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Sample records for alternative genetic control

  1. Genetic control of the alternative pathway of complement in humans and age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecker, Laura A; Edwards, Albert O; Ryu, Euijung; Tosakulwong, Nirubol; Baratz, Keith H; Brown, William L; Charbel Issa, Peter; Scholl, Hendrik P; Pollok-Kopp, Beatrix; Schmid-Kubista, Katharina E; Bailey, Kent R; Oppermann, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Activation of the alternative pathway of complement is implicated in common neurodegenerative diseases including age-related macular degeneration (AMD). We explored the impact of common variation in genes encoding proteins of the alternative pathway on complement activation in human blood and in AMD. Genetic variation across the genes encoding complement factor H (CFH), factor B (CFB) and component 3 (C3) was determined. The influence of common haplotypes defining transcriptional and translational units on complement activation in blood was determined in a quantitative genomic association study. Individual haplotypes in CFH and CFB were associated with distinct and novel effects on plasma levels of precursors, regulators and activation products of the alternative pathway of complement in human blood. Further, genetic variation in CFH thought to influence cell surface regulation of complement did not alter plasma complement levels in human blood. Plasma markers of chronic activation (split-products Ba and C3d) and an activating enzyme (factor D) were elevated in AMD subjects. Most of the elevation in AMD was accounted for by the genetic variation controlling complement activation in human blood. Activation of the alternative pathway of complement in blood is under genetic control and increases with age. The genetic variation associated with increased activation of complement in human blood also increased the risk of AMD. Our data are consistent with a disease model in which genetic variation in the complement system increases the risk of AMD by a combination of systemic complement activation and abnormal regulation of complement activation in local tissues.

  2. An alternative experimental case-control design for genetic association studies on bovine mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biffani, S; Del Corvo, M; Capoferri, R; Pedretti, A; Luini, M; Williams, J L; Pagnacco, G; Minvielle, F; Minozzi, G

    2017-04-01

    The possibility of using genetic control strategies to increase disease resistance to infectious diseases relies on the identification of markers to include in the breeding plans. Possible incomplete exposure of mastitis-free (control) animals, however, is a major issue to find relevant markers in genetic association studies for infectious diseases. Usually, designs based on elite dairy sires are used in association studies, but an epidemiological case-control strategy, based on cows repeatedly field-tested could be an alternative for disease traits. To test this hypothesis, genetic association results obtained in the present work from a cohort of Italian Holstein cows tested for mastitis over time were compared with those from a previous genome-wide scan on Italian Holstein sires genotyped with 50k single nucleotide polymorphisms for de-regressed estimated breeding values for somatic cell counts (SCCs) on Bos taurus autosome (BTA6) and BTA14. A total of 1121 cows were selected for the case-control approach (cases=550, controls=571), on a combination of herd level of SCC incidence and of within herd individual level of SCC. The association study was conducted on nine previously identified markers, six on BTA6 and four on BTA14, using the R statistical environment with the 'qtscore' function of the GenABEL package, on high/low adjusted linear score as a binomial trait. The results obtained in the cow cohort selected on epidemiological information were in agreement with those obtained from the previous sire genome-wide association study (GWAS). Six out of the nine markers showed significant association, four on BTA14 (rs109146371, rs109234250, rs109421300, rs109162116) and two on BTA6 (rs110527224 and rs42766480). Most importantly, using mastitis as a case study, the current work further validated the alternative use of historical field disease data in case-control designs for genetic analysis of infectious diseases in livestock.

  3. Simulation of alternative genetic control systems for Aedes aegypti in outdoor cages and with a computer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, C.F.; Lorimer, N.; Rai, K.S.; Suguna, S.G.; Uppal, D.K.; Kazmi, S.J.; Hallinan, E.; Dietz, K.

    1976-06-01

    Cycling populations of A. aegypti of wild origin were established in outdoor cages. Releases were then made for 32 to 43 days of either males carrying chromosome translocations cr males of the sex ratio distorter type. The translocation caused a maximum of 50% sterility, but this declined rapidly after termination of releases. The distorter males depressed the proportion of females among the pupae produced in the cage to a minimum of 35% and the distortion of sex ratio persisted for 13 weeks following termination of releases. It was possible to simulate the effects of the releases with a computer. Simulations were aslo made of standard release schedules of three types of genetic material. A strain carrying both sex ratio distortion and a translocation gave the most effective population suppression.

  4. Natural genetic and induced plant resistance, as a control strategy to plant-parasitic nematodes alternative to pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinari, Sergio

    2011-03-01

    Plant-parasitic nematodes are pests of a wide range of economically important crops, causing severe losses to agriculture. Natural genetic resistance of plants is expected to be a valid solution of the many problems nematodes cause all over the world. Progress in resistance applications is particularly important for the less-developed countries of tropical and subtropical regions, since use of resistant cultivars may be the only possible and economically feasible control strategy in those farming systems. Resistance is being considered of particular importance also in modern high-input production systems of developed countries, as the customary reliance on chemical nematicides has been restricted or has come to an end. This review briefly describes the genetic bases of resistance to nematodes in plants and focuses on the chances and problems of its exploitation as a key element in an integrated management program. Much space is dedicated to the major problem of resistance durability, in that the intensive use of resistant cultivars is likely to increasingly induce the selection of virulent populations able to "break" the resistance. Protocols of pest-host suitability are described, as bioassays are being used to evaluate local nematode populations in their potential to be selected on resistant germplasm and endanger resistant crops. The recent progress in using robust and durable resistances against nematodes as an efficient method for growers in vegetable cropping systems is reported, as well as the possible use of chemicals that do not show any unfavorable impact on environment, to induce in plants resistance against plant-parasitic nematodes.

  5. Global Genetic Robustness of the Alternative Splicing Machinery in Caenorhabditis elegans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Yang; Breitling, Rainer; Snoek, L. Basten; van der Velde, K. Joeri; Swertz, Morris A.; Riksen, Joost; Jansen, Ritsert C.; Kammenga, Jan E.; Borevitz, J.

    2010-01-01

    Alternative splicing is considered a major mechanism for creating multicellular diversity from a limited repertoire of genes. Here, we performed the first study of genetic variation controlling alternative splicing patterns by comprehensively identifying quantitative trait loci affecting the differe

  6. Acceptability of genetically modified cheese presented as real product alternative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lähteenmäki, Liisa; Grunert, Klaus G.; Ueland, Øydis

    2002-01-01

    alternatives. Consumers in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden (n=738) assessed two cheeses: one was labelled as genetically modified (preferred in an earlier product test) and the other as conventional (neutral in an ealier product test). A smaller control group received two cheeses with blind codes......European consumers, in general, have negative attitudes towards the use of gene technology in food production. The objective of this study was to examine whether taste and health benefits influence the acceptability of genetically modified (gm) products when they are presented as real product...

  7. Genetics Home Reference: alternating hemiplegia of childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions alternating hemiplegia of childhood alternating hemiplegia of childhood Enable Javascript to view the expand/ ... Download PDF Open All Close All Description Alternating hemiplegia of childhood is a neurological condition characterized by ...

  8. Acceptability of genetically modified cheese presented as real product alternative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lähteenmäki, Liisa; Grunert, Klaus G.; Ueland, Øydis

    2002-01-01

    alternatives. Consumers in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden (n=738) assessed two cheeses: one was labelled as genetically modified (preferred in an earlier product test) and the other as conventional (neutral in an ealier product test). A smaller control group received two cheeses with blind codes....... Labelling decreased consumers' intentions to buy the originally preferred gm-labelled cheese, but still the intentions were at the same level with the conventionally labelled buy gm cheese could best be explained by respondents' attitudes towards gene technology and perceived taste benefits. General health...... interest was also a reinforcer of intentions for gm cheese with reduced fat content....

  9. Alternative Living Kidney Donation Programs Boost Genetically Unrelated Donation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalie A. Poldervaart

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Donor-recipient ABO and/or HLA incompatibility used to lead to donor decline. Development of alternative transplantation programs enabled transplantation of incompatible couples. How did that influence couple characteristics? Between 2000 and 2014, 1232 living donor transplantations have been performed. In conventional and ABO-incompatible transplantation the willing donor becomes an actual donor for the intended recipient. In kidney-exchange and domino-donation the donor donates indirectly to the intended recipient. The relationship between the donor and intended recipient was studied. There were 935 conventional and 297 alternative program transplantations. There were 66 ABO-incompatible, 68 domino-paired, 62 kidney-exchange, and 104 altruistic donor transplantations. Waiting list recipients (n=101 were excluded as they did not bring a living donor. 1131 couples remained of whom 196 participated in alternative programs. Genetically unrelated donors (486 were primarily partners. Genetically related donors (645 were siblings, parents, children, and others. Compared to genetically related couples, almost three times as many genetically unrelated couples were incompatible and participated in alternative programs (P<0.001. 62% of couples were genetically related in the conventional donation program versus 32% in alternative programs (P<0.001. Patient and graft survival were not significantly different between recipient programs. Alternative donation programs increase the number of transplantations by enabling genetically unrelated donors to donate.

  10. Alternative Assessment of Glycemic Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greven, W.L.

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease associated with development of microvascular and macrovascular complications. Optimal glycemic control, usually measured by HbA1c is the cornerstone for prevention of complications. In this thesis glycemic variability (which resembles actual glucose levels, gl

  11. AMD and the alternative complement pathway: genetics and functional implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Perciliz L; Bowes Rickman, Catherine; Katsanis, Nicholas

    2016-06-21

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is an ocular neurodegenerative disorder and is the leading cause of legal blindness in Western societies, with a prevalence of up to 8 % over the age of 60, which continues to increase with age. AMD is characterized by the progressive breakdown of the macula (the central region of the retina), resulting in the loss of central vision including visual acuity. While its molecular etiology remains unclear, advances in genetics and genomics have illuminated the genetic architecture of the disease and have generated attractive pathomechanistic hypotheses. Here, we review the genetic architecture of AMD, considering the contribution of both common and rare alleles to susceptibility, and we explore the possible mechanistic links between photoreceptor degeneration and the alternative complement pathway, a cascade that has emerged as the most potent genetic driver of this disorder.

  12. Genetic Algorithm based Decentralized PI Type Controller: Load Frequency Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Atul; Ray, Goshaidas; Sharma, Arun Kumar

    2016-12-01

    This work presents a design of decentralized PI type Linear Quadratic (LQ) controller based on genetic algorithm (GA). The proposed design technique allows considerable flexibility in defining the control objectives and it does not consider any knowledge of the system matrices and moreover it avoids the solution of algebraic Riccati equation. To illustrate the results of this work, a load-frequency control problem is considered. Simulation results reveal that the proposed scheme based on GA is an alternative and attractive approach to solve load-frequency control problem from both performance and design point of views.

  13. Genetic Algorithm Based Production Planning for Alternative Process Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Fa-ping; SUN Hou-fang; SHAHID I. Butt

    2009-01-01

    Production planning under flexible job shop environment is studied. A mathematic model is formulated to help improve alternative process production. This model, in which genetic algorithm is used, is expected to result in better production planning, hence towards the aim of minimizing production cost under the constraints of delivery time and other scheduling conditions. By means of this algorithm, all planning schemes which could meet all requirements of the constraints within the whole solution space are exhaustively searched so as to find the optimal one. Also, a case study is given in the end to support and validate this model. Our results show that genetic algorithm is capable of locating feasible process routes to reduce production cost for certain tasks.

  14. Alternative genetic code for amino acids and transfer RNA revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamashima, Kiyofumi; Kanai, Akio

    2013-06-01

    The genetic code is highly conserved among all organisms and its evolution is thought to be strictly limited. However, an increasing number of studies have reported non-standard codes in prokaryotic and eukaryotic genomes. Most of these deviations from the standard code are attributable to tRNA changes relating to, for example, codon/anticodon base pairing and tRNA/aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase recognition. In this review, we focus on tRNA, a key molecule in the translation of the genetic code, and summarize the most recently published information on the evolutionary divergence of the tRNAs. Surprisingly, although higher eukaryotes, such as the nematode (worm), utilize the standard genetic code, newly identified nematode-specific tRNAs (nev-tRNAs) translate nucleotides in a manner that transgresses the code. Furthermore, a variety of additional functions of tRNAs, beyond their translation of the genetic code, have emerged rapidly. We also review these intriguing new aspects of tRNA, which have potential impacts on translational control, RNA silencing, antibiotic resistance, RNA biosynthesis, and transcriptional regulation.

  15. Identification of common genetic variation that modulates alternative splicing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Hull

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Alternative splicing of genes is an efficient means of generating variation in protein function. Several disease states have been associated with rare genetic variants that affect splicing patterns. Conversely, splicing efficiency of some genes is known to vary between individuals without apparent ill effects. What is not clear is whether commonly observed phenotypic variation in splicing patterns, and hence potential variation in protein function, is to a significant extent determined by naturally occurring DNA sequence variation and in particular by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. In this study, we surveyed the splicing patterns of 250 exons in 22 individuals who had been previously genotyped by the International HapMap Project. We identified 70 simple cassette exon alternative splicing events in our experimental system; for six of these, we detected consistent differences in splicing pattern between individuals, with a highly significant association between splice phenotype and neighbouring SNPs. Remarkably, for five out of six of these events, the strongest correlation was found with the SNP closest to the intron-exon boundary, although the distance between these SNPs and the intron-exon boundary ranged from 2 bp to greater than 1,000 bp. Two of these SNPs were further investigated using a minigene splicing system, and in each case the SNPs were found to exert cis-acting effects on exon splicing efficiency in vitro. The functional consequences of these SNPs could not be predicted using bioinformatic algorithms. Our findings suggest that phenotypic variation in splicing patterns is determined by the presence of SNPs within flanking introns or exons. Effects on splicing may represent an important mechanism by which SNPs influence gene function.

  16. 75 FR 82061 - Lake Champlain Sea Lamprey Control Alternatives Workgroup

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ... research initiatives that may enhance alternative sea lamprey control techniques. The meeting is open to...-1335-0000-J3] Lake Champlain Sea Lamprey Control Alternatives Workgroup AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife...), announce a meeting of the Lake Champlain Sea Lamprey Control Alternatives Workgroup (Workgroup)....

  17. 46 CFR 62.25-10 - Manual alternate control systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Manual alternate control systems. 62.25-10 Section 62.25... AUTOMATION General Requirements for All Automated Vital Systems § 62.25-10 Manual alternate control systems. (a) Manual alternate control systems must— (1) Be operable in an emergency and after a remote...

  18. 7 CFR 58.141 - Alternate quality control program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Alternate quality control program. 58.141 Section 58... Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Milk § 58.141 Alternate quality control program. When a plant has in operation an acceptable quality program, at the producer level, which is approved by...

  19. Genetic Control of Potassium Channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Ahmad S; Wilde, Arthur A M

    2016-06-01

    Approximately 80 genes in the human genome code for pore-forming subunits of potassium (K(+)) channels. Rare variants (mutations) in K(+) channel-encoding genes may cause heritable arrhythmia syndromes. Not all rare variants in K(+) channel-encoding genes are necessarily disease-causing mutations. Common variants in K(+) channel-encoding genes are increasingly recognized as modifiers of phenotype in heritable arrhythmia syndromes and in the general population. Although difficult, distinguishing pathogenic variants from benign variants is of utmost importance to avoid false designations of genetic variants as disease-causing mutations.

  20. Micropropagation and cryopreservation: alternative techniques for conserving plant genetic resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic resources of vegetatively propagated crops are maintained as growing plants and are often at risk of loss from disease, and environmental hazards. Micropropagation and cryopreservation are used for backup of the temperate fruit, nut and specialty crops held at the National Clonal Germplasm R...

  1. Hybrid Genetic Algorithms with Fuzzy Logic Controller

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, a new implementation of genetic algorithms (GAs) is developed for the machine scheduling problem, which is abundant among the modern manufacturing systems. The performance measure of early and tardy completion of jobs is very natural as one's aim, which is usually to minimize simultaneously both earliness and tardiness of all jobs. As the problem is NP-hard and no effective algorithms exist, we propose a hybrid genetic algorithms approach to deal with it. We adjust the crossover and mutation probabilities by fuzzy logic controller whereas the hybrid genetic algorithm does not require preliminary experiments to determine probabilities for genetic operators. The experimental results show the effectiveness of the GAs method proposed in the paper.``

  2. Modeling resistance to genetic control of insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alphey, Nina; Bonsall, Michael B; Alphey, Luke

    2011-02-07

    The sterile insect technique is an area-wide pest control method that reduces pest populations by releasing mass-reared sterile insects which compete for mates with wild insects. Modern molecular tools have created possibilities for improving and extending the sterile insect technique. As with any new insect control method, questions arise about potential resistance. Genetic RIDL(®)(1) (Release of Insects carrying a Dominant Lethal) technology is a proposed modification of the technique, releasing insects that are homozygous for a repressible dominant lethal genetic construct rather than being sterilized by irradiation. Hypothetical resistance to the lethal mechanism is a potential threat to RIDL strategies' effectiveness. Using population genetic and population dynamic models, we assess the circumstances under which monogenic biochemically based resistance could have a significant impact on the effectiveness of releases for population control. We assume that released insects would be homozygous susceptible to the lethal genetic construct and therefore releases would have a built-in element of resistance dilution. We find that this effect could prevent or limit the spread of resistance to RIDL constructs; the outcomes are subject to competing selective forces deriving from the fitness properties of resistance and the release ratio. Resistance that is spreading and capable of having a significant detrimental impact on population reduction is identifiable, signaling in advance a need for mitigating action.

  3. Genetic control of leaf curl in maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entringer, G C; Guedes, F L; Oliveira, A A; Nascimento, J P; Souza, J C

    2014-03-17

    Among the many implications of climatic change on agriculture, drought is expected to continue to have a major impact on agribusinesses. Leaf curling is an anatomical characteristic that might be potentially used to enhance plant tolerance to water deficit. Hence, we aimed to study the genetic control of leaf curl in maize. From 2 contrasting inbred lines for the trait, generations F1, F2, and the backcrosses were obtained. All of these generations were evaluated in a randomized block design with 2 replicates. Leaf curl samples were collected from 3 leaves above the first ear at the tasseling stage, and quantified by dividing the width of the leaf blade with natural curling against its extended width. The mean and variance components were estimated by the weighted least square method. It was found that the trait studied has predominance of the additive effects, with genetic control being attributed to few genes that favor selection and exhibit minimal influence from the environment.

  4. Genetic architecture of threshold reaction norms for male alternative reproductive tactics in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepais, Olivier; Manicki, Aurélie; Glise, Stéphane; Buoro, Mathieu; Bardonnet, Agnès

    2017-01-01

    Alternative mating tactics have important ecological and evolutionary implications and are determined by complex interactions between environmental and genetic factors. Here, we study the genetic effect and architecture of the variability in reproductive tactics among Atlantic salmon males which can either mature sexually early in life in freshwater or more commonly only after completing a migration at sea. We applied the latent environmental threshold model (LETM), which provides a conceptual framework linking individual status to a threshold controlling the decision to develop alternative traits, in an innovative experimental design using a semi-natural river which allowed for ecologically relevant phenotypic expression. Early male parr maturation rates varied greatly across families (10 to 93%) which translated into 90% [64–100%] of the phenotypic variation explained by genetic variation. Three significant QTLs were found for the maturation status, however only one collocated with a highly significant QTL explaining 20.6% of the variability of the maturation threshold located on chromosome 25 and encompassing a locus previously shown to be linked to sea age at maturity in anadromous Atlantic salmon. These results provide new empirical illustration of the relevance of the LETM for a better understanding of alternative mating tactics evolution in natural populations. PMID:28281522

  5. Genetic control of the innate immune response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sweet Matthew

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Susceptibility to infectious diseases is directed, in part, by the interaction between the invading pathogen and host macrophages. This study examines the influence of genetic background on host-pathogen interactions, by assessing the transcriptional responses of macrophages from five inbred mouse strains to lipopolysaccharide (LPS, a major determinant of responses to gram-negative microorganisms. Results The mouse strains examined varied greatly in the number, amplitude and rate of induction of genes expressed in response to LPS. The response was attenuated in the C3H/HeJlpsd strain, which has a mutation in the LPS receptor Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4. Variation between mouse strains allowed clustering into early (C57Bl/6J and DBA/2J and delayed (BALB/c and C3H/ARC transcriptional phenotypes. There was no clear correlation between gene induction patterns and variation at the Bcg locus (Slc11A1 or propensity to bias Th1 versus Th2 T cell activation responses. Conclusion Macrophages from each strain responded to LPS with unique gene expression profiles. The variation apparent between genetic backgrounds provides insights into the breadth of possible inflammatory responses, and paradoxically, this divergence was used to identify a common transcriptional program that responds to TLR4 signalling, irrespective of genetic background. Our data indicates that many additional genetic loci control the nature and the extent of transcriptional responses promoted by a single pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP, such as LPS.

  6. Genetic control of astrocyte function in neural circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Maria Jahn

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available During the last two decades numerous genetic approaches affecting cell function in vivo have been developed. Current state-of-the-art technology permits the selective switching of gene function in distinct cell populations within the complex organization of a given tissue parenchyma. The tamoxifen-inducible Cre/loxP gene recombination and the doxycycline-dependent modulation of gene expression are probably the most popular genetic paradigms.Here, we will review applications of these two strategies while focussing on the interactions of astrocytes and neurons in the central nervous system (CNS and their impact for the whole organism. Abolishing glial sensing of neuronal activity by selective deletion of glial transmitter receptors demonstrated the impact of astrocytes for higher cognitive functions such as learning and memory, or the more basic body control of muscle coordination. Interestingly, also interfering with glial output, i.e. the release of gliotransmitters can drastically change animal’s physiology like sleeping behavior. Furthermore, such genetic approaches have also been used to restore astrocyte function. In these studies two alternatives were employed to achieve proper genetic targeting of astrocytes: transgenes using the promoter of the human glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP or homologous recombination into the glutamate-aspartate transporter (GLAST locus. We will highlight their specific properties that could be relevant for their use.

  7. Advances in developing alternative treatments for postharvest pest control

    Science.gov (United States)

    USDA-ARS made two significant advances in the last 10 years in the development of alternative treatments for postharvest pest control: oxygenated phosphine fumigation and nitric oxide fumigation. Oxygenated phosphine is phosphine fumigation in an oxygen enriched atmosphere. It is significantly more...

  8. Alternative Observers for SI Engine Air/Fuel Ratio Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Elbert; Poulsen, Jannik; Olsen, Mads Bruun

    1996-01-01

    sensors other than a MAP sensor. In this paper it is shown that it is possible to construct a family of alternative nonlinear observers which “naturally” allow the use of any given air mass flow related sensor or a combination of them for A/F ratio control. This new family of observers provides the SI...

  9. Genetic and environmental control of salmonella invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altier, Craig

    2005-02-01

    An early step in the pathogenesis of non-typhoidal Salmonella species is the ability to penetrate the intestinal epithelial monolayer. This process of cell invasion requires the production and transport of secreted effector proteins by a type III secretion apparatus encoded in Salmonella pathogenicity island I (SPI-1). The control of invasion involves a number of genetic regulators and environmental stimuli in complex relationships. SPI-1 itself encodes several transcriptional regulators (HilA, HilD, HilC, and InvF) with overlapping sets of target genes. These regulators are, in turn, controlled by both positive and regulators outside SPI-1, including the two-component regulators BarA/SirA and PhoP/Q, and the csr post-transcriptional control system. Additionally, several environmental conditions are known to regulate invasion, including pH, osmolarity, oxygen tension, bile, Mg2+ concentration, and short chain fatty acids. This review will discuss the current understanding of invasion control, with emphasis on the interaction of environmental factors with genetic regulators that leads to productive infection.

  10. Alternatives to anthelmintics for the control of nematodes in livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stear, M J; Doligalska, M; Donskow-Schmelter, K

    2007-02-01

    Efficient and welfare-friendly livestock production demands the control of nematode infection. Current control measures rely upon anthelmintic treatment but are threatened by the widespread evolution of drug-resistance in parasite populations. Several methods have been advocated to control nematodes without relying on effective anthelmintics. These include grazing management, biological control, nutritional supplementation, vaccination, and genetic approaches. Each method has its advantages and disadvantages. There are several grazing management schemes that can reduce the severity of infection but they are insufficient on their own to control infection. Biological control includes the use of predatory fungi to control nematode populations and the use of pasture species that can reduce the intensity of infection. Fungi can control nematodes but the current requirement for daily feeding means that this approach will be most useful for animals that are handled daily. Feeding supplementary protein can control nematode infection. The method is simple but can be expensive and may not be cost-effective for some marginal enterprises. Genetic approaches include the use of resistant breeds and selective breeding. Some breeds will thrive in conditions that kill animals from other breeds but substitution of resistant breeds is not always feasible. Selective breeding is effective and inexpensive but requires a high level of expertise. The most appropriate method or set of methods to minimize the adverse consequences of nematode infection may vary among farms.

  11. Alternative methods for the control of postharvest citrus diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talibi, I; Boubaker, H; Boudyach, E H; Ait Ben Aoumar, A

    2014-07-01

    The postharvest diseases of citrus fruit cause considerable losses during storage and transportation. These diseases are managed principally by the application of synthetic fungicides. However, the increasing concern for health hazards and environmental pollution due to chemical use has required the development of alternative strategies for the control of postharvest citrus diseases. Management of postharvest diseases using microbial antagonists, natural plant-derived products and Generally Recognized As Safe compounds has been demonstrated to be most suitable to replace the synthetic fungicides, which are either being banned or recommended for limited use. However, application of these alternatives by themselves may not always provide a commercially acceptable level of control of postharvest citrus diseases comparable to that obtained with synthetic fungicides. To provide more effective disease control, a multifaceted approach based on the combination of different postharvest treatments has been adopted. Actually, despite the distinctive features of these alternative methods, several reasons hinder the commercial use of such treatments. Consequently, research should emphasize the development of appropriate tools to effectively implement these alternative methods to commercial citrus production.

  12. DSP based inverter control for alternate energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shireen, Wajiha; Vanapalli, Srinivas [University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204-4022 (United States); Nene, Hrishikesh [Texas Instruments Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    2007-04-15

    This paper presents a DSP based algorithm to control inverters used in interfacing alternate energy systems with the electric utility. Since a constant and ripple free dc bus voltage is not ensured at the output of alternate energy sources, the main aim of the proposed algorithm is to make the output of the inverter immune to the fluctuations in the dc input voltage. In this paper a modified space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM) technique is proposed which will maintain the quality of the ac output of the inverter, regardless of the ripple present at the inverter input. The principle is explained qualitatively and extensive experiments have been carried out to verify and validate the proposed algorithm. A 16-bit fixed-point C2000 family DSP from Texas Instruments was used as the controller to implement the proposed control algorithm. (author)

  13. Laboratory Evolution to Alternating Substrate Environments Yields Distinct Phenotypic and Genetic Adaptive Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandberg, Troy E.; Lloyd, Colton J.; Palsson, Bernhard O.

    2017-01-01

    Adaptive laboratory evolution (ALE) experiments are often designed to maintain a static culturing environment to minimize confounding variables that could influence the adaptive process, but dynamic nutrient conditions occur frequently in natural and bioprocessing settings. To study the nature...... of carbon substrate fitness tradeoffs, we evolved batch cultures of Escherichia coli via serial propagation into tubes alternating between glucose and either xylose, glycerol, or acetate. Genome sequencing of evolved cultures revealed several genetic changes preferentially selected for under dynamic...... to the observed distinct adaptive strategies. This study gives insight into the population dynamics of adaptation in an alternating environment and into the underlying metabolic and genetic mechanisms. Furthermore, ALE-generated optimized strains have phenotypes with potential industrial bioprocessing...

  14. Osmotic shock as alternative method to control Acanthaster planci

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jairo Rivera-Posada; Leigh Owens

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To test six osmotic stressors as alternative methods to control Acanthaster planci (A. planci) outbreaks by exploiting their incapacity to tolerate drastic changes in osmolarity. Finding more effective ways to control A. planci outbreaks is one of the most immediate and effective ways by which to reverse rapid declines in the abundance of live coral cover in the Indo-Pacific. Methods: A total of 10 mL of each of the following chemicals: sodium chloride, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, sodium carbonate, sodium cholate, sodium deoxycholate, urea and mannitol were injected into individual healthy sea stars to examine which chemicals induced disease and death. Results:Four out of six chemicals used in this study induced disease. Sodium chloride, sodium cholate, sodium deoxycholate and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid are capable of inducing death in injected sea stars offering an alternative option to control A. planci outbreaks. Conclusions: Hyperosmotic stress is a viable alternative to control A. planci outbreaks as massive cell death results when acute hypertonicity exceeds a certain level.

  15. Integrated Parasite Management for Livestock - Alternative control methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souvik Paul1

    Full Text Available Internal parasites are considered by some to be one of the most economically important constraints in raising livestock. The growing concern about the resistance of internal parasites to all classes of dewormers has caused people to look for alternatives. As dewormers lose their effectiveness, the livestock community fears increasing economic losses from worms. There is no one thing that can be given or done to replace chemical dewormers. It will take a combination of extremely good management techniques and possibly some alternative therapies. It is not wise to think that one can just stop deworming animals with chemical dewormers. It is something one will need to change gradually, observing and testing animals and soil, in order to monitor the progress. Alternative parasite control is an area that is receiving a lot of interest and attention. Programs and research will continue in the pursuit of parasite control, using alternative and more management-intensive methods. [Veterinary World 2010; 3(9.000: 431-435

  16. Potential and limitations of alternative specimens in doping control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieme, Detlef

    2012-07-01

    Alternative specimens (e.g., hair and saliva) are well established in forensic toxicology and provide significant benefits as noninvasive, inexpensive alternatives to blood with access to improved long-term retrospection. Based on these experiences, the question of potential applications and limitations of alternative specimens in doping control arose. Compounds prohibited at all times (e.g., clenbuterol, β(2) agonists, estrogen-receptor modulators) may be successfully tested and clearly interpreted in alternative specimens. In contrast, prohibition of certain compounds in sport are limited to time ranges (e.g., stimulants are only prohibited in-competition), dosages or administration routes (e.g., systemic uptake of glucocorticosteroids). This cannot be properly differentiated by semiquantitative tests (e.g., hair analyses), but may be distinguished in saliva. Similarly, proof of external administration of endogenous steroids (e.g., testosterone) only seems to be achievable by quantitative analysis of saliva. Moreover, the retrospective monitoring of the relevance of social drugs or upcoming (unapproved) substances represents promising applications of hair tests in doping control.

  17. Polar body biopsy: a viable alternative to preimplantation genetic diagnosis and screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montag, M; van der Ven, K; Rösing, B; van der Ven, H

    2009-01-01

    Polar body diagnosis (PBD) is a diagnostic method for the indirect genetic analysis of oocytes. Polar bodies are by-products of the meiotic cell cycle, which have no influence on further embryo development. The biopsy of polar bodies can be accomplished either by zona drilling or laser drilling within a very short time period. However, the paternal contribution to the genetic constitution of the developing embryo cannot be diagnosed by PBD. The major application of PBD is the detection of maternally derived chromosomal aneuploidies and translocations in oocytes. For these indications, PBD may offer a viable alternative to blastomere biopsy as the embryo's integrity remains unaffected, in contrast to preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) by blastomere biopsy. The rapid pace of developments in the field of molecular diagnostics will also influence the advantages of PBD, and probably allow more general diagnostic applications in the future.

  18. The clinical and molecular genetic features of idiopathic infantile periodic alternating nystagmus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Mervyn G; Crosier, Moira; Lindsay, Susan; Kumar, Anil; Thomas, Shery; Araki, Masasuke; Talbot, Chris J; McLean, Rebecca J; Surendran, Mylvaganam; Taylor, Katie; Leroy, Bart P; Moore, Anthony T; Hunter, David G; Hertle, Richard W; Tarpey, Patrick; Langmann, Andrea; Lindner, Susanne; Brandner, Martina; Gottlob, Irene

    2011-03-01

    Periodic alternating nystagmus consists of involuntary oscillations of the eyes with cyclical changes of nystagmus direction. It can occur during infancy (e.g. idiopathic infantile periodic alternating nystagmus) or later in life. Acquired forms are often associated with cerebellar dysfunction arising due to instability of the optokinetic-vestibular systems. Idiopathic infantile periodic alternating nystagmus can be familial or occur in isolation; however, very little is known about the clinical characteristics, genetic aetiology and neural substrates involved. Five loci (NYS1-5) have been identified for idiopathic infantile nystagmus; three are autosomal (NYS2, NYS3 and NYS4) and two are X-chromosomal (NYS1 and NYS5). We previously identified the FRMD7 gene on chromosome Xq26 (NYS1 locus); mutations of FRMD7 are causative of idiopathic infantile nystagmus influencing neuronal outgrowth and development. It is unclear whether the periodic alternating nystagmus phenotype is linked to NYS1, NYS5 (Xp11.4-p11.3) or a separate locus. From a cohort of 31 X-linked families and 14 singletons (70 patients) with idiopathic infantile nystagmus we identified 10 families and one singleton (21 patients) with periodic alternating nystagmus of which we describe clinical phenotype, genetic aetiology and neural substrates involved. Periodic alternating nystagmus was not detected clinically but only on eye movement recordings. The cycle duration varied from 90 to 280 s. Optokinetic reflex was not detectable horizontally. Mutations of the FRMD7 gene were found in all 10 families and the singleton (including three novel mutations). Periodic alternating nystagmus was predominantly associated with missense mutations within the FERM domain. There was significant sibship clustering of the phenotype although in some families not all affected members had periodic alternating nystagmus. In situ hybridization studies during mid-late human embryonic stages in normal tissue showed restricted

  19. Alternatives for thermal legionella control; Alternatieven thermische legionellabestrijding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Lieshout, M.

    2008-03-15

    One supplier considers his system a breakthrough in legionella control. Another claims decisively that his system provides the only affordable and effective solution. It is clear that manufacturers have their own way of finding alternatives in those cases where thermal control for complex existing installations prove not to be effective. (mk) [Dutch] De ene leverancier noemt zijn systeem een doorbraak in de legionellabestrijding. Een ander beweert met grote stelligheid dat zijn systeem de enige betaalbare en effectieve oplossing is. Duidelijk is dat fabrikanten op hun eigen manier een oplossing zoeken naar alternatieven, daar waar het thermisch beheer voor complexe bestaande installaties niet effectief blijk te zijn.

  20. Real-time control for long ohmic alternate current discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Ivo S., E-mail: ivoc@ipfn.ist.utl.pt; Duarte, Paulo; Fernandes, Horácio; Valcárcel, Daniel F.; Carvalho, Pedro J.; Silva, Carlos; Duarte, André S.; Neto, André; Sousa, Jorge; Batista, António J.N.; Hekkert, Tiago; Carvalho, Bernardo B.; Gomes, Rui B.

    2014-05-15

    Highlights: • 40 Alternate plasma current (AC) semi-cycles without loss of ionization, more than 1 s of operation. • AC discharges automatic control: feedback loops, time-windows control strategy, goal oriented time-windows and exception handling. • Energy deposition and Carbon radiation evolution during the AC discharges. - Abstract: The ISTTOK tokamak has a long tradition on alternate plasma current (AC) discharges, but the old control system was limiting and lacked full system integration. In order to improve the AC discharges performance the ISTTOK fast control system was updated. This control system developed on site based on the Advanced Telecommunications Computing Architecture (ATCA) standard now integrates the information gathered by all the tokamak real-time diagnostics to produce an accurate observation of the plasma parameters. The real-time actuators were also integrated, allowing a Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) control environment with several synchronization strategies available. The control system software was developed in C++ on top of a Linux system with the Multi-threaded Application Real-Time executor (MARTe) Framework to synchronize the real-time code execution under a 100μs control cycle. In addition, to simplify the discharge programming, a visual Human–Machine Interface (HMI) was also developed using the BaseLib2 libraries included in the MARTe Framework. This paper presents the ISTTOK control system and the optimizations that extended the AC current discharges duration to more than 1 s, corresponding to 40 semi-cycles without apparent degradation of the plasma parameters. This upgrade allows ISTTOK to be used as a low-cost material testing facility with long time exposures to nuclear fusion relevant plasmas, comparable (in duration) with medium size tokamaks.

  1. Economic Effects of Introducing Alternative Salmonella Control Strategies in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundström, Kristian; Wahlström, Helene; Ivarsson, Sofie; Sternberg Lewerin, Susanna

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to analyse the economic effects of introducing alternative Salmonella control strategies in Sweden. Current control strategies in Denmark and the Netherlands were used as benchmarks. The true number of human Salmonella cases was estimated by reconstructing the reporting pyramids for the various scenarios. Costs were calculated for expected changes in human morbidity (Salmonella and two of its sequelae), for differences in the control programmes and for changes in cattle morbidity. The net effects (benefits minus costs) were negative in all scenarios (€ −5 to −105 million), implying that it would not be cost-effective to introduce alternative control strategies in Sweden. This result was mainly due to an expected increase in the incidence of Salmonella in humans (6035–57108 reported and unreported new cases/year), with expected additional costs of € 5–55 million. Other increased costs were due to expected higher incidences of sequelae (€ 3–49 million) and a higher cattle morbidity (€ 4–8 million). Benefits in terms of lower control costs amounted to € 4–7 million. PMID:24831797

  2. Alternate service delivery models in cancer genetic counseling: a mini-review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Hudson Buchanan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Demand for cancer genetic counseling has grown rapidly in recent years as germline genomic information has become increasingly incorporated into cancer care and the field has entered the public consciousness through high-profile celebrity publications. Increased demand and existing variability in the availability of trained cancer genetics clinicians place a priority on developing and evaluating alternate service delivery models for genetic counseling. This mini-review summarizes the state of science regarding service delivery models such as telephone counseling, telegenetics and group counseling. Research on comparative effectiveness of these models in traditional individual, in-person genetic counseling has been promising for improving access to care in a manner acceptable to patients. Yet, it has not fully evaluated the short- and long-term patient- and system-level outcomes that will help answer the question of whether these models achieve the same beneficial psychosocial and behavioral outcomes as traditional cancer genetic counseling. We propose a research agenda focused on comparative effectiveness of available service delivery models and how to match models to patients and practice settings. Only through this rigorous research can clinicians and systems find the optimal balance of clinical quality, ready and secure access to care, and financial sustainability. Such research will be integral to achieving the promise of genomic medicine in oncology.

  3. Short Horizon Control Strategies for an Alternating Activated Sludge Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isaacs, Steven Howard

    1996-01-01

    determined. The effects of the strategies on short term nitrogen dynamics are explained in terms of the potential and capacity of denitrification. The relative effectiveness of the strategies are compared and where the strategies would be located in a hierarchical control structure is discussed. Copyright (C......Three control strategies allowing improved operational flexibility of an alternating type activated sludge process are presented in a unified model based framework. The control handles employed are the addition rate of an external carbon source to denitrification, the cycle length......, and the dissolved oxygen level during aerobic periods. All three strategies attempt to satisfy a common control criterion representing optimal performance over the time length of one process cycle (typically I to 3 hours) and are based on models developed from simple mass balances or which have been experimentally...

  4. High prevalence of complementary and alternative medicine use in patients with genetically proven mitochondrial disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franik, Sebastian; Huidekoper, Hidde H; Visser, Gepke; de Vries, Maaike; de Boer, Lonneke; Hermans-Peters, Marion; Rodenburg, Richard; Verhaak, Chris; Vlieger, Arine M; Smeitink, Jan A M; Janssen, Mirian C H; Wortmann, Saskia B

    2015-05-01

    Despite major advances in understanding the pathophysiology of mitochondrial diseases, clinical management of these conditions remains largely supportive, and no effective treatment is available. We therefore assumed that the burden of disease combined with the lack of adequate treatment leaves open a big market for complementary and alternative medicine use. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use and perceived effectiveness of complementary and alternative medicine in children and adults with genetically proven mitochondrial disease. The reported use was surprisingly high, with 88% of children and 91% of adults having used some kind of complementary and alternative medicine in the last 2 years. Also, the mean cost of these treatments was impressive, being 489/year for children and 359/year for adult patients. Over-the-counter remedies (e.g., food supplements, homeopathy) and self-help techniques (e.g., Reiki, yoga) were the most frequently used complementary and alternative therapies in our cohort: 54% of children and 60% of adults reported the various complementary and alternative medicine therapies to be effective. Given the fact that currently no effective treatment exists, further research toward the different therapies is needed, as our study clearly demonstrates that such therapies are highly sought after by affected patients.

  5. Analysis of genetic interaction networks shows that alternatively spliced genes are highly versatile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talavera, David; Sheoran, Ritika; Lovell, Simon C

    2013-01-01

    Alternative splicing has the potential to increase the diversity of the transcriptome and proteome. Where more than one transcript arises from a gene they are often so different that they are quite unlikely to have the same function. However, it remains unclear if alternative splicing generally leads to a gene being involved in multiple biological processes or whether it alters the function within a single process. Knowing that genetic interactions occur between functionally related genes, we have used them as a proxy for functional versatility, and have analysed the sets of genes of two well-characterised model organisms: Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster. Using network analyses we find that few genes are functionally homogenous (only involved in a few functionally-related biological processes). Moreover, there are differences between alternatively spliced genes and genes with a single transcript; specifically, genes with alternatively splicing are, on average, involved in more biological processes. Finally, we suggest that factors other than specific functional classes determine whether a gene is alternatively spliced.

  6. Sec16 alternative splicing dynamically controls COPII transport efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelmi, Ilka; Kanski, Regina; Neumann, Alexander; Herdt, Olga; Hoff, Florian; Jacob, Ralf; Preußner, Marco; Heyd, Florian

    2016-08-05

    The transport of secretory proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi depends on COPII-coated vesicles. While the basic principles of the COPII machinery have been identified, it remains largely unknown how COPII transport is regulated to accommodate tissue- or activation-specific differences in cargo load and identity. Here we show that activation-induced alternative splicing of Sec16 controls adaptation of COPII transport to increased secretory cargo upon T-cell activation. Using splice-site blocking morpholinos and CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome engineering, we show that the number of ER exit sites, COPII dynamics and transport efficiency depend on Sec16 alternative splicing. As the mechanistic basis, we suggest the C-terminal Sec16 domain to be a splicing-controlled protein interaction platform, with individual isoforms showing differential abilities to recruit COPII components. Our work connects the COPII pathway with alternative splicing, adding a new regulatory layer to protein secretion and its adaptation to changing cellular environments.

  7. Fine-scale variation and genetic determinants of alternative splicing across individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmin Coulombe-Huntington

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, thanks to the increasing throughput of new technologies, we have begun to explore the full extent of alternative pre-mRNA splicing (AS in the human transcriptome. This is unveiling a vast layer of complexity in isoform-level expression differences between individuals. We used previously published splicing sensitive microarray data from lymphoblastoid cell lines to conduct an in-depth analysis on splicing efficiency of known and predicted exons. By combining publicly available AS annotation with a novel algorithm designed to search for AS, we show that many real AS events can be detected within the usually unexploited, speculative majority of the array and at significance levels much below standard multiple-testing thresholds, demonstrating that the extent of cis-regulated differential splicing between individuals is potentially far greater than previously reported. Specifically, many genes show subtle but significant genetically controlled differences in splice-site usage. PCR validation shows that 42 out of 58 (72% candidate gene regions undergo detectable AS, amounting to the largest scale validation of isoform eQTLs to date. Targeted sequencing revealed a likely causative SNP in most validated cases. In all 17 incidences where a SNP affected a splice-site region, in silico splice-site strength modeling correctly predicted the direction of the micro-array and PCR results. In 13 other cases, we identified likely causative SNPs disrupting predicted splicing enhancers. Using Fst and REHH analysis, we uncovered significant evidence that 2 putative causative SNPs have undergone recent positive selection. We verified the effect of five SNPs using in vivo minigene assays. This study shows that splicing differences between individuals, including quantitative differences in isoform ratios, are frequent in human populations and that causative SNPs can be identified using in silico predictions. Several cases affected disease-relevant genes and

  8. Multiobjective Genetic Algorithm applied to dengue control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florentino, Helenice O; Cantane, Daniela R; Santos, Fernando L P; Bannwart, Bettina F

    2014-12-01

    Dengue fever is an infectious disease caused by a virus of the Flaviridae family and transmitted to the person by a mosquito of the genus Aedes aegypti. This disease has been a global public health problem because a single mosquito can infect up to 300 people and between 50 and 100 million people are infected annually on all continents. Thus, dengue fever is currently a subject of research, whether in the search for vaccines and treatments for the disease or efficient and economical forms of mosquito control. The current study aims to study techniques of multiobjective optimization to assist in solving problems involving the control of the mosquito that transmits dengue fever. The population dynamics of the mosquito is studied in order to understand the epidemic phenomenon and suggest strategies of multiobjective programming for mosquito control. A Multiobjective Genetic Algorithm (MGA_DENGUE) is proposed to solve the optimization model treated here and we discuss the computational results obtained from the application of this technique.

  9. Genetic control of mosquitoes: population suppression strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, André Barretto Bruno; Marrelli, Mauro Toledo

    2012-01-01

    Over the last two decades, morbidity and mortality from malaria and dengue fever among other pathogens are an increasing Public Health problem. The increase in the geographic distribution of vectors is accompanied by the emergence of viruses and diseases in new areas. There are insufficient specific therapeutic drugs available and there are no reliable vaccines for malaria or dengue, although some progress has been achieved, there is still a long way between its development and actual field use. Most mosquito control measures have failed to achieve their goals, mostly because of the mosquito's great reproductive capacity and genomic flexibility. Chemical control is increasingly restricted due to potential human toxicity, mortality in no target organisms, insecticide resistance, and other environmental impacts. Other strategies for mosquito control are desperately needed. The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) is a species-specific and environmentally benign method for insect population suppression, it is based on mass rearing, radiation mediated sterilization, and release of a large number of male insects. Releasing of Insects carrying a dominant lethal gene (RIDL) offers a solution to many of the drawbacks of traditional SIT that have limited its application in mosquitoes while maintaining its environmentally friendly and species-specific utility. The self-limiting nature of sterile mosquitoes tends to make the issues related to field use of these somewhat less challenging than for self-spreading systems characteristic of population replacement strategies. They also are closer to field use, so might be appropriate to consider first. The prospect of genetic control methods against mosquito vectored human diseases is rapidly becoming a reality, many decisions will need to be made on a national, regional and international level regarding the biosafety, social, cultural and ethical aspects of the use and deployment of these vector control methods.

  10. Genetic Control of Mosquitoes: population suppression strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Barretto Bruno Wilke

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Over the last two decades, morbidity and mortality from malaria and dengue fever among other pathogens are an increasing Public Health problem. The increase in the geographic distribution of vectors is accompanied by the emergence of viruses and diseases in new areas. There are insufficient specific therapeutic drugs available and there are no reliable vaccines for malaria or dengue, although some progress has been achieved, there is still a long way between its development and actual field use. Most mosquito control measures have failed to achieve their goals, mostly because of the mosquito's great reproductive capacity and genomic flexibility. Chemical control is increasingly restricted due to potential human toxicity, mortality in no target organisms, insecticide resistance, and other environmental impacts. Other strategies for mosquito control are desperately needed. The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT is a species-specific and environmentally benign method for insect population suppression, it is based on mass rearing, radiation mediated sterilization, and release of a large number of male insects. Releasing of Insects carrying a dominant lethal gene (RIDL offers a solution to many of the drawbacks of traditional SIT that have limited its application in mosquitoes while maintaining its environmentally friendly and species-specific utility. The self-limiting nature of sterile mosquitoes tends to make the issues related to field use of these somewhat less challenging than for self-spreading systems characteristic of population replacement strategies. They also are closer to field use, so might be appropriate to consider first. The prospect of genetic control methods against mosquito vectored human diseases is rapidly becoming a reality, many decisions will need to be made on a national, regional and international level regarding the biosafety, social, cultural and ethical aspects of the use and deployment of these vector control methods.

  11. Genetic programming as alternative for predicting development effort of individual software projects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Chavoya

    Full Text Available Statistical and genetic programming techniques have been used to predict the software development effort of large software projects. In this paper, a genetic programming model was used for predicting the effort required in individually developed projects. Accuracy obtained from a genetic programming model was compared against one generated from the application of a statistical regression model. A sample of 219 projects developed by 71 practitioners was used for generating the two models, whereas another sample of 130 projects developed by 38 practitioners was used for validating them. The models used two kinds of lines of code as well as programming language experience as independent variables. Accuracy results from the model obtained with genetic programming suggest that it could be used to predict the software development effort of individual projects when these projects have been developed in a disciplined manner within a development-controlled environment.

  12. Notification: Notification Memo for Evaluation of Management Controls for Alternative Asbestos Control Method Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Project #OPE-FY12-0011, February 27, 2012. This memorandum is to notify you that the Office of Inspector General (OIG) is initiating an evaluation on the Alternative Asbestos Control Method (AACM) experiments.

  13. Protein interaction network of alternatively spliced isoforms from brain links genetic risk factors for autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corominas, Roser; Yang, Xinping; Lin, Guan Ning; Kang, Shuli; Shen, Yun; Ghamsari, Lila; Broly, Martin; Rodriguez, Maria; Tam, Stanley; Trigg, Shelly A; Fan, Changyu; Yi, Song; Tasan, Murat; Lemmens, Irma; Kuang, Xingyan; Zhao, Nan; Malhotra, Dheeraj; Michaelson, Jacob J; Vacic, Vladimir; Calderwood, Michael A; Roth, Frederick P; Tavernier, Jan; Horvath, Steve; Salehi-Ashtiani, Kourosh; Korkin, Dmitry; Sebat, Jonathan; Hill, David E; Hao, Tong; Vidal, Marc; Iakoucheva, Lilia M

    2014-04-11

    Increased risk for autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is attributed to hundreds of genetic loci. The convergence of ASD variants have been investigated using various approaches, including protein interactions extracted from the published literature. However, these datasets are frequently incomplete, carry biases and are limited to interactions of a single splicing isoform, which may not be expressed in the disease-relevant tissue. Here we introduce a new interactome mapping approach by experimentally identifying interactions between brain-expressed alternatively spliced variants of ASD risk factors. The Autism Spliceform Interaction Network reveals that almost half of the detected interactions and about 30% of the newly identified interacting partners represent contribution from splicing variants, emphasizing the importance of isoform networks. Isoform interactions greatly contribute to establishing direct physical connections between proteins from the de novo autism CNVs. Our findings demonstrate the critical role of spliceform networks for translating genetic knowledge into a better understanding of human diseases.

  14. Evaluation of Alternative Field Buses for Lighting ControlApplications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Ed; Rubinstein, Francis

    2005-03-21

    The Subcontract Statement of Work consists of two major tasks. This report is the Final Report in fulfillment of the contract deliverable for Task 1. The purpose of Task 1 was to evaluate existing and emerging protocols and standards for interfacing sensors and controllers for communicating with integrated lighting control systems in commercial buildings. The detailed task description follows: Task 1. Evaluate alternative sensor/field buses. The objective of this task is to evaluate existing and emerging standards for interfacing sensors and controllers for communicating with integrated lighting control systems in commercial buildings. The protocols to be evaluated will include at least: (1) 1-Wire Net, (2) DALI, (3) MODBUS (or appropriate substitute such as EIB) and (4) ZigBee. The evaluation will include a comparative matrix for comparing the technical performance features of the different alternative systems. The performance features to be considered include: (1) directionality and network speed, (2) error control, (3) latency times, (4) allowable cable voltage drop, (5) topology, and (6) polarization. Specifically, Subcontractor will: (1) Analyze the proposed network architecture and identify potential problems that may require further research and specification. (2) Help identify and specify additional software and hardware components that may be required for the communications network to operate properly. (3) Identify areas of the architecture that can benefit from existing standards and technology and enumerate those standards and technologies. (4) Identify existing companies that may have relevant technology that can be applied to this research. (5) Help determine if new standards or technologies need to be developed.

  15. Genetic noise control via protein oligomerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghim, C; Almaas, E

    2008-06-12

    Gene expression in a cell entails random reaction events occurring over disparate time scales. Thus, molecular noise that often results in phenotypic and population-dynamic consequences sets a fundamental limit to biochemical signaling. While there have been numerous studies correlating the architecture of cellular reaction networks with noise tolerance, only a limited effort has been made to understand the dynamical role of protein-protein associations. We have developed a fully stochastic model for the positive feedback control of a single gene, as well as a pair of genes (toggle switch), integrating quantitative results from previous in vivo and in vitro studies. In particular, we explicitly account for the fast protein binding-unbinding kinetics, RNA polymerases, and the promoter/operator sequences of DNA. We find that the overall noise-level is reduced and the frequency content of the noise is dramatically shifted to the physiologically irrelevant high-frequency regime in the presence of protein dimerization. This is independent of the choice of monomer or dimer as transcription factor and persists throughout the multiple model topologies considered. For the toggle switch, we additionally find that the presence of a protein dimer, either homodimer or heterodimer, may significantly reduce its intrinsic switching rate. Hence, the dimer promotes the robust function of bistable switches by preventing the uninduced (induced) state from randomly being induced (uninduced). The specific binding between regulatory proteins provides a buffer that may prevent the propagation of fluctuations in genetic activity. The capacity of the buffer is a non-monotonic function of association-dissociation rates. Since the protein oligomerization per se does not require extra protein components to be expressed, it provides a basis for the rapid control of intrinsic or extrinsic noise. The stabilization of phenotypically important toggle switches, and nested positive feedback loops in

  16. Control of Avian Coccidiosis: Future and Present Natural Alternatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Estela Quiroz-Castañeda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous efforts to date have been implemented in the control of avian coccidiosis caused by the Eimeria parasite. Since the appearance of anticoccidial chemical compounds, the search for new alternatives continues. Today, no product is available to cope with the disease; however, the number of products commercially available is constantly increasing. In this review, we focus on natural products and their anticoccidial activity. This group comprises fatty acids, antioxidants, fungal and herbal extracts, and immune response modulators with proven anticoccidial activity, many of which exist as dietary supplements. Additionally, we offer an overview of the poultry industry and the economic cost of coccidiosis as well as the classical strategies used to control the disease.

  17. Control of avian coccidiosis: future and present natural alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz-Castañeda, Rosa Estela; Dantán-González, Edgar

    2015-01-01

    Numerous efforts to date have been implemented in the control of avian coccidiosis caused by the Eimeria parasite. Since the appearance of anticoccidial chemical compounds, the search for new alternatives continues. Today, no product is available to cope with the disease; however, the number of products commercially available is constantly increasing. In this review, we focus on natural products and their anticoccidial activity. This group comprises fatty acids, antioxidants, fungal and herbal extracts, and immune response modulators with proven anticoccidial activity, many of which exist as dietary supplements. Additionally, we offer an overview of the poultry industry and the economic cost of coccidiosis as well as the classical strategies used to control the disease.

  18. Precision electronic speed controller for an alternating-current motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolie, V.W.

    A high precision controller for an alternating-current multi-phase electrical motor that is subject to a large inertial load. The controller was developed for controlling, in a neutron chopper system, a heavy spinning rotor that must be rotated in phase-locked synchronism with a reference pulse train that is representative of an ac power supply signal having a meandering line frequency. The controller includes a shaft revolution sensor which provides a feedback pulse train representative of the actual speed of the motor. An internal digital timing signal generator provides a reference signal which is compared with the feedback signal in a computing unit to provide a motor control signal. The motor control signal is a weighted linear sum of a speed error voltage, a phase error voltage, and a drift error voltage, each of which is computed anew with each revolution of the motor shaft. The speed error signal is generated by a novel vernier-logic circuit which is drift-free and highly sensitive to small speed changes. The phase error is also computed by digital logic, with adjustable sensitivity around a 0 mid-scale value. The drift error signal, generated by long-term counting of the phase error, is used to compensate for any slow changes in the average friction drag on the motor. An auxillary drift-byte status sensor prevents any disruptive overflow or underflow of the drift-error counter. An adjustable clocked-delay unit is inserted between the controller and the source of the reference pulse train to permit phase alignment of the rotor to any desired offset angle. The stator windings of the motor are driven by two amplifiers which are provided with input signals having the proper quadrature relationship by an exciter unit consisting of a voltage controlled oscillator, a binary counter, a pair of read-only memories, and a pair of digital-to-analog converters.

  19. A Statistical Analysis of the Robustness of Alternate Genetic Coding Tables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isil Aksan Kurnaz

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The rules that specify how the information contained in DNA is translated into amino acid “language” during protein synthesis are called “the genetic code”, commonly called the “Standard” or “Universal” Genetic Code Table. As a matter of fact, this coding table is not at all “universal”: in addition to different genetic code tables used by different organisms, even within the same organism the nuclear and mitochondrial genes may be subject to two different coding tables. Results In an attempt to understand the advantages and disadvantages these coding tables may bring to an organism, we have decided to analyze various coding tables on genes subject to mutations, and have estimated how these genes “survive” over generations. We have used this as indicative of the “evolutionary” success of that particular coding table. We find that the “standard” genetic code is not actually the most robust of all coding tables, and interestingly, Flatworm Mitochondrial Code (FMC appears to be the highest ranking coding table given our assumptions. Conclusions It is commonly hypothesized that the more robust a genetic code, the better suited it is for maintenance of the genome. Our study shows that, given the assumptions in our model, Standard Genetic Code is quite poor when compared to other alternate code tables in terms of robustness. This brings about the question of why Standard Code has been so widely accepted by a wider variety of organisms instead of FMC, which needs to be addressed for a thorough understanding of genetic code evolution.

  20. Eye development under the control of SRp55/B52-mediated alternative splicing of eyeless.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weronika Fic

    Full Text Available The genetic programs specifying eye development are highly conserved during evolution and involve the vertebrate Pax-6 gene and its Drosophila melanogaster homolog eyeless (ey. Here we report that the SR protein B52/SRp55 controls a novel developmentally regulated splicing event of eyeless that is crucial for eye growth and specification in Drosophila. B52/SRp55 generates two isoforms of eyeless differing by an alternative exon encoding a 60-amino-acid insert at the beginning of the paired domain. The long isoform has impaired ability to trigger formation of ectopic eyes and to bind efficiently Eyeless target DNA sequences in vitro. When over-produced in the eye imaginal disc, this isoform induces a small eye phenotype, whereas the isoform lacking the alternative exon triggers eye over-growth and strong disorganization. Our results suggest that B52/SRp55 splicing activity is used during normal eye development to control eye organogenesis and size through regulation of eyeless alternative splicing.

  1. Passive Motion Paradigm: an alternative to Optimal Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishwanathan eMohan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last years, optimal control theory (OCT has emerged as the leading approach for investigating neural control of movement and motor cognition for two complementary research lines: behavioural neuroscience and humanoid robotics. In both cases, there are general problems that need to be addressed, such as the ‘degrees of freedom problem’, the common core of production, observation, reasoning, and learning of ‘actions’. OCT, directly derived from engineering design techniques of control systems quantifies task goals as ‘cost functions’ and uses the sophisticated formal tools of optimal control to obtain desired behaviour (and predictions. We propose an alternative ‘softer’ approach (PMP: Passive Motion Paradigm that we believe is closer to the biomechanics and cybernetics of action. The basic idea is that actions (overt and overt are the consequences of an internal simulation process that ‘animates’ the body schema with the attractor dynamics of force fields induced by the goal and task specific constraints. This internal simulation offers the brain a way to dynamically link motor redundancy with task oriented constraints ‘at runtime’, hence solving the ‘degrees of freedom problem’ without explicit kinematic inversion and cost function computation. We argue that the function of such computational machinery is not only to shape motor output during action execution but also to provide the self with information on the feasibility, consequence, understanding and meaning of ‘potential actions’. In this sense, taking into account recent developments in neuroscience (motor imagery, simulation theory, mirror neurons and in embodied robotics, PMP offers a novel framework for understanding motor cognition that goes beyond the engineering control paradigm provided by OCT. Therefore, the paper is at the same time a review of the PMP rationale, as a computational theory, and a perspective presentation of how to develop it

  2. Passive Motion Paradigm: An Alternative to Optimal Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Vishwanathan; Morasso, Pietro

    2011-01-01

    In the last years, optimal control theory (OCT) has emerged as the leading approach for investigating neural control of movement and motor cognition for two complementary research lines: behavioral neuroscience and humanoid robotics. In both cases, there are general problems that need to be addressed, such as the “degrees of freedom (DoFs) problem,” the common core of production, observation, reasoning, and learning of “actions.” OCT, directly derived from engineering design techniques of control systems quantifies task goals as “cost functions” and uses the sophisticated formal tools of optimal control to obtain desired behavior (and predictions). We propose an alternative “softer” approach passive motion paradigm (PMP) that we believe is closer to the biomechanics and cybernetics of action. The basic idea is that actions (overt as well as covert) are the consequences of an internal simulation process that “animates” the body schema with the attractor dynamics of force fields induced by the goal and task-specific constraints. This internal simulation offers the brain a way to dynamically link motor redundancy with task-oriented constraints “at runtime,” hence solving the “DoFs problem” without explicit kinematic inversion and cost function computation. We argue that the function of such computational machinery is not only restricted to shaping motor output during action execution but also to provide the self with information on the feasibility, consequence, understanding and meaning of “potential actions.” In this sense, taking into account recent developments in neuroscience (motor imagery, simulation theory of covert actions, mirror neuron system) and in embodied robotics, PMP offers a novel framework for understanding motor cognition that goes beyond the engineering control paradigm provided by OCT. Therefore, the paper is at the same time a review of the PMP rationale, as a computational theory, and a perspective presentation of

  3. Genetic noise control via protein oligomerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almaas Eivind

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene expression in a cell entails random reaction events occurring over disparate time scales. Thus, molecular noise that often results in phenotypic and population-dynamic consequences sets a fundamental limit to biochemical signaling. While there have been numerous studies correlating the architecture of cellular reaction networks with noise tolerance, only a limited effort has been made to understand the dynamic role of protein-protein interactions. Results We have developed a fully stochastic model for the positive feedback control of a single gene, as well as a pair of genes (toggle switch, integrating quantitative results from previous in vivo and in vitro studies. In particular, we explicitly account for the fast binding-unbinding kinetics among proteins, RNA polymerases, and the promoter/operator sequences of DNA. We find that the overall noise-level is reduced and the frequency content of the noise is dramatically shifted to the physiologically irrelevant high-frequency regime in the presence of protein dimerization. This is independent of the choice of monomer or dimer as transcription factor and persists throughout the multiple model topologies considered. For the toggle switch, we additionally find that the presence of a protein dimer, either homodimer or heterodimer, may significantly reduce its random switching rate. Hence, the dimer promotes the robust function of bistable switches by preventing the uninduced (induced state from randomly being induced (uninduced. Conclusion The specific binding between regulatory proteins provides a buffer that may prevent the propagation of fluctuations in genetic activity. The capacity of the buffer is a non-monotonic function of association-dissociation rates. Since the protein oligomerization per se does not require extra protein components to be expressed, it provides a basis for the rapid control of intrinsic or extrinsic noise. The stabilization of regulatory circuits

  4. Transfer of toxin genes to alternate bacterial hosts for mosquito control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Orduz

    1995-02-01

    Full Text Available Mosquitoes are vector of serious human and animal diseases, such as malaria, dengue, yellow fever, among others. The use of biological control agents has provide an environmentally safe and highly specific alternative to the use of chemical insecticides in the control of vector borne diseases. Bacillus thuringiensis and B. sphaericus produce toxic proteins to mosquito larvae. Great progress has been made on the biochemical and molecular characterization of such proteins and the genes encoding them. Nevertheless, the low residuality of these biological insecticides is one of the major drawbacks. This article present some interesting aspects of the mosquito larvae feeding habits and review the attempts that have been made to genetically engineer microorganisms that while are used by mosquito larvae as a food source should express the Bacillus toxin genes in order to improve the residuality and stability in the mosquito breeding ponds.

  5. Genetic Algorithm Based Proportional Integral Controller Design for Induction Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohanasundaram Kuppusamy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study has expounded the application of evolutionary computation method namely Genetic Algorithm (GA for estimation of feedback controller parameters for induction motor. GA offers certain advantages such as simple computational steps, derivative free optimization, reduced number of iterations and assured near global optima. The development of the method is well documented and computed and measured results are presented. Approach: The design of PI controller parameter for three phase induction motor drives was done using Genetic Algorithm. The objective function of motor current reduction, using PI controller, at starting is formulated as an optimization problem and solved with Genetic Algorithm. Results: The results showed the selected values of PI controller parameter using genetic algorithm approach, with objective of induction motor starting current reduction. Conclusions/Recommendation: The results proved the robustness and easy implementation of genetic algorithm selection of PI parameters for induction motor starting.

