, Madhuri; Hentze, Matthias W; Kulozik, Andreas E

    2016-09-01

    Stress adaptation plays a pivotal role in biological processes and requires tight regulation of gene expression. In this study, we explored the effect of cellular stress on mRNA polyadenylation and investigated the implications of regulated polyadenylation site usage on mammalian gene expression. High-confidence polyadenylation site mapping combined with global pre-mRNA and mRNA expression profiling revealed that stress induces an accumulation of genes with differentially expressed polyadenylated mRNA isoforms in human cells. Specifically, stress provokes a global trend in polyadenylation site usage toward decreased utilization of promoter-proximal poly(A) sites in introns or ORFs and increased utilization of promoter-distal polyadenylation sites in intergenic regions. This extensively affects gene expression beyond regulating mRNA abundance by changing mRNA length and by altering the configuration of open reading frames. Our study highlights the impact of post-transcriptional mechanisms on stress-dependent gene regulation and reveals the differential expression of alternatively polyadenylated transcripts as a common stress-induced mechanism in mammalian cells. PMID:27407180

  2. ModuleFinder and CoReg: alternative tools for linking gene expression modules with promoter sequences motifs to uncover gene regulation mechanisms in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whelan James

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Uncovering the key sequence elements in gene promoters that regulate the expression of plant genomes is a huge task that will require a series of complementary methods for prediction, substantial innovations in experimental validation and a much greater understanding of the role of combinatorial control in the regulation of plant gene expression. Results To add to this larger process and to provide alternatives to existing prediction methods, we have developed several tools in the statistical package R. ModuleFinder identifies sets of genes and treatments that we have found to form valuable sets for analysis of the mechanisms underlying gene co-expression. CoReg then links the hierarchical clustering of these co-expressed sets with frequency tables of promoter elements. These promoter elements can be drawn from known elements or all possible combinations of nucleotides in an element of various lengths. These sets of promoter elements represent putative cis-acting regulatory elements common to sets of co-expressed genes and can be prioritised for experimental testing. We have used these new tools to analyze the response of transcripts for nuclear genes encoding mitochondrial proteins in Arabidopsis to a range of chemical stresses. ModuleFinder provided a subset of co-expressed gene modules that are more logically related to biological functions than did subsets derived from traditional hierarchical clustering techniques. Importantly ModuleFinder linked responses in transcripts for electron transport chain components, carbon metabolism enzymes and solute transporter proteins. CoReg identified several promoter motifs that helped to explain the patterns of expression observed. Conclusion ModuleFinder identifies sets of genes and treatments that form useful sets for analysis of the mechanisms behind co-expression. CoReg links the clustering tree of expression-based relationships in these sets with frequency tables of promoter

  3. A Novel Mechanism in Regulating the Alpha-Subunit of the Epithelial Sodium Channel (α ENaC by the Alternatively Spliced Form α ENaC-b

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene F. Shehata

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In Dahl rats’ kidney cortex, the alternatively spliced form of the epithelial sodium channel α subunit (α ENaC-b is the most abundant mRNA transcript (32+/-3 fold α ENaC-wt as was investigated by quantitative RT-PCR analysis. α ENaC-b mRNA levels were significantly higher in Dahl R versus S rats, and were further augmented by high salt diet.Objectives: In the present study, we described the molecular cloning and searched for a possible role of α ENaC-b by testing its potential expression in COS7 cells as well as its impact on α ENaC-wt expression levels when co-expressed in COS7 cells in a dose-dependent manner.Methods: Using RT-PCR strategy, the full-length wildtype α ENaC transcript and the alternatively spliced form α ENaC-b were amplified, sequenced, cloned, subcloned into PCMV-sport6 expression vector, expressed and co-expressed into COS7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. A combination of denaturing and native western blotting techniques was employed to examine the expression of α ENaC-b in vitro, and to determine if an interaction between α ENaC-b and α ENaC-wt occurs in vitro, and finally to demonstrate if degradation of α ENaC-wt protein does occur.Results: α ENaC-b is translated in COS7 cells. Co-expression of α ENaC-b together with α ENaC-wt reduced α ENaC-wt levels in a dose-dependent manner. α ENaC-wt and α ENaC-b appear to form a complex that enhances the degradation of α ENaC-wt.Conclusions: Western blots suggest a novel mechanism in α ENaC regulation whereby α ENaC-b exerts a dominant negative effect on α ENaC-wt expression. This is potentially by sequestering α ENaC-wt, enhancing its proteolytic degradation, and possibly explaining the mechanism of salt-resistance in Dahl R rats.

  4. Surface topography, nano-mechanics and secondary structure of wheat gluten pretreated by alternate dual-frequency ultrasound and the correlation to enzymolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanyan; Wang, Bei; Zhou, Cunshan; Atungulu, Griffiths G; Xu, Kangkang; Ma, Haile; Ye, Xiaofei; Abdualrahman, Mohammed A Y

    2016-07-01

    The effects of alternate dual-frequency ultrasound (ADFU) pretreatment on the degree of hydrolysis (DH) of wheat gluten (WG) and angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity were investigated in this research. The surface topography, nano-mechanics and secondary structure of WG were also determined using atomic force microscope (AFM) and circular dichroism (CD). The correlations of ACE inhibitory activity and DH with surface topography, nano-mechanics and secondary structure of WG were determined using Pearson's correlation analysis. The results showed that with an increase in either pretreatment duration or power, the ACE inhibitory activity of the hydrolysate also increases, reaching maximum at 10min and 150W/L, respectively, and then decreases thereafter. Similarly, AFM analysis showed that as the pretreatment duration or power increases, the surface roughness also increase and again a decrease occurs thereafter. As the pretreatment duration or power increased, the Young's modulus and adhesion of WG also increased and then declined. Young's modulus and adhesions average values were compared with ACE inhibitory activity reversely. The result of the CD spectra analysis exhibited losses in the relative percentage of α-helix of WG. Pearson's correlation analysis showed that the average values of Young's modulus and the relative percentage of α-helix correlated with ACE inhibitory activity of the hydrolysates linearly and significantly (P<0.05); the relative percentage of β-sheet correlated linearly with DH of WG significantly (P<0.05). In conclusion, ADFU pretreatment is an efficient method in proteolysis due to its physical and chemical effect on the Young's modulus, α-helix and β-sheet of WG. PMID:26964949

  5. GNAS mutation as an alternative mechanism of activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in gastric adenocarcinoma of the fundic gland type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Ryosuke; Saito, Tsuyoshi; Mitomi, Hiroyuki; Hidaka, Yasuhiro; Lee, Se-yong; Watanabe, Sumio; Yao, Takashi

    2014-12-01

    Gastric adenocarcinoma of the fundic gland type (GAFG) is a rare variant of gastric tumor. We have recently reported the frequent accumulation of β-catenin in GAFGs and showed that approximately half of the cases studied harbored at least 1 mutation in CTNNB1/AXINs/APC, leading to the constitutive activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. However, the mechanisms of Wnt signaling activation in the remaining cases are unknown. Accumulating evidence showed that the activating mutation in GNAS promotes tumorigenesis via the activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway or the ERK1/2 MAPK pathway. Therefore, we analyzed the mutations in GNAS (exons 8 and 9) and in KRAS (exon 2) in 26 GAFGs. Immunohistochemistry revealed nuclear β-catenin expression in 22 of 26 GAFGs, and 10 (38.5%) of 26 cases harbored at least 1 mutation in CTNNB1/AXINs/APC. Activating mutations in GNAS were found in 5 (19.2%) of 26 GAFGs, all of which harbored R201C mutations. Activating mutations in KRAS were found in 2 (7.7%) of 26 GAFGs, and both of these also contained GNAS activating mutations. Four of 5 cases with GNAS mutation showed nuclear β-catenin expression, and presence of GNAS mutation was associated with β-catenin nuclear expression (P = .01). Furthermore, 3 of these 4 cases did not harbor mutations in CTNNB1, APC, or AXINs, suggesting that mutations in the Wnt component genes and those in GNAS occur almost exclusively. These results suggest that GNAS mutation might occur in a small subset of GAFG as an alternative mechanism of activating the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. PMID:25288233

  6. Association of neuroelectrophysiology and analysis of cerebrospinal fluid immunoglobulin with pathogenetic conditions of patients with Guillain-Barre syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haibin Huang; Xunliang Mai; Xiaohong Ye

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) is an autoimmune disease which is characterized by demyelination of peripheral nerve and nerve root, and inflammatory reaction of lymphocyte and macrophage. Neuroelectrophysiological examination and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis are of significance for its diagnosis.OBJECTIVE: To study the association of neuroelectrophysiology and cerebrospinal fluid immunoglobulin (CSF-Ig) with pathogenetic conditions of patients with GBS.DESIGN: Case control study.SETTING: Department of Neurology, Shenzhen Municipal Shekou Group Hospital; Department of Neuroelectrophysiology, People's Hospital of Guangdong Province.PARTICIPANTS: A total of 32 GBS patients including 18 males and 14 females who aged from 17 to 72 years were selected as experimental group from the Department of Neurology, People's Hospital of Guangdong Province from January 2004 to December 2005. All cases conformed with GBS diagnostic criteria established by Asbury in 1990 and they were divided into three types according to neurological criteria established by Chinese Neurology and Psychology Journal in 1993: mild, moderate and severe types. Another 30 patients with vascular headache were selected as control group from the same hospital including 14 males and 16 females who aged from 17 to 79 years.METHODS: ① Neuroelectrophysiological examination: Multiple-functional electromyography device provided by Nicolet Company, USA was used to measure nerve conduction velocity (NCV), including motor nerve conduction velocity (MCV) and sensory nerve conduction velocity (SCV); meanwhile, electromyologram (EMG), somatosensory evoked potential (SEP) and electroencephalogram (EEG) were also measured. ② Detection of CSF-Ig: Concentrations of IgG, IgA and IgM were measured with immunofixation electrophoresis. ③ Follow-up: Among 32 GBS patients, 14 cases received follow-up after treatment and the longest follow-up time was 1 year after onset. Among them, 8 cases were reexaminined

  7. Sensitivity of ATLAS to alternative mechanisms of electroweak symmetry breaking in vector boson scattering qq{yields}qql{nu}l{nu}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumacher, Jan W.

    2010-10-15

    An analysis of the expected sensitivity of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN to alternative mechanisms of electroweak symmetry breaking in the dileptonic vector boson scattering channel is presented. With the generalized K-Matrix model of vector boson scattering recently implemented in the event generator Whizard, several additional resonances are investigated. Whizard is validated for ATLAS use and an interface for the Les Houches event format is adapted for the ATLAS software Athena. Systematic model and statistical Monte Carlo uncertainties are reduced with a signal definition using events reweighted in the couplings g of the new resonances. Angular correlations conserved by Whizard are used in the event selection. A multivariate analyzer is trained to take into account correlations between the selection variables and thereby to improve the sensitivity compared to cut analyses. The statistical analysis is implemented with a profile likelihood method taking into account systematic uncertainties and statistical uncertainties from Monte Carlo. Ensemble tests are performed to assure the applicability of the method. Expected discovery significances and coupling limits for new additional resonances in vector boson scattering are determined. (orig.)

  8. Etiopathogenetic mechanisms of fibromyalgia syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.H. Gracely

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS is a common chronic condition of widespread pain with causal mechanisms that are largely unknown. It is characterized by moderate to severe musculoskel - etal pain and allodynia, but its pathogenesis appears confined to the nociceptive structures of the central nervous system. From a pathogenetic point of view, indeed, no clear muscle pathology has been demonstrated in FMS (1, 2, while increasing evidence suggests a disturbance in pain perception that is genetically conditioned. In our review we will consider five “keypoints” that we think determine the origin and maintenance of the pain syndrome that we define as fibromyalgia...

  9. Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Hartog, J P Den

    1961-01-01

    First published over 40 years ago, this work has achieved the status of a classic among introductory texts on mechanics. Den Hartog is known for his lively, discursive and often witty presentations of all the fundamental material of both statics and dynamics (and considerable more advanced material) in new, original ways that provide students with insights into mechanical relationships that other books do not always succeed in conveying. On the other hand, the work is so replete with engineering applications and actual design problems that it is as valuable as a reference to the practicing e

  10. Correction of androgen deficiency in chronic infectious prostatitis as pathogenetic method of overcoming inefficiencies standard antibiotics against the growing antibiotic resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Tyuzikov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The chronic prostatitis occupies the big relative density in structure of an out-patient urological pathology in our country, however, results of its standard pharmacotherapy remain unsatisfactory that is accompanied by high risk clinical recurrence and progressing of anatomic and functional disorders in prostata. Modern methods of diagnostics of the chronic infectious prostatitis, which share in the general structure of inflammatory prostata diseases does not exceed 10 %, are based on the recommended volume of the standard tests directed only on revealing of the infectious agent in a prostatic secret, and do not consider degree of disorders of the prostatic homeostasis which key moment is prostata androgen-dependence. It leads to mainly symptomatic approach in treatment of a chronic infectious prostatitis in the modern urological practice, based exclusively on antibacterial therapy that promotes the further growth of prostate pathogens antibiotics resistance, inefficiencies of unreasonable repeated courses of antibacterial therapy and are supported by a myth about incurability of a chronic prostatitis. At the same time, intraprostatic androgen balance defines all basic functions of gland, and its safety essentially depends on testosterone blood level, therefore endogenic testosterone level it is possible to consider as universal predictor of prostata metabolic homeostasis disorders, leading to decrease in bactericidal function of gland and infections. This author’s concept allows to consider correction of an adverse hormonal and metabolic background on which the clinical picture of a chronic prostatitis (first of all, deficiency of sexual hormones as pathogenetic therapy of all infectious chronic prostatitises against which realisation of effects of antibacterial therapy is essentially facilitated is developed or last is not so necessary, to what own clinical supervision resulted in article testify. Such interdisciplinary approach will lead

  11. Correction of androgen deficiency in chronic infectious prostatitis as pathogenetic method of overcoming inefficiencies standard antibiotics against the growing antibiotic resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Tyuzikov

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The chronic prostatitis occupies the big relative density in structure of an out-patient urological pathology in our country, however, results of its standard pharmacotherapy remain unsatisfactory that is accompanied by high risk clinical recurrence and progressing of anatomic and functional disorders in prostata. Modern methods of diagnostics of the chronic infectious prostatitis, which share in the general structure of inflammatory prostata diseases does not exceed 10 %, are based on the recommended volume of the standard tests directed only on revealing of the infectious agent in a prostatic secret, and do not consider degree of disorders of the prostatic homeostasis which key moment is prostata androgen-dependence. It leads to mainly symptomatic approach in treatment of a chronic infectious prostatitis in the modern urological practice, based exclusively on antibacterial therapy that promotes the further growth of prostate pathogens antibiotics resistance, inefficiencies of unreasonable repeated courses of antibacterial therapy and are supported by a myth about incurability of a chronic prostatitis. At the same time, intraprostatic androgen balance defines all basic functions of gland, and its safety essentially depends on testosterone blood level, therefore endogenic testosterone level it is possible to consider as universal predictor of prostata metabolic homeostasis disorders, leading to decrease in bactericidal function of gland and infections. This author’s concept allows to consider correction of an adverse hormonal and metabolic background on which the clinical picture of a chronic prostatitis (first of all, deficiency of sexual hormones as pathogenetic therapy of all infectious chronic prostatitises against which realisation of effects of antibacterial therapy is essentially facilitated is developed or last is not so necessary, to what own clinical supervision resulted in article testify. Such interdisciplinary approach will lead

  12. Vasculitis: the main pathogenetic reason of Restless leg syndrome%血管炎:不宁腿的一个常见原因

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨欢; 谢光洁; 肖波

    2001-01-01

    Objective To investigate the main pathogenetic reason inducing restless leg syndrome and the relationship about vasculitis with it. Method The laboratory examinations, electromyogramms and gastrocnemius biopsies were studied in 37 patients with restless leg syndrome who were not found other primary disease . Result It was shown that 2 of 37 cases were caused by diabetes, 1 was anemia and 1 was rheumatoid arthritis. 25 case gastrocnemius biopsies were all found vasculitic changes, and 7 of them were reported that the lectrogramms had myopathic changes , others laboratory examinations were normal . Conclusion These findings suggest that the vasculitis is one of the main pathogenetic reason of restless leg syndrome.%目的 探讨不宁腿的常见原因及其与血管炎的关系。方法 观察37例临床表现为不宁腿而暂未发现其它原发病患者的实验室检查、肌电图及腓肠肌活检情况。结果 检查发现37例患者中2例糖尿病;1例贫血;1例类风湿性关节炎;25例患者腓肠肌活检发现存在血管炎性改变,其中7例EMG报告有肌源性损害,其它实验室检查均未发现异常。结论 血管炎是不宁腿的一个较常见原因。

  13. Alternative Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find your chapter: search by state Home > Alzheimer's Disease > Treatments > Alternative Treatments Overview What Is Dementia? What Is Alzheimer's? Younger/Early Onset Facts and Figures Know the 10 Signs Stages Inside the Brain: ...

  14. Study of the main regulatory mechanisms to encourage renewable and alternative energy applied internationally and in Brazil; Estudo dos principais mecanismos regulatorios de incentivo as fontes renovaveis e alternativas de energia aplicados internacionalmente e no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Juliana M.C.; Cavaliero, Carla Kazue Nakao [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia], Emails: jumcm@fem.unicamp.br, cavaliero@fem.unicamp.br

    2009-07-01

    The investment in renewable and alternative energy sources has been stimulated by some countries in Europe and Americas through the introduction of encouragement regulatory mechanisms. This paper considers the most important international mechanisms such as Feed-in System, Tender System and Quota System with green certificates. In Brazil, there are three regulatory mechanisms in course: PROINFA, the 1. Tender of Renewable and 1. Tender Reserve. The carried out preliminary analysis made possible to classify PROINFA as a mechanism similar to Feed-in, while the auction of Renewable and Reserve are more like an auction system. This article points out the differences and similarities between the instruments and gives a preliminary analysis of their effectiveness, emphasizing national mechanisms, especially regarding the criteria for capacity increase and cost reduction of the technological bands, such as for biomass and small hydroelectric. (author)

  15. Cosmic alternatives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Ruth

    2009-04-01

    "Cosmologists are often in error but never in doubt." This pithy characterization by the Soviet physicist Lev Landau sums up the raison d'être of Facts and Speculations in Cosmology. Authors Jayant Narlikar and Geoffrey Burbidge are proponents of a "steady state" theory of cosmology, and they argue that the cosmological community has become fixated on a "Big Bang" dogma, suppressing alternative viewpoints. This book very much does what it says on the tin: it sets out what is known in cosmology, and puts forward the authors' point of view on an alternative to the Big Bang.

  16. Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Chester, W

    1979-01-01

    When I began to write this book, I originally had in mind the needs of university students in their first year. May aim was to keep the mathematics simple. No advanced techniques are used and there are no complicated applications. The emphasis is on an understanding of the basic ideas and problems which require expertise but do not contribute to this understanding are not discussed. How­ ever, the presentation is more sophisticated than might be considered appropri­ ate for someone with no previous knowledge of the subject so that, although it is developed from the beginning, some previous acquaintance with the elements of the subject would be an advantage. In addition, some familiarity with element­ ary calculus is assumed but not with the elementary theory of differential equations, although knowledge of the latter would again be an advantage. It is my opinion that mechanics is best introduced through the motion of a particle, with rigid body problems left until the subject is more fully developed. Howev...

  17. Growing Alternatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger-Petersen, Mai Corlin

    2014-01-01

    From 2014, Anhui Province will pilot a reform of the residential land market in China, thus integrating rural Anhui in the national housing market. In contrast, artist and activist Ou Ning has proposed the Bishan time money currency, intending to establish an alternative economic circuit in Bishan...

  18. Genome-Wide Translocation Sequencing Reveals Mechanisms of Chromosome Breaks and Rearrangements in B Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Chiarle, Roberto; Zhang, Yu; Frock, Richard L.; Lewis, Susanna M.; Molinie, Benoit; Ho, Yu-Jui; Myers, Darienne R; Choi, Vivian W.; Compagno, Mara; Malkin, Daniel J.; Neuberg, Donna; Monti, Stefano; Giallourakis, Cosmas C.; Gostissa, Monica; Alt, Frederick W.

    2011-01-01

    While chromosomal translocations are common pathogenetic events in cancer, mechanisms that promote them are poorly understood. To elucidate translocation mechanisms in mammalian cells, we developed high throughput, genome-wide translocation sequencing (HTGTS). We employed HTGTS to identify tens of thousands of independent translocation junctions involving fixed I-SceI meganuclease-generated DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) within the c-myc oncogene or IgH locus of B lymphocytes induced for Act...

  19. Molecular pathogenetic mechanism of Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy%Leber's遗传性视神经病变分子致病机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    瞿佳; 管敏鑫

    2006-01-01

    Leber's遗传性视神经病变(Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy,LHON)是一种较常见的引起视神经萎缩的遗传性疾病.该病主要引起双侧中心视力丧失,造成永久性的严重视觉障碍,常常发生在一些即将或已工作或上学的年轻人身上,以及在对该病患者家系中其他成员进行遗传病检查时发现.在一些LHON家系中,视觉障碍的患者呈现母系遗传方式,这表明线粒体DNA(mitochondrial DNA,mtDNA)是该病的分子遗传基础.至今为止,在世界各地不同家系报道中已经发现大约有35个与LHON相关的灾变位点,其中ND1 G3460A、ND4 G11778A、ND6 T14484C为三个公认的原发突变位点,均参与呼吸链复合体I的亚基编码.在不同种族发病统计中,其中大约50%的LHON由三个原发致病突变中的一个所致,尤为G11778A突变为主.引人注意的是,LHON家系携带相同突变的母系成员表现出不同的外显率、表现度(如发病严重程度、发病年龄、视力丧失进展程度).不完全和不同的外显率以及轻度的生化影响说明mtDNA突变本身不足以产生临床表型,其他因素(如环境、核修饰基因、线粒体单体型等)可能影响LHON的外显率和表型表达.%Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is the most common hereditary optic atrophies. The disease causes the bilateral loss of central vision. The importance of LHON lies in it ability to cause such severe and usually permanent vision loss in young adults who are about to start or have recently begun employrent or higher education, and the ramification of diagnosing an inherited disease to other members of the patient's family. The maternal transmission of visual dysfunction in families with LHON suggested the mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) are the molecular bases of this disorder. Up to date, 35 LHON-associated mtDNA mutations have been identified in many pedigrees worldwide. Of these, three primary mutations: ND1 G3460A, ND4 G11778A and ND6 T14484C, which involve genes encoding the subunits of respiratory chain complex I, aocounts for more than 50% of LHON pedigrees in different ethnic origins. In particular,the G11778A mutation is the most common LHON-associated mtDNA mutation. Strikingly, matrilineal relatives within families or among families carrying the same LHON-associated mtDNA mutations exhibited variable penetrance and expressivity including the severity, age-of-onset and progression in vision loss. Incomplete and variable penetrance of vision loss as well as mild biochemical defects associated with these mtDNA mutations indicated that the LHON-associated mtDNA mutation(s) itself is not sufficient to produce the clinical phenotype. Therefore, other modifier factors including environmental factors, nuclear modifier genes and mitochondrial haplotypes are required for the phenotypic expression of vision loss associated with these mtDNA mutations, Most eye diseases are tmulti-factorial in etiology. These diseases are caused by complex and interactive effects of personal factors, environmental conditions and gene aberrations. Some of these disorders are known to have a genetic etiology or predisposition with autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, X-linked or maternally-transmitted pattern of inheritance. Recently, these have rapidly been defined at the molecular levels. In some cases, the maternal transmission of visual dysfunctions suggested the mitochondrial involvement. In fact, mtDNA mutations fiequently manifest with neuro-ophthalmoligcal symptoms. Of these,acute-onset and bilateral optic atrophy is the primary clinical sign of LHON, which is caused by missense mutations in mtDNA[1 -15].

  20. Alternative 23

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Alternative 23 is a curated exhibition of works by Steve Aylett, David Blandy & Daniel Locke, Let Me Feel Your Finger First, Laura Oldfield Ford, Plastique Fantastique and Henrik Schrat, including the first screening of Let Me Feel Your Finger First’s Postcolonial Capers. In 1985 DC Comics in the US had taken the commercial decision to unify the complex and contradictory character story arcs from its various strips such as Superman, Batman and Green Lantern. The resultant crossover series...

  1. Clinic-like animal model for causal-pathogenetical investigations of hypoxic-ischemic brain injuries (Combined application of radioactively labelled microspheres and PET)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The complex nature of the pathogenesis in hypoxic-ischemic brain injuries, requires the combined determination of the dynamics of main factors in these disturbing processes. The application of suitable methods for registration of such pathogenetic processes is shown in an adequate animal model for simulating the early hypoxic-ischemic brain injuries. That the radioactive labelled microsphere technique is suitable to comprehend quantitatively the dynamics of the intracerebral redistribution of the circulating blood due to hypoxia/hyercapnia by simultaneous-multiple measuring of the regional cerebral blood flow. Therefore, at the first time an inadequate hypoxia-induced blood flow increase was shown in large parts of the forebrain in intrauterine growth retarded newborn piglets. For estimation of the regional cerebral glucose utilization in newborn piglets, the 18F-FDG PET is introduced. The measurements were carried out on a stationary high-density avalanche chamber (HIDAC) camera and yielded the fundamental application of this camera model for PET investigations also in the newborn brain due to the very good spatial resolution. (author)

  2. BCR-ABL negative myeloproliferative neoplasia: a review of involved molecular mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopmans, Suzanne M; Schouten, Harry C; van Marion, Ariënne M W

    2015-02-01

    The clonal bone marrow stem cell disorders essential thrombocythemia (ET), polycythemia vera (PV) and primary myelofibrosis (PMF) belong to the group of Philadelphia chromosome negative myeloproliferative neoplasia (Ph- MPN). In 2005 the JAK2(V617F) mutation was discovered which has generated more insight in the pathogenetic mechanism of the MPNs. More mutations have been detected in MPN patients since. However, the underlying cause of MPN has not been discovered so far. The mechanism of increased angiogenesis in MPNs and the development of fibrosis in the bone marrow in PMF patients and in some ET and PV patients is still not known. This review will focus on the most important molecular pathogenetic mechanisms in MPN patients. PMID:25196073

  3. Energy alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to sharp rise in oil proces after the 1973 Arab-Israeli War, world attention has been focussed on the energy problem. At present the energy problem is limited to the cost and reliability of supply, even though there are enough supplies to go round. However, in the future the problem will be of availability, because in spite of the full exploitation of currently available conventional energy sources, the supply will fall short of demand which will always be increasing. Hence, there is need to develop alternate energy sources, including fast breeder reactors, fusion reactors and MHD. Economic and technical aspects of these energy are discussed. (M.G.B.)

  4. Alternative detente

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of the Chernobyl accident on the disarmament and anti-nuclear movements is discussed. The accident directed attention towards the areas in common rather than the areas of disagreement. It also demonstrated the environmental impact of radioactivity, strengthening the ecological case of the anti-nuclear movement. The issues are discussed for the Western and Eastern bloc countries and the relationship between the two. Sections focus on the Eco-protest, Green politics and economics and on the politics of minority protest and the Green alternative. (U.K.)

  5. Alternative crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surplus cereal production in the EEC and decreasing product prices, mainly for cereals, has prompted considerable interest for new earnings in arable farming. The objective was to examine whether suggested new crops (fibre, oil, medicinal and alternative grains crops) could be considered as real alternatives. Whether a specific crop can compete economically with cereals and whether there is a market demand for the crop is analyzed. The described possibilities will result in ca. 50,000 hectares of new crops. It is expected that they would not immediately provide increased earnings, but in the long run expected price developments are more positive than for cereals. The area for new crops will not solve the current surplus cereal problem as the area used for new crops is only 3% of that used for cereals. Preconditions for many new crops is further research activities and development work as well as the establishment of processing units and organizational initiatives. Presumably, it is stated, there will then be a basis for a profitable production of new crops for some farmers. (AB) (47 refs.)

  6. Mechanical and biological complication rates of the modified lateral-screw-retained implant prosthesis in the posterior region: an alternative to the conventional Implant prosthetic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE The modified lateral-screw-retained implant prosthesis (LSP) is designed to combine the advantages of screw- and cement-retained implant prostheses. This retrospective study evaluated the mechanical and biological complication rates of implant-supported single crowns (ISSCs) inserted with the modified LSP in the posterior region, and determined how these complication rates are affected by clinical factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS Mechanical complications (i.e., lateral screw loosening [LSL], abutment screw loosening, lateral screw fracture, and ceramic fracture) and biological complications (i.e., peri-implant mucositis [PM] and peri-implantitis) were identified from the patients' treatment records, clinical photographs, periapical radiographs, panoramic radiographs, and clinical indices. The correlations between complication rates and the following clinical factors were determined: gender, age, position in the jaw, placement location, functional duration, clinical crown-to-implant length ratio, crown height space, and the use of a submerged or nonsubmerged placement procedure. RESULTS Mechanical and biological complications were present in 25 of 73 ISSCs with the modified LSP. LSL (n=11) and PM (n=11) were the most common complications. The incidence of mechanical complications was significantly related to gender (P=.018). The other clinical factors were not significantly associated with mechanical and biological complication rates. CONCLUSION Within the limitations of this study, the incidence of mechanical and biological complications in the posterior region was similar for both modified LSP and conventional implant prosthetic systems. In addition, the modified LSP is amenable to maintenance care, which facilitates the prevention and treatment of mechanical and biological complications. PMID:27141260

  7. Energy efficiency procedures for agricultural machinery used in onion cultivation (Allium fistulosum) as an alternative to reduce carbon emissions under the clean development mechanism at Aquitania (Colombia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Climate change has both causes and consequences over agriculture. This paper focuses on the first element and presents scenarios for ASOLAGO -an onion cropper's association in Colombia with 250 members- to reduce their carbon footprint. It evaluates a case study at ''La Primavera'' farm using a methodology approved by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Land preparation and crop irrigation were analyzed as stages in order to propose energy efficiency alternatives for both the farm and the association. They include field efficiency, fuel economy and energy efficiency from biofuels for the first stage as well as solar and wind energy supply for the second. A cost-benefit analysis to generate additional income selling additional power produced by the system to the National Grid was done

  8. Energy efficiency procedures for agricultural machinery used in onion cultivation (Allium fistulosum) as an alternative to reduce carbon emissions under the clean development mechanism at Aquitania (Colombia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, K.; Carrillo, S.; Gutierrez, L.

    2014-06-01

    Climate change has both causes and consequences over agriculture. This paper focuses on the first element and presents scenarios for ASOLAGO -an onion cropper's association in Colombia with 250 members- to reduce their carbon footprint. It evaluates a case study at "La Primavera" farm using a methodology approved by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Land preparation and crop irrigation were analyzed as stages in order to propose energy efficiency alternatives for both the farm and the association. They include field efficiency, fuel economy and energy efficiency from biofuels for the first stage as well as solar and wind energy supply for the second. A cost-benefit analysis to generate additional income selling additional power produced by the system to the National Grid was done.

