WorldWideScience

Sample records for alternative nuclear fuel

  1. Alternative nuclear fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Till, C.E.

    1979-01-01

    This diffuse subject involves value judgments that are political as well as technical, and is best understood in that context. The four questions raised here, however, are mostly from the technical viewpoints: (1) what are alternative nuclear fuel cycles; (2) what generalizations are possible about their characteristics; (3) what are the major practical considerations; and (4) what is the present situation and what can be said about the outlook for the future

  2. Alternatives for nuclear fuel disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez S, J. R.; Badillo A, V.; Palacios H, J.; Celis del Angel, L.

    2010-10-01

    The spent fuel is one of the most important issues in the nuclear industry, currently spent fuel management is been cause of great amount of research, investments in the construction of repositories or constructing the necessary facilities to reprocess the fuel, and later to recycle the plutonium recovered in thermal reactors. What is the best solution? or, What is the best technology for a specific solution? Many countries have deferred the decision on selecting an option, while other works actively constructing repositories and others implementing the reprocessing facilities to recycle the plutonium obtained from nuclear spent fuel. In Mexico the nuclear power is limited to two reactors BWR type and medium size. So the nuclear spent fuel discharged has been accommodated at reactor's spent fuel pools. Originally these pools have enough capacity to accommodate spent fuel for the 40 years of designed plant operation. However, currently is under process an extended power up rate to 20% of their original power and also there are plans to extend operational life for 20 more years. Under these conditions there will not be enough room for spent fuel in the pools. So this work describes some different alternatives that have been studied in Mexico to define which will be the best alternative to follow. (Author)

  3. Comparison of spent nuclear fuel management alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beebe, C.L.; Caldwell, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    This paper reports the process an results of a trade study of spent nuclear fuel (SNF)management alternatives. The purpose of the trade study was to provide: (1) a summary of various SNF management alternatives, (2) an objective comparison of the various alternatives to facilitate the decision making process, and (3) documentation of trade study rational and the basis for decisions

  4. Nuclear fuel: the thinking man's alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamberlain, N.

    1989-01-01

    'Nuclear Fuel ' The Thinking Man's Alternative' is the title of the 55th Melchett Lecture given by Neville Chamberlain, Chief Executive of British Nuclear Fuels plc. This article is based on the address, the essence of which is that the case for nuclear power should be based upon an appreciation of the totality and sophistication of man's handling of his energy needs - not on a glib catch-phase or on a simple political dogma or on an economic argument. Arguments in favour of nuclear power were discussed. The conclusion was that nuclear energy is the thinking man's alternative because only thinking man could have and can develop it; secondly, only thinking men should be authorized to exploit and control it; thirdly, a thinking person will appreciate that, properly thought out and controlled, it must be the most important source of future energy for the benefit of mankind. (author)

  5. Spent Nuclear Fuel Alternative Technology Decision Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shedrow, C.B.

    1999-01-01

    The Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) made a FY98 commitment to the Department of Energy (DOE) to recommend a technology for the disposal of aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The two technologies being considered, direct co-disposal and melt and dilute, had been previously selected from a group of eleven potential SNF management technologies by the Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel Task Team chartered by the DOE''s Office of Spent Fuel Management. To meet this commitment, WSRC organized the SNF Alternative Technology Program to further develop the direct co-disposal and melt and dilute technologies and ultimately provide a WSRC recommendation to DOE on a preferred SNF alternative management technology

  6. Spent Nuclear Fuel Alternative Technology Decision Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shedrow, C.B.

    1999-11-29

    The Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) made a FY98 commitment to the Department of Energy (DOE) to recommend a technology for the disposal of aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The two technologies being considered, direct co-disposal and melt and dilute, had been previously selected from a group of eleven potential SNF management technologies by the Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel Task Team chartered by the DOE''s Office of Spent Fuel Management. To meet this commitment, WSRC organized the SNF Alternative Technology Program to further develop the direct co-disposal and melt and dilute technologies and ultimately provide a WSRC recommendation to DOE on a preferred SNF alternative management technology.

  7. Spent Nuclear Fuel Alternative Technology Risk Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perella, V.F.

    1999-11-29

    A Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel Task Team (RRTT) was chartered by the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Spent Fuel Management with the responsibility to recommend a course of action leading to a final technology selection for the interim management and ultimate disposition of the foreign and domestic aluminum-based research reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF) under DOE''s jurisdiction. The RRTT evaluated eleven potential SNF management technologies and recommended that two technologies, direct co-disposal and an isotopic dilution alternative, either press and dilute or melt and dilute, be developed in parallel. Based upon that recommendation, the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) organized the SNF Alternative Technology Program to further develop the direct co-disposal and melt and dilute technologies and provide a WSRC recommendation to DOE for a preferred SNF alternative management technology. A technology risk assessment was conducted as a first step in this recommendation process to determine if either, or both, of the technologies posed significant risks that would make them unsuitable for further development. This report provides the results of that technology risk assessment.

  8. Spent Nuclear Fuel Alternative Technology Risk Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perella, V.F.

    1999-01-01

    A Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel Task Team (RRTT) was chartered by the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Spent Fuel Management with the responsibility to recommend a course of action leading to a final technology selection for the interim management and ultimate disposition of the foreign and domestic aluminum-based research reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF) under DOE''s jurisdiction. The RRTT evaluated eleven potential SNF management technologies and recommended that two technologies, direct co-disposal and an isotopic dilution alternative, either press and dilute or melt and dilute, be developed in parallel. Based upon that recommendation, the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) organized the SNF Alternative Technology Program to further develop the direct co-disposal and melt and dilute technologies and provide a WSRC recommendation to DOE for a preferred SNF alternative management technology. A technology risk assessment was conducted as a first step in this recommendation process to determine if either, or both, of the technologies posed significant risks that would make them unsuitable for further development. This report provides the results of that technology risk assessment

  9. Accelerators and alternative nuclear fuel management options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harms, A.A.

    1983-01-01

    The development of special accelerators suggests the po tential for new directions in nuclear energy systems evolution. Such directions point towards a more acceptable form of nuclear energy by reason of the consequent accessibility of enhanced fuel management choices. Essential and specifically directed research and development activity needs to be under taken in order to clarify and resolve a number of technical issues

  10. The use of thorium as an alternative nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, D.J.

    1982-04-01

    The use of thorium as an alternative or supplementary nuclear fuel is examined and compared with uranium. A description of various reactor types and their suitability to thorium fuel, and a description of various aspects of the fuel cycle from mining to waste disposal, are included. Comments are made on the safety and economics of each aspect of the fuel cycle and the extension of the lifetime of nuclear fuel

  11. Nuclear power and the possibility of alternative fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelmann, P.

    1979-01-01

    Concern about the societal implications, potential risks and the possibility of nuclear weapons proliferation has slowed down the growth of nuclear energy. Assuming a further moderate growth of nuclear power in the Federal Republic of Germany several fuel cycle and reactor strategies can the followed without exhausting the nuclear the resources before the year 2100. The uranium demand of various reactor strategies with LWR's FBR's and HTR's is compared for two demand cases in the FRG. While recycling of spent fuel seems necessary in any case, it is shown that the Th/U cycle can provide a realistic alternative to the U/Pu cycle. The parallel introduction of both cycles appears as the best solution, as it reduces the overall risks and leads to minimum uranium demand. The risk of nuclear proliferation does not vary considerably with the fuel cycle applied; it can, however, be reduced to acceptable levels by safeguards methods and institutional means. (orig.) [de

  12. Long-term alternatives for nuclear fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vira, J.; Vieno, T.

    1981-07-01

    Several technical alternatives have been proposed to the nuclear spent fuel management but the practical experience on any of these is small or totally lacking. Since the management method is also connected with the composition of fresh fuel, the comparison of the alternatives must include the whole fuel cycle of a nuclear power plant. In the planning of the nuclear fuel cycle over a time range of several decades a consideration must be given, in addition, to the potential of the new reactor types with increased efficiency of uranium utilization. For analyses and mutual comparisons of the fuel cycle alternatives a number of computer models have been designed and implemented at the Technical Research Centre of Finland. Given the estimated boundary conditions the models can be used to study the impact of different goals and requirements on the fuel cycle decisions. Further, they facilitate cost predictions and display information on the role of the intrinsic uncertainties in the decision-making. The conclusions of the study are tied to the questions of price and availability of uranium. Hence, for instance, the benefits from the reprocessing of spent fuel might prove to be small when compared to the costs required, especially as the current reprocessing contracts do not allow the custemer to dismiss the duty of building the final disposal facilities for high level radioactive waste. For a few decades the final decisions can be postponed by extending the interim storage period. Farther in the future the decisions in the nuclear fuel cycle arrangements will more link to the introduction of the fast breeder reactors. (author)

  13. Alternative Measuring Approaches in Gamma Scanning on Spent Nuclear Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sihm Kvenangen, Karen

    2007-06-15

    In the future, the demand for energy is predicted to grow and more countries plan to utilize nuclear energy as their source of electric energy. This gives rise to many important issues connected to nuclear energy, such as finding methods that can verify that the spent nuclear fuel has been handled safely and used in ordinary power producing cycles as stated by the operators. Gamma ray spectroscopy is one method used for identification and verification of spent nuclear fuel. In the specific gamma ray spectroscopy method called gamma scanning the gamma radiation from the fission products Cs-137, Cs-134 and Eu-154 are measured in a spent fuel assembly. From the results, conclusions can be drawn about the fuels characteristics. This degree project examines the possibilities of using alternative measuring approaches when using the gamma scanning method. The focus is on examining how to increase the quality of the measured data. How to decrease the measuring time as compared with the present measuring strategy, has also been investigated. The main part of the study comprises computer simulations of gamma scanning measurements. The simulations have been validated with actual measurements on spent nuclear fuel at the central interim storage, Clab. The results show that concerning the quality of the measuring data the conventional strategy is preferable, but with other starting positions and with a more optimized equipment. When focusing on the time aspect, the helical measuring strategy can be an option, but this needs further investigation.

  14. Alternative Measuring Approaches in Gamma Scanning on Spent Nuclear Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sihm Kvenangen, Karen

    2007-06-01

    In the future, the demand for energy is predicted to grow and more countries plan to utilize nuclear energy as their source of electric energy. This gives rise to many important issues connected to nuclear energy, such as finding methods that can verify that the spent nuclear fuel has been handled safely and used in ordinary power producing cycles as stated by the operators. Gamma ray spectroscopy is one method used for identification and verification of spent nuclear fuel. In the specific gamma ray spectroscopy method called gamma scanning the gamma radiation from the fission products Cs-137, Cs-134 and Eu-154 are measured in a spent fuel assembly. From the results, conclusions can be drawn about the fuels characteristics. This degree project examines the possibilities of using alternative measuring approaches when using the gamma scanning method. The focus is on examining how to increase the quality of the measured data. How to decrease the measuring time as compared with the present measuring strategy, has also been investigated. The main part of the study comprises computer simulations of gamma scanning measurements. The simulations have been validated with actual measurements on spent nuclear fuel at the central interim storage, Clab. The results show that concerning the quality of the measuring data the conventional strategy is preferable, but with other starting positions and with a more optimized equipment. When focusing on the time aspect, the helical measuring strategy can be an option, but this needs further investigation

  15. Fuel alternatives for oil sands development - the nuclear option

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bock, D [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Mississauga, ON (Canada); Donnelly, J K

    1996-12-31

    Currently natural gas is the fuel of choice in all oil sand developments. Alberta sources of hydrocarbon based fuels are large but limited. Canadian nuclear technology was studied as a possible alternative for providing steam for the deep commercial in situ oil sand projects which were initiated over ten years ago. Because the in situ technology of that time required steam at pressures in excess of 10 MPa, the nuclear option required the development of new reactor technology, or the use of steam compressors, which was not economical. The current SAGD (steam assisted gravity drainage) technology requires steam at pressures of less than 5 MPa, which is in the reach of existing Canadian nuclear technology. The cost of supplying steam for a SAGD in situ project using a CANDU 3 nuclear reactor was developed. The study indicates that for gas prices in excess of $2.50 per gigajoule, replacing natural gas fuel with a nuclear reactor is economically feasible for in situ projects in excess of 123 thousand barrels per day. (author). 9 refs., 3 tabs., 12 figs.

  16. Fuel alternatives for oil sands development - the nuclear option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bock, D.; Donnelly, J.K.

    1995-01-01

    Currently natural gas is the fuel of choice in all oil sand developments. Alberta sources of hydrocarbon based fuels are large but limited. Canadian nuclear technology was studied as a possible alternative for providing steam for the deep commercial in situ oil sand projects which were initiated over ten years ago. Because the in situ technology of that time required steam at pressures in excess of 10 MPa, the nuclear option required the development of new reactor technology, or the use of steam compressors, which was not economical. The current SAGD (steam assisted gravity drainage) technology requires steam at pressures of less than 5 MPa, which is in the reach of existing Canadian nuclear technology. The cost of supplying steam for a SAGD in situ project using a CANDU 3 nuclear reactor was developed. The study indicates that for gas prices in excess of $2.50 per gigajoule, replacing natural gas fuel with a nuclear reactor is economically feasible for in situ projects in excess of 123 thousand barrels per day. (author). 9 refs., 3 tabs., 12 figs

  17. Alternative Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternative fuels include gaseous fuels such as hydrogen, natural gas, and propane; alcohols such as ethanol, methanol, and butanol; vegetable and waste-derived oils; and electricity. Overview of alternative fuels is here.

  18. The disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste: engineered barriers alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, L.H.; Tait, J.C.; Shoesmith, D.W.; Crosthwaite, J.L.; Gray, M.N.

    1994-01-01

    The concept for disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste involves emplacing the waste in a vault excavated at a depth of 500 to 1000 m in plutonic rock of the Canadian Shield. The solid waste would be isolated from the biosphere by a multibarrier system consisting of engineered barriers, including long-lived containers and clay and cement-based sealing materials, and the natural barrier provided by the massive geological formation. The technical feasibility of this concept and its impact on the environment and human health are being documented in an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), which will be submitted for review under the federal Environmental Assessment and Review Process. This report, one of nine EIS primary references, describes the various alternative designs and materials for engineered barriers that have been considered during the development of the Canadian disposal concept and summarizes engineered barrier concepts being evaluated in other countries. The basis for the selection of a reference engineered barrier system for the EIS is presented. This reference system involves placing used CANDU (Canada Deuterium Uranium) fuel bundles in titanium containers, which would then be emplaced in boreholes drilled in the floor of disposal rooms. Clay-based sealing materials would be used to fill both the space between the containers and the rock and the remaining excavations. In the section on waste forms, the properties of both used-fuel bundles and solidified high-level wastes, which would be produced by treating wastes resulting from the reprocessing of used fuel, are discussed. Methods of solidifying the wastes and the chemical durability of the solidified waste under disposal conditions are reviewed. Various alternative container designs are reviewed, ranging from preliminary conceptual designs to designs that have received extensive prototype testing. Results of structural performance, welding and inspection studies are also summarized. The corrosion of

  19. Health effects attributable to coal and nuclear fuel cycle alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gotchy, R.L.

    1977-09-01

    Estimates of mortality and morbidity are presented based on present-day knowledge of health effects resulting from current component designs and operations of the fuel cycles, and anticipated emission rates and occupational exposure for the various fuel cycle facilities expected to go into operation in approximately the 1975-1985 period. It was concluded that, although there are large uncertainties in the estimates of potential health effects, the coal fuel cycle alternative has a greater health impact on man than the uranium fuel cycle. However, the increased risk of health effects for either fuel cycle represents a very small incremental risk to the average individual in the public

  20. Implications of using alternate fuel cycles to meet Ontario's nuclear power demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, J.H.K.

    1978-08-01

    The use of alternate fuel cycles to meet an assumed nuclear capacity growth rate in Ontario is examined. Two criteria are used: the ability of the alternate fuel cycles to lessen the uranium demand; and the ease of commercialization. The nuclear strategies considered assume the use of the natural uranium cycle and, starting in the year 2000, the gradual introduction of an alternate fuel cycle. The alternate fuel cycles reviewed are enriched uranium, mixed oxides, and a variety of thorium cycles. The cumulative uranium requirement to the year 2070, and the growth and size of the reprocessing and fuel fabrication industries are discussed in detail. Sensitivity analyses on nuclear capacity growth rate, recycling loss and delay time are also described. (auth)

  1. The comparison of alternatives for nuclear spent fuel management using multi-attribute utility function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, J. W.; Kang, C. S.

    1999-01-01

    It is necessary to find a solution immediately to nuclear spent fuel management that is temporarily stored in on-site spent fuel storage before the saturation of the storage. However the choice of alternative for nuclear spent fuel management consists of complex process that are affected by economic, technical and social factors. And it is not easy to quantify these factors; public opinion, probability of diplomatic problem and contribution to development of nuclear technology. Therefore the analysis of the affecting factors and assessment of alternatives are required. This study performed the comparison of the alternatives for nuclear spent fuel management using MAU (Multi-Attribute Utility Function) and AHP(Analytic Hierarchy Process)

  2. Alternative nuclear fuel cycle arrangements for proliferation resistance: an overview of regulatory factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, J.N.

    1982-08-01

    President Carter proposed the International Fuel Cycle Evaluation to analyze various alternative fuel cycles which could minimize the risk of nuclear weapons proliferation. DOE also initiated the Non-Proliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. In response to GAO contentions that NRC was not sufficiently involved in these two assessments, a NRC study was initiated, with emphasis on legal and institutional factors. Objectives were to examine multinational fuel cycle facilities, potential effects on the US/IAEA agreement, development of an algorithm for ranking potential fuel cycles, and potential licensing of candidate fuel cycles. This anthology represents the products of this study which has been conducted between 1979 and 1981

  3. Alternative fuel cycle options: performance characteristics and impact on nuclear power growth potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Y.I.; Till, C.E.; Rudolph, R.R.; Deen, J.R.; King, M.J.

    1977-09-01

    The fuel utilization characteristics for LWR, SSCR, CANDU and LMFBR reactor concepts are quantified for various fuel cycle options, including once-through cycles, thorium cycles, and denatured cycles. The implications of various alternative reactor deployment strategies on the long-term nuclear power growth potential are then quantified in terms of the maximum nuclear capacity that can be achieved and the growth pattern over time, subject to the constraint of a fixed uranium-resource base. The overall objective of this study is to shed light on any large differences in the long-term potential that exist between various alternative reactor/fuel cycle deployment strategies

  4. Hanford Spent Nuclear Fuel Project: Recommended path forward. Volume 2: Alternatives and path forward evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fulton, J.C.

    1994-10-01

    The Hanford Spent Nuclear Fuel Project has completed an evaluation of four alternatives for expediting the removal of spent nuclear fuel from the K Basins and stabilizing and placing the fuel into interim storage. Four alternatives were compared: (1) Containerizing fuel in the K Basins, transporting fuel to a facility for stabilization, and interim storage of stabilized fuel in a dry storage facility (DSF); (2) Containerizing fuel in the K Basins, transporting fuel to a wet temporary staging facility, moving fuel to a facility for stabilization, and transporting stabilized fuel to an interim DSF; (3) Containerizing fuel in the K Basins in multi-canister overpacks, transporting fuel directly to a stabilization facility for passivation in the overpack, and interim storage of stabilized fuel in a DSF; (4) Packaging fuel for transport overseas and shipping fuel to a foreign reprocessing facility for reprocessing with eventual return of U, Pu and vitrified high level waste. The comparative evaluation consisted of a multi-attribute utility decision analysis, a public, worker and environmental health risk assessment, and a programmatic risk evaluation. The evaluation concluded that the best Path Forward combines the following concepts: Removal of K Basin fuel and sludge is uncoupled from the operation of a stabilization facility; A storage capability is provided to act as a lag storage or staging operation for overpack fuel containers as they are removed from the K Basins; Metal fuel drying and passivation should be maintained as the fuel stabilization process with the option of further refinements as more information becomes available; and The near term NEPA strategy should focus on expeditious removal of fuel and sludge from K Basins and placing overpacked fuel in temporary storage

  5. Review of nuclear fuel cycle alternatives including certain features pertaining to weapon proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.C.; Rosenstroch, B.

    1978-01-01

    Largely as a result of concerns over nuclear weapon proliferation, the U.S. program to develop and commercialize the plutonium-fueled breeder reactor has been slowed down; interest in alternative fuel cycles has increased. The report offers an informal review of the various nuclear fuel cycle options including some aspects relevant to weapon proliferation, although no complete review of the latter subject is attempted. Basic principles governing breeding, reactor safety, and efficient utilization of fission energy resources (thorium and uranium) are discussed. The controversial problems of weapon proliferation and its relation to fuel reprocessing (which is essential for efficient fuel cycles) are reviewed and a number of proposed approaches to reducing proliferation risks are noted. Some representative specific reactor concepts are described, with emphasis on their development status, their potentials for resource utilization, and their implications for proliferation

  6. Nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gangwani, Saloni; Chakrabortty, Sumita

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear fuel is a material that can be consumed to derive nuclear energy, by analogy to chemical fuel that is burned for energy. Nuclear fuels are the most dense sources of energy available. Nuclear fuel in a nuclear fuel cycle can refer to the fuel itself, or to physical objects (for example bundles composed of fuel rods) composed of the fuel material, mixed with structural, neutron moderating, or neutron reflecting materials. Long-lived radioactive waste from the back end of the fuel cycle is especially relevant when designing a complete waste management plan for SNF. When looking at long-term radioactive decay, the actinides in the SNF have a significant influence due to their characteristically long half-lives. Depending on what a nuclear reactor is fueled with, the actinide composition in the SNF will be different. The following paper will also include the uses. advancements, advantages, disadvantages, various processes and behavior of nuclear fuels

  7. Review of technologies and alternatives for dispositioning DOE/INEL spent nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bendixsen, C.L.; Olson, A.L.; Christian, J.D.; Thomas, T.R.

    1994-01-01

    Following the decision to cease processing of spent nuclear fuels (SNF) for purposes of uranium recovery, the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory is evaluating alternatives for management of the 90+ types of SNF now stored thereon. Two major classes of alternatives include direct disposal of SNF with little or minimal repackaging and chemical processing to reduce high-activity waste volumes and to reduce the number and type of waste forms requiring regulatory approval. The disposal alternatives are described and the primary advantages and disadvantages identified

  8. Model development for quantitative evaluation of nuclear fuel cycle alternatives and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Won Il

    2000-02-01

    This study addresses the quantitative evaluation of the proliferation resistance and the economics which are important factors of the alternative nuclear fuel cycle system. In this study, model was developed to quantitatively evaluate the proliferation resistance of the nuclear fuel cycles, and a fuel cycle cost analysis model was suggested to incorporate various uncertainties in the fuel cycle cost calculation. The proposed models were then applied to Korean environment as a sample study to provide better references for the determination of future nuclear fuel cycle system in Korea. In order to quantify the proliferation resistance of the nuclear fuel cycle, the proliferation resistance index was defined in imitation of an electrical circuit with an electromotive force and various electrical resistance components. In this model, the proliferation resistance was described an a relative size of the barrier that must be overcome in order to acquire nuclear weapons. Therefore, a larger barriers means that the risk of failure is great, expenditure of resources is large and the time scales for implementation is long. The electromotive force was expressed as the political motivation of the potential proliferators, such as an unauthorized party or a national group to acquire nuclear weapons. The electrical current was then defined as a proliferation resistance index. There are two electrical circuit models used in the evaluation of the proliferation resistance: the series and the parallel circuits. In the series circuit model of the proliferation resistance, a potential proliferator has to overcome all resistance barriers to achieve the manufacturing of the nuclear weapons. This phenomenon could be explained by the fact that the IAEA(International Atomic Energy Agency)'s safeguards philosophy relies on the defense-in-depth principle against nuclear proliferation at a specific facility. The parallel circuit model was also used to imitate the risk of proliferation for

  9. Alternative fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penn, W.J.

    1979-05-01

    Uranium resource utilization and economic considerations provide incentives to study alternative fuel cycles as future options to the PHWR natural uranium cycle. Preliminary studies to define the most favourable alternatives and their possible introduction dates are discussed. The important and uncertain components which influence option selection are reviewed, including nuclear capacity growth, uranium availability and demand, economic potential, and required technological developments. Finally, a summary of Ontario Hydro's program to further assess cycle selection and define development needs is given. (auth)

  10. Report on the Savannah River Site aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel alternatives cost study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-12-01

    Initial estimates of costs for the interim management and disposal of aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel (SNF) were developed during preparation of the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) on the Nuclear Weapons Nonproliferation Policy Concerning Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel. The Task Team evaluated multiple alternatives, assessing programmatic, technical, and schedule risks, and generated life-cycle cost projections for each alternative. The eight technology alternatives evaluated were: direct co-disposal; melt and dilute; reprocessing; press and dilute; glass material oxidation dissolution system (GMODS); electrometallurgical treatment; dissolve and vitrify; and plasma arc. In followup to the Business Plan that was developed to look at SNF dry storage, WSRC prepared an addendum to the cost study. This addendum estimated the costs for the modification and use of an existing (105L) reactor facility versus a greenfield approach for new facilities (for the Direct Co-Disposal and Melt and Dilute alternatives). WSRC assessed the impacts of a delay in reprocessing due to the potential reservation of H-Canyon for other missions (i.e., down blending HEU for commercial use or the conversion of plutonium to either MOX fuel or an immobilized repository disposal form). This report presents the relevant results from these WSRC cost studies, consistent with the most recent project policy, technology implementation, canyon utilization, and inventory assumptions. As this is a summary report, detailed information on the technical alternatives or the cost assumptions raised in each of the above-mentioned cost studies is not provided. A comparison table that briefly describes the bases used for the WSRC analyses is included as Appendix A

  11. Nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D Hondt, P.

    1998-01-01

    The research and development programme on nuclear fuel at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK/CEN is described. The objective of this programme is to enhance the quantitative prediction of the operational limits of nuclear fuel and to assess the behaviour of fuel under incidental and accidental conditions. Progress is described in different domains including the modelling of fission gas release in LWR fuel, thermal conductivity, basic physical phenomena, post-irradiation examination for fuel performance assessment, and conceptual studies of incidental and accidental fuel experiments

  12. How alternative are alternative fuels?

    OpenAIRE

    Soffritti, Tiziana; Danielis, Romeo

    1998-01-01

    Could alternative fuel vehicles contribute to a substantial reduction of air pollution? Is there a market for alternative fuel vehicles? Could a market be created via a pollution tax? The article answers these questions on the basis of the available estimates.

  13. Searching for Methods on Evaluation Alternatives and Studying Decision Making System Regarding Enhancing Publicity of Nuclear Spent Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Seongkyung; Choi, Seungho; Kim, Hyerim; Song, Jiyeon; Lee, Yoonsup; Sohn, Seohyun

    2013-01-01

    This study was done in order to anticipate the aspect of publicity enhancement on nuclear spent fuel so that it can find the evaluation methods of alternative ways of management which could applied actually and make the decision making system of Publicity Enhancement Committee in advance. In Korea, the nuclear spent fuel is temporarily stored inside of the nuclear facility field, and it is expected that Gori nuclear facility is going to be saturated since 2016 but the solutions are still incomplete. The problem of management of nuclear spent fuel is an important issue in terms of not only the nuclear power policy but also of safe management of the already made nuclear spent fuel. This study has its meaning to draw the evaluation criteria of the management alternatives on nuclear spent fuel which can be applied in Korean case, and to find the necessity of verifying the evaluation of management alternatives through Publicity Enhancement because of different stands according to the interests. As a result, rather than technological engineering safety evaluation, qualitative analysis in terms of social costs, quantitative evaluation in terms of economic costs, this study advises the methods of public hearings and citizen juries which are effective, which makes it meaningful

  14. Nuclear fuel lease accounting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danielson, A.H.

    1986-01-01

    The subject of nuclear fuel lease accounting is a controversial one that has received much attention over the years. This has occurred during a period when increasing numbers of utilities, seeking alternatives to traditional financing methods, have turned to leasing their nuclear fuel inventories. The purpose of this paper is to examine the current accounting treatment of nuclear fuel leases as prescribed by the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's (FERC's) Uniform System of Accounts. Cost accounting for leased nuclear fuel during the fuel cycle is also discussed

  15. Environmental consequences to water resources from alternatives of managing spent nuclear fuel at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whelan, G.; McDonald, J.P.; Sato, C.

    1994-11-01

    With an environmental restoration and waste management program, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is involved in developing policies pertinent to the transport, storage, and management of spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The DOE Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for Programmatic SNF management is documented in a Volume 1 report, which contains an assessment of the Hanford installation, among others. Because the Hanford installation contains approximately 80% of the SNF associated with the DOE complex, it has been included in the decision for the ultimate disposition of the fuel. The Pacific Northwest Laboratory performed a series of assessments on five alternatives at Hanford for managing the SNF: No-Action, Decentralization, 1992/1993 Planning Basis, Regionalization, and Centralization. The environmental consequences associated with implementing these assessment alternatives potentially impact socioeconomic conditions; environmental quality of the air, groundwater, surface water, and surface soil; ecological, cultural, and geological resources; and land-use considerations. The purpose of this report is to support the Programmatic SNF-EIS by investigating the environmental impacts associated with water quality and related consequences, as they apply to the five assessment alternatives at the Hanford installation. The results of these scenarios are discussed and documented

  16. Nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The nuclear fuel is one of the key component of a nuclear reactor. Inside it, the fission reactions of heavy atoms, uranium and plutonium, take place. It is located in the core of the reactor, but also in the core of the whole nuclear system. Its design and properties influence the behaviour, the efficiency and the safety of the reactor. Even if it represents a weak share of the generated electricity cost, its proper use represents an important economic stake. Important improvements remain to be made to increase its residence time inside the reactor, to supply more energy, and to improve its robustness. Beyond the economical and safety considerations, strategical questions have to find an answer, like the use of plutonium, the management of resources and the management of nuclear wastes and real technological challenges have to be taken up. This monograph summarizes the existing knowledge about the nuclear fuel, its behaviour inside the reactor, its limits of use, and its R and D tracks. It illustrates also the researches in progress and presents some key results obtained recently. Content: 1 - Introduction; 2 - The fuel of water-cooled reactors: aspect, fabrication, behaviour of UO 2 and MOX fuels inside the reactor, behaviour in loss of tightness situation, microscopic morphology of fuel ceramics and evolution under irradiation - migration and localisation of fission products in UOX and MOX matrices, modeling of fuels behaviour - modeling of defects and fission products in the UO 2 ceramics by ab initio calculations, cladding and assembly materials, pellet-cladding interaction, advanced UO 2 and MOX ceramics, mechanical behaviour of the fuel assembly, fuel during a loss of coolant accident, fuel during a reactivity accident, fuel during a serious accident, fuel management inside reactor cores, fuel cycle materials balance, long-term behaviour of the spent fuel, fuel of boiling water reactors; 3 - the fuel of liquid metal fast reactors: fast neutrons radiation

  17. Nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, H [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1976-10-01

    It is expected that nuclear power generation will reach 49 million kW in 1985 and 129 million kW in 1995, and the nuclear fuel having to be supplied and processed will increase in proportion to these values. The technical problems concerning nuclear fuel are presented on the basis of the balance between the benefit for human beings and the burden on the human beings. Recently, especially the downstream of nuclear fuel attracts public attention. Enriched uranium as the raw material for light water reactor fuel is almost monopolized by the U.S., and the technical information has not been published for fear of the diversion to nuclear weapons. In this paper, the present situations of uranium enrichment, fuel fabrication, transportation, reprocessing and waste disposal and the future problems are described according to the path of nuclear fuel cycle. The demand and supply of enriched uranium in Japan will be balanced up to about 1988, but afterwards, the supply must rely upon the early establishment of the domestic technology by centrifugal separation method. No problem remains in the fabrication of light water reactor fuel, but for the fabrication of mixed oxide fuel, the mechanization of the production facility and labor saving are necessary. The solution of the capital risk for the construction of the second reprocessing plant is the main problem. Japan must develop waste disposal techniques with all-out efforts.

  18. Nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beauvy, M.; Berthoud, G.; Defranceschi, M.; Ducros, G.; Guerin, Y.; Limoge, Y.; Madic, Ch.; Santarini, G.; Seiler, J.M.; Sollogoub, P.; Vernaz, E.; Guillet, J.L.; Ballagny, A.; Bechade, J.L.; Bonin, B.; Brachet, J.Ch.; Delpech, M.; Dubois, S.; Ferry, C.; Freyss, M.; Gilbon, D.; Grouiller, J.P.; Iracane, D.; Lansiart, S.; Lemoine, P.; Lenain, R.; Marsault, Ph.; Michel, B.; Noirot, J.; Parrat, D.; Pelletier, M.; Perrais, Ch.; Phelip, M.; Pillon, S.; Poinssot, Ch.; Vallory, J.; Valot, C.; Pradel, Ph.; Bonin, B.; Bouquin, B.; Dozol, M.; Lecomte, M.; Vallee, A.; Bazile, F.; Parisot, J.F.; Finot, P.; Roberts, J.F.

    2009-01-01

    Fuel is one of the essential components in a reactor. It is within that fuel that nuclear reactions take place, i.e. fission of heavy atoms, uranium and plutonium. Fuel is at the core of the reactor, but equally at the core of the nuclear system as a whole. Fuel design and properties influence reactor behavior, performance, and safety. Even though it only accounts for a small part of the cost per kilowatt-hour of power provided by current nuclear power plants, good utilization of fuel is a major economic issue. Major advances have yet to be achieved, to ensure longer in-reactor dwell-time, thus enabling fuel to yield more energy; and improve ruggedness. Aside from economics, and safety, such strategic issues as use of plutonium, conservation of resources, and nuclear waste management have to be addressed, and true technological challenges arise. This Monograph surveys current knowledge regarding in-reactor behavior, operating limits, and avenues for R and D. It also provides illustrations of ongoing research work, setting out a few noteworthy results recently achieved. Content: 1 - Introduction; 2 - Water reactor fuel: What are the features of water reactor fuel? 9 (What is the purpose of a nuclear fuel?, Ceramic fuel, Fuel rods, PWR fuel assemblies, BWR fuel assemblies); Fabrication of water reactor fuels (Fabrication of UO 2 pellets, Fabrication of MOX (mixed uranium-plutonium oxide) pellets, Fabrication of claddings); In-reactor behavior of UO 2 and MOX fuels (Irradiation conditions during nominal operation, Heat generation, and removal, The processes involved at the start of irradiation, Fission gas behavior, Microstructural changes); Water reactor fuel behavior in loss of tightness conditions (Cladding, the first containment barrier, Causes of failure, Consequences of a failure); Microscopic morphology of fuel ceramic and its evolution under irradiation; Migration and localization of fission products in UOX and MOX matrices (The ceramic under irradiation

  19. Nuclear fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beauvy, M.; Berthoud, G.; Defranceschi, M.; Ducros, G.; Guerin, Y.; Limoge, Y.; Madic, Ch.; Santarini, G.; Seiler, J.M.; Sollogoub, P.; Vernaz, E.; Guillet, J.L.; Ballagny, A.; Bechade, J.L.; Bonin, B.; Brachet, J.Ch.; Delpech, M.; Dubois, S.; Ferry, C.; Freyss, M.; Gilbon, D.; Grouiller, J.P.; Iracane, D.; Lansiart, S.; Lemoine, P.; Lenain, R.; Marsault, Ph.; Michel, B.; Noirot, J.; Parrat, D.; Pelletier, M.; Perrais, Ch.; Phelip, M.; Pillon, S.; Poinssot, Ch.; Vallory, J.; Valot, C.; Pradel, Ph.; Bonin, B.; Bouquin, B.; Dozol, M.; Lecomte, M.; Vallee, A.; Bazile, F.; Parisot, J.F.; Finot, P.; Roberts, J.F

    2009-07-01

    Fuel is one of the essential components in a reactor. It is within that fuel that nuclear reactions take place, i.e. fission of heavy atoms, uranium and plutonium. Fuel is at the core of the reactor, but equally at the core of the nuclear system as a whole. Fuel design and properties influence reactor behavior, performance, and safety. Even though it only accounts for a small part of the cost per kilowatt-hour of power provided by current nuclear power plants, good utilization of fuel is a major economic issue. Major advances have yet to be achieved, to ensure longer in-reactor dwell-time, thus enabling fuel to yield more energy; and improve ruggedness. Aside from economics, and safety, such strategic issues as use of plutonium, conservation of resources, and nuclear waste management have to be addressed, and true technological challenges arise. This Monograph surveys current knowledge regarding in-reactor behavior, operating limits, and avenues for R and D. It also provides illustrations of ongoing research work, setting out a few noteworthy results recently achieved. Content: 1 - Introduction; 2 - Water reactor fuel: What are the features of water reactor fuel? 9 (What is the purpose of a nuclear fuel?, Ceramic fuel, Fuel rods, PWR fuel assemblies, BWR fuel assemblies); Fabrication of water reactor fuels (Fabrication of UO{sub 2} pellets, Fabrication of MOX (mixed uranium-plutonium oxide) pellets, Fabrication of claddings); In-reactor behavior of UO{sub 2} and MOX fuels (Irradiation conditions during nominal operation, Heat generation, and removal, The processes involved at the start of irradiation, Fission gas behavior, Microstructural changes); Water reactor fuel behavior in loss of tightness conditions (Cladding, the first containment barrier, Causes of failure, Consequences of a failure); Microscopic morphology of fuel ceramic and its evolution under irradiation; Migration and localization of fission products in UOX and MOX matrices (The ceramic under

  20. Nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azevedo, J.B.L. de.

    1980-01-01

    All stages of nuclear fuel cycle are analysed with respect to the present situation and future perspectives of supply and demand of services; the prices and the unitary cost estimation of these stages for the international fuel market are also mentioned. From the world resources and projections of uranium consumption, medium-and long term analyses are made of fuel availability for several strategies of use of different reactor types. Finally, the cost of nuclear fuel in the generation of electric energy is calculated to be used in the energetic planning of the electric sector. (M.A.) [pt

  1. Assessment of the impacts of spent fuel disassembly alternatives on the Nuclear Waste Isolation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-07-01

    The objective of this report was to evaluate four possible alternative methods of preparing and packaging spent fuel assemblies for geologic disposal against the Reference Process of unmodified spent fuel. The four alternative processes were: (1) End fitting removal, (2) Fission gas venting and resealing, (3) Fuel bundle disassembly and close packing of fuel pins, and (4) Fuel shearing and immobilization. Systems analysis was used to develop a basis of comparison of the alternatives. Conceptual processes and facility layouts were devised for each of the alternatives, based on technology deemed feasible for the purpose. Assessments were made of 15 principal attributes from the technical, operational, safety/risk, and economic considerations related to each of the alternatives, including both the surface packaging and underground repository operations. Specific attributes of the alternative processes were evaluated by assigning a number for each that expressed its merit relative to the corresponding attribute of the Reference Process. Each alternative process was then ranked by summing the numbers for attributes in each of the four assessment areas and collectively. Fuel bundle disassembly and close packing of fuel pins was ranked the preferred method of disposal of spent fuel. 63 references, 46 figures, 46 tables

  2. Relative risk measure suitable for comparison of design alternatives of interim spent nuclear fuel storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferjencik, M.

    1997-01-01

    Accessible reports on risk assessment of interim spent nuclear fuel storage facilities presume that only releases of radioactive substances represent undesired consequences. However, only certain part of the undesired consequences is represented by them. Many other events are connected with safety and are able to cause losses to the operating company. The following two presumptions are pronounced based on this. 1. Any event causing a disturbance of a safety function of the storage facility is an incident event. 2. Any disturbance of a safety function is an undesired consequence. If the facility safety functions are identified and if the severity of their disturbances is quantified, then it is possible to combine consequence severity quantifications and event frequencies into a risk measure. Construction and application of such a risk measure is described in this paper. The measure is shown to be a tool suitable for comparison of interim storage technology design alternatives. (author)

  3. Hanford spent nuclear fuel project recommended path forward, volume III: Alternatives and path forward evaluation supporting documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fulton, J.C.

    1994-10-01

    Volume I of the Hanford Spent Nuclear Fuel Project - Recommended Path Forward constitutes an aggressive series of projects to construct and operate systems and facilities to safely retrieve, package, transport, process, and store K Basins fuel and sludge. Volume II provided a comparative evaluation of four Alternatives for the Path Forward and an evaluation for the Recommended Path Forward. Although Volume II contained extensive appendices, six supporting documents have been compiled in Volume III to provide additional background for Volume II

  4. Implications of alternative fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    The United States is re-examining alternative fuel cycles and nuclear power strategies, and doubtful attempts are being made to justify the economics of the 'throw-away' fuel cycle. At an international forum on 'An acceptable nuclear energy future for the world' at Fort Lauderdale, Karl Cohen of General Electric and a leading authority on this topic put the implications into perspective. Extracts from his address are presented

  5. Methodology for evaluation of alternative technologies applied to nuclear fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selvaduray, G.S.; Goldstein, M.K.; Anderson, R.N.

    1977-07-01

    An analytic methodology has been developed to compare the performance of various nuclear fuel reprocessing techniques for advanced fuel cycle applications including low proliferation risk systems. The need to identify and to compare those processes, which have the versatility to handle the variety of fuel types expected to be in use in the next century, is becoming increasingly imperative. This methodology allows processes in any stage of development to be compared and to assess the effect of changing external conditions on the process

  6. Barnwell Nuclear Fuels Plant applicability study. Volume II. BNFP: utilization alternatives, evaluations, and conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-04-01

    Descriptions and status of the Barnwell separations facility and related fuel cycle facilities are given. Alternative uses other than reprocessing, evaluation of uses for reprocessing alternatives, resource utilization and its relationship to U.S. security objectives, and evaluation of ownership-management options are discussed

  7. Alternative Fuel Guidelines for Alternative Transportation Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-31

    The Volpe Center documented the increased use of alternative fuels on vehicles owned and operated by federal land management agencies. For each alternative fuel type, the Volpe Center documented the availability of vehicles, fueling mechanisms and pr...

  8. Serpent: an alternative for the nuclear fuel cells analysis of a BWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva A, L.; Del Valle G, E.; Gomez T, A. M.

    2013-10-01

    In the last ten years the diverse research groups in nuclear engineering of the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico and Instituto Politecnico Nacional (UNAM, IPN), as of research (Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, ININ) as well as the personnel of the Nuclear Plant Management of the Comision Federal de Electricidad have been using the codes Helios and /or CASMO-4 in the generation of cross sections (X S) of nuclear fuel cells of the cores corresponding to the Units 1 and 2 of the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde. Both codes belong to the Studsvik-Scandpower Company who receives the payment for the use and their respective maintenance. In recent years, the code Serpent appears among the nuclear community distributed by the OECD/Nea which does not has cost neither in its use neither in its maintenance. The code is based on the Monte Carlo method and makes use of the processing in parallel. In the Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas of the IPN, the personnel has accumulated certain experience in the use of Serpent under the direction of personal of the ININ; of this experience have been obtained for diverse fuel burned, the infinite multiplication factor for three cells of nuclear fuel, without control bar and with control bar for a known thermodynamic state fixed by: a) the fuel temperature (T f ), b) the moderator temperature (T m ) and c) the vacuums fraction (α). Although was not realized any comparison with the X S that the codes Helios and CASMO-4 generate, the results obtained for the infinite multiplication factor show the prospective tendencies with regard to the fuel burned so much in the case in that is not present the control bar like when it is. The results are encouraging and motivate to the study group to continue with the X S generation of a core in order to build the respective library of nuclear data as a following step and this can be used for the codes PARCS, of USA NRC, DYN3D of HZDR, or others developed locally in the

  9. The nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, P.M.S.

    1987-01-01

    This chapter explains the distinction between fissile and fertile materials, examines briefly the processes involved in fuel manufacture and management, describes the alternative nuclear fuel cycles and considers their advantages and disadvantages. Fuel management is usually divided into three stages; the front end stage of production and fabrication, the back end stage which deals with the fuel after it is removed from the reactor (including reprocessing and waste treatment) and the stage in between when the fuel is actually in the reactor. These stages are illustrated and explained in detail. The plutonium fuel cycle and thorium-uranium-233 fuel cycle are explained. The differences between fuels for thermal reactors and fast reactors are explained. (U.K.)

  10. Alternative dispositioning methods for HEU spent nuclear fuel at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krupa, J.F.; McKibben, J.M.; Parks, P.B.; DuPont, M.E.

    1995-01-01

    The United States has a strong policy on prevention of the international spread of nuclear weapons. This policy was announced in Presidential Directive PDD-13 and summarized in a White House press release September 27, 1993. Two cornerstones of this policy are: seek to eliminate where possible the accumulation of stockpiles of highly- enriched uranium or plutonium; propose hor-ellipsis prohibiting the production of highly-enriched uranium (HEU) or plutonium for nuclear explosives purposes or outside international safeguards. The Department of Energy is currently struggling to devise techniques that safely and efficiently dispose of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) while satisfying national non-proliferation policies. SRS plans and proposals for disposing of their SNF are safe and cost effective, and fully satisfy non-proliferation objectives

  11. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center : Biodiesel to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel on

  12. Fuel and nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prunier, C.

    1998-01-01

    The nuclear fuel is studied in detail, the best choice and why in relation with the type of reactor, the properties of the fuel cans, the choice of fuel materials. An important part is granted to the fuel assembly of PWR type reactor and the performances of nuclear fuels are tackled. The different subjects for research and development are discussed and this article ends with the particular situation of mixed oxide fuels ( materials, behavior, efficiency). (N.C.)

  13. A comparative physics study of alternative long-term strategies for closure of the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cometto, M.; Wydler, P.; Chawla, R.