  6. Alternative Fuzzy Cluster Segmentation of Remote Sensing Images Based on Adaptive Genetic Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jing; TANG Jilong; LIU Jibin; REN Chunying; LIU Xiangnan; FENG Jiang

    2009-01-01

    Remote sensing image segmentation is the basis of image understanding and analysis. However, the precision and the speed of segmentation can not meet the need of image analysis, due to strong uncertainty and rich texture details of remote sensing images. We proposed a new segmentation method based on Adaptive Genetic Algorithm (AGA) and Alternative Fuzzy C-Means (AFCM). Segmentation thresholds were identified by AGA. Then the image was segmented by AFCM. The results indicate that the precision and the speed of segmentation have been greatly increased, and the accuracy of threshold selection is much higher compared with traditional Otsu and Fuzzy C-Means (FCM) segmentation methods. The segmentation results also show that multi-thresholds segmentation has been achieved by combining AGA with AFCM.

  7. [New alternatives in the prevention of iron deficiency. Use of genetic engineering in food modification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Casal, M N

    1999-09-01

    This article reviews the possible applications of new food biotechnology techniques to introduce some compounds into plants or animals. The potential for these plant modification methods has ample applications ranging from improvements in food production and development for human consumption, production of antibodies or therapeutic proteins, inclusion of nutrients to improve nutritional value of the food to production of vaccines. It must be clear though that currently the scope and consequences of such modifications are not completely clear. There is some concern about potential secondary effects and the hypothesis of the appearance of new viruses due to recombinant genetical transformations that have not been totally rejected. However the tendency is towards considering the process as safe. Finally some evidence is presented about the possibility of introducing the capacity to synthesize vitamin A in vegetables or produce rice with high content of iron as real alternatives to fight some of the nutritional deficiencies most common worldwide.

  8. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF AN ALTERNATIVE CONTROLLER FOR BLUETOOTH SERVICE DISCOVERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sughasiny

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Bluetooth is a short range radio technology to form a small wireless system. It is used in low –cost, low power ad-hoc networks and it suffers from long service discovery delay and high power consumption. Bluetooth employs the 2.4 GHz ISM band, sharing the same bandwidth with the wireless LAN implementing the IEEE 802.11 standards. Thus it causes significantly lower interference. For improving the efficiency of SDP, we present an implementation of Bluetooth 2.1 in the NS-2 simulator, discuss the IEEE 802.11b as a Bluetooth controller and propose a new alternative Bluetooth Controller based on Adaptive Frequency Hopping techniques using Amplifier Power. The resulting approach significantly reduces the service discovery time, thereby lowering power consumption and increasing the throughput. We present the benefits of our new approach and compare it with existing approach using NS-2 Simulations and we have presented the comparison graphs in support of our approach.

  9. Tick control: trapping, biocontrol, host management and other alternative strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, Howard S.; Edited by Sonenshine, Daniel E.; Roe, R. Michael

    2014-01-01

    Biology of Ticks is the most comprehensive work on tick biology and tick-borne diseases. This second edition is a multi-authored work, featuring the research and analyses of renowned experts across the globe. Spanning two volumes, the book examines the systematics, biology, structure, ecological adaptations, evolution, genomics and the molecular processes that underpin the growth, development and survival of these important disease-transmitting parasites. Also discussed is the remarkable array of diseases transmitted (or caused) by ticks, as well as modern methods for their control. This book should serve as a modern reference for students, scientists, physicians, veterinarians and other specialists. Volume I covers the biology of the tick and features chapters on tick systematics, tick life cycles, external and internal anatomy, and others dedicated to specific organ systems, specifically, the tick integument, mouthparts and digestive system, salivary glands, waste removal, salivary glands, respiratory system, circulatory system and hemolymph, fat body, the nervous and sensory systems and reproductive systems. Volume II includes chapters on the ecology of non-nidicolous and nidicolous ticks, genetics and genomics (including the genome of the Lyme disease vector Ixodes scapularis) and immunity, including host immune responses to tick feeding and tick-host interactions, as well as the tick's innate immune system that prevents and/or controls microbial infections. Six chapters cover in depth the many diseases caused by the major tick-borne pathogens, including tick-borne protozoa, viruses, rickettsiae of all types, other types of bacteria (e.g., the Lyme disease agent) and diseases related to tick paralytic agents and toxins. The remaining chapters are devoted to tick control using vaccines, acaricides, repellents, biocontrol, and, finally, techniques for breeding ticks in order to develop tick colonies for scientific study.

  10. Meropenem as an Alternative Antibiotic Agent for Suppression of Agrobacterium in Genetic Transformation of Orchid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Ying; Niimi Yoshiyuki; HU Shang-lian

    2006-01-01

    A case of Meropenem as a novel antibacterial agent to suppress and eliminate Agrobacterium tumefaciens in the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of orchid protocorm-like bodies (PLBs) has been reported in this article. The in vitro activities of meropenem and four comparator antibacterial agents against three Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains, LBA4404, EHA101, and GV3101, were assessed. In addition, the effect of meropenem on the growth of Dendrobium phalaenopsis PLBs was determined. Compared with other commonly used antibiotics (including ampicillin,carbenicillin, cefotaxime, and cefoperazone), meropenem showed the highest activity in suppressing all tested A.tumefaciens strains (minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC] < 0.5 mg L-1, which is equal to minimum bactericidal concentration [MBC]). Meropenem, at all tested concentrations, except for 10 mg L-1 concentration, had little negative effect on the growth of orchid tissues. The A. tumefaciens strain EHA101 in genetic transformation with vector pIG121Hm in infected PLBs of the orchid was visually undetectable after a two-month subculture in 1/2 MS medium with 50 mg L-1 meropenem and 25 mg L-1 hygromacin. The expression and incorporation of the transgenes were confirmed by GUS histochemical assay and PCR analysis. Meropenem may be an alternative antibiotic for the effective suppression of A. tumefaciens in genetic transformation.

  11. Genetic variations and alternative splicing. The Glioma associated oncogene 1, GLI1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter eZaphiropoulos

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Alternative splicing is a post-transcriptional regulatory process that is attaining stronger recognition as a modulator of gene expression. Alternative splicing occurs when the primary RNA transcript is differentially processed into more than one mature RNAs. This is the result of a variable definition/inclusion of the exons, the sequences that are excised from the primary RNA to form the mature RNAs. Consequently, RNA expression can generate a collection of differentially spliced RNAs, which may distinctly influence subsequent biological events, such as protein synthesis or other biomolecular interactions. Still the mechanisms that control exon definition and exon inclusion are not fully clarified. This mini-review highlights advances in this field as well as the impact of single nucleotide polymorphisms in affecting splicing decisions. The Glioma associated oncogene 1, GLI1, is taken as an example in addressing the role of nucleotide substitutions for splicing regulation.

  12. Intelligent Controller Design for DC Motor Speed Control based on Fuzzy Logic-Genetic Algorithms Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Boumediene ALLAOUA; Laoufi, Abdellah; Brahim GASBAOUI; Nasri, Abdelfatah; Abdessalam ABDERRAHMANI

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, an intelligent controller of the DC (Direct current) Motor drive is designed using fuzzy logic-genetic algorithms optimization. First, a controller is designed according to fuzzy rules such that the systems are fundamentally robust. To obtain the globally optimal values, parameters of the fuzzy controller are improved by genetic algorithms optimization model. Computer MATLAB work space demonstrate that the fuzzy controller associated to the genetic algorithms approach became ve...

  13. Reverse Genetics Approaches to Control Arenavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Sobrido, Luis; Cheng, Benson Yee Hin; de la Torre, Juan Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Several arenavirus cause hemorrhagic fever disease in humans and pose a significant public health problem in their endemic regions. To date, no licensed vaccines are available to combat human arenavirus infections, and anti-arenaviral drug therapy is limited to an off-label use of ribavirin that is only partially effective. The development of arenavirus reverse genetics approaches provides investigators with a novel and powerful approach for the investigation of the arenavirus molecular and cell biology. The use of cell-based minigenome systems has allowed examining the cis- and trans-acting factors involved in arenavirus replication and transcription and the identification of novel anti-arenaviral drug targets without requiring the use of live forms of arenaviruses. Likewise, it is now feasible to rescue infectious arenaviruses entirely from cloned cDNAs containing predetermined mutations in their genomes to investigate virus-host interactions and mechanisms of pathogenesis, as well as to facilitate screens to identify anti-arenaviral drugs and development of novel live-attenuated arenavirus vaccines. Recently, reverse genetics have also allowed the generation of tri-segmented arenaviruses expressing foreign genes, facilitating virus detection and opening the possibility of implementing live-attenuated arenavirus-based vaccine vector approaches. Likewise, the development of single-cycle infectious, reporter-expressing, arenaviruses has provided a new experimental method to study some aspects of the biology of highly pathogenic arenaviruses without the requirement of high-security biocontainment required to study HF-causing arenaviruses. In this chapter we summarize the current knowledge on arenavirus reverse genetics and the implementation of plasmid-based reverse genetics techniques for the development of arenavirus vaccines and vaccine vectors.

  14. Fuzzy Control of Chaotic System with Genetic Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Jian-an; GUO Zhao-xia; SHAO Shi-huang

    2002-01-01

    A novel approach to control the unpredictable behavior of chaotic systems is presented. The control algorithm is based on fuzzy logic control technique combined with genetic algorithm. The use of fuzzy logic allows for the implementation of human "rule-of-thumb" approach to decision making by employing linguistic variables. An improved Genetic Algorithm (GA) is used to learn to optimally select the fuzzy membership functions of the linguistic labels in the condition portion of each rule,and to automatically generate fuzzy control actions under each condition. Simulation results show that such an approach for the control of chaotic systems is both effective and robust.

  15. Robust reactor power control system design by genetic algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yoon Joon; Cho, Kyung Ho; Kim, Sin [Cheju National University, Cheju (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    The H{sub {infinity}} robust controller for the reactor power control system is designed by use of the mixed weight sensitivity. The system is configured into the typical two-port model with which the weight functions are augmented. Since the solution depends on the weighting functions and the problem is of nonconvex, the genetic algorithm is used to determine the weighting functions. The cost function applied in the genetic algorithm permits the direct control of the power tracking performances. In addition, the actual operating constraints such as rod velocity and acceleration can be treated as design parameters. Compared with the conventional approach, the controller designed by the genetic algorithm results in the better performances with the realistic constraints. Also, it is found that the genetic algorithm could be used as an effective tool in the robust design. 4 refs., 6 figs. (Author)

  16. Topology control based on quantum genetic algorithm in sensor networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Lijuan; GUO Jian; LU Kai; WANG Ruchuan

    2007-01-01

    Nowadays,two trends appear in the application of sensor networks in which both multi-service and quality of service (QoS)are supported.In terms of the goal of low energy consumption and high connectivity,the control on topology is crucial.The algorithm of topology control based on quantum genetic algorithm in sensor networks is proposed.An advantage of the quantum genetic algorithm over the conventional genetic algorithm is demonstrated in simulation experiments.The goals of high connectivity and low consumption of energy are reached.

  17. Clinical and genetic analysis in alternating hemiplegia of childhood: ten new patients from Southern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila-Pueyo, Marta; Pons, Roser; Raspall-Chaure, Miquel; Marcé-Grau, Anna; Carreño, Oriel; Sintas, Cèlia; Cormand, Bru; Pineda-Marfà, Mercè; Macaya, Alfons

    2014-09-15

    Alternating hemiplegia of childhood (AHC) is a rare neurodevelopmental disorder featuring attacks of hemiplegia and other paroxysmal and non-paroxysmal manifestations leading to progressive neurological impairment. De novo mutations in ATP1A3 have been identified in up to 80% of patients. AHC is also associated with rare mutations in other genes involved in episodic neurological disorders. We sought to find mutations in ATP1A3, CACNA1A, ATP1A2, SCN1A and SLC2A1 in a cohort of ten unrelated patients from Spain and Greece. All patients fulfilled AHC diagnostic criteria. All five genes were amplified by PCR and Sanger sequenced. Copy number variation (CNV) analysis of SLC2A1 and CACNA1A was performed using two different approaches. We identified three previously described heterozygous missense ATP1A3 mutations (p.Asp801Asn, p.Glu815Lys and p.Gly947Arg) in five patients. No disease-causing mutations were found in the remaining genes. All mutations occurred de novo; carriers presented on average earlier than non-carriers. Intellectual disability was more severe with the p.Glu815Lys variant. A p.Gly947Arg carrier harbored a maternally-inherited CACNA1A p.Ala454Thr variant. Of note, three of our patients exhibited remarkable clinical responses to the ketogenic diet. We confirmed ATP1A3 mutations in half of our patients. Further AHC genetic studies will need to investigate large rearrangements in ATP1A3 or consider greater genetic heterogeneity than previously suspected.

  18. Genes in new environments: genetics and evolution in biological control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roderick, George K; Navajas, Maria

    2003-11-01

    The availability of new genetic technologies has positioned the field of biological control as a test bed for theories in evolutionary biology and for understanding practical aspects of the release of genetically manipulated material. Purposeful introductions of pathogens, parasites, predators and herbivores, when considered as replicated semi-natural field experiments, show the unpredictable nature of biological colonization. The characteristics of organisms and their environments that determine this variation in the establishment and success of biological control can now be explored using genetic tools. Lessons from studies of classical biological control can help inform researchers and policy makers about the risks that are associated with the release of genetically modified organisms, particularly with respect to long-term evolutionary changes.

  19. Genetic and epigenetic control of RKIP transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datar, Ila; Tegegne, Hanna; Qin, Kevin; Al-Mulla, Fahd; Bitar, Milad S; Trumbly, Robert J; Yeung, Kam C

    2014-01-01

    Raf kinase inhibitory protein (RKIP) is known to modulate key signaling cascades and regulate normal physiological processes such as cellular proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. The expression of RKIP is found to be downregulated in several cancer metastases and the repressed RKIP expression can be reactivated on treatment with chemotherapeutic agents. RKIP is a proven tumor metastasis suppressor gene and investigating the mechanisms of transcriptional regulation of RKIP is therefore of immense clinical importance. In this review, we discuss the basal expression of RKIP in various tissues and the genetic aspects of the RKIP chromosomal locus including the structure of the RKIP promoter as well as gene regulatory elements such as enhancers. We also review the genetic and epigenetic modulation of RKIP transcription through EZH2, a component of the polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) and sequence specific transcription factors (TFs) BACH1 and Snail. Emerging experimental evidence supports a unifying model in which both these TFs repress RKIP transcription in cancers by recruiting the EZH2 containing repressive complex to the proximal RKIP promoter. Finally, we review the known mechanisms employed by different types of chemotherapeutic agents to activate RKIP expression in cancer cells.

  20. Genetic control of active neural circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon Reijmers

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of molecular tools to study the neurobiology of complex behaviors has been hampered by an inability to target the desired changes to relevant groups of neurons. Specific memories and specific sensory representations are sparsely encoded by a small fraction of neurons embedded in a sea of morphologically and functionally similar cells. In this review we discuss genetics techniques that are being developed to address this difficulty. In several studies the use of promoter elements that are responsive to neural activity have been used to drive long lasting genetic alterations into neural ensembles that are activated by natural environmental stimuli. This approach has been used to examine neural activity patterns during learning and retrieval of a memory, to examine the regulation of receptor trafficking following learning and to functionally manipulate a specific memory trace. We suggest that these techniques will provide a general approach to experimentally investigate the link between patterns of environmentally activated neural firing and cognitive processes such as perception and memory.

  1. Tuning of active vibration controllers for ACTEX by genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Moon K.; Denoyer, Keith K.

    1999-06-01

    This paper is concerned with the optimal tuning of digitally programmable analog controllers on the ACTEX-1 smart structures flight experiment. The programmable controllers for each channel include a third order Strain Rate Feedback (SRF) controller, a fifth order SRF controller, a second order Positive Position Feedback (PPF) controller, and a fourth order PPF controller. Optimal manual tuning of several control parameters can be a difficult task even though the closed-loop control characteristics of each controller are well known. Hence, the automatic tuning of individual control parameters using Genetic Algorithms is proposed in this paper. The optimal control parameters of each control law are obtained by imposing a constraint on the closed-loop frequency response functions using the ACTEX mathematical model. The tuned control parameters are then uploaded to the ACTEX electronic control electronics and experiments on the active vibration control are carried out in space. The experimental results on ACTEX will be presented.

  2. Genetic Control of Meat Quality Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, John L.

    Meat was originally produced from non-specialized animals that were used for a variety of purposes, in addition to being a source of food. However, selective breeding has resulted in “improved” breeds of cattle that are now used to produce either milk or beef, and specialized chicken lines that produce eggs or meat. These improved breeds are very productive under appropriate management systems. The selection methods used to create these specialized breeds were based on easily measured phenotypic variations, such as growth rate or physical size. Improvement in the desired trait was achieved by breeding directly from animals displaying the desired phenotype. However, more recently sophisticated genetic models have been developed using statistical approaches that consider phenotypic information collected, not only from individual animals but also from their parents, sibs, and progeny.

  3. Geochemical, Genetic, and Community Controls on Mercury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, Judy D.

    2014-11-10

    The sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are soil bacteria that share two common characteristics, strict anaerobiosis and the ability to respire sulfate. The metabolic activities of these bacteria play significant roles in the global sulfur cycle, anaerobic degradation of biomass, biological metal corrosion in the environment and, recently, degradation of toxic compounds. The accumulation of evidence suggests these bacteria are also key to the production of the neurotoxin methylmercury in environmental settings. We propose to use our experience with the development of genetics in sulfate-reducing bacteria of the genus Desulfovibrio to create mutations that will eliminate the methylation of mercury, thereby identifying the genes essential for this process. This information may allow the environmental monitoring of the mercury methylation potential to learn the location and quantity of the production this toxin. From these data, more accurate predictive models of mercury cycling can be generated.

  4. OPTIMAL-TUNING OF PID CONTROLLER GAINS USING GENETIC ALGORITHMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer GÜNDOĞDU

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method of optimum parameter tuning of a PID controller to be used in driving an inertial load by a dc motor thorough a gearbox. Specifically, the method uses genetic algorithms to determine the optimum controller parameters by minimizing the sum of the integral of the squared error and the squared controller output deviated from its steady state value. The paper suggests the use of Ziegler-Nichols settings to form the intervals for the controller parameters in which the population to be formed. The results obtained from the genetic algorithms are compared with the ones from Ziegler-Nichols in both figures and tabular form. Comparatively better results are obtained in the genetic algorithm case.

  5. Alternative food promotes broad mite control on chilli pepper plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duarte, M.V.A.; Venzon, M.; de S. Bittencourt, M.C.; Rodríguez-Cruz, F.A.; Pallini, A.; Janssen, A.

    2015-01-01

    Many omnivorous arthropods are important natural enemies because they can feed on plant-provided pollen and several prey species, and thus persist in crops even in the absence of the target pest. Hence, populations of these predators can be established in a crop by providing alternative food, thus

  6. Alternative food promotes broad mite control on chilli pepper plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duarte, M.V.A.; Venzon, M.; de S. Bittencourt, M.C.; Rodríguez-Cruz, F.A.; Pallini, A.; Janssen, A.

    2015-01-01

    Many omnivorous arthropods are important natural enemies because they can feed on plant-provided pollen and several prey species, and thus persist in crops even in the absence of the target pest. Hence, populations of these predators can be established in a crop by providing alternative food, thus i

  7. Maritime Tactical Command and Control Analysis of Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    atp or contact the director (contact information is provided on the web page). v Contents Preface...common hard- ware footprint and web -based interfaces. The new program intends to 1 Via the Consolidated Afloat Networks and Enterprise Services (CANES...contributed to workflow effi- ciencies that enhanced productivity of operational specialists and com- manders alike. In some areas this alternative

  8. Genetic control of midbrain dopamine systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, Simone Marije

    2005-01-01

    The midbrain dopaminergic (mDA) system, organized in the substantia nigra compacta (SNc) and ventral tegmental area (VTA), regulates movement control and behavior as highlighted by the dramatic consequences of its degeneration in Parkinson’s disease and its implications in psychiatric and affective

  9. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP-strings: an alternative method for assessing genetic associations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas S Goodin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS identify disease-associations for single-nucleotide-polymorphisms (SNPs from scattered genomic-locations. However, SNPs frequently reside on several different SNP-haplotypes, only some of which may be disease-associated. This circumstance lowers the observed odds-ratio for disease-association. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we develop a method to identify the two SNP-haplotypes, which combine to produce each person's SNP-genotype over specified chromosomal segments. Two multiple sclerosis (MS-associated genetic regions were modeled; DRB1 (a Class II molecule of the major histocompatibility complex and MMEL1 (an endopeptidase that degrades both neuropeptides and β-amyloid. For each locus, we considered sets of eleven adjacent SNPs, surrounding the putative disease-associated gene and spanning ∼200 kb of DNA. The SNP-information was converted into an ordered-set of eleven-numbers (subject-vectors based on whether a person had zero, one, or two copies of particular SNP-variant at each sequential SNP-location. SNP-strings were defined as those ordered-combinations of eleven-numbers (0 or 1, representing a haplotype, two of which combined to form the observed subject-vector. Subject-vectors were resolved using probabilistic methods. In both regions, only a small number of SNP-strings were present. We compared our method to the SHAPEIT-2 phasing-algorithm. When the SNP-information spanning 200 kb was used, SHAPEIT-2 was inaccurate. When the SHAPEIT-2 window was increased to 2,000 kb, the concordance between the two methods, in both of these eleven-SNP regions, was over 99%, suggesting that, in these regions, both methods were quite accurate. Nevertheless, correspondence was not uniformly high over the entire DNA-span but, rather, was characterized by alternating peaks and valleys of concordance. Moreover, in the valleys of poor-correspondence, SHAPEIT-2 was also inconsistent with itself

  10. Genetic control of flowering time in rice: integration of Mendelian genetics and genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Kiyosumi; Matsubara, Kazuki; Yano, Masahiro

    2016-12-01

    Integration of previous Mendelian genetic analyses and recent molecular genomics approaches, such as linkage mapping and QTL cloning, dramatically strengthened our current understanding of genetic control of rice flowering time. Flowering time is one of the most important agronomic traits for seed production in rice (Oryza sativa L.). It is controlled mainly by genes associated with photoperiod sensitivity, particularly in short-day plants such as rice. Since the early twentieth century, rice breeders and researchers have been interested in elucidating the genetic basis of flowering time because its modification is important for regional adaptation and yield optimization. Although flowering time is a complex trait controlled by many quantitative trait loci (QTLs), classical genetic studies have shown that many associated genes are inherited in accordance with Mendelian laws. Decoding the rice genome sequence opened a new era in understanding the genetic control of flowering time on the basis of genome-wide mapping and gene cloning. Heading date 1 (Hd1) was the first flowering time QTL to be isolated using natural variation in rice. Recent accumulation of information on rice genome has facilitated the cloning of other QTLs, including those with minor effects on flowering time. This information has allowed us to rediscover some of the flowering genes that were identified by classical Mendelian genetics. The genes characterized so far, including Hd1, have been assigned to specific photoperiod pathways. In this review, we provide an overview of the studies that led to an in-depth understanding of the genetic control of flowering time in rice, and of the current state of improving and fine-tuning this trait for rice breeding.

  11. Experimental design for stable genetic manipulation in mammalian cell lines: lentivirus and alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, Robert F; Saunders, Darren N

    2015-01-01

    The use of third-generation lentiviral vectors is now commonplace in most areas of basic biology. These systems provide a fast, efficient means for modulating gene expression, but experimental design needs to be carefully considered to minimize potential artefacts arising from off-target effects and other confounding factors. This review offers a starting point for those new to lentiviral-based vector systems, addressing the main issues involved with the use of lentiviral systems in vitro and outlines considerations which should be taken into account during experimental design. Factors such as selecting an appropriate system and controls, and practical titration of viral transduction are important considerations for experimental design. We also briefly describe some of the more recent advances in genome editing technology. TALENs and CRISPRs offer an alternative to lentivirus, providing endogenous gene editing with reduced off-target effects often at the expense of efficiency.

  12. Genetic dissection of cardiac growth control pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLellan, W. R.; Schneider, M. D.

    2000-01-01

    Cardiac muscle cells exhibit two related but distinct modes of growth that are highly regulated during development and disease. Cardiac myocytes rapidly proliferate during fetal life but exit the cell cycle irreversibly soon after birth, following which the predominant form of growth shifts from hyperplastic to hypertrophic. Much research has focused on identifying the candidate mitogens, hypertrophic agonists, and signaling pathways that mediate these processes in isolated cells. What drives the proliferative growth of embryonic myocardium in vivo and the mechanisms by which adult cardiac myocytes hypertrophy in vivo are less clear. Efforts to answer these questions have benefited from rapid progress made in techniques to manipulate the murine genome. Complementary technologies for gain- and loss-of-function now permit a mutational analysis of these growth control pathways in vivo in the intact heart. These studies have confirmed the importance of suspected pathways, have implicated unexpected pathways as well, and have led to new paradigms for the control of cardiac growth.

  13. Genetically Engineered Islets and Alternative Sources of Insulin-Producing Cells for Treating Autoimmune Diabetes: Quo Vadis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Cheng Chou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Islet transplantation is a promising therapy for patients with type 1 diabetes that can provide moment-to-moment metabolic control of glucose and allow them to achieve insulin independence. However, two major problems need to be overcome: (1 detrimental immune responses, including inflammation induced by the islet isolation/transplantation procedure, recurrence autoimmunity, and allorejection, can cause graft loss and (2 inadequate numbers of organ donors. Several gene therapy approaches and pharmaceutical treatments have been demonstrated to prolong the survival of pancreatic islet grafts in animal models; however, the clinical applications need to be investigated further. In addition, for an alternative source of pancreatic β-cell replacement therapy, the ex vivo generation of insulin-secreting cells from diverse origins of stem/progenitor cells has become an attractive option in regenerative medicine. This paper focuses on the genetic manipulation of islets during transplantation therapy and summarizes current strategies to obtain functional insulin-secreting cells from stem/progenitor cells.

  14. Feedback Control of Turbulent Shear Flows by Genetic Programming

    CERN Document Server

    Duriez, Thomas; von Krbek, Kai; Bonnet, Jean-Paul; Cordier, Laurent; Noack, Bernd R; Segond, Marc; Abel, Markus; Gautier, Nicolas; Aider, Jean-Luc; Raibaudo, Cedric; Cuvier, Christophe; Stanislas, Michel; Debien, Antoine; Mazellier, Nicolas; Kourta, Azeddine; Brunton, Steven L

    2015-01-01

    Turbulent shear flows have triggered fundamental research in nonlinear dynamics, like transition scenarios, pattern formation and dynamical modeling. In particular, the control of nonlinear dynamics is subject of research since decades. In this publication, actuated turbulent shear flows serve as test-bed for a nonlinear feedback control strategy which can optimize an arbitrary cost function in an automatic self-learning manner. This is facilitated by genetic programming providing an analytically treatable control law. Unlike control based on PID laws or neural networks, no structure of the control law needs to be specified in advance. The strategy is first applied to low-dimensional dynamical systems featuring aspects of turbulence and for which linear control methods fail. This includes stabilizing an unstable fixed point of a nonlinearly coupled oscillator model and maximizing mixing, i.e.\\ the Lyapunov exponent, for forced Lorenz equations. For the first time, we demonstrate the applicability of genetic p...

  15. Adaptive process control using fuzzy logic and genetic algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karr, C. L.

    1993-01-01

    Researchers at the U.S. Bureau of Mines have developed adaptive process control systems in which genetic algorithms (GA's) are used to augment fuzzy logic controllers (FLC's). GA's are search algorithms that rapidly locate near-optimum solutions to a wide spectrum of problems by modeling the search procedures of natural genetics. FLC's are rule based systems that efficiently manipulate a problem environment by modeling the 'rule-of-thumb' strategy used in human decision making. Together, GA's and FLC's possess the capabilities necessary to produce powerful, efficient, and robust adaptive control systems. To perform efficiently, such control systems require a control element to manipulate the problem environment, and a learning element to adjust to the changes in the problem environment. Details of an overall adaptive control system are discussed. A specific laboratory acid-base pH system is used to demonstrate the ideas presented.

  16. Optimization of PID Controllers Using Ant Colony and Genetic Algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Ünal, Muhammet; Topuz, Vedat; Erdal, Hasan

    2013-01-01

    Artificial neural networks, genetic algorithms and the ant colony optimization algorithm have become a highly effective tool for solving hard optimization problems. As their popularity has increased, applications of these algorithms have grown in more than equal measure. While many of the books available on these subjects only provide a cursory discussion of theory, the present book gives special emphasis to the theoretical background that is behind these algorithms and their applications. Moreover, this book introduces a novel real time control algorithm, that uses genetic algorithm and ant colony optimization algorithms for optimizing PID controller parameters. In general, the present book represents a solid survey on artificial neural networks, genetic algorithms and the ant colony optimization algorithm and introduces novel practical elements related to the application of these methods to  process system control.

  17. Genetic control of cuticular wax compounds in Eucalyptus globulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosney, Benjamin J; Potts, Brad M; O'Reilly-Wapstra, Julianne M; Vaillancourt, René E; Fitzgerald, Hugh; Davies, Noel W; Freeman, Jules S

    2016-01-01

    Plant cuticular wax compounds perform functions that are essential for the survival of terrestrial plants. Despite their importance, the genetic control of these compounds is poorly understood outside of model taxa. Here we investigate the genetic basis of variation in cuticular compounds in Eucalyptus globulus using quantitative genetic and quantitative trait loci (QTL) analyses. Quantitative genetic analysis was conducted using 246 open-pollinated progeny from 13 native sub-races throughout the geographic range. QTL analysis was conducted using 112 clonally replicated progeny from an outcross F2 population. Nine compounds exhibited significant genetic variation among sub-races with three exhibiting signals of diversifying selection. Fifty-two QTL were found with co-location of QTL for related compounds commonly observed. Notable among these was the QTL for five wax esters, which co-located with a gene from the KCS family, previously implicated in the biosynthesis of cuticular waxes in Arabidopsis. In combination, the QTL and quantitative genetic analyses suggest the variation and differentiation in cuticular wax compounds within E. globulus has a complex genetic origin. Sub-races exhibited independent latitudinal and longitudinal differentiation in cuticular wax compounds, likely reflecting processes such as historic gene flow and diversifying selection acting upon genes that have diverse functions in distinct biochemical pathways.

  18. Genetic manipulation of endosymbionts to control vector and vector borne diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Prakash Gupta

    Full Text Available Vector borne diseases (VBD are on the rise because of failure of the existing methods of control of vector and vector borne diseases and the climate change. A steep rise of VBDs are due to several factors like selection of insecticide resistant vector population, drug resistant parasite population and lack of effective vaccines against the VBDs. Environmental pollution, public health hazard and insecticide resistant vector population indicate that the insecticides are no longer a sustainable control method of vector and vector-borne diseases. Amongst the various alternative control strategies, symbiont based approach utilizing endosymbionts of arthropod vectors could be explored to control the vector and vector borne diseases. The endosymbiont population of arthropod vectors could be exploited in different ways viz., as a chemotherapeutic target, vaccine target for the control of vectors. Expression of molecules with antiparasitic activity by genetically transformed symbiotic bacteria of disease-transmitting arthropods may serve as a powerful approach to control certain arthropod-borne diseases. Genetic transformation of symbiotic bacteria of the arthropod vector to alter the vector’s ability to transmit pathogen is an alternative means of blocking the transmission of VBDs. In Indian scenario, where dengue, chikungunya, malaria and filariosis are prevalent, paratransgenic based approach can be used effectively. [Vet World 2012; 5(9.000: 571-576

  19. Genetic control of anastomosis in Podospora anserina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Laetitia Chan Ho; Silar, Philippe; Lalucque, Hervé

    2014-09-01

    We developed a new microscopy procedure to study anastomoses in the model ascomycete Podospora anserina and compared it with the previous method involving the formation of balanced heterokaryons. Both methods showed a good correlation. Heterokaryon formation was less quantifiable, but enabled to observe very rare events. Microscopic analysis evidenced that anastomoses were greatly influence by growth conditions and were severely impaired in the IDC mutants of the PaMpk1, PaMpk2, IDC1 and PaNox1 pathways. Yet some mutants readily formed heterokaryons, albeit with a delay when compared to the wild type. We also identified IDC(821), a new mutant presenting a phenotype similar to the other IDC mutants, including lack of anastomosis. Complete genome sequencing revealed that IDC(821) was affected in the orthologue of the Neurospora crassa So gene known to control anastomosis in several other ascomycetes.

  20. Environmental Control Of A Genetic Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosla, Chaitan; Bailey, James E.

    1991-01-01

    E. coli bacteria altered to contain DNA sequence encoding production of hemoglobin made to produce hemoglobin at rates decreasing with increases in concentration of oxygen in culture media. Represents amplification of part of method described in "Cloned Hemoglobin Genes Enhance Growth Of Cells" (NPO-17517). Manipulation of promoter/regulator DNA sequences opens promising new subfield of recombinant-DNA technology for environmental control of expression of selected DNA sequences. New recombinant-DNA fusion gene products, expression vectors, and nucleotide-base sequences will emerge. Likely applications include such aerobic processes as manufacture of cloned proteins and synthesis of metabolites, production of chemicals by fermentation, enzymatic degradation, treatment of wastes, brewing, and variety of oxidative chemical reactions.

  1. Human genetic variation: new challenges and opportunities for doping control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Angela J; Fedoruk, Matthew N; Rupert, Jim L

    2012-01-01

    Sport celebrates differences in competitors that lead to the often razor-thin margins between victory and defeat. The source of this variation is the interaction between the environment in which the athletes develop and compete and their genetic make-up. However, a darker side of sports may also be genetically influenced: some anti-doping tests are affected by the athlete's genotype. Genetic variation is an issue that anti-doping authorities must address as more is learned about the interaction between genotype and the responses to prohibited practices. To differentiate between naturally occurring deviations in indirect blood and urine markers from those potentially caused by doping, the "biological-passport" program uses intra-individual variability rather than population values to establish an athlete's expected physiological range. The next step in "personalized" doping control may be the inclusion of genetic data, both for the purposes of documenting an athlete's responses to doping agents and doping-control assays as well facilitating athlete and sample identification. Such applications could benefit "clean" athletes but will come at the expense of risks to privacy. This article reviews the instances where genetics has intersected with doping control, and briefly discusses the potential role, and ethical implications, of genotyping in the struggle to eliminate illicit ergogenic practices.

  2. Intelligent Controller Design for DC Motor Speed Control based on Fuzzy Logic-Genetic Algorithms Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boumediene ALLAOUA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an intelligent controller of the DC (Direct current Motor drive is designed using fuzzy logic-genetic algorithms optimization. First, a controller is designed according to fuzzy rules such that the systems are fundamentally robust. To obtain the globally optimal values, parameters of the fuzzy controller are improved by genetic algorithms optimization model. Computer MATLAB work space demonstrate that the fuzzy controller associated to the genetic algorithms approach became very strong, gives a very good results and possesses good robustness.

  3. GENETIC ALGORITHM BASED PARAMETER TUNING OF PID CONTROLLER FOR COMPOSITION CONTROL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhawna Tandon

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A Composition control system is discussed in this paper in which the PID controller is tuned using Genetic Algorithm & Ziegler-Nichols Tuning Criteria. Tuning methods for PID controllers are very importantfor the process industries. Traditional methods such as Ziegler-Nichols method often do not provide adequate tuning. Genetic Algorithm (GA as an intelligent approach has also been widely used to tune the parameters of PID. Genetic algorithms are used to create an objective function that can evaluate the optimum PID gains based on the controlled systems overall error.

  4. Rhizobial exopolysaccharides: genetic control and symbiotic functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazur Andrzej

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Specific complex interactions between soil bacteria belonging to Rhizobium, Sinorhizobium, Mesorhizobium, Phylorhizobium, Bradyrhizobium and Azorhizobium commonly known as rhizobia, and their host leguminous plants result in development of root nodules. Nodules are new organs that consist mainly of plant cells infected with bacteroids that provide the host plant with fixed nitrogen. Proper nodule development requires the synthesis and perception of signal molecules such as lipochitooligosaccharides, called Nod factors that are important for induction of nodule development. Bacterial surface polysaccharides are also crucial for establishment of successful symbiosis with legumes. Sugar polymers of rhizobia are composed of a number of different polysaccharides, such as lipopolysaccharides (LPS, capsular polysaccharides (CPS or K-antigens, neutral β-1, 2-glucans and acidic extracellular polysaccharides (EPS. Despite extensive research, the molecular function of the surface polysaccharides in symbiosis remains unclear. This review focuses on exopolysaccharides that are especially important for the invasion that leads to formation of indetermined (with persistent meristem type of nodules on legumes such as clover, vetch, peas or alfalfa. The significance of EPS synthesis in symbiotic interactions of Rhizobium leguminosarum with clover is especially noticed. Accumulating data suggest that exopolysaccharides may be involved in invasion and nodule development, bacterial release from infection threads, bacteroid development, suppression of plant defense response and protection against plant antimicrobial compounds. Rhizobial exopolysaccharides are species-specific heteropolysaccharide polymers composed of common sugars that are substituted with non-carbohydrate residues. Synthesis of repeating units of exopolysaccharide, their modification, polymerization and export to the cell surface is controlled by clusters of genes, named exo/exs, exp or

  5. Design of PID Controller Simulator based on Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahri VATANSEVER

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available PID (Proportional Integral and Derivative controllers take an important place in the field of system controlling. Various methods such as Ziegler-Nichols, Cohen-Coon, Chien Hrones Reswick (CHR and Wang-Juang-Chan are available for the design of such controllers benefiting from the system time and frequency domain data. These controllers are in compliance with system properties under certain criteria suitable to the system. Genetic algorithms have become widely used in control system applications in parallel to the advances in the field of computer and artificial intelligence. In this study, PID controller designs have been carried out by means of classical methods and genetic algorithms and comparative results have been analyzed. For this purpose, a graphical user interface program which can be used for educational purpose has been developed. For the definite (entered transfer functions, the suitable P, PI and PID controller coefficients have calculated by both classical methods and genetic algorithms and many parameters and responses of the systems have been compared and presented numerically and graphically

  6. Parameter Optimization of Linear Quadratic Controller Based on Genetic Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jimin; SHANG Chaoxuan; ZOU Minghu

    2007-01-01

    The selection of weighting matrix in design of the linear quadratic optimal controller is an important topic in the control theory. In this paper, an approach based on genetic algorithm is presented for selecting the weighting matrix for the optimal controller. Genetic algorithm is adaptive heuristic search algorithm premised on the evolutionary ideas of natural selection and genetic. In this algorithm, the fitness function is used to evaluate individuals and reproductive success varies with fitness. In the design of the linear quadratic optimal controller, the fitness function has relation to the anticipated step response of the system. Not only can the controller designed by this approach meet the demand of the performance indexes of linear quadratic controller, but also satisfy the anticipated step response of close-loop system. The method possesses a higher calculating efficiency and provides technical support for the optimal controller in engineering application. The simulation of a three-order single-input single-output (SISO) system has demonstrated the feasibility and validity of the approach.

  7. Disclosing genetic risk for coronary heart disease: effects on perceived personal control and genetic counseling satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, C L; Jouni, H; Kruisselbrink, T M; Austin, E E; Christensen, K D; Green, R C; Kullo, I J

    2016-02-01

    We investigated whether disclosure of coronary heart disease (CHD) genetic risk influences perceived personal control (PPC) and genetic counseling satisfaction (GCS). Participants (n = 207, age: 45-65 years) were randomized to receive estimated 10-year risk of CHD based on a conventional risk score (CRS) with or without a genetic risk score (GRS). Risk estimates were disclosed by a genetic counselor who also reviewed how GRS altered risk in those randomized to CRS+GRS. Each participant subsequently met with a physician and then completed surveys to assess PPC and GCS. Participants who received CRS+GRS had higher PPC than those who received CRS alone although the absolute difference was small (25.2 ± 2.7 vs 24.1 ± 3.8, p = 0.04). A greater proportion of CRS+GRS participants had higher GCS scores (17.3 ± 5.3 vs 15.9 ± 6.3, p = 0.06). In the CRS+GRS group, PPC and GCS scores were not correlated with GRS. Within both groups, PPC and GCS scores were similar in patients with or without family history (p = NS). In conclusion, patients who received their genetic risk of CHD had higher PPC and tended to have higher GCS. Our findings suggest that disclosure of genetic risk of CHD together with conventional risk estimates is appreciated by patients. Whether this results in improved outcomes needs additional investigation.

  8. Alternating Current All-electrical Gun Control System in Tanks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zang Kemao

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The ac all-electrical gun control system is composed of permanent magnetic synchronous machine-drive control systems and the ball-screw by replacing the complicated electrohydraulic systems. At the same time, the variable-structure system with sliding modes makes the gun control systems to have higher performances using the only rate flexure gyroscope. Thereby, vehicle hull gyroscope and angular gyroscope are left out.The new ac all-electrical gun control systems developed are reduced by 40 per cent in weight, decreased by 30 per cent in volume, increased by 35 per cent in efficiency, and enhanced by three times in service life as compared to the current gun control systems.

  9. System control fuzzy neural sewage pumping stations using genetic algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Владлен Николаевич Кузнецов

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available It is considered the system of management of sewage pumping station with regulators based on a neuron network with fuzzy logic. Linguistic rules for the controller based on fuzzy logic, maintaining the level of effluent in the receiving tank within the prescribed limits are developed. The use of genetic algorithms for neuron network training is shown.

  10. Management of Uncertainty by Statistical Process Control and a Genetic Tuned Fuzzy System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Birle

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In food industry, bioprocesses like fermentation often are a crucial part of the manufacturing process and decisive for the final product quality. In general, they are characterized by highly nonlinear dynamics and uncertainties that make it difficult to control these processes by the use of traditional control techniques. In this context, fuzzy logic controllers offer quite a straightforward way to control processes that are affected by nonlinear behavior and uncertain process knowledge. However, in order to maintain process safety and product quality it is necessary to specify the controller performance and to tune the controller parameters. In this work, an approach is presented to establish an intelligent control system for oxidoreductive yeast propagation as a representative process biased by the aforementioned uncertainties. The presented approach is based on statistical process control and fuzzy logic feedback control. As the cognitive uncertainty among different experts about the limits that define the control performance as still acceptable may differ a lot, a data-driven design method is performed. Based upon a historic data pool statistical process corridors are derived for the controller inputs control error and change in control error. This approach follows the hypothesis that if the control performance criteria stay within predefined statistical boundaries, the final process state meets the required quality definition. In order to keep the process on its optimal growth trajectory (model based reference trajectory a fuzzy logic controller is used that alternates the process temperature. Additionally, in order to stay within the process corridors, a genetic algorithm was applied to tune the input and output fuzzy sets of a preliminarily parameterized fuzzy controller. The presented experimental results show that the genetic tuned fuzzy controller is able to keep the process within its allowed limits. The average absolute error to the

  11. Genetic improvement of tomato by targeted control of fruit softening

    KAUST Repository

    Uluisik, Selman

    2016-07-25

    Controlling the rate of softening to extend shelf life was a key target for researchers engineering genetically modified (GM) tomatoes in the 1990s, but only modest improvements were achieved. Hybrids grown nowadays contain \\'non-ripening mutations\\' that slow ripening and improve shelf life, but adversely affect flavor and color. We report substantial, targeted control of tomato softening, without affecting other aspects of ripening, by silencing a gene encoding a pectate lyase. © 2016 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Genetic Algorithm based PID controller for Frequency Regulation Ancillary services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Bhongade

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the parameters of Proportional, Integral and Derivative (PID controller for Automatic Generation Control (AGC suitable in restructured power system is tuned according to Generic Algorithms (GAs based performance indices. The key idea of the proposed method is to use the fitness function based on Area Control Error (ACE. The functioning of the proposed Genetic Algorithm based PID (GAPID controller has been demonstrated on a 75-bus Indian power system network and the results have been compared with those obtained by using Least Square Minimization method.

  13. Blood spots as an alternative to whole blood collection and the effect of a small monetary incentive to increase participation in genetic association studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ringer Danny

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Collection of buccal cells from saliva for DNA extraction offers a less invasive and convenient alternative to venipuncture blood collection that may increase participation in genetic epidemiologic studies. However, dried blood spot collection, which is also a convenient method, offers a means of collecting peripheral blood samples from which analytes in addition to DNA can be obtained. Methods To determine if offering blood spot collection would increase participation in genetic epidemiologic studies, we conducted a study of collecting dried blood spot cards by mail from a sample of female cancer cases (n = 134 and controls (n = 256 who were previously selected for a breast cancer genetics study and declined to provide a venipuncture blood sample. Participants were also randomized to receive either a $2.00 bill or no incentive with the blood spot collection kits. Results The average time between the venipuncture sample refusal and recruitment for the blood spot collection was 4.4 years. Thirty-seven percent of cases and 28% of controls provided a dried blood spot card. While the incentive was not associated with participation among controls (29% for $2.00 incentive vs. 26% for no incentive, p = 0.6, it was significantly associated with participation among the breast cancer cases (48% vs. 27%, respectively, p = 0.01. There did not appear to be any bias in response since no differences between cases and controls and incentive groups were observed when examining several demographic, work history and radiation exposure variables. Conclusion This study demonstrates that collection of dried blood spot cards in addition to venipuncture blood samples may be a feasible method to increase participation in genetic case-control studies.

  14. Aloe plant extracts as alternative larvicides for mosquito control

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-04-03

    Apr 3, 2008 ... 2Department of Biological Sciences, Egerton University, P. O. Box 536, Egerton 20107, Kenya. ... the incidence of this disease is to eradicate and control ...... effects of three plant extracts on Culex pipiens larvae (Diptera:.

  15. Computational issues in alternating projection algorithms for fixed-order control design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beran, Eric Bengt; Grigoriadis, K.

    1997-01-01

    Alternating projection algorithms have been introduced recently to solve fixed-order controller design problems described by linear matrix inequalities and non-convex coupling rank constraints. In this work, an extensive numerical experimentation using proposed benchmark fixed-order control design...... examples is used to indicate the computational efficiency of the method. These results indicate that the proposed alternating projections are effective in obtaining low-order controllers for small and medium order problems...

  16. Alternative methods of corporate control in commercial banks

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen D. Prowse

    1995-01-01

    In this article, Stephen Prowse investigates how owners of commercial banks encourage management to follow value-maximizing policies. While the "corporate control mechanism" in nonfinancial firms is well documented, for the banking industry much less evidence is available. Moreover, unique factors in the operating environment of commercial banks may mean that their corporate control mechanism operates differently from that of nonfinancial firms. ; Prowse analyzes a sample of bank holding comp...

  17. Control of Complex Systems Using Bayesian Networks and Genetic Algorithm

    CERN Document Server

    Marwala, Tshilidzi

    2007-01-01

    A method based on Bayesian neural networks and genetic algorithm is proposed to control the fermentation process. The relationship between input and output variables is modelled using Bayesian neural network that is trained using hybrid Monte Carlo method. A feedback loop based on genetic algorithm is used to change input variables so that the output variables are as close to the desired target as possible without the loss of confidence level on the prediction that the neural network gives. The proposed procedure is found to reduce the distance between the desired target and measured outputs significantly.

  18. The effects of initial conditions and control time on optimal actuator placement via a max-min Genetic Algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redmond, J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Parker, G. [State Univ. of New York, Buffalo, NY (United States)

    1993-07-01

    This paper examines the role of the control objective and the control time in determining fuel-optimal actuator placement for structural vibration suppression. A general theory is developed that can be easily extended to include alternative performance metrics such as energy and time-optimal control. The performance metric defines a convex admissible control set which leads to a max-min optimization problem expressing optimal location as a function of initial conditions and control time. A solution procedure based on a nested Genetic Algorithm is presented and applied to an example problem. Results indicate that the optimal locations vary widely as a function of control time and initial conditions.

  19. Genetic Algorithm Optimisation of PID Controllers for a Multivariable Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wael Alharbi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This project is about the design of PID controllers and the improvement of outputs in multivariable processes. The optimisation of PID controller for the Shell oil process is presented in this paper, using Genetic Algorithms (GAs. Genetic Algorithms (GAs are used to automatically tune PID controllers according to given specifications. They use an objective function, which is specially formulated and measures the performance of controller in terms of time-domain bounds on the responses of closed-loop process.A specific objective function is suggested that allows the designer for a single-input, single-output (SISO process to explicitly specify the process performance specifications associated with the given problem in terms of time-domain bounds, then experimentally evaluate the closed-loop responses. This is investigated using a simple two-term parametric PID controller tuning problem. The results are then analysed and compared with those obtained using a number of popular conventional controller tuning methods. The intention is to demonstrate that the proposed objective function is inherently capable of accurately quantifying complex performance specifications in the time domain. This is something that cannot normally be employed in conventional controller design or tuning methods.Finally, the recommended objective function will be used to examine the control problems of Multi-Input-Multi-Output (MIMO processes, and the results will be presented in order to determine the efficiency of the suggested control system.

  20. A free-piston Stirling engine/linear alternator controls and load interaction test facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, Jeffrey S.; Kankam, M. David; Santiago, Walter; Madi, Frank J.

    1992-01-01

    A test facility at LeRC was assembled for evaluating free-piston Stirling engine/linear alternator control options, and interaction with various electrical loads. This facility is based on a 'SPIKE' engine/alternator. The engine/alternator, a multi-purpose load system, a digital computer based load and facility control, and a data acquisition system with both steady-periodic and transient capability are described. Preliminary steady-periodic results are included for several operating modes of a digital AC parasitic load control. Preliminary results on the transient response to switching a resistive AC user load are discussed.

  1. A free-piston Stirling engine/linear alternator controls and load interaction test facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, Jeffrey S.; Kankam, M. David; Santiago, Walter; Madi, Frank J.

    1992-08-01

    A test facility at LeRC was assembled for evaluating free-piston Stirling engine/linear alternator control options, and interaction with various electrical loads. This facility is based on a 'SPIKE' engine/alternator. The engine/alternator, a multi-purpose load system, a digital computer based load and facility control, and a data acquisition system with both steady-periodic and transient capability are described. Preliminary steady-periodic results are included for several operating modes of a digital AC parasitic load control. Preliminary results on the transient response to switching a resistive AC user load are discussed.

  2. Alternative control technology document for bakery oven emissions. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanford, C.W.

    1992-12-01

    The document was produced in response to a request by the baking industry for Federal guidance to assist in providing a more uniform information base for State decision-making with regard to control of bakery oven emissions. The information in the document pertains to bakeries that produce yeast-leavened bread, rolls, buns, and similar products but not crackers, sweet goods, or baked foodstuffs that are not yeast leavened. Information on the baking processes, equipment, operating parameters, potential emissions from baking, and potential emission control options are presented. Catalytic and regenerative oxidation are identified as the most appropriate existing control technologies applicable to VOC emissions from bakery ovens. Cost analyses for catalytic and regenerative oxidation are included. A predictive formula for use in estimating oven emissions has been derived from source tests done in junction with the development of the document. Its use and applicability are described.

  3. Quantum control using genetic algorithms in quantum communication: superdense coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Serna, Francisco; Rojas, Fernando

    2015-06-01

    We present a physical example model of how Quantum Control with genetic algorithms is applied to implement the quantum superdense code protocol. We studied a model consisting of two quantum dots with an electron with spin, including spin-orbit interaction. The electron and the spin get hybridized with the site acquiring two degrees of freedom, spin and charge. The system has tunneling and site energies as time dependent control parameters that are optimized by means of genetic algorithms to prepare a hybrid Bell-like state used as a transmission channel. This state is transformed to obtain any state of the four Bell basis as required by superdense protocol to transmit two bits of classical information. The control process protocol is equivalent to implement one of the quantum gates in the charge subsystem. Fidelities larger than 99.5% are achieved for the hybrid entangled state preparation and the superdense operations.

  4. Genetic control of organ shape and tissue polarity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia A Green

    Full Text Available The mechanisms by which genes control organ shape are poorly understood. In principle, genes may control shape by modifying local rates and/or orientations of deformation. Distinguishing between these possibilities has been difficult because of interactions between patterns, orientations, and mechanical constraints during growth. Here we show how a combination of growth analysis, molecular genetics, and modelling can be used to dissect the factors contributing to shape. Using the Snapdragon (Antirrhinum flower as an example, we show how shape development reflects local rates and orientations of tissue growth that vary spatially and temporally to form a dynamic growth field. This growth field is under the control of several dorsoventral genes that influence flower shape. The action of these genes can be modelled by assuming they modulate specified growth rates parallel or perpendicular to local orientations, established by a few key organisers of tissue polarity. Models in which dorsoventral genes only influence specified growth rates do not fully account for the observed growth fields and shapes. However, the data can be readily explained by a model in which dorsoventral genes also modify organisers of tissue polarity. In particular, genetic control of tissue polarity organisers at ventral petal junctions and distal boundaries allows both the shape and growth field of the flower to be accounted for in wild type and mutants. The results suggest that genetic control of tissue polarity organisers has played a key role in the development and evolution of shape.

  5. Tuning of a neuro-fuzzy controller by genetic algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seng, T L; Bin Khalid, M; Yusof, R

    1999-01-01

    Due to their powerful optimization property, genetic algorithms (GAs) are currently being investigated for the development of adaptive or self-tuning fuzzy logic control systems. This paper presents a neuro-fuzzy logic controller (NFLC) where all of its parameters can be tuned simultaneously by GA. The structure of the controller is based on the radial basis function neural network (RBF) with Gaussian membership functions. The NFLC tuned by GA can somewhat eliminate laborious design steps such as manual tuning of the membership functions and selection of the fuzzy rules. The GA implementation incorporates dynamic crossover and mutation probabilistic rates for faster convergence. A flexible position coding strategy of the NFLC parameters is also implemented to obtain near optimal solutions. The performance of the proposed controller is compared with a conventional fuzzy controller and a PID controller tuned by GA. Simulation results show that the proposed controller offers encouraging advantages and has better performance.

  6. Populus trichocarpa cell wall chemistry and ultrastructure trait variation, genetic control and genetic correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porth, Ilga; Klápště, Jaroslav; Skyba, Oleksandr; Lai, Ben S K; Geraldes, Armando; Muchero, Wellington; Tuskan, Gerald A; Douglas, Carl J; El-Kassaby, Yousry A; Mansfield, Shawn D

    2013-02-01

    The increasing ecological and economical importance of Populus species and hybrids has stimulated research into the investigation of the natural variation of the species and the estimation of the extent of genetic control over its wood quality traits for traditional forestry activities as well as the emerging bioenergy sector. A realized kinship matrix based on informative, high-density, biallelic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genetic markers was constructed to estimate trait variance components, heritabilities, and genetic and phenotypic correlations. Seventeen traits related to wood chemistry and ultrastructure were examined in 334 9-yr-old Populus trichocarpa grown in a common-garden plot representing populations spanning the latitudinal range 44° to 58.6°. In these individuals, 9342 SNPs that conformed to Hardy-Weinberg expectations were employed to assess the genomic pair-wise kinship to estimate narrow-sense heritabilities and genetic correlations among traits. The range-wide phenotypic variation in all traits was substantial and several trait heritabilities were > 0.6. In total, 61 significant genetic and phenotypic correlations and a network of highly interrelated traits were identified. The high trait variation, the evidence for moderate to high heritabilities and the identification of advantageous trait combinations of industrially important characteristics should aid in providing the foundation for the enhancement of poplar tree breeding strategies for modern industrial use.

  7. Validation of alternative models in genetic evaluation of racing performance in North Swedish and Norwegian cold-blooded trotters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, H F; Klemetsdal, G; Odegård, J; Arnason, T

    2012-04-01

    There have been several approaches to the estimation of breeding values of performance in trotters, and the objective of this study was to validate different alternatives for genetic evaluation of racing performance in the North Swedish and Norwegian cold-blooded trotters. The current bivariate approach with the traits racing status (RACE) and earnings (EARN) was compared with a threshold-linear animal model and the univariate alternative with the performance trait only. The models were compared based on cross-validation of standardized earnings, using mean-squared errors of prediction (MSEP) and the correlation between the phenotype (Y) and the estimated breeding value (EBV). Despite possible effects of selection, a rather high estimate of heritability of EARN was found in our univariate analysis. The genetic trend estimate for EARN was clearly higher in the bivariate specification than in the univariate model, as a consequence of the considerable size of estimated heritability of RACE and its high correlation with EARN (approximately 0.8). RACE is highly influenced by ancestry rather than the on-farm performance of the horse itself. Consequently, the use of RACE in the genetic analysis may inflate the genetic trend of EARN because of a double counting of pedigree information. Although, because of the higher predictive ability of the bivariate specification, the improved ranking of animals within a year-class and the inability to discriminate between models for genetic trend, we propose to base prediction of breeding values on the current bivariate model. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Patterns of responses to alternative medicines in controlling allergic conjunctivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batra Deepak

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available This analysis identifies the various patterns of the responses of the medicines in controlling allergic conjunctivitis. The mean S Deviation coefficient of variation, correlation matrix and loading of factors are worked out as stated in the tables. In the present case the Eigen values greater than 1.50 are retained. The four factors retained explain 68% of the total variations of the 16 responses. The first factor shows 23.38% of variations in total responses while first two and first three factors show 42.39% and 58.64% respectively. Thus medicine affective in controlling the symptoms are given In the descending order: oxymetazoline and sodium salicylate and Sodium cromoglycate, Oxymetazoline and Disodium CCromoglycate & Sodium Salicylate and disodium Cromoglycate.

  9. Entomopatogenic fungi as an alternative for biological pest control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Andrés Motta Delgado

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The entomopatogenic fungi are a diverse group of microorganisms that provide multiple services to agroecological systems. Among those the capacity to regulate the pests to keep them in suitable levels stands out. The present paper shows a description of the entomopatogenic fungi of most extensively used for the biological control of pests, their mechanism of action on their host, and also investigations about the in vitro and in situ behavior of the mostly used fungi for the control of some insects. Also, the formulations that are used for the development of this biotechnology in the field are described. In the development of bioinsecticides the entomopatogenic fungi are a viable option to minimize environmental damage.

  10. Cost analysis of NOx control alternatives for stationary gas turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill Major

    1999-11-05

    The use of stationary gas turbines for power generation has been growing rapidly with continuing trends predicted well into the future. Factors that are contributing to this growth include advances in turbine technology, operating and siting flexibility and low capital cost. Restructuring of the electric utility industry will provide new opportunities for on-site generation. In a competitive market, it maybe more cost effective to install small distributed generation units (like gas turbines) within the grid rather than constructing large power plants in remote locations with extensive transmission and distribution systems. For the customer, on-site generation will provide added reliability and leverage over the cost of purchased power One of the key issues that is addressed in virtually every gas turbine application is emissions, particularly NO{sub x} emissions. Decades of research and development have significantly reduced the NO{sub x} levels emitted from gas turbines from uncontrolled levels. Emission control technologies are continuing to evolve with older technologies being gradually phased-out while new technologies are being developed and commercialized. The objective of this study is to determine and compare the cost of NO{sub x} control technologies for three size ranges of stationary gas turbines: 5 MW, 25 MW and 150 MW. The purpose of the comparison is to evaluate the cost effectiveness and impact of each control technology as a function of turbine size. The NO{sub x} control technologies evaluated in this study include: Lean premix combustion, also known as dry low NO{sub x} (DLN) combustion; Catalytic combustion; Water/steam injection; Selective catalytic reduction (SCR)--low temperature, conventional, high temperature; and SCONO{sub x}{trademark}.

  11. Genetic Algorithm Optimizes Q-LAW Control Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seungwon; von Allmen, Paul; Petropoulos, Anastassios; Terrile, Richard

    2008-01-01

    A document discusses a multi-objective, genetic algorithm designed to optimize Lyapunov feedback control law (Q-law) parameters in order to efficiently find Pareto-optimal solutions for low-thrust trajectories for electronic propulsion systems. These would be propellant-optimal solutions for a given flight time, or flight time optimal solutions for a given propellant requirement. The approximate solutions are used as good initial solutions for high-fidelity optimization tools. When the good initial solutions are used, the high-fidelity optimization tools quickly converge to a locally optimal solution near the initial solution. Q-law control parameters are represented as real-valued genes in the genetic algorithm. The performances of the Q-law control parameters are evaluated in the multi-objective space (flight time vs. propellant mass) and sorted by the non-dominated sorting method that assigns a better fitness value to the solutions that are dominated by a fewer number of other solutions. With the ranking result, the genetic algorithm encourages the solutions with higher fitness values to participate in the reproduction process, improving the solutions in the evolution process. The population of solutions converges to the Pareto front that is permitted within the Q-law control parameter space.

  12. OZONE: ALTERNATIVE METHOD FOR MITE CONTROL ON SPECK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Cantoni

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at the development of a method for integrated mite control in the industrial production of speck. The investigation were carried out on the premises of five factories in the north-east of Italy. Tyrophagus putrescentiae and T. longior were predominant. The gaseous ozone treatment at low level (0.4 ppm was able to kill mites in a period within 15 days and 1 month. The characteristic layer of mould on the product surface reappears within 1 month from the end of treatment with ozone.

  13. Selecting alternative strategies for community health education in guineaworm control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brieger, W R; Ramakrishna, J; Akpovi, S U; Adeniyi, J D

    1984-01-01

    Community health education strategies in guineaworm control can be applied at several intervention levels. Community development mobilizes local resources to provide safe water supplies such as wells. Mass education in schools and communities can teach personal protection measures such as filtering water. Training of volunteer community health workers produces front line staff, who by being culturally in tune with the community can demonstrate and promote the use of appropriate prevention and treatment measures. Advocacy assists community members to express their needs to government and ministry decision makers. All of these strategies have been applied in a community health education/primary health care program in Idere, Ibarapa District, Oyo State. Community development for well construction was found to be a long-term strategy that first must overcome problems of village organization and resource location. Mass education, to be effective, must have a simple and acceptable technology to promote. Trained village health workers must overcome traditional beliefs that inhibit use of preventive and treatment measures. Advocacy requires basic political education of community leaders. A variety of health education strategies is needed to address short- and long-term priorities as well as to overcome the different barriers to guineaworm control.

  14. Alternative method of hemorrhage control in full strength formocresol pulpotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, K S; Seale, N S; Nunn, M E; Huff, G

    2001-01-01

    This investigation evaluated the success of a formocresol pulpotomy technique in which hemostasis was obtained with the same formocresol dampened cotton pellet used to medicate the root pulp stumps and to compare the findings of this investigation with data of published formocresol pulpotomy studies in which hemorrhage was controlled by traditional means. Clinical and radiographic data were available for 194 primary molars in 112 patients with follow up times ranging from 5 to 109 months (mean = 38 months). Overall radiographic success was 87%. The most frequently observed pulpal responses were calcific metamorphosis (34%) and internal resorption (10%). Overall clinical success was 98%. Only 7 of 194 molars were extracted due to radiographic and/or clinical failure. Overall cumulative probability of survival remained high over time with a cumulative survival rate of over 94% over 4 years. The success rates for this variation of the formocresol technique are comparable to those success rates in the literature where hemostasis was obtained in a separate step using a nonmedicated cotton pellet. The results of this study suggest that using the same cotton pellet dampened with full strength formocresol to obtain hemorrhage control and medicate the root pulp is an acceptable variation of the traditional formocresol pulpotomy technique.

  15. Alternatives to neonicotinoid insecticides for pest control: case studies in agriculture and forestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlan, Lorenzo; Kreutzweiser, David

    2015-01-01

    Neonicotinoid insecticides are widely used for control of insect pests around the world and are especially pervasive in agricultural pest management. There is a growing body of evidence indicating that the broad-scale and prophylactic uses of neonicotinoids pose serious risks of harm to beneficial organisms and their ecological function. This provides the impetus for exploring alternatives to neonicotinoid insecticides for controlling insect pests. We draw from examples of alternative pest control options in Italian maize production and Canadian forestry to illustrate the principles of applying alternatives to neonicotinoids under an integrated pest management (IPM) strategy. An IPM approach considers all relevant and available information to make informed management decisions, providing pest control options based on actual need. We explore the benefits and challenges of several options for management of three insect pests in maize crops and an invasive insect pest in forests, including diversifying crop rotations, altering the timing of planting, tillage and irrigation, using less sensitive crops in infested areas, applying biological control agents, and turning to alternative reduced risk insecticides. Continued research into alternatives is warranted, but equally pressing is the need for information transfer and training for farmers and pest managers and the need for policies and regulations to encourage the adoption of IPM strategies and their alternative pest control options.

