Sample records for alternative low-cost precursors

  1. The formation of CuInSe{sub 2}-based thin-film solar cell absorbers from alternative low-cost precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jost, S.


    This work deals with real-time investigations concerning the crystallisation process of CuInSe{sub 2}-based thin-film solar cell absorbers while annealing differently produced and composed ''low-cost'' precursors. Various types of precursors have been investigated concerning their crystallisation behaviour. Three groups of experiments have been performed: (i) Investigations concerning the crystallisation process of the quaternary chalcopyrite Cu(In,Al)Se{sub 2} and Cu(In,Al)S{sub 2}, (ii) investigations concerning the formation process of the compound semiconductor CuInSe{sub 2} from electroplated precursors, and (iii) investigations concerning the crystallisation of Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} using precursors with thermally evaporated indium. A specific sample surrounding has been constructed, which enables to perform time-resolved angle-dispersive X-ray powder diffraction experiments during the annealing process of precursor samples. A thorough analysis of subsequently recorded diffraction patterns using the Rietveld method provides a detailed knowledge about the semiconductor crystallisation process while annealing. Based on these fundamental investigations, conclusions have been drawn concerning an adaptation of the precursor deposition process in order to optimise the final solar cell results. The investigations have shown, that one class of electroplated precursors shows a crystallisation behaviour identical to the one known for vacuum-deposited precursors. The investigations concerning the crystallisation process of the quaternary chalcopyrite Cu(In,Al)Se{sub 2} revealed, that the chalcopyrite forms from the ternary selenide (Al,In){sub 2}Se{sub 3} and Cu{sub 2}Se at elevated process temperatures. This result is used to explain the separation of the absorber layer into an aluminum-rich and an indium-rich chalcopyrite phase, which has been observed at processed Cu(In,Al)Se{sub 2} absorbers from several research groups. In addition, differences

  2. Low-Cost Precursors to Novel Hydrogen Storage Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linehan, Suzanne W.; Chin, Arthur A.; Allen, Nathan T.; Butterick, Robert; Kendall, Nathan T.; Klawiter, I. Leo; Lipiecki, Francis J.; Millar, Dean M.; Molzahn, David C.; November, Samuel J.; Jain, Puja; Nadeau, Sara; Mancroni, Scott


    -guided R and D approach, which involved the rapid down-selection of a large number of options (chemical pathways to NaBH 4 ) to a smaller, more manageable number. The research began by conducting an extensive review of the technical and patent literature to identify all possible options. The down-selection was based on evaluation of the options against a set of metrics, and to a large extent occurred before experimentation was initiated. Given the vast amount of literature and patents that has evolved over the years, this approach helped to focus efforts and resources on the options with the highest technical and commercial probability of success. Additionally, a detailed engineering analysis methodology was developed for conducting the cost and energy-efficiency calculations. The methodology utilized a number of inputs and tools (Aspen PEA(trademark), FCHTool, and H2A). The down-selection of chemical pathways to NaBH 4 identified three options that were subsequently pursued experimentally. Metal reduction of borate was investigated in Dow's laboratories, research on electrochemical routes to NaBH 4 was conducted at Pennsylvania State University, and Idaho National Laboratory researchers examined various carbothermal routes for producing NaBH 4 from borate. The electrochemical and carbothermal studies did not yield sufficiently positive results. However, NaBH 4 was produced in high yields and purities by an aluminum-based metal reduction pathway. Solid-solid reactive milling, slurry milling, and solution-phase approaches to metal reduction were investigated, and while both reactive milling and solution-phase routes point to fully recyclable processes, the scale-up of reactive milling processes to produce NaBH 4 is expected to be difficult. Alternatively, a low-cost solution-phase approach to NaBH 4 has been identified that is based on conventional process unit operations and should be amenable to scale-up. Numerous advances in AB synthesis have been made in recent years to

  3. Low-Cost Precursors to Novel Hydrogen Storage Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzanne W. Linehan; Arthur A. Chin; Nathan T. Allen; Robert Butterick; Nathan T. Kendall; I. Leo Klawiter; Francis J. Lipiecki; Dean M. Millar; David C. Molzahn; Samuel J. November; Puja Jain; Sara Nadeau; Scott Mancroni


    project utilized an engineering-guided R&D approach, which involved the rapid down-selection of a large number of options (chemical pathways to NaBH{sub 4}) to a smaller, more manageable number. The research began by conducting an extensive review of the technical and patent literature to identify all possible options. The down-selection was based on evaluation of the options against a set of metrics, and to a large extent occurred before experimentation was initiated. Given the vast amount of literature and patents that has evolved over the years, this approach helped to focus efforts and resources on the options with the highest technical and commercial probability of success. Additionally, a detailed engineering analysis methodology was developed for conducting the cost and energy-efficiency calculations. The methodology utilized a number of inputs and tools (Aspen PEA{trademark}, FCHTool, and H2A). The down-selection of chemical pathways to NaBH{sub 4} identified three options that were subsequently pursued experimentally. Metal reduction of borate was investigated in Dow's laboratories, research on electrochemical routes to NaBH{sub 4} was conducted at Pennsylvania State University, and Idaho National Laboratory researchers examined various carbothermal routes for producing NaBH{sub 4} from borate. The electrochemical and carbothermal studies did not yield sufficiently positive results. However, NaBH{sub 4} was produced in high yields and purities by an aluminum-based metal reduction pathway. Solid-solid reactive milling, slurry milling, and solution-phase approaches to metal reduction were investigated, and while both reactive milling and solution-phase routes point to fully recyclable processes, the scale-up of reactive milling processes to produce NaBH{sub 4} is expected to be difficult. Alternatively, a low-cost solution-phase approach to NaBH{sub 4} has been identified that is based on conventional process unit operations and should be amenable to scale

  4. Alternative ceramic circuit constructions for low cost, high reliability applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modes, Ch.; O'Neil, M.


    The growth in the use of hybrid circuit technology has recently been challenged by recent advances in low cost laminate technology, as well as the continued integration of functions into IC's. Size reduction of hybrid 'packages' has turned out to be a means to extend the useful life of this technology. The suppliers of thick film materials technology have responded to this challenge by developing a number of technology options to reduce circuit size, increase density, and reduce overall cost, while maintaining or increasing reliability. This paper provides an overview of the processes that have been developed, and, in many cases are used widely to produce low cost, reliable microcircuits. Comparisons of each of these circuit fabrication processes are made with a discussion of advantages and disadvantages of each technology. (author)

  5. SiC/C components for nuclear applications from low cost precursor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narciso, J.; Calderon, N.R.


    The development of structural materials with the desired properties to produce the components facing the plasma in fusion reactors is one of the key problems in fusion technology. The structural materials used in the first wall and breeder blanket limits the operating temperature of the system, and higher operating temperatures means higher efficiency. Among the advanced material under consideration for those parts (first wall and breeder blanket) SiC based composites offers the greatest potential. However, considerable research is still required in order to solve engineering feasibility and manufacturing issues, as the improvement of the maximum working temperature and the capability of fabrication of components with homogeneous properties at reasonable cost. Last decade, there has been a strong effort in blanket design using SiC f /SiC composites which are rather expensive while excellent mechanical properties are not so mandatory as resistance to neutron irradiation for this application. In this work, an experimental procedure for manufacturing SiC/C composite materials with homogeneous properties from low cost precursors is described. The process consists in classical reactive infiltration of porous carbon preforms by liquid silicon to produce RBSC where the porous carbon preforms are tailor-made for the fabrication of SiC components without residual Si. The proper selection of the feedstock nature and the pyrolysis conditions determine the microstructure and sinterability of the carbon particles, respectively. These two features control the reactivity of the carbon substrate and porosity of the carbon preform for complete infiltration. The absence of silicon and the homogeneous microstructure of the SiC materials produced by this procedure make them suitable for structural applications at temperatures higher than 1200 deg. C. Furthermore, the technique allows near-net-shape capability and the carbon source is a low cost material. (author)

  6. Low-Cost Alternative for the Measurement of Water Levels in Surface Water Streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis E. PEÑA


    Full Text Available Flood risk management and water resources planning involve a deep knowledge of surface streams so that mitigation strategies and climate change adaptations can be implemented. Commercially, there is a wide range of technologies for the measurement of hydroclimatic variables; however, many of these technologies may not be affordable for institutions with limited budgets. This paper has two main objectives: 1 Present the design of an ultrasound-based water level measurement system, and 2 Propose a methodological alternative for the development of instruments, according to the needs of institutions conducting monitoring of surface waterbodies. To that end, the proposed methodology is based on selection processes defined according to the specific needs of each waterbody. The prototype was tested in real-world scale, with the potential to obtain accurate measurements. Lastly, we present the design of the ultrasound-based water level measurement instrument, which can be built at a low cost. Low-cost instruments can potentially contribute to the sustainable instrumental autonomy of environmental entities and help define measurement and data transmission standards based on the specific requirements of the monitoring.

  7. A low-cost alternative to the optical experiment commercially known as “Magic Hologram – 3D Mirage”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmar Henrique Moura Silva


    Full Text Available This work presents a low-cost alternative to the commercialized experiment called “Magic Hologram – Mirage 3D”, which reproduces the real image of an object that is seen three-dimensionally in the air. An analysis of this alternative is carried out, indicating educational aspects of its use in the classroom in quantitative terms.

  8. An alternative sensor fusion method for object orientation using low-cost MEMS inertial sensors (United States)

    Bouffard, Joshua L.

    This thesis develops an alternative sensor fusion approach for object orientation using low-cost MEMS inertial sensors. The alternative approach focuses on the unique challenges of small UAVs. Such challenges include the vibrational induced noise onto the accelerometer and bias offset errors of the rate gyroscope. To overcome these challenges, a sensor fusion algorithm combines the measured data from the accelerometer and rate gyroscope to achieve a single output free from vibrational noise and bias offset errors. One of the most prevalent sensor fusion algorithms used for orientation estimation is the Extended Kalman filter (EKF). The EKF filter performs the fusion process by first creating the process model using the nonlinear equations of motion and then establishing a measurement model. With the process and measurement models established, the filter operates by propagating the mean and covariance of the states through time. The success of EKF relies on the ability to establish a representative process and measurement model of the system. In most applications, the EKF measurement model utilizes the accelerometer and GPS-derived accelerations to determine an estimate of the orientation. However, if the GPS-derived accelerations are not available then the measurement model becomes less reliable when subjected to harsh vibrational environments. This situation led to the alternative approach, which focuses on the correlation between the rate gyroscope and accelerometer-derived angle. The correlation between the two sensors then determines how much the algorithm will use one sensor over the other. The result is a measurement that does not suffer from the vibrational noise or from bias offset errors.

  9. Low-Cost Alternative for Signal Generators in the Physics Laboratory (United States)

    Pathare, Shirish Rajan; Raghavendra, M. K.; Huli, Saurabhee


    Recently devices such as the optical mouse of a computer, webcams, Wii remote, and digital cameras have been used to record and analyze different physical phenomena quantitatively. Devices like tablets and smartphones are also becoming popular. Different scientific applications available at Google Play (Android devices) or the App Store (iOS devices) make them versatile. One can find many websites that provide information regarding various scientific applications compatible with these systems. A variety of smartphones/tablets are available with different types of sensors embedded. Some of them have sensors that are capable of measuring intensity of light, sound, and magnetic field. The camera of these devices has been used to study projectile motion, and the same device, along with a sensor, has been used to study the physical pendulum. Accelerometers have been used to study free and damped harmonic oscillations and to measure acceleration due to gravity. Using accelerometers and gyroscopes, angular velocity and centripetal acceleration have been measured. The coefficient of restitution for a ball bouncing on the floor has been measured using the application Oscilloscope on the iPhone. In this article, we present the use of an Android device as a low-cost alternative for a signal generator. We use the Signal Generator application installed on the Android device along with an amplifier circuit.

  10. Scilab software as an alternative low-cost computing in solving the linear equations problem (United States)

    Agus, Fahrul; Haviluddin


    Numerical computation packages are widely used both in teaching and research. These packages consist of license (proprietary) and open source software (non-proprietary). One of the reasons to use the package is a complexity of mathematics function (i.e., linear problems). Also, number of variables in a linear or non-linear function has been increased. The aim of this paper was to reflect on key aspects related to the method, didactics and creative praxis in the teaching of linear equations in higher education. If implemented, it could be contribute to a better learning in mathematics area (i.e., solving simultaneous linear equations) that essential for future engineers. The focus of this study was to introduce an additional numerical computation package of Scilab as an alternative low-cost computing programming. In this paper, Scilab software was proposed some activities that related to the mathematical models. In this experiment, four numerical methods such as Gaussian Elimination, Gauss-Jordan, Inverse Matrix, and Lower-Upper Decomposition (LU) have been implemented. The results of this study showed that a routine or procedure in numerical methods have been created and explored by using Scilab procedures. Then, the routine of numerical method that could be as a teaching material course has exploited.

  11. Evaluation of TagSeq, a reliable low-cost alternative for RNAseq. (United States)

    Lohman, Brian K; Weber, Jesse N; Bolnick, Daniel I


    RNAseq is a relatively new tool for ecological genetics that offers researchers insight into changes in gene expression in response to a myriad of natural or experimental conditions. However, standard RNAseq methods (e.g., Illumina TruSeq ® or NEBNext ® ) can be cost prohibitive, especially when study designs require large sample sizes. Consequently, RNAseq is often underused as a method, or is applied to small sample sizes that confer poor statistical power. Low cost RNAseq methods could therefore enable far greater and more powerful applications of transcriptomics in ecological genetics and beyond. Standard mRNAseq is costly partly because one sequences portions of the full length of all transcripts. Such whole-mRNA data are redundant for estimates of relative gene expression. TagSeq is an alternative method that focuses sequencing effort on mRNAs' 3' end, reducing the necessary sequencing depth per sample, and thus cost. We present a revised TagSeq library construction procedure, and compare its performance against NEBNext ® , the 'gold-standard' whole mRNAseq method. We built both TagSeq and NEBNext ® libraries from the same biological samples, each spiked with control RNAs. We found that TagSeq measured the control RNA distribution more accurately than NEBNext ® , for a fraction of the cost per sample (~10%). The higher accuracy of TagSeq was particularly apparent for transcripts of moderate to low abundance. Technical replicates of TagSeq libraries are highly correlated, and were correlated with NEBNext ® results. Overall, we show that our modified TagSeq protocol is an efficient alternative to traditional whole mRNAseq, offering researchers comparable data at greatly reduced cost. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Low-Cost Alternative External Rotation Shoulder Brace and Review of Treatment in Acute Shoulder Dislocations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacy, Kyle


    Full Text Available Traumatic dislocations of the shoulder commonly present to emergency departments (EDs. Immediate closed reduction of both anterior and posterior glenohumeral dislocations is recommended and is frequently performed in the ED. Recurrence of dislocation is common, as anteroinferior labral tears (Bankart lesions are present in many anterior shoulder dislocations.14,15,18,23 Immobilization of the shoulder following closed reduction is therefore recommended; previous studies support the use of immobilization with the shoulder in a position of external rotation, for both anterior and posterior shoulder dislocations.7-11,19 In this study, we present a technique for assembling a low-cost external rotation shoulder brace using materials found in most hospitals: cotton roll, stockinette, and shoulder immobilizers. This brace is particularly suited for the uninsured patient, who lacks the financial resources to pay for a pre-fabricated brace out of pocket. We also performed a cost analysis for our low-cost external rotation shoulder brace, and a cost comparison with pre-fabricated brand name braces. At our institution, the total materials cost for our brace was $19.15. The cost of a pre-fabricated shoulder brace at our institution is $150 with markup, which is reimbursed on average at $50.40 according to our hospital billing data. The low-cost external rotation shoulder brace is therefore a more affordable option for the uninsured patient presenting with acute shoulder dislocation. [West J Emerg Med. 2015;16(1:114–120.

  13. Alternative group V precursors for CVD applications (United States)

    Lum, R. M.; Klingert, J. K.


    The chemical vapor deposition (CVD) techniques used to grow III/V semiconductors films, such as metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE), hydride VPE, chemical beam epitaxy (CBE) and gas source molecular beam epitaxy (GS-MBE), all use hydrides (AsH 3 and PH 3) as the Group V source. However, the hydrides are extremely toxic gases which are stored under high pressure (200-2000 psi). To reduce the safety hazards associated with these gases, alternative Group V precursors have been investigated. Organoarsenic and phosphorous compounds have received the most attention as replacements for AsH 3 and PH 3 because they are typically low vapor pressure liquids, and thus present significantly lower exposure risks than the hydrides. For AsH 3 these have included the methyl, ethyl and butyl-based derivatives RnAsH 3- n, with varying degrees ( n = 1-3) of hydrogen atom substitution. In this paper the growth properties, thermochemistry and toxicity of the various alkylarsine precursors are compared with arsine. Data are presented on the impact of the thermochemistry of these compounds on film electrical properties, and on the effects of precursor composition and purity on overall film quality. The suitability of alternative As-precursors for device applications is demonstrated, and selection criteria are presented for the most effective alkylarsine compound for a particular CVD growth process.

  14. Development of an alternative low-cost solar collector working at medium temperature (150 - 250°C) (United States)

    Vidal, Frédéric; Chandez, Bertrand; Albert, Raphael


    Within the subtask 11.1.1 of the European project STAGE-STE, the CEA is in charge of the development of an alternative low-cost collector working at medium temperature (150-250 °C). PTC are installed in a small glasshouse in order to decrease the steel mass of the solar field. After a brief background of alternative PTC construction, characteristics and advantages of such a collector are presented and PTC arrangement performance (axis orientation, tilt angle) are discussed. Then, some mechanical studies are detailed and three prototypes module design are presented as well as their optical qualification.

  15. Student peer teaching in paediatric simulation training is a feasible low-cost alternative for education. (United States)

    Wagner, Michael; Mileder, Lukas P; Goeral, Katharina; Klebermass-Schrehof, Katrin; Cardona, Francesco S; Berger, Angelika; Schmölzer, Georg M; Olischar, Monika


    The World Health Organization recommends regular simulation training to prevent adverse healthcare events. We used specially trained medical students to provide paediatric simulation training to their peers and assessed feasibility, cost and confidence of students who attended the courses. Students at the Medical University of Vienna, Austria were eligible to participate. Students attended two high-fidelity simulation training sessions, delivered by peers, which were videorecorded for evaluation. The attendees then completed questionnaires before and after the training. Associated costs and potential benefits were analysed. From May 2013 to June 2015, 152 students attended the sessions and 57 (37.5%) completed both questionnaires. Satisfaction was high, with 95% stating their peer tutor was competent and 90% saying that peer tutors were well prepared. The attendees' confidence in treating critically ill children significantly improved after training (p training was a feasible and low-cost option that increased the number of medical students who could be trained and increased the self-confidence of the attendees. Satisfaction with the peer tutors was high. ©2017 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Monitoring of Landslides with Mass Market Gps: AN Alternative Low Cost Solution (United States)

    Cina, A.; Piras, M.; Bendea, H. I.


    The territory of Italy is seriously afflicted by hydrological risk, with 82% of its area affected by this phenomenon. In recent years, technologies and advanced research have played an important role in realizing complex automatic systems devoted to landslide monitoring and to alerting the population. Sometimes, the cost of these systems (communications network, sensors, software, technologies) prevents their use, and in particular the cost of sensors has a large impact on the final investment. For example, geodetic GNSS receivers are usually employed to conduct landslide monitoring, but they are costly. Nowadays, new technologies make it possible to use small and efficient low cost single frequency GPS receivers, which are able to achieve a centimetric or better level of accuracy, in static positioning. The rapid development and diffusion of the GNSS network to provide a positioning service has made it possible to use single frequency receivers, thanks to the use of virtual RINEX. This product is generated by a network of permanent stations. In this research, the actual performance of a mass market GPS receiver was tested, with the purpose of verifying if these sensors can be used for landslide monitoring. A special slide was realized, in order to conduct a dedicated test of the detection of displacements. Tests were carried out considering two factors: acquisition time and distance from the Virtual Station. The accuracy and precision of movement determination were evaluated and compared, for each test, considering the different factors. The tests and results are described in this contribution.

  17. Technology alternatives towards low-cost and high-speed interconnect manufacturing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roozeboom, F.; Kniknie, B.; Lankhorst, A.M.; Winands, G.; Poodt, P.; Dingemans, G.; Keuning, W.; Kessels, W.M.M.; Bullema, J.E.; Bressers, P.M.M.C.; Oosterhuis, G.; Mueller, M.; Huis in 't Veld, Bert


    In this work we will review our recent work on novel alternative and disruptive technology concepts with industrial potential for cost-effective and high-speed interconnect manufacturing, in particular on the creation (drilling and filling) of advanced interconnects like TSVs. These technologies are

  18. Novel low-cost alternative to THz for security and defence applications (United States)

    Diamond, G. G.; Hutchins, D. A.; Pallav, P.; Green, R. J.


    A novel technique of NIR imaging is presented that gives access to most of the applications currently published as being solely suitable for Terahertz (THz) waves. The technique uses NIR beams wavelengths found in ordinary domestic remote controls (circa 850 nm) and various signal recovery techniques commonly found in astronomy. This alternative technique can be realised by very simple and inexpensive electronics and is inherently far more portable and easy to use and no special sources are required. Transmission imaging results from this technique are presented from several industrial examples and various security applications and are compared and contrasted directly with their THz-derived counterparts. It would appear possible to very cheaply and simply emulate the performance of commercial terahertz systems at a fraction of the cost and with greatly reduced processing times Another advantage is that apart from imaging, this technique affords the means to provide simultaneous in-situ chemical-bond analysis for stand-off detection of certain chemical signatures - for example, those found in drugs and explosives (both molecular and oxidiser based). Also, unlike THz, this technique can penetrate bulk water and high humidity atmospheres and be used in transmission mode on biological and medical samples. Several results are presented of non-ionising X-ray type images that even differentiate between separate types of soft tissue

  19. Cu2ZnSnS4 thin film solar cells from electroplated precursors: Novel low-cost perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ennaoui, A.; Lux-Steiner, M.; Weber, A.; Abou-Ras, D.; Koetschau, I.; Schock, H.-W.; Schurr, R.; Hoelzing, A.; Jost, S.; Hock, R.; Voss, T.; Schulze, J.; Kirbs, A.


    Thin-film solar cells based on Cu 2 ZnSnS 4 (CZTS) absorbers were fabricated successfully by solid-state reaction in H 2 S atmosphere of electrodeposited Cu-Zn-Sn precursors. These ternary alloys were deposited in one step from a cyanide-free alkaline electrolyte containing Cu(II), Zn (II) and Sn (IV) metal salts on Mo-coated glass substrates. The solar cell was completed by a chemical bath-deposited CdS buffer layer and a sputtered i-ZnO/ZnO:Al bilayer. The best solar cell performance was obtained with Cu-poor samples. A total area (0.5 cm 2 ) efficiency of 3.4% is achieved (V oc = 563 mV, j sc = 14.8 mA/cm 2 , FF = 41%) with a maximum external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 80%. The estimated band-gap energy from the external quantum efficiency (EQE) measurements is about 1.54 eV. Electron backscatter-diffraction maps of cross-section samples revealed CZTS grain sizes of up to 10 μm. Elemental distribution maps of the CZTS absorber show Zn-rich precipitates, probably ZnS, and a Zn-poor region, presumably Cu 2 SnS 3 , close to the interface Mo/CZTS

  20. Chemical gel barriers as low-cost alternative to containment and in situ cleanup of hazardous wastes to protect groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Chemical gel barriers are being considered as a low-cost alternative for containment and in situ cleanup of hazardous wastes to protect groundwater. Most of the available gels in petroleum application are non-reactive and relative impermeable, providing a physical barriers for all fluids and contaminants. However, other potential systems can be envisioned. These systems could include gels that are chemically reactive and impermeable such that most phase are captured by the barriers but the contaminants could diffuse through the barriers. Another system that is chemically reactive and permeable could have potential applications in selectivity capturing contaminants while allowing water to pass through the barriers. This study focused on chemically reactive and permeable gel barriers. The gels used in experiment are DuPont LUDOX SM colloidal silica gel and Pfizer FLOPAAM 1330S hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM) gel

  1. Novel, low-cost alternative technologies to tackle practical, industrial conundrums – a case study of batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Victor K. Y.


    Full Text Available Whereas batteries in comparison with most other means of energy storage are more environmentally friendly and economical in their operation, they are beset by low energy replenishment rates, low energy storage density, high capital cost of themselves, and high capital cost of energy replenishment infrastructures. Mainly based on ergonomics, this paper proposes a novel, low-cost alternative technology to practically and industrially make these weaknesses irrelevant to some extent without calling for revolutionary technological breakthroughs in material science, batteries’ microstructures, or battery manufacturing technologies. The technology takes advantage of modularization of battery systems, prioritization of charging and discharging of battery module(s according to ease of unloading and/or loading the battery module(s and/or ease of loading replacement battery module(s of the battery module(s.

  2. Emulation-Based Virtual Laboratories: A Low-Cost Alternative to Physical Experiments in Control Engineering Education (United States)

    Goodwin, G. C.; Medioli, A. M.; Sher, W.; Vlacic, L. B.; Welsh, J. S.


    This paper argues the case for emulation-based virtual laboratories in control engineering education. It demonstrates that such emulation experiments can give students an industrially relevant educational experience at relatively low cost. The paper also describes a particular emulation-based system that has been developed with the aim of giving…

  3. low-Cost, High-Performance Alternatives for Target Temperature Monitoring Using the Near-Infrared Spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Virgo, Mathew [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Quigley, Kevin J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Chemerisov, Sergey [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Vandegrift, George F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)


    A process is being developed for commercial production of the medical isotope Mo-99 through a photo-nuclear reaction on a Mo-100 target using a highpower electron accelerator. This process requires temperature monitoring of the window through which a high-current electron beam is transmitted to the target. For this purpose, we evaluated two near infrared technologies: the OMEGA Engineering iR2 pyrometer and the Ocean Optics Maya2000 spectrometer with infrared-enhanced charge-coupled device (CCD) sensor. Measuring in the near infrared spectrum, in contrast to the long-wavelength infrared spectrum, offers a few immediate advantages: (1) ordinary glass or quartz optical elements can be used; (2) alignment can be performed without heating the target; and (3) emissivity corrections to temperature are typically less than 10%. If spatial resolution is not required, the infrared pyrometer is attractive because of its accuracy, low cost, and simplicity. If spatial resolution is required, we make recommendations for near-infrared imaging based on our data augmented by calculations

  4. Pre-hydrolysed ethyl silicate as an alternative precursor for SiO{sub 2}-coated carbon nanofibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrena, M.I., E-mail: [Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e Ingenieria Metalurgica, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Av. Complutense s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Gomez de Salazar, J.M.; Soria, A.; Matesanz, L. [Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e Ingenieria Metalurgica, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Av. Complutense s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain)


    This work reported basically aims at understanding the extent of SiO{sub 2}-coated carbon nanofibers using two different sol-gel precursors for the silicate glass. The silicate precursors employed were tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and pre-hydrolysed ethyl silicate. The first route consisted in an acid hydrolysis and polycondensation of the TEOS and the second one in a polycondensation of the pre-hydrolysed ethyl silicate. The techniques of Fourier Infra Red spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction were used to characterize the materials obtained. Both kinds of SiO{sub 2} precursor can coat the CNF effectively. However, the use of pre-hydrolysed ethyl silicate (faster gelation times and higher surface areas) can be considered a low-cost and facile alternative with respect to the use of TEOS, to obtain industrially silica-coated carbon nanofibers.

  5. Alternative technology concepts for low-cost and high-speed 2D and 3D interconnect manufacturing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roozeboom, F.; Smets, M.; Kniknie, B.; Hoppenbrouwers, M.; Dingemans, G.; Keuning, W.; Kessels, W.M.M.; Pohl, Ralph; Huis in 't Veld, Bert


    The current industrial process of choice for Deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE) of 3D features, e.g. Through-Silicon Vias (TSVs), Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS), etc., is the Bosch process, which uses alternative SF6 etch cycles and C4F8-based sidewall passivation cycles in a time-sequenced

  6. Low Cost Processing of Commingled Thermoplastic Composites (United States)

    Chiasson, Matthew Lee

    A low cost vacuum consolidation process has been investigated for use with commingled thermoplastic matrix composites. In particular, the vacuum consolidation behaviour of commingled polypropylene/glass fibre and commingled nylon/carbon fibre precursors were studied. Laminates were consolidated in a convection oven under vacuum pressure. During processing, the consolidation of the laminate packs was measured by use of non-contact eddy current sensors. The consolidation curves are then used to tune an empirical consolidation model. The overall quality of the resulting laminates is also discussed. Dynamic mechanical analysis, differential scanning calorimetry and mechanical tensile testing were also performed in order to determine the effects of varying processing parameters on the physical and mechanical properties of the laminates. Through this analysis, it was determined that the nylon/carbon fibre blend was not suitable for vacuum consolidation, while the polypropylene/glass fibre blend is a viable option for vacuum consolidation. The ultimate goal of this work is to provide a foundation from which low cost unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) components can be designed and manufactured from thermoplastic matrix composites using a low cost processing technique as an alternative to traditional thermoset composite materials.

  7. Edible Cricothyrotomy Model: A Low-Cost Alternative to Pig Tracheas and Plastic Models for Teaching Cricothyrotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J Bryant


    , Interquartile Range [IQR] 24-41 sec and PM (median 33 sec, IQR 28-39 sec than on the EC (44 sec, IQR 35-63. There was a statistically significant divergence in preference (p=0.0001 with participants rating the PT first (median rank 1, IQR 1-1, the EC second (median rank 2, IQR 2-2, and the PM third (median rank 3, IQR 2.5-3. Cost of the models at the time of analysis (October, 2104 was $2.77 for EC and $7.64 for PT. The plastic model was built from materials obtained in the emergency department (ventilator tubing, 4-inch white foam tape, ½ inch white tape, and Coban. These materials were not purchased, so cost per plastic model was not calculated. Conclusion: A novel, edible cricothyrotomy training model is a suitable and cost effective alternative to a pig trachea and has a role for learners seeking multiple attempts at the procedure for skills maintenance and retention.

  8. Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} thin film solar cells from electroplated precursors: Novel low-cost perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ennaoui, A. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie GmbH, Solar Energy Division, Glienickerstrasse 100, D-14109 Berlin (Germany)], E-mail:; Lux-Steiner, M.; Weber, A.; Abou-Ras, D.; Koetschau, I.; Schock, H.-W. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie GmbH, Solar Energy Division, Glienickerstrasse 100, D-14109 Berlin (Germany); Schurr, R.; Hoelzing, A.; Jost, S.; Hock, R. [Crystallography and Structural Physics, University of Erlangen-Nuernberg, Staudtstrasse 3, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Voss, T.; Schulze, J.; Kirbs, A. [Atotech Deutschland GmbH, Erasmusstr. 20, D-10553 Berlin (Germany)


    Thin-film solar cells based on Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} (CZTS) absorbers were fabricated successfully by solid-state reaction in H{sub 2}S atmosphere of electrodeposited Cu-Zn-Sn precursors. These ternary alloys were deposited in one step from a cyanide-free alkaline electrolyte containing Cu(II), Zn (II) and Sn (IV) metal salts on Mo-coated glass substrates. The solar cell was completed by a chemical bath-deposited CdS buffer layer and a sputtered i-ZnO/ZnO:Al bilayer. The best solar cell performance was obtained with Cu-poor samples. A total area (0.5 cm{sup 2}) efficiency of 3.4% is achieved (V{sub oc} = 563 mV, j{sub sc} = 14.8 mA/cm{sup 2}, FF = 41%) with a maximum external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 80%. The estimated band-gap energy from the external quantum efficiency (EQE) measurements is about 1.54 eV. Electron backscatter-diffraction maps of cross-section samples revealed CZTS grain sizes of up to 10 {mu}m. Elemental distribution maps of the CZTS absorber show Zn-rich precipitates, probably ZnS, and a Zn-poor region, presumably Cu{sub 2}SnS{sub 3}, close to the interface Mo/CZTS.

  9. Development of Low Cost Solar Cooker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj K. Gupta


    Full Text Available Low cost solar cookers are developed and tested. The paper discusses the methodology, development and testing of a reflective panel type low cost solar cooker. From the tests, it is found that such low cost solar cookers are dependable and viable alternative to cooking using conventional sources. The cooker is found suitable for cooking once in winter and twice in summer for 1-2 persons with the estimated cost of Indian Rs. 200.00.

  10. CRADA Final Report for CRADA Number NFE-10-02991 "Development and Commercialization of Alternative Carbon Precursors and Conversion Technologies"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norris, Rober [ORNL; Paulauskas, Felix [ORNL; Naskar, Amit [ORNL; Kaufman, Michael [ORNL; Yarborough, Ken [ORNL; Derstine, Chris [The Dow Chemical Company


    The overall objective of the collaborative research performed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the Dow Chemical Company under this Cooperative Research And Development Agreement (CRADA NFE-10-02991) was to develop and establish pathways to commercialize new carbon fiber precursor and conversion technology. This technology is to produce alternative polymer fiber precursor formulations as well as scaled energy-efficient advanced conversion technology to enable continuous mode conversion to obtain carbonized fibers that are technically and economically viable in industrial markets such as transportation, wind energy, infrastructure and oil drilling applications. There have been efforts in the past to produce a low cost carbon fiber. These attempts have to be interpreted against the backdrop of the market needs at the time, which were strictly military aircraft and high-end aerospace components. In fact, manufacturing costs have been reduced from those days to current practice, where both process optimization and volume production have enabled carbon fiber to become available at prices below $20/lb. However, the requirements of the lucrative aerospace market limits further price reductions from current practice. This approach is different because specific industrial applications are targeted, most specifically wind turbine blade and light vehicle transportation, where aircraft grade carbon fiber is not required. As a result, researchers are free to adjust both manufacturing process and precursor chemistry to meet the relaxed physical specifications at a lower cost. This report documents the approach and findings of this cooperative research in alternative precursors and advanced conversion for production of cost-effective carbon fiber for energy missions. Due to export control, proprietary restrictions, and CRADA protected data considerations, specific design details and processing parameters are not included in this report.

  11. An alternative to the balance error scoring system: using a low-cost balance board to improve the validity/reliability of sports-related concussion balance testing. (United States)

    Chang, Jasper O; Levy, Susan S; Seay, Seth W; Goble, Daniel J


    Recent guidelines advocate sports medicine professionals to use balance tests to assess sensorimotor status in the management of concussions. The present study sought to determine whether a low-cost balance board could provide a valid, reliable, and objective means of performing this balance testing. Criterion validity testing relative to a gold standard and 7 day test-retest reliability. University biomechanics laboratory. Thirty healthy young adults. Balance ability was assessed on 2 days separated by 1 week using (1) a gold standard measure (ie, scientific grade force plate), (2) a low-cost Nintendo Wii Balance Board (WBB), and (3) the Balance Error Scoring System (BESS). Validity of the WBB center of pressure path length and BESS scores were determined relative to the force plate data. Test-retest reliability was established based on intraclass correlation coefficients. Composite scores for the WBB had excellent validity (r = 0.99) and test-retest reliability (R = 0.88). Both the validity (r = 0.10-0.52) and test-retest reliability (r = 0.61-0.78) were lower for the BESS. These findings demonstrate that a low-cost balance board can provide improved balance testing accuracy/reliability compared with the BESS. This approach provides a potentially more valid/reliable, yet affordable, means of assessing sports-related concussion compared with current methods.

  12. Low cost submarine robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponlachart Chotikarn


    Full Text Available A submarine robot is a semi-autonomous submarine robot used mainly for marine environmental research. We aim todevelop a low cost, semi-autonomous submarine robot which is able to travel underwater. The robot’s structure was designedand patented using a novel idea of the diving system employing a volume adjustment mechanism to vary the robot’s density.A light weight, flexibility and small structure provided by PVC can be used to construct the torpedo-liked shape robot.Hydraulic seal and O-ring rubbers are used to prevent water leaking. This robot is controlled by a wired communicationsystem.

  13. Low Cost Airline Service Revolution (United States)


    This study concentrates on new entry by airlines with low cost operating : strategies. Low cost strategies have been the most successful in competing : with network carriers whose very size confers certain competitive advantages. : The purposes of th...

  14. Low cost thermal solar collector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abugderah, M. M.; Schneider, E. L.; Tontini, M. V.


    Solar energy is a good alternative in the economy of the electric energy mainly for the water heating. However, the solar heaters used demand a high initial investment, becoming the warm water from solar energy inaccessible to a large part of the society. Thus, a low cost solar heater was developed, constructed and tested in the chemical engineering department of West Parana State University-Unioeste. This equipment consists of 300 cans, divided in 30 columns of 10 cans each, all painted in black to enhance the obsorption of the solar radiation. The columns are connected to a pipe of pvc of 8 liters with 0.085m of external diameter. The equipment is capable to heat 120 liters of water in temperatures around 60 degree centigrade. The heater is insolated in its inferior part with cardboard and aluminum, covered with a transparent plastic in its superior. The system still counts with a insulated thermal reservoir, which can conserve the water in temperatures adjusted for the night non-solar days domestic use. The advantage of the constructed is it low cost material. The results are given an graphical tabular from showing acceptable efficiencies.(Autho

  15. An Alternative Low-Cost Process for Deposition of MCrAlY Bond Coats for Advanced Syngas/Hydrogen Turbine Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ying [Tennessee Technological Univ., Cookeville, TN (United States)


    The objective of this project was to develop and optimize MCrAlY bond coats for syngas/hydrogen turbine applications using a low-cost electrolytic codeposition process. Prealloyed CrAlY-based powders were codeposited into a metal matrix of Ni, Co or Ni-Co during the electroplating process, and a subsequent post-deposition heat treatment converted it to the MCrAlY coating. Our research efforts focused on: (1) investigation of the effects of electro-codeposition configuration and parameters on the CrAlY particle incorporation in the NiCo-CrAlY composite coatings; (2) development of the post-deposition heat treating procedure; (3) characterization of coating properties and evaluation of coating oxidation performance; (4) exploration of a sulfurfree electroplating solution; (5) cost analysis of the present electrolytic codeposition process. Different electro-codeposition configurations were investigated, and the rotating barrel system demonstrated the capability of depositing NiCo-CrAlY composite coatings uniformly on the entire specimen surface, with the CrAlY particle incorporation in the range 37-42 vol.%. Post-deposition heat treatment at 1000-1200 °C promoted interdiffusion between the CrAlY particles and the Ni-Co metal matrix, resulting in β/γ’/γ or β/γ’ phases in the heat-treated coatings. The results also indicate that the post-deposition heat treatment should be conducted at temperatures ≤1100 °C to minimize Cr evaporation and outward diffusion of Ti. The electro-codeposited NiCrAlY coatings in general showed lower hardness and surface roughness than thermal spray MCrAlY coatings. Coating oxidation performance was evaluated at 1000-1100 °C in dry and wet air environments. The initial electro-codeposited NiCoCrAlY coatings containing relatively high sulfur did not show good oxidation resistance. After modifications of the coating process, the cleaner NiCoCrAlY coating exhibited good oxidation performance at 1000 °C during the 2,000 1-h cyclic

  16. Low cost wind reporting network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkinson, P.J.


    This paper reports on the Wind Hot Line which is a low cost, high reliability network of more than twenty real-time weather stations located along the Northeast coast of the United States. This line is used to provide weather information of use in oil spill remedial responses. Several additional units are maintained on the Great Lakes and in the Gulf of Mexico. The current hardware configuration uses 110 volt AC power and reuses access to a non-dedicated telephone line at each collection site. However, the low power requirements of the system permit solar or similar powering schemes. Radio telemetry has been explored as an alternate to telephone access. The unattended and autonomous field stations access the public toll network using inward WATS service to report current and recent past conditions to a Central Facility. The hardware and software have been designed to minimize operational costs. In addition to the wind speed and direction, temperature and barometric pressure are available. All data from all sites has been since inception. The archive includes five second maxima ampersand minima and five minute median ampersand direction for each of the 288 five minute intervals per day

  17. Low-Cost Apparatus from Locally Available Materials for Teaching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Low cost apparatus from locally available materials believed to enrich the capacity to observe, explain and do real science in primary schools and increases the quality of learning. Hence the ... Comparatively the low cost materials offered an alternative solution to do science in classrooms under difficult financial constraints.

  18. A novel passivation process of silicon nanowires by a low-cost PECVD technique for deposition of hydrogenated silicon nitride using SiH4 and N2 as precursor gases (United States)

    Bouaziz, Lamia; Dridi, Donia; Karyaoui, Mokhtar; Angelova, Todora; Sanchez Plaza, Guillermo; Chtourou, Radhouane


    In this work, a different SiNx passivation process of silicon nanowires has been opted for the deposition of a hydrogenated silicon nitride (SiNx:H) by a low-cost plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) using silane ( SiH4 and nitrogen ( N2 as reactive gases. This study is focused on the effect of the gas flow ratio on chemical composition, morphological, optical and optoelectronic properties of silicon nanowires. The existence of Si-N and Si-H bonds was proven by the Fourier transmission infrared (FTIR) spectrum. Morphological structures were shown by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the roughness was investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). A low reflectivity less than 6% in the wavelength range 250-1200nm has been shown by UV-visible spectroscopy. Furthermore, the thickness and the refractive index of the passivation layer is determined by ellipsometry measurements. As a result, an improvement in minority carrier lifetime has been obtained by reducing surface recombination of silicon nanowires.

  19. Shore protection structures along Kerala coast-low cost alteratives

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DineshKumar, P.K.; Jasanto, P.K.; Sankaranarayanan, V.N.

    Several studies over the last two decades on low cost shore protection measures are reviewed to have an integrated profile with a point on application to the sheltered coasts of Kerala. It is emphasised that these alternative are generally...

  20. Low cost solar air heater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gill, R.S.; Singh, Sukhmeet; Singh, Parm Pal


    Highlights: ► Single glazed low cost solar air heater is more efficient during summer while double glazed is better in winter. ► For the same initial investment, low cost solar air heaters collect more energy than packed bed solar air heater. ► During off season low cost solar air heater can be stored inside as it is light in weight. - Abstract: Two low cost solar air heaters viz. single glazed and double glazed were designed, fabricated and tested. Thermocole, ultraviolet stabilised plastic sheet, etc. were used for fabrication to reduce the fabrication cost. These were tested simultaneously at no load and with load both in summer and winter seasons along with packed bed solar air heater using iron chips for absorption of radiation. The initial costs of single glazed and double glazed are 22.8% and 26.8% of the initial cost of packed bed solar air heater of the same aperture area. It was found that on a given day at no load, the maximum stagnation temperatures of single glazed and double glazed solar air heater were 43.5 °C and 62.5 °C respectively. The efficiencies of single glazed, double glazed and packed bed solar air heaters corresponding to flow rate of 0.02 m 3 /s-m 2 were 30.29%, 45.05% and 71.68% respectively in winter season. The collector efficiency factor, heat removal factor based on air outlet temperature and air inlet temperature for three solar air heaters were also determined.

  1. Alternative splicing in the differentiation of human embryonic stem cells into cardiac precursors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Salomonis


    Full Text Available The role of alternative splicing in self-renewal, pluripotency and tissue lineage specification of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs is largely unknown. To better define these regulatory cues, we modified the H9 hESC line to allow selection of pluripotent hESCs by neomycin resistance and cardiac progenitors by puromycin resistance. Exon-level microarray expression data from undifferentiated hESCs and cardiac and neural precursors were used to identify splice isoforms with cardiac-restricted or common cardiac/neural differentiation expression patterns. Splice events for these groups corresponded to the pathways of cytoskeletal remodeling, RNA splicing, muscle specification, and cell cycle checkpoint control as well as genes with serine/threonine kinase and helicase activity. Using a new program named AltAnalyze (, we identified novel changes in protein domain and microRNA binding site architecture that were predicted to affect protein function and expression. These included an enrichment of splice isoforms that oppose cell-cycle arrest in hESCs and that promote calcium signaling and cardiac development in cardiac precursors. By combining genome-wide predictions of alternative splicing with new functional annotations, our data suggest potential mechanisms that may influence lineage commitment and hESC maintenance at the level of specific splice isoforms and microRNA regulation.

  2. Low-cost microsensors program (United States)

    Anderson, John S.; Bradley, Daryl; Chen, Chungte W.; Chin, Richard; Hegg, Ronald G.; Kennedy, Adam; Murphy, Daniel F.; Ray, Michael; Wyles, Richard; Brown, James C.; Newsome, Gwendolyn W.


    The Low Cost Microsensors (LCMS) Program recently demonstrated state-of-the-art imagery in a long-range infrared (IR) sensor built upon an uncooled vanadium oxide (VOx) 640 X 480 format focal plane array (FPA) engine. The 640 X 480 sensor is applicable to long-range surveillance and targeting missions. The intent of this DUS&T effort is to further reduce the cost, weight, and power of uncooled IR sensors, and to increase the capability of these sensors, thereby expanding their applicability to military and commercial markets never before addressed by thermal imaging.

  3. Low cost solar dryer for fish

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    to dry the fish in the close chamber with preventing product from dust, insect, larva, birds and animal (Figure. 1). By keeping importance of fish drying in region, low cost rotary solar dryer was developed to carry out solar drying study. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Construction of low cost dryer. The low cost solar dryer was ...

  4. Low cost balancing unit design (United States)

    Golembiovsky, Matej; Dedek, Jan; Slanina, Zdenek


    This article deals with the design of a low-cost balancing system which consist of battery balancing units, accumulator pack units and coordinator unit with interface for higher level of battery management system. This solution allows decentralized mode of operation and the aim of this work is implementation of controlling and diagnostic mechanism into an electric scooter project realized at Technical university of Ostrava. In todays world which now fully enjoys the prime of electromobility, off-grid battery systems and other, it is important to seek the optimal balance between functionality and the economy side of BMS that being electronics which deals with secondary cells of batery packs. There were numerous sophisticated, but not too practical BMS models in the past, such as centralized system or standalone balance modules of individual cells. This article aims at development of standalone balance modules which are able to communicate with the coordinator, adjust their parameters and ensure their cells safety in case of a communication failure. With the current worldwide cutting cost trend in mind, the emphasis was put on the lowest price possible for individual component. The article is divided into two major categories, the first one being desing of power electronics with emphasis on quality, safety (cooling) and also cost. The second part describes development of a communication interface with reliability and cost in mind. The article contains numerous graphs from practical measurements. The outcome of the work and its possible future is defined in the conclusion.

  5. Low cost Earth attitude sensor (United States)

    Liberati, Fabrizio; Perrotta, Giorgio; Verzegnassi, Fulvia


    A patent-pending, low-cost, moderate performance, Earth Attitude Sensor for LEO satellites is described in this paper. The paper deals with the system concepts, the technology adopted and the simulation results. The sensor comprises three or four narrow field of view mini telescopes pointed towards the Earth edge to detect and measure the variation of the off-nadir angle of the Earth-to-black sky transition using thermopile detectors suitably placed in the foci of the optical min telescopes. The system's innovation consists in the opto-mechanical configuration adopted that is sturdy and has no moving parts being , thus, inherently reliable. In addition, with a view to reducing production costs, the sensor does without hi-rel and is instead mainly based on COTS parts suitably chosen. Besides it is flexible and can be adapted to perform attitude measurement onboard spacecraft flying in orbits other than LEO with a minimum of modifications to the basic design. At present the sensor is under development by IMT and OptoService.

  6. Thin film CIGS solar cells with a novel low cost process - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiwari, A. N.; Romanyuk, Y.


    Novel manufacturing routes for efficient and low-cost Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (called CIGS) thin film solar cells are explored and patented. CIGS has proven its suitability for highly efficient and extremely stable solar cells. The low-cost methods allow impurity free material synthesis, fast large-area deposition, high material utilization and a very short energy payback time with drastically lower manufacturing costs. Two non-vacuum, solution-based approaches are investigated to deposit thin layers of CIGS. The first approach considers incorporation of copper into indium gallium selenide precursor layers by ion-exchange from aqueous or organic solutions. Organic solutions provide faster copper incorporation and do not corrode the metal back contact. Solar cells processed from selenized precursor films exhibit efficiencies of up to 4.1%. The second approach with paste coating of inorganic salt solution results in a solar cell efficiency of 4% (record 6.7%), where further improvements are hindered by the presence of the residual carbon layer. Using alternative organic binders, pre-deposited selenium layers, non-binder recipes helps to avoid the carbon layer although the obtained layers are inhomogeneous and contain impurity phases. A patent for the ion-exchange approach is pending, and the obtained research results on the paste coating approach will be scrutinized during new European FP7 project 'NOVA-CIGS'. (authors)

  7. Furazolidona, tetraciclina e omeprazol: uma alternativa de baixo custo para erradicação de Helicobacter pylori em crianças Furazolidone, tetracycline and omeprazole: a low-cost alternative for Helicobacter pylori eradication in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Strehl Machado


    abdominal pain, severe histological abnormalities (intestinal metaplasia, gastric atrophy or mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma or peptic ulcer. H. pylori status was defined based both upon histology and rapid urease test. Drug regimen was a 7-day course of omeprazol, tetracycline (or doxycycline and furazolidone twice daily. Eradication was assessed by upper endoscopy 2 months after treatment (histology and rapid urease test. Further clinical evaluation was done 7 days and 2 months after treatment. RESULTS: Thirty-six patients (21 female/15 male were included. Age ranged from 8 to 19 years (mean 12.94+2.89 years. On intention-to-treat analysis (n = 36, eradication rate was 83.3% (95%CI 77.1-89.5 whereas in per-protocol analysis (n = 29, it was 89.7% (95%CI 84.6-94.7. Compliance was better when doxycycline was used, but the success rates were similar for the two tetracyclines. There was no variable associated with treatment failure. Side effects were reported in 17 patients (47.2%, mainly abdominal pain (11/30.5%, nausea (seven/19.4% and vomiting (five/13.9%. CONCLUSION: Triple therapy with furazolidone and tetracycline is a low-cost alternative regimen to treat H. pylori infection.

  8. Foundations for low cost buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Abdel Salam


    Full Text Available Attaining an economical and safe design of structures is regarded as a prerequisite for the structural engineer. The market prices of reinforcing steels have dramatically soared in recent years internationally. Therefore, the purpose of the current paper is not just reducing the ratio of reinforcing steel in the foundations for skeleton structures, but rather minimizing this ratio through choosing the most effective footing shape (folded strip footings. Folded footings have been used as an alternative to the conventional rectangular strip footings. The height of the studied model is ten floors. Two different foundation systems are used in the analysis namely; rectangular strip footings, and folded strip footings respectively. Both footing shapes will be designed as continuous footings with grid shape under the building. Comparison between the two systems is also presented regarding the concrete sections and reinforcement ratio under the same applied loads. The finite element analysis software ADINA is used in modeling and analysis of the structural and geotechnical behavior of both types of footings, with emphasis on the effect of changing the footing shape on the stresses in the footing concrete body and the underlying soils. Research results presents the internal stresses within the footing and soil domains, as well as the contact pressure distribution for a reinforced folded strip footing resting on different soil types. The influence of folding inclination angle, and soil type on the results are also studied. Results showed that folded strip footings are efficient in reducing the amount of needed reinforcements, and such efficiency in reducing the required steel reinforcement in the footings is depending on the applied footing loads, and to some degree on the soil type and properties. Reduction in the reinforcement ratio between the rectangular and folded footing types is about 26% in favor of the folded strip footings. A comparative

  9. Change Detection Experiments Using Low Cost UAVs (United States)

    Logan, Michael J.; Vranas, Thomas L.; Motter, Mark; Hines, Glenn D.; Rahman, Zia-ur


    This paper presents the progress in the development of a low-cost change-detection system. This system is being developed to provide users with the ability to use a low-cost unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and image processing system that can detect changes in specific fixed ground locations using video provided by an autonomous UAV. The results of field experiments conducted with the US Army at Ft. A.P.Hill are presented.

  10. PEM Low Cost Endplates. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Martin; Clyens, S.; Steenstrup, F.R.; Christiansen, Jens [Danish Technological Institute. Plastics Technology, Taastrup (Denmark); Yde-Andersen, S. [IRD Fuel Cell A/S, Svendborg (Denmark)


    In the project, an endplate for the PEM-type fuel cells has been developed. The initial idea was to use an injection mouldable fibre reinforced polymer to produce the endplate and thereby exploit the opportunities of greater geometrical freedom to reduce weight and material consumption. Different PPS/glass-fibre compounds were produced and tested in order to use the results to optimize the results on the computer through FEM simulations. As it turned out, it was impossible to achieve adequate stiffness for the endplates within the given geometrical limitations. At the relatively high temperatures at which the endplates operate the material simply goes to soft. Material focus shifted to fibre reinforced high strength concrete composite. Test specimens were produced and tested so the results again could be used for FEM-simulations which also accounted for the technical limitations the concrete composite has regarding casting ability. In the process, the way the endplate is mounted was also alternated to better accommodate the properties of the concrete composite. A number of endplates were cast in specially produced moulds in order to map the optimum process parameters, and a final endplate was tested at IRD Fuel Cells A/S. The field test was in many aspects successful. However, the gas sealing and the surface finish can be further improved. The weight may still be an issue for some applications, even though it is lower than the endplate currently used. This issue can be addressed in a future project. The work has resulted in a new endplate design, which makes the stack assembly simpler and with fewer components. The endplates fabrication involves low cost methods, which can be scaled up as demand of fuel cells begin to take off. (Author)

  11. Low Cost vs. High-End Eye Tracking for Usability Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Sune Alstrup; San Agustin, Javier; Jensen, Henrik Tomra Skovsgaard Hegner


    pixels against 59 pixels using the low cost system. This suggests that low cost eye tracking can become a viable alternative, when usability studies need not to distinguish between, for instance, particular words or menu items that participants are looking at, but only between larger areas...