  9. Energy alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    English. A special committe of the Canadian House of Commons was established on 23 May 1980 to investigate the use of alternative energy sources such as 'gasohol', liquified coal, solar energy, methanol, wind and tidal power, biomass, and propane. In its final report, the committee envisions an energy system for Canada based on hydrogen and electricity, using solar and geothermal energy for low-grade heat. The committe was not able to say which method of generating electricty would dominate in the next century, although it recommends that fossil fuels should not be used. The fission process is not specifically discussed, but the outlook for fusion was investigated, and continued governmental support of fusion research is recommended. The report proposes some improvements in governmental energy organizations and programs

  10. Pathogenetic and Therapeutic Applications of Tumor Necrosis Factor-α (TNF-α in Major Depressive Disorder: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Ma

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Major depressive disorder (MDD is characterized by mood, vegetative, cognitive, and even psychotic symptoms and signs that can cause substantial impairments in quality of life and functioning. Up to now, the exact pathogenesis of MDD remains poorly understood. Recent research has begun to reveal that the pro-inflammatory cytokines, particularly, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, play an integral role in the pathophysiology of depressive disorders and the mechanism of antidepressant treatment. On the base of several observations: it is found that subsets of MDD patients have enhanced plasma levels TNF-α; antidepressant treatments had linked with the decline of TNF-α; central administration of TNF-α gives rise to sickness behavior which shares features with depression; and a blockade of it can ameliorate depressive symptomatology in animal models and clinical trials. In this review article, we focus on recent evidence linking TNF-α and MDD looking at data from animal and clinical studies, illustrating the pathophysiological role, susceptibility and its therapeutic application in depression. We conclude by discussing future directions for research, in particular the opportunities for the development of novel therapeutics that target TNF-α. This will be very important for designing preventative strategies and for the identification of new drug targets and preventative strategies.

  11. Pathogenetic and Therapeutic Applications of Tumor Necrosis Factor-α (TNF-α) in Major Depressive Disorder: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ke; Zhang, Hongxiu; Baloch, Zulqarnain

    2016-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is characterized by mood, vegetative, cognitive, and even psychotic symptoms and signs that can cause substantial impairments in quality of life and functioning. Up to now, the exact pathogenesis of MDD remains poorly understood. Recent research has begun to reveal that the pro-inflammatory cytokines, particularly, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), play an integral role in the pathophysiology of depressive disorders and the mechanism of antidepressant treatment. On the base of several observations: it is found that subsets of MDD patients have enhanced plasma levels TNF-α; antidepressant treatments had linked with the decline of TNF-α; central administration of TNF-α gives rise to sickness behavior which shares features with depression; and a blockade of it can ameliorate depressive symptomatology in animal models and clinical trials. In this review article, we focus on recent evidence linking TNF-α and MDD looking at data from animal and clinical studies, illustrating the pathophysiological role, susceptibility and its therapeutic application in depression. We conclude by discussing future directions for research, in particular the opportunities for the development of novel therapeutics that target TNF-α. This will be very important for designing preventative strategies and for the identification of new drug targets and preventative strategies. PMID:27187381

  12. The homodimeric ATP-binding cassette transporter LmrA mediates multidrug transport by an alternating two-site (two-cylinder engine) mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veen, HW; Margolles, A; Muller, M; Higgins, CF; Konings, WN

    2000-01-01

    The bacterial LmrA protein and the mammalian multidrug resistance P-glycoprotein are closely related ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters that confer multidrug resistance on cells by mediating the extrusion of drugs at the expense of ATP hydrolysis. The mechanisms by which transport is mediated,

  13. Mechanical Stimulation (Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields “PEMF” and Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy “ESWT”) and Tendon Regeneration: A Possible Alternative

    OpenAIRE

    Federica eRosso; Davide Edoardo Bonasia; Antonio eMarmotti; Umberto eCottino; Roberto eRossi

    2015-01-01

    The pathogenesis of tendon degeneration and tendinopathy is still partially unclear. However, an active role of metalloproteinases (MMP), growth factors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and a crucial role of inflammatory elements and cytokines was demonstrated. Mechanical stimulation may play a role in regulation of inflammation. In vitro studies demonstrated that both pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) and extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) increased the expression ...

  14. Alternative splicing: an important mechanism for myometrial gene regulation that can be manipulated to target specific genes associated with preterm labour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyson-Capper Alison

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Considerable effort has been expended in attempting to distinguish genes that contribute to initiating the onset of term and preterm labour (PTL from those that change in expression as a consequence of the progression of labour. The ability to define more clearly the genes involved in triggering labour contractions should lead to the development of new effective and safer strategies to prevent preterm birth. There is ample evidence to suggest that specific genes are co-ordinately regulated within the upper and lower regions of the myometrium prior to and during parturition and many of these genes are regulated by alternative pre-mRNA splicing. This mini-review highlights that expression of a range of different splicing factors, with defined roles in pre-mRNA splicing, is both temporally and spatially regulated within the uterine smooth muscle during pregnancy and labour. Moreover, several of these splicing factors play key roles in controlling the differential expression of specific regulatory proteins involved in uterine signalling and uterine quiescence. In addition, antisense morpholino oligonucleotide manipulation of pre-mRNA splicing may have potential in defining and targeting uterine pro-labour genes and thus contribute to the development of new therapeutic approaches to prevent PTL.

  15. Alternative Splice in Alternative Lice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovar-Corona, Jaime M; Castillo-Morales, Atahualpa; Chen, Lu; Olds, Brett P; Clark, John M; Reynolds, Stuart E; Pittendrigh, Barry R; Feil, Edward J; Urrutia, Araxi O

    2015-10-01

    Genomic and transcriptomics analyses have revealed human head and body lice to be almost genetically identical; although con-specific, they nevertheless occupy distinct ecological niches and have differing feeding patterns. Most importantly, while head lice are not known to be vector competent, body lice can transmit three serious bacterial diseases; epidemictyphus, trench fever, and relapsing fever. In order to gain insights into the molecular bases for these differences, we analyzed alternative splicing (AS) using next-generation sequencing data for one strain of head lice and one strain of body lice. We identified a total of 3,598 AS events which were head or body lice specific. Exon skipping AS events were overrepresented among both head and body lice, whereas intron retention events were underrepresented in both. However, both the enrichment of exon skipping and the underrepresentation of intron retention are significantly stronger in body lice compared with head lice. Genes containing body louse-specific AS events were found to be significantly enriched for functions associated with development of the nervous system, salivary gland, trachea, and ovarian follicle cells, as well as regulation of transcription. In contrast, no functional categories were overrepresented among genes with head louse-specific AS events. Together, our results constitute the first evidence for transcript pool differences in head and body lice, providing insights into molecular adaptations that enabled human lice to adapt to clothing, and representing a powerful illustration of the pivotal role AS can play in functional adaptation. PMID:26169943

  16. Theoretical insights into the cycloaddition reaction mechanism between ketenimine and methyleneimine: An alternative approach to the formation of pyrazole and imidazole

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nana Wang; Xiaojun Tan; Weihua Wang; Fangfang Wang; Ping Li

    2016-02-01

    The cycloaddition reaction mechanism between interstellar molecules, ketenimine and methyleneimine, has been systematically investigated employing the second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2) method in order to better understand the reactivity of nitrogenous cumulene ketenimine with the C=N double bond compound methyleneimine. Geometry optimizations and vibrational analyses have been performed for the stationary points on the potential energy surfaces of the system. Calculations show that five-membered cyclic carbene intermediates could be produced through pericyclic reaction processes between ketenimine and methyleneimine. Through the subsequent hydrogen transfer processes, carbene intermediates can be isomerized to the pyrazole and imidazole compounds, respectively. The present study is helpful to understand the formation of prebiotic species in interstellar space.

  17. The effects on tensile, shear, and adhesive mechanical properties when recycled epoxy/fiberglass is used as an alternative for glass microballoons in fiberglass foam core sandwiches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Dru Matthew

    The problem of this study was to determine whether fiberglass foam core sandwiches made with recycled epoxy/fiberglass have equal or better flatwise tension, shear, and peel (adhesion) mechanical properties when compared with composite sandwiches made with industry standard glass microballoons. Recycling epoxy/fiberglass could save money by: (1) reusing cured composite materials, (2) consuming less virgin composite materials, (3) spending less on transportation and disposing of unusable composites, and (4) possibly enabling companies to sell their recycled composite powder to other manufacturers. This study used three mechanical property tests, which included: flatwise tensile test, shear test, and peel (adhesion) test. Each test used 300 samples for a combined total of 900 sandwich test samples for this study. A factorial design with three independent variables was used. The first variable, filler type, had three levels: no filler, microballoon filler, and recycled epoxy/fiberglass filler. The second variable, foam density, had four levels: 3 lb/ft³, 4 lb/ft³, 5 lb/ft³, and 6 lb/ft³. The third variable, filler percentage ratio, had eight levels: 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, and 70%. The results of this study revealed two primary conclusions. The first conclusion was that sandwich test panels produced with recycled epoxy/fiberglass powder were equal or significantly better in tensile, shear, and peel (adhesion) strength than sandwiches produced with hollow glass microballoons. The second conclusion was that sandwich test panels produced with recycled epoxy/fiberglass powder were equal or significantly lighter in weight than sandwiches produced with hollow glass microballoons.

  18. Looking for an Alternative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Jack

    1999-01-01

    Argues that high school newspapers might do well to create stronger ties with alternative weeklies. Discusses issues of niche marketing, alternative content, and alternative presentation. Notes that high school papers could learn a lot from alternative newspapers. (SR)

  19. Quantum mechanical alternative to Arrhenius equation in the interpretation of proton spin-lattice relaxation data for the methyl groups in solids

    KAUST Repository

    Bernatowicz, Piotr

    2015-10-01

    Theory of nuclear spin-lattice relaxation in methyl groups in solids has been a recurring problem in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The current view is that, except for extreme cases of low torsional barriers where special quantum effects are at stake, the relaxation behaviour of the nuclear spins in methyl groups is controlled by thermally activated classical jumps of the methyl group between its three orientations. The temperature effects on the relaxation rates can be modelled by Arrhenius behaviour of the correlation time of the jump process. The entire variety of relaxation effects in protonated methyl groups has recently been given a consistently quantum mechanical explanation not invoking the jump model regardless of the temperature range. It exploits the damped quantum rotation (DQR) theory originally developed to describe NMR line shape effects for hindered methyl groups. In the DQR model, the incoherent dynamics of the methyl group include two quantum rate, i.e., coherence-damping processes. For proton relaxation only one of these processes is relevant. In this paper, temperature-dependent proton spin-lattice relaxation data for the methyl groups in polycrystalline methyltriphenyl silane and methyltriphenyl germanium, both deuterated in aromatic positions, are reported and interpreted in terms of the DQR model. A comparison with the conventional approach exploiting the phenomenological Arrhenius equation is made. The present observations provide further indications that incoherent motions of molecular moieties in condensed phase can retain quantum character over much broad temperature range than is commonly thought.

  20. The neurogenetics of alternative splicing

    OpenAIRE

    Vuong, CK; Black, DL; S. Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Alternative precursor-mRNA splicing is a key mechanism for regulating gene expression in mammals and is controlled by specialized RNA-binding proteins. The misregulation of splicing is implicated in multiple neurological disorders. We describe recent mouse genetic studies of alternative splicing that reveal its critical role in both neuronal development and the function of mature neurons. We discuss the challenges in understanding the extensive genetic programmes controlled by proteins that r...

  1. Alternate Realities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Robert

    2010-02-01

    Two identical learners, observing different example input, or the same examples, but in different order, can form different categories and so judge newer/later input differently. (Machine Learning, T. Mitchell, McGraw Hill, 1997 and Asa H., R. Jones, Trans. Kansas Acad. Sci., vol 109, # 3/4, pg 159, 2006) It seems certain that each of us experiences a somewhat different reality, the question is just how widely these realities can vary one from another. Perhaps 4% of people exhibit synesthesia, perceiving letters or numbers as colored, numbers and dates as having personalities or occupying locations in space. (Synesthesia, R. Cytowic, MIT Press, 2002) The Sapir- Whorf hypothesis claims that a speakers language influences his category structure and the way he thinks. (Language, thought, and reality, B. Whorf, MIT Press, 1956) Those who are skillful at mathematics may know an additional language and be able to think thoughts that the layman can not. The philosophers Plato and Descartes claimed to have had, at certain moments in their lives, a new view of the world, its basic constituents, and its rules which were totally different from our conventional view of reality. (Reflections on Kurt Godel, H. Wang, MIT Press, 1987, pg. 46) Fairly large scale differences are experienced by those who believe in (make use of) concepts like spirit(s), soul(s), god(s), life after death, platonism or Everett's many worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics (The Physics of Immortality, F. Tipler, Doubleday, 1994, pg. 176) )

  2. Is garlic alternative medicine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivlin, Richard S

    2006-03-01

    Garlic has been used medicinally since antiquity. In virtually every early civilization known, such as ancient India, Egypt, Rome, China, and Japan, garlic was part of the therapeutic regimen for a variety of maladies. Therefore, the ancient medicinal tradition of garlic use would qualify it as a folk medicine or as an alternative or complementary medicine. But is garlic an alternative to established methods of disease prevention or treatment? Scientists from around the world have identified a number of bioactive substances in garlic that are water soluble (e.g., S-allyl methylcysteine), and fat soluble (e.g., diallyldisulfide). Mechanisms of action are being elucidated by modern technology. The validity of ancient medicine is now being evaluated critically in cell-free systems, animal models, and human populations. Preventive and therapeutic trials of garlic are still in early stages. There are many promising lines of research suggesting the potential effects of garlic. The current state of knowledge does not recognize garlic as a true alternative, but it will likely find a place for garlic as a complement to established methods of disease prevention and treatment. Our goal should be to examine garlic together with other agents to evaluate its possible efficacy and toxicity under conditions of actual use in humans. PMID:16484549

  3. Alternative Mechanisms of the Microseisms Excitation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalenda, Pavel; Wandrol, I.; Holub, Karel; Rušajová, Jana

    Istanbul: Turkish Earthquake Foundation Earthquake Engineering Committee, 2014 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2010008 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 ; RVO:67985891 Keywords : microseisms * thermoelastic waves * annual drift Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure

  4. Biochemical mechanisms underlying atherogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.P.V.L.N. Srinivasa Rao

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis remains one of the major causes of death and premature disability in developed countries. Though atherosclerosis was formerly considered a bland lipid storage disease, substantial advances in basic and experimental sciences have illuminated the role of endothelium, inflammation and immune mechanisms in its pathogenesis. Current concept of atherosclerosis is that of a dynamic and progressive disease arising from in- jury to endothelium, also known as endothelial dysfunction and an inflammatory response to that injury. The lesions of atherosclerosis occur principally in large and medium sized arteries. Atherosclerosis affects various regions of the circulation preferentially and can lead to ischemia of heart, brain or extremities resulting in in- farction.This produces distinct clinical manifestations depending on the vessel involved. Several predisposing factors to cardiovascular diseases such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, obesity, infections act as triggers to the devel- opment of atherosclerosis by causing endothelial dysfunction and/or promoting inflammatory response. The evolution of pathogenetic mechanisms has passed through various directions such as oxidative stress, inflam- mation and immune responses. It is now known that all these are not acting independently but are interrelated and getting unified in the current concept of atherogenesis. The following discussion aims at providing an in- sight into these developments which can help in a better comprehension of the disease and management of its clinical complications

  5. ASD: a bioinformatics resource on alternative splicing

    OpenAIRE

    Stamm, Stefan; Riethoven, Jean-Jack; Le Texier, Vincent; Gopalakrishnan, Chellappa; Kumanduri, Vasudev; Tang, Yesheng; Barbosa-Morais, Nuno L.; Thanaraj, Thangavel Alphonse

    2005-01-01

    Alternative splicing is an important regulatory mechanism of mammalian gene expression. The alternative splicing database (ASD) consortium is systematically collecting and annotating data on alternative splicing. We present the continuation and upgrade of the ASD [T. A. Thanaraj, S. Stamm, F. Clark, J. J. Riethoven, V. Le Texier, J. Muilu (2004) Nucleic Acids Res. 32, D64–D69] that consists of computationally and manually generated data. Its largest parts are AltSplice, a value-added database...

  6. Investigation of airway inflammation and asthma by repeated bronchoalveolar lavage combined with measurements of airway and lung tissue mechanics in individual rats.

    OpenAIRE

    dr Bánfi Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Acute and chronic airway inflammations are the main pathogenetic features of numerous pulmonary diseases. There are several methods studying the pathomechanisms of inflammatory respiratory diseases. To asses the severity of lung diseases, the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and lung function tests are the most current diagnostic methods in the experimental and human pulmonology. However, repetition of BAL procedures and assessments of respiratory mechanic parameters in small rodents (mice and ra...

  7. Study of the main mechanisms for incentive alternative sources of renewable energy for power generation in Chile, Argentina and Brazil; Estudo dos principais mecanismos de incentivo as fontes alternativas de energia para geracao renovavel de eletricidade no Chile, Argentina e Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Larissa Goncalves [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEM/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia; Dedecca, Joao Gorestein; Jannuzzi, Gilberto de Martinno; Gomes, Rodolfo Dourado [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    From the experience of developed countries, Brazil, Chile and Argentina are implementing some important mechanisms for encouraging alternative sources of renewable energy for power generation and thus manage to incorporate these power sources in their power matrix. However, the obstacles faced are not insignificant. This study will present and analyze the Chilean, Argentinean and Brazilian experience when it comes to implementing programs and policies based on feed-in tariffs, renewable portfolio standard and bidding mechanisms. (author)

  8. Study on Feedback Mechanism in Social System Innovation:an Example of Alternative Fuel Vehicles%社会系统创新过程的反馈机制研究--以新能源汽车为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晓庆; 董红梁

    2014-01-01

    新能源汽车的推广扩散是整个社会系统的创新,但传统汽车在长期发展之后形成了社会系统的“锁定”,使得新能源汽车难以突破。本文以多层次模型分析社会系统结构,对不同层次之间的反馈机制进行研究探讨,分析传统汽车“锁定”背后的成因,传统汽车和新能源汽车之间如何相互作用。分析结论认为,政府、企业、消费者三者在不同情境下对新能源汽车的扩散作用不同,可形成多种多样的交通工具新体制。%The diffusion of AFV(Alternative fuel vehicle)is a system innovation of the whole society,but traditional vehicle has formed social system"lock-in"after the long-term development,which makes it difficult for AFV to diffuse in the con-sumer market.In this paper,the social system is analyzed in a multi-level perspective,with feedback mechanism studied be-tween different levels,in order to analyze the reason why traditional vehicle "lock-in"happens and how traditional vehicle interacts with AFV.The conclusion can be drawn that in different situations,the regime formed by AFV will differ with the reaction of government,enterprises and consumers.

  9. Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Help a Friend Who Cuts? Complementary and Alternative Medicine KidsHealth > For Teens > Complementary and Alternative Medicine Print ... replacement. continue How Is CAM Different From Conventional Medicine? Conventional medicine is based on scientific knowledge of ...

  10. Telomere elongation chooses TERRA ALTernatives

    OpenAIRE

    Arora, Rajika; Azzalin, Claus M.

    2015-01-01

    Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres (ALT) mechanisms allow telomerase-negative immortal cells to buffer replicative telomere shortening. ALT is naturally active in a number of human cancers and might be selected upon telomerase inactivation. ALT is thought to operate through homologous recombination (HR) occurring between telomeric repeats from independent chromosome ends. Indeed, suppression of a number of HR factors impairs ALT cell proliferation. Yet, how HR is initiated at ALT telomeres ...

  11. Depleted uranium management alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report evaluates two management alternatives for Department of Energy depleted uranium: continued storage as uranium hexafluoride, and conversion to uranium metal and fabrication to shielding for spent nuclear fuel containers. The results will be used to compare the costs with other alternatives, such as disposal. Cost estimates for the continued storage alternative are based on a life-cycle of 27 years through the year 2020. Cost estimates for the recycle alternative are based on existing conversion process costs and Capital costs for fabricating the containers. Additionally, the recycle alternative accounts for costs associated with intermediate product resale and secondary waste disposal for materials generated during the conversion process

  12. Alternation of host plants as a survival mechanism of leafhoppers Dilobopterus costalimai and Oncometopia facialis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae, vectors of the Citrus Variegated Chlorosis (CVC Alternância de hospedeiros como mecanismo de sobrevivência das cigarrinhas Dilobopterus costalimai e Oncometopia facialis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae, vetoras da Clorose Variegada dos Citros (CVC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Maria Milanez

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Dilobopterus costalimai (Young and Oncometopia facialis (Signoret are two of the most important species of citrus leafhoppers, vectors of bacterium Xylella fastidiosa which causes the Citrus Variegated Chlorosis (CVC disease. To develop a rearing technique for these species under laboratory conditions, the egg laying preference and nymph development were studied in different breeding systems: Rangpur lime (Citrus limonia and "falso boldo" (Vernonia condensata as host plants. Trials were set up in a randomized block design with three treatments (n=8. Females of D. costalimai had particular preference for ovipositing on Rangpur lime leaves while O. facialis females placed a higher number of eggs on "falso boldo", but it did not differ statistically from the Rangpur lime. The nymphal viability of D. costalimai was null in Rangpur lime and 58% in "falso boldo". For O. facialis the nymphal viability was 25 and 78% in Rangpur lime and "falso boldo", respectively. "Falso boldo" is more suitable as a host plant to rear the two species of citrus leafhoppers. The alternation of host plants seems to be an important survival mechanism of the CVC-vector species, as shown in natural conditions.Dilobopterus costalimai (Young e Oncometopia facialis (Signoret são duas das mais importantes espécies de cigarrinhas dos citros, transmissoras da bactéria Xylella fastidiosa causadora da doença conhecida como Clorose Variegada dos Citros (CVC. Com o objetivo de se desenvolver uma técnica de criação destas espécies, em condições de laboratório, estudou-se a preferência por postura e o desenvolvimento ninfal, em diferentes sistemas de criação, tendo como plantas hospedeiras limão cravo (Citrus limonia e falso boldo (Vernonia condensata. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados com três tratamentos e oito repetições. Fêmeas de D. costalimai tiveram acentuada preferência para ovipositar em folhas de limão cravo, enquanto que fêmeas de O

  13. Alternative transportation fuels: Financing issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A multitude of alternative fuels could reduce air pollution and the impact of oil price shocks. Only a few of these fuels are readily available and inexpensive enough to merit serious consideration over the coming five years. In New York City, safety regulations narrow the field still further by eliminating propane. As a result, this study focuses on the three alternative fuels readily available in New York City: compressed natural gas, methanol, and electricity. Each has significant environmental benefits and each has different cost characteristics. With the Clean Air Act and the National Energy Strategy highlighting the country's need to improve urban air quality and move away from dependence on imported fuels, fleets may soon have little choice but to convert to altemative fuels. Given the potential for large infrastructure and vehicle costs, these fleets may have difficulty finding the capital to make that conversion. Ultimately, then, it will be the involvement of the private sector that will determine the success of alternative fuels. Whether it be utilities, fuel distributors or suppliers, private financing partners or others, it is critical that altemative fuels programs be structured and planned to attract their involvement. This report examines financing methods that do not involve government subsidies. It also explores financing methods that are specific to alternative fuels. Bond issues and other mechanisms that are used for conventional vehicles are not touched upon in this report. This report explores ways to spread the high cost of alternative fuels among a number of parties within the private sector. The emphasis is on structuring partnerships that suit methanol, electric, or natural gas vehicle fleets. Through these partnerships, alternative fuels may ultimately compete effectively against conventional vehicle fuels

  14. Alternative polyadenylation: New insights from global analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Yongsheng

    2012-01-01

    Recent global studies revealed that mRNA alternative polyadenylation (APA) is widespread in eukaryotic transcriptomes and is an important mechanism for gene regulation. APA deregulation has been found in a variety of diseases. This article reviews recent progress in the field and provides a global perspective on the prevalence, mechanisms, and functional impact of APA.

  15. Context-driven expectations about focus alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Christina S; Gunlogson, Christine; Tanenhaus, Michael K; Runner, Jeffrey T

    2015-06-01

    What is conveyed by a sentence frequently depends not only on the descriptive content carried by its words, but also on implicit alternatives determined by the context of use. Four visual world eye-tracking experiments examined how alternatives are generated based on aspects of the discourse context and used in interpreting sentences containing the focus operators only and also. Experiment 1 builds on previous reading time studies showing that the interpretations of only sentences are constrained by alternatives explicitly mentioned in the preceding discourse, providing fine-grained time course information about the expectations triggered by only. Experiments 2 and 3 show that, in the absence of explicitly mentioned alternatives, lexical and situation-based categories evoked by the context are possible sources of alternatives. While Experiments 1-3 all demonstrate the discourse dependence of alternatives, only explicit mention triggered expectations about alternatives that were specific to sentences with only. By comparing only with also, Experiment 4 begins to disentangle expectations linked to the meanings of specific operators from those generalizable to the class of focus-sensitive operators. Together, these findings show that the interpretation of sentences with focus operators draws on both dedicated mechanisms for introducing alternatives into the discourse context and general mechanisms associated with discourse processing. PMID:25797456

  16. Polyphase alternating codes

    CERN Document Server

    Markkanen, Markku

    2007-01-01

    This work introduces a method for constructing polyphase alternating codes in which the length of a code transmission cycle can be $p^m$ or $p-1$, where $p$ is a prime number and $m$ is a positive integer. The relevant properties leading to the construction alternating codes and the algorithm for generating alternating codes is described. Examples of all practical and some not that practical polyphase code lengths are given.

  17. Alternative Solar Indices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lantz, L.J.

    1980-07-01

    Possible alternative Solar Indices which could either be a perturbation from the currently defined Solar Index or possible indices based on current technologies for other media markets are discussed. An overview is given of the current project, including the logic that was utilized in defining its current structure and then alternative indices and definitions are presented and finally, recommendations are made for adopting alternative indices.

  18. On an Alternative Cosmology

    OpenAIRE

    Vankov, A.

    1998-01-01

    The suggested alternative cosmology is based on the idea of barion symmetric universe, in which our home universe is a representative of multitude of typical matter and antimatter universes. This alternative concept gives a physically reasonable explanation of all major problems of the Standard Cosmological Model. Classification Code MSC: Cosmology 524.8 Key words: standard cosmological model, alternative cosmology, barionic symmetry, typical universe, quasars, cosmic rays.

  19. Complex Alternative Splicing

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Jung Woo; Graveley, Brenton R.

    2007-01-01

    Alternative splicing is a powerful means of controlling gene expression and increasing protein diversity. Most genes express a limited number of mRNA isoforms, but there are several examples of genes that use alternative splicing to generate hundreds, thousands, and even tens of thousands of isoforms. Collectively such genes are considered to undergo complex alternative splicing. The best example is the Drosophila Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule (Dscam) gene, which can generate 38,016 is...

  20. Alternators. Experience feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Study of the technical aspects of various accidents having occured on nuclear alternators operating in the French 900 MW nuclear plant unit, and the respective solutions and possibilities for application to alternators of the 1000 and 1500 MW power plants. Analysis of the accidents on CP 1 program alternators: accidents caused by vibratory fatigue (cracking of the hydraulic connection pipes of the stator winding, cracking of the hydraulic-electric connection between the stator coiling and the output terminals, cracking of the hydrogen cooler finned tubes), pollution by copper oxide of the stator winding cooling water circuit. Accidents on CP 2 alternators: accident on the shaft sealing joint, striking inside the terminal box

  1. Virological Mechanisms in the Coinfection between HIV and HCV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Carla Liberto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to shared transmission routes, coinfection with Hepatitis C Virus (HCV is common in patients infected by Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV. The immune-pathogenesis of liver disease in HIV/HCV coinfected patients is a multifactorial process. Several studies demonstrated that HIV worsens the course of HCV infection, increasing the risk of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Also, HCV might increase immunological defects due to HIV and risk of comorbidities. A specific cross-talk among HIV and HCV proteins in coinfected patients modulates the natural history, the immune responses, and the life cycle of both viruses. These effects are mediated by immune mechanisms and by a cross-talk between the two viruses which could interfere with host defense mechanisms. In this review, we focus on some virological/immunological mechanisms of the pathogenetic interactions between HIV and HCV in the human host.

  2. Mechanical engineering education

    CERN Document Server

    Davim, J Paulo

    2012-01-01

    Mechanical Engineering is defined nowadays as a discipline "which involves the application of principles of physics, design, manufacturing and maintenance of mechanical systems". Recently, mechanical engineering has also focused on some cutting-edge subjects such as nanomechanics and nanotechnology, mechatronics and robotics, computational mechanics, biomechanics, alternative energies, as well as aspects related to sustainable mechanical engineering.This book covers mechanical engineering higher education with a particular emphasis on quality assurance and the improvement of academic

  3. Nature and main kinds of psychopathological mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis Oulis

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with two central issues in the philosophy of neuroscience and psychiatry, namely those of the nature and the major kinds and types of psychopathological mechanisms. Contrary to a widespread view, I argue that mechanisms are not kinds of systems but kinds of processes unfolding in systems or between systems. More precisely, I argue that psychopathological mechanisms are sets of actions and interactions between brain-systems or circuits as well as between the latter and other systems in one's body and external environment, both physical and social, involved in human psychopathology. According to the kinds of properties of the interacting systems or their component-parts, psychopathological mechanisms may be physical, chemical, biological, psychological, social, or, typically, mixed ones. Furthermore, I focus on two main kinds of psychopathological mechanisms involved in the causation of mental disorders, namely the pathogenetic and pathophysiological ones, stressing the importance of their careful distinction for the integrative understanding of otherwise disparate and apparently incommensurable psychiatric research findings. I illustrate my analysis with an example drawn from contemporary research on the mechanisms of acute psychosis. Finally, I stress the relevance of psychopathological mechanisms to a more scientifi cally-grounded classifi cation of mental disorders.

  4. Alternative Devices for Taking Insulin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... KB). Alternate Language URL Alternative Devices for Taking Insulin Page Content On this page: What alternative devices ... the skin. [ Top ] What alternative devices for taking insulin are available? Insulin pens provide a convenient, easy- ...

  5. ATRX represses alternative lengthening of telomeres

    OpenAIRE

    Napier, Christine E.; Huschtscha, Lily I.; Harvey, Adam; Bower, Kylie; Noble, Jane R.; Hendrickson, Eric A.; Reddel, Roger R

    2015-01-01

    The unlimited proliferation of cancer cells requires a mechanism to prevent telomere shortening. Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres (ALT) is an homologous recombination-mediated mechanism of telomere elongation used in tumors, including osteosarcomas, soft tissue sarcoma subtypes, and glial brain tumors. Mutations in the ATRX/DAXX chromatin remodeling complex have been reported in tumors and cell lines that use the ALT mechanism, suggesting that ATRX may be an ALT repressor. We show here th...

  6. Radiation pneumonitis and fibrosis: Mechanisms underlying its pathogenesis and implications for future research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation pneumonitis and subsequent radiation pulmonary fibrosis are the two main dose-limiting factors when irradiating the thorax that can have severe implications for patients' quality of life. In this article, the current concepts about the pathogenetic mechanisms underlying radiation pneumonitis and fibrosis are presented. The clinical course of fibrosis, a postulated acute inflammatory stage, and a late fibrotic and irreversible stage are discussed. The interplay of cells and the wide variety of molecules orchestrating the immunologic response to radiation, their interactions with specific receptors, and the cascade of events they trigger are elucidated. Finally, the implications of this knowledge with respect to the therapeutic interventions are critically presented

  7. Brandmodstandsbidrag for alternative isoleringsmaterialer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place

    2001-01-01

    Resume af rapport om alternative isoleringsmaterialers brandmodstandsbidrag, udarbejdet af Dansk Brandteknisk Institut under Energistyrelsens udviklingsprogram "Miljø- og arbejdsmiljøvenlig isolering"......Resume af rapport om alternative isoleringsmaterialers brandmodstandsbidrag, udarbejdet af Dansk Brandteknisk Institut under Energistyrelsens udviklingsprogram "Miljø- og arbejdsmiljøvenlig isolering"...