  16. Evolutionary biology and genetic techniques for insect control

    OpenAIRE

    Leftwich, Philip; Bolton, Michael; Chapman, Tracey

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The requirement to develop new techniques for insect control that minimize negative environmental impacts has never been more pressing. Here we discuss population suppression and population replacement technologies. These include sterile insect technique, genetic elimination methods such as the release of insects carrying a dominant lethal (RIDL), and gene driving mechanisms offered by intracellular bacteria and homing endonucleases. We also review the potential of newer or underutil...

  17. Evidence for mitochondrial genetic control of autosomal gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassam, Irfahan; Qi, Tuan; Lloyd-Jones, Luke; Holloway, Alexander; Jan Bonder, Marc; Henders, Anjali K; Martin, Nicholas G; Powell, Joseph E; Franke, Lude; Montgomery, Grant W; Visscher, Peter M; McRae, Allan F

    2016-10-18

    The mitochondrial and nuclear genomes coordinate and co-evolve in eukaryotes in order to adapt to environmental changes. Variation in the mitochondrial genome is capable of affecting expression of genes on the nuclear genome. Sex-specific mitochondrial genetic control of gene expression has been demonstrated in Drosophila melanogaster, where males were found to drive most of the total variation in gene expression. This has potential implications for male-related health and disease resulting from variation in mtDNA solely inherited from the mother. We used a family-based study comprised of 47,323 gene expression probes and 78 mitochondrial SNPs (mtSNPs) from n = 846 individuals to examine the extent of mitochondrial genetic control of gene expression in humans. This identified 15 significant probe-mtSNP associations (P[Formula: see text]) corresponding to 5 unique genes on the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes, with three of these genes corresponding to mitochondrial genetic control of gene expression in the nuclear genome. The associated mtSNPs for three genes (one cis and two trans associations) were replicated (P expression in any of these five probes. Sex-specific effects were examined by applying our analysis to males and females separately and testing for differences in effect size. The MEST gene was identified as having the most significantly different effect sizes across the sexes (P [Formula: see text]). MEST was similarly expressed in males and females with the G allele; however, males with the C allele are highly expressed for MEST, while females show no expression of the gene. This study provides evidence for the mitochondrial genetic control of expression of several genes in humans, with little evidence found for sex-specific effects.

  18. Individual organisms as units of analysis: Bayesian-clustering alternatives in population genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mank, Judith E; Avise, John C

    2004-12-01

    Population genetic analyses traditionally focus on the frequencies of alleles or genotypes in 'populations' that are delimited a priori. However, there are potential drawbacks of amalgamating genetic data into such composite attributes of assemblages of specimens: genetic information on individual specimens is lost or submerged as an inherent part of the analysis. A potential also exists for circular reasoning when a population's initial identification and subsequent genetic characterization are coupled. In principle, these problems are circumvented by some newer methods of population identification and individual assignment based on statistical clustering of specimen genotypes. Here we evaluate a recent method in this genre--Bayesian clustering--using four genotypic data sets involving different types of molecular markers in non-model organisms from nature. As expected, measures of population genetic structure (F(ST) and phiST) tended to be significantly greater in Bayesian a posteriori data treatments than in analyses where populations were delimited a priori. In the four biological contexts examined, which involved both geographic population structures and hybrid zones, Bayesian clustering was able to recover differentiated populations, and Bayesian assignments were able to identify likely population sources of specific individuals.

  19. Application of genetic algorithms to tuning fuzzy control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espy, Todd; Vombrack, Endre; Aldridge, Jack

    1993-01-01

    Real number genetic algorithms (GA) were applied for tuning fuzzy membership functions of three controller applications. The first application is our 'Fuzzy Pong' demonstration, a controller that controls a very responsive system. The performance of the automatically tuned membership functions exceeded that of manually tuned membership functions both when the algorithm started with randomly generated functions and with the best manually-tuned functions. The second GA tunes input membership functions to achieve a specified control surface. The third application is a practical one, a motor controller for a printed circuit manufacturing system. The GA alters the positions and overlaps of the membership functions to accomplish the tuning. The applications, the real number GA approach, the fitness function and population parameters, and the performance improvements achieved are discussed. Directions for further research in tuning input and output membership functions and in tuning fuzzy rules are described.

  20. Genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kaare; McGue, Matt

    2016-01-01

    The sequenced genomes of individuals aged ≥80 years, who were highly educated, self-referred volunteers and with no self-reported chronic diseases were compared to young controls. In these data, healthy ageing is a distinct phenotype from exceptional longevity and genetic factors that protect...

  1. The uses of alternative dispute resolution to resolve genetic disputes. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, Robert E.

    2003-01-01

    The report sets out lessons learned while carrying out the study. It concludes that genetic disputes will increase in number and that ADR processes including mediation, arbitration, the use of independent experts and court-appointed masters can be helpful in resolving them. It suggests additional effort on bioremediation, and workplace disputes and training for ADR neutrals.

  2. Generating Alternative Engineering Designs by Integrating Desktop VR with Genetic Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandramouli, Magesh; Bertoline, Gary; Connolly, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    This study proposes an innovative solution to the problem of multiobjective engineering design optimization by integrating desktop VR with genetic computing. Although, this study considers the case of construction design as an example to illustrate the framework, this method can very much be extended to other engineering design problems as well.…

  3. Generating Alternative Engineering Designs by Integrating Desktop VR with Genetic Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandramouli, Magesh; Bertoline, Gary; Connolly, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    This study proposes an innovative solution to the problem of multiobjective engineering design optimization by integrating desktop VR with genetic computing. Although, this study considers the case of construction design as an example to illustrate the framework, this method can very much be extended to other engineering design problems as well.…

  4. An alternative approach to modeling genetic merit of feed efficiency in dairy cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic improvement of feed efficiency (FE) in dairy cattle requires greater attention given increasingly important resource constraint issues. A widely accepted yet occasionally contested measure of FE in dairy cattle is residual feed intake (RFI). The use of RFI is limiting for a number of reasons...

  5. Tissue-specific genetic control of splicing: implications for the study of complex traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin L Heinzen

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Numerous genome-wide screens for polymorphisms that influence gene expression have provided key insights into the genetic control of transcription. Despite this work, the relevance of specific polymorphisms to in vivo expression and splicing remains unclear. We carried out the first genome-wide screen, to our knowledge, for SNPs that associate with alternative splicing and gene expression in human primary cells, evaluating 93 autopsy-collected cortical brain tissue samples with no defined neuropsychiatric condition and 80 peripheral blood mononucleated cell samples collected from living healthy donors. We identified 23 high confidence associations with total expression and 80 with alternative splicing as reflected by expression levels of specific exons. Fewer than 50% of the implicated SNPs however show effects in both tissue types, reflecting strong evidence for distinct genetic control of splicing and expression in the two tissue types. The data generated here also suggest the possibility that splicing effects may be responsible for up to 13 out of 84 reported genome-wide significant associations with human traits. These results emphasize the importance of establishing a database of polymorphisms affecting splicing and expression in primary tissue types and suggest that splicing effects may be of more phenotypic significance than overall gene expression changes.

  6. Genetic control of lithium sensitivity and regulation of inositol biosynthetic genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason King

    Full Text Available Lithium (Li(+ is a common treatment for bipolar mood disorder, a major psychiatric illness with a lifetime prevalence of more than 1%. Risk of bipolar disorder is heavily influenced by genetic predisposition, but is a complex genetic trait and, to date, genetic studies have provided little insight into its molecular origins. An alternative approach is to investigate the genetics of Li(+ sensitivity. Using the social amoeba Dictyostelium, we previously identified prolyl oligopeptidase (PO as a modulator of Li(+ sensitivity. In a link to the clinic, PO enzyme activity is altered in bipolar disorder patients. Further studies demonstrated that PO is a negative regulator of inositol(1,4,5trisphosphate (IP(3 synthesis, a Li(+ sensitive intracellular signal. However, it was unclear how PO could influence either Li(+ sensitivity or risk of bipolar disorder. Here we show that in both Dictyostelium and cultured human cells PO acts via Multiple Inositol Polyphosphate Phosphatase (Mipp1 to control gene expression. This reveals a novel, gene regulatory network that modulates inositol metabolism and Li(+ sensitivity. Among its targets is the inositol monophosphatase gene IMPA2, which has also been associated with risk of bipolar disorder in some family studies, and our observations offer a cellular signalling pathway in which PO activity and IMPA2 gene expression converge.

  7. Optimal control strategy of malaria vector using genetically modified mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafikov, M; Bevilacqua, L; Wyse, A P P

    2009-06-07

    The development of transgenic mosquitoes that are resistant to diseases may provide a new and effective weapon of diseases control. Such an approach relies on transgenic mosquitoes being able to survive and compete with wild-type populations. These transgenic mosquitoes carry a specific code that inhibits the plasmodium evolution in its organism. It is said that this characteristic is hereditary and consequently the disease fades away after some time. Once transgenic mosquitoes are released, interactions between the two populations and inter-specific mating between the two types of mosquitoes take place. We present a mathematical model that considers the generation overlapping and variable environment factors. Based on this continuous model, the malaria vector control is formulated and solved as an optimal control problem, indicating how genetically modified mosquitoes should be introduced in the environment. Numerical simulations show the effectiveness of the proposed control.

  8. Genetic and Environmental Control of Neurodevelopmental Robustness in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Mellert

    Full Text Available Interindividual differences in neuronal wiring may contribute to behavioral individuality and affect susceptibility to neurological disorders. To investigate the causes and potential consequences of wiring variation in Drosophila melanogaster, we focused on a hemilineage of ventral nerve cord interneurons that exhibits morphological variability. We find that late-born subclasses of the 12A hemilineage are highly sensitive to genetic and environmental variation. Neurons in the second thoracic segment are particularly variable with regard to two developmental decisions, whereas its segmental homologs are more robust. This variability "hotspot" depends on Ultrabithorax expression in the 12A neurons, indicating variability is cell-intrinsic and under genetic control. 12A development is more variable and sensitive to temperature in long-established laboratory strains than in strains recently derived from the wild. Strains with a high frequency of one of the 12A variants also showed a high frequency of animals with delayed spontaneous flight initiation, whereas other wing-related behaviors did not show such a correlation and were thus not overtly affected by 12A variation. These results show that neurodevelopmental robustness is variable and under genetic control in Drosophila and suggest that the fly may serve as a model for identifying conserved gene pathways that stabilize wiring in stressful developmental environments. Moreover, some neuronal lineages are variation hotspots and thus may be more amenable to evolutionary change.

  9. Genetic distance as an alternative to physical distance for definition of gene units in association studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Fontenla, Cristina; Calaza, Manuel; Gonzalez, Antonio

    2014-05-28

    Some association studies, as the implemented in VEGAS, ALIGATOR, i-GSEA4GWAS, GSA-SNP and other software tools, use genes as the unit of analysis. These genes include the coding sequence plus flanking sequences. Polymorphisms in the flanking sequences are of interest because they involve cis-regulatory elements or they inform on untyped genetic variants trough linkage disequilibrium. Gene extensions have customarily been defined as ±50 Kb. This approach is not fully satisfactory because genetic relationships between neighbouring sequences are a function of genetic distances, which are only poorly replaced by physical distances. Standardized recombination rates (SRR) from the deCODE recombination map were used as units of genetic distances. We searched for a SRR producing flanking sequences near the ±50 Kb offset that has been common in previous studies. A SRR≥2 was selected because it led to gene extensions with median length=45.3 Kb and the simplicity of an integer value. As expected, boundaries of the genes defined with the ±50 Kb and with the SRR≥2 rules were rarely concordant. The impact of these differences was illustrated with the interpretation of top association signals from two large studies including many hits and their detailed analysis based in different criteria. The definition based in genetic distance was more concordant with the results of these studies than the based in physical distance. In the analysis of 18 top disease associated loci form the first study, the SRR≥2 genes led to a fully concordant interpretation in 17 loci; the ±50 Kb genes only in 6. Interpretation of the 43 putative functional genes of the second study based in the SRR≥2 definition only missed 4 of the genes, whereas the based in the ±50 Kb definition missed 10 genes. A gene definition based on genetic distance led to results more concordant with expert detailed analyses than the commonly used based in physical distance. The genome coordinates for each

  10. Genetic and physiological controls of growth under water deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardieu, François; Parent, Boris; Caldeira, Cecilio F; Welcker, Claude

    2014-04-01

    The sensitivity of expansive growth to water deficit has a large genetic variability, which is higher than that of photosynthesis. It is observed in several species, with some genotypes stopping growth in a relatively wet soil, whereas others continue growing until the lower limit of soil-available water. The responses of growth to soil water deficit and evaporative demand share an appreciable part of their genetic control through the colocation of quantitative trait loci as do the responses of the growth of different organs to water deficit. This result may be caused by common mechanisms of action discussed in this paper (particularly, plant hydraulic properties). We propose that expansive growth, putatively linked to hydraulic processes, determines the sink strength under water deficit, whereas photosynthesis determines source strength. These findings have large consequences for plant modeling under water deficit and for the design of breeding programs.

  11. One Community’s Effort to Control Genetic Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puffenberger, Erik G.; Morton, D. Holmes

    2012-01-01

    In 1989, we established a small community health clinic to provide care for uninsured Amish and Mennonite children with genetic disorders. Over 20 years, we have used publicly available molecular data and sophisticated technologies to improve diagnostic efficiency, control laboratory costs, reduce hospitalizations, and prevent major neurological impairments within a rural underserved community. These actions allowed the clinic’s 2010 operating budget of $1.5 million to save local communities an estimated $20 to $25 million in aggregate medical costs. This exposes an unsettling fact: our failure to improve the lot of most people stricken with genetic disease is no longer a matter of scientific ignorance or prohibitive costs but of choices we make about how to implement existing knowledge and resources. PMID:22594747

  12. Genetic algorithm with alternating selection pressure for protein side-chain packing and pK(a) prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comte, Pascal; Vassiliev, Sergei; Houghten, Sheridan; Bruce, Doug

    2011-09-01

    The prediction of protein side-chain conformation is central for understanding protein functions. Side-chain packing is a sub-problem of protein folding and its computational complexity has been shown to be NP-hard. We investigated the capabilities of a hybrid (genetic algorithm/simulated annealing) technique for side-chain packing and for the generation of an ensemble of low energy side-chain conformations. Our method first relies on obtaining a near-optimal low energy protein conformation by optimizing its amino-acid side-chains. Upon convergence, the genetic algorithm is allowed to undergo forward and "backward" evolution by alternating selection pressures between minimal and higher energy setpoints. We show that this technique is very efficient for obtaining distributions of solutions centered at any desired energy from the minimum. We outline the general concepts of our evolutionary sampling methodology using three different alternating selective pressure schemes. Quality of the method was assessed by using it for protein pK(a) prediction. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Insects feeding on cadavers as an alternative source of human genetic material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Skowronek

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In some criminal cases, the use of classical sources of human genetic material is difficult or even impossible. One solution may be the use of insects, especially blowfly larvae which feed on corpses. A recent review of case reports and experimental studies available in biomedical databases has shown that insects can be a valuable source of human mitochondrial and genomic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA, allowing for an effective analysis of hypervariable region (HVR sequences and short tandem repeat (STR profiles, respectively. The optimal source of human DNA is the crop (a part of the gut of active third-instar blowfly larvae. Pupae and insect faeces can be also used in forensic genetic practice instead of the contents of the alimentary tract.

  14. Direct coupling: a possible strategy to control fruit production in alternate bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Awadhesh; Sakai, Kenshi; Hoshino, Yoshinobu

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the theoretical possibility of applying phenomenon of synchronization of coupled nonlinear oscillators to control alternate bearing in citrus. The alternate bearing of fruit crops is a phenomenon in which a year of heavy yield is followed by an extremely light one. This phenomenon has been modeled previously by the resource budget model, which describes a typical nonlinear oscillator of the tent map type. We have demonstrated how direct coupling, which could be practically realized through grafting, contributes to the nonlinear dynamics of alternate bearing, especially phase synchronization. Our results show enhancement of out-of-phase synchronization in production, which depends on initial conditions obtained under the given system parameters. Based on these numerical experiments, we propose a new method to control alternate bearing, say in citrus, thereby enabling stable fruit production. The feasibility of validating the current results through field experimentation is also discussed.

  15. Direct coupling: a possible strategy to control fruit production in alternate bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Awadhesh; Sakai, Kenshi; Hoshino, Yoshinobu

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the theoretical possibility of applying phenomenon of synchronization of coupled nonlinear oscillators to control alternate bearing in citrus. The alternate bearing of fruit crops is a phenomenon in which a year of heavy yield is followed by an extremely light one. This phenomenon has been modeled previously by the resource budget model, which describes a typical nonlinear oscillator of the tent map type. We have demonstrated how direct coupling, which could be practically realized through grafting, contributes to the nonlinear dynamics of alternate bearing, especially phase synchronization. Our results show enhancement of out-of-phase synchronization in production, which depends on initial conditions obtained under the given system parameters. Based on these numerical experiments, we propose a new method to control alternate bearing, say in citrus, thereby enabling stable fruit production. The feasibility of validating the current results through field experimentation is also discussed. PMID:28051141

  16. Genetic Algorithm and Fuzzy Tuning PID Controller Applied on Speed Control System for Marine Diesel Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naeim Farouk

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The degree of speed control of ship machinery effects on the economics and optimization of the machinery configuration and operation. All marine vessel ranging need some sort of speed control system to control and govern the speed of the marine diesel engines. The main focus of this study is to apply and comparative between two specific soft-computing techniques. Fuzzy logic controller and genetic algorithm to design and tuning of PID controller for applied on speed control system of marine diesel engine to get an output with better dynamic and static performance. Simulation results show that the response of system when using genetic algorithm is better and faster than when using fuzzy tuning PID controller.

  17. Economics of eradicating Foot-and-Mouth disease epidemics with alternative control strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergevoet, R.H.M.; Asseldonk, van M.A.P.M.

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents an economic analysis of Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD) control strategies for livestock herds. Alternative vaccination-to-live control strategies were compared to the strategy that involves culling of all susceptible animals in an area of 1 km around infected herds in addition to

  18. 7 CFR 58.149 - Alternate quality control programs for dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Alternate quality control programs for dairy products... FOR GRADES OF DAIRY PRODUCTS 1 General Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection... for dairy products. (a) When a plant has in operation an acceptable quality control program which...

  19. Economics of eradicating Foot-and-Mouth disease epidemics with alternative control strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergevoet, R.H.M.; Asseldonk, van M.A.P.M.

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents an economic analysis of Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD) control strategies for livestock herds. Alternative vaccination-to-live control strategies were compared to the strategy that involves culling of all susceptible animals in an area of 1 km around infected herds in addition to st

  20. Chemical characterization of Lippia alba essential oil: an alternative to control green molds

    OpenAIRE

    Jasmina Glamočlija; Marina Soković; Vele Tešević; Giani Andrea Linde; Nelson Barros Colauto

    2011-01-01

    The essential oil of Lippia alba is reported as an antifungal against human pathogenic microorganisms but few articles report its use as an alternative to synthetic fungicides on green mould control. The objective of this study was to determine chemical characteristics of L. alba essential oil and its antifungal activity against green molds as an alternative to synthetic fungicides. Essential oil was extracted by Clevenger hydrodistillation, characterized by GC-MS analysis, and the structure ...

  1. Game Bozo – genetics: a didactic proposal as an alternative to DNA replication of teaching in high school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia de Oliveira Rosa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Today, despite hearing much talking about the DNA molecule in newspapers, magazines, news and TV programs, it is still perceived many difficulties for the students to assimilate the concepts and understand the gene processes. Faced with this reality is that the idea of creating a playful activity arose, as a methodological tool, in order to arouse the interest of students to study scientific concepts addressed in genetics education, including those involved in the DNA replication process. The game was developed by students of Biological Sciences Degree, the IFAM (Federal Institute of Science and Technology Amazon in Molecular Genetics discipline. Which, inspired by the traditional game Bozó, created the Bozó-genetic game, which consists of playing the dice, adding the numbers present on the faces of the dice and score according to the rules of the game. A simple, low cost and efficient alternative in transmission of scientific knowledge easily and interactively, with the possibility of aid student and teacher in the teaching-learning process.

  2. Application of Improved Genetic Algorithm in PID Controller Parameters Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ying Chen, Yong-jie Ma, Wen-xia Yun College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Northwest Normal University, Anning Road no.967 ,Lanzhou,China,0931-7971503 e-mail:chenying1386685@126.com Abstract The setting and optimization of Proportion Integration Differentiation(PID parameters have been always the important study topics in the automatic control field. The current optimization design methods are often difficult to consider the system requirements for quickness ,reliability and robustness .So a method of PID controller parameters optimization based on Improved Genetic Algorithm(IGA is presented .Simulations with Matlab have proved that the control performance index based on IGA is better than that of the GA method and Z-N method, and is a method which has good practical value of the PID parameter setting and optimization .

  3. Genetic and epigenetic control of plant heat responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junzhong eLiu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Plants have evolved sophisticated genetic and epigenetic regulatory systems to respond quickly to unfavorable environmental conditions such as heat, cold, drought, and pathogen infections. In particular, heat greatly affects plant growth and development, immunity and circadian rhythm, and poses a serious threat to the global food supply. According to temperatures exposing, heat can be usually classified as warm ambient temperature (about 22-27℃, high temperature (27-30℃ and extremely high temperature (37-42℃, also known as heat stress for the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. The genetic mechanisms of plant responses to heat have been well studied, mainly focusing on elevated ambient temperature-mediated morphological acclimation and acceleration of flowering, modulation of plant immunity and circadian clock by high temperatures, and thermotolerance to heat stress. Recently, great progress has been achieved on epigenetic regulation of heat responses, including DNA methylation, histone modifications, histone variants, ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling, histone chaperones, small RNAs, long non-coding RNAs and other undefined epigenetic mechanisms. These epigenetic modifications regulate the expression of heat-responsive genes and function to prevent heat-related damage. This review focuses on recent progresses regarding the genetic and epigenetic control of heat responses in plants, and pays more attention to the role of the major epigenetic mechanisms in plant heat responses. Further research perspectives are also discussed.

  4. Manipulator Neural Network Control Based on Fuzzy Genetic Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The three-layer forward neural networks are used to establish the inverse kinem a tics models of robot manipulators. The fuzzy genetic algorithm based on the line ar scaling of the fitness value is presented to update the weights of neural net works. To increase the search speed of the algorithm, the crossover probability and the mutation probability are adjusted through fuzzy control and the fitness is modified by the linear scaling method in FGA. Simulations show that the propo sed method improves considerably the precision of the inverse kinematics solutio ns for robot manipulators and guarantees a rapid global convergence and overcome s the drawbacks of SGA and the BP algorithm.

  5. Control of the lighting system using a genetic algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čongradac Velimir D.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The manufacturing, distribution and use of electricity are of fundamental importance for the social life and they have the biggest influence on the environment associated with any human activity. The energy needed for building lighting makes up 20-40% of the total consumption. This paper displays the development of the mathematical model and genetic algorithm for the control of dimmable lighting on problems of regulating the level of internal lighting and increase of energetic efficiency using daylight. A series of experiments using the optimization algorithm on the realized model confirmed very high savings in electricity consumption.

  6. Genetic control of immune responsiveness in the chicken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijpp, van der A.J.

    1982-01-01

    Disease can be combated by medication, vaccination, hygienic measures, eradication and genetic resistance. Genetic resistance to infectious diseases is advantageous because of its permanent character in contrast with the aforementioned procedures. In the chicken genetic resistance to specific diseas

  7. Symptom dimensions as alternative phenotypes to address genetic heterogeneity in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labbe, Aurélie; Bureau, Alexandre; Moreau, Isabel; Roy, Marc-André; Chagnon, Yvon; Maziade, Michel; Merette, Chantal

    2012-11-01

    This study introduces a novel way to use the lifetime ratings of symptoms of psychosis, mania and depression in genetic linkage analysis of schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BP). It suggests using a latent class model developed for family data to define more homogeneous symptom subtypes that are influenced by a smaller number of genes that will thus be more easily detectable. In a two-step approach, we proposed: (i) to form homogeneous clusters of subjects based on the symptom dimensions and (ii) to use the information from these homogeneous clusters in linkage analysis. This framework was applied to a unique SZ and BP sample composed of 1278 subjects from 48 large kindreds from the Eastern Quebec population. The results suggest that our strategy has the power to increase linkage signals previously obtained using the diagnosis as phenotype and allows for a better characterization of the linkage signals. This is the case for a linkage signal, which we formerly obtained in chromosome 13q and enhanced using the dimension mania. The analysis also suggests that the methods may detect new linkage signals not previously uncovered by using diagnosis alone, as in chromosomes 2q (delusion), 15q (bizarre behavior), 7p (anhedonia) and 9q (delusion). In the case of the 15q and 2q region, the results coincide with linkage signals detected in other studies. Our results support the view that dissecting phenotypic heterogeneity by modeling symptom dimensions may provide new insights into the genetics of SZ and BP.

  8. Evolutionary biology and genetic techniques for insect control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leftwich, Philip T; Bolton, Michael; Chapman, Tracey

    2016-01-01

    The requirement to develop new techniques for insect control that minimize negative environmental impacts has never been more pressing. Here we discuss population suppression and population replacement technologies. These include sterile insect technique, genetic elimination methods such as the release of insects carrying a dominant lethal (RIDL), and gene driving mechanisms offered by intracellular bacteria and homing endonucleases. We also review the potential of newer or underutilized methods such as reproductive interference, CRISPR technology, RNA interference (RNAi), and genetic underdominance. We focus on understanding principles and potential effectiveness from the perspective of evolutionary biology. This offers useful insights into mechanisms through which potential problems may be minimized, in much the same way that an understanding of how resistance evolves is key to slowing the spread of antibiotic and insecticide resistance. We conclude that there is much to gain from applying principles from the study of resistance in these other scenarios - specifically, the adoption of combinatorial approaches to minimize the spread of resistance evolution. We conclude by discussing the focused use of GM for insect pest control in the context of modern conservation planning under land-sparing scenarios.

  9. GENETIC BASED PLUS INTEGRAL CONTROLLER FOR PMBLDC MOTOR CONTROL USING RESONANT POLE INVERTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muruganantham

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Permanent Magnet Brushless DC (PMBLDC motor drives are increasingly popular in industrial applications due to rapid progress of technologies in power electronics and the growing demand for energy saving. The increasing demand of energy saving from society is the external force for the development of PMBLDC motor drives. It is however driven by a hard-switching Pulse Width Modulation (PWM inverter, which has low switching frequency, high switching loss, high Electro-Magnetic Interference (EMI, high acoustic noise and low efficiency, etc. To solve these problems of the hard-switching inverter, many soft-switching inverters have been designed in the past. Unfortunately, high device voltage stress, large dc link voltage ripples, complex control scheme and so on are noticed in the soft-switching inverters. This study introduces a novel genetic-proportional Plus Integral (PI controller based resonant pole inverter using transformer, which can generate dc link voltage notches during chopping which minimize the drawbacks of soft-switching. Hence all switches work in zero-voltage switching condition. The performance of the genetic-based PI controller is compared with conventional PI controller. The experimental results show that the genetic-based PI controller renders a better transient response than the conventional PI controller resulting in negligible overshoot, smaller settling time and rise time. Moreover the proposed controller provides low torque ripples and high starting torque. Both simulation and experimental results are presented to show the superiority of the proposed GA-PI controller based resonant pole inverter.

  10. Controllability of Free-piston Stirling Engine/linear Alternator Driving a Dynamic Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kankam, M. David; Rauch, Jeffrey S.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents the dynamic behavior of a Free-Piston Stirling Engine/linear alternator (FPSE/LA) driving a single-phase fractional horse-power induction motor. The controllability and dynamic stability of the system are discussed by means of sensitivity effects of variations in system parameters, engine controller, operating conditions, and mechanical loading on the induction motor. The approach used expands on a combined mechanical and thermodynamic formulation employed in a previous paper. The application of state-space technique and frequency domain analysis enhances understanding of the dynamic interactions. Engine-alternator parametric sensitivity studies, similar to those of the previous paper, are summarized. Detailed discussions are provided for parametric variations which relate to the engine controller and system operating conditions. The results suggest that the controllability of a FPSE-based power system is enhanced by proper operating conditions and built-in controls.

  11. Newborn genetic identification: a protocol using microsatellite DNA as an alternative to footprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Pancorbo, M M; Rodríguez-Alarcón, J; Castro, A; Fernández-Fernández, I; Melchor, J C; Linares, A; García-Orad, A; Fernández-Llebrez del Rey, L; Aranguren, G; Santillana, L

    1997-07-04

    Newborn identification by foot- or finger-printing presents serious drawbacks. This study proposes an alternative method based on DNA analysis of blood-spots taken from the newborn child. CSF1PO, TPOX and TH01 microsatellite loci were chosen to develop a fast and reliable protocol to be applied in cases where it is suspected that newborn children have been exchanged. The advantage of these loci is that one can simultaneously amplify them by PCR multiplex reaction and determine their alleles, thereby reducing the time needed for identification tests. Moreover, the amplification products of these loci are very small (< 350 bp) and so can be analyzed in samples with degraded DNA. We have been able to prove that it is possible to obtain results in blood-spots taken from newborns up to 13 years before and kept at room temperature. Thus the protocol proposed here can be applied in long-term post-natal identification cases.

  12. Genetic parameters and alternatives for evaluation and ranking of Nellore young bulls in pasture performance tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breno de Oliveira Fragomeni

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to estimate (covariance components for weight at 550 days, average daily gain and an index with both traits, and to compare alternatives for evaluation and ranking of Nellore young bulls in pasture performance tests. The heritability estimates were 0.73, 0.31 and 0.44 for weight at 550 days, average daily gain and index, respectively. Animals were ranked according to their predicted breeding values or the phenotypic deviations in relation to the mean of the test. Although the correlations between breeding values and phenotypic deviations were high, there were differences in the number of animals selected in common when the selection criteria were the predicted breeding values or the phenotypic deviations. Mixed models are more appropriate than the least squares method and should be utilized in the evaluation of young bulls in performance tests.

  13. Genetic suppression of Gαs protein provides rate control in atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugenbiel, Patrick; Thomas, Dierk; Kelemen, Kamilla; Trappe, Kerstin; Bikou, Olympia; Schweizer, Patrick A; Voss, Frederik; Becker, Rüdiger; Katus, Hugo A; Bauer, Alexander

    2012-05-01

    Gene therapy-based modulation of atrioventricular (AV) conduction by overexpression of a constitutively active inhibitory Gα(i) protein effectively reduced heart rates in atrial fibrillation (AF). However, catecholamine stimulation caused an excessive increase in ventricular rate. We hypothesized that modest genetic suppression of a stimulatory G protein in the AV node would allow persistent rate control in acute AF and would prevent undesired heart rate acceleration during β-adrenergic activation. Atrial fibrillation was induced in 12 pigs by atrial burst pacing via an implanted cardiac pacemaker. Study animals were then assigned to receive either Ad-siRNA-Gα(s) gene therapy to inactivate Gα(s) protein or Ad-β-gal as control. Gα(s) protein inactivation resulted in a 20 % heart rate reduction (P genetic inhibition of Gα(s) protein in the AV node reduced heart rate and prevented AF-associated reduction of cardiac function in a porcine model. Rate control by gene therapy may provide an alternative to current pharmacological treatment of AF.

  14. Migratory decisions in birds: Extent of genetic versus environmental control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogonowski, M.S.; Conway, C.J.

    2009-01-01

    Migration is one of the most spectacular of animal behaviors and is prevalent across a broad array of taxa. In birds, we know much about the physiological basis of how birds migrate, but less about the relative contribution of genetic versus environmental factors in controlling migratory tendency. To evaluate the extent to which migratory decisions are genetically determined, we examined whether individual western burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) change their migratory tendency from one year to the next at two sites in southern Arizona. We also evaluated the heritability of migratory decisions by using logistic regression to examine the association between the migratory tendency of burrowing owl parents and their offspring. The probability of migrating decreased with age in both sexes and adult males were less migratory than females. Individual owls sometimes changed their migratory tendency from one year to the next, but changes were one-directional: adults that were residents during winter 2004-2005 remained residents the following winter, but 47% of adults that were migrants in winter 2004-2005 became residents the following winter. We found no evidence for an association between the migratory tendency of hatch-year owls and their male or female parents. Migratory tendency of hatch-year owls did not differ between years, study sites or sexes or vary by hatching date. Experimental provision of supplemental food did not affect these relationships. All of our results suggest that heritability of migratory tendency in burrowing owls is low, and that intraspecific variation in migratory tendency is likely due to: (1) environmental factors, or (2) a combination of environmental factors and non-additive genetic variation. The fact that an individual's migratory tendency can change across years implies that widespread anthropogenic changes (i.e., climate change or changes in land use) could potentially cause widespread changes in the migratory tendency of

  15. Organic acids and thymol: unsuitable alternative control of Aethina tumida Murray (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    To explore alternative small hive beetle control strategies, established Varroa destructor and Galleria mellonella treatments with organic acids (formic, lactic, oxalic and acetic) and thymol were investigated in the laboratory against eggs, larvae and adult small hive beetle (SHB). As formic and ox...

  16. Evaluation of alternative management strategies of muskrat Ondatra zibethicus population control using a population model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Daan; Ydenberg, Ron

    2011-01-01

    Muskrats Ondatra zibethicus are considered a pest species in the Netherlands, and a year-round control programme is in effect. Currently, the agency responsible for the management of muskrat populations in the Netherlands (the LCCM) is preparing for field studies to compare alternative strategies of

  17. Single dose spinal analgesia: Is it a good alternative to epidural analgesia in controlling labour pain?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek AbdElBarr

    2014-07-01

    Conclusions: Based on the results of our study we concluded that single dose spinal analgesia is a good alternative to epidural analgesia in controlling labour pain i.e. spinal compared to epidural is more easy performed, faster, less expensive, and provide effective analgesia.

  18. Global Status of DDT and Its Alternatives for Use in Vector Control to Prevent Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den H.

    2009-01-01

    Objective - I review the status of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), used for disease vector control, along with current evidence on its benefits and risks in relation to the available alternatives. Data sources and extraction - Contemporary data on DDT use were largely obtained from questionna

  19. Global Status of DDT and Its Alternatives for Use in Vector Control to Prevent Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den H.

    2009-01-01

    Objective - I review the status of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), used for disease vector control, along with current evidence on its benefits and risks in relation to the available alternatives. Data sources and extraction - Contemporary data on DDT use were largely obtained from

  20. Input-constrained model predictive control via the alternating direction method of multipliers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sokoler, Leo Emil; Frison, Gianluca; Andersen, Martin S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an algorithm, based on the alternating direction method of multipliers, for the convex optimal control problem arising in input-constrained model predictive control. We develop an efficient implementation of the algorithm for the extended linear quadratic control problem (LQCP......) with input and input-rate limits. The algorithm alternates between solving an extended LQCP and a highly structured quadratic program. These quadratic programs are solved using a Riccati iteration procedure, and a structure-exploiting interior-point method, respectively. The computational cost per iteration...... is quadratic in the dimensions of the controlled system, and linear in the length of the prediction horizon. Simulations show that the approach proposed in this paper is more than an order of magnitude faster than several state-of-the-art quadratic programming algorithms, and that the difference in computation...

  1. Transcranial Alternating Current Stimulation: A Potential Risk for Genetic Generalized Epilepsy Patients (Study Case)

    Science.gov (United States)

    San-Juan, Daniel; Sarmiento, Carlos Ignacio; Hernandez-Ruiz, Axel; Elizondo-Zepeda, Ernesto; Santos-Vázquez, Gabriel; Reyes-Acevedo, Gerardo; Zúñiga-Gazcón, Héctor; Zamora-Jarquín, Carol Marina

    2016-01-01

    Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) is a re-emergent neuromodulation technique that consists in the external application of oscillating electrical currents that induces changes in cortical excitability. We present the case of a 16-year-old female with pharmaco-resistant juvenile myoclonic epilepsy to 3 antiepileptic’s drugs characterized by 4 myoclonic and 20 absence seizures monthly. She received tACS at 1 mA at 3 Hz pulse train during 60 min over Fp1–Fp2 (10–20 EEG international system position) during 4 consecutive days using an Endeavor™ IOM Systems device® (Natus Medical Incorporated, Middleton, WI, USA). At the 1-month follow-up, she reported a 75% increase in seizures frequency (only myoclonic and tonic–clonic events) and developed a 24-h myoclonic status epilepticus that resolved with oral clonazepam and intravenous valproate. At the 2-month follow-up, the patient reported a 15-day seizure-free period. PMID:27965623

  2. Transcranial Alternating Current Stimulation: A potential risk for genetic generalized epilepsy patients (Study Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel San Juan Orta

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS is a re-emergent neuromodulation technique that consists in the external application of oscillating electrical currents that induces changes in cortical excitability. We present the case of a 16-year-old female with pharmaco-resistant juvenile myoclonic epilepsy to three antiepileptic’s drugs characterized by four myoclonic and 20 absence seizures monthly. She received tACS at 1mA@3Hz pulse train during 60 minutes over Fp1-Fp2 (10-20 EEG international system position during 4 consecutive days using an Endeavor™ IOM Systems device® (Natus Medical Incorporated, Middleton, WI, USA. At the one-month follow-up, she reported a 75% increase in seizures frequency (only myoclonic and tonic-clonic events and developed a 24h myoclonic status epilepticus that resolved with oral clonazepam and intravenous valproate. At the two-month follow-up, the patient reported a 15-day seizure-free period.

  3. DeepSAGE reveals genetic variants associated with alternative polyadenylation and expression of coding and non-coding transcripts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria V Zhernakova

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Many disease-associated variants affect gene expression levels (expression quantitative trait loci, eQTLs and expression profiling using next generation sequencing (NGS technology is a powerful way to detect these eQTLs. We analyzed 94 total blood samples from healthy volunteers with DeepSAGE to gain specific insight into how genetic variants affect the expression of genes and lengths of 3'-untranslated regions (3'-UTRs. We detected previously unknown cis-eQTL effects for GWAS hits in disease- and physiology-associated traits. Apart from cis-eQTLs that are typically easily identifiable using microarrays or RNA-sequencing, DeepSAGE also revealed many cis-eQTLs for antisense and other non-coding transcripts, often in genomic regions containing retrotransposon-derived elements. We also identified and confirmed SNPs that affect the usage of alternative polyadenylation sites, thereby potentially influencing the stability of messenger RNAs (mRNA. We then combined the power of RNA-sequencing with DeepSAGE by performing a meta-analysis of three datasets, leading to the identification of many more cis-eQTLs. Our results indicate that DeepSAGE data is useful for eQTL mapping of known and unknown transcripts, and for identifying SNPs that affect alternative polyadenylation. Because of the inherent differences between DeepSAGE and RNA-sequencing, our complementary, integrative approach leads to greater insight into the molecular consequences of many disease-associated variants.

  4. Environmental standards versus structural changes as sustainability alternatives: an empirical evaluation of nitrate pollution control

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, J. H.; Hodge, I.D

    1993-01-01

    The debate on the appropriate criteria for environmental sustainability encompasses a variety of approaches, ranging from conventional environmental standards through to complete system changes. In this paper, the relevance of the sustainability debate to practical decisionmaking is tested in an empirical context of nitrate pollution control in eastern England. Five alternative criteria (no control, aggregate and uniform standards, low and zero nitrogen- input systems) are specified for exami...

  5. Bioactive Hierarchical Structures for Genetic Control of Bone Morphogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Sepulveda

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available For thirty years it has been known that certain compositions of Na2O-CaO-P2O5-SiO 2 glasses will form a mechanically strong, chemical bond to bone. These materials have become known as bioactive glasses and the process of bonding is called bioactive fixation. Bioactive glasses are widely used clinically in the repair of bone defects. Recent research at the Imperial College Tissue Engineering Centre has now established that there is a genetic control of the cellular response to bioactive materials. Seven families of genes are up-regulated when primary human osteoblasts are exposed to the ionic dissolution products of bioactive glasses. The gene expression occurs very rapidly, within two days, and includes enhanced expression of cell cycle regulators. The consequence is rapid differentiation of the osteoblasts into a mature phenotype and formation of large three-dimensional bone nodules within six days in vitro. These cell culture results correlate with extensive human clinical results using the same bioactive material. The new genetic theory of bioactive materials provides a scientific foundation for molecular design of new generation of resorbable bioactive materials for tissue engineering and in situ tissue regeneration and repair. Application of this theory to the synthesis of bioactive foams for tissue engineering of bone is described.

  6. Optochemical control of genetically engineered neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tochitsky, Ivan; Banghart, Matthew R.; Mourot, Alexandre; Yao, Jennifer Z.; Gaub, Benjamin; Kramer, Richard H.; Trauner, Dirk

    2012-02-01

    Advances in synthetic chemistry, structural biology, molecular modelling and molecular cloning have enabled the systematic functional manipulation of transmembrane proteins. By combining genetically manipulated proteins with light-sensitive ligands, innately ‘blind’ neurobiological receptors can be converted into photoreceptors, which allows them to be photoregulated with high spatiotemporal precision. Here, we present the optochemical control of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) with photoswitchable tethered agonists and antagonists. Using structure-based design, we produced heteromeric α3β4 and α4β2 nAChRs that can be activated or inhibited with deep-violet light, but respond normally to acetylcholine in the dark. The generation of these engineered receptors should facilitate investigation of the physiological and pathological functions of neuronal nAChRs and open a general pathway to photosensitizing pentameric ligand-gated ion channels.

  7. Controlling Risk Exposure in Periodic Environments: A Genetic Algorithm Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Navarro, Emeterio

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we compare the performance of different agent's investment strategies in an investment scenario with periodic returns and different types and levels of noise. We consider an investment model, where an agent decides the percentage of budget to risk at each time step. Afterwards, agent's investment is evaluated in the market via a return on investment (RoI), which we assume is a stochastic process with unknown periodicities and different levels of noise. To control the risk exposure, we investigate approaches based on: technical analysis (Moving Least Squares, MLS), and evolutionary computation (Genetic Algorithms, GA). In our comparison, we also consider two reference strategies for zero-knowledge and complete-knowledge behaviors, respectively. In our approach, the performance of a strategy corresponds to the average budget that can be obtained with this strategy over a certain number of time steps. To this end, we perform some computer experiments, where for each strategy the budget obtained af...

  8. Diversity Controlling Genetic Algorithm for Order Acceptance and Scheduling Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Selection and scheduling are an important topic in production systems. To tackle the order acceptance and scheduling problem on a single machine with release dates, tardiness penalty, and sequence-dependent setup times, in this paper a diversity controlling genetic algorithm (DCGA is proposed, in which a diversified population is maintained during the whole search process through survival selection considering both the fitness and the diversity of individuals. To measure the similarity between individuals, a modified Hamming distance without considering the unaccepted orders in the chromosome is adopted. The proposed DCGA was validated on 1500 benchmark instances with up to 100 orders. Compared with the state-of-the-art algorithms, the experimental results show that DCGA improves the solution quality obtained significantly, in terms of the deviation from upper bound.

  9. Genetic control of human brain transcript expression in Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Jennifer A; Gibbs, J Raphael; Clarke, Jennifer; Ray, Monika; Zhang, Weixiong; Holmans, Peter; Rohrer, Kristen; Zhao, Alice; Marlowe, Lauren; Kaleem, Mona; McCorquodale, Donald S; Cuello, Cindy; Leung, Doris; Bryden, Leslie; Nath, Priti; Zismann, Victoria L; Joshipura, Keta; Huentelman, Matthew J; Hu-Lince, Diane; Coon, Keith D; Craig, David W; Pearson, John V; Heward, Christopher B; Reiman, Eric M; Stephan, Dietrich; Hardy, John; Myers, Amanda J

    2009-04-01

    We recently surveyed the relationship between the human brain transcriptome and genome in a series of neuropathologically normal postmortem samples. We have now analyzed additional samples with a confirmed pathologic diagnosis of late-onset Alzheimer disease (LOAD; final n = 188 controls, 176 cases). Nine percent of the cortical transcripts that we analyzed had expression profiles correlated with their genotypes in the combined cohort, and approximately 5% of transcripts had SNP-transcript relationships that could distinguish LOAD samples. Two of these transcripts have been previously implicated in LOAD candidate-gene SNP-expression screens. This study shows how the relationship between common inherited genetic variants and brain transcript expression can be used in the study of human brain disorders. We suggest that studying the transcriptome as a quantitative endo-phenotype has greater power for discovering risk SNPs influencing expression than the use of discrete diagnostic categories such as presence or absence of disease.

  10. Genetic control of maize shoot apical meristem architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Addie M; Crants, James; Schnable, Patrick S; Yu, Jianming; Timmermans, Marja C P; Springer, Nathan M; Scanlon, Michael J; Muehlbauer, Gary J

    2014-05-22

    The shoot apical meristem contains a pool of undifferentiated stem cells and generates all above-ground organs of the plant. During vegetative growth, cells differentiate from the meristem to initiate leaves while the pool of meristematic cells is preserved; this balance is determined in part by genetic regulatory mechanisms. To assess vegetative meristem growth and genetic control in Zea mays, we investigated its morphology at multiple time points and identified three stages of growth. We measured meristem height, width, plastochron internode length, and associated traits from 86 individuals of the intermated B73 × Mo17 recombinant inbred line population. For meristem height-related traits, the parents exhibited markedly different phenotypes, with B73 being very tall, Mo17 short, and the population distributed between. In the outer cell layer, differences appeared to be related to number of cells rather than cell size. In contrast, B73 and Mo17 were similar in meristem width traits and plastochron internode length, with transgressive segregation in the population. Multiple loci (6-9 for each trait) were mapped, indicating meristem architecture is controlled by many regions; none of these coincided with previously described mutants impacting meristem development. Major loci for height and width explaining 16% and 19% of the variation were identified on chromosomes 5 and 8, respectively. Significant loci for related traits frequently coincided, whereas those for unrelated traits did not overlap. With the use of three near-isogenic lines, a locus explaining 16% of the parental variation in meristem height was validated. Published expression data were leveraged to identify candidate genes in significant regions. Copyright © 2014 Thompson et al.

  11. Decision making under stress: scanning of alternatives under controllable and uncontrollable threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keinan, G

    1987-03-01

    This study tested the proposition that deficient decision making under stress is due, to a significant extent, to the individual's failure to fulfill adequately an elementary requirement of the decision-making process, that is, the systematic consideration of all relevant alternatives. One hundred one undergraduate students (59 women and 42 men), aged 20-40, served as subjects in this experiment. They were requested to solve decision problems, using an interactive computer paradigm, while being exposed to controllable stress, uncontrollable stress, or no stress at all. There was no time constraint for the performance of the task. The controllability of the stressor was found to have no effect on the participants' performance. However, those who were exposed to either controllable or uncontrollable stress showed a significantly stronger tendency to offer solutions before all available alternatives had been considered and to scan their alternatives in a nonsystematic fashion than did participants who were not exposed to stress. In addition, patterns of alternative scanning were found to be correlated with the correctness of solutions to decision problems.

  12. Cytological analysis and genetic control of rice anther development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dabing Zhang; Xue Luo; Lu Zhu

    2011-01-01

    Microsporogenesis and male gametogenesis are essential for the alternating life cycle of flowering plants between diploid sporophyte and haploid gametophyte generations.Rice (Oryza sativa) is the world's major staple food,and manipulation of pollen fertility is particularly important for the demands to increase rice grain yield.Towards a better understanding of the mechanisms controlling rice male reproductive development,we describe here the cytological changes of anther development through 14 stages,including cell division,differentiation and degeneration of somatic tissues consisting of four concentric cell layers surrounding and supporting reproductive cells as they form mature pollen grains through meiosis and mitosis.Furthermore,we compare the morphological difference of anthers and pollen grains in both monocot rice and eudicot Arabidopsis thaliana.Additionally,we describe the key genes identified to date critical for rice anther development and pollen formation.

  13. The genetic control of apomixis: asexual seed formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, Melanie L; Koltunow, Anna M G

    2014-06-01

    Apomixis (asexual seed formation) is the result of a plant gaining the ability to bypass the most fundamental aspects of sexual reproduction: meiosis and fertilization. Without the need for male fertilization, the resulting seed germinates a plant that develops as a maternal clone. This dramatic shift in reproductive process has been documented in many flowering plant species, although no major seed crops have been shown to be capable of apomixis. The ability to generate maternal clones and therefore rapidly fix desirable genotypes in crop species could accelerate agricultural breeding strategies. The potential of apomixis as a next-generation breeding technology has contributed to increasing interest in the mechanisms controlling apomixis. In this review, we discuss the progress made toward understanding the genetic and molecular control of apomixis. Research is currently focused on two fronts. One aims to identify and characterize genes causing apomixis in apomictic species that have been developed as model species. The other aims to engineer or switch the sexual seed formation pathway in non-apomictic species, to one that mimics apomixis. Here we describe the major apomictic mechanisms and update knowledge concerning the loci that control them, in addition to presenting candidate genes that may be used as tools for switching the sexual pathway to an apomictic mode of reproduction in crops.

  14. Genetic control of environmental variation of two quantitative traits of Drosophila melanogaster revealed by whole-genome sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Peter; de los Campos, Gustavo; Morgante, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Genetic studies usually focus on quantifying and understanding the existence of genetic control on expected phenotypic outcomes. However, there is compelling evidence suggesting the existence of genetic control at the level of environmental variability, with some genotypes exhibiting more stable ...

  15. A multiobjective optimization approach for combating Aedes aegypti using chemical and biological alternated step-size control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Weverton O; Wanner, Elizabeth F; Cardoso, Rodrigo T N

    2015-11-01

    Dengue epidemics, one of the most important viral disease worldwide, can be prevented by combating the transmission vector Aedes aegypti. In support of this aim, this article proposes to analyze the Dengue vector control problem in a multiobjective optimization approach, in which the intention is to minimize both social and economic costs, using a dynamic mathematical model representing the mosquitoes' population. It consists in finding optimal alternated step-size control policies combining chemical (via application of insecticides) and biological control (via insertion of sterile males produced by irradiation). All the optimal policies consists in apply insecticides just at the beginning of the season and, then, keep the mosquitoes in an acceptable level spreading into environment a few amount of sterile males. The optimization model analysis is driven by the use of genetic algorithms. Finally, it performs a statistic test showing that the multiobjective approach is effective in achieving the same effect of variations in the cost parameters. Then, using the proposed methodology, it is possible to find, in a single run, given a decision maker, the optimal number of days and the respective amounts in which each control strategy must be applied, according to the tradeoff between using more insecticide with less transmission mosquitoes or more sterile males with more transmission mosquitoes.

  16. Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Inheritance; Heterozygous; Inheritance patterns; Heredity and disease; Heritable; Genetic markers ... The chromosomes are made up of strands of genetic information called DNA. Each chromosome contains sections of ...

  17. Validation of alternative capillary electrophoresis detection of STRs using POP-6 polymer and a 22cm array on a 3130xl genetic analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connon, Catherine C; LeFebvre, Aaron K; Benjamin, Robert C

    2016-05-01

    The goal of this project was to reduce capillary electrophoresis detection time on a 3130xl Genetic Analyzer for amplification product obtained from 4-dye and 5-dye STR amplification kits while still generating high quality STR profiles. This was accomplished by utilizing a more viscous polymer (POP-6™) and a shorter array (22 cm) than that which are typically used (POP-4(®) polymer and a 36 cm array) for human identification purposes. Spatial calibration and detection run modules were modified in response to the use of this polymer/array combination and to reduce detection time. Alternative detection resulted in 24-28 min run times, as compared to ∼45 min using traditional POP-4(®)/36 cm detection methods. POP-6™/22 cm detection run modules were validated for use with 4-dye Promega STR kits (e.g., PowerPlex(®) 16 and PowerPlex(®) 16HS) and 5-dye Life Technologies kits (e.g., Identifiler(®) and Identifiler(®) Plus). Three hundred ninety-five samples, controls and allelic ladders were used for the validation studies, which consisted of a comparison of alternative POP-6™/22 cm detection to traditional POP-4(®)/36 cm (including reproducibility/concordance of allele calls, resolution, ILS sizing quality, peak height and pass rates), a sizing study (precision and accuracy) and a sensitivity study to obtain a usable range of injection times. Compared to traditional POP-4(®)/36 cm detection, alternative detection resulted in 100% reproducible and concordant alleles, the ability to achieve one base resolution, slightly reduced ILS sizing quality, slightly reduced peak height and statistically similar pass rates (α=0.05). It should be noted that alternative detection offered improved resolution over that of traditional for amplicons less than ∼200 b, but had reduced resolution for products greater than ∼200 b. Additionally, alternative detection yielded acceptable precision and accuracy of sizing using Life Technologies criteria (POP-6™ polymer on a

  18. REVIEW: The Characteristics of Genetic Resource of Bali Cattle (Bos-bibos banteng and the Alternative of It's Conservation Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ACHMAD NUR CHAMDI

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Bali cattle is an Indonesian native beef cattle, the result of domestication of Banteng (Bos-bibos banteng. The main problem faced in the development of Bali cattle is the low quality of breed, which is predicted as the effect of inbreeding or raising management. The affects of genetic and cross breeding which usually inflict a loss are the decreasing of cattle’s endurance, fertility and birth weight. Seeing the fact, the government effort to introduce a quality bull to the breed source areas, the determination of cattle release including the controll on the cutting of productive female cattle, and to exactly count the number of Bali cattle which can be released in order to do not disturb its population balance, so it is necessary to do conservation attempt by in-situ and ex-situ. The result of this study shows that the characteristics on genetic resource of Bali cattle which comprises documentation, evaluation on reproduction and production, and attempt in increasing Bali cattle’s genetic quality in Indonesia have been done, eventhough those are still limited.

  19. Genetic control of startle behavior in medaka fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satomi Tsuboko

    Full Text Available Genetic polymorphisms are thought to generate intraspecific behavioral diversities, both within and among populations. The mechanisms underlying genetic control of behavioral properties, however, remain unclear in wild-type vertebrates, including humans. To explore this issue, we used diverse inbred strains of medaka fish (Oryzias latipes established from the same and different local populations. Medaka exhibit a startle response to a visual stimulus (extinction of illumination by rapidly bending their bodies (C-start 20-ms after the stimulus presentation. We measured the rates of the response to repeated stimuli (1-s interval, 40 times among four inbred strains, HNI-I, HNI-II, HO5, and Hd-rR-II1, and quantified two properties of the startle response: sensitivity (response rate to the first stimulus and attenuation of the response probability with repeated stimulus presentation. Among the four strains, the greatest differences in these properties were detected between HNI-II and Hd-rR-II1. HNI-II exhibited high sensitivity (approximately 80% and no attenuation, while Hd-rR-II1 exhibited low sensitivity (approximately 50% and almost complete attenuation after only five stimulus presentations. Our findings suggested behavioral diversity of the startle response within a local population as well as among different populations. Linkage analysis with F2 progeny between HNI-II and Hd-rR-II1 detected quantitative trait loci (QTL highly related to attenuation, but not to sensitivity, with a maximum logarithm of odds score of 11.82 on linkage group 16. The three genotypes (homozygous for HNI-II and Hd-rR-II1 alleles, and heterozygous at the marker nearest the QTL correlated with attenuation. Our findings are the first to suggest that a single genomic region might be sufficient to generate individual differences in startle behavior between wild-type strains. Further identification of genetic polymorphisms that define the behavioral trait will contribute to

  20. Using public control genotype data to increase power and decrease cost of case-control genetic association studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Lindsey A; Lange, Ethan M

    2010-12-01

    Genome-wide association (GWA) studies are a powerful approach for identifying novel genetic risk factors associated with human disease. A GWA study typically requires the inclusion of thousands of samples to have sufficient statistical power to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms that are associated with only modest increases in risk of disease given the heavy burden of a multiple test correction that is necessary to maintain valid statistical tests. Low statistical power and the high financial cost of performing a GWA study remains prohibitive for many scientific investigators anxious to perform such a study using their own samples. A number of remedies have been suggested to increase statistical power and decrease cost, including the utilization of free publicly available genotype data and multi-stage genotyping designs. Herein, we compare the statistical power and relative costs of alternative association study designs that use cases and screened controls to study designs that are based only on, or additionally include, free public control genotype data. We describe a novel replication-based two-stage study design, which uses free public control genotype data in the first stage and follow-up genotype data on case-matched controls in the second stage that preserves many of the advantages inherent when using only an epidemiologically matched set of controls. Specifically, we show that our proposed two-stage design can substantially increase statistical power and decrease cost of performing a GWA study while controlling the type-I error rate that can be inflated when using public controls due to differences in ancestry and batch genotype effects.

  1. The alternate wire-feed control in the automatic CO2 arc welding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢亚静; 胡绳荪; 易小林; 单平

    2004-01-01

    In the automatic CO2 arc welding, the alteration of the vertical distance between the welding torch and the workpiece has a strong effect on the welding parameters such as welding current and voltage, with the result that the appearance and quality of weld are not steady. To weaken the influence of the distance alteration, a method is put forward in the paper. The method is that the alternate wire-feed control is used for compensating the welding current. On the basis of theoretical analysis, a static numerical model for alternate wire-feed control is established. The experiments show that the model-based regulation of the wire feed rate can compensate the welding current and ensure the appearance of weld. When the alteration of vertical distance between the torch and the workpiece is greater, not only is the wire feed rate regulated, but the output voltage of the power source is adjusted to ensure the appearance and quality of weld.

  2. Preimplantation genetic screening as an alternative to prenatal testing for Down syndrome : preferences of women undergoing in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Twisk, Moniek; Haadsma, Maaike L.; van der Veen, Fulco; Repping, Sjoerd; Mastenbroek, Sebastiaan; Heineman, Maas-Jan; Bossuyt, Patrick M. M.; Korevaar, Johanna C.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Although the primary goal of preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) is to increase pregnancy rates in women undergoing IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection treatment, it has been suggested that it may also be used as an alternative to prenatal testing for Down syndrome. Design: Trade-off

  3. Intelligent alternator control system - a path to efficient dynamics; Intelligente Generatorregelung - Ein Weg zur effizienten Dynamik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liebl, J.; Frickenstein, E.; Wier, M.; Hafkemeyer, M.; El-Dwaik, F.; Hockgeier, E. [BMW AG, Muenchen (Germany)

    2006-11-15

    In automotive engineering, it would seem - at first glance at least - difficult to simultaneously achieve both efficiency and dynamics in the sense of improved driving performance and fuel economy. The BMW Group has set itself the following goal: to drive innovation in automotive and powertrain engineering for the benefit of its customers. An example is the specific control of the alternator in such a way as to improve driving dynamics and fuel economy. (orig.)

  4. Alternative approaches for the control of gastrointestinal nematodes in sheep farming: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šimpraga, Miljenko; Ljubičić, Iva; Hlede, Jadranka Pejaković; Vugrovečki, Ana Shek; Marinculić, Albert; Tkalčić, Suzana

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) are a serious health problem and represent the most significant constraint in sheep grazing operations. Problems tend to be worse in organic sheep farming systems, as a consequence of a less restricted access of animals to outdoor environment with a higher exposure to infective larvae. In domestic animals, GIN are effectively controlled by an aggressive prophylactic administration of commercially available anthelmintics. As a consequence to a common overdose and misuse of readily available antiparasitic treatments, there is an inevitable development of populations of GIN resistant to all major classes of anthelmintics. Also, the control of GIN that is based entirely on the anthelmintic use, threatens sustainability of the sheep farming worldwide. The combination of the optimized use of anthelmintic drugs and alternative approaches seem to be a reasonable choice in sustainable parasitic control programs that offer a substantial reduction of anthelmintic treatments and conservation of anthelmintic efficacy. In that aspect, a "targeted selective treatment (TST)" directed towards animals clinically diagnosed with GIN, seems to be an effective approach to leave some parasite populations unexposed to anthelmintics (refugia) and to reduce development of anthelmintic resistance. Also, many current research efforts aim to find and validate sustainable non-chemotherapeutic approaches to GIN control, including changes in grazing management, optimized nutrition, dietary supplementation, consumption of plants with anthelmintic properties, biological control by nematophagous fungi, copper oxide wire particles (COWP), and homeopathic treatments. This manuscript outlines (outlines) and discusses relevant alternative approaches for GIN control in modern sheep farming systems.

  5. Comparing Whole Building Energy Implications of Sidelighting Systems with Alternate Manual Blind Control Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Dyke

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Currently, there is no manual blind control guideline used consistently throughout the energy modeling community. This paper identifies and compares five manual blind control algorithms with unique control patterns and reports blind occlusion, rate of change data, and annual building energy consumption. The blind control schemes detailed here represent five reasonable candidates for use in lighting and energy simulation based on difference driving factors. This study was performed on a medium-sized office building using EnergyPlus with the internal daylight harvesting engine. Results show that applying manual blind control algorithms affects the total annual consumption of the building by as much as 12.5% and 11.5% for interior and exterior blinds respectively, compared to the Always Retracted blinds algorithm. Peak demand was also compared showing blind algorithms affected zone load sizing by as much as 9.8%. The alternate algorithms were tested for their impact on American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE Guideline 14 calibration metrics and all models were found to differ from the original calibrated baseline by more than the recommended ±15% for coefficient of variance of the mean square error (CVRMSE and ±5% for normalized mean bias error (NMBE. The paper recommends that energy modelers use one or more manual blind control algorithms during design stages when making decisions about energy efficiency and other design alternatives.

  6. Annual review of genetics. Volume 21

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, A.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains 20 articles on genetics. Some of the titles are: Behavioral Genetics of Paramecium, Natural Variation in the Genetic Code, Alternative Promoters in Developmental Gene Expression, Oncogene Activation by Chromosome Translocation in Human Malignancy, The Genetic System, the Deme, and the Origin of the Species, and RNA 3' End Formation in the Control of Gene Expression.

  7. Risk Analyses of Charging Pump Control Improvements for Alternative RCP Seal Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun-Chan [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co. Ltd. Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    There are two events that significantly affect the plant risk during a TLOCCW event. One is an event in which the seal assembly of a reactor coolant pump (RCP) fails due to heating stress from the loss of cooling water; the other is an event in which the operators fail to conduct alternative cooling for the RCP seal during the accident. KHNP reviewed the replacement of the RCP seal with a qualified shutdown seal in order to remove the risk due to RCP seal failure during a TLOCCW. As an optional measure, a design improvement in the alternative cooling method for the RCP seal is being considered. This analysis presents the alternative RCP seal cooling improvement and its safety effect. K2 is a nuclear power plant with a Westinghouse design, and it has a relatively high CDF during TLOCCW events because it has a different CCW system design and difficulty in preparing alternative cooling water sources. This analysis confirmed that an operator action providing cold water to the RWST as RCP seal injection water during a TLOCCW event is very important in K2. The control circuit improvement plan for the auxiliary charging pump was established in order to reduce the failure probability of this operator action. This analysis modeled the improvement as a fault tree and evaluated the resulting CDF change. The consequence demonstrated that the RCP seal injection failure probability was reduced by 89%, and the CDF decreased by 28%.

  8. Regulatory control of genetically modified (GM) foods: likely developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilter, Benoît; Constable, Anne

    2002-02-28

    The placing of genetically modified (GM) crops on the European market requires a regulatory approval supported by a thorough safety evaluation. This approach has been applied to all GM crops presently on the market. Despite this stringent process there has been an increasing public concern about the impact of GM foods on human health and the environment. In this context, regulatory control may develop in several directions. One response to the public concern is to strengthen the data requirements for the risk assessment process. Several avenues have been proposed. They include the application of technologies such as proteomics and metabolomics to assess unintended changes, and the development of predictive methods to evaluate allergenicity. Obligations for post-launch surveillance have appeared in regulations. Criteria are required to define when and why such approaches are necessary. Significant challenges including feasibility and validation of the methods, and safety relevance of the data generated will have to be addressed before any general application of these new approaches. Effective monitoring requires the ability to identify the presence of GM products and trace their origin. Traceability and labeling are therefore important developments in the GM food regulatory arena. Both require the development of reliable analytical detection tools.

  9. Genetic control of wiring specificity in the fly olfactory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Weizhe; Luo, Liqun

    2014-01-01

    Precise connections established between pre- and postsynaptic partners during development are essential for the proper function of the nervous system. The olfactory system detects a wide variety of odorants and processes the information in a precisely connected neural circuit. A common feature of the olfactory systems from insects to mammals is that the olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) expressing the same odorant receptor make one-to-one connections with a single class of second-order olfactory projection neurons (PNs). This represents one of the most striking examples of targeting specificity in developmental neurobiology. Recent studies have uncovered central roles of transmembrane and secreted proteins in organizing this one-to-one connection specificity in the olfactory system. Here, we review recent advances in the understanding of how this wiring specificity is genetically controlled and focus on the mechanisms by which transmembrane and secreted proteins regulate different stages of the Drosophila olfactory circuit assembly in a coordinated manner. We also discuss how combinatorial coding, redundancy, and error-correcting ability could contribute to constructing a complex neural circuit in general.