    2004-01-01

    The appropriate management of radioactive waste arising from the nuclear fuel cycle is considered to be a key issue in the development of future, more sustainable nuclear energy systems. In this context, the partitioning and transmutation of actinides could play an important role through the achievement of very significant reductions in the actinide content and radiotoxicity of the high-level waste requiring geological disposal. The current paper reports on the results of a detailed physics study carried out to compare the pros and cons of alternative strategies for closure of the nuclear fuel cycle. Different long-term 'steady-state' scenarios have been considered, involving the deployment, to varying degrees, of light water reactors (LWRs) and advanced fast-spectrum systems. The same nuclear data and calculation methods have been used throughout, so that a consistent and reliable comparison of the relative performance of the three basic fuel cycle options (once-through, plutonium recycle, and recycling of all actinides) has been made possible. In addition, with transmutation having been considered employing both critical and accelerator-driven fast-spectrum systems, the study has provided an evaluation of the advantages and disadvantages of these two different advanced system types

  14. Preliminary assessment of alternative dry storage methods for the storage of commercial spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-11-01

    This report presents the results of an assessment of the (1) state of technology, (2) licensability, (3) implementation schedule, and (4) costs of alternative dry methods for storage of spent fuel at a reactor location when used to supplement reactor pool storage facilities. The methods of storage that were considered included storage in casks, drywells, concrete silos and air-cooled vaults. The impact of disassembly of spent fuel and storage of consolidated fuel rods was also determined. The economic assessments were made based on the current projected storage requirements of Virginia Electric and Power Company's Surry Station for the period 1985 to 2009, which has two operating pressurized water reactors (824 MWe each). It was estimated that the unit cost for storage of spent fuel in casks would amount to $117/kgU and that such costs for storage in drywells would amount to $137/kgU. However, based on the overall assessment it was concluded both storage methods were equal in merit. Modular methods of storage were generally found to be more economic than those requiring all or most of the facilities to be constructed prior to commencement of storage operations

  15. Multi-purpose canisters as an alternative for storage, transportation, and disposal of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollaway, W.R.; Rozier, R.; Nitti, D.A.; Williams, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    A study was conducted to assess the feasibility of using multi-purpose canisters to handle spent nuclear fuel throughout the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System. Multi-purpose canisters would be sealed, metallic containers maintaining multiple spent fuel assemblies in a dry, inert environment and overpacked separately and uniquely for the various system elements of storage, transportation, and disposal. Using five implementation scenarios, the multi-purpose canister was evaluated with regard to several measures of effectiveness, including number of handlings, radiation exposure, cost, schedule and licensing considerations, and public perception. Advantages and disadvantages of the multi-purpose canister were identified relative to the current reference system within each scenario, and the scenarios were compared to determine the most effective method of implementation

  16. Alternatives to nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terrado, E.N.

    1981-01-01

    This article discusses several possibilities as alternatives to nuclear energy and their relevance to the Philippine case. The major present and future fuel alternatives to petroleum and nuclear energy are coal, geothermal heat, solar energy and hydrogen, the first two of which are being used. Different conversion technologies are also discussed for large scale electricity production namely solar thermal electric conversion (STC), photovoltaic electric power system (PEPS) and ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC). Major environmental considerations affect the choice of energy sources and technologies. We have the problem of long term accumulation of radioactive waste in the case of nuclear energy; in geothermal and fossil-fuels carbon dioxide uranium and accumulation may cause disastrous consequences. With regard to Philippine option, the greatest considerations in selecting alternative energy options would be resources availability - both energy and financial and technology status. For the country's energy plan, coal and geothermal energy are expected to play a significant role. The country's coal resources are 1.4 billion metric tons. For geothermal energy, 25 volcanic centers were identified and has a potential equivalent to 2.5 x 10 6 million barrels of oil. Solar energy if harnessed, being in the sunbelt, averaging some 2000 hours a year could be an energy source. The present dilemma of the policy maker is whether national resources are better spent on large scale urban-based energy projects or whether those should be focused on small scale, rural oriented installations which produced benefits to the more numerous and poorer members of the population. (RTD)

  17. Alternate fusion fuels workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-06-01

    The workshop was organized to focus on a specific confinement scheme: the tokamak. The workshop was divided into two parts: systems and physics. The topics discussed in the systems session were narrowly focused on systems and engineering considerations in the tokamak geometry. The workshop participants reviewed the status of system studies, trade-offs between d-t and d-d based reactors and engineering problems associated with the design of a high-temperature, high-field reactor utilizing advanced fuels. In the physics session issues were discussed dealing with high-beta stability, synchrotron losses and transport in alternate fuel systems. The agenda for the workshop is attached

  18. Nuclear fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domoto, Noboru; Masuda, Hiroyuki

    1989-01-01

    In a nuclear fuel assembly loaded with a plurality of fuel rods, the inside of a fuel rod disposed at a high neutron flux region is divided into an inner region and an outer region, and more burnable poisons are mixed in the inner region than in the outer region. Alternatively, the central portion of a pellet disposed in a high neutron flux region is made hollow, in which burnable poisons are charged. This can prevent neutron infinite multiplication factor from decreasing extremely at the initial burning stage. Further, the burnable poisons are not rapidly burnt completely and local peaking coefficient can be controlled. Accordingly, in a case of suppressing a predetermined excess reactivity by using a fuel rod incorporated with the burnable poison, the fuel economy can be improved more and the reactor core controllability can also be improved as compared with the usual case. (T.M.)

  19. Nuclear energy: a sensible alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, K.O.; Spinrad, B.I.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents information on energy futures; energy demand, energy supplies; exclusive paths and difficult choices--hard, soft, and moderate energy paths; an energy-deficient society; energy shortages; economics of light-water reactors; fast breeder reactor economics; international cooperation in the nuclear field; nuclear recycling; alternative fuels, fuel cycles, and reactors; the nuclear weapons proliferation issue; paths to a world with more reliable nuclear safeguards; the homemade bomb issue; LWR risk assessment; accident analysis and risk assessment; the waste disposal risk; radon problems; risks in our society; health effects of low-level radiation; routine releases of radioactivity from the nuclear industry; low-level radioactivity and infant mortality; the myth of plutonium toxicity; myths about high-level radioactive waste; the aging reactor myth; the police state myth; insurance and nuclear power--the Price-Anderson Act; and solar and nuclear power as partners

  20. Nuclear fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bevilacqua, F.

    1981-01-01

    A nuclear fuel storage apparatus for use in a water-filled pool is fabricated of a material such as stainless steel in the form of an egg crate structure having vertically extending openings. Fuel may be stored in this basic structure in a checkerboard pattern with high enrichment fuel, or in all openings when the fuel is of low effective enrichment. Inserts of a material such as stainless steel are adapted to fit within these openings so that a water gap and, therefore, a flux trap is formed between adjacent fuel storage locations. These inserts may be added at a later time and fuel of a higher enrichment may be stored in each opening. When it is desired to store fuel of still greater enrichment, poison plates may be added to the water gap formed by the installed insert plates, or substituted for the insert plates. Alternately, or in addition, fuel may be installed in high neutron absorption poison boxes which surround the fuel assembly. The stainless steel inserts and the poison plates are each not required until the capacity of the basic egg crate structure is approached. Purchase of these items can, therefore, be deferred for many years. Should the fuel to be stored be of higher enrichment than initially forecast, the deferred decision on the poison plates makes it possible to obtain increased poison in the plates to satisfy the newly discovered requirement

  1. Evaluation, testing and application of participatory approaches in the Czech Republic Consensus panel - Spent nuclear fuel management alternatives. Deliverable 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vojtechova, Hana

    2009-06-01

    An important part of the ARGONA project is the testing and application of novel participation and dialogue approaches. The ways in this is being done include a series of events involving different stakeholders such as a focused science shop, a consensus panel and an interaction panel. In the framework of these activities in the Czech Republic the consensus panel was held on June 12, 2008 in Rez and addressed the theme: 'Spent nuclear fuel management alternatives'. The main goals of this consensus panel were: 1. Identification of the main criteria relevant to the assessment of the existing alternatives and determination their importance (weight) from the perspective of all stakeholders; 2. Achieving at least a partial consensus on selecting the most suitable alternative (management of radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel). A broader audience was selected with a suitable mixture of specialists and interested technical and non-technical peers including representatives from NRI, universities, Ministry of Industry and Trade, Ministry of the Environment, State Office for Nuclear Safety and Radioactive Waste Repository Authority, representatives of municipalities and NGOs, and waste producers such as CEZ plc etc. In opinion of all participants, there was a 'safe space' for debate ensured and everyone had the same opportunity to express his opinion. All participants also agreed that the whole course of seminar was transparent and correct. From this perspective, the chosen format of dialogue seems appropriate to ensure the exchange of new information and mutual discussion among the interested parties on the contentious issues in the NWM and nuclear energy in general. It was also found, however, that at present the social and political problems are the most important and the most urgent problems in the field of the nuclear waste management in the Czech Republic. It is very important not only to ensure a safe space for meaningful communication, but also: - To increase the

  2. Commercial aviation alternative fuels initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-22

    This presentation looks at alternative fuels to enhance environmental stability, reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, air quality benefits (e.g., SOx and PM), fuel supply stability, and fuel price stability.

  3. Nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinauk, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    Since 1985, Fragema has been marketing and selling the Advanced Fuel Assemby AFA whose main features are its zircaloy grids and removable top and bottom nozzles. It is this product, which exists for several different fuel assembly arrays and heights, that will be employed in the reactors at Daya Bay. Fragema employs gadolinium as the consumable poison to enable highperformance fuel management. More recently, the company has supplied fuel assemblies of the mixed-oxide(MOX) and enriched reprocessed uranium type. The reliability level of the fuel sold by Fragema is one of the highest in the world, thanks in particular to the excellence of the quality assurance and quality control programs that have been implemented at all stages of its design and manufacture

  4. ALTERNATIVE FUELS FOR DIESEL ENGINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Caban

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development and genesis of the use of alternative fuels in internal combustion ignition engines. Based on the analysis of the literature, this article shows various alternative fuels used in Poland and all over the world. Furthermore, this article describes the research directions for alternative fuels use in road transport powered by diesel engines.

  5. Alternate fuels; Combustibles alternos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero Paredes R, Hernando; Ambriz G, Juan Jose [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana. Iztapalapa (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    In the definition and description of alternate fuels we must center ourselves in those technological alternatives that allow to obtain compounds that differ from the traditional ones, in their forms to be obtained. In this article it is tried to give an overview of alternate fuels to the conventional derivatives of petroleum and that allow to have a clear idea on the tendencies of modern investigation and the technological developments that can be implemented in the short term. It is not pretended to include all the tendencies and developments of the present world, but those that can hit in a relatively short term, in accordance with agreed with the average life of conventional fuels. Nevertheless, most of the conversion principles are applicable to the spectrum of carbonaceous or cellulosic materials which are in nature, are cultivated or wastes of organic origin. Thus one will approach them in a successive way, the physical, chemical and biological conversions that can take place in a production process of an alternate fuel or the same direct use of the fuel such as burning the sweepings derived from the forests. [Spanish] En la definicion y descripcion de combustibles alternos nos debemos centrar en aquellas alternativas tecnologicas que permitan obtener compuestos que difieren de los tradicionales, al menos en sus formas de ser obtenidos. En este articulo se pretende dar un panorama de los combustibles alternos a los convencionales derivados del petroleo y que permita tener una idea clara sobre las tendencias de la investigacion moderna y los desarrollos tecnologicos que puedan ser implementados en el corto plazo. No se pretende abarcar todas las tendencias y desarrollos del mundo actual, sino aquellas que pueden impactar en un plazo relativamente corto, acordes con la vida media de los combustibles convencionales. Sin embargo, la mayor parte de los principios de conversion son aplicables al espectro de materiales carbonaceos o celulosicos los cuales se

  6. Nuclear reactor fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hindle, E. D.

    1984-01-01

    An array of rods is assembled to form a fuel element for a pressurized water reactor, the rods comprising zirconium alloy sheathed nuclear fuel pellets and containing helium. The helium gas pressure is selected for each rod so that it differs substantially from the helium gas pressure in its closest neighbors. In a preferred arrangement the rods are arranged in a square lattice and the helium gas pressure alternates between a relatively high value and a relatively low value so that each rod has as its closest neighbors up to four rods containing helium gas at the other pressure value

  7. Nuclear reactor fuel elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hindle, E. D.

    1984-10-16

    An array of rods is assembled to form a fuel element for a pressurized water reactor, the rods comprising zirconium alloy sheathed nuclear fuel pellets and containing helium. The helium gas pressure is selected for each rod so that it differs substantially from the helium gas pressure in its closest neighbors. In a preferred arrangement the rods are arranged in a square lattice and the helium gas pressure alternates between a relatively high value and a relatively low value so that each rod has as its closest neighbors up to four rods containing helium gas at the other pressure value.

  8. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power: report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume IX. Reactor and fuel cycle descriptions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    The Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program (NASAP) has characterized and assessed various reactor/fuel-cycle systems. Volume IX provides, in summary form, the technical descriptions of the reactor/fuel-cycle systems studied. This includes the status of the system technology, as well as a discussion of the safety, environmental, and licensing needs from a technical perspective. This information was then used in developing the research, development, and demonstration (RD and D) program, including its cost and time frame, to advance the existing technology to the level needed for commercial use. Wherever possible, the cost data are given as ranges to reflect the uncertainties in the estimates. Volume IX is divided into three sections: Chapter 1, Reactor Systems; Chapter 2, Fuel-Cycle Systems; and the Appendixes. Chapter 1 contains the characterizations of the following 12 reactor types: light-water reactor; heavy-water reactor; water-cooled breeder reactor; high-temperature gas-cooled reactor; gas-cooled fast reactor; liquid-metal fast breeder reactor; spectral-shift-controlled reactor; accelerator-driven reactor; molten-salt reactor; gaseous-core reactor; tokamak fusion-fisson hybrid reactor; and fast mixed-spectrum reactor. Chapter 2 contains similar information developed for fuel-cycle facilities in the following categories: mining and milling; conversion and enrichment; fuel fabrication; spent fuel reprocessing; waste handling and disposal; and transportation of nuclear materials.

  9. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power: report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume IX. Reactor and fuel cycle descriptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-12-01

    The Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program (NASAP) has characterized and assessed various reactor/fuel-cycle systems. Volume IX provides, in summary form, the technical descriptions of the reactor/fuel-cycle systems studied. This includes the status of the system technology, as well as a discussion of the safety, environmental, and licensing needs from a technical perspective. This information was then used in developing the research, development, and demonstration (RD and D) program, including its cost and time frame, to advance the existing technology to the level needed for commercial use. Wherever possible, the cost data are given as ranges to reflect the uncertainties in the estimates. Volume IX is divided into three sections: Chapter 1, Reactor Systems; Chapter 2, Fuel-Cycle Systems; and the Appendixes. Chapter 1 contains the characterizations of the following 12 reactor types: light-water reactor; heavy-water reactor; water-cooled breeder reactor; high-temperature gas-cooled reactor; gas-cooled fast reactor; liquid-metal fast breeder reactor; spectral-shift-controlled reactor; accelerator-driven reactor; molten-salt reactor; gaseous-core reactor; tokamak fusion-fisson hybrid reactor; and fast mixed-spectrum reactor. Chapter 2 contains similar information developed for fuel-cycle facilities in the following categories: mining and milling; conversion and enrichment; fuel fabrication; spent fuel reprocessing; waste handling and disposal; and transportation of nuclear materials

  10. Spent-fuel-storage alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The Spent Fuel Storage Alternatives meeting was a technical forum in which 37 experts from 12 states discussed storage alternatives that are available or are under development. The subject matter was divided into the following five areas: techniques for increasing fuel storage density; dry storage of spent fuel; fuel characterization and conditioning; fuel storage operating experience; and storage and transport economics. Nineteen of the 21 papers which were presented at this meeting are included in this Proceedings. These have been abstracted and indexed

  11. Alternative Fuels in Cement Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Morten Boberg

    The substitution of alternative for fossil fuels in cement production has increased significantly in the last decade. Of these new alternative fuels, solid state fuels presently account for the largest part, and in particular, meat and bone meal, plastics and tyre derived fuels (TDF) accounted...... for the most significant alternative fuel energy contributors in the German cement industry. Solid alternative fuels are typically high in volatile content and they may differ significantly in physical and chemical properties compared to traditional solid fossil fuels. From the process point of view......, considering a modern kiln system for cement production, the use of alternative fuels mainly influences 1) kiln process stability (may accelerate build up of blockages preventing gas and/or solids flow), 2) cement clinker quality, 3) emissions, and 4) decreased production capacity. Kiln process stability...

  12. Prospects for alternative Fusion Fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glancy, J.

    1986-01-01

    The author has worked on three different magnetic confinement concepts for alternate fusion fueled reactors: tokamaks; tanden mirrors, and reversed field pinches. The focus of this article is on prospects for alternate fusion fuels as the author sees them relative to the other choices: increased numbers of coal plants, fission reactors, renewables, and D-T fusion. Discussion is limited on the consideration of alternate fusion fuels to the catalyzed deuterium-deuterium fuel cycle. Reasons for seeking an alternate energy source are cost, a more secure fuel supply, environmental impact and safety. The technical risks associated with development of fusion are examined briefly

  13. Nuclear fuel pellet charging device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komuro, Kojiro.

    1990-01-01

    The present invention concerns a nuclear fuel pellet loading device, in which nuclear fuel pellets are successively charged from an open end of a fuel can while rotating the can. That is, a fuel can sealed at one end with an end plug and opened at the other end is rotated around its pipe axis as the center on a rotationally diriving table. During rotation of the fuel can, nuclear fuel pellets are successively charged by means of a feed rod of a feeding device to the inside of the fuel can. The fuel can is rotated while being supported horizontally and the fuel pellets are charged from the open end thereof. Alternatively, the fuel can is rotated while being supported obliquely and the fuel pellets are charged gravitationally into the fuel can. In this way, the damages to the barrier of the fuel can can be reduce. Further, since the fuel pellets can be charged gravitationally by rotating the fuel can while being supported obliquely, the damages to the barrier can be reduced remarkably. (I.S.)

  14. Nuclear fuel preheating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrea, C.

    1975-01-01

    A nuclear reactor new fuel handling system which conveys new fuel from a fuel preparation room into the reactor containment boundary is described. The handling system is provided with a fuel preheating station which is adaptd to heat the new fuel to reactor refueling temperatures in such a way that the fuel is heated from the top down so that fuel element cladding failure due to thermal expansions is avoided. (U.S.)

  15. Romanian nuclear fuel program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budan, O.

    1999-01-01

    The paper presents and comments the policy adopted in Romania for the production of CANDU-6 nuclear fuel before and after 1990. The CANDU-6 nuclear fuel manufacturing started in Romania in December 1983. Neither AECL nor any Canadian nuclear fuel manufacturer were involved in the Romanian industrial nuclear fuel production before 1990. After January 1990, the new created Romanian Electricity Authority (RENEL) assumed the responsibility for the Romanian Nuclear Power Program. It was RENEL's decision to stop, in June 1990, the nuclear fuel production at the Institute for Nuclear Power Reactors (IRNE) Pitesti. This decision was justified by the Canadian specialists team findings, revealed during a general, but well enough technically founded analysis performed at IRNE in the spring of 1990. All fuel manufactured before June 1990 was quarantined as it was considered of suspect quality. By that time more than 31,000 fuel bundles had already been manufactured. This fuel was stored for subsequent assessment. The paper explains the reasons which provoked this decision. The paper also presents the strategy adopted by RENEL after 1990 regarding the Romanian Nuclear Fuel Program. After a complex program done by Romanian and Canadian partners, in November 1994, AECL issued a temporary certification for the Romanian nuclear fuel plant. During the demonstration manufacturing run, as an essential milestone for the qualification of the Romanian fuel supplier for CANDU-6 reactors, 202 fuel bundles were produced. Of these fuel bundles, 66 were part of the Cernavoda NGS Unit 1 first fuel load (the balance was supplied by Zircatec Precision Industries Inc. ZPI). The industrial nuclear fuel fabrication re-started in Romania in January 1995 under AECL's periodical monitoring. In December 1995, AECL issued a permanent certificate, stating the Romanian nuclear fuel plant as a qualified and authorised CANDU-6 fuel supplier. The re-loading of the Cernavoda NGS Unit 1 started in the middle

  16. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Publications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windstars; 14) and the use of alternative fuel vehicles at the Olympics. Alternative Fuels In Trucking, Vol and their economic and environmental benefits. This report is designed to share the experiences and National Academy of Engineering suggested that 'DOE might have its greatest impact by leading the private

  17. Final report, Task 2: alternative waste management options, Nuclear Fuel Services, Inc., high level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    Of the alternatives considered for disposal of the high-level waste in tanks 8D2 and 8D4, the following process is recommended: homogenization of the contents of tank 8D2, centrifugation of the sludge and supernate, mixing of the 8D4 acid waste with the centrifuged sludge, and converting the mixture to a borosilicate glass using the Hanford spray calciner/in-can melter

  18. The Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-08-01

    This brochure describes the nuclear fuel cycle, which is an industrial process involving various activities to produce electricity from uranium in nuclear power reactors. The cycle starts with the mining of uranium and ends with the disposal of nuclear waste. The raw material for today's nuclear fuel is uranium. It must be processed through a series of steps to produce an efficient fuel for generating electricity. Used fuel also needs to be taken care of for reuse and disposal. The nuclear fuel cycle includes the 'front end', i.e. preparation of the fuel, the 'service period' in which fuel is used during reactor operation to generate electricity, and the 'back end', i.e. the safe management of spent nuclear fuel including reprocessing and reuse and disposal. If spent fuel is not reprocessed, the fuel cycle is referred to as an 'open' or 'once-through' fuel cycle; if spent fuel is reprocessed, and partly reused, it is referred to as a 'closed' nuclear fuel cycle.

  19. Spent-fuel-storage alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    The Spent Fuel Storage Alternatives meeting was a technical forum in which 37 experts from 12 states discussed storage alternatives that are available or are under development. The subject matter was divided into the following five areas: techniques for increasing fuel storage density; dry storage of spent fuel; fuel characterization and conditioning; fuel storage operating experience; and storage and transport economics. Nineteen of the 21 papers which were presented at this meeting are included in this Proceedings. These have been abstracted and indexed. (ATT)

  20. Nuclear fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakai, Keiichi

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To decrease the tensile stresses resulted in a fuel can as well as prevent decladding of fuel pellets into the bore holes by decreasing the inner pressure within the nuclear fuel element. Constitution: A fuel can is filled with hollow fuel pellets, inserted with a spring for retaining the hollow fuel pellets with an appropriate force and, thereafter, closely sealed at the both ends with end plugs. A cylindrical body is disposed into the bore holes of the hollow fuel pellets. Since initial sealing gases and/or gaseous nuclear fission products can thus be excluded from the bore holes where the temperature is at the highest level, the inner pressure of the nuclear fuel element can be reduced to decrease the tensile strength resulted to the fuel can. Furthermore, decladding of fuel pellets into the bore holes can be prevented. (Moriyama, K.)

  1. Global Energy Issues and Alternate Fueling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Robert C.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes world energy issues and alternate fueling effects on aircraft design. The contents include: 1) US Uses about 100 Quad/year (1 Q = 10(exp 15) Btu) World Energy Use: about 433 Q/yr; 2) US Renewable Energy about 6%; 3) Nuclear Could Grow: Has Legacy Problems; 4) Energy Sources Primarily NonRenewable Hydrocarbon; 5) Notes; 6) Alternate Fuels Effect Aircraft Design; 7) Conventional-Biomass Issue - Food or Fuel; 8) Alternate fuels must be environmentally benign; 9) World Carbon (CO2) Emissions Problem; 10) Jim Hansen s Global Warming Warnings; 11) Gas Hydrates (Clathrates), Solar & Biomass Locations; 12) Global Energy Sector Response; 13) Alternative Renewables; 14) Stratospheric Sulfur Injection Global Cooling Switch; 15) Potential Global Energy Sector Response; and 16) New Sealing and Fluid Flow Challenges.

  2. Nuclear fuel replacement device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritz, W.C.; Robey, R.M.; Wett, J.F.

    1984-01-01

    A fuel handling arrangement for a liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a single rotating plug eccentric to the fuel core and a fuel handling machine radially movable along a slot in the plug with a transfer station disposed outside the fuel core but covered by the eccentric plug and within range of movement of said fuel handling machine to permit transfer of fuel assemblies between the core and the transfer station. (author)

  3. Nuclear reactor fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hindle, E.D.

    1981-01-01

    An array of rods comprising zirconium alloy sheathed nuclear fuel pellets assembled to form a fuel element for a pressurised water reactor is claimed. The helium gas pressure within each rod differs substantially from that of its closest neighbours

  4. Nuclear reactor fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hindle, E.D.

    1984-01-01

    The fuel elements for a pressurised water reactor comprise arrays of rods of zirconium alloy sheathed nuclear fuel pellets. The helium gas pressure within each rod differs substantially from that of its closest neighbours

  5. Nuclear fuel waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allan, C.J.

    1993-01-01

    The Canadian concept for nuclear fuel waste disposal is based on disposing of the waste in a vault excavated 500-1000 m deep in intrusive igneous rock of the Canadian Shield. The author believes that, if the concept is accepted following review by a federal environmental assessment panel (probably in 1995), then it is important that implementation should begin without delay. His reasons are listed under the following headings: Environmental leadership and reducing the burden on future generations; Fostering public confidence in nuclear energy; Forestalling inaction by default; Preserving the knowledge base. Although disposal of reprocessing waste is a possible future alternative option, it will still almost certainly include a requirement for geologic disposal

  6. Nuclear fuel accounting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aisch, D.E.

    1977-01-01

    After a nuclear power plant has started commercial operation the actual nuclear fuel costs have to be demonstrated in the rate making procedure. For this purpose an accounting system has to be developed which comprises the following features: 1) All costs associated with nuclear fuel shall be correctly recorded; 2) it shall be sufficiently flexible to cover also deviations from proposed core loading patterns; 3) it shall be applicable to different fuel cycle schemes. (orig./RW) [de

  7. Alternative Fuels (Briefing Charts)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-19

    feedstock for HRJ, plant cost for F-T) Courtesy AFRL, Dr. Tim Edwards Unclassified • Agricultural crop oils (canola, jatropha, soy, palm , etc...Fuels Focus  Various conversion processes  Upgraded to meet fuel specs Diverse energy sources Petroleum Crude Oil Petroleum based Single Fuel in the...data and resources – Conduct gap analysis – synfuel efforts, expand to biofuels, ID potential joint efforts – Increase visibility outside SCP world

  8. The nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-05-01

    After a short introduction about nuclear power in the world, fission physics and the French nuclear power plants, this brochure describes in a digest way the different steps of the nuclear fuel cycle: uranium prospecting, mining activity, processing of uranium ores and production of uranium concentrates (yellow cake), uranium chemistry (conversion of the yellow cake into uranium hexafluoride), fabrication of nuclear fuels, use of fuels, reprocessing of spent fuels (uranium, plutonium and fission products), recycling of energetic materials, and storage of radioactive wastes. (J.S.)

  9. Alternative transportation fuels: Financing issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Squadron, W.F.; Ward, C.O.; Brown, M.H.

    1992-06-01

    A multitude of alternative fuels could reduce air pollution and the impact of oil price shocks. Only a few of these fuels are readily available and inexpensive enough to merit serious consideration over the coming five years. In New York City, safety regulations narrow the field still further by eliminating propane. As a result, this study focuses on the three alternative fuels readily available in New York City: compressed natural gas, methanol, and electricity. Each has significant environmental benefits and each has different cost characteristics. With the Clean Air Act and the National Energy Strategy highlighting the country's need to improve urban air quality and move away from dependence on imported fuels, fleets may soon have little choice but to convert to altemative fuels. Given the potential for large infrastructure and vehicle costs, these fleets may have difficulty finding the capital to make that conversion. Ultimately, then, it will be the involvement of the private sector that will determine the success of alternative fuels. Whether it be utilities, fuel distributors or suppliers, private financing partners or others, it is critical that altemative fuels programs be structured and planned to attract their involvement. This report examines financing methods that do not involve government subsidies. It also explores financing methods that are specific to alternative fuels. Bond issues and other mechanisms that are used for conventional vehicles are not touched upon in this report. This report explores ways to spread the high cost of alternative fuels among a number of parties within the private sector. The emphasis is on structuring partnerships that suit methanol, electric, or natural gas vehicle fleets. Through these partnerships, alternative fuels may ultimately compete effectively against conventional vehicle fuels

  10. Special Issue: Aviation Alternative Fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of aviation alternative fuels has increased significantly in recent years in an effort to reduce the environment and climate impact by aviation industry. Special requirements have to be met for qualifying as a suitable aviation fuel. The fuel has to be high in energy content per unit of mass and volume, thermally stable and avoiding freezing at low temperatures. There are also many other special requirements on viscosity, ignition properties and compatibility with the typical aviation materials. There are quite a few contending alternative fuels which can be derived from coal, natural gas and biomass.[...

  11. Nuclear fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element for use in the core of a nuclear reactor is disclosed. A heat conducting fission product retaining metal liner of a refractory metal is incorporated in the fuel element between the cladding and the nuclear fuel to inhibit mechanical interaction between the nuclear fuel and the cladding, to isolate fission products and nuclear fuel impurities from contacting the cladding, and to improve the axial thermal peaking gradient along the length of the fuel rod. The metal liner can be in the form of a tube or hollow cylindrical column, a foil of single or multiple layers in the shape of a hollow cylindrical column, or a coating on the internal surface of the cladding. Preferred refractory metal materials are molybdenum, tungsten, rhenium, niobium and alloys of the foregoing metals

  12. Nuclear fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, J.R.; Rowland, T.C.

    1976-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element for use in the core of a nuclear reactor is disclosed. A heat conducting, fission product retaining metal liner of a refractory metal is incorporated in the fuel element between the cladding and the nuclear fuel to inhibit mechanical interaction between the nuclear fuel and the cladding, to isolate fission products and nuclear fuel impurities from contacting the cladding and to improve the axial thermal peaking gradient along the length of the fuel rod. The metal liner can be in the form of a tube or hollow cylindrical column, a foil of single or multiple layers in the shape of a hollow cylindrical column, or a coating on the internal surface of the cladding. Preferred refractory metal materials are molybdenum, tungsten, rhenium, niobium and alloys of the foregoing metals

  13. Critical review of nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuster, N.

    1996-01-01

    Transmutation of long-lived radionuclides is considered as an alternative to the in-depth disposal of spent nuclear fuel, in particular, on the final stage of the nuclear fuel cycle. The majority of conclusions is the result of the common work of the Karlsruhe FZK and the Commissariat on nuclear energy of France (CEA)

  14. Safeguards aspects for future fuel management alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, B.; Stein, G.; Gerstler, R.

    1987-01-01

    In the future, more flexible fuel management strategies will be realized in light-water reactor power stations. The incentives for this development are based on considerations related to safe and economic plant operation, e.g. improved fuel strategies can save fuel resources and waste management efforts. A further important aspect of the nuclear fuel cycle deals with recycling strategies. At the back-end of the fuel cycle, the direct final disposal of spent fuel will have to be assessed as an alternative to recycling strategies. These major development fields will also have consequences for international safeguards. In particular, reactor fuel strategies may involve higher burn-up, conditioning of spent fuel directly in the power plant, gadolinium-poisoned fuel and different levels of enrichment. These strategies will have an impact on inspection activities, especially on the applicability of NDA techniques. The inspection frequency could also be affected in recycling strategies using MOX fuel. There may be problems with NDA methods if reprocessed feed is used in enrichment plants. On the other hand, the direct final disposal of spent fuel will raise safeguards problems regarding design verification, long-term safeguarding and the very feasibility of inaccessible nuclear material

  15. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power. Report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume III. Resources and fuel cycle facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-06-01

    The ability of uranium supply and the rest of the nuclear fuel cycle to meet the demand for nuclear power is an important consideration in future domestic and international planning. Accordingly, the purpose of this assessment is to evaluate the adequacy of potential supply for various nuclear resources and fuel cycle facilities in the United States and in the world outside centrally planned economy areas (WOCA). Although major emphasis was placed on uranium supply and demand, material resources (thorium and heavy water) and facility resources (separative work, spent fuel storage, and reprocessing) were also considered

  16. Alternative Fuel News, Vol. 6, No. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2003-03-01

    Quarterly magazine with articles on Alternate Fuel Vehicles (AFVs) in India, alternative fuels for emergency preparedness, and testing of propane vehicles by UPS. Also an interview of author Jeremy Rifkin on how alternative fuels provide pathways to hydrogen.

  17. Nuclear fuel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randol, A.G.

    1985-01-01

    The production of new fuel for a power plant reactor and its disposition following discharge from the power plant is usually referred to as the ''nuclear fuel cycle.'' The processing of fuel is cyclic in nature since sometime during a power plant's operation old or ''depleted'' fuel must be removed and new fuel inserted. For light water reactors this step typically occurs once every 12-18 months. Since the time required for mining of the raw ore to recovery of reusable fuel materials from discharged materials can span up to 8 years, the management of fuel to assure continuous power plant operation requires simultaneous handling of various aspects of several fuel cycles, for example, material is being mined for fuel to be inserted in a power plant 2 years into the future at the same time fuel is being reprocessed from a discharge 5 years prior. Important aspects of each step in the fuel production process are discussed

  18. Nuclear fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mogard, J.H.

    1977-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element is disclosed for use in power producing nuclear reactors, comprising a plurality of axially aligned ceramic cylindrical fuel bodies of the sintered type, and a cladding tube of metal or metal alloys, wherein said cladding tube on its cylindrical inner surface is provided with a plurality of slightly protruding spacing elements distributed over said inner surface

  19. Nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Status of different nuclear fuel cycle phases in 1992 is discussed including the following issues: uranium exploration, resources, supply and demand, production, market prices, conversion, enrichment; reactor fuel technology; spent fuel management, as well as trends of these phases development up to the year 2010. 10 refs, 11 figs, 15 tabs

  20. Nuclear reactor fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Y.; Tashima, J.

    1975-01-01

    A description is given of nuclear reactor fuel assemblies arranged in the form of a lattice wherein there is attached to the interface of one of two adjacent fuel assemblies a plate spring having a concave portion curved toward said interface and to the interface of the other fuel assembly a plate spring having a convex portion curved away from said interface

  1. Nuclear fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anthony, A.J.

    1980-01-01

    A bimetallic spacer means is cooperatively associated with a nuclear fuel assembly and operative to resist the occurrence of in-reactor bowing of the nuclear fuel assembly. The bimetallic spacer means in one embodiment of the invention includes a space grid formed, at least principally, of zircaloy to the external surface of which are attached a plurality of stainless steel strips. In another embodiment the strips are attached to fuel pins. In each of the embodiments, the stainless steel strips during power production expand outwardly to a greater extent than do the members to which the stainless steel strips are attached, thereby forming stiff springs which abut against like bimetallic spacer means with which the other nuclear fuel assemblies are provided in a given nuclear reactor core to thus prevent the occurrence of in-reactor bowing of the nuclear fuel assemblies. (author)

  2. Nuclear fuel storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Takashi; Isaka, Shinji.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To increase the spent fuel storage capacity and reduce the installation cost in a nuclear fuel storage facility. Constitution: Fuels handled in the nuclear fuel storage device of the present invention include the following four types: (1) fresh fuels, (2) 100 % reactor core charged fuels, (3) spent fuels just after taking out and (4) fuels after a certain period (for example one half-year) from taking out of the reactor. Reactivity is high for the fuels (1), and some of fuels (2), while low in the fuels (3) (4), Source intensity is strong for the fuels (3) and some of the fuels (2), while it is low for the fuels (1) and (4). Taking notice of the fact that the reactivity, radioactive source intensity and generated after heat are different in the respective fuels, the size of the pool and the storage capacity are increased by the divided storage control. While on the other hand, since the division is made in one identical pool, the control method becomes important, and the working range is restricted by means of a template, interlock, etc., the operation mode of the handling machine is divided into four, etc. for preventing errors. (Kamimura, M.)

  3. The nuclear power alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blix, H.

    1989-04-01

    The Director General of the IAEA stressed the need for energy policies and other measures which would help to slow and eventually halt the present build-up of carbon dioxide, methane and other so-called greenhouse gases, which are held to cause global warming. He urged that nuclear power and various other sources of energy, none of which contribute to global warming, should not be seen as alternatives, but should all be used to counteract the greenhouse effect. He pointed out that the commercially used renewable energies, apart from hydropower, currently represent only 0.3% of the world's energy consumption and, by contrast, the 5% of the world's energy consumption coming from nuclear power is not insignificant. Dr. Blix noted that opposition for nuclear power stems from fear of accidents and concern about the nuclear wastes. But no generation of electricity, whether by coal, hydro, gas or nuclear power, is without some risk. He emphasized that safety can never be a static concept, and that many new measures are being taken by governments and by the IAEA to further strengthen the safety of nuclear power

  4. Nuclear fuel activities in Belgium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bairiot, H

    1997-12-01

    In his presentation on nuclear fuel activities in belgium the author considers the following directions of this work: fuel fabrication, NPP operation, fuel performance, research and development programmes.

  5. Boosting nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demarthon, F.; Donnars, O.; Dupuy-Maury, F.

    2002-01-01

    This dossier gives a broad overview of the present day status of the nuclear fuel cycle in France: 1 - the revival of nuclear power as a solution to the global warming and to the increase of worldwide energy needs; 2 - the security of uranium supplies thanks to the reuse of weapon grade highly enriched uranium; 3 - the fabrication of nuclear fuels from the mining extraction to the enrichment processes, the fabrication of fuel pellets and the assembly of fuel rods; 4 - the new composition of present day fuels (UO x and chromium-doped pellets); 5 - the consumption of plutonium stocks and the Corail and Apa fuel assemblies for the reduction of plutonium stocks and the preservation of uranium resources. (J.S.)

  6. Alternative fuels for vehicles; Alternative drivmidler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-02-15

    Up until 2020 and onwards the analysis indicates that especially electricity, biogas and natural gas as propellants is economically attractive compared to conventional gasoline and diesel while other fuels have the same or higher costs for petrol and diesel. Especially biogas and electricity will also offer significant reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions, but also hydrogen, methanol, DME and to a lesser extent the second generation bioethanol and most of the other alternative fuels reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. Use of the traditional food-based first generation biofuels involves, at best, only modest climate benefits if land use changes are counted, and at worst, significant negative climate effects. Natural gas as a propellant involves a moderate climate gain, but may play a role for building infrastructure and market for gaseous fuels in large fleets, thereby contributing to the phasing in of biogas for transport. The electric-based automotive fuels are the most effective due to a high efficiency of the engine and an increasing proportion of wind energy in the electricity supply. The methanol track also has a relatively high efficiency. Among the others, the track based on diesel engines (biodiesel) is more effective than the track based on gasoline/Otto engines (gas and ethanol) as a result of the diesel engine's better efficiency. For the heavy vehicles all the selected alternative fuels to varying degrees reduce emissions of CO{sub 2}, particularly DME based on wood. The only exception to this is - as for passenger cars - the propellant synthetic diesel based on coal. (LN).

  7. Improved nuclear fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klepfer, H.H.

    1974-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element is described which comprises: 1) an elongated clad container, 2) a layer of high lubricity material being disposed in and adjacent to the clad container, 3) a low neutron capture cross section metal liner being disposed in the clad container and adjacent to the layer, 4) a central core of a body of nuclear fuel material disposed in and partially filling the container and forming an internal cavity in the container, 5) an enclosure integrally secured and sealed at each end of the container, and a nuclear fuel material retaining means positioned in the cavity. (author)

  8. Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, Michael F.; Law, Jack D.

    2010-01-01

    This is a submission for the Encyclopedia of Sustainable Technology on the subject of Reprocessing Spent Nuclear Fuel. Nuclear reprocessing is the chemical treatment of spent fuel involving separation of its various constituents. Principally, it is used to recover useful actinides from the spent fuel. Radioactive waste that cannot be re-used is separated into streams for consolidation into waste forms. The first known application of nuclear reprocessing was within the Manhattan Project to recover material for nuclear weapons. Currently, reprocessing has a peaceful application in the nuclear fuel cycle. A variety of chemical methods have been proposed and demonstrated for reprocessing of nuclear fuel. The two most widely investigated and implemented methods are generally referred to as aqueous reprocessing and pyroprocessing. Each of these technologies is described in detail in Section 3 with numerous references to published articles. Reprocessing of nuclear fuel as part of a fuel cycle can be used both to recover fissionable actinides and to stabilize radioactive fission products into durable waste forms. It can also be used as part of a breeder reactor fuel cycle that could result in a 14-fold or higher increase in energy utilization per unit of natural uranium. Reprocessing can also impact the need for geologic repositories for spent fuel. The volume of waste that needs to be sent to such a repository can be reduced by first subjecting the spent fuel to reprocessing. The extent to which volume reduction can occur is currently under study by the United States Department of Energy via research at various national laboratories and universities. Reprocessing can also separate fissile and non-fissile radioactive elements for transmutation.

  9. Spent nuclear fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanato, Luiz Sergio

    2005-01-01

    When a country becomes self-sufficient in part of the nuclear cycle, as production of fuel that will be used in nuclear power plants for energy generation, it is necessary to pay attention for the best method of storing the spent fuel. Temporary storage of spent nuclear fuel is a necessary practice and is applied nowadays all over the world, so much in countries that have not been defined their plan for a definitive repository, as well for those that already put in practice such storage form. There are two main aspects that involve the spent fuels: one regarding the spent nuclear fuel storage intended to reprocessing and the other in which the spent fuel will be sent for final deposition when the definitive place is defined, correctly located, appropriately characterized as to several technical aspects, and licentiate. This last aspect can involve decades of studies because of the technical and normative definitions at a given country. In Brazil, the interest is linked with the storage of spent fuels that will not be reprocessed. This work analyses possible types of storage, the international panorama and a proposal for future construction of a spent nuclear fuel temporary storage place in the country. (author)

  10. Nuclear fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Seigoro.

    1994-01-01

    Ultrafine particles of a thermal neutron absorber showing ultraplasticity is dispersed in oxide ceramic fuels by more than 1% to 10% or lower. The ultrafine particles of the thermal neutron absorber showing ultrafine plasticity is selected from any one of ZrGd, HfEu, HfY, HfGd, ZrEu, and ZrY. The thermal neutron absorber is converted into ultrafine particles and solid-solubilized in a nuclear fuel pellet, so that the dispersion thereof into nuclear fuels is made uniform and an absorbing performance of the thermal neutrons is also made uniform. Moreover, the characteristics thereof, for example, physical properties such as expansion coefficient and thermal conductivity of the nuclear fuels are also improved. The neutron absorber, such as ZrGd or the like, can provide plasticity of nuclear fuels, if it is mixed into the nuclear fuels for showing the plasticity. The nuclear fuel pellets are deformed like an hour glass as burning, but, since the end portion thereof is deformed plastically within a range of a repulsive force of the cladding tube, there is no worry of damaging a portion of the cladding tube. (N.H.)

  11. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Equipment Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Equipment Options to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Equipment Options on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Equipment Options on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Equipment Options on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels

  12. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural Gas Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center : Natural Gas to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas on

  13. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benefits to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Benefits on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Benefits on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Benefits on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas

  14. Transportation of nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prowse, D.R.

    1979-01-01

    Shipment of used fuel from nuclear reactors to a central fuel management facility is discussed with particular emphasis on the assessment of the risk to the public due to these shipments. The methods of transporting used fuel in large shipping containers is reviewed. In terms of an accident scenario, it is demonstrated that the primary risk of transport of used fuel is due to injury and death in common road accidents. The radiological nature of the used fuel cargo is, for all practical purposes, an insignificant factor in the total risk to the public. (author)

  15. Advanced Technology and Alternative Fuel Vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuttle, J.

    2001-01-01

    This fact sheet provides a basic overview of today's alternative fuel choices--including biofuels, biodiesel, electricity, and hydrogen--alternative fuel vehicles, and advanced vehicle technology, such as hybrid electric vehicles, fuel cells and advanced drive trains

  16. Nuclear fuel banks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2010-01-01

    In december 2010 IAEA gave its agreement for the creation of a nuclear fuel bank. This bank will allow IAEA to help member countries that renounce to their own uranium enrichment capacities. This bank located on one or several member countries will belong to IAEA and will be managed by IAEA and its reserve of low enriched uranium will be sufficient to fabricate the fuel for the first load of a 1000 MW PWR. Fund raising has been successful and the running of the bank will have no financial impact on the regular budget of the IAEA. Russia has announced the creation of the first nuclear fuel bank. This bank will be located on the Angarsk site (Siberia) and will be managed by IAEA and will own 120 tonnes of low-enriched uranium fuel (between 2 and 4.95%), this kind of fuel is used in most Russian nuclear power plants. (A.C.)

  17. Alternative fuels: how real? how soon?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tertzakian, P.

    2003-01-01

    Nations of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) are looking for politically stable sources of oil in response to the ever growing demand for fuel. World oil consumption has reached 76.5 MMB/d and demand is expected to be 80 MMB/d by 2005. More restrictive environmental policies are resulting in improved conversion efficiency of oil dependent supply chains and the switching to alternative fuels. The adoption of new fuels however, depends on many factors such as the economic advantage, technological superiority, and convenience. The dominant electrical supply chains at the moment are nuclear, coal, hydropower, hydrocarbons, and renewable energy alternatives such as wind, solar and hydrogen fuels. The paper presented graphs illustrating adoption patterns for various fuels over the past century and presented a potential adoption pattern for fuel cell vehicles. Also included in this presentation were graphs depicting how price can drive supply chain demand and allow other fuels to gain market share. The impact of fuel substitution, efficiency and price effects was mentioned along with the impact of recent policy changes on vehicle fuel efficiency and carbon dioxide emissions. The role of government incentives to promote alternative fuel sales was also discussed along with a broad assessment of renewable supply chains. It was noted that most new fuels are linked to hydrocarbons. For example, hydrogen generation through water electrolysis requires petroleum generated electricity or the steam reforming of natural gas. Ethanol processes also require hydrocarbon consumption indirectly. It was noted that the average efficiencies of coal and natural gas plants has increased in the past decade and the incumbent price trends in electricity in the United States have decreased for fuels such as oil, gas, coal and nuclear energy. With ongoing innovation in the internal combustion engine in the past 30 years, the incumbents have also improved with

  18. Nuclear fuel waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merrett, G.J.; Gillespie, P.A.

    1983-07-01

    This report discusses events and processes that could adversely affect the long-term stability of a nuclear fuel waste disposal vault or the regions of the geosphere and the biosphere to which radionuclides might migrate from such a vault

  19. The nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patarin, L.

    2002-01-01

    This book treats of the different aspects of the industrial operations linked with the nuclear fuel, before and after its use in nuclear reactors. The basis science of this nuclear fuel cycle is chemistry. Thus a recall of the elementary notions of chemistry is given in order to understand the phenomena involved in the ore processing, in the isotope enrichment, in the fabrication of fuel pellets and rods (front-end of the cycle), in the extraction of recyclable materials (residual uranium and plutonium), and in the processing and conditioning of wastes (back-end of the fuel cycle). Nuclear reactors produce about 80% of the French electric power and the Cogema group makes 40% of its turnover at the export. Thus this book contains also some economic and geopolitical data in order to clearly position the stakes. The last part, devoted to the management of wastes, presents the solutions already operational and also the research studies in progress. (J.S.)