  8. Anvendelse af alternative isoleringsmaterialer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place

    2003-01-01

    Resume af By og Byg Anvisning 207 om anvendelse af alternative isoleringsmaterialer, udarbejdet af Statens Byggeforskningsinstitut under udviklingsprogrammet "Miljø- og arbejdsmiljøvenlig isolering"......Resume af By og Byg Anvisning 207 om anvendelse af alternative isoleringsmaterialer, udarbejdet af Statens Byggeforskningsinstitut under udviklingsprogrammet "Miljø- og arbejdsmiljøvenlig isolering"...

  9. Mechano-Regulation of Alternative Splicing

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Huan; Tang, Liling

    2013-01-01

    Alternative splicing contributes to the complexity of proteome by producing multiple mRNAs from a single gene. Affymetrix exon arrays and experiments in vivo or in vitro demonstrated that alternative splicing was regulated by mechanical stress. Expression of mechano-growth factor (MGF) which is the splicing isoform of insulin-like growth factor 1(IGF-1) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) splicing variants such as VEGF121, VEGF165, VEGF206, VEGF189, VEGF165 and VEGF145 are regulated...

  10. Alcoholism and Alternative Splicing of Candidate Genes

    OpenAIRE

    Toshikazu Sasabe; Shoichi Ishiura

    2010-01-01

    Gene expression studies have shown that expression patterns of several genes have changed during the development of alcoholism. Gene expression is regulated not only at the level of transcription but also through alternative splicing of pre-mRNA. In this review, we discuss some of the evidence suggesting that alternative splicing of candidate genes such as DRD2 (encoding dopamine D2 receptor) may form the basis of the mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology of alcoholism. These reports sugg...

  11. Experiment and Analysis of Car Alternator for Wind Turbine Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pudji Irasari

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses experiment and analysis to find out the feasibility of a car alternator to be used as a generator for wind turbine. The experiment was conducted twice. The first experiment was to characterize the alternator to determine the mechanical transmission ratio. In this experiment the alternator was driven by a lathe machine and its output power was supplied to charge a battery. In the second experiment the alternator was integrated with the turbine blades and they were tested as a unit system. In both experiments, the electric generation of alternator was executed with fixed excitation current method. The correlation between the alternator characteristic and the tip speed ratio gives the mechanical transmission ratio of 1 : 3. The experiment results show that the efficiency of alternator is around 50% and cut-in wind speed (after correction is 6.35 m/s indicating that alternator is not feasible for wind turbine system application. 

  12. Uma alternativa mecânica com emprego de forças magnéticas para a desimpactação dentária A mechanical alternative with employment of magnetic force for the tooth desimpactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sisenando Itabaiana Sobrinho

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: o presente trabalho teve como finalidade avaliar clinicamente uma nova alternativa mecânica para a erupção guiada ao plano oclusal de um dente pré-molar impactado empregando magnetos atrativos da liga samário-cobalto. METODOLOGIA: o tratamento cirúrgico-ortodôntico foi realizado em uma paciente jovem de 11 anos portadora de oclusão de Classe I de Angle, com impactação do segundo pré-molar inferior direito. O sistema magnético empregado consistiu de um magneto colado com resina fotopolimerizável sobre a superfície vestibular do dente impactado e um outro pólo magnético rígido incrustado em um aparelho banda alça. Previamente à instalação do sistema magnético no meio bucal, os magnetos foram caracterizados através de análise de fluorescência, difração de raios X e nível de magnetização. A relação força/distância empregada foi quantificada, os magnetos foram medidos e a geometria magnética bucal estabelecida. RESULTADOS: o tempo empregado na desimpactação foi de 40 dias e foram necessárias duas ativações magnéticas por aproximação dos magnetos neste intervalo. A opção magnética neste caso clínico foi bastante eficaz tanto em relação ao tempo de tratamento quanto em relação ao conforto proporcionado ao paciente. Os magnetos empregados geraram um campo de força contínuo e autônomo não sendo necessária a utilização de fios metálicos como guias de orientação na erupção e nem elásticos de tracionamento. CONCLUSÃO: esta possibilidade terapêutica poderá ser útil em desimpactações mais profundas tais como os caninos ectópicos, cuja ocorrência é freqüente.AIM: the present work evaluated a new mechanical alternative to guide the eruption to the oclusal plan of a impacted bicuspid tooth using attractive cobalt-samarium magnets. METHODS: the treatment was accomplished in a 11 years old Class I young patient, with a impacted right inferior second premolar. The magnetic system

  13. Free piston variable-stroke linear-alternator generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haaland, C.M.

    1998-12-15

    A free-piston variable stroke linear-alternator AC power generator for a combustion engine is described. An alternator mechanism and oscillator system generates AC current. The oscillation system includes two oscillation devices each having a combustion cylinder and a flying turnbuckle. The flying turnbuckle moves in accordance with the oscillation device. The alternator system is a linear alternator coupled between the two oscillation devices by a slotted connecting rod. 8 figs.

  14. Free piston variable-stroke linear-alternator generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haaland, Carsten M. (Dadeville, AL)

    1998-01-01

    A free-piston variable stroke linear-alternator AC power generator for a combustion engine. An alternator mechanism and oscillator system generates AC current. The oscillation system includes two oscillation devices each having a combustion cylinder and a flying turnbuckle. The flying turnbuckle moves in accordance with the oscillation device. The alternator system is a linear alternator coupled between the two oscillation devices by a slotted connecting rod.

  15. Alternative loop rings

    CERN Document Server

    Goodaire, EG; Polcino Milies, C

    1996-01-01

    For the past ten years, alternative loop rings have intrigued mathematicians from a wide cross-section of modern algebra. As a consequence, the theory of alternative loop rings has grown tremendously. One of the main developments is the complete characterization of loops which have an alternative but not associative, loop ring. Furthermore, there is a very close relationship between the algebraic structures of loop rings and of group rings over 2-groups. Another major topic of research is the study of the unit loop of the integral loop ring. Here the interaction between loop rings and group ri

  16. A functional alternative splicing mutation in AIRE gene causes autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junyu Zhang

    Full Text Available Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1 (APS-1 is a rare autosomal recessive disease defined by the presence of two of the three conditions: mucocutaneous candidiasis, hypoparathyroidism, and Addison's disease. Loss-of-function mutations of the autoimmune regulator (AIRE gene have been linked to APS-1. Here we report mutational analysis and functional characterization of an AIRE mutation in a consanguineous Chinese family with APS-1. All exons of the AIRE gene and adjacent exon-intron sequences were amplified by PCR and subsequently sequenced. We identified a homozygous missense AIRE mutation c.463G>A (p.Gly155Ser in two siblings with different clinical features of APS-1. In silico splice-site prediction and minigene analysis were carried out to study the potential pathological consequence. Minigene splicing analysis and subsequent cDNA sequencing revealed that the AIRE mutation potentially compromised the recognition of the splice donor of intron 3, causing alternative pre-mRNA splicing by intron 3 retention. Furthermore, the aberrant AIRE transcript was identified in a heterozygous carrier of the c.463G>A mutation. The aberrant intron 3-retaining transcript generated a truncated protein (p.G155fsX203 containing the first 154 AIRE amino acids and followed by 48 aberrant amino acids. Therefore, our study represents the first functional characterization of the alternatively spliced AIRE mutation that may explain the pathogenetic role in APS-1.

  17. Seal design alternatives study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results from a study of various sealing alternatives for the WIPP sealing system. Overall, the sealing system has the purpose of reducing to the extent possible the potential for fluids (either gas or liquid) from entering or leaving the repository. The sealing system is divided into three subsystems: drift and panel seals within the repository horizon, shaft seals in each of the four shafts, and borehole seals. Alternatives to the baseline configuration for the WIPP seal system design included evaluating different geometries and schedules for seal component installations and the use of different materials for seal components. Order-of-magnitude costs for the various alternatives were prepared as part of the study. Firm recommendations are not presented, but the advantages and disadvantages of the alternatives are discussed. Technical information deficiencies are identified and studies are outlined which can provide required information

  18. Seal design alternatives study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Sambeek, L.L. [RE/SPEC Inc., Rapid City, SD (US); Luo, D.D.; Lin, M.S.; Ostrowski, W.; Oyenuga, D. [Parsons Brinckerhoff Quade & Douglas, Inc., San Francisco, CA (US)

    1993-06-01

    This report presents the results from a study of various sealing alternatives for the WIPP sealing system. Overall, the sealing system has the purpose of reducing to the extent possible the potential for fluids (either gas or liquid) from entering or leaving the repository. The sealing system is divided into three subsystems: drift and panel seals within the repository horizon, shaft seals in each of the four shafts, and borehole seals. Alternatives to the baseline configuration for the WIPP seal system design included evaluating different geometries and schedules for seal component installations and the use of different materials for seal components. Order-of-magnitude costs for the various alternatives were prepared as part of the study. Firm recommendations are not presented, but the advantages and disadvantages of the alternatives are discussed. Technical information deficiencies are identified and studies are outlined which can provide required information.

  19. An alternative currency

    OpenAIRE

    Frendo, Mario; Duca, Edward

    2013-01-01

    Malta- a tiny island, a minute social reality, a precursory canovaccio of European unification- has a unique asset it ought to be prouder of: culture. http://www.um.edu.mt/think/an-alternative-currency/

  20. Alternatives to Nursing Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this website may not be available. Alternatives to nursing homes Before you make any decisions about long ... live and what help you may need. A nursing home may not be your only choice. Discharge ...

  1. Vaginal dryness alternative treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a day. Soybeans contain plant-based substances called isoflavones. These substances have an effect on the body ... soy for vasomotor symptoms: the Herbal Alternatives for Menopause (HALT) Study. Menopause . 2008;15(1):51-58. ...

  2. Alternative fuel information sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    This short document contains a list of more than 200 US sources of information (Name, address, phone number, and sometimes contact) related to the use of alternative fuels in automobiles and trucks. Electric-powered cars are also included.

  3. ModuleFinder and CoReg: alternative tools for linking gene expression modules with promoter sequences motifs to uncover gene regulation mechanisms in plants

    OpenAIRE

    Whelan James; Millar A Harvey; Holt Kathryn E

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Uncovering the key sequence elements in gene promoters that regulate the expression of plant genomes is a huge task that will require a series of complementary methods for prediction, substantial innovations in experimental validation and a much greater understanding of the role of combinatorial control in the regulation of plant gene expression. Results To add to this larger process and to provide alternatives to existing prediction methods, we have developed several tool...

  4. The alternative library

    OpenAIRE

    Collinson, Timothy; A. Williams

    2004-01-01

    Much time and effort has been devoted to designing and developing library Web sites that are easy to navigate by both new students and experienced researchers. In a review of the Southampton Institute Library it was decided that in addition to updating the existing homepage an alternative would be offered. Drawing on theory relating to user interface design, learning styles and creative thinking, an Alternative Library navigation system was added to the more traditional library homepage. The ...

  5. Alternative fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium resource utilization and economic considerations provide incentives to study alternative fuel cycles as future options to the PHWR natural uranium cycle. Preliminary studies to define the most favourable alternatives and their possible introduction dates are discussed. The important and uncertain components which influence option selection are reviewed, including nuclear capacity growth, uranium availability and demand, economic potential, and required technological developments. Finally, a summary of Ontario Hydro's program to further assess cycle selection and define development needs is given. (auth)

  6. Ultimacy and alternative possibilities

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, John Martin

    2009-01-01

    I explore a key feature of Robert Kane’s libertarianism (about which I have been puzzled for some time). Kane claims that we should separate issues of alternative possibilities from issues of ultimacy, but he further argues that they are connected in a certain way. I call into question this connection, and I continue to argue for a strict separation of considerations pertaining to alternative possibilities and “actual-sequence” considerations.

  7. Des divisions aux alternances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Clemens

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available - From the divisions to the alternations - Society, action and common good give sense to democracy. Society is in fact a set of unmitigated divisions (horizontal and vertical, material and symbolic. Democratic action, since the discourse’s conflicts, doesn’t change the human beings, but things between they, in the alternation of power’s institutions for our only good in common: the body. With this aim, the Basic Income Earth Network is necessary.

  8. Alternative energy in Nepal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiwari, H.B.; Bhandari, K.P.

    2011-05-15

    Renewable energy Technology (RET) becomes the mainstream option for rural Nepal to access modern source of energy. It focuses on the trend of RET applications consisting of biogas technology, solar thermal, micro and Pico hydropower, biomass technology bio fuel technology, wind power technology etc. The RET's which provide both electricity based as well as non electricity based services, have been shown to most immediately meet the needs of a cleaner indoor environment, better quality lightning for education and income generating, activities, alternative cooking fuels and agro processing as well as rural industries. Improved cooking stoves and much more beneficial than other technologies. Wind energy utilization is still not popular. Solar thermal to generate thermal energy to cook, warm and dry, biogas for lighting and cooking services. Micro hydropower for electric as well as mechanical use and solar PV mainly for domestic lighting may become choice. The most important Renewable Energy Technology (RET's) in Nepal are related to Pico hydropower and micro-hydropower, biomass energy (biogas, briquettes, gasifies, improved cooking stoves, bio-fuels etc.) solar photovoltaic energy, solar PV water pumping, solar thermal energy (solar heater, solar dryers, solar cookers etc.) and wind energy (such as wind generators, wind mills etc.). One renowned Non-governmental organization has been established in the Jhapa and Mornag Bhutanese refugee camp. Two families from all the seven camps in Nepal received one solar cooker, one hay box and two cooking posts to each family. Under this programme, a total of 6,850 solar cookers, 12600 hay boxes and 25,200 cooking pots have been distributed 2009. The number of beneficiaries from this program has reached 85,000. Before the distribution of the cookers and the utensils, the instruction and orientation training for the maintenance and repair and operation method was improved. The refugees were divided in 315 groups of 40

  9. Alternative fuels for vehicles; Alternative drivmidler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-02-15

    Up until 2020 and onwards the analysis indicates that especially electricity, biogas and natural gas as propellants is economically attractive compared to conventional gasoline and diesel while other fuels have the same or higher costs for petrol and diesel. Especially biogas and electricity will also offer significant reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions, but also hydrogen, methanol, DME and to a lesser extent the second generation bioethanol and most of the other alternative fuels reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. Use of the traditional food-based first generation biofuels involves, at best, only modest climate benefits if land use changes are counted, and at worst, significant negative climate effects. Natural gas as a propellant involves a moderate climate gain, but may play a role for building infrastructure and market for gaseous fuels in large fleets, thereby contributing to the phasing in of biogas for transport. The electric-based automotive fuels are the most effective due to a high efficiency of the engine and an increasing proportion of wind energy in the electricity supply. The methanol track also has a relatively high efficiency. Among the others, the track based on diesel engines (biodiesel) is more effective than the track based on gasoline/Otto engines (gas and ethanol) as a result of the diesel engine's better efficiency. For the heavy vehicles all the selected alternative fuels to varying degrees reduce emissions of CO{sub 2}, particularly DME based on wood. The only exception to this is - as for passenger cars - the propellant synthetic diesel based on coal. (LN).

  10. ELECTROMAGNETISM, OPTICS, ACOUSTICS, HEAT TRANSFER, CLASSICAL MECHANICS, AND FLUID DYNAMICS: Alternative Scheme for Generation of Atomic Schrödinger Cat States and Entangled Coherent States in an Optical Cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiu

    2010-05-01

    We propose an alternative scheme for generation of atomic Schrödinger cat states in an optical cavity. In the scheme the atoms are always populated in the two ground states and the cavity remains in the vacuum state. Therefore, the scheme is insensitive to the atomic spontaneous emission and cavity decay. The scheme may be generalized to the deterministic generation of entangled coherent states for two atomic samples. In contrast with the previously proposed schemes of [Commun. Theor. Phys. 40 (2003) 103 and Chin. Phys. B 18 (2009) 1045], the required interaction time in our scheme is greatly shortened and thus the decoherence can be effectively suppressed.

  11. Gap seal dissipation in linear alternators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonen, Eran; Grossman, Gershon

    2015-04-01

    Earlier models of the coupling between a thermoacoustic system and an electrodynamic motor/alternator considered mechanical damping but ignored the viscous friction and blow-by losses produced by the motor/alternator's piston oscillating within a tight-fitting gap. The model presented here extends previous models to demonstrate that the inclusion of these effects leads to a better estimate of the electroacoustic conversion efficiency and can be used to determine the optimal load resistance for such an alternator's electrical power output. Model predictions were shown to be in excellent agreement with the performance measurements made using two different thermoacoustic engines and using a sealed volume (dummy load) connected to multiple, horizontally opposed motor/alternators, using an empirical determination of the piston-cylinder gap. PMID:25920827

  12. 齿龈内阿米巴引起牙周炎及其致病机制的研究%STUDIES ON PERIODONTITIS CAUSED BY ENTAMOEBA GINGIVALIS AND ITS PATHOGENETIC MECHANISM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘光英; 陈金富; 陈文列; 温旺荣; 林立群; 洪航

    2003-01-01

    目的研究齿龈内阿米巴(Entamoeba gingivalis,E.g.)与牙周炎的关系及其致病机制. 方法给大鼠免疫抑制剂,于下颌切牙颈部结扎细钢丝,在E.g.组和对照组大鼠龈缘涂抹E.g.或生理盐水,观察大鼠发病和病理改变情况;检测感染E.g.的牙周炎患者唾液中的超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、过氧化氢酶(CAT)、酸性磷酸酶(ACP)和丙二醛(MDA)含量;应用电镜细胞化学技术观察E.g.的细胞器. 结果大鼠牙龈上皮组织溃疡、炎症细胞浸润、牙龈沟内上皮增生、牙周脓肿形成、牙槽骨吸收和脓液查见活E.g.,对照组未见病理改变;感染E.g.的牙周炎患者的SOD较正常组低(P0.05),ACP与MDA含量显著高于正常组(均P<0.01);E.g.的伪足粘附、伸入口腔上皮细胞微绒毛之间,溶酶体标志酶反应阳性. 结论当宿主免疫力降低时,E.g.可致宿主牙周炎.虫体伪足的活动,溶酶体含ACP等水解酶对牙周组织的溶解、破坏与氧自由基对细胞膜的损害是虫体引起牙周炎的重要致病机制.

  13. 猪瘟病毒分子生物学与致病机制研究进展%Research advance in molecular biology and pathogenetic mechanism for classical swine fever virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    南文金; 胡鸿惠; 彭国良; 娄高明

    2011-01-01

    猪瘟是由猪瘟病毒感染导致的高度接触性传染病,家猪和野猪对该病原易感.该病主要特征是高热、微血管变性而引起实质器官出血、坏死,是世界上危害最严重猪病之一,给养猪业带来重大损失.综述了猪瘟病毒基因组、蛋白质功能以及致病机理的最新研究进展,为相关研究人员参考.%Classical swine fever (CSF) is a highly contagious disease of domestic and wild pigs. The causative agent of this disease is classical swine fever virus (CSFV), the disease of pig characterized by high fever, microvascular denaturalization hemorrhages and necrosis of parenchymatous argans. It is considered to be one of the most devastating diseases and causes significant economic loss for the pig industry throughout the word. The paper introduces the research progresses on genome, function of protein and pathogenesis of CFSV.

  14. Allogeneic transplantation following non-myeloablative conditioning in renal carcinoma. New evidence of the immune mechanisms responsible for the activity of this form of immunotherapy and the pathogenetic role of endogenous retroviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camillo Porta

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2000, the influential New England Journal of Medicine published the first impressive results of the use of allogeneic stem cell transplantation following nonmyeloblative conditioning (the so-called ‘mini-allo transplant’ in the treatment of patients with advanced kidney cancer...

  15. Catalysis for alternative energy generation

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Summarizes recent problems in using catalysts in alternative energy generation and proposes novel solutions  Reconsiders the role of catalysis in alternative energy generation  Contributors include catalysis and alternative energy experts from across the globe

  16. Alternative Green Solvents Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Phillip R.

    2012-01-01

    Necessary for safe and proper functioning of equipment. Mainly halogenated solvents. Tetrachloride, Trichloroethylene (TCE), CFC-113. No longer used due to regulatory/safety concerns. Precision Cleaning at KSC: Small % of total parts. Used for liquid oxygen (LOX) systems. Dual solvent process. Vertrel MCA (decafluoropentane (DFP) and trons-dichloroethylene) HFE-7100. DFP has long term environmental concerns. Project Goals: a) Identify potential replacements. b) 22 wet chemical processes. c) 3 alternative processes. d) Develop test procedures. e) Contamination and cleaning. f) Analysis. g) Use results to recommend alternative processes. Conclusions: a) No alternative matched Vertrel in this study. b) No clear second place solvent. c) Hydrocarbons- easy; Fluorinated greases- difficult. d) Fluorinated component may be needed in replacement solvent. e) Process may need to make up for shortcoming of the solvent. f) Plasma and SCC02 warrant further testing.

  17. Alternatives for pseudofinite groups

    CERN Document Server

    Houcine, Abderezak Ould

    2012-01-01

    The famous Tits' alternative states that a linear group either contains a nonabelian free group or is soluble-by-(locally finite). We study in this paper similar alternatives in pseudofinite groups. We show for instance that an $\\aleph_{0}$-saturated pseudofinite group either contains a subsemigroup of rank $2$ or is nilpotent-by-(uniformly locally finite). We call a class of finite groups $G$ weakly of bounded rank if the radical $rad(G)$ has a bounded Pr\\"ufer rank and the index of the sockel of $G/rad(G)$ is bounded. We show that an $\\aleph_{0}$-saturated pseudo-(finite weakly of bounded rank) group either contains a nonabelian free group or is nilpotent-by-abelian-by-(uniformly locally finite). We also obtain some relations between this kind of alternatives and amenability.

  18. Overview of mechanisms of cancer chemopreventive agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epidemiological data provide evidence that it is possible to prevent cancer and other chronic diseases, some of which share common pathogenetic mechanisms, such as DNA damage, oxidative stress, and chronic inflammation. An obvious approach is avoidance of exposure to recognized risk factors. As complementary strategies, it is possible to render the organism more resistant to mutagens/carcinogens and/or to inhibit progression of the disease by administering chemopreventive agents. In a primary prevention setting, addressed to apparently healthy individuals, it is possible to inhibit mutation and cancer initiation by triggering protective mechanisms either in the extracellular environment or inside cells, e.g., by modifying transmembrane transport, modulating metabolism, blocking reactive species, inhibiting cell replication, maintaining DNA structure, modulating DNA metabolism and repair, and controlling gene expression. Tumor promotion can be counteracted by inhibiting genotoxic effects, favoring antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity, inhibiting proteases and cell proliferation, inducing cell differentiation, modulating apoptosis and signal transduction pathways, and protecting intercellular communications. In a secondary prevention setting, when a premalignant lesion has been detected, it is possible to inhibit tumor progression via the same mechanisms, and in addition by affecting the hormonal status and the immune system in various ways, and by inhibiting tumor angiogenesis. Although tertiary prevention, addressed to cancer patients after therapy, is outside the classical definition of chemoprevention, it exploits similar mechanisms. It is also possible to affect cell-adhesion molecules, to activate antimetastasis genes, and to inhibit proteases involved in basement membrane degradation

  19. Bouncing alternatives to inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Lilley, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Although the inflationary paradigm is the most widely accepted explanation for the current cosmological observations, it does not necessarily correspond to what actually happened in the early stages of our Universe. To decide on this issue, two paths can be followed: first, all the possible predictions it makes must be derived thoroughly and compared with available data, and second, all imaginable alternatives must be ruled out. Leaving the first task to all other contributors of this volume, we concentrate here on the second option, focusing on the bouncing alternatives and their consequences.

  20. Renewable and alternative energy

    CERN Document Server

    Curley, Robert

    2011-01-01

    With growing populations across the world consuming Earth's limited oil and natural gas reserves, the environmental and economic toll of energy dependence becomes an increasingly global concern. The development of renewable forms of energy-solar, wind, water, and geothermal, to name a few-offers alternatives to fossil fuels. Consumers are embracing these new modes of energy delivery and use. This extensive volume examines the possibility of a cleaner and more energy efficient future by detailing the historic and emerging technologies behind some the most promising alternative resources.

  1. Domestic energy alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These alternatives include biomass, clean coal, geothermal, hydropower, natural gas, nuclear, solar and photovoltaic, and wind. With the current, volatile situation in the Middle East, this nation's political leaders appear to be left scratching their heads in their attempts to come up with new, sound, energy policies to reduce our dependence on foreign oil. Therefore, the FORTNIGHTLY's editorial staff thought that this might be an opportune time to briefly examine some home-grown and environmentally responsible fuel alternatives to black gold. While some of these electricity-producing technologies are still on the horizon, others are available now

  2. Compensated pulsed alternator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This invention relates to an electromechanical energy converter with inertial energy storage. The device, a single phase, two or multi-pole alternator with stationary field coils, and a rotating armature is provided. The rotor itself may be of laminated steel for slower pulses or for faster pulses should be nonmagnetic and electrically nonconductive in order to allow rapid penetration of the field as the armature coil rotates. The armature coil comprises a plurality of power generating conductors mounted on the rotor. The alternator may also include a stationary or counterrotating compensating coil to increase the output voltage thereof and to reduce the internal impedance of the alternator at the moment of peak output. As the machine voltage rises sinusoidally, an external trigger switch is adapted to be closed at the appropriate time to create the desired output current from said alternator to an external load circuit, and as the output current passes through zero a self-commutating effect is provided to allow the switch to disconnect the generator from the external circuit

  3. Alternatives to Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Children Today, 1994

    1994-01-01

    Notes that our capacity to diffuse conflict rests in our ability to recognize and verbalize feelings, develop empathy, and think of alternatives to violence. Explores the influence of role models and culture on violence and how the media can use violent images effectively in helping us confront a culture of violence. (HTH)

  4. Tracking alternative energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the third and last article dealing with global energy topics analyzed at the 13th World Energy Congress. The varied particality or applicability of the following alternative energy sources is briefly discussed at a popular level: fusion, solar, ocean thermal energy conversion, waves, winds, tidal, and geothermal

  5. Alternatives to Blood Transfusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... saved articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Blood Transfusion and Donation + - Text Size Download Printable Version [PDF] » TOPICS Document ... Possible risks of blood transfusions Alternatives to blood transfusions Donating blood Blood donation by cancer survivors To learn more References Previous ...

  6. Alternative health insurance schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Hans; Hansen, Bodil O.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we present a simple model of health insurance with asymmetric information, where we compare two alternative ways of organizing the insurance market. Either as a competitive insurance market, where some risks remain uninsured, or as a compulsory scheme, where however, the level...

  7. TWTF design alternates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Transuranic Waste Treatment Facility (TWTF) will process transuranic (TRU) waste in retrievable storage at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The costs for a TWTF concept using a slagging pyrolysis incinerator were excessive. Alternate concepts using a slow speed shredder, a rotary kiln incinerator, and concrete immobilization should result in significant cost reductions. These will be included in future TWTF considerations

  8. Alternative and Integrative Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are the healthcare rituals practiced by a given culture (eg, Asian, Indian, African). Homeopathic Medicine: This alternative medicine system is based on the principle that “like cures like.” In other words, the same substance ... American Brain Tumor Association 8550 W. Bryn Mawr Ave. ...

  9. DETERMINATION OF THE EFFECTS OF MATERIAL FROM ALTERNATE ENERGY SOURCES ON THE UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT CLEARANCE MECHANISM. PART I: IN VITRO EXPOSURE TO PARTICULATE POLLUTANTS. PART II: IN VIVO EXPOSURE TO OZONE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies were conducted to measure the toxic effects of a variety of substances from the environment on the clearance mechanism of the upper respiratory tract using an in vitro hamster model system. Studies using hamsters for in vivo exposures to ozone were also conducted to deter...

  10. Quantum Mechanics As A Limiting Case of Classical Mechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Ghose, Partha

    2000-01-01

    In spite of its popularity, it has not been possible to vindicate the conventional wisdom that classical mechanics is a limiting case of quantum mechanics. The purpose of the present paper is to offer an alternative point of view in which quantum mechanics emerges as a limiting case of classical mechanics in which the classical system is decoupled from its environment.

  11. Central serous chorioretinopathy: a pathogenetic model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    et al

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Antonio Caccavale1, Filippo Romanazzi1, Manuela Imparato1, Angelo Negri2, Anna Morano3, Fabio Ferentini21Department of Ophthalmology, Neuropthalmology and Ocular Immunology Service, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Hospital “C. Cantù”, Abbiategrasso, Milan, Italy; 3University Eye Clinic, Foundation IRCCS San Matteo Hospital, Pavia, ItalyAbstract: Despite numerous studies describing predominantly its demography and clinical course, many aspects of central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR remain unclear. Perhaps the major impediment to finding an effective therapy is the difficulty of performing studies with large enough cohorts, which has meant that clinicians have focused more on therapy than on a deeper understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease. Hypotheses on the pathogenesis of CSCR have ranged from a basic alteration in the choroid to an involvement of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE. Starting from evidence that affected subjects often present a personality prone to stress with altered pituitary–hypothalamic axis response (HPA and that they have higher levels of serum and urinary cortisol and catecholamines than healthy subjects, we hypothesize a cascade of events that may lead to CSCR through hypercoagulability and augmented platelet aggregation. In particular we investigated the role of tissue plasminogen activator, increasing plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1, and plasmin-α2- plasmin inhibitor complexes. We reviewed the different therapeutic approaches, including adrenergic antagonists, carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, mifepristone, ketoconazole, laser photocoagulation, intravitreal injection of bevacizumab, and photodynamic therapy with verteporfin (PDT and our model of pathogenesis seems to be in agreement with the clinical effects obtained from these treatments. In accord with our thesis, we began to treat a group of patients affected by CSCR with low-dose aspirin (75–100 mg, because of its effectiveness in other vascular diseases and its low ocular and general toxicity with prolonged use. The formulation of a causative model of CSCR enables us to understand how the therapeutic approach cannot be based on a generalized therapy but should be individualized for each patient, and that sometimes a combined strategy of treatment is required. Moreover a complete knowledge of the disease will help to identify patients prone to the most persistent forms of CSCR, and thus help to find a treatment.Keywords: CSCR, aspirin, PAI-1, glucocorticoid, macula, pathogenesis 

  12. The pathogenetic enigma of polycystic ovary syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    S. Speca; Napolitano, C.; Tagliaferri, G.

    2007-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex disease with heterogeneous clinical and anatomical features that were first described in 1721 by Antonio Vallisneri. There is still a lack of consensus regarding the criteria to be used for diagnosis of PCOS. Transvaginal ultrasonography with Doppler studies of the ovarian and pelvic vasculature plays an important role in its diagnosis, but findings must be interpreted in light of the patient's symptoms and laboratory findings.

  13. Central serous chorioretinopathy: a pathogenetic model

    OpenAIRE

    et al; Manuela Imparato; Filippo Romanazzi; Antonio Caccavale

    2011-01-01

    Antonio Caccavale1, Filippo Romanazzi1, Manuela Imparato1, Angelo Negri2, Anna Morano3, Fabio Ferentini21Department of Ophthalmology, Neuropthalmology and Ocular Immunology Service, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Hospital “C. Cantù”, Abbiategrasso, Milan, Italy; 3University Eye Clinic, Foundation IRCCS San Matteo Hospital, Pavia, ItalyAbstract: Despite numerous studies describing predominantly its demography and clinical course, many aspects of central serous cho...