  10. Hybrid genetic algorithm approach for selective harmonic control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahidah, Mohamed S.A. [Faculty of Engineering, Multimedia University, 63100, Jalan Multimedia-Cyberjaya, Selangor (Malaysia); Agelidis, Vassilios G. [School of Electrical and Information Engineering, The University of Sydney, NSW (Australia); Rao, Machavaram V. [Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Multimedia University, 75450, Jalan Ayer Keroh Lama-Melaka (Malaysia)

    2008-02-15

    The paper presents an optimal solution for a selective harmonic elimination pulse width modulated (SHE-PWM) technique suitable for a high power inverter used in constant frequency utility applications. The main challenge of solving the associated non-linear equations, which are transcendental in nature and, therefore, have multiple solutions, is the convergence, and therefore, an initial point selected considerably close to the exact solution is required. The paper discusses an efficient hybrid real coded genetic algorithm (HRCGA) that reduces significantly the computational burden, resulting in fast convergence. An objective function describing a measure of the effectiveness of eliminating selected orders of harmonics while controlling the fundamental, namely a weighted total harmonic distortion (WTHD) is derived, and a comparison of different operating points is reported. It is observed that the method was able to find the optimal solution for a modulation index that is higher than unity. The theoretical considerations reported in this paper are verified through simulation and experimentally on a low power laboratory prototype. (author)

  11. Biofilm control with natural and genetically-modified phages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motlagh, Amir Mohaghegh; Bhattacharjee, Ananda Shankar; Goel, Ramesh

    2016-04-01

    Bacteriophages, as the most dominant and diverse entities in the universe, have the potential to be one of the most promising therapeutic agents. The emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria and the antibiotic crisis in the last few decades have resulted in a renewed interest in phage therapy. Furthermore, bacteriophages, with the capacity to rapidly infect and overcome bacterial resistance, have demonstrated a sustainable approach against bacterial pathogens-particularly in biofilm. Biofilm, as complex microbial communities located at interphases embedded in a matrix of bacterial extracellular polysaccharide substances (EPS), is involved in health issues such as infections associated with the use of biomaterials and chronic infections by multidrug resistant bacteria, as well as industrial issues such as biofilm formation on stainless steel surfaces in food industry and membrane biofouling in water and wastewater treatment processes. In this paper, the most recent studies on the potential of phage therapy using natural and genetically-modified lytic phages and their associated enzymes in fighting biofilm development in various fields including engineering, industry, and medical applications are reviewed. Phage-mediated prevention approaches as an indirect phage therapy strategy are also explored in this review. In addition, the limitations of these approaches and suggestions to overcome these constraints are discussed to enhance the efficiency of phage therapy process. Finally, future perspectives and directions for further research towards a better understanding of phage therapy to control biofilm are recommended.

  12. Mapping genetic factors controlling potato/cyst nematode interactions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rouppe van der Voort, J.N.A.M.

    1998-01-01

    The thesis describes strategies for genetic mapping of the genomes of the potato cyst nematode and potato. Mapping in cyst nematodes was achieved by AFLP genotyping of single cysts and subsequent segregation analysis in a family of sibling populations. The genetic map of Globodera rostochiensis comp

  13. Chemical characterization of Lippia alba essential oil: an alternative to control green molds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmina Glamočlija

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil of Lippia alba is reported as an antifungal against human pathogenic microorganisms but few articles report its use as an alternative to synthetic fungicides on green mould control. The objective of this study was to determine chemical characteristics of L. alba essential oil and its antifungal activity against green molds as an alternative to synthetic fungicides. Essential oil was extracted by Clevenger hydrodistillation, characterized by GC-MS analysis, and the structure of the main compounds confirmed by ¹H and 13C-NMR spectroscopy. Microdilution assays evaluated the essential oil minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC. Commercial fungicides Ketoconazole and Bifonazole were used as control. Essential oil yield is of 0.15% and the major components are neral (33.32% and geranial (50.94%. The L. alba essential oil has MIC of 0.300-1.250 mg/mL and MFC of 0.600-1.250 mg/mL. Ketoconazole and Bifonazole show MIC ranging from 0.025-0.500 to 0.100-0.200 mg/mL, and MFC ranging from 0.250-0.100 to 0.200-0.250 mg/mL, respectively. L. alba essential oil is classified as citral type and the results indicate that it is a potential alternative to synthetic fungicides.

  14. Chemical characterization of Lippia alba essential oil: an alternative to control green molds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glamočlija, Jasmina; Soković, Marina; Tešević, Vele; Linde, Giani Andrea; Colauto, Nelson Barros

    2011-10-01

    The essential oil of Lippia alba is reported as an antifungal against human pathogenic microorganisms but few articles report its use as an alternative to synthetic fungicides on green mould control. The objective of this study was to determine chemical characteristics of L. alba essential oil and its antifungal activity against green molds as an alternative to synthetic fungicides. Essential oil was extracted by Clevenger hydrodistillation, characterized by GC-MS analysis, and the structure of the main compounds confirmed by (1)H and (13)C-NMR spectroscopy. Microdilution assays evaluated the essential oil minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC). Commercial fungicides Ketoconazole and Bifonazole were used as control. Essential oil yield is of 0.15% and the major components are neral (33.32%) and geranial (50.94%). The L. alba essential oil has MIC of 0.300-1.250 mg/mL and MFC of 0.600-1.250 mg/mL. Ketoconazole and Bifonazole show MIC ranging from 0.025-0.500 to 0.100-0.200 mg/mL, and MFC ranging from 0.250-0.100 to 0.200-0.250 mg/mL, respectively. L. alba essential oil is classified as citral type and the results indicate that it is a potential alternative to synthetic fungicides.

  15. Genetic control of a cytochrome P450 metabolism-based herbicide resistance mechanism in Lolium rigidum

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The dynamics of herbicide resistance evolution in plants are influenced by many factors, especially the biochemical and genetic basis of resistance. Herbicide resistance can be endowed by enhanced rates of herbicide metabolism because of the activity of cytochrome P450 enzymes, although in weedy plants the genetic control of cytochrome P450-endowed herbicide resistance is poorly understood. In this study we have examined the genetic control of P450 metabolism-based herbicide resistance in a w...

  16. Project Cerberus: tobacco industry strategy to create an alternative to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamudu, Hadii M; Hammond, Ross; Glantz, Stanton A

    2008-09-01

    Between 1999 and 2001, British American Tobacco, Philip Morris, and Japan Tobacco International executed Project Cerberus to develop a global voluntary regulatory regime as an alternative to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). They aimed to develop a global voluntary regulatory code to be overseen by an independent audit body and to focus attention on youth smoking prevention. The International Tobacco Products Marketing Standards announced in September 2001, however, did not have the independent audit body. Although the companies did not stop the FCTC, they continue to promote the International Tobacco Products Marketing Standards youth smoking prevention as an alternative to the FCTC. Public health civil society groups should help policymakers and governments understand the importance of not working with the tobacco industry.

  17. The effect of alternative work arrangements on women's well-being: a demand-control model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelloway, E K; Gottlieb, B H

    1998-01-01

    The growth of women's participation in the labor force and evidence of the conflict they experience between job and family demands have spurred many employers to introduce alternative work arrangements such as flextime, job sharing, and telecommuting. Drawing on data gained from a sample of women (N = 998) in two large Canadian organizations, this study evaluates two mediational models of the impact of alternative work arrangements on women's stress and family role competence. Specifically, it tests and finds support for the hypotheses that (a) work arrangements involving scheduling flexibility (telecommuting and flextime) promote these aspects of women's well-being by increasing their perceived control over their time, and (b) arrangements involving reduced hours of employment (part-time employment and job sharing) promote well-being by reducing perceived job overload. Discussion of these findings centers on their implications for employed women, their employers, and future research.

  18. Self-learning Fuzzy Controllers Based On a Real-time Reinforcement Genetic Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Jian-an; MIAO Qing-ying; GUO Zhao-xia; SHAO Shi-huang

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a novel method for constructing fuzzy controllers based on a real time reinforcement genetic algorithm. This methodology introduces the real-time learning capability of neural networks into globally searching process of genetic algorithm, aiming to enhance the convergence rate and real-time learning ability of genetic algorithm, which is then used to construct fuzzy controllers for complex dynamic systems without any knowledge about system dynamics and prior control experience. The cart-pole system is employed as a test bed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme, and the robustness of the acquired fuzzy controller with comparable result.

  19. Gestation length in red deer: genetically determined or environmentally controlled?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asher, G W

    2007-01-01

    The red deer (Cervus elaphus) of European origin (e.g. subspecies scoticus, hispanicus, hippelaphus) is a medium sized (100-150kg mature hind weight) ruminant that exhibits highly seasonally patterns of autumn conceptions and summer births. Historic data indicate average (+/- s.d.) gestation length of 233-234 (+/- 2-4) days. Recently, however, there has been growing awareness that there is considerably greater variation in gestation length than earlier indicated and that there is a significant element of environmental, and possibly even social, control over the duration of pregnancy in this species. Imposition of variable levels of nutrition over late pregnancy of red deer hinds has been observed to influence fetal growth trajectory and gestation length, with no apparent effect on birth weight. This supports a hypothesis that under conditions of modest feed imbalance, variation in gestation length compensates for variation in fetal growth trajectory to ensure optimisation of birth weight. More recent studies on primiparous (24 month old) red deer hinds have identified surprisingly large variation in gestation length (193-263 days) compared with adult hinds (228-243 days), with earlier conceiving individuals within the primiparous cohort expressing significantly longer gestation than the later conceiving hinds, resulting in a higher level of calving synchrony than expected from known conception dates. This introduces an intriguing hypothesis of social indicative effects on parturition timing to promote within-cohort birth synchrony. Collectively, these data debunk the commonly held notion that gestation length of red deer is genetically fixed within strict limits. A review of the literature points to this as possibly a common phenomenon across a range of non-domesticated ruminant species but this conclusion is not supported by numerous conflicting studies on domestic sheep and cattle.

  20. A Genetic Algorithm Optimised Fuzzy Logic Controller for Automatic Generation Control for Single Area System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, J. S.; Jain, V.

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents a genetic algorithm (GA)-based design and optimization of fuzzy logic controller (FLC) for automatic generation control (AGC) for a single area. FLCs are characterized by a set of parameters, which are optimized using GA to improve their performance. The design of input and output membership functions (mfs) of an FLC is carried out by automatically tuning (off-line) the parameters of the membership functions. Tuning is based on maximization of a comprehensive fitness function constructed as inverse of a weighted average of three performance indices, i.e., integral square deviation (ISD), the integral of square of the frequency deviation and peak overshoot (Mp), and settling time (ts). The GA-optimized FLC (GAFLC) shows better performance as compared to a conventional proportional integral (PI) and a hand-designed fuzzy logic controller not only for a standard system (displaying frequency deviations) but also under parametric and load disturbances.

  1. Controle alternativo da mancha de Ramularia do algodoeiro Alternative control of the Cotton ramularia spot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Angelo de Aquino

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A mancha de Ramularia, causada pelo fungo Ramularia gossypii (Speg. Cif., é uma doença foliar de destaque na cotonicultura brasileira. Com a expansão da cotonicultura, existem poucos produtos avaliados para manejo da Ramularia, destacando-se os fungicidas dos grupos triazóis e estrobirulinas. Objetivou-se nesse trabalho avaliar o efeito da aplicação foliar do silicato de potássio, da calda Viçosa e de fungicidas protetores (mancozeb e clorotalonil para o controle químico da mancha de Ramularia. O silicato de potássio não foi eficiente para o controle da doença com severidade de 15,38%, enfolhamento relativo aos 166 dias após a emergência de 38,19%, produtividade de algodão em caroço de 136,11 @ ha-1 e área abaixo da curva de progresso da mancha de Ramularia de 644, 598 e 172 nos terços inferior, médio e superior, respectivamente, com valores semelhantes à testemunha sem fungicida. A calda viçosa proporcionou satisfatório controle da doença não diferindo em termos de produtividade dos tratamentos com piraclostrobin e ou tebuconazol, sendo o incremento de produtividade em relação à testemunha de 88%. Os fungicidas mancozeb e clorotalonil em mistura com calda Viçosa ou com tebuconazole foram eficientes no controle da mancha de Ramularia, destacando-se o fungicida mancozeb em mistura com tebuconazol.Areolate mildew, caused by the fungus Ramularia gossypii (Speg. Cif., is the most important foliar disease on cotton. There are a few products available to the growers to manage this disease among them the fungicides tryazol and strobilurine. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of foliar application of potassium silicate, 'calda Viçosa' e protector fungicides (Mancozeb and Clorothalonyl to control areolate mildew on cotton. The potassium silicate was not efficient to control the disease with severity of 15.38%, canopy quality at 166 days after plant emergence of 38.19%, yield of 2041.65 kg ha-1 and area under areolate

  2. Spreadsheet Assurance by "Control Around" is a Viable Alternative to the Traditional Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Ettema, Harmen; de Swart, Jacques

    2008-01-01

    The traditional approach to spreadsheet auditing generally consists of auditing every distinct formula within a spreadsheet. Although tools are developed to support auditors during this process, the approach is still very time consuming and therefore relatively expensive. As an alternative to the traditional "control through" approach, this paper discusses a "control around" approach. Within the proposed approach not all distinct formulas are audited separately, but the relationship between input data and output data of a spreadsheet is audited through comparison with a shadow model developed in a modelling language. Differences between the two models then imply possible errors in the spreadsheet. This paper describes relevant issues regarding the "control around" approach and the circumstances in which this approach is preferred above a traditional spreadsheet audit approach.

  3. Alternative control of Tetranychus evansi Baker & Pritchard (Acari: Tetranychidae) on tomato plants grown in greenhouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Alberto; Venzon, Madelaine; Oliveira, Rafael M; Oliveira, Hamilton G; Pallini, Angelo

    2010-01-01

    Tetranychus evansi Baker & Pritchard is an important pest of solanaceous plants, including tomatoes. This mite is characterized by a high reproductive rate, which leads to high population growth in a short period of time causing important economic damage. Control of T. evansi is mainly through synthetic acaricides. In searching for environmentally friendly control measures, we evaluated the efficiency of alternative products to control T. evansi on tomato plants under greenhouse conditions. The products tested were lime sulphur and neem based products. We first estimated the lethal concentration (LC) and instantaneous rate of increase (r i) of T. evansi exposed to different product concentrations in laboratory conditions, and later tested the efficacy of LC95 and the concentrations that restrained mite population growth (r i = 0) in greenhouse conditions. The following treatments were repeated three times: NeemPro (81.0 and 71.6 mg a.i./l), Natuneem (31.1 and 20.4 mg ai/l), Organic Neem (39.1 and 30.4 mg a.i./l), lime sulphur (1.0 and 0.6%) and water (control). For all products, control provided by LC95 was higher than provided for lower concentrations (r i = 0) one day after spraying. However, after five days, for both concentrations, the percentage of T. evansi population reduction was superior to 95% and increased over time. Only plants sprayed with Natuneem (31.1 mg a.i./l) showed symptoms of phytotoxicity. Lime sulphur and neem based products, applied in appropriate concentrations and formulations, bear out as a viable alternative to control T. evansi on tomato plants.

  4. Selection of an Alternate Biocide for the ISS Internal Thermal Control System Coolant, Phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mark E.; Cole, Harold; Weir, Natalee; Oehler, Bill; Steele, John; Varsik, Jerry; Lukens, Clark

    2004-01-01

    The ISS (International Space Station) ITCS (Internal Thermal Control System) includes two internal coolant loops that utilize an aqueous based coolant for heat transfer. A silver salt biocide had previously been utilized as an additive in the coolant formulation to control the growth and proliferation of microorganisms within the coolant loops. Ground-based and in-flight testing demonstrated that the silver salt was rapidly depleted, and did not act as an effective long-term biocide. Efforts to select an optimal alternate biocide for the ITCS coolant application have been underway and are now in the final stages. An extensive evaluation of biocides was conducted to down-select to several candidates for test trials and was reported on previously. Criteria for that down-select included: the need for safe, non-intrusive implementation and operation in a functioning system; the ability to control existing planktonic and biofilm residing microorganisms; a negligible impact on system-wetted materials of construction; and a negligible reactivity with existing coolant additives. Candidate testing to provide data for the selection of an optimal alternate biocide is now in the final stages. That testing has included rapid biocide effectiveness screening using Biolog MT2 plates to determine minimum inhibitory concentration (amount that will inhibit visible growth of microorganisms), time kill studies to determine the exposure time required to completely eliminate organism growth, materials compatibility exposure evaluations, coolant compatibility studies, and bench-top simulated coolant testing. This paper reports the current status of the effort to select an alternate biocide for the ISS ITCS coolant. The results of various test results to select the optimal candidate are presented.

  5. Why have tobacco control policies stalled? Using genetic moderation to examine policy impacts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason M Fletcher

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Research has shown that tobacco control policies have helped produce the dramatic decline in use over the decades following the 1964 surgeon general's report. However, prevalence rates have stagnated during the past two decades in the US, even with large tobacco taxes and expansions of clean air laws. The observed differences in tobacco control policy effectiveness and why policies do not help all smokers are largely unexplained. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the importance of genetics in explaining response to tobacco taxation policy by testing the potential of gene-policy interaction in determining adult tobacco use. METHODS: A moderated regression analysis framework was used to test interactive effects between genotype and tobacco policy in predicting tobacco use. Cross sectional data of US adults from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES linked with genotype and geocodes were used to identify tobacco use phenotypes, state-level taxation rates, and variation in the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (CHRNA6 genotype. Tobacco use phenotypes included current use, number of cigarettes smoked per day, and blood serum cotinine measurements. RESULTS: Variation in the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor was found to moderate the influence of tobacco taxation on multiple measures of tobacco use. Individuals with the protective G/G polymorphism (51% of the sample responded to taxation while others had no response. The estimated differences in response by genotype were C/C genotype: b = -0.016 se = 0.018; G/C genotype: b = 0.014 se = 0.017; G/G genotype: b = -0.071 se 0.029. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides novel evidence of "gene-policy" interaction and suggests a genetic mechanism for the large differences in response to tobacco policies. The inability for these policies to reduce use for individuals with specific genotypes suggests alternative methods may be needed to further reduce use.

  6. [The genetic control of mouse coat color and its applications in genetics teaching].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Wanjin; Morigen, Morigen

    2014-10-01

    Mice are the most commonly used mammalian model. The coat colors of mice are typical Mendelian traits, which have various colors such as white, black, yellow and agouti. The inheritance of mouse coat color is usually stated as an example only in teaching the knowledge of recessive lethal alleles. After searched the related literatures and summarized the molecular mechanisms of mouse coat color inheritance, we further expanded the application of this example into the introduction of the basic concepts of alleles and Mendelian laws, demonstration of the gene structure and function, regulation of gene expression, gene interaction, epigenetic modification, quantitative genetics, as well as evolutionary genetics. By running this example through the whole genetics-teaching lectures, we help the student to form a systemic and developmental view of genetic analysis. At the same time, this teaching approach not only highlights the advancement and integrity of genetics, but also results in a good teaching effect on inspiring the students' interest and attracting students' attention.

  7. Argonaute-1 binds transcriptional enhancers and controls constitutive and alternative splicing in human cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alló, Mariano; Agirre, Eneritz; Bessonov, Sergey; Bertucci, Paola; Gómez Acuña, Luciana; Buggiano, Valeria; Bellora, Nicolás; Singh, Babita; Petrillo, Ezequiel; Blaustein, Matías; Miñana, Belén; Dujardin, Gwendal; Pozzi, Berta; Pelisch, Federico; Bechara, Elías; Agafonov, Dmitry E.; Srebrow, Anabella; Lührmann, Reinhard; Valcárcel, Juan; Eyras, Eduardo; Kornblihtt, Alberto R.

    2014-01-01

    The roles of Argonaute proteins in cytoplasmic microRNA and RNAi pathways are well established. However, their implication in small RNA-mediated transcriptional gene silencing in the mammalian cell nucleus is less understood. We have recently shown that intronic siRNAs cause chromatin modifications that inhibit RNA polymerase II elongation and modulate alternative splicing in an Argonaute-1 (AGO1)-dependent manner. Here we used chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by deep sequencing (ChIP-seq) to investigate the genome-wide distribution of AGO1 nuclear targets. Unexpectedly, we found that about 80% of AGO1 clusters are associated with cell-type-specific transcriptional enhancers, most of them (73%) overlapping active enhancers. This association seems to be mediated by long, rather than short, enhancer RNAs and to be more prominent in intragenic, rather than intergenic, enhancers. Paradoxically, crossing ChIP-seq with RNA-seq data upon AGO1 depletion revealed that enhancer-bound AGO1 is not linked to the global regulation of gene transcription but to the control of constitutive and alternative splicing, which was confirmed by an individual gene analysis explaining how AGO1 controls inclusion levels of the cassette exon 107 in the SYNE2 gene. PMID:25313066

  8. Enabling Passive Immunization as an Alternative to Antibiotics for Controlling Enteric Infections in Production Animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Hald, Birthe; Madsen, M.

    Enteric infections cause major problems in most intensive animal production sectors, including poultry, pigs and cattle, leading to disease, reduced production and compromised welfare. In addition some of these infections are zoonotic, and they are to a large extent responsible for the continued...... massive use of antibiotics in food animals. Thus there is a pressing need for economically feasible, efficient, non-antibiotics based means for controlling the problem. Passive immunization has been known for decades as an efficient way of endowing humans or animals with short-term (weeks) immunity....... To control enteric infections by passive immunization a bolus of immunoglobulin may simply be administered orally. For this to work, large amounts of active immunoglobulins are needed. To be a real alternative to antibiotics the price of the immunoglobulin product needs to be low. We combined an efficient...

  9. Alternative biomarkers for assessing glycemic control in diabetes: fructosamine, glycated albumin, and 1,5-anhydroglucitol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji-Eun

    2015-06-01

    The growing attention to alternative glycemic biomarkers including fructosamine, glycated albumin (GA), 1,5-anhydroglucitol (1,5-AG), is attributable to the limitations of the glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) assay. It is important to recognize the conditions in which HbA1c levels may be difficult to interpret. Serum fructosamine and GA have been proposed useful tools for monitoring of short-term glycemic control. These biomarkers not only reflect well glycemic control in hematologic disorder, but also represent postprandial glucose fluctuation. Serum 1,5-AG may be useful for estimating within-day glucose variation. Use of these nontraditional tests can be more helpful in the management of diabetes as complement traditional measures. Further larger cohort studies are warranted to determine whether nontraditional biomarkers have potential utility for early diagnosis, management of diabetes, and prevention of diabetic complications.

  10. Economics of eradicating Foot-and-Mouth disease epidemics with alternative control strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RHM Bergevoet

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an economic analysis of Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD control strategies for livestock herds. Alternative vaccination-to-live control strategies were compared to the strategy that involves culling of all susceptible animals in an area of 1 km around infected herds in addition to standard measures as culling of infected herds, pre-emptive slaughter of contact herds, establishment of control and surveillance zones. Vaccination strategies differed with respect to the radius of vaccination around infected farms (2 km versus 5 km. As an example to illustrate the economic consequences the Netherlands was used. These strategies were evaluated for a Sparsely Populated Livestock Areas (SPLA with less than 2 farms/km² and a Densely Populated Livestock Areas (DPLA with more than 4 farms/km². Results of the partial budgeting FMD model revealed that for DPLA a control strategy which includes a vaccination radius of 2 km is most cost effective. For SPLA a control strategy which includes a 1 km culling radius around an infected farm is most cost effective.

  11. Fault Tolerant Control Using Proportional-Integral-Derivative Controller Tuned by Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kanthalakshmi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The growing demand for reliability, maintainability and survivability in industrial processes has drawn significant research in fault detection and fault tolerant control domain. A fault is usually defined as an unexpected change in a system, such as component malfunction and variations in operating condition, which tends to degrade the overall system performance. The purpose of fault detection is to detect these malfunctions to take proper action in order to prevent faults from developing into a total system failure. Approach: In this study an effective integrated fault detection and fault tolerant control scheme was developed for a class of LTI system. The scheme was based on a Kalman filter for simultaneous state and fault parameter estimation, statistical decisions for fault detection and activation of controller reconfiguration. Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID control schemes continue to provide the simplest and yet effective solutions to most of the control engineering applications today. Determination or tuning of the PID parameters continues to be important as these parameters have a great influence on the stability and performance of the control system. In this study GA was proposed to tune the PID controller. Results: The results reflect that proposed scheme improves the performance of the process in terms of time domain specifications, robustness to parametric changes and optimum stability. Also, A comparison with the conventional Ziegler-Nichols method proves the superiority of GA based system. Conclusion: This study demonstrates the effectiveness of genetic algorithm in tuning of a PID controller with optimum parameters. It is, moreover, proved to be robust to the variations in plant dynamic characteristics and disturbances assuring a parameter-insensitive operation of the process.

  12. Can Man Control His Biological Evolution? A Symposium on Genetic Engineering. Genetic Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Paul

    1972-01-01

    Presented are issues related to genetic engineering. Increased knowledge of techniques to manipulate genes are apt to create confusion about moral values in relation to unborn babies and other living organisms on earth. Human beings may use this knowledge to disturb the balance maintained by nature. (PS)

  13. Common genetic variation and the control of HIV-1 in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fellay, J.; Ge, D.; Shianna, K.V.

    2009-01-01

    To extend the understanding of host genetic determinants of HIV-1 control, we performed a genome-wide association study in a cohort of 2,554 infected Caucasian subjects. The study was powered to detect common genetic variants explaining down to 1.3% of the variability in viral load at set point. ...... genetic variation in HIV-1 control in Caucasians Udgivelsesdato: 2009/12......To extend the understanding of host genetic determinants of HIV-1 control, we performed a genome-wide association study in a cohort of 2,554 infected Caucasian subjects. The study was powered to detect common genetic variants explaining down to 1.3% of the variability in viral load at set point. We...

  14. Optimal design and robustification of fuzzy-logic controllers for robotic manipulators using genetic algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Moini, A

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, genetic algorithms are used in the design and robustification various mo el-ba ed/non-model-based fuzzy-logic controllers for robotic manipulators. It is demonstrated that genetic algorithms provide effective means of designing the optimal set of fuzzy rules as well as the optimal domains of associated fuzzy sets in a new class of model-based-fuzzy-logic controllers. Furthermore, it is shown that genetic algorithms are very effective in the optimal design and robustification of non-model-based multivariable fuzzy-logic controllers for robotic manipulators.

  15. Genetically Controlled Fusion, Exocytosis and Fission of Artificial Vesicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bönzli, Eva; Hadorn, Maik; De Lucrezia, Davide

    Artificial vesicles represent ideal candidates as a model for artificial cells. It was shown that artificial genetic programs and the required cellular machinery (cell-free expression systems) can be incorporated into vesicles and allow the synthesis of proteins. Vesicles were shown to fuse...

  16. Controlling complexity : the clinical relevance of mouse complex genetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schughart, Klaus; Libert, Claude; Kas, Martien J

    2013-01-01

    Experimental animal models are essential to obtain basic knowledge of the underlying biological mechanisms in human diseases. Here, we review major contributions to biomedical research and discoveries that were obtained in the mouse model by using forward genetics approaches and that provided key in

  17. Genetic control of root growth: from genes to networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slovak, Radka; Ogura, Takehiko; Satbhai, Santosh B; Ristova, Daniela; Busch, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Roots are essential organs for higher plants. They provide the plant with nutrients and water, anchor the plant in the soil, and can serve as energy storage organs. One remarkable feature of roots is that they are able to adjust their growth to changing environments. This adjustment is possible through mechanisms that modulate a diverse set of root traits such as growth rate, diameter, growth direction and lateral root formation. The basis of these traits and their modulation are at the cellular level, where a multitude of genes and gene networks precisely regulate development in time and space and tune it to environmental conditions. This review first describes the root system and then presents fundamental work that has shed light on the basic regulatory principles of root growth and development. It then considers emerging complexities and how they have been addressed using systems-biology approaches, and then describes and argues for a systems-genetics approach. For reasons of simplicity and conciseness, this review is mostly limited to work from the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, in which much of the research in root growth regulation at the molecular level has been conducted. While forward genetic approaches have identified key regulators and genetic pathways, systems-biology approaches have been successful in shedding light on complex biological processes, for instance molecular mechanisms involving the quantitative interaction of several molecular components, or the interaction of large numbers of genes. However, there are significant limitations in many of these methods for capturing dynamic processes, as well as relating these processes to genotypic and phenotypic variation. The emerging field of systems genetics promises to overcome some of these limitations by linking genotypes to complex phenotypic and molecular data using approaches from different fields, such as genetics, genomics, systems biology and phenomics. © The Author 2015. Published by

  18. Alcohol induces sensitization to gluten in genetically susceptible individuals: a case control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Currie

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The mechanisms of cerebellar degeneration attributed to prolonged and excessive alcohol intake remain unclear. Additional or even alternative causes of cerebellar degeneration are often overlooked in suspected cases of alcohol-related ataxia. The objectives of this study were two fold: (1 to investigate the prevalence of gluten-related serological markers in patients with alcohol-related ataxia and; (2 to compare the pattern of brain involvement on magnetic resonance imaging between patients with alcohol and gluten ataxias. MATERIALS & METHODS: Patients diagnosed with alcohol and gluten ataxias were identified from a retrospective review of patients attending a tertiary clinic. HLA genotype and serological markers of gluten-related disorders were recorded. Cerebellar volumetry, MR spectroscopy and voxel-based morphometric analyses were performed on patients and compared with matched control data. RESULTS: Of 904 registered patients, 104 had alcohol ataxia and 159 had gluten ataxia. 61% of the alcohol ataxia group and 70% of the gluten ataxia group had HLA DQ2/DQ8 genotype compared to 30% in healthy local blood donors. 44% of patients with alcohol ataxia had antigliadin antibodies compared to 12% in the healthy local population and 10% in patients with genetically confirmed ataxias. None of the patients with alcohol ataxia and antigliadin antibodies had celiac disease compared to 40% in patients with gluten ataxia. The pattern of structural brain abnormality in patients with alcohol ataxia who had antigliadin antibodies differed from gluten ataxia and was identical to that of alcohol ataxia. CONCLUSIONS: Alcohol related cerebellar degeneration may, in genetically susceptible individuals, induce sensitization to gluten. Such sensitization may result from a primary cerebellar insult, but a more systemic effect is also possible. The duration and amount of exposure to alcohol may not be the only factors responsible for the cerebellar

  19. Food Control and a Citizen Science Approach for Improving Teaching of Genetics in Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrell, Y. J.; Muñoz-Colmenero, A. M.; Dopico, E.; Miralles, L.; Garcia-Vazquez, E.

    2016-01-01

    A Citizen Science approach was implemented in the laboratory practices of Genetics at the University of Oviedo, related with the engaging topic of Food Control. Real samples of food products consumed by students at home ("students as samplers") were employed as teaching material in three different courses of Genetics during the academic…

  20. Usnic acid potassium salt: an alternative for the control of Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica C B Martins

    Full Text Available In Brazil, the snail Biomphalaria glabrata is the most important vector of schistosomiasis due to its wide geographical distribution, high infection rate and efficient disease transmission. Among the methods of schistosomiasis control, the World Health Organization recommends the use of synthetic molluscicides, such as niclosamide. However, different substances of natural origin have been tested as alternatives for the control or eradication of mollusks. The literature describes the antitumor, antimicrobial and antiviral properties of usnic acid as well as other important activities of common interest between medicine and the environment. However, usnic acid has a low degree of water solubility, which can be a limiting factor for its use, especially in aquatic environments, since the organic solvents commonly used to solubilize this substance can have toxic effects on aquatic biota. Thus, the aim of the present study was to test the potassium salt of usnic acid (potassium usnate with regard to molluscicidal activity and toxicity to brine shrimp (Artemia salina. To obtain potassium usnate, usnic acid was extracted with diethyl ether isolated and purified from the lichen Cladonia substellata. Biological assays were performed with embryos and adult snails of B. glabrata exposed for 24 h to the usnate solution solubilized in dechlorinated water at 2.5; 5 and 10 µg/ml for embryos, 0.5; 0.9; 1;5 and 10 µg/ml for mollusks and 0.5; 1; 5; 10 µg/ml for A. salina. The lowest lethal concentration for the embryos and adult snails was 10 and 1 µg/ml, respectively. No toxicity to A. salina was found. The results show that modified usnic acid has increased solubility (100% without losing its biological activity and may be a viable alternative for the control of B. glabrata.

  1. Usnic acid potassium salt: an alternative for the control of Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Mônica C B; Silva, Monique C; Silva, Luanna R S; Lima, Vera L M; Pereira, Eugênia C; Falcão, Emerson P S; Melo, Ana M M A; da Silva, Nicácio Henrique

    2014-01-01

    In Brazil, the snail Biomphalaria glabrata is the most important vector of schistosomiasis due to its wide geographical distribution, high infection rate and efficient disease transmission. Among the methods of schistosomiasis control, the World Health Organization recommends the use of synthetic molluscicides, such as niclosamide. However, different substances of natural origin have been tested as alternatives for the control or eradication of mollusks. The literature describes the antitumor, antimicrobial and antiviral properties of usnic acid as well as other important activities of common interest between medicine and the environment. However, usnic acid has a low degree of water solubility, which can be a limiting factor for its use, especially in aquatic environments, since the organic solvents commonly used to solubilize this substance can have toxic effects on aquatic biota. Thus, the aim of the present study was to test the potassium salt of usnic acid (potassium usnate) with regard to molluscicidal activity and toxicity to brine shrimp (Artemia salina). To obtain potassium usnate, usnic acid was extracted with diethyl ether isolated and purified from the lichen Cladonia substellata. Biological assays were performed with embryos and adult snails of B. glabrata exposed for 24 h to the usnate solution solubilized in dechlorinated water at 2.5; 5 and 10 µg/ml for embryos, 0.5; 0.9; 1;5 and 10 µg/ml for mollusks and 0.5; 1; 5; 10 µg/ml for A. salina. The lowest lethal concentration for the embryos and adult snails was 10 and 1 µg/ml, respectively. No toxicity to A. salina was found. The results show that modified usnic acid has increased solubility (100%) without losing its biological activity and may be a viable alternative for the control of B. glabrata.

  2. A bio-product as alternative to methyl bromide for replant disease control on strawberry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu ZHANG; Tongle HU; Lijing JI; Keqiang CAO

    2008-01-01

    Pre-plant soil fumigation with methyl bromide (MB) is a standard practice for controlling soil-borne diseases especially for strawberry diseases. However, the application of MB will be forbidden in China in the year 2015. For this reason, a bio-product named Kangdi 3 was tested as an alternative to MB in strawberry greenhouses in Mancheng (Hebei Province) and Donggang (Liaoning province), China in 2005 and 2006. Methyl bromide at a normal dosage of 500 kg/hm2 and Kangdi 3 at three dosages of 750, 1500 and 2250 kg/hm2 were tested. Plots without any treatment were used as the control. During the growing stage, assessments were made on fungal communities in rhizosphere, growth status of strawberry, the disease levels on roots as well as the yields. Results showed that Kangdi 3 significantly reduced the quantity of fungi and the disease index, while enhancing strawberry growth and the yields compared with the untreated control. Therefore, Kangdi 3 is a great potential substitute for methyl bromide to control replant diseases in strawberry.

  3. The Dominance Concept Inventory: A Tool for Assessing Undergraduate Student Alternative Conceptions about Dominance in Mendelian and Population Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Joel K.; Perez, Kathryn E.; Price, Rebecca M.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the impact of genetics on daily life, biology undergraduates understand some key genetics concepts poorly. One concept requiring attention is dominance, which many students understand as a fixed property of an allele or trait and regularly conflate with frequency in a population or selective advantage. We present the Dominance Concept…

  4. Outcomes of a randomised controlled trial of a complex genetic counselling intervention to improve family communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Jan; Metcalfe, Sylvia; Gaff, Clara; Donath, Susan; Delatycki, Martin B; Winship, Ingrid; Skene, Loane; Aitken, MaryAnne; Halliday, Jane

    2016-03-01

    When an inherited genetic condition is diagnosed in an individual it has implications for other family members. Privacy legislation and ethical considerations can restrict health professionals from communicating directly with other family members, and so it is frequently the responsibility of the first person in a family to receive the diagnosis (the proband) to share this news. Communication of genetic information is challenging and many at-risk family members remain unaware of important information that may be relevant to their or their children's health. We conducted a randomised controlled trial in six public hospitals to assess whether a specifically designed telephone counselling intervention improved family communication about a new genetic diagnosis. Ninety-five probands/parents of probands were recruited from genetics clinics and randomised to the intervention or control group. The primary outcome measure was the difference between the proportion of at-risk relatives who contacted genetics services for information and/or genetic testing. Audit of the family genetic file after 18 months revealed that 25.6% of intervention group relatives compared with 20.9% of control group relatives made contact with genetic services (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.30, 95% confidence interval 0.70-2.42, P=0.40). Although no major difference was detected overall between the intervention and control groups, there was more contact in the intervention group where the genetic condition conferred a high risk to offspring (adjusted OR 24.0, 95% confidence interval 3.4-168.5, P=0.001). The increasing sophistication and scope of genetic testing makes it imperative for health professionals to consider additional ways of supporting families in communicating genetic information.

  5. Combustion instability and active control: Alternative fuels, augmentors, and modeling heat release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sammy Ace

    Experimental and analytical studies were conducted to explore thermo-acoustic coupling during the onset of combustion instability in various air-breathing combustor configurations. These include a laboratory-scale 200-kW dump combustor and a 100-kW augmentor featuring a v-gutter flame holder. They were used to simulate main combustion chambers and afterburners in aero engines, respectively. The three primary themes of this work includes: 1) modeling heat release fluctuations for stability analysis, 2) conducting active combustion control with alternative fuels, and 3) demonstrating practical active control for augmentor instability suppression. The phenomenon of combustion instabilities remains an unsolved problem in propulsion engines, mainly because of the difficulty in predicting the fluctuating component of heat release without extensive testing. A hybrid model was developed to describe both the temporal and spatial variations in dynamic heat release, using a separation of variables approach that requires only a limited amount of experimental data. The use of sinusoidal basis functions further reduced the amount of data required. When the mean heat release behavior is known, the only experimental data needed for detailed stability analysis is one instantaneous picture of heat release at the peak pressure phase. This model was successfully tested in the dump combustor experiments, reproducing the correct sign of the overall Rayleigh index as well as the remarkably accurate spatial distribution pattern of fluctuating heat release. Active combustion control was explored for fuel-flexible combustor operation using twelve different jet fuels including bio-synthetic and Fischer-Tropsch types. Analysis done using an actuated spray combustion model revealed that the combustion response times of these fuels were similar. Combined with experimental spray characterizations, this suggested that controller performance should remain effective with various alternative fuels

  6. Optimization of S-surface controller for autonomous underwater vehicle with immune-genetic algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ye; ZHANG Lei; WAN Lei; LIANG Xiao

    2008-01-01

    To deduce error and fussy work of manual adjustment of parameters for an S-surface controller in underwater vehicle motion control, the immune-genetic optimization of S-surface controller of an underwater vehicle was proposed. The ability of producing various antibodies for the immune algorithm, the self-adjustment of antibody density, and the antigen immune memory were used to realize the rapid convergence of S-surface controller parameters. It avoided loitering near the local peak value. Deduction of the S-surface controller was given. General process of the immune-genetic algorithm was described and immune-genetic optimization of S-surface controller parameters was discussed. Definitive results were obtained from many simulation experiments and lake experiments, which indicate that the algorithm can get good effect in optimizing the nonlinear motion controller parameters of an underwater vehicle.

  7. Integrated fuzzy logic and genetic algorithms for multi-objective control of structures using MR dampers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Gang; Zhou, Lily L.

    2006-09-01

    This study presents a design strategy based on genetic algorithms (GA) for semi-active fuzzy control of structures that have magnetorheological (MR) dampers installed to prevent damage from severe dynamic loads such as earthquakes. The control objective is to minimize both the maximum displacement and acceleration responses of the structure. Interactive relationships between structural responses and input voltages of MR dampers are established by using a fuzzy controller. GA is employed as an adaptive method for design of the fuzzy controller, which is here known as a genetic adaptive fuzzy (GAF) controller. The multi-objectives are first converted to a fitness function that is used in standard genetic operations, i.e. selection, crossover, and mutation. The proposed approach generates an effective and reliable fuzzy logic control system by powerful searching and self-learning adaptive capabilities of GA. Numerical simulations for single and multiple damper cases are given to show the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed intelligent control strategy.

  8. The Application Research about Modified Genetic Algorithm in the Flywheel Charging-Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaqi Zhong

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the flywheel charging-control system, there exists the flywheel motor’s nonlinearity, variable elements etc, which leads to the problem of parameter tuning of PID controller of its charging-control system’s revolving speed loop. In this study, I will introduce an optimizing way based on modified genetic algorithm for the flywheel charging-control system PID controller, which by means of simulation and performance index quantization to observe its optimizing performance and convergence characteristic, so that we can check the feasibility and effectiveness in the flywheel charging-control system. It turns out that tuning PID controller parameters based on modified genetic algorithm has a better rapidity and stability, which proves the feasibility of the modified genetic algorithm.

  9. Neural Network Control Optimization based on Improved Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoyin Zhang

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available To clearly find the effect of factors in network classification, the classification process of PNN is analyzed in detail. The XOR problem is described by PNN and the elements in PNN are also studied. Through simulations and combined with genetic algorithm, a novel PNN supervised learning algorithm is proposed. This algorithm introduces the classification accuracy of training samples to the network parameter learning. It adopts genetic algorithm to train the PNN smoothing parameter and hidden centric vector. Then the effects of hidden neuron number, hidden centric vector and smoothing parameter in PNN are verified in the experiments. It is shown that this algorithm is superior to other PNN learning algorithms on classification effect.

  10. Double Motor Coordinated Control Based on Hybrid Genetic Algorithm and CMAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shaozhong; Tu, Ji

    A novel hybrid cerebellar model articulation controller (CMAC) and online adaptive genetic algorithm (GA) controller is introduced to control two Brushless DC motor (BLDCM) which applied in a biped robot. Genetic Algorithm simulates the random learning among the individuals of a group, and CMAC simulates the self-learning of an individual. To validate the ability and superiority of the novel algorithm, experiments have been done in MATLAB/SIMULINK. Analysis among GA, hybrid GA-CMAC and CMAC feed-forward control is also given. The results prove that the torque ripple of the coordinated control system is eliminated by using the hybrid GA-CMAC algorithm.

  11. Implementation of Genetic Algorithm in Control Structure of Induction Motor A.C. Drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BRANDSTETTER, P.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Modern concepts of control systems with digital signal processors allow the implementation of time-consuming control algorithms in real-time, for example soft computing methods. The paper deals with the design and technical implementation of a genetic algorithm for setting proportional and integral gain of the speed controller of the A.C. drive with the vector-controlled induction motor. Important simulations and experimental measurements have been realized that confirm the correctness of the proposed speed controller tuned by the genetic algorithm and the quality speed response of the A.C. drive with changing parameters and disturbance variables, such as changes in load torque.

  12. A model for family-based case–control studies of genetic imprinting and epistasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Sui, Yihan; Liu, Tian; Wang, Jianxin; Li, Yongci; Lin, Zhenwu; Hegarty, John; Koltun, Walter A.; Wang, Zuoheng

    2014-01-01

    Genetic imprinting, or called the parent-of-origin effect, has been recognized to play an important role in the formation and pathogenesis of human diseases. Although the epigenetic mechanisms that establish genetic imprinting have been a focus of many genetic studies, our knowledge about the number of imprinting genes and their chromosomal locations and interactions with other genes is still scarce, limiting precise inference of the genetic architecture of complex diseases. In this article, we present a statistical model for testing and estimating the effects of genetic imprinting on complex diseases using a commonly used case–control design with family structure. For each subject sampled from a case and control population, we not only genotype its own single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) but also collect its parents’ genotypes. By tracing the transmission pattern of SNP alleles from parental to offspring generation, the model allows the characterization of genetic imprinting effects based on Pearson tests of a 2 × 2 contingency table. The model is expanded to test the interactions between imprinting effects and additive, dominant and epistatic effects in a complex web of genetic interactions. Statistical properties of the model are investigated, and its practical usefulness is validated by a real data analysis. The model will provide a useful tool for genome-wide association studies aimed to elucidate the picture of genetic control over complex human diseases. PMID:23887693

  13. Food control and a citizen science approach for improving teaching of Genetics in universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrell, Y J; Muñoz-Colmenero, A M; Dopico, E; Miralles, L; Garcia-Vazquez, E

    2016-09-10

    A Citizen Science approach was implemented in the laboratory practices of Genetics at the University of Oviedo, related with the engaging topic of Food Control. Real samples of food products consumed by students at home (students as samplers) were employed as teaching material in three different courses of Genetics during the academic year 2014-2015: Experimental Methods in Food Production (MBTA) (Master level), and Applied Molecular Biology (BMA) and Conservation Genetics and Breeding (COMGE) (Bachelor/Degree level). Molecular genetics based on PCR amplification of DNA markers was employed for species identification of 22 seafood products in COMGE and MBTA, and for detection of genetically modified (GM) maize from nine products in BMA. In total six seafood products incorrectly labeled (27%), and two undeclared GM maize (22%) were found. A post-Laboratory survey was applied for assessing the efficacy of the approach for improving motivation in the Laboratory Practices of Genetics. Results confirmed that students that worked on their own samples from local markets were significantly more motivated and better evaluated their Genetic laboratory practices than control students (χ(2)  = 12.11 p = 0.033). Our results suggest that citizen science approaches could not be only useful for improving teaching of Genetics in universities but also to incorporate students and citizens as active agents in food control. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 44(5):450-462, 2016.

  14. Tithonia diversifolia, Moringa oleifera and Piper auritum: Alternatives for the control of Sitophilus oryzae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Jiménez Álvarez

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available With the objective to determine the effect exerted by vegetable powders of Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl A. Gray, Moringa oleifera (Lam y Piper auritum Kunth on Sitophilus oryzae L., this experiment was performed. In the execution, adult insects were taken to evaluate the increase of them. Petri dishes of 9 cm with 10 insects were used inside additionally 5 g of rice (Oryza sativa L. and 0.4 g of powder was added botanical species (T. diversifolia, M. oleifera, P. auritum previously dried at 40 0C for 72 hours and finely ground. At 40 days the test mounted, the number of insects present per plate was counted, and after testing, Z Multiple Comparison was performed using the software Stadistix. The results allowed us to conclude that these plant species are a viable alternative for the control of S. oryzae.

  15. Aptamer-based analysis: a promising alternative for food safety control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaya-González, Sonia; de-los-Santos-Alvarez, Noemí; Miranda-Ordieres, Arturo J; Lobo-Castañón, Maria Jesús

    2013-01-01

    Ensuring food safety is nowadays a top priority of authorities and professional players in the food supply chain. One of the key challenges to determine the safety of food and guarantee a high level of consumer protection is the availability of fast, sensitive and reliable analytical methods to identify specific hazards associated to food before they become a health problem. The limitations of existing methods have encouraged the development of new technologies, among them biosensors. Success in biosensor design depends largely on the development of novel receptors with enhanced affinity to the target, while being stable and economical. Aptamers fulfill these characteristics, and thus have surfaced as promising alternatives to natural receptors. This Review describes analytical strategies developed so far using aptamers for the control of pathogens, allergens, adulterants, toxins and other forbidden contaminants to ensure food safety. The main progresses to date are presented, highlighting potential prospects for the future.

  16. Controllable Alternating Magnetic Technology Research for Inducing Plants Breeding on Ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-wen HU

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Controllable alternating induction magnetic field generation technology which induces plant seeds to breed on floor space has been developed. The incentive ferrite induction coil is used in the device to produce induced magnetic field. The common AC-DC-AC topology was adopted for the variable frequency power supply, realizing the VF. AC-DC-AC AC power inverter circuit adopts SPWM inverter frequency modulation and voltage regulation mode, realizing the effect of sinusoidal variable. In order to improve the conversion efficiency of the system electrical energy to magnetic energy, the RLC series resonant circuit is chosen in the circuit of output magnetic field. The induction magnetic field in the air gap is the work area for seeds experiment. Its adjustable frequency range: 20~200Hz, adjustable field range: 0~500Gs. The experimental study of rice seeds shows that different magnetic environment has a significant impact on the biological characteristics of rice seeds.

  17. Aptamer-Based Analysis: A Promising Alternative for Food Safety Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Amaya-González

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Ensuring food safety is nowadays a top priority of authorities and professional players in the food supply chain. One of the key challenges to determine the safety of food and guarantee a high level of consumer protection is the availability of fast, sensitive and reliable analytical methods to identify specific hazards associated to food before they become a health problem. The limitations of existing methods have encouraged the development of new technologies, among them biosensors. Success in biosensor design depends largely on the development of novel receptors with enhanced affinity to the target, while being stable and economical. Aptamers fulfill these characteristics, and thus have surfaced as promising alternatives to natural receptors. This Review describes analytical strategies developed so far using aptamers for the control of pathogens, allergens, adulterants, toxins and other forbidden contaminants to ensure food safety. The main progresses to date are presented, highlighting potential prospects for the future.

  18. Chlorfenapyr, a Potent Alternative Insecticide of Phoxim To Control Bradysia odoriphaga (Diptera: Sciaridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yunhe; Wang, Qiuhong; Wang, Yao; Zhang, Zhengqun; Wei, Yan; Liu, Feng; Zhou, Chenggang; Mu, Wei

    2017-07-26

    Bradysia odoriphaga is the major pest affecting Chinese chive production, and in China, it has developed widespread resistance to organophosphorus insecticides. Chlorfenapyr is a promising pyrrole insecticide with a unique mechanism of action that does not confer cross-resistance to neurotoxic insecticides. However, the effect of chlorfenapyr on organophosphate-resistant B. odoriphaga is not well understood. The present study evaluated the potential of chlorfenapyr for the control of phoxim-resistant B. odoriphaga. The results showed that chlorfenapyr had significant insecticidal activity to B. odoriphaga in multiple developmental stages, and there were no significant differences in susceptibility between the field (phoxim-resistant) and laboratory (phoxim-susceptible) populations. The pot experiment and field trials confirmed the results of our laboratory bioassays. In the field trial, chlorfenapyr applied at 3.0, 6.0, or 12.0 kg of active ingredient (a.i.)/ha significantly decreased the number of B. odoriphaga and improved the yield compared to phoxim at 6.0 kg of a.i./ha and the control conditions. Moreover, the final residues of chlorfenapyr on plants were below the maximum residue limits (MRLs) as a result of its non-systemic activity. These results demonstrate that chlorfenapyr has potential as a potent alternative to phoxim for controlling B. odoriphaga.

  19. Effects of poplar buds as an alternative to propolis on postharvest diseases control of strawberry fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shuzhen; Zhou, Yefeng; Ye, Junli; Fan, Gang; Peng, Litao; Pan, Siyi

    2016-04-01

    Botrytis cinerea and Rhizopus stolonifer, two main postharvest pathogens, cause great loss of strawberry fruits. Here, the effects of poplar buds extracts, a main plant source for Chinese propolis, on disease control were investigated in vitro and in vivo. The HPLC profile of poplar buds ethanol extract (PBEE) was almost identical to that of propolis ethanol extract (PEE), with the active flavonoids identified as pinocembrin, chrysin and galangin. PBEE exhibited similar inhibitory activities on spore germination of both pathogens compared with PEE, and PBEE also strongly inhibited the mycelial growth of the pathogens. In vivo, PBEE could effectively reduce decay of strawberry fruits stored at 13 °C. Although the weight loss was slightly increased, the contents of total soluble solid, titritable acid, vitamin C and total anthocyanins were significantly higher in PBEE treated fruits than those of the control. PBEE had the similar antifungal activity with propolis and had great potential as an alternative to propolis to control strawberry fruits diseases. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Use of alternating and pulsed direct current electrified fields for zebra mussel control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luoma, James A.; Dean, Jan C.; Severson, Todd J.; Wise, Jeremy K.; Barbour, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    Alternatives to chemicals for controlling dreissenid mussels are desirable for environmental compatibility, but few alternatives exist. Previous studies have evaluated the use of electrified fields for stunning and/or killing planktonic life stages of dreissenid mussels, however, the available literature on the use of electrified fields to control adult dreissenid mussels is limited. We evaluated the effects of sinusoidal alternating current (AC) and 20% duty cycle square-wave pulsed direct current (PDC) exposure on the survival of adult zebra mussels at water temperatures of 10, 15, and 22 °C. Peak voltage gradients of ~ 17 and 30 Vp/cm in the AC and PDC exposures, respectively, were continuously applied for 24, 48, or 72 h. Peak power densities ranged from 77,999 to 107,199 µW/cm3 in the AC exposures and 245,320 to 313,945 µW/cm3 in the PDC exposures. The peak dose ranged from 6,739 to 27,298 Joules/cm3 and 21,306 to 80,941 Joules/cm3 in the AC and PDC exposures, respectively. The applied power ranged from 16.6 to 68.9 kWh in the AC exposures and from 22.2 to 86.4 kWh in the PDC exposures. Mortality ranged from 2.7 to 92.7% in the AC exposed groups and from 24.0 to 98.7% in PDC exposed groups. Mortality increased with corresponding increases in water temperature and exposure duration, and we observed more zebra mussel mortality in the PDC exposures. Exposures conducted with AC required less of a peak dose (Joules/cm3) but more applied power (kWh) to achieve the same level of adult zebra mussel mortality as corresponding PDC exposures. The results demonstrate that 20% duty cycle square-wave PDC requires less energy than sinusoidal AC to inducing the same level of adult zebra mussel mortality.

  1. Design Genetic Algorithm Optimization Education Software Based Fuzzy Controller for a Tricopter Fly Path Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Huu-Khoa; Chiou, Juing -Shian; Peng, Shou-Tao

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the feasibility of a Genetic Algorithm Optimization (GAO) education software based Fuzzy Logic Controller (GAO-FLC) for simulating the flight motion control of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) is designed. The generated flight trajectories integrate the optimized Scaling Factors (SF) fuzzy controller gains by using GAO algorithm. The…

  2. Automatic Tuning of PID Controller for a 1-D Levitation System Using a Genetic Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhenyu; Pedersen, Gerulf K.m.

    2006-01-01

    The automatic PID control design for a onedimensional magnetic levitation system is investigated. The PID controller is automatically tuned using the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II) based on a nonlinear system model. The developed controller is digitally implemented and tested...

  3. Design Genetic Algorithm Optimization Education Software Based Fuzzy Controller for a Tricopter Fly Path Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Huu-Khoa; Chiou, Juing -Shian; Peng, Shou-Tao

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the feasibility of a Genetic Algorithm Optimization (GAO) education software based Fuzzy Logic Controller (GAO-FLC) for simulating the flight motion control of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) is designed. The generated flight trajectories integrate the optimized Scaling Factors (SF) fuzzy controller gains by using GAO algorithm. The…

  4. Road Traffic Control Based on Genetic Algorithm for Reducing Traffic Congestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigehiro, Yuji; Miyakawa, Takuya; Masuda, Tatsuya

    In this paper, we propose a road traffic control method for reducing traffic congestion with genetic algorithm. In the not too distant future, the system which controls the routes of all vehicles in a certain area must be realized. The system should optimize the routes of all vehicles, however the solution space of this problem is enormous. Therefore we apply the genetic algorithm to this problem, by encoding the route of all vehicles to a fixed length chromosome. To improve the search performance, a new genetic operator called “path shortening” is also designed. The effectiveness of the proposed method is shown by the experiment.

  5. Genetic Control of Hemerythrin Specificity in a Marine Worm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manwell, C

    1963-02-22

    A biochemical polymorphism of coelomic hemerythrin has been found in the sipunculid Golfingia gouldii; the electrophoretically "fast" and "slow" coelomic hemerythrins differ in their oxygen equilibria and by a single peptide in tryptic and chymotryptic "fingerprints." All individuals of this sipunculid have the same vascular hemerythrin, which is electrophoretically different from any of the coelomic hemerythrins. Vascular and coelomic hemerythrins of another sipunculid, Dendrostomum cymodoceae, have quite different "fingerprints." Thus, on the basis of two separate types of evidence the tissue-specific hemerythrins appear to have a distinct genetic basis. The embryological and phylogenetic implications are discussed.

  6. Synthetic lethal genetic interactions that decrease somatic cell proliferation in Caenorhabditis elegans identify the alternative RFC CTF18 as a candidate cancer drug target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLellan, Jessica; O'Neil, Nigel; Tarailo, Sanja; Stoepel, Jan; Bryan, Jennifer; Rose, Ann; Hieter, Philip

    2009-12-01

    Somatic mutations causing chromosome instability (CIN) in tumors can be exploited for selective killing of cancer cells by knockdown of second-site genes causing synthetic lethality. We tested and statistically validated synthetic lethal (SL) interactions between mutations in six Saccharomyces cerevisiae CIN genes orthologous to genes mutated in colon tumors and five additional CIN genes. To identify which SL interactions are conserved in higher organisms and represent potential chemotherapeutic targets, we developed an assay system in Caenorhabditis elegans to test genetic interactions causing synthetic proliferation defects in somatic cells. We made use of postembryonic RNA interference and the vulval cell lineage of C. elegans as a readout for somatic cell proliferation defects. We identified SL interactions between members of the cohesin complex and CTF4, RAD27, and components of the alternative RFC(CTF18) complex. The genetic interactions tested are highly conserved between S. cerevisiae and C. elegans and suggest that the alternative RFC components DCC1, CTF8, and CTF18 are ideal therapeutic targets because of their mild phenotype when knocked down singly in C. elegans. Furthermore, the C. elegans assay system will contribute to our knowledge of genetic interactions in a multicellular animal and is a powerful approach to identify new cancer therapeutic targets.

  7. Artificial intelligence programming with LabVIEW: genetic algorithms for instrumentation control and optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J H

    1995-06-01

    A genetic algorithm for instrumentation control and optimization was developed using the LabVIEW graphical programming environment. The usefulness of this methodology for the optimization of a closed loop control instrument is demonstrated with minimal complexity and the programming is presented in detail to facilitate its adaptation to other LabVIEW applications. Closed loop control instruments have variety of applications in the biomedical sciences including the regulation of physiological processes such as blood pressure. The program presented here should provide a useful starting point for those wishing to incorporate genetic algorithm approaches to LabVIEW mediated optimization of closed loop control instruments.

  8. Design of magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer nanoparticles for controlled release of doxorubicin under an alternative magnetic field in athermal conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffete, N.; Fresnais, J.; Espinosa, A.; Wilhelm, C.; Bée, A.; Ménager, C.

    2015-11-01

    An innovative magnetic delivery nanomaterial for triggered cancer therapy showing active control over drug release by using an alternative magnetic field is proposed. In vitro and In vivo release of doxorubicin (DOX) were investigated and showed a massive DOX release under an alternative magnetic field without temperature elevation of the medium.An innovative magnetic delivery nanomaterial for triggered cancer therapy showing active control over drug release by using an alternative magnetic field is proposed. In vitro and In vivo release of doxorubicin (DOX) were investigated and showed a massive DOX release under an alternative magnetic field without temperature elevation of the medium. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr06133d

  9. Optimal fuzzy PID control tuned with genetic algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Carlos Miguel Almeida

    2013-01-01

    Fuzzy logic controllers (FLC) are intelligent systems, based on heuristic knowledge, that have been largely applied in numerous areas of everyday life. They can be used to describe a linear or nonlinear system and are suitable when a real system is not known or too difficult to find their model. FLC provide a formal methodology for representing, manipulating and implementing a human heuristic knowledge on how to control a system. These controllers can be seen as artificial decision makers tha...

  10. The use of tanniferous plant in the goat diet as alternative to parasite control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surama Freitas Zanini

    2013-12-01

    goats, mainly on protozoa family Eimeriidae, revealing potential for use in alternative parasite control programs. Concomitantly also it was showed maximizing animal performance by high live body weight even with the reduction of voluntary feed intake.

  11. Believe you can and you will : The belief in high self-control decreases interest in attractive alternatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamburg, M.E.; Pronk, T.M.

    2015-01-01

    In the present research, we examined the effects of self-control beliefs on relationship protective behavior. We hypothesized that providing participants with feedback on their level of self-control would help them shield their relationship from attractive alternatives. Study 1 showed that

  12. Panels Manufactured from Vegetable Fibers: An Alternative Approach for Controlling Noises in Indoor Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leopoldo Pacheco Bastos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Noise control devices such as panels and barriers, when of high efficiency, generally are of difficult acquisition due to high costs turning in many cases their use impracticable, mainly for limited budget small-sized companies. There is a huge requirement for new acoustic materials that have satisfactory performance, not only under acoustic aspect but also other relevant ones and are of low cost. Vegetable fibers are an alternative solution when used as panels since they promise satisfactory acoustic absorption, according to previous researches, exist in abundance, and derive from renewable sources. This paper, therefore, reports on the development of panels made from vegetable fibers (coconut, palm, sisal, and açaí, assesses their applicability by various experimental (flammability, odor, fungal growth, and ageing tests, and characterize them acoustically in terms of their sound absorption coefficients on a scale model reverberant chamber. Acoustic results point out that the aforementioned fiber panels play pretty well the role of a noise control device since they have compatible, and in some cases, higher performance when compared to commercially available conventional materials.

  13. Alternatives for erosion control by using conventional coverage, non-conventional coverage and revegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Díaz Mendoza

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Humankind’s unsustainable behaviour regarding landuse has negative effects on the environment, leading to loss of fertility and degradation and desertification; this has a direct impact on the decline and deterioration of water resources, soil erosion and thus changes in the weather leading to drier conditions. The foregoing are caused by the misuse of soil2. The way soil resources have suffered gradual deterioration has become evident in Colombia during recent years; this has been produced by erosion and the removal of mass caused by various factors including physical and chemical erosion. All the above, together with negative events such as global climate change and the sedimentation of rivers, means a negative environmental impact . Soil erosion and desertification are major environmental issues regarding disturbances and threats affecting the arid, semiarid and dry sub-humid Mediterranean region’s geo-ecosystems in the third millennium; additionally, economic global change may exacerbate such problems (Ingram et al., 1996; Williams et al., 1996. Regarding soil deterioration, soil vegetation cover and erosion control and mitigation measures should be introduced by using mechanisms which should be as natural as possible and do not induce fresh impacts on the environment. This literature review has thus documented the state of the art regarding several alternatives for erosion control currently involving bioengineering.

  14. Fuzzy Control System of Hydraulic Roll Bending Based on Genetic Neural Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Chun-yu; LIU Hong-min; ZHOU Hui-feng

    2005-01-01

    For nonlinear hydraulic roll bending control, a new fuzzy intelligent control method was proposed based on the genetic neural network. The method taking account of dynamic and static characteristics of control system has settled the problems of recognizing and controlling the unknown, uncertain and nonlinear system successfully,and has been applied to hydraulic roll bending control. The simulation results indicate that the system has good performance and strong robustness, and is better than traditional PID and neural-fuzzy control. The method is an effective tool to control roll bending force with increased dynamic response speed of control system and enhanced tracking accuracy.

  15. Genetic algorithms for optimal design and control of adaptive structures

    CERN Document Server

    Ribeiro, R; Dias-Rodrigues, J; Vaz, M

    2000-01-01

    Future High Energy Physics experiments require the use of light and stable structures to support their most precise radiation detection elements. These large structures must be light, highly stable, stiff and radiation tolerant in an environment where external vibrations, high radiation levels, material aging, temperature and humidity gradients are not negligible. Unforeseen factors and the unknown result of the coupling of environmental conditions, together with external vibrations, may affect the position stability of the detectors and their support structures compromising their physics performance. Careful optimization of static and dynamic behavior must be an essential part of the engineering design. Genetic Algorithms ( GA) belong to the group of probabilistic algorithms, combining elements of direct and stochastic search. They are more robust than existing directed search methods with the advantage of maintaining a population of potential solutions. There is a class of optimization problems for which Ge...

  16. A scenario for a genetically controlled fission of artificial vesicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bönzli, Eva; Hadorn, Maik; Jørgensen, Mikkel Girke

    2011-01-01

    Artificial vesicles have been used for decades as model systems of biological cells to investigate scientific questions in simulacra. In recent years, the significance of artificial vesicles further increased because they represent ideal candidates to become the building block of a de novo...... construction of a cell in a bottom-up manner. Numerous efforts to build an artificial cell that bridge the living and non-living world will most presumably represent one of the main goals of science in the 21st century. It was shown that artificial genetic programs and the required cellular machinery can...... be incorporated into vesicles, and therefore allow the synthesis of a large number of proteins (Noireaux et al. 2005). However, vesicle fission remains one of the upcoming challenges in the artificial cell project (Noireaux et al. 2011). So far, vesicle fission is implemented by applying mechanical stress...