  12. Low-Cost Illumination-Grade LEDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epler, John [Philips Lumileds Lighting Company LLC, San Jose, CA (United States)


    technology was commercialized in our LUXEON Q product in Sept., 2013. Also, the retention of the sapphire increased the robustness of the device, enabling sales of low-cost submount-free chips to lighting manufacturers. Thus, blue LED die sales were initiated in the form of a PSS-FC in February, 2013.

  13. Low-cost robotic arm control (United States)

    Rogers, John R.


    A low-cost robotic arm and controller system is presented. The controller is a desktop model of the robotic arm with the same degrees of freedom whose joints are equipped with sensors. Manipulating the controller by hand causes the robotic arm to mimic the movement in maser-slave fashion. The system takes advantage of the low cost and wide availability of hobby radio control components and uses a low-cost, easy-to-program microprocessor. The system is implemented with a video camera on the robotic arm, and the arm is mounted on an unmanned omnidirectional vehicle inspection robot. With a camera on the end of a robot arm, the vehicle inspection system can reach difficult to-access regions of the vehicle underbody. Learning to manipulate the robot arm with this controller is faster than learning with a traditional joystick. Limitations of the microcontroller are discussed, and suggestions for further development of the robot arm and control are made.


    Artificially constructed wetlands are gaining acceptance as a low cost treatment alternative to remove a number of undesirable constituents from water. Wetlands can be used to physically remove compounds such as suspended solids through sedimentation. Dissolved nutrients, biochemical oxygen demand, ...

  15. Construction of a low-cost luximeter (United States)

    Pedroso, L. S.; de Macedo, J. A.; de Araújo, M. S. T.; Voelzke, M. R.


    This paper proposes the construction of an electronic instrument called digital luximeter, combining simplicity and low cost, making it simpler and cheaper than those on the market. Its construction tends to facilitate dissemination and access to this type of measuring instrument between high school teachers and educational institutions, making it ideal to be a science lab.

  16. Low-cost inertial measurement unit.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deyle, Travis Jay


    Sandia National Laboratories performs many expensive tests using inertial measurement units (IMUs)--systems that use accelerometers, gyroscopes, and other sensors to measure flight dynamics in three dimensions. For the purpose of this report, the metrics used to evaluate an IMU are cost, size, performance, resolution, upgradeability and testing. The cost of a precision IMU is very high and can cost hundreds of thousands of dollars. Thus the goals and results of this project are as follows: (1) Examine the data flow in an IMU and determine a generic IMU design. (2) Discuss a high cost IMU implementation and its theoretically achievable results. (3) Discuss design modifications that would save money for suited applications. (4) Design and implement a low cost IMU and discuss its theoretically achievable results. (5) Test the low cost IMU and compare theoretical results with empirical results. (6) Construct a more streamlined printed circuit board design reducing noise, increasing capabilities, and constructing a self-contained unit. Using these results, we can compare a high cost IMU versus a low cost IMU using the metrics from above. Further, we can examine and suggest situations where a low cost IMU could be used instead of a high cost IMU for saving cost, size, or both.

  17. Low-cost image analysis system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lassahn, G.D.


    The author has developed an Automatic Target Recognition system based on parallel processing using transputers. This approach gives a powerful, fast image processing system at relatively low cost. This system scans multi-sensor (e.g., several infrared bands) image data to find any identifiable target, such as physical object or a type of vegetation.

  18. Low cost solar dryer for fish

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Low cost solar dryer for fish. S. H. Sengar*, Y. P. Khandetod and A. G. Mohod. Department of Electrical and Other Energy Sources, College of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, DBSKKV,. Dapoli, Dist: Ratnagiri-415712. Maharashtra, India. Accepted 14 July, 2009. Prawns (Kolambi) were selected as drying material ...

  19. Low Cost Carbon Fiber From Renewable Resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compere, A.L.


    The Department of Energy Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles has shown that, by lowering overall weight, the use of carbon fiber composites could dramatically decrease domestic vehicle fuel consumption. For the automotive industry to benefit from carbon fiber technology, fiber production will need to be substantially increased and fiber price decreased to$7/kg. To achieve this cost objective, alternate precursors to pitch and polyacrylonitrile (PAN) are being investigated as possible carbon fiber feedstocks. Additionally, sufficient fiber to provide 10 to 100 kg for each of the 13 million cars and light trucks produced annually in the U.S. will require an increase of 5 to 50-fold in worldwide carbon fiber production. High-volume, renewable or recycled materials, including lignin, cellulosic fibers, routinely recycled petrochemical fibers, and blends of these components, appear attractive because the cost of these materials is inherently both low and insensitive to changes in petroleum price. Current studies have shown that a number of recycled and renewable polymers can be incorporated into melt-spun fibers attractive as carbon fiber feedstocks. Highly extrudable lignin blends have attractive yields and can be readily carbonized and graphitized. Examination of the physical structure and properties of carbonized and graphitized fibers indicates the feasibility of use in transportation composite applications

  20. CRADA final report: Technical assessment of roll-to-roll operation of lamination process, thermal treatment, and alternative carbon fiber precursors for low-cost, high-efficiency manufacturing of flow battery stacks and other energy devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel, Claus [ORNL; Madden, Thomas [Lockheed Martin Corporation; Wood III, David L [ORNL; Muth, Thomas R [ORNL; Warrington, Curtis [Lockheed Martin Corporation; Ozcan, Soydan [ORNL; Manson, Hunter [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Tekinalp, Halil L [ORNL; Smith, Mark A [ORNL; Lu, Yuan [ORNL; Loretz, Jeremy [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)


    Among the various stationary-storage technologies under development, redox flow batteries (RFBs) offer the greatest potential to deliver inexpensive, scalable, and efficient grid-scale electrical-energy storage. Unlike traditional sealed batteries, in a flow battery power and energy are decoupled. Cell area and cell count in the stack determine the device power, and the chemical storage volume determines the total energy. Grid-scale energy-storage applications require megawatt-scale devices, which require the assembly of hundreds of large-area, bipolar cells per power plant. The cell-stack is the single system component with the largest impact on capital cost (due to the large number of highly engineered components) and operating costs (determined by overall round-trip efficiency).

  1. Preparation, characterization and environmental/electrochemical energy storage testing of low-cost biochar from natural chitin obtained via pyrolysis at mild conditions (United States)

    Magnacca, Giuliana; Guerretta, Federico; Vizintin, Alen; Benzi, Paola; Valsania, Maria C.; Nisticò, Roberto


    Chitin (a biopolymer obtained from shellfish industry) was used as precursor for the production of biochars obtained via pyrolysis treatments performed at mild conditions (in the 290-540 °C range). Biochars were physicochemical characterized in order to evaluate the pyrolysis-induced effects in terms of both functional groups and material structure. Moreover, such carbonaceous materials were tested as adsorbent substrates for the removal of target molecules from aqueous environment as well as in solid-gas experiments, to measure the adsorption capacities and selectivity toward CO2. Lastly, biochars were also investigated as possible cathode materials in sustainable and low-cost electrochemical energy storage devices, such as lithium-sulphur (Li-S) batteries. Interestingly, experimental results evidenced that such chitin-derived biochars obtained via pyrolysis at mild conditions are sustainable, low-cost and easy scalable alternative materials suitable for both environmental and energetic applications.

  2. Low-Cost Simulation of Robotic Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grande, Kasper; Jensen, Rasmus Steen; Kraus, Martin


    expensive. Therefore, we propose a low-cost simulation of minimally invasive surgery and evaluate its feasibility. Using off-the-shelf hardware and a commercial game engine, a prototype simulation was developed and evaluated against the use of a surgical robot. The participants of the evaluation were given...... a similar exercise to test with both the robot and the simulation. The usefulness of the simulation to prepare the participants for the surgical robot was rated "useful" by the participants, with an average of 3.1 on a scale of 1 to 5. The low-cost game controllers used in the prototype proved......The high expenses associated with acquiring and maintaining robotic surgical equipment for minimally invasive surgery entail that training on this equipment is also expensive. Virtual reality (VR) training simulators can reduce this training time; however, the current simulators are also quite...



    Julie George; Dr. Manita D. Shah


    The Indian health care industry has a history of dealing with poor doctor-patient ratio, shortage of medical professionals, poor health infrastructure, and low expenditure on healthcare information technology; steep out of pocket spending (OOP), low health insurance coverage, inadequate government spending, poor access to health care facilities and social stigma related to diseases. The unique mindset and ability for frugality has successfully been applied in offering low cost healthcare of u...

  4. Low-Cost Spectral Sensor Development Description.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armijo, Kenneth Miguel; Yellowhair, Julius


    Solar spectral data for all parts of the US is limited due in part to the high cost of commercial spectrometers. Solar spectral information is necessary for accurate photovoltaic (PV) performance forecasting, especially for large utility-scale PV installations. A low-cost solar spectral sensor would address the obstacles and needs. In this report, a novel low-cost, discrete- band sensor device, comprised of five narrow-band sensors, is described. The hardware is comprised of commercial-off-the-shelf components to keep the cost low. Data processing algorithms were developed and are being refined for robustness. PV module short-circuit current ( I sc ) prediction methods were developed based on interaction-terms regression methodology and spectrum reconstruction methodology for computing I sc . The results suggest the computed spectrum using the reconstruction method agreed well with the measured spectrum from the wide-band spectrometer (RMS error of 38.2 W/m 2 -nm). Further analysis of computed I sc found a close correspondence of 0.05 A RMS error. The goal is for ubiquitous adoption of the low-cost spectral sensor in solar PV and other applications such as weather forecasting.

  5. Low Cost Simulator for Heart Surgery Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Rocha e Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: Introduce the low-cost and easy to purchase simulator without biological material so that any institution may promote extensive cardiovascular surgery training both in a hospital setting and at home without large budgets. Methods: A transparent plastic box is placed in a wooden frame, which is held by the edges using elastic bands, with the bottom turned upwards, where an oval opening is made, "simulating" a thoracotomy. For basic exercises in the aorta, the model presented by our service in the 2015 Brazilian Congress of Cardiovascular Surgery: a silicone ice tray, where one can train to make aortic purse-string suture, aortotomy, aortorrhaphy and proximal and distal anastomoses. Simulators for the training of valve replacement and valvoplasty, atrial septal defect repair and aortic diseases were added. These simulators are based on sewage pipes obtained in construction material stores and the silicone trays and ethyl vinyl acetate tissue were obtained in utility stores, all of them at a very low cost. Results: The models were manufactured using inert materials easily found in regular stores and do not present contamination risk. They may be used in any environment and maybe stored without any difficulties. This training enabled young surgeons to familiarize and train different surgical techniques, including procedures for aortic diseases. In a subjective assessment, these surgeons reported that the training period led to improved surgical techniques in the surgical field. Conclusion: The model described in this protocol is effective and low-cost when compared to existing simulators, enabling a large array of cardiovascular surgery training.

  6. Low-cost rural surface alternatives : literature review and recommendations. (United States)


    Freezing and thawing action induces damage to unbound gravel roads in Iowa resulting in maintenance costs for secondary road departments. Some approaches currently used by County Engineers to deal with this problem include temporarily spreading rock ...

  7. Luminescent Solar Concentrators – a low cost photovoltaics alternative

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sark, W.G.J.H.M. van


    The development and current status of luminescent solar concentrators is reviewed. These solar concentrators generally consist of transparent polymer sheets doped with luminescent species; presently mainly organic dye molecules are used as luminescent species, however semiconductor nanocrystals

  8. Low Cost Alternatives to Commercial Lab Kits for Physics Experiments (United States)

    Kodejška, C.; De Nunzio, G.; Kubinek, R.; Ríha, J.


    Conducting experiments in physics using modern measuring techniques, and particularly those utilizing computers, is often much more attractive to students than conducting experiments conventionally. However, the cost of professional kits in the Czech Republic is still very expensive for many schools. The basic equipment for one student workplace…

  9. Low-cost rural surface alternatives : demonstration project. (United States)


    The goals of this project were to implement several stabilization methods for preventing or mitigating freeze-thaw damage to : granular surfaced roads and identify the most effective and economical methods for the soil and climate conditions of Iowa....

  10. A complete low cost radon detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayrak, A.; Barlas, E.; Emirhan, E.; Kutlu, Ç.; Ozben, C.S.


    Monitoring the 222 Rn activity through the 1200 km long Northern Anatolian fault line, for the purpose of earthquake precursory, requires large number of cost effective radon detectors. We have designed, produced and successfully tested a low cost radon detection system (a radon monitor). In the detector circuit of this monitor, First Sensor PS100-7-CER-2 windowless PIN photodiode and a custom made transempedence/shaping amplifier were used. In order to collect the naturally ionized radon progeny to the surface of the PIN photodiode, a potential of 3500 V was applied between the conductive hemi-spherical shell and the PIN photodiode. In addition to the count rate of the radon progeny, absolute pressure, humidity and temperature were logged during the measurements. A GSM modem was integrated to the system for transferring the measurements from the remote locations to the data process center. - Author-Highlights: • Low cost radon detection. • Integrated GSM modem for early warning of radon anomalies. • Radon detection in environment

  11. Air Muscle Actuated Low Cost Humanoid Hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Scarfe


    Full Text Available The control of humanoid robot hands has historically been expensive due to the cost of precision actuators. This paper presents the design and implementation of a low-cost air muscle actuated humanoid hand developed at Curtin University of Technology. This hand offers 10 individually controllable degrees of freedom ranging from the elbow to the fingers, with overall control handled through a computer GUI. The hand is actuated through 20 McKibben-style air muscles, each supplied by a pneumatic pressure-balancing valve that allows for proportional control to be achieved with simple and inexpensive components. The hand was successfully able to perform a number of human-equivalent tasks, such as grasping and relocating objects.

  12. Air Muscle Actuated Low Cost Humanoid Hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Scarfe


    Full Text Available The control of humanoid robot hands has historically been expensive due to the cost of precision actuators. This paper presents the design and implementation of a low-cost air muscle actuated humanoid hand developed at Curtin University of Technology. This hand offers 10 individually controllable degrees of freedom ranging from the elbow to the fingers, with overall control handled through a computer GUI. The hand is actuated through 20 McKibben-style air muscles, each supplied by a pneumatic pressure-balancing valve that allows for proportional control to be achieved with simple and inexpensive components. The hand was successfully able to perform a number of human-equivalent tasks, such as grasping and relocating objects.

  13. Low cost earthquake resistant ferrocement small house

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleem, M.A.; Ashraf, M.; Ashraf, M.


    The greatest humanitarian challenge faced even today after one year of Kashmir Hazara earthquake is that of providing shelter. Currently on the globe one in seven people live in a slum or refugee camp. The earthquake of October 2005 resulted in a great loss of life and property. This research work is mainly focused on developing a design of small size, low cost and earthquake resistant house. Ferrocement panels are recommended as the main structural elements with lightweight truss roofing system. Earthquake resistance is ensured by analyzing the structure on ETABS for a seismic activity of zone 4. The behavior of structure is found satisfactory under the earthquake loading. An estimate of cost is also presented which shows that it is an economical solution. (author)

  14. Low Cost, Upper Stage-Class Propulsion (United States)

    Vickers, John


    The low cost, upper stage-class propulsion (LCUSP) element will develop a high strength copper alloy additive manufacturing (AM) process as well as critical components for an upper stage-class propulsion system that will be demonstrated with testing. As manufacturing technologies have matured, it now appears possible to build all the major components and subsystems of an upper stage-class rocket engine for substantially less money and much faster than traditionally done. However, several enabling technologies must be developed before that can happen. This activity will address these technologies and demonstrate the concept by designing, manufacturing, and testing the critical components of a rocket engine. The processes developed and materials' property data will be transitioned to industry upon completion of the activity. Technologies to enable the concept are AM copper alloy process development, AM post-processing finishing to minimize surface roughness, AM material deposition on existing copper alloy substrate, and materials characterization.

  15. IQ-Station: A Low Cost Portable Immersive Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric Whiting; Patrick O' Leary; William Sherman; Eric Wernert


    The emergence of inexpensive 3D TV’s, affordable input and rendering hardware and open-source software has created a yeasty atmosphere for the development of low-cost immersive environments (IE). A low cost IE system, or IQ-station, fashioned from commercial off the shelf technology (COTS), coupled with a targeted immersive application can be a viable laboratory instrument for enhancing scientific workflow for exploration and analysis. The use of an IQ-station in a laboratory setting also has the potential of quickening the adoption of a more sophisticated immersive environment as a critical enabler in modern scientific and engineering workflows. Prior work in immersive environments generally required either a head mounted display (HMD) system or a large projector-based implementation both of which have limitations in terms of cost, usability, or space requirements. The solution presented here provides an alternative platform providing a reasonable immersive experience that addresses those limitations. Our work brings together the needed hardware and software to create a fully integrated immersive display and interface system that can be readily deployed in laboratories and common workspaces. By doing so, it is now feasible for immersive technologies to be included in researchers’ day-to-day workflows. The IQ-Station sets the stage for much wider adoption of immersive environments outside the small communities of virtual reality centers.

  16. Performance of several low-cost accelerometers (United States)

    Evans, J.R.; Allen, R.M.; Chung, A. I.; Cochran, E.S.; Guy, R.; Hellweg, M.; Lawrence, J. F.


    Several groups are implementing low‐cost host‐operated systems of strong‐motion accelerographs to support the somewhat divergent needs of seismologists and earthquake engineers. The Advanced National Seismic System Technical Implementation Committee (ANSS TIC, 2002), managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with other network operators, is exploring the efficacy of such systems if used in ANSS networks. To this end, ANSS convened a working group to explore available Class C strong‐motion accelerometers (defined later), and to consider operational and quality control issues, and the means of annotating, storing, and using such data in ANSS networks. The working group members are largely coincident with our author list, and this report informs instrument‐performance matters in the working group’s report to ANSS. Present examples of operational networks of such devices are the Community Seismic Network (CSN;, operated by the California Institute of Technology, and Quake‐Catcher Network (QCN; Cochran et al., 2009;; November 2013), jointly operated by Stanford University and the USGS. Several similar efforts are in development at other institutions. The overarching goals of such efforts are to add spatial density to existing Class‐A and Class‐B (see next paragraph) networks at low cost, and to include many additional people so they become invested in the issues of earthquakes, their measurement, and the damage they cause.

  17. Nuclear physics experiments with low cost instrumentation (United States)

    Oliveira Bastos, Rodrigo; Adelar Boff, Cleber; Melquiades, Fábio Luiz


    One of the difficulties in modern physics teaching is the limited availability of experimental activities. This is particularly true for teaching nuclear physics in high school or college. The activities suggested in the literature generally symbolise real phenomenon, using simulations. It happens because the experimental practices mostly include some kind of expensive radiation detector and an ionising radiation source that requires special care for handling and storage, being subject to a highly bureaucratic regulation in some countries. This study overcomes these difficulties and proposes three nuclear physics experiments using a low-cost ion chamber which construction is explained: the measurement of 222Rn progeny collected from the indoor air; the measurement of the range of alpha particles emitted by the 232Th progeny, present in lantern mantles and in thoriated welding rods, and by the air filter containing 222Rn progeny; and the measurement of 220Rn half-life collected from the emanation of the lantern mantles. This paper presents the experimental procedures and the expected results, indicating that the experiments may provide support for nuclear physics classes. These practices may outreach wide access to either college or high-school didactic laboratories, and the apparatus has the potential for the development of new teaching activities for nuclear physics.

  18. Low Cost RF Amplifier for Community TV (United States)

    Ch, Syafaruddin; Sasongko, Sudi Mariyanto Al; Made Budi Suksmadana, I.; Mustiko Okta Muvianto, Cahyo; Ariessaputra, Suthami


    he capability of television to deliver audio video makes this media become the most effective method to spread information. This paper presents an experiment of RF amplifier design having low-cost design and providing sufficient RF power particularly for community television. The RF amplifier consists of two stages of amplifier. The first stage amplifier was used to leverage output of TV modulator from 11dBm to enable to drive next stage amplifier. CAD simulation and fabrication were run to reach optimum RF amplifier design circuit. The associated circuit was made by determining stability circle, stability gain, and matching impedance. Hence, the average power of first stage RF amplifier was 24.68dBm achieved. The second stage used RF modules which was ready match to 50 ohm for both input and output port. The experiment results show that the RF amplifier may operate at frequency ranging from 174 to 230MHz. The average output power of the 2nd stage amplifier was 33.38 Watt with the overall gain of 20.54dB. The proposed RF amplifier is a cheap way to have a stable RF amplifier for community TV. The total budget for the designed RF amplifier is only a 1/5 compared to local design of final TV amplifier.

  19. Low cost highly available digital control computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvers, M.W.


    When designing digital controllers for critical plant control it is important to provide several features. Among these are reliability, availability, maintainability, environmental protection, and low cost. An examination of several applications has lead to a design that can be produced for approximately $20,000 (1000 control points). This design is compatible with modern concepts in distributed and hierarchical control. The canonical controller element is a dual-redundant self-checking computer that communicates with a cross-strapped, electrically isolated input/output system. The input/output subsystem comprises multiple intelligent input/output cards. These cards accept commands from the primary processor which are validated, executed, and acknowledged. Each card may be hot replaced to facilitate sparing. The implementation of the dual-redundant computer architecture is discussed. Called the FS-86, this computer can be used for a variety of applications. It has most recently found application in the upgrade of San Francisco's Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) train control currently in progress and has been proposed for feedwater control in a boiling water reactor

  20. Fast Paced, Low Cost Projects at MSFC (United States)

    Watson-Morgan, Lisa; Clinton, Raymond


    What does an orbiting microsatellite, a robotic lander and a ruggedized camera and telescope have in common? They are all fast paced, low cost projects managed by Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) teamed with successful industry partners. MSFC has long been synonymous with human space flight large propulsion programs, engineering acumen and risk intolerance. However, there is a growing portfolio/product line within MSFC that focuses on these smaller, fast paced projects. While launching anything into space is expensive, using a managed risk posture, holding to schedule and keeping costs low by stopping at egood enough f were key elements to their success. Risk is defined as the possibility of loss or failure per Merriam Webster. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) defines risk using procedural requirement 8705.4 and establishes eclasses f to discern the acceptable risk per a project. It states a Class D risk has a medium to significant risk of not achieving mission success. MSFC, along with industry partners, has created a niche in Class D efforts. How did the big, cautious MSFC succeed on these projects that embodied the antithesis of its heritage in human space flight? A key factor toward these successful projects was innovative industry partners such as Dynetics Corporation, University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAHuntsville), Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU APL), Teledyne Brown Engineering (TBE), Von Braun Center for Science and Innovation (VCSI), SAIC, and Jacobs. Fast Affordable Satellite Technology (FastSat HSV01) is a low earth orbit microsatellite that houses six instruments with the primary scientific objective of earth observation and technology demonstration. The team was comprised of Dynetics, UAHuntsvile, SAIC, Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and VCSI with the United States Air Force Space Test Program as the customer. The team completed design, development, manufacturing, environmental test and integration in

  1. Low cost solar dryer for fish

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Department of Electrical and Other Energy Sources, College of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, DBSKKV, ... Solar energy in. Konkan region was available for 8 to 9 months in a year with average sunshine hours ranging from 6.5 to 8 h per day. The average solar energy ... The only alternative available is drying.

  2. Development of Business Models of Low-Cost Airlines


    Andrija Vidović; Igor Štimac; Damir Vince


    The global economic crisis that affects all industries, including the aviation industry, has forced airlines to adjust their business models to existing market conditions. Low-cost airlines, which till the onset of economic crises in most cases followed the base low-cost business model, have adapted their business model in such a way that they have implemented segments of traditional airlines business models and thus created a hybrid between traditional and low-cost business models. This pape...

  3. Development of Low Cost Soil Stabilization Using Recycled Material (United States)

    Ahmad, F.; Yahaya, A. S.; Safari, A.


    Recycled tyres have been used in many geotechnical engineering projects such as soil improvement, soil erosion and slope stability. Recycled tyres mainly in chip and shredded form are highly compressible under low and normal pressures. This characteristic would cause challenging problems in some applications of soil stabilization such as retaining wall and river bank projects. For high tensile stress and low tensile strain the use of fiberglass would be a good alternative for recycled tyre in some cases. To evaluate fiberglass as an alternative for recycled tyre, this paper focused on tests of tensile tests which have been carried out between fiberglass and recycled tyre strips. Fibreglass samples were produced from chopped strand fibre mat, a very low-cost type of fibreglass, which is cured by resin and hardener. Fibreglass samples in the thickness of 1 mm, 2 mm, 3 mm and 4 mm were developed 100 mm x 300 mm pieces. It was found that 3 mm fibreglass exhibited the maximum tensile load (MTL) and maximum tensile stress (MTS) greater than other samples. Statistical analysis on 3 mm fibreglass indicated that in the approximately equal MTL fibreglass samples experienced 2% while tyre samples experienced 33.9% ultimate tensile strain (UTST) respectively. The results also showed an approximately linear relationship between stress and strain for fibreglass samples and Young's modulus (E), ranging from 3581 MPa to 4728 MPa.

  4. Low Cost Eye Tracking: The Current Panorama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur Ferhat


    Full Text Available Despite the availability of accurate, commercial gaze tracker devices working with infrared (IR technology, visible light gaze tracking constitutes an interesting alternative by allowing scalability and removing hardware requirements. Over the last years, this field has seen examples of research showing performance comparable to the IR alternatives. In this work, we survey the previous work on remote, visible light gaze trackers and analyze the explored techniques from various perspectives such as calibration strategies, head pose invariance, and gaze estimation techniques. We also provide information on related aspects of research such as public datasets to test against, open source projects to build upon, and gaze tracking services to directly use in applications. With all this information, we aim to provide the contemporary and future researchers with a map detailing previously explored ideas and the required tools.

  5. Low Cost Eye Tracking: The Current Panorama (United States)

    Vilariño, Fernando


    Despite the availability of accurate, commercial gaze tracker devices working with infrared (IR) technology, visible light gaze tracking constitutes an interesting alternative by allowing scalability and removing hardware requirements. Over the last years, this field has seen examples of research showing performance comparable to the IR alternatives. In this work, we survey the previous work on remote, visible light gaze trackers and analyze the explored techniques from various perspectives such as calibration strategies, head pose invariance, and gaze estimation techniques. We also provide information on related aspects of research such as public datasets to test against, open source projects to build upon, and gaze tracking services to directly use in applications. With all this information, we aim to provide the contemporary and future researchers with a map detailing previously explored ideas and the required tools. PMID:27034653

  6. High-efficiency Thin-film Fe2SiS4 and Fe2GeS4-based Solar Cells Prepared from Low-Cost Solution Precursors. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radu, Daniela Rodica [Delaware State Univ., Dover, DE (United States); Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States); Liu, Mimi [Delaware State Univ., Dover, DE (United States); Hwang, Po-yu [Delaware State Univ., Dover, DE (United States); Berg, Dominik [Rowan Univ., Glassboro, NJ (United States); Dobson, Kevin [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States). Inst. of Energy Conversion (IEC)


    The project aimed to provide solar energy education to students from underrepresented groups and to develop a novel, nano-scale approach, in utilizing Fe2SiS4 and Fe2GeS4 materials as precursors to the absorber layer in photovoltaic thin-film devices. The objectives of the project were as follows: 1. Develop and implement one solar-related course at Delaware State University and train two graduate students in solar research. 2. Fabricate and characterize high-efficiency (larger than 7%) Fe2SiS4 and Fe2GeS4-based solar devices. The project has been successful in both the educational components, implementing the solar course at DSU as well as in developing multiple routes to prepare the Fe2GeS4 with high purity and in large quantities. The project did not meet the efficiency objective, however, a functional solar device was demonstrated.

  7. Recovery Act: Low Cost Integrated Substrate for OLED Lighting Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benton, Scott [PPG Industries, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Bhandari, Abhinav [PPG Industries, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)


    PPG pursued the development of an integrated substrate, including the anode, external, and internal extraction layers. The objective of PPG's program was to achieve cost reductions by displacing the existing expensive borosilicate or double-side polished float glass substrates and developing alternative electrodes and scalable light extraction layer technologies through focused and short-term applied research. One of the key highlights of the project was proving the feasibility of using PPG's high transmission Solarphire® float glass as a substrate to consistently achieve organic lightemitting diode (OLED) devices with good performance and high yields. Under this program, four low-cost alternatives to the Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) anode were investigated using pilot-scale magnetron sputtered vacuum deposition (MSVD) and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technologies. The anodes were evaluated by fabricating small and large phosphorescent organic lightemitting diode (PHOLED) devices at Universal Display Corporation (UDC). The device performance and life-times comparable to commercially available ITO anodes were demonstrated. A cost-benefit analysis was performed to down-select two anodes for further low-cost process development. Additionally, PPG developed and evaluated a number of scalable and compatible internal and external extraction layer concepts such as scattering layers on the outside of the glass substrate or between the transparent anode and the glass interface. In one external extraction layer (EEL) approach, sol-gel sprayed pyrolytic coatings were deposited using lab scale equipment by hand or automated spraying of sol-gel solutions on hot glass, followed by optimizing of scattering with minimal absorption. In another EEL approach, PPG tested large-area glass texturing by scratching a glass surface with an abrasive roller and acid etching. Efficacy enhancements of 1.27x were demonstrated using white PHOLED devices for 2.0mm substrates which are

  8. Graphene radio frequency and microwave passive components for low cost wearable electronics (United States)

    Huang, Xianjun; Leng, Ting; Hsin Chang, Kuo; Cing Chen, Jia; Novoselov, Kostya S.; Hu, Zhirun


    Graphene RF and microwave passive components such as coplanar waveguide transmission lines, open/short-circuited resonators and wideband antenna on paper substrate were designed, screen printed and characterized in this work. The experimental results demonstrate that the screen printed graphene passive components can be used for RF signal transmitting, processing and radiating/receiving; revealing that graphene ink can be a low cost alternative to much more expensive metal nanoparticle inks, such as silver nanoparticle ink. The screen printed graphene is processed at low temperature so that it is compatible with heat-sensitive flexible materials like papers, PTFE (Polytetrafluoroethylene) and textiles. The screen printed graphene passive components reported here are of high conductivity, high flexibility, light weight and low cost, making them ideal candidate for low cost wearable electronics. This work makes it prospective to manufacture RF and microwave passive components in mass production by screen printing in much lower cost to any other known techniques.

  9. High efficiency low cost GaAs/Ge cell technology (United States)

    Ho, Frank


    Viewgraphs on high efficiency low cost GaAs/Ge cell technology are presented. Topics covered include: high efficiency, low cost GaAs/Ge solar cells; advantages of Ge; comparison of typical production cells for space applications; panel level comparisons; and solar cell technology trends.

  10. Adsorption of methylene blue on low-cost adsorbents: a review. (United States)

    Rafatullah, Mohd; Sulaiman, Othman; Hashim, Rokiah; Ahmad, Anees


    In this article, the use of low-cost adsorbents for the removal of methylene blue (MB) from solution has been reviewed. Adsorption techniques are widely used to remove certain classes of pollutants from waters, especially those which are not easily biodegradable. The removal of MB, as a pollutant, from waste waters of textile, paper, printing and other industries has been addressed by the researchers. Currently, a combination of biological treatment and adsorption on activated carbon is becoming more common for removal of dyes from wastewater. Although commercial activated carbon is a preferred adsorbent for color removal, its widespread use is restricted due to its relatively high cost which led to the researches on alternative non-conventional and low-cost adsorbents. The purpose of this review article is to organize the scattered available information on various aspects on a wide range of potentially low-cost adsorbents for MB removal. These include agricultural wastes, industrial solid wastes, biomass, clays minerals and zeolites. Agricultural waste materials being highly efficient, low cost and renewable source of biomass can be exploited for MB remediation. It is evident from a literature survey of about 185 recently published papers that low-cost adsorbents have demonstrated outstanding removal capabilities for MB. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Facile and low cost oxidative conversion of MoS2 in α-MoO3: Synthesis, characterization and application (United States)

    Bortoti, Andressa Antunes; Gavanski, Amanda de Freitas; Velazquez, Yegraf Reyna; Galli, Andressa; de Castro, Eryza Guimarães


    This study describes a facile low cost route to synthesize the α-MoO3 through a conversion of the precursor MoS2 in oxidant media. The structure and morphology of the α-MoO3 were studied by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman spectroscopy. The results show that α-MoO3 was obtained with reduced size, high purity, strongly-preferred orientation and structural defects, which ensures versatility and multifunctionality to this sample. For the purpose of applications, α-MoO3 was successfully employed in inverted organic solar cells devices as a possible alternative to the PEDOT:PSS in the hole transportation layer.

  12. Low-Cost energy contraption design using playground seesaw (United States)

    Banlawe, I. A. P.; Acosta, N. J. E. L.


    The study was conducted at Western Philippines University, San Juan, Aborlan, Palawan. The study used the mechanical motion of playground seesaw as a means to produce electrical energy. The study aimed to design a low-cost prototype energy contraption using playground seesaw using locally available and recycled materials, to measure the voltage, current and power outputs produced at different situations and estimate the cost of the prototype. Using principle of pneumatics, two hand air pumps were employed on the two end sides of the playground seesaw and the mechanical motion of the seesaw up and down produces air that is used to rotate a DC motor to produce electrical energy. This electricity can be utilized for powering basic or low-power appliances. There were two trials of testing, each trial tests the different pressure level of the air tank and tests the opening of on-off valve (Full open and half open) when the compressed air was released. Results showed that all pressure level at full open produced significantly higher voltage, than the half open. However, the mean values of the current and power produced in all pressure level at full and half open have negligible variation. These results signify that the energy contraption using playground seesaw is an alternative viable source of electrical energy in the playgrounds, parks and other places and can be used as an auxiliary or back-up source for electricity.

  13. Mars Relay Spacecraft: A Low-Cost Approach (United States)

    SvitekT, .; King, J.; Fulton, R.; McOmber, R.; Hastrup, R.; Miller, A.


    The next phase of Mars exploration will utilize numerous globally distributed small low-cost devices including landers penetrators microrovers and balloons. Direct-to-Earth communications links if required for these landers will drive the lander design for two reasons: a) mass and complexity needed for a steerable high-gain antenna and b) power requirements for a high-power amplifier (i.e. solar panel and battery mass). Total mass of the direct link hardware for several recent small-lander designs exceeded the mass of the scientific payload. Alternatively if communications are via a Mars-orbiting relay spacecraft resource requirements for the local UHF communication link are comparatively trivial: a simple whip antenna and less than 1 watt power. Clearly using a Mars relay spacecraft (MRS) is the preferred option if the MRS mission can be accomplished in an affordable and robust way. Our paper describes a point design for such a mission launched in the s001 or 2003 opportunity.

  14. Rural electrification to low cost; Eletrificacao rural de baixo custo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Fernando Selles


    Rural electrification is a political matter. Sometimes it is discussed as a social matter, sometimes as an economical matter, sometimes as a technical matter. The political aspect of the decisions is remarkable in all three fields.The present work relies on the concept that poorer producers will only be reached by a rural electrification program, if an alternative technology is used aiming to obtain low cost per connection. The ordinary distribution has a cost which doesn't reach those people. The work shows that target is denied in three moments by ideological reason. In a first moment it is denied by state economical politics, always neglecting giving assistance to poorer producers. In a second moment, it is denied by the utility which claims to have more urging problems to solve. Finally, it is denied by the engineer of distribution who, ideologically, turns to an engineering of primacy, and doesn't o think about the use of a more simplified technology. Actions to intended to interrupt these mechanisms are mentioned. One of the actions aims to introduce in the preparatory studies of engineers deeper discussions concerning the social function of energy. The other action is the proposition of a standard of rural electrification with leads to the solution of the problem, since there is political attention. (author)

  15. Characterization of a Large, Low-Cost 3D Scanner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Straub


    Full Text Available Imagery-based 3D scanning can be performed by scanners with multiple form factors, ranging from small and inexpensive scanners requiring manual movement around a stationary object to large freestanding (nearly instantaneous units. Small mobile units are problematic for use in scanning living creatures, which may be unwilling or unable to (or for the very young and animals, unaware of the need to hold a fixed position for an extended period of time. Alternately, very high cost scanners that can capture a complete scan within a few seconds are available, but they are cost prohibitive for some applications. This paper seeks to assess the performance of a large, low-cost 3D scanner, presented in prior work, which is able to concurrently capture imagery from all around an object. It provides the capabilities of the large, freestanding units at a price point akin to the smaller, mobile ones. This allows access to 3D scanning technology (particularly for applications requiring instantaneous imaging at a lower cost. Problematically, prior analysis of the scanner’s performance was extremely limited. This paper characterizes the efficacy of the scanner for scanning both inanimate objects and humans. Given the importance of lighting to visible light scanning systems, the scanner’s performance under multiple lighting configurations is evaluated, characterizing its sensitivity to lighting design.

  16. Low-Cost Chemical-Responsive Adhesive Sensing Chips. (United States)

    Tan, Weirui; Zhang, Liyuan; Shen, Wei


    Chemical-responsive adhesive sensing chip is a new low-cost analytical platform that uses adhesive tape loaded with indicator reagents to detect or quantify the target analytes by directly sticking the tape to the samples of interest. The chemical-responsive adhesive sensing chips can be used with paper to analyze aqueous samples; they can also be used to detect and quantify solid, particulate, and powder analytes. The colorimetric indicators become immediately visible as the contact between the functionalized adhesives and target samples is made. The chemical-responsive adhesive sensing chip expands the capability of paper-based analytical devices to analyze solid, particulate, or powder materials via one-step operation. It is also a simpler alternative way, to the covalent chemical modification of paper, to eliminate indicator leaching from the dipstick-style paper sensors. Chemical-responsive adhesive chips can display analytical results in the form of colorimetric dot patterns, symbols, and texts, enabling clear understanding of assay results by even nonprofessional users. In this work, we demonstrate the analyses of heavy metal salts in silica powder matrix, heavy metal ions in water, and bovine serum albumin in an aqueous solution. The detection is one-step, specific, sensitive, and easy-to-operate.

  17. A Low Cost Approach to Large Smart Shelf Setups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOGA, D.


    Full Text Available Recent years showed a growing interest in the use of RFID technology in applications like distribution and storage of goods, supply chain and inventory. This paper analyses the current smart shelf solutions and presents the experience of developing an automatic reading system for smart shelves. The proposed system addresses the problem of reading RFID tags from items placed on multiple shelves. It allows the use of standard low cost readers and tags and uses a single antenna that can be positioned in specific locations at repeatable positions. The system proposes an alternative to the approaches with multiple antennas placed in fixed position inside the shelf or around the shelves, offering a lower cost solution by means of dedicated electromechanical devices able to carry the antenna and the reader to the locations of interest along a rail system. Moreover, antenna position can be controlled for three axis of movement allowing for extra flexibility and complete coverage of the shelves. The proposed setup is a fully wireless one. It contains a standard reader, electromechanical positioning actuators and wireless communication and control hardware offering power from integrated batteries.

  18. Palliative and low cost radiotherapy in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, Barry; Hussein, S.M.A.


    Full text: The International Agency for Research on Cancer predicts that cancer incidence in developing countries will increase dramatically in the first two decades of this millennium. Already some 80% of cancer patients in developing countries present with incurable disease. In many cases pain is a severe problem and palliation is needed to improve quality of life as well as extending survival. This paper will consider the physical and clinical aspects of palliative radiotherapy (PRT), choice of radiation modality, alternative approaches to imaging and therapy and cost-benefit considerations. The potential benefits of a dedicated palliative care centre include lower cost and therefore more centres, enabling more patients access to regional palliative care. Simple curative treatments could also be managed. Co60 radiotherapy has important advantages in developing countries, because of the higher initial cost of a linear accelerator, as well as the need for reliable power supply and the level of skill required by linac technicians and physicists. The beam characteristics of both Co60 units and low energy linacs are compared and both are found to be acceptable for palliation. The role of palliative and low cost radiotherapy in Bangladesh is reviewed. The concept of telemedicine is also discussed, using mobile phones and internet communication to allow rural clinics to receive support from specialists based in the cities, to send images for remote diagnosis and remote dose planning for radiotherapy.

  19. Novel low-cost thermotherapy for cutaneous leishmaniasis in Peru.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braulio M Valencia

    Full Text Available Thermotherapy is an accepted alternative therapy for new-world cutaneous leishmaniasis, but current heat-delivery modalities are too costly to be made widely available to endemic populations. We adapted a low-cost heat pack named the HECT-CL device that delivers safe, reliable, and renewable conduction heat. 25 patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis completed treatment with the device at an initial temperature of 52°C ± 2°C for 3 minutes to each lesion, repeated daily for 7 days, and were followed up for 6 months by direct observation. The overall definitive clinical cure rate was 60%. Concurrently, 13 patients meeting minimally significant exclusion criteria received identical compassionate use treatment with a cumulative definitive cure rate of 68.4%, 75% for those who had experienced CL relapse after prior antimonial treatment. Therapy was well tolerated. Reversible second-degree burns occurred in two patients and no bacterial super-infections were observed. HECT-CL is a promising treatment and deserves further study to verify its safety and efficacy as adjuvant and mono- therapy.

  20. On-Board Autonomy for a Low Cost Lunar Mission


    Monekosso, N.D.


    The lunar mission is to be Surrey Satellite Technology first step to interplanetary travel. SSTL has designed, built and launched twelve low cost microsatellites into LEO, starting in 1981 with UoSAT-1. Design of the next generation of low cost spacecraft, (250-400 Kg) is well underway, with UoSAT-12. This spacecraft is the first in a series of missions planned to qualify SSTL's minisatellite technology and to pave the way for the low cost lunar orbiter. The primary objective of this technolo...

  1. Sequential Low Cost Interventions Double Hand Hygiene Rates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sequential Low Cost Interventions Double Hand Hygiene Rates Among Medical Teams in a Resource Limited Setting. Results of a Hand Hygiene Quality Improvement Project Conducted At University Teaching Hospital of Kigali (Chuk), Kigali, Rwanda.

  2. CAIRSENSE-Atlanta Low Cost Sensor Evaluation Versus Reference Monitors (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Short time interval comparisons of low cost sensor response and corresponding Federal Reference or Federal Equivalent Monitors at an NCOR site located in proximity...

  3. Design of Low Cost, Highly Adsorbent Activated Carbon Fibers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mangun, Christian


    .... EKOS has developed a novel activated carbon fiber - (ACF) that combines the low cost and durability of GAC with tailored pore size and pore surface chemistry for improved defense against chemical agents...

  4. Composite hubs for low cost gas turbine engines (United States)

    Chamis, C. C.


    A detailed stress analysis was performed using NASTRAN to demonstrate theoretically the adequacy of composite hubs for low cost turbine engine applications. Composite hubs are adequate for this application from the steady state stress view point.

  5. Novel Low Cost Booster Propulsion Development and Demonstration, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed contract effort is for the design, development and proof-of-concept demontration testing of a low cost, pressure-fed liquid rocket booster propulsion...

  6. Soluble protein isolated from low cost fish and fish wastes


    Lekshmy Nair, A.; Gopakumar, K.


    The method of preparation, composition, amino acid content, protein efficiency ratio and areas of possible application of water soluble protein isolates from low cost fish and fish wastes are discussed in detail in this communication.

  7. Second Generation Low Cost Cryocooler Electronics (LCCE-2), Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The LCCE-2 Program builds off the successes of the USAF "Low Cost Cryocooler Electronics for Space Missions" Program, extending the performance of the developed LCCE...

  8. Low-cost exterior insulation process and structure (United States)

    Vohra, A.


    A low-cost exterior insulation process of stacking bags of insulating material against a wall and covering them with wire mesh and stucco provides a durable structure with good insulating value. 2 figs.

  9. A Low-Cost, High-Precision Navigator, Phase II (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Toyon Research Corporation proposes to develop and demonstrate a prototype low-cost precision navigation system using commercial-grade gyroscopes and accelerometers....

  10. Low Cost Phased Array Antenna System, Phase II (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — JEM Engineering proved the technical feasibility of the FlexScan array?a very low-cost, highly-efficient, wideband phased array antenna?in Phase I, and stands ready...

  11. A Low-Cost, High-Precision Navigator Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Toyon Research Corporation proposes to develop and demonstrate a prototype low-cost precision navigation system using commercial-grade gyroscopes and accelerometers....

  12. Ultra High Brightness/Low Cost Fiber Coupled Packaging Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — High peak power, high efficiency, high reliability lightweight, low cost QCW laser diode pump modules with up to 1000W of QCW output become possible with nLight's...

  13. Second Generation Low Cost Cryocooler Electronics (LCCE-2) Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The LCCE-2 Program builds off the successes of the USAF "Low Cost Cryocooler Electronics for Space Missions" Program, extending the performance of the developed LCCE...

  14. A Low Cost, Hybrid Approach to Data Mining, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed effort will combine a low cost physical modeling approach with inductive, data-centered modeling in an aerosopace relevant context to demonstrate...

  15. High-Efficient Low-Cost Photovoltaics Recent Developments

    CERN Document Server

    Petrova-Koch, Vesselinka; Goetzberger, Adolf


    A bird's-eye view of the development and problems of recent photovoltaic cells and systems and prospects for Si feedstock is presented. High-efficient low-cost PV modules, making use of novel efficient solar cells (based on c-Si or III-V materials), and low cost solar concentrators are in the focus of this book. Recent developments of organic photovoltaics, which is expected to overcome its difficulties and to enter the market soon, are also included.

  16. Graphene Battery made of Low Cost Reduced Graphene Oxide


    Xu, Zihan


    Graphene can collect energy from the ambient heat and convert it to electricity, which makes it an ideal candidate for the fabrication of self-powered devices. However, this technology is suffering the high cost, which limits the practical use of it. In this work, we demonstrated that the cost can be reduced by using low cost reduced graphene oxide (RGO), graphite electrodes and low cost glass substrates. The results showed that this technology can be of practical value for the "battery" indu...

  17. Access control violation prevention by low-cost infrared detection (United States)

    Rimmer, Andrew N.


    A low cost 16x16 un-cooled pyroelectric detector array, allied with advanced tracking and detection algorithms, has enabled the development of a universal detector with a wide range of applications in people monitoring and homeland security. Violation of access control systems, whether controlled by proximity card, biometrics, swipe card or similar, may occur by 'tailgating' or 'piggybacking' where an 'approved' entrant with a valid entry card is accompanied by a closely spaced 'non-approved' entrant. The violation may be under duress, where the accompanying person is attempting to enter a secure facility by force or threat. Alternatively, the violation may be benign where staff members collude either through habit or lassitude, either with each other or with third parties, without considering the security consequences. Examples of the latter could include schools, hospitals or maternity homes. The 16x16 pyroelectric array is integrated into a detector or imaging system which incorporates data processing, target extraction and decision making algorithms. The algorithms apply interpolation to the array output, allowing a higher level of resolution than might otherwise be expected from such a low resolution array. The pyroelectric detection principle means that the detection will work in variable light conditions and even in complete darkness, if required. The algorithms can monitor the shape, form, temperature and number of persons in the scene and utilise this information to determine whether a violation has occurred or not. As people are seen as 'hot blobs' and are not individually recognisable, civil liberties are not infringed in the detection process. The output from the detector is a simple alarm signal which may act as input to the access control system as an alert or to trigger CCTV image display and storage. The applications for a tailgate detector can be demonstrated across many medium security applications where there are no physical means to prevent this

  18. Variable-Speed Switched Reluctance Motor Drives for Low-Cost, High-Volume Applications


    Kim, Jaehyuck


    Demand for energy-saving variable speed drives in low-cost, high-volume appliances has increased due to energy and environmental concerns and hence the need to comply with new regulations. Switched reluctance motor (SRMs) have been considered by many as attractive alternatives for brush commutated motors or permanent magnet brushless dc motors (PMBDCMs) in such cost-sensitive applications. The SRMs' unique features such as simple and fault-tolerant structure and unidirectional flow of their p...

  19. Low-Cost Transceiver Architectures for 60 GHz Ultra Wideband WLANs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. O. Tatu


    Full Text Available Millimeter-wave multiport transceiver architectures dedicated to 60 GHz UWB short-range communications are proposed in this paper. Multi-port circuits based on 90° hybrid couplers are intensively used for phased antenna array, millimeter-wave modulation and down-conversion, as a low-cost alternative to the conventional architecture. This allows complete integration of circuits including antennas, in planar technology, on the same substrate, improving the overall transceiver performances.

  20. 3D printing for low cost, rapid prototyping of eyelid crutches. (United States)

    Sun, Michael G; Rojdamrongratana, Duangmontree; Rosenblatt, Mark I; Aakalu, Vinay K; Yu, Charles Q


    Blepharoptosis or ptosis is a common and potentially debilitating clinical problem. Long-term surgical treatment for ptosis caused by progressive myopathies can be challenging due to potential recurrence and complications associated with facial muscle weakness. When surgical treatment is no longer effective, an eyelid crutch can be used as an alternative intervention. This report demonstrates how 3D printing was used to rapidly design, prototype, and manufacture new custom-fit eyelid crutches at a low cost.

  1. Long Life Miniature Hall Thruster Enabling Low Cost Human Precursor Missions (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Key and Central Objectives: This investigation aims to demonstrate that the application of magnetic shielding technology on miniature Hall thrusters will...

  2. Low profile, low cost, new geometry integrated inductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ouyang, Ziwei; Thomsen, Ole Cornelius; Andersen, Michael A. E.


    A new geometry of integrated inductors with low profile and low cost is presented in this paper. The new geometry integrates two inductors by stacking three I-cores. The middle I-core provides a shared low reluctance flux path. The air gaps are formed by separating the I-cores using copper foil...... variable inductors caused by the special saturation behavior may be utilized in some applications. The new integrated inductors make it possible to build low-profile, low-cost, flexibility DC/DC converters, and it can be extensively designed for the low-voltage and high-current required by the modern...

  3. Geowall: Investigations into low-cost stereo display technologies (United States)

    Steinwand, Daniel R.; Davis, Brian; Weeks, Nathan


    Recently, the combination of new projection technology, fast, low-cost graphics cards, and Linux-powered personal computers has made it possible to provide a stereoprojection and stereoviewing system that is much more affordable than previous commercial solutions. These Geowall systems are low-cost visualization systems built with commodity off-the-shelf components, run on open-source (and other) operating systems, and using open-source applications software. In short, they are ?Beowulf-class? visualization systems that provide a cost-effective way for the U. S. Geological Survey to broaden participation in the visualization community and view stereoimagery and three-dimensional models2.

  4. Low Cost Video Animation of People using a RGBD Sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Cathrine Juel; Moeslund, Thomas B.; Jensen, Troels Høg Peter


    This paper is an investigation in a low cost solution for performing video animation using a Kinect v2 for Windows, where skeleton, depth and colour data are acquired for three different characters. Segmentation of colour and depth frames were based on establishing the range of a person in the de......This paper is an investigation in a low cost solution for performing video animation using a Kinect v2 for Windows, where skeleton, depth and colour data are acquired for three different characters. Segmentation of colour and depth frames were based on establishing the range of a person...

  5. Key issues for low-cost FGD installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DePriest, W.; Mazurek, J.M. [Sargent & Lundy LLC, Chicago, IL (United States)


    This paper will discuss various methods for installing low-cost FGD systems. The paper will include a discussion of various types of FGD systems available, both wet and dry, and will compare the relative cost of each type. Important design issues, such as use of spare equipment, materials of construction, etc. will be presented. An overview of various low-cost construction techniques (i.e., modularization) will be included. This paper will draw heavily from Sargent & Lundy`s database of past and current FGD projects together with information we gathered for several Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) studies on the subject.

  6. Quantifying the properties of low-cost powder metallurgy titanium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolzoni, L.; Ruiz-Navas, E.M.; Gordo, E.


    The extensive industrial employment of titanium is hindered by its high production costs where reduction of these costs can be achieved using cheap alloying elements and appropriate alternative processing techniques. In this work the feasibility of the production of low-cost titanium alloys is addressed by adding steel to pure titanium and processing the alloys by powder metallurgy. In particular, a spherical 4140 LCH steel powder commonly used in metal injection moulding is blended with irregular hydride-dehydride Ti. The new low-cost alloys are cold uniaxially pressed and sintered under high vacuum and show comparable properties to other wrought-equivalent and powder metallurgy titanium alloys. Differential thermal analysis and X-ray diffraction analyses confirm that Ti can tolerate the employment of iron as primary alloying element without forming detrimental TiFe-based intermetallic phases. Thus, the newly designed α+β alloys could be used for cheaper non-critical components.

  7. An Ultra-light PRNG Passing Strict Randomness Tests and Suitable for Low Cost Tags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available A pseudo-random number generator for low-cost RFID tags is presented. The scheme is simple, sequential and secure, yet has a high performance. Despite its lowest hardware complexity, our proposal represents a better alternative than previous proposals for low-cost tags. The scheme is based on the well-founded pseudo random number generator, Mersenne Twister. The proposed generator takes low-entropy seeds extracted from a physical characteristic of the tag and produces outputs that pass popular randomness tests. Contrarily, previous proposal tests are based on random number inputs from a popular online source, which are simply unavailable to tags. The high performance and satisfactory randomness of present work are supported by extensive test results and compared with similar previous works. Comparison using proven estimation formulae indicates that our proposal has the best hardware complexity, power consumption, and the least cost.