  14. [Alternatives to animal testing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabre, Isabelle

    2009-11-01

    The use of alternative methods to animal testing are an integral part of the 3Rs concept (refine, reduce, replace) defined by Russel & Burch in 1959. These approaches include in silico methods (databases and computer models), in vitro physicochemical analysis, biological methods using bacteria or isolated cells, reconstructed enzyme systems, and reconstructed tissues. Emerging "omic" methods used in integrated approaches further help to reduce animal use, while stem cells offer promising approaches to toxicologic and pathophysiologic studies, along with organotypic cultures and bio-artificial organs. Only a few alternative methods can so far be used in stand-alone tests as substitutes for animal testing. The best way to use these methods is to integrate them in tiered testing strategies (ITS), in which animals are only used as a last resort. PMID:20669543

  15. Outlook for alternative transportation fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gushee, D.E. [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This presentation provides a brief review of regulatory issues and Federal programs regarding alternative fuel use in automobiles. A number of U.S. DOE initiatives and studies aimed at increasing alternative fuels are outlined, and tax incentives in effect at the state and Federal levels are discussed. Data on alternative fuel consumption and alternative fuel vehicle use are also presented. Despite mandates, tax incentives, and programs, it is concluded alternative fuels will have minimal market penetration. 7 refs., 5 tabs.

  16. ALTERNATIVE DISPUTE RESOLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Irina IONESCU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Alternative dispute resolution (ADR includes dispute resolution processes and techniques that act as a means for disagreeing parties to come to an agreement short of litigation. It is a collective term for the ways that parties can settle disputes, with (or without the help of a third party.Despite historic resistance to ADR by many popular parties and their advocates, ADR has gained widespread acceptance among both the general public and the legal profession in recent years. In fact, some courts now require some parties to resort to ADR of some type, before permitting the parties' cases to be tried. The rising popularity of ADR can be explained by the increasing caseload of traditional courts, the perception that ADR imposes fewer costs than litigation, a preference for confidentiality, and the desire of some parties to have greater control over the selection of the individual or individuals who will decide their dispute.Directive 2013/11/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council on alternative dispute resolution for consumer disputes and amending Regulation (EC No 2006/2004 and Directive 2009/22/EC (hereinafter „Directive 2013/11/EU” aims to ensure a high level of consumer protection and the proper functioning of the internal market by ensuring that complaints against traders can be submitted by consumers on a voluntary basis, to entities of alternative disputes which are independent, impartial, transparent, effective, simple,quick and fair.Directive 2013/11/EU establishes harmonized quality requirements for entities applying alternative dispute resolution procedure (hereinafter "ADR entity" to provide the same protection and the same rights of consumers in all Member States.Besides this, the present study is trying to present broadly how are all this trasposed in the romanian legislation.

  17. Alternatives to ECMO.

    OpenAIRE

    Donn, S M

    1994-01-01

    The past decade has witnessed technological advancements which are unparalleled in neonatology. ECMO has been demonstrated to be a powerful rescue treatment, but has perhaps been overutilised and is not universally available. Alternative treatments have been shown to be both safe and efficacious in the management of infants with respiratory failure. Direct head to head clinical trials will probably be necessary to establish appropriate criteria and indications for use, given the wide diversit...

  18. Alternative approaches in IVF

    OpenAIRE

    Fauser, Bart; Bouchard, P.; Coelingh Bennink, H.J.; Collins, John; Devroey, P.; Evers, Johannes; Van Steirteghem, A

    2002-01-01

    textabstractVarious new developments in clinical and basic science which may impact on IVF in the near or distant future will be discussed in this review. These key areas include the regulation of early follicle development and the extended in-vitro culture of oocytes and embryos. Moreover, alternative compounds and ovarian stimulation protocols will be discussed, along with highlights in the development of the cryopreservation of excess oocytes or embryos. Finally, the health economics of IV...

  19. Alternative Dispute Resolution

    OpenAIRE

    Mihaela Irina IONESCU

    2004-01-01

    Alternative dispute resolution (ADR) includes dispute resolution processes and techniques that act as a means for disagreeing parties to come to an agreement short of litigation. It is a collective term for the ways that parties can settle disputes, with (or without) the help of a third party.Despite historic resistance to ADR by many popular parties and their advocates, ADR has gained widespread acceptance among both the general public and the legal profession in recent years. In fact, some ...

  20. Metamaterials critique and alternatives

    CERN Document Server

    Munk, Ben A

    2009-01-01

    A Convincing and Controversial Alternative Explanation of Metamaterials with a Negative Index of Refraction In a book that will generate both support and controversy, one of the world's foremost authorities on periodic structures addresses several of the current fashions in antenna design-most specifically, the popular subject of double negative metamaterials. Professor Munk provides a comprehensive theoretical electromagnetic investigation of the issues and concludes that many of the phenomena claimed by researchers may be impossible. While denying the existence of negative refractio

  1. Alternatives to Higgs scalars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We discuss alternatives to the Higgs Scalar doublet Φ of the minimal standard model. In particular we review technicolor (TC) and extended technicolor (ETC), and show that the threat of flavour changing neutral currents (FCNC's) is avoided by walking TC and/or strongly coupled ETC. The phenomenology of minimal TC and the techni-family is discussed. Finally we consider the possibility that the Higgs doublet Φ is a composite bound state of quarks from the third (or fourth) family

  2. Fixed field alternating gradient

    OpenAIRE

    Machida, Shinji

    2013-01-01

    The concept of a fixed field alternating gradient (FFAG) accelerator was invented in the 1950s. Although many studies were carried out up to the late 1960s, there has been relatively little progress until recently, when it received widespread attention as a type of accelerator suitable for very fast acceleration and for generating high-power beams. In this paper, we describe the principles and design procedure of a FFAG accelerator.

  3. Alternative Fuels: Research Progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maher A.R. Sadiq Al-Baghdadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chapter 1: Pollutant Emissions and Combustion Characteristics of Biofuels and Biofuel/Diesel Blends in Laminar and Turbulent Gas Jet Flames. R. N. Parthasarathy, S. R. Gollahalli Chapter 2: Sustainable Routes for The Production of Oxygenated High-Energy Density Biofuels from Lignocellulosic Biomass. Juan A. Melero, Jose Iglesias, Gabriel Morales, Marta Paniagua Chapter 3: Optical Investigations of Alternative-Fuel Combustion in an HSDI Diesel Engine. T. Huelser, M. Jakob, G. Gruenefeld, P. Adomeit, S. Pischinger Chapter 4: An Insight into Biodiesel Physico-Chemical Properties and Exhaust Emissions Based on Statistical Elaboration of Experimental Data. Evangelos G. Giakoumis Chapter 5: Biodiesel: A Promising Alternative Energy Resource. A.E. Atabani Chapter 6: Alternative Fuels for Internal Combustion Engines: An Overview of the Current Research. Ahmed A. Taha, Tarek M. Abdel-Salam, Madhu Vellakal Chapter 7: Investigating the Hydrogen-Natural Gas Blends as a Fuel in Internal Combustion Engine. ?lker YILMAZ Chapter 8: Conversion of Bus Diesel Engine into LPG Gaseous Engine; Method and Experiments Validation. M. A. Jemni , G. Kantchev , Z. Driss , R. Saaidia , M. S. Abid Chapter 9: Predicting the Combustion Performance of Different Vegetable Oils-Derived Biodiesel Fuels. Qing Shu, ChangLin Yu Chapter 10: Production of Gasoline, Naphtha, Kerosene, Diesel, and Fuel Oil Range Fuels from Polypropylene and Polystyrene Waste Plastics Mixture by Two-Stage Catalytic Degradation using ZnO. Moinuddin Sarker, Mohammad Mamunor Rashid

  4. State alternative route designations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-07-01

    Pursuant to the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act (HMTA), the Department of Transportation (DOT) has promulgated a comprehensive set of regulations regarding the highway transportation of high-level radioactive materials. These regulations, under HM-164 and HM-164A, establish interstate highways as the preferred routes for the transportation of radioactive materials within and through the states. The regulations also provide a methodology by which a state may select alternative routes. First,the state must establish a ``state routing agency,`` defined as an entity authorized to use the state legal process to impose routing requirements on carriers of radioactive material (49 CFR 171.8). Once identified, the state routing agency must select routes in accordance with Large Quantity Shipments of Radioactive Materials or an equivalent routing analysis. Adjoining states and localities should be consulted on the impact of proposed alternative routes as a prerequisite of final route selection. Lastly, the states must provide written notice of DOT of any alternative route designation before the routes are deemed effective.

  5. State alternative route designations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-07-01

    Pursuant to the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act (HMTA), the Department of Transportation (DOT) has promulgated a comprehensive set of regulations regarding the highway transportation of high-level radioactive materials. These regulations, under HM-164 and HM-164A, establish interstate highways as the preferred routes for the transportation of radioactive materials within and through the states. The regulations also provide a methodology by which a state may select alternative routes. First,the state must establish a state routing agency,'' defined as an entity authorized to use the state legal process to impose routing requirements on carriers of radioactive material (49 CFR 171.8). Once identified, the state routing agency must select routes in accordance with Large Quantity Shipments of Radioactive Materials or an equivalent routing analysis. Adjoining states and localities should be consulted on the impact of proposed alternative routes as a prerequisite of final route selection. Lastly, the states must provide written notice of DOT of any alternative route designation before the routes are deemed effective.

  6. Alternative Energy Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Michaelides, Efstathios E (Stathis)

    2012-01-01

    Alternative Energy Sources is designed to give the reader, a clear view of the role each form of alternative energy may play in supplying the energy needs of the human society in the near and intermediate future (20-50 years).   The two first chapters on energy demand and supply and environmental effects, set the tone as to why the widespread use of alternative energy is essential for the future of human society. The third chapter exposes the reader to the laws of energy conversion processes, as well as the limitations of converting one energy form to another. The sections on exergy give a succinct, quantitative background on the capability/potential of each energy source to produce power on a global scale. The fourth, fifth and sixth chapters are expositions of fission and fusion nuclear energy. The following five chapters (seventh to eleventh) include detailed descriptions of the most common renewable energy sources – wind, solar, geothermal, biomass, hydroelectric – and some of the less common sources...

  7. Regulation of alternative splice site selection by reversible protein phosphorylation

    OpenAIRE

    Novoyatleva, Tatyana

    2007-01-01

    Splicing is the process that removes introns and joins exons from pre-mesenger RNA (pre-mRNA). It is an essential step in pre-mRNA processing that form the mature RNA. Microarray data indicates that approximately 75% of human genes produce transcripts that are alternatively spliced. Alternative splicing is one of the major mechanisms that ultimately generate high number of protein isoforms from a limited number of genes. The proper catalysis and regulation of alternative splice site selection...

  8. Alternative Splicing Generates Different Parkin Protein Isoforms: Evidences in Human, Rat, and Mouse Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya Scuderi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson protein 2, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase (PARK2 gene mutations are the most frequent causes of autosomal recessive early onset Parkinson’s disease and juvenile Parkinson disease. Parkin deficiency has also been linked to other human pathologies, for example, sporadic Parkinson disease, Alzheimer disease, autism, and cancer. PARK2 primary transcript undergoes an extensive alternative splicing, which enhances transcriptomic diversification. To date several PARK2 splice variants have been identified; however, the expression and distribution of parkin isoforms have not been deeply investigated yet. Here, the currently known PARK2 gene transcripts and relative predicted encoded proteins in human, rat, and mouse are reviewed. By analyzing the literature, we highlight the existing data showing the presence of multiple parkin isoforms in the brain. Their expression emerges from conflicting results regarding the electrophoretic mobility of the protein, but it is also assumed from discrepant observations on the cellular and tissue distribution of parkin. Although the characterization of each predicted isoforms is complex, since they often diverge only for few amino acids, analysis of their expression patterns in the brain might account for the different pathogenetic effects linked to PARK2 gene mutations.

  9. Quantitative regulation of alternative splicing in evolution and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Irimia, Manuel; Rukov, Jakob L; Roy, Scott W;

    2009-01-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) is a widespread mechanism with an important role in increasing transcriptome and proteome diversity by generating multiple different products from the same gene. Evolutionary studies of AS have focused primarily on the conservation of alternatively spliced sequences or of...... additional layer in complex gene regulatory networks and in the emergence of genetic novelties....

  10. Evaluation of financial assurance alternatives of licensees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Uranium and Thorium Mining Regulations of the Atomic Energy Control Act require that applicants/licensees indicate to the AECB what financial assurance plans they have made to fund the decommissioning plan they propose to put in place. We have determined through our own business knowledge from other projects, as well as information provided by contacts in the banking, accounting, legal, investment and insurance communities, what financial assurance plans might be available. We have tabulated these alternatives, included explanations of how each might be implemented, and recorded advantages and disadvantages of each alternative to both the AECB and the applicant/licensee. In addition we have ranked the alternatives in order of most suitable to least suitable, from the AECB's perspective. Although these financial assurance mechanisms have been tabulated with a view to decommissioning of a uranium mine, they could be used in other licence or business arrangements that require financial assurance. (author). 3 tabs., 1 fig

  11. Alternatives to nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article discusses several possibilities as alternatives to nuclear energy and their relevance to the Philippine case. The major present and future fuel alternatives to petroleum and nuclear energy are coal, geothermal heat, solar energy and hydrogen, the first two of which are being used. Different conversion technologies are also discussed for large scale electricity production namely solar thermal electric conversion (STC), photovoltaic electric power system (PEPS) and ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC). Major environmental considerations affect the choice of energy sources and technologies. We have the problem of long term accumulation of radioactive waste in the case of nuclear energy; in geothermal and fossil-fuels carbon dioxide uranium and accumulation may cause disastrous consequences. With regard to Philippine option, the greatest considerations in selecting alternative energy options would be resources availability - both energy and financial and technology status. For the country's energy plan, coal and geothermal energy are expected to play a significant role. The country's coal resources are 1.4 billion metric tons. For geothermal energy, 25 volcanic centers were identified and has a potential equivalent to 2.5 x 106 million barrels of oil. Solar energy if harnessed, being in the sunbelt, averaging some 2000 hours a year could be an energy source. The present dilemma of the policy maker is whether national resources are better spent on large scale urban-based energy projects or whether those should be focused on small scale, rural oriented installations which produced benefits to the more numerous and poorer members of the population. (RTD)

  12. A genome-wide survey of alternative translational initiation events in Homo sapiens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jing; CAI Jun; LI YanDa

    2007-01-01

    Alternative translational initiation is an important mechanism to increase the diversity of gene products.Although some of alternative translational initiation events have been reported, such information remains anecdotal and does not allow for any generalizations. The number of the known alternative translational initiation genes is so few that we know little about its mechanism. There is a great demand to discover more alternative translational initiation genes. However, it is arduously time-consuming to discover novel alternative translational initiation genes by the experimental method. Therefore we systematically analyzed protein sequences available in public database and predicted 1237 protein clusters as potential alternative translational initiation events. We concluded that about 8%-10% of human genes have alternative translational initiation sites. The results significantly increased the number of alternative translation initiation events and indicated that alternative translation initiation is an important and general regulation mechanism in the cellular process.

  13. A genome-wide survey of alternative translational initiation events in Homo sapiens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Alternative translational initiation is an important mechanism to increase the diversity of gene products. Although some of alternative translational initiation events have been reported, such information remains anecdotal and does not allow for any generalizations. The number of the known alternative translational initiation genes is so few that we know little about its mechanism. There is a great demand to discover more alternative translational initiation genes. However, it is arduously time-consuming to discover novel alternative translational initiation genes by the experimental method. Therefore we systematically analyzed protein sequences available in public database and predicted 1237 protein clusters as potential alternative translational initiation events. We concluded that about 8%—10% of human genes have alternative translational initiation sites. The results significantly increased the number of alternative translation initiation events and indicated that alternative translation initiation is an important and general regulation mechanism in the cellular process.

  14. Alternate fusion concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review summarizes the status of alternate fusion concepts and plans for their future. The concepts selected for review are those employing electromagnetic confinement for which there have been reasonable predictions of net energy gain from pure fusion and which have shown significant recent development or are the subjects of ongoing international activity. They include advanced tokamaks, stellarators, the spherical torus, reversed-field pinch and dense z-field pinch devices, field reversed configuration, and spheromaks. In addition, an overall view of the status of each concept with respect to achieving ignition and to reactor designs is presented

  15. Alternate fuels; Combustibles alternos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero Paredes R, Hernando; Ambriz G, Juan Jose [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana. Iztapalapa (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    In the definition and description of alternate fuels we must center ourselves in those technological alternatives that allow to obtain compounds that differ from the traditional ones, in their forms to be obtained. In this article it is tried to give an overview of alternate fuels to the conventional derivatives of petroleum and that allow to have a clear idea on the tendencies of modern investigation and the technological developments that can be implemented in the short term. It is not pretended to include all the tendencies and developments of the present world, but those that can hit in a relatively short term, in accordance with agreed with the average life of conventional fuels. Nevertheless, most of the conversion principles are applicable to the spectrum of carbonaceous or cellulosic materials which are in nature, are cultivated or wastes of organic origin. Thus one will approach them in a successive way, the physical, chemical and biological conversions that can take place in a production process of an alternate fuel or the same direct use of the fuel such as burning the sweepings derived from the forests. [Spanish] En la definicion y descripcion de combustibles alternos nos debemos centrar en aquellas alternativas tecnologicas que permitan obtener compuestos que difieren de los tradicionales, al menos en sus formas de ser obtenidos. En este articulo se pretende dar un panorama de los combustibles alternos a los convencionales derivados del petroleo y que permita tener una idea clara sobre las tendencias de la investigacion moderna y los desarrollos tecnologicos que puedan ser implementados en el corto plazo. No se pretende abarcar todas las tendencias y desarrollos del mundo actual, sino aquellas que pueden impactar en un plazo relativamente corto, acordes con la vida media de los combustibles convencionales. Sin embargo, la mayor parte de los principios de conversion son aplicables al espectro de materiales carbonaceos o celulosicos los cuales se

  16. Polyphase alternating codes

    OpenAIRE

    M. Markkanen; Vierinen, J.; Markkanen, J.

    2007-01-01

    We present a new class of alternating codes. Instead of the customary binary phase codes, the new codes utilize either p or p–1 phases, where p is a prime number. The first class of codes has code length pm, where m is a positive integer, the second class has code length p–1. We give an actual construction algorithm, and explain the principles behind it. We ...

  17. Polyphase alternating codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Markkanen

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a new class of alternating codes. Instead of the customary binary phase codes, the new codes utilize either p or p–1 phases, where p is a prime number. The first class of codes has code length pm, where m is a positive integer, the second class has code length p–1. We give an actual construction algorithm, and explain the principles behind it. We handle a few specific examples in detail. The new codes offer an enlarged collection of code lengths for radar experiments.

  18. Alternate transportation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zertuche, Tony; Mckinnie, James

    1988-01-01

    Three missions have been identified by NASA for a Space Shuttle-supplementing Alternate Transportation System (ATS) encompassing combinations of booster vehicles, crew modules, and service modules: (1) to achieve manned access to orbit for Space Station crew rotation every 90 days, (2) the lofting of a logistics module resupplying the Space Station every 180 days, and (3) the simultaneous launch of both crews and logistics to the Space Station. A reentry glider is considered, in conjunction with the Space Shuttle's unmanned cargo version and the Apollo manned capsule, as an important ATS element. The Titan IV/NUS is used as a booster.

  19. Alternatives to fundholding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glennerster, H; Cohen, A; Bovell, V

    1998-01-01

    The new Labour government in the United Kingdom is proposing to adapt the reforms begun by the last Thatcher government. In particular, it is proposing to abolish the most controversial element--general practitioner (GP) fundholding. It is looking for alternatives. The study reported here followed and evaluated several such schemes. While fundholders use their purchasing power directly to force change by threatening "exit" to another provider, other GPs have evolved ways of influencing decisions--enhancing their "voice." The authors develop a theory to predict the conditions favoring the relative success of exit and voice strategies in health purchasing, and describe alternative GP-based purchasing schemes and the reasons they evolved in six sample districts. In four of these districts and eight practices in each, fundholding and non-fundholding GPs were then asked to describe their intentions and the outcomes of the purchasing process in which they had participated. Four specialties were taken as examples. The authors compare the relative success of fundholders and non-fundholders in achieving their objectives. PMID:9493753

  20. Alternative Medicine and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Complementary and Alternative Medicine KidsHealth > For Parents > Complementary and Alternative Medicine Print ... works. previous continue How CAM Differs From Traditional Medicine CAM is frequently distinguished by its holistic methods, ...

  1. Pea Island Alternatives Development Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this Alternatives Development Report is to outline,in broad scope, the options, tools and alternatives available to the US Fish and Wildlife Service...

  2. Alternative splicing and muscular dystrophy

    OpenAIRE

    Pistoni, Mariaelena; Ghigna, Claudia; Gabellini, Davide

    2010-01-01

    Alternative splicing of pre-mRNAs is a major contributor to proteomic diversity and to the control of gene expression in higher eukaryotic cells. For this reasons, alternative splicing is tightly regulated in different tissues and developmental stages and its disruption can lead to a wide range of human disorders. The aim of this review is to focus on the relevance of alternative splicing for muscle function and muscle disease. We begin by giving a brief overview of alternative splicing, musc...

  3. ALTERNATIVE FUELS FOR DIESEL ENGINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Caban

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development and genesis of the use of alternative fuels in internal combustion ignition engines. Based on the analysis of the literature, this article shows various alternative fuels used in Poland and all over the world. Furthermore, this article describes the research directions for alternative fuels use in road transport powered by diesel engines.

  4. ALTERNATIVE FUELS FOR DIESEL ENGINES

    OpenAIRE

    Jacek Caban; Agata Gniecka; Lukáš Holeša

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the development and genesis of the use of alternative fuels in internal combustion ignition engines. Based on the analysis of the literature, this article shows various alternative fuels used in Poland and all over the world. Furthermore, this article describes the research directions for alternative fuels use in road transport powered by diesel engines.

  5. Unwinding Protein Complexes in ALTernative Telomere Maintenance

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattacharyya, Saumitri; Sandy, April; Groden, Joanna

    2010-01-01

    Telomeres are composed of specialized chromatin that includes DNA repair/recombination proteins, telomere DNA-binding proteins and a number of three dimensional nucleic acid structures including G-quartets and D-loops. A number of studies suggest that the BLM and WRN recQ-like helicases play important roles in recombination-mediated mechanisms of telomere elongation or Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres (ALT), processes that maintain/elongate telomeres in the absence of telomerase. BLM and ...

  6. ALTERNATIVE SOURCES OF FINANCING HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    L. V. Kozarezenko

    2014-01-01

    The article studies the possibilities and expediency of endowment utilization as an alternative of the social sphere elements budgetary funding in Ukraine. We have conclusions that the endowments have some advantages. That’s is creates the possibility for a long-term planning and development of social sphere (mechanism of adequate general stable situation in the country), convenient for major companies inclined to strategic business planning and contributions in the social sphere, transparent...

  7. Alternative energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michaelides, Efstathios E. (Stathis) [Texas Christian Univ., Forth Worth, TX (United States). Dept. of Engineering

    2012-07-01

    Alternative Energy Sources is designed to give the reader, a clear view of the role each form of alternative energy may play in supplying the energy needs of the human society in the near and intermediate future (20-50 years). The two first chapters on energy demand and supply and environmental effects, set the tone as to why the widespread use of alternative energy is essential for the future of human society. The third chapter exposes the reader to the laws of energy conversion processes, as well as the limitations of converting one energy form to another. The sections on exergy give a succinct, quantitative background on the capability/potential of each energy source to produce power on a global scale. The fourth, fifth and sixth chapters are expositions of fission and fusion nuclear energy. The following five chapters (seventh to eleventh) include detailed descriptions of the most common renewable energy sources - wind, solar, geothermal, biomass, hydroelectric - and some of the less common sources, such as tidal and wave energy. The emphasis of these chapters is on the global potential of each source; the engineering/technical systems that are currently used in harnessing the potential of each one of these energy sources; the technological developments that will contribute to wider utilization of the sources; and the environmental effects associated with their current and their wider use. The last three chapters are: energy storage, which is the main limitation of the wider use of solar and wind power and will become an important issue if renewable energy sources are to be used widely; energy conservation, which appears to be everyone's favorite issue, but by itself is not a solution to our energy challenge; and energy economics, a necessary consideration in market-driven economies. The fourteen chapters in the book have been chosen so that one may fit a semester University course around this book. At the end of every chapter, there are 12-20 problems

  8. Alternative tsunami models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, A; Lyatskaya, I [Department of Physics, Alabama A and M University, Normal, AL 35762 (United States)], E-mail: arjun.tan@aamu.edu

    2009-01-15

    The interesting papers by Margaritondo (2005 Eur. J. Phys. 26 401) and by Helene and Yamashita (2006 Eur. J. Phys. 27 855) analysed the great Indian Ocean tsunami of 2004 using a simple one-dimensional canal wave model, which was appropriate for undergraduate students in physics and related fields of discipline. In this paper, two additional, easily understandable models, suitable for the same level of readership, are proposed: one, a two-dimensional model in flat space, and two, the same on a spherical surface. The models are used to study the tsunami produced by the central Kuril earthquake of November 2006. It is shown that the two alternative models, especially the latter one, give better representations of the wave amplitude, especially at far-flung locations. The latter model further demonstrates the enhancing effect on the amplitude due to the curvature of the Earth for far-reaching tsunami propagation.

  9. LIU: exploring alternative ideas

    CERN Document Server

    Damerau, H; Garoby, R; Gilardoni, S; Hancock, S; Mikulec, B; Papaphilippou, Y; Rumolo, G; Shaposhnikova, E; Tomas, R

    2014-01-01

    The baseline upgrade scenarios for the injector complex cover the connection of Linac4 to the PSB, the increase of the PSB-PS transfer energy from 1 . 4 GeV to 2 GeV and the major SPS RF upgrade during LS2. The achievable beam characteristics will nonetheless remain below the expectation of the HL-LHC project. Therefore, alternative or additional options like, e.g., special bunch distributions, the use of injection optics optimized for high space charge or extra RF systems will be discussed. The expected beam parameters, possible implementation and impact on beam availability for these more exotic options will be analysed and compared to the LIU baseline plan. Moreover, the potential interest of further batch compression schemes will be evaluated.

  10. Altern als Widerstand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Maierhofer

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Gullettes kulturwissenschaftliche Untersuchung Aged by Culture ist wie bereits ihre zwei vorangehenden Werke, die sich mit Altern beschäftigen – Safe at Last in the Middle Years: The Invention of the Midlife Progress Novel (1988 und Declining to Decline. Cultural Combat and the Politics of the Middle (1997 –, von großem persönlichen Engagement und durch ein politisches Anliegen motiviert. Sowohl die Dringlichkeit als auch der Widerstand, den Gullette, die sich als „age critic“ definiert, als moralische und politische Notwendigkeit postuliert, werden in der Zweiteilung der Abhandlung angesprochen: „Cultural Urgencies“ und „Theorizing Age Resistantly“. Während Gullette den Begriff „aged by culture“ bereits in Declining to Decline einführt, stellt sie ihn nun in den Mittelpunkt ihrer Untersuchung. Das Buch ist einerseits einer gesellschaftspolitischen Analyse der USA gewidmet, andererseits wird eine Theorie des Widerstands gegenüber Altersdiskriminierung entwickelt.

  11. Alternate laser fusion drivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One objective of research on inertial confinement fusion is the development of a power generating system based on this concept. Realization of this goal will depend on the availability of a suitable laser or other system to drive the power plant. The primary laser systems used for laser fusion research, Nd3+: Glass and CO2, have characteristics which may preclude their use for this application. Glass lasers are presently perceived to be incapable of sufficiently high average power operation and the CO2 laser may be limited by and issues associated with target coupling. These general perceptions have encouraged a search for alternatives to the present systems. The search for new lasers has been directed generally towards shorter wavelengths; most of the new lasers discovered in the past few years have been in the visible and ultraviolet region of the spectrum. Virtually all of them have been advocated as the most promising candidate for a fusion driver at one time or another

  12. An Alternative to Tensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Eric

    2008-10-01

    Some of the most beautiful and complex theories in physics are formulated in the language of tensors. While powerful, these methods are sometimes daunting to the uninitiated. I will introduce the use of Clifford Algebra as a practical alternative to the use of tensors. Many physical quantities can be represented in an indexless form. The boundary between the classical and the quantum worlds becomes a little more transparent. I will review some key concepts, and then talk about some of the things that I am doing with this interesting and powerful tool. Of note to some will be the development of rigid body dynamics for a game engine. Others may be interested in expressing the connection on a spin bundle. My intent is to prove to the audience that there exists an accessible mathematical tool that can be employed to probe the most difficult of topics in physics.

  13. Alternatives to neoliberalism?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warring, Niels; Ahrenkiel, Annegrethe; Nielsen, Birger Steen;

    This paper will discuss the consequences of neoliberal governance in Danish day care centres, the social educators’ response, and the possible development of alternatives based on collective participation of social educators and union representatives. We will show how important and unnoticed...... professional competencies come under pressure, and how collective interest representation is challenged. We will discuss how concepts of “gestural knowledge”, “coherence” and “rhythm” open for a new understanding of professional competence. And we will conclude that the social educators and their unions have...... the possibility to contribute to the development of a new welfare paradigm. The paper is based on material from two research projects (Ahrenkiel et al. 2009, 2011) involving social educators and union representatives in day care institutions. We have observed everyday work activities in day care...

  14. BIODIESEL – ALTERNATIVE FUEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darko Kiš

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A limited quantity of oil, the purchase of which also involves major expenses has become an important factor for intensive search and use of alternative fuels. Biodiesel is used in diesel engines, and is manufactured from vegetable oils, animal fats and recycled edible oils. The production and use of biodiesel are very important not only because of its economic and strategic connotations but also because of its environmental advantages. Favourable conditions in Croatia give good opportunities for a self-sufficient oil rape production, possibility for its intensification and employment of a number of people in both the agricultural production and biodiesel production plants. This paper presents a survey of the biodiesel fuel production, the characteristics and impacts it has on the biodiesel engine features as well as its impact on the environment.

  15. Continuous Spontaneous Alternation and Turn Alternation in Artemia sp.

    OpenAIRE

    Çarkoğlu, Can; Yılmaz, Meltem; Balcı, Fuat

    2015-01-01

    Free-running spontaneous alternation refers to the animal’s tendency to prefer the least recently visited locations in successive spatial choices, which is attributed to the animals’ choice between stimuli based on prior experience.  Turn alternation, which is observed in directional choices preceded by a forced turn in one direction, also reflects the animals’ tendency to alternate between directional choices but this tendency has been assumed to rely on other cues (e.g., proprioceptive cues...

  16. The study, design and simulation of a free piston Stirling engine linear alternatorThe study, design and simulation of a free piston Stirling engine linear alternator

    OpenAIRE

    Teodora Susana Oros; Ioan Berinde

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a study, design and simulation of a Free Piston Stirling Engine Linear Alternator. There are presented the main steps of the magnetic and electric calculations for a permanent magnet linear alternator of fixed coil and moving magnets type. Finally, a detailed thermal, mechanical and electrical model for a Stirling engine linear alternator have been made in SIMULINK simulation program. The linear alternator simulation model uses a controllable DC voltage which simulates ...