  20. Nuclear fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, D.

    1981-01-01

    A simple friction device for cutting nuclear fuel wrappers comprising a thin metal disc clamped between two large diameter clamping plates. A stream of gas ejected from a nozzle is used as coolant. The device may be maintained remotely. (author)

  1. Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiment (AAFEX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, B. E.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Hudgins, C. H.; Plant, J. V.; Thornhill, K. L.; Winstead, E. L.; Ziemba, L. D.; Howard, R.; Corporan, E.; Miake-Lye, R. C.; hide

    2011-01-01

    The rising cost of oil coupled with the need to reduce pollution and dependence on foreign suppliers has spurred great interest and activity in developing alternative aviation fuels. Although a variety of fuels have been produced that have similar properties to standard Jet A, detailed studies are required to ascertain the exact impacts of the fuels on engine operation and exhaust composition. In response to this need, NASA acquired and burned a variety of alternative aviation fuel mixtures in the Dryden Flight Research Center DC-8 to assess changes in the aircraft s CFM-56 engine performance and emission parameters relative to operation with standard JP-8. This Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiment, or AAFEX, was conducted at NASA Dryden s Aircraft Operations Facility (DAOF) in Palmdale, California, from January 19 to February 3, 2009 and specifically sought to establish fuel matrix effects on: 1) engine and exhaust gas temperatures and compressor speeds; 2) engine and auxiliary power unit (APU) gas phase and particle emissions and characteristics; and 3) volatile aerosol formation in aging exhaust plumes

  2. Nuclear fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Hiroshi; Watari, Yoshio; Hizahara, Hiroshi; Masuoka, Ryuzo.

    1970-01-01

    When exchanging nuclear fuel assemblies during the operation of a nuclear reactor, melting of fuel bodies, and severence of tubular claddings is halted at the time of insertion by furnishing a neutron absorbing material such as B 10 , Cd, Gd or the like at the forward end of the fuel assembly to thereby lower the power peak at the forward ends of the fuel elements to within tolerable levels and thus prevent both fuel liquification and excessive expansion. The neutron absorbing material may be attached in the form of a plate to the fuel assembly forward tie plate, or may be inserted as a pellet into the front end of the tubular cladding. (Owens, K.J.)

  3. Nuclear fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainsworth, K.F.

    1979-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element is described having a cluster of nuclear fuel pins supported in parallel, spaced apart relationship by transverse cellular braces within coaxial, inner and outer sleeves, the inner sleeve being in at least two separate axial lengths, each of the transverse braces having a peripheral portion which is clamped peripherally between the ends of the axial lengths of the inner sleeve. (author)

  4. Nuclear fuel manufacture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costello, J.M.

    1980-09-01

    The technologies used to manufacture nuclear fuel from uranium ore are outlined, with particular reference to the light water reactor fuel cycle. Capital and operating cost estimates for the processing stages are given, and the relevance to a developing uranium industry in Australia is discussed

  5. Nuclear reactor fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butterfield, C.E.; Waite, E.

    1982-01-01

    A nuclear reactor fuel element comprising a column of vibration compacted fuel which is retained in consolidated condition by a thimble shaped plug. The plug is wedged into gripping engagement with the wall of the sheath by a wedge. The wedge material has a lower coefficient of expansion than the sheath material so that at reactor operating temperature the retainer can relax sufficient to accommodate thermal expansion of the column of fuel. (author)

  6. Nuclear fuel pellet loading apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerkey, K.S.

    1979-01-01

    An automatic apparatus for loading a predetermined amount of nuclear fuel pellets into a nuclear fuel element to be used in a nuclear reactor is described. The apparatus consists of a vibratory bed capable of supporting corrugated trays containing rows of nuclear fuel pellets and arranged in alignment with the open ends of several nuclear fuel elements. A sweep mechanism is arranged above the trays and serves to sweep the rows of fuel pellets onto the vibratory bed and into the fuel element. A length detecting system, in conjunction with a pellet stopping mechanism, is also provided to assure that a predetermined amount of nuclear fuel pellets are loaded into each fuel element

  7. Nuclear Fuel Cycle Objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    . The four Objectives publications include Nuclear General Objectives, Nuclear Power Objectives, Nuclear Fuel Cycle Objectives, and Radioactive Waste management and Decommissioning Objectives. This publication sets out the objectives that need to be achieved in the area of the nuclear fuel cycle to ensure that the Nuclear Energy Basic Principles are satisfied. Within each of these four Objectives publications, the individual topics that make up each area are addressed. The five topics included in this publication are: resources; fuel engineering and performance; spent fuel management and reprocessing; fuel cycles; and the research reactor nuclear fuel cycle

  8. Alternative Fuel for Marine Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-29

    The U.S. Maritime Administration (MARAD) is participating in the U.S. Navy's ongoing efforts to test alternative fuels for marine use by demonstrating their applicability on commercial vessels. In support of this effort, the Navy provided neat hydrot...

  9. Nuclear power and the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, C.J.; Silver, J.M.

    1985-09-01

    The report provides data and assessments of the status and prospects of nuclear power and the nuclear fuel cycle. The report discusses the economic competitiveness of nuclear electricity generation, the extent of world uranium resources, production and requirements, uranium conversion and enrichment, fuel fabrication, spent fuel treatment and radioactive waste management. A review is given of the status of nuclear fusion research

  10. Improved nuclear fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element for use in the core of a nuclear reactor is disclosed and has a metal liner disposed between the cladding and the nuclear fuel material and a high lubricity material in the form of a coating disposed between the liner and the cladding. The liner preferably has a thickness greater than the longest fission product recoil distance and is composed of a low neutron capture cross-section material. The liner is preferably composed of zirconium, an alloy of zirconium, niobium or an alloy of niobium. The liner serves as a preferential reaction site for volatile impurities and fission products and protects the cladding from contact and reaction with such impurities and fission products. The high lubricity material acts as an interface between the liner and the cladding and reduces localized stresses on the cladding due to fuel expansion and cracking of the fuel

  11. Nuclear fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakamatsu, Mitsuo.

    1974-01-01

    Object: To improve a circulating flow passage of coolant so as to be able to accurately detect the temperature of coolant, rare gases contained, and the like. Structure: A fuel assembly comprising a flow regulating lattice provided with a plurality of communication holes in an axial direction, said lattice being positioned at the upper end of an outer tube in which nuclear fuel elements are received, and a neutron shielding body having a plurality of spiral coolant flow passages disposed between the lattice and the nuclear fuel elements, whereby a coolant comprised of liquid sodium or the like, which moves up passing through the coolant flow passages and the flow regulating passage, is regulated and passed through a detector mounted at the upper part of the flow regulating lattice to detect coolant temperature, flow rate, and rare gases or the like as the origin of nuclear fission contained in the coolant due to breakage of fuel elements. (Kamimura, M.)

  12. Nuclear fuel quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Full text: Quality assurance is used extensively in the design, construction and operation of nuclear power plants. This methodology is applied to all activities affecting the quality of a nuclear power plant in order to obtain confidence that an item or a facility will perform satisfactorily in service. Although the achievement of quality is the responsibility of all parties participating in a nuclear power project, establishment and implementation of the quality assurance programme for the whole plant is a main responsibility of the plant owner. For the plant owner, the main concern is to achieve control over the quality of purchased products or services through contractual arrangements with the vendors. In the case of purchase of nuclear fuel, the application of quality assurance might be faced with several difficulties because of the lack of standardization in nuclear fuel and the proprietary information of the fuel manufacturers on fuel design specifications and fuel manufacturing procedures. The problems of quality assurance for purchase of nuclear fuel were discussed in detail during the seminar. Due to the lack of generally acceptable standards, the successful application of the quality assurance concept to the procurement of fuel depends on how much information can be provided by the fuel manufacturer to the utility which is purchasing fuel, and in what form and how early this information can be provided. The extent of information transfer is basically set out in the individual vendor-utility contracts, with some indirect influence from the requirements of regulatory bodies. Any conflict that exists appears to come from utilities which desire more extensive control over the product they are buying. There is a reluctance on the part of vendors to permit close insight of the purchasers into their design and manufacturing procedures, but there nevertheless seems to be an increasing trend towards release of more information to the purchasers. It appears that

  13. A multi-attribute utility decision analysis for treatment alternatives for the DOE/SR aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, Freddie J.; Weiner, Ruth Fleischman; Wheeler, Timothy A.; Sorenson, Ken B.; Kuzio, Kenneth A.

    2000-01-01

    A multi-attribute utility analysis is applied to a decision process to select a treatment method for the management of aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel (Al-SNF) owned by the US Department of Energy (DOE). DOE will receive, treat, and temporarily store Al-SNF, most of which is composed of highly enriched uranium, at its Savannah River Site in South Carolina. DOE intends ultimately to send the treated Al-SNF to a geologic repository for permanent disposal. DOE initially considered ten treatment alternatives for the management of Al-SNF, and has narrowed the choice to two of these: the direct disposal and melt and dilute alternatives. The decision analysis presented in this document focuses on a formal decision process used to evaluate these two remaining alternatives

  14. Reprocessing of nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatfield, G.W.

    1960-11-01

    One of the persistent ideas concerning nuclear power is that the fuel costs are negligible. This, of course, is incorrect and, in fact, one of the major problems in the development of economic nuclear power is to get the cost of the fuel cycles down to an acceptable level. The irradiated fuel removed from the nuclear power reactors must be returned as fresh fuel into the system. Aside from the problems of handling and shipping involved in the reprocessing cycles, the two major steps are the chemical separation and the refabrication. The chemical separation covers the processing of the spent fuel to separate and recover the unburned fuel as well as the new fuel produced in the reactor. This includes the decontamination of these materials from other radioactive fission products formed in the reactor. Refabrication involves the working and sheathing of recycled fuel into the shapes and forms required by reactor design and the economics of the fabrication problem determines to a large extent the quality of the material required from the chemical treatment. At present there appear to be enough separating facilities in the United States and the United Kingdom to handle the recycling of fuel from power reactors for the next few years. However, we understand the costs of recycling fuel in these facilities will be high or low depend ing on whether or not the capital costs of the plant are included in the processing cost. Also, the present plants may not be well adapted to carry out the chemical processing of the very wide variety of power reactor fuel elements which are being considered and will continue to be considered over the years to come. (author)

  15. Proliferation Resistant Nuclear Reactor Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, L.W.; Moody, K.J.; Bradley, K.S.; Lorenzana, H.E.

    2011-01-01

    Global appetite for fission power is projected to grow dramatically this century, and for good reason. Despite considerable research to identify new sources of energy, fission remains the most plentiful and practical alternative to fossil fuels. The environmental challenges of fossil fuel have made the fission power option increasingly attractive, particularly as we are forced to rely on reserves in ecologically fragile or politically unstable corners of the globe. Caught between a globally eroding fossil fuel reserve as well as the uncertainty and considerable costs in the development of fusion power, most of the world will most likely come to rely on fission power for at least the remainder of the 21st century. Despite inevitable growth, fission power faces enduring challenges in sustainability and security. One of fission power's greatest hurdles to universal acceptance is the risk of potential misuse for nefarious purposes of fissionable byproducts in spent fuel, such as plutonium. With this issue in mind, we have discussed intrinsic concepts in this report that are motivated by the premise that the utility, desirability, and applicability of nuclear materials can be reduced. In a general sense, the intrinsic solutions aim to reduce or eliminate the quantity of existing weapons usable material; avoid production of new weapons-usable material through enrichment, breeding, extraction; or employ engineering solutions to make the fuel cycle less useful or more difficult for producing weapons-usable material. By their nature, these schemes require modifications to existing fuel cycles. As such, the concomitants of these modifications require engagement from the nuclear reactor and fuel-design community to fully assess their effects. Unfortunately, active pursuit of any scheme that could further complicate the spread of domestic nuclear power will probably be understandably unpopular. Nevertheless, the nonproliferation and counterterrorism issues are paramount, and

  16. Material input of nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rissanen, S.; Tarjanne, R.

    2001-01-01

    of the material input coefficient of nuclear fuel depends largely on the mining method used and on the concentration of the uranium ore. The lowest material input coefficient in the study, about 760, is calculated by using the data of McArthur River mine, which is a high grade underground mine. Correspondingly by using the data of Arlit mine in Niger, which is a low grade open pit mine, the material input coefficient is even 68 800. On the other hand, this material input is composed greatly of waste rock (sand), which has no serious environmental impact. The material input coefficient of TVO's nuclear fuel is 7 000. Without waste rock it would be only 800. The material input coefficients of natural gas and coal are presented for comparison. The material input coefficient of natural gas is 1,28 and that of coal amounts to 3,38. These are substantially smaller than the coefficient of nuclear fuel. On the other hand, the energy contents of nuclear fuel is over 120 000-fold compared to that of coal, and over 60 000-fold compared to gas. Therefore, the material input in proportion to the amount of generated electricity (MIPS) is smaller for nuclear power than for coal or gas power. The MIPS of coal is equal to 1160 kg/MWh, that of gas equals to 170 kg/MWh and the MIPS of nuclear fuel, calculated on the basis of the fuel supply of TVO, amounts only to 42 kg/MWh. Consequently, the MIPS comparison ranks the nuclear alternative as the best one, causing the smallest environmental load. (orig.)

  17. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural Gas Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center : Natural Gas Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Vehicles on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Vehicles on Twitter Bookmark Alternative

  18. Nuclear fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butterfield, R.S.; Garner, D.L.M.

    1977-01-01

    Reference is made to nuclear fuel assemblies designed for cooling on the 'tube-in-shell' principle in which the fuel is contained by a shell and is cooled by coolant passed through tubes extending through the shell. It has been proposed to employ coated particle fuel as a porous bed on the tube side and the bleed coolant from the tubes into direct contact with the fuel particles. In this way heat is extracted both by direct contact with the fuel and by heat transfer through the coolant tube walls. The system described aims to provide an improved structure of tube and shell for a fuel assembly of this kind and is particularly suitable for use in a gas cooled fast reactor, being able to withstand the neutron flux and high temperature conditions in these reactors. Constructional details are given. (U.K.)

  19. Nuclear fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirayama, Satoshi; Kawada, Toshiyuki; Matsuzaki, Masayoshi.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a fuel element for reducing the mechanical interactions between a fuel-cladding tube and the fuel element and for alleviating the limits of the operating conditions of a reactor. Constitution: A fuel element having mainly uranium dioxide consists of a cylindrical outer pellet and cylindrical inner pellet inserted into the outer pellet. The outer pellet contains two or more additives selected from aluminium oxide, beryllium oxide, magnesium oxide, silicon oxide, sodium oxide, phosphorus oxide, calcium oxide and iron oxide, and the inner pellet contains nuclear fuel substance solely or one additive selected from calcium oxide, silicon oxide, aluminium oxide, magnesium oxide, zirconium oxide and iron oxide. The outer pellet of the fuel thus constituted is reduced in mechanical strength and also in the mechanical interactions with the cladding tube, and the plastic fluidity of the entire pellet is prevented by the inner pellet increased in the mechanical strength. (Kamimura, M.)

  20. Alternatives to traditional transportation fuels: An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    This report presents the first compilation by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of information on alternatives to gasoline and diesel fuel. The purpose of the report is: (1) to provide background information on alternative transportation fuels and replacement fuels compared with gasoline and diesel fuel, and (2) to furnish preliminary estimates of alternative transportation fuels and alternative fueled vehicles as required by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT), Title V, Section 503, ``Replacement Fuel Demand Estimates and Supply Information.`` Specifically, Section 503 requires the EIA to report annually on: (1) the number and type of alternative fueled vehicles in existence the previous year and expected to be in use the following year, (2) the geographic distribution of these vehicles, (3) the amounts and types of replacement fuels consumed, and (4) the greenhouse gas emissions likely to result from replacement fuel use. Alternative fueled vehicles are defined in this report as motorized vehicles licensed for on-road use, which may consume alternative transportation fuels. (Alternative fueled vehicles may use either an alternative transportation fuel or a replacement fuel.) The intended audience for the first section of this report includes the Secretary of Energy, the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the automobile manufacturing industry, the transportation fuel manufacturing and distribution industries, and the general public. The second section is designed primarily for persons desiring a more technical explanation of and background for the issues surrounding alternative transportation fuels.

  1. Nuclear fuel deformation phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Brutzel, L.; Dingreville, R.; Bartel, T.J.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear fuel encounters severe thermomechanical environments. Its mechanical response is profoundly influenced by an underlying heterogeneous microstructure but also inherently dependent on the temperature and stress level histories. The ability to adequately simulate the response of such microstructures, to elucidate the associated macroscopic response in such extreme environments is crucial for predicting both performance and transient fuel mechanical responses. This chapter discusses key physical phenomena and the status of current modelling techniques to evaluate and predict fuel deformations: creep, swelling, cracking and pellet-clad interaction. This chapter only deals with nuclear fuel; deformations of cladding materials are discussed elsewhere. An obvious need for a multi-physics and multi-scale approach to develop a fundamental understanding of properties of complex nuclear fuel materials is presented. The development of such advanced multi-scale mechanistic frameworks should include either an explicit (domain decomposition, homogenisation, etc.) or implicit (scaling laws, hand-shaking,...) linkage between the different time and length scales involved, in order to accurately predict the fuel thermomechanical response for a wide range of operating conditions and fuel types (including Gen-IV and TRU). (authors)

  2. Nuclear fuel reprocessing expansion strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallagher, J.M.

    1975-01-01

    A description is given of an effort to apply the techniques of operations research and energy system modeling to the problem of determination of cost-effective strategies for capacity expansion of the domestic nuclear fuel reprocessing industry for the 1975 to 2000 time period. The research also determines cost disadvantages associated with alternative strategies that may be attractive for political, social, or ecological reasons. The sensitivity of results to changes in cost assumptions was investigated at some length. Reactor fuel types covered by the analysis include the Light Water Reactor (LWR), High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR), and the Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR)

  3. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Krug Energy Opens Natural Gas Fueling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Station in Arkansas Krug Energy Opens Natural Gas Fueling Station in Arkansas to someone by E -mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Krug Energy Opens Natural Gas Fueling Station in Arkansas on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Krug Energy Opens Natural Gas Fueling Station in

  4. Serpent: an alternative for the nuclear fuel cells analysis of a BWR; SERPENT: una alternativa para el analisis de celdas de combustible nuclear de un BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva A, L.; Del Valle G, E. [IPN, Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, Av. Instituto Politecnico Nacional s/n, U.P. Adolfo Lopez Mateos, Edificio 9, Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, 07738 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Gomez T, A. M., E-mail: lidi.s.albarran@gmail.com [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2013-10-15

    In the last ten years the diverse research groups in nuclear engineering of the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico and Instituto Politecnico Nacional (UNAM, IPN), as of research (Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, ININ) as well as the personnel of the Nuclear Plant Management of the Comision Federal de Electricidad have been using the codes Helios and /or CASMO-4 in the generation of cross sections (X S) of nuclear fuel cells of the cores corresponding to the Units 1 and 2 of the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde. Both codes belong to the Studsvik-Scandpower Company who receives the payment for the use and their respective maintenance. In recent years, the code Serpent appears among the nuclear community distributed by the OECD/Nea which does not has cost neither in its use neither in its maintenance. The code is based on the Monte Carlo method and makes use of the processing in parallel. In the Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas of the IPN, the personnel has accumulated certain experience in the use of Serpent under the direction of personal of the ININ; of this experience have been obtained for diverse fuel burned, the infinite multiplication factor for three cells of nuclear fuel, without control bar and with control bar for a known thermodynamic state fixed by: a) the fuel temperature (T{sub f}), b) the moderator temperature (T{sub m}) and c) the vacuums fraction (α). Although was not realized any comparison with the X S that the codes Helios and CASMO-4 generate, the results obtained for the infinite multiplication factor show the prospective tendencies with regard to the fuel burned so much in the case in that is not present the control bar like when it is. The results are encouraging and motivate to the study group to continue with the X S generation of a core in order to build the respective library of nuclear data as a following step and this can be used for the codes PARCS, of USA NRC, DYN3D of HZDR, or others developed locally

  5. HFIR spent fuel management alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begovich, J.M.; Green, V.M.; Shappert, L.B.; Lotts, A.L.

    1992-01-01

    The High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Martin Marietta Energy Systems' Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been unable to ship its spent fuel to Savannah River Site (SRS) for reprocessing since 1985. The HFIR storage pools are expected to fill up in the February 1994 to February 1995 time frame. If a management altemative to existing HFIR pool storage is not identified and implemented before the HFIR pools are full, the HFIR will be forced to shut down. This study investigated several alternatives for managing the HFIR spent fuel, attempting to identify options that could be implemented before the HFIR pools are full. The options investigated were: installing a dedicated dry cask storage facility at ORNL, increasing HFIR pool storage capacity by clearing the HFIR pools of debris and either close-packing or stacking the spent fuel elements, storing the spent fuel at another ORNL pool, storing the spent fuel in one or more hot cells at ORNL, and shipping the spent fuel offsite for reprocessing or storage elsewhere

  6. Nuclear fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knowles, A.N.

    1979-01-01

    A nuclear fuel-containing body for a high temperature gas cooled nuclear reactor is described which comprises a flat plate in which the nuclear fuel is contained as a dispersion of fission product-retaining coated fuel particles in a flat sheet of graphitic or carbonaceous matrix material. The flat sheet is clad with a relatively thin layer of unfuelled graphite bonded to the sheet by being formed initially from a number of separate preformed graphitic artefacts and then platen-pressed on to the exterior surfaces of the flat sheet, both the matrix material and the artefacts being in a green state, to enclose the sheet. A number of such flat plates are supported edge-on to the coolant flow in the bore of a tube made of neutron moderating material. Where a number of tiers of plates are superimposed on one another, the abutting edges are chamfered to reduce vibration. (author)

  7. Nuclear fuel strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rippon, S.

    1989-01-01

    The paper reports on two international meetings on nuclear fuel strategies, one organised by the World Nuclear Fuel Market in Seville (Spain) October 1988, and the other organised by the American and European nuclear societies in Washington (U.S.A.) November 1988. At the Washington meeting a description was given of the uranium supply and demand market, whereas free trade in uranium was considered in Seville. Considerable concern was expressed at both meetings on the effect on the uranium and enrichment services market of very low prices for spot deals being offered by China and the Soviet Union. Excess enrichment capacity, the procurement policies of the USA and other countries, and fuel cycle strategies, were also discussed. (U.K.)

  8. The nuclear fuel cycle associated with the operation of nuclear ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The nuclear power option has been mentioned as an alternative for Ghana but the issue of waste management worries both policy makers and the public. In this paper, the nuclear fuel cycle associated with the operation of nuclear power plants (NPPs) for electric power generation has been extensively reviewed. Different ...

  9. Nuclear fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penrose, R.T.; Thompson, J.R.

    1976-01-01

    A method of protecting the cladding of a nuclear fuel element from internal attack and a nuclear fuel element for use in the core of a nuclear reactor are disclosed. The nuclear fuel element has disposed therein an additive of a barium-containing material and the barium-containing material collects reactive gases through chemical reaction or adsorption at temperatures ranging from room temperature up to fuel element plenum temperatures. The additive is located in the plenum of the fuel element and preferably in the form of particles in a hollow container having a multiplicity of gas permeable openings in one portion of the container with the openings being of a size smaller than the size of the particles. The openings permit gases and liquids entering the plenum to contact the particles. The additive is comprised of elemental barium or a barium alloy containing one or more metals in addition to barium such as aluminum, zirconium, nickel, titanium and combinations thereof. 6 claims, 3 drawing figures

  10. Nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niedrig, T.

    1987-01-01

    Nuclear fuel supply is viewed as a buyer's market of assured medium-term stability. Even on a long-term basis, no shortage is envisaged for all conceivable expansion schedules. The conversion and enrichment facilities developed since the mid-seventies have done much to stabilize the market, owing to the fact that one-sided political decisions by the USA can be counteracted efficiently. In view of the uncertainties concerning realistic nuclear waste management strategies, thermal recycling and mixed oxide fuel elements might increase their market share in the future. Capacities are being planned accordingly. (orig.) [de

  11. Nuclear fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossman, L.N.; Levin, H.A.

    1975-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element has disposed therein an alloy having the essential components of nickel, titanium and zirconium, and the alloy reacts with water, water vapor and reactive gases at reactor ambient temperatures. The alloy is disposed in the plenum of the fuel element in the form of particles in a hollow gas permeable container having a multiplicity of openings of size smallr than the size of the particles. The container is preferably held in the spring in the plenum of the fuel element. (E.C.B.)

  12. Nuclear fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawada, Toshiyuki; Hirayama, Satoshi; Yoneya, Katsutoshi.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To enable load-depending operation as well as moderation for the restriction of operation conditions in the present nuclear reactors, by specifying the essential ingredients and the total weight of the additives to UO 2 fuel substances. Constitution: Two or more additives selected from Al 2 O 3 , B 2 O, CaO, MgO, SiO 2 , Na 2 O and P 2 O 5 are added by the total weight of 2 - 5% to fuel substances consisting of UO 2 or a mixture of UO 2 and PuO 2 . When the mixture is sintered, the strength of the fuel elements is decreased and the fuel-cladding interactions due to the difference in the heat expansion coefficients between the ceramic fuel elements and the metal claddings are decreased to a substantially harmless degree. (Horiuchi, T.)

  13. Alternative Fuel News, Vol. 3 No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-09-23

    This special issue of Alternative Fuel News highlights the Fifth National Clean Cities Conference held in Louisville, Kentucky. The momentum for the program is stronger than ever and the coalitions are working to propel the alternative fuel industry forward.

  14. The nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    The papers presented at the International Conference on The Nuclear Fuel Cycle, held at Stockholm, 28 to 31 October 1975, are reviewed. The meeting, organised by the U.S. Atomic Industrial Forum, and the Swedish Nuclear Forum, was concerned more particularly with economic, political, social and commercial aspects than with tecnology. The papers discussed were considered under the subject heading of current status, uranium resources, enrichment, and reprocessing. (U.K.)

  15. Nuclear fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-12-01

    The papers presented at the International Conference on The Nuclear Fuel Cycle, held at Stockholm, 28 to 31 October 1975, are reviewed. The meeting, organised by the U.S. Atomic Industrial Forum, and the Swedish Nuclear Forum, was concerned more particularly with economic, political, social and commercial aspects than with tecnology. The papers discussed were considered under the subject heading of current status, uranium resources, enrichment, and reprocessing.

  16. Encapsulating spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleischer, L.R.; Gunasekaran, M.

    1979-01-01

    A system is described for encapsulating spent nuclear fuel discharged from nuclear reactors in the form of rods or multi-rod assemblies. The rods are completely and contiguously enclosed in concrete in which metallic fibres are incorporated to increase thermal conductivity and polymers to decrease fluid permeability. This technique provides the advantage of acceptable long-term stability for storage over the conventional underwater storage method. Examples are given of suitable concrete compositions. (UK)

  17. Nuclear fuel cycle information workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This overview of the nuclear fuel cycle is divided into three parts. First, is a brief discussion of the basic principles of how nuclear reactors work; second, is a look at the major types of nuclear reactors being used and world-wide nuclear capacity; and third, is an overview of the nuclear fuel cycle and the present industrial capability in the US

  18. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    , and transport. Maps & Data U.S. Biodiesel Production, Exports, and Consumption U.S. Biodiesel Benefits to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Benefits on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Benefits on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data

  19. Systems impacts of spent fuel disassembly alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-07-01

    Three studies were completed to evaluate four alternatives to the disposal of intact spent fuel assemblies in a geologic repository. A preferred spent fuel waste form for disposal was recommended on consideration of (1) package design and fuel/package interaction, (2) long-term, in-repository performance of the waste form, and (3) overall process performance and costs for packaging, handling, and emplacement. The four basic alternative waste forms considered were (1) end fitting removal, (2) fission gas venting, (3) disassembly and close packing, and (4) shearing/immobilization. None of the findings ruled out any alternative on the basis of waste package considerations or long-term performance of the waste form. The third alternative offers flexibility in loading that may prove attractive in the various geologic media under consideration, greatly reduces the number of packages, and has the lowest unit cost. These studies were completed in October, 1981. Since then Westinghouse Electric Corporation and the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation have completed studies in related fields. This report is now being published to provide publicly the background material that is contained within. 47 references, 28 figures, 31 tables

  20. Nuclear fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, Yasushi; Hirukawa, Koji; Sakurada, Koichi.

    1994-01-01

    A bundle of fuel rods is divided into four fuel rod group regions of small fuel rod bundles by a cross-shaped partitioning structure consisting of paired plate-like structures which connect two opposing surfaces of a channel box. A water removing material with less neutron absorption (for example, Zr or a Zr alloy) or a solid moderator is inserted and secured to a portion of a non-boiling water region interposed between the paired plate-like structure. It has a structure that light water flows to the region in the plate-like structure. The volume, density or composition of the water removing material is controlled depending on the composition of the fuels, to change the moderating characteristics of neutrons in the non-boiling water region. This can easily moderate the difference of nuclear characteristics between each of fuel assemblies using fuel materials of different fuel compositions. Further, the reactivity control effect of the burnable poisons can be enhanced without worsening fuel economy or linear power density. (I.N.)

  1. Nuclear fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delafosse, Jacques.

    1977-01-01

    This invention relates to a nuclear fuel assembly for a light or heavy water reactor, or for a fast reactor of the kind with a bundle of cladded pins, maintained parallel to each other in a regular network by an assembly of separate supporting grids, fitted with elastic bearing surfaces on these pins [fr

  2. Nuclear fuel pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, R.I.; Brassfield, H.C.

    1981-01-01

    Increased strength and physical durability in green bodies or pellets formed of particulate nuclear fuel oxides is achieved by inclusion of a fugitive binder which is ammonium bicarbonate, bicarbonate carbomate, carbomate, sesquicarbonate or mixtures thereof. Ammonium oxadate may be included as pore former. (author)

  3. Nuclear fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Arata; Wakamatsu, Mitsuo.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To permit the coolant in an FBR type reactor to enter from the entrance nozzle into a nuclear fuel assembly without causing cavitation. Structure: In a nuclear fuel assembly, which comprises a number of thin fuel pines bundled together at a uniform spacing and enclosed within an outer cylinder, with a handling head connected to an upper portion of the outer cylinder and an entrance nozzle connected to a lower portion of the cylinder, the inner surface of the entrance nozzle is provided with a buffer member and an orifice successively in the direction of flow of the coolant. The coolant entering from a low pressure coolant chamber into the entrance nozzle strikes the buffer member and is attenuated, and thereafter flows through an orifice into the outer cylinder. (Horiuchi, T.)

  4. Nuclear fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirama, H.

    1978-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element comprises an elongated tube having upper and lower end plugs fixed to both ends thereof and nuclear fuel pellets contained within the tube. The fuel pellets are held against the lower end plug by a spring which is supported by a setting structure. The setting structure is maintained at a proper position at the middle of the tube by a wedge effect caused by spring force exerted by the spring against a set of balls coacting with a tapered member of the setting structure thereby wedging the balls against the inner wall of the tube, and the setting structure is moved free by pushing with a push bar against the spring force so as to release the wedge effect

  5. Integral nuclear fuel element assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schluderberg, D. C.

    1985-01-01

    An integral nuclear fuel element assembly utilizes longitudinally finned fuel pins. The continuous or interrupted fins of the fuel pins are brazed to fins of juxtaposed fuel pins or directly to the juxtaposed fuel pins or both. The integrally brazed fuel assembly is designed to satisfy the thermal and hydraulic requirements of a fuel assembly lattice having moderator to fuel atom ratios required to achieve high conversion and breeding ratios

  6. Nuclear fuel cycle techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pecqueur, Michel; Taranger, Pierre

    1975-01-01

    The production of fuels for nuclear power plants involves five principal stages: prospecting of uranium deposits (on the ground, aerial, geochemical, geophysical, etc...); extraction and production of natural uranium from the deposits (U content of ores is not generally high and a chemical processing is necessary to obtain U concentrates); production of 235 U enriched uranium for plants utilizing this type of fuel (a description is given of the gaseous diffusion process widely used throughout the world and particularly in France); manufacture of suitable fuel elements for the different plants; reprocessing of spent fuels for the purpose of not only recovering the fissile materials but also disposing safely of the fission products and other wastes [fr

  7. Nuclear reactor fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vikhorev, Yu.V.; Biryukov, G.I.; Kirilyuk, N.A.; Lobanov, V.N.

    1977-01-01

    A fuel assembly is proposed for nuclear reactors allowing remote replacement of control rod bundles or their shifting from one assembly to another, i.e., their multipurpose use. This leads to a significant increase in fuel assembly usability. In the fuel assembly the control rod bundle is placed in guide tube channels to which baffles are attached for fuel element spacing. The remote handling of control rods is provided by a hollow cylinder with openings in its lower bottom through which the control rods pass. All control rods in a bundle are mounted to a cross beam which in turn is mounted in the cylinder and is designed for grasping the whole rod bundle by a remotely controlled telescopic mechanism in bundle replacement or shifting. (Z.M.)

  8. Experience with nuclear fuel utilization in Bulgaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harizanov, Y [Committee on the Use of Atomic Energy for Peaceful Purposes, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1997-12-01

    The presentation on experience with nuclear fuel utilization in Bulgaria briefly reviews the situation with nuclear energy in Bulgaria and then discusses nuclear fuel performance (amount of fuel loaded, type of fuel, burnup, fuel failures, assemblies deformation). 2 tabs.

  9. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Indiana Transportation Data for Alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    (nameplate, MW) 1,430 Source: BioFuels Atlas from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory Case Studies Video Alternative Fuels Save Money in Indy April 1, 2012 More Case Studies Videos Text Version More Indiana Videos on YouTube Video thumbnail for Indiana Beverage Company Invests in Alternative Fuels Indiana Beverage

  10. Nuclear fuel cycle system analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, W. I.; Kwon, E. H.; Kim, S. G.; Park, B. H.; Song, K. C.; Song, D. Y.; Lee, H. H.; Chang, H. L.; Jeong, C. J.

    2012-04-01

    The nuclear fuel cycle system analysis method has been designed and established for an integrated nuclear fuel cycle system assessment by analyzing various methodologies. The economics, PR(Proliferation Resistance) and environmental impact evaluation of the fuel cycle system were performed using improved DB, and finally the best fuel cycle option which is applicable in Korea was derived. In addition, this research is helped to increase the national credibility and transparency for PR with developing and fulfilling PR enhancement program. The detailed contents of the work are as follows: 1)Establish and improve the DB for nuclear fuel cycle system analysis 2)Development of the analysis model for nuclear fuel cycle 3)Preliminary study for nuclear fuel cycle analysis 4)Development of overall evaluation model of nuclear fuel cycle system 5)Overall evaluation of nuclear fuel cycle system 6)Evaluate the PR for nuclear fuel cycle system and derive the enhancement method 7)Derive and fulfill of nuclear transparency enhancement method The optimum fuel cycle option which is economical and applicable to domestic situation was derived in this research. It would be a basis for establishment of the long-term strategy for nuclear fuel cycle. This work contributes for guaranteeing the technical, economical validity of the optimal fuel cycle option. Deriving and fulfillment of the method for enhancing nuclear transparency will also contribute to renewing the ROK-U.S Atomic Energy Agreement in 2014

  11. Alternate-Fueled Flight: Halophytes, Algae, Bio-, and Synthetic Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, R. C.

    2012-01-01

    Synthetic and biomass fueling are now considered to be near-term aviation alternate fueling. The major impediment is a secure sustainable supply of these fuels at reasonable cost. However, biomass fueling raises major concerns related to uses of common food crops and grasses (some also called "weeds") for processing into aviation fuels. These issues are addressed, and then halophytes and algae are shown to be better suited as sources of aerospace fuels and transportation fueling in general. Some of the history related to alternate fuels use is provided as a guideline for current and planned alternate fuels testing (ground and flight) with emphasis on biofuel blends. It is also noted that lessons learned from terrestrial fueling are applicable to space missions. These materials represent an update (to 2009) and additions to the Workshop on Alternate Fueling Sustainable Supply and Halophyte Summit at Twinsburg, Ohio, October 17 to 18, 2007.

  12. Nuclear fuel waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This film for a general audience deals with nuclear fuel waste management in Canada, where research is concentrating on land based geologic disposal of wastes rather than on reprocessing of fuel. The waste management programme is based on cooperation of the AECL, various universities and Ontario Hydro. Findings of research institutes in other countries are taken into account as well. The long-term effects of buried radioactive wastes on humans (ground water, food chain etc.) are carefully studied with the help of computer models. Animated sequences illustrate the behaviour of radionuclides and explain the idea of a multiple barrier system to minimize the danger of radiation hazards

  13. Nuclear fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The nuclear fuel assembly described includes a cluster of fuel elements supported at a distance from each other so that their axes are parallel in order to establish secondary channels between them reserved for the coolant. Several ducts for an auxiliary cooling fluid are arranged in the cluster. The wall of each duct is pierced with coolant ejection holes which are placed circumferentially to a pre-determined pattern established according to the position of the duct in the cluster and by the axial distance of the ejection hole along the duct. This assembly is intended for reactors cooled by light or heavy water [fr

  14. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fueling Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... More in this section... Ethanol Basics Benefits & Considerations Stations Locations Infrastructure fueling stations by location or along a route. Infrastructure Development Learn about ethanol fueling infrastructure; codes, standards, and safety; and ethanol equipment options. Maps & Data E85 Fueling Station

  15. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fueling Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locations Infrastructure Development Vehicles Laws & Incentives Biodiesel Fueling Stations Photo of a location or along a route. Infrastructure Development Learn about biodiesel fueling infrastructure codes Case Studies California Ramps Up Biofuels Infrastructure Green Fueling Station Powers Fleets in Upstate

  16. Nuclear fuel activities in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, D S [Fuel Development Branch, Chalk River Labs., AECL (Canada)

    1997-12-01

    Nuclear fuel activities in Canada are considered in the presentation on the following directions: Canadian utility fuel performance; CANDU owner`s group fuel programs; AECL advanced fuel program (high burnup fuel behaviour and development); Pu dispositioning (MOX) activities. 1 tab.

  17. Alternative Fabrication of Recycling Fast Reactor Metal Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ki-Hwan; Kim, Jong Hwan; Song, Hoon; Kim, Hyung-Tae; Lee, Chan-Bock

    2015-01-01

    Metal fuels such as U-Zr/U-Pu-Zr alloys have been considered as a nuclear fuel for a sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) related to the closed fuel cycle for managing minor actinides and reducing a high radioactivity levels since the 1980s. In order to develop innovative fabrication method of metal fuel for preventing the evaporation of volatile elements such as Am, modified casting under inert atmosphere has been applied for metal fuel slugs for SFR. Alternative fabrication method of fuel slugs has been introduced to develop an improved fabrication process of metal fuel for preventing the evaporation of volatile elements. In this study, metal fuel slugs for SFR have been fabricated by modified casting method, and characterized to evaluate the feasibility of the alternative fabrication method. In order to prevent evaporation of volatile elements such as Am and improve quality of fuel slugs, alternative fabrication methods of metal fuel slugs have been studied in KAERI. U-10Zr-5Mn fuel slug containing volatile surrogate element Mn was soundly cast by modified injection casting under modest pressure. Evaporation of Mn during alternative casting could not be detected by chemical analysis. Mn element was most recovered with prevention of evaporation by alternative casting. Modified injection casting has been selected as an alternative fabrication method in KAERI, considering evaporation prevention, and proven benefits of high productivity, high yield, and good remote control

  18. Reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, D.

    1985-01-01

    How should the decision in favour of reprocessing and against alternative waste management concepts be judged from an economic standpoint. Reprocessing is not imperative neither for resource-economic reasons nor for nuclear energy strategy reasons. On the contrary, the development of an ultimate storage concept representing a real alternative promising to close, within a short period of time, the nuclear fuel cycle at low cost. At least, this is the result of an extensive economic efficiency study recently submitted by the Energy Economics Institute which investigated all waste management concepts relevant for the Federal Republic of Germany in the long run, i.e. direct ultimate storage of spent fuel elements (''Other waste disposal technologies'' - AE) as well as reprocessing of spent fuel elements where re-usable plutonium and uranium are recovered and radioactive waste goes to ultimate storage (''Integrated disposal'' - IE). Despite such fairly evident results, the government of the Federal Republic of Germany has favoured the construction of a reprocessing plant. From an economic point of view there is no final answer to the question whether or not the argumentation is sufficient to justify the decision to construct a reprocessing plant. This is true for both the question of technical feasibility and issues of overriding significance of a political nature. (orig./HSCH) [de

  19. Alternative fuels: a Brazilian outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, J.R.; Serra, G.E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper focuses on studies and information related to the use of alternative fuels in Brazil. The first part of this paper deals with the economics of different biomass technologies. The analysis consists of a careful costing of all operations involved. The study deals with wood, sugar cane and cassava, since these crops are exploited for commercial purposes in Brazil. Corn, although a useful raw material for producing ethanol in the United States, is not used for this purpose in Brazil. The second part deals with the industrial technologies used to convert biomass into energy. We consider several forms of energy derived from biomass and evaluate the economics of the processes. When opportune, we compare costs with those of the North American market. Market analysis and displacement of conventional energy are the subject of the third part of the paper. While the cost of each product is evaluated in most cases; in others the current market price is used. Finally, we raise the issues of institutional problems and planning and offer some conclusions on the future of biomass as an alternative energy source. The technological discussion in this paper is based on the Brazilian experience in producing ethanol and other fuels from biomass. It is possible to extrapolate the Brazilian experience to other developing countries. The observations made in this chapter are based on the conditions prevalent in the Brazilian south-central agricultural region, specifically the state of Sao Paulo. (author). 91 refs., 16 figs., 11 tabs

  20. Nuclear fuel brokerage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, J.; Schreiber, K.

    1985-01-01

    Making available nuclear fuels on the spot market, especially uranium in various compounds and processing stages, has become an important service rendered nuclear power plant operators. A secondary market has grown, both for natural uranium and for separative work, the conditions and transactions of which require a comprehensive overview of what is going on, especially also in connection with possibilities to terminate in a profitable manner existing contracts. This situation has favored the activity of brokers with excellent knowledge of the market, who are able to handle the complicated terms and conditions in an optimum way. (orig.) [de

  1. Nuclear spent fuel management. Experience and options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    Spent nuclear fuel can be stored safely for long periods at relatively low cost, but some form of permanent disposal will eventually be necessary. This report examines the options for spent fuel management, explores the future prospects for each stage of the back-end of the fuel cycle and provides a thorough review of past experience and the technical status of the alternatives. Current policies and practices in twelve OECD countries are surveyed

  2. Sustainability Features of Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Passerini

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The nuclear fuel cycle is the series of stages that nuclear fuel materials go through in a cradle to grave framework. The Once Through Cycle (OTC is the current fuel cycle implemented in the United States; in which an appropriate form of the fuel is irradiated through a nuclear reactor only once before it is disposed of as waste. The discharged fuel contains materials that can be suitable for use as fuel. Thus, different types of fuel recycling technologies may be introduced in order to more fully utilize the energy potential of the fuel, or reduce the environmental impacts and proliferation concerns about the discarded fuel materials. Nuclear fuel cycle systems analysis is applied in this paper to attain a better understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of fuel cycle alternatives. Through the use of the nuclear fuel cycle analysis code CAFCA (Code for Advanced Fuel Cycle Analysis, the impact of a number of recycling technologies and the associated fuel cycle options is explored in the context of the U.S. energy scenario over 100 years. Particular focus is given to the quantification of Uranium utilization, the amount of Transuranic Material (TRU generated and the economics of the different options compared to the base-line case, the OTC option. It is concluded that LWRs and the OTC are likely to dominate the nuclear energy supply system for the period considered due to limitations on availability of TRU to initiate recycling technologies. While the introduction of U-235 initiated fast reactors can accelerate their penetration of the nuclear energy system, their higher capital cost may lead to continued preference for the LWR-OTC cycle.

  3. Compact nuclear fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiselev, V.V.; Churakov, Yu.A.; Danchenko, Yu.V.; Bylkin, B.K.; Tsvetkov, S.V.