  17. From many, one: genetic control of prolificacy during maize domestication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Wills

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A reduction in number and an increase in size of inflorescences is a common aspect of plant domestication. When maize was domesticated from teosinte, the number and arrangement of ears changed dramatically. Teosinte has long lateral branches that bear multiple small ears at their nodes and tassels at their tips. Maize has much shorter lateral branches that are tipped by a single large ear with no additional ears at the branch nodes. To investigate the genetic basis of this difference in prolificacy (the number of ears on a plant, we performed a genome-wide QTL scan. A large effect QTL for prolificacy (prol1.1 was detected on the short arm of chromosome 1 in a location that has previously been shown to influence multiple domestication traits. We fine-mapped prol1.1 to a 2.7 kb "causative region" upstream of the grassy tillers1 (gt1 gene, which encodes a homeodomain leucine zipper transcription factor. Tissue in situ hybridizations reveal that the maize allele of prol1.1 is associated with up-regulation of gt1 expression in the nodal plexus. Given that maize does not initiate secondary ear buds, the expression of gt1 in the nodal plexus in maize may suppress their initiation. Population genetic analyses indicate positive selection on the maize allele of prol1.1, causing a partial sweep that fixed the maize allele throughout most of domesticated maize. This work shows how a subtle cis-regulatory change in tissue specific gene expression altered plant architecture in a way that improved the harvestability of maize.

  18. Genetic determinants of cognitive responses to caffeine drinking identified from a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renda, Giulia; Committeri, Giorgia; Zimarino, Marco; Di Nicola, Marta; Tatasciore, Alfonso; Ruggieri, Benedetta; Ambrosini, Ettore; Viola, Vanda; Antonucci, Ivana; Stuppia, Liborio; De Caterina, Raffaele

    2015-06-01

    The widely observed between-subject variability in cognitive responses to coffee may have a genetic basis. We evaluated cognitive responses to caffeine throughout three complex cognitive tasks assessing different subdomains of attention, namely Alerting and Orienting (Categorical Search Task) and Executive Control (Stroop Task and Eriksen Flanker Task). We explored whether they are influenced by gene variants affecting adenosine metabolism or catecholamine receptors. We recruited 106 healthy male subjects who were administered, in a double-blind design, 40mL of either a decaffeinated coffee preparation plus 3mg/kg caffeine (caf) or the corresponding vehicle (decaf). The protocol was repeated 24h later with the alternative preparation. Cognitive tasks were performed between 30min and 2h after caf or decaf administration. Each subject underwent ambulatory blood pressure monitoring for 2h. Blood samples were collected for genetic evaluations and for plasma caffeine and catecholamines measures. We found a significant reduction of reaction times in two of the cognitive tasks (Categorical Search Task and Stroop Task) after caf compared with decaf, indicating that caffeine, on average, improved the attention level in the domains under investigation. We also found, however, a great inter-individual variability in the cognitive performance responses to caffeine. In exploring genetic sources for such variability, we found a relation between polymorphisms of adenosine A2A and the caffeine effects on the attentional domains of Orienting and Executive control. In conclusion, variability in the attentional response to coffee may be partly explained by genetic polymorphisms of adenosine and adrenergic receptors.

  19. Genetic diversity analysis of mitochondrial DNA control region in artificially propagated Chinese sucker Myxocyprinus asiaticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Yuan; Zhou, Chun-Hua; Ouyang, Shan; Huang, Xiao-Chen; Zhan, Yang; Zhou, Ping; Rong, Jun; Wu, Xiao-Ping

    2015-08-01

    The genetic diversity of the three major artificially propagated populations of Chinese sucker, an endangered freshwater fish species, was investigated using the sequences of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control regions. Among the 89 individuals tested, 66 variable sites (7.26%) and 10 haplotypes were detected (Haplotype diversity Hd = 0.805, Nucleotide diversity π = 0.0287). In general, genetic diversity was lower in artificially propagated populations than in wild populations. This reduction in genetic diversity may be due to population bottlenecks, genetic drift and human selection. A stepping-stone pattern of gene flow was detected in the populations studied, showing much higher gene flow between neighbouring populations. To increase the genetic diversity, wild lineages should be introduced, and more lineages should be shared among artificially propagated populations.

  20. Potential International Approaches to Ownership/Control of Human Genetic Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Catherine

    2016-09-01

    In its governance activities for genetic resources, the international community has adopted various approaches to their ownership, including: free access; common heritage of mankind; intellectual property rights; and state sovereign rights. They have also created systems which combine elements of these approaches. While governance of plant and animal genetic resources is well-established internationally, there has not yet been a clear approach selected for human genetic resources. Based on assessment of the goals which international governance of human genetic resources ought to serve, and the implications for how they will be accessed and utilised, it is argued that common heritage of mankind will be the most appropriate approach to adopt to their ownership/control. It does this with the aim of stimulating discussion in this area and providing a starting point for deeper consideration of how a common heritage of mankind, or similar, regime for human genetic resources would function and be implemented.

  1. Genetic and environmental influences on the relationship between flow proneness, locus of control and behavioral inhibition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam A Mosing

    Full Text Available Flow is a psychological state of high but subjectively effortless attention that typically occurs during active performance of challenging tasks and is accompanied by a sense of automaticity, high control, low self-awareness, and enjoyment. Flow proneness is associated with traits and behaviors related to low neuroticism such as emotional stability, conscientiousness, active coping, self-esteem and life satisfaction. Little is known about the genetic architecture of flow proneness, behavioral inhibition and locus of control--traits also associated with neuroticism--and their interrelation. Here, we hypothesized that individuals low in behavioral inhibition and with an internal locus of control would be more likely to experience flow and explored the genetic and environmental architecture of the relationship between the three variables. Behavioral inhibition and locus of control was measured in a large population sample of 3,375 full twin pairs and 4,527 single twins, about 26% of whom also scored the flow proneness questionnaire. Findings revealed significant but relatively low correlations between the three traits and moderate heritability estimates of .41, .45, and .30 for flow proneness, behavioral inhibition, and locus of control, respectively, with some indication of non-additive genetic influences. For behavioral inhibition we found significant sex differences in heritability, with females showing a higher estimate including significant non-additive genetic influences, while in males the entire heritability was due to additive genetic variance. We also found a mainly genetically mediated relationship between the three traits, suggesting that individuals who are genetically predisposed to experience flow, show less behavioral inhibition (less anxious and feel that they are in control of their own destiny (internal locus of control. We discuss that some of the genes underlying this relationship may include those influencing the function of

  2. Arthropod Pest Control for UK Oilseed Rape – Comparing Insecticide Efficacies, Side Effects and Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeze, Tom; Bailey, Alison; Garthwaite, David; Harrington, Richard; Potts, Simon G.

    2017-01-01

    Oilseed rape (Brassica napus) is an important combinable break crop in the UK, which is largely protected from arthropod pests by insecticidal chemicals. Despite ongoing debate regarding the use of neonicotinoids, the dominant seed treatment ingredients used for this crop, there is little publicly available data comparing the efficacy of insecticides in controlling key arthropod pests or comparing the impacts on non-target species and the wider environment. To provide an insight into these matters, a UK-wide expert survey targeting agronomists and entomologists was conducted from March to June 2015. Based on the opinions of 90 respondents, an average of 20% yield loss caused by the key arthropod pests was expected to have occurred in the absence of insecticide treatments. Relatively older chemical groups were perceived to have lower efficacy for target pests than newer ones, partly due to the development of insecticide resistance. Without neonicotinoid seed treatments, a lack of good control for cabbage stem flea beetle was perceived. Wide spectrum foliar insecticide sprays were perceived to have significantly greater negative impacts than seed treatments on users’ health, natural enemies, pollinators, soil and water, and many foliar active ingredients have had potential risks for non-target arthropod species in UK oilseed rape fields for the past 25 years. Overall, 72% of respondents opposed the neonicotinoid restriction, while 10% supported it. Opposition and support of the restriction were largely based on concerns for pollinators and the wider environment, highlighting the uncertainty over the side effects of neonicotinoid use. More people from the government and research institutes leaned towards neutrality over the issue, compared to those directly involved in growing the crop. Neonicotinoid restriction was expected to result in greater effort and expenditure on pest control and lower production (0–1 t/ha less). Alternatives for future oilseed rape

  3. The Neurobiology and Genetics of Impulse Control Disorders: Relationships to Drug Addictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Judson A.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2008-01-01

    Impulse control disorders (ICDs), including pathological gambling, trichotillomania, kleptomania and others, have been conceptualized to lie along an impulsive-compulsive spectrum. Recent data have suggested that these disorders may be considered addictions. Here we review the genetic and neuropathological bases of the impulse control disorders and consider the disorders within these non-mutually exclusive frameworks. PMID:17719013

  4. The Long and Short of Genetic Counseling Summary Letters: A Case-control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roggenbuck, J; Temme, R; Pond, D; Baker, J; Jarvis, K; Liu, M; Dugan, S; Mendelsohn, N J

    2015-08-01

    Genetic counseling summary letters are intended to reinforce information received during genetic counseling, but little information is available on patient/family responses to these letters. We conducted a case-control study to assess the effectiveness of two different letter formats. Parents of children receiving a new diagnosis were enrolled. The control group (n = 85) received a genetic counseling summary letter in a narrative format, 4-5 pages in length. After the control enrollment period, genetic counselors were trained by a professional medical writer to develop a concise letter format. The case group (n = 64) received a concise letter, approximately 1.5 pages in length, utilizing simple sentences, lay terms, and lists/bullet points. Parents completed a survey 4 weeks after the visit to rate the letter's format, usefulness, and their emotional reaction. Results show that parents in the case group rated the letter more highly (p = 0.023), particularly in the emotional response dimension (rating changes in anxiety, depression, fear, ability to cope, and confidence in response to the letter). Parents in the case group also rated the genetic counseling session more highly (p = 0.039). In the control group, parents without a college degree were more likely to rate the letter as too long and the level of medical detail as too high. In the case group, no significant differences were seen between parents with or without a college degree. These data suggest that a short genetic counseling summary letter is rated higher by parents, and is particularly associated with a more positive emotional reaction. A short letter format highlighting the basic facts related to the genetic condition may be more useful to parents of diverse educational backgrounds, and may support a positive emotional adaptation at the time of a new diagnosis. Genetic counselors may benefit from specific instruction in medical and educational writing.

  5. Design of Autonomous Navigation Controllers for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Using Multi-Objective Genetic Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-03-01

    In Genetic Programming 1997: Proceedings of the Second Annual Conference, pages 398–406, 1997. [23] Emilio Frazzoli. Maneuver-based motion planning...Evolutionary approaches to neural control of rolling, walking, swimming and flying animats or robots. In Richard J. Duro, Jose Santos, and Manuel Grana...objective genetic programming. In Proceedings of the Congress on Evolutionary Computation, Portland, OR, June 2004. [66] Peter Pacheco . Parallel

  6. Design of Combined Sliding Mode Controller Back Stepping Using Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atefeh Marvi Moghadam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This research has tried to achieve a new robust controller with back stepping control and sliding mode control method. Also as we know, in all analytical controllers there are constant coefficients like the back stepping and sliding mode controllers, redesigning the Lyapunov and the feedback linearization, - and so forth. There are two major problems in their set: firstly, the adjustment is cumbersome and time-consuming. Secondly, assuming that these parameters can be adjusted to workability, a designer can never tell exactly what are the parameters chosen to be optimal. To resolve this problem, the numerical algorithm which is a genetic algorithm is used here and we have the optimal parameters of the proposed controller. That genetic algorithm (GA has been used to solve difficult engineering problems that are complex and difficult to solve by conventional optimization methods, and at the end of this section, we apply a new robust controller on ball and beam system. Simulation results are expressed.

  7. Repetitive control mechanism of disturbance cancellation using a hybrid regression and genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jeng-Wen; Shen, Pu Fun; Wen, Hao-Ping

    2015-10-01

    The application of a repetitive control mechanism for use in a mechanical control system has been a topic of investigation. The fundamental purpose of repetitive control is to eliminate disturbances in a mechanical control system. This paper presents two different repetitive control laws using individual types of basis function feedback and their combinations. These laws adjust the command given to a feedback control system to eliminate tracking errors, generally resulting from periodic disturbance. Periodic errors can be reduced through linear basis functions using regression and a genetic algorithm. The results illustrate that repetitive control is most effective method for eliminating disturbances. When the data are stabilized, the tracking error of the obtained convergence value, 10-14, is the optimal solution, verifying that the proposed regression and genetic algorithm can satisfactorily reduce periodic errors.

  8. Toxicological study of Wedelia trilobata (Asteraceae) extracts as alternative control strategies for Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junhirun, P; Pluempanupat, W; Bullangpoti, V

    2012-01-01

    The Diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella (L)) is an economically important pest in Thailand and the indiscriminant use of chemical pesticides against this pest has been responsible for environmental hazards. Present research, therefore, is trying to develop alternative strategies by using plant based-products for the control of this pest. Wedelia trilobata (L) Hitchc extracts prepared in hexane, dichloroethane, ethyl acetate and ethanol were used initially against the second instars of P. xylostella by topical application to determine the dose dependent toxicity. The highest yield of the extracts was obtained with EtOH extract followed by hexane, EtOAc and dichloroethane. However, the EtOAc extract exhibited the highest toxicity (24h-LC50 = 442.8 ppm) that became more prominent after 48 h (LC50 = 376.71 ppm). This suggests there was an increase in toxicity with the duration of exposure to the treatment. With the exception of the hexane extract, all other treatments were significantly correlated, which suggests that W. trolobata contains a varied profile of anti-insect allelochemicals that can be exploited in any integrated pest management strategy. The identification of the active ingredients is in progress.

  9. Corrosion control when using secondary treated municipal wastewater as alternative makeup water for cooling tower systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Ming-Kai; Li, Heng; Chien, Shih-Hsiang; Monnell, Jason D; Chowdhury, Indranil; Dzombak, David A; Vidic, Radisav D

    2010-12-01

    Secondary treated municipal wastewater is a promising alternative to fresh water as power plant cooling water system makeup water, especially in arid regions. Laboratory and field testing was conducted in this study to evaluate the corrosiveness of secondary treated municipal wastewater for various metals and metal alloys in cooling systems. Different corrosion control strategies were evaluated based on varied chemical treatment. Orthophosphate, which is abundant in secondary treated municipal wastewater, contributed to more than 80% precipitative removal of phosphorous-based corrosion inhibitors. Tolyltriazole worked effectively to reduce corrosion of copper (greater than 95% inhibition effectiveness). The corrosion rate of mild steel in the presence of free chlorine 1 mg/L (as Cl2) was approximately 50% higher than in the presence of monochloramine 1 mg/L (as Cl2), indicating that monochloramine is a less corrosive biocide than free chlorine. The scaling layers observed on the metal alloys contributed to corrosion inhibition, which could be seen by comparing the mild steel 21-day average corrosion rate with the last 5-day average corrosion rate, the latter being approximately 50% lower than the former.

  10. Randomized controlled trials in pediatric complementary and alternative medicine: Where can they be found?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajiferuke Isola

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The safety and effectiveness of CAM interventions are of great relevance to pediatric health care providers. The objective of this study is to identify sources of reported randomized controlled trials (RCTs in the field of pediatric complementary and alternative medicine (CAM. Methods Reports of RCTs were identified by searching Medline and 12 additional bibliographic databases and by reviewing the reference lists of previously identified pediatric CAM systematic reviews. Results We identified 908 reports of RCTs that included children under 18 and investigated a CAM therapy. Since 1965, there has been a steady growth in the number of these trials that are being published. The four journals that published the most reported RCTs are The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Pediatrics, Journal of Pediatrics, and Lancet. Medline, CAB Health, and Embase were the best database sources for identifying these studies; they indexed 93.2%, 58.4% and 42.2 % respectively of the journals publishing reports of pediatric CAM RCTs. Conclusions Those working or interested in the field of pediatric CAM should routinely search Medline, CAB Health and Embase for literature in the field. The four core journals identified above should be included in their collection.

  11. A twin study of problematic internet use: its heritability and genetic association with effortful control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengjiao; Chen, Jie; Li, Naishi; Li, Xinying

    2014-08-01

    Our goal was to estimate genetic and environmental sources of influence on adolescent problematic internet use, and whether these individual differences can be explained by effortful control, an important aspect of self-regulation. A sample of 825 pairs of Chinese adolescent twins and their parents provided reports of problematic internet use and effortful control. Univariate analysis revealed that genetic factors explained 58-66% of variance in problematic internet use, with the rest explained by non-shared environmental factors. Sex difference was found, suggesting boys' problematic internet use was more influenced by genetic influences than girls' problematic internet use. Bivariate analysis indicated that effortful control accounted for a modest portion of the genetic and non-shared environmental variance in problematic internet use among girls. In contrast, among boys, effortful control explained between 6% (parent report) and 20% (self-report) of variance in problematic internet use through overlapping genetic pathways. Adolescent problematic internet use is heritable, and poor effortful control can partly explain adolescent problematic internet use, with effects stronger for boys. Implications for future research are discussed.

  12. Control of the olive fruit fly using genetics-enhanced sterile insect technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ant Thomas

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, is the major arthropod pest of commercial olive production, causing extensive damage to olive crops worldwide. Current control techniques rely on spraying of chemical insecticides. The sterile insect technique (SIT presents an alternative, environmentally friendly and species-specific method of population control. Although SIT has been very successful against other tephritid pests, previous SIT trials on olive fly have produced disappointing results. Key problems included altered diurnal mating rhythms of the laboratory-reared insects, resulting in asynchronous mating activity between the wild and released sterile populations, and low competitiveness of the radiation-sterilised mass-reared flies. Consequently, the production of competitive, male-only release cohorts is considered an essential prerequisite for successful olive fly SIT. Results We developed a set of conditional female-lethal strains of olive fly (named Release of Insects carrying a Dominant Lethal; RIDL®, providing highly penetrant female-specific lethality, dominant fluorescent marking, and genetic sterility. We found that males of the lead strain, OX3097D-Bol, 1 are strongly sexually competitive with wild olive flies, 2 display synchronous mating activity with wild females, and 3 induce appropriate refractoriness to wild female re-mating. Furthermore, we showed, through a large proof-of-principle experiment, that weekly releases of OX3097D-Bol males into stable populations of caged wild-type olive fly could cause rapid population collapse and eventual eradication. Conclusions The observed mating characteristics strongly suggest that an approach based on the release of OX3097D-Bol males will overcome the key difficulties encountered in previous olive fly SIT attempts. Although field confirmation is required, the proof-of-principle suppression and elimination of caged wild-type olive fly populations through OX3097D

  13. Searching for Controlled Trials of Complementary and Alternative Medicine: A Comparison of 15 Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise Cogo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This project aims to assess the utility of bibliographic databases beyond the three major ones (MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane CENTRAL for finding controlled trials of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM. Fifteen databases were searched to identify controlled clinical trials (CCTs of CAM not also indexed in MEDLINE. Searches were conducted in May 2006 using the revised Cochrane highly sensitive search strategy (HSSS and the PubMed CAM Subset. Yield of CAM trials per 100 records was determined, and databases were compared over a standardized period (2005. The Acudoc2 RCT, Acubriefs, Index to Chiropractic Literature (ICL and Hom-Inform databases had the highest concentrations of non-MEDLINE records, with more than 100 non-MEDLINE records per 500. Other productive databases had ratios between 500 and 1500 records to 100 non-MEDLINE records—these were AMED, MANTIS, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Global Health and Alt HealthWatch. Five databases were found to be unproductive: AGRICOLA, CAIRSS, Datadiwan, Herb Research Foundation and IBIDS. Acudoc2 RCT yielded 100 CAM trials in the most recent 100 records screened. Acubriefs, AMED, Hom-Inform, MANTIS, PsycINFO and CINAHL had more than 25 CAM trials per 100 records screened. Global Health, ICL and Alt HealthWatch were below 25 in yield. There were 255 non-MEDLINE trials from eight databases in 2005, with only 10% indexed in more than one database. Yield varied greatly between databases; the most productive databases from both sampling methods were Acubriefs, Acudoc2 RCT, AMED and CINAHL. Low overlap between databases indicates comprehensive CAM literature searches will require multiple databases.

  14. Lime Juice and Vinegar Injections as a Cheap and Natural Alternative to Control COTS Outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutardier, Grégoire; Gereva, Sompert; Mills, Suzanne C; Adjeroud, Mehdi; Beldade, Ricardo; Ham, Jayven; Kaku, Rocky; Dumas, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Outbreaks of the corallivorous crown-of-thorns seastar Acanthaster planci (COTS) represent one of the greatest disturbances to coral reef ecosystems in the Indo-Pacific, affecting not only coral reefs but also the coastal communities which rely on their resources. While injection approaches are increasingly used in an attempt to control COTS densities, most of them display severe drawbacks including logistical challenges, high residual environmental impacts or low cost-effectiveness. We tested a new alternative control method based upon acidic injections of cheap, 100% natural products. We investigated the lethal doses, intra- and inter-specific disease transmission and immune responses of COTS when injected with fresh lime juice (extracted from local Citrus arantifolia) and white spirit vinegar. High COTS mortality was achieved with small volumes: 10-20 ml per seastar induced death in 89%/97% of injected specimens after an average 34.3 h/29.8 h for lime juice and vinegar respectively. Highest efficiency was reached for both solutions with double shots of (2 × 10 ml) in two different areas on the body: 100% mortality occurred within 12-24 h, which is similar or faster compared with other current injection methods. Multiple immune measures suggested that death was very likely caused by pH stress from the acidic solutions rather than a bacterial infection. Contagion to either conspecifics or a variety of other reef species was not observed, even at COTS densities 15 times higher than the highest naturally reported. 10 to 20 l lime juice/vinegar could kill up to a thousand COTS at a cost of less than 0.05 USD per specimen; no permits or special handling procedures are required. We conclude that injections of lime juice and vinegar offer great advantages when compared to current best practises and constitute a cheap and natural option for all reefs affected by COTS.

  15. Neemazal ® as a possible alternative control tool for malaria and African trypanosomiasis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerbanga, R Serge; Rayaisse, Jean-Baptiste; Vantaux, Amélie; Salou, Ernest; Mouline, Karine; Hien, François; Habluetzel, Annette; Dabiré, Roch K; Ouédraogo, Jean Bosco; Solano, Philippe; Lefèvre, Thierry

    2016-05-04

    Research efforts to identify possible alternative control tools for malaria and African trypanosomiasis are needed. One promising approach relies on the use of traditional plant remedies with insecticidal activities. In this study, we assessed the effect of blood treated with different doses of NeemAzal ® (NA, neem seed extract) on mosquitoes (Anopheles coluzzii) and tsetse flies (Glossina palpalis gambiensis) (i) avidity to feed on the treated blood, (ii) longevity, and (iii) behavioural responses to human and calf odours in dual-choice tests. We also gauged NeemAzal ® toxicity in mice. In An. coluzzii, the ingestion of NA in bloodmeals offered by membrane feeding resulted in (i) primary antifeedancy; (ii) decreased longevity; and (iii) reduced response to host odours. In G. palpalis gambiensis, NA caused (i) a knock-down effect; (ii) decreased or increased longevity depending on the dose; and (iii) reduced response to host stimuli. In both cases, NA did not affect the anthropophilic rate of activated insects. Overall, the most significant effects were observed with NA treated bloodmeals at a dose of 2000 μg/ml for mosquitoes and 50 μg/ml for tsetse flies. Although no mortality in mice was observed after 14 days of follow-up at oral doses of 3.8, 5.6, 8.4 and 12.7 g/kg, behavioural alterations were noticed at doses above 8 g/kg. This study revealed promising activity of NA on A. coluzzii and G. palpalis gambiensis but additional research is needed to assess field efficacy of neem products to be possibly integrated in vector control programmes.

  16. Searching for Controlled Trials of Complementary and Alternative Medicine: A Comparison of 15 Databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogo, Elise; Sampson, Margaret; Ajiferuke, Isola; Manheimer, Eric; Campbell, Kaitryn; Daniel, Raymond; Moher, David

    2011-01-01

    This project aims to assess the utility of bibliographic databases beyond the three major ones (MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane CENTRAL) for finding controlled trials of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Fifteen databases were searched to identify controlled clinical trials (CCTs) of CAM not also indexed in MEDLINE. Searches were conducted in May 2006 using the revised Cochrane highly sensitive search strategy (HSSS) and the PubMed CAM Subset. Yield of CAM trials per 100 records was determined, and databases were compared over a standardized period (2005). The Acudoc2 RCT, Acubriefs, Index to Chiropractic Literature (ICL) and Hom-Inform databases had the highest concentrations of non-MEDLINE records, with more than 100 non-MEDLINE records per 500. Other productive databases had ratios between 500 and 1500 records to 100 non-MEDLINE records—these were AMED, MANTIS, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Global Health and Alt HealthWatch. Five databases were found to be unproductive: AGRICOLA, CAIRSS, Datadiwan, Herb Research Foundation and IBIDS. Acudoc2 RCT yielded 100 CAM trials in the most recent 100 records screened. Acubriefs, AMED, Hom-Inform, MANTIS, PsycINFO and CINAHL had more than 25 CAM trials per 100 records screened. Global Health, ICL and Alt HealthWatch were below 25 in yield. There were 255 non-MEDLINE trials from eight databases in 2005, with only 10% indexed in more than one database. Yield varied greatly between databases; the most productive databases from both sampling methods were Acubriefs, Acudoc2 RCT, AMED and CINAHL. Low overlap between databases indicates comprehensive CAM literature searches will require multiple databases. PMID:19468052

  17. Genetics and control of tomato fruit ripening and quality attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomato ripening is a highly coordinated developmental process coinciding with seed maturation. Regulated expression of thousands of genes controls fruit softening as well as accumulation of pigments, sugars, acids and volatile compounds that increase attraction to animals. A combination of molecular...

  18. Building beauty: the genetic control of floral patterning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohmann, J. U., and Weigel, D.

    2002-02-01

    OAK-B135 Floral organ identity is controlled by combinatorial action of homeotic genes expressed in different territories within the emerging flower. This review discusses recent progress in our understanding of floral homeotic genes, with an emphasis on how their region-specific expression is regulated.

  19. 75 FR 12769 - National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Announcement of Workshop on Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine...: Notice. SUMMARY: The National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) invites the... NPI work at all? Is this NPI as good as (or better than) some other intervention? Does this...

  20. Evaluating alternate models to estimate genetic parameters of calving traits in United Kingdom Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eaglen Sophie A E

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The focus in dairy cattle breeding is gradually shifting from production to functional traits and genetic parameters of calving traits are estimated more frequently. However, across countries, various statistical models are used to estimate these parameters. This study evaluates different models for calving ease and stillbirth in United Kingdom Holstein-Friesian cattle. Methods Data from first and later parity records were used. Genetic parameters for calving ease, stillbirth and gestation length were estimated using the restricted maximum likelihood method, considering different models i.e. sire (−maternal grandsire, animal, univariate and bivariate models. Gestation length was fitted as a correlated indicator trait and, for all three traits, genetic correlations between first and later parities were estimated. Potential bias in estimates was avoided by acknowledging a possible environmental direct-maternal covariance. The total heritable variance was estimated for each trait to discuss its theoretical importance and practical value. Prediction error variances and accuracies were calculated to compare the models. Results and discussion On average, direct and maternal heritabilities for calving traits were low, except for direct gestation length. Calving ease in first parity had a significant and negative direct-maternal genetic correlation. Gestation length was maternally correlated to stillbirth in first parity and directly correlated to calving ease in later parities. Multi-trait models had a slightly greater predictive ability than univariate models, especially for the lowly heritable traits. The computation time needed for sire (−maternal grandsire models was much smaller than for animal models with only small differences in accuracy. The sire (−maternal grandsire model was robust when additional genetic components were estimated, while the equivalent animal model had difficulties reaching convergence. Conclusions

  1. Genetically targeted magnetic control of the nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Michael A; Smith, Cody J; Ottolini, Matteo; Barker, Bryan S; Purohit, Aarti M; Grippo, Ryan M; Gaykema, Ronald P; Spano, Anthony J; Beenhakker, Mark P; Kucenas, Sarah; Patel, Manoj K; Deppmann, Christopher D; Güler, Ali D

    2016-05-01

    Optogenetic and chemogenetic actuators are critical for deconstructing the neural correlates of behavior. However, these tools have several limitations, including invasive modes of stimulation or slow on/off kinetics. We have overcome these disadvantages by synthesizing a single-component, magnetically sensitive actuator, "Magneto," comprising the cation channel TRPV4 fused to the paramagnetic protein ferritin. We validated noninvasive magnetic control over neuronal activity by demonstrating remote stimulation of cells using in vitro calcium imaging assays, electrophysiological recordings in brain slices, in vivo electrophysiological recordings in the brains of freely moving mice, and behavioral outputs in zebrafish and mice. As proof of concept, we used Magneto to delineate a causal role of striatal dopamine receptor 1 neurons in mediating reward behavior in mice. Together our results present Magneto as an actuator capable of remotely controlling circuits associated with complex animal behaviors.

  2. Genetically targeted magnetic control of the nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Michael A.; Smith, Cody J.; Ottolini, Matteo; Barker, Bryan S.; Purohit, Aarti M.; Grippo, Ryan M.; Gaykema, Ronald P.; Spano, Anthony J.; Beenhakker, Mark P.; Kucenas, Sarah; Patel, Manoj K.; Deppmann, Christopher D.; Güler, Ali D.

    2016-01-01

    Optogenetic and chemogenetic actuators are critical for deconstructing the neural correlates of behavior. However, these tools have several limitations, including invasive modes of stimulation or slow on/off kinetics. We have overcome these disadvantages by synthesizing a single component, magnetically sensitive actuator, “Magneto,” comprised of the cation channel, TRPV4, fused to the paramagnetic protein, ferritin. We validate non-invasive magnetic control over neuronal activity by demonstrating remote stimulation of cells using in vitro calcium imaging assays, electrophysiological recordings in brain slices, in vivo electrophysiological recordings in the brains of freely moving mice, and behavioral outputs in zebrafish and mice. As proof of concept, we used Magneto to delineate a causal role of striatal dopamine receptor 1 neurons in mediating reward behavior in mice. Together, our results present Magneto as a novel actuator capable of remotely controlling circuits associated with complex animal behaviors. PMID:26950006

  3. Fuzzy logic and genetic algorithms for intelligent control of structures using MR dampers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Gang; Zhou, Lily L.

    2004-07-01

    Fuzzy logic control (FLC) and genetic algorithms (GA) are integrated into a new approach for the semi-active control of structures installed with MR dampers against severe dynamic loadings such as earthquakes. The interactive relationship between the structural response and the input voltage of MR dampers is established by using a fuzzy controller rather than the traditional way by introducing an ideal active control force. GA is employed as an adaptive method for optimization of parameters and for selection of fuzzy rules of the fuzzy control system, respectively. The maximum structural displacement is selected and used as the objective function to be minimized. The objective function is then converted to a fitness function to form the basis of genetic operations, i.e. selection, crossover, and mutation. The proposed integrated architecture is expected to generate an effective and reliable fuzzy control system by GA"s powerful searching and self-learning adaptive capability.

  4. Expression of Drosophila mushroom body mutations in alternative genetic backgrounds: a case study of the mushroom body miniature gene (mbm).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Belle, J S; Heisenberg, M

    1996-01-01

    Mutations in 12 genes regulating Drosophila melanogaster mushroom body (MB) development were each studied in two genetic backgrounds. In all cases, brain structure was qualitatively or quantitatively different after replacement of the "original" genetic background with that of the Canton Special wild-type strain. The mushroom body miniature gene (mbm) was investigated in detail. mbm supports the maintenance of MB Kenyon cell fibers in third instar larvae and their regrowth during metamorphosis. Adult mbm1 mutant females are lacking many or most Kenyon cell fibers and are impaired in MB-mediated associative odor learning. We show here that structural defects in mbm1 are apparent only in combination with an X-linked, dosage-dependent modifier (or modifiers). In the Canton Special genetic background, the mbm1 anatomical phenotype is suppressed, and MBs develop to a normal size. However, the olfactory learning phenotype is not fully restored, suggesting that submicroscopic defects persist in the MBs. Mutant mbm1 flies with full-sized MBs have normal retention but show a specific acquisition deficit that cannot be attributed to reductions in odor avoidance, shock reactivity, or locomotor behavior. We propose that polymorphic gene interactions (in addition to ontogenetic factors) determine MB size and, concomitantly, the ability to recognize and learn odors. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:8790424

  5. Expression of Drosophila mushroom body mutations in alternative genetic backgrounds: a case study of the mushroom body miniature gene (mbm).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Belle, J S; Heisenberg, M

    1996-09-03

    Mutations in 12 genes regulating Drosophila melanogaster mushroom body (MB) development were each studied in two genetic backgrounds. In all cases, brain structure was qualitatively or quantitatively different after replacement of the "original" genetic background with that of the Canton Special wild-type strain. The mushroom body miniature gene (mbm) was investigated in detail. mbm supports the maintenance of MB Kenyon cell fibers in third instar larvae and their regrowth during metamorphosis. Adult mbm1 mutant females are lacking many or most Kenyon cell fibers and are impaired in MB-mediated associative odor learning. We show here that structural defects in mbm1 are apparent only in combination with an X-linked, dosage-dependent modifier (or modifiers). In the Canton Special genetic background, the mbm1 anatomical phenotype is suppressed, and MBs develop to a normal size. However, the olfactory learning phenotype is not fully restored, suggesting that submicroscopic defects persist in the MBs. Mutant mbm1 flies with full-sized MBs have normal retention but show a specific acquisition deficit that cannot be attributed to reductions in odor avoidance, shock reactivity, or locomotor behavior. We propose that polymorphic gene interactions (in addition to ontogenetic factors) determine MB size and, concomitantly, the ability to recognize and learn odors.

  6. Complications of complexity: integrating environmental, genetic and hormonal control of insect diapause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Kevin J; Bradshaw, William E; Holzapfel, Christina M

    2009-05-01

    Understanding gene interaction and pleiotropy are long-standing goals of developmental and evolutionary biology. We examine the genetic control of diapause in insects and show how the failure to recognize the difference between modular and gene pleiotropy has confounded our understanding of the genetic basis of this important phenotype. This has led to complications in understanding the role of the circadian clock in the control of diapause in Drosophila and other insects. We emphasize three successive modules - each containing functionally related genes - that lead to diapause: photoperiodism, hormonal events and diapause itself. Understanding the genetic basis for environmental control of diapause has wider implications for evolutionary response to rapid climate change and for the opportunity to observe evolutionary change in contemporary time.

  7. A cluster randomized controlled trial of the Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies (PATHS) curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, Neil; Barlow, Alexandra; Wigelsworth, Michael; Lendrum, Ann; Pert, Kirsty; Joyce, Craig; Stephens, Emma; Wo, Lawrence; Squires, Garry; Woods, Kevin; Calam, Rachel; Turner, Alex

    2016-10-01

    This randomized controlled trial (RCT) evaluated the efficacy of the Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies curriculum (PATHS; Kusche & Greenberg, 1994) as a means to improve children's social-emotional competence (assessed via the Social Skills Improvement System (SSIS); Gresham & Elliot, 2008) and mental health outcomes (assessed via the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ); Goodman, 1997). Forty-five schools in Greater Manchester, England, were randomly assigned to treatment and control groups. Allocation was balanced by proportions of children eligible for free school meals and speaking English as an additional language via minimization. Children (N=4516) aged 7-9years at baseline in the participating schools were the target cohort. During the two-year trial period, teachers of this cohort in schools allocated to the intervention group delivered the PATHS curriculum, while their counterparts in the control group continued their usual provision. Teachers in PATHS schools received initial training and on-going support and assistance from trained coaches. Hierarchical linear modeling of outcome data was undertaken to identify both primary (e.g., for all children) and secondary (e.g., for children classified as "at-risk") intervention effects. A primary effect of the PATHS curriculum was found, demonstrating increases in teacher ratings of changes in children's social-emotional competence. Additionally, secondary effects of PATHS were identified, showing reductions in teacher ratings of emotional symptoms and increases in pro-social behavior and child ratings of engagement among children identified as at-risk at baseline. However, our analyses also identified primary effects favoring the usual provision group, showing reductions in teacher ratings of peer problems and emotional symptoms, and secondary effects demonstrating reductions in teacher ratings of conduct problems and child ratings of co-operation among at-risk children. Effect sizes were small

  8. Cost-comparison of DDT and alternative insecticides for malaria control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, K

    2000-12-01

    In anti-malaria operations the use of DDT for indoor residual spraying has declined substantially over the past 30years, but this insecticide is still considered valuable for malaria control, mainly because of its low cost relative to alternative insecticides. Despite the development of resistance to DDT in some populations of malaria vector Anopheles mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae), DDT remains generally effective when used for house-spraying against most species of Anopheles, due to excitorepellency as well as insecticidal effects. A 1990 cost comparison by the World Health Organization (WHO) found DDT to be considerably less expensive than other insecticides, which cost 2 to 23 times more on the basis of cost per house per 6 months of control. To determine whether such a cost advantage still prevails for DDT, this paper compares recent price quotes from manufacturers and WHO suppliers for DDT and appropriate formulations of nine other insecticides (two carbamates, two organophosphates and five pyrethroids) commonly used for residual house-spraying in malaria control programmes. Based on these 'global' price quotes, detailed calculations show that DDT is still the least expensive insecticide on a cost per house basis, although the price appears to be rising as DDT production declines. At the same time, the prices of pyrethroids are declining, making some only slightly more expensive than DDT at low application dosages. Other costs, including operations (labour), transportation and human safety may also increase the price advantages of DDT and some pyrethroids vs. organophosphates and carbamates, although possible environmental impacts from DDT remain a concern. However, a global cost comparison may not realistically reflect local costs or effective application dosages at the country level. Recent data on insecticide prices paid by the health ministries of individual countries showed that prices of particular insecticides can vary substantially in the open market

  9. Genetic modification of alternative respiration in Nicotiana benthamiana affects basal and salicylic acid-induced resistance to potato virus X

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verchot-Lubicz Jeanmarie

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Salicylic acid (SA regulates multiple anti-viral mechanisms, including mechanism(s that may be negatively regulated by the mitochondrial enzyme, alternative oxidase (AOX, the sole component of the alternative respiratory pathway. However, studies of this mechanism can be confounded by SA-mediated induction of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 1, a component of the antiviral RNA silencing pathway. We made transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana plants in which alternative respiratory pathway capacity was either increased by constitutive expression of AOX, or decreased by expression of a dominant-negative mutant protein (AOX-E. N. benthamiana was used because it is a natural mutant that does not express a functional RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 1. Results Antimycin A (an alternative respiratory pathway inducer and also an inducer of resistance to viruses and SA triggered resistance to tobacco mosaic virus (TMV. Resistance to TMV induced by antimycin A, but not by SA, was inhibited in Aox transgenic plants while SA-induced resistance to this virus appeared to be stronger in Aox-E transgenic plants. These effects, which were limited to directly inoculated leaves, were not affected by the presence or absence of a transgene constitutively expressing a functional RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (MtRDR1. Unexpectedly, Aox-transgenic plants infected with potato virus X (PVX showed markedly increased susceptibility to systemic disease induction and virus accumulation in inoculated and systemically infected leaves. SA-induced resistance to PVX was compromised in Aox-transgenic plants but plants expressing AOX-E exhibited enhanced SA-induced resistance to this virus. Conclusions We conclude that AOX-regulated mechanisms not only play a role in SA-induced resistance but also make an important contribution to basal resistance against certain viruses such as PVX.

  10. Genetic variations regulate alternative splicing in the 5' untranslated regions of the mouse glioma-associated oncogene 1, Gli1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaphiropoulos Peter G

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alternative splicing is one of the key mechanisms that generate biological diversity. Even though alternative splicing also occurs in the 5' and 3' untranslated regions (UTRs of mRNAs, the understanding of the significance and the regulation of these variations is rather limited. Results We investigated 5' UTR mRNA variants of the mouse Gli1 oncogene, which is the terminal transcriptional effector of the Hedgehog (HH signaling pathway. In addition to identifying novel transcription start sites, we demonstrated that the expression ratio of the Gli1 splice variants in the 5' UTR is regulated by the genotype of the mouse strain analyzed. The GT allele, which contains the consensus intronic dinucleotides at the 5' splice site of intron 1B, favors exon 1B inclusion, while the GC allele, having a weaker 5' splice site sequence, promotes exon 1B skipping. Moreover, the alternative Gli1 5' UTRs had an impact on translational capacity, with the shorter and the exon 1B-skipped mRNA variants being most effective. Conclusions Our findings implicate novel, genome-based mechanisms as regulators of the terminal events in the mouse HH signaling cascade.

  11. Design of the Fuzzy Control Systems Based on Genetic Algorithm for Intelligent Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyula Mester

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives the structure optimization of fuzzy control systems based on genetic algorithm in the MATLAB environment. The genetic algorithm is a powerful tool for structure optimization of the fuzzy controllers, therefore, in this paper, integration and synthesis of fuzzy logic and genetic algorithm has been proposed. The genetic algorithms are applied for fuzzy rules set, scaling factors and membership functions optimization. The fuzzy control structure initial consist of the 3 membership functions and 9 rules and after the optimization it is enough for the 4 DOF SCARA Robot control to compensate for structured and unstructured uncertainty. Fuzzy controller with the generalized bell membership functions can provide better dynamic performance of the robot then with the triangular membership functions. The proposed joint-space controller is computationally simple and had adaptability to a sudden change in the dynamics of the robot. Results of the computer simulation applied to the 4 DOF SCARA Robot show the validity of the proposed method.

  12. Identification of successive flowering phases highlights a new genetic control of the flowering pattern in strawberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrotte, Justine; Guédon, Yann; Gaston, Amèlia; Denoyes, Béatrice

    2016-01-01

    The genetic control of the switch between seasonal and perpetual flowering has been deciphered in various perennial species. However, little is known about the genetic control of the dynamics of perpetual flowering, which changes abruptly at well-defined time instants during the growing season. Here, we characterize the perpetual flowering pattern and identify new genetic controls of this pattern in the cultivated strawberry. Twenty-one perpetual flowering strawberry genotypes were phenotyped at the macroscopic scale for their course of emergence of inflorescences and stolons during the growing season. A longitudinal analysis based on the segmentation of flowering rate profiles using multiple change-point models was conducted. The flowering pattern of perpetual flowering genotypes takes the form of three or four successive phases: an autumn-initiated flowering phase, a flowering pause, and a single stationary perpetual flowering phase or two perpetual flowering phases, the second one being more intense. The genetic control of flowering was analysed by quantitative trait locus mapping of flowering traits based on these flowering phases. We showed that the occurrence of a fourth phase of intense flowering is controlled by a newly identified locus, different from the locus FaPFRU, controlling the switch between seasonal and perpetual flowering behaviour. The role of this locus was validated by the analysis of data obtained previously during six consecutive years. PMID:27664957

  13. Identification of successive flowering phases highlights a new genetic control of the flowering pattern in strawberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrotte, Justine; Guédon, Yann; Gaston, Amèlia; Denoyes, Béatrice

    2016-10-01

    The genetic control of the switch between seasonal and perpetual flowering has been deciphered in various perennial species. However, little is known about the genetic control of the dynamics of perpetual flowering, which changes abruptly at well-defined time instants during the growing season. Here, we characterize the perpetual flowering pattern and identify new genetic controls of this pattern in the cultivated strawberry. Twenty-one perpetual flowering strawberry genotypes were phenotyped at the macroscopic scale for their course of emergence of inflorescences and stolons during the growing season. A longitudinal analysis based on the segmentation of flowering rate profiles using multiple change-point models was conducted. The flowering pattern of perpetual flowering genotypes takes the form of three or four successive phases: an autumn-initiated flowering phase, a flowering pause, and a single stationary perpetual flowering phase or two perpetual flowering phases, the second one being more intense. The genetic control of flowering was analysed by quantitative trait locus mapping of flowering traits based on these flowering phases. We showed that the occurrence of a fourth phase of intense flowering is controlled by a newly identified locus, different from the locus FaPFRU, controlling the switch between seasonal and perpetual flowering behaviour. The role of this locus was validated by the analysis of data obtained previously during six consecutive years.

  14. Weed control changes and genetically modified herbicide tolerant crops in the USA 1996-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, Graham

    2014-01-01

    Crops that have been genetically modified (GM) to be tolerant to herbicides have been widely grown in the USA since 1996. The rapid and widespread adoption of this technology reflects the important economic and environmental benefits that farmers have derived from its use (equal to $21.7 billion additional farm income and a 225 million kg reduction in herbicide active ingredient use 1996-2012). During this time, weed control practices in these crops relative to the 'conventional alternative' have evolved to reflect experience of using the technology, the challenges that have arisen and the increasing focus in recent years on developing sustainable production systems. This paper examines the evidence on the changing nature of herbicides used with these crops and in particular how farmers addressed the challenge of weed resistance. The evidence shows that use of the technology has resulted in a net reduction in both the amount of herbicide used and the associated environmental impact, as measured by the EIQ indicator when compared to what can reasonably be expected if the area planted to GM HT crops reverted to conventional production methods. It also facilitated many farmers being able to derive the economic and environmental benefits associated with switching from a plough-based to a no tillage or conservation tillage production system. In terms of herbicide use, the technology has also contributed to a change the profile of herbicides used. A broad range of, mostly selective herbicides has been replaced by one or 2 broad-spectrum herbicides (mostly glyphosate) used in conjunction with one or 2 other (complementary) herbicides. Since the mid-2000s, the average amount of herbicide applied and the associated environmental load, as measured by the EIQ indicator, have increased on both GM HT and conventional crops. A primary reason for these changes has been increasing incidence of weed species developing populations resistant to herbicides and increased awareness of

  15. Synthetic multicellular oscillatory systems: controlling protein dynamics with genetic circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koseska, Aneta [Interdisciplinary Center for Dynamics of Complex Systems, University of Potsdam, D-14469 Potsdam (Germany); Volkov, Evgenii [Department of Theoretical Physics, Lebedev Physical Institute, Leninskii 53, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kurths, Juergen, E-mail: akoseska@uni-potsdam.de [Institute of Physics, Humboldt University Berlin, D-10099 Berlin (Germany)

    2011-10-15

    Synthetic biology is a relatively new research discipline that combines standard biology approaches with the constructive nature of engineering. Thus, recent efforts in the field of synthetic biology have given a perspective to consider cells as 'programmable matter'. Here, we address the possibility of using synthetic circuits to control protein dynamics. In particular, we show how intercellular communication and stochasticity can be used to manipulate the dynamical behavior of a population of coupled synthetic units and, in this manner, finely tune the expression of specific proteins of interest, e.g. in large bioreactors.

  16. Chaos control on autonomous and non-autonomous systems with various types of genetic algorithm-optimized weak perturbations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soong, C.Y. [Department of Aerospace and Systems Engineering, Feng Chia University, Seatwen, Taichung 40724, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: cysoong@fcu.edu.tw; Huang, W.T. [Department of Marine Mechanical Engineering, Chinese Naval Academy, Kaohsiung 81300, Taiwan (China); Lin, F.P. [Grid Computing Division, National Center of High Performance Computing, Hsinchu 30012, Taiwan (China)

    2007-12-15

    Recently, we proposed a chaos control strategy with weak Fourier signals optimized by using a genetic algorithm (GA) and demonstrated its merits in controlling Lorenz and Roessler systems (Physical Review E, 2004). In this continuation work, performance of various types of signals, namely periodic continuous, periodic discrete, and constant bias (non-periodic), applied to an autonomous (Roessler) system and a non-autonomous (Murali-Lakshmanan-Chua, MLC) system are investigated. An index of relative robustness is proposed for measuring the noise-resisting ability of the control signals. The results reveal that the constant signal has the strongest noise-resisting ability, the periodic pulse signal has the weakest, and the Fourier signal falls in between. Phase modulation generally shortens the transient time period and is additionally beneficial to non-autonomous systems in minimizing significantly the signal power. By searching with the present GA-optimization, it is demonstrated that the minimum-power signal for controlling the non-autonomous (MLC) system is the signal with a frequency exactly the same as that of the system forcing but with phase modulation. The effectiveness of the GA-optimized signals of extremely low power employed in alternatively switching control of non-autonomous systems is also demonstrated.

  17. Analysis of host genetic control of scrapie-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carp, R I; Callahan, S M; Yu, Y; Sersen, E

    1993-01-01

    The potential for induction of obesity during the preclinical phase of scrapie disease in mice was previously shown to be a function of both the strain of scrapie and the strain of inbred mouse. In the present study, host control of obesity induction by a scrapie strain was examined to determine if the effect were dependent on a single gene or multiple genes. The approach used was assessment of the pattern of weight induction in F1 and F2 crosses of parental inbred mouse strains that did or did not show a weight increase with a specific scrapie strain. Analyses of these data indicated that the induction of obesity was controlled by multiple host genes. In an unrelated observation, there was a correlation between the incubation period of a strain of scrapie in F2 generation mice and their coat color, i.e., the average incubation period of yellow-brown mice was significantly less than those of either black or white mice.

  18. Chaotic queue-based genetic algorithm for design of a self-tuning fuzzy logic controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Sanju; Saini, J. S.

    2012-11-01

    This paper employs a chaotic queue-based method using logistic equation in a non-canonical genetic algorithm for optimizing the performance of a self-tuning Fuzzy Logic Controller, used for controlling a nonlinear double-coupled system. A comparison has been made with a standard canonical genetic algorithm implemented on the same plant. It has been shown that chaotic queue-method brings an improvement in the performance of the FLC for wide range of set point changes by a more profound initial population spread in the search space.

  19. Randomized controlled trials and neuro-oncology: should alternative designs be considered?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, Alireza; Shin, Samuel; Cooper, Benjamin; Srivastava, Archita; Bhandari, Mohit; Kondziolka, Douglas

    2015-09-01

    Deficiencies in design and reporting of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) hinders interpretability and critical appraisal. The reporting quality of recent RCTs in neuro-oncology was analyzed to assess adequacy of design and reporting. The MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were searched to identify non-surgical RCTs (years 2005-2014, inclusive). The CONSORT and Jadad scales were used to assess the quality of design/reporting. Studies published in 2005-2010 were compared as a cohort against studies published in 2011-2014, in terms of general characteristics and reporting quality. A PRECIS-based scale was used to designate studies on the pragmatic-explanatory continuum. Spearman's test was used to assess correlations. Regression analysis was used to assess associations. Overall 68 RCTs were identified. Studies were often chemotherapy-based (n = 41 studies) focusing upon high grade gliomas (46 %) and metastases (41 %) as the top pathologies. Multi-center trials (71 %) were frequent. The overall median CONSORT and Jadad scores were 34.5 (maximum 44) and 2 (maximum 5), respectively; these scores were similar in radiation and chemotherapy-based trials. Major areas of deficiency pertained to allocation concealment, implementation of methods, and blinding whereby less than 20 % of articles fulfilled all criteria. Description of intervention, random sequence generation, and the details regarding recruitment were also deficient; less than 50 % of studies fulfilled all criteria. Description of sample size calculations and blinding improved in later published cohorts. Journal impact factor was significantly associated with higher quality (p = 0.04). Large academic consortia, multi-center designs, ITT analysis, collaboration with biostatisticians, larger sample sizes, and studies with pragmatic objectives were more likely to achieve positive primary outcomes on univariate analysis; none of these variables were significant on multivariate analysis. Deficiencies in the

  20. Adult plant development in triticale (× triticosecale wittmack) is controlled by dynamic genetic patterns of regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Würschum, Tobias; Liu, Wenxin; Alheit, Katharina V; Tucker, Matthew R; Gowda, Manje; Weissmann, Elmar A; Hahn, Volker; Maurer, Hans Peter

    2014-09-18

    Many biologically and agronomically important traits are dynamic and show temporal variation. In this study, we used triticale (× Triticosecale Wittmack) as a model crop to assess the genetic dynamics underlying phenotypic plasticity of adult plant development. To this end, a large mapping population with 647 doubled haploid lines derived from four partially connected families from crosses among six parents was scored for developmental stage at three different time points. Using genome-wide association mapping, we identified main effect and epistatic quantitative trait loci (QTL) at all three time points. Interestingly, some of these QTL were identified at all time points, whereas others appear to only contribute to the genetic architecture at certain developmental stages. Our results illustrate the temporal contribution of QTL to the genetic control of adult plant development and more generally, the temporal genetic patterns of regulation that underlie dynamic traits.

  1. Observational Learning from Animated Models: Effects of Studying-Practicing Alternation and Illusion of Control on Transfer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, Pieter; Paas, Fred; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen

    2008-01-01

    Wouters, P. J. M., Paas, F., & Van Merriënboer, J. J. G. (2010). Observational learning from animated models: effects of studying-practicing alternation and illusion of control on transfer. Instructional Science, 38(1), 89-104. doi:10.1007/s11251-008-9079-0

  2. Control of seed-borne pathogens on legumes by microbial and other alternative seed treatments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinivella, F.; Hirata, L.M.; Celan, M.A.; Wright, S.A.I.; Amein, T.; Schmitt, A.; Wolf, van der J.M.; Koch, E.; Groot, S.P.C.

    2009-01-01

    Greenhouse trials were carried out in order to test the efficacy of different seed treatments as alternatives to chemicals against Colletotrichum lindemuthianum cause of anthracnose on bean and Ascochyta spp. cause of Ascochyta blights on pea, respectively. Resistance inducers, commercially

  3. Parameter Tuning via Genetic Algorithm of Fuzzy Controller for Fire Tube Boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama I. Hassanein

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The optimal use of fuel energy and water in a fire tube boiler is important in achieving economical system operation, precise control system design required to achieve high speed of response with no overshot. Two artificial intelligence techniques, fuzzy control (FLC and genetic-fuzzy control (GFLC applied to control both of the water/steam temperature and water level control loops of boiler. The parameters of the FLC are optimized to locating the optimal solutions to meet the required performance objectives using a genetic algorithm. The parameters subject to optimization are the width of the membership functions and scaling factors. The performance of the fire tube boiler that fitted with GFLC has reliable dynamic performance as compared with the system fitted with FLC.

  4. Sustained effects of online genetics education: a randomized controlled trial on oncogenetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houwink, Elisa JF; van Teeffelen, Sarah R; Muijtjens, Arno MM; Henneman, Lidewij; Jacobi, Florijn; van Luijk, Scheltus J; Jan Dinant, Geert; van der Vleuten, Cees; Cornel, Martina C

    2014-01-01

    Medical professionals are increasingly expected to deliver genetic services in daily patient care. However, genetics education is considered to be suboptimal and in urgent need of revision and innovation. We designed a Genetics e-learning Continuing Professional Development (CPD) module aimed at improving general practitioners' (GPs') knowledge about oncogenetics, and we conducted a randomized controlled trial to evaluate the outcomes at the first two levels of the Kirkpatrick framework (satisfaction, learning and behavior). Between September 2011 and March 2012, a parallel-group, pre- and post-retention (6-month follow-up) controlled group intervention trial was conducted, with repeated measurements using validated questionnaires. Eighty Dutch GP volunteers were randomly assigned to the intervention or the control group. Satisfaction with the module was high, with the three item's scores in the range 4.1–4.3 (5-point scale) and a global score of 7.9 (10-point scale). Knowledge gains post test and at retention test were 0.055 (Pmethod to improve oncogenetics knowledge. The educational effects can inform further development of online genetics modules aimed at improving physicians' genetics knowledge and could potentially be relevant internationally and across a wider range of potential audiences. PMID:23942200

  5. Control of Disease Induced by Tospoviruses in Tomato: An Update of the Genetic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Cebolla-Cornejo

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Advances in the search for genetic resistance to tospoviruses affecting tomato crops are reviewed. The economic losses caused by Tomato spotted wilt tospovirus (TSWV, the great number of hosts it affects and its wide distribution around the world has made TSWV one of the ten most important plant viruses. Other viruses in or related to the same genus also cause severe damage, although their presence in the world is much more localized. Due to the limited effectiveness of physical, chemical and biological control methods, the use of genetic resistance for control is the best management strategy on a medium-long term basis. Given the relative ease with which new TSWV isolates that overcome existing genetic resistance are generated, it is of prime importance to continue the search for new sources of resistance, as well as to promote a better exploitation of available ones. A better understanding of the mechanisms causing resistance and of their genetic control, as well as the identification of molecular markers linked to resistance genes, would enable the pyramiding of different resistance genes. This would be a positive contribution to the development of a greater and more durable resistance. It is also necessary to further the study of genetic resistance to other viruses of the genus Tospovirus, as globalisation can speed up their distribution throughout the world.

  6. A Novel Sliding Mode Variable Structure Controller Based on a Genetic Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A novel control method has been proposed by using the genetic algorithm ( GA ) for nonlinear and complex plants. The proposed control strategy is based on a variable structure control, it overcomes the defects of other adaptive methods such as strong dependence to the system. A GA is used to learn to optimally select integral coefficient C. Simulation results verified the effectiveness of the controller. For position control of Direct Current (DC) motor in practice, this method has good performance and strong robustness, and both dynamic and steady performances were improved.

  7. Genetic Algorithm Based Control System Design of a Self-Excited Induction Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.-F. Attia

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an application of the genetic algorithm (GA for optimizing controller gains of the Self-Excited Induction Generator (SEIG driven by the Wind Energy Conversion Scheme (WECS. The proposed genetic algorithm is introduced to adapt the integral gains of the conventional controllers of the active and reactive control loop of the system under study, where GA calculates the optimum value for the gains of the variables based on the best dynamic performance and a domain search of the integral gains. The proposed genetic algorithm is used to regulate the terminal voltage or reactive power control, by adjusting the self excitation, and to control the mechanical input power or active power control by adapting the blade angle of WECS, in order to adjust the stator frequency. The GA is used for optimizing these gains, for an active and reactive power loop, by solving the related optimization problem. The simulation results show a better dynamic performance using the GA than using the conventional PI controller for active and reactive control.

  8. Sustained effects of online genetics education: a randomized controlled trial on oncogenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houwink, Elisa J F; van Teeffelen, Sarah R; Muijtjens, Arno M M; Henneman, Lidewij; Jacobi, Florijn; van Luijk, Scheltus J; Dinant, Geert Jan; van der Vleuten, Cees; Cornel, Martina C

    2014-03-01

    Medical professionals are increasingly expected to deliver genetic services in daily patient care. However, genetics education is considered to be suboptimal and in urgent need of revision and innovation. We designed a Genetics e-learning Continuing Professional Development (CPD) module aimed at improving general practitioners' (GPs') knowledge about oncogenetics, and we conducted a randomized controlled trial to evaluate the outcomes at the first two levels of the Kirkpatrick framework (satisfaction, learning and behavior). Between September 2011 and March 2012, a parallel-group, pre- and post-retention (6-month follow-up) controlled group intervention trial was conducted, with repeated measurements using validated questionnaires. Eighty Dutch GP volunteers were randomly assigned to the intervention or the control group. Satisfaction with the module was high, with the three item's scores in the range 4.1-4.3 (5-point scale) and a global score of 7.9 (10-point scale). Knowledge gains post test and at retention test were 0.055 (P<0.05) and 0.079 (P<0.01), respectively, with moderate effect sizes (0.27 and 0.31, respectively). The participants appreciated applicability in daily practice of knowledge aspects (item scores 3.3-3.8, five-point scale), but scores on self-reported identification of disease, referral to a specialist and knowledge about the possibilities/limitations of genetic testing were near neutral (2.7-2.8, five-point scale). The Genetics e-learning CPD module proved to be a feasible, satisfactory and clinically applicable method to improve oncogenetics knowledge. The educational effects can inform further development of online genetics modules aimed at improving physicians' genetics knowledge and could potentially be relevant internationally and across a wider range of potential audiences.

  9. The potential of genetically-engineered pigs in providing an alternative source of organs and cells for transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, David K C; Hara, Hidetaka; Ezzelarab, Mohamed; Bottino, Rita; Trucco, Massimo; Phelps, Carol; Ayares, David; Dai, Yifan

    2013-07-01

    There is a critical shortage of organs, cells, and corneas from deceased human donors worldwide. There are also shortages of human blood for transfusion. A potential solution to all of these problems is the transplantation of organs, cells, and corneas from a readily available animal species, such as the pig, and the transfusion of red blood cells from pigs into humans. However, to achieve these ends, major immunologic and other barriers have to be overcome. Considerable progress has been made in this respect by the genetic modification of pigs to protect their tissues from the primate immune response and to correct several molecular incompatibilities that exist between pig and primate. These have included knockout of genes responsible for the expression of major antigenic targets for primate natural anti-pig antibodies, insertion of human complement- and coagulation-regulatory transgenes, and knockdown of swine leukocyte antigens that stimulate the primate's adaptive immune response. As a result of these manipulations, the administration of novel immunosuppressive agents, and other innovations, pig hearts have now functioned in baboons for 6-8 months, pig islets have maintained normoglycemia in diabetic monkeys for > 1 year, and pig corneas have maintained transparency for several months. Clinical trials of pig islet transplantation are already in progress. Future developments will involve further genetic manipulations of the organ-source pig, with most of the genes that are likely to be beneficial already identified.

  10. Deadlock-free genetic scheduling algorithm for automated manufacturing systems based on deadlock control policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, KeYi; Han, LiBin; Zhou, MengChu; Wang, Feng

    2012-06-01

    Deadlock-free control and scheduling are vital for optimizing the performance of automated manufacturing systems (AMSs) with shared resources and route flexibility. Based on the Petri net models of AMSs, this paper embeds the optimal deadlock avoidance policy into the genetic algorithm and develops a novel deadlock-free genetic scheduling algorithm for AMSs. A possible solution of the scheduling problem is coded as a chromosome representation that is a permutation with repetition of parts. By using the one-step look-ahead method in the optimal deadlock control policy, the feasibility of a chromosome is checked, and infeasible chromosomes are amended into feasible ones, which can be easily decoded into a feasible deadlock-free schedule. The chromosome representation and polynomial complexity of checking and amending procedures together support the cooperative aspect of genetic search for scheduling problems strongly.

  11. Inhibition of the alternative complement activation pathway in traumatic brain injury by a monoclonal anti-factor B antibody: a randomized placebo-controlled study in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holers V Michael

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The posttraumatic response to traumatic brain injury (TBI is characterized, in part, by activation of the innate immune response, including the complement system. We have recently shown that mice devoid of a functional alternative pathway of complement activation (factor B-/- mice are protected from complement-mediated neuroinflammation and neuropathology after TBI. In the present study, we extrapolated this knowledge from studies in genetically engineered mice to a pharmacological approach using a monoclonal anti-factor B antibody. This neutralizing antibody represents a specific and potent inhibitor of the alternative complement pathway in mice. Methods A focal trauma was applied to the left hemisphere of C57BL/6 mice (n = 89 using a standardized electric weight-drop model. Animals were randomly assigned to two treatment groups: (1 Systemic injection of 1 mg monoclonal anti-factor B antibody (mAb 1379 in 400 μl phosphate-buffered saline (PBS at 1 hour and 24 hours after trauma; (2 Systemic injection of vehicle only (400 μl PBS, as placebo control, at identical time-points after trauma. Sham-operated and untreated mice served as additional negative controls. Evaluation of neurological scores and analysis of brain tissue specimens and serum samples was performed at defined time-points for up to 1 week. Complement activation in serum was assessed by zymosan assay and by murine C5a ELISA. Brain samples were analyzed by immunohistochemistry, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL histochemistry, and real-time RT-PCR. Results The mAb 1379 leads to a significant inhibition of alternative pathway complement activity and to significantly attenuated C5a levels in serum, as compared to head-injured placebo-treated control mice. TBI induced histomorphological signs of neuroinflammation and neuronal apoptosis in the injured brain hemisphere of placebo-treated control mice for up to 7 days. In contrast, the

  12. Genetic control on morphoagzronomic traits in snap bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlon Peres da Silva

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Five divergent snap bean accessions from the vegetables germplasm bank at UENF and their ten diallel hybrids were evaluated to inheritance on five morphoagronomic traits using Hayman's methodology (1954. The results showed that additive effects were predominant for pod weight per plant, number of seeds per pod, height of the insertion of the first pod and number of days to flowering while non-additive effects were more important for number of pods per plant. The best strategy to be adopted was the use of these acessions in an intrapopulation breeding program aiming the obtaintion of superior segregants. For pod numbers the indicated strategy would be an interpopulational breeding procedure, to exploite the heterosis related to the non-additive effects. The analysis also revealed that dominant alleles increased the number of pods per plant, pod weight per plant and number of seeds per pod. Allelic interaction was overdominance to the number of pods per plant, while the partial dominance controled the expression of other traits.Cinco acessos divergentes de feijão-de-vagem do banco de germoplasma da UENF, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, e seus dez híbridos dialélicos possíveis, foram avaliados quanto à herança para cinco características morfoagronômicas, utilizando a metodologia de Hayman (1954. Os resultados evidenciaram que os efeitos gênicos aditivos foram predominantes para peso de vagem por planta, número de sementes por vagem, altura da inserção da primeira vagem e número de dias para florescimento, enquanto os efeitos gênicos não aditivos foram mais importantes na expressão de número de vagens por planta. Isso demonstra que, para as quatro primeiras características, a melhor estratégia a ser adotada é o uso dos acessos em programa de melhoramento intrapopulacional, visando a obtenção de segregantes superiores. Para número de vagens, a estratégia de melhoramento interpopulacional seria mais indicada, por explorar a heterose

  13. Sustainability and optimal control of an exploited prey predator system through provision of alternative food to predator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, T K; Ghosh, Bapan

    2012-08-01

    In the present paper, we develop a simple two species prey-predator model in which the predator is partially coupled with alternative prey. The aim is to study the consequences of providing additional food to the predator as well as the effects of harvesting efforts applied to both the species. It is observed that the provision of alternative food to predator is not always beneficial to the system. A complete picture of the long run dynamics of the system is discussed based on the effort pair as control parameters. Optimal augmentations of prey and predator biomass at final time have been investigated by optimal control theory. Also the short and large time effects of the application of optimal control have been discussed. Finally, some numerical illustrations are given to verify our analytical results with the help of different sets of parameters.