  17. The nuclear power alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Director General of the IAEA stressed the need for energy policies and other measures which would help to slow and eventually halt the present build-up of carbon dioxide, methane and other so-called greenhouse gases, which are held to cause global warming. He urged that nuclear power and various other sources of energy, none of which contribute to global warming, should not be seen as alternatives, but should all be used to counteract the greenhouse effect. He pointed out that the commercially used renewable energies, apart from hydropower, currently represent only 0.3% of the world's energy consumption and, by contrast, the 5% of the world's energy consumption coming from nuclear power is not insignificant. Dr. Blix noted that opposition for nuclear power stems from fear of accidents and concern about the nuclear wastes. But no generation of electricity, whether by coal, hydro, gas or nuclear power, is without some risk. He emphasized that safety can never be a static concept, and that many new measures are being taken by governments and by the IAEA to further strengthen the safety of nuclear power

  18. Suncor's alternative energy business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This PowerPoint presentation focused on Suncor's investment in alternative renewable energy. By 2005, the company will have invested $100 million in wind power, solar energy, run-of-river hydro and biomass. In 2001, $20 million was launched for the Sunbridge wind farm project in Gull Lake, Saskatchewan. The company is investing into renewables because it is an opportunity to create regional jobs, there are technological advances in renewables and an opportunity for domestic manufacturing and project management. They also offer improved air quality by reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The barriers that must be overcome include the low demand and low supply for renewables. It was noted that Canada is rich in wind, biomass and solar resources, but renewable energy accounts for only 1.2 per cent of electric power generation. In 2001, Canada generated 198 MW wind power. The U.S. capacity is 4,200 MW and the world capacity is more than 20,000 MW. International competition is well ahead in renewable support. The federal government is offering an investment tax incentive and federal funding program for renewable energy. In addition, provinces are taking some action to support renewable energy, as are individual companies such as Suncor, BC Hydro, and Hydro-Quebec. 3 figs

  19. Alternative Genres of IS Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avital, Michel; Mathiassen, Lars; Crowston, Kevin;

    2012-01-01

    perspectives, research methods, semantic framing, literary styles, and media of expression. Overall, the application of alternative genres is considered to be a generative act that provides an opportunity to take a fresh look and to gain deeper understanding of the subject matter. Nonetheless, paradoxically......The potential value of alternative genres in IS research is the core question that drives this panel discussion. The term “Alternative Genres” refers to unconventional forms of thinking, doing, and communicating scholarship and practice. It relates to innovation with respect to epistemological...... the prevailing genres have much inertia, in spite of the inherent boundary spanning nature of alternative genres. Building on their own recent empirical research, the panelists will debate the potential value of alternative genres as unconventional modality of IS scholarship and how alternative genres...

  20. An alternative to complementarity

    CERN Document Server

    Mardari, G

    2004-01-01

    The natural state of an unmeasured quantum system can be described by two competing types of hypotheses. One is the lottery model, according to which the system is constantly fluctuating, as if being in many states at once, until the measurement collapses it. The other stems from a roulette analogy, where the measurement alone induces a chaotic shift from one defined state to another. Both the Copenhagen interpretation and the de-Broigle-Bohm realism are based on the lottery model. Though, it is not fully compatible with the quantum formalism. A likely solution is to interpret the probabilistic nature of quantum mechanics with a roulette model.

  1. Krypton control alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A reprocessing plant for 350 metric tons per year LWR spent fuel cooled for at least 7 years is planned in the FRG. A routine Kr-85 retention for radiation protection reasons is not demanded by the German reactor safety and radiation management technology for larger plants in the future. The licensing authorities also do not require a routine Kr-85 retention at the plant site. Technical and safety characteristics of various Kr-85 removal processes are described and compared, including the precleaning steps in an integrated dissolver off-gas system. The interactions with subsequent conditioning and storage of Kr and with process modifications in the plant headend are also taken into account. A commercial use of the inactive Xe and part of the Kr-85 may have an influence on a cost-benefit analysis and the selection of a removal process. Two alternative processes are being developed on an engineering scale. A cryogenic distillation process using an O2-free off-gas is under investigation on a pilot plant scale since 1976. A selective absorption process using freon-12 at low temperatures and at atmospheric pressure has been investigated at the laboratory scale since 1980. Test operation on an engineering scale started late in 1983. Essential results and operating experiences with both facilities are summarized. Technical as well as safety aspects are in favor of the selective absorption process. A final decision on what process will be used in the future shall be made as soon as comparable technical experiences from both processes are available

  2. Alternative fuelds in urban fleets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this presentation the author addresses four main objectives. They are to: discuss programs that are driving the introduction of alternative fuels into fleet operations in urban areas around the country; define alternative fuels; quantify the present use and future projections on alternative fuel vehicles (AVFs) in the Chicago metropolitan statistical area; and discuss benefits of increased use of alternative fuels in urban areas. Factors which touch on these points include: present domestic dependence on petroleum for autos, with usage exceeding production; the large populations in urban areas which do not meet Clean Air Standards; recent legislative initiatives which give guidance and aid in the adoption of such strategies

  3. Alternative fuelds in urban fleets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsay, T.

    1994-12-31

    In this presentation the author addresses four main objectives. They are to: discuss programs that are driving the introduction of alternative fuels into fleet operations in urban areas around the country; define alternative fuels; quantify the present use and future projections on alternative fuel vehicles (AVFs) in the Chicago metropolitan statistical area; and discuss benefits of increased use of alternative fuels in urban areas. Factors which touch on these points include: present domestic dependence on petroleum for autos, with usage exceeding production; the large populations in urban areas which do not meet Clean Air Standards; recent legislative initiatives which give guidance and aid in the adoption of such strategies.

  4. Mechanical CPR devices

    OpenAIRE

    Halperin, Henry; Carver, David J.

    2010-01-01

    It is recognized that the quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is an important predictor of outcome from cardiac arrest. Mechanical chest-compression devices provide an alternative to manual CPR. Physiological and animal data suggest that mechanical chest-compression devices are more effective than manual CPR. Consequently, there has been much interest in the development of new techniques and devices to improve the efficacy of CPR. This review will consider the evidence ...

  5. Normetex Pump Alternatives Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Elliot A.

    2013-04-25

    A mainstay pump for tritium systems, the Normetex scroll pump, is currently unavailable because the Normetex company went out of business. This pump was an all-metal scroll pump that served tritium processing facilities very well. Current tritium system operators are evaluating replacement pumps for the Normetex pump and for general used in tritium service. An all-metal equivalent alternative to the Normetex pump has not yet been identified. 1. The ideal replacement tritium pump would be hermetically sealed and contain no polymer components or oils. Polymers and oils degrade over time when they contact ionizing radiation. 2. Halogenated polymers (containing fluorine, chlorine, or both) and oils are commonly found in pumps. These materials have many properties that surpass those of hydrocarbon-based polymers and oils, including thermal stability (higher operating temperature) and better chemical resistance. Unfortunately, they are less resistant to degradation from ionizing radiation than hydrocarbon-based materials (in general). 3. Polymers and oils can form gaseous, condensable (HF, TF), liquid, and solid species when exposed to ionizing radiation. For example, halogenated polymers form HF and HCl, which are extremely corrosive upon reaction with water. If a pump containing polymers or oils must be used in a tritium system, the system must be designed to be able to process the unwanted by-products. Design features to mitigate degradation products include filters and chemical or physical traps (eg. cold traps, oil traps). 4. Polymer components can work in tritium systems, but must be replaced regularly. Polymer components performance should be monitored or be regularly tested, and regular replacement of components should be viewed as an expected normal event. A radioactive waste stream must be established to dispose of used polymer components and oil with an approved disposal plan developed based on the facility location and its regulators. Polymers have varying

  6. Electromagnetic propulsion alternatives. [in mass drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolm, H.; Fine, K.; Mongeau, P.; Williams, F.

    1979-01-01

    Mass drivers can serve to propel massive objects by expelling any available material as reaction mass, however, mass driver engines have several limitations such as relatively large payload size and dynamic stability problems. A number of alternative acceleration mechanisms exist which offer advantages for certain applications, such as higher acceleration at a sacrifice in efficiency, smaller possible size and decreased complexity at a sacrifice in service life, etc. The alternative concepts include several variants of the railgun, a family of superconducting slingshot oscillators, a momentum transformer, an impulse induction motor, and a family of hybrid synchronous accelerators. A potential application of considerable interest is the earth-based launching of space cargo or nuclear waste by using off-peak generating capacity to accelerate one ton cargo cylinders at intervals of several minutes.

  7. Titin Diversity—Alternative Splicing Gone Wild

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Guo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Titin is an extremely large protein found in highest concentrations in heart and skeletal muscle. The single mammalian gene is expressed in multiple isoforms as a result of alternative splicing. Although titin isoform expression is controlled developmentally and in a tissue specific manner, the vast number of potential splicing pathways far exceeds those described in any other alternatively spliced gene. Over 1 million human splice pathways for a single individual can be potentially derived from the PEVK region alone. A new splicing pattern for the human cardiac N2BA isoform type has been found in which the PEVK region includes only the N2B type exons. The alterations in splicing and titin isoform expression in human heart disease provide impetus for future detailed study of the splicing mechanisms for this giant protein.

  8. Conformal Neutrinos an Alternative to the See-saw Mechanism

    CERN Document Server

    von Gersdorff, Gero

    2009-01-01

    We analyze a scenario where the right-handed neutrinos make part of a strongly coupled conformal field theory and acquire an anomalous dimension 1/2<\\gamma<1 at a large scale \\Lambda. Their Yukawa couplings to the Higgs become irrelevant at the fixed point and are suppressed at low scales giving rise naturally to a small (sub-meV) Dirac neutrino mass which breaks the conformal invariance. Similarly the Majorana mass operator becomes irrelevant at the fixed point (not perturbing the conformal theory) and gives rise to a tiny Majorana mass at the scale of conformal breaking. However the effective Majorana mass can be sizable enough at the scale of neutrinoless double \\beta-decay experiments to provide positive signals. We also derive an upper bound on \\gamma from loop-induced flavor changing neutral currents. Finally neutrino Yukawa couplings can be sizable at electroweak scales and therefore the invisible decay of the Higgs in the neutrino channel can be comparable to the c\\bar c and \\tau\\bar\\tau modes a...

  9. Replacing chemicals in recycle mills with mechanical alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Institute of Paper Science Technology

    2002-07-01

    A high-intensity spark fired underwater decomposes a small amount of the water into hydroxyl radicals, which are strong oxidants. These are able to oxidize contaminants such as glue and wood pitch that enter paper recycling mills as a part of the incoming furnish and cost the industry several hundred million dollars. The sparking technique is safe, inexpensive, and is capable of treating large volumes of water, which makes it attractive for mill applications. Several mill trials were run. Sparking caused a decrease in the tack of the deposits in one case. Lower bleach use occurred in two other mills; sparking reduced the degree of ink reattachment to fiber. The payback for either application is attractive. Sparking induced deposition of contaminants in another mill, which is a positive development--if it can be controlled. The technique is also able to degas water and to oxidize odor-causing sulfur compounds. Although one unit has been purchased by a mill, second-order effects caused by the technology needs to be defined further before the technology can be broadly applied.

  10. Inflation and balanced-path growth with alternative payment mechanisms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gillman, M.; Kejak, Michal

    -, 2004/2 (2004), s. 1-33. ISBN 978-963-9796-21-8. ISSN 1785-377X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7085904 Keywords : human capital * cash-in-advance * interest-elasticity Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://econ.core.hu/doc/dp/dp/mtdp0402.pdf

  11. Replacing chemicals in recycle mills with mechanical alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, Sujit

    1999-10-14

    The objective of this project is to explore potential applications of underwater pulsed power technology to the paper industry. These included fiber refining, disinfection, stickies dispersion, and stickies control.

  12. LAW ENFORCEMENT ON TAXATION THROUGH NON LITIGATION MECHANISM (AN ALTERNATIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainal Muttaqin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Attorney General can discontinue the investigation to the default tax obligor together with the imposition of four times of outstanding fines. That are raises the issues concerning the nature of the crimes of the tax obligor. This happens because with the payment of the tax debt, the loss suffered by the state as the element of crime, the crimes seemed to be inexistence. This research was an empirical-juridical one. The aim of the research was to find a model of legal enforcement in tax matters without the court involvement. Jaksa Agung dapat menghentikan penyidikan terhadap wajib pajak apabila wajib pajak tersebut membayar pajak yang terutang beserta denda 4 (empat kali jumlah pajak yang tidak/kurang dibayar. Hal tersebut menimbulkan persoalan mengenai akibat hukumnya terhadap sifat perbuatan pidana yang dilakukan wajib pajak mengingat dengan pelunasan pajak tersebut, kerugian negara sebagai unsur tindak pidana tidak terjadi. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian yuridis empiris dengan tujuan menemukan model penegakan hukum di bidang pajak tanpa melalui proses pengadilan.

  13. Alternatives of menopausal hormone therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Kutlešić Ranko M.; Popović Jasmina; Stefanović Milan; Vukomanović Predrag; Lukić Bojan; Lilić Goran

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. It has been generally accepted that the benefits of menopausal hormone therapy outweigh the risks, but there are still some concerns about the administration of menopausal hormone therapy, which has introduced alternative treatments. Pharmacological Alternatives. Central alpha-2 agonist clonidine is only marginally more effective than placebo, and significantly less effective than estrogen. Antiepileptic drug gabapentin reduces hot flashes; ho...

  14. Orion Project: Alternate Attitude Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Hernandez, A.; Miller, Stephen W.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the study done on alternate attitudes for the Orion project's crew exploration vehicle. The analysis focused on the thermal performance of the vehicle with the alternate attitudes. The pressure vessel heater power, other vehicle heaters and radiator sink temperatures were included in the analysis.

  15. Intrasplicing coordinates alternative first exons with alternative splicing in the protein 4.1R gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conboy, John G.; Parra, Marilyn K.; Tan, Jeff S.; Mohandas, Narla; Conboy, John G.

    2008-11-07

    In the protein 4.1R gene, alternative first exons splice differentially to alternative 3' splice sites far downstream in exon 2'/2 (E2'/2). We describe a novel intrasplicing mechanism by which exon 1A (E1A) splices exclusively to the distal E2'/2 acceptor via two nested splicing reactions regulated by novel properties of exon 1B (E1B). E1B behaves as an exon in the first step, using its consensus 5' donor to splice to the proximal E2'/2 acceptor. A long region of downstream intron is excised, juxtaposing E1B with E2'/2 to generate a new composite acceptor containing the E1B branchpoint/pyrimidine tract and E2 distal 3' AG-dinucleotide. Next, the upstream E1A splices over E1B to this distal acceptor, excising the remaining intron plus E1B and E2' to form mature E1A/E2 product. We mapped branch points for both intrasplicing reactions and demonstrated that mutation of the E1B 5' splice site or branchpoint abrogates intrasplicing. In the 4.1R gene, intrasplicing ultimately determines N-terminal protein structure and function. More generally, intrasplicing represents a new mechanism whereby alternative promoters can be coordinated with downstream alternative splicing.

  16. Alternative Fuels in Cement Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Morten Boberg

    The substitution of alternative for fossil fuels in cement production has increased significantly in the last decade. Of these new alternative fuels, solid state fuels presently account for the largest part, and in particular, meat and bone meal, plastics and tyre derived fuels (TDF) accounted for...... the most significant alternative fuel energy contributors in the German cement industry. Solid alternative fuels are typically high in volatile content and they may differ significantly in physical and chemical properties compared to traditional solid fossil fuels. From the process point of view......, considering a modern kiln system for cement production, the use of alternative fuels mainly influences 1) kiln process stability (may accelerate build up of blockages preventing gas and/or solids flow), 2) cement clinker quality, 3) emissions, and 4) decreased production capacity. Kiln process stability in...

  17. Functional roles of alternative splicing factors in human disease

    OpenAIRE

    Cieply, Benjamin; Carstens, Russ P.

    2015-01-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) is an important mechanism used to generate greater transcriptomic and proteomic diversity from a finite genome. Nearly all human gene transcripts are alternatively spliced and can produce protein isoforms with divergent and even antagonistic properties that impact cell functions. Many AS events are tightly regulated in a cell-type or tissue-specific manner, and at different developmental stages. AS is regulated by RNA-binding proteins, including cell- or tissue-speci...

  18. Binocular rivalry alternations and their relation to visual adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Daphne eRoumani; Konstantinos eMoutoussis

    2012-01-01

    When different stimuli are presented dichoptically, perception alternates between the two in a stochastic manner. After a long-lasting and rigorous debate, there is growing consensus that this phenomenon, known as binocular rivalry, is the result of a dynamic competition occurring at multiple levels of the visual hierarchy. The role of low- and high-level adaptation mechanisms in controlling these perceptual alternations has been a key issue in the rivalry literature. Both types of adaptatio...

  19. Development of Teachers’ Alternative Certification in the USA

    OpenAIRE

    Pazyura Natalia

    2015-01-01

    The article reveals the prerequisites of appearance of alternative ways to train teachers in the USA at the end of the XX century as main mechanisms to increase qualitative and quantitative characteristics of teaching staff. The author concentrates the attention on the advantages and disadvantages of non-traditional ways to acquire teaching profession. The peculiarities of the development in different states of the country, main characteristics of the training with the help of alternative pro...

  20. Evolution of alternative splicing in primate brain transcriptomes

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Lan; Shen, Shihao; Jiang, Peng; Sato, Seiko; Davidson, Beverly L.; Xing, Yi

    2010-01-01

    Alternative splicing is a predominant form of gene regulation in higher eukaryotes. The evolution of alternative splicing provides an important mechanism for the acquisition of novel gene functions. In this work, we carried out a genome-wide phylogenetic survey of lineage-specific splicing patterns in the primate brain, via high-density exon junction array profiling of brain transcriptomes of humans, chimpanzees and rhesus macaques. We identified 509 genes showing splicing differences among t...

  1. Alternative Transcripts of Fatty Acid Desaturase (FADS) Genes

    OpenAIRE

    Brenna, J. Thomas; Kothapalli, Kumar S. D.; Park, Woo Jung

    2010-01-01

    Alternative splicing is a major mechanism for increasing the range of products encoded by the genome. We recently reported positive identification of the first alternative transcripts (AT) of fatty acid desaturase 3 (FADS3) and FADS2 in fetal and neonatal baboons. FADS3, a putative polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) desaturase gene with no known function, has 7 AT that are expressed in at least twelve organs in an apparently constitutive manner. At least five of seven AT are expressed in sever...

  2. Principles of alternative gerontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilinski, Tomasz; Bylak, Aneta; Zadrag-Tecza, Renata

    2016-04-01

    Surveys of taxonomic groups of animals have shown that contrary to the opinion of most gerontologists aging is not a genuine trait. The process of aging is not universal and its mechanisms have not been widely conserved among species. All life forms are subject to extrinsic and intrinsic destructive forces. Destructive effects of stochastic events are visible only when allowed by the specific life program of an organism. Effective life programs of immortality and high longevity eliminate the impact of unavoidable damage. Organisms that are capable of agametic reproduction are biologically immortal. Mortality of an organism is clearly associated with terminal specialisation in sexual reproduction. The longevity phenotype that is not accompanied by symptoms of senescence has been observed in those groups of animals that continue to increase their body size after reaching sexual maturity. This is the result of enormous regeneration abilities of both of the above-mentioned groups. Senescence is observed when: (i) an organism by principle switches off the expression of existing growth and regeneration programs, as in the case of imago formation in insect development; (ii) particular programs of growth and regeneration of progenitors are irreversibly lost, either partially or in their entirety, in mammals and birds. PMID:27017907

  3. Alternative promoter usage of the membrane glycoprotein CD36

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whatling Carl

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CD36 is a membrane glycoprotein involved in a variety of cellular processes such as lipid transport, immune regulation, hemostasis, adhesion, angiogenesis and atherosclerosis. It is expressed in many tissues and cell types, with a tissue specific expression pattern that is a result of a complex regulation for which the molecular mechanisms are not yet fully understood. There are several alternative mRNA isoforms described for the gene. We have investigated the expression patterns of five alternative first exons of the CD36 gene in several human tissues and cell types, to better understand the molecular details behind its regulation. Results We have identified one novel alternative first exon of the CD36 gene, and confirmed the expression of four previously known alternative first exons of the gene. The alternative transcripts are all expressed in more than one human tissue and their expression patterns vary highly in skeletal muscle, heart, liver, adipose tissue, placenta, spinal cord, cerebrum and monocytes. All alternative first exons are upregulated in THP-1 macrophages in response to oxidized low density lipoproteins. The alternative promoters lack TATA-boxes and CpG islands. The upstream region of exon 1b contains several features common for house keeping gene and monocyte specific gene promoters. Conclusion Tissue-specific expression patterns of the alternative first exons of CD36 suggest that the alternative first exons of the gene are regulated individually and tissue specifically. At the same time, the fact that all first exons are upregulated in THP-1 macrophages in response to oxidized low density lipoproteins may suggest that the alternative first exons are coregulated in this cell type and environmental condition. The molecular mechanisms regulating CD36 thus appear to be unusually complex, which might reflect the multifunctional role of the gene in different tissues and cellular conditions.

  4. Alternative splicing generates a novel FADS2 alternative transcript in baboons

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Woo Jung; Reardon, Holly T; Tyburczy, Cynthia; Kothapalli, Kumar SD; Brenna, J. Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The mammalian fatty acid desaturase 2 (FADS2) gene codes for catalytic activity considered to be the rate limited step in long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) synthesis. FADS2 catalyzes 6-desaturation in at least five substrates and 8-desaturation in at least two substrates. However, the molecular mechanisms that regulate FADS2-mediated desaturation remain ill-defined. We report here characterization of an alternative transcript (AT1) of primate FADS2 and compare its expression to t...

  5. Oncogenic Alternative Splicing Switches: Role in Cancer Progression and Prospects for Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Serena Bonomi; Stefania Gallo; Morena Catillo; Daniela Pignataro; Giuseppe Biamonti; Claudia Ghigna

    2013-01-01

    Alterations in the abundance or activities of alternative splicing regulators generate alternatively spliced variants that contribute to multiple aspects of tumor establishment, progression and resistance to therapeutic treatments. Notably, many cancer-associated genes are regulated through alternative splicing suggesting a significant role of this post-transcriptional regulatory mechanism in the production of oncogenes and tumor suppressors. Thus, the study of alternative splicing in cancer ...

  6. SASD: the Synthetic Alternative Splicing Database for identifying novel isoform from proteomics

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Fan; Drabier, Renee

    2013-01-01

    Background Alternative splicing is an important and widespread mechanism for generating protein diversity and regulating protein expression. High-throughput identification and analysis of alternative splicing in the protein level has more advantages than in the mRNA level. The combination of alternative splicing database and tandem mass spectrometry provides a powerful technique for identification, analysis and characterization of potential novel alternative splicing protein isoforms from pro...

  7. Profile control for an alternative spherical tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetically driven plasma guns that are inserted around a flux conserver at definite angular intervals are considered. The creation and the control of plasma channels are examined. By means of the hybrid model developed, both a system analysis of the Alternative Spherical Tokamak (AST) and relevant computational experiments have been carried out. In addition, by using the results obtained from the numerical scheme, the complex non-inductive current drive mechanisms of bootstrap and helicity injection in the AST system are discussed in detail. (author). 2 refs, 2 figs

  8. Alternative Systemic Treatments for Vitiligo: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Brandon E; Elbuluk, Nada; Mu, Euphemia W; Orlow, Seth J

    2015-12-01

    Vitiligo is a common, acquired disorder of skin pigmentation that can significantly impact quality of life. It often represents a therapeutic challenge, which has resulted in interest in alternative treatments such as herbal and vitamin supplements. In this review, we provide an overview of the most commonly studied complementary agents, describe proposed mechanisms of action, identify potential adverse effects, and discuss the primary evidence supporting their use. Our discussion focuses on L-phenylalanine, Polypodium leucotomos, khellin, Ginkgo biloba, and vitamins and minerals, including vitamins B12, C, and E, folic acid, and zinc used as monotherapy or in combination with other treatments for the management of vitiligo. PMID:26329814

  9. NASA Alternative Aviation Fuel Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, B. E.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Thornhill, K. L., II; Moore, R.; Shook, M.; Winstead, E.; Ziemba, L. D.; Crumeyrolle, S.

    2015-12-01

    We present an overview of research conducted by NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate to evaluate the performance and emissions of "drop-in" alternative jet fuels, highlighting experiment design and results from the Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiments (AAFEX-I & -II) and Alternative Fuel-Effects on Contrails and Cruise Emissions flight series (ACCESS-I & II). These projects included almost 100 hours of sampling exhaust emissions from the NASA DC-8 aircraft in both ground and airborne operation and at idle to takeoff thrust settings. Tested fuels included Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthetic kerosenes manufactured from coal and natural-gas feedstocks; Hydro-treated Esters and Fatty-Acids (HEFA) fuels made from beef-tallow and camelina-plant oil; and 50:50 blends of these alternative fuels with Jet A. Experiments were also conducted with FT and Jet A fuels doped with tetrahydrothiophene to examine the effects of fuel sulfur on volatile aerosol and contrail formation and microphysical properties. Results indicate that although the absence of aromatic compounds in the alternative fuels caused DC-8 fuel-system leaks, the fuels did not compromise engine performance or combustion efficiency. And whereas the alternative fuels produced only slightly different gas-phase emissions, dramatic reductions in non-volatile particulate matter (nvPM) emissions were observed when burning the pure alternative fuels, particularly at low thrust settings where particle number and mass emissions were an order of magnitude lower than measured from standard jet fuel combustion; 50:50 blends of Jet A and alternative fuels typically reduced nvPM emissions by ~50% across all thrust settings. Alternative fuels with the highest hydrogen content produced the greatest nvPM reductions. For Jet A and fuel blends, nvPM emissions were positively correlated with fuel aromatic and naphthalene content. Fuel sulfur content regulated nucleation mode aerosol number and mass concentrations within aging

  10. Mechanisms of thyroid development and dysgenesis: an analysis based on developmental stages and concurrent embryonic anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Mikael; Fagman, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Thyroid dysgenesis is the most common cause of congenital hypothyroidism that affects 1 in 3000 newborns. Although a number of pathogenetic mutations in thyroid developmental genes have been identified, the molecular mechanism of disease is unknown in most cases. This chapter summarizes the current knowledge of normal thyroid development and puts the different developmental stages in perspective, from the time of foregut endoderm patterning to the final shaping of pharyngeal anatomy, for understanding how specific malformations may arise. At the cellular level, we will also discuss fate determination of follicular and C-cell progenitors and their subsequent embryonic growth, migration, and differentiation as the different thyroid primordia evolve and merge to establish the final size and shape of the gland. PMID:24290349

  11. Mechanism of acute pancreatitis complicated with injury of intestinal mucosa barrier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a common acute abdomen in clinic with a rapid onset and dangerous pathogenetic condition.AP can cause an injury of intestinal mucosa barrier, leading to translocation of bacteria or endotoxin through multiple routes,bacterial translocation (BT), gutorigin endotoxaemia, and secondary infection of pancreatic tissue, and then cause systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) or multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS), which are important factors influencing AP's severity and mortality. Meanwhile, the injury of intestinal mucosa barrier plays a key role in AP's process. Therefore, it is clinically important to study the relationship between the injury of intestinal mucosa barrier and AP. In addition, many factors such as microcirculation disturbance, ischemical reperfusion injury, excessive release of inflammatory mediators and apoptosis may also play important roles in the damage of intestinal mucosa barrier. In this review, we summarize studies on mechanisms of AP.

  12. Control of Alternative Splicing by Signal-dependent Degradation of Splicing-regulatory Proteins*S⃞

    OpenAIRE

    Katzenberger, Rebeccah J.; Marengo, Matthew S.; Wassarman, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Alternative pre-mRNA splicing is a major gene expression regulatory mechanism in metazoan organisms. Proteins that bind pre-mRNA elements and control assembly of splicing complexes regulate utilization of pre-mRNA alternative splice sites. To understand how signaling pathways impact this mechanism, an RNA interference screen in Drosophila S2 cells was used to identify proteins that regulate TAF1 (TBP-associated factor 1) alternative splicing in response to activation o...

  13. The study, design and simulation of a free piston Stirling engine linear alternatorThe study, design and simulation of a free piston Stirling engine linear alternator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodora Susana Oros

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study, design and simulation of a Free Piston Stirling Engine Linear Alternator. There are presented the main steps of the magnetic and electric calculations for a permanent magnet linear alternator of fixed coil and moving magnets type. Finally, a detailed thermal, mechanical and electrical model for a Stirling engine linear alternator have been made in SIMULINK simulation program. The linear alternator simulation model uses a controllable DC voltage which simulates the linear alternator combined with a rectifier, a variable load and a DC-DC converter, which compensates for the variable nature of Stirling engine operation, and ensures a constant voltage output regardless of the load.

  14. Ultrasound of alternating frequencies and variable emotional impact evokes depressive syndrome in mice and rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozova, Anna; Zubkov, Eugene; Strekalova, Tatyana; Kekelidze, Zurab; Storozeva, Zinaida; Schroeter, Careen A; Bazhenova, Nataliia; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Cline, Brandon H; Chekhonin, Vladimir

    2016-07-01

    Emotional stress is primarily triggered by the cognitive processing of negative input; it is regarded as a serious pathogenetic factor of depression that is challenging to model in animals. While available stress paradigms achieve considerable face and construct validity in modelling depressive disorders, broader use of naturalistic stressors instead of the more prevalent models with artificial challenges inducing physical discomfort or pain may substantially contribute to the development of novel antidepressants. Here, we investigated whether a 3-week exposure of Wistar rats and Balb/c mice to unpredictably alternating frequencies of ultrasound between the ranges of 20-25 and 25-45kHz, which are known to correspond with an emotionally negative and with a neutral emotional state, respectively, for small rodents in nature, can induce behavioural and molecular depressive-like changes. Both rats and mice displayed decreased sucrose preference, elevated "despair" behaviour in a swim test, reduced locomotion and social exploration. Rats showed an increased expression of SERT and 5-HT2A receptor, a decreased expression of 5-HT1A receptor in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, diminished BDNF on gene and protein levels in the hippocampus. Fluoxetine, administered to rats at the dose of 10mg/kg, largely precluded behavioural depressive-like changes. Thus, the here applied paradigm of emotional stress is generating an experimental depressive state in rodents, which is not related to any physical stressors or pain. In essence, this ultrasound stress model, besides enhancing animal welfare, is likely to provide improved validity in the modelling of clinical depression and may help advance translational research and drug discovery for this disorder. PMID:27036099

  15. Alternative Perspectives on Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, Jeannie; Orasanu, J.; Connors, Mary M. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The goal of the commercial air transport system is to provide air transportation to the flying public at an acceptable cost with minimal risk. in an ideal situation these three goals would support each other. In fact, it is sometimes the case that the goals conflict: getting passengers to their destinations on time may conflict with fixing a minor mechanical malfunction that may or may not impact safety; flying a route that will avoid turbulence, thereby providing passengers with a more comfortable ride, may consume more fuel; managing traffic density may mean aircraft are delayed or must use an approach that will result in a long taxi to their gates, costing time and fuel. Various players in the system--pilots, dispatchers, controllers, as well as managers in the airline carriers and traffic management system--make decisions every day that involve trade-offs of benefits and costs. The prospect of revisions in the air traffic management system, with shifts in responsibilities from controllers to users, including airline operations center personnel and pilots, means that individuals may be performing either new jobs or old jobs under new guidance. It will be essential to know how the various players (a) perceive the risks and benefits associated with the decisions they will make under the old and new control structures, and (b) how much risk they are willing to accept in making decisions. Risk is here defined as the probability and magnitude of negative events (after Slovic, 1987). Of primary interest are risks associated with traffic, weather, and operational factors such as schedule, fuel consumption, and passenger service. Previous research has documented differences between groups in perceptions of risks associated with both everyday and aviation related situations. Risk perception varies as a function of familiarity with the situation, degree to which one is potentially affected by the risk, the level of control one has over the situation, and one's level of

  16. SAGE--SOLVENT ALTERNATIVES GUIDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    SAGE is a comprehensive guide designed to provide pollution prevention information on solvent and process alternatives for parts cleaning and degreasing. SAGE does not recommend any ozone depleting chemicals. SAGE was developed by the Surface Cleaning Program at Research Triang...