    1983-01-01

    Different constructions of racks for compact storage of spent fuel assemblies (FA) in ''coolin''g pools (CP) of NPPs with the BWR and PWR type reactors are described. Problems concerning nuclear and radiation safety and provision of necessary thermal conditions arising in such rack design are discussed. It is concluded that the problem of prolonged fuel storage at NPPs became Very actual for many countries because of retapdation of the rates of fuel reprocessing centers building. Application of compact storage racks is a promising solution of the problem of intermediate FA storage at NPPs. Such racks of stainless boron steel and with neutron absorbers in the from of boron carbide panels enable to increase the capacity of the present CP 2-2.6 times, and the period of FA storage in them up to 5-10 years

  4. Nuclear reactor fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    A description is given of a nuclear reactor fuel assembly comprising a cluster of fuel elements supported by transversal grids so that their axes are parallel to and at a distance from each other, in order to establish interstices for the axial flow of a coolant. At least one of the interstices is occupied by an axial duct reserved for an auxiliary cooling fluid and is fitted with side holes through which the auxiliary cooling fluid is sprayed into the cluster. Deflectors extend as from a transversal grid in a position opposite the holes to deflect the cooling fluid jet towards those parts of the fuel elements that are not accessible to the auxiliary coolant. This assembly is intended for reactors cooled by light or heavy water [fr

  5. Nuclear fuel pin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, Kenneth; Moulding, T.L.J.; Rostron, Norman.

    1979-01-01

    Fuel pin for use in fast breeder nuclear reactors containing fissile and fertile areas of which the fissile and fertile materials do not mix. The fissile material takes the shape of large and small diameter microspheres (the small diameter microspheres can pass through the interstices between the large microspheres). The barrier layers being composed of microspheres with a diameter situated between those of the large and small microspheres ensure that the materials do not mix [fr

  6. Vented nuclear fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oguma, M.; Hirose, Y.

    1976-01-01

    A description is given of a vented nuclear fuel element having a plenum for accumulation of fission product gases and plug means for delaying the release of the fission product gases from the plenum, the plug means comprising a first porous body wettable with a liquid metal and a second porous body non-wettable with the liquid metal, the first porous body being impregnated with the liquid metal and in contact with the liquid metal

  7. Nuclear reactor fuel element splitter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeo, D.

    1976-01-01

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for removing nuclear fuel from a clad fuel element. The fuel element is power driven past laser beams which simultaneously cut the cladding lengthwise into at least two longitudinal pieces. The axially cut lengths of cladding are then separated, causing the nuclear fuel contained therein to drop into a receptacle for later disposition. The cut lengths of cladding comprise nuclear waste which is disposed of in a suitable manner. 6 claims, 10 drawing figures

  8. An alternative nuclear program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldemberg, J.

    1981-01-01

    An analysis of the development of nuclear energy in Brazil is made since its beginning, showing the fundamental policy changes introduced in the end of the 60's with the purchase of the Angra dos Reis I reactor. This decision discouraged the existing efforts of an autonomous development in nuclear energy. The reaction to this policy led to the Nuclear Deal with Germany, which although incorporating some positive aspects is nor capable to lead to nuclear independence. The presently existing options are discussed, as well as the transformation of the Nuclear Program in a R and D Program based only in the reactors I, II and III, located in Angra dos Reis. (Author) [pt

  9. Alternative Nuclear Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldemberg, J.

    1982-01-01

    An analysis of the development of nuclear energy in Brazil is made since its beginning, showing the fundamental policy changes introduced in the end of the 60's with the purchase of the Angra dos Reis I reactor. This decision discouraged the existing efforts of an autonomous development in nuclear energy. The reaction to this policy led to the Nuclear Deal with Germany, which although incorporating some positive aspects is not capable to lead to nuclear independence. The presently existing options are discussed, as well as the transformation of the Nuclear Program in a R and D Program based only in the reactors I, II and III, located in Angra dos Reis. (Author) [pt

  10. Alternative Fuels Market and Policy Trends (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, A. N.

    2013-09-01

    Market forces and policies are increasing opportunities for alternative fuels. There is no one-size-fits-all, catch-all, silver-bullet fuel. States play a critical role in the alternative fuel market and are taking a leading role.

  11. Development of alternative fuel for pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, P.E.; Ferreira, R.A.N.; Ferraz, W.B.; Lameiras, F.S.; Santos, A.; Assis, G. de; Doerr, W.O.; Wehner, E.L.

    1984-01-01

    The utilization of alternative fuel cycles in Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) such as Th/U and Th/Pu cycles can permit a better utilization of uranium reserves without the necessity of developing new power reactor concepts. The development of the technology of alternative fuels for PWR is one of the objectives of the 'Program on Thorium Utilization in Pressurized Water Reactors' carried out jointly by Empresas Nucleares Brasileiras S.A. (NUCLEBRAS), through its Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN) and by German institutions, the Julich Nuclear Research Center (KFA), the Kraftwerk Union A.G. (KWU) and NUKEM GmbH. This paper summarizes the results so far obtained in the fuel technology. The development of a fabrication process for PWR fuel pellets from gel-microspheres is reported as well as the design, the specification, and the fabrication of prototype fuel rods for irradiation tests. (Author) [pt

  12. Nuclear fuel handling apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrea, C.; Dupen, C.F.G.; Noyes, R.C.

    1977-01-01

    A fuel handling machine for a liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor in which a retractable handling tube and gripper are lowered into the reactor to withdraw a spent fuel assembly into the handling tube. The handling tube containing the fuel assembly immersed in liquid sodium is then withdrawn completely from the reactor into the outer barrel of the handling machine. The machine is then used to transport the spent fuel assembly directly to a remotely located decay tank. The fuel handling machine includes a decay heat removal system which continuously removes heat from the interior of the handling tube and which is capable of operating at its full cooling capacity at all times. The handling tube is supported in the machine from an articulated joint which enables it to readily align itself with the correct position in the core. An emergency sodium supply is carried directly by the machine to provide make up in the event of a loss of sodium from the handling tube during transport to the decay tank. 5 claims, 32 drawing figures

  13. Management of Spent Nuclear Fuel from Nuclear Power Plant Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wati, Nurokhim

    2008-01-01

    Management of spent nuclear fuel from Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) reactor had been studied to anticipate program of NPP operation in Indonesia. In this paper the quantity of generated spent nuclear fuel (SNF) is predicted based on the national electrical demand, power grade and type of reactor. Data was estimated using Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) NPP type 1.000 MWe and the SNF management overview base on the experiences of some countries that have NPP. There are four strategy nuclear fuel cycle which can be developed i.e: direct disposal, reprocessing, DUPlC (Direct Use of Spent PWR Fuel In Candu) and wait and see. There are four alternative for SNF management i.e : storage at the reactor building (AR), away from reactor (AFR) using wet centralized storage, dry centralized storage AFR and prepare for reprocessing facility. For the Indonesian case, centralized facility of the wet type is recommended for PWR or BWR spent fuel. (author)

  14. South Korea's nuclear fuel industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, R.G.

    1990-01-01

    March 1990 marked a major milestone for South Korea's nuclear power program, as the country became self-sufficient in nuclear fuel fabrication. The reconversion line (UF 6 to UO 2 ) came into full operation at the Korea Nuclear Fuel Company's fabrication plant, as the last step in South Korea's program, initiated in the mid-1970s, to localize fuel fabrication. Thus, South Korea now has the capability to produce both CANDU and pressurized water reactor (PWR) fuel assemblies. This article covers the nuclear fuel industry in South Korea-how it is structures, its current capabilities, and its outlook for the future

  15. Alternative fuels, fuel cycles, and reactors: are they useful. are they necessary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinrad, B.I.

    1985-01-01

    This chapter discusses reactors, fuel cycles, and fuel production concepts other than those considered conventional in the nuclear community. An attempt is made to look for improvements with the aim of providing cheaper and more durable energy systems, and to contribute toward a solution of the threat of weapons material diversion and weapons proliferation problems. Topics considered include breeding, alternate breeder cycles, alternative reprocessing schemes, symbiotic reactor systems, an interim strategy, and other sources of nuclear fuel. It is determined that the reprocessing of spent fuel is an important safeguard measure in itself

  16. Nuclear fuel rod loading apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, H.B.

    1981-01-01

    A nuclear fuel loading apparatus, incorporating a microprocessor control unit, is described which automatically loads nuclear fuel pellets into dual fuel rods with a minimum of manual involvement and in a manner and sequence to ensure quality control and accuracy. (U.K.)

  17. Alternate-Fueled Combustion-Sector Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Nikita T.; Thomas, Anna E.; Shouse, Dale T.; Neuroth, Craig; Hendricks, Robert C.; Lynch, Amy; Frayne, Charles W.; Stutrud, Jeffrey S.; Corporan, Edwin; Hankins, Terry

    2012-01-01

    In order to meet rapidly growing demand for fuel, as well as address environmental concerns, the aviation industry has been testing alternate fuels for performance and technical usability in commercial and military aircraft. Currently, alternate aviation fuels must satisfy MIL-DTL- 83133F(2008) (military) or ASTM D 7566- Annex(2011) (commercial) standards and are termed drop-in fuel replacements. Fuel blends of up to 50% alternative fuel blended with petroleum (JP-8), which have become a practical alternative, are individually certified on the market. In order to make alternate fuels (and blends) a viable option for aviation, the fuel must be able to perform at a similar or higher level than traditional petroleum fuel. They also attempt to curb harmful emissions, and therefore a truly effective alternate fuel would emit at or under the level of currently used fuel. This paper analyzes data from gaseous and particulate emissions of an aircraft combustor sector. The data were evaluated at various inlet conditions, including variation in pressure and temperature, fuel-to-air ratios, and percent composition of alternate fuel. Traditional JP-8+100 data were taken as a baseline, and blends of JP- 8+100 with synthetic-paraffinic-kerosene (SPK) fuel (Fischer-Tropsch (FT)) were used for comparison. Gaseous and particulate emissions, as well as flame luminosity, were assessed for differences between FT composition of 0%, 50%, and 100%. The data showed that SPK fuel (a FT-derived fuel) had slightly lower harmful gaseous emissions, and smoke number information corroborated the hypothesis that SPK-FT fuels are cleaner burning fuels.

  18. Development of System Engineering Technology for Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hodong; Choi, Iljae

    2013-04-01

    The development of efficient process for spent fuel and establishment of system engineering technology to demonstrate the process are required to develop nuclear energy continuously. The demonstration of pyroprocess technology which is proliferation resistance nuclear fuel cycle technology can reduce spent fuel and recycle effectively. Through this, people's trust and support on nuclear power would be obtained. Deriving the optimum nuclear fuel cycle alternative would contribute to establish a policy on back-end nuclear fuel cycle in the future, and developing the nuclear transparency-related technology would contribute to establish amendments of the ROK-U. S. Atomic Energy Agreement scheduled in 2014

  19. Alternative fossil-based transportation fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    "Alternative fuels derived from oil sands and from coal liquefaction can cost-effectively diversify fuel supplies, but neither type significantly reduces U.S. carbon-dioxide emissions enough to arrest long-term climate change".

  20. Future trends in nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guitierrez, J.E.

    2006-01-01

    This series of transparencies presents: the fuel management cycle and key areas (security of supplies, strategies and core management, reliability, spent fuel management), the world nuclear generating capacity, concentrate capacity, enrichment capacity, and manufacturing capacity forecasts, the fuel cycle strategies and core management (longer cycles, higher burnups, power up-rates, higher enrichments), the Spanish nuclear generation cost, the fuel reliability (no defects, robust designs, operational margins, integrated fuel and core design), spent fuel storage (design and safety criteria, fuel performance and integrity). (J.S.)

  1. Nuclear fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwano, Yoshihiko.

    1993-01-01

    Microfine cracks having a depth of less than 10% of a pipe thickness are disposed radially from a central axis each at an interval of less than 100 micron over the entire inner circumferential surface of a zirconium alloy fuel cladding tube. For manufacturing such a nuclear fuel element, the inside of the cladding tube is at first filled with an electrolyte solution of potassium chloride. Then, electrolysis is conducted using the cladding tube as an anode and the electrolyte solution as a cathode, and the inner surface of the cladding tube with a zirconium dioxide layer having a predetermined thickness. Subsequently, the cladding tube is laid on a smooth steel plate and lightly compressed by other smooth steel plate to form microfine cracks in the zirconium dioxide layer on the inner surface of the cladding tube. Such a compressing operation is continuously applied to the cladding tube while rotating the cladding tube. This can inhibit progress of cracks on the inner surface of the cladding tube, thereby enabling to prevent failure of the cladding tube even if a pellet/cladding tube mechanical interaction is applied. Accordingly, reliability of the nuclear fuel elements is improved. (I.N.)

  2. Isoprenoid based alternative diesel fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Taek Soon; Peralta-Yahya, Pamela; Keasling, Jay D.

    2015-08-18

    Fuel compositions are provided comprising a hydrogenation product of a monocyclic sesquiterpene (e.g., hydrogenated bisabolene) and a fuel additive. Methods of making and using the fuel compositions are also disclosed. ##STR00001##

  3. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Virginia Transportation Data for Alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    /2018 Biodiesel and Green Diesel Definitions updated 4/9/2018 Data Download Fueling Stations 706 stations in Virginia with alternative fuels Fuel Public Private Biodiesel (B20 and above) 1 9 Compressed unit sold per GGE per unit sold per GGE Biodiesel (B20) $2.47/gallon $2.25/GGE $2.84/gallon $2.58/GGE

  4. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Maine Transportation Data for Alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel-Blended Diesel Documentation Requirement Data Download Fueling Stations 149 stations in Maine with alternative fuels Fuel Public Private Biodiesel (B20 and above) 2 1 Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) 0 2 Electric ://www.youtube.com/embed/jHftlruFR40 Video thumbnail for Maine's Only Biodiesel Manufacturer Powers Fleets in the

  5. Nuclear fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armijo, J.S.

    1977-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element for use in the core of a nuclear reactor is disclosed which has a composite cladding having a substrate, a metal barrier metallurgically bonded to the inside surface of the substrate and an inner layer metallurgically bonded to the inside surface of the metal barrier. In this composite cladding, the inner layer and the metal barrier shield the substrate from any impurities or fission products from the nuclear fuel material held within the composite cladding. The metal barrier forms about 1 to about 4 percent of the thickness of the cladding and is comprised of a metal selected from the group consisting of niobium, aluminum, copper, nickel, stainless steel, and iron. The inner layer and then the metal barrier serve as reaction sites for volatile impurities and fission products and protect the substrate from contact and reaction with such impurities and fission products. The substrate and the inner layer of the composite cladding are selected from conventional cladding materials and preferably are a zirconium alloy. Also in a preferred embodiment the substrate and the inner layer are comprised of the same material, preferably a zirconium alloy. 19 claims, 2 figures

  6. Improved nuclear fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The invention is of a nuclear fuel element which comprises a central core of a body of nuclear fuel material selected from the group consisting of compounds of uranium, plutonium, thorium and mixtures thereof, and an elongated composite cladding container comprising a zirconium alloy tube containing constituents other than zirconium in an amount greater than about 5000 parts per million by weight and an undeformed metal barrier of moderate purity zirconium bonded to the inside surface of the alloy tube. The container encloses the core so as to leave a gap between the container and the core during use in a nuclear reactor. The metal barrier is of moderate purity zirconium with an impurity level on a weight basis of at least 1000ppm and less than 5000ppm. Impurity levels of specific elements are given. Variations of the invention are also specified. The composite cladding reduces chemical interaction, minimizes localized stress and strain corrosion and reduces the likelihood of a splitting failure in the zirconium alloy tube. Other benefits are claimed. (U.K.)

  7. Alternatives to traditional transportation fuels 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-01-01

    In recent years, gasoline and diesel fuel have accounted for about 80 percent of total transportation fuel and nearly all of the fuel used in on-road vehicles. Growing concerns about the environmental effects of fossil fuel use and the Nation`s high level of dependence on foreign oil are providing impetus for the development of replacements or alternatives for these traditional transportation fuels. (The Energy Policy Act of 1992 definitions of {open_quotes}replacement{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}alternative{close_quotes} fuels are presented in the following box.) The Alternative Motor Fuels Act of 1988, the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA90) and the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT) are significant legislative forces behind the growth of replacement fuel use. Alternatives to Traditional Transportation Fuels 1993 provides the number of on-road alternative fueled vehicles in use in the United States, alternative and replacement fuel consumption, and information on greenhouse gas emissions resulting from the production, delivery, and use of replacement fuels for 1992, 1993, and 1995.

  8. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Related Links

    Science.gov (United States)

    marketing zero-emission proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells for transportation and power generation production and use. Energy Management Institute The Energy Management Institute publishes the Alternative

  9. Quality management of nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The Guide presents the quality management requirements to be complied with in the procurement, design, manufacture, transport, receipt, storage, handling and operation of nuclear fuel. The Guide also applies to control rods and shield elements to be placed in the reactor. The Guide is mainly aimed for the licensee responsible for the procurement and operation of fuel, for the fuel designer and manufacturer and for other organisations, whose activities affect fuel quality and the safety of fuel transport, storage and operation. General requirements for nuclear fuel are presented in Section 114 of the Finnish Nuclear Energy Decree and in Section 15 of the Government Decision (395/1991). Regulatory control of the safety of fuel is described in Guides YVL6.1, YVL6.2 and YVL6.3. An overview of the regulatory control of nuclear power plants carried out by STUK (Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Finland) is clarified in Guide YVL1.1

  10. Alternative Fuel News, Volume 4, Number 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ficker, C.

    2000-11-14

    This issue of Alternative Fuel News focuses on transit buses and refuse haulers. Many transit agencies and waste management companies are investigating alternatives to traditional diesel buses and refuse haulers.

  11. Alternate-Fueled Combustor-Sector Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Nikita T.; Thomas, Anna E.; Shouse, Dale T.; Neuroth, Craig; Hendricks, Robert C.; Lynch, Amy; Frayne, Charles W.; Stutrud, Jeffrey S.; Corporan, Edwin; Hankins, Terry

    2013-01-01

    In order to meet rapidly growing demand for fuel, as well as address environmental concerns, the aviation industry has been testing alternate fuels for performance and technical usability in commercial and military aircraft. In order to make alternate fuels (and blends) a viable option for aviation, the fuel must be able to perform at a similar or higher level than traditional petroleum fuel. They also attempt to curb harmful emissions, and therefore a truly effective alternate fuel would emit at or under the level of currently used fuel. This report analyzes data from gaseous and particulate emissions of an aircraft combustor sector. The data were evaluated at various inlet conditions, including variation in pressure and temperature, fuel-to-air ratios, and percent composition of alternate fuel. Traditional JP-8+100 data were taken as a baseline, and blends of JP-8+100 with synthetic-paraffinic-kerosene (SPK) fuel (Fischer-Tropsch (FT)) were used for comparison. Gaseous and particulate emissions, as well as flame luminosity, were assessed for differences between FT composition of 0, 50, and 100 percent. The data show that SPK fuel (an FT-derived fuel) had slightly lower harmful gaseous emissions, and smoke number information corroborated the hypothesis that SPK-FT fuels are cleaner burning fuels.

  12. Nuclear power and the nuclear fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1976-07-01

    The IAEA is organizing a major conference on nuclear power and the nuclear fuel cycle, which is to be held from 2 to 13 May 1977 in Salzburg, Austria. The programme for the conference was published in the preceding issue of the IAEA Bulletin (Vol.18, No. 3/4). Topics to be covered at the conference include: world energy supply and demand, supply of nuclear fuel and fuel cycle services, radioactivity management (including transport), nuclear safety, public acceptance of nuclear power, safeguarding of nuclear materials, and nuclear power prospects in developing countries. The articles in the section that follows are intended to serve as an introduction to the topics to be discussed at the Salzburg Conference. They deal with the demand for uranium and nuclear fuel cycle services, uranium supplies, a computer simulation of regional fuel cycle centres, nuclear safety codes, management of radioactive wastes, and a pioneering research project on factors that determine public attitudes toward nuclear power. It is planned to present additional background articles, including a review of the world nuclear fuel reprocessing situation and developments in the uranium enrichment industry, in future issues of the Bulletin. (author)

  13. Nuclear fuel supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1960-01-01

    When the International Atomic Energy Agency was set up nearly three years ago, it was widely believed that it would soon become a world bank or broker for the supply of nuclear fuel. Some observers now seem to feel that this promise has been rather slow to come to fruition. A little closer analysis would, however, show that the promise can be fulfilled only in a certain objective context, and to the extent that this context exists, the development of the Agency's role has been commensurate with the actual needs of the situation

  14. Nuclear fuel conversion and fabrication chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerch, R.E.; Norman, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    Following irradiation and reprocessing of nuclear fuel, two operations are performed to prepare the fuel for subsequent reuse as fuel: fuel conversion, and fuel fabrication. These operations complete the classical nuclear fuel cycle. Fuel conversion involves generating a solid form suitable for fabrication into nuclear fuel. For plutonium based fuels, either a pure PuO 2 material or a mixed PuO 2 -UO 2 fuel material is generated. Several methods are available for preparation of the pure PuO 2 including: oxalate or peroxide precipitation; or direct denitration. Once the pure PuO 2 is formed, it is fabricated into fuel by mechanically blending it with ceramic grade UO 2 . The UO 2 can be prepared by several methods which include direct denitration. ADU precipitation, AUC precipitation, and peroxide precipitation. Alternatively, UO 2 -PuO 2 can be generated directly using coprecipitation, direct co-denitration, or gel sphere processes. In coprecipitation, uranium and plutonium are either precipitated as ammonium diuranate and plutonium hydroxide or as a mixture of ammonium uranyl-plutonyl carbonate, filtered and dried. In direct thermal denitration, solutions of uranium and plutonium nitrates are heated causing concentration and, subsequently, direct denitration. In gel sphere conversion, solutions of uranium and plutonium nitrate containing additives are formed into spherical droplets, gelled, washed and dried. Refabrication of these UO 3 -PuO 2 starting materials is accomplished by calcination-reduction to UO 2 -PuO 2 followed by pellet fabrication. (orig.)

  15. Regulation at nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This bulletin contains information about activities of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (UJD). In this leaflet the role of the UJD in regulation at nuclear fuel cycle is presented. The Nuclear Fuel Cycle (NFC) is a complex of activities linked with production of nuclear fuel for nuclear reactors as a source of energy used for production of electricity and heat, and of activities linked with spent nuclear fuel handling. Activities linked with nuclear fuel (NF) production, known as the Front-End of Nuclear Fuel Cycle, include (production of nuclear fuel from uranium as the most frequently used element). After discharging spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from nuclear reactor the activities follow linked with its storage, reprocessing and disposal known as the Back-End of Nuclear Fuel Cycle. Individual activity, which penetrates throughout the NFC, is transport of nuclear materials various forms during NF production and transport of NF and SNF. Nuclear reactors are installed in the Slovak Republic only in commercial nuclear power plants and the NFC is of the open type is imported from abroad and SNF is long-term supposed without reprocessing. The main mission of the area of NFC is supervision over: - assurance of nuclear safety throughout all NFC activities; - observance of provisions of the Treaty on Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons during nuclear material handling; with an aim to prevent leakage of radioactive substances into environment (including deliberated danage of NFC sensitive facilities and misuse of nuclear materials to production of nuclear weapons. The UJD carries out this mission through: - assessment of safety documentation submitted by operators of nuclear installations at which nuclear material, NF and SNF is handled; - inspections concentrated on assurance of compliance of real conditions in NFC, i.e. storage and transport of NF and SNF; storage, transport and disposal of wastes from processing of SNF; with assumptions of the safety

  16. Nuclear power generation and nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okajima, Yasujiro

    1985-01-01

    As of June 30, 1984, in 25 countries, 311 nuclear power plants of about 209 million kW were in operation. In Japan, 27 plants of about 19 million kW were in operation, and Japan ranks fourth in the world. The present state of nuclear power generation and nuclear fuel cycle is explained. The total uranium resources in the free world which can be mined at the cost below $130/kgU are about 3.67 million t, and it was estimated that the demand up to about 2015 would be able to be met. But it is considered also that the demand and supply of uranium in the world may become tight at the end of 1980s. The supply of uranium to Japan is ensured up to about 1995, and the yearly supply of 3000 st U 3 O 8 is expected in the latter half of 1990s. The refining, conversion and enrichment of uranium are described. In Japan, a pilot enrichment plant consisting of 7000 centrifuges has the capacity of about 50 t SWU/year. UO 2 fuel assemblies for LWRs, the working of Zircaloy, the fabrication of fuel assemblies, the quality assurance of nuclear fuel, the behavior of UO 2 fuel, the grading-up of LWRs and nuclear fuel, and the nuclear fuel business in Japan are reported. The reprocessing of spent fuel and plutonium fuel are described. (Kako, I.)

  17. Alternate aircraft fuels prospects and operational implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witcofski, R. D.

    1977-01-01

    The paper discusses NASA studies of the potentials of coal-derived aviation fuels, specifically synthetic aviation kerosene, liquid methane, and liquid hydrogen. Topics include areas of fuel production, air terminal requirements for aircraft fueling (for liquid hydrogen only), and the performance characteristics of aircraft designed to utilize alternate fuels. Energy requirements associated with the production of each of the three selected fuels are determined, and fuel prices are estimated. Subsonic commercial air transports using liquid hydrogen fuel have been analyzed, and their performance and the performance of aircraft which use commercial aviation kerosene are compared. Environmental and safety issues are considered.

  18. Comparison of alternate fuels for aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witcofski, R. D.

    1979-01-01

    A comparison of candidate alternate fuels for aircraft is presented. The fuels discussed include liquid hydrogen, liquid methane, and synthetic aviation kerosene. Each fuel is evaluated from the standpoint of production, transmission, airport storage and distribution facilities, and use in aircraft. Technology deficient areas for cryogenic fuels, which should be advanced prior to the introduction of the fuels into the aviation industry, are identified, as are the cost and energy penalties associated with not achieving those advances. Environmental emissions and safety aspects of fuel selection are discussed. A detailed description of the various fuel production and liquefaction processes and their efficiencies and economics is given.

  19. Financing the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephany, M.

    1975-01-01

    While conventional power stations usually have fossil fuel reserves for only a few weeks, nuclear power stations, because of the relatively long time required for uranium processing from ore extraction to the delivery of the fuel elements and their prolonged in-pile time, require fuel reserves for a period of several years. Although the specific fuel costs of nuclear power stations are much lower than those of conventional power stations, this results in consistently higher financial requirements. But the problems involved in financing the nuclear fuel do not only include the aspect of financing the requirements of reactor operators, but also of financing the facilities of the nuclear fuel cycle. As far as the fuel supply is concerned, the true financial requirements greatly exceed the mere purchasing costs because the costs of financing are rather high as a consequence of the long lead times. (orig./UA) [de

  20. Alternatives to traditional transportation fuels 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    Interest in alternative transportation fuels (ATF`s) has increased in recent years due to the drives for cleaner air and less dependence upon foreign oil. This report, Alternatives to Traditional Transportation Fuels 1996, provides information on ATFs, as well as the vehicles that consume them.

  1. Alternative Fuel News, Vol. 2, No. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Connor, K.; Riley, C.; Raye, M.

    1998-11-30

    This issue of Alternative Fuel News highlights the accomplishments of the Clean Cities coalitions during the past 5 years. Now Clean Cities advocates in city after city across the US are building stations and driving alternative fuel vehicles, in addition to enhancing public awareness.

  2. IAEA activities on nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basak, U.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper a brief description and the main objectives of IAEA Programme B on Nuclear fuel cycle are given. The following Coordinated Research Projects: 1) FUel performance at high burn-up and in ageing plant by management and optimisation of WAter Chemistry Technologies (FUWAC ); 2) Near Term and Promising Long Term Options for Deployment of Thorium Based Nuclear Energy; 3) Fuel Modelling (FUMEX-III) are shortly described. The data collected by the IAEA Expert Group of Fuel Failures in Water Cooled Reactors including information about fuel failure cause for PWR (1994-2006) and failure mechanisms for BWR fuel (1994-2006) are shown. The just published Fuel Failure Handbook as well as preparation of a Monograph on Zirconium including an overview of Zirconium for nuclear applications are presented. The current projects in Sub-programme B2 - Power Reactor Fuel Engineering are also listed

  3. Fuel cells : a viable fossil fuel alternative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paduada, M.

    2007-02-15

    This article presented a program initiated by Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) to develop proof-of-concept of underground mining vehicles powered by fuel cells in order to eliminate emissions. Recent studies on American and Canadian underground mines provided the basis for estimating the operational cost savings of switching from diesel to fuel cells. For the Canadian mines evaluated, the estimated ventilation system operating cost reductions ranged from 29 per cent to 75 per cent. In order to demonstrate the viability of a fuel cell-powered vehicle, NRCan has designed a modified Caterpillar R1300 loader with a 160 kW hybrid power plant in which 3 stacks of fuel cells deliver up to 90 kW continuously, and a nickel-metal hydride battery provides up to 70 kW. The battery subsystem transiently boosts output to meet peak power requirements and also accommodates regenerative braking. Traction for the loader is provided by a brushless permanent magnet traction motor. The hydraulic pump motor is capable of a 55 kW load continuously. The loader's hydraulic and traction systems are operated independently. Future fuel cell-powered vehicles designed by the program may include a locomotive and a utility vehicle. Future mines running their operations with hydrogen-fueled equipment may also gain advantages by employing fuel cells in the operation of handheld equipment such as radios, flashlights, and headlamps. However, the proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells used in the project are prohibitively expensive. The catalytic content of a fuel cell can add hundreds of dollars per kW of electric output. Production of catalytic precious metals will be strongly connected to the scale of use and acceptance of fuel cells in vehicles. In addition, the efficiency of hydrogen production and delivery is significantly lower than the well-to-tank efficiency of many conventional fuels. It was concluded that an adequate hydrogen infrastructure will be required for the mining industry

  4. Nuclear power fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havelka, S.; Jakesova, L.

    1982-01-01

    Economic problems are discussed of the fuel cycle (cost of the individual parts of the fuel cycle and the share of the fuel cycle in the price of 1 kWh), the technological problems of the fuel cycle (uranium ore mining and processing, uranium isotope enrichment, the manufacture of fuel elements, the building of long-term storage sites for spent fuel, spent fuel reprocessing, liquid and gaseous waste processing), and the ecologic aspects of the fuel cycle. (H.S.)

  5. Sulphur release from alternative fuel firing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortada Mut, Maria del Mar; Nørskov, Linda Kaare; Glarborg, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The cement industry has long been dependent on the use of fossil fuels, although a recent trend in replacing fossil fuels with alternative fuels has arisen. 1, 2 However, when unconverted or partly converted alternative fuels are admitted directly in the rotary kiln inlet, the volatiles released...... from the fuels may react with sulphates present in the hot meal to form SO 2 . Here Maria del Mar Cortada Mut and associates describe pilot and industrial scale experiments focusing on the factors that affect SO 2 release in the cement kiln inlet....

  6. Army Alternative Ground Fuels Qualification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-31

    Jet Fuel-Like Product Lignocellulose corn stover forest waste switchgrass sugarcane Fermentation Genetically Engineered Microbes Jet...Fuel-Like Product Bio-Crude Pyrolysis Dehydration Hydroprocessing Synthetic Biology Pyrolysis Alcohol Oligomerization Conventional

  7. Nuclear power and the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scurr, I.F.; Silver, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization maintains an ongoing assessment of the world's nuclear technology developments, as a core activity of its Strategic Plan. This publication reviews the current status of the nuclear power and the nuclear fuel cycle in Australia and around the world. Main issues discussed include: performances and economics of various types of nuclear reactors, uranium resources and requirements, fuel fabrication and technology, radioactive waste management. A brief account of the large international effort to demonstrate the feasibility of fusion power is also given. 11 tabs., ills

  8. Deep boreholes. An alternative for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel? Report from KASAM's question-and-answer session on 14-15 March 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-03-01

    On 14-15 March 2007, KASAM held a hearing for the purpose of thoroughly examining deep boreholes as a method for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. Some of the questions that were raised were: What are the technical, geological and hydrological premises and possibilities? What are the risks from different viewpoints and what values underlie different views of the potential and suitability of deep boreholes? This report is a summary of the seminar. KASAM has made a selection of contributions and questions from the debate that took place on the basis of their relevance to the purpose of the seminar. The report generally follows the chronological lecture-and debate format of the seminar, but has been edited according to different issues rather than according to when different persons spoke. Chapter 2 describes a number of premises and criteria in the Environmental Code's and the Nuclear Activities Act's requirements on alternatives reporting. The chapter also contains a description of what the deep borehole concept entails and a discussion of the geoscientific premises. In addition, the chapter describes how different values can influence the choice of final disposal method. Chapters 3-6 describe and discuss technology and long-term safety, the viewpoints of the supervisory authorities on deep boreholes and safety philosophy via lectures followed by questions by KASAM's questioners and the audience. On the evening of 14 March, representatives of the seven parliamentary parties discussed their preparations and standpoints for an upcoming national debate on the final disposal of nuclear waste. This discussion is also reproduced in the report as Chapter 7. The main points from a concluding panel debate and discussion are presented in Chapter 8. In conclusion, Chapter 9 contains some reflections on various arguments proffered during the question-and-answer session, questions on which agreement seems to exist, and where there are differences of opinion. Speakers

  9. Enabling alternate fuels for commercial aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    Daggett, D.

    2010-01-01

    The following reports on the past four years of work to examine the feasibility, sustainability and economic viability of developing a renewable, greenhouse-gas-neutral, liquid biofuel for commercial aircraft. The sharp increase in environmental concerns, such as global warming, as well as the volatile price fluctuations of fossil fuels, has ignited a search for alternative transportation fuels. However, commercial aircraft can not use present alternative fuels that are designed for ground...

  10. Alternative Fuel News, Vol. 2, No. 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NREL

    1999-05-20

    What's in store for alternative Fuels and advanced technology vehicles in the new millennium? The Clean Cities Coalitions now operate more than 240,000 alternative fuel vehicles in both public and private sectors and have access to more than 4,000 alternative refueling stations. DOE recently announced the selection of 15 proposals that will receive just under $1.7 million in financial assistance to help expand DOE's information dissemination and public outreach efforts for alternative fuels and advanced transportation technologies.

  11. Standardization of Alternative Fuels. Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-08-15

    There are different interpretations of the term 'alternative fuels', depending on the part of the world in which the definition is used. In this report, alternative fuels mainly stand for fuels that can replace gasoline and diesel oil and at the same time contribute to lowered emissions with impact on health, environment and climate. The use of alternative vehicle fuels has increased during the last 30 years. However, the increase has developed slowly and today the use is very limited, compared to the use of conventional fuels. Although, the use in some special applications, often in rather small geographical areas, can be somewhat larger. The main interest for alternative fuels has for a long time been driven by supply security issues and the possibility to reduce emissions with a negative impact on health and environment. However, the development of reformulated gasoline and low sulphur diesel oil has contributed to substantially decreased emissions from these fuels without using any alternative fuel. This has reduced the environmental impact driving force for the introduction of alternative fuels. In line with the increased interest for climate effects and the connections between these effects and the emission of greenhouse gases, and then primarily carbon dioxide, the interest for biomass based alternative fuels has increased during the 1990s. Even though one of the driving forces for alternative fuels is small today, alternative fuels are more commonly accepted than ever before. The European Commission has for example in May 2003 agreed on a directive for the promotion of the use of bio fuels. In the directive there are goals for the coming 7 years that will increase the use of alternative fuels in Europe rather dramatically, from below 1 percent now up to almost 6 percent of the total vehicle fuel consumption in 2010. The increased use of alternative fuels in Europe and the rest of the world will create a need for a common interpretation of what we

  12. Romanian nuclear fuel cycle development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapeanu, S.N.; Comsa, Olivia

    1998-01-01

    Romanian decision to introduce nuclear power was based on the evaluation of electricity demand and supply as well as a domestic resources assessment. The option was the introduction of CANDU-PHWR through a license agreement with AECL Canada. The major factors in this choice have been the need of diversifying the energy resources, the improvement the national industry and the independence of foreign suppliers. Romanian Nuclear Power Program envisaged a large national participation in Cernavoda NPP completion, in the development of nuclear fuel cycle facilities and horizontal industry, in R and D and human resources. As consequence, important support was being given to development of industries involved in Nuclear Fuel Cycle and manufacturing of equipment and nuclear materials based on technology transfer, implementation of advanced design execution standards, QA procedures and current nuclear safety requirements at international level. Unit 1 of the first Romanian nuclear power plant, Cernavoda NPP with a final profile 5x700 Mw e, is now in operation and its production represents 10% of all national electricity production. There were also developed all stages of FRONT END of Nuclear Fuel Cycle as well as programs for spent fuel and waste management. Industrial facilities for uranian production, U 3 O 8 concentrate, UO 2 powder and CANDU fuel bundles, as well as heavy water plant, supply the required fuel and heavy water for Cernavoda NPP. The paper presents the Romanian activities in Nuclear Fuel Cycle and waste management fields. (authors)

  13. Reactor Structure Materials: Nuclear Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sannen, L.; Verwerft, M.

    2000-01-01

    Progress and achievements in 1999 in SCK-CEN's programme on applied and fundamental nuclear fuel research in 1999 are reported. Particular emphasis is on thermochemical fuel research, the modelling of fission gas release in LWR fuel as well as on integral experiments

  14. Burnable absorber coated nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chubb, W.; Radford, K.C.; Parks, B.H.

    1984-01-01

    A nuclear fuel body which is at least partially covered by a burnable neutron absorber layer is provided with a hydrophobic overcoat generally covering the burnable absorber layer and bonded directly to it. In a method for providing a UO 2 fuel pellet with a zirconium diboride burnable poison layer, the fuel body is provided with an intermediate niobium layer. (author)

  15. The fuel of nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    This booklet is a presentation of the different steps of the preparation of nuclear fuels performed by Cogema. The documents starts with a presentation of the different French reactor types: graphite moderated reactors, PWRs using MOX fuel, fast breeder reactors and research reactors. The second part describes the fuel manufacturing process: conditioning of nuclear materials and fabrication of fuel assemblies. The third part lists the different companies involved in the French nuclear fuel industry while part 4 gives a short presentation of the two Cogema's fuel fabrication plants at Cadarache and Marcoule. Part 5 and 6 concern the quality assurance, the safety and reliability aspects of fuel elements and the R and D programs. The last part presents some aspects of the environmental and personnel protection performed by Cogema. (J.S.)

  16. Use of nuclear fusion systems for spent nuclear fuel degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieto, M.; Ramos, G.; Herrera V, J. J. E.

    2009-10-01

    One of the severe problems of the nuclear industry that should be resolved to facilitate its acceptance like viable energy alternative is of the wastes. In spite of having alternative of fuel reprocessing, many of them have been abandoned by economic or security reasons. In the present work, the alternative is described for using reactors of nuclear fusion as sources of fast neutrons with two important applications in mind: the plutonium burning and the transmutation of the elements that contribute in way more important to their radioactivity, mainly the smaller actinides and the fission products of long half life. (Author)

  17. Multinational alternatives and nuclear nonproliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheinman, L.

    1981-01-01

    The use of multinational institutional arrangements to control sensitive nuclear-fuel-cycle activities has interested policymakers since the dawn of the nuclear age. Several such ventures have been tried in the past, largely for economic, commercial, or technical reasons, and they have enjoyed varying degrees of success. More recently, with the spread of sensitive nuclear technologies, multinational arrangements have received increasing attention as a means of reinforcing international safeguards which, together with political commitments on peaceful use, have been the principal components of the nonproliferation regime. The political acceptability and efficacy of multinational arrangements is related to the historic experience with multinational ventures, the changed political circumstances of the 1970s, and the probable requirements for constructive future cooperation. As part of a comprehensive regime covering the development of sensitive nuclear activities, multinational arrangements can reinforce the regime in a manner that is widely acceptable. A political effort to win support for such arrangements is thus worthwhile. 29 references

  18. The evolving nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gale, J.D.; Hanson, G.E.; Coleman, T.A.

    1993-01-01

    Various economics and political pressures have shaped the evolution of nuclear fuel cycles over the past 10 to 15 yr. Future trends will no doubt be similarly driven. This paper discusses the influences that long cycles, high discharge burnups, fuel reliability, and costs will have on the future nuclear cycle. Maintaining the economic viability of nuclear generation is a key issue facing many utilities. Nuclear fuel has been a tremendous bargain for utilities, helping to offset major increases in operation and maintenance (O ampersand M) expenses. An important factor in reducing O ampersand M costs is increasing capacity factor by eliminating outages

  19. Nuclear Fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirakawa, Hiromasa.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To reduce the stress gradient resulted in the fuel can in fuel rods adapted to control the axial power distribution by the combination of fuel pellets having different linear power densities. Constitution: In a fuel rod comprising a first fuel pellet of a relatively low linear power density and a second fuel pellet of a relatively high linear power density, the second fuel pellet is cut at its both end faces by an amount corresponding to the heat expansion of the pellet due to the difference in the linear power density to the adjacent first fuel pellet. Thus, the second fuel pellet takes a smaller space than the first fuel pellet in the fuel can. This can reduce the stress produced in the portion of the fuel can corresponding to the boundary between the adjacent fuel pellets. (Kawakami, Y.)

  20. Thorium in nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stankevicius, Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    We revise the advantages and possible problems on the use of thorium as a nuclear fuel instead of uranium. The following aspects are considered: 1) In the world there are three times more thorium than uranium 2) In spite that thorium in his natural form it is not a fisil, under neutron irradiation, is possible to transform it to uranium 233, a fisil of a high quality. 3) His ceramic oxides properties are superior to uranium or plutonium oxides. 4) During the irradiation the U 233 due to n,2n reaction produce small quantities of U 232 and his decay daughters' bismuth 212 and thallium 208 witch are strong gamma source. In turn thorium 228 and uranium 232 became, in time anti-proliferate due to there radiation intensity. 5) As it is described in here and experiments done in several countries reactors PHWR can be adapted to the use of thorium as a fuel element 6) As a problem we should mentioned that the different steps in the process must be done under strong radiation shielding and using only automatized equipment s (author)

  1. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vermont Transportation Data for Alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    alternative fuels Fuel Public Private Biodiesel (B20 and above) 3 0 Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) 1 2 Electric Recycled Cooking Oil Powers Biodiesel Vehicles in Vermont Recycled Cooking Oil Powers Biodiesel Vehicles in sold per GGE Biodiesel (B20) $2.79/gallon $2.54/GGE $2.84/gallon $2.58/GGE Biodiesel (B99-B100) $2.47

  2. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Missouri Transportation Data for Alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    stations in Missouri with alternative fuels Fuel Public Private Biodiesel (B20 and above) 1 2 Compressed Students Get Hands-On Training With Biodiesel Missouri High School Students Get Hands-On Training With Biodiesel Feb. 5, 2016 https://youtube.com/embed/p4pVRgoWyZw Video thumbnail for AT&T Fleet Reaches

  3. Alternative Fuels for Military Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    federal subsidies have promoted produc- tion and use of biodiesel, which is not a hydrocarbon but rather a fatty acid methyl ester ( FAME ) unsuitable for... methyl ester ( FAME ). FAME and blends of FAME with petroleum-derived fuels are currently banned from use in all deployable, tactical DoD military...fatty acid methyl ester FT Fischer-Tropsch FY fiscal year ISBL inside battery limit Navy Fuels Team Naval Fuels and Lubricants Cross-Functional Team

  4. Alternative Fuels DISI Engine Research ? Autoignition Metrics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoberg, Carl Magnus Goran [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Vuilleumier, David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2018-02-01

    Improved engine efficiency is required to comply with future fuel economy standards. Alternative fuels have the potential to enable more efficient engines while addressing concerns about energy security. This project contributes to the science base needed by industry to develop highly efficient direct injection spark igniton (DISI) engines that also beneficially exploit the different properties of alternative fuels. Here, the emphasis is on quantifying autoignition behavior for a range of spark-ignited engine conditions, including directly injected boosted conditions. The efficiency of stoichiometrically operated spark ignition engines is often limited by fuel-oxidizer end-gas autoignition, which can result in engine knock. A fuel’s knock resistance is assessed empirically by the Research Octane Number (RON) and Motor Octane Number (MON) tests. By clarifying how these two tests relate to the autoignition behavior of conventional and alternative fuel formulations, fuel design guidelines for enhanced engine efficiency can be developed.

  5. 16 CFR 309.10 - Alternative vehicle fuel rating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Alternative vehicle fuel rating. 309.10... LABELING REQUIREMENTS FOR ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND ALTERNATIVE FUELED VEHICLES Requirements for Alternative Fuels Duties of Importers, Producers, and Refiners of Non-Liquid Alternative Vehicle Fuels (other Than...

  6. British Nuclear Fuels (Warrington)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoyle, D.; Cryer, B.; Bellotti, D.

    1992-01-01

    This adjournment debate is about British Nuclear Fuels plc and the 750 redundancies due to take place by the mid-1990s at BNFL, Risley. The debate was instigated by the Member of Parliament for Warrington, the constituency in which BNFL, Risley is situated. Other members pointed out that other industries, such as the textile industry are also suffering job losses due to the recession. However the MP for Warrington argued that the recent restructuring of BNFL restricted the financial flexibility of BNFL so that the benefits of contracts won for THORP at Sellafield could not help BNFL, Risley. The debate became more generally about training, apprentices and employment opportunities. The Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State for Energy explained the position as he saw it and said BNFL may be able to offer more help to its apprentices. Long- term employment prospects at BNFL are dependent on the future of the nuclear industry in general. The debate lasted about half an hour and is reported verbatim. (U.K)

  7. Compatibility of elastomers in alternate jet fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalfayan, S. H.; Fedors, R. F.; Reilly, W. W.

    1979-01-01

    The compatibility of elastomeric compositions of known resistance to aircraft fuels was tested for potential use in Jet A type fuels obtainable from alternate sources, such as coal. Since such fuels were not available at the time, synthetic alternate fuels were prepared by adding tetralin to a petroleum based Jet A type fuel to simulate coal derived fuels which are expected to contain higher amounts of aromatic and hydroaromatic hydrocarbons. The elastomeric compounds tested were based on butadiene-acrylonitrile rubber, a castable Thiokol polysulfide rubber, and a castable fluorosilicone rubber. Batches of various cross-link densities of these rubbers were made and their chemical stress relaxation behavior in fuel, air, and nitrogen, their swelling properties, and response to mechanical testing were determined.