  8. J3Gen: A PRNG for Low-Cost Passive RFID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Herrera-Joancomartí


    Full Text Available Pseudorandom number generation (PRNG is the main security tool in low-cost passive radio-frequency identification (RFID technologies, such as EPC Gen2. We present a lightweight PRNG design for low-cost passive RFID tags, named J3Gen. J3Gen is based on a linear feedback shift register (LFSR configured with multiple feedback polynomials. The polynomials are alternated during the generation of sequences via a physical source of randomness. J3Gen successfully handles the inherent linearity of LFSR based PRNGs and satisfies the statistical requirements imposed by the EPC Gen2 standard. A hardware implementation of J3Gen is presented and evaluated with regard to different design parameters, defining the key-equivalence security and nonlinearity of the design. The results of a SPICE simulation confirm the power-consumption suitability of the proposal.

  9. J3Gen: a PRNG for low-cost passive RFID. (United States)

    Melià-Seguí, Joan; Garcia-Alfaro, Joaquin; Herrera-Joancomartí, Jordi


    Pseudorandom number generation (PRNG) is the main security tool in low-cost passive radio-frequency identification (RFID) technologies, such as EPC Gen2. We present a lightweight PRNG design for low-cost passive RFID tags, named J3Gen. J3Gen is based on a linear feedback shift register (LFSR) configured with multiple feedback polynomials. The polynomials are alternated during the generation of sequences via a physical source of randomness. J3Gen successfully handles the inherent linearity of LFSR based PRNGs and satisfies the statistical requirements imposed by the EPC Gen2 standard. A hardware implementation of J3Gen is presented and evaluated with regard to different design parameters, defining the key-equivalence security and nonlinearity of the design. The results of a SPICE simulation confirm the power-consumption suitability of the proposal.

  10. Simple and Low-Cost Exposed -Layer Grain Drying Apparatus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Simple and Low-Cost Exposed -Layer Grain Drying Apparatus. 'Tilahun Seyoum Workenh* and 2Patrick. M. Grace. 1Alemaya University, College of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Engineering, ROBQX 138, Dire DaWa, Ethiopia. 2University College Dublin, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Department of ...

  11. A Low-Cost Universal Integrated Interface for Capacitive Sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heidary, A.


    This thesis reports the results of research on features, options and limitations of low-cost, high-performance, universal integrated interface for capacitive sensors. It concerns development-driven research, where the objectives of the research focus upon possible realization and application of the

  12. A high-performance, low-cost, leading edge discriminator

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Under more realistic operating conditions the discriminator displays a timing error of 90 ps. It has an intrinsic double pulse resolution of 4 ns which is better than most commercial discriminators. A low-cost discriminator is an essential requirement of the GRAPES-3 experiment where a large number of discriminator channels ...

  13. Low cost sensors- applications for Intelligent Transport Systems


    Olivares, Gustavo


    A New Zealand perspective on the current status and potential of low-cost sensors within an intelligent transport systems.Part of the joint CASANZ TSIG and NZ Transport and Environment Knowledge Hub - Emissions Group workshop at NIWA Auckland. 2017-12-12.

  14. Low-cost coding techniques for digital fault diagnosis (United States)

    Avizienis, A. A.


    Published report discusses fault location properties of arithmetic codes. Criterion for effectiveness of given code is detection probability of local fault by application of checking algorithm to results of entire set of algorithms of processor. Report also presents analysis of arithmetic codes with low-cost check algorithm which possesses partial fault-location properties.

  15. Biomass Combustion Control and Stabilization Using Low-Cost Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ján Piteľ


    Full Text Available The paper describes methods for biomass combustion process control and burning stabilization based on low-cost sensing of carbon monoxide emissions and oxygen concentration in the flue gas. The designed control system was tested on medium-scale biomass-fired boilers and some results are evaluated and presented in the paper.

  16. Preliminary Tests of a New Low-Cost Photogrammetric System (United States)

    Santise, M.; Thoeni, K.; Roncella, R.; Sloan, S. W.; Giacomini, A.


    This paper presents preliminary tests of a new low-cost photogrammetric system for 4D modelling of large scale areas for civil engineering applications. The system consists of five stand-alone units. Each of the units is composed of a Raspberry Pi 2 Model B (RPi2B) single board computer connected to a PiCamera Module V2 (8 MP) and is powered by a 10 W solar panel. The acquisition of the images is performed automatically using Python scripts and the OpenCV library. Images are recorded at different times during the day and automatically uploaded onto a FTP server from where they can be accessed for processing. Preliminary tests and outcomes of the system are discussed in detail. The focus is on the performance assessment of the low-cost sensor and the quality evaluation of the digital surface models generated by the low-cost photogrammetric systems in the field under real test conditions. Two different test cases were set up in order to calibrate the low-cost photogrammetric system and to assess its performance. First comparisons with a TLS model show a good agreement.

  17. Low-Cost PicoAmpere Meter for GEM detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Buhagiar, Karl


    Measurement of picoampere current was only possible using very expensive instrumentation. The objective of my project at CERN was to participate in the development and test of a very low-cost picoampere current measuring box for HV lines in GEM detectors.

  18. Development and Performance Evaluation of a Low Cost Waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The design, development and performance evaluation of a low cost waste-water treatment plant had been carried out. The aim was to harness the usefulness of waste-waters from residential, institutional and commercial sources. The facultative lagoon method of waste-water treatment was adopted. Biological analysis of ...

  19. ICUD-0499 Low-cost remotely sensed environmental monitoring stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus; Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke


    This study contributes with extensive research of applying low-cost remotely sensed monitoring stations to an urban environment. Design requirements are scrutinized, including applications for remote data access, hardware design, and monitoring network design. A network of 9 monitoring stations m...

  20. Open source data logger for low-cost environmental monitoring. (United States)

    Baker, Ed


    The increasing transformation of biodiversity into a data-intensive science has seen numerous independent systems linked and aggregated into the current landscape of biodiversity informatics. This paper outlines how we can move forward with this programme, incorporating real time environmental monitoring into our methodology using low-power and low-cost computing platforms.

  1. Open source data logger for low-cost environmental monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ed Baker


    Full Text Available The increasing transformation of biodiversity into a data-intensive science has seen numerous independent systems linked and aggregated into the current landscape of biodiversity informatics. This paper outlines how we can move forward with this programme, incorporating real time environmental monitoring into our methodology using low-power and low-cost computing platforms.

  2. Low Cost Constant – Head Drip Irrigation Emitter for Climate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The system's low cost of N15, 870 ($79) gives it an edge over existing locally developed drip systems, the low technology and the use of locally available materials coupled with the water savings will enable famers to adapt to the impact of climate change in sub-Saharan Africa through the production of high value crops in ...

  3. A Holistic Approach for Low Cost Heliostat Fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pfahl, A.; Randt, M.; Meier, F.; Zaschke, M.; Geurts, C.P.W.; Buselmeier, M.


    The AutoR-project takes a holistic approach to reduce the cost of heliostat fields: Wireless control and energy supply enables to use smaller heliostats which need less steel per mirror area (but usually have high wiring cost). A low cost but high efficient drive system is chosen which reduces

  4. 20 Development and Performance Evaluation of a Low Cost Waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    1Fasinmirin J.T. and 2Olufayo A.A.. Abstract. The design, development and performance evaluation of a low cost waste-water treatment plant had been ... been made in the design and development of wastewater treatment plants most .... anaerobic zone and the decline in the ambient temperature due to increased relative ...

  5. Low-cost implementation of Differential GPS using Arduino


    Svaton, Martin


    The thesis proposes the low-cost solution of Differential GPS using Arduino as a Master Control Unit. The thesis provides the methods of GPS position augmentation, which is available for varied applications such as drones or autonomous lawnmowers operated in a private sector. Used methods of GPS positioning accuracy improvements are based on a Satellite-Based Augmentation System (SBAS) and pseudorange residuals.

  6. A high-performance, low-cost, leading edge discriminator

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A high-performance, low-cost, leading edge discriminator has been designed with a timing performance comparable to state-of-the-art, commercially available ... Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400 005, India; Graduate School of Science, Osaka City University, Osaka 558-8585, Japan ...

  7. low-cost apparatus from locally available materials for teaching

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    ABSTRACT. Learning science should start with hands on experiences that the child is familiar with and not with abstract definitions about what science is. Low cost apparatus from locally available materials believed to enrich the capacity to observe, explain and do real science in primary schools and increases the quality of ...

  8. Low-cost personal cooling in hot humid offices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsen, Lars Bo; Santos, A.

    This report presents a low cost solution to avoid heat stress in a hot and humid environment based on a solar powered drying of supply air. The air drying facilities and a validation of the benefits through comprehensive human exposure studies are described. The study represents an example of app...

  9. Low-Cost Elimination of Plasma Lines in Raman Spectra. (United States)

    Behlow, Herbert W., Jr.; Petersen, John D.


    Describes a low-cost ($120) device which eliminates plasma lines in Raman spectra. The device consists of two prisms and two mirrors which are held in a symmetrical relationship to one another so that a particular position will allow only one wavelength to pass through on a given axis. (JN)

  10. Low-cost safety measures at signalized intersections. (United States)


    The objectives of this study were to: a) identify intersections with a high number of crashes involving a driver disregarding the traffic signal, b) identify types of low-cost safety measures which may be used as a countermeasure for red light runnin...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Santise


    Full Text Available This paper presents preliminary tests of a new low-cost photogrammetric system for 4D modelling of large scale areas for civil engineering applications. The system consists of five stand-alone units. Each of the units is composed of a Raspberry Pi 2 Model B (RPi2B single board computer connected to a PiCamera Module V2 (8 MP and is powered by a 10 W solar panel. The acquisition of the images is performed automatically using Python scripts and the OpenCV library. Images are recorded at different times during the day and automatically uploaded onto a FTP server from where they can be accessed for processing. Preliminary tests and outcomes of the system are discussed in detail. The focus is on the performance assessment of the low-cost sensor and the quality evaluation of the digital surface models generated by the low-cost photogrammetric systems in the field under real test conditions. Two different test cases were set up in order to calibrate the low-cost photogrammetric system and to assess its performance. First comparisons with a TLS model show a good agreement.

  12. Public Low-Cost Housing in Malaysia: Case Studies on PPR Low-Cost Flats in Kuala Lumpur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goh, Ai Tee


    Full Text Available This paper examines the design quality of People's Housing Project (Program Perumahan Rakyat or PPR low cost high rise flats developed by the National Housing Department (Jabatan Perumahan Negara or JPN in Kuala Lumpur since the 1998. Quality Function Deployment method is used as a tool to analyze the current status and to prioritize the demanded quality from the selected PPR low-cost high rise flats' users. The study revealed that factors in determining a quality low-cost high-rise flat arranged in descending degrees of importance are house safety, provision of public amenities, unit internal environment, maintenance and surrounding environment, location, sanitary fittings, unit size, type of house, material used, unit internal layout, quality of workmanship, structure of the house and appearance. A Quality Chart for PPR low-cost high-rise flats in Kuala Lumpur was presented. Authority (47 per cent has the highest relative degree of importance in determining the quality of PPR flats, followed by Design Element (34 per cent and Quality of Living (19 per cent. Accordingly, the success of the schemes relies strongly on effective control and enforcement by the authorities. However, it can be improved by tackling on the Design Element (Architectural, whereby a revised typical unit layout plan and typical details have been proposed at the last section of the paper.

  13. Tandem Microwire Solar Cells for Flexible High Efficiency Low Cost Photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atwater, Harry A. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States)


    This project has developed components of a waferless, flexible, low-cost tandem multijunction III-V/Si microwire array solar cell technology which combines the efficiency of wafered III-V photovoltaic technologies with the process designed to meet the Sunshot object. The project focused on design of lattice-matched GaAsP/SiGe two junction cell design and lattice-mismatched GaInP/Si tandem cell design. Combined electromagnetic simulation/device physics models using realistic microwire tandem structures were developed that predict >22% conversion efficiency for known material parameters, such as tunnel junction structure, window layer structure, absorber lifetimes and optical absorption and these model indicate a clear path to 30% efficiency for high quality III-V heterostructures. SiGe microwire arrays were synthesized via Cu-catalyzed vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth with inexpensive chlorosilane and chlorogermance precursors in an atmospheric pressure reactor. SiGe alloy composition in microwires was found to be limited to a maximum of 12% Ge incorporation during chlorogermane growth, due to the melting of the alloy near the solidus composition. Lattice mismatched InGaP double heterostructures were grown by selective epitaxy with a thermal oxide mask on Si microwire substrates using metallorganic vapor phase epitaxy. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis confirms the growth of individual step graded layers and a high density of defects near the wire/III-V interface. Selective epitaxy was initiated with a low temperature nucleation scheme under “atomic layer epitaxy” or “flow mediated epitaxy” conditions whereby the Ga and P containing precursors are alternately introduced into the reactor to promote layer-bylayer growth. In parallel to our efforts on conformal GaInP heteroepitaxy on selectively masked Si microwires, we explored direct, axial growth of GaAs on Si wire arrays as another route to a tandem junction architecture. We proposed axial

  14. Photolysis of caged calcium using a low-cost flash unit: Efficacy analysis with a calcium selective electrode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.A. van Koeveringe (Gommert); R. van Mastrigt (Ron)


    textabstractPhotolysis of caged calcium (Nitr5®, Calbiochem) can be used to study calcium dependent processes such as excitation-contraction coupling and muscular mechanics. Expensive high energy light sources are routinely used for UV light exposure, but this study describes an alternative low cost

  15. Construction of a low cost wind energy generator; Construcao de um gerador de energia eolica de baixo custo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Jonathan Penha de; Almeida, Silvio Carlos Anibal de [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (DEM/EP/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica], Emails:,


    This project presents a low cost wind electric power generator constituted of cheap and easy access materials. The necessary materials are presented for it construction and the expected efficiency, having as reference the city of Fernando de Noronha, Brazil. The elaboration of the generator was initially developed as alternative energy source during blackout.

  16. Method: low-cost delivery of the cotton leaf crumple virus-induced gene silencing system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuttle John


    Full Text Available Abstract Background We previously developed a virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS vector for cotton from the bipartite geminivirusCotton leaf crumple virus (CLCrV. The original CLCrV VIGS vector was designed for biolistic delivery by a gene gun. This prerequisite limited the use of the system to labs with access to biolistic equipment. Here we describe the adaptation of this system for delivery by Agrobacterium (Agrobacterium tumefaciens. We also describe the construction of two low-cost particle inflow guns. Results The biolistic CLCrV vector was transferred into two Agrobacterium binary plasmids. Agroinoculation of the binary plasmids into cotton resulted in silencing and GFP expression comparable to the biolistic vector. Two homemade low-cost gene guns were used to successfully inoculate cotton (G. hirsutum and N. benthamiana with either the CLCrV VIGS vector or the Tomato golden mosaic virus (TGMV VIGS vector respectively. Conclusions These innovations extend the versatility of CLCrV-based VIGS for analyzing gene function in cotton. The two low-cost gene guns make VIGS experiments affordable for both research and teaching labs by providing a working alternative to expensive commercial gene guns.

  17. Zero-Net Power, Low-Cost Sensor Platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, J.E.


    Numerous national studies and working groups have identified very low-power, low-cost sensors as a critical technology for increasing energy efficiency, reducing waste, and optimizing processes. This research addressed that need by developing an ultra low-power, low-cost sensor platform based on microsensor (MS) arrays that includes MS sensors, very low-power electronics, signal processing, and two-way data communications, all integrated into a single package. MSs were developed to measure carbon dioxide and room occupancy. Advances were made in developing a coating for detecting carbon dioxide and sensing thermal energy with MSs with a low power electrical readout. In addition, robust algorithms were developed for communications within buildings over power lines and an integrated platform was realized that included gas sensing, temperature, humidity, and room occupancy with on-board communications.

  18. A low cost PSD-based monocular motion capture system (United States)

    Ryu, Young Kee; Oh, Choonsuk


    This paper describes a monocular PSD-based motion capture sensor to employ with commercial video game systems such as Microsoft's XBOX and Sony's Playstation II. The system is compact, low-cost, and only requires a one-time calibration at the factory. The system includes a PSD(Position Sensitive Detector) and active infrared (IR) LED markers that are placed on the object to be tracked. The PSD sensor is placed in the focal plane of a wide-angle lens. The micro-controller calculates the 3D position of the markers using only the measured intensity and the 2D position on the PSD. A series of experiments were performed to evaluate the performance of our prototype system. From the experimental results we see that the proposed system has the advantages of the compact size, the low cost, the easy installation, and the high frame rates to be suitable for high speed motion tracking in games.

  19. Low-cost digital GPS receiver with software carrier detection (United States)

    Wolf, M. H.


    The satellite navigation system global positioning system (GPS) will play a major role in the field of navigation. It will be able to compete with all previously existing radio navigation systems. Low-cost receivers will be built for a number of civilian users, such as general aviation, sea and land navigation. To permit production at low cost for the civil market, a new technique for a C/A (course and acquisition) code receiver has been developed. All the signal detecting and processing is carried out with the digital signal processing software in a Texas Instruments TMS 320C10. The advantage of this method is that complex functions can be effected in a computer program instead of in analog or digital circuits. This reduces the costs of the parts used in the receiver and also avoids calibration. Taken together, these two features greatly reduce the price of a navigation set. This paper discusses the underlying principles leading to this new receiver.

  20. Low Cost Vision Based Personal Mobile Mapping System (United States)

    Amami, M. M.; Smith, M. J.; Kokkas, N.


    Mobile mapping systems (MMS) can be used for several purposes, such as transportation, highway infrastructure mapping and GIS data collecting. However, the acceptance of these systems is not wide spread and their use is still limited due the high cost and dependency on the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS). A low cost vision based personal MMS has been produced with an aim to overcome these limitations. The system has been designed to depend mainly on cameras and use of low cost GNSS and inertial sensors to provide a bundle adjustment solution with initial values. The system has the potential to be used indoor and outdoor. The system has been tested indoors and outdoors with different GPS coverage, surrounded features, and narrow and curvy paths. Tests show that the system is able to work in such environments providing 3D coordinates of better than 10 cm accuracy.

  1. Development of a low cost, portable solar hydrogen generation device (United States)

    Rose, Kyle; Aggarwal, M. D.; Batra, Ashok; Wingo, Dennis


    Hydrogen is a clean energy source that is environmentally friendly and safe. It is well known that electrolysis is a common method used to produce hydrogen. Other high cost methods for hydrogen production can be countered by the development of this low cost pulse width modulated circuit, using direct current provided by naturally existing solar energy as a power source. Efforts are being made in the scientific community to produce a low cost, portable, solar hydrogen generating device for a number of clean energy applications such as fuel cells and energy storage. Proof of concept has already been tested in the laboratory and a small prototype system is being designed and fabricated in the workshop at Alabama A&M University. Our results of this study and details of the electronic circuit and the prototype are presented.

  2. Low-cost wireless voltage & current grid monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hines, Jacqueline [SenSanna Inc., Arnold, MD (United States)


    This report describes the development and demonstration of a novel low-cost wireless power distribution line monitoring system. This system measures voltage, current, and relative phase on power lines of up to 35 kV-class. The line units operate without any batteries, and without harvesting energy from the power line. Thus, data on grid condition is provided even in outage conditions, when line current is zero. This enhances worker safety by detecting the presence of voltage and current that may appear from stray sources on nominally isolated lines. Availability of low-cost power line monitoring systems will enable widespread monitoring of the distribution grid. Real-time data on local grid operating conditions will enable grid operators to optimize grid operation, implement grid automation, and understand the impact of solar and other distributed sources on grid stability. The latter will enable utilities to implement eneygy storage and control systems to enable greater penetration of solar into the grid.

  3. Low Cost Vision Based Personal Mobile Mapping System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Amami


    Full Text Available Mobile mapping systems (MMS can be used for several purposes, such as transportation, highway infrastructure mapping and GIS data collecting. However, the acceptance of these systems is not wide spread and their use is still limited due the high cost and dependency on the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS. A low cost vision based personal MMS has been produced with an aim to overcome these limitations. The system has been designed to depend mainly on cameras and use of low cost GNSS and inertial sensors to provide a bundle adjustment solution with initial values. The system has the potential to be used indoor and outdoor. The system has been tested indoors and outdoors with different GPS coverage, surrounded features, and narrow and curvy paths. Tests show that the system is able to work in such environments providing 3D coordinates of better than 10 cm accuracy.

  4. Process and assembly plans for low cost commercial fuselage structure (United States)

    Willden, Kurtis; Metschan, Stephen; Starkey, Val


    Cost and weight reduction for a composite structure is a result of selecting design concepts that can be built using efficient low cost manufacturing and assembly processes. Since design and manufacturing are inherently cost dependent, concurrent engineering in the form of a Design-Build Team (DBT) is essential for low cost designs. Detailed cost analysis from DBT designs and hardware verification must be performed to identify the cost drivers and relationships between design and manufacturing processes. Results from the global evaluation are used to quantitatively rank design, identify cost centers for higher ranking design concepts, define and prioritize a list of technical/economic issues and barriers, and identify parameters that control concept response. These results are then used for final design optimization.

  5. Chemical solution deposition: a path towards low cost coated conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obradors, X; Puig, T; Pomar, A; Sandiumenge, F; Pinol, S; Mestres, N; Castano, O; Coll, M; Cavallaro, A; Palau, A; Gazquez, J; Gonzalez, J C; Gutierrez, J; Roma, N; Ricart, S; Moreto, J M; Rossell, M D; Tendeloo, G van


    The achievement of low cost deposition techniques for high critical current YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 coated conductors is one of the major objectives to achieve a widespread use of superconductivity in power applications. Chemical solution deposition techniques are appearing as a very promising methodology to achieve epitaxial oxide thin films at a low cost, so an intense effort is being carried out to develop routes for all chemical coated conductor tapes. In this work recent achievements will be presented towards the goal of combining the deposition of different type of buffer layers on metallic substrates based on metal-organic decomposition with the growth of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 layers using the trifluoroacetate route. The influence of processing parameters on the microstructure and superconducting properties will be stressed. High critical currents are demonstrated in 'all chemical' multilayers

  6. Price discrimination strategy of low-cost airlines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Jelena


    Full Text Available Abstract: The main objective of this research was to determine whether the prices of airline tickets increase monotonically over time. The authors analyzed the market share of low-cost airlines during the period after the Serbian air transport deregulation of the lines connecting Belgrade to other worldwide destinations. In the observed period, Wizz Air achieved the highest increase in market share. This airline held a monopoly over all lines except the Belgrade-Rome line in the observed period. Based on the theorem on monotonic function, Spearman's coefficient, and data on Wizz Air's airfare changes for the Belgrade-Rome line, the results indicate a correlation between the time of ticket purchase and its price, but the prices of low-cost airline tickets do not monotonically increase over time.

  7. Low-cost silicon wafer dicing using a craft cutter

    KAUST Repository

    Fan, Yiqiang


    This paper reports a low-cost silicon wafer dicing technique using a commercial craft cutter. The 4-inch silicon wafers were scribed using a crafter cutter with a mounted diamond blade. The pre-programmed automated process can reach a minimum die feature of 3 mm by 3 mm. We performed this scribing process on the top polished surface of a silicon wafer; we also created a scribing method for the back-unpolished surface in order to protect the structures on the wafer during scribing. Compared with other wafer dicing methods, our proposed dicing technique is extremely low cost (lower than $1,000), and suitable for silicon wafer dicing in microelectromechanical or microfluidic fields, which usually have a relatively large die dimension. The proposed dicing technique is also usable for dicing multiple project wafers, a process where dies of different dimensions are diced on the same wafer.

  8. Low-cost flywheel demonstration program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Applied Physics Laboratory/Department of Energy Low Cost Flywheel Demonstration Program was initiated on 1 October 1977 and was successfully concluded on 31 December 19'9. The total cost of this program was $355,190. All primary objectives were successfully achieved as follows: demonstration of a full-size, 1)kWh flywheel having an estimated cost in large-volume production of approximately $50/kWh; developmeNt of a ball-bearing system having losses comparable to the losses in a totally magnetic suspension system; successful and repeated demonstration of the low-cost flywheel in a complete flywheel energy-storage system based on the use of ordinary house voltage and frequency; and application of the experience gained in the hardware program to project the system design into a complete, full-scale, 30-kWh home-type flywheel energy-storage system.

  9. Low Cost Video Animation of People using a RGBD Sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Cathrine Juel; Moeslund, Thomas B.; Jensen, Troels Høg Peter


    This paper is an investigation in a low cost solution for performing video animation using a Kinect v2 for Windows, where skeleton, depth and colour data are acquired for three different characters. Segmentation of colour and depth frames were based on establishing the range of a person in the de......This paper is an investigation in a low cost solution for performing video animation using a Kinect v2 for Windows, where skeleton, depth and colour data are acquired for three different characters. Segmentation of colour and depth frames were based on establishing the range of a person...... were made to create seamless transitions, where new poses were found by moving pixels in the direction of the optical flow between the transitioning frames. The realism of the proposed animation was verified through a user study to have a higher rate of preference and perceived realism compared...... to no animation and animation using alpha blending....

  10. Low-Cost Phase Change Material for Building Envelopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abhari, Ramin [Renewable Energy Group


    A low-cost PCM process consisting of conversion of fats and oils to PCM-range paraffins, and subsequent “encapsulation” of the paraffin using conventional plastic compounding/pelletizing equipment was demonstrated. The PCM pellets produced were field-tested in a building envelope application. This involved combining the PCM pellets with cellulose insulation, whereby 33% reduction in peak heat flux and 12% reduction in heat gain was observed (average summertime performance). The selling price of the PCM pellets produced according to this low-cost process is expected to be in the $1.50-$3.00/lb range, compared to current encapsulated PCM price of about $7.00/lb. Whole-building simulations using corresponding PCM thermal analysis data suggest a payback time of 8 to 16 years (at current energy prices) for an attic insulation retrofit project in the Phoenix climate area.

  11. Low-cost personal cooling in hot humid offices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsen, Lars Bo; Santos, A.

    This report presents a low cost solution to avoid heat stress in a hot and humid environment based on a solar powered drying of supply air. The air drying facilities and a validation of the benefits through comprehensive human exposure studies are described. The study represents an example...... of applied participative research performed in a developing country. The report may be used as a background for the improvement of the indoor climate in poor, hot and humid regions without increased use of electricity....

  12. Anteseden Customer Loyalty Pada Low Cost Carrier Airline


    Harlan, Marcella


    The background of this research was Customer loyalty as a competitive advantage in service industry.The design of this research applies a survey toward unit of analysis on Low Cost Carrier Airline to interview the passanger for testing hypothesis. Meanwhile the required data consist of five variables; Recovery Satisfaction, Corporate Social Responsibility, Customer Trust, Customer Loyalty. The aggregate numbers of customer being respondent of the study are 200. Data analysis us...

  13. In vitro Micropropagation of Cassava Through Low Cost Tissue Culture


    Kwame O. Ogero; Gitonga N. Mburugu; Maina Mwangi; Omwoyo Ombori; Michael Ngugi


    Adoption of drought-tolerant crops such as cassava can help alleviate food insecurity in sub-Saharan Africa. However, production is constrained by lack of disease-free planting materials. This can be circumvented through tissue culture but the technology is costly limiting its adoption. There is therefore, need to put in place interventions that will reduce the cost of production hence making tissue culture products affordable. In this research, a low cost protocol for cassava tissue culture ...

  14. Low-cost devices for phototherapy of small wounds (United States)

    Rudziński, Adam; Bukat, Marcin; Łazowski, Jacek


    This paper concerns the fundamentals, construction and operation of low-cost devices for treatment of superficial skin injuries by blue-violet light irradiation. The biophysical background of therapeutic properties of blue-violet light is described and technical aspects of construction of devices for the phototherapy are discussed. Prototypes of two variants of the device are presented: portable, for individual users in random locations, and stationary, for clinical applications.

  15. Indoor Temperatures in Low Cost Housing in Johannesburg, South Africa. (United States)

    Naicker, Nisha; Teare, June; Balakrishna, Yusentha; Wright, Caradee Yael; Mathee, Angela


    Ambient and indoor temperature affects thermal comfort and human health. In a changing climate with a predicted change in temperature extremes, understanding indoor temperatures, both hot and cold, of different housing types is important. This study aimed to assess the hourly, daily and monthly variation in indoor temperatures in different housing types, namely formal houses, informal houses, flats, government-built low-cost houses and old, apartheid era low-cost housing, in five impoverished urban communities in Johannesburg, South Africa. During the cross-sectional survey of the Health, Environment and Development study data loggers were installed in 100 homes (20 per suburb) from February to May 2014. Indoor temperature and relative humidity were recorded on an hourly basis. Ambient outdoor temperatures were obtained from the nearest weather station. Indoor and outdoor temperature and relative humidity levels were compared; and an inter-comparison between the different housing types were also made. Apparent temperature was calculated to assess indoor thermal comfort. Data from 59 retrieved loggers showed a significant difference in monthly mean indoor temperature between the five different housing types ( p < 0.0001). Low cost government-built houses and informal settlement houses had the greatest variation in temperature and experienced temperatures between 4 and 5 °C warmer than outdoor temperatures. Housing types occupied by poor communities experienced indoor temperature fluctuations often greater than that observed for ambient temperatures. Families living in government-built low-cost and informally-constructed homes are the most at risk for indoor temperature extremes. These types of housing should be prioritised for interventions aimed at assisting families to cope with extreme temperatures, gaining optimal thermal comfort and preventing temperature-related health effects.

  16. Investigation of low cost material processes for liquid rocket engines (United States)

    Nguyentat, Thinh; Kawashige, Chester M.; Scala, James G.; Horn, Ronald M.


    The development of low cost material processes is essential to the achievement of economical liquid rocket propulsion systems in the next century. This paper will present the results of the evaluation of some promising material processes including powder metallurgy, vacuum plasma spray, metal spray forming, and bulge forming. The physical and mechanical test results from the samples and subscale hardware fabricated from high strength copper alloys and superalloys will be discussed.

  17. Low-cost photoplethysmograph solutions using the Raspberry Pi


    Nagy, Tamas; Gingl, Zoltan


    Photoplethysmography is a prevalent, non-invasive heart monitoring method. In this paper an implementation of photoplethysmography on the Raspberry Pi is presented. Two modulation techniques are discussed, which make possible to measure these signals by the Raspberry Pi, using an external sound card as A/D converter. Furthermore, it is shown, how can digital signal processing improve signal quality. The presented methods can be used in low-cost cardiac function monitoring, in telemedicine app...

  18. Indoor Temperatures in Low Cost Housing in Johannesburg, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisha Naicker


    Full Text Available Ambient and indoor temperature affects thermal comfort and human health. In a changing climate with a predicted change in temperature extremes, understanding indoor temperatures, both hot and cold, of different housing types is important. This study aimed to assess the hourly, daily and monthly variation in indoor temperatures in different housing types, namely formal houses, informal houses, flats, government-built low-cost houses and old, apartheid era low-cost housing, in five impoverished urban communities in Johannesburg, South Africa. During the cross-sectional survey of the Health, Environment and Development study data loggers were installed in 100 homes (20 per suburb from February to May 2014. Indoor temperature and relative humidity were recorded on an hourly basis. Ambient outdoor temperatures were obtained from the nearest weather station. Indoor and outdoor temperature and relative humidity levels were compared; and an inter-comparison between the different housing types were also made. Apparent temperature was calculated to assess indoor thermal comfort. Data from 59 retrieved loggers showed a significant difference in monthly mean indoor temperature between the five different housing types (p < 0.0001. Low cost government-built houses and informal settlement houses had the greatest variation in temperature and experienced temperatures between 4 and 5 °C warmer than outdoor temperatures. Housing types occupied by poor communities experienced indoor temperature fluctuations often greater than that observed for ambient temperatures. Families living in government-built low-cost and informally-constructed homes are the most at risk for indoor temperature extremes. These types of housing should be prioritised for interventions aimed at assisting families to cope with extreme temperatures, gaining optimal thermal comfort and preventing temperature-related health effects.

  19. A lattice based authentication for low-cost RFID


    EL MOUSTAINE, Ethmane; LAURENT, Maryline


    International audience; Security and privacy are major threats for the RFID technology today. First, the RFID passive tags prevailing in most of the RFID applications are very limited in processing power, so they cannot perform complex computations. Second, there are no RFID authentication protocols that can support both scalability and privacy at low complexity cost. In this paper, we present an adaptation of NTRU public cryptosystem for low-cost RFID tags and new efficient asymmetrical chal...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. H. Wang


    Full Text Available Structural monitoring requires instruments which can provide high precision and accuracy, reliable measurements at good temporal resolution and rapid processing speeds. Long-term campaigns and flexible structures are regarded as two of the most challenging subjects in monitoring engineering structures. Long-term monitoring in civil engineering is generally considered to be labourintensive and financially expensive and it can take significant effort to arrange the necessary human resources, transportation and equipment maintenance. When dealing with flexible structure monitoring, it is of paramount importance that any monitoring equipment used is able to carry out rapid sampling. Low cost, automated, photogrammetric techniques therefore have the potential to become routinely viable for monitoring non-rigid structures. This research aims to provide a photogrammetric solution for long-term flexible structural monitoring purposes. The automated approach was achieved using low-cost imaging devices (mobile phones to replace traditional image acquisition stations and substantially reduce the equipment costs. A self-programmed software package was developed to deal with the hardware-software integration and system operation. In order to evaluate the performance of this low-cost monitoring system, a shaking table experiment was undertaken. Different network configurations and target sizes were used to determine the best configuration. A large quantity of image data was captured by four DSLR cameras and four mobile phone cameras respectively. These image data were processed using photogrammetric techniques to calculate the final results for the system evaluation.

  1. Poor Workmanship in Construction of Low Cost Housing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.A. Othman


    Full Text Available Most defects in construction projects are due to human error. In other word, we can say that human error happened due to poor performance in workmanship during construction of a building. Poor workmanship in housing construction, and poor management and control of building contractors have contributed to the housing problem. According to research conducted by the Building Research Establishment (BRE, 90% of building failures are due to problems arising in the design and construction stages. These problems include poor communication, inadequate information or failure to check information, inadequate checks and controls, lack of technical expertise and skills, and inadequate feedback leading to recurring errors. The quality issues of low cost housing nowadays begin to arise as there are many complaints about defects in some of the building elements of the house. One of the causes of this condition is due to poor quality of workmanship during construction. This will affect the quality of life of occupants and also giving bad image of the parties involved in the construction of low cost housing. This paper will discuss some variables that related to the causes of poor quality of workmanship in construction projects and some common building defects found at low cost housing.

  2. Low-Cost Optical Camera System for Disaster Monitoring (United States)

    Kurz, F.; Meynberg, O.; Rosenbaum, D.; Türmer, S.; Reinartz, P.; Schroeder, M.


    Real-time monitoring of natural disasters, mass events, and large accidents with airborne optical sensors is an ongoing topic in research and development. Airborne monitoring is used as a complemental data source with the advantage of flexible data acquisition and higher spatial resolution compared to optical satellite data. In cases of disasters or mass events, optical high resolution image data received directly after acquisition are highly welcomed by security related organizations like police and rescue forces. Low-cost optical camera systems are suitable for real-time applications as the accuracy requirements can be lowered in return for faster processing times. In this paper, the performance of low-cost camera systems for real-time mapping applications is exemplarily evaluated based on already existing sensor systems operated at German Aerospace Center (DLR). Focus lies next to the geometrical and radiometric performance on the real time processing chain which includes image processors, thematic processors for automatic traffic extraction and automatic person tracking, data downlink to the ground station, and further processing and distribution on the ground. Finally, a concept for a national airborne rapid mapping service based on the low-cost hardware is proposed.

  3. Current enhancement in crystalline silicon photovoltaic by low-cost nickel silicide back contact

    KAUST Repository

    Bahabry, R. R.


    We report short circuit current (Jsc) enhancement in crystalline silicon (C-Si) photovoltaic (PV) using low-cost Ohmic contact engineering by integration of Nickel mono-silicide (NiSi) for back contact metallization as an alternative to the status quo of using expensive screen printed silver (Ag). We show 2.6 mA/cm2 enhancement in the short circuit current (Jsc) and 1.2 % increment in the efficiency by improving the current collection due to the low specific contact resistance of the NiSi on the heavily Boron (B) doped Silicon (Si) interface.

  4. Comparative evaluation of low cost materials as constructed wetland filling media (United States)

    Pinho, Henrique J. O.; Vaz, Mafalda M.; Mateus, Dina M. R.


    Three waste materials from civil construction activities were assessed as low cost alternative filling materials used in Constructed Wetlands (CW). CW are green processes for wastewater treatment, whose design includes an appropriate selection of vegetation and filling material. The sustainability of such processes may be incremented using recovered wastes as filling materials. The abilities of the materials to support plant growth and to contribute to pollutants removal from wastewater were assessed and compared to expanded clay, a filling usually used in CW design. Statistical analysis, using one-way ANOVA and Welch's ANOVA, demonstrate that limestone fragments are a better choice of filling material than brick fragments and basalt gravel.

  5. A low cost thermal infrared hyperspectral imager for small satellites (United States)

    Crites, S. T.; Lucey, P. G.; Wright, R.; Garbeil, H.; Horton, K. A.; Wood, M.


    The growth of the small satellite market and launch opportunities for these satellites is creating a new niche for earth observations that contrasts with the long mission durations, high costs, and long development times associated with traditional space-based earth observations. Low-cost, short-lived missions made possible by this new approach provide an experimental platform for testing new sensor technologies that may transition to larger, more long-lived platforms. The low costs and short lifetimes also increase acceptable risk to sensors, enabling large decreases in cost using commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) parts and allowing early-career scientists and engineers to gain experience with these projects. We are building a low-cost long-wave infrared spectral sensor, funded by the NASA Experimental Project to Stimulate Competitive Research program (EPSCoR), to demonstrate ways in which a university's scientific and instrument development programs can fit into this niche. The sensor is a low-mass, power-efficient thermal hyperspectral imager with electronics contained in a pressure vessel to enable use of COTS electronics and will be compatible with small satellite platforms. The sensor, called Thermal Hyperspectral Imager (THI), is based on a Sagnac interferometer and uses an uncooled 320x256 microbolometer array. The sensor will collect calibrated radiance data at long-wave infrared (LWIR, 8-14 microns) wavelengths in 230 meter pixels with 20 wavenumber spectral resolution from a 400 km orbit. We are currently in the laboratory and airborne testing stage in order to demonstrate the spectro-radiometric quality of data that the instrument provides.

  6. Efficacy of Low-Cost PC-Based Aviation Training Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savern l Reweti


    Full Text Available Aim/Purpose: The aim of this study was to explore whether a full cost flight training device (FTD was significantly better for simulator training than a low cost PC-Based Aviation Training Device (PCATD. Background: A quasi-transfer study was undertaken to ascertain whether a Civil Aviation Authority certified Flight Training Device (FTD was more effective at improving pilot proficiency in the performance of a standard VFR traffic pattern (Overhead Rejoin Procedure than a customised low cost PCATD. Methodology: In this quasi-transfer study, a high fidelity FTD rather than an aircraft was used to test both training and transfer tasks. Ninety-three pilots were recruited to participate in the study. Contribution: The use of PCATDs is now well established for pilot training, especially for Instrument Flight Rules (IFR skills training. However, little substantive research has been undertaken to examine their efficacy for VFR training. Findings: There was no evidence of a pre-test/post-test difference in VFR task perfor-mance between participants trained on the PCATD and the FTD, when post tested on the FTD. The use of both PCATD and FTD demonstrated signifi-cant improvements in VFR task performance compared to a control group that received no PCATD or FTD training. Recommendations for Practitioners\t: We discuss the possibility that low cost PCATDs may be a viable alternative for flight schools wishing to use a flight simulator but not able to afford a FTD. Recommendation for Researchers: We discuss the introduction of improved low cost technologies that allow PCATDs to be used more effectively for training in VFR procedures. The development and testing of new technologies requires more research. Impact on Society: Flight training schools operate in a difficult economic environment with continued increases in the cost of aircraft maintenance, compliance costs, and aviation fuel. The increased utilisation of low cost PCATD’s especially for VFR

  7. Low Cost ZigBee Protocol Based Laboratory Platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Romero-Acero


    Full Text Available This paper presents a low cost wireless communication platform, based on the ZigBee protocol. It is designed with the purpose to strengthen the use of information technology in the classroom. Guides laboratory practices are focused on developing undergraduate engineering students to the area of telecommunications. The platform structure is composed of: Labs custom designed, web tools embedded wireless communication system for data acquisition in real time, and the Human Machine Interface (HMI, which records analog data and digital. 

  8. Low-cost large-angle steering mirror development (United States)

    Wassom, Steven R.


    The Space Dynamics Laboratory has combined internal funds with its background in space-rated mechanisms to develop a prototype low-cost large-angle 2-axis fine steering mirror (FSM). The FSM has a 75-mm clear aperture, 30-degree mechanical elevation angle, 120-degree mechanical azimuth angle, and a 70-Hertz small-amplitude bandwidth. Key components include a rotary voice coil, unique patent-pending feedback sensor, brushless DC motor and optical encoder. Average error is portable demonstration electronics development, and thermal-vacuum testing to pressures down to 1e-7 torr and temperatures down to 164 K.

  9. Hidden costs of low-cost screening mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cyrlak, D.


    Twenty-two hundred women in Orange County, California, took part in a low-cost mammography screening project sponsored by the American Cancer Society and the KCBS-TV. Patients were followed up by telephone and questioned about actual costs incurred as a result of screening mammography, including costs of repeated and follow-up mammograms, US examinations and surgical consultations. The total number of biopsies, cancers found, and the costs involved were investigated. The authors' results suggest that particularly in centers with a high positive call rate, the cost of screening mammograms accounts for only a small proportion of the medical costs

  10. Lightning rod: a simple and low cost experiment for eletrostatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Laburú


    Full Text Available With the objective of contributing to make significant the scientific learning, this work suggests a simple and low-cost experiment to demonstrate electrostatics knowledge studied in High School. The experimental proposal has yet the concern of focusing the content, linking it to daily technological elements. Doing that, and due to the practical interest it can arouse in student, we presented the operation of an idealized Lightning Rod to apply in electrostatics school knowledge and to show that the same one can have an important day by day usefulness and it cannot be a turned off abstraction or distant from the reality.

  11. Thermic rehabilitation of low cost, state-owned housing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robin, P.


    It is now possible to carry out energy control work in good technical and economic conditions whether or not this work is linked to the rehabilitation of old buildings. Of course, this work can be done respecting both the needs of the companies carrying them out and the tenants. This rigorous but pragmatic approach enables the carrying out of thermic rehabilitation work in State-owned low cost housing, a field in which the number of hours worked cannot be too high. Many buildings in France are in this situation and the above approach enables work to be carried out.

  12. Low energy, low cost, efficient CO{sub 2} capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael C. Trachtenberg; Lihong Bao; David A. Smith; Remy Dumortier [Carbozyme, Inc., Monmouth Junction, NJ (United States)


    This paper discusses the development and some characteristics of a new, enzyme-based, contained liquid membrane contactor to capture CO{sub 2}. The enzyme carbonic anhydrase catalyzes the removal of CO{sub 2} while the membrane contactor increases the surface area to allow the reduction of the size of the system. The modular system design is easily scaled to any required size reducing the investment costs. The system captures CO{sub 2} at a low energy and low cost promising to be a cost effective technology for CO{sub 2} capture. 5 refs., 7 figs.

  13. Cultural Heritage Recording Utilising Low-Cost Closerange Photogrammetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Kirchhöfer


    Full Text Available Cultural heritage is under a constant threat of damage or even destruction and comprehensive and accurate recording is necessary to attenuate the risk of losing heritage or serve as basis for reconstruction. Cost effective and easy to use methods are required to record cultural heritage, particularly during a world recession, and close-range photogrammetry has proven potential in this area. Off-the-shelf digital cameras can be used to rapidly acquire data at low cost, allowing non-experts to become involved. Exterior orientation of the camera during exposure ideally needs to be established for every image, traditionally requiring known coordinated target points. Establishing these points is time consuming and costly and using targets can be often undesirable on sensitive sites. MEMS-based sensors can assist in overcoming this problem by providing small-size and low-cost means to directly determine exterior orientation for close-range photogrammetry. This paper describes development of an image-based recording system, comprising an off-the-shelf digital SLR camera, a MEMS-based 3D orientation sensor and a GPS antenna. All system components were assembled in a compact and rigid frame that allows calibration of rotational and positional offsets between the components. The project involves collaboration between English Heritage and Loughborough University and the intention is to assess the system’s achievable accuracy and practicability in a heritage recording environment. Tests were conducted at Loughborough University and a case study at St. Catherine’s Oratory on the Isle of Wight, UK. These demonstrate that the data recorded by the system can indeed meet the accuracy requirements for heritage recording at medium accuracy (1-4cm, with either a single or even no control points. As the recording system has been configured with a focus on low-cost and easy-to-use components, it is believed to be suitable for heritage recording by non

  14. Low Cost Science Teaching Equipment for Visually Impaired Children (United States)

    Gupta, H. O.; Singh, Rakshpal


    A low cost null detector an electronic thermometer and a colorimeter have been designed and developed for enabling visually impaired children (VIC) to do experiments in science that normally are accessible only to sighted children. The instruments are based on audio null detection in a balanced bridge and use a themistor for sensing the temperature and an LDR for color change. The analog output can be tactually read by VIC. The equipment has been tested for suitability with VIC. The approach followed in developing these equipment would be generally appropriate to a wide variety of science equipment for VIC by incorporating suitable sensors.

  15. A Low-cost Multi-channel Analogue Signal Generator

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, F; The ATLAS collaboration; Shen, W; Stamen, R


    A scalable multi-channel analogue signal generator is presented. It uses a commercial low-cost graphics card with multiple outputs in a standard PC as signal source. Each color signal serves as independent channel to generate an analogue signal. A custom-built external PCB was developed to adjust the graphics card output voltage levels for a specific task, which needed differential signals. The system furthermore comprises a software package to program the signal shape. The implementation of the signal generator is presented as well as an application where it was successfully utilized.

  16. A Low-cost Multi-channel Analogue Signal Generator

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, F; The ATLAS collaboration; Shen, W; Stamen, R


    A scalable multi-channel analogue signal generator is presented. It uses a commercial low-cost graphics card with multiple outputs in a standard PC as signal source. Each color signal serves as independent channel to generate an analogue signal. A custom-built external PCB was developed to adjust the graphics card output voltage levels for a specific task, which needed differential signals. The system furthermore comprises a software package to program the signal shape. The signal generator was successfully used as independent test bed for the ATLAS Level-1 Trigger Pre-Processor, providing up to 16 analogue signals.

  17. Multifunctional Robot at low cost for small farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Vinícius de Araújo Batista

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: In this study was developed a three-dimensional robotic device, equipped with a system of actuators, sensors, and controllers to do the individual irrigation of plants in low-cost greenhouses for family farming. After the development were carried out the data collection in the field. In the data analyzing, reported that there was no statistical difference between means for manual irrigation and robotics in the development of agronomic variables of stem height, stem diameter and number of leaves, concluding that the robotic irrigation promoted a lower coefficient of variation and a lower standard deviation in the samples.

  18. Uncertainty in air quality observations using low-cost sensors (United States)

    Castell, Nuria; Dauge, Franck R.; Dongol, Rozina; Vogt, Matthias; Schneider, Philipp


    Air pollution poses a threat to human health, and the WHO has classified air pollution as the world's largest single environmental health risk. In Europe, the majority of the population lives in areas where air quality levels frequently exceed WHO's ambient air quality guidelines. The emergence of low-cost, user-friendly and very compact air pollution platforms allowing observations at high spatial resolution in near real-time, provides us with new opportunities to simultaneously enhance existing monitoring systems as well as enable citizens to engage in more active environmental monitoring (citizen science). However the data sets generated by low-cost sensors show often questionable data quality. For many sensors, neither their error characteristics nor how their measurement capability holds up over time or through a range of environmental conditions, have been evaluated. We have conducted an exhaustive evaluation of the commercial low-cost platform AQMesh (measuring NO, NO2, CO, O3, PM10 and PM2.5) in laboratory and in real-world conditions in the city of Oslo (Norway). Co-locations in field of 24 platforms were conducted over a 6 month period (April to September 2015) allowing to characterize the temporal variability in the performance. Additionally, the field performance included the characterization on different monitoring urban monitoring sites characteristic of both traffic and background conditions. All the evaluations have been conducted against CEN reference method analyzers maintained according to the Norwegian National Reference Laboratory quality system. The results show clearly that a good performance in laboratory does not imply similar performance in real-world outdoor conditions. Moreover, laboratory calibration is not suitable for subsequent measurements in urban environments. In order to reduce the errors, sensors require on-site field calibration. Even after such field calibration, the platforms show a significant variability in the performance

  19. Low Cost and Flexible UAV Deployment of Sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lars Yndal; Jacobsen, Lars Toft; Hansen, John Paulin


    This paper presents a platform for airborne sensor applications using low-cost, open-source components carried by an easy-to-fly unmanned aircraft vehicle (UAV). The system, available in open-source, is designed for researchers, students and makers for a broad range of exploration and data......-collection needs. The main contribution is the extensible architecture for modularized airborne sensor deployment and real-time data visualisation. Our open-source Android application provides data collection, flight path definition and map tools. Total cost of the system is below 800 dollars. The flexibility...

  20. Low cost nuclear spectrometer based on micro-controller device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrillo, M.A.; Aramayo, P.B.


    The present work describes the development of a gamma radiation Multichannel Analyzer device. That is to say, the development of a device able to display in the screen of a conventional computer a histogram of radioactive accounts (or accounts rate) received, in function of the different emission energies. It is a low cost implementation, oriented to mainly educational activities, but also applicable, within its limitations, to medium precision investigation works. In this first phase all the necessary one was implemented to detect the radioactive emissions, to measure them in energy, to store a complete spectrum and electronically to transfer it to a PC for its subsequent analysis. (author)

  1. Low-Cost Experimentation for the Study of Droplet Microfluidics (United States)

    Bardin, David; Lee, Abraham P.


    The continued growth of microfluidics into industry settings in areas such as point-of-care diagnostics and targeted therapeutics necessitates a workforce trained in microfluidic technologies and experimental methods. Laboratory courses for students at the university and high school levels will require cost-effective in-class demonstrations that instruct in chip design, fabrication, and experimentation at the microscale. We present a hand-operated pressure pumping system to form monodisperse picoliter to nanoliter droplet streams at low cost, and a series of exercises aimed at instructing in the specific art of droplet formation. Using this setup, the student is able to generate and observe the modes of droplet formation in flow-focusing devices, and the effect of device dimensions on the characteristics of formed droplets. Lastly, at ultra-low cost we demonstrate large plug formation in a T-junction using coffee stirrers as a master mold substitute. Our method reduces the cost of experimentation to enable intuitive instruction in droplet formation, with additional implications for creating droplets in the field or at point-of-care. PMID:25133595

  2. Low cost sensing technology for type 2 diabetes monitoring (United States)

    Sarswat, Prashant; Free, Michael


    Alpha-hydroxybutyrate (2-hydroxybutyrate or α-HB) is becoming more widely recognized as an important metabolic biomarker that has been shown to be highly correlated with prediabetes and other metabolic diseases. In 2012 there were 86 million Americans with prediabetes, many of whom are not aware they have prediabetes, but could be diagnosed and treated to prevent type 2 diabetes if a simple, low-cost, convenient test were available. We have developed new, low-cost, accurate α-HB detection methods that can be used for the detection and monitoring of diseases such as prediabetes, type 2 diabetes, β-cell dysfunction, and early hyperglycemia. The new sensing method utilizes a diol recognition moiety, additives and a photoinitiator to detect α-HB at levels near 1 micro g/l in the presence of serum compounds such as lactic acid, sodium pyruvate, and glucose. The objective of this research is to improve the understanding of the interactions that enhance α-HB detection to enable additional improvements in α-HB detection as well as improvements in other biosensor applications.

  3. Low-cost universal stereoscopic virtual reality interfaces (United States)

    Starks, Michael R.


    Low cost stereoscopic virtual reality hardware interfacing with nearly any computer and stereoscopic software running on any PC is described. Both are user configurable for serial or parallel ports. Stereo modeling, rendering, and interaction via gloves or 6D mice are provided. Low cost LCD Visors and external interfaces represent a breakthrough in convenience and price/performance. A complete system with software, Visor, interface and Power Glove is under $DOL500. StereoDrivers will interface with any system giving video sync (e.g., G of RGB). PC3D will access any standard serial port, while PCVR works with serial or parallel ports and glove devices. Model RF Visors detect magnetic fields and require no connection to the system. PGSI is a microprocessor control for the Power Glove and Visors. All interfaces will operate to 120 Hz with Model G Visors. The SpaceStations are demultiplexing, field doubling devices which convert field sequential video or graphics for stereo display with dual video projection or dual LCD SpaceHelmets.