  14. Potential Alternatives to Classical Biocontrol: Using Native Agents in Invaded Habitats and Genetically Engineered Sterile Cultivars for Invasive Plant Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    ShiLi Miao; Yi Li; Qinfeng Guo; Hua Yu; JiangQing Ding; et al.

    2012-01-01

    The development of an effective approach to control and eradication of invasive species has become a major challenge to scientists, managers, and society. Biocontrol has been widely utilized to control exotic plants in the past few decades with some degree of sucess. However, there have been an increasing number of controversies pertaining to this approach, largely...

  15. A genetic algorithms approach for altering the membership functions in fuzzy logic controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehadeh, Hana; Lea, Robert N.

    1992-01-01

    Through previous work, a fuzzy control system was developed to perform translational and rotational control of a space vehicle. This problem was then re-examined to determine the effectiveness of genetic algorithms on fine tuning the controller. This paper explains the problems associated with the design of this fuzzy controller and offers a technique for tuning fuzzy logic controllers. A fuzzy logic controller is a rule-based system that uses fuzzy linguistic variables to model human rule-of-thumb approaches to control actions within a given system. This 'fuzzy expert system' features rules that direct the decision process and membership functions that convert the linguistic variables into the precise numeric values used for system control. Defining the fuzzy membership functions is the most time consuming aspect of the controller design. One single change in the membership functions could significantly alter the performance of the controller. This membership function definition can be accomplished by using a trial and error technique to alter the membership functions creating a highly tuned controller. This approach can be time consuming and requires a great deal of knowledge from human experts. In order to shorten development time, an iterative procedure for altering the membership functions to create a tuned set that used a minimal amount of fuel for velocity vector approach and station-keep maneuvers was developed. Genetic algorithms, search techniques used for optimization, were utilized to solve this problem.

  16. Genetically-modified mosquitoes for malaria control: requirements to be considered before field releases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Touré, Y.T.; Knols, B.G.J.

    2006-01-01

    The technical feasibility of the development of transgenic mosquitoes highly refractory to (rodent) malaria parasites has been demonstrated in the laboratory. Following this proof of principle, genetic control of vectors could have an important role to play in the interruption of transmission of hum

  17. Energy Management of Dual-Source Propelled Electric Vehicle using Fuzzy Controller Optimized via Genetic Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khoobi, Saeed; Halvaei, Abolfazl; Hajizadeh, Amin

    2016-01-01

    of EV relies too much on the expert experience and it may lead to sub-optimal performance. This paper develops an optimized fuzzy controller using genetic algorithm (GA) for an electric vehicle equipped with two power bank including battery and super-capacitor. The model of EV and optimized fuzzy...

  18. Genetic control of plant development by overriding a geometric division rule

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yoshida, S.; Barbier de Reuille, P.; Lane, B.; Bassel, G.W.; Prusinkiewicz, P.; Smith, R.S.; Weijers, D.

    2014-01-01

    Formative cell divisions are critical for multicellular patterning. In the early plant embryo, such divisions follow from orienting the division plane. A major unanswered question is how division plane orientation is genetically controlled, and in particular whether this relates to cell geometry. We

  19. [Genetic control of Silver fir isozymes (Abies alba Mill.) of the Ukrainian Carpathian Mountains].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korshikov, I I; Morozova, N N; Pirko, Ia V

    2003-01-01

    Genetic control of GOT, GDH, DIA, MDH, ME, SOD, FDH, ADH, ACP, LAP enzymes has been studied in the seed megagametophytes of Silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) from four natural populations of the Ukrainian Carpathian mountains. The distinct electrophoretic division has been obtained for the 21 loci products. The analysis of allele segregation in the heterozygous trees confirms monogenic inheritance of the revealed variants.

  20. [Genetic control of the isoenzymes in Cembra pine (Pinus cembra L.) in the Ukrainian Carpathian Mountains].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirko, Ia V; Korshikov, I I

    2001-01-01

    Genetic control of GOT, GDH, DIA, MDH, SOD, FDH, ADH, ACP, and LAP enzymes was studied in the seed megagametophytes of cembra pine (Pinus cembra L.) from the natural population of the Ukrainian Carpa-thian mountains. Efficient electrophoretic separation was obtained for 21 loci products. The analysis of allele segregation in heterozygous trees confirms monogenic inheritance of the revealed variants.

  1. Genetic control of plant development by overriding a geometric division rule

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yoshida, S.; Barbier de Reuille, P.; Lane, B.; Bassel, G.W.; Prusinkiewicz, P.; Smith, R.S.; Weijers, D.

    2014-01-01

    Formative cell divisions are critical for multicellular patterning. In the early plant embryo, such divisions follow from orienting the division plane. A major unanswered question is how division plane orientation is genetically controlled, and in particular whether this relates to cell geometry. We

  2. Searching for full power control rod patterns in a boiling water reactor using genetic algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montes, Jose Luis [Departamento Sistemas Nucleares, ININ, Carr. Mexico-Toluca Km. 36.5, Ocoyoacac, Edo. de Mexico (Mexico)]. E-mail: jlmt@nuclear.inin.mx; Ortiz, Juan Jose [Departamento Sistemas Nucleares, ININ, Carr. Mexico-Toluca Km. 36.5, Ocoyoacac, Edo. de Mexico (Mexico)]. E-mail: jjortiz@nuclear.inin.mx; Requena, Ignacio [Departamento Ciencias Computacion e I.A. ETSII, Informatica, Universidad de Granada, C. Daniel Saucedo Aranda s/n. 18071 Granada (Spain)]. E-mail: requena@decsai.ugr.es; Perusquia, Raul [Departamento Sistemas Nucleares, ININ, Carr. Mexico-Toluca Km. 36.5, Ocoyoacac, Edo. de Mexico (Mexico)]. E-mail: rpc@nuclear.inin.mx

    2004-11-01

    One of the most important questions related to both safety and economic aspects in a nuclear power reactor operation, is without any doubt its reactivity control. During normal operation of a boiling water reactor, the reactivity control of its core is strongly determined by control rods patterns efficiency. In this paper, GACRP system is proposed based on the concepts of genetic algorithms for full power control rod patterns search. This system was carried out using LVNPP transition cycle characteristics, being applied too to an equilibrium cycle. Several operation scenarios, including core water flow variation throughout the cycle and different target axial power distributions, are considered. Genetic algorithm fitness function includes reactor security parameters, such as MLHGR, MCPR, reactor k{sub eff} and axial power density.

  3. Elevator Group-Control Policy Based on Neural Network Optimized by Genetic Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Hong; WAN Jianru; ZHANG Zhichao; LIU Yingpei; LI Guangye

    2009-01-01

    Aiming at the diversity and nonlinearity of the elevator system control target, an effective group method based on a hybrid algorithm of genetic algorithm and neural network is presented in this paper. The genetic algo-rithm is used to search the weight of the neural network. At the same time, the multi-objective-based evaluation function is adopted, in which there are three main indicators including the passenger waiting time, car passengers number and the number of stops. Different weights are given to meet the actual needs. The optimal values of the evaluation function are obtained, and the optimal dispatch control of the elevator group control system based on neural network is realized. By analyzing the running of the elevator group control system, all the processes and steps are presented. The validity of the hybrid algorithm is verified by the dynamic imitation performance.

  4. Conference on alternatives for pollution control from coal-fired low emission sources, Plzen, Czech Republic. Plzen Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    The Conference on Alternatives for Pollution Control from Coal-Fired Emission Sources presented cost-effective approaches for pollution control of low emission sources (LES). It also identified policies and strategies for implementation of pollution control measures at the local level. Plzen, Czech Republic, was chosen as the conference site to show participants first hand the LES problems facing Eastern Europe today. Collectively, these Proceedings contain clear reports on: (a) methods for evaluating the cost effectiveness of alternative approaches to control pollution from small coal-fired boilers and furnaces; (b) cost-effective technologies for controlling pollution from coal-fired boilers and furnaces; (c) case studies of assessment of cost effective pollution control measures for selected cities in eastern Europe; and (d) approaches for actually implementing pollution control measures in cities in Eastern Europe. It is intended that the eastern/central European reader will find in these Proceedings useful measures that can be applied to control emissions and clean the air in his city or region. The conference was sponsored by the United States Agency for International Development (AID), the United States Department of Energy (DOE), and the Czech Ministry of Industry and Trade. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  5. Controlled laboratory challenge demonstrates substantial additive genetic variation in resistance to Streptococcus iniae in Nile tilapia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptococcus iniae is an etiologic agent of streptococcal disease in tilapia and is one of several Streptococcus spp. that negatively impact worldwide tilapia production. Methods for the prevention and control of S. iniae include vaccines, management strategies, and antibiotics. An alternative and ...

  6. Research on central heating system control strategy based on genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Sa; Yang, Jianhua; Lu, Wei; Duan, Zhipeng

    2017-03-01

    The central heating is a major way of warming in northeast China in winter, however, the traditional heating method is inefficient, intensifying the energy consumption. How to improve the heating efficiency and reduce energy waste attracts more and more attentions in our country. In this paper, the mathematical model of heat transfer station temperature control system was established based on the structure of central heating system. The feedforward-feedback control strategy was used to overcome temperature fluctuations caused by the pressurized heating exchange system. The genetic algorithm was used to optimize the parameters of PID controller and simulation results demonstrated that central heating temperature achieved well control effect and meet stabilization requirements.

  7. Genetic Fuzzy Logic Control Technique for a Mobile Robot Tracking a Moving Target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Benbouabdallah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Target tracking is a crucial function for an autonomous mobile robot navigating in unknown environments. This paper presents a mobile robot target tracking approach based on artificial intelligence techniques. The proposed controller calculates both the mobile robot linear and angular velocities from the distance and angle that separate it to the moving target. The controller was designed using fuzzy logics theory and then, a genetic algorithm was applied to optimize the scaling factors of the fuzzy logic controller for better accuracy and smoothness of the robot trajectory. Simulation results illustrate that the proposed controller leads to good performances in terms of computational time and tracking errors convergence.

  8. Model predictive control of attitude maneuver of a geostationary flexible satellite based on genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    TayyebTaher, M.; Esmaeilzadeh, S. Majid

    2017-07-01

    This article presents an application of Model Predictive Controller (MPC) to the attitude control of a geostationary flexible satellite. SIMO model has been used for the geostationary satellite, using the Lagrange equations. Flexibility is also included in the modelling equations. The state space equations are expressed in order to simplify the controller. Naturally there is no specific tuning rule to find the best parameters of an MPC controller which fits the desired controller. Being an intelligence method for optimizing problem, Genetic Algorithm has been used for optimizing the performance of MPC controller by tuning the controller parameter due to minimum rise time, settling time, overshoot of the target point of the flexible structure and its mode shape amplitudes to make large attitude maneuvers possible. The model included geosynchronous orbit environment and geostationary satellite parameters. The simulation results of the flexible satellite with attitude maneuver shows the efficiency of proposed optimization method in comparison with LQR optimal controller.

  9. Genetic architecture of sex determination in fish: applications to sex ratio control in aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Paulino; Viñas, Ana M.; Sánchez, Laura; Díaz, Noelia; Ribas, Laia; Piferrer, Francesc

    2014-01-01

    Controlling the sex ratio is essential in finfish farming. A balanced sex ratio is usually good for broodstock management, since it enables to develop appropriate breeding schemes. However, in some species the production of monosex populations is desirable because the existence of sexual dimorphism, primarily in growth or first time of sexual maturation, but also in color or shape, can render one sex more valuable. The knowledge of the genetic architecture of sex determination (SD) is convenient for controlling sex ratio and for the implementation of breeding programs. Unlike mammals and birds, which show highly conserved master genes that control a conserved genetic network responsible for gonad differentiation (GD), a huge diversity of SD mechanisms has been reported in fish. Despite theory predictions, more than one gene is in many cases involved in fish SD and genetic differences have been observed in the GD network. Environmental factors also play a relevant role and epigenetic mechanisms are becoming increasingly recognized for the establishment and maintenance of the GD pathways. Although major genetic factors are frequently involved in fish SD, these observations strongly suggest that SD in this group resembles a complex trait. Accordingly, the application of quantitative genetics combined with genomic tools is desirable to address its study and in fact, when applied, it has frequently demonstrated a multigene trait interacting with environmental factors in model and cultured fish species. This scenario has notable implications for aquaculture and, depending upon the species, from chromosome manipulation or environmental control techniques up to classical selection or marker assisted selection programs, are being applied. In this review, we selected four relevant species or fish groups to illustrate this diversity and hence the technologies that can be used by the industry for the control of sex ratio: turbot and European sea bass, two reference species of

  10. Genetic architecture of sex determination in fish: Applications to sex ratio control in aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulino eMartínez

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Controlling the sex ratio is essential in finfish farming. A balanced sex ratio is usually good for broodstock management, since it enables to develop appropriate breeding schemes. However, in some species the production of monosex populations is desirable because the existence of sexual dimorphism, primarily in growth or first time of sexual maturation, but also in color or shape, can render one sex more valuable. The knowledge of the genetic architecture of sex determination (SD is convenient for controlling sex ratio and for the implementation of breeding programs. Unlike mammals and birds, which show highly conserved master genes that control a conserved genetic network responsible for gonad differentiation (GD, a huge diversity of SD mechanisms has been reported in fish. Despite theory predictions, more than one gene is in many cases involved in fish SD and genetic differences have been observed in the GD network. Environmental factors also play a relevant role and epigenetic mechanisms are becoming increasingly recognized for the establishment and maintenance of the GD pathways. Although major genetic factors are frequently involved in fish SD, these observations strongly suggest that SD in this group resembles a complex trait. Accordingly, the application of quantitative genetics combined with genomic tools is desirable to address its study and in fact, when applied, it has frequently demonstrated a multigene trait interacting with environmental factors in model and cultured fish species. This scenario has notable implications for aquaculture and, depending upon the species, from chromosome manipulation or environmental control techniques up to classical selection or marker assisted selection programs, are being applied. In this review, we selected four relevant species or fish groups to illustrate this diversity and hence the technologies that can be used by the industry for the control of sex ratio: turbot and European sea bass, two

  11. Genetic architecture of sex determination in fish: applications to sex ratio control in aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Paulino; Viñas, Ana M; Sánchez, Laura; Díaz, Noelia; Ribas, Laia; Piferrer, Francesc

    2014-01-01

    Controlling the sex ratio is essential in finfish farming. A balanced sex ratio is usually good for broodstock management, since it enables to develop appropriate breeding schemes. However, in some species the production of monosex populations is desirable because the existence of sexual dimorphism, primarily in growth or first time of sexual maturation, but also in color or shape, can render one sex more valuable. The knowledge of the genetic architecture of sex determination (SD) is convenient for controlling sex ratio and for the implementation of breeding programs. Unlike mammals and birds, which show highly conserved master genes that control a conserved genetic network responsible for gonad differentiation (GD), a huge diversity of SD mechanisms has been reported in fish. Despite theory predictions, more than one gene is in many cases involved in fish SD and genetic differences have been observed in the GD network. Environmental factors also play a relevant role and epigenetic mechanisms are becoming increasingly recognized for the establishment and maintenance of the GD pathways. Although major genetic factors are frequently involved in fish SD, these observations strongly suggest that SD in this group resembles a complex trait. Accordingly, the application of quantitative genetics combined with genomic tools is desirable to address its study and in fact, when applied, it has frequently demonstrated a multigene trait interacting with environmental factors in model and cultured fish species. This scenario has notable implications for aquaculture and, depending upon the species, from chromosome manipulation or environmental control techniques up to classical selection or marker assisted selection programs, are being applied. In this review, we selected four relevant species or fish groups to illustrate this diversity and hence the technologies that can be used by the industry for the control of sex ratio: turbot and European sea bass, two reference species of

  12. Designing RNA-based genetic control systems for efficient production from engineered metabolic pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Jason T; Carothers, James M

    2015-02-20

    Engineered metabolic pathways can be augmented with dynamic regulatory controllers to increase production titers by minimizing toxicity and helping cells maintain homeostasis. We investigated the potential for dynamic RNA-based genetic control systems to increase production through simulation analysis of an engineered p-aminostyrene (p-AS) pathway in E. coli. To map the entire design space, we formulated 729 unique mechanistic models corresponding to all of the possible control topologies and mechanistic implementations in the system under study. Two thousand sampled simulations were performed for each of the 729 system designs to relate the potential effects of dynamic control to increases in p-AS production (total of 3 × 10(6) simulations). Our analysis indicates that dynamic control strategies employing aptazyme-regulated expression devices (aREDs) can yield >10-fold improvements over static control. We uncovered generalizable trends in successful control architectures and found that highly performing RNA-based control systems are experimentally tractable. Analyzing the metabolic control state space to predict optimal genetic control strategies promises to enhance the design of metabolic pathways.

  13. Design of adaptive fuzzy logic controller based on linguistic-hedge concepts and genetic algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, B D; Chen, C Y; Tsao, J Y

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel fuzzy logic controller, called linguistic hedge fuzzy logic controller, to simplify the membership function constructions and the rule developments. The design methodology of linguistic hedge fuzzy logic controller is a hybrid model based on the concepts of the linguistic hedges and the genetic algorithms. The linguistic hedge operators are used to adjust the shape of the system membership functions dynamically, and ran speed up the control result to fit the system demand. The genetic algorithms are adopted to search the optimal linguistic hedge combination in the linguistic hedge module, According to the proposed methodology, the linguistic hedge fuzzy logic controller has the following advantages: 1) it needs only the simple-shape membership functions rather than the carefully designed ones for characterizing the related variables; 2) it is sufficient to adopt a fewer number of rules for inference; 3) the rules are developed intuitionally without heavily depending on the endeavor of experts; 4) the linguistic hedge module associated with the genetic algorithm enables it to be adaptive; 5) it performs better than the conventional fuzzy logic controllers do; and 6) it can be realized with low design complexity and small hardware overhead. Furthermore, the proposed approach has been applied to design three well-known nonlinear systems. The simulation and experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of this design.

  14. Vibration suppression control of smart piezoelectric rotating truss structure by parallel neuro-fuzzy control with genetic algorithm tuning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, J.; Zheng, Y. B.

    2012-07-01

    The main goal of this paper is to develop a novel approach for vibration control on a piezoelectric rotating truss structure. This study will analyze the dynamics and control of a flexible structure system with multiple degrees of freedom, represented in this research as a clamped-free-free-free truss type plate rotated by motors. The controller has two separate feedback loops for tracking and damping, and the vibration suppression controller is independent of position tracking control. In addition to stabilizing the actual system, the proposed proportional-derivative (PD) control, based on genetic algorithm (GA) to seek the primary optimal control gain, must supplement a fuzzy control law to ensure a stable nonlinear system. This is done by using an intelligent fuzzy controller based on adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) with GA tuning to increase the efficiency of fuzzy control. The PD controller, in its assisting role, easily stabilized the linear system. The fuzzy controller rule base was then constructed based on PD performance-related knowledge. Experimental validation for such a structure demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed controller. The broad range of problems discussed in this research will be found useful in civil, mechanical, and aerospace engineering, for flexible structures with multiple degree-of-freedom motion.

  15. Genetic control of disease in an experimental model for Sjögren's syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Åsa Inga Maria

    2009-01-01

    Sjögren's syndrome is an autoimmune disease with a complex etiology depending on hereditary and environmental factors. The disease is characterized by lymphocytic infiltration and inflammation in the salivary and lacrimal glands, leading to oral and ocular dryness. To understand the genetic...... susceptibility in Sjögren's syndrome, studies of disease phenotypes have been performed in the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse. By the identification of genetic regions controlling development of autoimmune exocrinopathy in the NOD mouse and by reducing one of these regions considerably, Nguyen et al. in a recent...

  16. Design and control of an alternative distillation sequence for bioethanol purification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Errico, Massimiliano; Ramírez-Márquez, César; Torres Ortega, Carlo Edgar

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bioethanol is a green fuel considered to be a sustainable alternative to petro-derived gasoline. The transport sector contributes significantly to carbon dioxide emission and consequently has a negative impact on the air quality and is responsible for the increase of the greenhouse...

  17. Control of seed-borne pathogens on legumes by microbial and other alternative seed treatments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinivella, F.; Hirata, L.M.; Celan, M.A.; Wright, S.A.I.; Amein, T.; Schmitt, A.; Wolf, van der J.M.; Koch, E.; Groot, S.P.C.

    2009-01-01

    Greenhouse trials were carried out in order to test the efficacy of different seed treatments as alternatives to chemicals against Colletotrichum lindemuthianum cause of anthracnose on bean and Ascochyta spp. cause of Ascochyta blights on pea, respectively. Resistance inducers, commercially formulat

  18. The conserved splicing factor SUA controls alternative splicing of the developmental regulator ABI3 in Arabidopsis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sugliani, M.; Brambilla, V.; Clerkx, E.J.M.; Koornneef, M.; Soppe, W.J.J.

    2010-01-01

    ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE3 (ABI3) is a major regulator of seed maturation in Arabidopsis thaliana. We detected two ABI3 transcripts, ABI3- and ABI3-ß, which encode full-length and truncated proteins, respectively. Alternative splicing of ABI3 is developmentally regulated, and the ABI3-ß transcript a

  19. Independent genetic control of maize (Zea mays L.) kernel weight determination and its phenotypic plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez Prado, Santiago; Sadras, Víctor O; Borrás, Lucas

    2014-08-01

    Maize kernel weight (KW) is associated with the duration of the grain-filling period (GFD) and the rate of kernel biomass accumulation (KGR). It is also related to the dynamics of water and hence is physiologically linked to the maximum kernel water content (MWC), kernel desiccation rate (KDR), and moisture concentration at physiological maturity (MCPM). This work proposed that principles of phenotypic plasticity can help to consolidated the understanding of the environmental modulation and genetic control of these traits. For that purpose, a maize population of 245 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) was grown under different environmental conditions. Trait plasticity was calculated as the ratio of the variance of each RIL to the overall phenotypic variance of the population of RILs. This work found a hierarchy of plasticities: KDR ≈ GFD > MCPM > KGR > KW > MWC. There was no phenotypic and genetic correlation between traits per se and trait plasticities. MWC, the trait with the lowest plasticity, was the exception because common quantitative trait loci were found for the trait and its plasticity. Independent genetic control of a trait per se and genetic control of its plasticity is a condition for the independent evolution of traits and their plasticities. This allows breeders potentially to select for high or low plasticity in combination with high or low values of economically relevant traits.

  20. Dynamic cellular manufacturing system design considering alternative routing and part operation tradeoff using simulated annealing based genetic algorithm

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    KAMAL DEEP; PARDEEP K SINGH

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, an integrated mathematical model of multi-period cell formation and part operation tradeoff in a dynamic cellular manufacturing system is proposed in consideration with multiple part process route. This paper puts emphasize on the production flexibility (production/subcontracting part operation) to satisfy the product demand requirement in different period segments of planning horizon considering production capacity shortage and/or sudden machine breakdown. The proposed model simultaneously generates machine cells and part families and selects the optimum process route instead of the user specifying predetermined routes. Conventional optimization method for the optimal cell formation problem requires substantial amount of time and memory space. Hence a simulated annealing based genetic algorithm is proposed to explore the solution regions efficiently and to expedite the solution search space. To evaluate the computability of the proposed algorithm, different problem scenarios are adopted from literature. The results approve the effectiveness of theproposed approach in designing the manufacturing cell and minimization of the overall cost, considering various manufacturing aspects such as production volume, multiple process route, production capacity, machine duplication, system reconfiguration, material handling and subcontracting part operation.

  1. Evaluating manta ray mucus as an alternative DNA source for population genetics study: underwater-sampling, dry-storage and PCR success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Kashiwagi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Sharks and rays are increasingly being identified as high-risk species for extinction, prompting urgent assessments of their local or regional populations. Advanced genetic analyses can contribute relevant information on effective population size and connectivity among populations although acquiring sufficient regional sample sizes can be challenging. DNA is typically amplified from tissue samples which are collected by hand spears with modified biopsy punch tips. This technique is not always popular due mainly to a perception that invasive sampling might harm the rays, change their behaviour, or have a negative impact on tourism. To explore alternative methods, we evaluated the yields and PCR success of DNA template prepared from the manta ray mucus collected underwater and captured and stored on a Whatman FTA™ Elute card. The pilot study demonstrated that mucus can be effectively collected underwater using toothbrush. DNA stored on cards was found to be reliable for PCR-based population genetics studies. We successfully amplified mtDNA ND5, nuclear DNA RAG1, and microsatellite loci for all samples and confirmed sequences and genotypes being those of target species. As the yields of DNA with the tested method were low, further improvements are desirable for assays that may require larger amounts of DNA, such as population genomic studies using emerging next-gen sequencing.

  2. Drag reduction of a car model by linear genetic programming control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruiying; Noack, Bernd R.; Cordier, Laurent; Borée, Jacques; Harambat, Fabien

    2017-08-01

    We investigate open- and closed-loop active control for aerodynamic drag reduction of a car model. Turbulent flow around a blunt-edged Ahmed body is examined at ReH≈ 3× 105 based on body height. The actuation is performed with pulsed jets at all trailing edges (multiple inputs) combined with a Coanda deflection surface. The flow is monitored with 16 pressure sensors distributed at the rear side (multiple outputs). We apply a recently developed model-free control strategy building on genetic programming in Dracopoulos and Kent (Neural Comput Appl 6:214-228, 1997) and Gautier et al. (J Fluid Mech 770:424-441, 2015). The optimized control laws comprise periodic forcing, multi-frequency forcing and sensor-based feedback including also time-history information feedback and combinations thereof. Key enabler is linear genetic programming (LGP) as powerful regression technique for optimizing the multiple-input multiple-output control laws. The proposed LGP control can select the best open- or closed-loop control in an unsupervised manner. Approximately 33% base pressure recovery associated with 22% drag reduction is achieved in all considered classes of control laws. Intriguingly, the feedback actuation emulates periodic high-frequency forcing. In addition, the control identified automatically the only sensor which listens to high-frequency flow components with good signal to noise ratio. Our control strategy is, in principle, applicable to all multiple actuators and sensors experiments.

  3. Exploiting the genetic diversity of Beauveria bassiana for improving the biological control of the coffee berry borer through the use of strain mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Lina P; Gaitan, Alvaro L; Gongora, Carmenza E

    2006-08-01

    Beauveria bassiana is an entomopathogen widely used to control the coffee berry borer in Colombia, as part of an Integrated Pest Management strategy. Traditionally, the development of fungal insect pathogens as biocontrol agents in crop pests has been oriented towards the selection and formulation of elite clonal strains. Instead, we explored the potential application of genetic diversity in B. bassiana by determining the effect of strain mixtures on coffee berry borer mortality compared to clonal isolates. Genomic DNA from 11 strains was characterized using internal transcribed spacers and beta-tubulin sequences as well as amplified fragment length polymorphism markers. Cluster analysis produced three genetic groups and confirmed the low but significant intraspecific genetic diversity present among the strains. Single strain virulence towards the coffee berry borer under laboratory conditions, using 1x10(6) conidia ml(-1), ranged between 89.9 and 57.5%. All the inoculations with mixtures resulted in coinfection events. Combinations of genetically similar strains showed no significant differences when their virulences were compared. However, mixtures of genetically different strains led to both antagonism and synergism. The lowest virulence percentage (57%) was obtained by putting together the most virulent strain of each group, contrary to the highest virulence percentage (93%) that resulted from mixing the three least virulent strains. The results indicate the promising potential of designing strain mixtures as an alternative for the biocontrol of Hypothenemus hampei and other pests and provide tools for the understanding of the ecological dynamics of entomopathogen populations under natural conditions.

  4. Alternative zoning scenarios for regional sustainable land use controls in China: a knowledge-based multiobjective optimisation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yin; Liu, Dianfeng; Liu, Yaolin; He, Jianhua; Hong, Xiaofeng

    2014-08-28

    Alternative land use zoning scenarios provide guidance for sustainable land use controls. This study focused on an ecologically vulnerable catchment on the Loess Plateau in China, proposed a novel land use zoning model, and generated alternative zoning solutions to satisfy the various requirements of land use stakeholders and managers. This model combined multiple zoning objectives, i.e., maximum zoning suitability, maximum planning compatibility and maximum spatial compactness, with land use constraints by using goal programming technique, and employed a modified simulated annealing algorithm to search for the optimal zoning solutions. The land use zoning knowledge was incorporated into the initialisation operator and neighbourhood selection strategy of the simulated annealing algorithm to improve its efficiency. The case study indicates that the model is both effective and robust. Five optimal zoning scenarios of the study area were helpful for satisfying the requirements of land use controls in loess hilly regions, e.g., land use intensification, agricultural protection and environmental conservation.

  5. Application of hybrid coded genetic algorithm in fuzzy neural network controller

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Presents the fuzzy neural network optimized by hybrid coded genetic algorithm of decimal encoding and bi nary encoding, the searching ability and stability of genetic algorithms enhanced by using binary encoding during the crossover operation and decimal encoding during the mutation operation, and the way of accepting new individuals by probability adopted, by which a new individual is accepted and its parent is discarded when its fitness is higher than that of its parent, and a new individual is accepted by probability when its fitness is lower than that of its parent. And concludes with calculations made with an example that these improvements enhance the speed of genetic algorithms to optimize the fuzzy neural network controller.

  6. Genetics of stroke in a UK African ancestry case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutten-Jacobs, Loes; Curtis, Charles; Patel, Hamel; Breen, Gerome; Newhouse, Stephen; Lewis, Cathryn M.; Markus, Hugh S.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Despite epidemiologic data showing an increased stroke incidence in African ancestry populations, genetic studies in this group have so far been limited, and there has been little characterization of the genetic contribution to stroke liability in this population, particularly for stroke subtypes. Methods: We evaluated the evidence that genetic factors contribute to stroke and stroke subtypes in a population of 917 African and African Caribbean stroke cases and 868 matched controls from London, United Kingdom. We (1) estimated the heritability of stroke in this population using genomic-relatedness matrix-restricted maximum likelihood approaches, (2) assessed loci associated with stroke in Europeans in our population, and (3) evaluated the influence of genetic factors underlying cardiovascular risk factors on stroke using polygenic risk scoring. Results: Our results indicate a substantial genetic contribution to stroke risk in African ancestry populations (h2 = 0.35 [SE = 0.19], p = 0.043). Polygenic risk scores indicate that cardiovascular risk scores contribute to the genetic liability (odds ratio [OR] 1.09 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01–1.17], p = 0.029) and point to a strong influence of type 2 diabetes in large vessel stroke (OR 1.62 [95% CI 1.19–2.22], p = 0.0024). Single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with ischemic stroke in Europeans shared direction of effect in SLESS (p = 0.031), suggesting that disease mechanisms are shared across ancestries. Conclusions: Stroke in African ancestry populations is highly heritable and influenced by genetic determinants underlying cardiovascular risk factors. In addition, stroke loci identified in Europeans share direction of effect in African populations. Future genome-wide association studies must focus on incorporating African ancestry individuals. PMID:28349126

  7. Alternating Hemiplegia of Childhood: Retrospective Genetic Study and Genotype-Phenotype Correlations in 187 Subjects from the US AHCF Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viollet, Louis; Glusman, Gustavo; Murphy, Kelley J; Newcomb, Tara M; Reyna, Sandra P; Sweney, Matthew; Nelson, Benjamin; Andermann, Frederick; Andermann, Eva; Acsadi, Gyula; Barbano, Richard L; Brown, Candida; Brunkow, Mary E; Chugani, Harry T; Cheyette, Sarah R; Collins, Abigail; DeBrosse, Suzanne D; Galas, David; Friedman, Jennifer; Hood, Lee; Huff, Chad; Jorde, Lynn B; King, Mary D; LaSalle, Bernie; Leventer, Richard J; Lewelt, Aga J; Massart, Mylynda B; Mérida, Mario R; Ptáček, Louis J; Roach, Jared C; Rust, Robert S; Renault, Francis; Sanger, Terry D; Sotero de Menezes, Marcio A; Tennyson, Rachel; Uldall, Peter; Zhang, Yue; Zupanc, Mary; Xin, Winnie; Silver, Kenneth; Swoboda, Kathryn J

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in ATP1A3 cause Alternating Hemiplegia of Childhood (AHC) by disrupting function of the neuronal Na+/K+ ATPase. Published studies to date indicate 2 recurrent mutations, D801N and E815K, and a more severe phenotype in the E815K cohort. We performed mutation analysis and retrospective genotype-phenotype correlations in all eligible patients with AHC enrolled in the US AHC Foundation registry from 1997-2012. Clinical data were abstracted from standardized caregivers' questionnaires and medical records and confirmed by expert clinicians. We identified ATP1A3 mutations by Sanger and whole genome sequencing, and compared phenotypes within and between 4 groups of subjects, those with D801N, E815K, other ATP1A3 or no ATP1A3 mutations. We identified heterozygous ATP1A3 mutations in 154 of 187 (82%) AHC patients. Of 34 unique mutations, 31 (91%) are missense, and 16 (47%) had not been previously reported. Concordant with prior studies, more than 2/3 of all mutations are clusteredin exons 17 and 18. Of 143 simplex occurrences, 58 had D801N (40%), 38 had E815K(26%) and 11 had G947R (8%) mutations [corrected].Patients with an E815K mutation demonstrate an earlier age of onset, more severe motor impairment and a higher prevalence of status epilepticus. This study further expands the number and spectrum of ATP1A3 mutations associated with AHC and confirms a more deleterious effect of the E815K mutation on selected neurologic outcomes. However, the complexity of the disorder and the extensive phenotypic variability among subgroups merits caution and emphasizes the need for further studies.

  8. Genetics of Myasthenia Gravis: A Case-Control Association Study in the Hellenic Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoi Zagoriti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Myasthenia gravis (MG is an heterogeneous autoimmune disease characterized by the production of autoantibodies against proteins of the postsynaptic membrane, in the neuromuscular junction. The contribution of genetic factors to MG susceptibility has been evaluated through family and twin studies however, the precise genetic background of the disease remains elusive. We conducted a case-control association study in 101 unrelated MG patients of Hellenic origin and 101 healthy volunteers in order to assess the involvement of common genetic variants in susceptibility to MG. We focused on three candidate genes which have been clearly associated with several autoimmune diseases, aiming to investigate their potential implication in MG pathogenesis. These are interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF-5, TNFα-induced protein 3 (TNFAIP3, also known as A20, and interleukin-10 (IL-10, key molecules in the regulation of immune function. A statistical trend of association (P=0.068 between IL-10 promoter single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and the subgroups of early and late-onset MG patients was revealed. No statistically significant differences were observed in the rest of the variants examined. As far as we are aware, this is the first worldwide attempt to address the possible association between IRF-5 and TNFAIP3 common genetic variants and the genetic basis of MG.

  9. Alternative splicing of MALT1 controls signalling and activation of CD4(+) T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meininger, Isabel; Griesbach, Richard A; Hu, Desheng; Gehring, Torben; Seeholzer, Thomas; Bertossi, Arianna; Kranich, Jan; Oeckinghaus, Andrea; Eitelhuber, Andrea C; Greczmiel, Ute; Gewies, Andreas; Schmidt-Supprian, Marc; Ruland, Jürgen; Brocker, Thomas; Heissmeyer, Vigo; Heyd, Florian; Krappmann, Daniel

    2016-04-12

    MALT1 channels proximal T-cell receptor (TCR) signalling to downstream signalling pathways. With MALT1A and MALT1B two conserved splice variants exist and we demonstrate here that MALT1 alternative splicing supports optimal T-cell activation. Inclusion of exon7 in MALT1A facilitates the recruitment of TRAF6, which augments MALT1 scaffolding function, but not protease activity. Naive CD4(+) T cells express almost exclusively MALT1B and MALT1A expression is induced by TCR stimulation. We identify hnRNP U as a suppressor of exon7 inclusion. Whereas selective depletion of MALT1A impairs T-cell signalling and activation, downregulation of hnRNP U enhances MALT1A expression and T-cell activation. Thus, TCR-induced alternative splicing augments MALT1 scaffolding to enhance downstream signalling and to promote optimal T-cell activation.

  10. Genetic based sensorless hybrid intelligent controller for strip loop formation control between inter-stands in hot steel rolling mills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangavel, S; Palanisamy, V; Duraiswamy, K

    2008-04-01

    Safe operating environment is essential for all complex industrial processes. The safety issues in steel rolling mill when the hot strip passes through consecutive mill stands have been considered in this paper. Formation of sag in strip is a common problem in the rolling process. The excessive sag can lead to scrap runs and damage to machinery. Conventional controllers for mill actuation system are based on a rolling model. The factors like rise in temperature, aging, wear and tear are not taken into account while designing a conventional controller. Therefore, the conventional controller cannot yield a requisite controlled output. In this paper, a new Genetic-neuro-fuzzy hybrid controller without tension sensor has been proposed to optimize the quantum of excessive sag and reduce it. The performance of the proposed controller has been compared with the performance of fuzzy logic controller, Neuro-fuzzy controller and conventional controller with the help of data collected from the plant. The simulation results depict that the proposed controller has superior performance than the other controllers.

  11. Designing medical and educational intervention studies. A review of some alternatives to conventional randomized controlled trials

    OpenAIRE

    Bradley, Clare

    1993-01-01

    The advantages and limitations of RCT designs are discussed, and a range of alternative designs for medical and educational intervention studies considered. Designs selected are those that address the much neglected psychological issues involved in the recruitment of patients and allocation of patients to treatments within trials. Designs include Zelen's (18) randomized consent design, Brewin and Bradley's (20) partially randomized patient-centered design, and Korn and Baumrind's (21) partial...

  12. Alternatives generation and analysis for double-shell tank primary ventilation systems emissions control and monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SEDERBURG, J.P.

    1999-09-30

    This AGA addresses the question: ''What equipment upgrades, operational changes, and/or other actions are required relative to the DST tanks farms' ventilation systems to support retrieval, staging (including feed sampling), and delivery of tank waste to the Phase I private contractor?'' Issues and options for the various components within the ventilation subsystem affect each other. Recommended design requirements are presented and the preferred alternatives are detailed.

  13. Facile fabrication of controllable zinc oxide nanorod clusters on polyacrylonitrile nanofibers via repeatedly alternating immersion method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ying; Li, Xia; Yu, Hou-Yong; Hu, Guo-Liang; Yao, Ju-Ming

    2016-12-01

    Polyacrylonitrile/zinc oxide (PAN/ZnO) composite nanofiber membranes with different ZnO morphologies were fabricated by repeatedly alternating hot-cold immersion and single alternating hot-cold immersion methods. The influence of the PAN/ZnCl2 ratio and different immersion methods on the morphology, microstructure, and properties of the nanofiber membranes was investigated by using field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. A possible mechanism for different morphologies of PAN/ZnO nanofiber membranes with different PAN/ZnCl2 ratio through different immersion processes was presented, and well-dispersed ZnO nanorod clusters with smallest average dimeter of 115 nm and hexagonal wurtzite structure were successfully anchored onto the PAN nanofiber surface for R-7/1 nanofiber membrane. Compared to S-5/1 prepared by single alternating hot-cold immersion method, the PAN/ZnO nanofiber membrane fabricated by repeatedly alternating hot-cold immersion method (especially for R-7/1) showed improved thermal stability and high photocatalytic activity for methylene blue (MB). Compared to S-5/1, decomposition temperature at 5% weight loss ( T 5%) was increased by 43 °C from 282 to 325 °C for R-7/1; meanwhile, R-7/1 showed higher photocatalytic degradation ratio of approximately 100% (after UV light irradiation for 8 h) than 65% for S-5/1 even after irradiation for 14 h. Moreover, the degradation efficiency of R-7/1 with good reuse stability remained above 94% after 3 cycles.

  14. Genetically Generated Double-Level Fuzzy Controller with a Fuzzy Adjustment Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achiche, Sofiane; Wang, Wei; Fan, Zhun;

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the use of a genetic algorithm (GA) in tuning a double-level modular fuzzy logic controller (DLMFLC), which can expand its control working zone to a larger spectrum than a single-level FLC. The first-level FLCs are tuned by a GA so that the input parameters of their membership...... functions and fuzzy rules are optimized according to their individual working zones. The second-level FLC is then used to adjust contributions of the first-level FLCs to the final output signal of the whole controller, i.e., DLMFLC, so that it can function in a wider spectrum covering all individual working...

  15. Genetic algorithms optimized fuzzy logic control for the maximum power point tracking in photovoltaic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larbes, C.; Ait Cheikh, S.M.; Obeidi, T.; Zerguerras, A. [Laboratoire des Dispositifs de Communication et de Conversion Photovoltaique, Departement d' Electronique, Ecole Nationale Polytechnique, 10, Avenue Hassen Badi, El Harrach, Alger 16200 (Algeria)

    2009-10-15

    This paper presents an intelligent control method for the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) of a photovoltaic system under variable temperature and irradiance conditions. First, for the purpose of comparison and because of its proven and good performances, the perturbation and observation (P and O) technique is briefly introduced. A fuzzy logic controller based MPPT (FLC) is then proposed which has shown better performances compared to the P and O MPPT based approach. The proposed FLC has been also improved using genetic algorithms (GA) for optimisation. Different development stages are presented and the optimized fuzzy logic MPPT controller (OFLC) is then simulated and evaluated, which has shown better performances. (author)

  16. Adaptive thermal control of stem gravitropism through alternative RNA splicing in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Jae Yong; Kim, Joo-Young; Park, Chung-Mo

    2015-01-01

    Gravitropism is an important growth movement in response to gravity in virtually all higher plants: the roots showing positive gravitropism and the shoots showing negative gravitropism. The gravitropic orientation of plant organs is also influenced by environmental factors, such as light and temperature. It is known that a zinc finger (ZF)-containing transcription factor SHOOT GRAVITROPISM 5/INDETERMINATE DOMAIN 15 (SGR5/IDD15) mediates the early events of gravitropic responses occurring in inflorescence stems. We have recently found that SGR5 gene undergoes alternative splicing to produce 2 protein variants, the full-size SGR5α transcription factor and the truncated SGR5β form lacking functional ZF motifs. The SGR5β form inhibits SGR5α function possibly by forming nonfunctional heterodimers that are excluded from DNA binding. Notably, SGR5 alternative splicing is accelerated at high temperatures, resulting in a high-level accumulation of SGR5β proteins. Accordingly, transgenic plants overexpressing SGR5β exhibit a reduction in the negative gravitropism of inflorescence stems, as observed in the SGR5-defective mutant. It is proposed that the thermos-responsive alternative splicing of SGR5 gene provides an adaptation strategy by which plants protect the shoots from aerial heat frequently occurring in natural habitats.

  17. Intricate environment-modulated genetic networks control isoflavone accumulation in soybean seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon Grover

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Soybean (Glycine max [L] Merr. seed isoflavones have long been considered a desirable trait to target in selection programs for their contribution to human health and plant defense systems. However, attempts to modify seed isoflavone contents have not always produced the expected results because their genetic basis is polygenic and complex. Undoubtedly, the extreme variability that seed isoflavones display over environments has obscured our understanding of the genetics involved. Results In this study, a mapping population of RILs with three replicates was analyzed in four different environments (two locations over two years. We found a total of thirty-five main-effect genomic regions and many epistatic interactions controlling genistein, daidzein, glycitein and total isoflavone accumulation in seeds. The use of distinct environments permitted detection of a great number of environment-modulated and minor-effect QTL. Our findings suggest that isoflavone seed concentration is controlled by a complex network of multiple minor-effect loci interconnected by a dense epistatic map of interactions. The magnitude and significance of the effects of many of the nodes and connections in the network varied depending on the environmental conditions. In an attempt to unravel the genetic architecture underlying the traits studied, we searched on a genome-wide scale for genomic regions homologous to the most important identified isoflavone biosynthetic genes. We identified putative candidate genes for several of the main-effect and epistatic QTL and for QTL reported by other groups. Conclusions To better understand the underlying genetics of isoflavone accumulation, we performed a large scale analysis to identify genomic regions associated with isoflavone concentrations. We not only identified a number of such regions, but also found that they can interact with one another and with the environment to form a complex adaptable network

  18. Unique genetic loci identified for emotional behavior in control and chronic stress conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly AK Carhuatanta

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available An individual’s genetic background affects their emotional behavior and response to stress. Although studies have been conducted to identify genetic predictors for emotional behavior or stress response, it remains unknown how prior stress history alters the interaction between an individual’s genome and their emotional behavior. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to identify chromosomal regions that affect emotional behavior and are sensitive to stress exposure. We utilized the BXD behavioral genetics mouse model to identify chromosomal regions that predict fear learning and emotional behavior following exposure to a control or chronic stress environment. 62 BXD recombinant inbred strains and C57BL/6 and DBA/2 parental strains underwent behavioral testing including a classical fear conditioning paradigm and the elevated plus maze. Distinct quantitative trait loci (QTLs were identified for emotional learning, anxiety and locomotion in control and chronic stress populations. Candidate genes, including those with already known functions in learning and stress were found to reside within the identified QTLs. Our data suggest that chronic stress history reveals novel genetic predictors of emotional behavior.

  19. Deciphering the genetic regulatory code using an inverse error control coding framework.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rintoul, Mark Daniel; May, Elebeoba Eni; Brown, William Michael; Johnston, Anna Marie; Watson, Jean-Paul

    2005-03-01

    We have found that developing a computational framework for reconstructing error control codes for engineered data and ultimately for deciphering genetic regulatory coding sequences is a challenging and uncharted area that will require advances in computational technology for exact solutions. Although exact solutions are desired, computational approaches that yield plausible solutions would be considered sufficient as a proof of concept to the feasibility of reverse engineering error control codes and the possibility of developing a quantitative model for understanding and engineering genetic regulation. Such evidence would help move the idea of reconstructing error control codes for engineered and biological systems from the high risk high payoff realm into the highly probable high payoff domain. Additionally this work will impact biological sensor development and the ability to model and ultimately develop defense mechanisms against bioagents that can be engineered to cause catastrophic damage. Understanding how biological organisms are able to communicate their genetic message efficiently in the presence of noise can improve our current communication protocols, a continuing research interest. Towards this end, project goals include: (1) Develop parameter estimation methods for n for block codes and for n, k, and m for convolutional codes. Use methods to determine error control (EC) code parameters for gene regulatory sequence. (2) Develop an evolutionary computing computational framework for near-optimal solutions to the algebraic code reconstruction problem. Method will be tested on engineered and biological sequences.

  20. Multi-objective optimization based on Genetic Algorithm for PID controller tuning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Guo-liang; YAN Wei-wu; SHAO Hui-he

    2009-01-01

    To get the satisfying performance of a PID controller, this paper presents a novel Pareto - based multi-objective genetic algorithm ( MOGA), which can be used to find the appropriate setting of the PID controller by analyzing the pareto optimal surfaces. Rated settings of the controller by two criteria, the error between output and reference signals and control moves, are listed on the pareto surface. Appropriate setting can be chosen under a balance between two criteria for different control purposes. A controller tuning problem for a plant with high order and time delay is chosen as an example. Simulation results show that the method of MOGA is more efficient compared with traditional tuning methods.

  1. Identification of Alternative Vapor Intrusion Pathways Using Controlled Pressure Testing, Soil Gas Monitoring, and Screening Model Calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yuanming; Holton, Chase; Luo, Hong; Dahlen, Paul; Gorder, Kyle; Dettenmaier, Erik; Johnson, Paul C

    2015-11-17

    Vapor intrusion (VI) pathway assessment and data interpretation have been guided by an historical conceptual model in which vapors originating from contaminated soil or groundwater diffuse upward through soil and are swept into a building by soil gas flow induced by building underpressurization. Recent studies reveal that alternative VI pathways involving neighborhood sewers, land drains, and other major underground piping can also be significant VI contributors, even to buildings beyond the delineated footprint of soil and groundwater contamination. This work illustrates how controlled-pressure-method testing (CPM), soil gas sampling, and screening-level emissions calculations can be used to identify significant alternative VI pathways that might go undetected by conventional sampling under natural conditions at some sites. The combined utility of these tools is shown through data collected at a long-term study house, where a significant alternative VI pathway was discovered and altered so that it could be manipulated to be on or off. Data collected during periods of natural and CPM conditions show that the alternative pathway was significant, but its presence was not identifiable under natural conditions; it was identified under CPM conditions when measured emission rates were 2 orders of magnitude greater than screening-model estimates and subfoundation vertical soil gas profiles changed and were no longer consistent with the conventional VI conceptual model.

  2. Alternative Fungicide Spraying for the Control of Powdery Mildew Caused by Sphaerotheca fusca on Greenhouse Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyo-Jung Kang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Alternative spraying was developed using fungicides and potassium phosphonate to control watermelon powdery mildew (WPM caused by Sphaerotheca fusca under greenhouse condition. In 2010 trial, a total of 9 combinations of 6 fungicides which are legally registered in Korea and currently used on watermelon farms were tested for the control efficacy against WPM. Though the combination of chlorothalonil (Chl-myclobutanil (My-fenarimol (Fen-hexaconazole (Hex was the most effective (82.6% in the first-year trial, it had the problem that My, Fen and Hex have the same mode of action. Therefore, in the second-year trial to improve the fungicide combination and to reduce fungicide application, fungicides and potassium phosphonate (P combinations were tested for WPM control using 500 ppm aqueous potassium phosphonate solution which is both eco-friendly and showing different mode of action from the fungicides tested. The P-My-Fen-Hex applied at 10-day intervals provided relatively high control (75.6%, whereas Chl-My-Fen-P provided 31.8% control. To improve the control, fungicides and P were applied at 7-day intervals in the third-year trial. Though Chl-My-Fen-Hex provided the highest control (89.6%, P-My-Fen-Hex also provided relatively high control (83.5% compared to 65.9 % control with Chl-My-Fen-P, which suggests that Chl-My-Fen-Hex could be replaced with P-My-Fen-Hex for WPM control.

  3. PID-Controller Tuning Optimization with Genetic Algorithms in Servo Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Y. Jaen-Cuellar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Performance improvement is the main goal of the study of PID control and much research has been conducted for this purpose. The PID filter is implemented in almost all industrial processes because of its well-known beneficial features. In general, the whole system's performance strongly depends on the controller's efficiency and hence the tuning process plays a key role in the system's behaviour. In this work, the servo systems will be analysed, specifically the positioning control systems. Among the existent tuning methods, the Gain-Phase Margin method based on Frequency Response analysis is the most adequate for controller tuning in positioning control systems. Nevertheless, this method can be improved by integrating an optimization technique. The novelty of this work is the development of a new methodology for PID control tuning by coupling the Gain-Phase Margin method with the Genetic Algorithms in which the micro-population concept and adaptive mutation probability are applied. Simulations using a positioning system model in MATLAB and experimental tests in two CNC machines and an industrial robot are carried out in order to show the effectiveness of the proposal. The obtained results are compared with both the classical Gain-Phase Margin tuning and with a recent PID controller optimization using Genetic Algorithms based on real codification. The three methodologies are implemented using software.

  4. Comparison of PID Controller Tuning Methods with Genetic Algorithm for FOPTD System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Mohamed Hussain

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Measurement of Level, Temperature, Pressure and Flow parameters are very vital in all process industries. A combination of a few transducers with a controller, that forms a closed loop system leads to a stable and effective process. This article deals with control of in the process tank and comparative analysis of various PID control techniques and Genetic Algorithm (GA technique. The model for such a Real-time process is identified as First Order Plus Dead Time (FOPTD process and validated. The need for improved performance of the process has led to the development of model based controllers. Well-designed conventional Proportional, Integral and Derivative (PID controllers are the most widely used controller in the chemical process industries because of their simplicity, robustness and successful practical applications. Many tuning methods have been proposed for PID controllers. Many tuning methods have been proposed for obtaining better PID controller parameter settings. The comparison of various tuning methods for First Order Plus Dead Time (FOPTD process are analysed using simulation software. Our purpose in this study is comparison of these tuning methods for single input single output (SISO systems using computer simulation.Also efficiency of various PID controller are investigated for different performance metrics such as Integral Square Error (ISE, Integral Absolute Error (IAE, Integral Time absolute Error (ITAE, and Mean square Error (MSE is presented and simulation is carried out. Work in this paper explores basic concepts, mathematics, and design aspect of PID controller. Comparison between the PID controller and Genetic Algorithm (GA will have been carried out to determine the best controller for the temperature system.

  5. 33 CFR 203.50 - Nonstructural alternatives to rehabilitation of flood control works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... rehabilitation of flood control works. 203.50 Section 203.50 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS... DISASTER PROCEDURES Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by Flood or Coastal Storm... of flood control works. (a) Authority. Under Public Law 84-99, the Chief of Engineers is...

  6. Genetic susceptibility testing and readiness to control weight: Results from a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meisel, S.F.; Beeken, R.J.; Jaarsveld, C.H.M. van; Wardle, J.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that adding obesity gene feedback (FTO) to simple weight control advice at a life stage with raised risk of weight gain (university) increases readiness to control weight. METHODS: Individually randomized controlled trial comparing the effect of: (i) simple weight c

  7. The Major Genetic Determinants of HIV-1 Control Affect HLA Class I Peptide Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereyra, Florencia; Jia, Xiaoming; McLaren, Paul J.; Telenti, Amalio; de Bakker, Paul I.W.; Walker, Bruce D.; Jia, Xiaoming; McLaren, Paul J.; Ripke, Stephan; Brumme, Chanson J.; Pulit, Sara L.; Telenti, Amalio; Carrington, Mary; Kadie, Carl M.; Carlson, Jonathan M.; Heckerman, David; de Bakker, Paul I.W.; Pereyra, Florencia; de Bakker, Paul I.W.; Graham, Robert R.; Plenge, Robert M.; Deeks, Steven G.; Walker, Bruce D.; Gianniny, Lauren; Crawford, Gabriel; Sullivan, Jordan; Gonzalez, Elena; Davies, Leela; Camargo, Amy; Moore, Jamie M.; Beattie, Nicole; Gupta, Supriya; Crenshaw, Andrew; Burtt, Noël P.; Guiducci, Candace; Gupta, Namrata; Carrington, Mary; Gao, Xiaojiang; Qi, Ying; Yuki, Yuko; Pereyra, Florencia; Piechocka-Trocha, Alicja; Cutrell, Emily; Rosenberg, Rachel; Moss, Kristin L.; Lemay, Paul; O’Leary, Jessica; Schaefer, Todd; Verma, Pranshu; Toth, Ildiko; Block, Brian; Baker, Brett; Rothchild, Alissa; Lian, Jeffrey; Proudfoot, Jacqueline; Alvino, Donna Marie L.; Vine, Seanna; Addo, Marylyn M.; Allen, Todd M.; Altfeld, Marcus; Henn, Matthew R.; Le Gall, Sylvie; Streeck, Hendrik; Walker, Bruce D.; Haas, David W.; Kuritzkes, Daniel R.; Robbins, Gregory K.; Shafer, Robert W.; Gulick, Roy M.; Shikuma, Cecilia M.; Haubrich, Richard; Riddler, Sharon; Sax, Paul E.; Daar, Eric S.; Ribaudo, Heather J.; Agan, Brian; Agarwal, Shanu; Ahern, Richard L.; Allen, Brady L.; Altidor, Sherly; Altschuler, Eric L.; Ambardar, Sujata; Anastos, Kathryn; Anderson, Ben; Anderson, Val; Andrady, Ushan; Antoniskis, Diana; Bangsberg, David; Barbaro, Daniel; Barrie, William; Bartczak, J.; Barton, Simon; Basden, Patricia; Basgoz, Nesli; Bazner, Suzane; Bellos, Nicholaos C.; Benson, Anne M.; Berger, Judith; Bernard, Nicole F.; Bernard, Annette M.; Birch, Christopher; Bodner, Stanley J.; Bolan, Robert K.; Boudreaux, Emilie T.; Bradley, Meg; Braun, James F.; Brndjar, Jon E.; Brown, Stephen J.; Brown, Katherine; Brown, Sheldon T.; Burack, Jedidiah; Bush, Larry M.; Cafaro, Virginia; Campbell, Omobolaji; Campbell, John; Carlson, Robert H.; Carmichael, J. Kevin; Casey, Kathleen K.; Cavacuiti, Chris; Celestin, Gregory; Chambers, Steven T.; Chez, Nancy; Chirch, Lisa M.; Cimoch, Paul J.; Cohen, Daniel; Cohn, Lillian E.; Conway, Brian; Cooper, David A.; Cornelson, Brian; Cox, David T.; Cristofano, Michael V.; Cuchural, George; Czartoski, Julie L.; Dahman, Joseph M.; Daly, Jennifer S.; Davis, Benjamin T.; Davis, Kristine; Davod, Sheila M.; Deeks, Steven G.; DeJesus, Edwin; Dietz, Craig A.; Dunham, Eleanor; Dunn, Michael E.; Ellerin, Todd B.; Eron, Joseph J.; Fangman, John J.W.; Farel, Claire E.; Ferlazzo, Helen; Fidler, Sarah; Fleenor-Ford, Anita; Frankel, Renee; Freedberg, Kenneth A.; French, Neel K.; Fuchs, Jonathan D.; Fuller, Jon D.; Gaberman, Jonna; Gallant, Joel E.; Gandhi, Rajesh T.; Garcia, Efrain; Garmon, Donald; Gathe, Joseph C.; Gaultier, Cyril R.; Gebre, Wondwoosen; Gilman, Frank D.; Gilson, Ian; Goepfert, Paul A.; Gottlieb, Michael S.; Goulston, Claudia; Groger, Richard K.; Gurley, T. Douglas; Haber, Stuart; Hardwicke, Robin; Hardy, W. David; Harrigan, P. Richard; Hawkins, Trevor N.; Heath, Sonya; Hecht, Frederick M.; Henry, W. Keith; Hladek, Melissa; Hoffman, Robert P.; Horton, James M.; Hsu, Ricky K.; Huhn, Gregory D.; Hunt, Peter; Hupert, Mark J.; Illeman, Mark L.; Jaeger, Hans; Jellinger, Robert M.; John, Mina; Johnson, Jennifer A.; Johnson, Kristin L.; Johnson, Heather; Johnson, Kay; Joly, Jennifer; Jordan, Wilbert C.; Kauffman, Carol A.; Khanlou, Homayoon; Killian, Robert K.; Kim, Arthur Y.; Kim, David D.; Kinder, Clifford A.; Kirchner, Jeffrey T.; Kogelman, Laura; Kojic, Erna Milunka; Korthuis, P. Todd; Kurisu, Wayne; Kwon, Douglas S.; LaMar, Melissa; Lampiris, Harry; Lanzafame, Massimiliano; Lederman, Michael M.; Lee, David M.; Lee, Jean M.L.; Lee, Marah J.; Lee, Edward T.Y.; Lemoine, Janice; Levy, Jay A.; Llibre, Josep M.; Liguori, Michael A.; Little, Susan J.; Liu, Anne Y.; Lopez, Alvaro J.; Loutfy, Mono R.; Loy, Dawn; Mohammed, Debbie Y.; Man, Alan; Mansour, Michael K.; Marconi, Vincent C.; Markowitz, Martin; Marques, Rui; Martin, Jeffrey N.; Martin, Harold L.; Mayer, Kenneth Hugh; McElrath, M. Juliana; McGhee, Theresa A.; McGovern, Barbara H.; McGowan, Katherine; McIntyre, Dawn; Mcleod, Gavin X.; Menezes, Prema; Mesa, Greg; Metroka, Craig E.; Meyer-Olson, Dirk; Miller, Andy O.; Montgomery, Kate; Mounzer, Karam C.; Nagami, Ellen H.; Nagin, Iris; Nahass, Ronald G.; Nelson, Margret O.; Nielsen, Craig; Norene, David L.; O’Connor, David H.; Ojikutu, Bisola O.; Okulicz, Jason; Oladehin, Olakunle O.; Oldfield, Edward C.; Olender, Susan A.