  8. Alternative Fuel News, Vol. 3 No. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clean Cities Program at DOE

    1999-10-29

    The alternative fuel industry is heating up. It is a very exciting time to be in the energy business, especially when it comes to transportation. Celebrating of the milestone 75th Clean Cities coalition and kick off of the new Federal Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) USER Program is occurring in cities across the country. Clean Energy for the 21st Century and the events that are happening during Energy Awareness Month are covered in this issue. Spotlighted are niche markets; several airports across the country are successfully incorporating alternative fuels into their daily routines.

  9. Vibratory-compacted (vipac/sphere-pac) nuclear fuels - a comparison with pelletized nuclear fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chidester, K.; Rubin, J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Thompson, M

    2001-07-01

    In order to achieve the packing densities required for nuclear fuel stability, economy and performance, the fuel material must be densified. This has traditionally been performed by high-temperature sintering. (At one time, fuel densification was investigated using cold/hot swaging. However, this fabrication method has become uncommon.) Alternatively, fuel can be densified by vibratory compaction (VIPAC). During the late 1950's and into the 1970's, in the U.S., vibratory compaction fuel was fabricated and test irradiated to evaluate its applicability compared to the more traditional pelletized fuel for nuclear reactors. These activities were primarily focused on light water reactors (LWR) but some work was performed for fast reactors. This paper attempts to summarize these evaluations and proposes to reconsider VIPAC fuel for future use. (author)

  10. Vibratory-compacted (vipac/sphere-pac) nuclear fuels - a comparison with pelletized nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chidester, K.; Rubin, J.; Thompson, M.

    2001-01-01

    In order to achieve the packing densities required for nuclear fuel stability, economy and performance, the fuel material must be densified. This has traditionally been performed by high-temperature sintering. (At one time, fuel densification was investigated using cold/hot swaging. However, this fabrication method has become uncommon.) Alternatively, fuel can be densified by vibratory compaction (VIPAC). During the late 1950's and into the 1970's, in the U.S., vibratory compaction fuel was fabricated and test irradiated to evaluate its applicability compared to the more traditional pelletized fuel for nuclear reactors. These activities were primarily focused on light water reactors (LWR) but some work was performed for fast reactors. This paper attempts to summarize these evaluations and proposes to reconsider VIPAC fuel for future use. (author)

  11. Nuclear fuel tax in court

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leidinger, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Besides the 'Nuclear Energy Moratorium' (temporary shutdown of eight nuclear power plants after the Fukushima incident) and the legally decreed 'Nuclear Energy Phase-Out' (by the 13th AtG-amendment), also the legality of the nuclear fuel tax is being challenged in court. After receiving urgent legal proposals from 5 nuclear power plant operators, the Hamburg fiscal court (4V 154/13) temporarily obliged on 14 April 2014 respective main customs offices through 27 decisions to reimburse 2.2 b. Euro nuclear fuel tax to the operating companies. In all respects a remarkable process. It is not in favour of cleverness to impose a political target even accepting immense constitutional and union law risks. Taxation 'at any price' is neither a statement of state sovereignty nor one for a sound fiscal policy. Early and serious warnings of constitutional experts and specialists in the field of tax law with regard to the nuclear fuel tax were not lacking. (orig.)

  12. Nuclear-fuel-cycle costs. Consolidated Fuel-Reprocessing Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burch, W.D.; Haire, M.J.; Rainey, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    The costs for the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle, which were developed as part of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program (NASAP), are presented. Total fuel-cycle costs are given for the pressurized-water reactor once-through and fuel-recycle systems, and for the liquid-metal fast-breeder-reactor system. These calculations show that fuel-cycle costs are a small part of the total power costs. For breeder reactors, fuel-cycle costs are about half that of the present once-through system. The total power cost of the breeder-reactor system is greater than that of light-water reactor at today's prices for uranium and enrichment

  13. Alternate Fuels for Use in Commercial Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daggett, David L.; Hendricks, Robert C.; Walther, Rainer; Corporan, Edwin

    2008-01-01

    The engine and aircraft Research and Development (R&D) communities have been investigating alternative fueling in near-term, midterm, and far-term aircraft. A drop in jet fuel replacement, consisting of a kerosene (Jet-A) and synthetic fuel blend, will be possible for use in existing and near-term aircraft. Future midterm aircraft may use a biojet and synthetic fuel blend in ultra-efficient airplane designs. Future far-term engines and aircraft in 50-plus years may be specifically designed to use a low- or zero-carbon fuel. Synthetic jet fuels from coal, natural gas, or other hydrocarbon feedstocks are very similar in performance to conventional jet fuel, yet the additional CO2 produced during the manufacturing needs to be permanently sequestered. Biojet fuels need to be developed specifically for jet aircraft without displacing food production. Envisioned as midterm aircraft fuel, if the performance and cost liabilities can be overcome, biofuel blends with synthetic jet or Jet-A fuels have near-term potential in terms of global climatic concerns. Long-term solutions address dramatic emissions reductions through use of alternate aircraft fuels such as liquid hydrogen or liquid methane. Either of these new aircraft fuels will require an enormous change in infrastructure and thus engine and airplane design. Life-cycle environmental questions need to be addressed.

  14. Nuclear reactors and fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-07-01

    The Nuclear Fuel Center (CCN) of IPEN produces nuclear fuel for the continuous operation of the IEA-R1 research reactor of IPEN. The serial production started in 1988, when the first nuclear fuel element was delivered for IEA-R1. In 2011, CCN proudly presents the 100{sup th} nuclear fuel element produced. Besides routine production, development of new technologies is also a permanent concern at CCN. In 2005, U{sub 3}O{sub 8} were replaced by U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}-based fuels, and the research of U Mo is currently under investigation. Additionally, the Brazilian Multipurpose Research Reactor (RMB), whose project will rely on the CCN for supplying fuel and uranium targets. Evolving from an annual production from 10 to 70 nuclear fuel elements, plus a thousand uranium targets, is a huge and challenging task. To accomplish it, a new and modern Nuclear Fuel Factory is being concluded, and it will provide not only structure for scaling up, but also a safer and greener production. The Nuclear Engineering Center has shown, along several years, expertise in the field of nuclear, energy systems and correlated areas. Due to the experience obtained during decades in research and technological development at Brazilian Nuclear Program, personnel has been trained and started to actively participate in design of the main system that will compose the Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB) which will make Brazil self-sufficient in production of radiopharmaceuticals. The institution has participated in the monitoring and technical support concerning the safety, licensing and modernization of the research reactors IPEN/MB-01 and IEA-R1. Along the last two decades, numerous specialized services of engineering for the Brazilian nuclear power plants Angra 1 and Angra 2 have been carried out. The contribution in service, research, training, and teaching in addition to the development of many related technologies applied to nuclear engineering and correlated areas enable the institution to

  15. Nuclear reactors and fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The Nuclear Fuel Center (CCN) of IPEN produces nuclear fuel for the continuous operation of the IEA-R1 research reactor of IPEN. The serial production started in 1988, when the first nuclear fuel element was delivered for IEA-R1. In 2011, CCN proudly presents the 100 th nuclear fuel element produced. Besides routine production, development of new technologies is also a permanent concern at CCN. In 2005, U 3 O 8 were replaced by U 3 Si 2 -based fuels, and the research of U Mo is currently under investigation. Additionally, the Brazilian Multipurpose Research Reactor (RMB), whose project will rely on the CCN for supplying fuel and uranium targets. Evolving from an annual production from 10 to 70 nuclear fuel elements, plus a thousand uranium targets, is a huge and challenging task. To accomplish it, a new and modern Nuclear Fuel Factory is being concluded, and it will provide not only structure for scaling up, but also a safer and greener production. The Nuclear Engineering Center has shown, along several years, expertise in the field of nuclear, energy systems and correlated areas. Due to the experience obtained during decades in research and technological development at Brazilian Nuclear Program, personnel has been trained and started to actively participate in design of the main system that will compose the Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB) which will make Brazil self-sufficient in production of radiopharmaceuticals. The institution has participated in the monitoring and technical support concerning the safety, licensing and modernization of the research reactors IPEN/MB-01 and IEA-R1. Along the last two decades, numerous specialized services of engineering for the Brazilian nuclear power plants Angra 1 and Angra 2 have been carried out. The contribution in service, research, training, and teaching in addition to the development of many related technologies applied to nuclear engineering and correlated areas enable the institution to fulfill its mission that is

  16. Economic Analysis of Several Nuclear Fuel Cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Won Il; Gao, Fanxing; Kim, Sung Ki

    2012-01-01

    appropriate for an estimate on the costs of energy given the various technologies. Levelized fuel cycle cost (LFCC) and levelized generation cost (LGC) have offered effective indicators for economic comparison among nuclear fuel cycles and were adopted to compare the fuel cycle options considered in this study. The unpredictable change of the unit costs of several key components due to the uncertainties can lead to considerable differences in levelized costs among the fuel cycle alternatives. To take these unavoidable uncertainties into account, a wide scale was applied to each unit cost and a distribution of levelized cost was also obtained

  17. Alternative fuels for multiple-hearth furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bracket, B D; Lawson, T U

    1980-04-01

    Results are described of a feasibility study on the use of refuse-derived fuel, shredded paper, wood waste, coal, and waste oil in multiple-hearth furnaces at the Lower Molonglo Water Quality Control Centre in Australia. An assessment of waste fuel availability and characteristics is given, and a summary is made of the technical and economic aspects of using these alternative fuels and of minimizing furnace fuel requirements by reducing sludge moisture. The recommended method of reducing fuel oil consumption in the furnace is shown to be sludge drying, using process exhaust heat in a rotary dryer.

  18. Proceedings of the 1993 Windsor Workshop on Alternative Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    This report contains viewgraph papers on the following topics on alternative fuels: availability of alternative fueled engines and vehicles; emerging technologies; overcoming barriers to alternative fuels commercialization; infrastructure issues; and new initiatives in research and development.

  19. Alternative jet fuel scenario analysis report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-30

    This analysis presents a bottom up projection of the potential production of alternative aviation (jet) fuels in North America (United States, Canada, and Mexico) and the European Union in the next decade. The analysis is based on available pla...

  20. Alternative Fuel News, Vol. 7, No. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2003-11-01

    Quarterly magazine with articles on recent additions to the Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Station Locator database, biodiesel buying co-ops, and developing the CNG infrastructure in Bangladesh. Also a memo from CIVITAS 2003.

  1. Test report : alternative fuels propulsion durability evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-28

    This document, prepared by Honeywell Aerospace, Phoenix, AZ (Honeywell), contains the final : test report (public version) for the U.S. Department of Transportation/Federal Aviation : Administration (USDOT/FAA) Alternative Fuels Propulsion Engine Dur...

  2. The DUPIC alternative for backend fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.S.; Yang, M.S.; Park, H.S.; Boczar, P.; Sullivan, J.; Gadsby, R.D.

    1997-01-01

    The DUPIC fuel cycle was conceived as an alternative to the conventional fuel cycle backed options, with a view to multiple benefits expectable from burning spent PWR fuel again in CANDU reactors. It is based on the basic idea that the bulk of spent PWR fuel can be directly refabricated into a reusable fuel for CANDU of which high efficiency in neutron utilization would exhaustively burn the fissile remnants in the spent PWR fuel to a level below that of natural uranium. Such ''burn again'' strategy of the DUPIC fuel cycle implies that the spent PWR fuel will become CANDU fuel of higher burnup with relevant benefits such as spent PWR fuel disposition, saving of natural uranium fuel, etc. A salient feature of the DUPIC fuel cycle is neither the fissile content nor the bulk radioactivity is separated from the DUPIC mass flow which must be contained and shielded all along the cycle. This feature can be considered as a factor of proliferation resistance by deterrence against access to sensitive materials. It means also the requirement for remote systems technologies for DUPIC fuel operation. The conflicting aspects between better safeguardability and harder engineering problems of the radioactive fuel operation may be the important reason why the decades' old concept, since INFCE, of ''hot'' fuel cycle has not been pursued with much progress. In this context, the DUPIC fuel cycle could be a live example for development of proliferation resistant fuel cycle. As the DUPIC fuel cycle looks for synergism of fuel linkage from PWR to CANDU (or in broader sense LWR to HWR), Korea occupies a best position for DUPIC exercise with her unique strategy of reactor mix of both reactor types. But the DUPIC benefits can be extended to global bonus, expectable from successful development of the technology. (author)

  3. Alternative motor fuels today and tomorrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bensaid, B.

    2004-01-01

    Today, petroleum products account for 97% of the energy consumed in road transport. The purpose of replacing these products with alternative energies is to reduce oil dependence as well as greenhouse gas emissions. The high price of oil has promoted the use of 'conventional' alternative motor fuels (biofuels, LPG, NGV) and also renewed interest in syn-fuels (GTL, CTL, BTL) that have already given rise to industrial and pilot projects. (author)

  4. Alternative Fuel News, Vol. 2, No. 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NREL

    1999-01-06

    In this issue of the Alternative Fuel News, the authors remember what happened just 25 years ago (the energy crisis of 1973) and reiterate that foreign oil dependence is still a national issue. Highlighted are some the successes in the Clean Cities Program and the alternative fuels industry. Also featured is the Natural Gas Vehicle Coalition (NGVC) and the United States Postal Service (USPS) delivers with AFVs.

  5. Reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kidd, S.

    2008-01-01

    The closed fuel cycle is the most sustainable approach for nuclear energy, as it reduces recourse to natural uranium resources and optimises waste management. The advantages and disadvantages of used nuclear fuel reprocessing have been debated since the dawn of the nuclear era. There is a range of issues involved, notably the sound management of wastes, the conservation of resources, economics, hazards of radioactive materials and potential proliferation of nuclear weapons. In recent years, the reprocessing advocates win, demonstrated by the apparent change in position of the USA under the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) program. A great deal of reprocessing has been going on since the fourties, originally for military purposes, to recover plutonium for weapons. So far, some 80000 tonnes of used fuel from commercial power reactors has been reprocessed. The article indicates the reprocessing activities and plants in the United Kigdom, France, India, Russia and USA. The aspect of plutonium that raises the ire of nuclear opponents is its alleged proliferation risk. Opponents of the use of MOX fuels state that such fuels represent a proliferation risk because the plutonium in the fuel is said to be 'weapon-use-able'. The reprocessing of used fuel should not give rise to any particular public concern and offers a number of potential benefits in terms of optimising both the use of natural resources and waste management.

  6. Nuclear fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bevilacqua, F.

    1979-01-01

    A method and apparatus for the storage of fuel in a stainless steel egg crate structure within a storage pool are described. Fuel is initially stored in a checkerboard pattern or in each opening if the fuel is of low enrichment. Additional fuel (or fuel of higher enrichment) is later stored by adding stainless steel angled plates within each opening, thereby forming flux traps between the openings. Still higher enrichment fuel is later stored by adding poison plates either with or without the stainless steel angles. 8 claims

  7. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    . A wide variety of hybrid electric vehicle models is currently available. Although HEVs are often -go traffic), further improving fuel economy. Mild hybrid systems cannot power the vehicle using Hybrid Electric Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hybrid Electric

  8. Deep boreholes. An alternative for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel? Report from KASAM's question-and-answer session on 14-15 March 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-03-15

    On 14-15 March 2007, KASAM held a hearing for the purpose of thoroughly examining deep boreholes as a method for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. Some of the questions that were raised were: What are the technical, geological and hydrological premises and possibilities? What are the risks from different viewpoints and what values underlie different views of the potential and suitability of deep boreholes? This report is a summary of the seminar. KASAM has made a selection of contributions and questions from the debate that took place on the basis of their relevance to the purpose of the seminar. The report generally follows the chronological lecture-and debate format of the seminar, but has been edited according to different issues rather than according to when different persons spoke. Chapter 2 describes a number of premises and criteria in the Environmental Code's and the Nuclear Activities Act's requirements on alternatives reporting. The chapter also contains a description of what the deep borehole concept entails and a discussion of the geoscientific premises. In addition, the chapter describes how different values can influence the choice of final disposal method. Chapters 3-6 describe and discuss technology and long-term safety, the viewpoints of the supervisory authorities on deep boreholes and safety philosophy via lectures followed by questions by KASAM's questioners and the audience. On the evening of 14 March, representatives of the seven parliamentary parties discussed their preparations and standpoints for an upcoming national debate on the final disposal of nuclear waste. This discussion is also reproduced in the report as Chapter 7. The main points from a concluding panel debate and discussion are presented in Chapter 8. In conclusion, Chapter 9 contains some reflections on various arguments proffered during the question-and-answer session, questions on which agreement seems to exist, and where there are differences of

  9. Transportation of spent nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meguro, Toshiichi

    1976-01-01

    The spent nuclear fuel taken out of reactors is cooled in the cooling pool in each power station for a definite time, then transported to a reprocessing plant. At present, there is no reprocessing plant in Japan, therefore the spent nuclear fuel is shipped abroad. In this paper, the experiences and the present situation in Japan are described on the transport of the spent nuclear fuel from light water reactors, centering around the works in Tsuruga Power Station, Japan Atomic Power Co. The spent nuclear fuel in Tsuruga Power Station was first transported in Apr. 1973, and since then, about 36 tons were shipped to Britain by 5 times of transport. The reprocessing plant in Japan is expected to start operation in Apr. 1977, accordingly the spent nuclear fuel used for the trial will be transported in Japan in the latter half of this year. Among the permission and approval required for the transport of spent nuclear fuel, the acquisition of the certificate for transport casks and the approval of land and sea transports are main tasks. The relevant laws are the law concerning the regulations of nuclear raw material, nuclear fuel and reactors and the law concerning the safety of ships. The casks used in Tsuruga Power Station and EXL III type, and the charging of spent nuclear fuel, the decontamination of the casks, the leak test, land transport with a self-running vehicle, loading on board an exclusive carrier and sea transport are briefly explained. The casks and the ship for domestic transport are being prepared. (Kato, I.)

  10. Quality assurance of nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The guide presents the quality assurance requirements to be completed with in the procurement, design, manufacture, transport, handling and operation of the nuclear fuel. The guide also applies to the procurement of the control rods and the shield elements to be placed in the reactor. The guide is mainly aimed for the licensee responsible for the procurement and operation of fuel, for the fuel designer and manufacturer and for other organizations whose activities affect fuel quality, the safety of fuel transport, storage and operation. (2 refs.)

  11. Nuclear Fuel Cycle & Vulnerabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyer, Brian D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-18

    The objective of safeguards is the timely detection of diversion of significant quantities of nuclear material from peaceful nuclear activities to the manufacture of nuclear weapons or of other nuclear explosive devices or for purposes unknown, and deterrence of such diversion by the risk of early detection. The safeguards system should be designed to provide credible assurances that there has been no diversion of declared nuclear material and no undeclared nuclear material and activities.

  12. Nuclear power and its alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendee, W.R.

    1984-01-01

    For nuclear power to contribute significantly to the alleviation of demands for increased electricity by the year 2000, a further obstacle must be overcome, namely the present nuclear phobia of the American public. This phobia can be addressed only through public education leading to a balanced perspective of the benefits and hazards of nuclear power compared with those of alternate sources of energy and to the risks associated with an insufficient supply of energy in a few years. Also to be considered in a public education effort should be the precarious and capricious nature of this country's continued reliance on energy sources imported from politically unstable countries, as well as the risk this importation poses for the nation's economic, social and military security

  13. Liquid fuels from alternative feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrew, S

    1984-01-01

    The problem of fuels and feedstocks is not technological but political and financial. Methanol is discussed as the lowest cost gasoline substitute to produce. There are two possibilities included for production of methanol: from coal or lignite - either in the US or in Europe, or from natural gas. Biologically produced fuels and feedstocks have the advantage of being renewable. The use of agricultural feedstocks are discussed but only sugar, starch and cellulose are suitable. In the microbiological field, only the metabolic waste product ethanol is cheap enough for use.

  14. Nuclear fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Tomihiro.

    1970-01-01

    The present invention relates to fuel assemblies employing wire wrap spacers for retaining uniform spatial distribution between fuel elements. Clad fuel elements are helically wound in the oxial direction with a wave-formed wire strand. The strand is therefore provided with spring action which permits the fuel elements to expand freely in the axial and radial directions so as to retain proper spacing and reduce stresses due to thermal deformation. (Ownes, K.J.)

  15. A methodology for assessing the market benefits of alternative motor fuels: The Alternative Fuels Trade Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leiby, P.N.

    1993-09-01

    This report describes a modeling methodology for examining the prospective economic benefits of displacing motor gasoline use by alternative fuels. The approach is based on the Alternative Fuels Trade Model (AFTM). AFTM development was undertaken by the US Department of Energy (DOE) as part of a longer term study of alternative fuels issues. The AFTM is intended to assist with evaluating how alternative fuels may be promoted effectively, and what the consequences of substantial alternative fuels use might be. Such an evaluation of policies and consequences of an alternative fuels program is being undertaken by DOE as required by Section 502(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992. Interest in alternative fuels is based on the prospective economic, environmental and energy security benefits from the substitution of these fuels for conventional transportation fuels. The transportation sector is heavily dependent on oil. Increased oil use implies increased petroleum imports, with much of the increase coming from OPEC countries. Conversely, displacement of gasoline has the potential to reduce US petroleum imports, thereby reducing reliance on OPEC oil and possibly weakening OPEC`s ability to extract monopoly profits. The magnitude of US petroleum import reduction, the attendant fuel price changes, and the resulting US benefits, depend upon the nature of oil-gas substitution and the supply and demand behavior of other world regions. The methodology applies an integrated model of fuel market interactions to characterize these effects.

  16. Alternative Fuels and Chemicals from Synthesis Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    1998-12-02

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  17. Alternative fuels and chemicals from synthesis gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    1998-08-01

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  18. ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    1999-01-01

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  19. Alternative Fuels and Chemicals From Synthesis Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none

    1998-07-01

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  20. Utilization of alternative fuels in diesel engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestz, S. A.

    1984-01-01

    Performance and emission data are collected for various candidate alternate fuels and compare these data to that for a certified petroleum based number two Diesel fuel oil. Results for methanol, ethanol, four vegetable oils, two shale derived oils, and two coal derived oils are reported. Alcohol fumigation does not appear to be a practical method for utilizing low combustion quality fuels in a Diesel engine. Alcohol fumigation enhances the bioactivity of the emitted exhaust particles. While it is possible to inject many synthetic fuels using the engine stock injection system, wholly acceptable performance is only obtained from a fuel whose specifications closely approach those of a finished petroleum based Diesel oil. This is illustrated by the contrast between the poor performance of the unupgraded coal derived fuel blends and the very good performance of the fully refined shale derived fuel.

  1. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Publications

    Science.gov (United States)

    refueling infrastructure. Waste-to-Fuel: A Case Study of Converting Food Waste to Renewable Natural Gas as a 5,300 PEVs on the road by the end of 2019. This analysis finds that while consumer demand for fast vehicles), a minimum level of fast charging coverage across the city is required to ease consumer range

  2. Alternative Fuels and Sustainable Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj; Nielsen, Lars Henrik

    1996-01-01

    The main report of the project on Transportation Fuels based on Renewable Energy. The report contains a review of potential technologies for electric, hybrid and hydrogen propulsion in the Danish transport sector, including an assessment of their development status. In addition, the energy...

  3. Distillate Fuel Trends: International Supply Variations and Alternate Fuel Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-31

    fuel in NATO countries will have some amount of FAME present. There is some work being done on hydrocarbon alternatives but the regulatory structure ... synthesis or hydrotreatment – Requirements and test methods.” According to the specification, paraffinic diesel fuel does not meet the current requirements...or international specification for triglyceride based fuel oils (straight vegetable oil / raw vegetable oil). The same holds true for alcohol-based

  4. Nuclear fuel string assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ip, A.K.; Koyanagi, K.; Tarasuk, W.R.

    1976-01-01

    A method of fabricating rodded fuels suitable for use in pressure tube type reactors and in pressure vessel type reactors is described. Fuel rods are secured as an inner and an outer sub-assembly, each rod attached between mounting rings secured to the rod ends. The two sub-assemblies are telescoped together and positioned by spaced thimbles located between them to provide precise positioning while permittng differential axial movement between the sub-assemblies. Such sub-assemblies are particularly suited for mounting as bundle strings. The method provides particular advantages in the assembly of annular-section fuel pins, which includes booster fuel containing enriched fuel material. (LL)

  5. Nuclear fuel rod loading apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, H.B.; Macivergan, R.; Mckenzie, G.W.

    1980-01-01

    An apparatus incorporating a microprocessor control is provided for automatically loading nuclear fuel pellets into fuel rods commonly used in nuclear reactor cores. The apparatus comprises a split ''v'' trough for assembling segments of fuel pellets in rows and a shuttle to receive the fuel pellets from the split ''v'' trough when the two sides of the split ''v'' trough are opened. The pellets are weighed while in the shuttle, and the shuttle then moves the pellets into alignment with a fuel rod. A guide bushing is provided to assist the transfer of the pellets into the fuel rod. A rod carousel which holds a plurality of fuel rods presents the proper rod to the guide bushing at the appropriate stage in the loading sequence. The bushing advances to engage the fuel rod, and the shuttle advances to engage the guide bushing. The pellets are then loaded into the fuel rod by a motor operated push rod. The guide bushing includes a photocell utilized in conjunction with the push rod to measure the length of the row of fuel pellets inserted in the fuel rod

  6. Spent Nuclear Fuel project, project management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuquay, B.J.

    1995-01-01

    The Hanford Spent Nuclear Fuel Project has been established to safely store spent nuclear fuel at the Hanford Site. This Project Management Plan sets forth the management basis for the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project. The plan applies to all fabrication and construction projects, operation of the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project facilities, and necessary engineering and management functions within the scope of the project

  7. IAEA activities on nuclear fuel cycle 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oi, N.

    1997-01-01

    The presentation discussing the IAEA activities on nuclear fuel cycle reviews the following issues: organizational charts of IAEA, division of nuclear power and the fuel cycle, nuclear fuel cycle and materials section; 1997 budget estimates; budget trends; the nuclear fuel cycle programme

  8. IAEA activities on nuclear fuel cycle 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oi, N [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria). Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Materials Section

    1997-12-01

    The presentation discussing the IAEA activities on nuclear fuel cycle reviews the following issues: organizational charts of IAEA, division of nuclear power and the fuel cycle, nuclear fuel cycle and materials section; 1997 budget estimates; budget trends; the nuclear fuel cycle programme.

  9. Nuclear Fuel in Cofrentes NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Fuel is an essential in the nuclear power generating business because of its direct implications on safety, generating costs and the operating conditions and limitations of the facility. Fuel management in Cofrentes NPP has been targeted at optimized operation, enhanced reliability and the search for an in-depth knowledge of the design and licensing processes that will provide Iberdrola,as the responsible operator, with access to independent control of safety aspects related to fuel and free access to manufacturing markets. (Author)

  10. Conditioning of nuclear reactor fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    A method of conditioning the fuel of a nuclear reactor core to minimize failure of the fuel cladding comprising increasing the fuel rod power to a desired maximum power level at a rate below a critical rate which would cause cladding damage is given. Such conditioning allows subsequent freedom of power changes below and up to said maximum power level with minimized danger of cladding damage. (Auth.)

  11. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power. Report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume IX. Reactor and fuel cycle description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-06-01

    The Nonproliferation Alterntive Systems Assessment Program (NASAP) has characterized and assessed various reactor/fuel-cycle systems. Volume IX provides, in summary form, the technical descriptions of the reactor/fuel-cycle systems studied. This includes the status of the system technology, as well as a discussion of the safety, environmental, and licensing needs from a technical perspective. This information was then used in developing the research, development, and demonstration (RD and D) program, including its cost and time frame, to advance the existing technology to the level needed for commercial use. Wherever possible, the cost data are given as ranges to reflect the uncertainties in the estimates

  12. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power. Report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume IX. Reactor and fuel cycle description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    The Nonproliferation Alterntive Systems Assessment Program (NASAP) has characterized and assessed various reactor/fuel-cycle systems. Volume IX provides, in summary form, the technical descriptions of the reactor/fuel-cycle systems studied. This includes the status of the system technology, as well as a discussion of the safety, environmental, and licensing needs from a technical perspective. This information was then used in developing the research, development, and demonstration (RD and D) program, including its cost and time frame, to advance the existing technology to the level needed for commercial use. Wherever possible, the cost data are given as ranges to reflect the uncertainties in the estimates.

  13. Nuclear fuel pellet loading machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dazen, J.R.; Denero, J.V.

    1976-01-01

    A nuclear fuel pellet loading machine is described including an inclined rack mounted on a base and having parallel spaced grooves on its upper surface arranged to support fuel rods. A fuel pellet tray is adapted to be placed on a table spaced from the rack, the tray having columns of fuel pellets which are in alignment with the open ends of fuel rods located in the rack grooves. A transition plate is mounted between the fuel rod rack and the fuel pellet tray to receive and guide the pellets into the open ends of the fuel rods. The pellets are pushed into the fuel rods by a number of mechanical fingers mounted on a motor operated block which is moved along the pellet tray length by a drive screw driven by the motor. To facilitate movement of the pellets in the fuel rods the rack is mounted on a number of spaced vibrators which vibrate the fuel rods during fuel pellet insertion. A pellet sensing device movable into an end of each fuel rod indicates to an operator when each rod has been charged with the correct number of pellets

  14. Nuclear power and its fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wymer, R.G.

    1986-01-01

    A series of viewgraphs describes the nuclear fuel cycle and nuclear power, covering reactor types, sources of uranium, enrichment of uranium, fuel fabrication, transportation, fuel reprocessing, and radioactive wastes

  15. Outlook for alternative energy sources. [aviation fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Card, M. E.

    1980-01-01

    Predictions are made concerning the development of alternative energy sources in the light of the present national energy situation. Particular emphasis is given to the impact of alternative fuels development on aviation fuels. The future outlook for aircraft fuels is that for the near term, there possibly will be no major fuel changes, but minor specification changes may be possible if supplies decrease. In the midterm, a broad cut fuel may be used if current development efforts are successful. As synfuel production levels increase beyond the 1990's there may be some mixtures of petroleum-based and synfuel products with the possibility of some shale distillate and indirect coal liquefaction products near the year 2000.

  16. The DUPIC alternative for backend fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.S.; Choi, J.W.; Park, H.S.; Boczar, P.; Sullivan, J.; Gadsby, R.D.

    1997-01-01

    From the early nineties, a research programme, called DUPIC (Direct Use of Spent PWR Fuel in CANDU) has been undertaken in an international exercise involving Korea, Canada, the U.S. and later the IAEA. The basic idea of this fuel cycle alternative is that the spent fuel from LWR contains enough fissile remnant to be burnt again in CANDUs thanks to its excellent neutron economy. A systematic R and D plan has now gained a full momentum to verify experimentally the DUPIC fuel cycle concept. 4 refs

  17. Nuclear fuels and development of nuclear fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundaram, C.V.; Mannan, S.L.

    1989-01-01

    Safe, reliable and economic operation of nuclear fission reactors, the source of nuclear power at present, requires judicious choice, careful preparation and specialised fabrication procedures for fuels and fuel element structural materials. These aspects of nuclear fuels (uranium, plutonium and their oxides and carbides), fuel element technology and structural materials (aluminium, zircaloy, stainless steel etc.) are discussed with particular reference to research and power reactors in India, e.g. the DHRUVA research reactor at BARC, Trombay, the pressurised heavy water reactors (PHWR) at Rajasthan and Kalpakkam, and the Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR) at Kalpakkam. Other reactors like the gas-cooled reactors operating in UK are also mentioned. Because of the limited uranium resources, India has opted for a three-stage nuclear power programme aimed at the ultimate utilization of her abundant thorium resources. The first phase consists of natural uranium dioxide-fuelled, heavy water-moderated and cooled PHWR. The second phase was initiated with the attainment of criticality in the FBTR at Kalpakkam. Fast Breeder Reactors (FBR) utilize the plutonium and uranium by-products of phase 1. Moreover, FBR can convert thorium into fissile 233 U. They produce more fuel than is consumed - hence, the name breeders. The fuel parameters of some of the operating or proposed fast reactors in the world are compared. FBTR is unique in the choice of mixed carbides of plutonium and uranium as fuel. Factors affecting the fuel element performance and life in various reactors e.g. hydriding of zircaloys, fuel pellet-cladding interaction etc. in PHWR and void swelling; irradiation creep and helium embrittlement of fuel element structural materials in FBR are discussed along with measures to overcome some of these problems. (author). 15 refs., 9 tabs., 23 figs

  18. Nuclear fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betten, P.R.

    1976-01-01

    Under the invention the fuel assembly is particularly suitable for liquid metal cooled fast neutron breeder reactors. Hence, according to the invention a fuel assembly cladding includes inward corrugations with respect to the remainder of the cladding according to a recurring pattern determined by the pitch of the metal wire helically wound round the fuel rods of the assembly. The parts of the cladding pressed inwards correspond to the areas in which the wire encircling the peripheral fuel rods is generally located apart from the cladding, thereby reducing the play between the cladding and the peripheral fuel rods situated in these areas. The reduction in the play in turn improves the coolant flow in the internal secondary channels of the fuel assembly to the detriment of the flow in the peripheral secondary channels and thereby establishes a better coolant fluid temperature profile [fr

  19. Nuclear fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natori, Hisahide; Kurihara, Kunitoshi.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To increase the fuel safety by decreasing the gap conductance between fuels and cladding tubes, as well as improve the reactor core controllability by rendering the void coefficient negative. Constitution: Fuel assemblies in a pressure tube comprise a tie-rod, fuel rods in a central region, and fuel rods with burnable poison in the outer circumference region. Here, B 4 C is used as the burnable poison by 1.17 % by weight ratio. The degrees of enrichment for the fissile plutonium as PuO 2 -UO 2 fuel used in the assemblies are 2.7 %, 2.7 % and 1.5 % respectively in the innermost layer, the intermediate layer and the outermost layer. This increases the burn-up degree to improve the plant utilizability, whereby the void coefficient is rendered negative to improve the reactor core controllability. (Horiuchi, T.)

  20. Nuclear reactor fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Shungo; Ogiya, Shunsuke.

    1990-01-01

    In a fuel assembly, if the entire fuels comprise mixed oxide fuels, reactivity change in cold temperature-power operation is increased to worsen the reactor shutdown margin. The reactor shutdown margin has been improved by increasing the burnable poison concentration thereby reducing the reactivity of the fuel assembly. However, since unburnt poisons are present at the completion of the reactor operation, the reactivity can not be utilized effectively to bring about economical disadvantage. In view of the above, the reactivity change between lower temperature-power operations is reduced by providing a non-boiling range with more than 9.1% of cross sectional area at the inside of a channel at the central portion of the fuel assembly. As a result, the amount of the unburnt burnable poisons is decreased, the economy of fuel assembly is improved and the reactor shutdown margin can be increase. (N.H.)

  1. International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnesale, A.

    1980-01-01

    As nuclear power expands globally, so too expands the capability for producing nuclear weapons. The International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation (INFCE) was organized in 1977 for the purpose of exploring two areas: (1) ways in which nuclear energy can be made available to help meet world energy needs, and (2) means by which the attendant risk of weapons proliferation can be held to a minimum. INFCE is designed for technical and analytical study rather than negotiation. Its organizational structure and issues under consideration are discussed. Some even broader issues that emerge from consideration of the relationships between the peaceful and military use of nuclear energy are also discussed. These are different notions of the meaning of nuclear proliferation, nuclear export policy, the need of a nuclear policy to be both a domestic as well as a foreign one, and political-military measures that can help reduce incentives of countries to acquire nuclear weapons of their own

  2. Nuclear fuel financing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lurf, G.

    1975-01-01

    Fuel financing is only at its beginning. A logical way of developing financing model is a step by step method starting with the financing of pre-payments. The second step will be financing of natural uranium and enrichment services to the point where the finished fuel elements are delivered to the reactor operator. The third step should be the financing of fuel elements during the time the elements are inserted in the reactor. (orig.) [de

  3. Nuclear fuel cycle. V. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    Nuclear fuel cycle information in the main countries that develop, supply or use nuclear energy is presented. Data about Japan, FRG, United Kingdom, France and Canada are included. The information is presented in a tree-like graphic way. (C.S.A.) [pt

  4. Nuclear Fuel Cycle Introductory Concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpius, Peter Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-02

    The nuclear fuel cycle is a complex entity, with many stages and possibilities, encompassing natural resources, energy, science, commerce, and security, involving a host of nations around the world. This overview describes the process for generating nuclear power using fissionable nuclei.

  5. Nuclear Fuel Cycle Introductory Concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpius, Peter Joseph

    2017-01-01

    The nuclear fuel cycle is a complex entity, with many stages and possibilities, encompassing natural resources, energy, science, commerce, and security, involving a host of nations around the world. This overview describes the process for generating nuclear power using fissionable nuclei.

  6. Nuclear fuel cycle. V. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    Nuclear fuel cycle information in some countries that develop, supply or use nuclear energy is presented. Data about Argentina, Australia, Belgium, Netherlands, Italy, Denmarmark, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, Finland, Spain and India are included. The information is presented in a tree-like graphic way. (C.S.A.) [pt

  7. Outlook on Standardization of Alternative Vehicle Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehnlund, B [Atrax Energi AB (Sweden)

    2008-10-15

    The use of fossil but in first hand biobased alternative fuels in transportation has increased over the last decades. This change is primarily driven by concerns about climate change that is caused by emissions of fossil carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases, but also by the impact on health and environment, caused by emissions of regulated as well as non-regulated emissions from the transport sector. Most alternative fuels will help to reduce the emissions of regulated and non-regulated emissions, while alternative fuels based on biomass also will contribute to reduced net emissions of carbon dioxide. Since the mid 1990s, the use of biomass based fuels such as ethanol and biodiesel has reached levels high enough in for example Europe, Brazil and the U.S. to motivate national or regional specifications/standards. Especially from the vehicle/engine manufacturer's point of view standards are of high importance. From early 2000 onwards, the international trade of biofuels (for example from Brazil to the U.S. and Europe) has grown, and this has created a need for common international specifications/standards. This report presents information about national and regional standards for alternative fuels, but also, when existing and reported, standards on a global level are described and discussed. Ongoing work concerning new or revised standards on alternative fuels on national, regional or global level is also discussed. In this report we have covered standards on all kind of alternative fuels, exemplified below. However, the focus is on liquid biofuels for diesel engines and Otto engines. 1) Liquid fuels for diesel engines (compression ignition engines), such as Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME), Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters (FAEE), alcohols, alcohol derivates and synthetic diesel fuels. 2) Liquid fuels for Otto engines (spark ignition engines), such as alcohols, ethers and synthetic gasoline. 3) Liquefied fossil petroleum gas (LPG). 4) Di-Methyl Ether (DME). 5) Fossil

  8. Outlook on Standardization of Alternative Vehicle Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehnlund, B. [Atrax Energi AB (Sweden)

    2008-10-15

    The use of fossil but in first hand biobased alternative fuels in transportation has increased over the last decades. This change is primarily driven by concerns about climate change that is caused by emissions of fossil carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases, but also by the impact on health and environment, caused by emissions of regulated as well as non-regulated emissions from the transport sector. Most alternative fuels will help to reduce the emissions of regulated and non-regulated emissions, while alternative fuels based on biomass also will contribute to reduced net emissions of carbon dioxide. Since the mid 1990s, the use of biomass based fuels such as ethanol and biodiesel has reached levels high enough in for example Europe, Brazil and the U.S. to motivate national or regional specifications/standards. Especially from the vehicle/engine manufacturer's point of view standards are of high importance. From early 2000 onwards, the international trade of biofuels (for example from Brazil to the U.S. and Europe) has grown, and this has created a need for common international specifications/standards. This report presents information about national and regional standards for alternative fuels, but also, when existing and reported, standards on a global level are described and discussed. Ongoing work concerning new or revised standards on alternative fuels on national, regional or global level is also discussed. In this report we have covered standards on all kind of alternative fuels, exemplified below. However, the focus is on liquid biofuels for diesel engines and Otto engines. 1) Liquid fuels for diesel engines (compression ignition engines), such as Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME), Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters (FAEE), alcohols, alcohol derivates and synthetic diesel fuels. 2) Liquid fuels for Otto engines (spark ignition engines), such as alcohols, ethers and synthetic gasoline. 3) Liquefied fossil petroleum gas (LPG). 4) Di-Methyl Ether (DME). 5

  9. Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Safety Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garvin, L.J.

    1996-02-01

    The Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Safety Management Plan describes the new nuclear facility regulatory requirements basis for the Spemt Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project and establishes the plan to achieve compliance with this basis at the new SNF Project facilities

  10. Alternatives to traditional transportation fuels 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    This report provides information on transportation fuels other than gasoline and diesel, and the vehicles that use these fuels. The Energy Information Administration (EIA) provides this information to support the U.S. Department of Energy`s reporting obligations under Section 503 of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT). The principal information contained in this report includes historical and year-ahead estimates of the following: (1) the number and type of alterative-fueled vehicles (AFV`s) in use; (2) the consumption of alternative transportation fuels and {open_quotes}replacement fuels{close_quotes}; and (3) the number and type of alterative-fueled vehicles made available in the current and following years. In addition, the report contains some material on special topics. The appendices include a discussion of the methodology used to develop the estimates (Appendix A), a map defining geographic regions used, and a list of AFV suppliers.

  11. Nuclear fuels policy. Report of the Atlantic Council's Nuclear Fuels Policy Working Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    This Policy Paper recommends the actions deemed necessary to assure that future U.S. and non-Communist countries' nuclear fuels supply will be adequate, considering the following: estimates of modest growth in overall energy demand, electrical energy demand, and nuclear electrical energy demand in the U.S. and abroad, predicated upon the continuing trends involving conservation of energy, increased use of electricity, and moderate economic growth (Chap. I); possibilities for the development and use of all domestic resources providing energy alternatives to imported oil and gas, consonant with current environmental, health, and safety concerns (Chap. II); assessment of the traditional energy sources which provide current alternatives to nuclear energy (Chap. II); evaluation of realistic expectations for additional future energy supplies from prospective technologies: enhanced recovery from traditional sources and development and use of oil shales and synthetic fuels from coal, fusion and solar energy (Chap. II); an accounting of established nuclear technology in use today, in particular the light water reactor, used for generating electricity (Chap. III); an estimate of future nuclear technology, in particular the prospective fast breeder (Chap. IV); current and projected nuclear fuel demand and supply in the U.S. and abroad (Chaps. V and VI); the constraints encountered today in meeting nuclear fuels demand (Chap. VII); and the major unresolved issues and options in nuclear fuels supply and use (Chap. VIII). The principal conclusions and recommendations (Chap. IX) are that the U.S. and other industrialized countries should strive for increased flexibility of primary energy fuel sources, and that a balanced energy strategy therefore depends on the secure supply of energy resources and the ability to substitute one form of fuel for another

  12. Device for reprocessing nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatano, Mamoru.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To readily discharge a nuclear fuel by burning the nuclear fuel as it is without a pulverizing step and removing the graphite and other coated fuel particles. Constitution: An oxygen supply pipe is connected to the lower portion of a discharge chamber having an inlet for the fuel, and an exhaust pipe is connected to the upper portion of the chamber. The fuel mounted on a metallic gripping member made of metallic material is inserted from the inlet, the gripping member is connected through a conductor to a voltage supply unit, oxygen is then supplied through the oxygen supply tube to the discharge chamber, the voltage supply unit is subsequently operated, and discharge takes place among the fuels. Thus, high heat is generated by the discharge, the graphite carbon of the fuel is burnt, silicon carbide is destroyed and decomposed, the isolated nuclear fuel particles are discharged from the exhaust port, and the combustion gas and small embers are exhausted from the exhaust tube. Accordingly, radioactive dusts are not so much generated as when using a mechanical pulverizing means, and prescribed objective can be achieved. (Yoshino, Y.)

  13. Nuclear fuel element end fitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabsen, F.S.

    1979-01-01

    A typical embodiment of the invention has an array of sockets that are welded to the intersections of the plates that form the upper and lower end fittings of a nuclear reactor fuel element. The sockets, which are generally cylindrical in shape, are oriented in directions that enable the longitudinal axes of the sockets to align with the longitudinal axes of the fuel rods that are received in the respective sockets. Detents impressed in the surfaces of the sockets engage mating grooves that are formed in the ends of the fuel rods to provide for the structural integrity of the fuel element

  14. Nuclear fuel recycling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, H.R.; Koch, A.K.; Krawczyk, A.

    1981-01-01

    A process is provided for recycling sintered uranium dioxide fuel pellets rejected during fuel manufacture and the swarf from pellet grinding. The scrap material is prepared mechanically by crushing and milling as a high solids content slurry, using scrap sintered UO 2 pellets as the grinding medium under an inert atmosophere

  15. Nuclear fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obara, Hiroshi.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To suppress iodine release thereby prevent stress corrosion cracks in fuel cans by dispersing ferrous oxide at the outer periphery of sintered uranium dioxide pellets filled and sealed within zirconium alloy fuel cans of fuel elements. Constitution: Sintered uranium dioxide pellets to be filled and sealed within a zirconium alloy fuel can are prepared either by mixing ferric oxide powder in uranium dioxide powder, sintering and then reducing at low temperature or by mixing iron powder in uranium dioxide powder, sintering and then oxidizing at low temperature. In this way, ferrous oxide is dispersed on the outer periphery of the sintered uranium dioxide pellets to convert corrosive fission products iodine into iron iodide, whereby the iodine release is suppressed and the stress corrosion cracks can be prevented in the fuel can. (Moriyama, K.)