  4. Preliminary study of Low-Cost Micro Gas Turbine (United States)

    Fikri, M.; Ridzuan, M.; Salleh, Hamidon


    The electricity consumption nowadays has increased due to the increasing development of portable electronic devices. The development of low cost micro gas turbine engine, which is designed for the purposes of new electrical generation Micro turbines are a relatively new distributed generation technology being used for stationary energy generation applications. They are a type of combustion turbine that produces both heat and electricity on a relatively small scaled.. This research are focusing of developing a low-cost micro gas turbine engine based on automotive turbocharger and to evaluation the performance of the developed micro gas turbine. The test rig engine basically was constructed using a Nissan 45V3 automotive turbocharger, containing compressor and turbine assemblies on a common shaft. The operating performance of developed micro gas turbine was analyzed experimentally with the increment of 5000 RPM on the compressor speed. The speed of the compressor was limited at 70000 RPM and only 1000 degree Celsius at maximum were allowed to operate the system in order to avoid any failure on the turbocharger bearing and the other components. Performance parameters such as inlet temperature, compressor temperature, exhaust gas temperature, and fuel and air flow rates were measured. The data was collected electronically by 74972A data acquisition and evaluated manually by calculation. From the independent test shows the result of the system, The speed of the LP turbine can be reached up to 35000 RPM and produced 18.5kw of mechanical power.

  5. Low-Cost Mini Radar: Design Prototyping and Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Tarchi


    Full Text Available Radar systems are largely employed for surveillance of wide and remote areas; the recent advent of drones gives the opportunity to exploit radar sensors on board of unmanned aerial platforms. Nevertheless, whereas drone radars are currently available for military applications, their employment in the civilian domain is still limited. The present research focuses on design, prototyping, and testing of an agile, low-cost, mini radar system, to be carried on board of Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPAs or tethered aerostats. In particular, the paper faces the challenge to integrate the in-house developed radar sensor with a low-cost navigation board, which is used to estimate attitude and positioning data. In fact, a suitable synchronization between radar and navigation data is essential to properly reconstruct the radar picture whenever the platform is moving or the radar is scanning different azimuthal sectors. Preliminary results, relative to tests conducted in preoperational conditions, are provided and exploited to assert the suitable consistency of the obtained radar pictures. From the results, there is a high consistency between the radar images and the picture of the current environment emerges; finally, the comparison of radar images obtained in different scans shows the stability of the platform.

  6. A low-cost real color picker based on Arduino. (United States)

    Agudo, Juan Enrique; Pardo, Pedro J; Sánchez, Héctor; Pérez, Ángel Luis; Suero, María Isabel


    Color measurements have traditionally been linked to expensive and difficult to handle equipment. The set of mathematical transformations that are needed to transfer a color that we observe in any object that doesn't emit its own light (which is usually called a color-object) so that it can be displayed on a computer screen or printed on paper is not at all trivial. This usually requires a thorough knowledge of color spaces, colorimetric transformations and color management systems. The TCS3414CS color sensor (I2C Sensor Color Grove), a system for capturing, processing and color management that allows the colors of any non-self-luminous object using a low-cost hardware based on Arduino, is presented in this paper. Specific software has been developed in Matlab and a study of the linearity of chromatic channels and accuracy of color measurements for this device has been undertaken. All used scripts (Arduino and Matlab) are attached as supplementary material. The results show acceptable accuracy values that, although obviously do not reach the levels obtained with the other scientific instruments, for the price difference they present a good low cost option.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Tsouvaltsidis


    Full Text Available The purpose of this scientific survey is to support the research being conducted at York University in the field of spectroscopy and nanosatellites using Argus 1000 micro- spectrometer and low cost unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV system. On the CanX-2 mission, the Argus spectrometer observes reflected infrared solar radiation emitted by Earth surface targets as small as 1.5 km within the 0.9-1.7 μm range. However, limitations in the volume of data due to onboard power constraints and a lack of an onboard camera system make it very difficult to verify these objectives using ground truth. In the last five years that Argus has been in operation, we have made over 200 observations over a series of land and ocean targets. We have recently examined algorithms to improve the geolocation accuracy of the spectrometer payload and began to conduct an analysis of soil health content using Argus spectral data. A field campaign is used to obtain data to assess geolocation accuracy using coastline crossing detection and to obtain airborne bare soil spectra in ground truth form. The payload system used for the field campaign consists of an Argus spectrometer, optical camera, GPS, and attitude sensors, integrated into a low-cost, unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV, which will be presented along with the experimental procedure and field campaign results.

  8. Remote Spectral Imaging Using a Low Cost Uav System (United States)

    Tsouvaltsidis, C.; Salem, N. Zaid Al; Benari, G.; Vrekalic, D.; Quine, B.


    The purpose of this scientific survey is to support the research being conducted at York University in the field of spectroscopy and nanosatellites using Argus 1000 micro- spectrometer and low cost unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) system. On the CanX-2 mission, the Argus spectrometer observes reflected infrared solar radiation emitted by Earth surface targets as small as 1.5 km within the 0.9-1.7 μm range. However, limitations in the volume of data due to onboard power constraints and a lack of an onboard camera system make it very difficult to verify these objectives using ground truth. In the last five years that Argus has been in operation, we have made over 200 observations over a series of land and ocean targets. We have recently examined algorithms to improve the geolocation accuracy of the spectrometer payload and began to conduct an analysis of soil health content using Argus spectral data. A field campaign is used to obtain data to assess geolocation accuracy using coastline crossing detection and to obtain airborne bare soil spectra in ground truth form. The payload system used for the field campaign consists of an Argus spectrometer, optical camera, GPS, and attitude sensors, integrated into a low-cost, unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), which will be presented along with the experimental procedure and field campaign results.

  9. Designing a Low-Cost Multifunctional Infant Incubator. (United States)

    Tran, Kevin; Gibson, Aaron; Wong, Don; Tilahun, Dagmawi; Selock, Nicholas; Good, Theresa; Ram, Geetha; Tolosa, Leah; Tolosa, Michael; Kostov, Yordan; Woo, Hyung Chul; Frizzell, Michael; Fulda, Victor; Gopinath, Ramya; Prasad, J Shashidhara; Sudarshan, Hanumappa; Venkatesan, Arunkumar; Kumar, V Sashi; Shylaja, N; Rao, Govind


    Every year, an unacceptably large number of infant deaths occur in developing nations, with premature birth and asphyxia being two of the leading causes. A well-regulated thermal environment is critical for neonatal survival. Advanced incubators currently exist, but they are far too expensive to meet the needs of developing nations. We are developing a thermodynamically advanced low-cost incubator suitable for operation in a low-resource environment. Our design features three innovations: (1) a disposable baby chamber to reduce infant mortality due to nosocomial infections, (2) a passive cooling mechanism using low-cost heat pipes and evaporative cooling from locally found clay pots, and (3) insulated panels and a thermal bank consisting of water that effectively preserve and store heat. We developed a prototype incubator and visited and presented our design to our partnership hospital site in Mysore, India. After obtaining feedback, we have determined realistic, nontrivial design requirements and constraints in order to develop a new prototype incubator for clinical trials in hospitals in India. © 2014 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  10. Prosthetic design directives: Low-cost hands within reach. (United States)

    Jones, G K; Rosendo, A; Stopforth, R


    Although three million people around the world suffer from the lack of one or both upper limbs 80% of this number is located within developing countries. While prosthetic prices soar with technology 3D printing and low cost electronics present a sensible solution for those that cannot afford expensive prosthetics. The electronic and control design of a low-cost prosthetic hand, the Touch Hand II, is discussed. This paper shows that sensorless techniques can be used to reduce design complexities, costs, and provide easier access to the electronics. A closing and opening finite state machine (COFSM) was developed to handle the actuated digit joint control state and a supervisory switching control scheme, used for speed and grip strength control. Three torque and speed settings were created to be preset for specific grasps. The hand was able to replicate ten frequently used grasps and grip some common objects. Future work is necessary to enable a user to control it with myoelectric signals (MESs) and to solve operational problems related to electromagnetic interference (EMI).

  11. Towards low-cost flexible substrates for nanoplasmonic sensing. (United States)

    Polavarapu, Lakshminarayana; Liz-Marzán, Luis M


    Plasmonic nanostructures have played a significant role in the field of nanotechnology due to their unprecedented ability to concentrate light at the nanometre scale, which renders them precious for various sensing applications. The adsorption of plasmonic nanoparticles and nanostructures onto solid substrates in a controlled manner is a crucial process for the fabrication of nanoplasmonic devices, in which the nanoparticles amplify the electromagnetic fields for enhanced device performance. In this perspective article we summarize recent developments in the fabrication of flexible nanoplasmonic devices for sensing applications based on surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) shifts. We introduce different types of flexible substrates such as filter paper, free-standing nanofibres, elastomers, plastics, carbon nanotubes and graphene, for the fabrication of low-cost flexible nanoplasmonic devices. Various techniques are described that allow impregnation of such flexible substrates with plasmonic nanoparticles, including solution processes, physical vapour deposition and lithographic techniques. From the discussion in this Perspective, it is clear that highly sensitive and reproducible flexible plasmonic devices can currently be fabricated on a large scale at relatively low-cost, toward real-world applications in diagnostics and detection.

  12. Bamboo composite materials for low-cost housing (United States)

    Dagilis, Trevor David

    Investigation into the use of bamboo in composite panels for low-cost housing is presented. Information on the housing situation, the state of the forest resources, and the needs for low-cost housing are given for Ecuador, which is seen as representative of countries with a history of bamboo use, and potential for further development. Specifically bamboo particleboard using Guadua angustifolia, Dendrocalamus strictus, Phyllostachys pubescens, and Bambusa vulgaris manufactured with steam injection pressing is presented. High strength panels including waferboard made from randomly placed and oriented Bambusa vulgaris wafers, bamboo particleboard overlaid with woven bamboo mats, and "picada panels" were developed. Emphasis was given to short press times, low resin contents, and low product densities in comparison with previous technology to ensure economic viability. This investigation is a unique contribution to the science of composite products and has developed a number of panel products that are both technically and economically feasible. A discussion of economic, social and environmental issues surrounding bamboo industrialisation is also presented.

  13. A Low Cost Single Chip VDL Compatible Transceiver ASIC (United States)

    Becker, Robert


    Recent trends in commercial communications system components have focussed almost exclusively on cellular telephone technology. As many of the traditional sources of receiver components have discontinued non-cellular telephone products, the designers of avionics and other low volume radio applications find themselves increasingly unable to find highly integrated components. This is particularly true for low power, low cost applications which cannot afford the lavish current consumption of the software defined radio approach increasingly taken by certified device manufacturers. In this paper, we describe a low power transceiver chip targeting applications from low VHF to low UHF frequencies typical of avionics systems. The chip encompasses a selectable single or double conversion design for the receiver and a low power IF upconversion transmitter. All local oscillators are synthesized and integrated into the chip. An on-chip I-Q modulator and demodulator provide baseband modulation and demodulation capability allowing the use of low power, fixed point signal processing components for signal demodulation. The goal of this program is to demonstrate a low cost VDL mode-3 transceiver using this chip to receive text weather information sent using 4-slot TDMA with no support for voice. The data will be sent from an experimental ground station. This work is funded by NASA Glenn Research Center.

  14. Low cost 3D scanning process using digital image processing (United States)

    Aguilar, David; Romero, Carlos; Martínez, Fernando


    This paper shows the design and building of a low cost 3D scanner, able to digitize solid objects through contactless data acquisition, using active object reflection. 3D scanners are used in different applications such as: science, engineering, entertainment, etc; these are classified in: contact scanners and contactless ones, where the last ones are often the most used but they are expensive. This low-cost prototype is done through a vertical scanning of the object using a fixed camera and a mobile horizontal laser light, which is deformed depending on the 3-dimensional surface of the solid. Using digital image processing an analysis of the deformation detected by the camera was done; it allows determining the 3D coordinates using triangulation. The obtained information is processed by a Matlab script, which gives to the user a point cloud corresponding to each horizontal scanning done. The obtained results show an acceptable quality and significant details of digitalized objects, making this prototype (built on LEGO Mindstorms NXT kit) a versatile and cheap tool, which can be used for many applications, mainly by engineering students.

  15. Volumetric calculation using low cost unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) approach (United States)

    Rahman, A. A. Ab; Maulud, K. N. Abdul; Mohd, F. A.; Jaafar, O.; Tahar, K. N.


    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) technology has evolved dramatically in the 21st century. It is used by both military and general public for recreational purposes and mapping work. Operating cost for UAV is much cheaper compared to that of normal aircraft and it does not require a large work space. The UAV systems have similar functions with the LIDAR and satellite images technologies. These systems require a huge cost, labour and time consumption to produce elevation and dimension data. Measurement of difficult objects such as water tank can also be done by using UAV. The purpose of this paper is to show the capability of UAV to compute the volume of water tank based on a different number of images and control points. The results were compared with the actual volume of the tank to validate the measurement. In this study, the image acquisition was done using Phantom 3 Professional, which is a low cost UAV. The analysis in this study is based on different volume computations using two and four control points with variety set of UAV images. The results show that more images will provide a better quality measurement. With 95 images and four GCP, the error percentage to the actual volume is about 5%. Four controls are enough to get good results but more images are needed, estimated about 115 until 220 images. All in all, it can be concluded that the low cost UAV has a potential to be used for volume of water and dimension measurement.

  16. Using low-cost drones to map malaria vector habitats. (United States)

    Hardy, Andy; Makame, Makame; Cross, Dónall; Majambere, Silas; Msellem, Mwinyi


    There is a growing awareness that if we are to achieve the ambitious goal of malaria elimination, we must compliment indoor-based vector control interventions (such as bednets and indoor spraying) with outdoor-based interventions such as larval source management (LSM). The effectiveness of LSM is limited by our capacity to identify and map mosquito aquatic habitats. This study provides a proof of concept for the use of a low-cost (drone (DJI Phantom) for mapping water bodies in seven sites across Zanzibar including natural water bodies, irrigated and non-irrigated rice paddies, peri-urban and urban locations. With flying times of less than 30 min for each site, high-resolution (7 cm) georeferenced images were successfully generated for each of the seven sites, covering areas up to 30 ha. Water bodies were readily identifiable in the imagery, as well as ancillary information for planning LSM activities (access routes to water bodies by road and foot) and public health management (e.g. identification of drinking water sources, mapping individual households and the nature of their construction). The drone-based surveys carried out in this study provide a low-cost and flexible solution to mapping water bodies for operational dissemination of LSM initiatives in mosquito vector-borne disease elimination campaigns. Generated orthomosaics can also be used to provide vital information for other public health planning activities.

  17. A Low Cost Rokkaku Kite Setup for Aerial Photogrammetric System (United States)

    Khan, A. F.; Khurshid, K.; Saleh, N.; Yousuf, A. A.


    Orthogonally Projected Area (OPA) of a geographical feature has primarily been studied utilizing rather time consuming field based sampling techniques. Remote sensing on the contrary provides the ability to acquire large scale data at a snapshot of time and lets the OPA to be calculated conveniently and with reasonable accuracy. Unfortunately satellite based remote sensing provides data at high cost and limited spatial resolution for scientific studies focused at small areas such as micro lakes micro ecosystems, etc. More importantly, recent satellite data may not be readily available for a particular location. This paper describes a low cost photogrammetric system to measure the OPA of a small scale geographic feature such as a plot of land, micro lake or an archaeological site, etc. Fitted with a consumer grade digital imaging system, a Rokkaku kite aerial platform with stable flight characteristics is designed and fabricated for image acquisition. The data processing procedure involves automatic Ground Control Point (GCP) detection, intelligent target area shape determination with minimal human input. A Graphical User Interface (GUI) is built from scratch in MATLAB to allow the user to conveniently process the acquired data, archive and retrieve the results. Extensive on-field experimentation consists of multiple geographic features including flat land surfaces, buildings, undulating rural areas, and an irregular shaped micro lake, etc. Our results show that the proposed system is not only low cost, but provides a framework that is easy and fast to setup while maintaining the required constraints on the accuracy.

  18. Recent developments in low cost stable structures for space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, T.C.; Grastataro, C.; Smith, B.G.


    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in partnership with Composite Optics Incorporated (COI) is advancing the development of low cost, lightweight, composite technology for use in spacecraft and stable structures. The use of advanced composites is well developed, but the application of an all-composite tracker structure has never been achieved. This paper investigates the application of composite technology to the design and fabrication of an all-composite spacecraft bus for small satellites, using technology directly applicable to central tracking in a high luminosity environment. The satellite program Fast On-Orbit Recording of Transient Events (FORTE) is the second in a series of satellites to be launched into orbit for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This paper will discuss recent developments in the area of low cost composites, used for either spacecraft or ultra stable applications in high energy physics (HEP) detectors. The use of advanced composites is a relatively new development in the area of HEP. The Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) spawned a new generation of Trackers which made extensive use of graphite fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP) composite systems. LANL has designed a structure employing new fabrication technology. This concept will lower the cost of composite structures to a point that they may now compete with conventional materials. This paper will discuss the design, analysis and proposed fabrication of a small satellite structure. Central tracking structures using advanced materials capable of operating in an adverse environment typical of that found in a high luminosity collider could use identical concepts

  19. Low-cost oblique illumination: an image quality assessment (United States)

    Ruiz-Santaquiteria, Jesus; Espinosa-Aranda, Jose Luis; Deniz, Oscar; Sanchez, Carlos; Borrego-Ramos, Maria; Blanco, Saul; Cristobal, Gabriel; Bueno, Gloria


    We study the effectiveness of several low-cost oblique illumination filters to improve overall image quality, in comparison with standard bright field imaging. For this purpose, a dataset composed of 3360 diatom images belonging to 21 taxa was acquired. Subjective and objective image quality assessments were done. The subjective evaluation was performed by a group of diatom experts by psychophysical test where resolution, focus, and contrast were assessed. Moreover, some objective nonreference image quality metrics were applied to the same image dataset to complete the study, together with the calculation of several texture features to analyze the effect of these filters in terms of textural properties. Both image quality evaluation methods, subjective and objective, showed better results for images acquired using these illumination filters in comparison with the no filtered image. These promising results confirm that this kind of illumination filters can be a practical way to improve the image quality, thanks to the simple and low cost of the design and manufacturing process.

  20. Research and Development of a Low Cost Solar Collector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansari, Asif; Philip, Lee; Thouppuarachchi, Chirath


    This is a Final Technical Report on the Research and Development completed towards the development of a Low Cost Solar Collector conducted under the DOE cost-sharing award EE-0003591. The objective of this project was to develop a new class of solar concentrators with geometries and manufacturability that could significantly reduce the fully installed cost of the solar collector field for concentrated solar thermal power plants. The goal of the project was to achieve an aggressive cost target of $170/m2, a reduction of up to 50% in the total installed cost of a solar collector field as measured against the current industry benchmark of a conventional parabolic trough. The project plan, and the detailed activities conducted under the scope of the DOE Award project addressed all major drivers that affect solar collector costs. In addition to costs, the study also focused on evaluating technical performance of new collector architectures and compared them to the performance of the industry benchmark parabolic trough. The most notable accomplishment of this DOE award was the delivery of a full-scale integrated design, manufacturing and field installation solution for a new class of solar collector architecture which has been classified as the Bi-Planar Fresnel Collector (BPFC) and may be considered as a viable alternative to the conventional parabolic trough, as well as the conventional Fresnel collectors. This was in part accomplished through the design and development, all the way through fabrication and test validation of a new class of Linear Planar Fresnel Collector architecture. This architecture offers a number of key differentiating features which include a planar light-weight frame geometry with small mass-manufacturable elements utilizing flat mirror sections. The designs shows significant promise in reducing the material costs, fabrication costs, shipping costs, and on-site field installation costs compared to the benchmark parabolic trough, as well as the

  1. Low-cost sensors to monitor groundwater drought in Somalia (United States)

    Buytaert, W.; Ochoa-Tocachi, B. F.; Caniglia, D.; Haibe, K.; Butler, A. P.


    Somalia is one of the poorest countries in the world, devastated by conflict and suffering from the most severe droughts in living memory. Over 6 million people are in need of assistance, and about 3 million are threatened with famine. In April 2017, the WHO estimated that more than 25,000 people have been struck by cholera or acute watery diarrhoea and this number is rising quickly. About half a million Somalis have been displaced internally, many of which in search of water. Some 3 million pastoralists have lost 70% of livestock as a result of the drought. Humanitarian organisations and government agencies invest large amounts of resources to alleviate these conditions. It is paramount to inform the design, focus, and optimisation of these interventions by monitoring and quantifying water resources. Yet, regions such as Somalia are extremely sparsely gauged as a result of a combination of lack of resources and technical expertise, as well as the harsh geographical and geopolitical conditions. Low-cost, robust, and reliable sensors may provide a potential solution to this problem. We present the results of a research project that aimed to leverage new developments in sensor, logger, and data transmission technologies to develop low-cost water level sensors to monitor hand-dug groundwater wells in real time. We tested 3 types of sensor types, i.e. pressure transducers, ultrasound-based distance sensors, and lidar, which were coupled to low-cost logging systems. The different designs were tested both in laboratory conditions, and in-situ in hand-dug wells in Somaliland. Our results show that it is technically possible to build sensors with a total cost of around US$250 each, which are fit-for-purpose for the required application. In-situ deployment over a period of 2 months highlights their robustness despite severe logistical and practical challenges, though further tests are required to understand their long-term reliability. Operating the sensors at one

  2. System identification of a small low-cost unmanned aerial vehicle using flight data from low-cost sensors (United States)

    Hoffer, Nathan Von

    Remote sensing has traditionally been done with satellites and manned aircraft. While. these methods can yield useful scientificc data, satellites and manned aircraft have limitations in data frequency, process time, and real time re-tasking. Small low-cost unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) provide greater possibilities for personal scientic research than traditional remote sensing platforms. Precision aerial data requires an accurate vehicle dynamics model for controller development, robust flight characteristics, and fault tolerance. One method of developing a model is system identification (system ID). In this thesis system ID of a small low-cost fixed-wing T-tail UAV is conducted. The linerized longitudinal equations of motion are derived from first principles. Foundations of Recursive Least Squares (RLS) are presented along with RLS with an Error Filtering Online Learning scheme (EFOL). Sensors, data collection, data consistency checking, and data processing are described. Batch least squares (BLS) and BLS with EFOL are used to identify aerodynamic coecoefficients of the UAV. Results of these two methods with flight data are discussed.

  3. Removal of heavy metals from aqueous solution by an efficient low cost biosorbent (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, S.; Ullah, A.


    The aim of this work was to assess the possibility of removing some heavy metals from water by a low-cost bio sorbent. Removal of lead and cadmium which differ in toxicity, as well as in some other characteristics were examined. Sawdust of Morus alba wood modified with 0.5N NaOH was applied as low cost bio sorbent. The sample was characterized by BET surface area, EDX, FTIR and Zeta potential technique. The removal of Cd(II) and Pb(II) by treated sawdust has been found to be concentration, contact time, adsorbate dose and temperature dependent. The adsorption parameters were determined using Freundlich, Langmuir and Tempkin isotherm models. The applicability of kinetic models i.e. pseudo first order, Elovich and parabolic diffusion has also been investigated. Thermodynamic parameters like delta H, delta S and delta G were calculated from the kinetic data. The equilibrium adsorption was achieved in 100 min. The result shows that the adsorbent examined was found to have good adsorption capacity. Surface complexation and ion exchange are the major removal mechanisms involved. The correlation coefficient for Langmuir, Freundlich and Tempkin equation were well fitted. The adsorption follows first-order kinetics. The rate of adsorption was high at high temperature. The positive values of delta S reflect some structural exchange among the active site of the adsorbent and metal ion. The negative value of Gibbs free energy (delta G) shows the spontaneous nature of the process. The findings of the data reveal that the modified Sawdust is a low-cost, easily available bio sorbent and can be use as alternative to other commercial adsorbents as well as for effluent treatment in industries. (author)

  4. Low cost strategies for microbiological purification of drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qazi, J.I.; Saleem, F.


    Effects of sunlight intensities and freezing on prevalence of coliform bacteria in water were assessed in this study. Fish pond water indicated 1100 figure of most probable number (MPN) of coliforms, while on MacConkey agar they appeared uncountable. When this water was exposed to sunlight it was found that a exposure of 1.5 hours in ceramic containers covered by petri plates and those with magnifying lenses of 3X powers indicated 58 and 78% reduction in the coliforms, respectively. Corresponding figures for 3 hours exposure were found to be 100 percent less than the control MPN value. Freezing with subsequent thawing also reduced the microbial population. The experiments reported here are suggestive to construct simple low cost water treatment plants to provide microbiologically safe drinking water. Antibiotics sensitivity and resistant patterns of coliforms for tetracycline, piperacillin, streptomycin, metronidazole, erythromycin and chloramphenicol in connection to pre- and post treatments are indicated. (author)

  5. Philosophy of design for low cost and high reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, John Leif; Liebe, Carl Christian


    The Ørsted Star Imager or Advanced Stellar Compass (ASC), includes the full functionallity of a traditional star tracker plus autonomy, i.e. it is able to quickly and autonomously solve "the lost in space" attitude problem, and determine its attitude with high precision. The design also provides......, Computational speed and Fault detection and recovery substantially. The high performance and low cost design was realized by the use of advanced high level integrated chips, along with a design philosophy of maximum autonomy at all levels. This approach necessitated the use of a prototyping facility which could...... and process are described, starting with the system specifications and its derived design drivers, through the design process and its iterations, including the specification, design and capability of the prototyping facility, and ending with the final system design. The rationale for IC-level selection...

  6. Low-cost portable TRNG, implementation and evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fermevc Igor


    Full Text Available This paper will show one of many possible hardware implementations of random sequence generators and give a short survey on existing work related to techniques used for producing true random bits. By using cheap electronic components found in every specialized store such as 8-bit RISC microcontroler, double analogue comparator chip and USB to RS232 interface integrated circuit, we were able to produce a low cost, higly portable device that outputs random sequences with excellent statistical characteristics and high entropy. The source of randomness is a mix of techniques such as electronic noise, phase noise and oscillator jitter. The device in question has a built-in debiasing algorithm similar to [1] and a security mechanism that protects the end user by constantly monitoring the quality of digitized noise signal. Finaly, we will show the results of comparative analysis of data acquired from our device and „“ online service.

  7. Demonstration of the Low-Cost Virtual Collaborative Environment (VCE) (United States)

    Bowers, David; Montes, Leticia; Ramos, Angel; Joyce, Brendan; Lumia, Ron


    This paper demonstrates the feasibility of a low-cost approach of remotely controlling equipment. Our demonstration system consists of a PC, the PUMA 560 robot with Barrett hand, and commercially available controller and teleconferencing software. The system provides a graphical user interface which allows a user to program equipment tasks and preview motions i.e., simulate the results. Once satisfied that the actions are both safe and accomplish the task, the remote user sends the data over the Internet to the local site for execution on the real equipment. A video link provides visual feedback to the remote sight. This technology lends itself readily to NASA's upcoming Mars expeditions by providing remote simulation and control of equipment.

  8. Arduino: a low-cost multipurpose lab equipment. (United States)

    D'Ausilio, Alessandro


    Typical experiments in psychological and neurophysiological settings often require the accurate control of multiple input and output signals. These signals are often generated or recorded via computer software and/or external dedicated hardware. Dedicated hardware is usually very expensive and requires additional software to control its behavior. In the present article, I present some accuracy tests on a low-cost and open-source I/O board (Arduino family) that may be useful in many lab environments. One of the strengths of Arduinos is the possibility they afford to load the experimental script on the board's memory and let it run without interfacing with computers or external software, thus granting complete independence, portability, and accuracy. Furthermore, a large community has arisen around the Arduino idea and offers many hardware add-ons and hundreds of free scripts for different projects. Accuracy tests show that Arduino boards may be an inexpensive tool for many psychological and neurophysiological labs.

  9. Low-Cost Peptide Microarrays for Mapping Continuous Antibody Epitopes. (United States)

    McBride, Ryan; Head, Steven R; Ordoukhanian, Phillip; Law, Mansun


    With the increasing need for understanding antibody specificity in antibody and vaccine research, pepscan assays provide a rapid method for mapping and profiling antibody responses to continuous epitopes. We have developed a relatively low-cost method to generate peptide microarray slides for studying antibody binding. Using a setup of an IntavisAG MultiPep RS peptide synthesizer, a Digilab MicroGrid II 600 microarray printer robot, and an InnoScan 1100 AL scanner, the method allows the interrogation of up to 1536 overlapping, alanine-scanning, and mutant peptides derived from the target antigens. Each peptide is tagged with a polyethylene glycol aminooxy terminus to improve peptide solubility, orientation, and conjugation efficiency to the slide surface.

  10. 4273π: Bioinformatics education on low cost ARM hardware (United States)


    Background Teaching bioinformatics at universities is complicated by typical computer classroom settings. As well as running software locally and online, students should gain experience of systems administration. For a future career in biology or bioinformatics, the installation of software is a useful skill. We propose that this may be taught by running the course on GNU/Linux running on inexpensive Raspberry Pi computer hardware, for which students may be granted full administrator access. Results We release 4273π, an operating system image for Raspberry Pi based on Raspbian Linux. This includes minor customisations for classroom use and includes our Open Access bioinformatics course, 4273π Bioinformatics for Biologists. This is based on the final-year undergraduate module BL4273, run on Raspberry Pi computers at the University of St Andrews, Semester 1, academic year 2012–2013. Conclusions 4273π is a means to teach bioinformatics, including systems administration tasks, to undergraduates at low cost. PMID:23937194

  11. Low-cost home experiments and demonstrations in optics (United States)

    Mejías, P. M.; Martínez-Herrero, R.; Serna, J.; Piquero, G.


    More than 60 demonstrations and basic experiments in Optics have been compiled. They can be carried out by secondary and university students in the classroom or at home, and have been conceived considering low cost and easy-to-get materials. The goal is to offer didactic resources, showing that Optics can be taught in an attractive and amusing way. The experiments try to stimulate scientific curiosity, and generate interest in the observation of our physical world. The work could be collected as a book, where each demonstration would be contained in one or two pages, including a title, a list of the required materials and a concise explanation about what to do and observe. Associated with the experimental content, we propose a web page, namely,, that accepts experiments sent by anyone interested in Optics, which can be used as a forum to interchange information on this educational topic.

  12. Energy efficiency of formal low-cost housing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathews, E.H.; Wyk, S.L. van; Richards, P.G.; Rousseau, P.G. (Pretoria Univ. (South Africa))


    South Africa aims to build 3 million houses in the next six years. The most energy efficient design has to be identified to ensure the optimal use of South Africa's resources and to create a prosperous environment for her inhabitants. For this purpose the various formal low-cost house concepts on the market were evaluated and the projected impact on the country calculated. Houses were evaluated by means of a computer programme, Quick. Through simulations it was found that the common brick building built according to passive design guidelines is the best performer. The difference between the best and worst performer accounts to predicted direct cumulative savings in energy costs for a country like South Africa of over R180 million (US dollars 72 million) per annum. (author)

  13. 4273π: bioinformatics education on low cost ARM hardware. (United States)

    Barker, Daniel; Ferrier, David Ek; Holland, Peter Wh; Mitchell, John Bo; Plaisier, Heleen; Ritchie, Michael G; Smart, Steven D


    Teaching bioinformatics at universities is complicated by typical computer classroom settings. As well as running software locally and online, students should gain experience of systems administration. For a future career in biology or bioinformatics, the installation of software is a useful skill. We propose that this may be taught by running the course on GNU/Linux running on inexpensive Raspberry Pi computer hardware, for which students may be granted full administrator access. We release 4273π, an operating system image for Raspberry Pi based on Raspbian Linux. This includes minor customisations for classroom use and includes our Open Access bioinformatics course, 4273π Bioinformatics for Biologists. This is based on the final-year undergraduate module BL4273, run on Raspberry Pi computers at the University of St Andrews, Semester 1, academic year 2012-2013. 4273π is a means to teach bioinformatics, including systems administration tasks, to undergraduates at low cost.

  14. D Mobile Mapping with a Low Cost Uav System (United States)

    Li, J.; Yang, B.; Wu, W.; Dai, W.; Chen, C.; Zou, X.; Tian, M.


    In order to accomplish the automatic mobile mapping task in a small area of interest, a low cost UAV system is proposed in this paper. Multiple sensors including a global shutter camera and an inertial measurement unit are calibrated and synchronized to collect data from the area of interest. First the images are matched by the chronological order and the SfM is utilized. Then the origin SfM result is integrated with the IMU data by adding the IMU constraints into the bundle adjustment. At last the photogrammetry point clouds are generated using PMVS according to the extrinsic parameters. Experiments are undertaken in a typical scene with photogrammetry point clouds generated. The trajectory estimated by the proposed integration method are compared with the method that relies on image only, showing that the proposed method has better performance.

  15. Low cost bare-plate solar air collector (United States)

    Maag, W. L.; Wenzler, C. J.; Rom, F. E.; Vanarsdale, D. R.


    A low cost, bare plate solar collector for preheating ambient air was developed. This type of solar heating system would be applicable for preheating ventilation air for public buildings or other commercial and industrial ventilation requirements. Two prototype collectors were designed, fabricated and installed into an instrumented test system. Tests were conducted for a period of five months. Results of the tests showed consistent operating efficiencies of 60 percent or greater with air preheat temperature uses up to 20 degrees for one of the prototypes. The economic analyses indicated that this type of solar system was economically viable. For the materials of construction and the type of fabrication and installation perceived, costs for the bare plate solar collector are attainable. Applications for preheating ventilation air for schools were evaluated and judged to be economically viable.

  16. Holovideo for everyone: a low-cost holovideo monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smalley, D; Barabas, J; Bove, V M; Jolly, S; DellaSilva, C; Smithwick, Q


    This work presents an architecture for a relatively low-cost, pc-driven holovideo monitor. The geometry uses minimal optics and is built to host a multi-channel acousto-optic modulator that can be driven by up-converted VGA signals. The display's target specifications include a standard vertical resolution (480 lines) output driven by an 18 channel acousto-optic modulator, 30Hz refresh-rate and multiple color operation. This paper reports early tests of this geometry with a single acousto-optic channel. The goal is to create a small but functional holographic display that can be readily replicated, easily driven and provide basic monitor functionality with a bill of materials in the hundreds, rather than thousands, of dollars.

  17. Dyes removal from water using low cost absorbents (United States)

    Giraldo, S.; Ramirez, A. P.; Ulloa, M.; Flórez, E.; Y Acelas, N.


    In this study, the removal capacity of low cost adsorbents during the adsorption of Methylene Blue (MB) and Congo Red (CR) at different concentrations (50 and 100mg·L-1) was evaluated. These adsorbents were produced from wood wastes (cedar and teak) by chemical activation (ZnCl2). Both studied materials, Activated Cedar (AC) and activated teak (AT) showed a good fit of their experimental data to the pseudo second order kinetic model and Langmuir isotherms. The maximum adsorption capacities for AC were 2000.0 and 444.4mg·g-1 for MB and CR, respectively, while for AT, maximum adsorption capacities of 1052.6 and 86.4mg·g-1 were found for MB and CR, respectively.

  18. Low-cost chemical experiments: a contribution from the microscale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González, Alexis


    Full Text Available Experimental activities in laboratories are an important part in teaching and learning Chemistry. However, its implementation can normally be affected by a lack of materials, instruments, reagents price and the risks related to non-proper manipulation among many other factors. Therefore, in order to give better chances to implement experimental activities in teaching Chemistry and diminishing before mentioned problems, this work proposes a series of experiments that use easy-to-get, low cost and daily-used materials. According to the authors criteria, the student´s closeness to Chemistry using simple experimental activities, which are designed under a context of innovation and micro scale, is a contribution to Chemistry teaching.

  19. A low-cost miniaturised detector for environmental radioactivity measurements (United States)

    Aplin, Karen; Briggs, Aaron; Hastings, Peter; Harrison, R. Giles; Marlton, Graeme; Baird, Adam


    We have developed a low-cost (£ few hundred), low-power (40mA), low-mass (30g) detector for environmental radioactivity measurements, using scintillator and solid state technology. The detector can measure energy and therefore has the capability to distinguish between different types of energetic particle. Results from recent tests, when our detector was integrated with a meteorological radiosonde system, and flew on a balloon up to 25km, identified the transition region between energetic particles near the surface, dominated by terrestrial gamma emissions, and higher-energy particles in the free troposphere from cosmic rays. The detector can be used with Bluetooth technology for remote monitoring, which is particularly useful for hazardous areas. It is also small and cheap enough to be used in sensor networks for a wide range of applications, from atmospheric science to disaster monitoring.

  20. Thin film silicon modules: contributions to low cost industrial production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, A. [Universite de Neuchatel, Neuchatel (Switzerland)


    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses the research work done during the two-year period 2003-04 at the Thin-Film Solar Cell Laboratory of the Institute of Microtechnology (IMT) at the University of Neuchatel in Switzerland. The transition from fundamental research work to concrete industrialisation issues, and changes within the research staff are discussed. The main results of the work done are presented, including basic techniques for the production of p-i-n solar cells on glass, new technologies for the deposition of n-i-p cells on low-cost flexible substrates and the optimisation of zinc oxide deposition methods. The key role played by substrate chemistry and roughness in the nucleation and growth of micro-crystalline silicon layers is looked at and diagnostic tools for the analysis of micro-crystalline solar cells are discussed.

  1. Prototyping low-cost and flexible vehicle diagnostic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisol GARCÍA-VALLS


    Full Text Available Diagnostic systems are software and hardware-based equipment that interoperate with an external monitored system. Traditionally, they have been expensive equipment running test algorithms to monitor physical properties of, e.g., vehicles, or civil infrastructure equipment, among others. As computer hardware is increasingly powerful (whereas its cost and size is decreasing and communication software becomes easier to program and more run-time efficient, new scenarios are enabled that yield to lower cost monitoring solutions. This paper presents a low cost approach towards the development of a diagnostic systems relying on a modular component-based approach and running on a resource limited embedded computer. Results on a prototype implementation are shown that validate the presented design, its flexibility, performance, and communication latency.

  2. Designing low cost autonomous robots in unknown environments (United States)

    Alouani, Ali T.; Sri, Aravind M.


    This paper documents the design and development of a low cost robot capable of autonomous navigation in unknown indoor environments. The proposed design uses only two complementary rotating sensors for navigation. The use of real time mapping allows for detection and avoidance of obstacles. The fusion of the sensors data helped improve accuracy of the online map of the robot environment. The robot builds an online map of its environment, and then automatically plans its navigation path. The feedback control keeps the robot moving along its planned path. The robot has been successfully tested in a cluttered environment in the Advanced Systems Lab. Preliminary tests carried out have shown the success of the robot in navigating autonomously.

  3. Low-Cost Solar Water Heating Research and Development Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudon, K. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Merrigan, T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Burch, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Maguire, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    The market environment for solar water heating technology has changed substantially with the successful introduction of heat pump water heaters (HPWHs). The addition of this energy-efficient technology to the market increases direct competition with solar water heaters (SWHs) for available energy savings. It is therefore essential to understand which segment of the market is best suited for HPWHs and focus the development of innovative, low-cost SWHs in the market segment where the largest opportunities exist. To evaluate cost and performance tradeoffs between high performance hot water heating systems, annual energy simulations were run using the program, TRNSYS, and analysis was performed to compare the energy savings associated with HPWH and SWH technologies to conventional methods of water heating.

  4. Towards low cost, efficient and stable organic photovoltaic modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andriessen, R. [Holst Centre - Solliance, PO Box 8550, 5605 KN Eindhoven (Netherlands); Kroon, J.M. [ECN - Solliance, Petten (Netherlands); Aernouts, T. [Imec, Solliance, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Janssen, R. [Eindhoven University of Technology, Solliance, Eindhoven (Netherlands)


    This article describes how the Solliance Organic PhotoVoltaics (OPV) shared research Program addresses efficiency, lifetime and production costs for (near) future OPV applications. The balance of these three parameters depends of the envisaged application, but at the end, OPV should be able to compete somehow with Si PV in the future. Efficiency improvements are realized by developing new materials, by exploring and optimizing new device structures and novel interconnection technologies. Lifetime improvements are realized by using stabilized device stacks and materials and by applying high end flexible barriers. Production cost control is done by using a home made Cost of Ownership tool which guides towards the use of low-cost materials and processes.

  5. Towards low-cost high-efficiency GaAs photovoltaics and photoelectrodes grown via vapor transport from a solid source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boucher, Jason [University of Oregon; Ritenour, Andrew [University of Oregon; Boettcher, Shannon W. [University of Oregon


    Towards low-cost high-efficiency GaAs photovoltaics and photoelectrodes grown via vapor transport from a solid source GaAs is an attractive material for thin-film photovoltaic applications, but is not widely used for terrestrial power generation due to the high cost of metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) techniques typically used for growth. Close space vapor transport is an alternative that allows for rapid growth rates of III-V materials, and does not rely on the toxic and pyrophoric precursors used in MOCVD. We characterize CSVT films of GaAs using photoelectrochemical current-voltage and quantum efficiency measurements. Hole diffusion lengths which exceed 1.5 um are extracted from internal quantum efficiency measurements using the Gartner model. Device physics simulations suggest that solar cells based on these films could reach efficiencies exceeding 24 %. To reach this goal, a more complete understanding of the electrical properties and characterization of defects will be necessary, including measurements on complete solid-state devices. Doping of films is achieved by using source material containing the desired impurity (e.g., Te or Zn). We discuss strategies for growing III-V materials on inexpensive substrates that are not lattice-matched to GaAs.

  6. Low Cost Real Time Autonomous Remote Monitoring Platform (United States)

    Rodríguez, J. R.; Maldonado, P. M.; Pierson, J. J.; Harris, L.


    Environmental scientists have a need for gathering multiple parameters during specific time periods to answer their research questions. Most available monitoring systems are very expensive and closed systems, which limits the potential to scale up research projects. We developed a low cost, autonomous, real-time monitoring platform that is both open hardware/software and easy to build, deploy, manage and maintain. The hardware is built with off-the-shelf components and a credit card sized computer called Raspberry Pi, running an open source operating (Raspbian). The system runs off a set of batteries and a solar panel, which makes it ideal for remote locations. The software is divided into three parts: 1) a framework for abstracting the sensors (initializing, pooling and communications) designed in python and using a fully object-oriented design, making it easy for new sensor to be added with minimal code changes, 2) a web front end for managing the entire system, 3) a data store (database) framework for local and remote data retrieval and reporting services. Connectivity to the system can be accomplished through a Wi-Fi or cellular Internet connection. Scientists are being forced to do more with less, in response our platform will provide them with a flexible system that can improve the process of data gathering with an accessible, modular, low-cost, and efficient monitoring system. Currently, we have the required permits from the Department of Natural Resources in Puerto Rico to deploy the platform at the Laguna Grande Bioluminescence Lagoon in Fajardo, PR. This station will include probes for pH, DO, Conductivity and water temperature.

  7. Multi-robot system using low-cost infrared sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anubhav Kakkar


    Full Text Available This paper presents a proposed set of the novel technique, methods, and algorithm for simultaneous path planning, area exploration, area retrieval, obstacle avoidance, object detection, and object retrieval   autonomously by a multi-robot system. The proposed methods and algorithms are built considering the use of low cost infrared sensors with the ultimate function of efficiently exploring the given unknown area and simultaneously identifying desired objects by analyzing the physical characteristics of several of the objects that come across during exploration. In this paper, we have explained the scenario by building a coordinative multi-robot system consisting of two autonomously operated robots equipped with low-cost and low-range infrared sensors to perform the assigned task by analyzing some of the sudden changes in their environment. Along with identifying and retrieving the desired object, the proposed methodology also provide an inclusive analysis of the area being explored. The novelties presented in the paper may significantly provide a cost-effective solution to the problem of area exploration and finding a known object in an unknown environment by demonstrating an innovative approach of using the infrared sensors instead of high cost long range sensors and cameras. Additionally, the methodology provides a speedy and uncomplicated method of traversing a complicated arena while performing all the necessary and inter-related tasks of avoiding the obstacles, analyzing the area as well as objects, and reconstructing the area using all these information collected and interpreted for an unknown environment. The methods and algorithms proposed are simulated over a complex arena to depict the operations and manually tested over a physical environment which provided 78% correct results with respect to various complex parameters set randomly.

  8. An Ultra Low Cost Synthetic Tracking Telescope for Detecting NEOs (United States)

    Shao, Michael


    For the last decade or so, two NEO search facilities (Catalina and Panstarrs) have been responsible for the vast majority of newly discovered NEOs. It would seem that amatuer astronomers, who once played a significant role in finding NEOs now play an progressivly smaller role in the ground based discovery of NEOs. In the not too distant future LSST will become operational and further increase the NEO discovery capability. Synthetic tracking is a technique that uses high speed low noise cameras along with teraflop processing in GPUs, to enable high sensitivity searches for moving objects using small telescopes. Here we describe a two telescope cluster made of 15 cm telescopes with amatuer astronomy cmos detectors, that would have a combined 8 sqdeg FOV and a limiting magnitude near 21.0 mag when placed at a "very" dark site (21.6mag/arcsec^2). Simulations of what this telescope cluster can detect using the Granvik population of NEOs, indicate that this would detect on average ~2.2 NEOs per 8hr night. Because the sensitivity is significantly reduced when the moon is up, the expected annual yield would be ~300. While this is ~20% of the 1400 new NEOs discovered every year, if 50 amatuer astronomers built such systems it would significantly increase the total discovery rate. We expect to have one such system operational by end of 2017 and will present preliminary results from that system, and compare it to the simulation results. A onstellation these very low cost cameras can eventually be placed in space also at very low cost.

  9. A very low-cost and adaptable DIY seismic station (United States)

    Mendez Chazara, Nahum; Castiñeiras, Pedro


    With the advent of prototyping platforms and low-cost computers, geological do-it-yourself components and sensors can be quickly and inexpensively built. The design of the prototype can also be improved over several iterations, from high-resolution magnetometers to vertical electrical sounding instruments, opening new opportunities to gather data in the field or in the lab. One of the possibilities in the field of DIY geology is seismological research, because the availability and diversity of the parts used can come in handy when developing an instrument. Also, they are really easy to build without a very deep electronics background. Although the range in low-cost seismometers is usually restricted to local seismology, induced seismology or human activities, our approach is able to record data with sampling rates up to 500 Hz. It can record and analyze data with a resolution of 16-bit, but it can be regulated to reach 24-bit if needed. Data transfer can operate all-day with low power consumption, using around 1-Amp per hour, or even less, depending on the final setup chosen. Our first seismograph (Ethernet connection if the location of the sensor make unable to connect via WiFi or GSM. Obviously, there can be also different configurations to fit different needs: From horizontal geophones, to the use of accelerometers to substitute the geophone and miniaturize even less the size of the seismic station. Also, the data can be gathered only by an Arduino board, but then it needs a card reader/writer and a real-time clock (RTC) circuit in order to correctly timestamp the data. In the first semester of 2016, we plan to build several units and deploy them in the field over the Bajo Segura Fault (Spain) and test them over different conditions to better assess the quality of the data.

  10. Low Cost Thin Film Building-Integrated Photovoltaic Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Subhendu Guha; Dr. Jeff Yang


    The goal of the program is to develop 'LOW COST THIN FILM BUILDING-INTEGRATED PV SYSTEMS'. Major focus was on developing low cost solution for the commercial BIPV and rooftop PV market and meet DOE LCOE goal for the commercial market segment of 9-12 cents/kWh for 2010 and 6-8 cents/kWh for 2015. We achieved the 2010 goal and were on track to achieve the 2015 goal. The program consists of five major tasks: (1) modules; (2) inverters and BOS; (3) systems engineering and integration; (4) deployment; and (5) project management and TPP collaborative activities. We successfully crossed all stage gates and surpassed all milestones. We proudly achieved world record stable efficiencies in small area cells (12.56% for 1cm2) and large area encapsulated modules (11.3% for 800 cm2) using a triple-junction amorphous silicon/nanocrystalline silicon/nanocrystalline silicon structure, confirmed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. We collaborated with two inverter companies, Solectria and PV Powered, and significantly reduced inverter cost. We collaborated with three universities (Syracuse University, University of Oregon, and Colorado School of Mines) and National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and improved understanding on nanocrystalline material properties and light trapping techniques. We jointly published 50 technical papers in peer-reviewed journals and International Conference Proceedings. We installed two 75kW roof-top systems, one in Florida and another in New Jersey demonstrating innovative designs. The systems performed satisfactorily meeting/exceeding estimated kWh/kW performance. The 50/50 cost shared program was a great success and received excellent comments from DOE Manager and Technical Monitor in the Final Review.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowes, Ted


    During this two-year Solid-State Lighting (SSL) Manufacturing R&D project Cree developed novel light emitting diode (LED) technologies contributing to a cost-optimized, efficient LED troffer luminaire platform emitting at ~3500K correlated color temperature (CCT) at a color rendering index (CRI) of >90. To successfully achieve program goals, Cree used a comprehensive approach to address cost reduction of the various optical, thermal and electrical subsystems in the luminaire without impacting performance. These developments built on Cree’s high- brightness, low-cost LED platforms to design a novel LED component architecture that will enable low-cost troffer luminaire designs with high total system efficacy. The project scope included cost reductions to nearly all major troffer subsystems as well as assembly costs. For example, no thermal management components were included in the troffer, owing to the optimized distribution of compact low- to mid-power LEDs. It is estimated that a significant manufacturing cost savings will result relative to Cree’s conventional troffers at the start of the project. A chief project accomplishment was the successful development of a new compact, high-efficacy LED component geometry with a broad far-field intensity distribution and even color point vs. emission angle. After further optimization and testing for production, the Cree XQ series of LEDs resulted. XQ LEDs are currently utilized in Cree’s AR series troffers, and they are being considered for use in other platforms. The XQ lens geometry influenced the independent development of Cree’s XB-E and XB-G high-voltage LEDs, which also have a broad intensity distribution at high efficacy, and are finding wide implementation in Cree’s omnidirectional A-lamps.

  12. Red Dragon: Low-cost Access to the Surface of Mars using Commercial Capabilities (United States)

    Karcz, John; Davis, S. M.; Aftosmis, M. J.; Allen, G. A.; Bakhtian, N. M.; Dyakonov, A. A.; Edquist, K. T.; Glass, B. J.; Gonzales, A. A.; Heldmann, J. L.; hide


    We will discuss the feasibility of using a minimally-modified variant of a SpaceX Dragon capsule as a low-cost, large-capacity, near-term, Mars lander for scientific and human-precursor missions. We have been evaluating such a Red Dragon platform as an option for a Discovery Program mission concept. A Red Dragon lander has the potential to be low cost primarily because it would be derived from a routinely-flying spacecraft. Dragon is being developed to ferry cargo and crew to and from the International Space Station (ISS). The cargo variant is currently undergoing test flights, which will be followed by standard ISS cargo missions and, eventually, crewed flights. The human variant, unlike other Earth-return vehicles, appears to also have most of the capabilities necessary to land on Mars. In particular, it has a set of high-thrust, throttleable, storable bi-propellant Super- Draco engines integrated directly into the capsule which are intended for launch abort and powered landings on Earth. These thrusters suggest the possibility of a parachute-free, fully-propulsive deceleration at Mars from supersonic speeds to the surface. Concepts for large, human-relevant landers (see, e.g., [1]) also often employ supersonic retro-propulsion; Red Dragon's entry, descent, and landing approach would scale to those landers. Further, SpaceX's Falcon Heavy launch vehicle, currently under development and expected to have its first flight in 2013, will be capable of sending Dragon on a trajectory to Mars. We will discuss our motivation for exploring a Red Dragon lander, the primary technical questions which determine its feasibility, and the current results of our analysis. In particular, we will examine entry, descent, and landing (EDL) in detail. We will describe the modifications to Dragon necessary for interplanetary cruise, EDL, and operations on the Martian surface.

  13. Low-cost formation of bulk and localized polymer-derived carbon nanodomains from polydimethylsiloxane. (United States)

    Alcántara, Juan Carlos Castro; Cerda Zorrilla, Mariana; Cabriales, Lucia; Rossano, Luis Manuel León; Hautefeuille, Mathieu


    We present two simple alternative methods to form polymer-derived carbon nanodomains in a controlled fashion and at low cost, using custom-made chemical vapour deposition and selective laser ablation with a commercial CD-DVD platform. Both processes presented shiny and dark residual materials after the polymer combustion and according to micro-Raman spectroscopy of the domains, graphitic nanocrystals and carbon nanotubes have successfully been produced by the combustion of polydimethylsiloxane layers. The fabrication processes and characterization of the byproduct materials are reported. We demonstrate that CVD led to bulk production of graphitic nanocrystals and single-walled carbon nanotubes while direct laser ablation may be employed for the formation of localized fluorescent nanodots. In the latter case, graphitic nanodomains and multi-wall carbon nanotubes are left inside microchannels and preliminary results seem to indicate that laser ablation could offer a tuning control of the nature and optical properties of the nanodomains that are left inside micropatterns with on-demand geometries. These low-cost methods look particularly promising for the formation of carbon nanoresidues with controlled properties and in applications where high integration is desired.