  17. Alternate Propellant Thermal Rocket Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Alternate Propellant Thermal Rocket (APTR) is a novel concept for propulsion of space exploration or orbit transfer vehicles. APTR propulsion is provided by...

  18. Herbs, Supplements and Alternative Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Size: A A A Listen En Español Herbs, Supplements and Alternative Medicines It is best to get ... also more likely to use dietary supplements. Using Supplements Safely If you’re one of the many ...

  19. Alternative food safety intervention technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternative nonthermal and thermal food safety interventions are gaining acceptance by the food processing industry and consumers. These technologies include high pressure processing, ultraviolet and pulsed light, ionizing radiation, pulsed and radiofrequency electric fields, cold atmospheric plasm...

  20. Alternating Quotients of Fuchsian Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Everitt, Brent

    1999-01-01

    It is shown that any finitely generated non-elementary Fuchsian group has among its homomorphic images all but finitely many of the alternating groups. This settles in the affirmative a conjecture of Graham Higman.

  1. Alternative theories of the firm

    OpenAIRE

    Staněk, Jan

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is focusing on alternative theories of the firm and their distinctions to the traditional neoclassical theory of profit maximization. It goes back to perception of the firm in the society and to development of theoretical concepts of the firm, as well as to different points of view of profit or satisfaction principle. You will learn more about the reason which triggered the beginnings of alternative theories of the firm like separation of ownership and control, which was one of th...

  2. Alternative investments: return driving actors

    OpenAIRE

    Elliott, K; G. Marcato

    2011-01-01

    In an asset allocation process, correlations are particularly important if one includes 'alternative investments' such as real estate, commodities and hedge funds, which have been proclaimed to provide diversifying benefits within the overall portfolio context. However, by looking at correlations between asset classes alone some diversification benefits may be over or under-stated. More recently, finance literature has focused on alternative asset classes to study their behaviour and to ident...

  3. Spent-fuel-storage alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Spent Fuel Storage Alternatives meeting was a technical forum in which 37 experts from 12 states discussed storage alternatives that are available or are under development. The subject matter was divided into the following five areas: techniques for increasing fuel storage density; dry storage of spent fuel; fuel characterization and conditioning; fuel storage operating experience; and storage and transport economics. Nineteen of the 21 papers which were presented at this meeting are included in this Proceedings. These have been abstracted and indexed

  4. Autocratic strategies for alternating games

    OpenAIRE

    McAvoy, Alex; Hauert, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Repeated games have a long tradition in behavioral sciences and evolutionary biology. Recently, strategies were discovered that permit an unprecedented level of control over repeated interactions by enabling a player to unilaterally enforce constraints on the payoffs. Here, we extend this theory of autocratic (or zero-determinant) strategies to alternating games, which are often more biologically relevant than synchronous games. More specifically, in a strictly-alternating game with two playe...

  5. A Technique: Generating Alternative Thoughts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan AKKOYUNLU

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the basic techniques of cognitive therapy is examination of automatic thoughts and reducing the belief in them. By employing this, we can overcome the cognitive bias apparent in mental disorders. Despite this view, according to another cognitive perspective in a given situation, there are distinct cognitive representations competing for retrieval from memory just like positive and negative schemas. In this sense generating or strengthening alternative explanations or balanced thoughts that explain the situation better than negative automatic thoughts is one of the important process goals of cognitive therapy.Objective: Aim of this review is to describe methods used to generate alternative/balanced thoughts that are used in examining automatic thoughts and also a part of automatic thought records. Alternative/balanced thoughts are the summary and end point of automatic thought work. In this text different ways including listing alternative thoughts, using examining the evidence for generating balanced thoughts, decatastrophizing in anxiety and a meta-cognitive method named two explanations are discussed. Different ways to use this technique as a homework assignment is also reviewed. Remarkable aspects of generating alternative explanations and realistic/balanced thoughts are also reviewed and exemplified using therapy transcripts. Conclusion: Generating alternative explanations and balanced thoughts are the end point and important part of therapy work on automatic thoughts. When applied properly and rehearsed as homework between sessions, these methods may lead to improvement in many mental disorders

  6. The functional modulation of epigenetic regulators by alternative splicing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-Balbás Marian

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epigenetic regulators (histone acetyltransferases, methyltransferases, chromatin-remodelling enzymes, etc play a fundamental role in the control of gene expression by modifying the local state of chromatin. However, due to their recent discovery, little is yet known about their own regulation. This paper addresses this point, focusing on alternative splicing regulation, a mechanism already known to play an important role in other protein families, e.g. transcription factors, membrane receptors, etc. Results To this end, we compiled the data available on the presence/absence of alternative splicing for a set of 160 different epigenetic regulators, taking advantage of the relatively large amount of unexplored data on alternative splicing available in public databases. We found that 49 % (70 % in human of these genes express more than one transcript. We then studied their alternative splicing patterns, focusing on those changes affecting the enzyme's domain composition. In general, we found that these sequence changes correspond to different mechanisms, either repressing the enzyme's function (e.g. by creating dominant-negative inhibitors of the functional isoform or creating isoforms with new functions. Conclusion We conclude that alternative splicing of epigenetic regulators can be an important tool for the function modulation of these enzymes. Considering that the latter control the transcriptional state of large sets of genes, we propose that epigenetic regulation of gene expression is itself strongly regulated by alternative splicing.

  7. Cross-kingdom patterns of alternative splicing and splice recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Pearson, Matthew D.; McGuire, Abigail M; Neafsey, Daniel Edward; Galagan, James E.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Variations in transcript splicing can reveal how eukaryotes recognize intronic splice sites. Retained introns (RIs) commonly appear when the intron definition (ID) mechanism of splice site recognition inconsistently identifies intron-exon boundaries, and cassette exons (CEs) are often caused by variable recognition of splice junctions by the exon definition (ED) mechanism. We have performed a comprehensive survey of alternative splicing across 42 eukaryotes to gain ins...

  8. Nuclear energy: a sensible alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book presents in-depth articles on the main issues affecting the use and usefulness of nuclear energy for peaceful domestic purposes. Topics considered include energy futures (a world study), energy demand-energy supplies, an energy-deficient society, energy shortages, the economics of light water reactors (LWRs), fast breeder reactor economics, international cooperation in the nuclear field, nuclear recycling (costs, savings, safeguards), alternative fuels, alternative fuel cycles, alternative reactors, the nuclear weapons proliferation issue, paths to a world with more reliable nuclear safeguards, the homemade bomb issue, LWR risk assessment, accident analysis and risk assessment, the waste disposal risk, radon problems, health effects of low-level radiation, routine releases of radioactivity, plutonium toxicity, and the Price-Anderson Act

  9. Experiences in mainstreaming alternative energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabraal, A.

    1997-12-01

    The author discusses efforts by the Asia Alternative Energy Unit (ASTAE) of the World Bank in supporting alternative energy source projects in Asia. Energy growth rates have been as high as 18% per year, with power capacity doubling each decade in the 1960`s, 70`s and 80`s. Much of this has come from fossil fuel projects coupled with major hydroelectric projects. One consequence is developing air pollution loads originating in Asia. ASTAE has been supporting pilot programs in applying alternative energy sources. The goal has been to mainstream renewable energy sources in World Bank operations, by working with managers from different countries to: include renewable energy in country assistance strategies and sectorial development plans; provide assistance to renewable energy initiatives; expand initiatives to new countries, sectors and technologies.

  10. [Alternative treatment methods in ENT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friese, K H

    1997-08-01

    In this review, the most important complementary und alternative therapies are discussed, focusing particularly on their use in otorhinolaryngology. These therapies include balneology, Kneipp therapy, microbiological therapy, fasting, excretion therapy, different oxygen therapies, hydro-colon therapy, urine therapy, own-blood therapy, Bach therapy, orthomolecular therapy, order therapy, environmental medicine, phytotherapy, homeopathy, complex homeopathy, anthroposophy, neural therapy, electroaccupuncture according to Voll and similar therapies, nasal reflex therapy, reflex-zone massage, manual therapy, massage, lymph drainage, aroma therapy, thermotherapy, bioresonance, kinesiology, hopi candles, and dietetics. Some of these methods and regimens can be recommended, but others should be rejected. In universities, these methods are only represented to a minor extend, but are more accepted by otorhinolaryngologists in practice. This paper provides a guide to which alternative therapies are sensible and possible in otorhinolaryngology. The aim is to stimulate interest in these methods. It is necessary to discuss these alternative methods reasonably and credibly with patients. PMID:9378666

  11. Revisiting the solar hydrogen alternative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomkiewicz, M. [Brooklyn College of CUNY, NY (United States)

    1996-09-01

    Research aimed at the development of technology to advance the solar-hydrogen alternative is per definition mission oriented. The priority that society puts on such research rise and fall with the priorities that we associate with the mission. The mission that we associate with the hydrogen economy is to provide a technological option for an indefinitely sustainable energy and material economies in which society is in equilibrium with its environment. In this paper we try to examine some global aspects of the hydrogen alternative and recommend formulation of a {open_quotes}rational{close_quotes} tax and regulatory system that is based on efforts needed to restore the ecological balance. Such a system, once entered into the price structure of the alternative energy schemes, will be used as a standard to compare energy systems that in turn will serve as a base for prioritization of publicly supported research and development.

  12. Mechanisms of protein misfolding in conformational lung diseases.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McElvaney, N G

    2012-08-01

    Genetic or environmentally-induced alterations in protein structure interfere with the correct folding, assembly and trafficking of proteins. In the lung the expression of misfolded proteins can induce a variety of pathogenetic effects. Cystic fibrosis (CF) and alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency are two major clinically relevant pulmonary disorders associated with protein misfolding. Both are genetic diseases the primary causes of which are expression of mutant alleles of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and SERPINA1, respectively. The most common and best studied mutant forms of CFTR and AAT are ΔF508 CFTR and the Glu342Lys mutant of AAT called ZAAT, respectively. Non-genetic mechanisms can also damage protein structure and induce protein misfolding in the lung. Cigarette-smoke contains oxidants and other factors that can modify a protein\\'s structure, and is one of the most significant environmental causes of protein damage within the lung. Herein we describe the mechanisms controlling the folding of wild type and mutant versions of CFTR and AAT proteins, and explore the consequences of cigarette-smoke-induced effects on the protein folding machinery in the lung.

  13. Heat-flow properties of systems with alternate masses or alternate on-site potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Emmanuel; Santana, Leonardo M.; Ávila, Ricardo

    2011-07-01

    We address a central issue of phononics: the search of properties or mechanisms to manage the heat flow in reliable materials. We analytically study standard and simple systems modeling the heat flow in solids, namely, the harmonic, self-consistent harmonic and also anharmonic chains of oscillators, and we show an interesting insulating effect: While in the homogeneous models the heat flow decays as the inverse of the particle mass, in the chain with alternate masses it decays as the inverse of the square of the mass difference, that is, it decays essentially as the mass ratio (between the smaller and the larger one) for a large mass difference. A similar effect holds if we alternate on-site potentials instead of particle masses. The existence of such behavior in these different systems, including anharmonic models, indicates that it is a ubiquitous phenomenon with applications in the heat flow control.

  14. FMDP reactor alternative summary report: Volume 4, Evolutionary LWR alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Significant quantities of weapons-usable fissile materials [primarily plutonium and highly enriched uranium (HEU)] have become surplus to national defense needs both in the United States and Russia. These stocks of fissile materials pose significant dangers to national and international security. The dangers exist not only in the potential proliferation of nuclear weapons but also in the potential for environmental, safety, and health (ES ampersand H) consequences if surplus fissile materials are not properly managed. The purpose of this report is to provide schedule, cost, and technical information that will be used to support the Record of Process (ROD). Following the screening process, DOE/MD via its national laboratories initiated a more detailed analysis activity to further evaluate each of the ten plutonium disposition alternatives that survived the screening process. Three ''Alternative Teams,'' chartered by DOE and comprised of technical experts from across the DOE national laboratory complex, conducted these analyses. One team was chartered for each of the major disposition classes (borehole, immobilization, and reactors). During the last year and a half, the Fissile Materials Disposition Program (FMDP) Reactor Alternative Team (RxAT) has conducted extensive analyses of the cost, schedule, technical maturity, S ampersand S, and other characteristics of reactor-based plutonium disposition. The results of the RxAT's analyses of the existing LWR, CANDU, and partially complete LWR alternatives are documented in Volumes 1-3 of this report. This document (Volume 4) summarizes the results of these analyses for the ELWR-based plutonium disposition option

  15. ALTERNATIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HUMBERTO ESCALANTE H.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En Colombia, el procesamiento agroindustrial de fique genera aproximadamente 20 800 kg de residuos/ha sembrada que corresponden a. jugo y bagazo. Estos residuos son descartados al ambiente generando problemas de contaminación. El bagazo de fique tiene un valor calorífico de 3 297.91 kcal/kg, altas concentraciones de celulosa, hemicelulosa y una relación C/N favorable para tratar este residuo mediante conversión anaerobia. Sin embargo, la presencia de lignina en el bagazo hace que se requiera un consorcio microbiano específico para llevar a cabo la degradación. En este trabajo se estudio la producción de biogás a partir del bagazo de fique, empleando como inóculo una mezcla de líquido ruminal y lodo estiércol de cerdo. Se alcanzó una producción de metano de 0.35 m3CH4/kg Sólidos Volátiles (SV adicionados durante quince días de digestión, equivalente a 1.38 kWh/kg SV adicionado, indicando que el bagazo de fique es un residuo atractivo para ser usado como fuente de energía renovable.

  16. Murcha de fusário em helicônia: fontes de resistência, método alternativo de detecção e defesa estrutural Heliconia’s Fusarium wilt: resistance sources, alternative method of detection and structural mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neilza Reis Castro

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O cultivo das helicônias vem sendo afetado pela murcha, causada por Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense. Este trabalho objetivou identificar fontes de resistência, verificar a detecção da resistência através de método alternativo e avaliar a lignificação como mecanismo de defesa do hospedeiro ao patógeno. As espécies utilizadas na identificação de resistência foram Heliconia bihai, H. psittacorum cvs. Golden Torch e Golden Torch Adrian, H. rostrata, H. stricta cvs. Capri e Fire Bird, H. psittacorum cvs. Sassy e Alan Carle, H. caribea, H. latispatha, H. wagneriana e H. chartacea cv. Sexy Pink. A avaliação dos sintomas foi realizada aos 40 dias após a inoculação baseada em escala de notas variando de 1 a 6. As espécies consideradas resistentes foram H. bihai, H. psittacorum cvs. Golden Torch e Golden Torch Adrian, H. rostrata, H. stricta cv. Capri, H. psittacorum cv. Sassy e H. caribea. O método alternativo de detecção de resistência consistiu na utilização de filtrado fúngico obtido a partir do cultivo em meio Czapek, utilizando várias concentrações do mesmo depositando em folhas destacadas das cultivares resistentes e suscetíveis H. psittacorum cvs. Golden Torch e Alan Carle, respectivamente. A avaliação foi feita após 48 horas de incubação, onde a concentração em 50% do filtrado foi a mais eficiente na distinção da resistência. O mecanismo estrutural foi observado em secções histológicas nas raízes das espécies utilizadas no estudo de resistência, inoculadas com o método de injeção e não inoculadas, que permitiram verificar a ausência de relação entre a resistência e a lignificação.Heliconia grown as a crop has been affected by wilt, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense. This work aimed to identify genetic resistances sources, to evaluated the detection of resistance with an alternative method and to verify the effects of structural mechanisms in pathogen resistance. The genotypes

  17. Spent-fuel-storage alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    The Spent Fuel Storage Alternatives meeting was a technical forum in which 37 experts from 12 states discussed storage alternatives that are available or are under development. The subject matter was divided into the following five areas: techniques for increasing fuel storage density; dry storage of spent fuel; fuel characterization and conditioning; fuel storage operating experience; and storage and transport economics. Nineteen of the 21 papers which were presented at this meeting are included in this Proceedings. These have been abstracted and indexed. (ATT)

  18. An alternative method for performing pressurized thermal shock analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes how Probability of Crack Initiation and acceptable Pressurized Thermal Shock frequency were correlated with ac and summarizes several example applications, including evaluation of potential plant modifications. Plans for an industry supported pilot-plant application of the alternative Probabilistic Fracture Mechanics method for RG 1.154 are also discussed. 9 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  19. Does predator interference cause alternative stable states in multispecies communities?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feng, J.; Dakos, V.; Nes, van E.H.

    2012-01-01

    Whereas it is well known that simple ecological mechanisms may promote stability in simple species models, their consequences for stability and resilience in multispecies communities are largely unexplored. Here, we studied the effect of predator interference on the occurrence of alternative attract

  20. Meritocratic Epistemic Communities: An Alternative Policy Paradigm for Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seungchan

    2015-01-01

    This paper attempts to propose an alternative policy frame for higher education policy by demonstrating the inadequacy of the market approach adopted by the 2011 English higher education policy in addressing the economic and social agenda, and by reframing higher education as a mechanism that selects and distributes talents to vocational sectors…

  1. Integrative Medicine and Complementary and Alternative Therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 000 this month to find cures. Loading... Integrative Medicine and Complementary and Alternative Therapies Integrative Medicine and Complementary and Alternative Therapies SHARE: Print Glossary ...

  2. MECHANICAL PROCESSING OF SOLID BIOFUELS

    OpenAIRE

    GÜRDİL, Gürkan A.K; Malaťák, Jan; Vaculík, Petr

    2012-01-01

    Solid biofuels are preferred as alternative source of energy in recent years. Although it’s not yet popular in Turkey but, there’s a big potential concerning agricultural residues. With the depletion of fossil fuels world wide researches for alternative energy sources, especially efforts for obtaining the energy from agricultural non-food products became important. Generally, two methods are used in mechanical processing of biofules obtained from plants and agricultural residues. These are pe...

  3. Neural Mechanisms of Foraging

    OpenAIRE

    Kolling, Nils; Behrens, Timothy EJ; Mars, Rogier B.; Rushworth, Matthew FS

    2012-01-01

    Behavioural economic studies, involving limited numbers of choices, have provided key insights into neural decision-making mechanisms. By contrast, animals’ foraging choices arise in the context of sequences of encounters with prey/food. On each encounter the animal chooses to engage or whether the environment is sufficiently rich that searching elsewhere is merited. The cost of foraging is also critical. We demonstrate humans can alternate between two modes of choice, comparative decision-ma...

  4. Probability in quantum mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. G. Gilson

    1982-01-01

    Full Text Available By using a fluid theory which is an alternative to quantum theory but from which the latter can be deduced exactly, the long-standing problem of how quantum mechanics is related to stochastic processes is studied. It can be seen how the Schrödinger probability density has a relationship to time spent on small sections of an orbit, just as the probability density has in some classical contexts.

  5. Puzzling Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Deventer, M. Oskar

    2009-01-01

    The basis of a good mechanical puzzle is often a puzzling mechanism. This article will introduce some new puzzling mechanisms, like two knots that engage like gears, a chain whose links can be interchanged, and flat gears that do not come apart. It illustrates how puzzling mechanisms can be transformed into real mechanical puzzles, e.g., by…

  6. Bohmian Mechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Duerr, Detlef; Goldstein, Sheldon; Tumulka, Roderich; Zanghi, Nino

    2009-01-01

    Bohmian mechanics is a theory about point particles moving along trajectories. It has the property that in a world governed by Bohmian mechanics, observers see the same statistics for experimental results as predicted by quantum mechanics. Bohmian mechanics thus provides an explanation of quantum mechanics. Moreover, the Bohmian trajectories are defined in a non-conspiratorial way by a few simple laws.

  7. Alternative energies. Updates on progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presents fundamental and applied research of alternative energies. Address key pillars in the alternative energy field, such as: biomass energy, hydrogen energy, solar energy, wind energy, hydroelectric power, geothermal energy and their environmental implications, with the most updated progress. Includes the life cycle assessment and thermoeconomic analysis as tools for evaluating and optimising environmental and cost subjects. This book presents nine chapters based on fundamental and applied research of alternative energies. At the present time, the challenge is that technology has to come up with solutions that can provide environmentally friendly energy supply options that are able to cover the current world energy demand. Experts around the world are working on these issues for providing new solutions that will break the existing technological barriers. This book aims to address key pillars in the alternative energy field, such as: biomass energy, hydrogen energy, solar energy, wind energy, hydroelectric power, geothermal energy and their environmental implications, with the most updated progress for each pillar. It also includes the life cycle assessment (LCA) and thermoeconomic analysis (TA) as tools for evaluating and optimising environmental and cost subjects. Chapters are organized into fundamental research, applied research and future trends; and written for engineers, academic researches and scientists.

  8. Biodiesel properties and alternative feedstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defined as the long-chain fatty acid monoalkyl esters of vegetable oils, animal fats, or other lipids, biodiesel is an environmentally attractive alternative to conventional petroleum diesel fuel (petrodiesel). Produced by transesterification with a monohydric alcohol, usually methanol, biodiesel h...

  9. An Alternative to Thought Suppression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boice, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Comments on the original article, "Setting free the bears: Escape from thought suppression," by D. M. Wegner (see record 2011-25622-008). While Wegner supposed that we might have to learn to live with bad thoughts, the present author discusses the use of imagination and guided imagery as an alternative to forced thought suppression.

  10. Renewable Energy Alternatives in Maryland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Greg E.; McClellan, Deborah A. S.

    This handbook discusses the renewable energy resources suitable for use in Maryland. It follows a question and answer format with sections about the following alternative renewable energy sources; solar, wind, wood, water, bio-gas/methane, and geothermal. Each section includes a list of recommended readings, appropriate agencies or organizations,…

  11. Alternative Design of Boat Fenders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banke, Lars

    1996-01-01

    On offshore platforms the purpose of fenders is to protect the oil-risers against minor accidental collisions with supply vessels. Normally, the fender is designed by use of thin-walled tubes. However, the tube itself is not capable of resisting the impact load of the boat. Therefore, alternative...

  12. A two-matrix alternative

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rohn, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 26, 15 December (2013), s. 836-841. ISSN 1537-9582 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : two-matrix alternative * solution * algorithm Subject RIV: BA - General Math ematics Impact factor: 0.514, year: 2013 http://www. math .technion.ac.il/iic/ela/ela-articles/articles/vol26_pp836-841.pdf

  13. Corporal Punishment: Facts and Alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder, Pana

    1982-01-01

    Suggests that corporal punishment in the schools be abolished and presents alternatives to physical punishment. Proposes educators and other concerned individuals work together to form student problem committees, adjust classroom environment and improve the curriculum, and exercise their legal rights. (JAC)

  14. An Alternative Triangle Area Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shockey, T. L.; Zhang, P.; Brosnan, P.

    2016-01-01

    We explore the mathematics engagement of a group of mathematics coaches, working in k-12 mathematics education. The incenter of a triangle is used to derive an alternative formula for the area of a triangle inspired by Usiskin, Peressini, Marhisotto, and Stanley (2002).

  15. An Alternative: The Biopsychosocial Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosey, Anne Cronin

    1974-01-01

    This paper suggests a biopsychosocial model as an alternative to the use of medical or health models for occupational therapists. The model moves away from the illness-health continuum to an emphasis upon information, abilities, and values necessary for productive community living. (Author/JA)

  16. Alternative energies. Updates on progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, German (ed.) [CIRCE - Centre of Research for Energy Resources and Consumption, Zaragoza (Spain)

    2013-07-01

    Presents fundamental and applied research of alternative energies. Address key pillars in the alternative energy field, such as: biomass energy, hydrogen energy, solar energy, wind energy, hydroelectric power, geothermal energy and their environmental implications, with the most updated progress. Includes the life cycle assessment and thermoeconomic analysis as tools for evaluating and optimising environmental and cost subjects. This book presents nine chapters based on fundamental and applied research of alternative energies. At the present time, the challenge is that technology has to come up with solutions that can provide environmentally friendly energy supply options that are able to cover the current world energy demand. Experts around the world are working on these issues for providing new solutions that will break the existing technological barriers. This book aims to address key pillars in the alternative energy field, such as: biomass energy, hydrogen energy, solar energy, wind energy, hydroelectric power, geothermal energy and their environmental implications, with the most updated progress for each pillar. It also includes the life cycle assessment (LCA) and thermoeconomic analysis (TA) as tools for evaluating and optimising environmental and cost subjects. Chapters are organized into fundamental research, applied research and future trends; and written for engineers, academic researches and scientists.

  17. Alternating polyesteramides based on 1,4-butylene terephthalamide: 2. alternating polyesteramides based on a single, linear diol (4NTm)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serrano, P.J.M.; Thuss, E.H.L.; Gaymans, R.J.

    1997-01-01

    Strictly alternating polyesteramides consisting of 1,4-butylene terephthalamide and aliphatic diols have been synthesized in the melt in the presence of a titanium catalyst. The influence of diol length on the thermal and mechanical properties was studied. Depending on its structure, the diol took p

  18. Assessment of alternative disposal concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four alternative repository designs for the disposal of spent nuclear in the Finnish crystalline bedrock were assessed in the study. The alternatives were: (1) the basic KBS-3 design in which copper canisters are emplaced in vertical deposition holes bored in the floors of horizontal tunnels, (2) the KBS-3-2C design with two canisters in a deposition hole, (3) Short Horizontal Holes (SHH) in the side walls of the tunnels, and (4) the Medium Long Holes (MLH) concept in which approximately 25 canisters are emplaced in a horizontal deposition hole about 200 metres in length bored between central and side tunnels. In all the alternatives considered, the thickness of the layer of compacted bentonite between copper canister and bedrock is 35 cm. Two different copper canister designs were also assessed. Technical feasibility and flexibility, post-closure safety and repository cost were assessed for each of the alternative canister and repository designs. On the basis of this assessment it is recommended that further development and studies should focus on the vacuum- or inert gas-filled cast insert type copper canister and the basic KBS-3 type repository design with a single canister in a vertical deposition hole. The KBS-3 design is robust and flexible and provides excellent post-closure safety. The transfer, emplacement and sealing operations are technically uncomplicated. The alternative options assessed do not offer any significant benefits in safety or cost over the basic design, but they are technically more complex and also in some respects more vulnerable to malfunction during the emplacement of canisters and buffer, as well as common mode failures. (60 refs.)

  19. Alternatives of menopausal hormone therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kutlešić Ranko M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. It has been generally accepted that the benefits of menopausal hormone therapy outweigh the risks, but there are still some concerns about the administration of menopausal hormone therapy, which has introduced alternative treatments. Pharmacological Alternatives. Central alpha-2 agonist clonidine is only marginally more effective than placebo, and significantly less effective than estrogen. Antiepileptic drug gabapentin reduces hot flashes; however, it is less effective than estrogen. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (paroxetine and fluoxetine and selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (venlafaxine reduce vasomotor symptoms and improve depression, anxiety and sleep. Results of studies about dehydroepiandrosterone effects on menopausal symptoms are inconsistent and additional investigations are needed. Non-Pharmacological Alternatives. Stellatum ganglion blockade is a successful treatment for reducing vasomotor symptoms in patients with contraindications for menopausal hormone therapy. Efficacy of acupuncture, homeopathy and reflexology should be proved by adequate studies. Phytoestrogens could reduce vasomotor symptoms but to a lesser extent than conventional menopausal hormone therapy. However, they have not been proved yet to provide cardiovascular protection and prevention of osteoporosis, nor they could be recommended instead of traditional menopausal hormone therapy. There is a concern about their undesirable effects. Adequate diet, unchanging body weight within ideal values and adequate physical activities have beneficial long-term effects, first of all on preservation of bone density. Alternatives for Atrophic Changes of Vaginal Epithelium. Menopausal symptoms resulting from vaginal atrophy could be resolved by use of hydrophilic preparations, lubricants and topical lidocaine cream or 4% lidocaine water solution for dyspareunia. Conclusion. If there are contrain­dications to menopausal hormone therapy or

  20. ATRX represses alternative lengthening of telomeres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napier, Christine E; Huschtscha, Lily I; Harvey, Adam; Bower, Kylie; Noble, Jane R; Hendrickson, Eric A; Reddel, Roger R

    2015-06-30

    The unlimited proliferation of cancer cells requires a mechanism to prevent telomere shortening. Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres (ALT) is an homologous recombination-mediated mechanism of telomere elongation used in tumors, including osteosarcomas, soft tissue sarcoma subtypes, and glial brain tumors. Mutations in the ATRX/DAXX chromatin remodeling complex have been reported in tumors and cell lines that use the ALT mechanism, suggesting that ATRX may be an ALT repressor. We show here that knockout or knockdown of ATRX in mortal cells or immortal telomerase-positive cells is insufficient to activate ALT. Notably, however, in SV40-transformed mortal fibroblasts ATRX loss results in either a significant increase in the proportion of cell lines activating ALT (instead of telomerase) or in a significant decrease in the time prior to ALT activation. These data indicate that loss of ATRX function cooperates with one or more as-yet unidentified genetic or epigenetic alterations to activate ALT. Moreover, transient ATRX expression in ALT-positive/ATRX-negative cells represses ALT activity. These data provide the first direct, functional evidence that ATRX represses ALT. PMID:26001292

  1. Alternative algebraic approaches in quantum chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mezey, Paul G., E-mail: paul.mezey@gmail.com [Canada Research Chair in Scientific Modeling and Simulation, Department of Chemistry and Department of Physics and Physical Oceanography, Memorial University of Newfoundland, 283 Prince Philip Drive, St. John' s, NL A1B 3X7 (Canada)

    2015-01-22

    Various algebraic approaches of quantum chemistry all follow a common principle: the fundamental properties and interrelations providing the most essential features of a quantum chemical representation of a molecule or a chemical process, such as a reaction, can always be described by algebraic methods. Whereas such algebraic methods often provide precise, even numerical answers, nevertheless their main role is to give a framework that can be elaborated and converted into computational methods by involving alternative mathematical techniques, subject to the constraints and directions provided by algebra. In general, algebra describes sets of interrelations, often phrased in terms of algebraic operations, without much concern with the actual entities exhibiting these interrelations. However, in many instances, the very realizations of two, seemingly unrelated algebraic structures by actual quantum chemical entities or properties play additional roles, and unexpected connections between different algebraic structures are often giving new insight. Here we shall be concerned with two alternative algebraic structures: the fundamental group of reaction mechanisms, based on the energy-dependent topology of potential energy surfaces, and the interrelations among point symmetry groups for various distorted nuclear arrangements of molecules. These two, distinct algebraic structures provide interesting interrelations, which can be exploited in actual studies of molecular conformational and reaction processes. Two relevant theorems will be discussed.

  2. Alternative algebraic approaches in quantum chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various algebraic approaches of quantum chemistry all follow a common principle: the fundamental properties and interrelations providing the most essential features of a quantum chemical representation of a molecule or a chemical process, such as a reaction, can always be described by algebraic methods. Whereas such algebraic methods often provide precise, even numerical answers, nevertheless their main role is to give a framework that can be elaborated and converted into computational methods by involving alternative mathematical techniques, subject to the constraints and directions provided by algebra. In general, algebra describes sets of interrelations, often phrased in terms of algebraic operations, without much concern with the actual entities exhibiting these interrelations. However, in many instances, the very realizations of two, seemingly unrelated algebraic structures by actual quantum chemical entities or properties play additional roles, and unexpected connections between different algebraic structures are often giving new insight. Here we shall be concerned with two alternative algebraic structures: the fundamental group of reaction mechanisms, based on the energy-dependent topology of potential energy surfaces, and the interrelations among point symmetry groups for various distorted nuclear arrangements of molecules. These two, distinct algebraic structures provide interesting interrelations, which can be exploited in actual studies of molecular conformational and reaction processes. Two relevant theorems will be discussed

  3. Viscometer with alternating flow for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozarski, Maciej; Krauze, Edward

    1997-02-01

    The new method and the device dedicated especially to viscosity measurements of physiological fluids is presented. In the electrofluidic programmable oscillator generating the alternating flow in the hydraulic capillary resistor (the actual sensing element), the electric current proportional to the pressure drop on the hydraulic resistor is measured twice during each period when the driving coil of the electromagnetic actuator passes the same point but in opposite directions. The measured current is then processed in the way making the final result of measurement absolutely independent of zero drifts of mechanical and electrical parts of the measuring system. Also non linearity connected with the `end effects' of the capillary resistor is eliminated by the processing procedure. The viscometer needs a very small dose of a measured fluid (less than 0.15 cm3). Results of tests are also included showing a good linearity and accuracy of the viscometer.