  16. Nuclear fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borrman, B.; Nylund, O.

    1984-01-01

    A fuel assembly with a fuel channel which surrounds a plurality of fuel rods and which is divided, by means of a stiffening device of cruciform cross-section and four wings, into four sub-channels each of which comprises a bundle of fuel rods. Each fuel channel side has a plurality of stamped, inwardly-directed projections, arranged vertically one after the other, aid projections being welded to one and the same stiffening wing. Each one of the wall portions located between the projections defines, together with two adjacently positioned projections and a portion of the stiffening wing, a communiation opening between two bundles located on on one side each of the stiffening wing. (Author)

  17. Nuclear fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanaka, Tsuneyasu.

    1976-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a mechanism for the prevention of fuel pellet dislocation in fuel can throughout fuel fablication, fuel transportation and reactor operation. Constitution: A plenum spacer as a mechanism for the prevention of fuel pellet dislocation inserted into a cladding tube comprises split bodies bundled by a frame and an expansion body being capable of inserting into the central cavity of the split bodies. The expansion body is, for example, in a conical shape and the split bodies are formed so that they define in the center portion, when disposed along the inner wall of the cladding tube, a gap capable of inserting the conical body. The plenum spacer is assembled by initially inserting the split bodies in a closed state into the cladding tube after the loading of the pellets, pressing their peripheral portions and then inserting the expansion body into the space to urge the split bodies to the inner surface of the cladding tube. (Kawakami, Y.)

  18. Alternative Fuels Data Center: James Madison University Teaches Alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternative Fuels Sept. 16, 2017 Photo of a truck Phoenix Utility Fleet Drives Smarter with Biodiesel Aug. 26 Cooking Oil Powers Biodiesel Vehicles in Rhode Island July 14, 2017 Photo of a truck Idaho Transports Mail Home Runs on Biodiesel in North Carolina June 9, 2017 Photo of a bus New Hampshire Cleans up with

  19. Nuclear fuels accounting interface: River Bend experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barry, J.E.

    1986-01-01

    This presentation describes nuclear fuel accounting activities from the perspective of nuclear fuels management and its interfaces. Generally, Nuclear Fuels-River Bend Nuclear Group (RBNG) is involved on a day-by-day basis with nuclear fuel materials accounting in carrying out is procurement, contract administration, processing, and inventory management duties, including those associated with its special nuclear materials (SNM)-isotopics accountability oversight responsibilities as the Central Accountability Office for the River Bend Station. As much as possible, these duties are carried out in an integrated, interdependent manner. From these primary functions devolve Nuclear Fuels interfacing activities with fuel cost and tax accounting. Noting that nuclear fuel tax accounting support is of both an esoteric and intermittent nature, Nuclear Fuels-RBNG support of developments and applications associated with nuclear fuel cost accounting is stressed in this presentation

  20. Transport device for nuclear fuel powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adelmann, M.

    1987-01-01

    The transport device for nuclear fuel powder, which does not disintegrate during transport, has a transport pipe which starts with its entry end from the floor or a closed container and opens with its outlet end at the top into a closed separation container connect via a powder filter to a suction pump. By alternate regular opening and closing of a first control valve for transport gas fitted to a transport pipe to a supply duct and a second control valve for transport gas fitted to the container to an additional supply duct, alternating plugs of nuclear fuel powder and transport gas cushions are formed and are transported to the outlet end of the transport pipe. (orig./HP) [de

  1. Rack for nuclear fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubinstein, H.J.; Gordon, C.B.; Robison, A.; Clark, P.M.

    1977-01-01

    Disclosed is a rack for storing spent nuclear fuel elements in which a plurality of aligned rows of upright enclosures of generally square cross-sectional areas contain vertically disposed spent fuel elements. Each fuel element is supported at the lower end thereof by a respective support that rests on the floor of the spent fuel pool for a nuclear power plant. An open rack frame is employed as an upright support for the enclosures containing the spent fuel elements. Legs at the lower corners of the frame rest on the floor of the pool to support the frame. In one exemplary embodiment, the support for the fuel element is in the form of a base on which a fuel element rests and the base is supported by legs. In another exemplary embodiment, each fuel element is supported on the pool floor by a self-adjusting support in the form of a base on which a fuel element rests and the base rests on a ball or swivel joint for self-alignment. The lower four corners of the frame are supported by legs adjustable in height for leveling the frame. Each adjustable frame leg is in the form of a base resting on the pool floor and the base supports a threaded post. The threaded post adjustably engages a threaded column on which rests the lower end of the frame. 16 claims, 14 figures

  2. Nuclear fuel rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Toyoji.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To remove failures caused from combination of fuel-cladding interactions, hydrogen absorptions, stress corrosions or the likes by setting the quantity ratio of uranium or uranium and plutonium relative to oxygen to a specific range in fuel pellets and forming a specific size of a through hole at the center of the pellets. Constitution: In a fuel rods of a structure wherein fuel pellets prepared by compacting and sintering uranium dioxide, or oxide mixture consisting of oxides of plutonium and uranium are sealed with a zirconium metal can, the ratio of uranium or uranium and plutonium to oxygen is specified as 1 : 2.01 - 1 : 2.05 in the can and a passing hole of a size in the range of 15 - 30% of the outer diameter of the fuel pellet is formed at the center of the pellet. This increases the oxygen partial pressure in the fuel rod, oxidizes and forms a protection layer on the inner surface of the can to control the hydrogen absorption and stress corrosion. Locallized stress due to fuel cladding interaction (PCMI) can also be moderated. (Horiuchi, T.)

  3. Monitoring of spent nuclear fuel with antineutrino detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brdar, Vedran

    2017-09-01

    We put forward the possibility of employing antineutrino detectors in order to control the amounts of spent nuclear fuel in repositories or, alternatively, to precisely localize the underground sources of nuclear material. For instance, we discuss the applicability in determining a possible leakage of stored nuclear material which would aid in preventing environmental problems. The long-term storage facilities are also addressed.

  4. Transport of irradiated nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    In response to public interest in the transport by rail through London of containers of irradiated fuel elements on their way from nuclear power stations to Windscale, the Central Electricity Generating Board and British Rail held three information meetings in London in January 1980. One meeting was for representatives of London Borough Councils and Members of Parliament with a known interest in the subject, and the others were for press, radio and television journalists. This booklet contains the main points made by the principal speakers from the CEGB and BR. (The points covered include: brief description of the fuel cycle; effect of the fission process in producing plutonium and fission products in the fuel element; fuel transport; the fuel flasks; protection against accidents; experience of transporting fuel). (U.K.)

  5. Alternate approaches to nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crane, A.T.

    1985-01-01

    For the US nuclear power industry to expand, a greatly increased portion of the public must come to share the industry's confidence in reactor safety. Major obstacles to establishing this confidence are frequent incidents with potential safety implications and a lack of incontrovertible proof that the risk of a major accident is very low. The most important step toward overcoming these obstacles would be for each utility to operate, maintain, and evaluate its reactors according to far higher standards. With improvements in reliability and safety margins, existing plants would be a stimulus for building new ones rather than an impediment. If changes to the operation of existing plants and improvements to the design of future ones were inadequate, the only hope for a revival of the nuclear industry would be an alternative reactor so obviously safe that risk would no longer be an issue. Three possible concepts are the modular high-temperature gas reactor, the process inherent ultimate safety reactor, and the liquid-metal fast reactor. All three have inherent safety features that should make a meltdown essentially impossible. They cannot know just how great the advantage of these alternate reactors would be, but the benefits of developing one or more of the concepts appear great

  6. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Colorado Airport Relies on Natural Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fueling Stations Colorado Airport Relies on Natural Gas Fueling Stations to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Colorado Airport Relies on Natural Gas Fueling Stations on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Colorado Airport Relies on Natural Gas Fueling Stations on

  7. Nuclear fuel management in JMTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naka, Michihiro; Miyazawa, Masataka; Sato, Hiroshi; Nakayama, Fusao; Ito, Haruhiko

    1999-01-01

    The Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR) is the largest scale materials (author)ted the fission gas release compared with the steady state opkW/l in Japan. JMTR as a multi-purpose reactor has been contributing to research and development on nuclear field with a wide variety of irradiation for performing engineering tests and safety research on fuel and component for light water reactor as well as fast breeder reactor, high temperature gas-cooled reactor etc., for research and development on blanket material for fusion reactor, for fundamental research, and for radio-isotope (RI) production. The driver nuclear fuel used in JMTR is aluminum based MTR type fuel. According to the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) Program, the JMTR fuel elements had been converted from 93% high enriched uranium (HEU) fuel to 45% medium enriched uranium (MEU) fuel in 1986, and then to 20% low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel in 1994. The cumulative operation cycles until March 1999 reached to 127 cycles since the first criticality in 1968. JMTR has used 1,628 HEU, 688 MEU and 308 LEU fuel elements for these operation cycles. After these spent fuel elements were cooled in the JMTR water canal more than one year after discharged from the JMTR core, they had been transported to reprocessing plants in Europe, and then to plants in USA in order to extract the uranium remaining in the spent fuel. The JMTR spent fuel transportation for reprocessing had been continued until the end of 1988. However, USA had ceased spent fuel reprocessing in 1989, while USDOE committed to prepare an environmental review of the impacts of accepting spent fuels from foreign research reactors. After that, USDOE decided to implement a new acceptance policy in 1996, the spent fuel transportation from JMTR to Savannah River Site was commenced in 1997. It was the first transportation not only in Japan but in Asia also. Until resuming the transportation, the spent fuel elements stored in JMTR

  8. Alternate-Fueled Combustor-Sector Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Anna E.; Saxena, Nikita T.; Shouse, Dale T.; Neuroth, Craig; Hendricks, Robert C.; Lynch, Amy; Frayne, Charles W.; Stutrud, Jeffrey S.; Corporan, Edwin; Hankins, Terry

    2013-01-01

    In order to realize alternative fueling for military and commercial use, the industry has set forth guidelines that must be met by each fuel. These aviation fueling requirements are outlined in MIL-DTL-83133F(2008) or ASTM D 7566 Annex (2011) standards, and are classified as "drop-in" fuel replacements. This report provides combustor performance data for synthetic-paraffinic-kerosene- (SPK-) type (Fischer-Tropsch (FT)) fuel and blends with JP-8+100, relative to JP-8+100 as baseline fueling. Data were taken at various nominal inlet conditions: 75 psia (0.52 MPa) at 500 degF (533 K), 125 psia (0.86 MPa) at 625 degF (603 K), 175 psia (1.21 MPa) at 725 degF (658 K), and 225 psia (1.55 MPa) at 790 degF (694 K). Combustor performance analysis assessments were made for the change in flame temperatures, combustor efficiency, wall temperatures, and exhaust plane temperatures at 3, 4, and 5 percent combustor pressure drop (DP) for fuel:air ratios (F/A) ranging from 0.010 to 0.025. Significant general trends show lower liner temperatures and higher flame and combustor outlet temperatures with increases in FT fueling relative to JP-8+100 fueling. The latter affects both turbine efficiency and blade and vane lives.

  9. Review of alternative fuels data bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harsha, P. T.; Edelman, R. B.

    1983-01-01

    Based on an analysis of the interaction of fuel physical and chemical properties with combustion characteristics and indicators, a ranking of the importance of various fuel properties with respect to the combustion process was established. This ranking was used to define a suite of specific experiments whose objective is the development of an alternative fuels design data base. Combustion characteristics and indicators examined include droplet and spray formation, droplet vaporization and burning, ignition and flame stabilization, flame temperature, laminar flame speed, combustion completion, soot emissions, NOx and SOx emissions, and the fuels' thermal and oxidative stability and fouling and corrosion characteristics. Key fuel property data is found to include composition, thermochemical data, chemical kinetic rate information, and certain physical properties.

  10. Fuel assembly for nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanaka, Akihiro; Haikawa, Katsumasa; Haraguchi, Yuko; Nakamura, Mitsuya; Aoyama, Motoo; Koyama, Jun-ichi.

    1996-01-01

    In a BWR type fuel assembly comprising first fuel rods filled with nuclear fission products and second fuel rods filled with burnable poisons and nuclear fission products, the concentration of the burnable poisons mixed to a portion of the second fuel rods is controlled so that it is reduced at the upper portion and increased at the lower portion in the axial direction. In addition, a product of the difference of an average concentration of burnable poisons between the upper portion and the lower portion and the number of fuel rods is determined to higher than a first set value determined corresponding to the limit value of a maximum linear power density. The sum of the difference of the average concentration of the burnable poisons between the upper portion and the lower portion of the second fuel rod and the number of the second fuel rods is determined to lower than a second set value determined corresponding to a required value of a surplus reactivity. If the number of the fuel rods mixed with the burnable poisons is increased, the infinite multiplication factor at an initial stage of the burning is lowered and, if the concentration of the mixed burnable poisons is increased, the time of exhaustion of the burnable poisons is delayed. As a result, the maximum value of the infinite multiplication factor is suppressed thereby enabling to control surplus reactivity. (N.H.)

  11. Analytical chemistry needs for nuclear safeguards in nuclear fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakkila, E.A.

    1977-01-01

    A fuel reprocessing plant designed to process 1500 tons of light water reactor fuel per year will recover 15 tons of Pu during that time, or approximately 40 to 50 kg of Pu per day. Conventional nuclear safeguards accountability has relied on batch accounting at the head and tail ends of the reprocessing plant with semi-annual plant cleanout to determine in-process holdup. An alternative proposed safeguards system relies on dynamic material accounting whereby in-line NDA and conventional analytical techniques provide indications on a daily basis of SNM transfers into the system and information of Pu holdup within the system. Some of the analytical requirements and problems for dynamic materials accounting in a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant are described. Some suggestions for further development will be proposed

  12. Inspection of nuclear fuel transport in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobo Mendez, J.

    1977-01-01

    The experience acquired in inspecting nuclear fuel shipments carried out in Spain will serve as a basis for establishing the regulations wich must be adhered to for future transports, as the transport of nuclear fuels in Spain will increase considerably within the next years as a result of the Spanish nuclear program. The experience acquired in nuclear fuel transport inspection is described. (author) [es

  13. Regional nuclear fuel cycle centers study project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, L.; Catlin, R.G.; Meckoni, V.

    1977-01-01

    The concept of regional fuel cycle centers (RFCC) has attracted wide interest. The concept was endorsed by many countries in discussions at the General Conference of the International Atomic Energy Agency and at the General Assembly of the United Nations. Accordingly, in 1975, the IAEA initiated a detailed study of the RFCC concept. The Agency study has concentrated on what is referred to as the ''back-end'' of the fuel cycle because that is the portion which is currently problematic. The study covers transport, storage, processing and recycle activities starting from the time the spent fuel leaves the reactor storage pools and through all steps until the recycled fuel is in finished fuel elements and shipped to the reactor. A detailed evaluation of the specific features of large regional fuel cycle centers established on a multinational basis vis-a-vis smaller dispersed fuel cycle facilities set up on a national basis has been carried out. The methodology for assessment of alternative strategies for fuel storage, reprocessing, and recycling of plutonium has been developed, characteristic data on material flows and cost factors have been generated, and an analytic system has been developed to carry out such evaluations including appropriate sensitivity analysis. Studies in related areas on institutional and legal, organizational, environmental, materials control and other essential aspects have also been made. The material developed during the course of this Study would enable any group of interested Member States to examine and work out alternative strategies pertinent to their present and projected nuclear fuel cycle needs, as well as evolve institutional, legal and other appropriate frameworks or agreements for the establishment of fuel cycle centers on a multinational cooperative basis

  14. Nuclear fuel elements design, fabrication and performance

    CERN Document Server

    Frost, Brian R T

    1982-01-01

    Nuclear Fuel Elements: Design, Fabrication and Performance is concerned with the design, fabrication, and performance of nuclear fuel elements, with emphasis on fast reactor fuel elements. Topics range from fuel types and the irradiation behavior of fuels to cladding and duct materials, fuel element design and modeling, fuel element performance testing and qualification, and the performance of water reactor fuels. Fast reactor fuel elements, research and test reactor fuel elements, and unconventional fuel elements are also covered. This volume consists of 12 chapters and begins with an overvie

  15. Nuclear fuel sub-assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodd, J.A.; Butterfield, C.E.; Waite, E.

    1979-01-01

    A fast reactor fuel sub-assembly has honeycomb grids for laterally supporting the fuel pins. The grids are of two series and are arranged alternately along the bundle. The grids of a first series provide a discrete cell for each pin but the grids of the second series have a peripheral group of cells only. The grids of the second series provide intermediate support of the edge pins to restrain bow. (author)

  16. Nuclear fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Tadashi; Sato, Kenji; Goto, Masakazu.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To facilitate identification of a fuel assembly upon fuel exchange in BWR type reactors. Constitution: Fluorescent material is coated or metal plating is applied to the impressed portion of a upper tie plate handle of a fuel assembly, and the fluorescent material or the metal plating surface is covered with a protective membrane made of transparent material. This enables to distinguish the impressed surface from a distant place and chemical reaction between the impressed surface and the reactor water can be prevented. Furthermore, since the protective membrane is formed such that it protrudes toward the upper side relative to the impressed surface, there is no risk of depositions of claddings thereover. (Moriyama, K.)

  17. Nuclear fuel cladding material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakahigashi, Shigeo.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To largely improve the durability and the safety of fuel cladding material. Constitution: Diffusion preventive layers, e.g., aluminum or the like are covered on both sides of a zirconium alloy base layer of thin material, and corrosion resistant layers, e.g., copper or the like are covered thereon. This thin plate material is intimately wound in a circularly tubular shape in a plurality of layers to form a fuel cladding tube. With such construction, corrosion of the tube due to fuel and impurity can be prevented by the corrosion resistant layers, and the diffusion of the corrosion resistant material to the zirconium alloy can be prevented by the diffusion preventive layers. Since a plurality of layers are cladded, even if the corrosion resistant layers are damaged or cracked due to stress corrosion, only one layer is damaged or cracked, but the other layers are not affected. (Sekiya, K.)

  18. Nuclear fuel reprocessing: A time for decision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Donnell, A.J.; Sandbery, R.O.

    1983-01-01

    Availability of adequate supplies of energy at an affordable cost is essential to continued growth of the world's economics. The tie between economic growth and electricity usage is particularly strong and the pervasive wordwide trend toward increasing electrification shows no signs of abating. Very few viable alternatives are available for supplying the projected increase in baseload electric generating capacity in the next several decades, and most industrialized nations have chosen nuclear power to play a major role. Sustained growth of nuclear power can only be achieved, however, by reprocessing spent fuel to recover and utilize the residual uranium and plutonium energy values

  19. Dynamic modeling and analysis of alternative fuel cycle scenarios in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Chang Joon; Choi, Hang Bok

    2007-01-01

    The Korean nuclear fuel cycle was modeled by the dynamic analysis method, which was applied to the once-through and alternative fuel cycles. First, the once-through fuel cycle was analyzed based on the Korean nuclear power plant construction plan up to 2015 and a postulated nuclear demand growth rate of zero after 2015. Second, alternative fuel cycles including the direct use of spent pressurized water reactor fuel in Canada deuterium reactors (DUPIC), a sodium-cooled fast reactor and an accelerator driven system were assessed and the results were compared with those of the once-through fuel cycle. The once-through fuel cycle calculation showed that the nuclear power demand would be 25 GWe and the amount of the spent fuel will be ∼65000 tons by 2100. The alternative fuel cycle analyses showed that the spent fuel inventory could be reduced by more than 30% and 90% through the DUPIC and fast reactor fuel cycles, respectively, when compared with the once-through fuel cycle. The results of this study indicate that both spent fuel and uranium resources can be effectively managed if alternative reactor systems are timely implemented along with the existing reactors

  20. Nuclear reactor fuel rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busch, H.; Mindnich, F.R.

    1973-01-01

    The fuel rod consists of a can with at least one end cap and a plenum spring between this cap and the fuel. To prevent the hazard that a eutectic mixture is formed during welding of the end cap, a thermal insulation is added between the end cap and plenum spring. It consists of a comical extension of the end cap with a terminal disc against which the spring is supported. The end cap, the extension, and the disc may be formed by one or several pieces. If the disc is separated from the other parts it may be manufactured from chrome steel or VA steel. (DG) [de

  1. Modular nuclear fuel assembly rack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, C.J.

    1982-01-01

    A modular nuclear fuel assembly rack constructed of an array of identical cells, each cell constructed of a plurality of identical flanged plates. The unique assembly of the plates into a rigid rack provides a cellular compartment for nuclear fuel assemblies and a cavity between the cells for accepting neutron absorbing materials thus allowing a closely spaced array. The modular rack size can be easily adapted to conform with available storage space. U-shaped flanges at the edges of the plates are nested together at the intersection of four cells in the array. A bar is placed at the intersection to lock the cells together

  2. Spent nuclear fuel shipping basket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, A.H.

    1990-01-01

    This patent describes a basket for a cask for transporting nuclear fuel elements. It comprises: sleeve members, each of the sleeve members having interior cross-section dimensions for receiving a nuclear fuel assembly such that the assembly is restrained from lateral movement within the sleeve member, apertured disk members, means for axially aligning the apertures in the disk members, and means for maintaining the disk members in fixed spaced relationship to form a disk assembly, comprising an array of disks, the aligned apertures of the disks being adapted to receive the sleeve members and maintain them in fixed spaced relationship

  3. Grooved Fuel Rings for Nuclear Thermal Rocket Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emrich, William

    2009-01-01

    An alternative design concept for nuclear thermal rocket engines for interplanetary spacecraft calls for the use of grooved-ring fuel elements. Beyond spacecraft rocket engines, this concept also has potential for the design of terrestrial and spacecraft nuclear electric-power plants. The grooved ring fuel design attempts to retain the best features of the particle bed fuel element while eliminating most of its design deficiencies. In the grooved ring design, the hydrogen propellant enters the fuel element in a manner similar to that of the Particle Bed Reactor (PBR) fuel element.

  4. Property-process relationships in nuclear fuel fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tikare, V.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear fuels are fabricated using many different techniques as they come in a large variety of shapes and compositions. The design and composition of nuclear fuels are predominantly dictated by the engineering requirements necessary for their function in reactors of various designs. Other engineering properties requirements originate from safety and security concerns, and the easy of handling, storing, transporting and disposing of the radioactive materials. In this chapter, the more common of these fuels will be briefly reviewed and the methods used to fabricate them will be presented. The fuels considered in this paper are oxide fuels used in LWRs and FRs, metal fuels in FRs and particulate fuels used in HTGRs. Fabrication of alternative fuel forms and use of standard fuels in alternative reactors will be discussed briefly. The primary motivation to advance fuel fabrication is to improve performance, reduce cost, reduce waste or enhance safety and security of the fuels. To achieve optimal performance, developing models to advance fuel fabrication has to be done in concert with developing fuel performance models. The specific properties and microstructures necessary for improved fuel performance must be identified using fuel performance models, while fuel fabrication models that can determine processing variables to give the desired microstructure and materials properties must be developed. (author)

  5. Spent nuclear fuel in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peev, P.; Kalimanov, N.

    1999-01-01

    The development of the nuclear energy sector in Bulgaria is characterized by two major stages. The first stage consisted of providing a scientific basis for the programme for development of the nuclear energy sector in the country and was completed with the construction of an experimental water-water reactor. At present, spent nuclear fuel from this reactor is placed in a water filled storage facility and will be transported back to Russia. The second stage consisted of the construction of the 6 NPP units at the Kozloduy site. The spent nuclear fuel from the six units is stored in at reactor pools and in an additional on-site storage facility which is nearly full. In order to engage the government of the country with the on-site storage problems, the new management of the National Electric Company elaborated a policy on nuclear fuel cycle and radioactive waste management. The underlying policy is de facto the selection of the 'deferred decision' option for its spent fuel management. (author)

  6. Production of jet fuel from alternative source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eller, Zoltan; Papp, Anita; Hancsok, Jenoe [Pannonia Univ., Veszprem (Hungary). MOL Dept. of Hydrocarbon and Coal Processing

    2013-06-01

    Recent demands for low aromatic content jet fuels have shown significant increase in the last 20 years. This was generated by the growing of aviation. Furthermore, the quality requirements have become more aggravated for jet fuels. Nowadays reduced aromatic hydrocarbon fractions are necessary for the production of jet fuels with good burning properties, which contribute to less harmful material emission. In the recent past the properties of gasolines and diesel gas oils were continuously severed, and the properties of jet fuels will be more severe, too. Furthermore, it can become obligatory to blend alternative components into jet fuels. With the aromatic content reduction there is a possibility to produce high energy content jet fuels with the desirable properties. One of the possibilities is the blending of biocomponents from catalytic hydrogenation of triglycerides. Our aim was to study the possibilities of producing low sulphur and aromatic content jet fuels in a catalytic way. On a CoMo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst we studied the possibilities of quality improving of a kerosene fraction and coconut oil mixture depending on the change of the process parameters (temperature, pressure, liquid hourly space velocity, volume ratio). Based on the quality parameters of the liquid products we found that we made from the feedstock in the adequate technological conditions products which have a high smoke point (> 35 mm) and which have reduced aromatic content and high paraffin content (90%), so these are excellent jet fuels, and their stack gases damage the environment less. (orig.)

  7. Fuel Fabrication and Nuclear Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpius, Peter Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-02

    The uranium from the enrichment plant is still in the form of UF6. UF6 is not suitable for use in a reactor due to its highly corrosive chemistry as well as its phase diagram. UF6 is converted into UO2 fuel pellets, which are in turn placed in fuel rods and assemblies. Reactor designs are variable in moderators, coolants, fuel, performance etc.The dream of energy ‘too-cheap to meter’ is no more, and now the nuclear power industry is pushing ahead with advanced reactor designs.

  8. Fuel bundle for nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, J.W.; Flora, B.S.; Ford, K.L.

    1977-01-01

    The invention concerns a new, simple and inexpensive system for assembling and dismantling a nuclear reactor fuel bundle. Several fuel rods are fitted in parallel rows between two retaining plates which secure the fuel rods in position and which are maintained in an assembled position by means of several stays fixed to the two end plates. The invention particularly refers to an improved apparatus for fixing the stays to the upper plate by using locking fittings secured to rotating sleeves which are applied against this plate [fr

  9. Regulating nuclear fuel waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    When Parliament passed the Atomic Energy Control Act in 1946, it erected the framework for nuclear safety in Canada. Under the Act, the government created the Atomic Energy Control Board and gave it the authority to make and enforce regulations governing every aspect of nuclear power production and use in this country. The Act gives the Control Board the flexibility to amend its regulations to adapt to changes in technology, health and safety standards, co-operative agreements with provincial agencies and policy regarding trade in nuclear materials. This flexibility has allowed the Control Board to successfully regulate the nuclear industry for more than 40 years. Its mission statement 'to ensure that the use of nuclear energy in Canada does not pose undue risk to health, safety, security and the environment' concisely states the Control Board's primary objective. The Atomic Energy Control Board regulates all aspects of nuclear energy in Canada to ensure there is no undue risk to health, safety, security or the environment. It does this through a multi-stage licensing process

  10. Alternative Fuel News: May 2000 Special Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brennan, A.; Ficker, C.

    2000-05-03

    In this special issue of Alternative Fuel News, the authors summarize DOE's current position on the local government and private fleet rulemaking that has been under consideration. The authors also look at the new area of focus, niche markets. Your participation and input are invited as the authors craft new directions for the nation's transportation future.

  11. Pulse Detonation Assessment for Alternative Fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Hanafi Azami

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The higher thermodynamic efficiency inherent in a detonation combustion based engine has already led to considerable interest in the development of wave rotor, pulse detonation, and rotating detonation engine configurations as alternative technologies offering improved performance for the next generation of aerospace propulsion systems, but it is now important to consider their emissions also. To assess both performance and emissions, this paper focuses on the feasibility of using alternative fuels in detonation combustion. Thus, the standard aviation fuels Jet-A, Acetylene, Jatropha Bio-synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene, Camelina Bio-synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene, Algal Biofuel, and Microalgae Biofuel are all asessed under detonation combustion conditions. An analytical model accounting for the Rankine-Hugoniot Equation, Rayleigh Line Equation, and Zel’dovich–von Neumann–Doering model, and taking into account single step chemistry and thermophysical properties for a stoichiometric mixture, is applied to a simple detonation tube test case configuration. The computed pressure rise and detonation velocity are shown to be in good agreement with published literature. Additional computations examine the effects of initial pressure, temperature, and mass flux on the physical properties of the flow. The results indicate that alternative fuels require higher initial mass flux and temperature to detonate. The benefits of alternative fuels appear significant.

  12. Retrofitting a spent fuel pool spray system for alternative cooling as a strategy for beyond design basis events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, Christoph; Vujic, Zoran [Westinghouse Electric Germany GmbH, Mannheim (Germany)

    2017-06-15

    Due to requirements for nuclear power plants to withstand beyond design basis accidents, including events such as happened in 2011 in the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in Japan, alternative cooling of spent fuel is needed. Alternative spent fuel cooling can be provided by a retrofitted spent fuel pool spray system based on the AP1000 plant design. As part of Krsko Nuclear Power Plant's Safety Upgrade Program, Krsko Nuclear Power Plant decided on, and Westinghouse successfully designed a retrofit of the AP1000 {sup registered} plant spent fuel pool spray system to provide alternative spent fuel cooling.

  13. World nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    A coloured pull-out wall chart is presented showing the fuel cycle interests of the world. Place names are marked and symbols are used to indicate regions associated with uranium or thorium deposits, mining, milling, enrichment, reprocessing and fabrication. (UK)

  14. Contracting for nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuessler, C.M.

    1981-10-01

    This paper deals with uranium sales contracts, i.e. with contractual arrangements in the first steps of the fuel cycle, which cover uranium production and conversion. The various types of contract are described and, where appropriate, their underlying business philosophy and their main terms and conditions. Finally, the specific common features of such contracts are reviewed. (NEA) [fr

  15. Nuclear fuel cycle studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    For the metal-matrix encapsulation of radioactive waste, brittle-fracture, leach-rate, and migration studies are being conducted. For fuel reprocessing, annular and centrifugal contactors are being tested and modeled. For the LWBR proof-of-breeding project, the full-scale shear and the prototype dissolver were procured and tested. 5 figures

  16. Axially alignable nuclear fuel pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, E.B.; Klahn, D.H.; Marlowe, M.O.

    1978-01-01

    An axially alignable nuclear fuel pellet of the type stacked in end-to-end relationship within a tubular cladding is described. Fuel cladding failures can occur at pellet interface locations due to mechanical interaction between misaligned fuel pellets and the cladding. Mechanical interaction between the cladding and the fuel pellets loads the cladding and causes increased cladding stresses. Nuclear fuel pellets are provided with an end structure that increases plastic deformation of the pellets at the interface between pellets so that lower alignment forces are required to straighten axially misaligned pellets. Plastic deformation of the pellet ends results in less interactions beween the cladding and the fuel pellets and significantly lowers cladding stresses. The geometry of pellets constructed according to the invention also reduces alignment forces required to straighten fuel pellets that are tilted within the cladding. Plastic deformation of the pellets at the pellet interfaces is increased by providing pellets with at least one end face having a centrally-disposed raised area of convex shape so that the mean temperature and shear stress of the contact area is higher than that of prior art pellets

  17. Nuclear fuel fabrication in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondal Rao, N

    1975-01-01

    The important role of a nuclear power program in meeting the growing needs of power in India is explained. The successful installation of Tarapur Atomic Power Station and Rajasthan Atomic Power Station as well as the work at Madras Atomic Power Station are described. The development of the Atomic Fuels Division and the Nuclear Fuel Complex, Hyderabad which is mainly concerned with the fabrication of fuel elements and the reprocessing of fuels are explained. The N.F.C. essentially has the following constituent units : Zirconium Plant (ZP) comprising of Zirconium Oxide Plant, Zirconium Sponge Plant and Zirconium Fabrication Plant; Natural Uranium Oxide Plant (UOP); Ceramic Fuel Fabrication Plant (CFFP); Enriched Uranium Oxide Plant (EUOP); Enriched Fuel Fabrication Plant (EEFP) and Quality Control Laboratory for meeting the quality control requirements of all plants. The capacities of various plants at the NFC are mentioned. The work done on mixed oxide fuels and FBTR core with blanket assemblies, nickel and steel assemblies, thermal research reactor of 100 MW capacity, etc. are briefly mentioned.

  18. Means for supporting nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cocker, P.; Price, M.A.

    1975-01-01

    Reference is made to means for supporting nuclear fuel pins in a reactor coolant channel and the problems that arise in this connection. For reasons of nuclear reactivity and neutron economy 'parasitic' material in a reactor core must be kept to a minimum, whilst for heat transfer reasons the use of fuel pins of large cross-sectional areas should be avoided. Fuel pins tend to be long thin objects having a can of minimum thickness and typically a pin may have a length/diameter ratio of about 500/1 and for fast reactor fuel pins, the outside diameter may be about 0.2 inch. The long slender pins must also be spaced very close together. A fast reactor fuel assembly may involve 200 to 300 fuel pins, each a few tenths of an inch in diameter, supported end on to coolant flowing up a channel of about 22 square inches in total area. The pins have a heavy metal oxide filling and require support. Details are given of a suitable method of support. Such support also allows withdrawal of pins from a fuel channel without the risk of breach of the can, after irradiation. (U.K.)

  19. Nuclear fuel fabrication in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondal Rao, N.

    1975-01-01

    The important role of a nuclear power programme in meeting the growing needs of power in India is explained. The successful installation of Tarapur Atomic Power Station and Rajasthan Atomic Power Station as well as the work at Madras Atomic Power Station are described. The development of the Atomic Fuels Division and the Nuclear Fuel Complex, Hyderabad which is mainly concerned with the fabrication of fuel elements and the reprocessing of fuels are explained. The N.F.C. essentially has the following constituent units : Zirconium Plant (ZP) comprising of Zirconium Oxide Plant, Zirconium Sponge Plant and Zirconium Fabrication Plant; Natural Uranium Oxide Plant (UOP); Ceramic Fuel Fabrication Plant (CFFP); Enriched Uranium Oxide Plant (EUOP); Enriched Fuel Fabrication Plant (EEFP) and Quality Control Laboratory for meeting the quality control requirements of all plants. The capacities of various plants at the NFC are mentioned. The work done on mixed oxide fuels and FBTR core with blanket assemblies, nickel and steel assemblies, thermal research reactor of 100 MW capacity, etc. are briefly mentioned. (K.B.)

  20. Alternative transport fuels: supply, consumption and conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trindade, S.C.

    1990-01-01

    Road-based passenger and freight transport almost exclusively uses petroleum/hydrocarbon fuels in the fluid form. These fuels will probably continue to be major transport fuels well into the 21st century. As such there is need to prolong their use which can be done through: (1) conservation of fuel by increasing efficiency of internal combustion engines, and (2) conversion of natural gas, coal and peat, and biomass into alternate fuels such as ethanol, methanol, CNG, LNG, LPG, low heat-content (producer) gas and vegetable oils. Research, development and demonstration (RD and D) priorities in supply, consumption and conservation of these alternate fuels are identified and ranked in the context of situation prevailing in Brazil. Author has assigned the highest priority for research in the impact of pricing, economic, fiscal and trade policies, capital allocation criteria and institutional and legislative framework. It has also been emphasised that an integrated or systems approach is mandatory to achieve net energy gains in transport sector. (M.G.B.). 33 refs., 11 tabs., 4 figs

  1. Alternative Fuel for Portland Cement Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schindler, Anton K; Duke, Steve R; Burch, Thomas E; Davis, Edward W; Zee, Ralph H; Bransby, David I; Hopkins, Carla; Thompson, Rutherford L; Duan, Jingran; ; Venkatasubramanian, Vignesh; Stephen, Giles

    2012-06-30

    The production of cement involves a combination of numerous raw materials, strictly monitored system processes, and temperatures on the order of 1500 °C. Immense quantities of fuel are required for the production of cement. Traditionally, energy from fossil fuels was solely relied upon for the production of cement. The overarching project objective is to evaluate the use of alternative fuels to lessen the dependence on non-renewable resources to produce portland cement. The key objective of using alternative fuels is to continue to produce high-quality cement while decreasing the use of non-renewable fuels and minimizing the impact on the environment. Burn characteristics and thermodynamic parameters were evaluated with a laboratory burn simulator under conditions that mimic those in the preheater where the fuels are brought into a cement plant. A drop-tube furnace and visualization method were developed that show potential for evaluating time- and space-resolved temperature distributions for fuel solid particles and liquid droplets undergoing combustion in various combustion atmospheres. Downdraft gasification has been explored as a means to extract chemical energy from poultry litter while limiting the throughput of potentially deleterious components with regards to use in firing a cement kiln. Results have shown that the clinkering is temperature independent, at least within the controllable temperature range. Limestone also had only a slight effect on the fusion when used to coat the pellets. However, limestone addition did display some promise in regards to chlorine capture, as ash analyses showed chlorine concentrations of more than four times greater in the limestone infused ash as compared to raw poultry litter. A reliable and convenient sampling procedure was developed to estimate the combustion quality of broiler litter that is the best compromise between convenience and reliability by means of statistical analysis. Multi-day trial burns were conducted

  2. Hydrogen as alternative clean fuel: Economic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coiante, D.

    1995-03-01

    In analogy to biofuel production from biomasses, the electrolytic conversion of other renewable energies into hydrogen as an alternative clean fuel is considered. This solution allows the intermittent renewable energy sources, as photovoltaics and wind energy, to enhance their development and enlarge the role into conventional fuel market. A rough economic analysis of hydrogen production line shows the costs, added by electrolysis and storage stages, can be recovered by properly accounting for social and environmental costs due to whole cycle of conventional fuels, from production to use. So, in a perspective of attaining the economic competitiveness of renewable energy, the hydrogen, arising from intermittent renewable energy sources, will be able to compete in the energy market with conventional fuels, making sure that their substitution will occur in a significant amount and the corresponding environment

  3. Power generation costs for alternate reactor fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smolen, G.R.; Delene, J.G.

    1980-09-01

    The total electric generating costs at the power plant busbar are estimated for various nuclear reactor fuel cycles which may be considered for power generation in the future. The reactor systems include pressurized water reactors (PWR), heavy-water reactors (HWR), high-temperature gas cooled reactors (HTGR), liquid-metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBR), light-water pre-breeder and breeder reactors (LWPR, LWBR), and a fast mixed spectrum reactor (FMSR). Fuel cycles include once-through, uranium-only recycle, and full recycle of the uranium and plutonium in the spent fuel assemblies. The U 3 O 8 price for economic transition from once-through LWR fuel cycles to both PWR recycle and LMFBR systems is estimated. Electric power generation costs were determined both for a reference set of unit cost parameters and for a range of uncertainty in these parameters. In addition, cost sensitivity parameters are provided so that independent estimations can be made for alternate cost assumptions

  4. Nuclear reactor fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Eye, R.W.M.; Shennan, J.V.; Ford, L.H.

    1977-01-01

    Fuel element with particles from ceramic fissionable material (e.g. uranium carbide), each one being coated with pyrolitically deposited carbon and all of them being connected at their points of contact by means of an individual crossbar. The crossbar consists of silicon carbide produced by reaction of silicon metal powder with the carbon under the influence of heat. Previously the silicon metal powder together with the particles was kneaded in a solvent and a binder (e.g. epoxy resin in methyl ethyl ketone plus setting agent) to from a pulp. The reaction temperature lies at 1750 0 C. The reaction itself may take place in a nitrogen atmosphere. There will be produced a fuel element with a high overall thermal conductivity. (DG) [de

  5. Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Operating on Alternative and Renewable Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiaoxing; Quan, Wenying; Xiao, Jing; Peduzzi, Emanuela; Fujii, Mamoru; Sun, Funxia; Shalaby, Cigdem; Li, Yan; Xie, Chao; Ma, Xiaoliang; Johnson, David; Lee, Jeong; Fedkin, Mark; LaBarbera, Mark; Das, Debanjan; Thompson, David; Lvov, Serguei; Song, Chunshan

    2014-09-30

    This DOE project at the Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) initially involved Siemens Energy, Inc. to (1) develop new fuel processing approaches for using selected alternative and renewable fuels – anaerobic digester gas (ADG) and commercial diesel fuel (with 15 ppm sulfur) – in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) power generation systems; and (2) conduct integrated fuel processor – SOFC system tests to evaluate the performance of the fuel processors and overall systems. Siemens Energy Inc. was to provide SOFC system to Penn State for testing. The Siemens work was carried out at Siemens Energy Inc. in Pittsburgh, PA. The unexpected restructuring in Siemens organization, however, led to the elimination of the Siemens Stationary Fuel Cell Division within the company. Unfortunately, this led to the Siemens subcontract with Penn State ending on September 23rd, 2010. SOFC system was never delivered to Penn State. With the assistance of NETL project manager, the Penn State team has since developed a collaborative research with Delphi as the new subcontractor and this work involved the testing of a stack of planar solid oxide fuel cells from Delphi.

  6. Fuel-cycle greenhouse gas emissions impacts of alternative transportation fuels and advanced vehicle technologies.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, M. Q.

    1998-12-16

    At an international conference on global warming, held in Kyoto, Japan, in December 1997, the United States committed to reduce its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 7% over its 1990 level by the year 2012. To help achieve that goal, transportation GHG emissions need to be reduced. Using Argonne's fuel-cycle model, I estimated GHG emissions reduction potentials of various near- and long-term transportation technologies. The estimated per-mile GHG emissions results show that alternative transportation fuels and advanced vehicle technologies can help significantly reduce transportation GHG emissions. Of the near-term technologies evaluated in this study, electric vehicles; hybrid electric vehicles; compression-ignition, direct-injection vehicles; and E85 flexible fuel vehicles can reduce fuel-cycle GHG emissions by more than 25%, on the fuel-cycle basis. Electric vehicles powered by electricity generated primarily from nuclear and renewable sources can reduce GHG emissions by 80%. Other alternative fuels, such as compressed natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas, offer limited, but positive, GHG emission reduction benefits. Among the long-term technologies evaluated in this study, conventional spark ignition and compression ignition engines powered by alternative fuels and gasoline- and diesel-powered advanced vehicles can reduce GHG emissions by 10% to 30%. Ethanol dedicated vehicles, electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, and fuel-cell vehicles can reduce GHG emissions by over 40%. Spark ignition engines and fuel-cell vehicles powered by cellulosic ethanol and solar hydrogen (for fuel-cell vehicles only) can reduce GHG emissions by over 80%. In conclusion, both near- and long-term alternative fuels and advanced transportation technologies can play a role in reducing the United States GHG emissions.

  7. Fuel-cycle greenhouse gas emissions impacts of alternative transportation fuels and advanced vehicle technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, M. Q.

    1998-01-01

    At an international conference on global warming, held in Kyoto, Japan, in December 1997, the United States committed to reduce its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 7% over its 1990 level by the year 2012. To help achieve that goal, transportation GHG emissions need to be reduced. Using Argonne's fuel-cycle model, I estimated GHG emissions reduction potentials of various near- and long-term transportation technologies. The estimated per-mile GHG emissions results show that alternative transportation fuels and advanced vehicle technologies can help significantly reduce transportation GHG emissions. Of the near-term technologies evaluated in this study, electric vehicles; hybrid electric vehicles; compression-ignition, direct-injection vehicles; and E85 flexible fuel vehicles can reduce fuel-cycle GHG emissions by more than 25%, on the fuel-cycle basis. Electric vehicles powered by electricity generated primarily from nuclear and renewable sources can reduce GHG emissions by 80%. Other alternative fuels, such as compressed natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas, offer limited, but positive, GHG emission reduction benefits. Among the long-term technologies evaluated in this study, conventional spark ignition and compression ignition engines powered by alternative fuels and gasoline- and diesel-powered advanced vehicles can reduce GHG emissions by 10% to 30%. Ethanol dedicated vehicles, electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, and fuel-cell vehicles can reduce GHG emissions by over 40%. Spark ignition engines and fuel-cell vehicles powered by cellulosic ethanol and solar hydrogen (for fuel-cell vehicles only) can reduce GHG emissions by over 80%. In conclusion, both near- and long-term alternative fuels and advanced transportation technologies can play a role in reducing the United States GHG emissions

  8. Spent nuclear fuel transport problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondrat'ev, A.N.; Kosarev, Yu.A.; Yulikov, E.I.

    1977-01-01

    The paper considers the problems of shipping spent fuel from nuclear power stations to reprocessing plants and also the principal ways of solving these problems with a view to achieving maximum economy and safety in transport. The increase in the number of nuclear power plants in the USSR will entail an intensification of spent-fuel shipments. Higher burnup and the need to reduce cooling time call for heavier and more complex shipping containers. The problem of shipping spent fuel should be tackled comprehensively, bearing in mind the requirements of safety and economy. One solution to these problems is to develop rational and cheap designs of such containers. In addition, the world-wide trend towards more thorough protection of the environment against pollution and of the health of the population requires the devotion of constant attention to improving the reliability and safety of shipments. The paper considers the prospects for nuclear power development in the USSR and in other member countries of the CMEA (1976-1980), the composition and design of some Soviet packaging assemblies, the appropriate cooling time for spent fuel from thermal reactor power stations, procedures for reducing fuel-shipping costs, some methodological problems of container calculation and design, and finally problems of testing and checking containers on test rigs. (author)

  9. Disposal of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-12-01

    This report addresses the topic of the mined geologic disposal of spent nuclear fuel from Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) and Boiling Water Reactors (BWR). Although some fuel processing options are identified, most of the information in this report relates to the isolation of spent fuel in the form it is removed from the reactor. The characteristics of the waste management system and research which relate to spent fuel isolation are discussed. The differences between spent fuel and processed HLW which impact the waste isolation system are defined and evaluated for the nature and extent of that impact. What is known and what needs to be determined about spent fuel as a waste form to design a viable waste isolation system is presented. Other waste forms and programs such as geologic exploration, site characterization and licensing which are generic to all waste forms are also discussed. R and D is being carried out to establish the technical information to develop the methods used for disposal of spent fuel. All evidence to date indicates that there is no reason, based on safety considerations, that spent fuel should not be disposed of as a waste

  10. Alternative institutional arrangements for nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bussard, D.

    1980-08-01

    This paper investigates how alternative organizations of nuclear power generation would effect the regulatory environment for nuclear power production, how it would effect financial constraints on new construction, and what governmental barriers to such reorganization exist

  11. Fire resistant nuclear fuel cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heckman, R.C.; Moss, M.

    1979-01-01

    The disclosure is directed to a fire resistant nuclear fuel cask employing reversibly thermally expansible bands between adjacent cooling fins such that normal outward flow of heat is not interfered with, but abnormal inward flow of heat is impeded or blocked

  12. Storage arrangements for nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ealing, C.J.

    1985-01-01

    A storage arrangement for nuclear fuel has a plurality of storage tubes connected by individual pipes to manifolds which are connected, in turn, to an exhaust system for maintaining the tubes at sub-atmospheric pressure, and means for producing a flow of a cooling fluid, such as air, over the exterior surfaces of the tubes. (author)

  13. Proceedings of the 1991 Windsor workshop on alternative fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    A workshop was held to exchange information among engine and vehicle manufacturers, fuel suppliers, research organizations, and academic and regulatory bodies on various aspects of alternative transportation fuels development. Papers were presented on alternative fuels policies and programs, zero-emission vehicles, emission control technologies, field evaluations of alternative fuel systems, and heavy duty alternate-fuel engines. Separate abstracts have been prepared for nine papers from this workshop

  14. World nuclear fuel cycle requirements 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-10

    The nuclear fuel cycle consists of mining and milling uranium ore, processing the uranium into a form suitable for generating electricity, burning'' the fuel in nuclear reactors, and managing the resulting spent nuclear fuel. This report presents projections of domestic and foreign requirements for natural uranium and enrichment services as well as projections of discharges of spent nuclear fuel. These fuel cycle requirements are based on the forecasts of future commercial nuclear power capacity and generation published in a recent Energy Information Administration (EIA) report. Also included in this report are projections of the amount of spent fuel discharged at the end of each fuel cycle for each nuclear generating unit in the United States. The International Nuclear Model is used for calculating the projected nuclear fuel cycle requirements. 14 figs., 38 tabs.