  14. Toward a low-cost gait analysis system for clinical and free-living assessment. (United States)

    Ladha, Cassim; Del Din, Silvia; Nazarpour, Kianoush; Hickey, Aodhan; Morris, Rosie; Catt, Michael; Rochester, Lynn; Godfrey, Alan


    Gait is an important clinical assessment tool since changes in gait may reflect changes in general health. Measurement of gait is a complex process which has been restricted to bespoke clinical facilities until recently. The use of inexpensive wearable technologies is an attractive alternative and offers the potential to assess gait in any environment. In this paper we present the development of a low cost analysis gait system built using entirely open source components. The system is used to capture spatio-temporal gait characteristics derived from an existing conceptual model, sensitive to ageing and neurodegenerative pathology (e.g. Parkinson's disease). We demonstrate the system is suitable for use in a clinical unit and will lead to pragmatic use in a free-living (home) environment. The system consists of a wearable (tri-axial accelerometer and gyroscope) with a Raspberry Pi module for data storage and analysis. This forms ongoing work to develop gait as a low cost diagnostic in modern healthcare.

  15. Low Cost and Energy Efficient Methods for the Manufacture of Semi-Solid (SSM) Feedstock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diran Apelian; Qingyue Pan; Makhlouf Makhlouf


    The SSM Consortium (now ACRC) at WPI has been carrying out fundamental, pre-competitive research in SSM for several years. Current and past research (at WPI) has generated many results of fundamental and applied nature, which are available to the SSM community. These include materials characterization, yield stress effects, alloy development, rheological properties, process modeling/simulation, semi-solid slurry formation, etc. Alternative method to produce SSM slurries at lower processing costs and with reduced energy consumption is a critical need. The production of low cost SSM feedstock will certainly lead to a dramatic increase in the tonnage of castings produced by SSM, and will provide end users such as the transportation industry, with lighter, cheaper and high performance materials. In this program, the research team has addressed three critical issues in semi-solid processing. They are: (1) Development of low cost, reliable slurry-on-demand approaches for semi-solid processing; (2) Application of the novel permanent grain refining technology-SiBloy for the manufacture of high-quality SSM feedstock, and (3) Development of computational and modeling tools for semi-solid processing to enhance SSM process control. Salient results from these studies are summarized and detailed in our final technical report.

  16. A simple and low-cost fully 3D-printed non-planar emulsion generator

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Jiaming


    Droplet-based microfluidic devices provide a powerful platform for material, chemical and biological applications based on droplet templates. The technique traditionally utilized to fabricate microfluidic emulsion generators, i.e. soft-lithography, is complex and expensive for producing three-dimensional (3D) structures. The emergent 3D printing technology provides an attractive alternative due to its simplicity and low-cost. Recently a handful of studies have already demonstrated droplet production through 3D-printed microfluidic devices. However, these devices invariably use purely two-dimensional (2D) flow structures. Herein we apply 3D printing technology to fabricate simple and low-cost 3D miniaturized fluidic devices for droplet generation (single emulsion) and droplet-in-droplet (double emulsion) without need for surface treatment of the channel walls. This is accomplished by varying the channel diameters at the junction, so the inner liquid does not touch the outer walls. This 3D-printed emulsion generator has been successfully tested over a range of conditions. We also formulate and demonstrate, for the first time, uniform scaling laws for the emulsion drop sizes generated in different regimes, by incorporating the dynamic contact angle effects during the drop formation. Magnetically responsive microspheres are also produced with our emulsion templates, demonstrating the potential applications of this 3D emulsion generator in chemical and material engineering.

  17. A strategy for low cost development of incremental oil in legacy reservoirs (United States)

    Attanasi, E.D.


    The precipitous decline in oil prices during 2015 has forced operators to search for ways to develop low-cost and low-risk oil reserves. This study examines strategies to low cost development of legacy reservoirs, particularly those which have already implemented a carbon dioxide enhanced oil recovery (CO2 EOR) program. Initially the study examines the occurrence and nature of the distribution of the oil resources that are targets for miscible and near-miscible CO2 EOR programs. The analysis then examines determinants of technical recovery through the analysis of representative clastic and carbonate reservoirs. The economic analysis focusses on delineating the dominant components of investment and operational costs. The concluding sections describe options to maximize the value of assets that the operator of such a legacy reservoir may have that include incremental expansion within the same producing zone and to producing zones that are laterally or stratigraphically near main producing zones. The analysis identified the CO2 recycle plant as the dominant investment cost item and purchased CO2 and liquids management as a dominant operational cost items. Strategies to utilize recycle plants for processing CO2 from multiple producing zones and multiple reservoir units can significantly reduce costs. Industrial sources for CO2 should be investigated as a possibly less costly way of meeting EOR requirements. Implementation of tapered water alternating gas injection schemes can partially mitigate increases in fluid lifting costs.

  18. A portable low-cost long-term live-cell imaging platform for biomedical research and education. (United States)

    Walzik, Maria P; Vollmar, Verena; Lachnit, Theresa; Dietz, Helmut; Haug, Susanne; Bachmann, Holger; Fath, Moritz; Aschenbrenner, Daniel; Abolpour Mofrad, Sepideh; Friedrich, Oliver; Gilbert, Daniel F


    Time-resolved visualization and analysis of slow dynamic processes in living cells has revolutionized many aspects of in vitro cellular studies. However, existing technology applied to time-resolved live-cell microscopy is often immobile, costly and requires a high level of skill to use and maintain. These factors limit its utility to field research and educational purposes. The recent availability of rapid prototyping technology makes it possible to quickly and easily engineer purpose-built alternatives to conventional research infrastructure which are low-cost and user-friendly. In this paper we describe the prototype of a fully automated low-cost, portable live-cell imaging system for time-resolved label-free visualization of dynamic processes in living cells. The device is light-weight (3.6 kg), small (22 × 22 × 22 cm) and extremely low-cost (imaging of recombinant HEK293 cells at varying culture conditions and validate its ability to generate time-resolved data of high quality allowing for analysis of time-dependent processes in living cells. While this work focuses on long-term imaging of mammalian cells, the presented technology could also be adapted for use with other biological specimen and provides a general example of rapidly prototyped low-cost biosensor technology for application in life sciences and education. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Low Cost Fabrication of 2G Wires for AC Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kodenkandath, T.; List, F.A., III


    Ink-jet printing has been demonstrated as an adaptable technology for printing YBCO filaments using a Metal Organic (MO) YBCO precursor. The technology was demonstrated using AMSC's proprietary metal organic TFA-based YBCO precursor and a commercial piezoelectric print-head on RABiTS templates. Filaments with a width of 100 um and spacing of 200 um were successfully printed, decomposed and processed to YBCO. Critical currents of {approx} 200 A/cm-w were achieved in a series of filaments with a 2 mm width. The single nozzle laboratory printer used in the Phase 1 program is capable of printing {approx} 100 um wide single filaments at a rate of 8-10 cm/sec. The electrical stabilization of filaments with a Ag ink was also evaluated using ink-jet printing. The overall objective of the Phase 1 Project was the evaluation and demonstration of inkjet-printing for depositing YBCO filaments on textured templates (RABiTS, IBAD, ISD, etc. substrates) with properties appropriate for low loss ac conductors. Goals of the Phase 1 program included development of an appropriate precursor ink, demonstration of the printing process, processing and characterization of printed YBCO filaments and evaluation of the process for further development.

  20. Robot Devastation: Using DIY Low-Cost Platforms for Multiplayer Interaction in an Augmented Reality Game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Estevez


    Full Text Available We present Robot Devastation, a multiplayer augmented reality game using low-cost robots. Players can assemble their low-cost robotic platforms and connect them to the central server, commanding them through their home PCs. Several low-cost platforms were developed and tested inside the game.

  1. Low-Cost High-Pressure Hydrogen Generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cropley, Cecelia C.; Norman, Timothy J.


    Electrolysis of water, particularly in conjunction with renewable energy sources, is potentially a cost-effective and environmentally friendly method of producing hydrogen at dispersed forecourt sites, such as automotive fueling stations. The primary feedstock for an electrolyzer is electricity, which could be produced by renewable sources such as wind or solar that do not produce carbon dioxide or other greenhouse gas emissions. However, state-of-the-art electrolyzer systems are not economically competitive for forecourt hydrogen production due to their high capital and operating costs, particularly the cost of the electricity used by the electrolyzer stack. In this project, Giner Electrochemical Systems, LLC (GES) developed a low cost, high efficiency proton-exchange membrane (PEM) electrolysis system for hydrogen production at moderate pressure (300 to 400 psig). The electrolyzer stack operates at differential pressure, with hydrogen produced at moderate pressure while oxygen is evolved at near-atmospheric pressure, reducing the cost of the water feed and oxygen handling subsystems. The project included basic research on catalysts and membranes to improve the efficiency of the electrolysis reaction as well as development of advanced materials and component fabrication methods to reduce the capital cost of the electrolyzer stack and system. The project culminated in delivery of a prototype electrolyzer module to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory for testing at the National Wind Technology Center. Electrolysis cell efficiency of 72% (based on the lower heating value of hydrogen) was demonstrated using an advanced high-strength membrane developed in this project. This membrane would enable the electrolyzer system to exceed the DOE 2012 efficiency target of 69%. GES significantly reduced the capital cost of a PEM electrolyzer stack through development of low cost components and fabrication methods, including a 60% reduction in stack parts count. Economic

  2. AIRQino, a low-cost air quality mobile platform (United States)

    Zaldei, Alessandro; Vagnoli, Carolina; Di Lonardo, Sara; Gioli, Beniamino; Gualtieri, Giovanni; Toscano, Piero; Martelli, Francesca; Matese, Alessandro


    Recent air quality regulations (Directive 2008/50/EC) enforce the transition from point-based monitoring networks to new tools that must be capable of mapping and forecasting air quality on the totality of land area, and therefore the totality of citizens. This implies new technologies such as models and additional indicative measurements, are needed in addition to accurate fixed air quality monitoring stations, that until now have been taken as reference by local administrators for the enforcement of various mitigation strategies. However, due to their sporadic spatial distribution, they cannot describe the highly resolved spatial pollutant variations within cities. Integrating additional indicative measurements may provide adequate information on the spatial distribution of the ambient air quality, also allowing for a reduction of the required minimum number of fixed sampling points, whose high cost and complex maintenance still remain a crucial concern for local administrators. New low-cost and small size sensors are becoming available, that could be employed in air quality monitoring including mobile applications. However, accurate assessment of their accuracy and performance both in controlled and real monitoring conditions is crucially needed. Quantifying sensor response is a significant challenge due to the sensitivity to ambient temperature and humidity and the cross-sensitivity to others pollutant species. This study reports the development of an Arduino compatible electronic board (AIRQino) which integrates a series of low-cost metal oxide and NDIR sensors for air quality monitoring, with sensors to measure air temperature, relative humidity, noise, solar radiation and vertical acceleration. A comparative assessment was made for CO2, CO, NO2, CH4, O3, VOCs concentrations, temperature and relative humidity. A controlled climatic chamber study (-80°C / +80°C) was performed to verify temperature and humidity interference using reference gas cylinders and

  3. The Aluminum Falcon: a Low Cost Modern Commercial Transport (United States)

    Bryant, Mark; Hernandez, Estela; King, Gregory; Lor, Alex Choua; Musser, Jana; Trigs, Deanne; Yee, Susan


    The American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) released a Request For Proposal (RFP) in the form of an undergraduate design competition for a 153 passenger jet transport with a range of 3,000 nautical miles. The primary requirement for this aircraft was low cost, both in acquisition and operation, with a technology availability date of the year 2000. This report presents the Non-Solo Design Group's response to the RFP, the Aluminum Falcon (AF-1). Non-Solo's approach to development was to take the best elements of seven individual preliminary designs, then combine and refine them. The resulting aircraft meets or exceeds all requirements of both the RFP and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). Highlights include a revolutionary wing planform, known as an M-wing, which offers many advantages over a conventional aft swept wing. For example, the M-wing lessens the travel in the aircraft center of gravity caused by fuel being stored in the wing. It also reduces the amount of torque imposed on the center wing box because more of the lifting load acts near the fuselage joint, rather than behind it. In essence, the M-wing offers the best of both worlds: using a forward swept wing root places the aerodynamic center of the wing further forward and allows the landing gear to be placed without the use of a yahudi. At the same time, with the outboard section swept backward the tip retains an amount of aeroelastic dampening that is lost on a completely forward swept wing. The result is a wing which has many advantages of a straight, unswept wings without the severe compressibility effects at high Mach numbers. Other highlights include judicious use of composites, giving recognition to the importance of weight and its effect on aircraft cost and performance, and an advanced passenger entertainment system which can be used as a source of revenue for the airlines. This aircraft meets the low-cost doctrine with an acquisition cost of $29 million and a direct

  4. Design of a Low-cost Oil Spill Tracking Buoy (United States)

    Zhao, Y.; Hu, X.; Yu, F.; Dong, S.; Chen, G.


    As the rapid development of oil exploitation and transportation, oil spill accidents, such as Prestige oil spill, Gulf of Mexico oil spill accident and so on, happened frequently in recent years which would result in long-term damage to the environment and human life. It would be helpful for rescue operation if we can locate the oil slick diffusion area in real time. Equipped with GNSS system, current tracking buoys(CTB), such as Lagrangian drifting buoy, Surface Velocity Program (SVP) drifter, iSLDMB (Iridium self locating datum marker buoy) and Argosphere buoy, have been used as oil tracking buoy in oil slick observation and as validation tools for oil spill simulation. However, surface wind could affect the movement of oil slick, which couldn't be reflected by CTB, thus the oil spill tracking performance is limited. Here, we proposed an novel oil spill tracking buoy (OSTB) which has a low cost of less than $140 and is equipped with Beidou positioning module and sails to track oil slick. Based on hydrodynamic equilibrium model and ocean dynamic analysis, the wind sails and water sails are designed to be adjustable according to different marine conditions to improve tracking efficiency. Quick release device is designed to assure easy deployment from air or ship. Sea experiment was carried out in Jiaozhou Bay, Northern China. OSTB, SVP, iSLDMB, Argosphere buoy and a piece of oil-simulated rubber sheet were deployed at the same time. Meanwhile, oil spill simulation model GNOME (general NOAA operational modeling environment) was configured with the wind and current field, which were collected by an unmanned surface vehicle (USV) mounted with acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCP) and wind speed and direction sensors. Experimental results show that the OSTB has better relevance with rubber sheet and GNOME simulation results, which validate the oil tracking ability of OSTB. With low cost and easy deployment, OSTB provides an effective way for oil spill numerical

  5. Low-cost photoacoustic imaging systems based on laser diode and light-emitting diode excitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingkai Yao


    Full Text Available Photoacoustic imaging, an emerging biomedical imaging modality, holds great promise for preclinical and clinical researches. It combines the high optical contrast and high ultrasound resolution by converting laser excitation into ultrasonic emission. In order to generate photoacoustic signal efficiently, bulky Q-switched solid-state laser systems are most commonly used as excitation sources and hence limit its commercialization. As an alternative, the miniaturized semiconductor laser system has the advantages of being inexpensive, compact, and robust, which makes a significant effect on production-forming design. It is also desirable to obtain a wavelength in a wide range from visible to near-infrared spectrum for multispectral applications. Focussing on practical aspect, this paper reviews the state-of-the-art developments of low-cost photoacoustic system with laser diode and light-emitting diode excitation source and highlights a few representative installations in the past decade.

  6. Avionics and Power Management for Low-Cost High-Altitude Balloon Science Platforms (United States)

    Chin, Jeffrey; Roberts, Anthony; McNatt, Jeremiah


    High-altitude balloons (HABs) have become popular as educational and scientific platforms for planetary research. This document outlines key components for missions where low cost and rapid development are desired. As an alternative to ground-based vacuum and thermal testing, these systems can be flight tested at comparable costs. Communication, solar, space, and atmospheric sensing experiments often require environments where ground level testing can be challenging or impossible in certain cases. When performing HAB research the ability to monitor the status of the platform and gather data is key for both scientific and recoverability aspects of the mission. A few turnkey platform solutions are outlined that leverage rapidly evolving open-source engineering ecosystems. Rather than building custom components from scratch, these recommendations attempt to maximize simplicity and cost of HAB platforms to make launches more accessible to everyone.

  7. Testing the Feasibility of a Low-Cost Network Performance Measurement Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chevalier, Scott [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). International Networks; Schopf, Jennifer M. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). International Networks; Miller, Kenneth [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Telecommunications and Networking Services; Zurawski, Jason [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Sciences Network


    Todays science collaborations depend on reliable, high performance networks, but monitoring the end-to-end performance of a network can be costly and difficult. The most accurate approaches involve using measurement equipment in many locations, which can be both expensive and difficult to manage due to immobile or complicated assets. The perfSONAR framework facilitates network measurement making management of the tests more reasonable. Traditional deployments have used over-provisioned servers, which can be expensive to deploy and maintain. As scientific network uses proliferate, there is a desire to instrument more facets of a network to better understand trends. This work explores low cost alternatives to assist with network measurement. Benefits include the ability to deploy more resources quickly, and reduced capital and operating expenditures. Finally, we present candidate platforms and a testing scenario that evaluated the relative merits of four types of small form factor equipment to deliver accurate performance measurements.

  8. Ink jet assisted metallization for low cost flat plate solar cells (United States)

    Teng, K. F.; Vest, R. W.


    Computer-controlled ink-jet-assisted metallization of the front surface of solar cells with metalorganic silver inks offers a maskless alternative method to conventional photolithography and screen printing. This method can provide low cost, fine resolution, reduced process complexity, avoidance of degradation of the p-n junction by firing at lower temperature, and uniform line film on rough surface of solar cells. The metallization process involves belt furnace firing and thermal spiking. With multilayer ink jet printing and firing, solar cells of about 5-6 percent efficiency without antireflection (AR) coating can be produced. With a titanium thin-film underlayer as an adhesion promoter, solar cells of average efficiency 8.08 percent without AR coating can be obtained. This efficiency value is approximately equal to that of thin-film solar cells of the same lot. Problems with regard to lower inorganic content of the inks and contact resistance are noted.

  9. Low-cost external reflection unit for rapid analysis of carbon-filled rubbers (United States)

    Lutz, Bert; Luinge, Hendrik J.; van der Maas, John H.; van Agen, Rob


    The analysis of carbon-filled composites used in the production of tires is a laborious, time consuming and polluting `wet chemistry' job. Infrared reflection techniques, internal as well as external, are excellent alternatives as sampling is simple and fast. The internal reflection technique (ATR) proves to be useful for samples with a carbon content up to 20% w/w, where absorption of radiation becomes too strong. We have constructed a low-cost large area horizontal specular reflection device which allows handling samples with carbon contents up to 50%. Although compared to transmission and ATR the reflectance spectra are rather complex, mathematical differentiation and application of partial least squares regression gives qualitative and quantitative results suited for production control, trouble shooting and fast product analysis in an industrial environment.

  10. New junctionless RADFET dosimeter design for low-cost radiation monitoring applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arar, Djemai; Djeffal, Faycal [Department of Electronics, University of Batna, Batna 05000 (Algeria); Bentrcia, Toufik; Chahdi, Mohamed [Department of Physics, University of Batna, Batna 05000 (Algeria)


    This paper is devoted to the presentation of a quantitative analysis of the Junctionless Gate All Around RADFET (JL GAA RADFET) dosimeter, where the numerical simulation has been carried out using the Atlas 3-D simulator. The impact of the total dose, alternative gate materials and the channel doping on the threshold voltage of the JL GAA RADFET is addressed. The obtained results have indicated a significant improvement in the subthreshold parameters when compared to the conventional GAA RADFET dosimeter. Therefore, the implementation of junctionless-based sensors in the near future can provide more accurate results with low costs, in addition to alleviating many difficulties in the measurement procedure. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  11. Low-cost automatic activity data recording system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moraes M.F.D.


    Full Text Available We describe a low-cost, high quality device capable of monitoring indirect activity by detecting touch-release events on a conducting surface, i.e., the animal's cage cover. In addition to the detecting sensor itself, the system includes an IBM PC interface for prompt data storage. The hardware/software design, while serving for other purposes, is used to record the circadian activity rhythm pattern of rats with time in an automated computerized fashion using minimal cost computer equipment (IBM PC XT. Once the sensor detects a touch-release action of the rat in the upper portion of the cage, the interface sends a command to the PC which records the time (hours-minutes-seconds when the activity occurred. As a result, the computer builds up several files (one per detector/sensor containing a time list of all recorded events. Data can be visualized in terms of actograms, indicating the number of detections per hour, and analyzed by mathematical tools such as Fast Fourier Transform (FFT or cosinor. In order to demonstrate method validation, an experiment was conducted on 8 Wistar rats under 12/12-h light/dark cycle conditions (lights on at 7:00 a.m.. Results show a biological validation of the method since it detected the presence of circadian activity rhythm patterns in the behavior of the rats

  12. Technical features of a low-cost earthquake alert system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harben, P.


    The concept and features of an Earthquake Alert System (EAS) involving a distributed network of strong motion sensors is discussed. The EAS analyzes real-time data telemetered to a central facility and issues an areawide warning of a large earthquake in advance of the spreading elastic wave energy. A low-cost solution to high-cost estimates for installation and maintenance of a dedicated EAS is presented that makes use of existing microseismic stations. Using the San Francisco Bay area as an example, we show that existing US Geological Survey microseismic monitoring stations are of sufficient density to form the elements of a prototype EAS. By installing strong motion instrumentation and a specially developed switching device, strong ground motion can be telemetered in real-time to the central microseismic station on the existing communication channels. When a large earthquake occurs, a dedicated real-time central processing unit at the central microseismic station digitizes and analyzes the incoming data and issues a warning containing location and magnitude estimations. A 50-station EAS of this type in the San Francisco Bay area should cost under $70,000 to install and less than $5,000 annually to maintain

  13. A low cost light diffuser made of metal coil. (United States)

    Morita, Nozomi; Arai, Tsunenori


    We proposed a low cost flexible light diffuser made of metal coil to obtain an appropriate light dose against certain laser therapies in narrow bending organs. We investigated experimentally the diffusion light dose of prototype coils made of stainless steel (sus304). We measured the diffusion light intensity of the prototype coils along the irradiation direction and the circumferential direction with the various pitch distances of the prototype coils and numerical aperture (NA) of laser light beam as the characteristic parameters of the light diffusion. We measured the temperature elevation of the prototype coils to study the waste energy of these prototype coils. The FWHM on the light intensity along the prototype coils marked up to 12.8mm with the constant pitch distance of 0.09 mm and the fiber output light NA of 0.038. The FWHM on the light intensity was improved to 13.7 mm with the composite pitch distance coils of which the pitch distances were 0.09 mm in the proximate and 0.18 mm in the distal. Since the efficiency of the diffusion irradiation against the fiber output was typically 7.7% in the prototype coils of which the surface reflectance was 50%, approximately 90% of the laser light energy was transferred to the temperature elevation. We estimated the practical diffusion efficiency around 75% using the high reflection of the prototype coils surface up to 90%.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fryskowska


    Full Text Available Non-metric digital cameras are being widely used for photogrammetric studies. The increase in resolution and quality of images obtained by non-metric cameras, allows to use it in low-cost UAV and terrestrial photogrammetry. Imagery acquired with non-metric cameras can be used in 3D modeling of objects or landscapes, reconstructing of historical sites, generating digital elevation models (DTM, orthophotos, or in the assessment of accidents. Non-metric digital camcorders are characterized by instability and ignorance of the interior orientation parameters. Therefore, the use of these devices requires prior calibration. Calibration research was conducted using non-metric camera, different calibration tests and various software. The first part of the paper contains a brief theoretical introduction including the basic definitions, like the construction of non-metric cameras or description of different optical distortions. The second part of the paper contains cameras calibration process, details of the calibration methods and models that have been used. Sony Nex 5 camera calibration has been done using software: Image Master Calib, Matlab - Camera Calibrator application and Agisoft Lens. For the study 2D test fields has been used. As a part of the research a comparative analysis of the results have been done.

  15. Low-Cost Feedstock Conversion to Biodiesel via Ultrasound Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farouk Ameer


    Full Text Available Biodiesel has attracted increasing interest and has proved to be a good substitute for fossil-based fuels due to its environmental advantages and availability from renewable resources such as refined and waste vegetable oils. Several studies have shown that biodiesel is a better fuel than the fossil-derived diesel in terms of engine performance, emissions reduction, lubricity and environmental benefits. The increasing popularity of biodiesel has generated great demand for its commercial production methods, which in turn calls for the development of technically and economically sound process technologies. This paper explores the applicability of ultrasound in the optimization of low-cost feedstock – in this case waste cooking oil – in the transesterification conversion to biodiesel. It was found that the conversion efficiency of the waste oil using ultrasound was higher than with the mechanical stirring method. The optimized variables of 6:1 methanol/oil ratio at a reaction temperature of 30 °C and a reaction time of 30 min and 0.75% KOH (wt/wt catalyst concentration was obtained for the transesterification of the waste oil via the use of ultrasound.

  16. In situ Measurements of Phytoplankton Fluorescence Using Low Cost Electronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana L. Wright


    Full Text Available Chlorophyll a fluorometry has long been used as a method to study phytoplankton in the ocean. In situ fluorometry is used frequently in oceanography to provide depth-resolved estimates of phytoplankton biomass. However, the high price of commercially manufactured in situ fluorometers has made them unavailable to some individuals and institutions. Presented here is an investigation into building an in situ fluorometer using low cost electronics. The goal was to construct an easily reproducible in situ fluorometer from simple and widely available electronic components. The simplicity and modest cost of the sensor makes it valuable to students and professionals alike. Open source sharing of architecture and software will allow students to reconstruct and customize the sensor on a small budget. Research applications that require numerous in situ fluorometers or expendable fluorometers can also benefit from this study. The sensor costs US$150.00 and can be constructed with little to no previous experience. The sensor uses a blue LED to excite chlorophyll a and measures fluorescence using a silicon photodiode. The sensor is controlled by an Arduino microcontroller that also serves as a data logger.

  17. Applications Of A Low Cost System For Industrial Automatic Inspection (United States)

    Krey, C.; Ayache, A.; Bruel, A.


    In industrial environment, some repetitive tasks wich do not need a high degree of understanding, can be solved automatically owing to Vision. Among the systems available on the market, most of them are rather expensive with various capabilities. The described system is a modular system, built with some standard circuit boards. One of the advantages of this system is that its architecture can be redefined for each application, by assembling judiciously the standard modules. The vision system has been used successfully to sort fruits according to their colour and diameter. The system can sort 8 fruits per second on each sorting line and manage simultaneously up to 16 lines. An application of sheep skin cutting has been implemented too. After chemical and mechanical treatments, the skins present many defaults all around their contour, that must be cut off. A movable camera follows and inspects the contour ; the vision system determines where the cutting device must cut the skin. A third application has been implemented ; it concerns automatic recording and reproduction of logotypes. A moving camera driven by the system picks up the points, of the logotype contours. Before reproduction, programs can modify the logotypes shape, change the scale, and so on. For every application, the system uses the world smallest CCD camera developped in the laboratory. The small dimensions of the vision system and its low cost are major advantages for a wide use in industrial automatic inspection.

  18. Process for Low Cost Domestic Production of LIB Cathode Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thurston, Anthony


    The objective of the research was to determine the best low cost method for the large scale production of the Nickel-Cobalt-Manganese (NCM) layered cathode materials. The research and development focused on scaling up the licensed technology from Argonne National Laboratory in BASF’s battery material pilot plant in Beachwood Ohio. Since BASF did not have experience with the large scale production of the NCM cathode materials there was a significant amount of development that was needed to support BASF’s already existing research program. During the three year period BASF was able to develop and validate production processes for the NCM 111, 523 and 424 materials as well as begin development of the High Energy NCM. BASF also used this time period to provide free cathode material samples to numerous manufactures, OEM’s and research companies in order to validate the ma-terials. The success of the project can be demonstrated by the construction of the production plant in Elyria Ohio and the successful operation of that facility. The benefit of the project to the public will begin to be apparent as soon as material from the production plant is being used in electric vehicles.

  19. Low-cost harvesting of microalgae biomass from water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bejor, E.S.


    Full Text Available Microalgae harvesting is known to be a major problem in the water industry. This is attributed to the minute nature of the algae cells and the often low concentration of the species in water and wastewater. While various chemical and mechanical harvesting techniques have been developed for algae harvesting, their application have been limited by prohibitive costs. There is also the disadvantage of not utilising the harvested microalgae as feedstock when it has accumulated significant amounts of chemicals (coagulants employed during the harvesting operation. This work investigates the low cost harvesting of microalgae biomass from water using physical (non-chemical method. Four fabric filters: stretch-cotton, polyester-linen, satin-polyester and silk were investigated to determine their microalgae harvesting efficiencies using filtration method on three algae communities with cell size of 2- 20 µm. For the three algae communities investigated, stretch-cotton filter showed a harvesting efficiency of 66- 93%, followed by polyester-linen (54- 90%, while satin-polyester and silk fabrics achieved harvesting efficiencies of 43- 71% and 27- 75% respectively. The research revealed that for wastewater generation of 1500m3/day and algae concentration of 200mg/l, microalgae harvesting cost per sq. meter per kg of algae per cubic meter would be ≤ £0.15 using stretch cotton filter

  20. Adapting smartphones for low-cost optical medical imaging (United States)

    Pratavieira, Sebastião.; Vollet-Filho, José D.; Carbinatto, Fernanda M.; Blanco, Kate; Inada, Natalia M.; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.; Kurachi, Cristina


    Optical images have been used in several medical situations to improve diagnosis of lesions or to monitor treatments. However, most systems employ expensive scientific (CCD or CMOS) cameras and need computers to display and save the images, usually resulting in a high final cost for the system. Additionally, this sort of apparatus operation usually becomes more complex, requiring more and more specialized technical knowledge from the operator. Currently, the number of people using smartphone-like devices with built-in high quality cameras is increasing, which might allow using such devices as an efficient, lower cost, portable imaging system for medical applications. Thus, we aim to develop methods of adaptation of those devices to optical medical imaging techniques, such as fluorescence. Particularly, smartphones covers were adapted to connect a smartphone-like device to widefield fluorescence imaging systems. These systems were used to detect lesions in different tissues, such as cervix and mouth/throat mucosa, and to monitor ALA-induced protoporphyrin-IX formation for photodynamic treatment of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia. This approach may contribute significantly to low-cost, portable and simple clinical optical imaging collection.

  1. Measuring PM and related air pollutants using low-cost ... (United States)

    Emerging air quality sensors may play a key role in better characterizing levels of air pollution in a variety of settings There are a wide range of low-cost (drone applications. Sensor networks will very likely play a key role in future estimates of human health impacts of pollutants, in particular particulate matter (PM), and will allow for the better characterization of pollutant sources and source regions.We will present measurements from an assortment of sensors, costing $20-$700, that have been used to measure air pollution in the US, India, and China with a focus on estimating PM concentrations. Their performance has been evaluated in these very different settings with low concentrations seen in the US (up to approximately 20 ug m-3) and much higher concentrations measured in India and China (up to approximately 300 ug m-3). Based on these studies the optimal concentration ranges of these sensors have been determined. Used in conjunction with data from a carbon dioxide sensor, emissions factors were estimated in some of the locations. In addition temperature and humidity sensors can be used to calculate c

  2. Energy efficiency of ultra-low-cost housing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathews, E.H.; Richards, P.G.; Wyk, S.L. van; Rousseau, P.G. [Pretoria Univ. (South Africa)


    Housing is a problem in all developing countries. Presently South Africa has a large urbanization drive, to such an extent that over the next 10 years 1300 houses per day must be built to alleviate the problem. Most of the houses currently being erected could be described as ultra-low-cost houses. These houses are constructed by their owners in record time from corrugated iron. Advantages are the accessibility of building material and straightforward building techniques. Unfortunately the dwellings are thermally and energy inefficient. As a result inhabitants spend a disproportionate percentage of their income on winter heating. They use highly polluting and low energy content fuels such as wood and coal. This presents health risks and burdens the environment and natural resources. This paper evaluates the potential of inexpensive modifications which contribute to improved living and environmental conditions. Investigations are based on a unique analysis method which is eminently suitable for application to the problem. Modifications such as cardboard insulation showed the most potential. Although often available free of charge as waste products, results indicate that a definite cost saving incentive exists even if owners have to buy the cardboard. Modifying the houses as suggested reduces energy requirements and the release of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere by up to 75%. (author)

  3. Low-cost thermotherapy for cutaneous leishmaniasis in Sindh, Pakistan. (United States)

    Shah, Sharaf Ali; Memon, Abdul Aziz; Auwj-e-Shamim; Baqi, Shehla; Witzig, Richard


    To study the efficacy of a low-cost heating pack device used for thermotherapy in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis. The study was conducted at the Department of Dermatology, Civil Hospital Sukkur, Pakistan, from April 20, 2012, to January 3, 2013. Thermotherapy with Hand-Held Exothermic Crystallisation Therapy for cutaneous leishmaniasis was performed on each lesion of the participating subjects at an average initial temperature of 51.6°C for 3 minutes daily for 7 days. Patients were followed regularly for 6 months after the therapy. SPSS 20 was used for statistical analysis. Even though all 27 patients completed 1 week of thermotherapy, only 23(85.2%) patients could be evaluated for full treatment response since 4(14.8%) were lost to complete follow-up. By the final 180-day evaluation, 19 (83%) patients had been cured. Applications were well tolerated with no side effects. The devise was a convenient, safe, non-toxic and effective treatment for cutaneous leishmaniasis at a fraction of the cost of standard antimonial treatment. Further studies are needed to certify its safety and efficacy as monotherapy for the condition.

  4. Low-cost hadron colliders at Fermilab: A discussion paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, G.W.; Malamud, E.


    New more economic approaches are required to continue the dramatic exponential rise in collider energies as represented by the well known Livingston plot. The old idea of low cost, low field iron dominated magnets in a small diameter pipe may become feasible in the next decade with dramatic recent advances in technology: (1) advanced tunneling technologies for small diameter, non human accessible tunnels, (2) accurate remote guidance systems for tunnel survey and boring machine steering, (3) high T c superconductors operating at liquid N 2 or liquid H 2 temperatures, (4) industrial applications of remote manipulation and robotics, (5) digitally multiplexed electronics to minimize cables, (6) achievement of high luminosities in p-p and p-anti P colliders. The goal of this paper is to stimulate continuing discussions on approaches to this new collider and to identify critical areas needing calculations, construction of models, proof of principle experiments, and full scale prototypes in order to determine feasibility and arrive at cost estimates

  5. Calibration of Low Cost RGB and NIR Uav Cameras (United States)

    Fryskowska, A.; Kedzierski, M.; Grochala, A.; Braula, A.


    Non-metric digital cameras are being widely used for photogrammetric studies. The increase in resolution and quality of images obtained by non-metric cameras, allows to use it in low-cost UAV and terrestrial photogrammetry. Imagery acquired with non-metric cameras can be used in 3D modeling of objects or landscapes, reconstructing of historical sites, generating digital elevation models (DTM), orthophotos, or in the assessment of accidents. Non-metric digital camcorders are characterized by instability and ignorance of the interior orientation parameters. Therefore, the use of these devices requires prior calibration. Calibration research was conducted using non-metric camera, different calibration tests and various software. The first part of the paper contains a brief theoretical introduction including the basic definitions, like the construction of non-metric cameras or description of different optical distortions. The second part of the paper contains cameras calibration process, details of the calibration methods and models that have been used. Sony Nex 5 camera calibration has been done using software: Image Master Calib, Matlab - Camera Calibrator application and Agisoft Lens. For the study 2D test fields has been used. As a part of the research a comparative analysis of the results have been done.

  6. A Low Cost Mechatronics Device for STEM Education (United States)

    Himes, Larry Eugene, Jr.

    All of the low-cost STEM education devices currently available are limited in function which limits learning. The motivation was to design and develop a device that will intrigue post-secondary students to learn STEM education concepts in a hands-on manner. The device needed to be open source so as to lower the cost to make it available to more students. And, making it feature rich was important for use with multiple projects the students may encounter or build themselves as they grow. The device has provided visual and physical feedback to students making the device more intriguing to use. Using the open-source C compiler reduced cost for students to use the device and taught them how to use an industry standard programming language. Students enjoyed the WAV file rendering for sound effects and LED lighting effects from the device. Most interviewees were intrigued by the device for use in their training facilities and classrooms. There are a couple of multi-axis controllers available but none with position feedback. Ethernet or Bluetooth interfacing was mentioned as a future feature and it was encouraged by nearly all who were interviewed.

  7. Advanced packaging concepts for low-cost optoelectronic devices (United States)

    Bernabé, Stéphane


    The multiplication of fibre optic networks during the years 1980 to 2000 has led to the development of specific packaging designs for laser modules, e.g. butterfly or TO-can coaxial packages. Since the beginning of years 2000, it has become necessary for packaging designers to deal with new requirements in term of module size, cost, thermal and electrical performances, particularly concerning the HF design. From these new requirements, new quasi-standards have appeared: TO-based TOSAs, XMD, and so on... However, these solutions are still based on traditional technologies : die soldering, 3D active alignment, Kovar packages, laser welding, single-chip devices, discrete micro-optics., unsuitable for mass production at very low cost. Today, the challenge for optoelectronic industry is thus to achieve a mutation of the packaging and assembly concepts, similar to the one the microlelectronic industry has done thirty years ago, by introducing advanced packaging technologies in order to address emerging markets and need, such as FTTx and Very Short Reach optical links, at the targeted costs. This will be also done by pushing ahead the integration of several optical function on the same chip or optical board. Some of these emerging technologies, such as optical MCM (Multi Chip Module), passive alignment, new materials for thermal management, flip-chip hybridisation, are key concepts to manage this next step and are reviewed in this paper. These concepts have already been applied in some industrial products and should spread in the next years.

  8. Low Cost Polymer heat Exchangers for Condensing Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butcher, Thomas [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Trojanowski, Rebecca [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Wei, George [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Worek, Michael [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)


    Work in this project sought to develop a suitable design for a low cost, corrosion resistant heat exchanger as part of a high efficiency condensing boiler. Based upon the design parameters and cost analysis several geometries and material options were explored. The project also quantified and demonstrated the durability of the selected polymer/filler composite under expected operating conditions. The core material idea included a polymer matrix with fillers for thermal conductivity improvement. While the work focused on conventional heating oil, this concept could also be applicable to natural gas, low sulfur heating oil, and biodiesel- although these are considered to be less challenging environments. An extruded polymer composite heat exchanger was designed, built, and tested during this project, demonstrating technical feasibility of this corrosion-resistant material approach. In such flue gas-to-air heat exchangers, the controlling resistance to heat transfer is in the gas-side convective layer and not in the tube material. For this reason, the lower thermal conductivity polymer composite heat exchanger can achieve overall heat transfer performance comparable to a metal heat exchanger. However, with the polymer composite, the surface temperature on the gas side will be higher, leading to a lower water vapor condensation rate.

  9. Low-Cost Sensor Units for Measuring Urban Air Quality (United States)

    Popoola, O. A.; Mead, M.; Stewart, G.; Hodgson, T.; McLoed, M.; Baldovi, J.; Landshoff, P.; Hayes, M.; Calleja, M.; Jones, R.


    Measurements of selected key air quality gases (CO, NO & NO2) have been made with a range of miniature low-cost sensors based on electrochemical gas sensing technology incorporating GPS and GPRS for position and communication respectively. Two types of simple to operate sensors units have been designed to be deployed in relatively large numbers. Mobile handheld sensor units designed for operation by members of the public have been deployed on numerous occasions including in Cambridge, London and Valencia. Static sensor units have also been designed for long-term autonomous deployment on existing street furniture. A study was recently completed in which 45 sensor units were deployed in the Cambridge area for a period of 3 months. Results from these studies indicate that air quality varies widely both spatially and temporally. The widely varying concentrations found suggest that the urban environment cannot be fully understood using limited static site (AURN) networks and that a higher resolution, more dispersed network is required to better define air quality in the urban environment. The results also suggest that higher spatial and temporal resolution measurements could improve knowledge of the levels of individual exposure in the urban environment.

  10. A Low Cost Sensor Controller for Health Monitoring (United States)

    Birbas, M.; Petrellis, N.; Gioulekas, F.


    Aging population can benefit from health care systems that allow their health and daily life to be monitored by expert medical staff. Blood pressure, temperature measurements or more advanced tests like Electrocardiograms (ECG) can be ordered through such a healthcare system while urgent situations can be detected and alleviated on time. The results of these tests can be stored with security in a remote cloud or database. Such systems are often used to monitor non-life threatening patient health problems and their advantage in lowering the cost of the healthcare services is obvious. A low cost commercial medical sensor kit has been used in the present work, trying to improve the accuracy and stability of the sensor measurements, the power consumption, etc. This Sensor Controller communicates with a Gateway installed in the patient's residence and a tablet or smart phone used for giving instructions to the patient through a comprehensive user interface. A flexible communication protocol has been defined supporting any short or long term sensor sampling scenario. The experimental results show that it is possible to achieve low power consumption by applying apropriate sleep intervals to the Sensor Controller and by deactivating periodically some of its functionality.

  11. Low-cost automated fiber pigtailing machine. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strand, O.T.


    The goal of this 2-year ARPA-funded project was to design and build 3 low-cost machines to perform sub-micron alignment and attachments of single-mode fibers to different OE devices. These Automated Fiber Pigtailing Machines (AFPMs) are intended to be compatible with a manufacturing environment and have a modular design for maximum flexibility and standardization of parts. Machine vision enables the AFPM to perform sufficient alignment to couple light for maximization. This work was a collaboration among Uniphase Telecommunications Products (formerly United Technologies Photonics, UTP), Ortel, Newport/Klinger, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Manufacturing Institute (MIT), and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). UTP and Ortel are the industrial partners for whom two of the AFPMs were built. MIT and LLNL made up the design and assembly team of the project, while Newport/Klinger was a potential manufacturer of the AFPM and provided guidance to ensure that the design of the AFPM is marketable and compatible with a manufacturing environment. The AFPM for UTP pigtails LiNbO{sub 3} waveguide devices and the AFPM for Ortel pigtails photodiodes. Both of these machines contain proprietary information, so the third AFPM, residing at LLNL, pigtails a non-proprietary waveguide device for demonstrations to US industry and further development.

  12. Mechanical design of a low cost parabolic solar dish concentrator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamza Hijazi


    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to design a low cost parabolic solar dish concentrator with small-to moderate size for direct electricity generation. Such model can be installed in rural areas which are not connected to governmental grid. Three diameters of the dish; 5, 10 and 20 m are investigated and the focal point to dish diameter ratio is set to be 0.3 in all studied cases. Special attention is given to the selection of the appropriate dimensions of the reflecting surfaces to be cut from the available sheets in the market aiming to reduce both cutting cost and sheets cost. The dimensions of the ribs and rings which support the reflecting surface are optimized in order to minimize the entire weight of the dish while providing the minimum possible total deflection and stresses in the beams. The study applies full stress analysis of the frame of the dish using Autodesk Inventor. The study recommends to use landscape orientation for the reflective facets and increase the ribs angle and the distance between the connecting rings. The methodology presented is robust and can be extended to larger dish diameters.

  13. Low-cost activation analysis at small research reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Westphal, G P; Lemmel, H; Niedermaier, M R; Joestl, K; Schröder, P; Böck, H H; Schachner, H; Klapfer, E


    A software implementation of a loss-free counting multichannel analyzer, storing immediately into the multimegabyte memory of a low-cost 486 or Pentium type PC, enables the real-time control of a rabbit system as well as the collection of up to 1000 pairs of simultaneously recorded loss-corrected and non-corrected spectra of 16 k channels each, in a true sequence without time gaps in between, at throughput rates of up to 200 kc/s. Intended for activation analysis of short-lived isomeric transitions, the system renders possible peak to background optimizations and separations of lines with different half-lives without an a priori knowledge of sample composition by summing up appropriate numbers of spectra over appropriate intervals of time. By automatically adapting the noise filtering time to individual pulse intervals, the Preloaded Digital Filter (PLDF) combines low- to medium-rate resolutions comparable to those of high-quality Gaussian amplifiers with throughput rates of up to 100 kc/s, and high-rate reso...

  14. Development of a low-cost whole body counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.H.; Gross, G.P.


    This paper documents the construction and calibration of a whole-body counter for the Radiation Safety Office of the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, MN. Changes in the federal regulations may require improved documentation of internal dose for radiation workers. A relatively inexpensive and simple chair-type whole-body counter may suit the needs of many organizations for in vivo assessment of gamma emitting radionuclides. A simple calibration phantom and a spreadsheet computer program were developed in conjunction with the counter. The spreadsheet can be used to calculate an estimate of committed effective dose equivalent based on activity in a subject and data from ICRP Publication 30. Using a count time of 10 minutes, the counter's minimum detectable activity ranged from 370 Bq to 1,110 Bq for 60 Co and 57 Co respectively. Other institutions will be able to assemble whole-body counters at low cost, often from surplus components. The spreadsheet is easily adapted to the needs of any institution and uses current methodology to estimate internal dose

  15. Additively Manufactured Low Cost Upper Stage Combustion Chamber (United States)

    Protz, Christopher; Cooper, Ken; Ellis, David; Fikes, John; Jones, Zachary; Kim, Tony; Medina, Cory; Taminger, Karen; Willingham, Derek


    Over the past two years NASA's Low Cost Upper Stage Propulsion (LCUSP) project has developed Additive Manufacturing (AM) technologies and design tools aimed at reducing the costs and manufacturing time of regeneratively cooled rocket engine components. High pressure/high temperature combustion chambers and nozzles must be regeneratively cooled to survive their operating environment, causing their design fabrication to be costly and time consuming due to the number of individual steps and different processes required. Under LCUSP, AM technologies in Sintered Laser Melting (SLM) GRCop-84 and Electron Beam Freeform Fabrication (EBF3) Inconel 625 have been significantly advanced, allowing the team to successfully fabricate a 25k-class regenerative chamber. Estimates of the costs and schedule of future builds indicate cost reductions and significant schedule reductions will be enabled by this technology. Characterization of the microstructural and mechanical properties of the SLM-produced GRCop-84, EBF3 Inconel 625 and the interface layer between the two has been performed and indicates the properties will meet the design requirements. The LCUSP chamber is to be tested with a previously demonstrated SLM injector in order to advance the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) and demonstrate the capability of the application of these processes. NASA is advancing these technologies to reduce cost and schedule for future engine applications and commercial needs.

  16. Study about the implantation of fuel gas system in low-cost housing; Estudo sobte a implantacao de sistemas de gas combustivel em conjuntos habitacionais de baixa renda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilha, Marina S. de Oliveira; Goncalves, Orestes Marracini [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica; Mariotoni, Carlos Alberto [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil. Dept. de Hidraulica e Saneamento


    The rising in the demand for electrical energy in the last years has led to adoption of conservation policies and rational use of this energetic, basically by employing more efficient equipment and by its substitution by alternative sources. In low-cost housing, water heating is responsible for 30 to 40 % of peak demand period. This work consists in the determination of the implantation cost of gas as an alternative energy source for water heating in low-cost housing. (author) 7 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Open source software and low cost sensors for teaching UAV science (United States)

    Kefauver, S. C.; Sanchez-Bragado, R.; El-Haddad, G.; Araus, J. L.


    Drones, also known as UASs (unmanned aerial systems), UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles) or RPAS (Remotely piloted aircraft systems), are both useful advanced scientific platforms and recreational toys that are appealing to younger generations. As such, they can make for excellent education tools as well as low-cost scientific research project alternatives. However, the process of taking pretty pictures to remote sensing science can be daunting if one is presented with only expensive software and sensor options. There are a number of open-source tools and low cost platform and sensor options available that can provide excellent scientific research results, and, by often requiring more user-involvement than commercial software and sensors, provide even greater educational benefits. Scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT) algorithm implementations, such as the Microsoft Image Composite Editor (ICE), which can create quality 2D image mosaics with some motion and terrain adjustments and VisualSFM (Structure from Motion), which can provide full image mosaicking with movement and orthorectification capacities. RGB image quantification using alternate color space transforms, such as the BreedPix indices, can be calculated via plugins in the open-source software Fiji (; Recent analyses of aerial images from UAVs over different vegetation types and environments have shown RGB metrics can outperform more costly commercial sensors. Specifically, Hue-based pixel counts, the Triangle Greenness Index (TGI), and the Normalized Green Red Difference Index (NGRDI) consistently outperformed NDVI in estimating abiotic and biotic stress impacts on crop health. Also, simple kits are available for NDVI camera conversions. Furthermore, suggestions for multivariate analyses of the different RGB indices in the "R program for statistical computing", such as classification and regression trees can allow for a more approachable

  18. Design and construction of a low-cost nose poke system for rodents. (United States)

    Rizzi, Giorgio; Lodge, Meredith E; Tan, Kelly R


    Operant behavioral tasks for animals have long been used to probe the function of multiple brain regions (i.e., understanding the role of dopamine in electrical brain stimulation reward [1], or determining the rewarding properties of feeding oriented brain pathways [2]). The recent development of tools and techniques has opened the door to refine the answer to these same questions with a much higher degree of specificity and accuracy, both in biological and spatial-temporal terms [3], [4]. A variety of systems designed to test operant behavior are now commercially available, but have prohibitive costs. Here, we provide a low-cost alternative to a nose poke system for mice. Adapting a freely available sketch for ARDUINO boards, in combination with an in-house built PVC box and inexpensive electronic material we constructed a four-port nose poke system that detects and counts port entries. To verify the applicability and validity of our system we tested the behavior of DAT-CRE transgenic mice injected with an adeno-associated virus to express ChannelRhodopsin 2 in the Ventral tegmental area (VTA) and used the BNC output to drive a blue laser coupled to a fiber implanted above the VTA. Over 6 days, mice perform as it has been reported previously [5] exhibiting a remarkable preference for the port that triggers optogenetic stimulation of VTA dopamine neurons. •We provide a low cost alternative to commercially available nose poke system.•Our custom made apparatus is open source and TTL compatible.•We validate our system with optogenetic self-stimulation of dopamine neurons.

  19. A low-cost approach to the exploration of Mars through a robotic technology demonstrator mission (United States)

    Ellery, Alex; Richter, Lutz; Parnell, John; Baker, Adam


    We present a proposed robotic mission to Mars—Vanguard—for the Aurora Arrow programme which combines an extensive technology demonstrator with a high scientific return. The novel aspect of this technology demonstrator is the demonstration of “water mining” capabilities for in situ resource utilisation (ISRU) in conjunction with high-value astrobiological investigation within a low-mass lander package of 70 kg. The basic architecture comprises a small lander, a micro-rover and a number of ground-penetrating moles. This basic architecture offers the possibility of testing a wide variety of generic technologies associated with space systems and planetary exploration. The architecture provides for the demonstration of specific technologies associated with planetary surface exploration, and with the Aurora programme specifically. Technology demonstration of ISRU will be a necessary precursor to any future human mission to Mars. Furthermore, its modest mass overhead allows the re-use of the already built Mars Express bus, making it a very low-cost option.

  20. Low-Cost Gas Heat Pump for Building Space Heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrabrant, Michael [Stone Mountain Technologies, Inc., Johnson City, TN (United States); Keinath, Christopher [Stone Mountain Technologies, Inc., Johnson City, TN (United States)


    Gas-fired residential space heating in the U.S is predominantly supplied by furnaces and boilers. These technologies have been approaching their thermodynamic limit over the past 30 years and improvements for high efficiency units have approached a point of diminishing return. Electric heat pumps are growing in popularity but their heating performance at low ambient temperatures is poor. The development of a low-cost gas absorption heat pump would offer a significant improvement to current furnaces and boilers, and in heating dominated climate zones when compared to electric heat pumps. Gas absorption heat pumps (GAHP) exceed the traditional limit of thermal efficiency encountered by typical furnaces and boilers, and maintain high levels of performance at low ambient temperatures. The project team designed and demonstrated two low-cost packaged prototype GAHP space heating systems during the course of this investigation. Led by Stone Mountain Technologies Inc. (SMTI), with support from A.O. Smith, and the Gas Technology Institute (GTI), the cross-functional team completed research and development tasks including cycle modeling, 8× scaling of a compact solution pump, combustion system development, breadboard evaluation, fabrication of two packaged prototype units, third party testing of the first prototype, and the evaluation of cost and energy savings compared to high and minimum efficiency gas options. Over the course of the project and with the fabrication of two Alpha prototypes it was shown that this technology met or exceeded most of the stated project targets. At ambient temperatures of 47, 35, 17 and -13°F the prototypes achieved gas based coefficients of performance of 1.50, 1.44, 1.37, and 1.17, respectively. Both units operated with parasitic loads well below the 750 watt target with the second Alpha prototype operating 75-100 watts below the first Alpha prototype. Modulation of the units at 4:1 was achieved with the project goal of 2:1 modulation

  1. A low cost tele-imaging platform for developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Purpose: To design a low cost tele-imaging method allowing real time tele-ultrasound expertise, delayed tele-ultrasound diagnosis and tele-radiology between remote peripherals hospitals and clinics (patient centres and university hospital centres (expert centre.Materials and Methods: A system of communication via internet (IP camera and remote access software enabling transfer of ultrasound videos and images between two centres, allows a real time tele-radiology expertise in the presence of a junior sonographer or radiologist at the patient centre. In the absence of a sonographer or radiologist at the patient centre, a 3D reconstruction program allows a delayed tele-ultrasound diagnosis with images acquired by a lay operator (e.g. midwife, nurse, technician. The system was tested both with high and low bandwidth. The system can further accommodate non-ultrasound tele-radiology (conventional radiography, mammography and computer tomography for example. The system was tested on 50 patients between CHR Tsevie in Togo (40km from Lomé-Togo and 4500km from Tours-France and CHU Campus at Lomé and CHU Trousseau in Tours.Results: A real time tele-expertise was successfully performed with a delay of approximately 1.5 seconds with an internet bandwidth of around 1Mbps (IP Camera and 512kbps (remote access software. A delayed tele-ultrasound diagnosis was also performed with satisfactory results. The transmission of radiological images from the patient centre to the expert centre was of adequate quality. Delayed tele-ultrasound and tele-radiology was possible even in the presence of a low bandwidth internet connection. Conclusion: This tele-imaging method, requiring nothing by readily available and inexpensive technology and equipment, offers a major opportunity for telemedicine in developing countries.