    2011-01-01

    Infectious and inflammatory diseases have repeatedly shown strong genetic associations within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC); however, the basis for these associations remains elusive. To define host genetic effects on the outcome of a chronic viral infection, we performed genome-wide association analysis in a multiethnic cohort of HIV-1 controllers and progressors, and we analyzed the effects of individual amino acids within the classical human leukocyte antigen (HLA) proteins. We identified >300 genome-wide significant single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the MHC and none elsewhere. Specific amino acids in the HLA-B peptide binding groove, as well as an independent HLA-C effect, explain the SNP associations and reconcile both protective and risk HLA alleles. These results implicate the nature of the HLA–viral peptide interaction as the major factor modulating durable control of HIV infection. PMID:21051598

  8. The major genetic determinants of HIV-1 control affect HLA class I peptide presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereyra, Florencia; Jia, Xiaoming; McLaren, Paul J; Telenti, Amalio; de Bakker, Paul I W; Walker, Bruce D; Ripke, Stephan; Brumme, Chanson J; Pulit, Sara L; Carrington, Mary; Kadie, Carl M; Carlson, Jonathan M; Heckerman, David; Graham, Robert R; Plenge, Robert M; Deeks, Steven G; Gianniny, Lauren; Crawford, Gabriel; Sullivan, Jordan; Gonzalez, Elena; Davies, Leela; Camargo, Amy; Moore, Jamie M; Beattie, Nicole; Gupta, Supriya; Crenshaw, Andrew; Burtt, Noël P; Guiducci, Candace; Gupta, Namrata; Gao, Xiaojiang; Qi, Ying; Yuki, Yuko; Piechocka-Trocha, Alicja; Cutrell, Emily; Rosenberg, Rachel; Moss, Kristin L; Lemay, Paul; O'Leary, Jessica; Schaefer, Todd; Verma, Pranshu; Toth, Ildiko; Block, Brian; Baker, Brett; Rothchild, Alissa; Lian, Jeffrey; Proudfoot, Jacqueline; Alvino, Donna Marie L; Vine, Seanna; Addo, Marylyn M; Allen, Todd M; Altfeld, Marcus; Henn, Matthew R; Le Gall, Sylvie; Streeck, Hendrik; Haas, David W; Kuritzkes, Daniel R; Robbins, Gregory K; Shafer, Robert W; Gulick, Roy M; Shikuma, Cecilia M; Haubrich, Richard; Riddler, Sharon; Sax, Paul E; Daar, Eric S; Ribaudo, Heather J; Agan, Brian; Agarwal, Shanu; Ahern, Richard L; Allen, Brady L; Altidor, Sherly; Altschuler, Eric L; Ambardar, Sujata; Anastos, Kathryn; Anderson, Ben; Anderson, Val; Andrady, Ushan; Antoniskis, Diana; Bangsberg, David; Barbaro, Daniel; Barrie, William; Bartczak, J; Barton, Simon; Basden, Patricia; Basgoz, Nesli; Bazner, Suzane; Bellos, Nicholaos C; Benson, Anne M; Berger, Judith; Bernard, Nicole F; Bernard, Annette M; Birch, Christopher; Bodner, Stanley J; Bolan, Robert K; Boudreaux, Emilie T; Bradley, Meg; Braun, James F; Brndjar, Jon E; Brown, Stephen J; Brown, Katherine; Brown, Sheldon T; Burack, Jedidiah; Bush, Larry M; Cafaro, Virginia; Campbell, Omobolaji; Campbell, John; Carlson, Robert H; Carmichael, J Kevin; Casey, Kathleen K; Cavacuiti, Chris; Celestin, Gregory; Chambers, Steven T; Chez, Nancy; Chirch, Lisa M; Cimoch, Paul J; Cohen, Daniel; Cohn, Lillian E; Conway, Brian; Cooper, David A; Cornelson, Brian; Cox, David T; Cristofano, Michael V; Cuchural, George; Czartoski, Julie L; Dahman, Joseph M; Daly, Jennifer S; Davis, Benjamin T; Davis, Kristine; Davod, Sheila M; DeJesus, Edwin; Dietz, Craig A; Dunham, Eleanor; Dunn, Michael E; Ellerin, Todd B; Eron, Joseph J; Fangman, John J W; Farel, Claire E; Ferlazzo, Helen; Fidler, Sarah; Fleenor-Ford, Anita; Frankel, Renee; Freedberg, Kenneth A; French, Neel K; Fuchs, Jonathan D; Fuller, Jon D; Gaberman, Jonna; Gallant, Joel E; Gandhi, Rajesh T; Garcia, Efrain; Garmon, Donald; Gathe, Joseph C; Gaultier, Cyril R; Gebre, Wondwoosen; Gilman, Frank D; Gilson, Ian; Goepfert, Paul A; Gottlieb, Michael S; Goulston, Claudia; Groger, Richard K; Gurley, T Douglas; Haber, Stuart; Hardwicke, Robin; Hardy, W David; Harrigan, P Richard; Hawkins, Trevor N; Heath, Sonya; Hecht, Frederick M; Henry, W Keith; Hladek, Melissa; Hoffman, Robert P; Horton, James M; Hsu, Ricky K; Huhn, Gregory D; Hunt, Peter; Hupert, Mark J; Illeman, Mark L; Jaeger, Hans; Jellinger, Robert M; John, Mina; Johnson, Jennifer A; Johnson, Kristin L; Johnson, Heather; Johnson, Kay; Joly, Jennifer; Jordan, Wilbert C; Kauffman, Carol A; Khanlou, Homayoon; Killian, Robert K; Kim, Arthur Y; Kim, David D; Kinder, Clifford A; Kirchner, Jeffrey T; Kogelman, Laura; Kojic, Erna Milunka; Korthuis, P Todd; Kurisu, Wayne; Kwon, Douglas S; LaMar, Melissa; Lampiris, Harry; Lanzafame, Massimiliano; Lederman, Michael M; Lee, David M; Lee, Jean M L; Lee, Marah J; Lee, Edward T Y; Lemoine, Janice; Levy, Jay A; Llibre, Josep M; Liguori, Michael A; Little, Susan J; Liu, Anne Y; Lopez, Alvaro J; Loutfy, Mono R; Loy, Dawn; Mohammed, Debbie Y; Man, Alan; Mansour, Michael K; Marconi, Vincent C; Markowitz, Martin; Marques, Rui; Martin, Jeffrey N; Martin, Harold L; Mayer, Kenneth Hugh; McElrath, M Juliana; McGhee, Theresa A; McGovern, Barbara H; McGowan, Katherine; McIntyre, Dawn; Mcleod, Gavin X; Menezes, Prema; Mesa, Greg; Metroka, Craig E; Meyer-Olson, Dirk; Miller, Andy O; Montgomery, Kate; Mounzer, Karam C; Nagami, Ellen H; Nagin, Iris; Nahass, Ronald G; Nelson, Margret O; Nielsen, Craig; Norene, David L; O'Connor, David H; Ojikutu, Bisola O; Okulicz, Jason; Oladehin, Olakunle O; Oldfield, Edward C; Olender, Susan A; Ostrowski, Mario; Owen, William F; Pae, Eunice; Parsonnet, Jeffrey; Pavlatos, Andrew M; Perlmutter, Aaron M; Pierce, Michael N; Pincus, Jonathan M; Pisani, Leandro; Price, Lawrence Jay; Proia, Laurie; Prokesch, Richard C; Pujet, Heather Calderon; Ramgopal, Moti; Rathod, Almas; Rausch, Michael; Ravishankar, J; Rhame, Frank S; Richards, Constance Shamuyarira; Richman, Douglas D; Rodes, Berta; Rodriguez, Milagros; Rose, Richard C; Rosenberg, Eric S; Rosenthal, Daniel; Ross, Polly E; Rubin, David S; Rumbaugh, Elease; Saenz, Luis; Salvaggio, Michelle R; Sanchez, William C; Sanjana, Veeraf M; Santiago, Steven; Schmidt, Wolfgang; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Sestak, Philip M; Shalit, Peter; Shay, William; Shirvani, Vivian N; Silebi, Vanessa I; Sizemore, James M; Skolnik, Paul R; Sokol-Anderson, Marcia; Sosman, James M; Stabile, Paul; Stapleton, Jack T; Starrett, Sheree; Stein, Francine; Stellbrink, Hans-Jurgen; Sterman, F Lisa; Stone, Valerie E; Stone, David R; Tambussi, Giuseppe; Taplitz, Randy A; Tedaldi, Ellen M; Telenti, Amalio; Theisen, William; Torres, Richard; Tosiello, Lorraine; Tremblay, Cecile; Tribble, Marc A; Trinh, Phuong D; Tsao, Alice; Ueda, Peggy; Vaccaro, Anthony; Valadas, Emilia; Vanig, Thanes J; Vecino, Isabel; Vega, Vilma M; Veikley, Wenoah; Wade, Barbara H; Walworth, Charles; Wanidworanun, Chingchai; Ward, Douglas J; Warner, Daniel A; Weber, Robert D; Webster, Duncan; Weis, Steve; Wheeler, David A; White, David J; Wilkins, Ed; Winston, Alan; Wlodaver, Clifford G; van't Wout, Angelique; Wright, David P; Yang, Otto O; Yurdin, David L; Zabukovic, Brandon W; Zachary, Kimon C; Zeeman, Beth; Zhao, Meng

    2010-12-10

    Infectious and inflammatory diseases have repeatedly shown strong genetic associations within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC); however, the basis for these associations remains elusive. To define host genetic effects on the outcome of a chronic viral infection, we performed genome-wide association analysis in a multiethnic cohort of HIV-1 controllers and progressors, and we analyzed the effects of individual amino acids within the classical human leukocyte antigen (HLA) proteins. We identified >300 genome-wide significant single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the MHC and none elsewhere. Specific amino acids in the HLA-B peptide binding groove, as well as an independent HLA-C effect, explain the SNP associations and reconcile both protective and risk HLA alleles. These results implicate the nature of the HLA-viral peptide interaction as the major factor modulating durable control of HIV infection.

  9. Comparison of methods for controlling dental caries in the classical medicine and alternative medical practices and future prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabbani Khorasgani Mohammad

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is a multi-factorial disease and the most common human infection that annually are spent millions dollars to control and treat it. Several methods have been proposed so far to control it. The most important control methods it is now include : dental hygiene, proper nutrition , fluoride therapy , the use of non- cariogenic sweeteners . Also, the use of probiotics , nanomaterials , bacteriophages , antimicrobial peptides and anti- caries vaccines can be considered as new perspective of human in the dental caries control field. In addition, the use of complementary and alternative therapies , especially herbal drug therapy recently has been considered . Demonstrating the efficacy of complementary medicine against dental caries and its use in combination with conventional medicine or trial of new methods for decline of dental caries in the future would be hopeful.

  10. Alternative splicing of MALT1 controls signalling and activation of CD4+ T cells

    OpenAIRE

    Meininger, Isabel; Griesbach, Richard A.; HU, DESHENG; Gehring, Torben; Seeholzer, Thomas; Bertossi, Arianna; Kranich, Jan; Oeckinghaus, Andrea; Eitelhuber, Andrea C.; Greczmiel, Ute; Gewies, Andreas; Schmidt-Supprian, Marc; Ruland, Jürgen; Brocker, Thomas; Heissmeyer, Vigo

    2016-01-01

    MALT1 channels proximal T-cell receptor (TCR) signalling to downstream signalling pathways. With MALT1A and MALT1B two conserved splice variants exist and we demonstrate here that MALT1 alternative splicing supports optimal T-cell activation. Inclusion of exon7 in MALT1A facilitates the recruitment of TRAF6, which augments MALT1 scaffolding function, but not protease activity. Naive CD4+ T cells express almost exclusively MALT1B and MALT1A expression is induced by TCR stimulation. We identify...

  11. Population genetic structure of the biological control agent Macrolophus pygmaeus in Mediterranean agroecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streito, Jean-Claude; Clouet, Cécile; Hamdi, Faten; Gauthier, Nathalie

    2017-10-01

    Biological control of agricultural pests relies on knowledge of agroecosystem functionality, particularly when affected by the use of mass-produced biological agents. Incorporating pre- and/or post-release information such as genetic diversity and structure on these agents using molecular-based approaches could advance our knowledge of how they perform in agroecosystems. We evaluated the population genetics of Macrolophus pygmaeus, the most widely used predatory mirid against many arthropod pests of greenhouse crops in the Mediterranean region, using the mitochondrial Cytb sequence and microsatellite data, and population genetics and phylogeny approaches. We investigated commercially mass-produced insects (i.e., commercial insects either mass-reared in the laboratory for many generations, or purchased by farmers and released in the greenhouses) and "wild" insects (i.e., that occur naturally outside or are collected in nature for release in the greenhouses). The mirids were mainly collected in agroecosystems in which solanaceous plants are grown in northern Spain, southern France and Greece. Both molecular markers and approaches distinguished 2 genetically differentiated populations. The less genetically diverse population, hereafter named the "commercial" strain included all individuals from laboratory mass-rearings and most releases of commercially bred individuals. The most genetically diverse population mainly comprised individuals originating from noncultivated environments, or from releases of "wild" individuals. Rare examples of hybridization between M. pygmaeus from the 2 populations were observed and asymmetric gene flow was revealed. These findings provide new insights into what happens to M. pygmaeus released in the agroecosystems we studied, and show that it is possible to monitor some commercial strains. © 2016 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  12. Prediction of jet engine parameters for control design using genetic programming

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Arellano, G; Cant, R; Nolle, L

    2014-01-01

    The simulation of a jet engine behavior is widely used in many different aspects of the engine development and maintenance. Achieving high quality jet engine control systems requires the iterative use of these simulations to virtually test the performance of the engine avoiding any possible damage on the real engine. Jet engine simulations involve the use of mathematical models which are complex and may not always be available. This paper introduces an approach based on Genetic Programming (G...

  13. The Distribution Population-based Genetic Algorithm for Parameter Optimization PID Controller

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENQing-Geng; WANGNing; HUANGShao-Feng

    2005-01-01

    Enlightened by distribution of creatures in natural ecology environment, the distribution population-based genetic algorithm (DPGA) is presented in this paper. The searching capability of the algorithm is improved by competition between distribution populations to reduce the search zone.This method is applied to design of optimal parameters of PID controllers with examples, and the simulation results show that satisfactory performances are obtained.

  14. Controlling Macromolecular Topology with Genetically Encoded SpyTag-SpyCatcher Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Wen-Bin; Sun, Fei; Tirrell, David A.; Arnold, Frances H.

    2013-01-01

    Control of molecular topology constitutes a fundamental challenge in macromolecular chemistry. Here we describe the synthesis and characterization of artificial elastin-like proteins (ELPs) with unconventional nonlinear topologies including circular, tadpole, star, and H-shaped proteins using genetically encoded SpyTag–SpyCatcher chemistry. SpyTag is a short polypeptide that binds its protein partner SpyCatcher and forms isopeptide bonds under physiological conditions. Sequences encoding SpyT...

  15. [Genetic control of isozymes in European spruces (Picea abies (L) Karst) of the Ukrainian Carpathian mountains].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Privalikhin, S N; Korshikov, I I; Pirko, N N; Velikorid'ko, T I; Pirko, Ia V

    2006-01-01

    Genetical control of the enzymes GOT, GDH, DIA, MDH, SOD, FDH, ADH, ACP and LAP has been studied in nine natural Carpathian populations of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) using polyacrylamide gel elecrophoresis and analysis of isozyme variability in 346 trees. Seventy one allel products of 20 gene loci have been clearly established. Segregation analysis of the revealed allele variants confirms their monogenic inheritance.

  16. Genetic Control of Canine Leishmaniasis: Genome-Wide Association Study and Genomic Selection Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Javier Quilez; Verónica Martínez; Woolliams, John A; Armand Sanchez; Ricardo Pong-Wong; Kennedy, Lorna J.; Quinnell, Rupert J.; Ollier, William E R; Xavier Roura; Lluís Ferrer; Laura Altet; Olga Francino

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The current disease model for leishmaniasis suggests that only a proportion of infected individuals develop clinical disease, while others are asymptomatically infected due to immune control of infection. The factors that determine whether individuals progress to clinical disease following Leishmania infection are unclear, although previous studies suggest a role for host genetics. Our hypothesis was that canine leishmaniasis is a complex disease with multiple loci responsible for...

  17. Crafting traps with attractant alcoholics an alternative for monitoring and control of borer coffee, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari 1867

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agramont Richard

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The necessity to incorporate an alternative, for monitoring and control of the borer coffee, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari (Choleoptera: Curculionidae to be feasible for the use of the coffee producers, in the community Choro, Coripata municipality, second section of Nor Yungas province, La Paz Bolivia. It was evaluated the capture of adult borer coffee individuals using 45 traps into 1,5 hectares distributed at random with four repetitions. It was used three types of craft traps, built with disposable plastic bottles of soft drinks, with the traps Casera, Brocap and Yessica, were evaluated three treatments: mixture of alcohols methyl (M and ethylic (E in proportions 3:1; mix 1:1 of (M and (E; mix 1:1:1 of (M (E and coffee fresh cherry liquated (CFCL and water as a witness. The largest captures of adult individuals, were present in the crafting traps with mixture of (M(E 3:1 with overalls (± standard deviation adults/traps/ten days of 3414,5±3227,7 being superior to the other treatments. The crafting trap is one of the alternatives for the control and monitoring of the borer in the coffee plantations. The use of crafting traps with alcoholic attractants for the capture of adult individuals, is present as a low cost alternative, being feasible the successful use by the producers into the management integrated programs.

  18. PID-Controller Tuning Optimization with Genetic Algorithms in Servo Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Y. Jaen-Cuellar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Performance improvement is the main goal of the study of PID control and much research has been conducted for this purpose. The PID filter is implemented in almost all industrial processes because of its well‐ known beneficial features. In general, the whole system’s performance strongly depends on the controller’s efficiency and hence the tuning process plays a key role in the system’s behaviour. In this work, the servo systems will be analysed, specifically the positioning control systems. Among the existent tuning methods, the Gain‐ Phase Margin method based on Frequency Response analysis is the most adequate for controller tuning in positioning control systems. Nevertheless, this method can be improved by integrating an optimization technique. The novelty of this work is the development of a new methodology for PID control tuning by coupling the Gain‐Phase Margin method with the Genetic Algorithms in which the micro‐population concept and adaptive mutation probability are applied. Simulations using a positioning system model in MATLAB and experimental tests in two CNC machines and an industrial robot are carried out in order to show the effectiveness of the proposal. The obtained results are compared with both the classical Gain‐Phase Margin tuning and with a recent PID controller optimization using Genetic Algorithms based on real codification. The three methodologies are implemented using software.

  19. Genetic Optimization Algorithm of PID Decoupling Control for VAV Air-Conditioning System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jiangjiang; AN Dawei; ZHANG Chunfa; JING Youyin

    2009-01-01

    Variable-air-volume (VAV) air-conditioning system is a multi-variable system and has multi coupling control loops. While all of the control loops are working together, they interfere and influence each other. A multi-variable decoupling PID controller is designed for VAV air-conditioning system. Diagonal matrix decoupling method is employed to eliminate the coupling between the loop of supply air temperature and that of thermal-space air temperature. The PID controller parameters are optimized by means of an improved genetic algorithm in floating point representations to obtain better performance. The population in the improved genetic algorithm mutates before crossover, which is helpful for the convergence. Additionally the micro mutation algorithm is proposed and applied to improve the convergence during the later evolution. To search the best parameters, the optimized parameters ranges should be amplified l0 times the initial ideal parameters. The simulation and experiment results show that the decoupling control system is effective and feasible. The method can overcome the strong coupling feature of the system and has shorter governing time and less over-shoot than non-optimization PID control.

  20. Genetic control of the angular leaf spot reaction in common bean leaves and pods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerônimo Constantino Borel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Information about genetic control of plant reaction to pathogens is essential in plant breeding programs focusing resistance. This study aimed to obtain information about genetic control of the angular leaf spot reaction in leaves and pods from common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. line ESAL 686. This line was crossed with cultivars Jalo EEP 558 (resistant, Cornell 49-242 (resistant and Carioca MG (susceptible. Generations F1, F2 and backcrosses (BC11 and BC21 were obtained. In the dry season (2009, parents and respective populations were evaluated for angular leaf spot reaction under field conditions. Disease severity was evaluated on leaves and pods using diagrammatic scales. Severity scores were obtained and mean and variance genetic components were estimated for both. Segregation of F2 generation was analyzed for some crosses. Different genes control angular leaf spot reaction in leaves and pods. Mean and variance components showed predominance of additive effects. Heritability was high, however, was greater on pods than on leaves which indicated that leaf reaction is more influenced by the environment.

  1. A legume genetic framework controls infection of nodules by symbiotic and endophytic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zgadzaj, Rafal; James, Euan K; Kelly, Simon; Kawaharada, Yasuyuki; de Jonge, Nadieh; Jensen, Dorthe B; Madsen, Lene H; Radutoiu, Simona

    2015-06-01

    Legumes have an intrinsic capacity to accommodate both symbiotic and endophytic bacteria within root nodules. For the symbionts, a complex genetic mechanism that allows mutual recognition and plant infection has emerged from genetic studies under axenic conditions. In contrast, little is known about the mechanisms controlling the endophytic infection. Here we investigate the contribution of both the host and the symbiotic microbe to endophyte infection and development of mixed colonised nodules in Lotus japonicus. We found that infection threads initiated by Mesorhizobium loti, the natural symbiont of Lotus, can selectively guide endophytic bacteria towards nodule primordia, where competent strains multiply and colonise the nodule together with the nitrogen-fixing symbiotic partner. Further co-inoculation studies with the competent coloniser, Rhizobium mesosinicum strain KAW12, show that endophytic nodule infection depends on functional and efficient M. loti-driven Nod factor signalling. KAW12 exopolysaccharide (EPS) enabled endophyte nodule infection whilst compatible M. loti EPS restricted it. Analysis of plant mutants that control different stages of the symbiotic infection showed that both symbiont and endophyte accommodation within nodules is under host genetic control. This demonstrates that when legume plants are exposed to complex communities they selectively regulate access and accommodation of bacteria occupying this specialized environmental niche, the root nodule.

  2. Use of a twin dataset to identify AMD-related visual patterns controlled by genetic factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quellec, Gwénolé; Abràmoff, Michael D.; Russell, Stephen R.

    2010-03-01

    The mapping of genotype to the phenotype of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is expected to improve the diagnosis and treatment of the disease in a near future. In this study, we focused on the first step to discover this mapping: we identified visual patterns related to AMD which seem to be controlled by genetic factors, without explicitly relating them to the genes. For this purpose, we used a dataset of eye fundus photographs from 74 twin pairs, either monozygotic twins, who have the same genotype, or dizygotic twins, whose genes responsible for AMD are less likely to be identical. If we are able to differentiate monozygotic twins from dizygotic twins, based on a given visual pattern, then this pattern is likely to be controlled by genetic factors. The main visible consequence of AMD is the apparition of drusen between the retinal pigment epithelium and Bruch's membrane. We developed two automated drusen detectors based on the wavelet transform: a shape-based detector for hard drusen, and a texture- and color- based detector for soft drusen. Forty visual features were evaluated at the location of the automatically detected drusen. These features characterize the texture, the shape, the color, the spatial distribution, or the amount of drusen. A distance measure between twin pairs was defined for each visual feature; a smaller distance should be measured between monozygotic twins for visual features controlled by genetic factors. The predictions of several visual features (75.7% accuracy) are comparable or better than the predictions of human experts.

  3. The theological and legal approach of prenatal and preimplantation genetic control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Katsimigas

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The investigation of the theological and legal questions derived from the application of prenatal and preimplantation genetic control on human embryos. Moreover, the review of the European and Greek legislation with regard to the prenatal and preimplantation control. Material and Method: A literature review based on both review and research literature, conducted during the period of 1984-2009, derived from MEDLINE, SCOPUS and ΙΑΤΡΟΤΕΚ databases using as key words Prenatal diagnosis , Bioethics, Orthodox ethics, preimplantation genetic diagnosis, Legislation. Results: The orthodox theology adopts a negative view for the abortion of fetus, which it is considered murder in any stage of growth. The legal approach brought two basic questions a the securing of consent from the examined individual and b the constitutional protection of fetus' life. Conclusions: The orthodox theology, through their teaching places the moral criteria for facing the moral questions derived from the application of prenatal and preimplantation genetic control on human embryos. Also, the Greek citizens need to be informed for all the diagnostic examinations on embryos that should be provided by all public health organizations.

  4. An alternative to animal testing in the quality control of erythropoietin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, H; Gerhard, D; Hothorn, L A; Dingermann, T

    2011-06-01

    A physico-chemical method has been developed as an alternative to the current bioassay in normocythaemic mice for estimating the biological activity of erythropoietin batches. Capillary zone electrophoresis was used for quantification of the isoforms and their substructures were further elucidated by N-glycan mapping techniques. The analytical study was carried out on a total of 40 batches of epoetin beta which were selected to cover an adequate range of precisely established potency values. The relationship between the biological and chemical parameters was evaluated statistically in order to identify suitable covariates for the prediction of the biological activity. Out of several alternatives, a prediction model which is based on the percentages of isoforms per batch and the degree of sialidation was selected and tested. This model is comparable in terms of accuracy to the established in vivo bioassay, but is far superior in terms of precision. Further advantages of the method are improved animal welfare and savings in time and effort. The question whether the prediction model already meets the requirements for replacing the bioassay according to the ICH guideline Q6B is discussed.

  5. Patient-controlled analgesia with remifentanil versus alternative parenteral methods for pain management in labour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weibel, Stephanie; Jelting, Yvonne; Afshari, Arash

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Multiple analgesic strategies for pain relief during labour are available. Recently remifentanil, a short-acting opioid, has recently been used as an alternative analgesic due to its unique pharmacological properties. OBJECTIVES: To systematically assess the effectiveness of remifenta......BACKGROUND: Multiple analgesic strategies for pain relief during labour are available. Recently remifentanil, a short-acting opioid, has recently been used as an alternative analgesic due to its unique pharmacological properties. OBJECTIVES: To systematically assess the effectiveness...... review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion, extracted data, and appraised study quality.We contacted study authors for additional information other than incomplete outcome data. We performed random-effects meta-analysis.To reduce the risk of random error in meta-analysis we performed...... relevant and non-relevant treatment effects is compatible with this result. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Based on the current systematic review, there is mostly low-quality evidence to inform practice and future research may significantly alter the current situation. The quality of evidence is mainly limited...

  6. Biotechnology as an alternative for carbon disulfide treatment in air pollution control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojo, N.; Gallastegi, G.; Barona, A.; Gurtubay, L.; Elias, A. [Univ. of the Basque Country, Bilbao (Spain). Dept. of Chemical and Environmental Engineering; Gabriel Ibarra-Berastegi [Univ. of the Basque Country, Bilbao (Spain). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering and Fluid Mechanics

    2010-07-01

    The industry demand for CS{sub 2} has changed considerably over the last 2 decades and is expected to increase. This paper discussed the technical and financial feasibility of eliminating carbon disulphide (CS{sub 2}) from exhaust gases use biotechnology. The global emissions of this hazardous air pollutant are estimated to exceed 250,000 tonnes per year. However, the emission range depends on the source. The conventional technologies for treating CS{sub 2} emissions include thermal oxidation, thermo-catalytic processes or incineration. However, these technologies have drawbacks, such as high energy consumption and the generation of secondary by-products that require additional treatment. Recently, biotechnology was touted as an affordable, effective, and ecologically sound alternative to treat waste gases containing CS{sub 2}. Biological technologies based on microorganisms to biodegrade air pollutants overcome many of the disadvantages of conventional techniques and are particularly useful for the removal of relatively low concentrations of pollutants. The main properties, sources, and uses of CS{sub 2} were summarized in this paper along with alternative biotreatments for CS{sub 2}. Several applications of the technical and economical feasibility of biofilters and biotrickling filters were presented. Further research is required before their widespread industrial application. 72 refs., 3 tabs.

  7. Genetic Algorithm Based PID Controller Tuning Approach for Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jayachitra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic algorithm (GA based PID (proportional integral derivative controller has been proposed for tuning optimized PID parameters in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR process using a weighted combination of objective functions, namely, integral square error (ISE, integral absolute error (IAE, and integrated time absolute error (ITAE. Optimization of PID controller parameters is the key goal in chemical and biochemical industries. PID controllers have narrowed down the operating range of processes with dynamic nonlinearity. In our proposed work, globally optimized PID parameters tend to operate the CSTR process in its entire operating range to overcome the limitations of the linear PID controller. The simulation study reveals that the GA based PID controller tuned with fixed PID parameters provides satisfactory performance in terms of set point tracking and disturbance rejection.

  8. Nonproliferation and arms control assessment of weapons-usable fissile material storage and excess plutonium disposition alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    This report has been prepared by the Department of Energy`s Office of Arms Control and Nonproliferation (DOE-NN) with support from the Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (DOE-MD). Its purpose is to analyze the nonproliferation and arms reduction implications of the alternatives for storage of plutonium and HEU, and disposition of excess plutonium, to aid policymakers and the public in making final decisions. While this assessment describes the benefits and risks associated with each option, it does not attempt to rank order the options or choose which ones are best. It does, however, identify steps which could maximize the benefits and mitigate any vulnerabilities of the various alternatives under consideration.

  9. Conserved functional antagonism of CELF and MBNL proteins controls stem cell-specific alternative splicing in planarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solana, Jordi; Irimia, Manuel; Ayoub, Salah; Orejuela, Marta Rodriguez; Zywitza, Vera; Jens, Marvin; Tapial, Javier; Ray, Debashish; Morris, Quaid; Hughes, Timothy R; Blencowe, Benjamin J; Rajewsky, Nikolaus

    2016-08-09

    In contrast to transcriptional regulation, the function of alternative splicing (AS) in stem cells is poorly understood. In mammals, MBNL proteins negatively regulate an exon program specific of embryonic stem cells; however, little is known about the in vivo significance of this regulation. We studied AS in a powerful in vivo model for stem cell biology, the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea. We discover a conserved AS program comprising hundreds of alternative exons, microexons and introns that is differentially regulated in planarian stem cells, and comprehensively identify its regulators. We show that functional antagonism between CELF and MBNL factors directly controls stem cell-specific AS in planarians, placing the origin of this regulatory mechanism at the base of Bilaterians. Knockdown of CELF or MBNL factors lead to abnormal regenerative capacities by affecting self-renewal and differentiation sets of genes, respectively. These results highlight the importance of AS interactions in stem cell regulation across metazoans.

  10. Efficacy of indigenous larvivorous fishes against Culex quinquefasciatus in the presence of alternative prey: implications for biological control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aditya, Gautam; Pal, Santanu; Saha, Nabaneeta; Saha, Goutam

    2012-12-01

    Indigenous larvivorous fishes bear potential for regulating vector mosquitoes through trophic interactions. The mosquito prey preference of five indigenous larvivorous fishes in the presence of alternative food items was assessed to highlight their use in mosquito vector management. Laboratory experiments were carried out using the larvivorous fishes Ambassis (=Chanda) nama, Parambassis (=Chanda) ranga, Colisa fasciatus, Esomus danricus and Aplocheilus panchax, as predators and IV instar Culex quinquefasciatus larvae as target prey. Mosquito prey preference of these fishes in the presence of chironomid larvae, tubificid worms and artificial fish foods, in varied proportions, were assessed using preference index. The fishes consumed considerable amount of mosquito larvae both in absence and presence of alternative food items. However, the positive selectivity for mosquito larvae at all densities were significantly (p control by these fishes.

  11. Alternative methods to control Phytophthora cactorum in strawberry cultivated in soilless growing media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evenhuis, B.; Nijhuis, E.H.; Lamers, J.G.; Verhoeven, J.T.W.; Postma, J.

    2014-01-01

    Phytophthora cactorum is an important threat in strawberry propagation and production. No reliable non-chemical control measures are available. Therefore different control strategies were tested. Spread of pathogen infection can be reduced by disinfection of the irrigation water. Slow sand

  12. Effectiveness in practice-based research: Looking for alternatives to the randomized controlled trial (RCT)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Tavecchio

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decade, the status of the randomized controlled trial (RCT), hallmark of evidence-based medicine (research), has been growing strongly in general practice, social work and public health. But this type of research is only practicable under strictly controlled and well-defined settings a

  13. Real-coded genetic algorithm for optimal vibration control of flexible structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Presents the study on the optimum location of actuators/sensors for active vibration control in aerospace flexible structures with the performance function first built by maximization of dissipation energy due to control action and a real-coded genetic algorithm then proposed to produce a global-optimum solution, and proves the feasibility and advantages of this algorithm with the example of a standard test function and a two-collocated actuators/sensors cantilever, and comparing the results with those given in the literatures.

  14. Light-emitting channelrhodopsins for combined optogenetic and chemical-genetic control of neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Berglund

    Full Text Available Manipulation of neuronal activity through genetically targeted actuator molecules is a powerful approach for studying information flow in the brain. In these approaches the genetically targeted component, a receptor or a channel, is activated either by a small molecule (chemical genetics or by light from a physical source (optogenetics. We developed a hybrid technology that allows control of the same neurons by both optogenetic and chemical genetic means. The approach is based on engineered chimeric fusions of a light-generating protein (luciferase to a light-activated ion channel (channelrhodopsin. Ionic currents then can be activated by bioluminescence upon activation of luciferase by its substrate, coelenterazine (CTZ, as well as by external light. In cell lines, expression of the fusion of Gaussia luciferase to Channelrhodopsin-2 yielded photocurrents in response to CTZ. Larger photocurrents were produced by fusing the luciferase to Volvox Channelrhodopsin-1. This version allowed chemical modulation of neuronal activity when expressed in cultured neurons: CTZ treatment shifted neuronal responses to injected currents and sensitized neurons to fire action potentials in response to subthreshold synaptic inputs. These luminescent channelrhodopsins--or luminopsins--preserve the advantages of light-activated ion channels, while extending their capabilities. Our proof-of-principle results suggest that this novel class of tools can be improved and extended in numerous ways.

  15. Exacerbation of autoimmune neuroinflammation by dietary sodium is genetically controlled and sex specific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krementsov, Dimitry N; Case, Laure K; Hickey, William F; Teuscher, Cory

    2015-08-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a debilitating autoimmune neuroinflammatory disease influenced by genetics and the environment. MS incidence in female subjects has approximately tripled in the last century, suggesting a sex-specific environmental influence. Recent animal and human studies have implicated dietary sodium as a risk factor in MS, whereby high sodium augmented the generation of T helper (Th) 17 cells and exacerbated experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the principal model of MS. However, whether dietary sodium interacts with sex or genetics remains unknown. Here, we show that high dietary sodium exacerbates EAE in a strain- and sex-specific fashion. In C57BL6/J mice, exposure to a high-salt diet exacerbated disease in both sexes, while in SJL/JCrHsd mice, it did so only in females. In further support of a genetic component, we found that sodium failed to modify EAE course in C57BL6/J mice carrying a 129/Sv-derived interval on chromosome 17. Furthermore, we found that the high-sodium diet did not augment Th17 or Th1 responses, but it did result in increased blood-brain barrier permeability and brain pathology. Our results demonstrate that the effects of dietary sodium on autoimmune neuroinflammation are sex specific, genetically controlled, and CNS mediated.

  16. Disclosure of genetic information and change in dietary intake: a randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiva E Nielsen

    Full Text Available Proponents of consumer genetic tests claim that the information can positively impact health behaviors and aid in chronic disease prevention. However, the effects of disclosing genetic information on dietary intake behavior are not clear.A double-blinded, parallel group, 2:1 online randomized controlled trial was conducted to determine the short- and long-term effects of disclosing nutrition-related genetic information for personalized nutrition on dietary intakes of caffeine, vitamin C, added sugars, and sodium. Participants were healthy men and women aged 20-35 years (n = 138. The intervention group (n = 92 received personalized DNA-based dietary advice for 12-months and the control group (n = 46 received general dietary recommendations with no genetic information for 12-months. Food frequency questionnaires were collected at baseline and 3- and 12-months after the intervention to assess dietary intakes. General linear models were used to compare changes in intakes between those receiving general dietary advice and those receiving DNA-based dietary advice.Compared to the control group, no significant changes to dietary intakes of the nutrients were observed at 3-months. At 12-months, participants in the intervention group who possessed a risk version of the ACE gene, and were advised to limit their sodium intake, significantly reduced their sodium intake (mg/day compared to the control group (-287.3 ± 114.1 vs. 129.8 ± 118.2, p = 0.008. Those who had the non-risk version of ACE did not significantly change their sodium intake compared to the control group (12-months: -244.2 ± 150.2, p = 0.11. Among those with the risk version of the ACE gene, the proportion who met the targeted recommendation of 1500 mg/day increased from 19% at baseline to 34% after 12 months (p = 0.06.These findings demonstrate that disclosing genetic information for personalized nutrition results in greater changes in intake for some dietary components compared to

  17. [Transcranial alternating current stimulation. Entrainment and function control of neuronal networks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vosskuhl, J; Strüber, D; Herrmann, C S

    2015-12-01

    Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) is a new technique for the modulation of oscillatory brain activity as measured in the electroencephalogram (EEG). In contrast to well-established stimulation techniques, such as transcranial direct current stimulation and transcranial magnetic stimulation, tACS applies a sinusoidal alternating current at a specific frequency. This enables the modulation of the amplitude and frequency of endogenous brain oscillations as well as related cognitive processes. Therefore, the use of tACS has the possibility to evaluate well-known correlations between brain oscillations and cognitive processes in terms of causality. Such causal relationships have been documented in numerous neurocognitive studies on sensory, motor and perceptual processes; however, the clinical application of tACS is still in its infancy. In principle, any pathology that can reliably be connected with brain oscillations of a defined frequency is treatable. A current main focus of clinical research is on symptoms of Parkinson's disease and to a lesser degree, tinnitus. For an effective application of tACS it is important to choose the electrode positions as well as the frequency, intensity and duration of the stimulation in a theory-based and symptom-related manner. A successful therapeutic intervention requires the persistence of the tACS effect after stimulation has ceased. A mechanism that offers not only an explanation to the origin of persistent tACS effects but is also of high therapeutic benefit is neural plasticity. Therefore, one current focus of research aims at a better understanding of tACS after effects.

  18. Papercrete brick as an alternate building material to control Environmental Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudarsan, J. S.; Ramesh, S.; Jothilingam, M.; Ramasamy, Vishalatchi; Rajan, Rajitha J.

    2017-07-01

    Utilization of concrete in the construction industry is increasing day by day. The increasing demand for concrete in the future is the major issue, for which an alternate option is to find out at a reduced or no additional cost and to reduce the environmental impact due to increase of cement industries that are important ingredient to economic development. It turns out urgent to find out alternate for the partial replacement of concrete and cement, as natural sources of aggregates are becoming exhausted. As large quantity of paper waste is generated from different countries all over the world which causes serious environmental problems, So in this present study abandoned paper waste was used as a partial replacement material in concrete,. Study indicates that 80% of the construction cost of a building was contributed by building material and still millions of people in developing countries like India are not able to afford the cost of construction of house. This study is based on potential use of light weight composite brick as a building material and potential use of paper waste for producing at low-cost. Experimental investigation was carried out to analyse optimization of mix for papercrete bricks depending upon the water absorption, compressive strength and unit weight. Papercrete bricks were prepared out of waste paper, and quarry dust with partial replacement of cement by another industrial by-product Fly Ash in varying proportions of 25%, 40% and 55%. The properties like mechanical strength, standard quality comparisons with the conventional bricks through standard tests like hardness, soundness, fire resistance and Cost-Benefit Analysis were performed and studied. The specimens of dimension 230mm x 110mm x 80mm were subjected to 7 Days and 28 days air curing and sun drying before tests were performed on them. Based on the study it was found that for non-load bearing walls papercrete bricks are best suited.

  19. Controlling chaos with weak periodic signals optimized by a genetic algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soong, C Y; Huang, W T; Lin, F P; Tzeng, P Y

    2004-01-01

    In the present study we develop a relatively novel and effective chaos control approach with a multimode periodic disturbance applied as a control signal and perform an in-depth analysis on this nonfeedback chaos control strategy. Different from previous chaos control schemes, the present method is of two characteristic features: (1) the parameters of the controlling signal are optimized by a genetic algorithm (GA) with the largest Lyapunov exponent used as an index of the stability, and (2) the optimization is justified by a fitness function defined with the target Lyapunov exponent and the controlling power. This novel method is then tested on the noted Rössler and Lorenz systems with and without the presence of noise. The results disclosed that, compared to the existing chaos control methods, the present GA-based control needs only significantly reduced signal power and a shorter transient stage to achieve the preset control goal. The switching control ability and the robustness of the proposed method for cases with sudden change in a system parameter and/or with the presence of noise environment are also demonstrated.

  20. Determining Relative Importance and Effective Settings for Genetic Algorithm Control Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, K L; Filliben, J J; Haines, A L

    2015-01-01

    Setting the control parameters of a genetic algorithm to obtain good results is a long-standing problem. We define an experiment design and analysis method to determine relative importance and effective settings for control parameters of any evolutionary algorithm, and we apply this method to a classic binary-encoded genetic algorithm (GA). Subsequently, as reported elsewhere, we applied the GA, with the control parameter settings determined here, to steer a population of cloud-computing simulators toward behaviors that reveal degraded performance and system collapse. GA-steered simulators could serve as a design tool, empowering system engineers to identify and mitigate low-probability, costly failure scenarios. In the existing GA literature, we uncovered conflicting opinions and evidence regarding key GA control parameters and effective settings to adopt. Consequently, we designed and executed an experiment to determine relative importance and effective settings for seven GA control parameters, when applied across a set of numerical optimization problems drawn from the literature. This paper describes our experiment design, analysis, and results. We found that crossover most significantly influenced GA success, followed by mutation rate and population size and then by rerandomization point and elite selection. Selection method and the precision used within the chromosome to represent numerical values had least influence. Our findings are robust over 60 numerical optimization problems.

  1. Drag reduction of a car model by linear genetic programming control

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Ruiying; Cordier, Laurent; Borée, Jacques; Harambat, Fabien; Kaiser, Eurika; Duriez, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    We investigate open- and closed-loop active control for aerodynamic drag reduction of a car model. Turbulent flow around a blunt-edged Ahmed body is examined at $Re_{H}\\approx3\\times10^{5}$ based on body height. The actuation is performed with pulsed jets at all trailing edges combined with a Coanda deflection surface. The flow is monitored with pressure sensors distributed at the rear side. We apply a model-free control strategy building on Dracopoulos & Kent (Neural Comput. & Applic., vol. 6, 1997, pp. 214-228) and Gautier et al. (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 770, 2015, pp. 442-457). The optimized control laws comprise periodic forcing, multi-frequency forcing and sensor-based feedback including also time-history information feedback and combination thereof. Key enabler is linear genetic programming as simple and efficient framework for multiple inputs (actuators) and multiple outputs (sensors). The proposed linear genetic programming control can select the best open- or closed-loop control in an unsupervis...

  2. MIMO Sliding Mode Control for a Tailless Fighter Aircraft, An Alternative to Reconfigurable Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, S. R.; Hess, R. A.

    2002-01-01

    A frequency-domain procedure for the design of sliding mode controllers for multi-input, multi-output (MIMO) systems is presented. The methodology accommodates the effects of parasitic dynamics such as those introduced by unmodeled actuators through the introduction of multiple asymptotic observers and model reference hedging. The design procedure includes a frequency domain approach to specify the sliding manifold, the observer eigenvalues, and the hedge model. The procedure is applied to the development of a flight control system for a linear model of the Innovative Control Effector (ICE) fighter aircraft. The stability and performance robustness of the resulting design is demonstrated through the introduction of significant degradation in the control effector actuators and variation in vehicle dynamics.

  3. Evaluation of occupational health interventions using a randomized controlled trial: challenges and alternative research designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schelvis, R.M; Oude Hengel, K.M.; Burdorf, A.; Blatter, B.M.; Strijk, J.E.; Beek, A.J. van

    2015-01-01

    Occupational health researchers regularly conduct evaluative intervention research for which a randomized controlled trial (RCT) may not be the most appropriate design (eg, effects of policy measures, organizational interventions on work schedules). This article demonstrates the appropriateness of a

  4. Veganism Is a Viable Alternative to Conventional Diet Therapy for Improving Blood Lipids and Glycemic Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trepanowski, John F; Varady, Krista A

    2015-01-01

    The American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) have each outlined a set of dietary recommendations aimed at improving glycemic control and blood lipids, respectively. However, traditional vegan diets (low-fat diets that proscribe animal product consumption) are also effective at improving glycemic control, and dietary portfolios (vegan diets that contain prescribed amounts of plant sterols, viscous fibers, soy protein, and nuts) are also effective at improving blood lipids. The purpose of this review was to compare the effects of traditional vegan diets and dietary portfolios with ADA and NCEP diets on body weight, blood lipids, blood pressure, and glycemic control. The main findings are that traditional vegan diets appear to improve glycemic control better than ADA diets in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), while dietary portfolios have been consistently shown to improve blood lipids better than NCEP diets in hypercholesterolemic individuals.

  5. Malaria vaccine-is it still required? Are vaccine alternatives enough to achieve malaria control?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fsadni Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Despite ongoing continuous research towards developing a malaria vaccine, we have still not achieved this target and the malaria parasite continues to kill thousands, especially children in developing countries. However, current control methods have had good results in some countries. Can these control methods be enough or should people still keep hoping for a vaccine? Would eradication of malaria be a possibility if no vaccine remains available?

  6. Alternatives for Primary Frequency Control Contribution from Wind Power Plants Connected to VSC-HVDC Intertie

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laukhamar, Andreas Grøsvik; Zeni, Lorenzo; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar

    how a large offshore wind power plant (OWPP) with high voltage direct current (HVDC) intertie connection to two asynchronous onshore AC power systems can be part of the solution in providing short-term mutual active power balancing. The primary frequency control is investigated for four different...... in a sharing of the primary reserves and rolling inertia between the two onshore AC power systems connected to the HVDC intertie, whilst also exploiting the OWPP in the primary frequency control scheme....

  7. Algebraic synthesis of time-optimal unitaries in SU(2) with alternating controls

    OpenAIRE

    Aiello, Clarice D.; Allegra, Michele; Hemmerling, Boerge; Wang, Xiaoting; Cappellaro, Paola

    2015-01-01

    We present an algebraic framework to study the time-optimal synthesis of arbitrary unitaries in SU(2), when the control set is restricted to rotations around two non-parallel axes in the Bloch sphere. Our method bypasses commonly used control-theoretical techniques, and easily imposes necessary conditions on time-optimal sequences. In a straightforward fashion, we prove that time-optimal sequences are solely parametrized by three rotation angles and derive general bounds on those angles as a ...

  8. Optimization of PID Parameter In Control System Tuning With Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Amanullah

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Way of playing advancement is the out-standing design of the study of PID control and frequently research work has been guided for this aspiration. The Proportional plus Integral plus Derivative (PID, controllers are most sweepingly used in control theory as well as industrial plants owing to their ease of execution and sturdiness way of playing. The aspiration of this deed representation capable and apace tuning approach using Genetic Algorithm (GA to obtain the optimized criterion of the PID controller so as to acquire the essential appearance designation of the technique below meditation. The make perfect achievement about multiple plants have in relation to the established tuning approach, to consider the ability of intended approach. Mostly, the whole system’s performance powerfully depends on the controller’s proficiency and thus the tuning technique plays a key part in the system’s behavior.

  9. Genetic Design of an Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Controller for Velocity Regulation in a DC Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazmin Maldonado

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes the design of a Type‐2 Fuzzy Logic Controller (T2‐FLC using Genetic Algorithms (GAs. The T2‐FLC was tested with different levels of uncertainty to regulate velocity in a Direct Current (DC motor. The T2‐FLC was synthesized in Very High Description Language (VHDL code for a Field‐programmable Gate Array (FPGA, using the Xilinx System Generator (XSG of Xilinx ISE and Matlab‐Simulink. Comparisons were made between the Type‐1 Fuzzy Logic Controller and the T2‐FLC in VHDL code and a Proportional Integral Differential (PID Controller so as to regulate the velocity of a DC motor and evaluate the difference in performance of the three types of controllers, using the t‐student test statistic.

  10. Nonlinear Electrical Circuit Oscillator Control Based on Backstepping Method: A Genetic Algorithm Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa Khoeiniha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated study of dynamics of nonlinear electrical circuit by means of modern nonlinear techniques and the control of a class of chaotic system by using backstepping method based on Lyapunov function. The behavior of such nonlinear system when they are under the influence of external sinusoidal disturbances with unknown amplitudes has been considered. The objective is to analyze the performance of this system at different amplitudes of disturbances. We illustrate the proposed approach for controlling duffing oscillator problem to stabilize this system at the equilibrium point. Also Genetic Algorithm method (GA for computing the parameters of controller has been used. GA can be successfully applied to achieve a better controller. Simulation results have shown the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  11. Convergence Rate Evaluation of a DS-CDMA System with Centralized Power Control By Genetic Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an approach to solve the power control issue in a Digital Cellular System(DS-CDMA) cellular system using Genetic Algorithms (GAs). The transmitter power control developed in this paper has been proven to be efficient to control co-channel interference, to increase bandwidth utilization and to balance the comprehensive services that are shared among all the mobiles with attaining a common Signal-to-Interference Ratio (SIR). In this paper, the optimal Centralized Power Control(CPC) vector is characterized and its optimal solution to CPC is presented using GAs, in which First In-First Out (FIFO) stacks and non-linear decreasing functions are derived in the investigation for enforceing the convergence rate. Emphasis is put on the balance of services and convergence rate by using GAs.

  12. Prospective associations of social self-control with drug use among youth from regular and alternative high schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Ping

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study examined the one year prospective associations between adolescent social self-control and drug outcomes (cigarette use, alcohol use, marijuana use, hard drug use, and problem drug use among adolescents from regular and continuation high schools. In our previous cross-sectional study, poor social self-control was found to be associated with higher drug use, controlling for 12 personality disorder categories. In this study, we attempted to find out (a whether lack of social self-control predicted drug use one year later, and (b whether drug use at baseline predicted social self-control one year later. Methods We surveyed 2081 older adolescents from 9 regular (N = 1529 and 9 continuation (alternative (N = 552 high schools in the Los Angeles area. Data were collected at two time points in an interval of approximately 1 year. Results Past 30-day cigarette smoking, marijuana use, hard drug use, and problem drug use at baseline were found to predict lower social self-control at follow-up, controlling for baseline social self-control and demographic variables. The effect of problem drug use as a one-year predictor of social self-control was found to be moderated by school type (regular or continuation high school, such that the relationship was significant for continuation high school students only. Conversely, social self-control was found to predict past 30-day alcohol use, marijuana use, and problem drug use, controlling for baseline drug use and demographic variables. For alcohol use, marijuana use, and problem drug use outcomes, school type was not found to moderate the effects of social self-control, though an interaction effect was found regarding cigarette smoking. Social self-control was a significant predictor of cigarette use only at regular high school. Conclusion The results indicate that social self-control and drug use share a reciprocal relationship. Lack of social self-control in adolescents seems to

  13. Genetic control of a cytochrome P450 metabolism-based herbicide resistance mechanism in Lolium rigidum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busi, R; Vila-Aiub, M M; Powles, S B

    2011-05-01

    The dynamics of herbicide resistance evolution in plants are influenced by many factors, especially the biochemical and genetic basis of resistance. Herbicide resistance can be endowed by enhanced rates of herbicide metabolism because of the activity of cytochrome P450 enzymes, although in weedy plants the genetic control of cytochrome P450-endowed herbicide resistance is poorly understood. In this study we have examined the genetic control of P450 metabolism-based herbicide resistance in a well-characterized Lolium rigidum biotype. The phenotypic resistance segregation in herbicide resistant and susceptible parents, F1, F2 and backcross (BC) families was analyzed as plant survival following treatment with the chemically unrelated herbicides diclofop-methyl or chlorsulfuron. Dominance and nuclear gene inheritance was observed in F1 families when treated at the recommended field doses of both herbicides. The segregation values of P450 herbicide resistance phenotypic traits observed in F2 and BC families was consistent with resistance endowed by two additive genes in most cases. In obligate out-crossing species such as L. rigidum, herbicide selection can easily result in accumulation of resistance genes within individuals.

  14. Genetic differential susceptibility on trial: meta-analytic support from randomized controlled experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J

    2015-02-01

    The most stringent test of differential susceptibility theory is provided by randomized control trials examining the moderating role of genetic markers of differential susceptibility in experimental manipulations of the environment (Gene × Experimental Environment interactions), being at least 10 times more powerful than correlational Gene × Environment interaction studies. We identified 22 experiments involving 3,257 participants with various developmental outcomes (e.g., externalizing problems, internalizing behaviors, and cognitive development). Effect sizes contrasting experimental versus control group were computed both for subjects with the polymorphism considered indicative of heightened susceptibility (e.g., the dopamine receptor D4 gene seven-repeat allele and the serotonin transporter polymorphic region short allele) and others expected to be low in susceptibility (e.g., the dopamine receptor D4 gene four-repeat allele and the serotonin transporter polymorphic region short allele). Clear-cut experimental support for genetic differential susceptibility emerged: the combined effect size of the interventions for the susceptible genotypes amounted to r = .33 (95% confidence interval = 0.23, 0.42; p differential susceptibility than microtrials, and differential susceptibility was more clearly observed in trials with externalizing and cognitive outcomes than with internalizing problems. This meta-analysis shows proof of principle for genetic differential susceptibility and indicates that it is time to explore its mechanisms and limits. The concept of differential susceptibility alters the idea of constitutional "risk" factors (reactive temperament and risk genotypes), and points to intervention efficacy hidden in Gene × Environment interactions.

  15. A novel and alternative approach to controlled release drug delivery system based on solid dispersion technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapan Kumar Giri

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The solid dispersion method was originally used to improve the dissolution properties and the bioavailability of poorly water soluble drugs by dispersing them into water soluble carriers. In addition to the above, dissolution retardation through solid dispersion technique using water insoluble and water swellable polymer for the development of controlled release dosage forms has become a field of interest in recent years. Development of controlled release solid dispersion has a great advantage for bypassing the risk of a burst release of drug; since the structure of the solid dispersion is monolithic where drug molecules homogeneously disperse. Despite the remarkable potential and extensive research being conducted on controlled release solid dispersion system, commercialization and large scale production are limited. The author expects that recent technological advances may overcome the existing limitations and facilitate the commercial utilization of the techniques for manufacture of controlled release solid dispersions. This article begins with an overview of the different carriers being used for the preparation of controlled release solid dispersion and also different techniques being used for the purpose. Kinetics of drug release from these controlled release solid dispersions and the relevant mathematical modeling have also been reviewed in this manuscript.

  16. Perspectives of people in Mali toward genetically-modified mosquitoes for malaria control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Famenini Shannon

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetically-modified (GM mosquitoes have been proposed as part of an integrated vector control strategy for malaria control. Public acceptance is essential prior to field trials, particularly since mosquitoes are a vector of human disease and genetically modified organisms (GMOs face strong scepticism in developed and developing nations. Despite this, in sub-Saharan Africa, where the GM mosquito effort is primarily directed, very little data is available on perspectives to GMOs. Here, results are presented of a qualitative survey of public attitudes to GM mosquitoes for malaria control in rural and urban areas of Mali, West Africa between the months of October 2008 and June 2009. Methods The sample consisted of 80 individuals - 30 living in rural communities, 30 living in urban suburbs of Bamako, and 20 Western-trained and traditional health professionals working in Bamako and Bandiagara. Questions were asked about the cause of malaria, heredity and selective breeding. This led to questions about genetic alterations, and acceptable conditions for a release of pest-resistant GM corn and malaria-refractory GM mosquitoes. Finally, participants were asked about the decision-making process in their community. Interviews were transcribed and responses were categorized according to general themes. Results Most participants cited mosquitoes as one of several causes of malaria. The concept of the gene was not widely understood; however selective breeding was understood, allowing limited communication of the concept of genetic modification. Participants were open to a release of pest-resistant GM corn, often wanting to conduct a trial themselves. The concept of a trial was reapplied to GM mosquitoes, although less frequently. Participants wanted to see evidence that GM mosquitoes can reduce malaria prevalence without negative consequences for human health and the environment. For several participants, a mosquito control programme was

  17. Genetic factors control nicotine self-administration in isogenic adolescent rat strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Chen

    Full Text Available Adult cigarette smokers usually become dependent on cigarettes during adolescence. Despite recent advances in addiction genetics, little data delineates the genetic factors that account for the vulnerability of humans to smoke tobacco. We studied the operant nicotine self-administration (SA behavior of six inbred strains of adolescent male rats (Fisher 344, Brown Norway, Dark Agouti, Spontaneous Hypertensive Rat, Wistar Kyoto and Lewis and six selected F1 hybrids. All rats were trained to press a lever to obtain food starting on postnatal day (PN 32, and then nicotine (0.03 mg/kg/infusion, i.v. reinforcement was made available on PN41-42 (10 consecutive daily 2 h sessions. Of the 12 isogenic strains, Fisher rats self-administered the fewest nicotine infusions (1.45 ± 0.36/d during the last 3 d, while Lewis rats took the most nicotine (13.0 ± 1.4/d. These strains sorted into high, intermediate and low self-administration groups in 2, 2, and 8 strains, respectively. The influence of heredity on nicotine SA (0.64 is similar to that reported for humans. Therefore, this panel of isogenic rat strains effectively models the overall impact of genetics on the vulnerability to acquire nicotine-reinforced behavior during adolescence. Separate groups of rats responded for food starting on PN41. The correlation between nicotine and food reward was not significant. Hence, the genetic control of the motivation to obtain nicotine is distinctly different from food reward, indicating the specificity of the underlying genetic mechanisms. Lastly, the behavior of F1 hybrids was not predicted from the additive behavior of the parental strains, indicating the impact of significant gene-gene interactions on the susceptibility to nicotine reward. Taken together, the behavioral characteristics of this model indicate its strong potential to identify specific genes mediating the human vulnerability to smoke cigarettes.

  18. Are there better alternatives than haemoglobin A1c to estimate glycaemic control in the chronic kidney disease population?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Speeckaert, Marijn; Van Biesen, Wim; Delanghe, Joris

    2014-01-01

    paper based on narrative literature review. RESULTS: As a different association between glycaemic control and morbidity/mortality might be observed in patients with and without renal insufficiency, the European Renal Best Practice, the official guideline body of the European Renal Association......-European Dialysis and Transplant Association, presents the current knowledge and evidence of the use of alternative glycaemic markers (glycated albumin, fructosamine, 1,5-anhydroglucitol and continuous glucose monitoring). CONCLUSION: Although reference values of HbA1C might be different in patients with chronic...

  19. [Progress of research on genetic engineering antibody and its application in prevention and control of parasitic diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yuan; Yu, Chuan-xin

    2013-08-01

    Antibody has extensive application prospects in the biomedical field. The inherent disadvantages of traditional polyclonal antibody and monoclonal antibody limit their application values. The humanized and fragmented antibody remodeling has given a rise to a series of genetic engineered antibody variant. This paper reviews the progress of research on genetic engineering antibody and its application in prevention and control of parasitic diseases.

  20. The spectrum of mutations controlling complex traits and the genetics of fitness in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falke, K Christin; Glander, Shirin; He, Fei; Hu, Jinyong; de Meaux, Juliette; Schmitz, Gregor

    2013-12-01

    Elucidating the molecular basis of natural variation in complex traits is the key for their effective management in crops or natural systems. This review focuses on plant variation. It will first, show that genetic modifications causing major alterations in polygenic phenotypes often hit targets within an array of 'candidate genes', second, present new methods that include mutations of all effect sizes, and help exhaustively describe the molecular systems underlying complex traits, and third, discuss recent findings regarding the role of epigenetic variants, which in plants are often maintained through both mitosis and meiosis. Exploring the whole spectrum of mutations controlling complex traits is made possible by the combination of genetic, genomic and epigenomic approaches.

  1. Project Scheduling Using Hybrid Genetic Algorithm with Fuzzy Logic Controller in SCM Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    In supply chain management (SCM) environment, we consider a resource-constrained project scheduling problem (rcPSP) model as one of advanced scheduling problems considered by a constraint programming technique. We develop a hybrid genetic algorithm (hGA) with a fuzzy logic controller (FLC) to solve the rcPSP which is the well known NP-hard problem. This new approach is based on the design of genetic operators with FLC through initializing the serial method which is superior for a large rcPSP scale. For solving these rcPSP problems, we first demonstrate that our hGA with FLC (flc-hGA) yields better results than several heuristic procedures presented in the literature. We have revealed a fact that flc-hGA has the evolutionary behaviors of average fitness better than hGA without FLC.

  2. Fine genetic mapping of the Co locus controlling columnar growth habit in apple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Tuanhui; Zhu, Yuandi; Fernández-Fernández, Felicidad; Keulemans, Johan; Brown, Susan; Xu, Kenong

    2012-05-01

    Tree architecture is an important, complex and dynamic trait affected by diverse genetic, ontogenetic and environmental factors. 'Wijcik McIntosh', a columnar (reduced branching) sport of 'McIntosh' and a valuable genetic resource, has been used intensively in apple-breeding programs for genetic improvement of tree architecture. The columnar growth habit is primarily controlled by the dominant allele of gene Co (columnar) on linkage group-10. But the Co locus is not well mapped and the Co gene remains unknown. To precisely map the Co locus and to identify candidate genes of Co, a sequence-based approach using both peach and apple genomes was used to develop new markers linked more tightly to Co. Five new simple sequence repeats markers were developed (C1753-3520, C18470-25831, C6536-31519, C7223-38004 and C7629-22009). The first four markers were obtained from apple genomic sequences on chromosome-10, whereas the last (C7629-22009) was from an unanchored apple contig that contains an apple expressed sequence tag CV082943, which was identified through synteny analysis between the peach and apple genomes. Genetic mapping of these five markers in four F(1) populations of 528 genotypes and 290 diverse columnar selections/cultivars (818 genotypes in total) delimited the Co locus in a genetic interval with 0.37 % recombination between markers C1753-3520 and C7629-22009. Marker C18470-25831 co-segregates with Co in the 818 genotypes studied. The Co region is estimated to be 193 kb and contains 26 predicted gene in the 'Golden Delicious' genome. Among the 26 genes, three are putative LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES (LOB) DOMAIN (LBD) containing transcription factor genes known of essential roles in plant lateral organ development, and are therefore considered as strong candidates of Co, designated MdLBD1, MdLBD2, and MdLBD3. Although more comprehensive studies are required to confirm the function of MdLBD1-3, the present work represents an important step forward to better

  3. Qualitative systemic review of randomized controlled trials on complementary and alternative medicine treatments in fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranowsky, Julia; Klose, Petra; Musial, Frauke; Häuser, Winfried; Haeuser, Winfried; Dobos, Gustav; Langhorst, Jost

    2009-11-01

    The objectives of the study were identification, quality evaluation and summary of RCTs on complementary and alternative medicine as defined by the National Institute of Health with the exception of dietary and nutritional supplements. A computerized search of databases from 1990 (year of publication of the ACR criteria for fibromyalgia) to July 2007 was performed. The RCTs were assessed by a methodological quality score. A total of 23 RCTs issued from 1992 to 2007 on acupuncture, balneotherapy, thermotherapy, magnetic therapy, homeopathy, manual manipulation, mind-body medicine, diet therapy and music therapy were identified. The RCTs had an average group size of 25 with the number of groups ranging from two to four. The quality score assessment of the RCTs yielded a mean score of 51 out of 100. The average methodological quality of the identified studies was fairly low. Best evidence was found for balneotherapy/hydrotherapy in multiple studies. Positive results were also noted for homeopathy and mild infrared hyperthermia in 1 RCT in each field. Mindfulness meditation showed mostly positive results in two trials and acupuncture mixed results in multiple trials with a tendency toward positive results. Tendencies for improvement were furthermore noted in single trials of the Mesendieck system, connective tissue massage and to some degree for osteopathy and magnet therapy. No positive evidence could be identified for Qi Gong, biofeedback, and body awareness therapy.

  4. Oleoylethanolamide: A Novel Potential Pharmacological Alternative to Cannabinoid Antagonists for the Control of Appetite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adele Romano

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The initial pharmaceutical interest for the endocannabinoid system as a target for antiobesity therapies has been restricted by the severe adverse effects of the CB1 antagonist rimonabant. This study points at oleoylethanolamide (OEA, a monounsaturated analogue, and functional antagonist of anandamide, as a potential and safer antiobesity alternative to CB1 antagonism. Mice treated with equal doses (5 or 10 mg/kg, i.p. of OEA or rimonabant were analyzed for the progressive expression of spontaneous behaviors (eating, grooming, rearing, locomotion, and resting occurring during the development of satiety, according to the paradigm called behavioral satiety sequence (BSS. Both drugs reduced food (wet mash intake to a similar extent. OEA treatment decreased eating activity within the first 30 min and caused a temporary increase of resting time that was not accompanied by any decline of horizontal, vertical and total motor activity. Besides decreasing eating activity, rimonabant caused a marked increase of the time spent grooming and decreased horizontal motor activity, alterations that might be indicative of aversive nonmotivational effects on feeding. These results support the idea that OEA suppresses appetite by stimulating satiety and that its profile of action might be predictive of safer effects in humans as a novel antiobesity treatment.

  5. S.I. engine idle control improvement by using automobile reversible alternator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouadio, L.; Bidan, P.; Valentin, M.; Berry, J.P.

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes the improvements which can be made to spark ignition engine by extensive use of automatic control. Particular emphasis is placed on fast transient phases produced by simultaneous action on the throttle and the electronic fuel injection device. The aim is to achieve better performance for the fuel/air ratio regulation system, thereby improving engine efficiency and exhaust emission during these transient phases. The authors begin by presenting an average dynamic model of the intake manifold validated on an engine test bench and goes on to develop a closed-loop system controlling average pressure in the intake manifold using the reference tracking model method. The air supply control system is combined with a predictor to compensate for delays in the injection procedure. The paper concludes with a comparison between the results obtained using simulation and those obtained experimentally from the engine. (authors) 15 refs.

  6. Genetic mapping of QTLs controlling fatty acids provided insights into the genetic control of fatty acid synthesis pathway in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming Li; Khera, Pawan; Pandey, Manish K; Wang, Hui; Qiao, Lixian; Feng, Suping; Tonnis, Brandon; Barkley, Noelle A; Pinnow, David; Holbrook, Corley C; Culbreath, Albert K; Varshney, Rajeev K; Guo, Baozhu

    2015-01-01

    Peanut, a high-oil crop with about 50% oil content, is either crushed for oil or used as edible products. Fatty acid composition determines the oil quality which has high relevance to consumer health, flavor, and shelf life of commercial products. In addition to the major fatty acids, oleic acid (C18:1) and linoleic acid (C18:2) accounting for about 80% of peanut oil, the six other fatty acids namely palmitic acid (C16:0), stearic acid (C18:0), arachidic acid (C20:0), gadoleic acid (C20:1), behenic acid (C22:0), and lignoceric acid (C24:0) are accounted for the rest 20%. To determine the genetic basis and to improve further understanding on effect of FAD2 genes on these fatty acids, two recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations namely S-population (high oleic line 'SunOleic 97R' × low oleic line 'NC94022') and T-population (normal oleic line 'Tifrunner' × low oleic line 'GT-C20') were developed. Genetic maps with 206 and 378 marker loci for the S- and the T-population, respectively were used for quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis. As a result, a total of 164 main-effect (M-QTLs) and 27 epistatic (E-QTLs) QTLs associated with the minor fatty acids were identified with 0.16% to 40.56% phenotypic variation explained (PVE). Thirty four major QTLs (>10% of PVE) mapped on five linkage groups and 28 clusters containing more than three QTLs were also identified. These results suggest that the major QTLs with large additive effects would play an important role in controlling composition of these minor fatty acids in addition to the oleic and linoleic acids in peanut oil. The interrelationship among these fatty acids should be considered while breeding for improved peanut genotypes with good oil quality and desired fatty acid composition.