  4. Development of variable-shaft-speed alternator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothbart, G.; Fullwood, R.

    1982-02-01

    A variable shaft speed alternator (VSSA) consists of an ordinary unmodified 1-1/2 Hp wound-rotor motor, with polyphase excitation controlled by solid state switching and a hybrid of analog and digital circuitry. This circuitry senses both shaft speed and line phase resulting in logic levels which control the current flow in each rotor coil. A first order polynomial was found using the least-squares regression method which accurately expressed the relationship among shaft speed, excitation power, and output power, VSSA torque was inferred from observations to be proportional to output power. Efficiency for converting mechanical power to electrical was inferred over a range of shaft speeds. A break-even speed below which no net power is produced was observed to be 0.375 of the synchronous speed for all output power levels. Similar behavior was observed with power fed to the power network (grid). Additional measurements involved VSSA performance at various power factors.

  5. Alternative techniques in root canal debridement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luca, Ruxandra; Todea, Carmen; Bǎlǎbuc, Cosmin; Nica, Luminita; Armani, Giacomo; Locovei, Cosmin

    2014-01-01

    Studies have demonstrated that conventional chemo-mechanical preparation is limited regarding the decontamination of the endodontic space, which is why alternative techniques such as laser radiation have their importance in the modern endodontic treatment. The present study aims to assess the possibility of improving the debridement of the root canals by removing smear layer using Er: YAG laser radiation. We used 18 extracted teeth, which were subjected to the same initial protocol and then divided into 5 study groups: the control group has not been treated with laser; the other 4 groups were exposed to laser radiation using two different geometries peaks of quartz and two energy levels. Scanning electronic microscopy revealed an increased efficiency in the debridement of all interested areas when using PIPS and XPulse tips at proper energy. In the two groups treated with inferior laser energy, the debridement didn't prove to be superior to the conventional treatment.

  6. Physician equity alliances: attractive alternatives to PHOs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, D

    1997-04-01

    Physician equity alliances are becoming attractive alternatives to PHOs as integrative models for partnering with physicians, securing managed care contracts and increasing revenue. Unlike many PHOs, these alliances provide mechanisms for asset integration and long-term relationships along with utilization management, sophisticated information systems, access to capital and opportunities for physicians to integrate clinically. There are six major types of physician equity alliances: majority physician-owned, clinic without walls, health system joint venture, publicly held physician practice management company, specialty network, and venture capital. The type of alliance that a physician group practice ultimately develops depends on vision, values, method of capitalization, initial organizer of the alliance, level of involvement of physicians in business issues, corporate structure desired, and characteristics of the managed care market in which the alliance will operate. PMID:10166285

  7. Alternative Polyadenylation: Another Foe in Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erson-Bensan, Ayse Elif; Can, Tolga

    2016-06-01

    Advancements in sequencing and transcriptome analysis methods have led to seminal discoveries that have begun to unravel the complexity of cancer. These studies are paving the way toward the development of improved diagnostics, prognostic predictions, and targeted treatment options. However, it is clear that pieces of the cancer puzzle are still missing. In an effort to have a more comprehensive understanding of the development and progression of cancer, we have come to appreciate the value of the noncoding regions of our genomes, partly due to the discovery of miRNAs and their significance in gene regulation. Interestingly, the miRNA-mRNA interactions are not solely dependent on variations in miRNA levels. Instead, the majority of genes harbor multiple polyadenylation signals on their 3' UTRs (untranslated regions) that can be differentially selected on the basis of the physiologic state of cells, resulting in alternative 3' UTR isoforms. Deregulation of alternative polyadenylation (APA) has increasing interest in cancer research, because APA generates mRNA 3' UTR isoforms with potentially different stabilities, subcellular localizations, translation efficiencies, and functions. This review focuses on the link between APA and cancer and discusses the mechanisms as well as the tools available for investigating APA events in cancer. Overall, detection of deregulated APA-generated isoforms in cancer may implicate some proto-oncogene activation cases of unknown causes and may help the discovery of novel cases; thus, contributing to a better understanding of molecular mechanisms of cancer. Mol Cancer Res; 14(6); 507-17. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27075335

  8. SISTEMAS INMUNES ALTERNATIVOS Alternative Immune Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUIS F. CADAVID

    Full Text Available El sistema inmune en animales es una red compleja de moléculas, células y tejidos que de manera conjunta mantienen la integridad fisiológica y genética de los organismos. Convencionalmente se ha considerado la existencia de dos clases de inmunidad, la innata y la adaptativa. La primera es ancestral, con variabilidad limitada y baja discriminación, mientras que la segunda es altamente variable, específica y restringida a vertebra-dos mandibulados. La inmunidad adaptativa se basa en receptores de antígeno que se rearreglan somáticamente para generar una diversidad casi ilimitada de moléculas. Este mecanismo de recombinación somática muy probablemente emergió como consecuencia de un evento de transferencia horizontal de transposones y transposasas bacterianas en el ancestro de los vertebrados mandibulados. El reciente descubrimiento en vertebrados no mandibulados e invertebrados de mecanismos alternativos de inmunidad adaptativa, sugiere que en el transcurso de la evolución distintos grupos animales han encontrado soluciones alternativas al problema del reconocimiento inmunológico.The immune system in animals is a complex network of molecules, cells and tissues that coordinately maintain the physiological and genetic integrity of the organism. Traditionally, two classes of immunity have been considered, the innate immunity and the adaptive immunity. The former is ancestral, with limited variability and low discrimination. The latter is highly variable, specific and limited to jawed vertebrates. Adaptive immunity is based on antigen receptors that rearrange somatically to generate a nearly unlimited diversity of molecules. Likely, this mechanism of somatic recombination arose as a consequence of horizontal transfer of transposons and transposases from bacterial genomes in the ancestor of jawed vertebrates. The recent discovery in jawless vertebrates and invertebrates of alternative adaptive immune mechanisms, suggests that during

  9. The full spectrum of holoprosencephaly-associated mutations within the ZIC2 gene in humans predicts loss-of-function as the predominant disease mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roessler, Erich; Lacbawan, Felicitas; Dubourg, Christèle; Paulussen, Aimee; Herbergs, Jos; Hehr, Ute; Bendavid, Claude; Zhou, Nan; Ouspenskaia, Maia; Bale, Sherri; Odent, Sylvie; David, Vèronique; Muenke, Maximilian

    2009-04-01

    Mutations of the ZIC2 transcription factor gene are among the most common heterozygous variations detected in holoprosencephaly (HPE) patients, a patient group who lack critical midline forebrain specification due to defective embryonic signaling during development. Recent studies indicate that complete deficiency of the related murine Zic2 transcription factor can also be a contributing factor to variable midline deficiencies, presenting during mid-gastrulation, that could explain similar forebrain anomalies in this model system. Here we collect and summarize all available mutations in the human ZIC2 gene detected in HPE patients (21 published and 62 novel). Our analysis corroborates this mechanism proposed in mice by predicting loss-of-function as the likely pathogenetic mechanism common to most, if not all, of these mutations in HPE. PMID:19177455

  10. EASI—enrichment of alternatively spliced isoforms

    OpenAIRE

    Julian P Venables; Burn, John

    2006-01-01

    Alternative splicing produces more than one protein from the majority of genes and the rarer forms can have dominant functions. Instability of alternative transcripts can also hinder the study of regulation of gene expression by alternative splicing. To investigate the true extent of alternative splicing we have developed a simple method of enriching alternatively spliced isoforms (EASI) from PCRs using beads charged with Thermus aquaticus single-stranded DNA-binding protein (T.Aq ssb). This ...

  11. Alternative Structures and Bihamiltonian Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Marmo, G; Simoni, A; Ventriglia, F

    2002-01-01

    In the study of bi-Hamiltonian systems (both classical and quantum) one starts with a given dynamics and looks for all alternative Hamiltonian descriptions it admits.In this paper we start with two compatible Hermitian structures (the quantum analog of two compatible classical Poisson brackets) and look for all the dynamical systems which turn out to be bi-Hamiltonian with respect to them.

  12. An alternative analysis of variance

    OpenAIRE

    Longford, Nicholas T.

    2008-01-01

    The one-way analysis of variance is a staple of elementary statistics courses. The hypothesis test of homogeneity of the means encourages the use of the selected-model based estimators which are usually assessed without any regard for the uncertainty about the outcome of the test. We expose the weaknesses of such estimators when the uncertainty is taken into account, as it should be, and propose synthetic estimators as an alternative.

  13. Beyond LCDM: a viable alternative?

    OpenAIRE

    Gough, Michael Paul

    2016-01-01

    We are encouraged to look beyond LCDM as there are still no satisfactory explanations for either dark energy or dark matter. A data centred phenomenological approach supports an alternative explanation in which dark energy is not a universe-wide constant energy density, but the Holographic Dark Information Energy, HDIE, naturally centred around galaxies. HDIE can explain many of the effects attributed separately to Lambda and CDM. HDIE mimics Lambda with sufficient overall total energy and an...

  14. Alternate-fuel reactor studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of studies related to improvements and/or greater understanding of alternate-fueled reactors is presented. These studies cover the areas of non-Maxwellian distributions, materials and lifetime analysis, a 3He-breeding blanket, tritium-rich startup effects, high field magnet support, and reactor operation spanning the range from full D-T operation to operation with no tritium breeding

  15. An alternative dimensional reduction prescription

    CERN Document Server

    Edelstein, J D; Núñez, C; Schaposnik, F A

    1995-01-01

    We propose an alternative dimensional reduction prescription which in respect with Green functions corresponds to drop the extra spatial coordinate. From this, we construct the dimensionally reduced Lagrangians both for scalars and fermions, discussing bosonization and supersymmetry in the particular 2-dimensional case. We argue that our proposal is in some situations more physical, in the sense that it mantains the form of the interactions between particles, thus preserving the dynamics corresponding to the higher dimensional space.

  16. Alternative Medicine on the Internet

    OpenAIRE

    Muret, Marc

    2000-01-01

    If you go to a bookstore to look for information on a particular health problem you will have a choice between the "medicine" corner with scientific manuals for professionals and the "health" corner with all kinds of books about acupuncture, ayurveda, natural healing, homeopathy, nutrition, massage, and so on! How is it on the Net? Even a short tour will bring you a lot of "medical" information, but when you look for alternative approaches in the "health" corner you will be rather disappointe...

  17. Towards an Alternative Gravitational Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Nieto, J.A.; Beltrán, L. A.

    2014-01-01

    In 1680 Cassini proposed oval curves as alternative trajectories for the visible planets around the sun. The Cassini ovals were of course overshadow by the Kepler's first law (1609), namely the planets move around the sun describing conic orbits. Here we describe the possibility that the Cassini's idea works at larger or smaller scales. Indeed, we consider the Spiric curves (which are a generalization of the Cassini oval) and present the first steps towards a Spiric gravitational theory. We s...

  18. Casimir force: an alternative treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, P. R.

    2009-01-01

    The Casimir force between two parallel uncharged closely spaced metallic plates is evaluated in ways alternatives to those usually considered in the literature. In a first approximation we take in account the suppressed quantum numbers of a cubic box, representing a cavity which was cut in a metallic block. We combine these ideas with those of the MIT bag model of hadrons, but adapted to non-relativistic particles. In a second approximation we consider the particles occupying the energy level...

  19. An alternative dimensional reduction prescription

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose an alternative dimensional reduction prescription which in respect with Green functions corresponds to drop the extra spatial coordinate. From this, we construct the dimensionally reduced Lagrangians both for scalars and fermions, discussing bosonization and supersymmetry in the particular 2-dimensional case. We argue that our proposal is in some situations more physical in the sense that it maintains the form of the interactions between particles thus preserving the dynamics corresponding to the higher dimensional space. (author). 12 refs

  20. Alternative Assessment of Glycemic Control

    OpenAIRE

    Greven, W.L.

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease associated with development of microvascular and macrovascular complications. Optimal glycemic control, usually measured by HbA1c is the cornerstone for prevention of complications. In this thesis glycemic variability (which resembles actual glucose levels, glucose peaks and nadirs) and advanced glycation end products (AGEs) (a more long-term reflection of hyperglycemia and tissue glycation) are investigated as alternative assessment of glycemic control....

  1. Alternative sintering methods compared to conventional thermal sintering for inkjet printed silver nanoparticle ink

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this contribution several alternative sintering methods are compared to traditional thermal sintering as high temperature and long process time of thermal sintering are increasing the costs of inkjet-printing and preventing the use of this technology in large scale manufacturing. Alternative sintering techniques are evaluated based on the electrical and mechanical performance they enable on inkjet-printed structures as well as their potential feasibility for large scale manufacturing. Photonic sintering was identified as the most promising alternative to thermal sintering. - Highlights: • Comparison of alternative sintering techniques for large-scale electronics manufacturing • Laser, plasma and photonic sintering of nanoparticle silver ink tested • Electrical and mechanical properties of sintered inks tested • Microstructure analysis used to explain the different electrical and mechanical properties • Photonic sintering identified as the most promising alternative technique

  2. Alternative sintering methods compared to conventional thermal sintering for inkjet printed silver nanoparticle ink

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niittynen, Juha, E-mail: juha.niittynen@tut.fi [Department of Electronics and Communications Engineering, Tampere University of Technology, Korkeakoulunkatu 3, 33720 Tampere (Finland); Abbel, Robert [Holst Centre, High Tech Campus 31, 5656 AE Eindhoven (Netherlands); Mäntysalo, Matti [Department of Electronics and Communications Engineering, Tampere University of Technology, Korkeakoulunkatu 3, 33720 Tampere (Finland); Perelaer, Jolke; Schubert, Ulrich S. [Laboratory of Organic and Macromolecular Chemistry (IOMC), Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Humboldtstrasse 10, D-07743 Jena (Germany); Jena Center for Soft Matter (JCSM), Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Humboldtstrasse 10, D-07743 Jena (Germany); Lupo, Donald [Department of Electronics and Communications Engineering, Tampere University of Technology, Korkeakoulunkatu 3, 33720 Tampere (Finland)

    2014-04-01

    In this contribution several alternative sintering methods are compared to traditional thermal sintering as high temperature and long process time of thermal sintering are increasing the costs of inkjet-printing and preventing the use of this technology in large scale manufacturing. Alternative sintering techniques are evaluated based on the electrical and mechanical performance they enable on inkjet-printed structures as well as their potential feasibility for large scale manufacturing. Photonic sintering was identified as the most promising alternative to thermal sintering. - Highlights: • Comparison of alternative sintering techniques for large-scale electronics manufacturing • Laser, plasma and photonic sintering of nanoparticle silver ink tested • Electrical and mechanical properties of sintered inks tested • Microstructure analysis used to explain the different electrical and mechanical properties • Photonic sintering identified as the most promising alternative technique.

  3. Intronic Alus influence alternative splicing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galit Lev-Maor

    Full Text Available Examination of the human transcriptome reveals higher levels of RNA editing than in any other organism tested to date. This is indicative of extensive double-stranded RNA (dsRNA formation within the human transcriptome. Most of the editing sites are located in the primate-specific retrotransposed element called Alu. A large fraction of Alus are found in intronic sequences, implying extensive Alu-Alu dsRNA formation in mRNA precursors. Yet, the effect of these intronic Alus on splicing of the flanking exons is largely unknown. Here, we show that more Alus flank alternatively spliced exons than constitutively spliced ones; this is especially notable for those exons that have changed their mode of splicing from constitutive to alternative during human evolution. This implies that Alu insertions may change the mode of splicing of the flanking exons. Indeed, we demonstrate experimentally that two Alu elements that were inserted into an intron in opposite orientation undergo base-pairing, as evident by RNA editing, and affect the splicing patterns of a downstream exon, shifting it from constitutive to alternative. Our results indicate the importance of intronic Alus in influencing the splicing of flanking exons, further emphasizing the role of Alus in shaping of the human transcriptome.

  4. Mechanical impedance

    OpenAIRE

    Couroussé, Damien

    2007-01-01

    Mechanical impedance is a transposition to mechanics of the term impedance that is used and defined in circuit theory. The theory of circuit (theory of Kirchhoff networks) is basically applicable to electric networks but can be considered more generally as a unifying simplified theory of physics available in several domains like mechanics, electromagnetism, aero-acoustics and fluids mechanics.

  5. Impact of alternate fuels on industrial refractories and refractory insulation applications. An Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, G.C.; Tennery, V.J.

    1976-09-01

    The effects of use of alternate fuels such as distillate oils, residual oils, coal, producer gas, and electricity on refractory insulation are evaluated. Sections are included on alternate fuels for 1976 to 1980, assessment by industry of fuel conversion impact on industrial refractories in the period 1976 to 1980, interactions of alternate fuel combustion products with refractories and refractory insulation, and analysis of degradation mechanisms in refractories and refractory materials. (JRD)

  6. Smooth muscle alternative splicing induced in fibroblasts by heterologous expression of a regulatory gene.

    OpenAIRE

    G. C. Roberts; Gooding, C; Smith, C W

    1996-01-01

    Alternative splicing is a common mechanism for regulating gene expression in different cell types. In order to understand this important process, the trans-acting factors that enforce the choice of particular splicing pathways in different environments must be identified. We have used the rat alpha-tropomyosin gene as a model system of tissue-specific alternative splicing. Exon 3 of alpha-tropomyosin is specifically inhibited in smooth muscle cells allowing the alternative inclusion of exon 2...

  7. Genetic Variation of Pre-mRNA Alternative Splicing in Human Populations

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Zhi-xiang; Jiang, Peng; Xing, Yi

    2011-01-01

    The precise splicing outcome of a transcribed gene is controlled by complex interactions between cis regulatory splicing signals and trans-acting regulators. In higher eukaryotes, alternative splicing is a prevalent mechanism for generating transcriptome and proteome diversity. Alternative splicing can modulate gene function, affect organismal phenotype and cause disease. Common genetic variation that affects splicing regulation can lead to differences in alternative splicing between human in...

  8. Continuum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Spencer, A J M

    2004-01-01

    The mechanics of fluids and the mechanics of solids represent the two major areas of physics and applied mathematics that meet in continuum mechanics, a field that forms the foundation of civil and mechanical engineering. This unified approach to the teaching of fluid and solid mechanics focuses on the general mechanical principles that apply to all materials. Students who have familiarized themselves with the basic principles can go on to specialize in any of the different branches of continuum mechanics. This text opens with introductory chapters on matrix algebra, vectors and Cartesian ten

  9. Alternative lengthening of telomeres and loss of ATRX are frequent events in pleomorphic and dedifferentiated liposarcomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jen-Chieh; Jeng, Yung-Ming; Liau, Jau-Yu; Tsai, Jia-Huei; Hsu, Hung-Han; Yang, Ching-Yao

    2015-08-01

    Telomerase activation and alternative lengthening of telomeres are two major mechanisms of telomere length maintenance. Soft tissue sarcomas appear to use the alternative lengthening of telomeres more frequently. Loss of α-thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked (ATRX) or death domain-associated protein 6 (DAXX) expression has been implicated in the pathogenesis of alternative telomere lengthening in pancreatic endocrine neoplasm and glioma. The mechanism leading to the alternative lengthening of telomeres in liposarcoma remains unknown. Whereas alternative telomere lengthening was determined to be an indicator of poor prognosis in liposarcomas as a whole, its prognostic power has not been verified in any subtype of liposarcoma. In this study, we characterized the status of alternative telomere lengthening and expression of ATRX and DAXX in 111 liposarcomas (28 well-differentiated, 52 dedifferentiated, 20 myxoid or round cell, and 11 pleomorphic liposarcomas) by telomere fluorescence in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Alternative lengthening of telomere was observed in 0% (0/16) of well-differentiated, 30% (14/46) of dedifferentiated, 5% (1/19) of myxoid or round cell, and 80% (8/10) of pleomorphic liposarcomas. Eighteen (16%) and one (1%) tumors were negative for ATRX and DAXX immunostaining, respectively. Remarkably, all cases with loss of either ATRX or DAXX expression had alternative lengthening of telomeres, and 83% (19/23) of tumors that had alternative lengthening of telomeres showed loss of either protein. The correlation between loss of either ATRX or DAXX and alternative telomere lengthening was 100% in dedifferentiated liposarcoma. The presence of alternative telomere lengthening in dedifferentiated liposarcoma suggested poor overall survival (hazard ratio=1.954, P=0.077) and was the most significant indicator of short progression-free survival (hazard ratio=3.119, P=0.003). In conclusion, we found that ATRX loss was

  10. Mechanical integrity of canisters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document constitutes the final report from 'SKBs reference group for mechanical integrity of canisters for spent nuclear fuel'. A complete list of all reports initiated by the reference group can be found in the summary report in this document. The main task of the reference group has been to advice SKB regarding the choice (ranking of alternatives) of canister type for different types of storage. The choice should be based on requirements of impermeability for a given time period and identification of possible limiting mechanisms. The main conclusions from the work were: From mechanical point of view, low phosphorous oxygen free copper (Cu-OFP) is a preferred canisters material. It exhibits satisfactory ductility both during tensile and creep testing. The residual stresses in the canisters are of such a magnitude that the estimated time to creep rupture with the data obtained for the Cu-OFP material is essentially infinite. Based on the present knowledge of stress corrosion cracking of copper there appears to be a small risk for such to occur in the projected environment. This risk need some further study. Rock shear movements of the size of 10 cm should pose no direct threat to the integrity of the canisters. Considering mechanical integrity, the composite copper/steel canister is an advantageous alternative. The recommendations for further research included continued studies of the creep properties of copper and of stress corrosion cracking. However, the studies should focus more directly on the design and fabrication aspect of the canister

  11. Modern mechanical engineering research, development and education

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book covers modern subjects of mechanical engineering such as nanomechanics and nanotechnology, mechatronics and robotics, computational mechanics, biomechanics, alternative energies, sustainability as well as all aspects related with mechanical engineering education. The chapters help enhance the understanding of both the fundamentals of mechanical engineering and its application to the solution of problems in modern industry. This book is suitable for students, both in final undergraduate mechanical engineering courses or at the graduate level. It also serves as a useful reference for academics, mechanical engineering researchers, mechanical, materials and manufacturing engineers, professionals in related with mechanical engineering.

  12. Mechanism of Inflammation in Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Parmeggiani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is a multifactorial disease that represents the most common cause of irreversible visual impairment among people over the age of 50 in Europe, the United States, and Australia, accounting for up to 50% of all cases of central blindness. Risk factors of AMD are heterogeneous, mainly including increasing age and different genetic predispositions, together with several environmental/epigenetic factors, that is, cigarette smoking, dietary habits, and phototoxic exposure. In the aging retina, free radicals and oxidized lipoproteins are considered to be major causes of tissue stress resulting in local triggers for parainflammation, a chronic status which contributes to initiation and/or progression of many human neurodegenerative diseases such as AMD. Experimental and clinical evidences strongly indicate the pathogenetic role of immunologic processes in AMD occurrence, consisting of production of inflammatory related molecules, recruitment of macrophages, complement activation, microglial activation and accumulation within those structures that compose an essential area of the retina known as macula lutea. This paper reviews some attractive aspects of the literature about the mechanisms of inflammation in AMD, especially focusing on those findings or arguments more directly translatable to improve the clinical management of patients with AMD and to prevent the severe vision loss caused by this disease.

  13. FMDP reactor alternative summary report. Volume 1 - existing LWR alternative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, S.R.; Bevard, B.B. [and others

    1996-10-07

    Significant quantities of weapons-usable fissile materials [primarily plutonium and highly enriched uranium (HEU)] are becoming surplus to national defense needs in both the United States and Russia. These stocks of fissile materials pose significant dangers to national and international security. The dangers exist not only in the potential proliferation of nuclear weapons but also in the potential for environmental, safety, and health (ES&H) consequences if surplus fissile materials are not properly managed. This document summarizes the results of analysis concerned with existing light water reactor plutonium disposition alternatives.

  14. FMDP reactor alternative summary report. Volume 1 - existing LWR alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Significant quantities of weapons-usable fissile materials [primarily plutonium and highly enriched uranium (HEU)] are becoming surplus to national defense needs in both the United States and Russia. These stocks of fissile materials pose significant dangers to national and international security. The dangers exist not only in the potential proliferation of nuclear weapons but also in the potential for environmental, safety, and health (ES ampersand H) consequences if surplus fissile materials are not properly managed. This document summarizes the results of analysis concerned with existing light water reactor plutonium disposition alternatives

  15. Measurement of guided light-mode intensity: An alternative waveguide sensing principle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horvath, R.; Skivesen, N.; Pedersen, H.C.

    2004-01-01

    An alternative transduction mechanism for planar optical waveguide sensors is reported. Based on a simple measurement of the mode intensity, the presented transduction is an interesting alternative to the conventional mode-angle transduction, because the expensive, high-precision angular rotation...

  16. Cost-Benefit Analysis For Alternative Low-Emission Surface Preparation/ Depainting Technologies for Structural Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Pattie

    2007-01-01

    Stennis Space Center (SSC), Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Air Force Space Command (AFSPC) identified particulate emissions and waste generated from the depainting process of steel structures as hazardous materials to be eliminated or reduced. A Potential Alternatives Report, Potential Alternatives Report for Validation of Alternative Low Emission Surface Preparation/Depainting Technologies for Structural Steel, provided a technical analyses of identified alternatives to the current coating removal processes, criteria used to select alternatives for further analysis, and a list of those alternatives recommended for testing. The initial coating removal alternatives list was compiled using literature searches and stakeholder recommendations. The involved project participants initially considered approximately 13 alternatives. In late 2003, core project members selected the following depainting processes to be further evaluated: (1) Plastic Blast Media-Quickstrip(R)-A. (2) Hard Abrasive-Steel-Magic(R). (3) Sponge Blasting-Sponge-Jet(R). (4) Liquid Nitrogen-NItroJet(R). (5) Mechanical Removal with Vacuum Attachment-DESCO and OCM Clean-Air (6) Laser Coating Removal Alternatives were tested in accordance with the Joint Test Protocol for Validation of Alternative Low-Emission Surface Preparation/Depainting Technologies for Structural Steel, and the Field Evaluation Test Plan for Validation of Alternative Low-Emission Surface Preparation/Depainting Technologies for Structural Steel. Results of the testing are documented in the Joint Test Report. This Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) focuses on the three alternatives (Quickstrip(R)-A, SteelMagic (R), and Sponge-Jet(R)) that were considered viable alternatives for large area operations based on the results of the field demonstration and lab testing. This CBA was created to help participants determine if implementation of the candidate alternatives is economically justified. Each of the alternatives examined reduced Environmental

  17. [Alternative medicine: really an alternative to academic medicine?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happle, R

    2000-06-01

    Numerous courses on alternative medicine are regularly advertised in Deutsches Arzteblatt, the organ of the German Medical Association. The present German legislation likewise supports this form of medicine, and this explains why Iscador, an extract of the mistletoe, is found in the Rote Liste, a directory of commercially available medical drugs, under the heading "cytostatic and antimetastatic drugs" although such beneficial effect is unproven. To give another example, a German health insurance fund was sentenced to pay for acupuncture as a treatment for hepatic failure. This judgement is characteristic of the present German judicial system and represents a victory of "oracling irrationalism" (Popper). The astonishing popularity of alternative medicine can be explained by a revival of romanticism. An intellectually fair opposite position has been delineated by Karl Popper in the form of critical rationalism. It is important to realize, however, that our decision to adhere to rational thinking is made in the innermost depth of our heart but not on the basis of rational arguing. Rather, the decision in favor of reason has a moral dimension. PMID:10907162

  18. Alternative polyadenylation and RNA-binding proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erson-Bensan, Ayse Elif

    2016-08-01

    Our understanding of the extent of microRNA-based gene regulation has expanded in an impressive pace over the past decade. Now, we are beginning to better appreciate the role of 3'-UTR (untranslated region) cis-elements which harbor not only microRNA but also RNA-binding protein (RBP) binding sites that have significant effect on the stability and translational rate of mRNAs. To add further complexity, alternative polyadenylation (APA) emerges as a widespread mechanism to regulate gene expression by producing shorter or longer mRNA isoforms that differ in the length of their 3'-UTRs or even coding sequences. Resulting shorter mRNA isoforms generally lack cis-elements where trans-acting factors bind, and hence are differentially regulated compared with the longer isoforms. This review focuses on the RBPs involved in APA regulation and their action mechanisms on APA-generated isoforms. A better understanding of the complex interactions between APA and RBPs is promising for mechanistic and clinical implications including biomarker discovery and new therapeutic approaches. PMID:27208003

  19. Alternative-splicing-mediated gene expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qianliang; Zhou, Tianshou

    2014-01-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) is a fundamental process during gene expression and has been found to be ubiquitous in eukaryotes. However, how AS impacts gene expression levels both quantitatively and qualitatively remains to be fully explored. Here, we analyze two common models of gene expression, each incorporating a simple splice mechanism that a pre-mRNA is spliced into two mature mRNA isoforms in a probabilistic manner. In the constitutive expression case, we show that the steady-state molecular numbers of two mature mRNA isoforms follow mutually independent Poisson distributions. In the bursting expression case, we demonstrate that the tail decay of the steady-state distribution for both mature mRNA isoforms that in general are not mutually independent can be characterized by the product of mean burst size and splicing probability. In both cases, we find that AS can efficiently modulate both the variability (measured by variance) and the noise level of the total mature mRNA, and in particular, the latter is always lower than the noise level of the pre-mRNA, implying that AS always reduces the noise. These results altogether reveal that AS is a mechanism of efficiently controlling the gene expression noise.

  20. Alternative multiplications and non-associativity in physics

    CERN Document Server

    Kupriyanov, V G

    2016-01-01

    Some physical systems like the quantum mechanics with magnetic charges or field theoretical models appearing in the context of string theory are formulated in terms of non-associative algebras. Hence, demand non-associative star products for its description. However, unlike its associative counterpart the situation with non-associative star products is quite unclear. At the moment it is not evident which condition should be used instead of the associativity in the definition of the non-associative star multiplication. In mathematics, the natural generalization of the associativity is the requirement that the multiplication should be alternative, the associator of three elements should vanish if each two of them are equal. We show that for the alternative closed star product the integrated associator vanishes. In particular, it means that on-shell there will be no violation of associativity in string scattering amplitudes. We discuss the examples of the alternative and closed star products. In particular, it i...