  2. Additive Manufacturing of Low Cost Upper Stage Propulsion Components (United States)

    Protz, Christopher; Bowman, Randy; Cooper, Ken; Fikes, John; Taminger, Karen; Wright, Belinda


    NASA is currently developing Additive Manufacturing (AM) technologies and design tools aimed at reducing the costs and manufacturing time of regeneratively cooled rocket engine components. These Low Cost Upper Stage Propulsion (LCUSP) tasks are funded through NASA's Game Changing Development Program in the Space Technology Mission Directorate. The LCUSP project will develop a copper alloy additive manufacturing design process and develop and optimize the Electron Beam Freeform Fabrication (EBF3) manufacturing process to direct deposit a nickel alloy structural jacket and manifolds onto an SLM manufactured GRCop chamber and Ni-alloy nozzle. In order to develop these processes, the project will characterize both the microstructural and mechanical properties of the SLMproduced GRCop-84, and will explore and document novel design techniques specific to AM combustion devices components. These manufacturing technologies will be used to build a 25K-class regenerative chamber and nozzle (to be used with tested DMLS injectors) that will be tested individually and as a system in hot fire tests to demonstrate the applicability of the technologies. These tasks are expected to bring costs and manufacturing time down as spacecraft propulsion systems typically comprise more than 70% of the total vehicle cost and account for a significant portion of the development schedule. Additionally, high pressure/high temperature combustion chambers and nozzles must be regeneratively cooled to survive their operating environment, causing their design to be time consuming and costly to build. LCUSP presents an opportunity to develop and demonstrate a process that can infuse these technologies into industry, build competition, and drive down costs of future engines.

  3. Feasibility of a low-cost sounding rockoon platform (United States)

    Okninski, Adam; Raurell, Daniel Sors; Mitre, Alberto Rodriguez


    This paper presents the results of analyses and simulations for the design of a small sounding platform, dedicated to conducting scientific atmospheric research and capable of reaching the von Kármán line by means of a rocket launched from it. While recent private initiatives have opted for the air launch concept to send small payloads to Low Earth Orbit, several historical projects considered the use of balloons as the first stage of orbital and suborbital platforms, known as rockoons. Both of these approaches enable the minimization of drag losses. This paper addresses the issue of utilizing stratospheric balloons as launch platforms to conduct sub-orbital rocket flights. Research and simulations have been conducted to demonstrate these capabilities and feasibility. A small sounding solid propulsion rocket using commercially-off-the-shelf hardware is proposed. Its configuration and design are analyzed with special attention given to the propulsion system and its possible mission-orientated optimization. The cost effectiveness of this approach is discussed. Performance calculation outcomes are shown. Additionally, sensitivity study results for different design parameters are given. Minimum mass rocket configurations for various payload requirements are presented. The ultimate aim is to enhance low-cost experimentation maintaining high mobility of the system and simplicity of operations. An easier and more affordable access to a space-like environment can be achieved with this system, thus allowing for widespread outreach of space science and technology knowledge. This project is based on earlier experience of the authors in LEEM Association of the Technical University of Madrid and the Polish Small Sounding Rocket Program developed at the Institute of Aviation and Warsaw University of Technology in Poland.

  4. Low cost and efficient photovoltaic conversion by nanocrystalline solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graetzel, Michael


    The quality of human life depends to a large degree on the availability of energy sources. The present worldwide energy consumption already exceeds the level of 6000 gigawatt and is expected to further increase sharply. This implies enhanced depletion of fossil fuel reserves, leading to further aggravation of the environmental pollution. Adding to this the dangers arising from the accumulation of plutonium fission products from nuclear reactors, the quality of life on earth is threatened unless renewable energy resources can be quickly developed. Photovoltaic solar energy converters are expected to make important contributions to the identification of environmentally friendly solutions to the energy problem. One attractive strategy discussed in this paper is the development of systems that mimic natural photosynthesis in the conversion of solar energy for the fixation of carbon dioxide. A molecular photovoltaic device has been developed whose overall efficiency for solar energy conversion to electricity has already attained 10%. The system is based on the sensitization of nanocrystalline films by transition metal charge transfer sensitizers. In analogy to photosynthesis, the new chemical solar cell achieves the separation of the light absorption and charge carrier transport processes. Extraordinary yields exceeding 90% for the conversion of incident photons into electric current are obtained, in contrast to conventional photovoltaic cells which are not economical for base load utility electricity production. The low cost and ease of production of the new cell should benefit large-scale applications, in particular in underdeveloped or developing countries, which benefit from generous sunshine. Aside from its intrinsic merits as a photovoltaic device, nanocrystalline film development opens up a large number of additional avenues for energy storage ranging from intercalation batteries to the formation of chemical fuels. These systems will undoubtedly promote the

  5. Removal of arsenic from groundwater with low cost multilayer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samad, A.; Rahman, M.A.


    A simple, low cost arsenic removal system was developed to treat arsenic contaminated ground water containing 425 +- 4.2 micro g/L arsenic. The system decontaminates arsenic from water by sorption through fine particles of waste materials (Coconut husk's ash, Refused brick dust, Stone dust and Waste newspaper) of multilayer. The treatment efficiency of the process was investigated under various operating conditions that might affect the sorption/ desorption of arsenic. Sorption column method shows the optimum removal of As(III) under the following conditions: initial As concentration (100 micro g/L), sorbent amount (4.0 g for brick dust, 3.0 g for stone dust, 3.0 g for Coconut husk's ash and 0.3 g for waste newspaper), particle size (<355 micro m), treatment flow rate (1.4 mL/min), optimum volume (100 mL) and pH (5.0). Desorption efficiencies with 2M of KOH after the treatment of groundwater were observed in the range of 78 +- 1.2% - 82 +- 1.4%. Average arsenic concentration of treated sample water was 8.30 +- 0.4 micro g/L which is below the WHO guideline value for Bangladesh. Different techniques were used to measure thirteen metals, four anions with pH, conductivity, and temperature to understand the status of other species before and after treatment. The average concentrations of other inorganic constituents of health concern (Cu, Mn, Pb, Cr and Fe) in treated water were below WHO guideline value for drinking water. The present study showed a new method for removal of as from ground water. (author)

  6. Low Cost Upper Stage-Class Propulsion (LCUSP) (United States)

    Vickers, John


    NASA is making space exploration more affordable and viable by developing and utilizing innovative manufacturing technologies. Technology development efforts at NASA in propulsion are committed to continuous innovation of design and manufacturing technologies for rocket engines in order to reduce the cost of NASA's journey to Mars. The Low Cost Upper Stage-Class Propulsion (LCUSP) effort will develop and utilize emerging Additive Manufacturing (AM) to significantly reduce the development time and cost for complex rocket propulsion hardware. Benefit of Additive Manufacturing (3-D Printing) Current rocket propulsion manufacturing techniques are costly and have lengthy development times. In order to fabricate rocket engines, numerous complex parts made of different materials are assembled in a way that allow the propellant to collect heat at the right places to drive the turbopump and simultaneously keep the thrust chamber from melting. The heat conditioned fuel and oxidizer come together and burn inside the combustion chamber to provide thrust. The efforts to make multiple parts precisely fit together and not leak after experiencing cryogenic temperatures on one-side and combustion temperatures on the other is quite challenging. Additive manufacturing has the potential to significantly reduce the time and cost of making rocket parts like the copper liner and Nickel-alloy jackets found in rocket combustion chambers where super-cold cryogenic propellants are heated and mixed to the extreme temperatures needed to propel rockets in space. The Selective Laser Melting (SLM) machine fuses 8,255 layers of copper powder to make a section of the chamber in 10 days. Machining an equivalent part and assembling it with welding and brazing techniques could take months to accomplish with potential failures or leaks that could require fixes. The design process is also enhanced since it does not require the 3D model to be converted to 2-D drawings. The design and fabrication process

  7. Designing low cost LED display for the billboard (United States)

    Hong, Yi-Jian; Uang, Chii-Maw; Wang, Ping-Chieh; Ho, Zu-Sheng


    With quickly advance of the computer, microelectronics and photonics technologies, LED display panel becomes a new electronic advertising media. It can be used to show any information whatever characters or graphics. Most LED display panels are built of many Light-Emitting Diodes arranged in a matrix form. The display has many advantages such as low power, low cost, long life and high definition. Because the display panel is asked to show rich color, the LED display panel's driving system becomes very complex. The design methodology of LED display panel's driver becomes more and more important to meet the market requirements. Cost is always the most important issue in public market domain. In this paper, we report a design methodology of LED display panel's driver based on the microprocessor control unit (MCU) system and LED display controller IC, HT1632C, to control three colors, RGB, color LED display panel and the modular panel size is 24*16 in matrix form. The HT1632C is a memory mapping LED display controller, it can be used on many applications, such as digital clock, thermometer, counter, voltmeter or other instrumentation readouts. Three pieces of HT1632C are used to drive a 24*16 RGB LED display panel, in our design case. Each HT163C chip is used to control one of the R, G and B color. As the drive mode is driven in DC mode, the RGB display panel can create and totally of seven colors under the control of MCU. The MCU generates the control signal to drive HT1632C. In this study, the software design methodology is adopted with dynamic display principle. When the scan frequency is 60Hz, LED display panel will get the clear picture and be able to display seven colors.

  8. Acute gamma-secretase inhibition of nonhuman primate CNS shifts amyloid precursor protein (APP) metabolism from amyloid-beta production to alternative APP fragments without amyloid-beta rebound. (United States)

    Cook, Jacquelynn J; Wildsmith, Kristin R; Gilberto, David B; Holahan, Marie A; Kinney, Gene G; Mathers, Parker D; Michener, Maria S; Price, Eric A; Shearman, Mark S; Simon, Adam J; Wang, Jennifer X; Wu, Guoxin; Yarasheski, Kevin E; Bateman, Randall J


    The accumulation of amyloid beta (Abeta) in Alzheimer's disease is caused by an imbalance of production and clearance, which leads to increased soluble Abeta species and extracellular plaque formation in the brain. Multiple Abeta-lowering therapies are currently in development: an important goal is to characterize the molecular mechanisms of action and effects on physiological processing of Abeta, as well as other amyloid precursor protein (APP) metabolites, in models which approximate human Abeta physiology. To this end, we report the translation of the human in vivo stable-isotope-labeling kinetics (SILK) method to a rhesus monkey cisterna magna ported (CMP) nonhuman primate model, and use the model to test the mechanisms of action of a gamma-secretase inhibitor (GSI). A major concern of inhibiting the enzymes which produce Abeta (beta- and gamma-secretase) is that precursors of Abeta may accumulate and cause a rapid increase in Abeta production when enzyme inhibition discontinues. In this study, the GSI MK-0752 was administered to conscious CMP rhesus monkeys in conjunction with in vivo stable-isotope-labeling, and dose-dependently reduced newly generated CNS Abeta. In contrast to systemic Abeta metabolism, CNS Abeta production was not increased after the GSI was cleared. These results indicate that most of the CNS APP was metabolized to products other than Abeta, including C-terminal truncated forms of Abeta: 1-14, 1-15 and 1-16; this demonstrates an alternative degradation pathway for CNS amyloid precursor protein during gamma-secretase inhibition.

  9. Design and performance analysis of a low-cost aided dead reckoning navigator (United States)

    Gebre-Egziabher, Demoz

    The Federal Aviation Administration is leading the National Airspace System (NAS) modernization effort, in part, by supplanting traditional air traffic services with the Global Positioning System (GPS) aided by the Wide and Local Area Augmentation Systems (WAAS & LAAS). Making GPS the primary-means of navigation will enhance safety, flexibility and efficiency of operations for all aircraft ranging from single engine general aviation aircraft to complex commercial jet-liners. This transformation of the NAS will be gradual and the build-up to a primary-means GPS capability is expected to occur concurrently with the de-commissioning of a significant number of existing ground-based navigational facilities. If an alternate means of navigation is not available during this transition period, temporary interruptions of GPS services due to intentional or unintentional interference could present significant problems for aircraft lacking backup navigation capability. To successfully deal with such outage scenarios, a NAS architecture consisting of a skeletal network of Distance Measuring Equipment (DME) transponders to provide a redundant navigation capability alongside GPS/WAAS during this transition period is proposed. DME range measurements fused with a low cost dead-reckoning system can provide a navigation performance comparable to VOR and LORAN. This navigation scheme allows reducing the number of operational radio-navigation aids while maintaining an adequate coverage for navigation during the transition to a primary-means GPS NAS. The dead-reckoning navigation system is based on the fusion of a single low-end DME receiver with low cost inertial, air-data and magnetic sensors. These sensors are already part of the newer general aviation aircraft's suite of navigation sensors. Estimator architectures for fusing the information from the various sensors is presented. The performance of this navigator depends on the calibration and on-line estimation of sensor errors

  10. Composite and Low-Cost Approaches for Molecular Crystal Structure Prediction. (United States)

    LeBlanc, Luc M; Otero-de-la-Roza, Alberto; Johnson, Erin R


    Molecular crystal structure prediction (CSP) requires evaluating differences in lattice energy between candidate crystal structures accurately and efficiently. In this work, we explore and compare several low-cost alternatives to dispersion-corrected density-functional theory (DFT) in the plane-waves/pseudopotential approximation, the most accurate and general approach used for CSP at present. Three types of low-cost methods are considered: DFT with a small basis set of finite-support numerical orbitals (the SIESTA method), dispersion-corrected Gaussian small or minimal-basis-set Hartree-Fock and DFT with additional empirical corrections (HF-3c and PBEh-3c), and self-consistent-charge dispersion-corrected density-functional tight binding (SCC-DFTB3-D3). In addition, we study the performance of composite methods that comprise a geometry optimization using a low-cost approach followed by a single-point calculation using the accurate but comparatively expensive B86bPBE-XDM functional. All methods were tested for their abilities to produce absolute lattice energies, relative lattice energies, and crystal geometries. We show that assessing various methods by their ability to produce absolute lattice energies can be misleading and that relative lattice energies are a much better indicator of performance in CSP. The EE14 set of relative solubilities of homochiral and heterochiral chiral crystals is proposed for relative lattice-energy benchmarking. Our results show that PBE-D2 plus a DZP basis set of numerical orbitals coupled with a final B86bPBE-XDM single-point calculation gives excellent performance at a fraction of the cost of a full B86bPBE-XDM calculation, although the results are sensitive to the particular details of the computational protocol. The B86bPBE-XDM//PBE-D2/DZP method was subsequently tested in a practical CSP application from our recent work on the crystal structure of the enantiopure and racemate forms of 1-aza[6]helicene, a chiral organic

  11. Durable, Low-cost, Improved Fuel Cell Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chris Roger; David Mountz; Wensheng He; Tao Zhang


    The development of low cost, durable membranes and membranes electrode assemblies (MEAs) that operate under reduced relative humidity (RH) conditions remain a critical challenge for the successful introduction of fuel cells into mass markets. It was the goal of the team lead by Arkema, Inc. to address these shortages. Thus, this project addresses the following technical barriers from the fuel cells section of the Hydrogen Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program Multi-Year Research, Development and Demonstration Plan: (A) Durability (B) Cost Arkema’s approach consisted of using blends of polyvinylidenefluoride (PVDF) and proprietary sulfonated polyelectrolytes. In the traditional approach to polyelectrolytes for proton exchange membranes (PEM), all the required properties are “packaged” in one macromolecule. The properties of interest include proton conductivity, mechanical properties, durability, and water/gas transport. This is the case, for example, for perfluorosulfonic acid-containing (PFSA) membranes. However, the cost of these materials is high, largely due to the complexity and the number of steps involved in their synthesis. In addition, they suffer other shortcomings such as mediocre mechanical properties and insufficient durability for some applications. The strength and originality of Arkema’s approach lies in the decoupling of ion conductivity from the other requirements. Kynar® PVDF provides an exceptional combination of properties that make it ideally suited for a membrane matrix (Kynar® is a registered trademark of Arkema Inc.). It exhibits outstanding chemical resistance in highly oxidative and acidic environments. In work with a prior grant, a membrane known as M41 was developed by Arkema. M41 had many of the properties needed for a high performance PEM, but had a significant deficiency in conductivity at low RH. In the first phase of this work, the processing parameters of M41 were explored as a means to increase its proton

  12. Development of a low-cost sun sensor for nanosatellites (United States)

    Antonello, Andrea; Olivieri, Lorenzo; Francesconi, Alessandro


    Sun sensors represent a common and reliable technology for attitude determination, employed in many space missions thanks to their limited size and weight. Typically, two-axis digital Sun sensors employ an array of active pixels arranged behind a small aperture; the position of the sunlight's spot allows to determine the direction of the Sun. With the advent of smaller vehicles such as CubeSats and Nanosats, there is the need to further reduce the size and weight of such devices: as a trade-off, this usually results in the curtail of the performances. Nowadays, state of the art Sun sensors for CubeSats have resolutions of about 0.5°, with fields of view in the ±45° to ±90° range, with off-the-self prices of several thousands of dollars. In this work we introduce a novel low-cost miniaturized Sun sensor, based on a commercial CMOS camera detector; its main feature is the reduced size with respect to state-of-the-art sensors developed from the same technology, making it employable on CubeSats. The sensor consists of a precisely machined pinhole with a 10 μm circular aperture, placed at a distance of 7 mm from the CMOS. The standoff distance and casing design allow for a maximum resolution of less than 0.03°, outperforming most of the products currently available for nano and pico platforms; furthermore, the nature of the technology allows for reduced size and lightweight characteristics. The design, development and laboratory tests of the sensor are here introduced, starting with the definition of the physical model, the geometrical layout and its theoretical resolution; a more accurate model was then developed in order to account for the geometrical deviations and deformations of the pinhole-projected light-spot, as well as to account for the background noise and disturbances to the electronics. Finally, the laboratory setup is presented along with the test campaigns: the results obtained are compared with the simulations, allowing for the validation of the

  13. Adsorption desalination: An emerging low-cost thermal desalination method

    KAUST Repository

    Ng, K. C.


    Desalination, other than the natural water cycle, is hailed as the panacea to alleviate the problems of fresh water shortage in many water stressed countries. However, the main drawback of conventional desalination methods is that they are energy intensive. In many instances, they consumed electricity, chemicals for pre- and post-treatment of water. For each kWh of energy consumed, there is an unavoidable emission of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) at the power stations as well as the discharge of chemically-laden brine into the environment. Thus, there is a motivation to find new direction or methods of desalination that consumed less chemicals, thermal energy and electricity.This paper describes an emerging and yet low cost method of desalination that employs only low-temperature waste heat, which is available in abundance from either the renewable energy sources or exhaust of industrial processes. With only one heat input, the Adsorption Desalination (AD) cycle produces two useful effects, i.e., high grade potable water and cooling. In this article, a brief literature review, the theoretical framework for adsorption thermodynamics, a lumped-parameter model and the experimental tests for a wide range of operational conditions on the basic and the hybrid AD cycles are discussed. Predictions from the model are validated with measured performances from two pilot plants, i.e., a basic AD and the advanced AD cycles. The energetic efficiency of AD cycles has been compared against the conventional desalination methods. Owing to the unique features of AD cycle, i.e., the simultaneous production of dual useful effects, it is proposed that the life cycle cost (LCC) of AD is evaluated against the LCC of combined machines that are needed to deliver the same quantities of useful effects using a unified unit of $/MWh. In closing, an ideal desalination system with zero emission of CO2 is presented where geo-thermal heat is employed for powering a temperature-cascaded cogeneration plant.

  14. Pointo - a Low Cost Solution to Point Cloud Processing (United States)

    Houshiar, H.; Winkler, S.


    With advance in technology access to data especially 3D point cloud data becomes more and more an everyday task. 3D point clouds are usually captured with very expensive tools such as 3D laser scanners or very time consuming methods such as photogrammetry. Most of the available softwares for 3D point cloud processing are designed for experts and specialists in this field and are usually very large software packages containing variety of methods and tools. This results in softwares that are usually very expensive to acquire and also very difficult to use. Difficulty of use is caused by complicated user interfaces that is required to accommodate a large list of features. The aim of these complex softwares is to provide a powerful tool for a specific group of specialist. However they are not necessary required by the majority of the up coming average users of point clouds. In addition to complexity and high costs of these softwares they generally rely on expensive and modern hardware and only compatible with one specific operating system. Many point cloud customers are not point cloud processing experts or willing to spend the high acquisition costs of these expensive softwares and hardwares. In this paper we introduce a solution for low cost point cloud processing. Our approach is designed to accommodate the needs of the average point cloud user. To reduce the cost and complexity of software our approach focuses on one functionality at a time in contrast with most available softwares and tools that aim to solve as many problems as possible at the same time. Our simple and user oriented design improve the user experience and empower us to optimize our methods for creation of an efficient software. In this paper we introduce Pointo family as a series of connected softwares to provide easy to use tools with simple design for different point cloud processing requirements. PointoVIEWER and PointoCAD are introduced as the first components of the Pointo family to provide a

  15. Novel Low Cost, High Reliability Wind Turbine Drivetrain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chobot, Anthony; Das, Debarshi; Mayer, Tyler; Markey, Zach; Martinson, Tim; Reeve, Hayden; Attridge, Paul; El-Wardany, Tahany


    Clipper Windpower, in collaboration with United Technologies Research Center, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and Hamilton Sundstrand Corporation, developed a low-cost, deflection-compliant, reliable, and serviceable chain drive speed increaser. This chain and sprocket drivetrain design offers significant breakthroughs in the areas of cost and serviceability and addresses the key challenges of current geared and direct-drive systems. The use of gearboxes has proven to be challenging; the large torques and bending loads associated with use in large multi-MW wind applications have generally limited demonstrated lifetime to 8-10 years [1]. The large cost of gearbox replacement and the required use of large, expensive cranes can result in gearbox replacement costs on the order of $1M, representing a significant impact to overall cost of energy (COE). Direct-drive machines eliminate the gearbox, thereby targeting increased reliability and reduced life-cycle cost. However, the slow rotational speeds require very large and costly generators, which also typically have an undesirable dependence on expensive rare-earth magnet materials and large structural penalties for precise air gap control. The cost of rare-earth materials has increased 20X in the last 8 years representing a key risk to ever realizing the promised cost of energy reductions from direct-drive generators. A common challenge to both geared and direct drive architectures is a limited ability to manage input shaft deflections. The proposed Clipper drivetrain is deflection-compliant, insulating later drivetrain stages and generators from off-axis loads. The system is modular, allowing for all key parts to be removed and replaced without the use of a high capacity crane. Finally, the technology modularity allows for scalability and many possible drivetrain topologies. These benefits enable reductions in drivetrain capital cost by 10.0%, levelized replacement and O&M costs by 26.7%, and overall cost of

  16. Low-cost Triangular Lattice Towers for Small Wind Turbines (United States)

    Adhikari, Ram Chandra

    This thesis focuses on the study of low-cost steel and bamboo triangular lattice towers for small wind turbines. The core objective is to determine the material properties of bamboo and assess the feasibility of bamboo towers. Using the experimentally determined buckling resistance, elastic modulus, and Poisson's ratio, a 12 m high triangular lattice tower for a 500W wind turbine has been modeled as a tripod to formulate the analytical solutions for the stresses and tower deflections, which enables design of the tower based on buckling strength of tower legs. The tripod formulation combines the imposed loads, the base distance between the legs and tower height, and cross-sectional dimensions of the tower legs. The tripod model was used as a reference for the initial design of the bamboo tower and extended to finite element analysis. A 12 m high steel lattice tower was also designed for the same turbine to serve as a comparison to the bamboo tower. The primary result of this work indicates that bamboo is a valid structural material. The commercial software package ANSYS APDL was used to carry out the tower analysis, evaluate the validity of the tripod model, and extend the analysis for the tower design. For this purpose, a 12 m high steel lattice tower for a 500 W wind turbine was examined. Comparison of finite element analysis and analytical solution has shown that tripod model can be accurately used in the design of lattice towers. The tower designs were based on the loads and safety requirements of international standard for small wind turbine safety, IEC 61400-2. For connecting the bamboo sections in the lattice tower, a steel-bamboo adhesive joint combined with conventional lashing has been proposed. Also, considering the low durability of bamboo, periodic replacement of tower members has been proposed. The result of this study has established that bamboo could be used to construct cost-effective and lightweight lattice towers for wind turbines of 500 Watt

  17. How to Mobilize your Library at Low Cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Abarca Villoldo


    tools are available free of charge. In other words, these are low-cost tools that offer high returns to the user.

  18. Low-Cost feedstock conversion to biodiesel via ultrasound technology

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Babajide, O


    Full Text Available alternative to the use of gasoline and conventional diesel in transportation and ideally, such oil alternatives should reduce (or even remove) the dependence of oil as well as contributing as much as possible to meet the greenhouse gases emissions (GHG... of long chain fatty acids derived from vegetable oils, waste oils, and animal fats [4] and more recently, algae [2,3]. Biodiesel is a renewable and biodegradable form and source of energy due to the fact that vegetable oils are produced from...

  19. Low cost labeling with highlighter ink efficiently visualizes developing blood vessels in avian and mouse embryos. (United States)

    Takase, Yuta; Tadokoro, Ryosuke; Takahashi, Yoshiko


    To understand how blood vessels form to establish the intricate network during vertebrate development, it is helpful if one can visualize the vasculature in embryos. We here describe a novel labeling method using highlighter ink, easily obtained in stationery stores with a low cost, to visualize embryo-wide vasculatures in avian and mice. We tested 50 different highlighters for fluorescent microscopy with filter sets equipped in a standard fluorescent microscope. The yellow and violet inks yielded fluorescent signals specifically detected by the filters used for green fluorescent protein (GFP) and red fluorescent protein (RFP) detections, respectively. When the ink solution was infused into chicken/quail and mouse embryos, vasculatures including large vessels and capillaries were labeled both in living and fixed embryos. Ink-infused embryos were further subjected to histological sections, and double stained with antibodies including QH-1 (quail), α smooth muscle actin (αSMA), and PECAM-1 (mouse), revealing that the endothelial cells were specifically labeled by the infused highlighter ink. Highlighter-labeled signals were detected with a resolution comparable to or higher than signals of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-lectin and Rhodamine-dextran, conventionally used for angiography. Furthermore, macroconfocal microscopic analyses with ink-infused embryos visualized fine vascular structures of both embryo proper and extra-embryonic plexus in a Z-stack image of 2400 μm thick with a markedly high resolution. Together, the low cost highlighter ink serves as an alternative reagent useful for visualization of blood vessels in developing avian and mouse embryos and possibly in other animals. © 2013 The Authors Development, Growth & Differentiation © 2013 Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

  20. The importance of creating a social business to produce low-cost hearing aids. (United States)

    Caccamo, Samantha; Voloshchenko, Anastasia; Dankyi, Nana Yaa


    The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that about 280 million people worldwide have a bilateral hearing loss, mostly living in poor countries. Hearing loss causes heavy social burdens on individuals, families, communities and countries. However, due to the lack of accessibility and affordability, the vast majority of people in the world who need hearing aids do not have access to them. Low-income countries are thus pulled into a disability/poverty spiral. From this standpoint, the production of available, accessible and affordable hearing aids for the poorest populations of our planet should be one of the main issues in global hearing healthcare. Designing and producing a brand new low-cost hearing aid is the most effective option. Involving a large producer of hearing aids in the creation of a social business to solve the problem of access to affordable hearing aids is an essential step to reduce hearing disability on a large scale globally. Today's technology allows for the creation of a "minimal design" product that does not exceed $100-$150, that can be further lowered when purchased in large quantities and dispensed with alternative models. It is conceivable that by making a sustainable social business, the low cost product could be sold with a cross-subsidy model in order to recover the overhead costs. Social business is an economic model that has the potential to produce and distribute affordable hearing aids in low- and middle-income countries. Rehabilitation of hearing impaired children will be carried out in partnership with Sahic (Society of Assistance to Hearing Impaired Children) in Dhaka, Bangladesh and the ENT Department of Ospedale Burlo di Trieste, Dr. Eva Orzan.

  1. Nanomembranes and soft fabrication methods for high performance, low cost energy technologies (United States)

    Yao, Yuan; Nuzzo, Ralph G.


    The production of integrated electronic circuits provides examples of the most advanced fabrication and assembly approaches that are generally characterized by large-scale integration of high-performance compact semiconductor elements that rely on rigid and essentially planar form factors. New methods of fabricating semiconductor membranes of nanoscale thickness with intrinsic mechanical flexible features are beginning to provide a set of means to lift these constraints by engendering deformable, three-dimensional device configurations that are difficult to achieve with bulkscale materials while retaining capacities for high (or altogether new forms of) electronic and/or optoelectronic performance. Together with enabling means of deterministic assembly realized via the advancing technology of transferprinting, these light-weight nanomembrane elements can be distributed over large areas on a soft, bendable, and even biocompatible secondary substrates with high throughput and yields to realize interesting new functionalities in technology. Exemplary cases include: large-area integrated electro-optical systems laminated onto curvilinear or other 3-D surfaces for use in sensing and imaging with capacities for accommodating demanding forms of mechanical flexure; and unconventional hybrid systems for lighting and photovoltaic energy conversion that provide a potentially transformational approach to supplant current technologies with high performance, low cost alternatives. Taken together, the results of recent research efforts illustrate important opportunities for exploiting advances in materials in synergy with physical means of patterning, fabrication and assembly. In this review, we explore several exemplary applications taken from this work, and specifically highlight scalable approaches to high performance integrated systems for low cost energy technologies.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Juliana Maccarrone


    Full Text Available Low-cost tungsten monometallic catalysts containing variable amounts of metal (4.5, 7.1 and 8.5%W were prepared by impregnating alumina with ammonium metatungstate as an inexpensive precursor. The catalysts were characterized using ICP, XPS, XRD, TPR and hydrogen chemisorption. These techniques revealed mainly WO3-Al2O3 (W6+ species on the surface. The effects of the content of W nanoparticles and reaction temperature on activity and selectivity for the partial hydrogenation of 3-hexyne, a non-terminal alkyne, were assessed under moderate conditions of temperature and pressure. The monometallic catalysts prepared were found to be active and stereoselective for the production of (Z -3-hexene, had the following order: 7.1WN/A > 8.5 WN/A ≥ 4.5 WN/A. Additionally, the performance of the synthesized xWN/A catalysts exhibited high sensitivity to temperature variation. In all cases, the maximum 3-hexyne total conversion and selectivity was achieved at 323 K. The performance of the catalysts was considered to be a consequence of two phenomena: a the electronic effects, related to the high charge of W (+6, causing an intensive dipole moment in the hydrogen molecule (van der Waals forces and leading to heterolytic bond rupture; the H+ and H- species generated approach a 3-hexyne adsorbate molecule and cause heterolytic rupture of the C≡C bond into C- = C+; and b steric effects related to the high concentration of WO3 on 8.5WN/A that block the Al2O3 support. Catalyst deactivation was detected, starting at about 50 min of reaction time. Electrodeficient W6+ species are responsible for the formation of green oil at the surface level, blocking pores and active sites of the catalyst, particularly at low reaction temperatures (293 and 303 K. The resulting best catalyst, 7.1WN/A, has low fabrication cost and high selectivity for (Z -3-hexene (94% at 323 K. This selectivity is comparable to that of the classical and more expensive industrial Lindlar catalyst

  3. Development of a low-cost alternative for metal removal from textile wastewater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sekomo Birame, C.


    Heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn) found in textile wastewater are removed by a combination of adsorption using volcanic rock as adsorbent, sulfide precipitation and phytoremediation techniques. The integrated system for metal removal combining anaerobic bioreactor as main treatment step and a

  4. Development of a low-cost alternative for metal removal from textile wastewater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sekomo Birame, C.


    Industrial wastewater contains many pollutants in general. Our interest is focusing on heavy metals found in textile effluents because of their known toxicity effect in the environment. Wastewater from a textile industry (UTEXRWA) in Rwanda has been screened for the occurrence of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Cina


    In this research, the actual performance of a mass market GPS receiver was tested, with the purpose of verifying if these sensors can be used for landslide monitoring. A special slide was realized, in order to conduct a dedicated test of the detection of displacements. Tests were carried out considering two factors: acquisition time and distance from the Virtual Station. The accuracy and precision of movement determination were evaluated and compared, for each test, considering the different factors. The tests and results are described in this contribution.

  6. Table sugar as an alternative low cost medium component for in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    carbon and energy in potato culture media in order to reduce the overall cost of micro-propagation. A randomized complete block design was used to compare laboratory grade sucrose with two types of local commercial table sugar, specifically white and brown sugar. Three selected Kenyan potato cultivars, Tigoni, Asante ...

  7. The performance of low-cost commercial cloud computing as an alternative in computational chemistry. (United States)

    Thackston, Russell; Fortenberry, Ryan C


    The growth of commercial cloud computing (CCC) as a viable means of computational infrastructure is largely unexplored for the purposes of quantum chemistry. In this work, the PSI4 suite of computational chemistry programs is installed on five different types of Amazon World Services CCC platforms. The performance for a set of electronically excited state single-point energies is compared between these CCC platforms and typical, "in-house" physical machines. Further considerations are made for the number of cores or virtual CPUs (vCPUs, for the CCC platforms), but no considerations are made for full parallelization of the program (even though parallelization of the BLAS library is implemented), complete high-performance computing cluster utilization, or steal time. Even with this most pessimistic view of the computations, CCC resources are shown to be more cost effective for significant numbers of typical quantum chemistry computations. Large numbers of large computations are still best utilized by more traditional means, but smaller-scale research may be more effectively undertaken through CCC services. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. High SO{sub 2} removal duct injection: A low-cost FGD alternative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, S.G. [Sorbent Technologies Corp., Twinsburg, OH (United States)


    Sorbent Technologies Corporation, of the United States, is currently developing and demonstrating a new waste free, retrofitable, high-SO{sub 2} removal duct-injection process. Up to 85 percent SO{sub 2} removal is achieved by simply injecting a new dry lime-based sorbent into the flue-gas duct, collecting the sorbent downstream in a particulate collector, and then recycling the sorbent. By avoiding large, expensive components, the process can have low capital costs, making it especially appropriate for smaller, older, less-utilized plants. The key to the new technology is the use of sorbent supports. Supported sorbents are produced by coating hydrated lime onto inexpensive mineral supports, such as exfoliated vermiculite or perlite. Consequently, there are no liquid, sludge, or solid wastes with the new technology. Once saturated with SO{sub 2}, the spent sorbent can be easily pelletized into a valuable soil-conditioning agricultural by-product, for the sustainable development that the future requires. This paper describes Sorbent Technologies` pilot demonstration of supported sorbent injection at the Ohio Edison Company`s R.E. Burger station. The Burger effort is also the first demonstration of the Electric Power Research Institute`s new {open_quotes}COHPAC{close_quotes} baghouse technology in a sorbent-injection desulfurization application.

  9. Low-cost rural surface alternatives : demonstration project : [tech transfer summary]. (United States)


    Identify the most effective and economical methods for preventing or : mitigating freeze-thaw damage to granular surfaced roads in seasonally : cold regions : Construct demonstration test sections using several stabilization : methods recomme...

  10. Autoclaved Tumor Bone for Skeletal Reconstruction in Paediatric Patients: A Low Cost Alternative in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masood Umer


    Full Text Available We reviewed in this series forty patients of pediatric age who underwent resection for malignant tumors of musculoskeletal system followed by biological reconstruction. Our surgical procedure for reconstruction included (1 wide en bloc resection of the tumor; (2 curettage of tumor from the resected bone; (3 autoclaving for 8 minutes (4 bone grafting from the fibula (both vascularized and nonvascularized fibular grafts used; (5 reimplantation of the autoclaved bone into the host bone defect and fixation with plates. Functional evaluation was done using MSTS scoring system. At final followup of at least 18 months (mean 29.2 months, 31 patients had recovered without any complications. Thirty-eight patients successfully achieved a solid bony union between the graft and recipient bone. Three patients had surgical site infection. They were managed with wound debridement and flap coverage of the defect. Local recurrence and nonunion occurred in two patients each. One patient underwent disarticulation at hip due to extensive local disease and one died of metastasis. For patients with non-union, revision procedure with bone graft and compression plates was successfully used. The use of autoclaved tumor grafts provides a limb salvage option that is inexpensive and independent of external resources and is a viable option for musculoskeletal tumor management in developing countries.

  11. Low cost alternative of high speed visible light camera for tokamak experiments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Odstrčil, T.; Odstrčil, Michal; Grover, O.; Svoboda, V.; Ďuran, Ivan; Mlynář, Jan


    Roč. 83, č. 10 (2012), 10E505-10E505 ISSN 0034-6748. [Topical Conference High-Temperature Plasma Diagnostics/19./. Monterey, 06.05.2012-10.05.2012] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Plasma * tokamak * diagnostic * high speed camera * GOLEM Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.602, year: 2012

  12. Design and construction of a low cost 50-watt capacity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper describes the design and construction of a stand-by mode 50-Watt Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS) as an alternative power supply for electrical and electronic appliances from local materials. The development of this UPS system (a system consisting of battery source, inverter, and switching unit) is to provide ...

  13. An alternative conformation of the gp41 heptad repeat 1 region coiled coil exists in the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) envelope glycoprotein precursor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mische, Claudia C.; Yuan Wen; Strack, Bettina; Craig, Stewart; Farzan, Michael; Sodroski, Joseph


    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) transmembrane envelope glycoprotein, gp41, which mediates virus-cell fusion, exists in at least three different conformations within the trimeric envelope glycoprotein complex. The structures of the prefusogenic and intermediate states are unknown; structures representing the postfusion state have been solved. In the postfusion conformation, three helical heptad repeat 2 (HR2) regions pack in an antiparallel fashion into the hydrophobic grooves on the surface of a triple-helical coiled coil formed by the heptad repeat 1 (HR1) regions. We studied the prefusogenic conformation of gp41 by mutagenic alteration of membrane-anchored and soluble forms of the HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins. Our results indicate that, in the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein precursor, the gp41 HR1 region is in a conformation distinct from that of a trimeric coiled coil. Thus, the central gp41 coiled coil is formed during the transition of the HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins from the precursor state to the receptor-bound intermediate

  14. Low cost solar technology water heating in socially interesting habitation; Tecnologia solar de baixo custo para aquecimento de agua na habitacao de interesse social

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Jose Tomaz Vieira; Fantinelli, Jane Tassinari [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia]. E-mail:;


    This paper describes practical low cost technological solutions joining thermal efficiency with low investments for the economical and social context of low revenue. These solutions implies using of alternative materials, such as aluminium bladed, PET transparent bottle covered PVC tubes for increasing of the heat transmission efficiency.

  15. Do Low-Cost Private School Leavers in the Informal Settlement Have a Good Chance of Admission to a Government Secondary school? A Study from Kibera in Kenya (United States)

    Ohba, Asayo


    There are growing numbers of low-cost private schools in urban informal settlements in developing countries. It has been argued that these institutions may constitute alternatives for government schools, as they are able to meet the educational needs of children in urban informal settlements. This study explores the question of whether low-cost…

  16. Low-Cost Inkjet Printing Technology for the Rapid Prototyping of Transducers. (United States)

    Andò, Bruno; Baglio, Salvatore; Bulsara, Adi R; Emery, Teresa; Marletta, Vincenzo; Pistorio, Antonio


    Recently, there has been an upsurge in efforts dedicated to developing low-cost flexible electronics by exploiting innovative materials and direct printing technologies. This interest is motivated by the need for low-cost mass-production, shapeable, and disposable devices, and the rapid prototyping of electronics and sensors. This review, following a short overview of main printing processes, reports examples of the development of flexible transducers through low-cost inkjet printing technology.

  17. Thermoset precursor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Y.


    This invention pertains to a distinctive thermoset precursor which is prepared by mixing a resin composition (A) which can be hardened by ionizing radiation, and a resin composition (B) which can be hardened by heat but cannot be hardened by, or is resistant to, ionizing radiation, and by coating or impregnating a molding or other substrate with a sheet or film of this mixture and irradiating this with an ionizing radiation. The principal components of composition (A) and (B) can be the following: (1) an acrylate or methacrylate and an epoxy resin and an epoxy resin hardener; (2) an unsaturated polyester resin and epoxy resin and an epoxy resin hardener; (3) a diacrylate or dimethacrylate or polyethylene glycol and an epoxy resin; (4) an epoxy acrylates or epoxy methacrylate obtained by the addition reaction of epoxy resin and acrylic or methacrylic acid

  18. Fabricating low cost and high performance elastomer lenses using hanging droplets. (United States)

    Lee, W M; Upadhya, A; Reece, P J; Phan, Tri Giang


    Existing methods for low cost lenses using parallel mold stamping and high temperature reflow requires complex engineering controls to produce high quality lenses. These manufacturing techniques rely on expensive equipment. In this paper, we propose a low cost (technique heralds a new paradigm in the manufacture of low cost, high performance optical lenses for the masses. Using these lenses, we were able to transform an ordinary commercial smartphone camera into a low-cost digital dermascope (60x magnification) that can readily visualize microscopic structures on skin such as sweat pores.

  19. Innovative manufacturing and materials for low cost lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, Steven [Optodot Corporation, Woburn, MA (United States)


    This project demonstrated entirely new manufacturing process options for lithium ion batteries with major potential for improved cost and performance. These new manufacturing approaches are based on the use of the new electrode-coated separators instead of the conventional electrode-coated metal current collector foils. The key enabler to making these electrode-coated separators is a new and unique all-ceramic separator with no conventional porous plastic separator present. A simple, low cost, and high speed manufacturing process of a single coating of a ceramic pigment and polymer binder onto a re-usable release film, followed by a subsequent delamination of the all-ceramic separator and any layers coated over it, such as electrodes and metal current collectors, was utilized. A suitable all-ceramic separator was developed that demonstrated the following required features needed for making electrode-coated separators: (1) no pores greater than 100 nanometer (nm) in diameter to prevent any penetration of the electrode pigments into the separator; (2) no shrinkage of the separator when heated to the high oven heats needed for drying of the electrode layer; and (3) no significant compression of the separator layer by the high pressure calendering step needed to densify the electrodes by about 30%. In addition, this nanoporous all-ceramic separator can be very thin at 8 microns thick for increased energy density, while providing all of the performance features provided by the current ceramic-coated plastic separators used in vehicle batteries: improved safety, longer cycle life, and stability to operate at voltages up to 5.0 V in order to obtain even more energy density. The thin all-ceramic separator provides a cost savings of at least 50% for the separator component and by itself meets the overall goal of this project to reduce the cell inactive component cost by at least 20%. The all-ceramic separator also enables further cost savings by its excellent heat stability

  20. Low Cost Remediation of Mining Sites with Biosolids (United States)

    Daniels, Walter; Evanylo, Gregory; Stuczynski, Tomasz


    ) sites in eastern Virginia indicated that non C-amended biosolids could be applied at loading rates of up to 75 Mg/ha without significant local ground-water effects, but that significant elevation of nitrate-N in shallow root-zone (75 cm) percolates was observed the first winter after application. Addition of palatable C (as sawdust) to adjust the applied biosolids C:N ratio to 25:1 significantly reduced nitrate-N in root-zone percolates and would allow for higher loading rates where indicated. Lime-stabilized biosolids (100 Mg/ha; 15 to 25% CCE) have also been used to permanently stabilize and revegetate large areas (> 100 ha) acid-sulfate (pH Katowice, Poland, indicate that high rates (> 250 Mg/ha) of biosolids co-applied with waste limes can be utilized to permanently stabilize and revegetate a wide range of phytotoxic and heavily contaminated Pb/Zn smelter slags and processing tailings. Biosolids are generally available at very low cost for land rehabilitation since their cost of transport and application is usually born by the producer or source municipality. Their use is particularly cost-effective when lime-stabilized materials are applied to strongly acidic or metalliferous sites.

  1. Planar junctionless phototransistor: A potential high-performance and low-cost device for optical-communications (United States)

    Ferhati, H.; Djeffal, F.


    In this paper, a new junctionless optical controlled field effect transistor (JL-OCFET) and its comprehensive theoretical model is proposed to achieve high optical performance and low cost fabrication process. Exhaustive study of the device characteristics and comparison between the proposed junctionless design and the conventional inversion mode structure (IM-OCFET) for similar dimensions are performed. Our investigation reveals that the proposed design exhibits an outstanding capability to be an alternative to the IM-OCFET due to the high performance and the weak signal detection benefit offered by this design. Moreover, the developed analytical expressions are exploited to formulate the objective functions to optimize the device performance using Genetic Algorithms (GAs) approach. The optimized JL-OCFET not only demonstrates good performance in terms of derived drain current and responsivity, but also exhibits superior signal to noise ratio, low power consumption, high-sensitivity, high ION/IOFF ratio and high-detectivity as compared to the conventional IM-OCFET counterpart. These characteristics make the optimized JL-OCFET potentially suitable for developing low cost and ultrasensitive photodetectors for high-performance and low cost inter-chips data communication applications.

  2. Low cost satellite land mobile service for nationwide applications (United States)

    Weiss, J. A.


    A satellite land mobile system using mobile radios in the UHF band, and Ku-band Communications Routing Terminals (earth stations) for a nationwide connection from any mobile location to any fixed or mobile location, and from any fixed location to any mobile location is proposed. The proposed nationwide satellite land mobile service provides: telephone network quality (1 out of 100 blockage) service, complete privacy for all the users, operation similar to the telephone network, alternatives for data services up to 32 Kbps data rates, and a cost effective and practical mobile radio compatible with system sizes ranging from 10,000 to 1,000,000 users. Seven satellite alternatives (ranging from 30 ft diameter dual beam antenna to 210 ft diameter 77 beam antenna) along with mobile radios having a sensitivity figure of merit (G/T) of -15 dB/deg K are considered. Optimized mobile radio user costs are presented as a function of the number of users with the satellite and mobile radio alternatives as system parameters.

  3. Potassium Tethered Carbons with Unparalleled Adsorption Capacity and Selectivity for Low-Cost Carbon Dioxide Capture from Flue Gas. (United States)

    Zhao, Hongyu; Shi, Lei; Zhang, Zhongzheng; Luo, Xiaona; Zhang, Lina; Shen, Qun; Li, Shenggang; Zhang, Haijiao; Sun, Nannan; Wei, Wei; Sun, Yuhan


    Carbons are considered less favorable for postcombustion CO 2 capture because of their low affinity toward CO 2 , and nitrogen doping was widely studied to enhance CO 2 adsorption, but the results are still unsatisfactory. Herein, we report a simple, scalable, and controllable strategy of tethering potassium to a carbon matrix, which can enhance carbon-CO 2 interaction effectively, and a remarkable working capacity of ca. 4.5 wt % under flue gas conditions was achieved, which is among the highest for carbon-based materials. More interestingly, a high CO 2 /N 2 selectivity of 404 was obtained. Density functional theory calculations evidenced that the introduced potassium carboxylate moieties are responsible for such excellent performances. We also show the effectiveness of this strategy to be universal, and thus, cheaper precursors can be used, holding great promise for low-cost carbon capture from flue gas.

  4. Using Converter Dust to Produce Low Cost Cementitious Composites by in situ Carbon Nanotube and Nanofiber Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter Ludvig


    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (CNTs and nanofibers (CNFs were synthesized on clinker and silica fume particles in order to create a low cost cementitious nanostructured material. The synthesis was carried out by an in situ chemical vapor deposition (CVD process using converter dust, an industrial byproduct, as iron precursor. The use of these materials reduces the cost, with the objective of application in large-scale nanostructured cement production. The resulting products were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and were found to be polydisperse in size and to have defective microstructure. Some enhancement in the mechanical behavior of cement mortars was observed due to the addition of these nano-size materials. The contribution of these CNTs/CNFs to the mechanical strength of mortar specimens is similar to that of high quality CNTs incorporated in mortars by physical mixture.

  5. Low cost sensors for PM and related air pollutants in the US and India (United States)

    Emerging air quality sensors have a variety of possible applications. If accurate and reliable, they have a number of benefits over conventional monitors. They are low-cost, lightweight, and have low power consumption. Because of their low cost, a dense array of sensors instal...

  6. The use of low-cost simulation in a resource-constrained teaching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. To improve the management of chest trauma at the University of Botswana, Gaborone, Botswana, we incorporated simulation into a theorybased chest trauma module by developing procedural guides, checklists and low-cost simulation. Objectives. To assess the suitability of low-cost simulation-based training ...

  7. Low cost drip irrigation in Burkina Faso : unravelling actors, networks and practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanvoeke, M.J.V.


    Title: Low cost drip irrigation in Burkina Faso: Unravelling Actors, Networks and Practices

    In Burkina Faso, there is a lot of enthusiasm about Low Cost Drip Irrigation (LCDI) as a tool to irrigate vegetables, and thus improve food security,

  8. Characterization of microfluidic components for low-cost point-of-care devices

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hugo, S


    Full Text Available This paper presents the characterization of microfluidic components for the realization of low-cost point-of-care diagnostic devices, with focus on full blood count applications. Increasing emphasis is being placed on low-cost point...

  9. Purification of drinking water by low cost method in Ethiopia (United States)

    Abatneh, Yasabie; Sahu, Omprakash; Yimer, Seid


    Nowadays, water treatment is a big issue in rural areas especially in African country. Due to lack of facilities available in those areas and the treatment are expensive. In this regard's an attempt has been made to find alternative natural way to treat the rural drinking water. The experiment trials were undertaken on the most promising plant extracts, namely: Moringa oleifera, Jatropha curcas and Guar gum. The extracts were used to treat contaminated water obtained from a number of wells. The results showed that the addition of M. oleifera can considerably improve the quality of drinking water. A 100 % improvement both in turbidity and reduction in Escherichia coli was noted for a number of the samples, together with significant improvements in colour.

  10. Development of a low-cost inductively coupled argon plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ripson, P.A.M.


    The aim of this investigation is to drastically reduce running costs of an inductively coupled plasma. This is done by reducing the argon consumption from 20 l/min to about 1 l/min. First, a sample introduction system operating on 0.1 l/min of carrier argon is described. This system ensures a high ratio of plasma argon and carrier argon even at the low total argon consumptions intended. Next, the developed low consumption plasma is presented. In the proposed design, air is blown perpendicularly against the outside of the torch. A different coil has been developed to make air-cooling efficient. Preliminary data on coupling efficiency for the air-cooled plasma are presented. A similarly low argon consumption has been achieved with water as an external coolant medium. It is concluded that a cheaper alternative to the current ICP has become available. (Auth.)

  11. A low cost technique for synthesis of gold nanoparticles using microwave heating and its application in signal amplification for detecting Escherichia Coli O157:H7 bacteria (United States)

    Thanh Ngo, Vo Ke; Giang Nguyen, Dang; Phat Huynh, Trong; Lam, Quang Vinh


    In the present work a low cost technique for preparation of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) using microwave heating was developed. The effect of different elements (precursor reagents, irradiation time, and microwave radiation power) on the final morphology of AuNPs obtained through the microwave assisted technique has been investigated. The characterization of the samples has been carried out by transmission electron microscopy, UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and powder x-ray diffraction. The results showed that to some extent the above-mentioned characterizations influenced the size of synthetized nanoparticles and application of microwave heating has many advantages such as low cost, rapid preparation and highly uniform particles. As an application in quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) immunosensor, AuNPs are conjugated with the Escherichia coli (E.coli) O157:H7 antibodies for signal amplification to detect E.coli O157:H7 bacteria residual in QCM system.

  12. Low Cost Soft Magnets for Giant Magnetoimpedance-based Sensors (United States)

    Kurniawan, Michael

    particular topic and Chapter 4 discusses this issue in great detail. The works presented here will be highly relevant for the development of GMI-based sensors for applications in harsh environment such as oil/gas exploration and deep drilling. Chapter 4 discusses this specific application in great detail in light of the worldwide energy crisis. The second focal point of our work is on the cost analysis of soft magnets. Boron (B) is significantly more expensive than the other elements typically used in the synthesis of soft magnets. Several efforts to reduce the alloy cost include Silicon (Si) substitution for Boron (B) and development of B-free soft magnets. Herein, we report a synthesis route to significantly reduce the alloy cost by substituting B with Boron Carbide (B4C). The substitution of two other expensive precursors, Tantalum (Ta) and Hafnium (Hf), are also explored. Chapter 5 discusses these synthesis routes and the resulting cost reduction in Fe-based and Co-based soft magnets. Chapter 6 discusses elemental component choices in light of recent issues raised in materials criticality. Chapter 7 summarizes the main findings discussed in prior chapters while future works are explored in Chapter 8. Finally, Chapter 9 lists all references that this thesis lays its foundation on.