  15. World nuclear fuel cycle requirements 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The nuclear fuel cycle consists of mining and milling uranium ore, processing the uranium into a form suitable for generating electricity, ''burning'' the fuel in nuclear reactors, and managing the resulting spent nuclear fuel. This report presents projections of domestic and foreign requirements for natural uranium and enrichment services as well as projections of discharges of spent nuclear fuel. These fuel cycle requirements are based on the forecasts of future commercial nuclear power capacity and generation published in a recent Energy Information Administration (EIA) report. Also included in this report are projections of the amount of spent fuel discharged at the end of each fuel cycle for each nuclear generating unit in the United States. The International Nuclear Model is used for calculating the projected nuclear fuel cycle requirements. 14 figs., 38 tabs

  16. Study Of Thorium As A Nuclear Fuel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash Humane

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Conventional fuel sources for power generation are to be replacing by nuclear power sources like nuclear fuel Uranium. But Uranium-235 is the only fissile fuel which is in 0.72 found in nature as an isotope of Uranium-238. U-238 is abundant in nature which is not fissile while U-239 by alpha decay naturally converted to Uranium- 235. For accompanying this nuclear fuel there is another nuclear fuel Thorium is present in nature is abundant can be used as nuclear fuel and is as much as safe and portable like U-235.

  17. Innovative microstructures in nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutty, T.R.G.; Kumar, Arun; Kamath, H.S.

    2009-01-01

    For cleaner and safe nuclear power, new processes are required to design better nuclear fuels and make more efficient reactors to generate nuclear power. Therefore, one must understand how the microstructure changes during reactor operation. Accordingly, the materials scientists and engineers can then design and fabricate fuels with higher reliability and performance. Microstructure and its evolution are big unknowns in nuclear fuel. The basic requirements for the high performance of a fuel are: a) Soft pellets - To reduce Pellet clad mechanical interaction (PCMI) b) Large grain size - To reduce fission gas release (FGR). The strength of the pellet at room temperature is related to grain size by the Hall-Petch relation. Accordingly, the lower grain sized pellets will have high strength. But at high temperature (above equicohesive temperature) the grain boundaries becomes weaker than grain matrix. Since the small grain sized pellets have more grain boundary areas, these pellet become softer than pellet that have large grain sizes. Also as grain size decreases, creep rate of the fuel increases. Therefore, pellets with small grain size have higher creep rate and better plasticity. Therefore, these pellets will be useful to reduce the PCMI. On the other hand, pellet with large grain size is beneficial to reduce the fission gas release. In developing thermal reactor fuels for high burn-up, this factor should be taken into consideration. The question being asked is whether the microstructure can be tailored for irradiation hardening, fracture resistance, fission-gas release. This paper deals with the role played by microstructure for better irradiation performance. (author)

  18. Apparatus for locating defective nuclear fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrie, W.E.

    1979-01-01

    An ultrasonic search unit for locating defective fuel elements within a fuel assembly used in a water cooled nuclear reactor is presented. The unit is capable of freely traversing the restricted spaces between the fuel elements

  19. Fuel containing vessel for transporting nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshizawa, Hiroyasu; Shimizu, Fukuzo; Tanaka, Nobuyuki.

    1996-01-01

    A shock absorbing mechanism is disposed on an inner bottom of a vessel main body. The shock absorbing mechanism comprises a shock absorbing member disposed on the upper surface of a bottom wall, an annular metal plate disposed on the upper surface of the shock absorbing member and an annular spacer disposed on the upper surface of the metal plate. The shock absorbing member is made of a material such as of wood, lead, metal honeycomb or a metal mesh, which plastically deforms when applied with load higher than a predetermined level, and is formed in a square block-like form covering the upper surface of the bottom wall. The spacer is made of a thin soft material such as tetrafluoroethylene, and is formed in such a shape as capable of preventing direct contact of the lower end of the cylindrical member in a lower tie plate of nuclear fuels with the metal portion. This can ensure integrity of nuclear fuels even when they fall from a high place upon an assumed dropping accident. (I.N.)

  20. Nuclear reactor fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marmonier, Pierre; Mesnage, Bernard; Nervi, J.C.

    1975-01-01

    This invention refers to fuel assemblies for a liquid metal cooled fast neutron reactor. Each assembly is composed of a hollow vertical casing, of regular polygonal section, containing a bundle of clad pins filled with a fissile or fertile substance. The casing is open at its upper end and has a cylindrical foot at its lower end for positioning the assembly in a housing provided in the horizontal diagrid, on which the core assembly rests. A set of flat bars located on the external surface of the casing enables it to be correctly orientated in its housing among the other core assemblies [fr

  1. Spent fuel management and closed nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudryavtsev, E.G.

    2012-01-01

    Strategic objectives set by Rosatom Corporation in the field of spent fuel management are given. By 2030, Russia is to create technological infrastructure for innovative nuclear energy development, including complete closure of the nuclear fuel cycle. A target model of the spent NPP nuclear fuel management system until 2030 is analyzed. The schedule for key stages of putting in place the infrastructure for spent NPP fuel management is given. The financial aspect of the problem is also discussed [ru

  2. Uranium - the nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, E.E.N.

    1976-01-01

    A brief history is presented of Canadian uranium exploration, production, and sales. Statistics show that Canada is a good customer for its own uranium due to a rapidly expanding nuclear power program. Due to an average 10 year lag between commencement of exploration and production, and with current producers sold out through 1985, it is imperative that exploration efforts be increased. (E.C.B.)

  3. Design premises for canister for spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werme, L.

    1998-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to establish the basic premises for designing canisters for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel, the requirements for canister characteristics, and the design criteria, and to present alternative canister designs that satisfy these premises. The point of departure for canister design has been that the canister must be able to be used for both BWR and PWR fuel

  4. July 1, 2007: electricity and gas markets open to competition. Oil and gas pipelines, vital energy arteries. Warming of the Earth's northern latitudes: what are the consequences? Nuclear power, an alternative to costly fossil fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    This issue of Alternatives newsletter features 4 main articles dealing with: 1 - July 1, 2007 - electricity and gas markets open to competition: first telecommunications, now energy. Starting July 1, 2007, every one of the European Union's 500 million consumers is free to chose a supplier for electricity and natural gas. How will this work? A road map. 2 - Oil and gas pipelines, vital energy arteries: they criss-cross the planet over land and under sea, offering an alternative to sea lanes. How do these strategically placed pipelines work to transport fossil fuels? 3 - Warming of the Earth's northern latitudes: what are the consequences?: Dr. Oleg Anisimov, one of the experts on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) that met in April 2007, reviews the consequences of human activity on permafrost, that huge expense of ice covering almost 20% of the Earth's surface. 4 - Nuclear power, an alternative to costly fossil fuels: part two of a report on the World energy outlook. This publication of the International Energy agency predicts that nuclear power will continue to be one of the main sources of energy supply for the next 25 years

  5. Storage arrangements for nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deacon, D.

    1982-01-01

    A storage arrangement for spent nuclear fuel either irradiated or pre-irradiated or for vitrified waste after spent fuel reprocessing, comprises a plenum chamber which has a base pierced by a plurality of openings each of which has sealed to it an open topped tube extending downwards and closed at its lower end. The plenum chamber, with the tubes, forms an air-filled enclosure associated with an exhaust system for exhausting air from the system through filters to maintain the interior of the enclosure at sub-atmospheric pressure. The tubes are arranged to accommodate the stored fuel and the arrangement includes a means for producing a flow of cooling air over the exterior of the tubes so that the latter effectively form a plurality of heat exchangers in close proximity to the fuel. The air may be caused to flow over the tube surfaces by a natural thermosyphon process. (author)

  6. Alternative fuel cycle evaluation in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papp, R.; Closs, K.D.

    1986-01-01

    In compliance with a 1979 governmental decision, Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center managed the research and development (R and D) program ''Alternative Entsorgung,'' which had two major goals: (a) development of technical concepts for direct disposal of spent fuel and (b) comparison of the traditional back end of the nuclear fuel cycle based on fuel reprocessing with direct disposal. With respect to radiological safety, this comparison revealed that direct disposal scores better than the reprocessing path, but the difference is judged minor when compared to doses from natural radiation background. From the standpoint of cost, direct disposal proves more economical by a margin of 30% even though the reference system of direct disposal was not cost optimized. Finally, some unresolved but not unresolvable issues exist with regard to safeguarding a repository for spent fuel. In its decision in January 1985, the government of the Federal Republic of Germany stated that the results of the R and D program indicated that the legal requirement to ensure Entsorgung were better fulfilled by fuel reprocessing than by direct disposal of spent fuel

  7. Nuclear fuel and energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, S.B.

    1979-01-01

    This book examines the uranium resource situation in relation to the future needs of the nuclear economy. Currently the United States is the world's leading producer and consumer of nuclear fuels. In the future US nuclear choices will be highly interdependent with the rest of the world as other countries begin to develop their own nuclear programs. Therefore the world's uranium resource availability has also been examined in relation to the expected growth in the world nuclear industry. Based on resource evaluation, the study develops an economic framework for analyzing and describing the behavior of the US uranium mining and milling industry. An econometric model designed to reflect the underlying structure of the physical processes of the uranium mining and milling industry has been developed. The purpose of this model is to forecast uranium prices and outputs for the period 1977 to 2000. Because uncertainty has sometimes surrounded the economic future of the uranium markets, the results of the econometric modeling should be interpreted with great care and restrictive assumptions. Another aspect of this study is to provide much needed information on the operations of government-owned enrichment plants and the practices used by the government in the determination of fuel enrichment costs. This study discusses possible future developments in enrichment supply and technologies and their implications for future enrichment costs. A review of the operations involving the uranium concentrate conversion to uranium hexafluoride and fuel fabrication is also provided. An economic analysis of these costs provides a comprehensive view of the front-end costs of the nuclear fuel cycle

  8. Proposed nuclear weapons nonproliferation policy concerning foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel. Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    The United States Department of Energy and United States Department of State are jointly proposing to adopt a policy to manage spent nuclear fuel from foreign research reactors. Only spent nuclear fuel containing uranium enriched in the United States would be covered by the proposed policy. The purpose of the proposed policy is to promote U.S. nuclear weapons nonproliferation policy objectives, specifically by seeking to reduce highly-enriched uranium from civilian commerce. This is a summary of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement. Environmental effects and policy considerations of three Management Alternative approaches for implementation of the proposed policy are assessed. The three Management Alternatives analyzed are: (1) acceptance and management of the spent nuclear fuel by the Department of Energy in the United States, (2) management of the spent nuclear fuel at one or more foreign facilities (under conditions that satisfy United States nuclear weapons nonproliferation policy objectives), and (3) a combination of components of Management Alternatives 1 and 2 (Hybrid Alternative). A No Action Alternative is also analyzed. For each Management Alternative, there are a number of alternatives for its implementation. For Management Alternative 1, this document addresses the environmental effects of various implementation alternatives such as varied policy durations, management of various quantities of spent nuclear fuel, and differing financing arrangements. Environmental impacts at various potential ports of entry, along truck and rail transportation routes, at candidate management sites, and for alternate storage technologies are also examined. For Management Alternative 2, this document addresses two subalternatives: (1) assisting foreign nations with storage; and (2) assisting foreign nations with reprocessing of the spent nuclear fuel

  9. Ceramics as nuclear reactor fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeve, K.D.

    1975-01-01

    Ceramics are widely accepted as nuclear reactor fuel materials, for both metal clad ceramic and all-ceramic fuel designs. Metal clad UO 2 is used commercially in large tonnages in five different power reactor designs. UO 2 pellets are made by familiar ceramic techniques but in a reactor they undergo complex thermal and chemical changes which must be thoroughly understood. Metal clad uranium-plutonium dioxide is used in present day fast breeder reactors, but may eventually be replaced by uranium-plutonium carbide or nitride. All-ceramic fuels, which are necessary for reactors operating above about 750 0 C, must incorporate one or more fission product retentive ceramic coatings. BeO-coated BeO matrix dispersion fuels and silicate glaze coated UO 2 -SiO 2 have been studied for specialised applications, but the only commercial high temperature fuel is based on graphite in which small fuel particles, each coated with vapour deposited carbon and silicon carbide, are dispersed. Ceramists have much to contribute to many aspects of fuel science and technology. (author)

  10. Fuel assemblies for nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishi, Akihito.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To control power-up rate at the initial burning stage of new fuel assemblies due to fuel exchange in a pressure tube type power reactor. Constitution: Burnable poisons are disposed to a most portion of fuel pellets in a fuel assembly to such a low concentration as the burn-up rate changes with time at the initial stage of the burning. The most portion means substantially more than one-half part of the pellets and gadolinia is used as burn-up poisons to be dispersed and the concentration is set to less than about 0.2 %. Upon elapse of about 15 days after the charging, the burnable poisons are eliminated and the infinite multiplication factors are about at 1.2 to attain a predetermined power state. Since the power-up rate of the nuclear reactor fuel assembly is about 0.1 % power/hour and the power-up rate of the fuel assembly around the exchanged channel is lower than that, it can be lowered sufficiently than the limit for the power-up rate practiced upon reactor start-up thereby enabling to replace fuels during power operation. (Horiuchi, T.)

  11. Development of high burnup nuclear fuel technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suk, Ho Chun; Kang, Young Hwan; Jung, Jin Gone; Hwang, Won; Park, Zoo Hwan; Ryu, Woo Seog; Kim, Bong Goo; Kim, Il Gone

    1987-04-01

    The objectives of the project are mainly to develope both design and manufacturing technologies for 600 MWe-CANDU-PHWR-type high burnup nuclear fuel, and secondly to build up the foundation of PWR high burnup nuclear fuel technology on the basis of KAERI technology localized upon the standard 600 MWe-CANDU- PHWR nuclear fuel. So, as in the first stage, the goal of the program in the last one year was set up mainly to establish the concept of the nuclear fuel pellet design and manufacturing. The economic incentives for high burnup nuclear fuel technology development are improvement of fuel utilization, backend costs plant operation, etc. Forming the most important incentives of fuel cycle costs reduction and improvement of power operation, etc., the development of high burnup nuclear fuel technology and also the research on the incore fuel management and safety and technologies are necessary in this country

  12. Sufficiency of the Nuclear Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pevec, D.; Knapp, V.; Matijevic, M.

    2008-01-01

    Estimation of the nuclear fuel sufficiency is required for rational decision making on long-term energy strategy. In the past an argument often invoked against nuclear energy was that uranium resources are inadequate. At present, when climate change associated with CO 2 emission is a major concern, one novel strong argument for nuclear energy is that it can produce large amounts of energy without the CO 2 emission. Increased interest in nuclear energy is evident, and a new look into uranium resources is relevant. We examined three different scenarios of nuclear capacity growth. The low growth of 0.4 percent per year in nuclear capacity is assumed for the first scenario. The moderate growth of 1.5 percent per year in nuclear capacity preserving the present share in total energy production is assumed for the second scenario. We estimated draining out time periods for conventional resources of uranium using once through fuel cycle for the both scenarios. For the first and the second scenario we obtained the draining out time periods for conventional uranium resources of 154 years and 96 years, respectively. These results are, as expected, in agreement with usual evaluations. However, if nuclear energy is to make a major impact on CO 2 emission it should contribute much more in the total energy production than at present level of 6 percent. We therefore defined the third scenario which would increase nuclear share in the total energy production from 6 percent in year 2020 to 30 percent by year 2060 while the total world energy production would grow by 1.5 percent per year. We also looked into the uranium requirement for this scenario, determining the time window for introduction of uranium or thorium reprocessing and for better use of uranium than what is the case in the once through fuel cycle. The once through cycle would be in this scenario sustainable up to about year 2060 providing most of the expected but undiscovered conventional uranium resources were turned

  13. Method of manufacturing nuclear fuel pellet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oguma, Masaomi; Masuda, Hiroshi; Hirai, Mutsumi; Tanabe, Isami; Yuda, Ryoichi.

    1989-01-01

    In a method of manufacturing nuclear fuel pellets by compression molding an oxide powder of nuclear fuel material followed by sintering, a metal nuclear material is mixed with an oxide powder of the nuclear fuel material. As the metal nuclear fuel material, whisker or wire-like fine wire or granules of metal uranium can be used effectively. As a result, a fuel pellet in which the metal nuclear fuel is disposed in a network-like manner can be obtained. The pellet shows a great effect of preventing thermal stress destruction of pellets upon increase of fuel rod power as compared with conventional pellets. Further, the metal nuclear fuel material acts as an oxygen getter to suppress the increase of O/M ratio of the pellets. Further, it is possible to reduce the swelling of pellet at high burn-up degree. (T.M.)

  14. Nuclear fuel element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armijo, J S; Coffing, L F

    1979-04-05

    The fuel element with circular cross-section for BWR and PWR consists of a core surrounded by a compound jacket container where there is a gap between the core and jacket during operation in the reactor. The core consists of U, Pu, Th compounds and mixtures of these. The compound jacket consists of zircaloy 2 or 4. In order to for example prevent the corrosion of the compound jacket, its inner surface has a metal barrier with smaller neutron absorbers than the jacket material in the form of a zirconium sponge. The zirconium of this metal barrier has impurities of various elements in the order of magnitude of 1000 to 5000 ppm. The oxygen content is in the range of 200 to 1200 ppm and the thickness of the metal barrier is 1-30% of the thickness of the jacket.

  15. Cooling nuclear reactor fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, W.H.L.

    1975-01-01

    Reference is made to water or water/steam cooled reactors of the fuel cluster type. In such reactors it is usual to mount the clusters in parallel spaced relationship so that coolant can pass freely between them, the coolant being passed axially from one end of the cluster in an upward direction through the cluster and being effective for cooling under normal circumstances. It has been suggested, however, that in addition to the main coolant flow an auxiliary coolant flow be provided so as to pass laterally into the cluster or be sprayed over the top of the cluster. This auxiliary supply may be continuously in use, or may be held in reserve for use in emergencies. Arrangements for providing this auxiliary cooling are described in detail. (U.K.)

  16. Synthetic and Biomass Alternate Fueling in Aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, R. C.; Bushnell, D. M.

    2009-01-01

    While transportation fueling can accommodate a broad range of alternate fuels, aviation fueling needs are specific, such as the fuel not freezing at altitude or become too viscous to flow properly or of low bulk energy density that shortens range. The fuel must also be compatible with legacy aircraft, some of which are more than 50 years old. Worldwide, the aviation industry alone uses some 85-95 billion gallons of hydrocarbon-based fossil fuel each year, which is about 10% of the transportation industry. US civil aviation alone consumes nearly 14 billion gallons. The enormity of the problem becomes overwhelming, and the aviation industry is taking alternate fueling issues very seriously. Biofuels (algae, cyanobacteria, halophytes, weeds that use wastelands, wastewater and seatwater), when properly sourced, have the capacity to be drop-in fuel replacements for petroleum fuels. As such, biojet from such sources solves the aviation CO2 emissions issue without the downsides of 'conventional' biofuels, such as competing with food and fresh water resources. Of the many current fundamental problems, the major biofuel problem is cost. Both research and development and creative engineering are required to reduce these biofuels costs. Research is also ongoing in several 'improvement' areas including refining/processing and biologics with greater disease resistance, greater bio-oil productivity, reduced water/nutrient requirements, etc. The authors' current research is aimed at aiding industry efforts in several areas. They are considering different modeling approaches, growth media and refining approaches, different biologic feedstocks, methods of sequestering carbon in the processes, fuel certification for aviation use and, overall, ensuring that biofuels are feasible from all aspects - operability, capacity, carbon cycle and financial. The authors are also providing common discussion grounds/opportunities for the various parties, disciplines and concerned organization to

  17. Panorama 2009 - aviation and alternative fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Several key priorities have been targeted for development in the aviation industry: diversifying energy resources, keeping consumption levels under control and reducing polluting emissions to improve air quality. Like the road transport sector, the air transport sector is mounting a determined effort to reduce the level of its greenhouse gas emissions. Among the various solutions under consideration, alternative fuels are attracting particular attention. However, not all alternative solutions can be exploited, because of the constraints specific to the use of aircraft. A precise assessment should be made of all possible solutions to determine which ones should take preference

  18. Alternative Fuel News: Vol. 3, No. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NREL

    2000-01-10

    This final issue of the Alternative Fuel News (AFN) for the 20th century provides updates on specific Clean Cities Program progress and provide a glimpse of what is in store for the future. A national nonprofit organization has been part of the Clean Cities vision for some time, and now it is a reality as National Clean Cities, Inc. (NCC). While Clean Cities coalitions have had some success in securing local private foundation funds for alternative fuel vehicle (AFV) projects in their regions, now with the help of NCC, they can tap into the dollars available from large, national foundations. The Clean Cities Game Plan 2000, which is the highlight of the cover story, outlines the strategy for the next year.

  19. Fuel handling, reprocessing, and waste and related nuclear data aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuesters, H.; Lalovic, M.; Wiese, H.W.

    1979-06-01

    The essential processes in the out-of-pile nuclear fuel cycle are described, i.e. mining and milling of uranium ores, enrichment, fuel fabrication, storage, transportation, reprocessing of irradiated fuel, waste treatment and waste disposal. The aspects of radiation (mainly gammas and neutrons) and of heat production, as well as special safety considerations are outlined with respect to their potential operational impacts and long-term hazards. In this context the importance of nuclear data for the out-of-pile fuel cycle is discussed. Special weight is given to the LWR fuel cycle including recycling; the differences of LMFBR high burn-up fuel with large PuO 2 content are described. The HTR fuel cycle is discussed briefly as well as some alternative fuel cycle concepts. (orig.) [de

  20. Alternative Fuel News, Vol. 2, No. 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NREL

    1999-03-17

    The cover story in this issue of the Alternative Fuel News highlights the niche market principle; the places in which AFVs would best fit. This year's SEP funding is expected to be the springboard needed for the development of niche projects. The Clean Cities Program, by matching those needs and attributes in niches, can dramatically increase the attractiveness of AFVs and make an impact on those high-mileage, high-use fleets.

  1. A study on the alternative option for nuclear policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, J. W.; Choi, H. J.; Lee, J. Y.; Cho, D. K.; Jeon, K. S.; Park, S. W.; Hahn, D. H.; Yoon, J. S.; Lee, K. S. [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-02-15

    Since a decision-making by intuitive judgement under uncertain future conditions can not select an optimum alternative, reaching an agreement for alternatives between experts requires a development of several scientific opinion collection methodologies and performing these methodologies. Therefore, opinion collection for all points related to the nuclear energy, public hearing induction related researches and the acts, procedure, etc. performed in developed countries such as U.S, U.K, France, etc. are reviewed and analyzed in this research. And after the analysis of domestic spent nuclear fuel management plan, Task Force Team composed of experts in several related areas is organized to suggest strategies and directions which are necessary for making a national policy. Beside, Task Force Team selects an optimum technical alternative by the analysis and comparison in depth between these technical alternatives to establish the policy direction. They also established the procedures such as opinion collecting, etc. through policy conference and forum and suggested the technical data related nuclear policy which supports the nuclear policy conference. Results from this research are expected to decrease the trial and error that has been occurred in the present policy-making procedure such as radioactive waste repository related procedure and contribute for socio-cultural stability. Moreover, opinion collection plan for developing a nuclear policy alternative is expected to contribute for making a nuclear policy in the nuclear policy conference so that the nuclear technology will be enhanced more.

  2. A study on the alternative option for nuclear policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, J. W.; Choi, H. J.; Lee, J. Y.; Cho, D. K.; Jeon, K. S.; Park, S. W.; Hahn, D. H.; Yoon, J. S.; Lee, K. S.

    2008-02-01

    Since a decision-making by intuitive judgement under uncertain future conditions can not select an optimum alternative, reaching an agreement for alternatives between experts requires a development of several scientific opinion collection methodologies and performing these methodologies. Therefore, opinion collection for all points related to the nuclear energy, public hearing induction related researches and the acts, procedure, etc. performed in developed countries such as U.S, U.K, France, etc. are reviewed and analyzed in this research. And after the analysis of domestic spent nuclear fuel management plan, Task Force Team composed of experts in several related areas is organized to suggest strategies and directions which are necessary for making a national policy. Beside, Task Force Team selects an optimum technical alternative by the analysis and comparison in depth between these technical alternatives to establish the policy direction. They also established the procedures such as opinion collecting, etc. through policy conference and forum and suggested the technical data related nuclear policy which supports the nuclear policy conference. Results from this research are expected to decrease the trial and error that has been occurred in the present policy-making procedure such as radioactive waste repository related procedure and contribute for socio-cultural stability. Moreover, opinion collection plan for developing a nuclear policy alternative is expected to contribute for making a nuclear policy in the nuclear policy conference so that the nuclear technology will be enhanced more

  3. Fuel element for nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadwell, D.J.

    1982-01-01

    The invention concerns a fuel element for nuclear reactors with fuel rods and control rod guide tubes, where the control rod guide tubes are provided with flat projections projecting inwards, in the form of local deformations of the guide tube wall, in order to reduce the radial play between the control rod concerned and the guide tube, and to improve control rod movement. This should ensure that wear on the guide tubes is largely prevented which would be caused by lateral vibration of the control rods in the guide tubes, induced by the flow of coolant. (orig.) [de

  4. Spent nuclear fuel sampling strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergmann, D.W.

    1995-01-01

    This report proposes a strategy for sampling the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) stored in the 105-K Basins (105-K East and 105-K West). This strategy will support decisions concerning the path forward SNF disposition efforts in the following areas: (1) SNF isolation activities such as repackaging/overpacking to a newly constructed staging facility; (2) conditioning processes for fuel stabilization; and (3) interim storage options. This strategy was developed without following the Data Quality Objective (DQO) methodology. It is, however, intended to augment the SNF project DQOS. The SNF sampling is derived by evaluating the current storage condition of the SNF and the factors that effected SNF corrosion/degradation

  5. Grids for nuclear fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholson, G.

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to grids for nuclear fuel assemblies with the object of providing an improved grid, tending to have greater strength and tending to offer better location of the fuel pins. It comprises sets of generally parallel strips arranged to intersect to define a structure of cellular form, at least some of the intersections including a strip which is keyed to another strip at more than one point. One type of strip may be dimpled along its length and another type of strip may have slots for keying with the dimples. (Auth.)

  6. AN ANALYTICAL FRAMEWORK FOR ASSESSING RELIABLE NUCLEAR FUEL SERVICE APPROACHES: ECONOMIC AND NON-PROLIFERATION MERITS OF NUCLEAR FUEL LEASING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreyling, Sean J.; Brothers, Alan J.; Short, Steven M.; Phillips, Jon R.; Weimar, Mark R.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of international nuclear policy since the dawn of nuclear power has been the peaceful expansion of nuclear energy while controlling the spread of enrichment and reprocessing technology. Numerous initiatives undertaken in the intervening decades to develop international agreements on providing nuclear fuel supply assurances, or reliable nuclear fuel services (RNFS) attempted to control the spread of sensitive nuclear materials and technology. In order to inform the international debate and the development of government policy, PNNL has been developing an analytical framework to holistically evaluate the economics and non-proliferation merits of alternative approaches to managing the nuclear fuel cycle (i.e., cradle-to-grave). This paper provides an overview of the analytical framework and discusses preliminary results of an economic assessment of one RNFS approach: full-service nuclear fuel leasing. The specific focus of this paper is the metrics under development to systematically evaluate the non-proliferation merits of fuel-cycle management alternatives. Also discussed is the utility of an integrated assessment of the economics and non-proliferation merits of nuclear fuel leasing.

  7. Nuclear fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watarumi, Kazutoshi.

    1992-01-01

    Hollow fuel pellets are piled at multi-stages in a cladding tube to form a pellet stack. A bundle of metal fine wires made of zirconium or an alloy thereof is inserted passing through the hollow portion of each of the hollow pellets over a length of the pellet stack. The metal fine wires are bundled by securing ring at a joining portions of the pellets. Then, the portion between both of adjacent rings is expanded radially and has a spring function biasing in the radial direction. With such a constitution, even if the pellet is expanded radially due to pallet gas swelling, the hollow portion is not closed, and the gas flow channel is ensured. In addition, even if the pellet is cracked due to thermal shocks, the pellet piece is prevented from dropping to the hollow portion. In this case, the thermal conduction between the pellets and the cladding tube is kept satisfactorily by the spring function of the metal wire bundle. (I.N.)

  8. Coal and nuclear electricity fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahnama, F.

    1982-06-01

    Comparative economic analysis is used to contrast the economic advantages of nuclear and coal-fired electric generating stations for Canadian regions. A simplified cash flow method is used with present value techniques to yield a single levelized total unit energy cost over the lifetime of a generating station. Sensitivity analysis illustrates the effects of significant changes in some of the cost data. The analysis indicates that in Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba and British Columbia nuclear energy is less costly than coal for electric power generation. In the base case scenario the nuclear advantage is 24 percent in Quebec, 29 percent in Ontario, 34 percent in Manitoba, and 16 percent in British Columbia. Total unit energy cost is sensitive to variations in both capital and fuel costs for both nuclear and coal-fuelled power stations, but are not very sensitive to operating and maintenance costs

  9. Near-term feasibility of alternative jet fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    This technical report documents the results of a joint study by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and the RAND Corporation on alternative fuels for commercial aviation. The study compared potential alternative jet fuels on the basis of ...

  10. Nuclear fuel shipping inspection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Toshio; Hada, Koji.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To provide an nuclear fuel shipping inspection device having a high detection sensitivity and capable of obtaining highly reliable inspection results. Constitution: The present invention concerns a device for distinguishing a fuel assembly having failed fuel rods in LMFBR type reactors. Coolants in a fuel assembly to be inspected are collected by a sampling pipeway and transferred to a filter device. In the filter device, granular radioactive corrosion products (CP) in the coolants are captured, to reduce the background. The coolants, after being passed through the filter device, are transferred to an FP catching device and gamma-rays of iodine and cesium nuclides are measured in FP radiation measuring device. Subsequently, the coolants transferred to a degasing device to separate rare gas FP in the coolants from the liquid phase. In a case if rare gas fission products are detected by the radiation detector, it means that there is a failed fuel rod in the fuel assembly to be inspected. Since the CP and the soluble FP are separated and extracted for the radioactivity measurement, the reliability can be improved. (Kamimura, M.)

  11. Nuclear Fuels: Present and Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald R. Olander

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The important new developments in nuclear fuels and their problems are reviewed and compared with the status of present light-water reactor fuels. The limitations of these fuels and the reactors they power are reviewed with respect to important recent concerns, namely provision of outlet coolant temperatures high enough for use in H2 production, destruction of plutonium to eliminate proliferation concerns, and burning of the minor actinides to reduce the waste repository heat load and long-term radiation hazard. In addition to current oxide-based fuel-rod designs, the hydride fuel with liquid metal thermal bonding of the fuel-cladding gap is covered. Finally, two of the most promising Generation IV reactor concepts, the Very High Temperature Reactor and the Sodium Fast Reactor, and the accompanying reprocessing technologies, aqueous-based UREX and pyrometallurgical, are summarized. In all of the topics covered, the thermodynamics involved in the material's behavior under irradiation and in the reprocessing schemes are emphasized.

  12. Tracking costs of alternatively fueled buses in Florida : [summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    In an effort to address rising fuel costs and environmental concerns, many transit agencies across Florida have introduced alternative fuel technologies to their traditional diesel-powered fleets. Fuel types include biodiesel, compressed natural gas,...

  13. Nuclear fuel pellet transfer escalator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huggins, T.B. Sr.; Roberts, E.; Edmunds, M.O.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes a nuclear fuel pellet escalator for loading nuclear fuel pellets into a sintering boat. It comprises a generally horizontally-disposed pellet transfer conveyor for moving pellets in single file fashion from a receiving end to a discharge end thereof, the conveyor being mounted about an axis at its receiving end for pivotal movement to generally vertically move its discharge end toward and away from a sintering boat when placed below the discharge end of the conveyor, the conveyor including an elongated arm swingable vertically about the axis and having an elongated channel recessed below an upper side of the arm and extending between the receiving and discharge ends of the conveyor; a pellet dispensing chute mounted to the arm of the conveyor at the discharge end thereof and extending therebelow such that the chute is carried at the discharge end of the conveyor for generally vertical movement therewith toward and away from the sintering boat

  14. Nuclear reactor fuel element assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raven, L.F.

    1975-01-01

    A spacer grid for a nuclear fuel element comprises a plurality of cojointed cylindrical ferrules adapted to receive a nuclear fuel pin. Each ferrule has a pair of circumferentially spaced rigid stop members extending inside the ferrule and a spring locating member attached to the ferrule and also extending from the ferrule wall inwardly thereof at such a circumferential spacing relative to the rigid stop members that the line of action of the spring locating member passes in opposition to and between the rigid stop members which lie in the same diametric plane. At least some of the cylindrical ferrules have one rim shaped to promote turbulence in fluid flowing through the grid. (Official Gazette)

  15. Barnwell Nuclear Fuels Plant applicability study. Volume III. Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-03-01

    Volume III suppliees supporting information to assist Congress in making a decision on the optimum utilization of the Barnwell Nuclear Fuels Plant. Included are applicable fuel cycle policies; properties of reference fuels; description and evaluation of alternative operational (flue cycle) modes; description and evaluation of safeguards systems and techniques; description and evaluation of spiking technology; waste and waste solidification evaluation; and Department of Energy programs relating to nonproliferation

  16. Interfaces in ceramic nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeve, K.D.

    Internal interfaces in all-ceramic dispersion fuels (such as these for HTGRs) are discussed for two classes: BeO-based dispersions, and coated particles for graphite-based fuels. The following points are made: (1) The strength of a two-phase dispersion is controlled by the weaker dispersed phase bonded to the matrix. (2) Differential expansion between two phases can be controlled by an intermediate buffer zone of low density. (3) A thin ceramic coating should be in compression. (4) Chemical reaction between coating and substrate and mass transfer in service should be minimized. The problems of the nuclear fuel designer are to develop coatings for fission product retention, and to produce radiation-resistant interfaces. 44 references, 18 figures

  17. Electrochemical reprocessing of nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brambilla, G.; Sartorelli, A.

    1980-01-01

    A method is described for the reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuel which is particularly suitable for use with fuel from fast reactors and has the advantage of being a dry process in which there is no danger of radiation damage to a solvent medium as in a wet process. It comprises the steps of dissolving the fuel in a salt melt under such conditions that uranium and plutonium therein are converted to sulphate form. The plutonium sulphate may then be thermally decomposed to PuO 2 and removed. The salt melt is then subjected to electrolysis conditions to achieve cathodic deposition of UO 2 (and possibly PuO 2 ). The salt melt can then be recycled or conditioned for final disposal. (author)

  18. Storage of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado, O.J.; Moore, J.T.; Cooney, B.F.

    1989-01-01

    This patent describes a rack for storing nuclear fuel assemblies. The rack including a base, an array of side-by-side fuel-storage locations, each location being a hollow body of rectangular transverse cross section formed of metallic sheet means which is readily bent, each body having a volume therein dimensioned to receive a fuel assembly. The bodies being mounted on the base with each body secured to bodies adjacent each body along welded joints, each joint joining directly the respective contiguous corners of each body and of bodies adjacent to each body and being formed by a series of separate welds spaced longitudinally between the tops and bottoms of the secured bodies along each joint. The spacings of the separate welds being such that the response of the rack when it is subjected to the anticipated seismic acceleration of the rack, characteristic of the geographical regions where the rack is installed, is minimized

  19. Fuel assemblies for nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabsen, F.S.

    1979-01-01

    In a nuclear fuel assembly, hollow guide posts protrude into a fuel assembly and fitting grill from a biased spring pad with a plunger that moves with the spring pad plugging one end of each of the guide posts. A plate on the end fitting grill that has a hole for fluid discharge partially plugs the other end of the guide post. Pressurized water coolant that fills the guide post volume acts as a shock absorber and should the reactor core receive a major seismic or other shock, the fuel assembly is compelled to move towards a pad depending from a transversely disposed support grid. The pad bears against the spring pad and the plunger progressively blocks the orifices provided by slots in the guide posts thus gradually absorbing the applied shock. After the orifice has been completely blocked, controlled fluid discharge continues through a hole coil spring cooperating in the attenuation of the shock. (author)

  20. Is nuclear power and alternative?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lejon, E.

    1996-01-01

    In this chapter of the book author deals with the historical background for the nuclear energy power. Some statistical data about nuclear power stations as well as on radioactive wastes are given. The Chernobyl catastrophe is described. Author thinks that nuclear energy is not safe and it has no perspective in future

  1. Inserts for nuclear fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cragg, P.J.

    1982-01-01

    An insert for a nuclear fuel pin which comprises a strip. The strip carries notches, which enable a coding arrangement to be carried on the strip. The notches may be of differing sizes and the coding on the strip includes identification and identification checking data. Each notch on the strip may give rise to a signal pulse which is counted by a detector to avoid errors. (author)

  2. Nuclear fuel element and container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grubb, W.T.; King, L.H.

    1981-01-01

    The invention is based on the discovery that a substantial reduction in metal embrittlement or stress corrosion cracking from fuel pellet-cladding interaction can be achieved by the use of a copper layer or liner in proximity to the nuclear fuel, and an intermediate zirconium oxide barrier layer between the copper layer and the zirconium cladding substrate. The intermediate zirconia layer is a good copper diffusion barrier; also, if the zirconium cladding surface is modified prior to oxidation, copper can be deposited by electroless plating. A nuclear fuel element is described which comprises a central core of fuel material and an elongated container using the system outlined above. The method for making the container is again described. It comprises roughening or etching the surface of the zirconium or zirconium alloy container, oxidizing the resulting container, activating the oxidized surface to allow for the metallic coating of such surfaces by electroless deposition and further coating the activated-oxidized surface of the zirconium or zirconium alloy container with copper, iron or nickel or an alloy thereof. (U.K.)

  3. Alternative Aviation Fuels: Overview of Challenges, Opportunities, and Next Steps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2017-03-28

    The Alternative Aviation Fuels: Overview of Challenges, Opportunities, and Next Steps report, published by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) provides an overview of the current state of alternative aviation fuels, based upon findings from recent peer-reviewed studies, scientific working groups, and BETO stakeholder input provided during the Alternative Aviation Fuel Workshop.

  4. 75 FR 29605 - Clean Alternative Fuel Vehicle and Engine Conversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-26

    ... Part II Environmental Protection Agency 40 CFR Parts 85 and 86 Clean Alternative Fuel Vehicle and...-0299; FRL-9149-9] RIN 2060-AP64 Clean Alternative Fuel Vehicle and Engine Conversions AGENCY... streamline the process by which manufacturers of clean alternative fuel conversion systems may demonstrate...

  5. 10 CFR 503.21 - Lack of alternate fuel supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lack of alternate fuel supply. 503.21 Section 503.21 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS NEW FACILITIES Temporary Exemptions for New Facilities § 503.21 Lack of alternate fuel supply. (a) Eligibility. Section 211(a)(1) of the Act provides for...

  6. Alternate-Fuel Vehicles and Their Application in Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taggart, Chip

    1991-01-01

    Alternative fuels are becoming increasingly attractive from environmental, energy independence, and economic perspectives. Addresses the following topics: (1) federal and state legislation; (2) alternative fuels and their attributes; (3) practical experience with alternative-fuel vehicles in pupil transportation; and (4) options for school…

  7. Proceedings of the 1996 Windsor workshop on alternative fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    This document contains information which was presented at the 1996 Windsor Workshop on Alternative Fuels. Topics include: international links; industry topics and infrastructure issues; propane; engine developments; the cleanliness of alternative fuels; heavy duty alternative fuel engines; California zev commercialization efforts; and in-use experience.

  8. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Phoenix Cleans Up with Natural Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phoenix Cleans Up with Natural Gas to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center : Phoenix Cleans Up with Natural Gas on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Phoenix Cleans Up with Natural Gas on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Phoenix Cleans Up with Natural

  9. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alabama City Leads With Biodiesel and

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethanol Alabama City Leads With Biodiesel and Ethanol to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alabama City Leads With Biodiesel and Ethanol on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alabama City Leads With Biodiesel and Ethanol on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels

  10. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Diesel Vehicles Using Biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center : Diesel Vehicles Using Biodiesel to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Diesel Vehicles Using Biodiesel on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Diesel Vehicles Using Biodiesel

  11. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Seattle Bakery Delivers With Biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trucks Seattle Bakery Delivers With Biodiesel Trucks to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Seattle Bakery Delivers With Biodiesel Trucks on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Seattle Bakery Delivers With Biodiesel Trucks on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels

  12. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Conventional Natural Gas Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conventional Natural Gas Production to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center : Conventional Natural Gas Production on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Conventional Natural Gas Production on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Conventional Natural Gas Production

  13. Modeling the Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobson, Jacob J.; Dunzik-Gougar, Mary Lou; Juchau, Christopher A.

    2010-01-01

    A review of existing nuclear fuel cycle systems analysis codes was performed to determine if any existing codes meet technical and functional requirements defined for a U.S. national program supporting the global and domestic assessment, development and deployment of nuclear energy systems. The program would be implemented using an interconnected architecture of different codes ranging from the fuel cycle analysis code, which is the subject of the review, to fundamental physical and mechanistic codes. Four main functions are defined for the code: (1) the ability to characterize and deploy individual fuel cycle facilities and reactors in a simulation, while discretely tracking material movements, (2) the capability to perform an uncertainty analysis for each element of the fuel cycle and an aggregate uncertainty analysis, (3) the inclusion of an optimization engine able to optimize simultaneously across multiple objective functions, and (4) open and accessible code software and documentation to aid in collaboration between multiple entities and facilitate software updates. Existing codes, categorized as annualized or discrete fuel tracking codes, were assessed according to the four functions and associated requirements. These codes were developed by various government, education and industrial entities to fulfill particular needs. In some cases, decisions were made during code development to limit the level of detail included in a code to ease its use or to focus on certain aspects of a fuel cycle to address specific questions. The review revealed that while no two of the codes are identical, they all perform many of the same basic functions. No code was able to perform defined function 2 or several requirements of functions 1 and 3. Based on this review, it was concluded that the functions and requirements will be met only with development of a new code, referred to as GENIUS.

  14. Spent nuclear fuel storage vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Yoshio; Kashiwagi, Eisuke; Sekikawa, Tsutomu.

    1997-01-01

    Containing tubes for containing spent nuclear fuels are arranged vertically in a chamber. Heat releasing fins are disposed horizontal to the outer circumference of the containing tubes for rectifying cooling air and promoting cooling of the containing tubes. Louvers and evaporation sides of heat pipes are disposed at a predetermined distance in the chamber. Cooling air flows from an air introduction port to the inside of the chamber and takes heat from the containing tubes incorporated with heat generating spent nuclear fuels, rising its temperature and flows off to an air exhaustion exit. The direction for the rectification plate of the louver is downward from a horizontal position while facing to the air exhaustion port. Since the evaporation sides of the heat pipes are disposed in the inside of the chamber and the condensation side of the heat pipes is disposed to the outside of the chamber, the thermal energy can be recovered from the containing tubes incorporated with spent nuclear fuels and utilized. (I.N.)

  15. Decommissioning alternatives for the West Valley, New York, Fuel Reprocessing Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munson, L F; Nemec, J F; Koochi, A K

    1978-06-01

    The methodology and numerical values of NUREG-0278 were applied to four decommissioning alternatives for the West Valley Fuel Reprocessing Plant. The cost and impacts of the following four alternatives for the process building, fuel receiving and storage, waste tank farm, and auxiliary facilities were assessed: (1) layaway, (2) protective storage, (3) preparation for alternate nuclear use, and (4) dismantlement. The estimated costs are 5.7, 11, 19, and 31 million dollars, respectively. (DLC)

  16. Decommissioning alternatives for the West Valley, New York, Fuel Reprocessing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munson, L.F.; Nemec, J.F.; Koochi, A.K.