  1. Alternative financial institutions? Sustainability, development, social reproduction, and gender analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidder, T

    1999-08-01

    This paper proposes a conceptual framework for alternative financial institutions in Nicaragua. The article includes a discussion on innovative services and policies, which differentiate CARUNA (National Savings and Credit Cooperative ¿Caja Rural¿), and other financial institutions from conventional banks. It further examines theories that have altered the way development practitioners think about the economy, poverty reduction, and the positions of men and women in the society. These theories are the feminist economic theory and alternative development theories. Specific ways to incorporate the concepts of alternative and feminist economic theories in the design of financial institutions include open credit, savings, and remittance mechanisms, and coordinating councils. The gender analysis approach was used to evaluate the design of financial institutions. PMID:12349294

  2. Experimental Evaluation of the Free Piston Engine - Linear Alternator (FPLA).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leick, Michael T. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Moses, Ronald W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report describes the experimental evaluation of a prototype free piston engine - linear alternator (FPLA) system developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The opposed piston design wa developed to investigate its potential for use in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). The system is mechanically simple with two - stroke uniflow scavenging for gas exchange and timed port fuel injection for fuel delivery, i.e. no complex valving. Electrical power is extracted from piston motion through linear alternators wh ich also provide a means for passive piston synchronization through electromagnetic coupling. In an HEV application, this electrical power would be used to charge the batteries. The engine - alternator system was designed, assembled and operated over a 2 - year period at Sandia National Laboratories in Livermore, CA. This report primarily contains a description of the as - built system, modifications to the system to enable better performance, and experimental results from start - up, motoring, and hydrogen combus tion tests.

  3. Prediction of skin sensitizers using alternative methods to animal experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Henrik; Lindstedt, Malin

    2014-07-01

    Regulatory frameworks within the European Union demand that chemical substances are investigated for their ability to induce sensitization, an adverse health effect caused by the human immune system in response to chemical exposure. A recent ban on the use of animal tests within the cosmetics industry has led to an urgent need for alternative animal-free test methods that can be used for assessment of chemical sensitizers. To date, no such alternative assay has yet completed formal validation. However, a number of assays are in development and the understanding of the biological mechanisms of chemical sensitization has greatly increased during the last decade. In this MiniReview, we aim to summarize and give our view on the recent progress of method development for alternative assessment of chemical sensitizers. We propose that integrated testing strategies should comprise complementary assays, providing measurements of a wide range of mechanistic events, to perform well-educated risk assessments based on weight of evidence. PMID:24548737

  4. Alternative energy and environmental concerns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The New Brunswick Market Design Committee will address environmental concerns within the context of the new energy policy and market rules for the newly restructured electric power industry. The new rules that come with power restructuring will in some ways facilitate environmental protection but they can also complicate it. With open access markets, it will be possible to coordinate evolving energy frameworks with current environmental objectives. Restructuring provides an opportunity to create incentives and guidelines to operate in an environmentally sustainable manner, as suggested in the New Brunswick Energy Policy, White Paper which outlines green pricing, the development of a provincial Climate Change Action Plan, and promotion of alternative energy. The Market Design Committee examined the environmental concerns listed within the White Paper that pertain to the generation and transmission of electricity. These include the integration of energy and environmental policy. Other issues addressed in this report were trans-boundary and global air emissions, the development of a provincial climate change action plan, and a federal-provincial climate change framework agreement. New Brunswick will encourage the development of pilot studies that demonstrate the benefits of renewable and alternative technologies and that help promote the market to manufacture, sell and maintain renewable and alternative technologies in small-scale on-site power generation. This report also discussed the 4 key air pollutants for which specific treatment has been defined, including sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, mercury and carbon dioxide. Recommendations for reducing these emissions include the use of renewable energy sources, the use of lower carbon fuels, increased efficiency of power transmission/generation/distribution systems, reducing power demand by the industrial sector, and promoting energy efficient building codes. 34 refs., 1 tab

  5. Alternative routes of insulin delivery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ranjith K. Krishnankutty; Aju Mathew; Saikiran K. Sedimbi; Shrikumar Suryanarayan; Carani B. Sanjeevi

    2009-01-01

    Parenteral route of insulin administration has been the mode of treatment for all Type 1 diabetics and Type 2 diabetics with complications. Patient compliance has really been a major concern for this route of administration. Several alternative routes of administration are under consideration for effective glycemic control, including oral, inhaled, buccal, nasal, and patch routes. One of the approaches involving inhaled insulin has now reached the market. Several other candidates may reach the market in the near future, the promising one being oral insulin.

  6. MR pelvimetry - a practical alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelvimetry remains a useful technique as part of the assessment of the term breech pregnancy where vaginal delivery is planned. MR pelvimetry is accurate, well tolerated and shows soft-tissue structures as well as bone. It avoids the potentially carcinogenic effects of ionising radiation and is thought to be completely safe for mother and fetus. A technique of MR pelvimetry is described which uses gradient-echo sequences. This quick, practical method makes minimal in roads into valuable scanning time, and may therefore be considered a potentially cost-effective alternative to conventional pelvimetry. (orig.)

  7. Alternatives to quintessence model building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We discuss the issue of toy model building for the dark energy component of the universe. Specifically, we consider two generic toy models recently proposed as alternatives to quintessence models, respectively known as Cardassian expansion and the Chaplygin gas. We show that the former is entirely equivalent to a class of quintessence models. We determine the observational constraints on the latter, coming from recent supernovae results and from the shape of the matter power spectrum. As expected, these restrict the model to a behavior that closely matches that of a standard cosmological constant Λ

  8. Alternating current for the West

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of the reactor EPR construction in the Manche, the authors wonder on the pertinence of this energy choice for the economy and the environment of the West France. They show that there is an alternative to this choice. In a first part a state of the situation concerning the electricity supply and demand in the region is detailed. Then from the local potential of renewable electric power production and the electricity conservation, they propose many concrete actions. (A.L.B.)

  9. Quantum Gravity: Motivations and Alternatives

    OpenAIRE

    Hedrich, Reiner

    2009-01-01

    The mutual conceptual incompatibility between General Relativity and Quantum Mechanics / Quantum Field Theory is generally seen as the most essential motivation for the development of a theory of Quantum Gravity. It leads to the insight that, if gravity is a fundamental interaction and Quantum Mechanics is universally valid, the gravitational field will have to be quantized, not at least because of the inconsistency of semi-classical theories of gravity. The objective of a theory of Quantum G...

  10. Creep mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Betten, Josef

    2008-01-01

    This book explores recent advances in the mathematical modeling of the mechanical behavior of anisotropic solids under creep conditions. It also offers an overview of other experimental investigations in creep mechanics.

  11. Mechanical design

    CERN Document Server

    Risitano, Antonino

    2011-01-01

    METHODOLOGICAL STATEMENT OF ENGINEERING DESIGNApproaches to product design and developmentMechanical design and environmental requirementsPROPERTIES OF ENGINEERING MATERIALSMaterials for mechanical designCharacterization of metalsStress conditionsFatigue of materialsOptimum material selection in mechanical designDESIGN OF MECHANICAL COMPONENTS AND SYSTEMSFailure theoriesHertz theoryLubrificationShafts and bearingsSplines and keysSpringsFlexible machine elementsSpur gearsPress and shrink fitsPressure tubesCouplingsClutchesBrakes

  12. Alternatives for Ground Water Cleanup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudak, P. F.

    Aquifer remediation is one of our most difficult environmental challenges; technological limitations and problems arising from the physical and chemical complexities of contaminated subsurface environments thwart our best efforts. A 19-member committee of leaders in environmental engineering, hydrogeology, epidemiology, environmental economics, and environmental policy has written an ambitious book that broadly addresses the groundwater remediation problem. Topics include site characterization, capabilities and limitations of pump-and-treat and alternative technologies, alternative goals for ground water cleanup, and policy implications.One of the book's strengths is its information base, which includes various public and private groups, data from 80 pump-and-treat sites, and an extensive literature review. The text is clearly written and well organized. Specific conclusions are stated at the end of each major chapter, and sound policy recommendations are offered at the end of the final chapter. An appendix summarizes pump-andtreat systems reviewed during the study. Several case studies, diagrams, and photographs effectively illustrate concepts and ideas conveyed in the text.

  13. Alternative forms for genomic clines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Benjamin M

    2013-07-01

    Understanding factors regulating hybrid fitness and gene exchange is a major research challenge for evolutionary biology. Genomic cline analysis has been used to evaluate alternative patterns of introgression, but only two models have been used widely and the approach has generally lacked a hypothesis testing framework for distinguishing effects of selection and drift. I propose two alternative cline models, implement multivariate outlier detection to identify markers associated with hybrid fitness, and simulate hybrid zone dynamics to evaluate the signatures of different modes of selection. Analysis of simulated data shows that previous approaches are prone to false positives (multinomial regression) or relatively insensitive to outlier loci affected by selection (Barton's concordance). The new, theory-based logit-logistic cline model is generally best at detecting loci affecting hybrid fitness. Although some generalizations can be made about different modes of selection, there is no one-to-one correspondence between pattern and process. These new methods will enhance our ability to extract important information about the genetics of reproductive isolation and hybrid fitness. However, much remains to be done to relate statistical patterns to particular evolutionary processes. The methods described here are implemented in a freely available package "HIest" for the R statistical software (CRAN; http://cran.r-project.org/). PMID:23919142

  14. Alternate approaches to nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the US nuclear power industry to expand, a greatly increased portion of the public must come to share the industry's confidence in reactor safety. Major obstacles to establishing this confidence are frequent incidents with potential safety implications and a lack of incontrovertible proof that the risk of a major accident is very low. The most important step toward overcoming these obstacles would be for each utility to operate, maintain, and evaluate its reactors according to far higher standards. With improvements in reliability and safety margins, existing plants would be a stimulus for building new ones rather than an impediment. If changes to the operation of existing plants and improvements to the design of future ones were inadequate, the only hope for a revival of the nuclear industry would be an alternative reactor so obviously safe that risk would no longer be an issue. Three possible concepts are the modular high-temperature gas reactor, the process inherent ultimate safety reactor, and the liquid-metal fast reactor. All three have inherent safety features that should make a meltdown essentially impossible. They cannot know just how great the advantage of these alternate reactors would be, but the benefits of developing one or more of the concepts appear great

  15. Analysis of supermarket dehumidification alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, J.W. Urban, R.E.; Beckman, W.A.; Dorgan, C.E.; Lindell, C.J. (Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States). Solar Energy Lab.)

    1992-11-01

    Alternative methods to provide space conditioning in supermarkets were studied. Four basic air-conditioning systems were selected for evaluation in a store in Miami, Florida: (1) conventional vapor compression systems, (2) vapor compression air-conditioning systems designed for supermarket loads, (3) hybrid desiccant air-conditioning systems, and (4) cool storage systems. Computer models were created and annual simulations of performance were made. The impacts on energy use and cost of circulation flow rate, store humidity set point, heat pipe heat exchangers, and climate on energy use and cost were determined. Dual path electric systems and desiccant systems were found to consume the least electrical energy. Savings of the desiccant system are partially offset by natural gas needed to reactivate the desiccant. Single path systems with reduced circulation air flow consumed significantly less electricity than the conventional system. Lower humidity shifts the air-conditioning load from the refrigerated cases to the HVAC system and reduces the electrical use for all but the conventional system. Heat pipe heat exchangers provide little benefit. Flat and time-of-use electric rate schedules were used to estimate operating savings and to determine the cost effectiveness of the alternative approaches.

  16. Alternate fusion concepts as reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recent successes of the tokamak concept of controlled fusion have not quenched interest in possible alternatives. This report summarizes a recent study sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute, which tried to quantify which hoped-for advantages persist when a serious attempt is made to design reactor plants around eight specific alternative concepts (Electron Beam-Heated Solenoid, Elmo Bumpy Torus, Fast Liner, Laser-Heated Solenoid, Linear Theta-Pinch, LINUS, Reversed-Field-Pinch, and Shock-Heated Annulus) addressing key technological issues and economic issues for each concept. The study aimed to isolate the cost drivers for the reactor plant and to compare their capital cost per kilowatt of electricity as well as address the impact of technological difficulty. Results of the study indicated that reactor block costs for the eight plants studied represent a substantially larger fraction of total plant costs than the corresponding fraction for light water reactors; bottom line costs of $ /kWe range over a factor of about two with cost drivers being the physical size of the power producing plasma and the relative magnitudes of the circulating power fraction and the nature of the power circulation. Other cost considerations are also enumerated and the author concludes by noting that one value of the engineering study and cost estimate has been to quantify the relation between physics uncertainty and cost uncertainty

  17. Alternative fuels: a Brazilian outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper focuses on studies and information related to the use of alternative fuels in Brazil. The first part of this paper deals with the economics of different biomass technologies. The analysis consists of a careful costing of all operations involved. The study deals with wood, sugar cane and cassava, since these crops are exploited for commercial purposes in Brazil. Corn, although a useful raw material for producing ethanol in the United States, is not used for this purpose in Brazil. The second part deals with the industrial technologies used to convert biomass into energy. We consider several forms of energy derived from biomass and evaluate the economics of the processes. When opportune, we compare costs with those of the North American market. Market analysis and displacement of conventional energy are the subject of the third part of the paper. While the cost of each product is evaluated in most cases; in others the current market price is used. Finally, we raise the issues of institutional problems and planning and offer some conclusions on the future of biomass as an alternative energy source. The technological discussion in this paper is based on the Brazilian experience in producing ethanol and other fuels from biomass. It is possible to extrapolate the Brazilian experience to other developing countries. The observations made in this chapter are based on the conditions prevalent in the Brazilian south-central agricultural region, specifically the state of Sao Paulo. (author). 91 refs., 16 figs., 11 tabs

  18. Alternatives for nuclear fuel disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spent fuel is one of the most important issues in the nuclear industry, currently spent fuel management is been cause of great amount of research, investments in the construction of repositories or constructing the necessary facilities to reprocess the fuel, and later to recycle the plutonium recovered in thermal reactors. What is the best solution? or, What is the best technology for a specific solution? Many countries have deferred the decision on selecting an option, while other works actively constructing repositories and others implementing the reprocessing facilities to recycle the plutonium obtained from nuclear spent fuel. In Mexico the nuclear power is limited to two reactors BWR type and medium size. So the nuclear spent fuel discharged has been accommodated at reactor's spent fuel pools. Originally these pools have enough capacity to accommodate spent fuel for the 40 years of designed plant operation. However, currently is under process an extended power up rate to 20% of their original power and also there are plans to extend operational life for 20 more years. Under these conditions there will not be enough room for spent fuel in the pools. So this work describes some different alternatives that have been studied in Mexico to define which will be the best alternative to follow. (Author)

  19. Alternative Financing Schemes for Tiger Conservation in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kafley

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Many scientists and conservation workers agree that global tiger numbers in key areas could double by 2022 if efforts are taken immediately. Countries facing declining tiger numbers and having the ability to meet this goal have produced national tiger recovery plans which outline necessary program activities that need to be taken and their associated costs. To assess the financial feasibility of tiger conservation program in Nepal and to recommend viable alternatives to secure long-term tiger conservation costs, we conducted financial analyses of tiger conservation programs in Nepal. Our results show that the present funding level fails to cover the costs of taking the recommended steps for tiger conservation in the long run. Such a finding points to the need to find and secure alternative funding sources to supply approximately a 100% increase in revenues currently generated from tiger-bearing protected areas assuming a continuance of the current level of funding by the government. This finding is troublesome given the magnitude of the financial burden associated with necessary steps to increase tiger population, plus the fact that no policy instrument exists that can target the revenue generated by the protected areas specifically for tiger conservation. To achieve financial sustainability of the tiger conservation program, alternative financial mechanisms warrants serious consideration. An alternative institutional mechanism could be a tiger conservation trust fund that would be entrusted to secure a wide range of financing from domestic and international sources to ensure financial sustainability of the Nepal’s tiger conservation program.

  20. IBD and Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alternative Medicine (CAM) Go Back Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) Email Print + Share Crohn’s disease and ulcerative ... Energy Medicine, and Biologically-Based Practices. Mind-Body Medicine Mind-body medicine is a set of interventions ...

  1. Alternative Medicine Taking Hold Among Americans: Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159511.html Alternative Medicine Taking Hold Among Americans: Report More than $30 ... chunk of their health care dollars on alternative medicine, such as acupuncture, yoga, chiropractic care and natural ...

  2. Development of Teachers’ Alternative Certification in the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pazyura Natalia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals the prerequisites of appearance of alternative ways to train teachers in the USA at the end of the XX century as main mechanisms to increase qualitative and quantitative characteristics of teaching staff. The author concentrates the attention on the advantages and disadvantages of non-traditional ways to acquire teaching profession. The peculiarities of the development in different states of the country, main characteristics of the training with the help of alternative programs have been found as well as the target groups have been described. Such research is clearly needed, both by policymakers and by practitioners, to determine the appropriateness of alternative certification training models in training educators to deliver quality educational programming to students, as well as their effectiveness in addressing the critical teacher shortages by increasing the pool of available teachers and reducing the turnover and retention problems. Proponents of alternative certification have asserted that such models encourage talented people from other fields to enter teaching and increase the potential supply of teachers available to reduce shortages, and that traditional teacher education programs have little substance or value in training teachers while alternative models provide intensive training and supervision focused on critical skills needed for successful teaching.

  3. Designing an Alternate Mission Operations Control Room

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Patty; Reeves, A. Scott

    2014-01-01

    The Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) is a multi-project facility that is responsible for 24x7 real-time International Space Station (ISS) payload operations management, integration, and control and has the capability to support small satellite projects and will provide real-time support for SLS launches. The HOSC is a service-oriented/ highly available operations center for ISS payloads-directly supporting science teams across the world responsible for the payloads. The HOSC is required to endure an annual 2-day power outage event for facility preventive maintenance and safety inspection of the core electro-mechanical systems. While complete system shut-downs are against the grain of a highly available sub-system, the entire facility must be powered down for a weekend for environmental and safety purposes. The consequence of this ground system outage is far reaching: any science performed on ISS during this outage weekend is lost. Engineering efforts were focused to maximize the ISS investment by engineering a suitable solution capable of continuing HOSC services while supporting safety requirements. The HOSC Power Outage Contingency (HPOC) System is a physically diversified compliment of systems capable of providing identified real-time services for the duration of a planned power outage condition from an alternate control room. HPOC was designed to maintain ISS payload operations for approximately three continuous days during planned HOSC power outages and support a local Payload Operations Team, International Partners, as well as remote users from the alternate control room located in another building.

  4. Contributions of Microdialysis to New Alternative Therapeutics for Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Carmona-Aparicio

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic encephalopathy (HE is a common complication of cirrhosis, of largely reversible impairment of brain function occurring in patients with acute or chronic liver failure or when the liver is bypassed by portosystemic shunts. The mechanisms causing this brain dysfunction are still largely unclear. The need to avoid complications caused by late diagnosis has attracted interest to understand the mechanisms underlying neuronal damage in order to find markers that will allow timely diagnosis and to propose new therapeutic alternatives to improve the care of patients. One of the experimental approaches to study HE is microdialysis; this technique allows evaluation of different chemical substances in several organs through the recollection of samples in specific places by semi-permeable membranes. In this review we will discuss the contributions of microdialysis in the understanding of the physiological alterations in human hepatic encephalopathy and experimental models and the studies to find novel alternative therapies for this disease.

  5. Towards a critical theory of alternative media.

    OpenAIRE

    SANDOVAL, M.; C. Fuchs

    2010-01-01

    In this contribution, we warn against being too optimistic about the actual democratic effects of notions like "civil media", ”community media” "alternative media", "grassroots media", "participatory media", or "participatory culture". We argue that in contemporary society, which is characterized by structural inequalities, an understanding of alternative media as participatory media is insufficient. As an alternative concept, we suggest the notion of alternative media as critical media. This...

  6. Evolution of alternative splicing after gene duplication

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Zhixi; Wang, Jianmin; Yu, Jun; Huang, Xiaoqiu; Gu, Xun

    2006-01-01

    Alternative splicing and gene duplication are two major sources of proteomic function diversity. Here, we study the evolutionary trend of alternative splicing after gene duplication by analyzing the alternative splicing differences between duplicate genes. We observed that duplicate genes have fewer alternative splice (AS) forms than single-copy genes, and that a negative correlation exists between the mean number of AS forms and the gene family size. Interestingly, we found that the loss of ...

  7. Discrete mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews the role of time throughout all phases of mechanics: classical mechanics, non-relativistic quantum mechanics, and relativistic quantum theory. As an example of the relativistic quantum field theory, the case of a massless scalar field interacting with an arbitrary external current is discussed. The comparison between the new discrete theory and the usual continuum formalism is presented. An example is given of a two-dimensional random lattice and its duel. The author notes that there is no evidence that the discrete mechanics is more appropriate than the usual continuum mechanics

  8. Discrete mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Caltagirone, Jean-Paul

    2014-01-01

    This book presents the fundamental principles of mechanics to re-establish the equations of Discrete Mechanics. It introduces physics and thermodynamics associated to the physical modeling.  The development and the complementarity of sciences lead to review today the old concepts that were the basis for the development of continuum mechanics. The differential geometry is used to review the conservation laws of mechanics. For instance, this formalism requires a different location of vector and scalar quantities in space. The equations of Discrete Mechanics form a system of equations where the H

  9. On the problem of choosing alternative in quantum measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paper comment on Mensky's article entitled Quantum Mechanics: New Experiments, New Applications and New Wordings of the Old Problems (Achievements in Physical Sciences Journal, No. 170 (6), 631, 2000). Here one discusses the role of observer's consciousness in quantum measurement and studies a quantum description of this choice out of coherent superposition of various possible results of measurement. Description of the alternative consciously choosing is shown to be possible in terms of the unitary model analyzed in this paper

  10. Trypanosoma evansi in Northern Ethiopia: epidemiology, diversity and alternative diagnostics

    OpenAIRE

    Abera, Birhanu Hadush

    2016-01-01

    Trypanosoma evansi in Northern Ethiopia: epidemiology, diversity and alternative diagnostics Animal African trypanosomosis (AAT) is a complex of parasitic diseases of various domestic and wild animal species caused by different species of trypanosomes. Trypanosoma (T.) brucei, T. congolense and T. vivax are transmitted by tsetse flies. Trypanosoma evansi, but also T. vivax, is mechanically transmitted by other biting flies and T. equiperdum is sexually transmitted in Equidae. All these ...

  11. Alternative lengthening of telomeres in normal mammalian somatic cells

    OpenAIRE

    Neumann, Axel A.; Watson, Catherine M.; Noble, Jane R.; Hilda A Pickett; Tam, Patrick P.L.; Reddel, Roger R

    2013-01-01

    Alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT), a mechanism involving the replication of new telomeric DNA from a DNA template, is used by some cancer cells to lengthen their telomeres. Reddel and colleagues now show that ALT activity exists in normal somatic tissues as well. A telomere with a DNA tag is found to be intertelomerically copied in normal somatic cells but not germline cells, providing important implications for understanding telomere maintenance and its evolution.

  12. Alternative lengthening of telomeres: remodeling the telomere architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Conomos, Dimitri; Hilda A Pickett; Reddel, Roger R

    2013-01-01

    To escape from the normal limits on proliferative potential, cancer cells must employ a means to counteract the gradual telomere attrition that accompanies semi-conservative DNA replication. While the majority of human cancers do this by up-regulating telomerase enzyme activity, most of the remainder use a homologous recombination-mediated mechanism of telomere elongation known as alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT). Many molecular details of the ALT pathway are unknown, and even less ...

  13. Detection of alternative lengthening of telomeres by telomere quantitative PCR

    OpenAIRE

    Lau, Loretta M. S.; Dagg, Rebecca A.; Henson, Jeremy D.; Au, Amy Y.M.; Royds, Janice A; Reddel, Roger R

    2012-01-01

    Alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) is one of the two known telomere length maintenance mechanisms that are essential for the unlimited proliferation potential of cancer cells. Existing methods for detecting ALT in tumors require substantial amounts of tumor material and are labor intensive, making it difficult to study prevalence and prognostic significance of ALT in large tumor cohorts. Here, we present a novel strategy utilizing telomere quantitative PCR to diagnose ALT. The protoco...

  14. Alternative solutions for public and private catastrophe funding in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gruber

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of natural hazards as well as their frequency of occurrence during the last decades have increased decisively. Therefore, the public as well as the private sector are expected to react to this development by providing sufficient funds, in particular for the improvement of protection measures and an enhanced funding of damage compensation for affected private individuals, corporate and public entities.

    From the public stance, the establishment of an appropriate regulatory environment seems to be indispensable. Structural and legal changes should, on the one hand, renew and improve the current distribution system of public catastrophe funds as well as the profitable investment of these financial resources, and on the other hand, facilitate the application of alternative mechanisms provided by the capital and insurance markets.

    In particular, capital markets have developed alternative risk transfer and financing mechanisms, such as captive insurance companies, risk pooling, contingent capital solutions, multi-trigger products and insurance securitisation for hard insurance market phases. These instruments have already been applied to catastrophic (re-insurance in other countries (mainly the US and off-shore domiciles, and may contribute positively to the insurability of extreme weather events in Austria by enhancing financial capacities. Not only private individuals and corporate entities may use alternative mechanisms in order to retain, thus, to finance certain risks, but also public institutions.

    This contribution aims at analysing potential solutions for an improved risk management of natural hazards in the private and the public sector by considering alternative mechanisms of the capital and insurance markets. Also the establishment of public-private-partnerships, which may contribute to a more efficient cat funding system in Austria, is considered.

  15. A General Definition and Nomenclature for Alternative Splicing Events

    OpenAIRE

    Guigó Serra, Roderic; Sammeth, Michael; Foissac, Sylvain

    2008-01-01

    Understanding the molecular mechanisms responsible for the regulation of the transcriptome present in eukaryotic cells is one of the most challenging tasks in the postgenomic era. In this regard, alternative splicing (AS) is a key phenomenon contributing to the production of different mature transcripts from the same primary RNA sequence. As a plethora of different transcript forms is available in databases, a first step to uncover the biology that drives AS is to identify the dif...

  16. Alternative solutions for public and private catastrophe funding in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, M.

    2008-07-01

    The impacts of natural hazards as well as their frequency of occurrence during the last decades have increased decisively. Therefore, the public as well as the private sector are expected to react to this development by providing sufficient funds, in particular for the improvement of protection measures and an enhanced funding of damage compensation for affected private individuals, corporate and public entities. From the public stance, the establishment of an appropriate regulatory environment seems to be indispensable. Structural and legal changes should, on the one hand, renew and improve the current distribution system of public catastrophe funds as well as the profitable investment of these financial resources, and on the other hand, facilitate the application of alternative mechanisms provided by the capital and insurance markets. In particular, capital markets have developed alternative risk transfer and financing mechanisms, such as captive insurance companies, risk pooling, contingent capital solutions, multi-trigger products and insurance securitisation for hard insurance market phases. These instruments have already been applied to catastrophic (re-)insurance in other countries (mainly the US and off-shore domiciles), and may contribute positively to the insurability of extreme weather events in Austria by enhancing financial capacities. Not only private individuals and corporate entities may use alternative mechanisms in order to retain, thus, to finance certain risks, but also public institutions. This contribution aims at analysing potential solutions for an improved risk management of natural hazards in the private and the public sector by considering alternative mechanisms of the capital and insurance markets. Also the establishment of public-private-partnerships, which may contribute to a more efficient cat funding system in Austria, is considered.

  17. Complementary and alternative medicine : facts and figures : part 2

    OpenAIRE

    Pace, Odette

    2012-01-01

    The popularity of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is evident in both developed and less developed societies. It is perceived as being more natural and having fewer side effects than conventional medicine. Claims for efficacy are often unsubstantiated. In this second article, other forms of CAM will be described including herbalism, chiropractic, osteopathy, reflexology and iridology. Proposed mechanisms of action and evidence-based research about their eff...

  18. Removal new alternative to chemical and mechanical removal for the study of pollen carried on the wild bee scopae Remoción química como nueva alternativa a la remoción mecánica para el estudio del polen transportado en las escopas de abejas silvestres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Caccavari

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Taxonomic recognition and quantification of the different pollen types collected by bees offer the most direct method to study the diet. To determine the importance of each plant taxon, it is necessary to separate the pollen deposited only in the collecting structures in order to minimize contamination of grains collected passively in other parts of the body. The technique currently applied is based on the mechanical removal of the pollen loads with dissecting needles and repeated washings with ethanol. Metathoracic scopae that underwent this procedure showed traces of pollen in varying amounts when observed under the microscope. As an alternative to this technique chemical removal using HOK is proposed. The leg is removed and treated separatedly to avoid contamination. The deflocculant properties of HOK successfully allowed to separate the pollen adhered to the scopae, which can be then returned to the individual, unaffected by the procedure. Suspend the pollen in a know quantity of mounting fluid permit take the subsamples and determine the total number of pollen grains of each taxon. In this paper, the new technique is presented and its effectiveness is compared to the technique currenty used.El reconocimiento taxonómico y la cuantificación de los distintos tipos polínicos colectados por las abejas ofrecen el método más directo para estudiar la dieta. Para determinar la importancia de cada taxón vegetal y minimizar la contaminación, es necesario separar el polen depositado en las estructuras de colecta, de los granos recolectados en forma pasiva en otras partes del cuerpo. La técnica que se aplica hasta el momento se basa en la remoción mecánica de las cargas polínicas con agujas de disección y sucesivos lavados con etanol. Escopas de patas metatoráxicas sometidas a este procedimiento al ser observadas bajo lupa presentaban aún granos de polen en cantidades variables. Como una alternativa a esta técnica proponemos la remoci

  19. Research on Symptom-complex of Chinese Medicine and Level of Correlated Pathogenetic Condition in Acute Stage of Diabetes Mellitus with Cerebrovascular Disease%糖尿病合并脑血管病急性期中医证候及相关病情程度研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁玉娇; 占戈; 田园; 陈志刚; 谢颖贞

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate symptom-complex of Chinese medicine and correlated pathogenetic condition in acute stage of diabetes mellitus with cerebrovascular disease Methods: To select 53 diabetes mellitus with cerebrovascular disease patients and 50 nondiabetes mellitus with cerebrovascular disease patients as study object. Symptom-complex of Chinese medicine was divided into seven types:anemogenous phlegm and pyrophlegm、pathogenic wind-fire、phlegm phlegmasia and organ full、anemogenous phlegm and blood stasis、phlegmatic hygrosis covering mind、deficiency of vital energy and blood stasis and stirring of wind due to deficiency of YIN. The level of neurologic impairment was evaluated by NIHSS. To compare two groups. Results: There was significant difference between two groups in symptom-complex of Chinese medicine in deficienc yof vital energy and blood stasis、stirring of wind due to dificiency of YIN (p<0.05). There was significant difference between two groups in NIHSS score in the level of neurologic impairment (p<0.05). Conclusion: Symptom-complex of Chinese medicine in deficiency of vital energy and blood stasis、stirring of wind due to deficiency of YIN was more and level of correlated pathogenetic condition was more severe in group of diabetes mellitus with cerebrovascular disease patients than group of non-diabetes mellitus with cerebrovascular disease patients.%目的:探讨糖尿病合并脑血管病急性期中医证候及相关病情程度.方法:选择糖尿病合并脑血管病患者53例,非糖尿病合并脑血管患者50例作为研究对象,中医证型诊断分为风痰火亢、风火上扰、痰热腑实、风痰瘀阻、痰湿蒙神、气虚血瘀和阴虚风动等7个证型,神经功能缺损程度采用美国国立卫生研究院脑卒中量表(NIHSS)记录,进行两组比较.结果:两组气虚血瘀、阴虚风动证型比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),两组神经功能缺损程度NIHSS评分差异有统计学意义(P<0

  20. Fracture mechanics safety approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Component integrity assessments require the knowledge of reliable fracture toughness parameters characterising the initiation of the failure process in the whole relevant temperature range. From a large number of fracture mechanics tests a statistically based procedure was derived allowing to quantify the initiation of fracture toughness as a function of temperature as a closed function as well as the temperature dependence of the cleavage instability parameters. Alternatively to the direct experimental determination one also can use a correlation between fracture toughness and notch impact energy. (orig.)