  13. Low cost, high yield IFE reactors: Revisiting Velikhov's vaporizing blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, B.G.


    The performance (efficiency and cost) of IFE reactors using MHD conversion is explored for target blanket shells of various materials vaporized and ionized by high fusion yields (5 to 500 GJ). A magnetized, prestressed reactor chamber concept is modeled together with previously developed models for the Compact Fusion Advanced Rankine II (CFARII) MHD Balance-of-Plant (BoP). Using conservative 1-D neutronics models, high fusion yields (20 to 80 GJ) are found necessary to heat Flibe, lithium, and lead-lithium blankets to MHD plasma temperatures, at initial solid thicknesses sufficient to capture most of the fusion yield. Advanced drivers/targets would need to be developed to achieve a ''Bang per Buck'' figure-of-merit approx-gt 20 to 40 joules yield per driver $ for this scheme to be competitive with these blanket materials. Alternatively, more realistic neutronics models and better materials such as lithium hydride may lower the minimum required yields substantially. The very low CFARII BoP costs (contributing only 3 mills/kWehr to CoE) allows this type of reactor, given sufficient advances that non-driver costs dominate, to ultimately produce electricity at a much lower cost than any current nuclear plant

  14. A low-cost touchscreen operant chamber using a Raspberry Pi™. (United States)

    O'Leary, James D; O'Leary, Olivia F; Cryan, John F; Nolan, Yvonne M


    The development of a touchscreen platform for rodent testing has allowed new methods for cognitive testing that have been back-translated from clinical assessment tools to preclinical animal models. This platform for cognitive assessment in animals is comparable to human neuropsychological tests such as those employed by the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery, and thus has several advantages compared to the standard maze apparatuses typically employed in rodent behavioral testing, such as the Morris water maze. These include improved translation of preclinical models, as well as high throughput and the automation of animal testing. However, these systems are relatively expensive, which can impede progress for researchers with limited resources. Here we describe a low-cost touchscreen operant chamber based on the single-board computer, Raspberry Pi TM , which is capable of performing tasks similar to those supported by current state-of-the-art systems. This system provides an affordable alternative for cognitive testing in a touchscreen operant paradigm for researchers with limited funding.

  15. A compact, low cost, seven channel polychromator for Thomson scattering measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlstrom, T.N.; DeBoo, J.C.; Evanko, R.; Greenfield, C.M.; Hsieh, C.; Snider, R.T.; Trost, P.


    A seven channel polychromator, utilizing high performance interference filters (transmission approx-gt 80%, rejection at laser wavelength>10 5 ), has been tested for use in the multi-Nd:YAG laser Thomson scattering system for the DIII-D tokamak. Unique features of this polychromator are the combination of high throughput, easy alignment, flexibility, compact size, and low cost when compared with other alternatives. Light is introduced to the polychromator (f/1.75) via a fiber optic bundle which permits the use of small (3.0 cm diam) optics and leads to a compact (44x24x8 cm) design, an important design consideration for multiple polychromator systems. The light is cascaded through a series of different bandpass interference filters and relay lenses which are mounted on two precision parallel rails in such a way that alignment is trivial. The relay lenses are positioned directly in front of the filters so that light reflected from the filter passes through the lens twice. This leads to an efficient, compact design and reduces the angle of incidence (4 degree) and the cone angle of light (4.5 degree) seen by the filter, an important factor for narrowband (3.0 nm) filters. The transmission (average 70%) was optimized for 700--1100 nm by using broadband coatings throughout. The output images of each channel (2.3 mm. diam) can be directly coupled to large format (3 mm diam) RCA silicon avalanche photodiode detectors, avoiding the losses caused by fiber optic coupling

  16. A low-cost, high-magnification imaging system for particle sizing applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tipnis, Tanmay J; Lawson, Nicholas J; Tatam, Ralph P


    A low-cost imaging system for high magnification and high resolution was developed as an alternative to long-working-distance microscope-based systems, primarily for particle sizing applications. The imaging optics, comprising an inverted fixed focus lens coupled to a microscope objective, were able to provide a working distance of approximately 50 mm. The system magnification could be changed by using an appropriate microscope objective. Particle sizing was achieved using shadow-based techniques with the backlight illumination provided by a pulsed light-emitting diode light source. The images were analysed using commercial sizing software which gave the particle sizes and their distribution. A range of particles, from 6 to 8 µm to over 100 µm, was successfully measured with a minimum spatial resolution of approximately 2.5 µm. This system allowed measurement of a wide range of particles at a lower cost and improved operator safety without disturbing the flow. (technical design note)

  17. Evaluation of a low-cost 3D sound system for immersive virtual reality training systems. (United States)

    Doerr, Kai-Uwe; Rademacher, Holger; Huesgen, Silke; Kubbat, Wolfgang


    Since Head Mounted Displays (HMD), datagloves, tracking systems, and powerful computer graphics resources are nowadays in an affordable price range, the usage of PC-based "Virtual Training Systems" becomes very attractive. However, due to the limited field of view of HMD devices, additional modalities have to be provided to benefit from 3D environments. A 3D sound simulation can improve the capabilities of VR systems dramatically. Unfortunately, realistic 3D sound simulations are expensive and demand a tremendous amount of computational power to calculate reverberation, occlusion, and obstruction effects. To use 3D sound in a PC-based training system as a way to direct and guide trainees to observe specific events in 3D space, a cheaper alternative has to be provided, so that a broader range of applications can take advantage of this modality. To address this issue, we focus in this paper on the evaluation of a low-cost 3D sound simulation that is capable of providing traceable 3D sound events. We describe our experimental system setup using conventional stereo headsets in combination with a tracked HMD device and present our results with regard to precision, speed, and used signal types for localizing simulated sound events in a virtual training environment.

  18. Low-cost USB interface for operant research using Arduino and Visual Basic. (United States)

    Escobar, Rogelio; Pérez-Herrera, Carlos A


    This note describes the design of a low-cost interface using Arduino microcontroller boards and Visual Basic programming for operant conditioning research. The board executes one program in Arduino programming language that polls the state of the inputs and generates outputs in an operant chamber. This program communicates through a USB port with another program written in Visual Basic 2010 Express Edition running on a laptop, desktop, netbook computer, or even a tablet equipped with Windows operating system. The Visual Basic program controls schedules of reinforcement and records real-time data. A single Arduino board can be used to control a total of 52 inputs/output lines, and multiple Arduino boards can be used to control multiple operant chambers. An external power supply and a series of micro relays are required to control 28-V DC devices commonly used in operant chambers. Instructions for downloading and using the programs to generate simple and concurrent schedules of reinforcement are provided. Testing suggests that the interface is reliable, accurate, and could serve as an inexpensive alternative to commercial equipment. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  19. Non-conventional low-cost adsorbents for dye removal: a review. (United States)

    Crini, Grégorio


    Adsorption techniques are widely used to remove certain classes of pollutants from waters, especially those that are not easily biodegradable. Dyes represent one of the problematic groups. Currently, a combination of biological treatment and adsorption on activated carbon is becoming more common for removal of dyes from wastewater. Although commercial activated carbon is a preferred sorbent for color removal, its widespread use is restricted due to high cost. As such, alternative non-conventional sorbents have been investigated. It is well-known that natural materials, waste materials from industry and agriculture and biosorbents can be obtained and employed as inexpensive sorbents. In this review, an extensive list of sorbent literature has been compiled. The review (i) presents a critical analysis of these materials; (ii) describes their characteristics, advantages and limitations; and (iii) discusses various mechanisms involved. It is evident from a literature survey of about 210 recent papers that low-cost sorbents have demonstrated outstanding removal capabilities for certain dyes. In particular, chitosan might be a promising adsorbent for environmental and purification purposes.

  20. Low-cost Sensors Based on the GMI Effect in Recycled Transformer Cores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chitnarong Sirisathitkul


    Full Text Available Sensors based on the giant magnetoimpedance (GMI effect in silicon steelswere constructed. Strips of silicon steels (0.500 mm-thick, 35.0 mm-long with widthsranging from 0.122 to 1.064 mm were cut from recycled transformer cores. Since amaximum GMI ratio of 300% and a maximum field sensitivity of 1.5%/Oe were observedin a 1.064 mm-wide sample at 200 kHz, the 1.064 mm-wide strips were chosen as sensingelements in a slot key switch, angular velocity sensor, current sensor and force sensor. Thesensing elements were integrated into electronic circuits and the changes in impedancewere monitored. Variations in voltage due to these changes were typically small and musttherefore be amplified by the electronic circuits. For the current sensor and force sensor,the variation in the voltage drop across the GMI sensing element had non-linear variationswith either current or force and a conversion formula from a computer program wastherefore needed. The performance of the systems was tested. These sensing systems werestable, highly sensitive, hysteresis-free and could be produced on a mass scale. Based ontheir GMI effect, the silicon steels are versatile alternative low-cost sensors.

  1. Low-cost Sensors Based on the GMI Effect in Recycled Transformer Cores. (United States)

    Jantaratana, Pongsakorn; Sirisathitkul, Chitnarong


    Sensors based on the giant magnetoimpedance (GMI) effect in silicon steelswere constructed. Strips of silicon steels (0.500 mm-thick, 35.0 mm-long) with widthsranging from 0.122 to 1.064 mm were cut from recycled transformer cores. Since amaximum GMI ratio of 300% and a maximum field sensitivity of 1.5%/Oe were observedin a 1.064 mm-wide sample at 200 kHz, the 1.064 mm-wide strips were chosen as sensingelements in a slot key switch, angular velocity sensor, current sensor and force sensor. Thesensing elements were integrated into electronic circuits and the changes in impedancewere monitored. Variations in voltage due to these changes were typically small and musttherefore be amplified by the electronic circuits. For the current sensor and force sensor,the variation in the voltage drop across the GMI sensing element had non-linear variationswith either current or force and a conversion formula from a computer program wastherefore needed. The performance of the systems was tested. These sensing systems werestable, highly sensitive, hysteresis-free and could be produced on a mass scale. Based ontheir GMI effect, the silicon steels are versatile alternative low-cost sensors.

  2. A low cost support post for SSC quadrupole magnets and other cryogenic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiller, M.W.; Kunz, R.J.; Lehmann, G.A.; Nilles, M.J.


    An injection molded support post has been designed and tested for use in the cryostat of the 5.4 meter long SSC Collider Quadrupole Magnet (CQM). This glass reinforced thermoplastic support is less costly than the complex alternative post designs that consist of filament wound tubes with thermal shrink fit metallic end pieces. The near net shape injection molding process delivers customized components at production rates suitable for present and proposed large scale cryogenic projects such as large accelerators, SMES, and Maglev. In addition, standard shapes (plates, tubes, threaded rods, and fasteners) comprised of this composite are available as catalog items. This paper presents the design considerations, material testing, and validation of predicted structural performance through component testing. Test results reported herein include compressive strength validations as well as previously unreported creep, thermal conductivity, and thermal contraction data. A delineated reliability method is discussed for verifying compliance with apportioned reliability targets using a synthesis of the FEA and test data. Also the design approach and data presented here can be extended toward the design of low cost mass produced supports for other cryogenic applications

  3. Low-Cost Bicycle Lights vs. Cold Lights for Visualizing Neonatal Veins. (United States)

    Russell, Neal J; Bassett, Paul; Chang, John


    Difficult intravenous (IV) access can compromise patient care in neonatal practice, and transillumination is often used to improve the visibility of veins. Current devices are expensive, prone to bacterial contamination and unaffordable in low-resource settings. We conducted a study comparing the quality of transillumination provided by "cold lights" that are currently in use with low-cost (lights. Photographs of the hands and feet of neonates were taken with parental consent: first without transillumination (control group), second by transillumination with a cold light, and third with a bicycle light. Thirty photographs were sent in a survey to pediatric doctors who were blinded to the method of transillumination. Survey respondents then rated the visibility of the veins (easily visible, moderately visible, barely visible and invisible). Completed surveys of 114 respondents were included in the analysis. The majority (94.8%) of respondents rated the veins moderately to easily visible with the bicycle light compared with 87.6% with the cold light, and 42.6% in the control group with no transillumination. There was a strong evidence of an improvement in visibility with bicycle lights compared with cold lights ( p  lights were found to improve visibility of veins in neonates. Given their quality of transillumination, portability and reduced cost, they may provide a useful method of transillumination in all settings, but particularly in low-income settings, where there is currently no affordable alternative. © The Author [2017]. Published by Oxford University Press.

  4. Polarization digital holographic microscopy using low-cost liquid crystal polarization rotators (United States)

    Dovhaliuk, Rostyslav Yu


    Polarization imaging methods are actively used to study anisotropic objects. A number of methods and systems, such as imaging polarimeters, were proposed to measure the state of polarization of light that passed through the object. Digital holographic and interferometric approaches can be used to quantitatively measure both amplitude and phase of a wavefront. Using polarization modulation optics, the measurement capabilities of such interference-based systems can be extended to measure polarization-dependent parameters, such as phase retardation. Different kinds of polarization rotators can be used to alternate the polarization of a reference beam. Liquid crystals are used in a rapidly increasing number of different optoelectronic devices. Twisted nematic liquid crystals are widely used as amplitude modulators in electronic displays and light valves or shutter glass. Such devices are of particular interest for polarization imaging, as they can be used as polarization rotators, and due to large-scale manufacturing have relatively low cost. A simple Mach-Zehnder polarized holographic setup that uses modified shutter glass as a polarization rotator is demonstrated. The suggested approach is experimentally validated by measuring retardation of quarter-wave film.

  5. Low Cost Plastic Optical Fiber Pressure Sensor Embedded in Mattress for Vital Signal Monitoring. (United States)

    Sartiano, Demetrio; Sales, Salvador


    The aim of this paper is to report the design of a low-cost plastic optical fiber (POF) pressure sensor, embedded in a mattress. We report the design of a multipoint sensor, a cheap alternative to the most common fiber sensors. The sensor is implemented using Arduino board, standard LEDs for optical communication in POF (λ = 645 nm) and a silicon light sensor. The Super ESKA ® plastic fibers were used to implement the fiber intensity sensor, arranged in a 4 × 4 matrix. During the breathing cycles, the force transmitted from the lungs to the thorax is in the order of tens of Newtons, and the respiration rate is of one breath every 2-5 s (0.2-0.5 Hz). The sensor has a resolution of force applied on a single point of 2.2-4.5%/N on the normalized voltage output, and a bandwidth of 10 Hz, it is then suitable to monitor the respiration movements. Another issue to be addressed is the presence of hysteresis over load cycles. The sensor was loaded cyclically to estimate the drift of the system, and the hysteresis was found to be negligible.

  6. Water use efficiency of coriander produced in a low-cost hydroponic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Santos Júnior


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The increase of water use efficiency in crop production is a clear need in areas with restricted access to this resource and, in these cases, the adoption of forms of cultivation contextualized to local conditions are essential. Thus, the implications of the variation in the amount of seeds per cell (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 g and spacing between cells (7.0, 10.0 and 15.0 cm on variables related to consumption and water use efficiency for the production of coriander (cv. Tabocas in a low-cost hydroponic system, an alternative for semiarid regions, were evaluated. A completely randomized experimental design, analysed in 4 x 3 factorial scheme with three replicates, was adopted, and the data were subjected to analysis of variance at 0.05 probability level. It was found that the reduction in the spacing between cells has a better cost-benefit ratio with respect to water consumption, biomass produced and cost of seeds. Therefore, it is recommended the adoption of a spacing of 7.0 cm between cells and the use of 1.0 g seeds per cell; this configuration promoted efficiency of 81.59 g L-1 in shoot green mass production and total mass of 62.4 g coriander bunches.

  7. Cyborg beast: a low-cost 3d-printed prosthetic hand for children with upper-limb differences. (United States)

    Zuniga, Jorge; Katsavelis, Dimitrios; Peck, Jean; Stollberg, John; Petrykowski, Marc; Carson, Adam; Fernandez, Cristina


    prosthetic hand and the proposed distance-fitting procedures may represent a possible low-cost alternative for children in developing countries and those who have limited access to health care providers. Further studies should examine the functionality, validity, durability, benefits, and rejection rate of this type of low-cost 3D-printed prosthetic device.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Chen


    Full Text Available Driven by the miniaturization, lightweight of positioning and remote sensing sensors as well as the urgent needs for fusing indoor and outdoor maps for next generation navigation, 3D indoor mapping from mobile scanning is a hot research and application topic. The point clouds with auxiliary data such as colour, infrared images derived from 3D indoor mobile mapping suite can be used in a variety of novel applications, including indoor scene visualization, automated floorplan generation, gaming, reverse engineering, navigation, simulation and etc. State-of-the-art 3D indoor mapping systems equipped with multiple laser scanners product accurate point clouds of building interiors containing billions of points. However, these laser scanner based systems are mostly expensive and not portable. Low cost consumer RGB-D Cameras provides an alternative way to solve the core challenge of indoor mapping that is capturing detailed underlying geometry of the building interiors. Nevertheless, RGB-D Cameras have a very limited field of view resulting in low efficiency in the data collecting stage and incomplete dataset that missing major building structures (e.g. ceilings, walls. Endeavour to collect a complete scene without data blanks using single RGB-D Camera is not technic sound because of the large amount of human labour and position parameters need to be solved. To find an efficient and low cost way to solve the 3D indoor mapping, in this paper, we present an indoor mapping suite prototype that is built upon a novel calibration method which calibrates internal parameters and external parameters of multiple RGB-D Cameras. Three Kinect sensors are mounted on a rig with different view direction to form a large field of view. The calibration procedure is three folds: 1, the internal parameters of the colour and infrared camera inside each Kinect are calibrated using a chess board pattern, respectively; 2, the external parameters between the colour and infrared

  9. Insightful monitoring of natural flood risk management features using a low-cost and participatory approach (United States)

    Starkey, Eleanor; Barnes, Mhari; Quinn, Paul; Large, Andy


    Pressures associated with flooding and climate change have significantly increased over recent years. Natural Flood Risk Management (NFRM) is now seen as being a more appropriate and favourable approach in some locations. At the same time, catchment managers are also encouraged to adopt a more integrated, evidence-based and bottom-up approach. This includes engaging with local communities. Although NFRM features are being more readily installed, there is still limited evidence associated with their ability to reduce flood risk and offer multiple benefits. In particular, local communities and land owners are still uncertain about what the features entail and how they will perform, which is a huge barrier affecting widespread uptake. Traditional hydrometric monitoring techniques are well established but they still struggle to successfully monitor and capture NFRM performance spatially and temporally in a visual and more meaningful way for those directly affected on the ground. Two UK-based case studies are presented here where unique NFRM features have been carefully designed and installed in rural headwater catchments. This includes a 1km2 sub-catchment of the Haltwhistle Burn (northern England) and a 2km2 sub-catchment of Eddleston Water (southern Scotland). Both of these pilot sites are subject to prolonged flooding in winter and flash flooding in summer. This exacerbates sediment, debris and water quality issues downstream. Examples of NFRM features include ponds, woody debris and a log feature inspired by the children's game 'Kerplunk'. They have been tested and monitored over the 2015-2016 winter storms using low-cost techniques by both researchers and members of the community ('citizen scientists'). Results show that monitoring techniques such as regular consumer specification time-lapse cameras, photographs, videos and 'kite-cams' are suitable for long-term and low-cost monitoring of a variety of NFRM features. These techniques have been compared against

  10. Feasibility of using low-cost, byproduct materials as sorbents to remove heavy metals from aqueous solutions. (United States)

    Doumer, Marta E; Vidal, Miquel; Mangrich, Antonio S; Rigol, Anna


    This work investigates the sorption of heavy metals by low-cost, byproducts such as charcoal fines (CF), waste green sand, and rice husk ash, in order to examine the feasibility of their use as alternative filter materials for metal-contaminated waters. The sorption of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn was investigated in batch experiments and sorption isotherms were constructed. The three byproducts showed high metal removal efficiencies (>95%, regardless of the metal concentration tested). The highest metal sorption distribution coefficients were obtained for CF, with maximum values within the 10 5 -10 6  L kg -1 range for all the target metals. The sorption isotherms were satisfactorily fitted using the Freundlich equation and a linear model, the latter only being valid for initial metal concentrations lower than 0.4 mmol L -1 . Sorption reversibility was very low, with desorption yields lower than 2% and desorption distribution coefficients often higher than 10 6  L kg -1 . The values of the sorption and desorption parameters indicated that the use of these materials, especially CF, could constitute a low-cost alternative for the remediation of contaminated waters.

  11. Air conditioning by sorption-supported refrigerating machinery. Low-cost alternative; Klimatisierung mit sorptionsgestuetzten Kaelteanlagen. Kostenguenstige Alternative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schellhorn, Martin [SHK-Presseagentur Kommunikations-Management Schelhorn GmbH (Germany)


    Every year, about 3.5 GWh of electricity are consumed in Germany for air conditioning of office buildings. Now, Menerga GmbH of Muelheim/Ruhr introduced a sorption-assisted air conditioning system which is to enhance the conomic efficiency of air conditioners based on district heating. The results of the research led to several pilot projects that proved the applicability of the systems in daily practice. (orig.)

  12. Transesterification catalyzed by Lipozyme TLIM for biodiesel production from low cost feedstock (United States)

    Halim, Siti Fatimah Abdul; Hassan, Hamizura; Amri, Nurulhuda; Bashah, Nur Alwani Ali


    The development of new strategies to efficiently synthesize biodiesel is of extreme important. This is because biodiesel has been accepted worldwide as an alternative fuel for diesel engines. Biodiesel as alkyl ester derived from vegetable oil has considerable advantages in terms of environmental protection. The diminishing petroleum reserves are the major driving force for researchers to look for better strategies in producing biodiesel. The main hurdle to commercialization of biodiesel is the cost of the raw material. Biodiesel is usually produced from food-grade vegetable oil that is more expensive than diesel fuel. Therefore, biodiesel produced from food-grade vegetable oil is currently not economically feasible. Use of an inexpensive raw material such as waste cooking palm oil and non edible oil sea mango are an attractive option to lower the cost of biodiesel. This study addresses an alternative method for biodiesel production which is to use an enzymatic approach in producing biodiesel fuel from low cost feedstock waste cooking palm oil and unrefined sea mango oil using immobilized lipase Lipozyme TL IM. tert-butanol was used as the reaction medium, which eliminated both negative effects caused by excessive methanol and glycerol as the byproduct. Two variables which is methanol to oil molar ratio and enzyme loading were examine in a batch system. Transesterification of waste cooking palm oil reach 65% FAME yield (methanol to oil molar ratio 6:1 and 10% Novozyme 435 based on oil weight), while transesterification of sea mango oil can reach 90% FAME yield (methanol to oil molar ratio 6:1 and 10% Lipozyme TLIM based on oil weight).

  13. Fundamental understanding and development of low-cost, high-efficiency silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The overall objectives of this program are (1) to develop rapid and low-cost processes for manufacturing that can improve yield, throughput, and performance of silicon photovoltaic devices, (2) to design and fabricate high-efficiency solar cells on promising low-cost materials, and (3) to improve the fundamental understanding of advanced photovoltaic devices. Several rapid and potentially low-cost technologies are described in this report that were developed and applied toward the fabrication of high-efficiency silicon solar cells.

  14. Low-cost mobile video-based iris recognition for small databases (United States)

    Thomas, N. Luke; Du, Yingzi; Muttineni, Sriharsha; Mang, Shing; Sran, Dylan


    This paper presents a low-cost method for providing biometric verification for applications that do not require large database sizes. Existing portable iris recognition systems are typically self-contained and expensive. For some applications, low cost is more important than extremely discerning matching ability. In these instances, the proposed system could be implemented at low cost, with adequate matching performance for verification. Additionally, the proposed system could be used in conjunction with any image based biometric identification system. A prototype system was developed and tested on a small database, with promising preliminary results.

  15. Smartfactory: challenges of open and low cost ICT in the small manufacturing industry

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bosscha, P


    Full Text Available The neglected field of appropriate information and communications technologies for small companies in the manufacturing industry is addressed through the development of an architecture that integrates various open and low-cost technologies...

  16. Low-Cost and High-Performance Propulsion for Small Satellite Applications, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — While small satellites continue to show immense promise for high-capability and low-cost missions, they remain limited by post-deployment propulsion for a variety of...

  17. A Low-Cost Data Acquisition System for Automobile Dynamics Applications. (United States)

    González, Alejandro; Olazagoitia, José Luis; Vinolas, Jordi


    This project addresses the need for the implementation of low-cost acquisition technology in the field of vehicle engineering: the design, development, manufacture, and verification of a low-cost Arduino-based data acquisition platform to be used in vehicle dynamics, using low-cost accelerometers. In addition to this, a comparative study is carried out of professional vibration acquisition technologies and low-cost systems, obtaining optimum results for low- and medium-frequency operations with an error of 2.19% on road tests. It is therefore concluded that these technologies are applicable to the automobile industry, thereby allowing the project costs to be reduced and thus facilitating access to this kind of research that requires limited resources.

  18. Very Low-Cost, Rugged, High-Vacuum System for Mass Spectrometers, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA, DoD, DHS, and commercial industry have a pressing need for miniaturized, rugged, low-cost high-vacuum systems. Recent advances in sensor technology at NASA and...

  19. Very Low-Cost, Rugged, High-Vacuum System for Mass Spectrometers, Phase II (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA, the DoD, DHS, and commercial industry have a pressing need for miniaturized, rugged, low-cost, high vacuum systems. Recent advances in sensor technology at...

  20. Ultra High Brightness/Low Cost Fiber Coupled Packaging, Phase II (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — High peak power, high efficiency, high reliability lightweight, low cost QCW laser diode pump modules with up to 1000W of QCW output become possible with nLight's...

  1. Low Cost/Low Noise Variable Pitch Ducted Fan, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ACI proposes a design for a Propulsor (Low Cost/Low Noise Variable Pitch Ducted Fan) that has wide application in all sectors of Aviation. Propulsor hardware of this...

  2. Composite hubs for low cost turbine engines. [stress analysis using NASTRAN (United States)

    Chamis, C. C.


    A detailed stress analysis is performed using NASTRAN to demonstrate theoretically the adequacy of composite hubs for low cost turbine engine applications. The results show that composite hubs are adequate for this application from the steady state stress viewpoint.

  3. Low-Cost, Silicon Carbide Replication Technique for LWIR Mirror Fabrication, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SSG proposes an innovative optical manufacturing approach that will enable the low-cost fabrication of lightweighted, Long Wave Infrared (LWIR) Silicon Carbide (SiC)...

  4. SunShot 2030 for Photovoltaics (PV): Envisioning a Low-Cost PV Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, Wesley J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Frew, Bethany A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gagnon, Pieter J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Richards, James [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sun, Yinong [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zuboy, Jarrett; Woodhouse, Michael A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    This presentation summarizes the findings from the report 'SunShot 2030 for Photovoltaics (PV): Envisioning a Low-cost PV Future.' This presentation was given as a webinar on September 26, 2017.

  5. A Low Cost Light Weight Polymer Derived Ceramic Telescope Mirror, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The primary purpose of this proposal is to develop and demonstrate a new technology for manufacturing an ultra-low-cost precision optical telescope mirror which can...

  6. Innovative Applications of DoD Propulsion Technology for Low-Cost Satellite Missions, Phase II (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We are proposing to leverage the Missile Defense Agency investments in high-performance propulsion systems for low-cost space missions with large Dv requirements,...

  7. Compact, Low Cost APD Arrays with Built-in Optical Amplification, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall goal of the proposed program by Epitaxial Technologies is to develop a compact, low-cost, low power, low noise and ultra-sensitive Avalanche Photo Diode...

  8. Compact, Low Cost APD Arrays with Built-in Optical Amplification, Phase II (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall goal of this proposed Phase II SBIR program by Epitaxial Technologies is to develop a compact, low-cost, low power, low noise and ultra-sensitive...

  9. Scalable, Lightweight, Low-Cost Aero/Electrodynamic Drag Deorbit Module, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed effort will develop the "Terminator Tape Deorbit Module", a lightweight, low-cost, scalable de-orbit module that will utilize both aerodynamic drag...

  10. A Novel Low-Cost Dual-Wavelength Precipitation Radar Sensor Network, Phase II (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Remote Sensing Solutions, Inc. (RSS) has developed a novel, practical design that will produce a low-cost precipitation radar / radiometer sensor. Operating in a...

  11. Lab-on-Blu-ray: Low-cost analyte detection on a disk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donolato, Marco; Antunes, Paula Soares Martins; Burger, Robert


    In this work, we present for the first time a centrifugal microfluidic system for the detection of analytes in blood using a low cost (... of the rotation dynamics of functionalized magnetic nanobeads (MNBs) in an oscillating uniaxial magnetic field....

  12. A Low-Cost, High-Precision Navigator for Unmanned Aircraft, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Toyon Research Corporation proposes to develop a low-cost navigation system for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) that achieves an attitude accuracy of better than 0.1...

  13. Evaluation of Risk Management Strategies for a Low-Cost, High-Risk Project (United States)

    Shishko, Robert; Jorgensen, Edward J.


    This paper summarizes work in progress to define and implement a risk management process tailored to a low-cost, high-risk, NASA mission -the Microrover Flight Experiment (MFEX, commonly called the Mars microrover).

  14. Measuring In-Flight Angular Motion With a Low-Cost Magnetometer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Harkins, Thomas E; Wilson, Michael J


    A technique for obtaining pitch, yaw, and roll rates of a projectile from a single, low-cost, commercial off-the-shelf magnetometer has been developed at the Advanced Munitions Concepts Branch of the U.S...

  15. A Low Cost, Electronically Scanned Array (ESA) Antenna Technology for Aviation Hazard Detection and Avoidance Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed project will investigate the feasibility of utilizing ThinKom's low cost electronically scanned array (ESA) antenna concepts to enable affordable...

  16. Low Cost Refractory Matrix Composite Thruster for Mars Ascent Vehicles, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The long-term goal for this effort is to develop a low-cost, high-temperature thruster. Within the attitude control propulsion community, many efforts have focused...

  17. Light-Weight, Low-Cost, Single-Phase, Liquid-Cooled Cold Plate (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narumanchi, S.


    This presentation, 'Light-Weight, Low-Cost, Single-Phase Liquid-Cooled Cold Plate,' directly addresses program goals of increased power density, specific power, and lower cost of power electronics components through improved thermal management.

  18. Low-Cost Planar PTF Sensors for the Identity Verification of Smartcard Holders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henderson, N.J.; Papakostas, T.V.; White, N.M.; Hartel, Pieter H.

    The properties of mechanical flexibility, low-cost and planar geometry make polymer thick film (PTF) sensors attractive for embedded smartcard biometrics. PTF piezoelectric and piezoresistive pressure sensors are investigated for their potential to capture spatial human characteristics. However, it

  19. Low Cost, Cosmic Microwave Background Telescopes (P-NASA12-003-1) Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Existing and proposed missions with ambitious science goals demand ever larger primary mirrors which, in turn, require the development of new light-weight, low-cost...

  20. Neptune modular rockets for breakthrough low-cost space access Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Interorbital Systems is developing a new generation of modular, low-cost, rapid-response space launch vehicles. Interorbital modular rockets core element is the...

  1. Product platform considerations on a project that develops sustainable low-cost housing for townships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wörösch, Michael; Bonev, Martin; Mortensen, Niels Henrik

    Construction companies in Denmark are often working with profit margins as little as 1-3% in situations where they deliver high-end buildings to the local market. Even though customers are willing to pay a premium price for high quality, construction companies earn very little on their products...... by INCOSE. 1) to 3) have been studied using action research on a case project. The case company´s success in their endeavor contributes to people currently living without decent housing getting insulated low-cost houses based on the latest technology. The fact that those low-cost houses are solid gives....... Consequently one Danish company took the decision to produce sustainable low-cost houses and to sell them to development countries that have township housing programs. Why does this company believe in still making profit in the low-cost housing segment abroad, when there is almost no profit in the high-end...

  2. Low-Cost Planetary Missions Enabled by the Deep Space Gateway (United States)

    Berinstain, A.; Richards, R. D.


    The authors will present options for discussion among participants of how low-cost lunar and planetary missions using the Moon Express family of spacecraft can be enabled by the presence of the Deep Space Gateway.

  3. Innovative Applications of DOD Propulsion Technology for Low-Cost Satellite Missions Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We are proposing to leverage the Missile Defense Agency investments in high-performance propulsion systems for low-cost space missions with large Dv requirements,...

  4. Paper-based smart microfluidics for education and low-cost diagnostics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smith, S


    Full Text Available to develop PoC diagnostic solutions. Specifically, the emerging field of paper-based microfluidics, with advantages such as low-cost, disposability and minimal external equipment requirements, provides unique opportunities for addressing healthcare issues...

  5. In search of low cost biological analysis: Wax or acrylic glue bonded paper microfluidic devices

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas


    In this body of work we have been developing and characterizing paper based microfluidic fabrication technologies to produce low cost biological analysis. Specifically we investigated the performance of paper microfluidics that had been bonded using wax o

  6. Compact, Rugged and Low-Cost Atmospheric Ozone DIAL Transmitter, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Bridger Photonics Inc. (Bridger) proposes to develop the most compact, efficient and low-cost ultra-violet ozone differential absorption lidar (DIAL) transmitter...

  7. Tunable Laser for High-Performance, Low-Cost Distributed Sensing Platform, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed effort will establish technical feasibility of an approach to optimizing a low-cost, fast-sweeping tunable laser for distributed sensing. Multiple...

  8. Lab-on-Blu-ray: Low-cost analyte detection on a disk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donolato, Marco; Antunes, Paula Soares Martins; Burger, Robert


    In this work, we present for the first time a centrifugal microfluidic system for the detection of analytes in blood using a low cost (carried out on a disk, while the detection method is based on optical measurements...

  9. Teaching project: a low-cost swine model for chest tube insertion training


    Netto, Fernando Antonio Campelo Spencer; Sommer, Camila Garcia; Constantino, Michael de Mello; Cardoso, Michel; Cipriani, Raphael Flávio Fachini; Pereira, Renan Augusto


    Objective: to describe and evaluate the acceptance of a low-cost chest tube insertion porcine model in a medical education project in the southwest of Paraná, Brazil. Methods: we developed a low-cost and low technology porcine model for teaching chest tube insertion and used it in a teaching project. Medical trainees - students and residents - received theoretical instructions about the procedure and performed thoracic drainage in this porcine model. After performing the procedure, the par...

  10. Precision Agriculture: Using Low-Cost Systems to Acquire Low-Altitude Images. (United States)

    Ponti, Moacir; Chaves, Arthur A; Jorge, Fabio R; Costa, Gabriel B P; Colturato, Adimara; Branco, Kalinka R L J C


    Low cost remote sensing imagery has the potential to make precision farming feasible in developing countries. In this article, the authors describe image acquisition from eucalyptus, bean, and sugarcane crops acquired by low-cost and low-altitude systems. They use different approaches to handle low-altitude images in both the RGB and NIR (near-infrared) bands to estimate and quantify plantation areas.

  11. Low-Cost Laboratory Adaptations for Precollege Students Who Are Blind or Visually Impaired (United States)

    Supalo, Cary A.; Mallouk, Thomas E.; Rankel, Lillian; Amorosi, Christeallia; Graybill, Cameala M.


    The creative application of low-cost, readily available materials and techniques promotes inclusion and provides accessibility in the classroom and laboratory for students who are blind or have low vision. Difficulties encountered by these students include operation of laboratory equipment, execution of ordinary laboratory procedures, and use of molecular structure models, all of which typically involve visual observations. The low-cost tools described in this article can help teachers provide more independent and rewarding laboratory and classroom experiences for these students.

  12. Pollution Detection in a Low-Cost Electronic Nose, a Machine Learning Approach


    Nore, Per Wessel


    In this study, machine learning on a microcontroller-based electronic nose is proposed to identify danger in gas mixtures of nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, and formaldehyde. This electronic nose is low-powered and low-cost, making new areas for pollution detection possible. This study researches the use of machine learning in combination with low-cost chemical sensors. The machine learning can filter the noise in the sensors and to some extent compensate for the influence of disturbances ...

  13. Treatment of a simulated textile wastewater in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) with addition of a low-cost adsorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Sílvia C.R., E-mail:; Boaventura, Rui A.R.


    Highlights: • Treating textile dyeing effluents by SBR coupled with waste sludge adsorption. • Metal hydroxide sludge: a good adsorbent for a direct textile dye. • Good adsorption capacities were found with the low-cost adsorbent. • Adsorbent performance considerably reduced by auxiliary products. • Color removal complies with discharge limits. - Abstract: Color removal from textile wastewaters, at a low-cost and consistent technology, is even today a challenge. Simultaneous biological treatment and adsorption is a known alternative to the treatment of wastewaters containing biodegradable and non-biodegradable contaminants. The present work aims at evaluating the treatability of a simulated textile wastewater by simultaneously combining biological treatment and adsorption in a SBR (sequencing batch reactor), but using a low-cost adsorbent, instead of a commercial one. The selected adsorbent was a metal hydroxide sludge (WS) from an electroplating industry. Direct Blue 85 dye (DB) was used in the preparation of the synthetic wastewater. Firstly, adsorption kinetics and equilibrium were studied, in respect to many factors (temperature, pH, WS dosage and presence of salts and dyeing auxiliary chemicals in the aqueous media). At 25 °C and pH 4, 7 and 10, maximum DB adsorption capacities in aqueous solution were 600, 339 and 98.7 mg/g, respectively. These values are quite considerable, compared to other reported in literature, but proved to be significantly reduced by the presence of dyeing auxiliary chemicals in the wastewater. The simulated textile wastewater treatment in SBR led to BOD{sub 5} removals of 53–79%, but color removal was rather limited (10–18%). The performance was significantly enhanced by the addition of WS, with BOD{sub 5} removals above 91% and average color removals of 60–69%.

  14. Ability of Low-Cost Force-Feedback Device to Influence Postural Stability. (United States)

    Baud-Bovy, Gabriel; Tatti, Fabio; Borghese, Nunzio A


    Low-cost gaming technology offers promising devices for the rehabilitation of stroke patients at home. While several attempts have been made to use low-cost motion tracking devices (Kinect) or balance boards (Wii Board), the potential of low-cost haptic devices has yet to be explored in this context. The objective of this study was to investigate whether it is possible to influence postural stability with a low-cost device despite its technical limitations, and to explore the most promising modes of haptic interaction to increase and decrease postural stability. Two groups of younger subjects used a high-end (Omega.3) and a low-cost (Falcon) device respectively. A third group of older subjects used the Falcon. We show that light touch contact with the device improves stability, whereas the force tasks decrease it. The effects of the different tasks are consistent in the two age groups. Although there are differences in the participants' interaction with the two devices, the effect of the devices on postural stability is comparable. We conclude that a low-cost haptic device can be used to increase or decrease postural stability of healthy subjects with an age similar to that of typical stroke patients, in a safe and controllable way.

  15. Surface characterisation of MOCVD single source precursor grown GaSb-films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seemayer, Andreas; Hommes, Alexander; Huemann, Sascha; Wandelt, Klaus [University of Bonn (Germany). Institute for Physical Chemistry; Hunger, Ralf [Hahn-Meitner-Institute Berlin GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Schulz, Stephan [University of Paderborn (Germany). Department Chemie


    III-V semiconductor films used for opto- and microelectronic devices have traditionally been grown by (MO)MBE and LPE processes. An alternative metal-organic CVD-process, which has been established in the last two decades for high-throughput and low-cost fabrication works for nitrides, phosphides and arsenides, but is problematic for antimonides. In particular, for GaSb films an alternative route is a CVD-process using the heterocyclic single source precursor [tBu{sub 2}GaSbEt{sub 2}]{sub 2}. Subject of the present work is the investigation of the surface physical properties of the produced films as well as the gas phase behaviour of the used precursor. Therefore films were produced on a Si(100) substrate in a HV-MOCVD reactor and investigated using AES, S-XPS and AFM. In addition, growth experiments under UHV conditions were performed. The results are discussed in terms of a correlation of the electronic properties with the composition and structure of the films.

  16. Low cost assistive technology to support educational activities for adolescents with cerebral palsy. (United States)

    da Silva, Alan Patricio; Bulle Oliveira, Acary Souza; Pinheiro Bezerra, Italla Maria; Pedrozo Campos Antunes, Thaiany; Guerrero Daboin, Blanca Elena; Raimundo, Rodrigo Daminello; Dos Santos, Vagner Rogério; de Abreu, Luiz Carlos


    The concept of assistive technology covers several areas of action; one of them is communication with the elaboration of accessible solutions to overcome daily difficulties. It contributes to the resumption of functional abilities, expanding and facilitating inclusion and independent living. To analyze the usability of a low cost prototype device to support educational activities of adolescents with cerebral palsy. A descriptive observational study. The evaluation of a prototype device was made through a validated questionnaire, Quest Version 2.0, on the level of the user's satisfaction with an assistive technology, composed of 12 evaluation items. The questionnaire was filled out by the educator based on the observation of four wheelchair-bound participants diagnosed with cerebral palsy according to the international classification of diseases and health-related problems, ICD-10, who attend a coexistence and teaching institution in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The device developed was considered an assistive technology, which provided an experience with a positive level of satisfaction for the participants. The tested prototype contributes to communication and interaction allowing adolescents with cerebral palsy to participate in educational activities. Implications for Rehabilitation The device assists the individual in the educational activities and can positively influence their development, observe the individual number 5, who has an important limitation in coordination and fine movements, placing the role of the task in the vertical position offers a new perspective to perform the task, this stimulates him to try to perform the work, so the challenge was adjusted to the demands of each individual which can contribute to its neuromotor development, the amplitude of the distal movements and the manual ability, since it must look for alternatives to complete the task requested.

  17. The Teaching of Enzymes: A Low Cost Experimental Approach with High School Students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The association of experimental methods with the traditional lecturing of Science themes is encouraged by several authors. The importance ofconducting experimental classes is undeniable, as practical activities motivate students to search for kno wledge. But this is not the reality in most publicschools in the inlands of Rio de Janeiro’s State, where several factors prevent teachers from using such didactic strategy.   The aim of this  work  was demonstrate  low -cost experimental activities, addressing the subject enzymes. The practice has been designed for being held in a common classroom. Lab glassware was replaced by alternative materials. Potato extract  (catalase source and commercial hydrogen peroxide were required. Concepts such as kinetic data  related to substrate concentration, time of reaction, pH andtemperature effects on enzymatic activity have been  explored with the students. Graphical representation of enzyme activity related to the above parameters has also been elaborated. The practice w as held in 10 schools distributed among 7 different cities. Questionnaires have been applied to the students before and after the practice and revealed that 86% of the students had never participated of a practical lesson and 49% were unaware of the functi on of enzymes. After practice, 68% of the students said that the enzymes catalyze biological reactions and 73% considered the practice important to their cognitive achievement. The evaluation of information obtained from students confirmed the lack of practical activities in public education, as well as the capacity that the practical activities have  to motivate the students in the knowledge formation process.

  18. Towards the next generation 23% efficient n-type cells with low cost manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yelundur, Vijay [Suniva Inc., Norcross, GA (United States)


    Suniva, Inc., in collaboration with the University Center for Excellence in Photovoltaics (UCEP) at the Georgia Institute of Technology (GIT) proposed this comprehensive three year program to enable the development of an advanced high performance product that will help the US regain its competitive edge in PV. This project was designed to overcome cost and efficiency barriers through advances in PV science, technology innovation, low-cost manufacturing and full production of ~22.5% efficient n-type Si cells in Norcross, GA. At the heart of the project is the desire to complement the technology being developed concurrently under the Solarmat and ARPAe initiatives to develop a differentiated product superior in both performance and cost effectiveness to the competing alternatives available on the market, and push towards achieving SunShot objectives while ensuring a sustainable business model based on US manufacturing. A significant reduction of the costs in modules produced today will need to combine reductions in wafer costs, cell processing costs as well as module fabrication costs while delivering a product that is not only more efficient under test conditions but also increases the energy yield in outdoor operations. This project will result in a differentiated high performance product and technology that is consistent with sustaining PV manufacturing in the US for a longer term and further highlights the need for continued support for developing the next generation concepts that can keep US manufacturing thriving to support the growing demand for PV in the US and consistent with the US government’s mandates for energy independence.

  19. HyBIS - a low cost, multi-purpose, modular vehicle for detailed ocean mapping (United States)

    Huehnerbach, V.; Murton, B.; Berndt, C.; Garrard, J.; Wollatz-Vogt, M.; Wetzel, G.; Matthiessen, T.


    HyBIS is a low-cost, multi-purpose, highly maneuverable, fibre-optic controlled survey and sampling robotic underwater vehicle (RUV) capable of diving to 6000m. Built in the UK by Hydro-Lek Ltd. in collaboration with the National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, it has proven itself during recent discoveries of the deepest hydrothermal vents in the world, at 5100m deep in the Cayman Trough in the Caribbean and habitat mapping of seamounts in the Atlantic and Indian oceans . The vehicle has a modular design, with the top module being a command and power system that comprises power management, cameras, lights, hydraulics, thrusters and telemetry. The lower module can alternatively be a clam-shell sampling grab, a manipulator-arm and tool sled, a winch for instrument recovery, or an ocean bottom seismometer deployment module. Unlike a conventional ROV, HyBIS does not have any floatation, rather it is suspended by its umbilical cable directly from the ship. The advantage of direct suspension is that HyBIS can recover or deploy a payload of up to 700kg, although this comes at the price of reduced maneuverability compared to a 'normal' ROV. During its four years of service, HyBIS has, so far, accumulated an impressive list of achievements: recording over 450 hours of HD video footage, thousands of HD still images, collected geological, biological samples, as well as fluids and gas from over 40 different sites. It has also recovered two different seabed landers containing scientific equipment worth over £300k, and placed Ocean Bottom Seismometers onto the seafloor.

  20. Low-cost near-infrared measurement of subcutaneous fat for newborn malnutrition (United States)

    McEwan, A. L.; Bian, S.; Gargiulo, G. D.; Morhard, R.; Jones, P.; Mustafa, F. H.; Bek, B. Emily; Jeffery, H. E.


    Low fat composition in newborns exposes them to an immediate risk of increased mortality and morbidity, inhibited physical and cognitive development and to diabetes and obesity diseases in later life. Information about nutritional and dietary status of newborns can be accessed by measuring the amount of fat composition in the body. The functions of subcutaneous fat involve energy storage, thermo-insulation and a physical buffer. Current technologies for newborn body fat monitoring are: a device based on air displacement plethesmography (PeaPod), dual-energy Xray, and underwater weighting. However they are bulky, expensive, immobile, and require technical expertise. We propose an alternative portable measurement system of in-vitro for subcutaneous fat that uses diffuse near-infrared light reflectance measurement system. We also introduce an in-vitro three-layered tissue model mimicking the subcutaneous fat layer in newborns together with a preliminary study to measure fat using dual-wavelength nearinfrared light. Based on the output data from these measurements, we have proposed a suitable transmission and scattering model. This model estimated the amount of reflected light collected by a photodetector after incident light is scattered in several fat layers. Our portable sensor is low cost and does not require training hence it is suitable for mass use in the developing world. It consists of a single LED and two photodetectors (900 nm and 1000 nm). The photodetectors wavelengths were chosen to be sensitive to fat as it exhibits a peak in the wavelength at 930 nm and to water at which exhibits a peak at 980 nm; the latter is used, to remove hydration bias. Results on a porcine tissue model demonstrate differentiation as low as 2 mm fat which is a relevant screening thickness to indicate low percentage body fat.

  1. Toward low-cost affinity reagents: lyophilized yeast-scFv probes specific for pathogen antigens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean A Gray

    Full Text Available The generation of affinity reagents, usually monoclonal antibodies, remains a critical bottleneck in biomedical research and diagnostic test development. Recombinant antibody-like proteins such as scFv have yet to replace traditional monoclonal antibodies in antigen detection applications, in large part because of poor performance of scFv in solution. To address this limitation, we have developed assays that use whole yeast cells expressing scFv on their surfaces (yeast-scFv in place of soluble purified scFv or traditional monoclonal antibodies. In this study, a nonimmune library of human scFv displayed on the surfaces of yeast cells was screened for clones that bind to recombinant cyst proteins of Entamoeba histolytica, an enteric pathogen of humans. Selected yeast-scFv clones were stabilized by lyophilization and used in detection assay formats in which the yeast-scFv served as solid support-bound monoclonal antibodies. Specific binding of antigen to the yeast-scFv was detected by staining with rabbit polyclonal antibodies. In flow cytometry-based assays, lyophilized yeast-scFv reagents retained full binding activity and specificity for their cognate antigens after 4 weeks of storage at room temperature in the absence of desiccants or stabilizers. Because flow cytometry is not available to all potential assay users, an immunofluorescence assay was also developed that detects antigen with similar sensitivity and specificity. Antigen-specific whole-cell yeast-scFv reagents can be selected from nonimmune libraries in 2-3 weeks, produced in vast quantities, and packaged in lyophilized form for extended shelf life. Lyophilized yeast-scFv show promise as low cost, renewable alternatives to monoclonal antibodies for diagnosis and research.

  2. Treatment of a simulated textile wastewater in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) with addition of a low-cost adsorbent. (United States)

    Santos, Sílvia C R; Boaventura, Rui A R


    Color removal from textile wastewaters, at a low-cost and consistent technology, is even today a challenge. Simultaneous biological treatment and adsorption is a known alternative to the treatment of wastewaters containing biodegradable and non-biodegradable contaminants. The present work aims at evaluating the treatability of a simulated textile wastewater by simultaneously combining biological treatment and adsorption in a SBR (sequencing batch reactor), but using a low-cost adsorbent, instead of a commercial one. The selected adsorbent was a metal hydroxide sludge (WS) from an electroplating industry. Direct Blue 85 dye (DB) was used in the preparation of the synthetic wastewater. Firstly, adsorption kinetics and equilibrium were studied, in respect to many factors (temperature, pH, WS dosage and presence of salts and dyeing auxiliary chemicals in the aqueous media). At 25 °C and pH 4, 7 and 10, maximum DB adsorption capacities in aqueous solution were 600, 339 and 98.7 mg/g, respectively. These values are quite considerable, compared to other reported in literature, but proved to be significantly reduced by the presence of dyeing auxiliary chemicals in the wastewater. The simulated textile wastewater treatment in SBR led to BOD5 removals of 53-79%, but color removal was rather limited (10-18%). The performance was significantly enhanced by the addition of WS, with BOD5 removals above 91% and average color removals of 60-69%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Growth, antioxidant capacity and total carotene of Dunaliella salina DCCBC15 in a low cost enriched natural seawater medium. (United States)

    Tran, Duc; Doan, Nguyen; Louime, Clifford; Giordano, Mario; Portilla, Sixto


    Dunaliella is currently drawing worldwide attention as an alternative source of nutraceuticals. Commercially, β-carotene making up over 10% of Dunaliella biomass is generating the most interest. These compounds, because of their non-toxic properties, have found applications in the food, drug and cosmetic industry. The β-carotene content of Dunaliella cells, however, depends heavily on the growth conditions and especially on the availability of nutrients, salinity, irradiance and temperature in the growth medium. A chemically well defined medium is usually required, which significantly contributes to the cost of pigment production; hence a desire for low cost marine media. The present study aimed at evaluating the suitability of six different media, especially exploiting local potential resources, for the mass production of Dunaliella salina DCCBC15 as functional food and medicine. The efficacy of a new selected low-cost enriched natural seawater medium (MD4), supplemented with industrial N-P-K fertilizer, was investigated with respect to biomass production, chlorophyll, antioxidant capacity, and total carotene by Dunaliella though culture conditions were not optimized yet. This new medium (MD4) appears extremely promising, since it affords a higher production of Dunaliella biomass and pigments compared with the control, a common artificial medium (MD1), while allowing a substantial reduction in the production costs. The medium is also recommended for culturing other marine algae.

  4. Implementation of high-gain observer on low-cost fused IR-OS sensor embedded in UAV system (United States)

    Nor, E. Mohd; Noor, S. B. Mohd; Bahiki, M. R.; Azrad, S.


    This paper presents discrete time implementation of a high gain observer (HGO) and extended term to estimate the state velocity and acceleration from the position measured by a low-cost sensor installed on-board the unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). Owing to the low-cost sensor, the signal produced from fused IR–OS is noisy and therefore, additional filters are used to remove the noise. This study proposes an alternative to this standard and tedious procedure using HGO. The discrete time implementation of HGO and its extended term is presented and ground tests are conducted to verify the algorithm by inducing a dynamic motion on the UAV platform embedded with the fusion IR-OS onboard. A comparison study is conducted using standard numerical differentiation and ground truth measurement by OptiTrack. The results show that EHGO can produce a velocity signal with the same quality as that of differentiated signal from fused IR-OS using Kalman filter. The novelty of HGO lies in its simplicity and its minimal tuning of parameters.