    1978-06-01

    The methodology and numerical values of NUREG-0278 were applied to four decommissioning alternatives for the West Valley Fuel Reprocessing Plant. The cost and impacts of the following four alternatives for the process building, fuel receiving and storage, waste tank farm, and auxiliary facilities were assessed: (1) layaway, (2) protective storage, (3) preparation for alternate nuclear use, and (4) dismantlement. The estimated costs are 5.7, 11, 19, and 31 million dollars, respectively

  17. Modification in fuel processing of Mitsubishi Nuclear Fuel's Tokai Works

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Results of the study by the Committee for Examination of Fuel Safety, reported to the AEC of Japan, are presented, concerning safety of the modifications of Tokai Works, Mitsubishi Nuclear Fuel Co., Ltd. Safety has been confirmed thereof. The modifications covered are the following: storage facility of nuclear fuel in increase, analytical facility in transfer, fuel assemblage equipment in addition, incineration facility of combustible solid wastes in installation, experimental facility of uranium recovery in installation, and warehouse in installation. (Mori, K.)

  18. Securing the nuclear fuel cycle: What next?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruchkin, S.V.; Loginov, V.Y.

    2006-01-01

    The greatest challenge to the international nuclear non-proliferation regime is posed by nuclear energy's dual nature for both peaceful and military purposes. Uranium enrichment and spent nuclear fuel (SNF) reprocessing (here after called s ensitive nuclear technologies ) are critical from the non-proliferation viewpoint because they may be used to produce weapons-grade nuclear materials: highly enriched uranium and separated plutonium. Alongside measures to limit the spread of sensitive nuclear technologies, multilateral approaches to the nuclear fuel cycle (NFC) started to be discussed. Spiralling prices for hydrocarbons and prospects of their imminent extinction are encouraging more and more countries to look at nuclear energy as an alternative means to ensure their sustainable development. To this end, it's becoming increasingly important to link the objective need for an expanded use of nuclear energy with strengthening nuclear non-proliferation by, in particular, preventing the spread of sensitive nuclear technologies and securing access for interested countries to NFC products and services. With this in mind, at the IAEA General Conference in 2003, IAEA Director General Mohamed ElBaradei called for establishing an international experts group on multilateral nuclear approaches. The proposal was supported, and in February 2005 the international experts, headed by Bruno Pellaud, issued a report (published by the IAEA as INFCIRC-640; see www.iaea.org) with recommendations on different multilateral approaches. The recommendations can be generalized as follows: reinforcement of existing market mechanisms; involvement of governments and the IAEA in the assurance of supply, including the establishment of low-enriched uranium (LEU) stocks as reserves; conversion of existing national uranium enrichment and SNF reprocessing enterprises into multilateral ones under international management and control, and setting up new multilateral enterprises on regional and

  19. Strategies of management of the nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon, J.R.; Perez, A.; Filella, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    The management of nuclear fuel is depending on several factors: - Regulatory commission. The enterprises owner of the NPPs.The enterprise owner of the energy distribution. These factors are considered for the management of nuclear fuel. The design of fuel elements, the planning of cycles, the design of core reactors and the costs are analyzed. (Author)

  20. Role of ion chromatograph in nuclear fuel fabrication process at Nuclear Fuel Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balaji Rao, Y.; Prasada Rao, G.; Prahlad, B.; Saibaba, N.

    2012-01-01

    The present paper discusses the different applications of ion chromatography followed in nuclear fuel fabrication process at Nuclear Fuel Complex. Some more applications of IC for characterization of nuclear materials and which are at different stages of method development at Control Laboratory, Nuclear Fuel Complex are also highlighted

  1. Overview of alternate-fuel fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miley, G.H.

    1980-01-01

    Alternate fuels (AFs) such as Cat-D, D- 3 He and p- 11 B offer the potential advantages of elimination of tritium breeding and reduced energy release in neutrons. An adequate energy balance appears exceedingly difficult to achieve with proton-based fuels such as p- 11 B. Thus Cat-D, which can ignite at temperatures in the range of 30 to 40 keV, represents the logical near-term candidate. An attractive variation which adds flexibility would be to develop semi-catalyzed-D plants for synfuel production with simultaneous generation of 3 He for use in D- 3 He satellite electrical power plants. These approaches and problems are discussed

  2. Combustion of solid alternative fuels in the cement kiln burner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørskov, Linda Kaare

    In the cement industry there is an increasing environmental and financial motivation for substituting conventional fossil fuels with alternative fuels, being biomass or waste derived fuels. However, the introduction of alternative fuels may influence emissions, cement product quality, process...... stability, and process efficiency. Alternative fuel substitution in the calciner unit has reached close to 100% at many cement plants and to further increase the use of alternative fuels rotary kiln substitution must be enhanced. At present, limited systematic knowledge of the alternative fuel combustion...... properties and the influence on the flame formation is available. In this project a scientific approach to increase the fundamental understanding of alternative fuel conversion in the rotary kiln burner is employed through literature studies, experimental combustion characterisation studies, combustion...

  3. On the nuclear fuel and fossil fuel reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fettweis, G.

    1978-01-01

    A short discussion of the nuclear fuel and fossil fuel reserves and the connected problem of prices evolution is presented. The need to regard fuel production under an economic aspect is emphasized. Data about known and assessed fuel reserves, world-wide and with special consideration of Austria, are reviewed. It is concluded that in view of the fuel reserves situation an energy policy which allows for a maximum of options seems adequate. (G.G.)

  4. Nuclear fuels - swords and ploughshares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franklin, N.L.

    1986-05-01

    In 1986 the problems associated with the implementation of nuclear power programmes mainly arise from difficulties of social acceptability. The scientific and technological achievements are no longer a source of wonder and are taken for granted by a public which has become accustomed to such achievements in other fields. This lecture recounts the history of the nuclear fuel cycle starting around 1955 but continuing, to look at future prospects. The problems are discussed. The technical improvements that have occurred over the years mean that, currently it is possible for all the problems to be overcome technically. Although there is always room for improvements in endurance, design etc. commercial and safety requirements can be met. In economic terms, the real costs of the fuel cycle have reached a plateau and should decrease as the result of lower cost for enriched uranium, lower reprocessing costs and better fuel management. However, in social and political terms, the position is not so certain because of public concern about reprocessing plants and the disposal of radioactive wastes. (U.K.).

  5. NEPA implementation: The Department of Energy's program to manage spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shipler, D.B.

    1994-05-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is implementing the National Environmental Protection Act (NEPA) in its management of spent nuclear fuel. The DOE strategy is to address the short-term safety concerns about existing spent nuclear fuel, to study alternatives for interim storage, and to develop a long-range program to manage spent nuclear fuel. This paper discusses the NEPA process, the environmental impact statements for specific sites as well as the overall program, the inventory of DOE spent nuclear fuel, the alternatives for managing the fuel, and the schedule for implementing the program

  6. An introduction to the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leuze, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    This overview of the nuclear fuel cycle is divided into three parts. First, is a brief discussion of the basic principles of how nuclear reactors work;second, is a look at the major types of nuclear reactors being used and world-wide nuclear capacity;and third, is an overview of the nuclear fuel cycle and the present industrial capability in the US. 34 figs., 10 tabs

  7. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power. Report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume V. Economics and systems analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-06-01

    This NASAP assessment considers the economics of alternative nuclear reactor and fuel-cycle systems in the light of possible patterns of uranium supply and energy demand, as well as the economic implications of improvng the proliferation resistance of the various systems. The assessment focuses on the costs of alternative nuclear technologies and the possible timing of their implementation, based on their economic attractiveness

  8. Development of alternate extractant systems for fast reactor fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasudeva Rao, P.R.; Suresh, A.; Venkatesan, K.A.; Srinivasan, T.G.; Raj, Baldev

    2007-01-01

    Due to the limitations of TBP in processing of high burn-up, Pu-rich fast reactor fuels, there is a need to develop alternate extractants for fast reactor fuel processing. In this context, our Centre has been examining the suitability of alternate tri-alkyl phosphates. Third phase formation in the extraction of Th(IV) by TBP, tri-n-amyl phosphate (TAP) and tri-2-methyl-butyl phosphate (T2MBP) from nitric acid media has been investigated under various conditions to derive conclusions on their application for extraction of Pu at macro levels. The chemical and radiolytic degradation of tri-n-amyl-phosphate (TAP) diluted in normal paraffin hydrocarbon (NPH) in the presence of nitric acid has been investigated by the measurement of plutonium retention in organic phase. The potential application of room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) for reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel has been explored. Extraction of uranium (VI) and palladium (II) from nitric acid medium by commercially available RTIL and tri-n-butyl phosphate solution in RTIL have been studied and the feasibility of electrodeposition of uranium as uranium oxide (UO 2 ) and palladium (II) as metallic palladium from the loaded organic phase have been demonstrated. This paper describes results of the above studies and discusses the suitability of the systems for fast reactor fuel reprocessing. (authors)

  9. Determining fissile content of nuclear fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arya, S.P.; Grossman, L.N.; Schoenig, F.C.

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to the determination of the fissile fuel content of fuel for nuclear reactors. A nondestructive method is described for determining rapidly, accurately and simultaneously the fissile content, enrichment and location of fuel material which may also contain amounts of burnable poison, by detecting the γ-rays emitted from the fuel material due to natural radioactive decay. (U.K.)

  10. Transport and reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenail, B.

    1981-01-01

    This contribution deals with transport and packaging of oxide fuel from and to the Cogema reprocessing plant at La Hague (France). After a general discussion of nuclear fuel and the fuel cycle, the main aspects of transport and reprocessing of oxide fuel are analysed. (Auth.)

  11. Fuel optimization of Qinshan nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao Zejun; Li Zhuoqun; Kong Deping; Xue Xincai; Wang Shiwei

    2010-01-01

    Based on the design practice of the fuel replacement of Qin Shan nuclear power plant, this document effectively analyzes the shortcomings of current replacement design of Qin Shan. To address these shortcomings, this document successfully implements the 300 MW fuel optimization program from fuel replacement. fuel improvement and experimentation ,and achieves great economic results. (authors)

  12. Nuclear fuel control in fuel fabrication plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seki, Yoshitatsu

    1976-01-01

    The basic control problems of measuring uranium and of the environment inside and outside nuclear fuel fabrication plants are reviewed, excluding criticality prevention in case of submergence. The occurrence of loss scraps in fabrication and scrap-recycling, the measuring error, the uranium going cut of the system, the confirmation of the presence of lost uranium and the requirement of the measurement control for safeguard make the measurement control very complicated. The establishment of MBA (material balance area) and ICA (item control area) can make clearer the control of inventories, the control of loss scraps and the control of measuring points. Besides the above basic points, the following points are to be taken into account: 1) the method of confirmation of inventories, 2) the introduction of reliable NDT instruments for the rapid check system for enrichment and amount of uranium, 3) the introduction of real time system, and 4) the clarification of MUF analysis and its application to the reliability check of measurement control system. The environment control includes the controls of the uranium concentration in factory atmosphere, the surface contamination, the space dose rate, the uranium concentration in air and water discharged from factories, and the uranium in liquid wastes. The future problems are the practical restudy of measurement control under NPT, the definite plan of burglary protection and the realization of the disposal of solid wastes. (Iwakiri, K.)

  13. External costs of nuclear: Greater or less than the alternatives?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabl, Ari; Rabl, Veronika A.

    2013-01-01

    Since Fukushima many are calling for a shutdown of nuclear power plants. To see whether such a shutdown would reduce the risks for health and environment, the external costs of nuclear electricity are compared with alternatives that could replace it. The frequency of catastrophic nuclear accidents is based on the historical record, about one in 25 years for the plants built to date, an order of magnitude higher than the safety goals of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Impacts similar to Chernobyl and Fukushima are assumed to estimate the cost. A detailed comparison is presented with wind as alternative with the lowest external cost. The variability of wind necessitates augmentation by other sources, primarily fossil fuels, because storage at the required scale is in most regions too expensive. The external costs of natural gas combined cycle are taken as 0.6 €cent/kWh due to health effects of air pollution and 1.25 €cent/kWh due to greenhouse gases (at 25€/t CO 2 eq ) for the central estimate, but a wide range of different parameters is also considered, both for nuclear and for the alternatives. Although the central estimate of external costs of the wind-based alternative is higher than that of nuclear, the uncertainty ranges overlap. - Highlights: ► The external costs of nuclear electricity are compared with the alternatives. ► Frequency and cost of nuclear accidents based on Chernobyl and Fukushima. ► Detailed comparison with wind as alternative with the lowest external costs. ► High external cost of wind because of natural gas backup (storage too limited). ► External costs of wind higher than nuclear but uncertainty ranges overlap

  14. Nuclear fuel cycle modelling using MESSAGE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guiying Zhang; Dongsheng Niu; Guoliang Xu; Hui Zhang; Jue Li; Lei Cao; Zeqin Guo; Zhichao Wang; Yutong Qiu; Yanming Shi; Gaoliang Li

    2017-01-01

    In order to demonstrate the possibilities of application of MESSAGE tool for the modelling of a Nuclear Energy System at the national level, one of the possible open nuclear fuel cycle options based on thermal reactors has been modelled using MESSAGE. The steps of the front-end and back-end of nuclear fuel cycle and nuclear reactor operation are described. The optimal structure for Nuclear Power Development and optimal schedule for introducing various reactor technologies and fuel cycle options; infrastructure facilities, nuclear material flows and waste, investments and other costs are demonstrated. (author)

  15. Method of producing nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oka, Yoshiaki; Suzuki, Tokuyuki; Oomura, Hiroshi.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To fabricate a nuclear fuel assembly with uniform enrichment degree, in the blanket of a hybrid reactor. Constitution: A vessel charged with powderous source materials is conveyed by a conveying gas through a material charge/discharge tube to the inside of the blanket. Then, plasmas are formed in the inner space of the blanket so as to enrich the source materials by the irradiation of neutrons. After the average degree of enrichment reaches a predetermined level, the material vessel is discharged by the conveying gas onto a conveyor. The powder materials are separated from the source-material vessel and then charged into a source-material hopper. The mixed material of a uniform enrichment degree is supplied to a fuel-assembly-fabrication device. FP gases resulted after the enrichment are effectively separated and removed through an FP gas pipe. (Horiuchi, T.)

  16. Nuclear fuel pellet loading machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kee, R.W.; Denero, J.V.

    1975-01-01

    An apparatus for loading nuclear fuel pellets on trays for transfer in a system is described. A conveyor supplies pellets from a source to a loading station. When the pellets reach a predetermined position at the loading station, a manual or automatically operated arm pushes the pellets into slots on a tray and this process is repeated until pellet sensing switches detect that the tray is full. Thereupon, the tray is lowered onto a belt or other type conveyor and transferred to other apparatus in the system, such as a furnace for sintering, and in some cases, reduction of UO 2 . 2 to UO 2 . The pellets are retained on the tray and subsequently loaded directly into fuel rods to be used in the reactor core. (auth)

  17. Nuclear fuel pellet production method and nuclear fuel pellet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuda, Ryoichi; Ito, Ken-ichi; Masuda, Hiroshi.

    1993-01-01

    In a method of manufacturing nuclear fuel pellets by compression-molding UO 2 powders followed by sintering, a sintering agent having a composition of about 40 to 80 wt% of SiO 2 and the balance of Al 2 O 3 , a sintering agent at a ratio of 10 to 500 ppm based on the total amount of UO 2 and UO 2 powders are mixed, compression molded and then sintered at a sintering temperature of about 1500 of 1800degC. The UO 2 particles have an average grain size of about 20 to 60μm, most of the crystal grain boundary thereof is coated with a glassy or crystalline alumina silicate phase, and the porosity is about 1 to 4 vol%. With such a constitution, the sintering agent forms a single liquid phase eutectic mixture during sintering, to promote a surface reaction between nuclear fuel powders by a liquid phase sintering mechanism, increase their density and promote the crystal growth. Accordingly, it is possible to lower the softening temperature, improve the creep velocity of the pellets and improve the resistance against pellet-clad interaction. (T.M.)

  18. Internationalization: an alternative to nuclear proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meller, E.

    1980-01-01

    Leading personalities in the field of nuclear energy worldwide assess possible improvements to the present nonproliferation regime and explore the possibilities for the internationalization of sensitive parts of the nuclear fuel cycle. Their studies address past and current nonproliferation policies, the current controversy between the United States and its European allies on the development of fast breeder reactors and plutonium recycling, implications of the recent US Non-Proliferation Act of 1978 upon US/Euratom relations, industrial government relationships, safety concerns, and the special needs of developing countries. Their conclusions stress the recognition of complex factors such as military security, technical competition, the spread of nuclear technology, and politics that will limit any mechanism to govern nonproliferation. They urge greater effort in educating the public to the political and economic complexities of nuclear power and recommend strengthening international agreements and other arrangements, including controls and safeguards, and the general rules for the international trade of nuclear fuel. 11 figures, 7 tables

  19. California's experience with alternative fuel vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, C.

    1993-01-01

    California is often referred to as a nation-state, and in many aspects fits that description. The state represents the seventh largest economy in the world. Most of California does not have to worry about fuel to heat homes in the winter. What we do worry about is fuel for our motor vehicles, approximately 24 million of them. In fact, California accounts for ten percent of new vehicle sales in the United States each year, much of it used in the transportation sector. The state is the third largest consumer of gasoline in the world, only exceeded by the United States as a whole and the former Soviet Union. California is also a leader in air pollution. Of the nine worst ozone areas in the country cited in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, two areas the Los Angeles Basin and San Diego are located in California. Five of California's cities made the top 20 smoggiest cities in the United States. In reality, all of California's major metropolitan areas have air quality problems. This paper will discuss the beginnings of California's investigations of alternative fuels use in vehicles; the results of the state's demonstration programs; and future plans to improve California's air quality and energy security in the mobile sector

  20. International nuclear fuel cycle evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witt, P.

    1980-01-01

    In the end of February 1980, the two-years work on the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation (INFCE) was finished in Vienna with a plenary meeting. INFCE is likely to have been a unique event in the history of international meetings: It was ni diplomatic negotiation meeting, but a techno-analytical investigation in which the participants tenaciously shuggled for many of the formulations. Starting point had been a meeting initiated by President Carter in Washington in Oct. 1979 after the World Economy Summit Meeting in London. The results of the investigation are presented here in a brief and popular form. (orig./UA) [de

  1. Nuclear fuel grid outer strap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, R.; Craver, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    This patent describes a nuclear reactor fuel assembly grid. It comprises a first outer grip strap segment end. The first end having a first tab arranged in substantially the same plane as the plane defined by the first end; a second outer grip strap end. The second end having a second slot arranged in substantially the same plane as the plane defined by the second end, with the tab being substantially disposed in the slot, defining a socket therebetween; and a fort tine interposed substantially perpendicularly in the socket

  2. Radioecology of nuclear fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadwell, L.L.

    1982-01-01

    This study provides information to help assess the environmental impacts and certain potential human hazards associated with nuclear fuel cycles. A data base is being developed to define and quantify biological transport routes, which will permit credible predictions and assessment of routine and potential large-scale releases of radionuclides and other toxic materials. These data, used in assessment models, will increase the accuracy of estimating radiation doses to man and other life forms. Results will provide information to determine if waste management procedures on the Hanford site have caused ecological perturbations, and, if so, to determine the source, nature and magnitude of such disturbances

  3. Container for nuclear fuel powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etheredge, B.F.; Larson, R.I.

    1982-01-01

    A critically safe container is disclosed for the storage and rapid discharge of enriched nuclear fuel material in powder form is disclosed. The container has a hollow, slab-shaped container body that has one critically safe dimension. A powder inlet is provided on one side wall of the body adjacent to a corner thereof and a powder discharge port is provided at another corner of the body approximately diagonal the powder inlet. Gas plenum for moving the powder during discharge are located along the side walls of the container adjacent the discharge port

  4. Radioecology of nuclear fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreckhise, R.G.; Cadwell, L.L.; Emery, R.M.

    1981-01-01

    This study provides information to help assess the environmental impacts and certain potential human hazards associated with nuclear fuel cycles. A data base is being developed to define and quantify biological transport routes which will permit credible predictions and assessment of routine and potential large-scale releases of radionuclides and other toxic materials. Information obtained from existing storage and disposal sites will provide a meaningful radioecological perspective with which to improve the effectiveness of waste management practices. This paper focuses on terrestrial and aquatic radioecology of waste management areas and biotic transport parameters

  5. Categorization of Used Nuclear Fuel Inventory in Support of a Comprehensive National Nuclear Fuel Cycle Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, John C.; Peterson, Joshua L.; Mueller, Don; Gehin, Jess C.; Worrall, Andrew; Taiwo, Temitope; Nutt, Mark; Williamson, Mark A.; Todosow, Mike; Wigeland, Roald; Halsey, William; Omberg, Ronald; Swift, Peter; Carter, Joe

    2013-01-01

    A technical assessment of the current inventory [∼70,150 metric tons of heavy metal (MTHM) as of 2011] of U.S.-discharged used nuclear fuel (UNF) has been performed to support decisions regarding fuel cycle strategies and research, development and demonstration (RD and D) needs. The assessment considered discharged UNF from commercial nuclear electricity generation and defense and research programs and determined that the current UNF inventory can be divided into the following three categories: 1. Disposal - excess material that is not needed for other purposes; 2. Research - material needed for RD and D purposes to support waste management (e.g., UNF storage, transportation, and disposal) and development of alternative fuel cycles (e.g., separations and advanced fuels/reactors); and 3. Recycle/Recovery - material with inherent and/or strategic value. A set of key assumptions and attributes relative to the various disposition options were used to categorize the current UNF inventory. Based on consideration of RD and D needs, time frames and material needs for deployment of alternative fuel cycles, characteristics of the current UNF inventory, and possible uses to support national security interests, it was determined that the vast majority of the current UNF inventory should be placed in the Disposal category, without the need to make fuel retrievable from disposal for reuse or research purposes. Access to the material in the Research and Recycle/Recovery categories should be retained to support RD and D needs and national security interests. This assessment does not assume any decision about future fuel cycle options or preclude any potential options, including those with potential recycling of commercial UNF.

  6. Getter for nuclear fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, W.T.; Williamson, H.E.

    1976-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element for use in the core of a nuclear reactor is disclosed and has disposed therein an improved getter capable of gettering reactive gases including a source of hydrogen. The getter comprises a composite with a substrate having thereon a coating capable of gettering reactive gases. The substrate has a greater coefficient of thermal expansion than does the coating, and over a period of time at reactor operating temperatures any protective film on the coating is fractured at various places and fresh portions of the coating are exposed to getter reactive gases. With further passage of time at reactor operating temperatures a fracture of the protective film on the coating will grow into a crack in the coating exposing further portions of the coating capable of gettering reactive gases. 13 claims, 5 drawing figures

  7. Getter for nuclear fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, W.T.; Williamson, H.E.

    1976-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element for use in the core of a nuclear reactor is disclosed and has disposed therein an improved getter capable of gettering reactive gases including a source of hydrogen. The getter comprises a composite with a substrate having thereon a coating capable of gettering reactive gases. The substrate has a greater coefficient of thermal expansion than does the coating, and over a period of time at reactor operating temperatures any protective film on the coating is fractured at various places and fresh portions of the coating are exposed to getter reactive gases. With further passage of time at reactor operating temperatures a fracture of the protective film on the coating will grow into a crack in the coating exposing further portions of the coating capable of gettering reactive gases

  8. 77 FR 36423 - Labeling Requirements for Alternative Fuels and Alternative Fueled Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-19

    ... delivered to the following address: Federal Trade Commission, Office of the Secretary, Room H-113 (Annex N... cell, advanced lean burn, and hybrid motor vehicles) that were added to the definition of ``alternative... legislation (i.e., lean burn, hybrid, and fuel cell vehicles). No comments opposed this approach. Edison...

  9. 76 FR 67287 - Alternative Fuel Transportation Program; Alternative Fueled Vehicle Credit Program (Subpart F...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-31

    ... additional credits for the use of biodiesel in blends of 20 percent biodiesel or greater and have provided an... discussion in Part II.A), the original program based upon AFV acquisitions and biodiesel use became known as... example, B20 (a 20 percent blend of biodiesel with 80 percent petroleum diesel) is not an alternative fuel...

  10. Nuclear fuel element leak detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John, C.D. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Disclosed is a leak detection system integral with a wall of a building used to fabricate nuclear fuel elements for detecting radiation leakage from the nuclear fuel elements as the fuel elements exit the building. The leak detecting system comprises a shielded compartment constructed to withstand environmental hazards extending into a similarly constructed building and having sealed doors on both ends along with leak detecting apparatus connected to the compartment. The leak detecting system provides a system for removing a nuclear fuel element from its fabrication building while testing for radiation leaks in the fuel element

  11. The Nuclear Fuel Cycle Information System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-02-01

    The Nuclear Fuel Cycle Information System (NFCIS) is an international directory of civilian nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Its purpose is to identify existing and planned nuclear fuel cycle facilities throughout the world and to indicate their main parameters. It includes information on facilities for uranium ore processing, refining, conversion and enrichment, for fuel fabrication, away-from-reactor storage of spent fuel and reprocessing, and for the production of zirconium metal and Zircaloy tubing. NFCIS currently covers 271 facilities in 32 countries and includes 171 references

  12. Discussion paper: direction for Canada's alternate fuels program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-09-01

    There is a growing need to accelerate the consideration of alternate fuels for use in Canadian vehicle transportation. At the present time various governments and corporations are initiating alternate fuel programs involving ethanol, methanol, CNG, propane, etc. There is a bewildering array of perspectives as to which fuel or fuels will best serve Canada's needs in the future. In response to the 'Discussion Paper on Liquid Fuels Options, 1980', by the Federal Dept. of Energy, Mines and Resources, Ford of Canada has prepared this perspective on each of the alternate fuels from the company's vantage point as a vehicle manufacturer.

  13. Dissolving method for nuclear fuel oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomiyasu, Hiroshi; Kataoka, Makoto; Asano, Yuichiro; Hasegawa, Shin-ichi; Takashima, Yoichi; Ikeda, Yasuhisa.

    1996-01-01

    In a method of dissolving oxides of nuclear fuels in an aqueous acid solution, the oxides of the nuclear fuels are dissolved in a state where an oxidizing agent other than the acid is present together in the aqueous acid solution. If chlorate ions (ClO 3 - ) are present together in the aqueous acid solution, the chlorate ions act as a strong oxidizing agent and dissolve nuclear fuels such as UO 2 by oxidation. In addition, a Ce compound which generates Ce(IV) by oxidation is added to the aqueous acid solution, and an ozone (O 3 ) gas is blown thereto to dissolve the oxides of nuclear fuels. Further, the oxides of nuclear fuels are oxidized in a state where ClO 2 is present together in the aqueous acid solution to dissolve the oxides of nuclear fuels. Since oxides of the nuclear fuels are dissolved in a state where the oxidizing agent is present together as described above, the oxides of nuclear fuels can be dissolved even at a room temperature, thereby enabling to use a material such as polytetrafluoroethylene and to dissolve the oxides of nuclear fuels at a reduced cost for dissolution. (T.M.)

  14. The nuclear fuel cycle is complete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hildenbrand, G.

    1984-01-01

    The nuclear fuel cycle in the Federal Republic of Germany has a firm base. Its entry stages, natural uranium, conversion, enrichment, and fuel fabrication, have not only been put on solid grounds in terms of supplies, but have also attained a high degree of technical maturity and a high quality level. Further efforts are being devoted to cost reductions. Especially higher burnups and the recycling of plutonium in the form of MOX fuel assemblies in light water reactors must be mentioned under this heading. In the field of back end fuel cycle steps, the important sector of interim storage has now found a practical solution, which is also fully sufficient with respect to capacity. The project of a German reprocessing plant has now entered its decisive stage with the filling of the licensing applications and the awarding of the planning contracts. The study on alternative waste management techniques entitled ''Direct Final Storage'' is about to be concluded, and a work on the exploration and development of a repository proceeds on schedule. (orig.) [de

  15. Southern Nevada Alternative Fuels Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyde, Dan; Fast, Matthew

    2009-12-31

    The Southern Nevada Alternative Fuels Program is designed to demonstrate, in a day-to-day bus operation, the reliability and efficiency of a hydrogen bus operation under extreme conditions. By using ICE technology and utilizing a virtually emission free fuel, benefits to be derived include air quality enhancement and vehicle performance improvements from domestically produced, renewable energy sources. The project objective is to help both Ford and the City demonstrate and evaluate the performance characteristics of the E-450 H2ICE shuttle buses developed by Ford, which use a 6.8-liter supercharged Triton V-10 engine with a hydrogen storage system equivalent to 29 gallons of gasoline. The technology used during the demonstration project in the Ford buses is a modified internal combustion engine that allows the vehicles to run on 100% hydrogen fuel. Hydrogen gives a more thorough fuel burn which results in more power and responsiveness and less pollution. The resultant emissions from the tailpipe are 2010 Phase II compliant with NO after treatment. The City will lease two of these E-450 H2ICE buses from Ford for two years. The buses are outfitted with additional equipment used to gather information needed for the evaluation. Performance, reliability, safety, efficiency, and rider comments data will be collected. The method of data collection will be both electronically and manually. Emissions readings were not obtained during the project. The City planned to measure the vehicle exhaust with an emissions analyzer machine but discovered the bus emission levels were below the capability of their machine. Passenger comments were solicited on the survey cards. The majority of comments were favorable. The controllable issues encountered during this demonstration project were mainly due to the size of the hydrogen fuel tanks at the site and the amount of fuel that could be dispensed during a specified period of time. The uncontrollable issues encountered during this

  16. Multilateral controls of nuclear fuel-cycle in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jor-Shan

    2010-01-01

    To meet increasing energy demand and climate change issues, nuclear energy is expected to expand during the next decades in both developed and developing countries. This expansion, most visibly in Asian countries would no doubt be accompanied with complex and intractable challenges to global peace and security, notably in the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle. What to do with the growing stocks of spent fuel in existing nuclear programs? And how to reduce proliferation concerns when spent fuels are generated in less stable regions of the world? The answers to these questions may lie in the possibility of multilateral (or regional) control of nuclear materials and technologies in the back-end of nuclear fuel cycle. One of the areas of interest is technology, e.g., spent fuel treatment (reprocessing) for long term sustainability and environmental-friendly disposal of radioactive wastes, as an alternative to directly disposing spent fuel in geologic repository. The other is to seek for regional centers for centralized interim spent fuel storage which can eventually turn into disposal facilities. Such centers could help facilitate the possibilities of spent fuel take-back/take-away from countries located in less stable regions for fix-period storage. (author)

  17. MODELLING OF NUCLEAR FUEL CLADDING TUBES CORROSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Cech

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes materials made of zirconium-based alloys used for nuclear fuel cladding fabrication. It is focused on corrosion problems their theoretical description and modeling in nuclear engineering.

  18. Public concerns and alternative nuclear power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayo, L.H.

    1980-02-01

    The basic task undertaken in this study was to assess the relative public acceptability of three general types of nuclear power systems as alternatives to the existing Light Water Reactor (LWR) system. Concerns registered toward nuclear power constituted the basic data for this assessment. The primary measure adopted for determining the significance of concerns was the degree of difficulty posed by the concern to the nuclear power decisional structure in the establishment and maintenance of norms to control risks or to advance intended energy objectives. Alleviations or exacerbations of concern resulting from particular attributes of alternative systems were measured from an LWR baseline

  19. OECD - HRP Summer School on Nuclear Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    In cooperation with the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA), the Halden Reactor Project organised a Summer School on nuclear fuel in the period August 28 September 1, 2000. The summer school was primarily intended for people who wanted to become acquainted with fuel-related subjects and issues without being experts. It was especially hoped that the summer school would serve to transfer knowledge to the ''young generation'' in the field of nuclear fuel. Experts from Halden Project member organisations gave the following presentations: (1) Overview of the nuclear community, (2) Criteria for safe operation and design of nuclear fuel, (3) Fuel design and fabrication, (4) Cladding Manufacturing, (5) Overview of the Halden Reactor Project, (6) Fuel performance evaluation and modelling, (7) Fission gas release, and (8) Cladding issues. Except for the Overview, which is a written paper, the other contributions are overhead figures from spoken lectures.

  20. International Summer School on Nuclear Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    In cooperation with the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA), the Halden Reactor Project organised a Summer School on nuclear fuel in the period August 28 September 1, 2000. The summer school was primarily intended for people who wanted to become acquainted with fuel-related subjects and issues without being experts. It was especially hoped that the summer school would serve to transfer knowledge to the ''young generation'' in the field of nuclear fuel. Experts from Halden Project member organisations gave the following presentations: (1) Overview of the nuclear community, (2) Criteria for safe operation and design of nuclear fuel, (3) Fuel design and fabrication, (4) Cladding Manufacturing, (5) Overview of the Halden Reactor Project, (6) Fuel performance evaluation and modelling, (7) Fission gas release, and (8) Cladding issues. Except for the Overview, which is a written paper, the other contributions are overhead figures from spoken lectures.

  1. OECD - HRP Summer School on Nuclear Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    In cooperation with the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA), the Halden Reactor Project organised a Summer School on nuclear fuel in the period August 28 September 1, 2000. The summer school was primarily intended for people who wanted to become acquainted with fuel-related subjects and issues without being experts. It was especially hoped that the summer school would serve to transfer knowledge to the ''young generation'' in the field of nuclear fuel. Experts from Halden Project member organisations gave the following presentations: (1) Overview of the nuclear community, (2) Criteria for safe operation and design of nuclear fuel, (3) Fuel design and fabrication, (4) Cladding Manufacturing, (5) Overview of the Halden Reactor Project, (6) Fuel performance evaluation and modelling, (7) Fission gas release, and (8) Cladding issues. Except for the Overview, which is a written paper, the other contributions are overhead figures from spoken lectures

  2. The safety of the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The procurement and preparation of fuel for nuclear power reactors, followed by its recovery, processing and management subsequent to reactor discharge, are frequently referred to as the ''front end'' and ''back end'' of the nuclear fuel cycle. The facilities associated with these activities have an extensive and well-documented safety record accumulated over the past 50 years by technical experts and safety authorities. This information has enabled an in-depth analysis of the complete fuel cycle. Preceded by two previous editions in 1981 and 1993, this new edition of the Safety of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle represents the most up-to-date analysis of the safety aspects of the nuclear fuel cycle. It will be of considerable interest to nuclear safety experts, but also to those wishing to acquire extensive information about the fuel cycle more generally. (author)

  3. The safety of the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-10-01

    The procurement and preparation of fuel for nuclear power reactors, followed by its recovery, processing and management subsequent to reactor discharge, are frequently referred to as the 'front end' and 'back end' of the nuclear fuel cycle. The facilities associated with these activities have an extensive and well-documented safety record accumulated over the past 50 years by technical experts and safety authorities. This information has enabled an in-depth analysis of the complete fuel cycle. Preceded by two previous editions in 1981 and 1993, this new edition of The Safety of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle represents the most up-to-date analysis of the safety aspects of the nuclear fuel cycle. It will be of considerable interest to nuclear safety experts, but also to those wishing to acquire extensive information about the fuel cycle more generally. (author)

  4. Nuclear Fusion Fuel Cycle Research Perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Hongsuk; Koo, Daeseo; Park, Jongcheol; Kim, Yeanjin; Yun, Sei-Hun

    2015-01-01

    As a part of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Project, we at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) and our National Fusion Research Institute (NFRI) colleagues are investigating nuclear fusion fuel cycle hardware including a nuclear fusion fuel Storage and Delivery System (SDS). To have a better knowledge of the nuclear fusion fuel cycle, we present our research efforts not only on SDS but also on the Fuel Supply System (FS), Tokamak Exhaust Processing System (TEP), Isotope Separation System (ISS), and Detritiation System (DS). To have better knowledge of the nuclear fusion fuel cycle, we presented our research efforts not only on SDS but also on the Fuel Supply System (FS), Tokamak Exhaust Processing System (TEP), Isotope Separation System (ISS), and Detritiation System (DS). Our efforts to enhance the tritium confinement will be continued for the development of cleaner nuclear fusion power plants

  5. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Truck Transports Capitol Christmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tree Biodiesel Truck Transports Capitol Christmas Tree to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Truck Transports Capitol Christmas Tree on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Truck Transports Capitol Christmas Tree on Twitter Bookmark Alternative

  6. Alternative Fuel News: Official Publication of the Clean Cities Network and the Alternative Fuels Data Center, Vol. 4, No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ficker, C.

    2000-09-08

    This issue of Alternative Fuel News discusses Executive Order 13149 which is designed to not only increase the use of alternative fuel by federal agencies but also to increase the use of fuel efficient vehicles in the federal fleet. Also highlighted is the 6th National Clean Cities Conference and Expo held in San Diego, May 7-10, 2000, which attracted nearly 1,000 people for three action-packed days of alternative fuel activities. The work to develop a market for alternative fuels is more important than ever.

  7. Nuclear-fuel-cycle education: Module 1. Nuclear fuel cycle overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckhoff, N.D.

    1981-07-01

    This educational module is an overview of the nuclear-fule-cycle. The overview covers nuclear energy resources, the present and future US nuclear industry, the industry view of nuclear power, the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation program, the Union of Concerned Scientists view of the nuclear-fuel-cycle, an analysis of this viewpoint, resource requirements for a model light water reactor, and world nuclear power considerations

  8. International issue: the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    In this special issue a serie of short articles of informations are presented on the following topics: the EEC's medium term policy regarding the reprocessing and storage of spent fuel, France's natural uranium supply, the Pechiney Group in the nuclear field, zircaloy cladding for nuclear fuel elements, USSI: a major French nuclear engineering firm, gaseous diffusion: the only commercial enrichment process, the transport of nuclear materials in the fuel cycle, Cogema and spent fuel reprocessing, SGN: a leader in the fuel cycle, quality control of mechanical, thermal and termodynamic design in nuclear engineering, Sulzer's new pump testing station in Mantes, the new look of the Ateliers et Chantiers de Bretagne, tubes and piping in nuclear power plants, piping in pressurized water reactor. All these articles are written in English and in French [fr

  9. Alternative Fuel News: Official Publication of the Clean Cities Network and the Alternative Fuels Data Center, Vol. 5, No. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2001-11-01

    A quarterly magazine with articles on alternative fuel school buses, the market growth of biodiesel fuel, National AFV Day 2002, model year 2002 alternative fuel passenger cars and light trucks, the Michelin Challenge Bibendum road rally, and advanced technology vehicles at Robins Air Force Base, the Top Ten Clean Cities coalitions for 2000, and AFVs on college campuses.

  10. Hawaii alternative fuels utilization program. Phase 3, final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinoshita, C.M.; Staackmann, M.

    1996-08-01

    The Hawaii Alternative Fuels Utilization Program originated as a five-year grant awarded by the US Department of Energy (USDOE) to the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute (HNEI) of the University of Hawaii at Manoa. The overall program included research and demonstration efforts aimed at encouraging and sustaining the use of alternative (i.e., substitutes for gasoline and diesel) ground transportation fuels in Hawaii. Originally, research aimed at overcoming technical impediments to the widespread adoption of alternative fuels was an important facet of this program. Demonstration activities centered on the use of methanol-based fuels in alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs). In the present phase, operations were expanded to include flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs) which can operate on M85 or regular unleaded gasoline or any combination of these two fuels. Additional demonstration work was accomplished in attempting to involve other elements of Hawaii in the promotion and use of alcohol fuels for ground transportation in Hawaii.

  11. Nuclear fuel powder transfer device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komono, Akira

    1998-01-01

    A pair of parallel rails are laid between a receiving portion to a molding portion of a nuclear fuel powder transfer device. The rails are disposed to the upper portion of a plurality of parallel support columns at the same height. A powder container is disposed while being tilted in the inside of the vessel main body of a transfer device, and rotational shafts equipped with wheels are secured to right and left external walls. A nuclear powder to be mixed, together with additives, is supplied to the powder container of the transfer device. The transfer device engaged with the rails on the receiving side is transferred toward the molding portion. The wheels are rotated along the rails, and the rotational shafts, the vessel main body and the powder container are rotated. The nuclear powder in the tilted powder container disposed is rotated right and left and up and down by the rotation, and the powder is mixed satisfactory when it reaches the molding portion. (I.N.)

  12. Standardization of Alternative Fuels. Phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-08-15

    March 2003 the Executive Committee of the International Energy Agency's Implementing Agreement on Advanced Motor fuels (IEA/AMF) decided to continue annex XXVII 'Standardization of alternative fuels' with a second phase. The purpose of the second phase was to go further in the contacts with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) as well as the European Committee for Standardization (CEN) and their technical committees, to better understand their needs and to investigate how IEA/AMF could contribute to their work. It was also scheduled to put forward proposals on how IEA/AMF could cooperate with CEN and ISO and their technical committees (TC: s), primarily ISO/TC 28 'Petroleum Products and Lubricants' and CEN/TC 19 'Petroleum Products, Lubricants and Related Products'. The main part of the work in IEA/AMF annex XXVII phase two has focused on personal contacts within CEN/TC 19 and ISO/TC 28, but also on data and information collection from websites and written information. Together with the analysis of this information, the internal organization of a cooperation between IEA/AMF and ISO/TC 28 and of a cooperation between IEA/AMF and CEN/TC 19 have also been discussed and analysed.

  13. Advanced nuclear fuel cycles and radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This study analyses a range of advanced nuclear fuel cycle options from the perspective of their effect on radioactive waste management policies. It presents various fuel cycle options which illustrate differences between alternative technologies, but does not purport to cover all foreseeable future fuel cycles. The analysis extends the work carried out in previous studies, assesses the fuel cycles as a whole, including all radioactive waste generated at each step of the cycles, and covers high-level waste repository performance for the different fuel cycles considered. The estimates of quantities and types of waste arising from advanced fuel cycles are based on best available data and experts' judgement. The effects of various advanced fuel cycles on the management of radioactive waste are assessed relative to current technologies and options, using tools such as repository performance analysis and cost studies. (author)

  14. 75 FR 26165 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Alternative Affirmative Defense Requirements for Ultra...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-11

    ... Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Alternative Affirmative Defense Requirements for Ultra-Low Sulfur... refiners, importers, distributors, and retailers of highway diesel fuel the option to use an alternative affirmative defense if the Agency finds highway diesel fuel samples above the specified sulfur standard at...

  15. Nuclear design of APSARA reload-2 fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nath, M.; Veeraraghavan, N.

    1978-01-01

    In view of the satisfactory operating performance of initial and reload-1 fuel designs of Apsara reactor, it was felt desirable to adopt a basically similar design for reload-2 fuel, i.e. the fuel assembly should consist of equally spaced parallel fuel plates in which highly enriched uranium, alloyed with aluminium, is employed as fuel. However, because of fabricational constraints, certain modifications were necessary and were incorporated in the proposed reload design to cater to the multiple needs of operational requirements, improved fuel utilization and inherent reactor safety. The salient features of the nuclear design of reload-2 fuel for the Apsara reactor are discussed. (author)

  16. Monitoring arrangement for vented nuclear fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campana, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    In a nuclear fuel reactor core, fuel elements are arranged in a closely packed hexagonal configuration, each fuel element having diametrically opposed vents permitting 180 0 rotation of the fuel elements to counteract bowing. A grid plate engages the fuel elements and forms passages for communicating sets of three, four or six individual vents with respective monitor lines in order to communicate vented radioactive gases from the fuel elements to suitable monitor means in a manner readily permitting detection of leakage in individual fuel elements

  17. Hanford Spent Nuclear Fuel Project recommended path forward

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fulton, J.C.

    1994-10-01

    The Spent Nuclear Fuel Project (the Project), in conjunction with the U.S. Department of Energy-commissioned Independent Technical Assessment (ITA) team, has developed engineered alternatives for expedited removal of spent nuclear fuel, including sludge, from the K Basins at Hanford. These alternatives, along with a foreign processing alternative offered by British Nuclear Fuels Limited (BNFL), were extensively reviewed and evaluated. Based on these evaluations, a Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) Recommended Path Forward for K Basins spent nuclear fuel has been developed and is presented in Volume I of this document. The recommendation constitutes an aggressive series of projects to construct and operate systems and facilities to safely retrieve, package, transport, process, and store K Basins fuel and sludge. The overall processing and storage scheme is based on the ITA team's proposed passivation and vault storage process. A dual purpose staging and vault storage facility provides an innovative feature which allows accelerated removal of fuel and sludge from the basins and minimizes programmatic risks beyond any of the originally proposed alternatives. The projects fit within a regulatory and National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) overlay which mandates a two-phased approach to construction and operation of the needed facilities. The two-phase strategy packages and moves K Basins fuel and sludge to a newly constructed Staging and Storage Facility by the year 2000 where it is staged for processing. When an adjoining facility is constructed, the fuel is cycled through a stabilization process and returned to the Staging and Storage Facility for dry interim (40-year) storage. The estimated total expenditure for this Recommended Path Forward, including necessary new construction, operations, and deactivation of Project facilities through 2012, is approximately $1,150 million (unescalated)

  18. Design premises for canister for spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werme, L

    1998-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to establish the basic premises for designing canisters for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel, the requirements for canister characteristics, and the design criteria, and to present alternative canister designs that satisfy these premises. The point of departure for canister design has been that the canister must be able to be used for both BWR and PWR fuel 43 refs, 4 figs, 6 tabs

  19. Guide to alternative fuel vehicle incentives and laws: September 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, C.; O' Connor, K.

    1998-12-22

    This guide provides information in support of the National Clean Cities Program, which will assist one in becoming better informed about the choices and options surrounding the use of alternative fuels and the purchase of alternative fuel vehicles. The information printed in this guide is current as of September 15, 1998. For recent additions or more up-to-date information, check the Alternative Fuels Data Center Web site at http://www.afdc.doe.gov

  20. Addressing fuel recycling in solid oxide fuel cell systems fed by alternative fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud

    2017-01-01

    An innovative study on anode recirculation in solid oxide fuel cell systems with alternative fuels is carried out and investigated. Alternative fuels under study are ammonia, pure hydrogen, methanol, ethanol, DME and biogas from biomass gasification. It is shown that the amount of anode off......%. Furthermore, it is founded that for the case with methanol, ethanol and DME then at high utilization factors, low anode recirculation is recommended while at low utilization factors, high anode recirculation is recommended. If the plant is fed by biogas from biomass gasification then for each utilization...