  7. Genetic mapping of QTLs controlling fatty acids provided insights into the genetic control of fatty acid synthesis pathway in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Li Wang

    Full Text Available Peanut, a high-oil crop with about 50% oil content, is either crushed for oil or used as edible products. Fatty acid composition determines the oil quality which has high relevance to consumer health, flavor, and shelf life of commercial products. In addition to the major fatty acids, oleic acid (C18:1 and linoleic acid (C18:2 accounting for about 80% of peanut oil, the six other fatty acids namely palmitic acid (C16:0, stearic acid (C18:0, arachidic acid (C20:0, gadoleic acid (C20:1, behenic acid (C22:0, and lignoceric acid (C24:0 are accounted for the rest 20%. To determine the genetic basis and to improve further understanding on effect of FAD2 genes on these fatty acids, two recombinant inbred line (RIL populations namely S-population (high oleic line 'SunOleic 97R' × low oleic line 'NC94022' and T-population (normal oleic line 'Tifrunner' × low oleic line 'GT-C20' were developed. Genetic maps with 206 and 378 marker loci for the S- and the T-population, respectively were used for quantitative trait locus (QTL analysis. As a result, a total of 164 main-effect (M-QTLs and 27 epistatic (E-QTLs QTLs associated with the minor fatty acids were identified with 0.16% to 40.56% phenotypic variation explained (PVE. Thirty four major QTLs (>10% of PVE mapped on five linkage groups and 28 clusters containing more than three QTLs were also identified. These results suggest that the major QTLs with large additive effects would play an important role in controlling composition of these minor fatty acids in addition to the oleic and linoleic acids in peanut oil. The interrelationship among these fatty acids should be considered while breeding for improved peanut genotypes with good oil quality and desired fatty acid composition.

  8. Use of hazard analysis critical control point and alternative treatments in the production of apple cider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senkel, I A; Henderson, R A; Jolbitado, B; Meng, J

    1999-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the practices of Maryland cider producers and determine whether implementing hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) would reduce the microbial contamination of cider. Cider producers (n = 11) were surveyed to determine existing manufacturing practices and sanitation. A training program was then conducted to inform operators of safety issues, including contamination with Escherichia coli O157:H7, and teach HACCP concepts and principles, sanitation procedures, and good manufacturing practice (GMP). Although all operators used a control strategy from one of the model HACCP plans provided, only one developed a written HACCP plan. None developed specific GMP, sanitation standard operating procedures, or sanitation monitoring records. Six operators changed or added production controls, including the exclusion of windfall apples, sanitizing apples chemically and by hot dip, and cider treatment with UV light or pasteurization. Facility inspections indicated improved sanitation and hazard control but identified ongoing problems. Microbiological evaluation of bottled cider before and after training, in-line apples, pomace, cider, and inoculated apples was conducted. E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella, or Staphylococcus aureus were not found in samples of in-line apple, pomace, and cider, or bottled cider. Generic E. coli was not isolated on in-coming apples but was found in 4 of 32 (13%) in-line samples and 3 of 17 (18%) bottled fresh cider samples, suggesting that E. coli was introduced during in-plant processing. To produce pathogen-free cider, operators must strictly conform to GMP and sanitation procedures in addition to HACCP controls. Controls aimed at preventing or eliminating pathogens on source apples are critical but alone may not be sufficient for product safety.

  9. A design of multi-source samples as a shared control for association studies in genetically stratified populations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yungang He; Shuhua Xu; Chuan Jia; Li Jin

    2009-01-01

    @@ Dear Editors, More and more genetic variants which contribute to human complex traits were identified recently in genome-wide association studies (GWAS), an approach that shows more efficiency than any other genetic ap-proaches ever before [1].It holds the promise to disclose genetic mechanism underlying the mystery of human diseases, since the most, if not all, of the genetic variants in the human genome could be investigated for their pos-sible association with diseases by comparing the frequen-cies of alleles in the cases (patients) and controls (healthy subjects).

  10. A tuning algorithm for model predictive controllers based on genetic algorithms and fuzzy decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Lee, J H; Svrcek, W Y; Young, B R

    2008-01-01

    Model Predictive Control is a valuable tool for the process control engineer in a wide variety of applications. Because of this the structure of an MPC can vary dramatically from application to application. There have been a number of works dedicated to MPC tuning for specific cases. Since MPCs can differ significantly, this means that these tuning methods become inapplicable and a trial and error tuning approach must be used. This can be quite time consuming and can result in non-optimum tuning. In an attempt to resolve this, a generalized automated tuning algorithm for MPCs was developed. This approach is numerically based and combines a genetic algorithm with multi-objective fuzzy decision-making. The key advantages to this approach are that genetic algorithms are not problem specific and only need to be adapted to account for the number and ranges of tuning parameters for a given MPC. As well, multi-objective fuzzy decision-making can handle qualitative statements of what optimum control is, in addition to being able to use multiple inputs to determine tuning parameters that best match the desired results. This is particularly useful for multi-input, multi-output (MIMO) cases where the definition of "optimum" control is subject to the opinion of the control engineer tuning the system. A case study will be presented in order to illustrate the use of the tuning algorithm. This will include how different definitions of "optimum" control can arise, and how they are accounted for in the multi-objective decision making algorithm. The resulting tuning parameters from each of the definition sets will be compared, and in doing so show that the tuning parameters vary in order to meet each definition of optimum control, thus showing the generalized automated tuning algorithm approach for tuning MPCs is feasible.

  11. TID and I-TD controller design for magnetic levitation system using genetic algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debdoot Sain

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article is about the design of controllers for magnetic levitation (Maglev system in both simulation and real time. Local linearization around the equilibrium point has been done for the nonlinear Maglev system to obtain a linearized model transfer function. In this study, the design of integral-tilted-derivative (I-TD controller has been proposed for the Maglev system and its performance is compared with conventional tilted-integral-derivative (TID controller. In this study, TID controller parameters have been optimized through genetic algorithm (GA and those set of values have been employed for the design of I-TD controller. A performance comparison between TID and I-TD controller is then investigated. The analysis shows the superiority of I-TD controller over TID controller in terms of maximum overshoot, gain margin and phase margin. The settling time remains almost same in both the cases. In future, a detailed study of robustness in presence of model uncertainties will be incorporated as a scope of further research.

  12. Forest control and regulation ... a comparison of traditional methods and alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeRoy C. Hennes; Michael J. Irving; Daniel I. Navon

    1971-01-01

    Two traditional techniques of forest control and regulation-formulas and area-volume check-are compared to linear programing, as used in a new computerized planning system called Timber Resource Allocation Method ( Timber RAM). Inventory data from a National Forest in California illustrate how each technique is used. The traditional methods are simpler to apply and...

  13. Corrosion Control of Central Vehicle Wash Facility Pump Components Using Alternative Alloy Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Fort Polk Directorate of Public Works • Richard Boillat and Colby Fox, Fort Polk Range Control The Commander of ERDC was COL Bryan S. Green and...Travel for project management $45,000 3 Cost of two new pumps (including taxes ) $88,750 4 Cost of new motor (including taxes ) $86,631 5 Coat

  14. An alternative approach to treating lateral epicondylitis. A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nourbakhsh, Mohammad Reza; Fearon, Frank J.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of noxious level electrical stimulation on pain, grip strength and functional abilities in subjects with chronic lateral epicondylitis. Design: Randomized, placebo-control, double-blinded study. Setting: Physical Therapy Department, North Georgia College and Stat

  15. Covariant formulation for the optimal control of jointed arm robots: an alternative to Pontryagin's principle

    CERN Document Server

    Quintero, J A Rojas; Gazeau, J P; Seguin, P

    2013-01-01

    We elaborate algorithms able to efficiently command the actuators of an articulated robot. Our time discretization method is based on cubic and quintic Hermite Finite Elements. The suggested control optimization consists in minimizing directly the selected criterium by a conjugate gradient type algorithm. A generic example illustrates the super convergence of the Hermite's technique.

  16. High-density force myography: A possible alternative for upper-limb prosthetic control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashkan Radmand, PhD

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Several multiple degree-of-freedom upper-limb prostheses that have the promise of highly dexterous control have recently been developed. Inadequate controllability, however, has limited adoption of these devices. Introducing more robust control methods will likely result in higher acceptance rates. This work investigates the suitability of using high-density force myography (HD-FMG for prosthetic control. HD-FMG uses a high-density array of pressure sensors to detect changes in the pressure patterns between the residual limb and socket caused by the contraction of the forearm muscles. In this work, HD-FMG outperforms the standard electromyography (EMG-based system in detecting different wrist and hand gestures. With the arm in a fixed, static position, eight hand and wrist motions were classified with 0.33% error using the HD-FMG technique. Comparatively, classification errors in the range of 2.2%–11.3% have been reported in the literature for multichannel EMG-based approaches. As with EMG, position variation in HD-FMG can introduce classification error, but incorporating position variation into the training protocol reduces this effect. Channel reduction was also applied to the HD-FMG technique to decrease the dimensionality of the problem as well as the size of the sensorized area. We found that with informed, symmetric channel reduction, classification error could be decreased to 0.02%.

  17. Methods, systems and apparatus for controlling operation of two alternating current (AC) machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos-Lopez, Gabriel; Nagashima, James M.; Perisic, Milun; Hiti, Silva

    2012-02-14

    A system is provided for controlling two AC machines. The system comprises a DC input voltage source that provides a DC input voltage, a voltage boost command control module (VBCCM), a five-phase PWM inverter module coupled to the two AC machines, and a boost converter coupled to the inverter module and the DC input voltage source. The boost converter is designed to supply a new DC input voltage to the inverter module having a value that is greater than or equal to a value of the DC input voltage. The VBCCM generates a boost command signal (BCS) based on modulation indexes from the two AC machines. The BCS controls the boost converter such that the boost converter generates the new DC input voltage in response to the BCS. When the two AC machines require additional voltage that exceeds the DC input voltage required to meet a combined target mechanical power required by the two AC machines, the BCS controls the boost converter to drive the new DC input voltage generated by the boost converter to a value greater than the DC input voltage.

  18. A Genetic Algorithm Inspired Load Balancing Protocol for Congestion Control in Wireless Sensor Networks using Trust Based Routing Framework (GACCTR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnab Raha

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensors Networks are extremely densely populated and have to handle large bursts of data during emergency or high activity periods giving rise to congestion which may disrupt normal operation. Our paper proposes a new congestion control protocol for balanced distribution of traffic among the different paths existing between the Source node and the Sink node in accordance to the different route trust values. This probabilistic method of data transmission through the various alternate routes can be appropriately modeled with the help of Genetic Algorithms. Our protocol is mainly targeted in selecting the reliable or trustworthy routes more frequently than the unreliable ones. In addition, it also prevents concentration of the entire data traffic through a single route eliminating any possible occurrence of bottleneck. The merits of our protocol in comparison to the presently existing routing protocols are justified through the simulation results obtained which show improvements in both the percentage ratio of successful transmission of data packets to the total number of data packets sent and the overall network lifetime.

  19. Best practices for the use and exchange of invertebrate biological control genetic resources relevant for food and agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biological control is an important and environmentally preferred management option for invasive insect pests and weeds. Implementation of new international regulations governing exchange of genetic materials impacts the availability of candidate biocontrol agents, and exchange policies need to be ca...

  20. [Macrocyclops albidus (Copepoda: Cyclopidae): a new alternative for the control of mosquito larvae in Cuba].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez Delgado, Silvia; Rodríguez Rodríguez, Jinnay; Menéndez Díaz, Zulema; Montada Dorta, Domingo; García Avila, Israel; Marquetti Fernández, María del Carmen

    2005-01-01

    The cyclopoid copepod Macrocyclops albidus was evaluated as a biological control agent of Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus larvae, culicides that frequently live in containers of domestic use in urban zones. The experiments were made under controlled laboratory conditions. Plastic containers with 5 L of dechlorinated water and 3 g of dry leaves were used. 2 densities of copepods and 3 combinations of larvae densities were added. 5 replicas were made. The count of the suviving larvae and the recovered copepods was made 6 days after the beginning of the experiment. It was observed a marked reduction of the larval population of mosquitoes in all the treatments with copepods. It was stressed their preference for the Ae. aegypti larvae that was not affected by the presence of Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae. The copepods showed a high survival in all the assayed variants. It was over 100% when they were added in the lowest density.

  1. Acute Effects of an Alternative Electronic-Control-Device Waveform in Swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    submitted to Public Affairs/RHD under different title: Blood Factors of Sus scrofa following continuous exposure to an electronic control device (similar...Resources—National Research Council. Ten male domestic pigs ( Sus scrofa domestica), ranging in weight from 56.8 to 63.8 kg (mean ± standard error of the...References 1. Jauchem JR, Sherry CJ, Fines DA, et al. Acidosis, lactate, elec- trolytes, muscle enzymes, and other factors in the blood of Sus scrofa following

  2. Periodic Physical Disturbance: An Alternative Method for Controlling Sitophilus zeamais (Maize Weevil Infestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid Suleiman

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky is the most important insect pest of stored maize in tropical regions. The objective of this study was to determine the practicality of periodic physical disturbance on S. zeamais mortality and its adoption by smallholder farmers in developing countries. In this experiment, treatments and control were arranged in a randomized block design with three replications and three storage times in three regions of Tanzania. Region was used as the blocking variable. A total of 108 clean 20-L plastic containers were each loaded with 10 kg of fresh white dent corn and 0.50 kg of maize infested with S. zeamais. For the treatment, containers were disturbed twice a day, whereas for the controls the containers were not disturbed until the end of storage. The overall mortality rate (% after 30, 60, and 90 days of storage were 88%, 96%, and 98%, respectively. A statistically significant difference (p < 0.05 was observed for the number of live S. zeamais between the control and experimental treatments. Additionally, the number of live S. zeamais in the treatment significantly decreased as storage time increased. This study shows the potential of a feasible, simple, affordable, and effective method of protecting maize grain for small-holder farmers in developing countries without using chemicals.

  3. Chemical alternatives to methyl bromide for the control of root-knot nematodes in greenhouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannakou, Ioannis O; Sidiropoulos, Artemios; Prophetou-Athanasiadou, Demetra

    2002-03-01

    The complete phase-out of methyl bromide from use in developed countries by 1 January 2005 will cause many problems in agricultural industries that are now heavily reliant on its use. Three field experiments were established to compare management tactics on tomato and cucumber in commercial greenhouses naturally infested with root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp). Reduction of nematode juveniles in soil and roots to nil detection levels was observed in all plots following soil fumigation with methyl bromide. A significant reduction of nematode juveniles and root-galling index was observed in plots treated with metham-sodium, dazomet and 1,3-dichloropropene compared with the control and plots treated with non-fumigant nematicides. Reduction of the nematode population led to an increase in fruit yield. However, data collected from the second cultivation season indicated that single control methods such as fumigant or contact nematicides alone cannot drastically decrease initial nematode population and those nematodes which escape control lead to population increase by the end of the cropping season.

  4. Two alternative modes for diffuse pollution control in Wuhan City Zoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qing-Feng; Shan, Bao-Qing; Yin, Cheng-Qing; Hu, Cheng-Xiao

    2007-01-01

    Pollution in urban zoos arises from diffuse and small point sources. However, its control has received little attention in past decades. Online and offline modes of ecological engineering technology were designed to control pollution from small point and diffuse sources in Wuhan City Zoo, China. Their characteristics and performances were investigated in sixteen runoff events from 2003 to 2005. The results showed that the two modes both improved runoff water quality and had high retention rates for water and pollutants. In the outflows, the event mean concentrations (EMCs) of total suspended solids (TSS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) were reduced by 88%, 59%, 46% and 71% for the online mode, and those were 77%, 42%, 50% and 66% for the offline mode. The annual retention rates of pollutant loads for the online mode were 94.9%-98.5% in the three study years; those for the offline mode were 70.5%-86.4%. Based on calculation, the online mode was able to store the runoff of 66.7 mm rainfall completely, and the offline mode could store that of 31.3 mm rainfall. In addition, the online mode can provide an effective way for rainwater utilization and good habitats for aquatic wildlives, and has an excellent aesthetics value for recreationsal pastimes. The offline mode can save land resources and may be an effective and economical measure for diffuse pollution control in urban areas.

  5. Acute effects of an alternative electronic-control-device waveform in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauchem, James; Beason, Charles W; Cook, Michael C

    2009-01-01

    In previous studies, repeated 5-s exposures of anesthetized pigs to an electronic control device (TASER International's Advanced TASER X26 device) resulted in acidosis and increases in blood electrolytes. In the current study, experiments were performed to investigate the effects of longer continuous exposures to a different electronic-control-device waveform. After intramuscular injection of tiletamine HCl and zolazepam HCl, anesthesia was maintained with propofol infusion. Ten pigs were exposed to either 30- or 60-s applications of an electronic waveform similar to the TASER-X26 device. Transient increases in potassium, and sodium were consistent with previous reports in the literature dealing with studies of muscle stimulation or exercise. Blood pH was significantly decreased after exposure, but subsequently returned to baseline levels. Lactate was highly elevated and remained somewhat increased even after three hrs. Serum myoglobin was increased after exposure and remained elevated for the 3-h follow-up period. Acidosis would appear to be one of the major concerns with long-duration (e.g., several min) exposures over a short period of time. Even with the extremely low pH immediately after exposure, all animals survived. On the basis of these results, further development of useful continuous-exposure electronic control devices is at least feasible, with the caveat that some medical monitoring of subjects may be required.

  6. Evaluation of a Pomegranate Peel Extract (PGE) as Alternative Mean to Control Olive Anthracnose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pangallo, Sonia; Li Destri Nicosia, Maria Giulia; Agosteo, Giovanni Enrico; Abdelfattah, Ahmed; Romeo, Flora Valeria; Cacciola, Santa O; Rapisarda, Paolo; Schena, Leonardo

    2017-08-02

    Olive anthracnose is caused by different species of Colletotrichum spp. and may be regarded as the most damaging disease of olive fruits worldwide, greatly affecting quality and quantity of the productions. A pomegranate peel extract (PGE) proved very effective in controlling the disease. The extract had a strong in vitro fungicidal activity against Colletotrichum acutatum sensu stricto, was very effective in both preventive and curative trials with artificially inoculated fruit, and induced resistance in treated olive tissues. In field trials, PGE was significantly more effective than copper, which is traditionally used to control the disease. The highest level of protection was achieved by applying the extract in the early ascending phase of the disease outbreaks since natural rots were completely inhibited with PGE at 12 g/l and were reduced by 98.6 and by 93.0% on plants treated with PGE at 6 and 3 g/l, respectively. Two treatments carried out 30 and 15 days before the expected epidemic outbreak reduced the incidence of the disease by 77.6, 57.0, and 51.8%, depending on the PGE concentration. The analysis of epiphytic populations showed a strong antimicrobial activity of PGE, which sharply reduced both fungal and bacterial populations. Since PGE was obtained from a natural matrix using safe chemicals and did not have any apparent phytotoxic effect on treated olives it may be regarded as a safe and effective natural antifungal preparation to control olive anthracnose and improve olive productions.

  7. Rhizosheaths on wheat grown in acid soils: phosphorus acquisition efficiency and genetic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Richard A; Weligama, Chandrakumara; Verbyla, Klara; Ryan, Peter R; Rebetzke, Gregory J; Rattey, Allan; Richardson, Alan E; Delhaize, Emmanuel

    2016-06-01

    Rhizosheaths comprise soil bound to roots, and in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) rhizosheath size correlates with root hair length. The aims of this study were to determine the effect that a large rhizosheath has on the phosphorus (P) acquisition by wheat and to investigate the genetic control of rhizosheath size in wheat grown on acid soil.Near-isogenic wheat lines differing in rhizosheath size were evaluated on two acid soils. The soils were fertilized with mineral nutrients and included treatments with either low or high P. The same soils were treated with CaCO3 to raise the pH and detoxify Al(3+) Genotypic differences in rhizosheath size were apparent only when soil pH was low and Al(3+) was present. On acid soils, a large rhizosheath increased shoot biomass compared with a small rhizosheath regardless of P supply. At low P supply, increased shoot biomass could be attributed to a greater uptake of soil P, but at high P supply the increased biomass was due to some other factor. Generation means analysis indicated that rhizosheath size on acid soil was controlled by multiple, additive loci. Subsequently, a quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis of an F6 population of recombinant inbred lines identified five major loci contributing to the phenotype together accounting for over 60% of the total genetic variance. One locus on chromosome 1D accounted for 34% of the genotypic variation. Genetic control of rhizosheath size appears to be relatively simple and markers based on the QTL provide valuable tools for marker assisted breeding.

  8. Development and Genetic Control of Plant Architecture and Biomass in the Panicoid Grass, Setaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Mauro-Herrera

    Full Text Available The architecture of a plant affects its ability to compete for light and to respond to environmental stresses, thus affecting overall fitness and productivity. Two components of architecture, branching and height, were studied in 182 F7 recombinant inbred lines (RILs at the vegetative, flowering and mature developmental stages in the panicoid C4 model grass system, Setaria. The RIL population was derived from a cross between domesticated S. italica (foxtail millet and its wild relative S. viridis (green foxtail. In both field and greenhouse trials the wild parent was taller initially, started branching earlier, and flowered earlier, while the domesticated parent was shorter initially, but flowered later, producing a robust tall plant architecture with more nodes and leaves on the main culm and few or no branches. Biomass was highly correlated with height of the plant and number of nodes on the main culm, and generally showed a negative relationship with branch number. However, several of the RILs with the highest biomass in both trials were significantly more branched than the domesticated parent of the cross. Quantitative trait loci (QTL analyses indicate that both height and branching are controlled by multiple genetic regions, often with QTL for both traits colocalizing in the same genomic regions. Genomic positions of several QTL colocalize with QTL in syntenic regions in other species and contain genes known to control branching and height in sorghum, maize, and switchgrass. Included in these is the ortholog of the rice SD-1 semi-dwarfing gene, which underlies one of the major Setaria height QTL. Understanding the relationships between height and branching patterns in Setaria, and their genetic control, is an important step to gaining a comprehensive knowledge of the development and genetic regulation of panicoid grass architecture.

  9. Optimization of Feedback Controller in Restructured Power System Using Evolutionary Genetic Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Farook,

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an attempt is made to optimize the feedback controller to improve the dynamics of a restructured multiarea power system using Evolutionary Real coded Genetic Algorithm (RCGA.Optimization using state variables is a difficult task as the access to all variables is limited and also measuring all of them is impossible. To solve the problem Evolutionary Genetic algorithms wereproposed to optimize the feedback gains of the controller, having access to few of the AGC variables. The feasibility and robustness of the algorithm is investigated on a two area interconnected power system consisting of two identical thermal plants in each areas in restructured environment. The dynamics of frequency deviations and tie-line power deviations were investigated by considering a demand of 0.1pu MW contracted by GENCOs in each area of the restructured power system. The results obtained by the proposed method are found to be quite encouraging when compared with those achieved using optimal controllers derived using Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR theory.

  10. Genetic Fuzzy Trees for Intelligent Control of Unmanned Combat Aerial Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernest, Nicholas D.

    Fuzzy Logic Control is a powerful tool that has found great success in a variety of applications. This technique relies less on complex mathematics and more "expert knowledge" of a system to bring about high-performance, resilient, and efficient control through linguistic classification of inputs and outputs and if-then rules. Genetic Fuzzy Systems (GFSs) remove the need of this expert knowledge and instead rely on a Genetic Algorithm (GA) and have similarly found great success. However, the combination of these methods suffer severely from scalability; the number of rules required to control the system increases exponentially with the number of states the inputs and outputs can take. Therefor GFSs have thus far not been applicable to complex, artificial intelligence type problems. The novel Genetic Fuzzy Tree (GFT) method breaks down complex problems hierarchically, makes sub-decisions when possible, and thus greatly reduces the burden on the GA. This development significantly changes the field of possible applications for GFSs. Within this study, this is demonstrated through applying this technique to a difficult air combat problem. Looking forward to an autonomous Unmanned Combat Aerial Vehicle (UCAV) in the 2030 time-frame, it becomes apparent that the mission, flight, and ground controls will utilize the emerging paradigm of Intelligent Systems (IS); namely, the ability to learn, adapt, exhibit robustness in uncertain situations, make sense of the data collected in real-time and extrapolate when faced with scenarios significantly different from those used in training. LETHA (Learning Enhanced Tactical Handling Algorithm) was created to develop intelligent controllers for these advanced unmanned craft as the first GFT. A simulation space referred to as HADES (Hoplological Autonomous Defend and Engage Simulation) was created in which LETHA can train the UCAVs. Equipped with advanced sensors, a limited supply of Self-Defense Missiles (SDMs), and a recharging

  11. Relaxed genetic control of cortical organization in human brains compared with chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Robles, Aida; Hopkins, William D; Schapiro, Steven J; Sherwood, Chet C

    2015-12-01

    The study of hominin brain evolution has focused largely on the neocortical expansion and reorganization undergone by humans as inferred from the endocranial fossil record. Comparisons of modern human brains with those of chimpanzees provide an additional line of evidence to define key neural traits that have emerged in human evolution and that underlie our unique behavioral specializations. In an attempt to identify fundamental developmental differences, we have estimated the genetic bases of brain size and cortical organization in chimpanzees and humans by studying phenotypic similarities between individuals with known kinship relationships. We show that, although heritability for brain size and cortical organization is high in chimpanzees, cerebral cortical anatomy is substantially less genetically heritable than brain size in humans, indicating greater plasticity and increased environmental influence on neurodevelopment in our species. This relaxed genetic control on cortical organization is especially marked in association areas and likely is related to underlying microstructural changes in neural circuitry. A major result of increased plasticity is that the development of neural circuits that underlie behavior is shaped by the environmental, social, and cultural context more intensively in humans than in other primate species, thus providing an anatomical basis for behavioral and cognitive evolution.

  12. Genetic structure of Florida green turtle rookeries as indicated by mitochondrial DNA control region sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamblin, Brian M.; Bagley, Dean A.; Ehrhart, Llewellyn M.; Desjardin, Nicole A.; Martin, R. Erik; Hart, Kristen M.; Naro-Maciel, Eugenia; Rusenko, Kirt; Stiner, John C.; Sobel, Debra; Johnson, Chris; Wilmers, Thomas; Wright, Laura J.; Nairn, Campbell J.

    2014-01-01

    Green turtle (Chelonia mydas) nesting has increased dramatically in Florida over the past two decades, ranking the Florida nesting aggregation among the largest in the Greater Caribbean region. Individual beaches that comprise several hundred kilometers of Florida’s east coast and Keys support tens to thousands of nests annually. These beaches encompass natural to highly developed habitats, and the degree of demographic partitioning among rookeries was previously unresolved. We characterized the genetic structure of ten Florida rookeries from Cape Canaveral to the Dry Tortugas through analysis of 817 base pair mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region sequences from 485 nesting turtles. Two common haplotypes, CM-A1.1 and CM-A3.1, accounted for 87 % of samples, and the haplotype frequencies were strongly partitioned by latitude along Florida’s Atlantic coast. Most genetic structure occurred between rookeries on either side of an apparent genetic break in the vicinity of the St. Lucie Inlet that separates Hutchinson Island and Jupiter Island, representing the finest scale at which mtDNA structure has been documented in marine turtle rookeries. Florida and Caribbean scale analyses of population structure support recognition of at least two management units: central eastern Florida and southern Florida. More thorough sampling and deeper sequencing are necessary to better characterize connectivity among Florida green turtle rookeries as well as between the Florida nesting aggregation and others in the Greater Caribbean region.

  13. Field application of a genetically engineered microorganism for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon bioremediation process monitoring and control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayler, G.S.; Cox, C.D.; Ripp, S.; Nivens, D.E.; Werner, C.; Ahn, Y.; Matrubutham, U. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Burlage, R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Div.

    1998-11-01

    On October 30, 1996, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) commenced the first test release of genetically engineered microorganisms (GEMs) for use in bioremediation. The specific objectives of the investigation were multifaceted and include (1) testing the hypothesis that a GEM can be successfully introduced and maintained in a bioremediation process, (2) testing the concept of using, at the field scale, reporter organisms for direct bioremediation process monitoring and control, and (3) acquiring data that can be used in risk assessment decision making and protocol development for future field release applications of GEMs. The genetically engineered strain under investigation is Pseudomonas fluorescens strain HK44 (King et al., 1990). The original P. fluorescens parent strain was isolated from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contaminated manufactured gas plant soil. Thus, this bacterium is able to biodegrade naphthalene (as well as other substituted naphthalenes and other PAHs) and is able to function as a living bioluminescent reporter for the presence of naphthalene contamination, its bioavailability, and the functional process of biodegradation. A unique component of this field investigation was the availability of an array of large subsurface soil lysimeters. This article describes the experience associated with the release of a genetically modified microorganism, the lysimeter facility and its associated instrumentation, as well as representative data collected during the first eighteen months of operation.

  14. Genetic control of ATGL-mediated lipolysis modulates adipose triglyceride stores in leptin-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcelin, Genevieve; Liu, Shun-Mei; Li, Xiaosong; Schwartz, Gary J; Chua, Streamson

    2012-05-01

    Dissecting the genetics of complex traits such as obesity allows the identification of causal genes for disease. Here, we show that the BALB/c mouse strain carries genetic variants that confer resistance to obesity induced by leptin-deficiency or a high-fat diet (HFD). We set out to identify the physiological and genetic bases underlying this phenotype. When compared with C57BL6/J ob/ob mice (B6), BALB/c ob/ob mice exhibited decreased food intake, increased thermogenic capacity, and improved fat catabolism, each of which can potentially modify obesity. Interestingly, analysis of F1 ob/ob (progeny of B6 ob/+ × BALB/c ob+) mice revealed that obesity resistance in BALB/c ob/ob mice principally relied upon improved fat mobilization. This was mechanistically explained by increased adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) content in adipocytes, along with increased lipolysis and fatty acid oxidation. We conducted a genome-wide scan and defined a quantitative trait locus (QTL) on chromosome 2. BALB/c alleles on chromosome 2 not only associated with the obesity resistance phenotype but also supported increased ATGL content in adipose tissue. In summary, our study provides evidence that leptin-independent control of adipocyte lipolysis rates directly modifies the balance of macronutrient handling and is sufficient to regulate fat mass in the absence of alterations in food intake and energy expenditure.-Marcelin, G., S-M. Liu, X. Li, G. J. Schwartz, and S. Chua.

  15. [Genetical control of the allozymes in juniper (Juniperus excelsa Bieb.) of the Crimea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korshikov, I I; Nikolaeva, A V

    2007-01-01

    Genetical control of nine enzyme systems has been studied in preserved juniper species (Juniperus excelsa Bieb.) of the natural population of the mountain Crimea. Isozymes were extracted from the haploid seed endosperms and separated elecrophoretically. As a result 16 loci have been identified. Fourteen of them were polymorphic (14--Gdh, Got-1, Mdh-1, Mdh-2, Mdh-3, Acp-1, Acp-2, Acp-3, Lap-1, Dia-1, Fdh, Sod-1, Sod-2, Sod-3). Analysis of the allele segragation of the heterozygous trees confirmed their monogenic inheritance.

  16. Buying and Selling Stocks of Multi Brands Using Genetic Network Programming with Control Nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkawa, Etsushi; Chen, Yan; Bao, Zhiguo; Mabu, Shingo; Shimada, Kaoru; Hirasawa, Kotaro

    A new evolutionary method named “Genetic Network Programming with control nodes, GNPcn” has been applied to determine the timing of buying or selling stocks. GNPcn represents its solutions as directed graph structures which has some useful features inherently. For example, GNPcn has an implicit memory function which memorizes the past action sequences of agents and GNPcn can re-use nodes repeatedly in the network flow, so very compact graph structures can be made. GNPcn can determine the strategy of buying and selling stocks of multi issues. The effectiveness of the proposed method is confirmed by simulations.

  17. Using population genetic tools to develop a control strategy for feral cats (Felis catus) in Hawai'i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, H.; Hess, S.C.; Cole, D.; Banko, P.C.

    2007-01-01

    Population genetics can provide information about the demographics and dynamics of invasive species that is beneficial for developing effective control strategies. We studied the population genetics of feral cats on Hawai'i Island by microsatellite analysis to evaluate genetic diversity and population structure, assess gene flow and connectivity among three populations, identify potential source populations, characterise population dynamics, and evaluate sex-biased dispersal. High genetic diversity, low structure, and high number of migrants per generation supported high gene flow that was not limited spatially. Migration rates revealed that most migration occurred out of West Mauna Kea. Effective population size estimates indicated increasing cat populations despite control efforts. Despite high gene flow, relatedness estimates declined significantly with increased geographic distance and Bayesian assignment tests revealed the presence of three population clusters. Genetic structure and relatedness estimates indicated male-biased dispersal, primarily from Mauna Kea, suggesting that this population should be targeted for control. However, recolonisation seems likely, given the great dispersal ability that may not be inhibited by barriers such as lava flows. Genetic monitoring will be necessary to assess the effectiveness of future control efforts. Management of other invasive species may benefit by employing these population genetic tools. ?? CSIRO 2007.

  18. Two alternative modes for diffuse pollution control in Wuhan City Zoo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Pollution in urban zoos arises from diffuse and small point sources.However,its control has received little attention in past decades.Online and offline modes of ecological engineering technology were designed to control pollution from small point and diffuse sources in Wuhan City Zoo.China.Their characteristics and performances were investigated in sixteen runoff events from 2003 to 2005.The results showed that the two modes both improved runoff water quality and had high retention rates for water and pollutants.In the outflows,the event mean concentrations (EMCs) of total suspended solids (TSS),chemical oxygen demand (COD),total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) were reduced by 88%,59%,46% and 71% for the online mode,and those were 77%,42%,50% and 66% for the offline mode.The annual retention rates of pollutant loads for the online mode were 94.9%-98.5% in the three study years;those for the offline mode were 70.59%-86.4%.Based on calculation.the online mode was able to store the runoff of 66.7 mm rainfall completely,and the offline mode could store that of 31.3 mm rainfall.In addition,the online mode can provide an effective way for rainwater utilization and good habitats for aquatic wildlives,and has an excellent aesthetics value for recreationsal pastimes.The offline mode can save land resources and may be an effective and economical measure for diffuse pollution control in urban areas.

  19. Alternating current-generated plasma discharges for the controlled direct current charging of ferroelectrets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cury Basso, Heitor; Monteiro, José Roberto B. de A.; Baladelli Mazulquim, Daniel; Teixeira de Paula, Geyverson; Gonçalves Neto, Luiz; Gerhard, Reimund

    2013-09-01

    The standard charging process for polymer ferroelectrets, e.g., from polypropylene foams or layered film systems involves the application of high DC fields either to metal electrodes or via a corona discharge. In this often-used process, the DC field triggers the internal breakdown and limits the final charge densities inside the ferroelectret cavities and, thus, the final polarization. Here, an AC + DC charging procedure is proposed and demonstrated in which a high-voltage high-frequency (HV-HF) wave train is applied together with a DC poling voltage. Thus, the internal dielectric-barrier discharges in the ferroelectret cavities are induced by the HV-HF wave train, while the final charge and polarization level is controlled separately through the applied DC voltage. In the new process, the frequency and the amplitude of the HV-HF wave train must be kept within critical boundaries that are closely related to the characteristics of the respective ferroelectrets. The charging method has been tested and investigated on a fluoropolymer-film system with a single well-defined cylindrical cavity. It is found that the internal electrical polarization of the cavity can be easily controlled and increases linearly with the applied DC voltage up to the breakdown voltage of the cavity. In the standard charging method, however, the DC voltage would have to be chosen above the respective breakdown voltage. With the new method, control of the HV-HF wave-train duration prevents a plasma-induced deterioration of the polymer surfaces inside the cavities. It is observed that the frequency of the HV-HF wave train during ferroelectret charging and the temperature applied during poling of ferroelectrics serve an analogous purpose. The analogy and the similarities between the proposed ferroelectret charging method and the poling of ferroelectric materials or dipole electrets at elevated temperatures with subsequent cooling under field are discussed.

  20. Selling culture? Between commoditisation and cultural control in Indigenous alternative tourism

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Las culturas indígenas son turísticamente significativas, pero sus portadores han sido sistemáticamente excluidos de sus beneficios y control. En contra de ello algunas organizaciones indígenas han incursionado en el turismo eco -cultural alternativo. Su nicho de mercado es social y ecológicamente consciente pero aún así se espera “autenticidad” basada en ideologías postcolonialistas. Para tener éxito el turismo alternativo requiere manejar las tensiones entre cultura e identidades propias y ...

  1. Alternative methods to control postharvest decay caused by Penicillium expansum in plums (Prunus domestica L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinu, M G; Pani, G; Venditti, T; Dore, A; Ladu, G; D'Hallewin, G

    2012-01-01

    In the latest years, investigation on postharvest treatments has been increasingly addressed to preserve human health and environment safeguard. Several preservative compounds, physical treatments and biological control agents to restrain postharvest pathogens on horticultural products have been widely studied. Among them potassium sorbate (KS) has been generally recognized as safe for use in foods and personal care products. It acts as microbial growth inhibitor and fungistatic agent in foods, including vegetable and fruit products. The efficacy of KS, used alone or combined with heat treatments or biocontrol agents, has been demonstrated in Citrus and stone fruits. Here we report the results of 3 experiments aimed at controlling Penicillium expansum Link decay with the use of KS on a yellow ('Shiro') and a red ('Sanguigna di Bosa II', from the Sardinian germplasm) plum cultivar. An integrated approach, combining ultrasounds (US) as a physical mean and KS solutions at different concentrations, has been employed. In the first experiment, 360 fruits were wounded twice and divided into 6 sets (6 x 60), three of which were inoculated with an isolate of P. expansum (20 microl of a 10(5) cfu x mL(-1)). Then, 180 fruit (half inoculated) were treated by pipetting into each wound 20 microl of a KS solution containing 0, 1.5 or 3% (w/v), respectively. In exp. 2, all fruit (number) was wounded and inoculated, and after 24 h treated by immersion (1 min) into solutions containing 0, 1.5 or 3% (w/v) of SK, with or without the use of US. In exp. 3, wounded fruits were treated by immersion or sonication like in exp. 2, while inoculation took place after 24 h. Then, plums were kept at 25 degrees C and 75-80% RH and the infection degree was monitored after 3 and 6 days. In both cultivars, the 1.5% KS solution significantly reduced the natural infection, while the 3% KS solution resulted effective only on the red one. Moreover, the 1.5% solution was effective in controlling decay of

  2. Genetic diversity analysis of Arius manillensis (Siluriformes: Ariidae) using the mitochondrial control region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Brian S; Quilang, Jonas P

    2012-04-01

    Arius manillensis is a Philippine endemic species and is an economically important fishery resource in Laguna de Bay, the largest lake in the country. Drastic reduction in population sizes of A. manillensis has been recorded in the past, which may have resulted in genetic bottleneck. In this study, the genetic diversity and population structure of A. manillensis in Laguna de Bay were assessed using the mitochondrial DNA control region. Specimens were obtained from three localities along Laguna de Bay, namely Binangonan (n = 27), Tanay (n = 29), and Calamba (n = 30). Of the 86 DNA sequences generated, 22 distinct haplotypes were observed. There were four unique haplotypes for Binangonan, six for Calamba, and five for Tanay. There were two haplotypes common to the three sites. The maximum likelihood tree and median-joining network showed little geographic separation among the haplotypes. Chi-square test showed no significant differentiation in A. manillensis from the three sites. The overall computed F(ST) was 0.0144, indicating small genetic differentiation in A. manillensis from the three localities sampled. Likewise, analysis of molecular variance showed a greater percentage of variation within population (98.62%) than variation among populations (1.38%; P = 0.21). Total haplotype diversity and nucleotide diversity among the specimens from the three sites were 0.775 and 0.013, respectively. The high haplotype diversity coupled with low nucleotide diversity observed in this study confirms that genetic bottleneck occurred in A. manillensis which was followed by population expansion. This is also supported by the non-significant values for both Tajima's D and Fu's F. Furthermore, multimodal mismatch distribution plots were generated, which is consistent with the model of spatial range expansion followed by demographic expansion.

  3. Controlling Chaos: The OGY Method, Its Use in Mechanics, and an Alternative Unified Framework for Control of Non-regular Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rega, G.; Lenci, S.; Thompson, J. M. T.

    In this chapter we review the development of the control of chaos theory subsequent to the seminal paper by Ott, Grebogi and Yorke in 1990. After summarizing the main characteristics of the OGY method, we analyze and discuss various applications in several fields of mechanics.We then illustrate the main aspects of an alternative control method which aims at controlling the overall system dynamics instead of stabilizing a single periodic orbit, as the OGY method does. The two methods are both based on the modern idea of exploiting the chaotic properties of systems, instead of simply eliminating chaos. This paper is one of a collection written in honour of Celso Grebogi, on the occasion of his 60th birthday. So we have thought it appropriate to start with short personal reminiscences by two of the present authors.

  4. Chitosan/tripolyphosphate nanoparticles loaded with paraquat herbicide: an environmentally safer alternative for weed control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grillo, Renato; Pereira, Anderson E S; Nishisaka, Caroline S; de Lima, Renata; Oehlke, Kathleen; Greiner, Ralf; Fraceto, Leonardo F

    2014-08-15

    Paraquat is a fast acting nonselective contact herbicide that is extensively used worldwide. However, the aqueous solubility and soil sorption of this compound can cause problems of toxicity in nontarget organisms. This work investigates the preparation and characterization of nanoparticles composed of chitosan and sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP) to produce an efficient herbicidal formulation that was less toxic and could be used for safer control of weeds in agriculture. The toxicities of the formulations were evaluated using cell culture viability assays and the Allium cepa chromosome aberration test. The herbicidal activity was investigated in cultivations of maize (Zea mays) and mustard (Brassica sp.), and soil sorption of the nanoencapsulated herbicide was measured. The efficiency association of paraquat with the nanoparticles was 62.6 ± 0.7%. Encapsulation of the herbicide resulted in changes in its diffusion and release as well as its sorption by soil. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity assays showed that the nanoencapsulated herbicide was less toxic than the pure compound, indicating its potential to control weeds while at the same time reducing environmental impacts. Measurements of herbicidal activity showed that the effectiveness of paraquat was preserved after encapsulation. It was concluded that the encapsulation of paraquat in nanoparticles can provide a useful means of reducing adverse impacts on human health and the environment, and that the formulation therefore has potential for use in agriculture.

  5. Optimization of alternative options for SO{sub 2} emissions control in the Mexican electrical sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islas, Jorge [Centro de Investigacion en Energia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Privada Xochicalco S/N, Colonia Centro, Temixco, Morelos 62580 (Mexico)]. E-mail: jis@cie.unam.mx; Grande, Genice [Posgrado en Ingenieria de Sistemas, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ciudad Universitaria, D.F. 04510 (Mexico)

    2007-09-15

    This article develops a least-cost optimization model in terms of the projected SO{sub 2} abatement costs of nine selected options for SO{sub 2} emissions control in the 10 most polluting power plants of the Mexican electrical sector (MES)-including SO{sub 2} scrubbing technologies, fuel oil hydrotreating desulphurization and fuel substitutions. The model not only finds the optimal combination of SO{sub 2} control options and generating units at 10% reduction intervals referred to the total SO{sub 2} emissions but also meets the restriction imposed in the NOM-085-ECOL-1994 (Mexican Official Norm) for allowable emission levels within critical zones. Similarly, two schemes are studied and analysed in this model: the first case considers the economical benefits derived from the substitution of fuel oil by imported low sulphur content coal in the Petacalco power plant and; the second case does not considered such economical benefits. Finally, results are obtained for these two cases in terms of the corresponding costs-investment, O and M, fuel-, abatement costs and the SO{sub 2} emissions reduction.

  6. Selling culture? Between commoditisation and cultural control in Indigenous alternative tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Coronado

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Las culturas indígenas son turísticamente significativas, pero sus portadores han sido sistemáticamente excluidos de sus beneficios y control. En contra de ello algunas organizaciones indígenas han incursionado en el turismo eco -cultural alternativo. Su nicho de mercado es social y ecológicamente consciente pero aún así se espera “autenticidad” basada en ideologías postcolonialistas. Para tener éxito el turismo alternativo requiere manejar las tensiones entre cultura e identidades propias y las que el mercado demanda. Mediante la noción de control cultural evalúo cómo proyectos alternativos en México y Perú afrontan, en sus propios términos, el desafío de la mercantilización de cultura y naturaleza. Para comprender las paradojas a que se enfrentan analizo sus representaciones culturales, identidades organizativas y alianzas a través de una lectura etnográfica de sus historias en la Red.

  7. Association of genetic variations in the mitochondrial DNA control region with presbycusis

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    Falah M

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Masoumeh Falah,1 Mohammad Farhadi,1 Seyed Kamran Kamrava,1 Saeid Mahmoudian,1 Ahmad Daneshi,1 Maryam Balali,1 Alimohamad Asghari,2 Massoud Houshmand1,3 1ENT and Head & Neck Research Center and Department, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 2Skull Base Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 3Department of Medical Genetics, National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Tehran, Iran Background: The prominent role of mitochondria in the generation of reactive oxygen species, cell death, and energy production contributes to the importance of this organelle in the intracellular mechanism underlying the progression of the common sensory disorder of the elderly, presbycusis. Reduced mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA gene expression and coding region variation have frequently been reported as being associated with the development of presbycusis. The mtDNA control region regulates gene expression and replication of the genome of this organelle. To comprehensively understand of the role of mitochondria in the progression of presbycusis, we compared variations in the mtDNA control region between subjects with presbycusis and controls.Methods: A total of 58 presbycusis patients and 220 control subjects were enrolled in the study after examination by the otolaryngologist and audiology tests. Variations in the mtDNA control region were investigated by polymerase chain reaction and Sanger sequencing.Results: A total of 113 sequence variants were observed in mtDNA, and variants were detected in 100% of patients, with 84% located in hypervariable regions. The frequencies of the variants, 16,223 C>T, 16,311 T>C, 16,249 T>C, and 15,954 A>C, were significantly different between presbycusis and control subjects.Conclusion: The statistically significant difference in the frequencies of four nucleotide variants in the mtDNA control region of presbycusis patients and controls is in agreement with previous experimental

  8. Genetic control of cowpea seed sizes Controle genético do tamanho das sementes de caupi

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    Francisco Cláudio da Conceição Lopes

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.] is one of the most widely adapted grain legumes in hot regions of Africa, Asia and the Americas. In the semiarid Northeast of Brazil, it is the main subsistence crop, an excellent protein source of low cost, for the poor population. The objective of this work was to estimate genetic parameters to understand the inheritance of seed sizes in cowpea. The parents P1 and P2 and the generations, F1, F2, BC1 and BC2 of the cross TVx5058-09C X Manteiguinha formed the genetic material for this study. These six generates (P1, P2, F1, F2, BC1 and BC were evaluated in a completely randomized block-design with six replications, in Teresina - PI, Brazil, in 1998. The genetic parameters estimated were: phenotypic and total genetic variance, additive and dominance genetic components of variance and the variance attributed to the environment, heritability in the broad and narrow senses, average degree of dominance and the number of genes controlling the character. The additive - dominance model fitted the data for 100-seeds weight in as much as the midparental value and the additive effect were the more important genetic parameters for the determination of this character. The number of genes that control its expression is five. The occurrence of high values for narrow sense heritability indicates that the selection for seed size can be made in early generations.Caupi [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.] é uma das leguminosas mais adaptadas às regiões quentes da África, Ásia e das Américas. No semi-árido do nordeste do Brasil é a principal cultura de subsistência, por ser uma excelente fonte de proteína de baixo custo para a população mais carente. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar parâmetros genéticos que podem explicar a herança do tamanho das sementes de caupi. Os genótipos parentais P1 e P2 e as gerações F1, F2, RC1 e RC2 do cruzamento TVx5058-09C X Manteiguinha, constituíram o material genético utilizado

  9. Parametric Optimization of Control Systems Pumping Station by the Genetic Algorithms

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    M. P. Dounaev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Now the frequency regulation with its well-known advantages is becoming more popular for using in electric drives. One of these systems is the system of liquid flow stabilization for pumping station of the second flood, which is discussed at the article. There are functional elements of the system: the frequency converter, the induction motor, pump set, check valve, part of the pipeline between the flow sensors and PID controller. In this case are used PID controller with universal input and RS-485 OWEN TRM101.The article tries to solve the main problem, which is to set optimal controller settings. The article presents a mathematical model of the system, built on the basis of transfer functions. The specific values of the parameters for Bratsk pumping station of the second flood are found.To solve the problem of parametric optimization for control of pumping station authors use a genetic algorithm, which allows us to use different quality criteria. A set of parameters for the genetic algorithm is represented, as well as a method of selection and a method of the transition between generations. The problem of parametric optimization was solved by quadratic integral criterion and by the criterion, composed of direct measures of quality (regulation time and the overshoot. The PID controller optimal values of adjustable parameters were obtained both for considered criteria and for their corresponding transient processes. Comparative analysis of results was produced. When proving the optimality of the obtained settings for the quadratic criterion the proximity of the gradient components of the target functional to zero is demonstrated. In the case of a criterion based on a direct measure of quality, is presented a picture of convergence of adjustable parameters to the same value when run with different starting points.It is presented that the use of a criterion based on a direct measure of quality, can significantly reduce the overshoot with a

  10. Implementation of the fuzzy theory in control of alternative energy generation system; Aplicacao da teoria fuzzy no controle de sistemas de geracao de energias alternativas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caneppele, Fernando de Lima [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas. Curso de Pos-Graduacao em Energia na Agricultura], E-mail: fernando@itapeva.unesp.br; Seraphim, Odivaldo Jose [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas. Dept. de Engenharia Rural], E-mail: seraphim@fca.unesp.br

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents the application and use of a methodology based on fuzzy theory and simulates its use in intelligent control of a hybrid system for generating electricity, using solar energy, photovoltaic and wind. When using a fuzzy control system, it reached the point of maximum generation of energy, thus shifting all energy generated from the alternative sources-solar photovoltaic and wind, cargo and / or batteries when its use not immediately. The model uses three variables used for entry, which are: wind speed, solar radiation and loading the bank of batteries. For output variable has to choose which of the batteries of the battery bank is charged. For the simulations of this work is used MATLAB software. In this environment mathematical computational are analyzed and simulated all mathematical modeling, rules and other variables in the system described fuzzy. This model can be used in a system of control of hybrid systems for generating energy, providing the best use of energy sources, sun and wind, so we can extract the maximum energy possible these alternative sources without any prejudice to the environment. (author)

  11. Effects of circuit training as alternative to usual physiotherapy after stroke: randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Port, Ingrid G L; Wevers, Lotte E G; Lindeman, Eline; Kwakkel, Gert

    2012-05-10

    To analyse the effect of task oriented circuit training compared with usual physiotherapy in terms of self reported walking competency for patients with stroke discharged from a rehabilitation centre to their own home. Randomised controlled trial with follow-up to 24 weeks. Multicentre trial in nine outpatient rehabilitation centres in the Netherlands Patients with stroke who were able to walk a minimum of 10 m without physical assistance and were discharged from inpatient rehabilitation to an outpatient rehabilitation clinic. Patients were randomly allocated to circuit training or usual physiotherapy, after stratification by rehabilitation centre, with an online randomisation procedure. Patients in the intervention group received circuit training in 90 minute sessions twice a week for 12 weeks. The training included eight different workstations in a gym and was intended to improve performance in tasks relating to walking competency. The control group received usual outpatient physiotherapy. The primary outcome was the mobility domain of the stroke impact scale (SIS, version 3.0). Secondary outcomes were standing balance, self reported abilities, gait speed, walking distance, stair climbing, instrumental activities of daily living, fatigue, anxiety, and depression. Differences between groups were analysed according to the intention to treat principle. All outcomes were assessed by blinded observers in a repeated measurement design lasting 24 weeks. 126 patients were included in the circuit training group and 124 in the usual care group (control), with data from 125 and 117, respectively, available for analysis. One patient from the circuit training group and seven from the control group dropped out. Circuit training was a safe intervention, and no serious adverse events were reported. There were no significant differences between groups for the stroke impact scale mobility domain (β=0.05 (SE 0.68), P=0.943) at 12 weeks. Circuit training was associated with

  12. Unconventional alternatives for control of tomato root rot caused by Rhizoctonia solani under greenhouse conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamza Amany

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was done to assess the antifungal effect of some biocontrol agents effective microorganisms (EMs1, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and Bacillus pumilus, titanium dioxide (TiO2 nanoparticles, black cumin and wheat germ oils as well as the recommended fungicide (flutolanil against root rot of tomato. Moreover, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS examination was completed to identify the bioactive compounds in plant oils (dark cumin and wheat germ. Also the impact of these medicines on some biochemical and growth parameters of tomato was examined. Flutolanil was the best treatment followed by dark cumin, TiO2, EMs1, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Bacillus pumilus and wheat germ oil, individually in both test seasons. The outcomes demonstrated a marked increase in each biochemical character (chlorophyll substance, peroxidase and polyphenoloxidase and plant development (height and fresh and dry weight under all the tried treatments in comparison to the controls.

  13. Optimization of the linear quadratic regulator (LQR control quarter car suspension system using genetic algorithm

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    Mahesh Nagarkar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a genetic algorithm (GA based in an optimization approach is presented in order to search the optimum weighting matrix parameters of a linear quadratic regulator (LQR. A Macpherson strut quarter car suspension system is implemented for ride control application. Initially, the GA is implemented with the objective of minimizing root mean square (RMS controller force. For single objective optimization, RMS controller force is reduced by 20.42% with slight increase in RMS sprung mass acceleration. Trade-off is observed between controller force and sprung mass acceleration. Further, an analysis is extended to multi-objective optimization with objectives such as minimization of RMS controller force and RMS sprung mass acceleration and minimization of RMS controller force, RMS sprung mass acceleration and suspension space deflection. For multi-objective optimization, Pareto-front gives flexibility in order to choose the optimum solution as per designer’s need.

  14. Complementary and alternative medicine in the treatment of pain in fibromyalgia: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terhorst, Lauren; Schneider, Michael J; Kim, Kevin H; Goozdich, Lee M; Stilley, Carol S

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to systematically review the literature for randomized trials of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) interventions for fibromyalgia (FM). A comprehensive literature search was conducted. Databases included the Cochrane library, PubMed, PsycINFO, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health, Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Manual, Alternative and Natural Therapy Index System (MANTIS), Index for Chiropractic Literature, and Allied and Complementary Medicine (AMED). Inclusion criteria were (a) subjects were diagnosed with fibromyalgia and (b) the study design was a randomized controlled trial that compared a CAM therapy vs a control group. Studies were subgrouped by CAM treatment into 11 categories. Evidence tables and forest plots were organized to display quality ratings and effect sizes of each study. The literature search yielded 1,722 results; 102 abstracts were selected as potential articles for inclusion. Sixty studies met criteria and were rated by 2 reviewers; 18 were rated as good quality; 20, moderate; 18, low; and 4, very low. Synthesis of information for CAM categories represented by more than 5 studies revealed that balneotherapy and mind-body therapies were effective in treating FM pain. This study analyzed recent studies and focused exclusively on randomized controlled trials. Despite common use of manual therapies such as massage and manipulation to treat patients with FM, there is a paucity of quality clinical trials investigating these particular CAM categories. Most of these studies identified were preliminary or pilot studies, thus had small sample sizes and were likely underpowered. Two CAM categories showed the most promising findings, balneotherapy and mind-body therapies. Most of the other CAM categories showed a trend favoring the treatment group. It appears that several CAM therapies show some preliminary treatment effect for FM pain, but larger trials that are more adequately powered are

  15. MYCN controls an alternative RNA splicing program in high-risk metastatic neuroblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shile; Wei, Jun S; Li, Samuel Q; Badgett, Tom C; Song, Young K; Agarwal, Saurabh; Coarfa, Cristian; Tolman, Catherine; Hurd, Laura; Liao, Hongling; He, Jianbin; Wen, Xinyu; Liu, Zhihui; Thiele, Carol J; Westermann, Frank; Asgharzadeh, Shahab; Seeger, Robert C; Maris, John M; Guidry Auvil, Jamie M; Smith, Malcolm A; Kolaczyk, Eric D; Shohet, Jason; Khan, Javed

    2016-02-28

    The molecular mechanisms underlying the aggressive behavior of MYCN driven neuroblastoma (NBL) is under intense investigation; however, little is known about the impact of this family of transcription factors on the splicing program. Here we used high-throughput RNA sequencing to systematically study the expression of RNA isoforms in stage 4 MYCN-amplified NBL, an aggressive subtype of metastatic NBL. We show that MYCN-amplified NBL tumors display a distinct gene splicing pattern affecting multiple cancer hallmark functions. Six splicing factors displayed unique differential expression patterns in MYCN-amplified tumors and cell lines, and the binding motifs for some of these splicing factors are significantly enriched in differentially-spliced genes. Direct binding of MYCN to promoter regions of the splicing factors PTBP1 and HNRNPA1 detected by ChIP-seq demonstrates that MYCN controls the splicing pattern by direct regulation of the expression of these key splicing factors. Furthermore, high expression of PTBP1 and HNRNPA1 was significantly associated with poor overall survival of stage4 NBL patients (p ≤ 0.05). Knocking down PTBP1, HNRNPA1 and their downstream target PKM2, an isoform of pro-tumor-growth, result in repressed growth of NBL cells. Therefore, our study reveals a novel role of MYCN in controlling global splicing program through regulation of splicing factors in addition to its well-known role in the transcription program. These findings suggest a therapeutically potential to target the key splicing factors or gene isoforms in high-risk NBL with MYCN-amplification.

  16. Final Technical Report: Genetic Control of Nitrogen Assimilation in Klebsiella oxytoca.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valley Stewart

    2007-03-07

    Klebsiella oxytoca, an enterobacterium closely related to Escherichia coli and amenable to molecular genetic analysis, is a long-established model organism for studies of bacterial nitrogen assimilation. Our work concerned utilization of purines, nitrogen-rich compounds that are widespread in the biosphere. This project began with our observation that molybdenum cofactor (chlorate-resistant) mutants can use (hypo)xanthine as sole nitrogen source (Garzón et al., J. Bacteriol. 174:6298, 1992). Since xanthine dehydrogenase is a molybdoenzyme, Klebsiella must use an alternate route for (hypo)xanthine catabolsim. We identified and characterized a cluster of 22 genes that encode the enzymes, permeases and regulators for utilizing hypoxanthine and xanthine as sole nitrogen source. (Hypoxanthine and xanthine arise from deamination of adenine and guanine, respectively.) Growth and complementation tests with insertion mutants, combined with protein sequence comparisons, allow us to assign probable functions for the products of these genes and to deduce the overall pathway. We present genetic evidence that the first two enzymes for the Klebsiella purine utilization pathway have been recruited from pathways involved in catabolism of aromatic compounds. The first, HxaAB enzyme catalyzing (hypo)xanthine oxidation, is related to well-studied aromatic ring hydroxylating oxygenases such as phthalate dioxygenase. The second, HxbA enzyme catalyzing urate hydroxylation, is related to single-component monooxygenases. Thus, the Klebsiella purine utilization pathway has likely experienced non-orthologous gene displacement, substituting these oxygenases for the conventional enzymes, xanthine dehydrogenase and uricase. We also present evidence that transcription of the hxaAB operon is subject to dual regulation: global general nitrogen regulation (Ntr) through an unknown mechanism, and (hypo)xanthine induction mediated by a LysR-type activator.

  17. Neural-genetic synthesis for state-space controllers based on linear quadratic regulator design for eigenstructure assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Fonseca Neto, João Viana; Abreu, Ivanildo Silva; da Silva, Fábio Nogueira

    2010-04-01

    Toward the synthesis of state-space controllers, a neural-genetic model based on the linear quadratic regulator design for the eigenstructure assignment of multivariable dynamic systems is presented. The neural-genetic model represents a fusion of a genetic algorithm and a recurrent neural network (RNN) to perform the selection of the weighting matrices and the algebraic Riccati equation solution, respectively. A fourth-order electric circuit model is used to evaluate the convergence of the computational intelligence paradigms and the control design method performance. The genetic search convergence evaluation is performed in terms of the fitness function statistics and the RNN convergence, which is evaluated by landscapes of the energy and norm, as a function of the parameter deviations. The control problem solution is evaluated in the time and frequency domains by the impulse response, singular values, and modal analysis.

  18. Assessment of Control Tissue for Gene and Protein Expression Studies: A Comparison of Three Alternative Lung Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret R. Passmore

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of an appropriate control group in human research is essential in investigating the level of a pathological disorder. This study aimed to compare three alternative sources of control lung tissue and to determine their suitability for gene and protein expression studies. Gene and protein expression levels of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and gelatinase families and their receptors were measured using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. The gene expression levels of VEGFA, placental growth factor (PGF, and their receptors, fms-related tyrosine kinase 1 (FLT1, and kinase insert domain receptor (KDR as well as matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2 and the inhibitors, tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 were significantly higher in lung cancer resections. The gene expression level of MMP-9 was significantly lower in the corresponding samples. Altered protein expression was also detected, depending on the area assessed. The results of this study show that none of the three control groups studied are completely suitable for gene and protein studies associated with the VEGF and gelatinase families, highlighting the need for researchers to be selective in which controls they opt for.

  19. Control of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS through genetic improvements in disease resistance and tolerance

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    Raymond eRowland

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Infections caused by porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV have a severe economic impact on pig production in North America, Europe and Asia. The emergence and eventual predominance of PRRS in the 1990s are the likely result of changes in the pork industry initiated in the late 1970s, which allowed the virus to occupy a unique niche within a modern commercial production system. PRRSV infection is responsible for severe clinical disease, but can maintain a life-long subclinical infection, as well as participate in several polymicrobial syndromes. Current vaccines lessen clinical signs, but are of limited use for disease control and elimination. The relatively poor protective immunity following vaccination is a function of the virus’s capacity to generate a large degree of genetic diversity, combined with several strategies to evade innate and adaptive immune responses. In 2007, the PRRS Host Genetics consortium (PHGC was established to explore the role of host genetics as as an avenue for PRRS control. The PHGC model for PRRS incorporates the experimental infection of large numbers of growing pigs and has created the opportunity to study experimental PRRSV infection at the population level. The results show that pigs can be placed into distinct phenotypic groups, including pigs that show resistance or pigs that exhibit tolerance to infection. Tolerance is best illustrated by pigs that gain weight normally in the face of a relatively high virus load. Genome-wide association analysis has identified a region on chromosome 4 (SSC4 correlated with resistance; i.e., higher weight gain combined with lower virus load. The genomic region is near a family of genes involved in innate immunity. These results create the opportunity to develop breeding programs that will produce pigs with increased resistance to PRRS. The identification of genomic markers involved in tolerance will likely prove more difficult, primarily because tolerance

  20. Predominant role of host genetics in controlling the composition of gut microbiota.

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    Zaruhi A Khachatryan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The human gastrointestinal tract is inhabited by a very diverse symbiotic microbiota, the composition of which depends on host genetics and the environment. Several studies suggested that the host genetics may influence the composition of gut microbiota but no genes involved in host control were proposed. We investigated the effects of the wild type and mutated alleles of the gene, which encodes the protein called pyrin, one of the regulators of innate immunity, on the composition of gut commensal bacteria. Mutations in MEFV lead to the autoinflammatory disorder, familial Mediterranean fever (FMF, MIM249100, which is characterized by recurrent self-resolving attacks of fever and polyserositis, with no clinical signs of disease in remission. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 19 FMF patients and eight healthy individuals were genotyped for mutations in the MEFV gene and gut bacterial diversity was assessed by sequencing 16S rRNA gene libraries and FISH analysis. These analyses demonstrated significant changes in bacterial community structure in FMF characterized by depletion of total numbers of bacteria, loss of diversity, and major shifts in bacterial populations within the Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria phyla in attack. In remission with no clinical signs of disease, bacterial diversity values were comparable with control but still, the bacterial composition was substantially deviant from the norm. Discriminant function analyses of gut bacterial diversity revealed highly specific, well-separated and distinct grouping, which depended on the allele carrier status of the host. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first report that clearly establishes the link between the host genotype and the corresponding shifts in the gut microbiota (the latter confirmed by two independent techniques. It suggests that the host genetics is a key factor in host-microbe interaction determining a specific profile of commensal