  5. Teaching basic life support: a prospective randomized study on low-cost training strategies in secondary schools. (United States)

    Van Raemdonck, Veerle; Monsieurs, Koenraad G; Aerenhouts, Dirk; De Martelaer, Kristine


    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training at school is recommended. Limited school resources prevent implementation. The learning efficacy of low-cost training strategies is unknown. To evaluate the efficacy of different CPR learning strategies using low-cost didactic tools. Children (n=593, 15-16 years) were randomized to four training conditions: (1) manikin+teacher instruction (control group), (2) manikin+video instruction, (3) foam dice+plastic bag+peer training+teacher instruction, and (4) foam dice+plastic bag+peer training+video instruction. After a 50 min training, a 3 min CPR test on a manikin was performed using SkillReporting Software (Laerdal, Norway), and repeated after 6 months. The data of children without previous CPR training were analysed. Analysis of variance and the χ-test assessed differences between groups. Complete data sets were available for 165 pupils. Initially, group 3 scored lower on the mean ventilation volume (Pstrategies was suboptimal. The basics of CPR can be taught with alternative equipment if manikins are not available.

  6. Mechanical behaviour of low-cost dynamic compression plates correlates with manufacturing quality standards. (United States)

    Aluede, Edward; McDonald, Erik; Jergesen, Harry; Penoyar, Thomas; Calvert, Kayla


    This study compares the mechanical properties of low-cost stainless steel dynamic compression plates (DCPs) from developing-world manufacturers, adhering to varying manufacturing quality standards, with those of high-cost DCPs manufactured for use in the developed world. Standard-design ten-hole DCPs from six developing-world manufacturers and high-cost DCPs from two manufacturers in the developed world were studied. Nine plates from each manufacturer underwent mechanical testing: six in four-point monotonic bending to assess strength and stiffness and three in four-point bending fatigue. Statistical comparisons of the group means of monotonic bending test data were made, and a qualitative comparison was performed to assess failures in fatigue. Low-cost DCPs from manufacturers with at least one manufacturing quality standard had significantly higher bending strength and fewer failures in fatigue than did those from low-cost manufacturers with no recognised quality standards. High-cost DCPs demonstrated greater bending strength than did those in both low-cost groups. There were no differences in stiffness and fatigue failure between high-cost DCPs and those low-cost DCPs with quality standards. However, high-cost DCPs were significantly less stiff and had fewer fatigue failures than low-cost DCPs manufactured without such standards. Significant differences were found in the mechanical properties of ten-hole DCP plates from selected manufacturers in the developing and developed worlds. These differences correlated with reported quality certification in the manufacturing process. Mechanical analysis of low-cost implants may provide information useful in determining which manufacturers produce implants with the best potential for benefit relative to cost.

  7. Development of advanced manufacturing technologies for low cost hydrogen storage vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leavitt, Mark [Quantum Fuel Systems Technologies Worldwide, Inc., Irvine, CA (United States); Lam, Patrick [Boeing Research and Technology (BR& T), Seattle, WA (United States)


    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) defined a need for low-cost gaseous hydrogen storage vessels at 700 bar to support cost goals aimed at 500,000 units per year. Existing filament winding processes produce a pressure vessel that is structurally inefficient, requiring more carbon fiber for manufacturing reasons, than would otherwise be necessary. Carbon fiber is the greatest cost driver in building a hydrogen pressure vessel. The objective of this project is to develop new methods for manufacturing Type IV pressure vessels for hydrogen storage with the purpose of lowering the overall product cost through an innovative hybrid process of optimizing composite usage by combining traditional filament winding (FW) and advanced fiber placement (AFP) techniques. A numbers of vessels were manufactured in this project. The latest vessel design passed all the critical tests on the hybrid design per European Commission (EC) 79-2009 standard except the extreme temperature cycle test. The tests passed include burst test, cycle test, accelerated stress rupture test and drop test. It was discovered the location where AFP and FW overlap for load transfer could be weakened during hydraulic cycling at 85°C. To design a vessel that passed these tests, the in-house modeling software was updated to add capability to start and stop fiber layers to simulate the AFP process. The original in-house software was developed for filament winding only. Alternative fiber was also investigated in this project, but the added mass impacted the vessel cost negatively due to the lower performance from the alternative fiber. Overall the project was a success to show the hybrid design is a viable solution to reduce fiber usage, thus driving down the cost of fuel storage vessels. Based on DOE’s baseline vessel size of 147.3L and 91kg, the 129L vessel (scaled to DOE baseline) in this project shows a 32% composite savings and 20% cost savings when comparing Vessel 15 hybrid design and the Quantum

  8. Low-cost 3D systems: suitable tools for plant phenotyping. (United States)

    Paulus, Stefan; Behmann, Jan; Mahlein, Anne-Katrin; Plümer, Lutz; Kuhlmann, Heiner


    Over the last few years, 3D imaging of plant geometry has become of significant importance for phenotyping and plant breeding. Several sensing techniques, like 3D reconstruction from multiple images and laser scanning, are the methods of choice in different research projects. The use of RGBcameras for 3D reconstruction requires a significant amount of post-processing, whereas in this context, laser scanning needs huge investment costs. The aim of the present study is a comparison between two current 3D imaging low-cost systems and a high precision close-up laser scanner as a reference method. As low-cost systems, the David laser scanning system and the Microsoft Kinect Device were used. The 3D measuring accuracy of both low-cost sensors was estimated based on the deviations of test specimens. Parameters extracted from the volumetric shape of sugar beet taproots, the leaves of sugar beets and the shape of wheat ears were evaluated. These parameters are compared regarding accuracy and correlation to reference measurements. The evaluation scenarios were chosen with respect to recorded plant parameters in current phenotyping projects. In the present study, low-cost 3D imaging devices have been shown to be highly reliable for the demands of plant phenotyping, with the potential to be implemented in automated application procedures, while saving acquisition costs. Our study confirms that a carefully selected low-cost sensor.

  9. Analysis on Occupants’ Satisfaction for Safety Performance Assessment in Low Cost Housing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husin Husrul Nizam


    Full Text Available The delivery performance of the low cost housing is questioned since the occupants are prone towards safety hazards in the housing complex, such as structural instability and falling building fragments. Without defining the occupants’ requirements for the development of low cost housing, the prevailing safety factors are hard to be determined. This paper explores the rationale of safety performance assessment in the low cost housing by considering the occupants’ participation to achieve a better safety provision during occupancy period. Questionnaire survey was distributed to 380 occupants of the low cost housing in Kuala Lumpur and Selangor, Malaysia. The result shows that 80.8% of the respondents had expressed their dissatisfaction with the safety performance of the lift. By referring to the mode of ranking level, the most significant aspect rated by the respondents is Building Safety Features, with 51.6% respondents. The attained aspects can be fundamental parameters which can be considered in the future development of low cost housing.

  10. Prediction of Low Cost Housing Demand in Malaysia Using ARIMA Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainun N. Y.


    Full Text Available Among the key challenges in construction industry sector faces are matching supply of and demand for affordable housing. It is very crucial to predict low-cost housing demand to match the demand and supply so that the government can plan the allocation of low cost housing based on the demand. In Johor, housing provision is very crucial due to urbanization. The supply of houses seems to be swamping the demand for luxury condos and houses especially in Johor Bharu. Thus the aim of this study is to predict low-cost housing demand in Johor, Malaysia using ARIMA model. Time series data on low-cost housing demand have been converted to Ln before develop the model. The actual data and forecasted data will be compared and validate using Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE. After that, the results using ARIMA method will be compared with ANN method. The results show that MAPE analysis for ARIMA is 15.39% while ANN is 18.27%. It can be conclude that ARIMA model can forecast low cost housing demand in Johor quite good.

  11. Outdoor Environment of Low-cost Housing: A case study of Flat Taman Desa Sentosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Mohd Farid


    Full Text Available One of the early objectives of high-density low-cost flat housing is to overcome the squatter problems in urban areas such as in Kuala Lumpur. As the country progresses towards being a developed nation, the quality and standard of living of its people have also improved. Low-cost flat housing initiative has also gone through changes to provide better living quality. This paper discusses on the occupants’ satisfaction perception of outdoor environmental quality (OEQ of a selected high-density low-cost flat housing located in the state of Selangor in Malaysia. The objective of the paper is to obtain the level of perception by the occupants of low-cost flats on the OEQ. The methodologies used in this study are site observation and questionnaire survey. This study found that the OEQ in the low-cost flat has generally fulfilled the five out of 6 elements of OEQ. The only element that found to have poor perception is the level of safety.

  12. Directions of organisational and low-cost energy saving of engineering enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzhedzhula Viacheslav V.


    Full Text Available The article analyses directions of energy saving of industrial enterprises. Taking into account the tendency to continuous growth of cost of energy resources, introduction of measures that would allow reduction of energy consumption of enterprises is an urgent task. One of the most important obstacles in the process of introduction of energy efficient solutions are fund limits and low awareness of owners and managers of industrial enterprises. The article offers a new classification of energy saving measures: apart from traditional expense and organisation measures it introduces the low-cost measures notion. It offers to consider low-cost those measures that are realised by the enterprise by means of own funds, moreover, their repayment term is not more than one year. It offers analytical expression for identification of annual funds saving from introduction of low-cost measures. It considers the process of identification of saving of funds from introduction of some of the main low-cost measures in detail: replacement of lighting units, balancing of ventilation networks and elimination of water leakages from pipelines and water supply equipment. Based on the analysis of bibliography information the article provides a list of main measures on energy saving, which could be referred to the low-cost ones. The proposed approaches would allow paying more attention to practical aspects of realisation of the concept of energy saving in the industry.

  13. Low-Cost Monitoring System of Sensors for Evaluating Dynamic Solicitations of Semitrailer Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Luque


    Full Text Available Analysis of the fatigue life of a semitrailer structure necessitates identification of the loads and dynamic solicitations in the structure. These forces can be introduced in computer simulation software (multibody + finite element for analysing the response of different design solutions to them. These numerical models must be validated and some parameters need to be measured directly in a field test with real vehicles under various driving conditions. In this study, a low-cost monitoring system is developed for application to a real fleet of semitrailers. According to the definition of the numerical model, the guidance of a virtual vehicle is defined by the three-dimensional kinematics of the kingpin. For characterisation of these movements, a monitoring system having a low-cost inertial measurement unit (IMU and global positioning system (GPS antennas is developed with different configurations to enable analysis of the best cost-benefit (result accuracy solution, and an extended Kalman filter (EKF that characterises the kinematic guidance of the kingpin is proposed. A semitrailer was equipped with the experimental low-cost monitoring system and high-precision sensors (IMU, GPS in order to validate the results obtained by the experimental low-cost monitoring system and the inertial-extended Kalman filter developed. The validated system has applicability in the low-cost monitoring of a fleet of real vehicles.

  14. The potential of low-cost RPAS for multi-view reconstruction of rock cliffs (United States)

    Ettore Guccione, Davide; Thoeni, Klaus; Santise, Marina; Giacomini, Anna; Roncella, Riccardo; Forlani, Gianfranco


    cliffs are not easily accessible. Nevertheless, work natural features can provide a good alternative if chosen wisely. Secondly, the influence of using fixed interior orientation parameters and self-calibration was investigated. The results show that in the case of the used sensors and camera networks self-calibration provides better results. This can mainly be attributed to the fact that the object distance is not constant and rather small (less than 10m) and that both cameras do not provide an option for fixing the interior orientation parameters. Finally, the results of both platforms are as well compared to a point cloud obtained with a terrestrial laser scanner where generally a very good agreement is observed. References Nex, F., Remondino, F. (2014) UAV for 3D mapping applications: a review. Applied Geomatics 6(1), 1-15. Thoeni, K., Giacomini, A., Murtagh, R., Kniest, E. (2014) A comparison of multi-view 3D reconstruction of a rock wall using several cameras and a laser scanner. International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences XL-5, 573-580. Westoby, M.J., Brasington, J., Glasser, N.F., Hambrey, M.J., Reynolds, J.M. (2012) 'Structure-from-Motion' photogrammetry: A low-cost, effective tool for geoscience applications. Geomorphology 179, 300-314.

  15. III-V/Active-Silicon Integration for Low-Cost High-Performance Concentrator Photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ringel, Steven [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Carlin, John A [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Grassman, Tyler [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)


    This FPACE project was motivated by the need to establish the foundational pathway to achieve concentrator solar cell efficiencies greater than 50%. At such an efficiency, DOE modeling projected that a III-V CPV module cost of $0.50/W or better could be achieved. Therefore, the goal of this project was to investigate, develop and advance a III-V/Si mulitjunction (MJ) CPV technology that can simultaneously address the primary cost barrier for III-V MJ solar cells while enabling nearly ideal MJ bandgap profiles that can yield efficiencies in excess of 50% under concentrated sunlight. The proposed methodology was based on use of our recently developed GaAsP metamorphic graded buffer as a pathway to integrate unique GaAsP and Ga-rich GaInP middle and top junctions having bandgaps that are adjustable between 1.45 – 1.65 eV and 1.9 – 2.1 eV, respectively, with an underlying, 1.1 eV active Si subcell/substrate. With this design, the Si can be an active component sub-cell due to the semi-transparent nature of the GaAsP buffer with respect to Si as well as a low-cost alternative substrate that is amenable to scaling with existing Si foundry infrastructure, providing a reduction in materials cost and a low cost path to manufacturing at scale. By backside bonding of a SiGe, a path to exceed 50% efficiency is possible. Throughout the course of this effort, an expansive range of new understanding was achieved that has stimulated worldwide efforts in III-V/Si PV R&D that spanned materials development, metamorphic device optimization, and complete III-V/Si monolithic integration. Highlights include the demonstration of the first ideal GaP/Si interfaces grown by industry-standard MOCVD processes, the first high performance metamorphic tunnel junctions designed for III-V/Si integration, record performance of specific metamorphic sub-cell designs, the first fully integrated GaInP/GaAsP/Si double (1.7 eV/1.1 eV) and triple (1.95 eV/1.5 eV/1.1 eV) junction solar cells, the first

  16. Engineering IT-enabled sustainable electricity services the tale of two low-cost green Azores Islands

    CERN Document Server

    Xie, Le; Liu, Qixing


    Engineering IT-Enabled Electricity Services: The Tale of Two Low-Cost Green Azores Islands covers sustainable energy services to customers - a balanced choice and coordination of energy generated by traditional and alternative sources. The “Green Islands” project represents a decade of work by over a dozen researchers who have developed a model designed to utilize the potential of distributed clean resources. The key is the proper use of Information Technology (IT).  Sited on two islands in the Azores, the project developed the model of careful forecasting of demand and supply, down to the minute, coordinating the output of conventional power plants, wind energy, fly wheels, hydroelectricity, demand reduction, and even plug-in electric vehicles to take full advantage of the clean resources available. This contributed volume presents methods for predicting variable resources, such as wind power generation, and analyzes the achievable accuracy of these predictions. Throughout this book, contributors sho...

  17. Application of Low-Cost UASs and Digital Photogrammetry for High-Resolution Snow Depth Mapping in the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cimoli, Emiliano; Marcer, Marco; Vandecrux, Baptiste Robert Marcel


    -estimated and measured snow depth, checked with conventional snow probing, ranged from 0.015 to 0.16 m. The impact of image pre-processing was explored, improving point cloud density and accuracy for different image qualities and snow/light conditions. Our UAS photogrammetry results are expected to be scalable to larger......The repeat acquisition of high-resolution snow depth measurements has important research and civil applications in the Arctic. Currently the surveying methods for capturing the high spatial and temporal variability of the snowpack are expensive, in particular for small areal extents. An alternative...... methodology based on Unmanned Aerial Systems (UASs) and digital photogrammetry was tested over varying surveying conditions in the Arctic employing two diverse and low-cost UAS-camera combinations (500 and 1700 USD, respectively). Six areas, two in Svalbard and four in Greenland, were mapped covering from...

  18. Implementation and Testing of Low Cost Uav Platform for Orthophoto Imaging (United States)

    Brucas, D.; Suziedelyte-Visockiene, J.; Ragauskas, U.; Berteska, E.; Rudinskas, D.


    Implementation of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles for civilian applications is rapidly increasing. Technologies which were expensive and available only for military use have recently spread on civilian market. There is a vast number of low cost open source components and systems for implementation on UAVs available. Using of low cost hobby and open source components ensures considerable decrease of UAV price, though in some cases compromising its reliability. In Space Science and Technology Institute (SSTI) in collaboration with Vilnius Gediminas Technical University (VGTU) researches have been performed in field of constructing and implementation of small UAVs composed of low cost open source components (and own developments). Most obvious and simple implementation of such UAVs - orthophoto imaging with data download and processing after the flight. The construction, implementation of UAVs, flight experience, data processing and data implementation will be further covered in the paper and presentation.

  19. Sliver Solar Cells: High-Efficiency, Low-Cost PV Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan Franklin


    Full Text Available Sliver cells are thin, single-crystal silicon solar cells fabricated using standard fabrication technology. Sliver modules, composed of several thousand individual Sliver cells, can be efficient, low-cost, bifacial, transparent, flexible, shadow tolerant, and lightweight. Compared with current PV technology, mature Sliver technology will need 10% of the pure silicon and fewer than 5% of the wafer starts per MW of factory output. This paper deals with two distinct challenges related to Sliver cell and Sliver module production: providing a mature and robust Sliver cell fabrication method which produces a high yield of highly efficient Sliver cells, and which is suitable for transfer to industry; and, handling, electrically interconnecting, and encapsulating billions of sliver cells at low cost. Sliver cells with efficiencies of 20% have been fabricated at ANU using a reliable, optimised processing sequence, while low-cost encapsulation methods have been demonstrated using a submodule technique.

  20. Mars Relay Satellite: Key to Enabling Low-Cost Exploration Missions (United States)

    Hastrup, R.; Cesarone, R.; Miller, A.


    Recently, there has been increasing evidence of a renewed focus on Mars exploration both by NASA and the international community. The thrust of this renewed interest appears to be manifesting itself in numerous low-cost missions employing small, light weight elements, which utilize advanced technologies including integrated microelectronics. A formidable problem facing these low-cost missions is communications with Earth. Providing adequate direct-link performance has very significant impacts on spacecraft power, pointing, mass and overall complexity. Additionally, for elements at or near the surface of Mars, there are serious connectivity constraints, especially at higher latitudes, which lose view of Earth for up to many months at a time. This paper will discuss the role a Mars relay satellite can play in enabling and enhancing low-cost missions to Mars...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Brucas


    Full Text Available Implementation of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles for civilian applications is rapidly increasing. Technologies which were expensive and available only for military use have recently spread on civilian market. There is a vast number of low cost open source components and systems for implementation on UAVs available. Using of low cost hobby and open source components ensures considerable decrease of UAV price, though in some cases compromising its reliability. In Space Science and Technology Institute (SSTI in collaboration with Vilnius Gediminas Technical University (VGTU researches have been performed in field of constructing and implementation of small UAVs composed of low cost open source components (and own developments. Most obvious and simple implementation of such UAVs – orthophoto imaging with data download and processing after the flight. The construction, implementation of UAVs, flight experience, data processing and data implementation will be further covered in the paper and presentation.

  2. State estimation and control for low-cost unmanned aerial vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Hajiyev, Chingiz; Yenal Vural, Sıtkı


    This book discusses state estimation and control procedures for a low-cost unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The authors consider the use of robust adaptive Kalman filter algorithms and demonstrate their advantages over the optimal Kalman filter in the context of the difficult and varied environments in which UAVs may be employed. Fault detection and isolation (FDI) and data fusion for UAV air-data systems are also investigated, and control algorithms, including the classical, optimal, and fuzzy controllers, are given for the UAV. The performance of different control methods is investigated and the results compared. State Estimation and Control of Low-Cost Unmanned Aerial Vehicles covers all the important issues for designing a guidance, navigation and control (GNC) system of a low-cost UAV. It proposes significant new approaches that can be exploited by GNC system designers in the future and also reviews the current literature. The state estimation, control and FDI methods are illustrated by examples and MATLAB...

  3. A low-cost, high-resolution, video-rate imaging optical radar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sackos, J.T.; Nellums, R.O.; Lebien, S.M.; Diegert, C.F. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Grantham, J.W.; Monson, T. [Air Force Research Lab., Eglin AFB, FL (United States)


    Sandia National Laboratories has developed a unique type of portable low-cost range imaging optical radar (laser radar or LADAR). This innovative sensor is comprised of an active floodlight scene illuminator and an image intensified CCD camera receiver. It is a solid-state device (no moving parts) that offers significant size, performance, reliability, and simplicity advantages over other types of 3-D imaging sensors. This unique flash LADAR is based on low cost, commercially available hardware, and is well suited for many government and commercial uses. This paper presents an update of Sandia`s development of the Scannerless Range Imager technology and applications, and discusses the progress that has been made in evolving the sensor into a compact, low, cost, high-resolution, video rate Laser Dynamic Range Imager.

  4. Efficiency of Individual Tree Detection Approaches Based on Light-Weight and Low-Cost UAS Imagery in Australian Savannas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigorijs Goldbergs


    Full Text Available The reliability of airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR for delineating individual trees and estimating aboveground biomass (AGB has been proven in a diverse range of ecosystems, but can be difficult and costly to commission. Point clouds derived from structure from motion (SfM matching techniques obtained from unmanned aerial systems (UAS could be a feasible low-cost alternative to airborne LiDAR scanning for canopy parameter retrieval. This study assesses the extent to which SfM three-dimensional (3D point clouds—obtained from a light-weight mini-UAS quadcopter with an inexpensive consumer action GoPro camera—can efficiently and effectively detect individual trees, measure tree heights, and provide AGB estimates in Australian tropical savannas. Two well-established canopy maxima and watershed segmentation tree detection algorithms were tested on canopy height models (CHM derived from SfM imagery. The influence of CHM spatial resolution on tree detection accuracy was analysed, and the results were validated against existing high-resolution airborne LiDAR data. We found that the canopy maxima and watershed segmentation routines produced similar tree detection rates (~70% for dominant and co-dominant trees, but yielded low detection rates (<35% for suppressed and small trees due to poor representativeness in point clouds and overstory occlusion. Although airborne LiDAR provides higher tree detection rates and more accurate estimates of tree heights, we found SfM image matching to be an adequate low-cost alternative for the detection of dominant and co-dominant tree stands.

  5. End-user perspective of low-cost sensors for outdoor air pollution monitoring. (United States)

    Rai, Aakash C; Kumar, Prashant; Pilla, Francesco; Skouloudis, Andreas N; Di Sabatino, Silvana; Ratti, Carlo; Yasar, Ansar; Rickerby, David


    Low-cost sensor technology can potentially revolutionise the area of air pollution monitoring by providing high-density spatiotemporal pollution data. Such data can be utilised for supplementing traditional pollution monitoring, improving exposure estimates, and raising community awareness about air pollution. However, data quality remains a major concern that hinders the widespread adoption of low-cost sensor technology. Unreliable data may mislead unsuspecting users and potentially lead to alarming consequences such as reporting acceptable air pollutant levels when they are above the limits deemed safe for human health. This article provides scientific guidance to the end-users for effectively deploying low-cost sensors for monitoring air pollution and people's exposure, while ensuring reasonable data quality. We review the performance characteristics of several low-cost particle and gas monitoring sensors and provide recommendations to end-users for making proper sensor selection by summarizing the capabilities and limitations of such sensors. The challenges, best practices, and future outlook for effectively deploying low-cost sensors, and maintaining data quality are also discussed. For data quality assurance, a two-stage sensor calibration process is recommended, which includes laboratory calibration under controlled conditions by the manufacturer supplemented with routine calibration checks performed by the end-user under final deployment conditions. For large sensor networks where routine calibration checks are impractical, statistical techniques for data quality assurance should be utilised. Further advancements and adoption of sophisticated mathematical and statistical techniques for sensor calibration, fault detection, and data quality assurance can indeed help to realise the promised benefits of a low-cost air pollution sensor network. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Removal of Heavy Metal Ions from Polluted Waters by Using of Low Cost Adsorbents: Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghaedi


    Full Text Available Adsorption is a fundamental process in the physicochemical treatment of wastewaters which industries employ to reduce hazardous organic and inorganic wastes in effluents. In recent years the use of low-cost adsorbents has been widely investigated as a replacement for the currently costly methods of removing heavy metal ions from wastewater. It is well-known that cellulosic waste materials can be obtained and employed as cheap adsorbents and their performance to remove heavy metal ions can be affected upon chemical treatment. In this study, the use of some of low cost adsorbents for the removal of heavy metals from wastewater has been reviewed.

  7. A low-cost, low-energy tangible programming system for computer illiterates in developing regions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smith, Andrew C


    Full Text Available , play tune number one, and play tune number two. 3.3 The system The tangible programming system consists of foam cubes (figure 2), a programming mat, controlling electronics (figure 3), and an output device. The cubes contain low-cost magnets... to encode the functionality that each cube represents. Embedded into the programming-mat are low-cost magnetic sensors. These sensors are wired to the controlling electronic circuit. The controlling circuit is a very simple design containing a single 8...

  8. Providing strong Security and high privacy in low-cost RFID networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, Mathieu; Prasad, Neeli R.


    Since the dissemination of Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) tags is getting larger and larger, the requirement for strong security and privacy is also increasing. Low-cost and ultra-low-cost tags are being implemented on everyday products, and their limited resources constraints the security...... algorithms to be designed especially for those tags. In this paper, a complete solution providing strong security and high privacy during the whole product lifetime is presented. Combining bit-wise operations and secret keys, the algorithm proposed addresses and solves all the common security attacks....

  9. CO2 reduction through low cost electrification of the diesel powertrain at 48V


    Milton, Gareth; Blore, Paul; Tufail, Khizer; Coates, Barnaby Paul; Newbigging, Ian; Cooper, Allan; Shayler, Paul J.


    In order to achieve fleet average CO2 targets, mass market adoption of low CO2 technologies is required. Application of low cost technologies across a large number of vehicles is more cost-effective in reducing fleet CO2 than deploying high-impact, costly technology to a few. Therefore, to meet the CO2 reduction challenge, commercially viable, low cost technologies are of significant interest. This paper presents results from the ‘ADEPT’ collaborative research program which focuses on CO2 red...

  10. Determination of Escherichia coli in urine using a low-cost foil-based microfluidic device. (United States)

    Mašková, Tereza; Hárendarčíková, Lenka; Petr, Jan


    We developed a simple low-cost cultivation-based microfluidic device from office-laminator foil and Parafilm for the determination of specific microorganisms in water samples. The main goal was to obtain a device that would be portable and cheap compared to common laboratory techniques testing microorganisms. This device needs only 10µL of a sample and can be easily used in terrain by a non-specialist. Moreover, we dealt with some technical aspects of the device fabrication such as low-cost lamination techniques and the use of different cultivation media. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Radiometric Calibration of dual Sensor Camera System, a Comparison of classical and low cost Calibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Misgaiski-Hass


    Full Text Available Several identical dual camera systems with two different spectral sensitivities have to be calibrated radiometrically and geometrically. The aim of this project is to build up a calibration laboratory for the calibration of a set of identical cameras using low cost equipment and to compare the results to classical/professional equipment. The main goal of this paper is to demonstrate how to use a low cost, inhomogeneous LED-backlight to measure the Pixel Response Non-Uniformity (PRNU of the investigated cameras.

  12. How Europe's Low-Cost Carriers Sidestepped Traditional Carriers' Competitive Advantages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvass, Kristian Anders

    The initial appearance of U.S. low-cost carriers forced incumbents to create new forms of competitive advantage. These were successful hindrances for nearly two decades. Concurrently, incumbents in Europe implemented similar tools, although within a regulated market. However, Europe's low...... and sidestepped traditional carriers' competitive advantages.......-cost airlines were more successful and had a greater initial impact in their early years than their U.S. compatriots. This paper will attempt to highlight some of the differences between the two markets and explain why European low-cost airlines had more advantages following their market deregulation...

  13. Sensorless control of low-cost single-phase hybrid switched reluctance motor drive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Uffe; Lu, Kaiyuan; Rasmussen, Peter Omand


    This paper presents a sensorless-controlled, low-cost, low-power, variable-speed drive system suitable for fan and pump applications. The main advantages of this drive system are the low system cost, simple converter structure, and simple but robust sensorless control technique. The drive motor...... is a special Hybrid Switched Reluctance Motor (HSRM). The proposed sensorless control method utilizes beneficially the stator side permanent magnet field and its performance is motor parameter independent. The unique low-cost drive system solution, simple and robust sensorless control features of this drive...

  14. The use of low-cost adsorbents for wastewater purification in mining industries. (United States)

    Iakovleva, Evgenia; Sillanpää, Mika


    Recently, great attention has been paid to the environmental problems in mining industry. At present there are different ways of mineral processing, as well as various methods of wastewater treatment, most of them are expensive. Work is ongoing to find low-cost treatments. In this article, low-cost adsorbents, potentially useful for wastewater treatment on mining and metallurgical plants, are reviewed; their characteristics, advantages, and disadvantages of their application are compared. Also adsorption of different metals and radioactive compounds from acidic environment similar to composition of mining and metallurgical wastewaters is considered.

  15. Development of a new low cost high sensitivity system for behavioural ecotoxicity testing. (United States)

    Mills, Chris Lloyd; Shukla, Deepa H; Compton, Graham J


    The amphipod Gammarus pulex has been extensively used for ecotoxicological studies. However, the tests used are either labourious to perform and/or require relatively expensive equipment. We report the development of a new low cost infra red actograph system that measures relative activity, and can detect the behavioural effects of very low concentrations of heavy metals. Trials demonstrated that the home built system can distinguish significantly different behaviour between G. pulex exposed to clean water and that contaminated with as low as 10 microg L(-1) copper. This highly sensitive low cost automated system has the potential to become an important tool for ecotoxicity testing and water quality monitoring.



    Agnes Tresia Silalahi; I Wayan Suardana; Ni Gusti Ayu Susrami Dewi


    AirAsia airline crash incident in December 2014 raises a big question to the satisfaction of the user rating AirAsia. Therefore, this study aims to determine: (1) the effect of partially Low Cost Carrier services to tourist satisfaction PT. Indonesia AirAsia; (2 effect of simultaneous service Low Cost Carrier to tourist satisfaction PT. Indonesia AirAsia. The samples in this study with a total sample of 110 respondents. The analysis used T-test & F-test. The results showed that parti...

  17. A very low-cost 3D scanning system for whole-body imaging (United States)

    Straub, Jeremy; Kerlin, Scott


    A low-cost, high resolution 3D scanning system has been developed at the University of North Dakota that creates 3D models (complete with color and texture data) using hardware and software with a cost of approximately $5,000. This paper presents the design, testing and initial uses for this scanning hardware; it also discusses the efficacy of this technology for a variety of applications and the utility of being able to capture high-quality scans at low cost. A discussion of the required operating conditions and the limitations that this places on the applications the scanner is suitable for is also included.

  18. The use of a low-cost gas-liquid flow meter to monitor severe slugging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreussi, Paolo; Bonizzi, Marco; Ciandri, Paolo


    method to monitor severe slugging by means of low cost instrumentation, in particular, by replacing a cumbersome instrument such as a gamma-densitometer with a differential pressure transmitter. In field operation, the multiphase orifice used in these experiments can be replaced by a calibrated control......A very simple, low-cost gas-liquid flow meter that only employs conventional field instrumentation has been used to monitor severe slugging occurring at the exit of a vertical pipe. This meter was originally developed for conventional oil field applications [1] and is based on the readings...

  19. Návrh marketingové strategie low cost letecké společnosti


    Khomutova, Sofia


    My Master thesis focuses on the design of the marketing strategy of a low-cost airline SparrowJet. The first chapter of the theoretical parts contains the required basics of theoretical information necessary to develop a marketing plan. In the second chapter is an analysis of the air transportation market with an emphasis on the low-cost segment. The final chapter of the theoretical part is dedicated to the marketing mix in the transportation. The practical part of my thesis begins with the s...

  20. Rapid, low-cost prototyping of centrifugal microfluidic devices for effective implementation of various microfluidic components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith, Suzanne


    Full Text Available A centrifugal microfluidic platform to develop various microfluidic operations – the first of its kind in South Africa – is presented. Rapid and low-cost prototyping of centrifugal microfluidic disc devices, as well as a set-up to test the devices using centrifugal forces, is described. Preliminary results show that various microfluidic operations such as fluidic valving, transportation, and microfluidic droplet generation can be achieved. This work provides a complete centrifugal microfluidic platform and the building blocks on which to develop a variety of microfluidic applications and potential products rapidly and at a low cost.

  1. What has led the automotive industry to offshore engineering services to low cost countries?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simplay, Steve; Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee


    This paper will investigate the drivers behind why automotive organizations move product development work from high-cost countries to low-cost countries and the challenges and benefits they face when globalizing their product development model. This paper will provide a literature review of this ......This paper will investigate the drivers behind why automotive organizations move product development work from high-cost countries to low-cost countries and the challenges and benefits they face when globalizing their product development model. This paper will provide a literature review...

  2. Cuprous Oxide as a Potential Low-Cost Hole-Transport Material for Stable Perovskite Solar Cells. (United States)

    Nejand, Bahram Abdollahi; Ahmadi, Vahid; Gharibzadeh, Saba; Shahverdi, Hamid Reza


    Inorganic hole-transport materials are commercially desired to decrease the fabrication cost of perovskite solar cells. Here, Cu2O is introduced as a potential hole-transport material for stable, low-cost devices. Considering that Cu2O formation is highly sensitive to the underlying mixture of perovskite precursors and their solvents, we proposed and engineered a technique for reactive magnetron sputtering. The rotational angular deposition of Cu2O yields high surface coverage of the perovskite layer for high rate of charge extraction. Deposition of this Cu2O layer on the pinhole-free perovskite layer produces devices with power conversion efficiency values of up to 8.93%. The engineered Cu2O layers showed uniform, compact, and crack-free surfaces on the perovskite layer without affecting the perovskite structure, which is desired for deposition of the top metal contact and for surface shielding against moisture and mechanical damages. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Low-cost optical fabrication of flexible copper electrode via laser-induced reductive sintering and adhesive transfer (United States)

    Back, Seunghyun; Kang, Bongchul


    Fabricating copper electrodes on heat-sensitive polymer films in air is highly challenging owing to the need of expensive copper nanoparticles, rapid oxidation of precursor during sintering, and limitation of sintering temperature to prevent the thermal damage of the polymer film. A laser-induced hybrid process of reductive sintering and adhesive transfer is demonstrated to cost-effectively fabricate copper electrode on a polyethylene film with a thermal resistance below 100 °C. A laser-induced reductive sintering process directly fabricates a high-conductive copper electrode onto a glass donor from copper oxide nanoparticle solution via photo-thermochemical reduction and agglomeration of copper oxide nanoparticles. The sintered copper patterns were transferred in parallel to a heat-sensitive polyethylene film through self-selective surface adhesion of the film, which was generated by the selective laser absorption of the copper pattern. The method reported here could become one of the most important manufacturing technologies for fabricating low-cost wearable and disposable electronics.

  4. Scale-up of Novel Low-Cost Carbon Fibers Leading to High-Volume Commercial Launch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spalding, Mark A [The Dow Chemical Company


    on the high levelized economic cost of the process relative to the manufacture of CF from polyacrylonitrile (PAN) precursor fibers. The capital required to sulfonate the fibers adds a significant cost to the process due to the need for investment in a sulfuric acid recovery plant. This high additional capital over the capital for a PAN based CF plant, reduces the levelized economic cost to slightly advantaged over PAN based CF. The sulfonation-desulfonation stabilization route failed to meet the Dow’s return on investment criterion and the cost advantage target set forth for the DOE project. The DOE and Dow decided to halt spending on the project until a new PO fiber stabilization process could be identified that met the DOE physical properties standard and the levelized economic cost constraints of Dow. When the new technology was developed, then award DE-EE0005760 would be re-started with the same goals of the development of a market development plant capable of producing CF at 4 kg/h with the properties that met or exceed those set forth by the Department of Energy Vehicles Technology standard. Progress on the development of the new process has been slow and thus has delayed the scale up project. Dow’s efforts to date have not progressed to the point of demonstrating a commercially-viable process for production of low cost CF from PO precursors for Dow’s rigorous economic constraints. After extensive discussions within Dow and consultation with DOE’s Advanced Manufacturing Office (AMO) Headquarters and Golden Field Office teams, Dow has decided to proceed with the formal recommendation to terminate subject project. DOE’s AMO Headquarters and Golden Field Office teams agreed with the termination of the project.

  5. Low-cost carbon-silicon nanocomposite anodes for lithium ion batteries (United States)

    Badi, Nacer; Erra, Abhinay Reddy; Hernandez, Francisco C. Robles; Okonkwo, Anderson O.; Hobosyan, Mkhitar; Martirosyan, Karen S.


    The specific energy of the existing lithium ion battery cells is limited because intercalation electrodes made of activated carbon (AC) materials have limited lithium ion storage capacities. Carbon nanotubes, graphene, and carbon nanofibers are the most sought alternatives to replace AC materials but their synthesis cost makes them highly prohibitive. Silicon has recently emerged as a strong candidate to replace existing graphite anodes due to its inherently large specific capacity and low working potential. However, pure silicon electrodes have shown poor mechanical integrity due to the dramatic expansion of the material during battery operation. This results in high irreversible capacity and short cycle life. We report on the synthesis and use of carbon and hybrid carbon-silicon nanostructures made by a simplified thermo-mechanical milling process to produce low-cost high-energy lithium ion battery anodes. Our work is based on an abundant, cost-effective, and easy-to-launch source of carbon soot having amorphous nature in combination with scrap silicon with crystalline nature. The carbon soot is transformed in situ into graphene and graphitic carbon during mechanical milling leading to superior elastic properties. Micro-Raman mapping shows a well-dispersed microstructure for both carbon and silicon. The fabricated composites are used for battery anodes, and the results are compared with commercial anodes from MTI Corporation. The anodes are integrated in batteries and tested; the results are compared to those seen in commercial batteries. For quick laboratory assessment, all electrochemical cells were fabricated under available environment conditions and they were tested at room temperature. Initial electrochemical analysis results on specific capacity, efficiency, and cyclability in comparison to currently available AC counterpart are promising to advance cost-effective commercial lithium ion battery technology. The electrochemical performance observed for

  6. Design and Study of a Low-Cost Laboratory Model Digital Wind Power Meter (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Rugmini; Karthika, S.


    A vane-type low-cost laboratory model anemometer cum power meter is designed and constructed for measuring low wind energy created from accelerating fluids. The constructed anemometer is a device which records the electrical power obtained by the conversion of wind power using a wind sensor coupled to a DC motor. It is designed for its…

  7. A low-cost Raman spectrometer design used to study Raman ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    The paper discusses the design of a low cost Raman spectrometer. Single- walled nanotubes ... SWNT, whereas the TM provides the insight into the electronic properties of the nano- tubes.8–10 There is also a ... microscope objective with long working-distance as well as a large numerical aperture. The objective used is ...

  8. Seeing Hydrogen in Colors: Low-Cost and Highly Sensitive Eye Readable Hydrogen Detectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngene, P.; Radeva, T.; Slaman, M.J.; Westerwaal, R.J.; Schreuders, H.; Dam, B.


    There is a great interest in the development of reliable and low-cost hydrogen sensors for applications in the hydrogen economy, industrial processes, space application, detection of environmental pollution, and biomedical applications. Here, a new type of optical detector that indicates the

  9. Treatment of sanitary landfill leachates in degassing gas domes. A low-cost pretreatment process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudolph, K.U.


    The paper abstracted suggests the purification of leachates from sanitary landfills in packed bed reactors integrated into the landfill. The packed bed reactors of trickling filters will at the same time serve as degassing gabions. Experiences gained in the operation of a pilot plant are discussed in detail. The results obtained prove the procedure to be a feasible, effective and low-cost solution.

  10. Low-cost housing developments in South Africa miss the opportunities for household level urban greening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chackleton, C.; Hebinck, P.G.M.; Kaoma, M.; Chishaleshale, M.; Shackleton, S.; Gambiza, J.; Gumbo, D.


    Most developing countries of the world are experiencing large-scale migration from rural to urban areas. Many new migrants end up in low-cost or informal areas and slums with attendant environmental concerns. One dimension of improved urban sustainability is the provision of green spaces and trees.

  11. A comparison of low cost satellite imagery for pastoral planning projects in Central Asia (United States)

    Matthew Reeves; Donald J. Bedunah


    We discuss some of the advantages and disadvantages of satellite data for rangeland planning in Central Asia, with our emphasis being on sources of low cost or free data. The availability and use the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) as a base map and tool for coordinated natural resource planning in Central Asia is discussed in...

  12. Low-cost control problems on perforated and non-perforated domains

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lions in [8]. Lions had originally called it cheap control and the current terminology was used by Kesavan and Saint Jean Paulin in [7]. Kesavan and Saint Jean Paulin (cf. [7]) had considered the low-cost problems when the admissible set was eitherL2( )(unconstrained case) or the positive cone in L2( ). For the rest of the ...

  13. Computer assisted design study of a low-cost pressure sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuwissen, M.H.H.; Veninga, E.P.; Tijdink, M.W.W.J.; Meijerink, M.G.H.


    The application of numerical techniques for the design of a low cost pressure sensor is described. The numerical techniques assist in addressing issues related to the thermo-mechanical performance of the sensor. This comprises the selection of the materials and dimensions used for the sensor itself

  14. Low-cost mobile air pollution monitoring in urban environments: a pilot study in Lubbock, Texas. (United States)

    McKercher, Grant R; Vanos, Jennifer K


    The complex nature of air pollution in urban areas prevents traditional monitoring techniques from obtaining measurements representative of true human exposure. The current study assessed the capability of low-cost mobile monitors to acquire useful data in a city without a monitoring network in place (Lubbock, Texas) using a bicycle platform. The monitoring campaign resulted in 30 days of data along a 13.4 km fixed concentric route. Due to high sensitivities to airflow, the apparent wind velocity was accounted for throughout the route. The data were also normalized into percentiles in order to visualize spatial patterns. The highest estimated pollution levels were located near frequently busy intersections and roads; however, sensor issues resulted in lower confidence. Additional research is needed concerning the appropriate use of low-cost metal oxide sensors for citizen science applications, as measurements can be misleading if the user is unaware of sensors specifications. The simultaneous use of several low-cost mobile platforms, rather than a single platform, as well as the use of high-end cases, are recommended to create a more robust spatial analysis. The issues addressed from this research are important to understand for accurate and beneficial application of low-cost gaseous monitors for citizen science.

  15. Instruments and Methods: A Low-Cost Glacier-Mapping System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik Lintz; Reeh, Niels; Forsberg, René


    An old portable 60 MHz radar has been upgraded with a new digital data-processing and acquisition system and a new antenna construction enabling a fast and low-cost installation on a Twin Otter aircraft. Augmented by a laser altimeter and kinematic global positioning system (GPS), the system has ...

  16. Keep on Blockin' in the Free World: Personal Access Control for Low-Cost RFID Tags

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rieback, M.R.; Crispo, B.; Tanenbaum, A.S.


    This paper introduces an off-tag RFID access control mechanism called "Selective RFID Jamming". Selective RFID Jamming protects low-cost RFID tags by enforcing access control on their behalf, in a similar manner to the RFID Blocker Tag. However, Selective RFID Jamming is novel because it uses an

  17. Low-Cost Undergraduate Control Systems Experiments Using Microcontroller-Based Control of a DC Motor (United States)

    Gunasekaran, M.; Potluri, R.


    This paper presents low-cost experiments for a control systems laboratory module that is worth one and a third credits. The experiments are organized around the microcontroller-based control of a permanent magnet dc motor. The experimental setups were built in-house. Except for the operating system, the software used is primarily freeware or free…

  18. Low-Cost Air Quality Monitoring Tools: From Research to Practice (A Workshop Summary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea L. Clements


    Full Text Available In May 2017, a two-day workshop was held in Los Angeles (California, U.S.A. to gather practitioners who work with low-cost sensors used to make air quality measurements. The community of practice included individuals from academia, industry, non-profit groups, community-based organizations, and regulatory agencies. The group gathered to share knowledge developed from a variety of pilot projects in hopes of advancing the collective knowledge about how best to use low-cost air quality sensors. Panel discussion topics included: (1 best practices for deployment and calibration of low-cost sensor systems, (2 data standardization efforts and database design, (3 advances in sensor calibration, data management, and data analysis and visualization, and (4 lessons learned from research/community partnerships to encourage purposeful use of sensors and create change/action. Panel discussions summarized knowledge advances and project successes while also highlighting the questions, unresolved issues, and technological limitations that still remain within the low-cost air quality sensor arena.

  19. Low cost sensors: Field evaluations and multi-sensor approaches for emissions factors (United States)

    The development, and application of low cost sensors to measure both particulate and gas-phase air pollutants is poised to explode over the next several years. The need for the sensors is driven by poor air quality experienced in inhabited regions throughout the world, in both de...

  20. Measuring PM and related air pollutants using low-cost sensors (United States)

    Emerging air quality sensors may play a key role in better characterizing levels of air pollution in a variety of settings There are a wide range of low-cost (sensors on the market, but few have been characterized. If accurate, this new generation of inexpensive sens...

  1. Low-Cost Air Quality Monitoring Tools: From Research to Practice (A Workshop Summary) (United States)

    In May 2017, a two-day workshop was held in Los Angeles (California, U.S.A.) to gather practitioners who work with low-cost sensors used to make air quality measurements. The community of practice included individuals from academia, industry, non-profit groups, community-based or...

  2. A four-filter method for outsourcing to low-cost countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamann, D.J.F.; van Nieulande, V.


    Many companies face the challenge of outsourcing to low-cost countries. Still, many managers seem to be uncertain about (1) which inputs should be selected for this exercise; (2) which countries are preferred; and (3) whether to deal directly with suppliers or through a local distributor or agent.

  3. Increasing Enrollment in Voc-Tech Programs: Eight Low-Cost Steps. (United States)

    Palmer, David


    Offers low-cost tips for marketing vocational-technical programs, indicating that the biggest investment is time. Includes a worksheet for ensuring that voc-tech programs are teaching the skills local employers want. Steps include interviewing 10 employers, surveying students, identifying/analyzing competitors, aligning programs, implementing…

  4. An Open-Source, Low-Cost Robot for Performing Reactive Liquid Handling Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nejatimoharrami, Farzad; Faina, Andres; Støy, Kasper

    We have developed a low-cost, open source robot to automate reactive liquid handling tasks. Specifically, the robot, called EvoBot, targets reactive manipulation of motile droplets, a task prevalent in artificial chemical life research. We address hardware design and software implementation of our...

  5. A Low-Cost Liquid-Chromatography System Using a Spectronic 20-Based Detector. (United States)

    Jezorek, John R.; And Others


    Describes the design and evaluation of a Spectronic 20-based detector as well as a simple system for postcolumn derivatization useful for metal-ion chromatographic detection. Both detection and derivatization can be performed in the ultra-violet (UV) mode using a low-cost UV-visible spectrophotometer and UV-region derivatization reagents. (JN)

  6. An effective and low-cost method for DNA extraction from herbal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rhubarb is an important traditional Chinese herbal drug with high secondary metabolites that interfere with DNA extraction procedures and downstream applications, such as DNA restriction and amplification. An effective and low-cost protocol for isolating genomic DNA from root of Rheum tanguticum is described in this ...

  7. Comparison of low cost 3D structured light scanners for face modeling. (United States)

    Bakirman, Tolga; Gumusay, Mustafa Umit; Reis, Hatice Catal; Selbesoglu, Mahmut Oguz; Yosmaoglu, Serra; Yaras, Mehmet Cem; Seker, Dursun Zafer; Bayram, Bulent


    This study aims to compare three different structured light scanner systems to generate accurate 3D human face models. Among these systems, the most dense and expensive one was denoted as the reference and the other two that were low cost and low resolution were compared according to the reference system. One female face and one male face were scanned with three light scanner systems. Point-cloud filtering, mesh generation, and hole-filling steps were carried out using a trial version of commercial software; moreover, the data evaluation process was realized using CloudCompare open-source software. Various filtering and mesh smoothing levels were applied on reference data to compare with other low-cost systems. Thus, the optimum reduction level of reference data was evaluated to continue further processes. The outcome of the presented study shows that low-cost structured light scanners have a great potential for 3D object modeling, including the human face. A considerable cheap structured light system has been used due to its capacity to obtain spatial and morphological information in the case study of 3D human face modeling. This study also discusses the benefits and accuracy of low-cost structured light systems.

  8. Investigation of a Low Cost Sensor-Based Leak Detection System for Fence Line Applications (United States)

    With recent technological advances, low-cost time-resolved sensors may become effective tools to support time-integrated passive sampling strategies by helping to decipher origin of emissions in real-time. As part of the Petroleum Refinery Risk and Technology Review, New Source P...

  9. Investigation of Low Cost Sensor-Based Leak Detection System for Fence Line Applications (United States)

    With recent technological advances, low-cost time-resolved sensors may become effective tools to support time-integrated passive sampling strategies by helping to decipher origin of emissions in real-time. As part of the Petroleum Refinery Risk and Technology Review, New Source ...

  10. A low-cost 2D fluorescence detection system for mm sized beads on-chip

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Segerink, Loes Irene; Koster, Maarten J.; Sprenkels, A.J.; van den Berg, Albert


    In this paper we describe a compact fluorescence detection system for on-chip analysis of beads, comprising a low-cost optical HD-DVD pickup. The complete system consists of a fluorescence detection unit, a control unit and a microfluidic chip containing microchannels and optical markers. With these

  11. Making a Low Cost Candy Floss Kit Gets Students Excited about Learning Physics (United States)

    Amir, Nazir; Subramaniam, R.


    An activity to excite kinaesthetically inclined students about learning physics is described in this article. Using only commonly available materials, a low cost candy floss kit is fabricated by students. A number of physics concepts are embedded contextually in the activity so that students get to learn these concepts in a real world setting…

  12. A low-cost Raman spectrometer design used to study Raman ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Abstract. The paper discusses the design of a low cost Raman spectrometer. Single- walled nanotubes (SWNT) have been studied to demonstrate the reach of such a system. We observe both the radial-breathing mode (RBM) and the tangential mode from the SWNT. The tube diameters of the SWNT used in these ...

  13. Adsorption Studies of Heavy Metals by Low-Cost Adsorbents | Okoli ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, removal of toxic metals Cr(VI) from artificially contaminated water has been investigated with the aim of detoxifying industrial effluents before their safe disposal onto land or into the river. Two low-cost natural adsorbents, Palm Kernel fiber and Coconut husks, were used to remove Cr(VI) ion from synthesized ...

  14. Sound source localization using a low-cost wireless sensor network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, van H. (Henk); Salomons, E.L. (Etto); Teeuw, W.B. (Wouter)


    In the GoGreen project an intelligent home that is able to identify inhabitants and events that take place is created. The location of sounds that are being produced is an important feature for the context awareness of this system. A a wireless solution that uses low-cost sensor nodes and

  15. Statistical characteristics of L1 carrier phase observations from four low-cost GPS receivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cederholm, Jens Peter


    Statistical properties of L1 carrier phase observations from four low-cost GPS receivers are investigated through a case study. The observations are collected on a zero baseline with a frequency of 1 Hz and processed with a double difference model. The carrier phase residuals from an ambiguity fi...

  16. Making Markets for Low-Cost Schooling: The Devices and Investments behind Bridge International Academies (United States)

    Riep, Curtis B.


    This paper explores the market-making devices behind Bridge International Academies: a for-profit education company aiming to school millions of nursery and primary aged-students living on less than $2 per day. A wide variety of devices are utilised by Bridge International Academies to construct mass markets for low-cost schooling, including GPS…

  17. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using a biosurfactant produced in low-cost medium as stabilizing agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles B.B. Farias


    Conclusions: This process provided a simpler route for nanoparticle synthesis compared to existing systems using whole organisms or partially purified biological extracts, showing that the low-cost biosurfactant can be used for nanoparticle synthesis as a non-toxic and biodegradable stabilizing agent.

  18. Adaptive UAV Attitude Estimation Employing Unscented Kalman Filter, FOAM and Low-Cost MEMS Sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia de Marina Peinado, Hector; Espinosa, Felipe; Santos, Carlos

    Navigation employing low cost MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) sensors in Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) is an uprising challenge. One important part of this navigation is the right estimation of the attitude angles. Most of the existent algorithms handle the sensor readings in a fixed way,

  19. Low-cost domestic water filter: The case for a process-based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Low-cost domestic water filter: The case for a process-based approach for the development of a rural technology product. ... Since the project aims at technology transfer to the rural poor for generating rural livelihoods, appropriate financial models and the general sustainability issues for such an activity are briefly discussed ...

  20. Digital Image Quantitative Evaluations for Low Cost Film Digitizers Height Determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khairul Anuar Mohd Salleh; Arshad Yassin; Ahmad Nasir Yusof; Noorhazleena Azaman


    Non Destructive Testing (NDT) technology contributes significant improvement to the quality of industrial products, and the integrity of equipment and plants. Introduction of powerful computers and reliable imaging technology has had significant impact on the traditional nuclear based NDT technology. Demand for faster, reliable, low cost, and flexible technology is rapidly increased. With the growing demand for more efficient digital archiving, digital image analysis, and reporting results with a low cost technology, one cannot deny the importance of having another cheaper solution. This project will apply fundamental principle of image digitization to be used in building up a low cost film digitization solution. The height of the film digitization was carefully determined by examining each digital images produced. Three (3) repetitive quantitative evaluations (Modulation Transfer Function [MTF], Characteristic Transfer Curve [CTC], and Contrast to Noise Ratio [CNR]) were performed at different condition to assist with the determination of the low cost film digitizers height. All 3 evaluations were successfully applied and the most appropriate height was successfully determined. (author)